WorldWideScience

Sample records for water source latrine

  1. Modeling Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Ground and Surface Water Sources in Rural India: Associations with Latrines, Livestock, Damaged Wells, and Rainfall Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Miles E; Smith, Woutrina A; Schmidt, Wolf-Peter; Clasen, Thomas; Jenkins, Marion W

    2016-07-19

    Surface and groundwater contamination with fecal pathogens is a public health concern especially in low-income settings where these sources are used untreated. We modeled observed Cryptosporidium and Giardia contamination in community ponds (n = 94; 79% contaminated), deep tubewells (DTWs) (n = 107; 17%), and shallow tubewells (STWs) (n = 96; 19%) during the 2012 and 2013 monsoon seasons (June-August) in 60 villages in Puri District, India to understand sources and processes of contamination. Detection of Cryptosporidium and/or Giardia in a tubewell was positively associated with damage to the well pad for DTWs, the amount of human loading into pour-flush latrine pits nearby (≤15 m) for STWs, and the village literacy rate (for Giardia in STWs). Pond concentration levels were positively associated with the number of people practicing open defecation within 50 m and the sheep population for Cryptosporidium, and with the village illiteracy rate for Giardia. Recent rainfall increased the risk of Cryptosporidium in STWs (an extreme event) and ponds (any), while increasing seasonal rainfall decreased the risk of Giardia in STWs and ponds. Full latrine coverage in this setting is expected to marginally reduce pond Cryptosporidium contamination (16%) while increasing local groundwater protozoal contamination (87-306%), with the largest increases predicted for Cryptosporidium in STWs.

  2. Comparison of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli Isolates from Drinking Well Water and Pit Latrine Wastewater in a Rural Area of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yanxia

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to gain insights into the occurrence and characteristics of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase- (ESBL-) producing Escherichia coli (E. coli) from drinking well water in the rural area of Laiwu, China, and to explore the role of the nearby pit latrine as a contamination source. ESBL-producing E. coli from wells were compared with isolates from pit latrines in the vicinity. The results showed that ESBL-producing E. coli isolates, with the same antibiotic resistance profiles, ESBL genes, phylogenetic group, plasmid replicon types, and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR) fingerprints, were isolated from well water and the nearby pit latrine in the same courtyard. Therefore, ESBL-producing E. coli in the pit latrine may be a likely contributor to the presence of ESBL-producing E. coli in rural well water. PMID:27965975

  3. Global methane emissions from pit latrines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Matthew C; Guan, Kaiyu; Wagner, Fabian; Mauzerall, Denise L

    2014-01-01

    Pit latrines are an important form of decentralized wastewater management, providing hygienic and low-cost sanitation for approximately one-quarter of the global population. Latrines are also major sources of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) from the anaerobic decomposition of organic matter in pits. In this study, we develop a spatially explicit approach to account for local hydrological control over the anaerobic condition of latrines and use this analysis to derive a set of country-specific emissions factors and to estimate global pit latrine CH4 emissions. Between 2000 and 2015 we project global emissions to fall from 5.2 to 3.8 Tg y(-1), or from ∼ 2% to ∼ 1% of global anthropogenic CH4 emissions, due largely to urbanization in China. Two and a half billion people still lack improved sanitation services, however, and progress toward universal access to improved sanitation will likely drive future growth in pit latrine emissions. We discuss modeling results in the context of sustainable water, sanitation, and hygiene development and consider appropriate technologies to ensure hygienic sanitation while limiting CH4 emissions. We show that low-CH4 on-site alternatives like composting toilets may be price competitive with other CH4 mitigation measures in organic waste sectors, with marginal abatement costs ranging from 57 to 944 $/ton carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e) in Africa and 46 to 97 $/ton CO2e in Asia.

  4. Assessment of pit latrines in a peri-urban community in KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa) as a source of antibiotic resistant E. coli strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beukes, Lorika S; King, Tracy L B; Schmidt, Stefan

    2017-08-12

    Due to the frequent use of antibiotics and recurring illnesses related to multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria in South Africa, we determined if MDR Escherichia coli were present in pit latrine fecal sludge samples obtained from a peri-urban community in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The abundance of E. coli in pit latrine samples was established using a most probable number (MPN) method with species confirmation done using biochemical tests and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Forty-four randomly selected E. coli pit latrine isolates were further characterized, using the European committee on antimicrobial susceptibility testing (EUCAST) disk diffusion method to establish antibiotic resistance profiles for these E. coli isolates. The resulting MPN values for E. coli ranged from one to 6.2 log10 MPN per gram of fresh pit latrine fecal sludge. While only 3 out of 44 E. coli pit latrine isolates showed no resistance to any of the 12 tested antibiotics, most isolates were resistant to two or more antibiotics. The majority of isolates showed resistance to at least one of the two tested aminoglycosides, one isolate showed resistance to the carbapenem ertapenem, and although resistance was not detected for tigecycline four pit latrine E. coli isolates showed intermediate resistance to this antibiotic. However, about 14% of the E. coli pit latrine isolates were categorized as MDR, all of which showed resistance to four or more antibiotics. The presence of MDR E. coli strains in pit latrine samples demonstrates that these facilities are potential sources for MDR bacteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Impact of Population and Latrines on Fecal Contamination of Ponds in Rural Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knappett, Peter S. K.; Escamilla, Veronica; Layton, Alice; McKay, Larry D.; Emch, Michael; Williams, Daniel E.; Huq, Md. R.; Alam, Md. J.; Farhana, Labony; Mailloux, Brian J.; Ferguson, Andy; Sayler, Gary S.; Ahmed, Kazi M.; van Geen, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    A majority of households in Bangladesh rely on pond water for hygiene. Exposure to pond water fecal contamination could therefore still contribute to diarrheal disease despite the installation of numerous tubewells for drinking. The objectives of this study are to determine the predominant sources (human or livestock) of fecal pollution in ponds and examine the association between local population, latrine density, latrine quality and concentrations of fecal bacteria and pathogens in pond water. Forty-three ponds were analyzed for E. coli using culture-based methods and E. coli, Bacteroidales and adenovirus using quantitative PCR. Population and sanitation spatial data were collected and measured against pond fecal contamination. Humans were the dominant source of fecal contamination in 79% of the ponds according to Bacteroidales measurements. Ponds directly receiving latrine effluent had the highest concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria (up to 106 Most Probable Number (MPN) of culturable E. coli per 100 mL). Concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria correlated with population surveyed within a distance of 30-70 m (p<0.05) and total latrines surveyed within 50-70 m (p<0.05). Unsanitary latrines (visible effluent or open pits) within the pond drainage basin were also significantly correlated to fecal indicator concentrations (p<0.05). Water in the vast majority of the surveyed ponds contained unsafe levels of fecal contamination attributable primarily to unsanitary latrines, and to lesser extent to sanitary latrines and cattle. Since the majority of fecal pollution is derived from human waste, continued use of pond water could help explain the persistence of diarrheal disease in rural South Asia. PMID:21632095

  6. The latrine ownership ladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obeng, Peter Appiah; Keraita, Bernard; Oduro-Kwarteng, Sampson;

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present the latrine ownership ladder as a conceptual policy framework to enhance sanitation uptake in low-income peri-urban areas. Design/methodology/approach – The paper draws from literature and a case study in a Ghanaian peri-urban community to highlight...... the challenges that undermine sanitation uptake in low-income peri-urban areas and the prospects of various levels of facility sharing as conceived in the latrine ownership ladder approach. Findings – The authors argue that the infrastructural and other socio-economic challenges of low-income peri-urban areas...... to the promotion of household latrines. The paper identifies provision of special concessions for peri-urban areas in policy formulation, education and technical support to households, regulation and enforcement of sanitation by-laws among complimentary policy interventions to make the latrine ownership ladder...

  7. KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE OF VILLAGERS REGARDING PRACTICE OF UTILISATION OF SANITARY LATRINES PROVIDED BY TOTAL SANITATION CAMPAIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herschel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diarrhoea is main cause of deaths in under fire age group, this can be prevent by just using sanitary latrines which were provided to villagers under T.S.C. By which provision of Rs. 8500 to every household to build a sanitary latrine in their respective house.(1 AIMS: The aim of this cross sectional study is to find out the knowledge attitude and practice of utility of sanitary latrines and its effect on the life of villager on their health and behaviour. MATERIAL & METHOD: This cross sectional study was carried out on 400 households of Khurdi village of Indore district Data was collected by using a semi structured questionnaire which ask information regarding the knowledge of villagers about diseases transmitted by or faecal route, prevention of Diarrhoea, source of infection of diarrhoea, causative organism of Diarrhoea, water borne diseases, food borne diseases, vector borne diseases and how fly transmit the diseases. RESULT: Out of 400 household interviewed 86% were literate, 100% were from low socioeconomic group 344 household knew the methods of transmission of disease and that can be prevent by using sanitary latrines and by hand washing practice after defecation and before taking any meals. It was also observed that 56 households have no knowledge of disease transmission by food, fingers, fluid, fomites or by fly. The health services providers like Asha, Usha, ANMs, LHVs. are the main source of information to the villagers. A.D.O.'s, Panchayat Sachiv are the main source of information for construction of sanitary latrines. Under Samagra Swachhata Abhiyaan(2. Additional information's they received by Radio and T.V. advertisement campaign of Govt. of India. CONCLUSION: The knowledge about utilisation of sanitary latrines to prevent faecal borne disease was found to be inadequate in this study. More efforts needed to create awareness better utilisation of sanitary latrines and make villagers aware regarding health aspect of

  8. Sustainable Environmental Protection Using Modified Pit-Latrines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaggu, E.J.

    2004-01-01

    Pit-latrines are on-site excreta disposal facilities widely used as anaerobic accumulation system for stabilizing human wastes like excreta, both in rural and urban settlements of developing countries. Flooding of pit-latrines is often a common phenomenon, especially in situations of high water tabl

  9. Sustainable Environmental Protection Using Modified Pit-Latrines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaggu, E.J.

    2004-01-01

    Pit-latrines are on-site excreta disposal facilities widely used as anaerobic accumulation system for stabilizing human wastes like excreta, both in rural and urban settlements of developing countries. Flooding of pit-latrines is often a common phenomenon, especially in situations of high water

  10. Modelling the filling rate of pit latrines

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-09-18

    Sep 18, 2012 ... 4 July 2013. ISSN 1816-7950 (On-line) = Water SA Vol. 39 No. 4 July 2013 ... Keywords: Pit latrine, filling rate, biodegradation, solid waste disposal ...... by considerations of logistics, human resources, cost and the subsequent ...

  11. Source Water Protection Contaminant Sources

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Simplified aggregation of potential contaminant sources used for Source Water Assessment and Protection. The data is derived from IDNR, IDALS, and US EPA program...

  12. Armigeres subalbatus colonization of damaged pit latrines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiscox, A.; Hirooka, R.; Vongphayloth, K.; Hill, N.; Lindsay, S.W.; Grandadam, M.; Brey, P.T.

    2016-01-01

    During the resettlement of 6500 persons living around the Nam Theun 2 hydroelectric project in Laos, more than 1200 pour-flush latrines were constructed. To assess the role of these latrines as productive larval habitats for mosquitoes, entomological investigations using Centers for Disease Contr

  13. Armigeres subalbatus colonization of damaged pit latrines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiscox, A.; Hirooka, R.; Vongphayloth, K.; Hill, N.; Lindsay, S.W.; Grandadam, M.; Brey, P.T.

    2016-01-01

    During the resettlement of 6500 persons living around the Nam Theun 2 hydroelectric project in Laos, more than 1200 pour-flush latrines were constructed. To assess the role of these latrines as productive larval habitats for mosquitoes, entomological investigations using Centers for Disease

  14. Contamination of drinking water sources during the rainy season in an urban post-conflict community in Guinea Bissau: implications for sanitation priority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombatti, R; Vieira, C S; Bassani, F; Cristofoli, R; Coin, A; Bertinato, L; Riccardi, F

    2009-06-01

    Since the 1998 civil warcholera outbreaks and waterborne infections have been a major cause of morbidity and mortality during the rainy season in Guinea Bidsau. Our survey aims at: (1) describing the distribution, characteristics and use of water sources and sewage facilities in a central area of the capital city of Bissau; (2) determining the microbiological quality of drinking water during the rainy season. After mapping of the Cuntum 3 study area, water sources' and latrines' location, characteristics and use were determined by visual inspection and interviews with householders. Microbiological analyses were peformed from water sources for evaluation of total Coliforms, E. coli, Enterococcus faecalis. Twelve water sources (9 wells, 3 taps) and 15 latrines were identified and used by 444 inhabitants. Water sources and latrines were at less than 5 meters distance apart. Wells were self-built, hand-dug, shallow (4-6 meters), unprotected. Taps were located outdoor. Latrines were self-built, open air, unprotected. None of the houses had a bathroom. Maintenance of wells, taps and latrines is not performed on regular basis and well's handling habits are not safe. Well and tap water showed heavy faecal contamination with more than 1000 CFU/100 ml. The contamination of drinking water in Bissau due to poor construction, maintenance and improperuse ten years after the civil war, demonstrates the need to allocate resources after conflicts in the area of water and sanitation. Both should be included as a priority in post-conflict reconstruction programs in order to reduce cholera outbreaks and diarrhoea related mortality.

  15. Ineffective hand washing and the contamination of carrots after using a field latrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, J M; Hutchison, M L

    2016-04-01

    A study was undertaken to simulate the likely effects of a field worker with poor hygienic practices that had returned to work too soon after recovering from an infection by an enteric pathogen. The studies simulated a variety of hand-washing practices from no washing to washing with soap and water followed by an application of alcohol gel after using a field latrine. The numbers of generic Escherichia coli isolated from workers' hands declined with increasing thoroughness of hand-washing treatments with unwashed hands > water > water and soap > water, soap and alcohol gel. Where gloves were worn the counts obtained for the treatments were significantly reduced, but it was observed that unwashed hands contaminated gloves during the process of putting them on. Hand contamination following the use of a field latrine transferred contamination to carrots. These results suggest that if no gloves are worn it would be best practice to wash hands with water and soap and apply alcohol gel after using a field latrine. Wearing gloves reduced the risk of contaminating handled produce but workers should still wash their hands after using a field latrine before applying gloves. This study shows that inadequate hand hygiene in the field following the use of a field latrine can transfer bacterial contamination to hand-harvested carrots. Where fresh produce crops are to be handled by workers, wearing gloves reduces the risk of contaminating produce but workers should still wash their hands after using a field latrine before applying gloves. If no gloves are worn it would be best practice to wash hands with water and soap and apply alcohol gel after using a field latrine. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. An investigation of the effect of pit latrine additives on VIP latrine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-07-04

    Jul 4, 2015 ... additives claim that by addition of this product to pit content, accumulation rate and pit content volume can be reduced, .... quantify the effect of natural degradation and dehydration of pit latrine ... through the toilet pedestal.

  17. Public Water Sources

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This GIS layer consists of the geographic location of active and inactive public (Community, non-transient non-community and transient non-community) water sources...

  18. INEEL Source Water Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehlke, Gerald

    2003-03-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) covers approximately 890 mi2 and includes 12 public water systems that must be evaluated for Source water protection purposes under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Because of its size and location, six watersheds and five aquifers could potentially affect the INEEL’s drinking water sources. Based on a preliminary evaluation of the available information, it was determined that the Big Lost River, Birch Creek, and Little Lost River Watersheds and the eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer needed to be assessed. These watersheds were delineated using the United States Geologic Survey’s Hydrological Unit scheme. Well capture zones were originally estimated using the RESSQC module of the Environmental Protection Agency’s Well Head Protection Area model, and the initial modeling assumptions and results were checked by running several scenarios using Modflow modeling. After a technical review, the resulting capture zones were expanded to account for the uncertainties associated with changing groundwater flow directions, a thick vadose zone, and other data uncertainties. Finally, all well capture zones at a given facility were merged to a single wellhead protection area at each facility. A contaminant source inventory was conducted, and the results were integrated with the well capture zones, watershed and aquifer information, and facility information using geographic information system technology to complete the INEEL’s Source Water Assessment. Of the INEEL’s 12 public water systems, three systems rated as low susceptibility (EBR-I, Main Gate, and Gun Range), and the remainder rated as moderate susceptibility. No INEEL public water system rated as high susceptibility. We are using this information to develop a source water management plan from which we will subsequently implement an INEEL-wide source water management program. The results are a very robust set of wellhead protection areas that will

  19. Assessing the impact of a school-based latrine cleaning and handwashing program on pupil absence in Nyanza Province, Kenya: a cluster-randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Bethany A; Freeman, Matthew C; Garn, Joshua V; Dreibelbis, Robert; Saboori, Shadi; Muga, Richard; Rheingans, Richard

    2014-10-01

    Improving school water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) conditions reduces pupil absence and illness. However, these benefits may depend on the conditions of the latrines and availability of consumables. We sought to determine whether a low-cost, policy-relevant, environmental-level latrine cleaning intervention could improve latrine cleanliness, increase its use and reduce absenteeism. In a three-arm, cluster-randomized trial we assessed absence via periodical roll-call among 17 564 pupils in 60 schools that had previously received WASH improvements as part of the SWASH+ project. Latrine conditions and use were also assessed using structured observation. Latrine cleanliness increased significantly during the post-intervention period among schools receiving the latrine cleaning package compared to controls, as did handwashing with soap. We found no difference in latrine use and absence across arms. The additive impact of cleaning may not have been strong enough to impact absence above and beyond reductions attributable to the original WASH infrastructure improvements and basic hygiene education the schools previously received. Improving latrine conditions is important for the dignity and well-being of pupils, and investments and strategies are necessary to ensure that school toilets are clean and pupil-friendly. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Toxic Byproduct Formation during Electrochemical Treatment of Latrine Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, Justin T; Yang, Yang; Hoffmann, Michael R

    2017-06-20

    Electrochemical systems are an attractive option for onsite latrine wastewater treatment due to their high efficiency and small footprint. While concerns remain over formation of toxic byproducts during treatment, rigorous studies examining byproduct formation are lacking. Experiments treating authentic latrine wastewater over variable treatment times, current densities, chloride concentrations, and anode materials were conducted to characterize byproducts and identify conditions that minimize their formation. Production of inorganic byproducts (chlorate and perchlorate) and indicator organic byproducts (haloacetic acids and trihalomethanes) during electrolysis dramatically exceeded recommendations for drinking water after one treatment cycle (∼10-30 000 times), raising concerns for contamination of downstream water supplies. Stopping the reaction after ammonium was removed (i.e., the chlorination breakpoint) was a promising method to minimize byproduct formation without compromising disinfection and nutrient removal. Though treatment was accelerated at increased chloride concentrations and current densities, byproduct concentrations remained similar near the breakpoint. On TiO2/IrO2 anodes, haloacetic acids (up to ∼50 μM) and chlorate (up to ∼2 μM) were of most concern. Although boron-doped diamond anodes mineralized haloacetic acids after formation, high production rates of chlorate and perchlorate (up to ∼4 and 25 μM) made them inferior to TiO2/IrO2 anodes in terms of toxic byproduct formation. Organic byproduct formation was similar during chemical chlorination and electrolysis of wastewater, suggesting that organic byproducts are formed by similar pathways in both cases (i.e., reactions with chloramines and free chlorine).

  1. Nutrient pollution in shallow aquifers underlying pit latrines and domestic solid waste dumps in urban slums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyenje, P M; Foppen, J W; Kulabako, R; Muwanga, A; Uhlenbrook, S

    2013-06-15

    The lack of proper on-site sanitation in unsewered low-income areas is becoming an important source of nutrient-rich wastewater leaching to groundwater and can potentially lead to eutrophication. For typical conditions in sub-Saharan Africa, the nutrient loading of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from on-site sanitation systems to aquifers is largely unknown. In this study, we assessed the dissolved nutrient loads (nitrate (NO3), ammonium (NH4) and orthophosphate (o-PO4)) and the processes likely affecting them in aquifers underlying two on-site sanitation systems in an unsewered low-income urban slum in Kampala, Uganda; a domestic solid waste dump and a site with two pit latrines. The impact of the two types of sites was assessed by comparing the upgradient and downgradient nutrient concentrations and loads along groundwater flow lines. Significant pollution to groundwater originated from the pit latrine site with downgradient nutrient loads increasing by factors of 1.7 for NO3, 10.5 for NH4 and 49 for o-PO4. No effect of leaching of nutrients to groundwater was found from the waste dump. We estimated that approximately 2-20% of total N and less than 1% of total P mass input was lost to groundwater from the pit latrines. The bulk of N leached to groundwater was in the form of NH4. Mn-reducing conditions prevailed in the shallow aquifer which suggested that nitrification was the main process affecting NH4 concentrations. Phosphorus was likely retained in the soils by precipitating as MnHPO4 and Ca5(PO4)3(OH). Our results indicated that pit latrines in alluvial aquifer systems can be highly effective for the removal of nutrients depending on hydrological, hydrochemical and geochemical conditions in the aquifer receiving wastewater. Improvements to make the current pit latrine systems better for nutrient containment are suggested based on findings from this study.

  2. Assessment of the impact of latrine utilization on diarrhoeal diseases ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While household access is important, community sanitation coverage is even more important to improve health through the regular use of well-maintained sanitation ... of having latrines had impacted the occurrence of childhood diarrhea.

  3. Chemical and thermal properties of VIP latrine sludge

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-07-04

    Jul 4, 2015 ... 1Pollution Research Group, Department of Chemical Engineering, University ... Keywords: faecal sludge, VIP latrines, chemical properties, thermal properties ..... In: Proceedings of the EWB-UK National Research & Education.

  4. Patterns of latrine use by raccoons (Procyon lotor) and implication for Baylisascaris procyonis transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Ben T; Prange, Suzanne; Hauver, Stephanie A; Gehrt, Stanley D

    2014-04-01

    Mammals often use latrine sites for defecation, yet little is known about patterns of latrine use in many common species such as raccoons (Procyon lotor). Because raccoon latrines are important foci for the transmission of raccoon roundworm (Baylisascaris procyonis), documenting metrics of raccoon latrine use may have public health implications. Although some studies have provided evidence that multiple raccoons visit single latrine sites, exact latrine visitation patterns of raccoons have never been documented. We monitored raccoon latrine usage using proximity-logging collars placed at 15 latrine sites. We found that latrine sites were visited by multiple raccoons (range 1-7), and raccoons visited as many as six latrines during a 2-wk period. No sex differences were found in the number of latrines visited or time spent during visits. We posit that the use of multiple latrine sites by raccoons may lead to the pattern that rates of B. procyonis infection at latrines are greater than infection rates found in individual raccoon fecal samples. This in turn could lead to greater transmission of B. procyonis to paratenic hosts. Our results support the conclusion that raccoon latrines can be major foci for the infection and spread of B. procyonis.

  5. Accelerating uptake of household latrines in rural communities in the Volta region of Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keraita, Bernard; Jensen, Peter Kjær Mackie; Konradsen, Flemming

    2013-01-01

    sanitation facilities with more than 75% of the households relying on open defecation and communal trench latrines. Knowledge of technological options was very limited and the cost for preferred latrines was unaffordable. Though health-related benefits motivated household latrine uptake, those related...... to personal security, privacy, social status and convenience were ranked higher. Sanitation uptake was constrained mainly by finances, poor sanitation promotion and general biophysical factors. High costs of latrine construction could be reduced by introducing cheaper technological options, using low...

  6. 改水改厕和环境整治控制土壤蛔虫虫卵及鞭虫虫卵污染的纵向观察%Longitudinal observation of contamination with eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura and control efforts through improved drinking water, latrine improvements and environmental improvements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴坤教; 曾小军; 姜唯声; 洪献林; 葛军; 谢曙英; 兰炜明; 陈红根

    2011-01-01

    Objective To ascertain the level of contamination with eggs of soil-transmitted nematodes and the effects of efforts to control infection in the population through improved drinking water, latrine improvements, and environmental improvements. Methods In two villages of Jinxian County, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura eggs in soil were tested using saturated magnesium sulfate flotation, and the population was tested for infection with soil-transmitted nematodes using the Kato-Katz method. Results After drinking water was improved and latrine improvements were implemented . The rate at which eggs of A. Lumbricoides and T. Trichiura were detected in soil tended to decrease in both villages. One year after drinking water was improved and latrine improvements were made, the rate at which Ascaris eggs were detected in yards, living rooms, latrines, and vegetable farms and the overall rate at which these eggs were detected decreased; respective rates decreased 76. 48% (P 0.05), and 59. 03%(P<0.01). Rates remained relatively low afterwards. The rate at which Trichuris eggs were detected in those locations and the overall rate of detection decreased 68. 74%, 62.50% (P<0.01), 64.71%, 64.71%, and 65. 15%. The rate of dead Ascaris eggs and Trichuris eggs increased from 2. 57% and 0. 61% in 2005 to 69. 81% and 78. 13% in 2006, respectively, and the rate if dead eggs remained at about 70% two years later. Conclusion Control measures to improve drinking water and implement latrine improvements and environmental improvements significantly affected contamination of A. Lumbricoides and T. Trichiura eggs in soil and also proved to be an effective strategy for control of geohelminth infection in the human population.%目的 了解农村地区实施改水改厕和环境整治等综合措施后土壤中土源性线虫虫卵污染情况、变化规律及对人群土源性线虫感染的控制效果.方法 在江西省进贤县2个村,用饱和硫酸镁离心浮聚法检查

  7. Transport of fecal-derived microorganisms from latrine ponds to aquifers in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knappett, P. S.; McKay, L. D.; Layton, A.; Alam, M.; Williams, D.; Huq, M. R.; Mailloux, B. J.; Ferguson, A.; Feighery, J. E.; Culligan, P. J.; Escamilla, V.; Emch, M.; Akita, Y.; Serre, M. L.; Perfect, E.; Gentry, R. W.; Ahmed, K. M.; van Geen, A.

    2009-12-01

    Groundwater has been the principal source of drinking water for over 100 million people in rural Bangladesh for the past twenty years. The shallow depths and simple construction of the private wells has raised concern that these wells may be receiving fecal contamination from the densely populated rural areas with poor sanitation, contributing to high rates of diarrheal disease. Ponds are ubiquitous in Bangladesh, serving multiple purposes, including receiving fecal effluent from latrines, and private wells are frequently located in close proximity to these potential groundwater contamination sources. After detecting E. coli in up to 70% of private and monitoring wells throughout a village in Araihazar, the numerous ponds throughout the village were hypothesized to be sources of this contamination. To test this hypothesis 9 lateral transects of 4 monitoring wells each, 7 m deep and placed 1 m apart, were installed radiating away from four ponds of contrasting ages and near surface geology. These transects were monitored throughout the year to look for evidence that the ponds were contributing E. coli to the groundwater system. During the dry season from September 2008 to May 2009 no E. coli was observed in the shallow monitoring wells. In contrast, when the rains began in June 2009 several of the transects showed increasing water levels and E. coli with proximity to the pond, providing evidence that some ponds were acting as a contamination point source. A major rainfall event was simulated in June 2009 in each of the four ponds, raising the water level by 20 to 30 cm while adjacent transects were monitored. In two recently dug, deep ponds E. coli travelled up to 6 m into the medium sand aquifer within 24 hours as a result of the simulated rainfall event. In the two older ponds, which had well developed silt layers on the bottom or were emplaced in silty aquifers little E. coli was detected in the adjacent monitoring wells under natural or forced gradient

  8. Characteristics of latrines in central Tanzania and their relation to fly catches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Irish

    Full Text Available The disposal of human excreta in latrines is an important step in reducing the transmission of diarrhoeal diseases. However, in latrines, flies can access the latrine contents and serve as a mechanical transmitter of diarrhoeal pathogens. Furthermore, the latrine contents can be used as a breeding site for flies, which may further contribute to disease transmission. Latrines do not all produce flies, and there are some which produce only a few, while others can produce thousands. In order to understand the role of the latrine in determining this productivity, a pilot study was conducted, in which fifty latrines were observed in and around Ifakara, Tanzania. The characteristics of the latrine superstructure, use of the latrine, and chemical characteristics of pit latrine contents were compared to the numbers of flies collected in an exit trap placed over the drop hole in the latrine. Absence of a roof was found to have a significant positive association (t=3.17, p=0.003 with the total number of flies collected, and temporary superstructures, particularly as opposed to brick superstructures (z=4.26, p<0.001, and increased total solids in pit latrines (z=2.57, p=0.01 were significantly associated with increased numbers of blowflies leaving the latrine. The number of larvae per gram was significantly associated with the village from which samples were taken, with the largest difference between two villages outside Ifakara (z=2.12, p=0.03. The effect of latrine superstructure (roof, walls on fly production may indicate that improvements in latrine construction could result in decreases in fly populations in areas where they transmit diarrhoeal pathogens.

  9. Why latrines are not used: communities' perceptions and practices regarding latrines in a Taenia solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séverine Thys

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Taenia solium cysticercosis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis occurring in many developing countries. Socio-cultural determinants related to its control remain unclear. Studies in Africa have shown that the underuse of sanitary facilities and the widespread occurrence of free-roaming pigs are the major risk factors for porcine cysticercosis. The study objective was to assess the communities' perceptions, practices and knowledge regarding latrines in a T. solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia inhabited by the Nsenga ethno-linguistic group, and to identify possible barriers to their construction and use. A total of 21 focus group discussions on latrine use were organized separately with men, women and children, in seven villages of the Petauke district. The themes covered were related to perceived latrine availability (absence-presence, building obstacles and perceived latrine use (defecation practices, latrine management, socio-cultural constraints.The findings reveal that latrines were not constructed in every household because of the convenient use of existing latrines in the neighborhood. Latrines were perceived to contribute to good hygiene mainly because they prevent pigs from eating human feces. Men expressed reluctance to abandon the open-air defecation practice mainly because of toilet-associated taboos with in-laws and grown-up children of the opposite gender. When reviewing conceptual frameworks of people's approach to sanitation, we found that seeking privacy and taboos hindering latrine use and construction were mainly explained in our study area by the fact that the Nsenga observe a traditionally matrilineal descent. These findings indicate that in this local context latrine promotion messages should not only focus on health benefits in general. Since only men were responsible for building latrines and mostly men preferred open defecation, sanitation programs should also be directed to men and address related sanitary taboos in

  10. Why latrines are not used: communities' perceptions and practices regarding latrines in a Taenia solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thys, Séverine; Mwape, Kabemba E; Lefèvre, Pierre; Dorny, Pierre; Marcotty, Tanguy; Phiri, Andrew M; Phiri, Isaak K; Gabriël, Sarah

    2015-03-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis occurring in many developing countries. Socio-cultural determinants related to its control remain unclear. Studies in Africa have shown that the underuse of sanitary facilities and the widespread occurrence of free-roaming pigs are the major risk factors for porcine cysticercosis. The study objective was to assess the communities' perceptions, practices and knowledge regarding latrines in a T. solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia inhabited by the Nsenga ethno-linguistic group, and to identify possible barriers to their construction and use. A total of 21 focus group discussions on latrine use were organized separately with men, women and children, in seven villages of the Petauke district. The themes covered were related to perceived latrine availability (absence-presence, building obstacles) and perceived latrine use (defecation practices, latrine management, socio-cultural constraints).The findings reveal that latrines were not constructed in every household because of the convenient use of existing latrines in the neighborhood. Latrines were perceived to contribute to good hygiene mainly because they prevent pigs from eating human feces. Men expressed reluctance to abandon the open-air defecation practice mainly because of toilet-associated taboos with in-laws and grown-up children of the opposite gender. When reviewing conceptual frameworks of people's approach to sanitation, we found that seeking privacy and taboos hindering latrine use and construction were mainly explained in our study area by the fact that the Nsenga observe a traditionally matrilineal descent. These findings indicate that in this local context latrine promotion messages should not only focus on health benefits in general. Since only men were responsible for building latrines and mostly men preferred open defecation, sanitation programs should also be directed to men and address related sanitary taboos in order to be

  11. Implications of Fecal Bacteria Input from Latrine-Polluted Ponds for Wells in Sandy Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knappett, Peter S. K.; McKay, Larry D.; Layton, Alice; Williams, Daniel E.; Alam, Md. J.; Huq, Md. R.; Mey, Jacob; Feighery, John E.; Culligan, Patricia J.; Mailloux, Brian J.; Zhuang, Jie; Escamilla, Veronica; Emch, Michael; Perfect, Edmund; Sayler, Gary S.; Ahmed, Kazi M.; van Geen, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Ponds receiving latrine effluents may serve as sources of fecal contamination to shallow aquifers tapped by millions of tube-wells in Bangladesh. To test this hypothesis, transects of monitoring wells radiating away from four ponds were installed in a shallow sandy aquifer underlying a densely populated village and monitored for 14 months. Two of the ponds extended to medium sand. Another pond was sited within silty sand and the last in silt. The fecal indicator bacterium E. coli was rarely detected along the transects during the dry season and was only detected near the ponds extending to medium sand up to 7 m away during the monsoon. A log-linear decline in E. coli and Bacteroidales concentrations with distance along the transects in the early monsoon indicates that ponds excavated in medium sand were the likely source of contamination. Spatial removal rates ranged from 0.5-1.3 log10/m. After the ponds were artificially filled with groundwater to simulate the impact of a rain storm, E. coli levels increased near a pond recently excavated in medium sand, but no others. These observations show that adjacent sediment grain-size and how recently a pond was excavated influence how much fecal contamination ponds receiving latrine effluents contribute to neighboring groundwater. PMID:22191430

  12. Implications of fecal bacteria input from latrine-polluted ponds for wells in sandy aquifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knappett, Peter S K; McKay, Larry D; Layton, Alice; Williams, Daniel E; Alam, Md J; Huq, Md R; Mey, Jacob; Feighery, John E; Culligan, Patricia J; Mailloux, Brian J; Zhuang, Jie; Escamilla, Veronica; Emch, Michael; Perfect, Edmund; Sayler, Gary S; Ahmed, Kazi M; van Geen, Alexander

    2012-02-07

    Ponds receiving latrine effluents may serve as sources of fecal contamination to shallow aquifers tapped by millions of tube-wells in Bangladesh. To test this hypothesis, transects of monitoring wells radiating away from four ponds were installed in a shallow sandy aquifer underlying a densely populated village and monitored for 14 months. Two of the ponds extended to medium sand. Another pond was sited within silty sand and the last in silt. The fecal indicator bacterium E. coli was rarely detected along the transects during the dry season and was only detected near the ponds extending to medium sand up to 7 m away during the monsoon. A log-linear decline in E. coli and Bacteroidales concentrations with distance along the transects in the early monsoon indicates that ponds excavated in medium sand were the likely source of contamination. Spatial removal rates ranged from 0.5 to 1.3 log(10)/m. After the ponds were artificially filled with groundwater to simulate the impact of a rain storm, E. coli levels increased near a pond recently excavated in medium sand, but no others. These observations show that adjacent sediment grain-size and how recently a pond was excavated influence the how much fecal contamination ponds receiving latrine effluents contribute to neighboring groundwater.

  13. 都江堰市农村户厕卫生状况调查%Survey on Latrine Hygiene in Rural Areas of Dujiangyan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张江华; 吴寰宇; 罗大为; 王春芳; 白庆瑞; 阮素云

    2013-01-01

    latrines was 37.3%, including three-compartment septic tanks (17.8%), complete sewerage water flush latrines (11.7%), and biogas-producing latrines (6.3%). However, 60.5% of the households still used non-sanitary latrines, mainly including pit toilets (51.4%) and simple water flush toilets (9.0%). Despite 84.9% of the household latrines with complete shelter structure, only 52.2% were in good sanitary condition. The coverage rate of sanitary latrines in house was 85.1% and 50.5% of non-sanitary latrines were installed outdoors. Feces utilization rates of household latrines were 70.0%, among which 62.5% were used as manure. Feces innocuous disposal rate was only 40.1%. As to the awareness of sanitary latrines, 59.8% of the respondents were aware of the concept of sanitary latrine, 66.3% understood that feces could spread diseases, 15.9% learned how to use septic tanks, and only 11.3% answered all the questions correctly. Education and occupation were the main influencing factors of the awareness rate of sanitary latrine. [ Conclusion ] Both the rates of sanitary latrine popularization and feces innocuous disposal are low in the rural areas of Dujiangyan, which indicates potential public health hazards in excrement management. The low awareness rate of sanitary latrine requires urgent attention to health education, especially for the rural farmers with low education.

  14. Water: Source of Future Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    domestic purposes.6 In addition, another two-thirds of the world population could be under conditions of water stress . Water stress is defined as the...by engaging in better water management practices. For example, growing tomatoes with traditional irrigation systems requires far more water than...growing tomatoes that use drip systems. This example suggests that even our daily diet has an effect on our overall water needs.21 Growing a pound of

  15. Usage and Barriers to Use of Latrines in a Ghanaian Peri-Urban Community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obeng, Peter A.; Keraita, Bernard; Oduro-Kwarteng, Sampson;

    2015-01-01

    Regular usage of latrines is crucial to public health. This study was conducted in a Ghanaian peri-urban setting to understand the factors that influence the usage of household and communal latrines and to discuss potential interventions to address existing barriers to regular usage. Data...

  16. Importance of latrine communication in European rabbits shifts along a rural-to-urban gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziege, Madlen; Bierbach, David; Bischoff, Svenja; Brandt, Anna-Lena; Brix, Mareike; Greshake, Bastian; Merker, Stefan; Wenninger, Sandra; Wronski, Torsten; Plath, Martin

    2016-06-14

    Information transfer in mammalian communication networks is often based on the deposition of excreta in latrines. Depending on the intended receiver(s), latrines are either formed at territorial boundaries (between-group communication) or in core areas of home ranges (within-group communication). The relative importance of both types of marking behavior should depend, amongst other factors, on population densities and social group sizes, which tend to differ between urban and rural wildlife populations. Our study is the first to assess (direct and indirect) anthropogenic influences on mammalian latrine-based communication networks along a rural-to-urban gradient in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) living in urban, suburban and rural areas in and around Frankfurt am Main (Germany). The proportion of latrines located in close proximity to the burrow was higher at rural study sites compared to urban and suburban ones. At rural sites, we found the largest latrines and highest latrine densities close to the burrow, suggesting that core marking prevailed. By contrast, latrine dimensions and densities increased with increasing distance from the burrow in urban and suburban populations, suggesting a higher importance of peripheral marking. Increased population densities, but smaller social group sizes in urban rabbit populations may lead to an increased importance of between-group communication and thus, favor peripheral over core marking. Our study provides novel insights into the manifold ways by which man-made habitat alterations along a rural-to-urban gradient directly and indirectly affect wildlife populations, including latrine-based communication networks.

  17. Modeling water demand when households have multiple sources of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulibaly, Lassina; Jakus, Paul M.; Keith, John E.

    2014-07-01

    A significant portion of the world's population lives in areas where public water delivery systems are unreliable and/or deliver poor quality water. In response, people have developed important alternatives to publicly supplied water. To date, most water demand research has been based on single-equation models for a single source of water, with very few studies that have examined water demand from two sources of water (where all nonpublic system water sources have been aggregated into a single demand). This modeling approach leads to two outcomes. First, the demand models do not capture the full range of alternatives, so the true economic relationship among the alternatives is obscured. Second, and more seriously, economic theory predicts that demand for a good becomes more price-elastic as the number of close substitutes increases. If researchers artificially limit the number of alternatives studied to something less than the true number, the price elasticity estimate may be biased downward. This paper examines water demand in a region with near universal access to piped water, but where system reliability and quality is such that many alternative sources of water exist. In extending the demand analysis to four sources of water, we are able to (i) demonstrate why households choose the water sources they do, (ii) provide a richer description of the demand relationships among sources, and (iii) calculate own-price elasticity estimates that are more elastic than those generally found in the literature.

  18. Assessed Clean Water Act 305(b) Water Sources of Impairment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Identifies the sources of impairment for assessed waters under the Clean Water Act 305(b) program. This view can be used for viewing the details at the assessment...

  19. Water Pollution: Monitoring the Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, James W.

    1980-01-01

    Described is an advanced biology class project involving study of the effects of organic pollution on an aquatic ecosystem from an sewage treatment plant overflow to evaluate the chemical quality and biological activity of the river water. (DS)

  20. Shared Sanitation Versus Individual Household Latrines in Urban Slums: A Cross-Sectional Study in Orissa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijnen, Marieke; Routray, Parimita; Torondel, Belen; Clasen, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    A large and growing proportion of the global population rely on shared sanitation facilities despite evidence of a potential increased risk of adverse health outcomes compared with individual household latrines (IHLs). We sought to explore differences between households relying on shared sanitation versus IHLs in terms of demographics, sanitation facilities, and fecal exposure. We surveyed 570 households from 30 slums in Orissa, India, to obtain data on demographics, water, sanitation, and hygiene. Latrine spot-checks were conducted to collect data on indicators of use, privacy, and cleanliness. We collected samples of drinking water and hand rinses to assess fecal contamination. Households relying on shared sanitation were poorer and less educated than those accessing IHLs. Individuals in sharing households were more likely to practice open defecation. Shared facilities were less likely to be functional, less clean, and more likely to have feces and flies. No differences in fecal contamination of drinking water or hand-rinse samples were found. Important differences exist among households accessing shared facilities versus IHLs that may partly explain the apparent adverse health outcomes associated with shared sanitation. As these factors may capture differences in risk and promote sanitary improvements, they should be considered in future policy.

  1. SurfaceWater Source Protection Areas (SPAs)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Source Protection Area (SPA) boundaries have been located on RF 24000 & RF 25000 scale USGS topographic maps by Water Supply Division (DEC) and VT Dept of Health...

  2. Differences in dissolved organic matter between reclaimed water source and drinking water source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hong-Ying; Du, Ye; Wu, Qian-Yuan; Zhao, Xin; Tang, Xin; Chen, Zhuo

    2016-05-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) significantly affects the quality of reclaimed water and drinking water. Reclaimed water potable reuse is an effective way to augment drinking water source and de facto reuse exists worldwide. Hence, when reclaimed water source (namely secondary effluent) is blended with drinking water source, understanding the difference in DOM between drinking water source (dDOM) and reclaimed water source (rDOM) is essential. In this study, composition, transformation, and potential risk of dDOM from drinking water source and rDOM from secondary effluent were compared. Generally, the DOC concentration of rDOM and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) content in reclaimed water source were higher but rDOM exhibited a lower aromaticity. Besides, rDOM comprises a higher proportion of hydrophilic fractions and more low-molecular weight compounds, which are difficult to be removed during coagulation. Although dDOM exhibited higher specific disinfection byproducts formation potential (SDBPFP), rDOM formed more total disinfection byproducts (DBPs) during chlorination including halomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) due to high DOC concentration. Likewise, in consideration of DOC basis, rDOM contained more absolute assimilable organic carbon (AOC) despite showing a lower specific AOC (normalized AOC per unit of DOC). Besides, rDOM exhibited higher biotoxicity including genotoxicity and endocrine disruption. Therefore, rDOM presents a greater potential risk than dDOM does. Reclaimed water source needs to be treated carefully when it is blended with drinking water source.

  3. Source Water Assessment for the Las Vegas Valley Surface Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, S. P.; Piechota, T. C.

    2003-12-01

    The 1996 amendment to the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 created the Source Water Assessment Program (SWAP) with an objective to evaluate potential sources of contamination to drinking water intakes. The development of a Source Water Assessment Plan for Las Vegas Valley surface water runoff into Lake Mead is important since it will guide future work on source water protection of the main source of water. The first step was the identification of the watershed boundary and source water protection area. Two protection zones were delineated. Zone A extends 500 ft around water bodies, and Zone B extends 3000 ft from the boundaries of Zone A. These Zones extend upstream to the limits of dry weather flows in the storm channels within the Las Vegas Valley. After the protection areas were identified, the potential sources of contamination in the protection area were inventoried. Field work was conducted to identify possible sources of contamination. A GIS coverage obtained from local data sources was used to identify the septic tank locations. Finally, the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permits were obtained from the State of Nevada, and included in the inventory. After the inventory was completed, a level of risk was assigned to each potential contaminating activity (PCA). The contaminants of concern were grouped into five categories: volatile organic compounds (VOCs), synthetic organic compounds (SOCs), inorganic compounds (IOCs), microbiological, and radionuclides. The vulnerability of the water intake to each of the PCAs was assigned based on these five categories, and also on three other factors: the physical barrier effectiveness, the risk potential, and the time of travel. The vulnerability analysis shows that the PCAs with the highest vulnerability rating include septic systems, golf courses/parks, storm channels, gas stations, auto repair shops, construction, and the wastewater treatment plant discharges. Based on the current water quality

  4. A method to determine plant water source using transpired water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. B. Menchaca

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A method to determine the stable isotope ratio of a plant's water source using the plant's transpired water is proposed as an alternative to standard xylem extraction methods. The method consists of periodically sampling transpired waters from shoots or leaves enclosed in sealed, transparent bags which create a saturated environment, preclude further evaporation and allow the progressive mixing of evaporated transpired water and un-evaporated xylem water. The method was applied on trees and shrubs coexisting in a non-irrigated area where stable isotope ratios of local environmental waters are well characterized. The results show Eucalyptus globulus (tree and Genista monspessulana (shrub using water sources of different isotopic ratios congruent with groundwater and soil water respectively. In addition, tritium concentrations indicate that pine trees (Pinus sylvestris switch water source from soil water in the winter to groundwater in the summer. The method proposed is particularly useful in remote or protected areas and in large scale studies related to water management, environmental compliance and surveillance, because it eliminates the need for destructive sampling and greatly reduces costs associated with laboratory extraction of xylem waters from plant tissues for isotopic analyses.

  5. Pit Latrine Emptying Behavior and Demand for Sanitation Services in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion W. Jenkins

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pit latrines are the main form of sanitation in unplanned areas in many rapidly growing developing cities. Understanding demand for pit latrine fecal sludge management (FSM services in these communities is important for designing demand-responsive sanitation services and policies to improve public health. We examine latrine emptying knowledge, attitudes, behavior, trends and rates of safe/unsafe emptying, and measure demand for a new hygienic latrine emptying service in unplanned communities in Dar Es Salaam (Dar, Tanzania, using data from a cross-sectional survey at 662 residential properties in 35 unplanned sub-wards across Dar, where 97% had pit latrines. A picture emerges of expensive and poor FSM service options for latrine owners, resulting in widespread fecal sludge exposure that is likely to increase unless addressed. Households delay emptying as long as possible, use full pits beyond what is safe, face high costs even for unhygienic emptying, and resort to unsafe practices like ‘flooding out’. We measured strong interest in and willingness to pay (WTP for the new pit emptying service at 96% of residences; 57% were WTP ≥U.S. $17 to remove ≥200 L of sludge. Emerging policy recommendations for safe FSM in unplanned urban communities in Dar and elsewhere are discussed.

  6. Patterns and determinants of communal latrine usage in urban poverty pockets in Bhopal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biran, A; Jenkins, M W; Dabrase, P; Bhagwat, I

    2011-07-01

    To explore and explain patterns of use of communal latrine facilities in urban poverty pockets. Six poverty pockets with communal latrine facilities representing two management models (Sulabh and municipal) were selected. Sampling was random and stratified by poverty pocket population size. A seventh, community-managed facility was also included. Data were collected by exit interviews with facility users and by interviews with residents from a randomly selected representative sample of poverty pocket households, on social, economic and demographic characteristics of households, latrine ownership, defecation practices, costs of using the facility and distance from the house to the facility. A tally of facility users was kept for 1 day at each facility. Data were analysed using logistic regression modelling to identify determinants of communal latrine usage. Communal latrines differed in their facilities, conditions, management and operating characteristics, and rates of usage. Reported usage rates among non-latrine-owning households ranged from 15% to 100%. There was significant variation in wealth, occupation and household structure across the poverty pockets as well as in household latrine ownership. Households in pockets with municipal communal latrine facilities appeared poorer. Households in pockets with Sulabh-managed communal facilities were significantly more likely to own a household latrine. Determinants of communal facility usage among households without a latrine were access and convenience (distance and opening hours), facility age, cleanliness/upkeep and cost. The ratio of male to female users was 2:1 across all facilities for both adults and children. Provision of communal facilities reduces but does not end the problem of open defecation in poverty pockets. Women appear to be relatively poorly served by communal facilities and, cost is a barrier to use by poorer households. Results suggest improving facility convenience and access and modifying fee

  7. Information transfer among widely spaced individuals: latrines as a basis for communication networks in the swift fox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darden, Safi-Kirstine; Steffensen, Lise K.; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2008-01-01

    contour) of a pair's home-range when compared with outside the core and in areas of a pair's home-range that overlapped with neighbouring individuals when compared with those areas that did not overlap with neighbours. These were also the two areas where latrines were most likely to reoccur in the next...... consecutive breeding season. Furthermore, latrines in the exclusive part of a pair's home-range core and latrines in edge area overlap zones had the highest frequency of visits as determined by the rate of faecal depositions. Our interpretation of these results is that latrines possibly have a dual function....... That is, they function in territory defence in the exclusive areas of a pair's core and as centres for information exchange in the outer areas of a pair's home-range that overlap with neighbouring foxes. We discuss the possible information content of latrines and the possibility of latrines forming...

  8. Designing local solutions for emptying pit latrines in low-income urban settlements (Malawi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipeta, W. C.; Holm, R. H.; Kamanula, J. F.; Mtonga, W. E.; de los Reyes, F. L.

    2017-08-01

    A lack of effective options in local technology poses challenges when onsite household sanitation facilities are eventually filled to capacity in unplanned settlement areas within Mzuzu City, located in northern Malawi. Vacuum trucks currently dominate the market but focus on emptying septic tanks in the more easily accessible planned settlement areas, rather than servicing the pit latrines common in unplanned settlement areas. As a result, households in the unplanned settlement areas within Mzuzu rely primarily on manual pit emptying (i.e., shoveling by hand) or digging a new pit latrine. These practices have associated health risks and are limited by space constraints. This research focused on filling the technological gap through the design, development, and testing of a pedal powered modified Gulper pump using locally available materials and fabrication. A modified pedal powered Gulper technology was developed and demonstrated to be capable of lifting fecal sludge from a depth of 1.5 m with a mean flow rate of 0.00058 m3/s. If the trash content was low, a typical pit latrine with a volume of 1-4 m3 could be emptied within 1-2 h. Based on the findings in our research Phase IV, the pedal powered Gulper modification is promising as a potential emptying technology for lined pit latrines in unplanned settlement areas. The success rate of the technology is about 17% (5 out 30 sampled lined pit latrines were successful) and reflects the difficulty in finding a single technology that can work well in all types of pit latrines with varying contents. We note that cost should not be the only design criteria and acknowledge the challenge of handling trash in pit latrines.

  9. Determining the source of nitrate pollution in the Niger discontinuous aquifers using the natural {15N }/{14N } ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Pierre; Hillaire-Marcel, Claude

    1997-12-01

    In the semi-arid Niamey area (Niger), more than 10% of the deep wells exploiting the fracture network of the Precambrian aquifer are contaminated by nitrates, with concentrations as high as 10 meq l -1. In order to identify the source(s) of this pollution, nitrate and 15N contents in the polluted wells were monitored over a 20-month period. Potential sources of nitrate contamination were also analyzed for their 15N content. The isotopic compositions of nitrate in polluted waters were > + 12‰ and in rare cases exceeded +17‰. Latrines (˜ + 15‰) may be the major nitrate source for wells showing δ15N values above +15‰. Below this value, waters may be polluted by a combination of nitrates from both latrine and soil sources (˜ + 10‰). In some cases, the soil may account for up to 85% of the groundwater nitrate load. This mode of groundwater pollution is thought to be a consequence of deforestation. Despite their reputation as polluting agents, fertilizers ( +0.5 < δ 15N < + 3.6‰ ) which are used in rice paddies close to the contaminated areas, do not appear to be a significant source of nitrate contamination. Denitrification is probably not a significant process in the study area. Results suggest that nitrate contamination of the aquifer is a consequence of unregulated urbanization (home-made latrines) and deforestation. While latrines are limited to the urban zones, intensive cutting of the forest to meet the city dwellers' wood demand occurs in an ever increasing area around the capital, threatening the local water supply.

  10. 40 CFR 141.706 - Reporting source water monitoring results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting source water monitoring... Cryptosporidium Source Water Monitoring Requirements § 141.706 Reporting source water monitoring results. (a) Systems must report results from the source water monitoring required under § 141.701 no later than 10...

  11. 40 CFR 141.701 - Source water monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Source water monitoring. 141.701... Monitoring Requirements § 141.701 Source water monitoring. (a) Initial round of source water monitoring... sampling frequency is evenly spaced throughout the monitoring period. (b) Second round of source water...

  12. Human fecal and pathogen exposure pathways in rural Indian villages and the effect of increased latrine coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odagiri, Mitsunori; Schriewer, Alexander; Daniels, Miles E; Wuertz, Stefan; Smith, Woutrina A; Clasen, Thomas; Schmidt, Wolf-Peter; Jin, Yujie; Torondel, Belen; Misra, Pravas R; Panigrahi, Pinaki; Jenkins, Marion W

    2016-09-01

    functional latrine coverage and use by 27 percentage points, reduced human fecal contamination in any tested pathway, nor the prevalence of pathogens in water sources. In conclusion, the study demonstrates that (1) improved sanitation alone may be insufficient and further interventions needed in the domestic domain to reduce widespread human and animal fecal contamination observed in homes, (2) pathogens detected in tubewells indicate these sources are microbiologically unsafe for drinking and were associated with child diarrhea, (3) domestic use of ponds heavily contaminated with multiple pathogens presents an under-recognized health risk, and (4) a 27 percentage point increase in improved sanitation access at village-level did not reduce detectable human fecal and pathogen contamination in this setting. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Development and field testing of an alternative latrine design utilizing basic oxygen furnace slag as a treatment media for pathogen removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimson, J.; Suhogusoff, A. V.; Blowes, D. W.; Hirata, R. A.; Ptacek, C. J.; Robertson, W. D.; Emelko, M. B.

    2009-05-01

    with low-TDS, neutral water that is infiltrating in from the sidewall of the excavation. Oxygen concentration is augmented (5 mg L-1) in the alternative latrine compared to the control design (1-2 mg L-1), suggesting that conditions for biofilm development are improved. The decline in pH between sampling events after 42 and 82 days of wastewater application suggest that the potential for base release is decreased over time. Somatic coliphage concentrations are 1-2 log concentration units lower in stainless steel lysimeters compared to concentrations measured in adjacent pan lysimeters, suggesting that the filtration of coliphage by the porous cup may negatively bias sampling.

  14. Ending Open Defecation in Rural Tanzania: Which Factors Facilitate Latrine Adoption?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Sara

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Diarrheal diseases account for 7% of deaths in children under five years of age in Tanzania. Improving sanitation is an essential step towards reducing these deaths. This secondary analysis examined rural Tanzanian households’ sanitation behaviors and attitudes in order to identify barriers and drivers to latrine adoption. The analysis was conducted using results from a cross-sectional study of 1000 households in five rural districts of Tanzania. Motivating factors, perceptions, and constraints surrounding open defecation and latrine adoption were assessed using behavioral change theory. Results showed a significant association between use of improved sanitation and satisfaction with current sanitation facility (OR: 5.91; CI: 2.95–11.85; p = 0.008. Livestock-keeping was strongly associated with practicing open defecation (OR: 0.22; CI 0.063–0.75; p < 0.001. Of the 93 total households that practiced open defecation, 79 (85% were dissatisfied with the practice, 62 (67% had plans to build a latrine and 17 (18% had started saving for a latrine. Among households that planned to build a latrine, health was the primary reason stated (60%. The inability to pay for upgrading sanitation infrastructure was commonly reported among the households. Future efforts should consider methods to reduce costs and ease payments for households to upgrade sanitation infrastructure. Messages to increase demand for latrine adoption in rural Tanzania should integrate themes of privacy, safety, prestige and health. Findings indicate a need for lower cost sanitation options and financing strategies to increase household ability to adopt sanitation facilities.

  15. Ending Open Defecation in Rural Tanzania: Which Factors Facilitate Latrine Adoption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sara, Stephen; Graham, Jay

    2014-01-01

    Diarrheal diseases account for 7% of deaths in children under five years of age in Tanzania. Improving sanitation is an essential step towards reducing these deaths. This secondary analysis examined rural Tanzanian households’ sanitation behaviors and attitudes in order to identify barriers and drivers to latrine adoption. The analysis was conducted using results from a cross-sectional study of 1000 households in five rural districts of Tanzania. Motivating factors, perceptions, and constraints surrounding open defecation and latrine adoption were assessed using behavioral change theory. Results showed a significant association between use of improved sanitation and satisfaction with current sanitation facility (OR: 5.91; CI: 2.95–11.85; p = 0.008). Livestock-keeping was strongly associated with practicing open defecation (OR: 0.22; CI 0.063–0.75; p < 0.001). Of the 93 total households that practiced open defecation, 79 (85%) were dissatisfied with the practice, 62 (67%) had plans to build a latrine and 17 (18%) had started saving for a latrine. Among households that planned to build a latrine, health was the primary reason stated (60%). The inability to pay for upgrading sanitation infrastructure was commonly reported among the households. Future efforts should consider methods to reduce costs and ease payments for households to upgrade sanitation infrastructure. Messages to increase demand for latrine adoption in rural Tanzania should integrate themes of privacy, safety, prestige and health. Findings indicate a need for lower cost sanitation options and financing strategies to increase household ability to adopt sanitation facilities. PMID:25247427

  16. [Mineral waters from several Brazilian natural sources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebelo, M A; Araujo, N C

    1999-01-01

    To divulge information on the chemical composition and physical-chemical features of some mineral waters from Brazilian natural sources that will be of useful protocol investigation and patient advice. The survey was based on bottle labels of non-gaseous mineral waters commercially available in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The íon concentration of each mineral was calculated from the salt content. 36 springs were enralled from different states of the country. The pH (25 degrees C), 4.1 to 9.3, varied on dependence of the source and it was linearey correlated with the cations calcium, magnesium and sodium and the anion bicarbonate. It was atributed to high alkalinity (about 70% of bicarbonate in the molecula-gram) of these salts. The calcium (0.3 to 42 mg/l), magnesium (0.0 to 18 mg/l) and bicarbonate (4 to 228 mg/l) contents are relatively low. The mineral content of the Brazilian springs enrolled in this survey is low; about 70% of the sources having calcium and magnesium less than 10 mg/l and 1.0 mg/l, respectively, similar to local tap water.

  17. 40 CFR 141.83 - Source water treatment requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Source water treatment requirements... water treatment requirements. Systems shall complete the applicable source water monitoring and... monitoring (§ 141.88(d)). (b) Description of source water treatment requirements—(1) System...

  18. SMALL WATER RESERVOIRS – SOURCES OF WATER OR PROBLEMS?

    OpenAIRE

    Ľuboš Jurik; Dušan Húska; Klaudia Halászová; Anna Bandlerová

    2015-01-01

    The design of small water reservoirs in Slovakia and neighbouring countries has common origins in the middle of the last century. Most of them were an alternative source of water for irrigation of field crops. Nowadays, we have to face new problems, such as the problems with the design of hydrological data and real current discharges, the problems with original and new design of the flood wave for the solution of the safety overflow. All of Q100 flows recorded nowadays are much higher than th...

  19. Survival of Ascaris eggs and hygienic quality of human excreta in Vietnamese composting latrines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter K. M.; Phuc, Pham D.; Konradsen, Flemming;

    2009-01-01

    this is the length of time that farmers have available to produce fertilizer between two cropping seasons. This study aimed to investigate whether hygienically safe fertilizer could be produced in the latrines within this period of time. Methods: By inoculating eggs of the helminth parasite indicator Ascaris suum......, could therefore potentially provide a hygienic acceptable fertilizer....

  20. Providing affordable sanitary latrines to low-income urban communities in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saywell, D

    1998-09-01

    Rapid population growth in developing countries, especially in urban areas, will produce an unprecedented sanitation crisis in the next century. A self-help latrine construction program initiated in 1976 by Mozambique's Ministry of Health offers important lessons for other African countries. Although thousands of latrines were constructed in low-income urban communities in a short time period, the campaign largely failed because of a lack of technical guidance in latrine design and construction and chronic shortages of appropriate building materials. In response, a research project was commissioned in 1979 to identify and develop a suitable technology and methodology for large-scale implementation of improved sanitation in peri-urban areas. This led, in turn, to creation in 1985 of the National Program for Low-Cost Sanitation funded by donors, the central government, and user communities. The technology is based on the concept of a simple, unreinforced domed concrete slab placed over a lined or unlined pit. Employment of community members in local production units enhanced poverty alleviation. Community members also served as animators, assessing the individual needs of those without sanitation, monitoring and evaluating program performance, and promoting hygienic behavior practices. Existing communication channels were used to publicize the program. Despite adverse economic and political conditions, 170,496 improved latrines were installed in 1979-96. The success of this program is attributed to the identification of a simple technological solution, affordability, and an integrated health and hygiene education package.

  1. 33 CFR 203.61 - Emergency water supplies due to contaminated water source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Water Act (see 40 CFR 141), is exceeded. (ii) The water supply has been identified as a source of... contaminated water source. 203.61 Section 203.61 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT... PROCEDURES Emergency Water Supplies: Contaminated Water Sources and Drought Assistance § 203.61...

  2. SMALL WATER RESERVOIRS – SOURCES OF WATER OR PROBLEMS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľuboš Jurik

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The design of small water reservoirs in Slovakia and neighbouring countries has common origins in the middle of the last century. Most of them were an alternative source of water for irrigation of field crops. Nowadays, we have to face new problems, such as the problems with the design of hydrological data and real current discharges, the problems with original and new design of the flood wave for the solution of the safety overflow. All of Q100 flows recorded nowadays are much higher than those which had been designed and built. The safety overflows no longer answer the purpose of the contemporary flows. The problems with the Framework Directive are also important – small water reservoirs are not resolved in the Directive as the water bodies of stagnant water because they have an area of less than 0.5 km2. The same problem is also with the preservation of continuity of the flow and the fact that they should let the fish pass. Unfortunately, the state, administrators of small dams, operators and nature conservationists have different points of view on the above-mentioned problems. The article elaborates these problems and suggests possible solutions to the problems.

  3. Laboratory investigation of drinking water sources of Kangra, Himachal Pradesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, S D; Panda, A K

    2012-06-01

    A total of 70 drinking water sources including piped water supply (n = 36), ground water sources (n = 24, hand pumps and bore wells) and natural water sources (n = 10, springs/step-wells) from various parts of district Kangra, Himachal Pradesh were investigated for their suitability for drinking purpose by presumptive coliform test. Three samples were collected from each source during different parts of the year. Piped water sources (91.7%) were most contaminated followed by natural water sources (90%) and ground water sources (62.5%). 70.5% of the total water samples (n = 210) were positive for coliforms. All the three samples from 8.3% (n = 3), 37.5% (n = 9) and 10% (n = 1) piped water, ground water and natural sources respectively, were negative for coliform organisms. A variety of organisms including Proteus, Klebsiella, Citrobacter, Escherichia coli (E. coli), Pasteurella, Enterobacter and Serratia liquefaciens were isolated from water samples positive for coliforms in presumptive coliform test. Thermo-tolerant coliform organisms; Escherichia coli, Citrobacter, Klebsiella and Enterobacter were 71.2% (n = 52) of the total bacterial isolations. These findings suggest absence of adequate treatment and disinfection of the water sources supplying drinking water in district Kangra.

  4. Ammonia pollution characteristics of centralized drinking water sources in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Fu; Binghui Zheng; Xingru Zhao; Lijing Wang; Changming Liu

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics of ammonia in drinking water sources in China were evaluated during 2005-2009.The spatial distribution and seasonal changes of ammonia in different types of drinking water sources of 22 provinces,5 autonomous regions and 4 municipalities were investigated.The levels of ammonia in drinking water sources follow the order of river > lake/reservoir > groundwater.The levels of ammonia concentration in river sources gradually decreased from 2005 t0 2008,while no obvious change was observed in the lakes/reservoirs and groundwater drinking water sources.The proportion of the type of drinking water sources is different in different regions.In river drinking water sources,the ammonia level was varied in different regions and changed seasonally.The highest value and wide range of annual ammonia was found in South East region,while the lowest value was found in Southwest region.In lake/reservoir drinking water sources,the ammonia levels were not varied obviously in different regions.In underground drinking water sources,the ammonia levels were varied obviously in different regions due to the geological permeability and the natural features of regions.In the drinking water sources with higher ammonia levels,there are enterprises and wastewater drainages in the protected areas of the drinking water sources.

  5. Ammonia pollution characteristics of centralized drinking water sources in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qing; Zheng, Binghui; Zhao, Xingru; Wang, Lijing; Liu, Changming

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics of ammonia in drinking water sources in China were evaluated during 2005-2009. The spatial distribution and seasonal changes of ammonia in different types of drinking water sources of 22 provinces, 5 autonomous regions and 4 municipalities were investigated. The levels of ammonia in drinking water sources follow the order of river > lake/reservoir > groundwater. The levels of ammonia concentration in river sources gradually decreased from 2005 to 2008, while no obvious change was observed in the lakes/reservoirs and groundwater drinking water sources. The proportion of the type of drinking water sources is different in different regions. In river drinking water sources, the ammonia level was varied in different regions and changed seasonally. The highest value and wide range of annual ammonia was found in South East region, while the lowest value was found in Southwest region. In lake/reservoir drinking water sources, the ammonia levels were not varied obviously in different regions. In underground drinking water sources, the ammonia levels were varied obviously in different regions due to the geological permeability and the natural features of regions. In the drinking water sources with higher ammonia levels, there are enterprises and wastewater drainages in the protected areas of the drinking water sources.

  6. Evaluation of the Aggressiveness of Slovak Mineral Water Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrablíková, Dana; Porubská, Diana; Fendeková, Miriam; Božíková, Jarmila; Kókaiová, Denisa

    2014-07-01

    The aggressive properties of natural waters arise due to their specific physical properties and chemical composition. The latest analyses of certified natural and healing mineral water sources according to Act No. 538/2005 were used for the evaluation. A total of 53 sources in 26 localities were evaluated; they comprised 25 sources of bottled natural mineral and healing waters and 28 sources of natural healing waters in 9 spas. The aggressiveness of the water against concrete was weak (17 sources), medium (17 sources), or none (19 sources). The aggressiveness was mostly caused by low pH values and/or increased SO42- content. Their corrosiveness to metal was mostly very high. The results showed that the disintegration of concrete building constructions, well casings and pipelines could occur in most of the evaluated localities in the case of mineral water contacting them. Therefore, preventive measures are necessary.

  7. Stable isotope techniques in plant water sources:a review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopes widely exist in various kinds of natural water.Plants have to cope with various water sources:rainwater,soil water,groundwater,sea water,and mixtures.These are usually characterized by different isotopic signatures (18O/16O and D/H ratios).Because there are relative abundance variations in water,and plant roots do not discriminate against specific water isotopes during water uptake,hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope ratios of water within plants provide new information on water sources,interactions between plant species and water use patterns under natural conditions.At present,the measurement of δD,δ18O composition of various potential water sources and stem water has become significant means to identify plant water sources.Based on previous studies,this review highlights recent advances such as theory basis,methodology,as well as different spatial and temporal scales,and existed questions and prospects.Stable isotope techniques for estimating plant water sources have provided valuable tools for conducting basic and applied research.Future studies emphasize the modification of preparing methods,isotope technique combined with other measurements,and aerial organs of plant water source should be en-couraged.

  8. Domestic Water Sourcing and the Risk of Diarrhoea: a Cross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Domestic Water Sourcing and the Risk of Diarrhoea: a Cross-Sectional survey of a ... of Primary Health Care (PHC) necessitating the World Health Organization to ... seen to source domestic water from the municipal pipe-borne water supply, ...

  9. Nationwide assessment of nonpoint source threats to water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas C. Brown; Pamela Froemke

    2012-01-01

    Water quality is a continuing national concern, in part because the containment of pollution from nonpoint (diffuse) sources remains a challenge. We examine the spatial distribution of nonpoint-source threats to water quality. On the basis of comprehensive data sets for a series of watershed stressors, the relative risk of water-quality impairment was estimated for the...

  10. A Study on Water Pollution Source Localization in Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Yang; Xu Luo

    2016-01-01

    The water pollution source localization is of great significance to water environment protection. In this paper, a study on water pollution source localization is presented. Firstly, the source detection is discussed. Then, the coarse localization methods and the localization methods based on diffusion models are introduced and analyzed, respectively. In addition, the localization method based on the contour is proposed. The detection and localization methods are compared in experiments final...

  11. Sole Source Aquifer Program | Drinking Water in New ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-06

    The Safe Drinking Water Act gives EPA the authority to designate aquifers which are the sole or principal drinking water source for an area, and which, if contaminated, would create a significant hazard to public health.

  12. Maintaining Water Supplies to a Remote Island Population When Source Water Becomes Contaminated

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    water source – Rain Water • Rain water collected via water catchments (23 acres) (reference 3) •Daily Water Demand on Roi-Namur is...Lenswell Reliance • What are lenswells? - Fresh water less dense than salt water - Replenished by rain water (recharge) - Lenswells are shallow and...removal • 20/80 lenswell to rain water mixture recommended - PCE value of 3 ug/L (EPA MCL = 5 ug/L) - Extended water usage by

  13. Azolla pinnata growth performance in different water sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordiah, B; Harah, Z Muta; Sidik, B Japar; Hazma, W N Wan

    2012-07-01

    Azolla pinnata R.Br. growth performance experiments in different water sources were conducted from May until July 2011 at Aquaculture Research Station, Puchong, Malaysia. Four types of water sources (waste water, drain water, paddy field water and distilled water) each with different nutrient contents were used to grow and evaluate the growth performance of A. pinnata. Four water sources with different nutrient contents; waste, drain, paddy and distilled water as control were used to evaluate the growth performance of A. pinnata. Generally, irrespective of the types of water sources there were increased in plant biomass from the initial biomass (e.g., after the first week; lowest 25.2% in distilled water to highest 133.3% in drain water) and the corresponding daily growth rate (3.61% in distilled water to 19.04% in drain water). The increased in biomass although fluctuated with time was consistently higher in drain water compared to increased in biomass for other water sources. Of the four water sources, drain water with relatively higher nitrate concentration (0.035 +/- 0.003 mg L(-l)) and nitrite (0.044 +/- 0.005 mg L(-1)) and with the available phosphate (0.032 +/- 0.006 mg L(-1)) initially provided the most favourable conditions for Azolla growth and propagation. Based on BVSTEP analysis (PRIMER v5), the results indicated that a combination of more than one nutrient or multiple nutrient contents explained the observed increased in biomass of A. pinnata grown in the different water sources.

  14. Sources of Phthalates and Nonylphenoles in Municipal Waste Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikelsøe, J.; Thomsen, M.; Johansen, E.

    to estimate the contribution from all of these sources to the waste water as well as the role of long-range air transport. Two local rivers were analysed for comparison. Finally, waste water inlet from the local water treatment plant, where the sources converge at a single point, were analysed. A mass balance...... for each source was calculated in relation to the total mass flow into the waste water plant, making it possible to evaluate the absolute and relative importance of each type of source. The sources investigated accounted for about 12% of the influx of DEHP, the predominating phthalate, to the waste water...... sample. The deposition concentrations were very low compared to the waste water. The deposition rates showed a seasonal variation with a minimum occurring two month after the winter temperature minimum. Surprisingly, no influence of the wind speed and direction was indicated. The concentration...

  15. Sleeping sites and latrines of spider monkeys in continuous and fragmented rainforests: implications for seed dispersal and forest regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo González-Zamora

    Full Text Available Spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi use sites composed of one or more trees for sleeping (sleeping sites and sleeping trees, respectively. Beneath these sites/trees they deposit copious amounts of dung in latrines. This behavior results in a clumped deposition pattern of seeds and nutrients that directly impacts the regeneration of tropical forests. Therefore, information on the density and spatial distribution of sleeping sites and latrines, and the characteristics (i.e., composition and structure of sleeping trees are needed to improve our understanding of the ecological significance of spider monkeys in influencing forest composition. Moreover, since primate populations are increasingly forced to inhabit fragmented landscapes, it is important to assess if these characteristics differ between continuous and fragmented forests. We assessed this novel information from eight independent spider monkey communities in the Lacandona rainforest, Mexico: four continuous forest sites and four forest fragments. Both the density of sleeping sites and latrines did not differ between forest conditions. Latrines were uniformly distributed across sleeping sites, but the spatial distribution of sleeping sites within the areas was highly variable, being particularly clumped in forest fragments. In fact, the average inter-latrine distances were almost double in continuous forest than in fragments. Latrines were located beneath only a few tree species, and these trees were larger in diameter in continuous than fragmented forests. Because latrines may represent hotspots of seedling recruitment, our results have important ecological and conservation implications. The variation in the spatial distribution of sleeping sites across the forest indicates that spider monkeys likely create a complex seed deposition pattern in space and time. However, the use of a very few tree species for sleeping could contribute to the establishment of specific vegetation associations

  16. Sleeping sites and latrines of spider monkeys in continuous and fragmented rainforests: implications for seed dispersal and forest regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Zamora, Arturo; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Oyama, Ken; Sork, Victoria; Chapman, Colin A; Stoner, Kathryn E

    2012-01-01

    Spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) use sites composed of one or more trees for sleeping (sleeping sites and sleeping trees, respectively). Beneath these sites/trees they deposit copious amounts of dung in latrines. This behavior results in a clumped deposition pattern of seeds and nutrients that directly impacts the regeneration of tropical forests. Therefore, information on the density and spatial distribution of sleeping sites and latrines, and the characteristics (i.e., composition and structure) of sleeping trees are needed to improve our understanding of the ecological significance of spider monkeys in influencing forest composition. Moreover, since primate populations are increasingly forced to inhabit fragmented landscapes, it is important to assess if these characteristics differ between continuous and fragmented forests. We assessed this novel information from eight independent spider monkey communities in the Lacandona rainforest, Mexico: four continuous forest sites and four forest fragments. Both the density of sleeping sites and latrines did not differ between forest conditions. Latrines were uniformly distributed across sleeping sites, but the spatial distribution of sleeping sites within the areas was highly variable, being particularly clumped in forest fragments. In fact, the average inter-latrine distances were almost double in continuous forest than in fragments. Latrines were located beneath only a few tree species, and these trees were larger in diameter in continuous than fragmented forests. Because latrines may represent hotspots of seedling recruitment, our results have important ecological and conservation implications. The variation in the spatial distribution of sleeping sites across the forest indicates that spider monkeys likely create a complex seed deposition pattern in space and time. However, the use of a very few tree species for sleeping could contribute to the establishment of specific vegetation associations typical of the

  17. Sleeping Sites and Latrines of Spider Monkeys in Continuous and Fragmented Rainforests: Implications for Seed Dispersal and Forest Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Zamora, Arturo; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Oyama, Ken; Sork, Victoria; Chapman, Colin A.; Stoner, Kathryn E.

    2012-01-01

    Spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) use sites composed of one or more trees for sleeping (sleeping sites and sleeping trees, respectively). Beneath these sites/trees they deposit copious amounts of dung in latrines. This behavior results in a clumped deposition pattern of seeds and nutrients that directly impacts the regeneration of tropical forests. Therefore, information on the density and spatial distribution of sleeping sites and latrines, and the characteristics (i.e., composition and structure) of sleeping trees are needed to improve our understanding of the ecological significance of spider monkeys in influencing forest composition. Moreover, since primate populations are increasingly forced to inhabit fragmented landscapes, it is important to assess if these characteristics differ between continuous and fragmented forests. We assessed this novel information from eight independent spider monkey communities in the Lacandona rainforest, Mexico: four continuous forest sites and four forest fragments. Both the density of sleeping sites and latrines did not differ between forest conditions. Latrines were uniformly distributed across sleeping sites, but the spatial distribution of sleeping sites within the areas was highly variable, being particularly clumped in forest fragments. In fact, the average inter-latrine distances were almost double in continuous forest than in fragments. Latrines were located beneath only a few tree species, and these trees were larger in diameter in continuous than fragmented forests. Because latrines may represent hotspots of seedling recruitment, our results have important ecological and conservation implications. The variation in the spatial distribution of sleeping sites across the forest indicates that spider monkeys likely create a complex seed deposition pattern in space and time. However, the use of a very few tree species for sleeping could contribute to the establishment of specific vegetation associations typical of the

  18. Hydrological dynamics of water sources in a Mediterranean lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Stumpp

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Lagoons are important ecosystems occupying large coastal areas worldwide. Lagoons contain various mixtures of marine and freshwater sources which are highly dynamic in time. However, it often remains a challenge to identify and quantify dynamic changes of water sources, particularly in heterogeneous lagoon systems like the Köycegiz-Dalyan Lagoon (KDL, which is located at the southwest of Turkey on the Mediterranean Sea coast. The objective of this study was to quantify different contributions of potential water sources i.e. surface water, groundwater and seawater in the lagoon and how these water sources changed over time and space. In the wet and dry season stable isotopes of water, chloride concentration (Cl- and salinity were measured in two depths in the lagoon and surrounding water bodies (sea, lake, groundwater. Different components of water sources were quantified with a three component endmember mixing analysis. Differences in Cl- and stable isotopes over time indicated the dynamic behaviour of the system. Generally, none of the groundwater samples was impacted by water of the Mediterranean Sea. During the wet season, most of the lagoon water (>95% was influenced by freshwater and vertically well mixed. During the dry season, high Cl- in the deeper sampling locations indicated a high contribution of marine water throughout the entire lagoon system due to salt water intrusion. However, a distinct layering in the lagoon was obvious from low Cl- and depleted isotope contents close to the surface supporting freshwater inflow into the system even during the dry season. Besides temporal dynamics also spatial heterogeneities were identified. Changes in water sources were most evident in the main lagoon channel compared to more isolate lagoon lakes, which were influenced by marine water even in the wet season, and compared to side branches indicating slower turnover times. We found that environmental tracers helped to quantify contributions of

  19. Marine mammal audibility of selected shallow-water survey sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGillivray, Alexander O; Racca, Roberto; Li, Zizheng

    2014-01-01

    Most attention about the acoustic effects of marine survey sound sources on marine mammals has focused on airgun arrays, with other common sources receiving less scrutiny. Sound levels above hearing threshold (sensation levels) were modeled for six marine mammal species and seven different survey sources in shallow water. The model indicated that odontocetes were most likely to hear sounds from mid-frequency sources (fishery, communication, and hydrographic systems), mysticetes from low-frequency sources (sub-bottom profiler and airguns), and pinnipeds from both mid- and low-frequency sources. High-frequency sources (side-scan and multibeam) generated the lowest estimated sensation levels for all marine mammal species groups.

  20. Holy springs and holy water: underestimated sources of illness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner, Alexander K T; Atteneder, Michael; Schmidhuber, Angelika; Knetsch, Sonja; Farnleitner, Andreas H; Sommer, Regina

    2012-09-01

    Use of holy springs and holy water is inherent in religious activities. Holy spring water is also used extensively for personal drinking water, although not assessed according to drinking water standards. Holy water in churches and chapels may cause infections via wetting of lips and sprinkling on persons. Our aim was to assess the microbiological and chemical water quality of holy springs and holy water in churches and hospital chapels. Of the holy springs investigated, only 14% met the microbiological and chemical requirements of national drinking water regulations. Considering results from sanitary inspections of the water catchments, no spring was assessed as a reliable drinking water source. All holy water samples from churches and hospital chapels showed extremely high concentrations of HPC; fecal indicators, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus occurred only in the most frequently visited churches. We conclude that it is highly necessary to include holy springs in programs for assessment and management of water quality. Public awareness has to be raised to perceive holy springs as potential sources of illness. Holy water can be another source of infection, especially in hospital chapels and frequently visited churches. Recommendations are made for proper water quality management of both water types.

  1. Limitation of communal latrines in changing the prevalence of parasites and diarrhoeal attack rate in Dhaka Peri-urban slums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M U

    1987-01-01

    A study of the effects of communal latrines on diarrhoeal incidence and parasite prevalence rates was conducted in 1983 at Tongi, which had five communal Oxfam latrines with a manual flushing system for 924 people; and at Kalsi, which had 39 open fit latrines for 823 people. Inhabitants' stool samples were tested initially and also after twelve months to see the reinfection rates. All inhabitants were dewormed with pyrantel, and were visited weekly to obtain diarrhoea histories. In both communities, there were high prevalence rates of roundworm, hookworm, Trichuris trichiura, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lambia and Strongyloides stercoralis. Following the dewormings, the prevalence rates of roundworm, hookworm and Trichuris infection came down significantly, in both areas. The prevalence or reinfection rates remained identical in both communities. There was also no difference in diarrhoea incidence rate for the two areas. It is found that keeping all other variables unchanged, use of communal latrines, without strict disposal of everyone's excreta, does not affect parasite prevalence and diarrhoea rates. People must be educated about the use of communal latrines and the safe disposal of all excreta, including that of children.

  2. Research of mine water source identification based on LIF technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mengran; Yan, Pengcheng

    2016-09-01

    According to the problem that traditional chemical methods to the mine water source identification takes a long time, put forward a method for rapid source identification system of mine water inrush based on the technology of laser induced fluorescence (LIF). Emphatically analyzes the basic principle of LIF technology. The hardware composition of LIF system are analyzed and the related modules were selected. Through the fluorescence experiment with the water samples of coal mine in the LIF system, fluorescence spectra of water samples are got. Traditional water source identification mainly according to the ion concentration representative of the water, but it is hard to analysis the ion concentration of the water from the fluorescence spectra. This paper proposes a simple and practical method of rapid identification of water by fluorescence spectrum, which measure the space distance between unknown water samples and standard samples, and then based on the clustering analysis, the category of the unknown water sample can be get. Water source identification for unknown samples verified the reliability of the LIF system, and solve the problem that the current coal mine can't have a better real-time and online monitoring on water inrush, which is of great significance for coal mine safety in production.

  3. Shared sanitation versus individual household latrines: a systematic review of health outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke Heijnen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: More than 761 million people rely on shared sanitation facilities. These have historically been excluded from international sanitation targets, regardless of the service level, due to concerns about acceptability, hygiene and access. In connection with a proposed change in such policy, we undertook this review to identify and summarize existing evidence that compares health outcomes associated with shared sanitation versus individual household latrines. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Shared sanitation included any type of facilities intended for the containment of human faeces and used by more than one household, but excluded public facilities. Health outcomes included diarrhoea, helminth infections, enteric fevers, other faecal-oral diseases, trachoma and adverse maternal or birth outcomes. Studies were included regardless of design, location, language or publication status. Studies were assessed for methodological quality using the STROBE guidelines. Twenty-two studies conducted in 21 countries met the inclusion criteria. Studies show a pattern of increased risk of adverse health outcomes associated with shared sanitation compared to individual household latrines. A meta-analysis of 12 studies reporting on diarrhoea found increased odds of disease associated with reliance on shared sanitation (odds ratio (OR 1.44, 95% CI: 1.18-1.76. CONCLUSION: Evidence to date does not support a change of existing policy of excluding shared sanitation from the definition of improved sanitation used in international monitoring and targets. However, such evidence is limited, does not adequately address likely confounding, and does not identify potentially important distinctions among types of shared facilities. As reliance on shared sanitation is increasing, further research is necessary to determine the circumstances, if any, under which shared sanitation can offer a safe, appropriate and acceptable alternative to individual household latrines.

  4. Large area radiation source for water and wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Michael T.; Lee, Seungwoo; Kloba, Anthony; Hellmer, Ronald; Kumar, Nalin; Eaton, Mark; Rambo, Charlotte; Pillai, Suresh

    2011-06-01

    There is a strong desire for processes that improve the safety of water supplies and that minimize disinfection byproducts. Stellarray is developing mercury-free next-generation x-ray and UV-C radiation sources in flat-panel and pipe form factors for water and wastewater treatment applications. These new radiation sources are designed to sterilize sludge and effluent, and to enable new treatment approaches to emerging environmental concerns such as the accumulation of estrogenic compounds in water. Our UV-C source, based on cathodoluminescent technology, differs significantly from traditional disinfection approaches using mercury arc lamps or UV LEDs. Our sources accelerate electrons across a vacuum gap, converting their energy into UV-C when striking a phosphor, or x-rays when striking a metallic anode target. Stellarray's large area radiation sources for wastewater treatment allow matching of the radiation source area to the sterilization target area for maximum coverage and improved efficiency.

  5. Desiccant Dewpoint Cooling System Independent of External Water Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellemo, Lorenzo; Elmegaard, Brian; Markussen, Wiebke B.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a patent pending technical solution aiming to make desiccant cooling systems independent of external water sources, hence solving problems of water availability, cost and treatment that can decrease the system attractiveness. The solution consists in condensing water from the ...... to the desiccant dew-point system without water recovery, the required regeneration temperature increases and the system thermal efficiency decreases.......This paper presents a patent pending technical solution aiming to make desiccant cooling systems independent of external water sources, hence solving problems of water availability, cost and treatment that can decrease the system attractiveness. The solution consists in condensing water from...... the air that regenerates the desiccant dehumidifier, and using it for running the evaporative coolers in the system. A closed regeneration circuit is used for maximizing the amount of condensed water. This solution is applied to a system with a desiccant wheel dehumidifier and a dew point cooler, termed...

  6. Calculation of ecological compensation for water sources for water diversion projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, H. B.; Zhang, T. M.; Hu, C. Y.; Long, L. Y.

    2016-08-01

    This study considers the compensation of water diversion projects for the values of the terrestrial biological resources, water environment, and aquatic biological resources in water sources. An analysis of capital dynamics was conducted, and the economic development coefficient was used to correct the current method for calculating ecological compensation. A model was constructed to calculatethe ecological compensation for the water sources for water diversion projects. This model was used to calculate the ecological compensation for the Niulanjiang River provided by the Niulanjiang River to the Dianchi Lake water diversion project, which was calculated to be 136,799,400 RMB. As long as we know the occupying area of the project, the change of the river net flow after diversion and the local average GDP, the ecological compensation for water sources could be calculated by the model. The proposed model for calculating the ecological compensation for water sources is simple and incorporates the compensation provided by water diversion projects for the various environmental effects on water sources. It provides a guarantee for the capital to be used for the environmental protection of water sources and facilitates the sustainable development of the ecological environments of water sources.

  7. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Source Water Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehlke, G.

    2003-03-17

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) covers approximately 890 square miles and includes 12 public water systems that must be evaluated for Source water protection purposes under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Because of its size and location, six watersheds and five aquifers could potentially affect the INEEL's drinking water sources. Based on a preliminary evaluation of the available information, it was determined that the Big Lost River, Birch Creek, and Little Lost River Watersheds and the eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer needed to be assessed. These watersheds were delineated using the United States Geologic Survey's Hydrological Unit scheme. Well capture zones were originally estimated using the RESSQC module of the Environmental Protection Agency's Well Head Protection Area model, and the initial modeling assumptions and results were checked by running several scenarios using Modflow modeling. After a technical review, the resulting capture zones were expanded to account for the uncertainties associated with changing groundwater flow directions, a this vadose zone, and other data uncertainties. Finally, all well capture zones at a given facility were merged to a single wellhead protection area at each facility. A contaminant source inventory was conducted, and the results were integrated with the well capture zones, watershed and aquifer information, and facility information using geographic information system technology to complete the INEEL's Source Water Assessment. Of the INEEL's 12 public water systems, three systems rated as low susceptibility (EBR-1, Main Gate, and Gun Range), and the remainder rated as moderate susceptibility. No INEEL public water system rated as high susceptibility. We are using this information to develop a source water management plan from which we will subsequently implement an INEEL-wide source water management program. The results are a very robust set of wellhead

  8. [Metallic content of water sources and drinkable water in industrial cities of Murmansk region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doushkina, E V; Dudarev, A A; Sladkova, Yu N; Zachinskaya, I Yu; Chupakhin, V S; Goushchin, I V; Talykova, L V; Nikanov, A N

    2015-01-01

    Performed in 2013, sampling of centralized and noncentralized water-supply and analysis of engineering technology materials on household water use in 6 cities of Murmansk region (Nikel, Zapolyarny, Olenegorsk, Montchegorsk, Apatity, Kirovsk), subjected to industrial emissions, enabled to evaluate and compare levels of 15 metals in water sources (lakes and springs) and the cities' drinkable waters. Findings are that some cities lack sanitary protection zones for water sources, most cities require preliminary water processing, water desinfection involves only chlorination. Concentrations of most metals in water samples from all the cities at the points of water intake, water preparation and water supply are within the hygienic norms. But values significantly (2-5 times) exceeding MACs (both in water sources and in drinkable waters of the cities) were seen for aluminium in Kirovsk city and for nickel in Zapolarny and Nikel cities. To decrease effects of aluminium, nickel and their compounds in the three cities' residents (and preserve health of the population and offsprings), the authors necessitate specification and adaptation of measures to purify the drinkable waters from the pollutants. In all the cities studied, significantly increased concentrations of iron and other metals were seen during water transportation from the source to the city supply--that necessitates replacement of depreciated water supply systems by modern ones. Water taken from Petchenga region springs demonstrated relatively low levels of metals, except from strontium and barium.

  9. Impact of Indian Total Sanitation Campaign on latrine coverage and use: a cross-sectional study in Orissa three years following programme implementation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmani Barnard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Faced with a massive shortfall in meeting sanitation targets, some governments have implemented campaigns that use subsidies focused on latrine construction to overcome income constraints and rapidly expand coverage. In settings like rural India where open defecation is common, this may result in sub-optimal compliance (use, thereby continuing to leave the population exposed to human excreta. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate latrine coverage and use among 20 villages (447 households, 1933 individuals in Orissa, India where the Government of India's Total Sanitation Campaign had been implemented at least three years previously. We defined coverage as the proportion of households that had a latrine; for use we identified the proportion of households with at least one reported user and among those, the extent of reported use by each member of the household. RESULTS: Mean latrine coverage among the villages was 72% (compared to <10% in comparable villages in the same district where the Total Sanitation Campaign had not yet been implemented, though three of the villages had less than 50% coverage. Among these households with latrines, more than a third (39% were not being used by any member of the household. Well over a third (37% of the members of households with latrines reported never defecating in their latrines. Less than half (47% of the members of such households reported using their latrines at all times for defecation. Combined with the 28% of households that did not have latrines, it appears that most defecation events in these communities are still practiced in the open. CONCLUSION: A large-scale campaign to implement sanitation has achieved substantial gains in latrine coverage in this population. Nevertheless, gaps in coverage and widespread continuation of open defecation will result in continued exposure to human excreta, reducing the potential for health gains.

  10. Songpan:Water Source for Sichuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUANGCHUNHUI

    2002-01-01

    The Mingjiang River originates on the southern slope of Gonggangling Peak of MingshanMountain, at the meeting place of Songpan and Jiuzaigou counties. It bisects Songpan, with a total length of 735 km, including 341 km within Aba Prefecture. The river has helped cultivate many generations in the province of Sichuan.The source of Mingjiang River features majestic peaks, lush grazing grass, deep forests, grotesque rocks, rare animals and a pleasant climate.In the summer and autumn, this part of the world turns into a shining lady whose hair and tender complexion merge with the blue skies and beckoning world of ancient pine trees and firs decorated by blossoming flowers.When winter comes, the shining lady dons a white robe as snow and ice take over.The area where the Mingjiang originates has the most sensitive ecosystem in Sichuan. To its north are

  11. Water as Source of Francisella tularensis Infection in Humans, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Selcuk; Birdsell, Dawn N; Karagöz, Alper; Çelebi, Bekir; Bakkaloglu, Zekiye; Arikan, Muzaffer; Sahl, Jason W; Mitchell, Cedar; Rivera, Andrew; Maltinsky, Sara; Keim, Paul; Üstek, Duran; Durmaz, Rıza; Wagner, David M

    2015-12-01

    Francisella tularensis DNA extractions and isolates from the environment and humans were genetically characterized to elucidate environmental sources that cause human tularemia in Turkey. Extensive genetic diversity consistent with genotypes from human outbreaks was identified in environmental samples and confirmed water as a source of human tularemia in Turkey.

  12. The influence of lithology on surface water sources | Science ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the temporal and spatial variability of surface water sources within a basin is vital to our ability to manage the impacts of climate variability and land cover change. Water stable isotopes can be used as a tool to determine geographic and seasonal sources of water at the basin scale. Previous studies in the Coastal Range of Oregon reported that the variation in the isotopic signatures of surface water does not conform to the commonly observed “rainout effect”, which exhibits a trend of increasing isotopic depletion with rising elevation. The primary purpose of this research is to investigate the mechanisms governing seasonal and spatial variations in the isotopic signature of surface waters within the Marys River Basin, located in the leeward side of the Oregon Coastal Range. Surface water and precipitation samples were collected every 2-3 weeks for isotopic analysis of δ18O and δ2H for one year. Results indicate a significant difference in isotopic signature between watersheds underlain by basalt and sandstone. The degree of separation was the most distinct during the summer when low flows reflect deeper groundwater sources, whereas isotopic signatures during the rainy season (fall and winter) showed a greater degree of similarity between the two lithologies. This indicates that baseflow within streams drained by sandstone versus basalt is being supplied from two distinctly separate water sources. In addition, Marys River flow at the outle

  13. Hospital Water Supply as a Potential Source of Opportunistic Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. T. El-Zanfaly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In Egypt as well as in many other developing countries, there are no specific standards for hospital water. Even water is free from the traditional bacterial indicators, it may represent a source of health hazards especially for elderly, children and patients under dialysis due to the presence of opportunistic pathogenic bacteria. The study was carried out on the bacteriological water quality at the intakes as well as the end of water treatment train of two water treatment plants that supplying three hospitals located in Greater Cairo, Egypt with water that used for different purposes. Samples of the raw water supply for the two water treatment plants (Nile River water showed ranges of 102-105 cfu mL-1, 102-104 MPN 100 mL-1, 102-104 MPN 100 mL-1 and 102-103 MPN 100 mL-1 for Heterotrophic Plate Count (HPC bacteria, Total Coliforms (TC, Fecal Coliforms (FC and Fecal Streptococci (FS, respectively. Treated water showed considerable reduction in HPC while the other bacterial indicators reached the undetectable level. The distribution system impact on treated water quality was limited to causing an increase in HPC bacteria. A study was carried out to determine the presence of Pseudomonas aeuginosa, Aeromonas spp. and Staphylococcus aureus in hospitals tap water, water reservoirs, as well as water for preparation of hemodialysis fluids. Although the post-chlorinated water in both water treatment plants was free from bacterial indicators, it still contaminated with the three studied opportunistic pathogenic bacteria. The detected opportunistic pathogens may be attributed to the distribution system condition and/or the presence of storage tanks. Hemodialysis water samples showed the higher percentage of P. aeruginosa isolates which represent a major source of health risk to patient’s attending dialysis process in hospitals and clinics. The presence of opportunistic bacteria in drinking water and dialysate with absence of coliform and low HPC

  14. Two different sources of water for the early solar nebula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupper, Stefan; Tornow, Carmen; Gast, Philipp

    2012-06-01

    Water is essential for life. This is a trivial fact but has profound implications since the forming of life on the early Earth required water. The sources of water and the related amount of delivery depend not only on the conditions on the early Earth itself but also on the evolutionary history of the solar system. Thus we ask where and when water formed in the solar nebula-the precursor of the solar system. In this paper we explore the chemical mechanics for water formation and its expected abundance. This is achieved by studying the parental cloud core of the solar nebula and its gravitational collapse. We have identified two different sources of water for the region of Earth's accretion. The first being the sublimation of the icy mantles of dust grains formed in the parental cloud. The second source is located in the inner region of the collapsing cloud core - the so-called hot corino with a temperature of several hundred Kelvin. There, water is produced efficiently in the gas phase by reactions between neutral molecules. Additionally, we analyse the dependence of the production of water on the initial abundance ratio between carbon and oxygen.

  15. An Integrated Risk Management Model for Source Water Protection Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Lien Lo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Watersheds are recognized as the most effective management unit for the protection of water resources. For surface water supplies that use water from upstream watersheds, evaluating threats to water quality and implementing a watershed management plan are crucial for the maintenance of drinking water safe for humans. The aim of this article is to establish a risk assessment model that provides basic information for identifying critical pollutants and areas at high risk for degraded water quality. In this study, a quantitative risk model that uses hazard quotients for each water quality parameter was combined with a qualitative risk model that uses the relative risk level of potential pollution events in order to characterize the current condition and potential risk of watersheds providing drinking water. In a case study of Taipei Source Water Area in northern Taiwan, total coliforms and total phosphorus were the top two pollutants of concern. Intensive tea-growing and recreational activities around the riparian zone may contribute the greatest pollution to the watershed. Our risk assessment tool may be enhanced by developing, recording, and updating information on pollution sources in the water supply watersheds. Moreover, management authorities could use the resultant information to create watershed risk management plans.

  16. An integrated risk management model for source water protection areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiueh, Pei-Te; Shang, Wei-Ting; Lo, Shang-Lien

    2012-10-17

    Watersheds are recognized as the most effective management unit for the protection of water resources. For surface water supplies that use water from upstream watersheds, evaluating threats to water quality and implementing a watershed management plan are crucial for the maintenance of drinking water safe for humans. The aim of this article is to establish a risk assessment model that provides basic information for identifying critical pollutants and areas at high risk for degraded water quality. In this study, a quantitative risk model that uses hazard quotients for each water quality parameter was combined with a qualitative risk model that uses the relative risk level of potential pollution events in order to characterize the current condition and potential risk of watersheds providing drinking water. In a case study of Taipei Source Water Area in northern Taiwan, total coliforms and total phosphorus were the top two pollutants of concern. Intensive tea-growing and recreational activities around the riparian zone may contribute the greatest pollution to the watershed. Our risk assessment tool may be enhanced by developing, recording, and updating information on pollution sources in the water supply watersheds. Moreover, management authorities could use the resultant information to create watershed risk management plans.

  17. Direct photolysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in drinking water sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanches, S. [Instituto de Biologia Experimental e Tecnologica (IBET), Av. Republica, Qta. do Marques (EAN), 2784-505 Oeiras (Portugal); Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica (ITQB) - Universidade Nova de Lisboa (UNL), Av. da Republica, Estacao Agronomica Nacional, 2780-157 Oeiras (Portugal); Leitao, C. [Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica (ITQB) - Universidade Nova de Lisboa (UNL), Av. da Republica, Estacao Agronomica Nacional, 2780-157 Oeiras (Portugal); Penetra, A.; Cardoso, V.V.; Ferreira, E.; Benoliel, M.J. [Empresa Portuguesa das Aguas Livres, S.A., Avenida de Berlim, 15, 1800-031 Lisboa (Portugal); Crespo, M.T. Barreto [Instituto de Biologia Experimental e Tecnologica (IBET), Av. Republica, Qta. do Marques (EAN), 2784-505 Oeiras (Portugal); Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica (ITQB) - Universidade Nova de Lisboa (UNL), Av. da Republica, Estacao Agronomica Nacional, 2780-157 Oeiras (Portugal); Pereira, V.J., E-mail: vanessap@itqb.unl.pt [Instituto de Biologia Experimental e Tecnologica (IBET), Av. Republica, Qta. do Marques (EAN), 2784-505 Oeiras (Portugal); Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica (ITQB) - Universidade Nova de Lisboa (UNL), Av. da Republica, Estacao Agronomica Nacional, 2780-157 Oeiras (Portugal)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} Low pressure UV photolysis can be used by drinking water utilities to degrade PAHs. {yields} Real water matrices with different compositions were tested. {yields} Photolysis kinetic parameters and by-product formation are described. {yields} The formation of photolysis by-products is highly dependent on the source waters. - Abstract: The widely used low pressure lamps were tested in terms of their efficiency to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons listed as priority pollutants by the European Water Framework Directive and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, in water matrices with very different compositions (laboratory grade water, groundwater, and surface water). Using a UV fluence of 1500 mJ/cm{sup 2}, anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene were efficiently degraded, with much higher percent removals obtained when present in groundwater (83-93%) compared to surface water (36-48%). The removal percentages obtained for fluoranthene were lower and ranged from 13 to 54% in the different water matrices tested. Several parameters that influence the direct photolysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were determined and their photolysis by-products were identified by mass spectrometry. The formation of photolysis by-products was found to be highly dependent on the source waters tested.

  18. Modeling Source Water Threshold Exceedances with Extreme Value Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopalan, B.; Samson, C.; Summers, R. S.

    2016-12-01

    Variability in surface water quality, influenced by seasonal and long-term climate changes, can impact drinking water quality and treatment. In particular, temperature and precipitation can impact surface water quality directly or through their influence on streamflow and dilution capacity. Furthermore, they also impact land surface factors, such as soil moisture and vegetation, which can in turn affect surface water quality, in particular, levels of organic matter in surface waters which are of concern. All of these will be exacerbated by anthropogenic climate change. While some source water quality parameters, particularly Total Organic Carbon (TOC) and bromide concentrations, are not directly regulated for drinking water, these parameters are precursors to the formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs), which are regulated in drinking water distribution systems. These DBPs form when a disinfectant, added to the water to protect public health against microbial pathogens, most commonly chlorine, reacts with dissolved organic matter (DOM), measured as TOC or dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and inorganic precursor materials, such as bromide. Therefore, understanding and modeling the extremes of TOC and Bromide concentrations is of critical interest for drinking water utilities. In this study we develop nonstationary extreme value analysis models for threshold exceedances of source water quality parameters, specifically TOC and bromide concentrations. In this, the threshold exceedances are modeled as Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD) whose parameters vary as a function of climate and land surface variables - thus, enabling to capture the temporal nonstationarity. We apply these to model threshold exceedance of source water TOC and bromide concentrations at two locations with different climate and find very good performance.

  19. Performance analysis of air——water dual source heat pump water heater with heat recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN ZeShao; TAO WenQuan; ZHU YanWen; HU Peng

    2012-01-01

    A new air-water dual source heat pump water heater with heat recovery is proposed.The heat pump system can heat water by using a single air source,a single water source,or air-water dual sources.The water is first pre-heated by waste hot water,then heated by the heat pump.Waste heat is recovered by first preheating the cold water and as water source of the heat pump.According to the correlated formulas of the coefficient of performance of air-source heat pump and water-source heat pump,and the gain coefficient of heat recovery-preheater,the formulas for the coefficient of performance of heat pump in six operating modes are obtained by using the dimensionless correspondence analysis method.The system characteristics of heat absorption and release associated with the heat recovery-preheater are analyzed at different working conditions.The developed approaches can provide reference for the optimization of the operating modes and parameters.The results of analysis and experiments show that the coefficient of performance of the device can reach 4-5.5 in winter,twice as much as air source heat pump water heater.The utilization of waste heat in the proposed system is higher than that in the system which only uses waste water to preheating or as heat source.Thus,the effect of energy saving of the new system is obvious.On the other hand,the dimensionless correspondence analysis method is introduced to performance analysis of the heat pump,which also has theoretical significance and practical value.

  20. Assessment of water sources to plant growth in rice based cropping systems by stable water isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahindawansha, Amani; Kraft, Philipp; Racela, Heathcliff; Breuer, Lutz

    2016-04-01

    Rice is one of the most water-consuming crops in the world. Understanding water source utilization of rice will help us to improve water use efficiency (WUE) in paddy management. The objectives of our study are to evaluate the isotopic compositions of surface ponded water, soil water, irrigation water, groundwater, rain water and plant water and based on stable water isotope signatures to evaluate the contributions of various water sources to plant growth (wet rice, aerobic rice and maize) together with investigating the contribution of water from different soil horizons for plant growth in different maturity periods during wet and dry seasons. Finally we will compare the water balances and crop yields in both crops during both seasons and calculate the water use efficiencies. This will help to identify the most efficient water management systems in rice based cropping ecosystems using stable water isotopes. Soil samples are collected from 9 different depths at up to 60 cm in vegetative, reproductive and matured periods of plant growth together with stem samples. Soil and plant samples are extracted by cryogenic vacuum extraction. Root samples are collected up to 60 cm depth from 10 cm intercepts leading calculation of root length density and dry weight. Groundwater, surface water, rain water and irrigation water are sampled weekly. All water samples are analyzed for hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios (d18O and dD) using Los Gatos Research DLT100. Rainfall records, ground water level, surface water level fluctuations and the amount of water irrigated in each field will be measured during the sampling period. The direct inference approach which is based on comparing isotopic compositions (dD and d18O) between plant stem water and soil water will be used to determine water sources taken up by plant. Multiple-source mass balance assessment can provide the estimated range of potential contributions of water from each soil depth to root water uptake of a crop. These

  1. Return of naturally sourced Pb to Atlantic surface waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgestock, Luke; van de Flierdt, Tina; Rehkämper, Mark; Paul, Maxence; Middag, Rob; Milne, Angela; Lohan, Maeve C.; Baker, Alex R.; Chance, Rosie; Khondoker, Roulin; Strekopytov, Stanislav; Humphreys-Williams, Emma; Achterberg, Eric P.; Rijkenberg, Micha J. A.; Gerringa, Loes J. A.; de Baar, Hein J. W.

    2016-09-01

    Anthropogenic emissions completely overwhelmed natural marine lead (Pb) sources during the past century, predominantly due to leaded petrol usage. Here, based on Pb isotope measurements, we reassess the importance of natural and anthropogenic Pb sources to the tropical North Atlantic following the nearly complete global cessation of leaded petrol use. Significant proportions of up to 30-50% of natural Pb, derived from mineral dust, are observed in Atlantic surface waters, reflecting the success of the global effort to reduce anthropogenic Pb emissions. The observation of mineral dust derived Pb in surface waters is governed by the elevated atmospheric mineral dust concentration of the North African dust plume and the dominance of dry deposition for the atmospheric aerosol flux to surface waters. Given these specific regional conditions, emissions from anthropogenic activities will remain the dominant global marine Pb source, even in the absence of leaded petrol combustion.

  2. Robust Source Localization in Shallow Water Based on Vector Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Hai-yan; SHI Jie; LIU Bo-sheng

    2013-01-01

    Owing to the multipath effect,the source localization in shallow water has been an area of active interest.However,most methods for source localization in shallow water are sensitive to the assumed model of the underwater environment and have poor robustness against the underwater channel uncertainty,which limit their further application in practical engineering.In this paper,a new method of source localization in shallow water,based on vector optimization concept,is described,which is highly robust against environmental factors affecting the localization,such as the channel depth,the bottom reflection coefficients,and so on.Through constructing the uncertainty set of the source vector errors and extracting the multi-path sound rays from the sea surface and bottom,the proposed method can accurately localize one or more sources in shallow water dominated by multipath propagation.It turns out that the natural formulation of our approach involves minimization of two quadratic functions subject to infinitely many nonconvex quadratic constraints.It shows that this problem (originally intractable) can be reformulated in a convex form as the so-called second-order cone program (SOCP) and solved efficiently by using the well-established interior point method,such as the software tool,SeDuMi.Computer simulations show better performance of the proposed method as compared with existing algorithms and establish a theoretical foundation for the practical engineering application.

  3. Robust source localization in shallow water based on vector optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hai-yan; Shi, Jie; Liu, Bo-sheng

    2013-06-01

    Owing to the multipath effect, the source localization in shallow water has been an area of active interest. However, most methods for source localization in shallow water are sensitive to the assumed model of the underwater environment and have poor robustness against the underwater channel uncertainty, which limit their further application in practical engineering. In this paper, a new method of source localization in shallow water, based on vector optimization concept, is described, which is highly robust against environmental factors affecting the localization, such as the channel depth, the bottom reflection coefficients, and so on. Through constructing the uncertainty set of the source vector errors and extracting the multi-path sound rays from the sea surface and bottom, the proposed method can accurately localize one or more sources in shallow water dominated by multipath propagation. It turns out that the natural formulation of our approach involves minimization of two quadratic functions subject to infinitely many nonconvex quadratic constraints. It shows that this problem (originally intractable) can be reformulated in a convex form as the so-called second-order cone program (SOCP) and solved efficiently by using the well-established interior point method, such as the software tool, SeDuMi. Computer simulations show better performance of the proposed method as compared with existing algorithms and establish a theoretical foundation for the practical engineering application.

  4. 40 CFR 141.402 - Ground water source microbial monitoring and analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Rule § 141.402 Ground water source microbial monitoring and analytical methods. (a) Triggered source water monitoring—(1) General requirements. A ground water system must conduct triggered source water... State, systems must submit for State approval a triggered source water monitoring plan that identifies...

  5. Presence of enteric viruses in source waters for drinking water production in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodder, W J; van den Berg, H H J L; Rutjes, S A; de Roda Husman, A M

    2010-09-01

    The quality of drinking water in The Netherlands has to comply with the Dutch Drinking Water Directive: less than one infection in 10,000 persons per year may occur due to consumption of unboiled drinking water. Since virus concentrations in drinking waters may be below the detection limit but entail a public health risk, the infection risk from drinking water consumption requires the assessment of the virus concentrations in source waters and of the removal efficiency of treatment processes. In this study, samples of source waters were taken during 4 years of regular sampling (1999 to 2002), and enteroviruses, reoviruses, somatic phages, and F-specific phages were detected in 75% (range, 0.0033 to 5.2 PFU/liter), 83% (0.0030 to 5.9 PFU/liter), 100% (1.1 to 114,156 PFU/liter), and 97% (0.12 to 14,403 PFU/liter), respectively, of 75 tested source water samples originating from 10 locations for drinking water production. By endpoint dilution reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), 45% of the tested source water samples were positive for norovirus RNA (0.22 to 177 PCR-detectable units [PDU]/liter), and 48% were positive for rotavirus RNA (0.65 to 2,249 PDU/liter). Multiple viruses were regularly detected in the source water samples. A significant correlation between the concentrations of the two phages and those of the enteroviruses could be demonstrated. The virus concentrations varied greatly between 10 tested locations, and a seasonal effect was observed. Peak concentrations of pathogenic viruses occur in source waters used for drinking water production. If seasonal and short-term fluctuations coincide with less efficient or failing treatment, an unacceptable public health risk from exposure to this drinking water may occur.

  6. Reverse osmosis desalination: water sources, technology, and today's challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenlee, Lauren F; Lawler, Desmond F; Freeman, Benny D; Marrot, Benoit; Moulin, Philippe

    2009-05-01

    Reverse osmosis membrane technology has developed over the past 40 years to a 44% share in world desalting production capacity, and an 80% share in the total number of desalination plants installed worldwide. The use of membrane desalination has increased as materials have improved and costs have decreased. Today, reverse osmosis membranes are the leading technology for new desalination installations, and they are applied to a variety of salt water resources using tailored pretreatment and membrane system design. Two distinct branches of reverse osmosis desalination have emerged: seawater reverse osmosis and brackish water reverse osmosis. Differences between the two water sources, including foulants, salinity, waste brine (concentrate) disposal options, and plant location, have created significant differences in process development, implementation, and key technical problems. Pretreatment options are similar for both types of reverse osmosis and depend on the specific components of the water source. Both brackish water and seawater reverse osmosis (RO) will continue to be used worldwide; new technology in energy recovery and renewable energy, as well as innovative plant design, will allow greater use of desalination for inland and rural communities, while providing more affordable water for large coastal cities. A wide variety of research and general information on RO desalination is available; however, a direct comparison of seawater and brackish water RO systems is necessary to highlight similarities and differences in process development. This article brings to light key parameters of an RO process and process modifications due to feed water characteristics.

  7. Isotopic Characterization of River Waters and Water Source Identification in an Inland River, Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuting Fan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding runoff generation and dynamics is the basis for water resource management, while water isotopic ratios are a potential tool for studying the mechanism on a large scale. In this paper, spatial variations of δ18O and δD of river water and their sources within a large region of the Tarim River were investigated. The results showed obvious spatial variations of both water isotope values along the river flow direction, and significant seasonal variation occurred within the river water isotopes. This indicated that different proportions of rain and melt water entering river water should lead to spatial variation, and for mid-stream and downstream regions, the transformation relationship between surface water and groundwater should consider less input of melt water. Furthermore, we quantitatively determine the ratio of different water sources using the stable isotope mass balance method and other stable tracer elements. Results showed the contribution of ice-snowmelt water varied from 14.97% to 40.85%, that of rain varied from 9.04% to 54.80%, and that of groundwater varied from 15.34% to 58.85%, and they also showed that baseflow is a factor connecting melt water and groundwater, which meant the Hotan River and the Yarkand River are melt water–dependent rivers, and seasonal precipitation is the main water supply source of baseflow in the Aksu River and the Kaidu River.

  8. Chemical and Physical Indicators in Drinking Water and Water Sources of Boroujerd Using Principal Components Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darabi , M. (MSC

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Quality control of drinking water is important for maintaining health and safety of consumers, and the first step is to study the water quality variables. This study aimed to evaluate the chemical and physical indicators, water quality variables and qualitative classification of drinking water stations and water sources in Boroujerd. Material and Methods: This descriptive-cross sectional study was conducted on 70 samples of drinking water and 10 samples from sources in 2011-2012. Nine Water quality variables were measured and coded using STATISTICA10 Software. Principal component analysis (PCA was performed for qualitative classification of water samples and determination of water quality variables. Results: Based on PCA, chemical variables such as fluoride, nitrate, total hardness and iron, and physical variables such as pH and TDS were paramount importance to water quality. According to T-test, the average concentration of fluoride and iron, and the turbidity in all samples were significantly less than the standard. But other variables were up to standard. Conclusion: For the large water quality data, the use of PCA to identify the main qualitative variables and to classify physical and chemical variables can be used as an effective way in water quality management. Keywords: Physical and Chemical Indicators, Drinking Water and Sources, Boroujerd, Principal Component Analysis

  9. A Source Water Assessment of the INEEL: Conjunctive Delineation of a Large Scale Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehlke, Gerald; Andersen, Bradley Don

    2003-01-01

    Presently, the INEEL operates and monitors 12 Public Water Systems that pump water from 22 wells for at the Site (Table 1). The source of water for each of these facilities is the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer. Because the INEEL operates Public Water Systems, it is required to conduct source water assessments for those facilities and to develop a Source Water Management Program.

  10. Perceptions of Health Communication, Water Treatment and Sanitation in Artibonite Department, Haiti, March-April 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Holly Ann; Gaines, Joanna; Patrick, Molly; Berendes, David; Fitter, David; Handzel, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The international response to Haiti's ongoing cholera outbreak has been multifaceted, including health education efforts by community health workers and the distribution of free water treatment products. Artibonite Department was the first region affected by the outbreak. Numerous organizations have been involved in cholera response efforts in Haiti with many focusing on efforts to improve water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH). Multiple types of water treatment products have been distributed, creating the potential for confusion over correct dosage and water treatment methods. We utilized qualitative methods in Artibonite to determine the population's response to WASH messages, use and acceptability of water treatment products, and water treatment and sanitation knowledge, attitudes and practices at the household level. We conducted eighteen focus group discussions (FGDs): 17 FGDs were held with community members (nine among females, eight among males); one FGD was held with community health workers. Health messages related to WASH were well-retained, with reported improvements in hand-washing. Community health workers were identified as valued sources of health information. Most participants noted a paucity of water-treatment products. Sanitation, specifically the construction of latrines, was the most commonly identified need. Lack of funds was the primary reason given for not constructing a latrine. The construction and maintenance of potable water and sanitation services is needed to ensure a sustainable change.

  11. Perceptions of Health Communication, Water Treatment and Sanitation in Artibonite Department, Haiti, March-April 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly Ann Williams

    Full Text Available The international response to Haiti's ongoing cholera outbreak has been multifaceted, including health education efforts by community health workers and the distribution of free water treatment products. Artibonite Department was the first region affected by the outbreak. Numerous organizations have been involved in cholera response efforts in Haiti with many focusing on efforts to improve water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH. Multiple types of water treatment products have been distributed, creating the potential for confusion over correct dosage and water treatment methods. We utilized qualitative methods in Artibonite to determine the population's response to WASH messages, use and acceptability of water treatment products, and water treatment and sanitation knowledge, attitudes and practices at the household level. We conducted eighteen focus group discussions (FGDs: 17 FGDs were held with community members (nine among females, eight among males; one FGD was held with community health workers. Health messages related to WASH were well-retained, with reported improvements in hand-washing. Community health workers were identified as valued sources of health information. Most participants noted a paucity of water-treatment products. Sanitation, specifically the construction of latrines, was the most commonly identified need. Lack of funds was the primary reason given for not constructing a latrine. The construction and maintenance of potable water and sanitation services is needed to ensure a sustainable change.

  12. Near-Earth water sources: Ethics and fairness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, James S. J.

    2016-08-01

    There is a small finite upper bound on the amount of easily accessible water in near-Earth space, including water from C-type NEAs and permanently shadowed lunar craters. Recent estimates put this total at about 3.7 ×1012kg . Given the non-renewable nature of this resource, we should begin thinking carefully about the regulation of near-Earth water sources (NEWS). This paper discusses this issue from an ethical vantage point, and argues that for the foreseeable future, the scientific use of NEWS should be prioritized over other potential uses of NEWS.

  13. BIOSENSOR TECHNOLOGY EVALUATIONS FOR REAL-TIME/SOURCE WATER PROTECTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent advances in electronics and computer technology have made great strides in the field of remote sensing and biomonitoring. The quality of drinking water sources has come under closer scrutiny in recent years. Issues ranging from ecological to public health and national se...

  14. Robust Source Localization in a Random Shallow Water Channel

    CERN Document Server

    Sazontov, Alexander; Matveyev, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses source localization problem in a random shallow water channel. We present an extension of the generalized MUSIC method to the case, %in which when the signal correlation matrix is imprecisely known. The algorithm is validated by %simulations and its application to the experimental data observed in the Barents Sea. It has been found that the approach proposed demonstrates its excellent performance.

  15. Quantifying Impacts of Food Trade on Water Availability Considering Water Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, T.; Yano, S.; Hanasaki, N.

    2012-12-01

    Food production requires a lot of water, and traded food potentially has external impacts on environment through reducing the water availability in the producing region. Water footprint is supposed to be an indicator to reflect the impacts of water use. However, impacts of water use on environment, resource, and sustainability are different in place and time, and according to the sources of water withdrawals. Therefore it is preferable to characterize the water withdrawals or consumptions rather than just accumulate the total amount of water use when estimating water footprint. In this study, a new methodology, global green-water equivalent method, is proposed in which regional characterization factors are determined based on the estimates of natural hydrological cycles, such as precipitation, total runoff, and sub-surface runoff, and applied for green-water, river(+reservoir) water, and non-renewable ground water uses. Water footprint of the world associated with the production of 19 major crops was estimated using an integrated hydrological and water resources modeling system (H08), with atmospheric forcing data for 1991-2000 with spatial resolution of 0.5 by 0.5 longitudinal and latitudinal degrees. The impacts is estimated to be 6 times larger than the simple summation of green and blue water uses, and reflect the climatological water scarcity conditions geographically. The results can be used to compare the possible impacts of food trade associated with various crops from various regions on environment through reducing the availability of water resources in the cropping area.

  16. Water rent: essence, sources of formation and accounting reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Osadcha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is the urgent necessity of the transition to a higher level of economic relations in the system of environmental management in the present conditions of economy of the country. As a result, the issues like formation of information support for water rent management, determining the ways of its calculation, distribution as well as usage of water rents require urgent solutions. The study focuses on the essence of water rent and forming organizational and methodological provisions of its accounting reflection to ensure sustainable ecological and economic development of the enterprise. As a result of research the classification of water rent, that affects reflection of such rent in accounting has been formed. It is established that the amount of water rent for accounting reflection can be defined as the difference between actual and normal profit of enterprise-water users. A number of analytical accounts of first and second order as well as the typical correspondence of accounts for accounting reflection of water rent have been suggested. The information from the Report on the formation of water rent that contains data on the sources of payback of expenses incurred for the maintenance of water bodies and the impact of ecological condition of water body on the size of water rent has been suggested to be used in order to manage the size of water rent and expenses incurred to obtain it. Thus, determining the amount of water rent will allow management personnel to adjust the activity of the company in accordance with the strategic objectives of the company’s development regarding the profitability and compliance with the concept of sustainable development.

  17. Asbestos in water sources of the Bazhenovskoye chrysotile asbestos deposit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashansky, Sergey V; Slyshkina, Tatiana V

    2002-01-01

    The paper provides measurements of asbestos fiber levels in water sources from the area of the Bazhenovskoye chrysotile asbestos deposit. All study water samples contained asbestos fibers at concentrations one to three orders below the values standardized in the USA (7 x 10(6) fibers/liter). All the identified fibers belonged to chrysotile asbestos and no amphibole asbestos, such as tremolite asbestos, has been identified. The anthropogenic load of asbestos fibers in Asbest City's environment is increasing in the volume of 5.770 x 10(14) fibers/liter or 10.2 kg of chrysotile asbestos. The authors consider it advisable to continue studies to measure asbestos levels in the water sources in the areas located in the vicinity of other Russian asbestos deposits.

  18. Multiple sources of boron in urban surface waters and groundwaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasenmueller, Elizabeth A., E-mail: eahasenm@wustl.edu; Criss, Robert E.

    2013-03-01

    Previous studies attribute abnormal boron (B) levels in streams and groundwaters to wastewater and fertilizer inputs. This study shows that municipal drinking water used for lawn irrigation contributes substantial non-point loads of B and other chemicals (S-species, Li, and Cu) to surface waters and shallow groundwaters in the St. Louis, Missouri, area. Background levels and potential B sources were characterized by analysis of lawn and street runoff, streams, rivers, springs, local rainfall, wastewater influent and effluent, and fertilizers. Urban surface waters and groundwaters are highly enriched in B (to 250 μg/L) compared to background levels found in rain and pristine, carbonate-hosted streams and springs (< 25 μg/L), but have similar concentrations (150 to 259 μg/L) compared to municipal drinking waters derived from the Missouri River. Other data including B/SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}−S and B/Li ratios confirm major contributions from this source. Moreover, sequential samples of runoff collected during storms show that B concentrations decrease with increased discharge, proving that elevated B levels are not primarily derived from combined sewer overflows (CSOs) during flooding. Instead, non-point source B exhibits complex behavior depending on land use. In urban settings B is rapidly mobilized from lawns during “first flush” events, likely representing surficial salt residues from drinking water used to irrigate lawns, and is also associated with the baseflow fraction, likely derived from the shallow groundwater reservoir that over time accumulates B from drinking water that percolates into the subsurface. The opposite occurs in small rural watersheds, where B is leached from soils by recent rainfall and covaries with the event water fraction. Highlights: ► Boron sources and loads differ between urban and rural watersheds. ► Wastewaters are not the major boron source in small St. Louis, MO watersheds. ► Municipal drinking water used for lawn

  19. The Recreational Water Cycle: From Source Water to Tap Water to Spa and Swimming Pool Water: Effects of Disinfectants and Precursors and Implications for Exposure and Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The current study investigates the effect of different disinfection treatments on the disinfection by-products (DBPs) formed in finished drinking water vs. tap water vs. swimming pool water vs. spa waters. To this end, complete water pathway samples (untreated source waters ->fi...

  20. Drinking Water Sources with Surface Intakes from LDHH source data, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (1999) [drinking_water_surface_intakes_LDHH_1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a point dataset for 87 public drinking water sources with surface intakes. It was derived from a larger statewide general drinking water source dataset...

  1. Contaminant Sources in Stream Water of a Missouri Claypan Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, G. R.; Liu, F.; Lerch, R. N.; Lee, H.

    2014-12-01

    Elevated concentrations of nitrate-nitrogen and herbicides in stream water have degraded water quality and caused serious problems affecting human and aquatic ecosystem health in the Central Claypan Region of the US Midwest. However, the contribution of specific recharge sources to stream water is not well understood in claypan-dominated watersheds. The purpose of this study was to estimate the recharge sources to Goodwater Creek Experimental Watershed (GCEW) in north-central Missouri and investigate their importance to contaminant transport. Samples were collected from 2011 to 2014 from streams, piezometers, seep flows, and groundwater in GCEW and analyzed for major ions (including nitrate and nitrite), trace elements, stable H and O isotopes, total nitrogen (TN) and herbicides. Using an endmember mixing analysis based on conservative tracers, recharge contributions to stream flow were an average of 25% surface runoff, 44% shallow subsurface water, and 31% groundwater. TN concentrations were, on average, Atrazine concentrations were, on average, atrazine in stream water. An improved understanding of claypan hydrology and contaminant transport could lead to crop management practices that better protect surface water and groundwater in claypan-dominated watersheds.

  2. Experimental investigation on water quality standard of Yangtze River water source heat pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zenghu; Tong, Mingwei; Kun, Lin

    2012-01-01

    Due to the surface water in the upper reaches of Yangtze River in China containing large amounts of silt and algae, high content of microorganisms and suspended solids, the water in Yangtze River cannot be used for cooling a heat pump directly. In this paper, the possibility of using Yangtze River, which goes through Chongqing, a city in southwest China, as a heat source-sink was investigated. Water temperature and quality of the Yangtze River in the Chongqing area were analyzed and the performance of water source heat pump units in different sediment concentrations, turbidity and algae material conditions were tested experimentally, and the water quality standards, in particular surface water conditions, in the Yangtze River region that adapt to energy-efficient heat pumps were also proposed. The experimental results show that the coefficient of performance heat pump falls by 3.73% to the greatest extent, and the fouling resistance of cooling water in the heat exchanger increases up to 25.6% in different water conditions. When the sediment concentration and the turbidity in the river water are no more than 100 g/m3 and 50 NTU respectively, the performance of the heat pump is better, which can be used as a suitable river water quality standard for river water source heat pumps.

  3. Water privatization, water source, and pediatric diarrhea in Bolivia: epidemiologic analysis of a social experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornheim, Jeffrey A; Morland, Kimberly B; Landrigan, Philip J; Cifuentes, Enrique

    2009-01-01

    Water and sanitation services are fundamental to the prevention of pediatric diarrhea. To enhance both access to water and investment, some argue for the privatization of municipal water networks. Water networks in multiple Bolivian cities were privatized in the 1990s, but contracts ended following popular protests citing poor access. A population-based retrospective cohort study was conducted in two Bolivian cities. Data were collected on family water utilization and sanitation practices and on the prevalence of diarrhea among 596 children. Drinking from an outdoor water source (OR, 2.08; 95%CI, 1.25-3.44) and shorter in-home water boiling times (OR, 1.99; 95%CI, 1.19-3.34) were associated with prevalence of diarrhea. Increased prevalence was also observed for children from families using private versus public water services, using off-network water from cistern trucks, or not treating their water in-home. Results suggest that water source, water provider, and in-home water treatment are important predictors of pediatric diarrhea.

  4. Protozoal pollution of surface water sources in Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshazly, Attef M; Elsheikha, Hany M; Soltan, Doaa M; Mohammad, Khairy A; Morsy, Tosson A

    2007-04-01

    Water samples were collected different water sources and different districts of Dakahlia G., from September 2005 to August 2006, were investigated for pathogenic protozoa. Water specimens were examined by concentration technique followed by modified Ziehl-Neelsen (MZN) and Truant auramine-rhodamine (AR) stains for Giardia sp. cysts, Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts, and other protozoa species. In the 1st survey, 94/480 (19.6%) water samples had protozoa. Prevalence rates were in summer 38/120 (31.6%), autumn 27/ 120 (22.5%), spring 20/ 120 (16.6%) and lastly winter 9/120 (7.5%). Protozoa were less common in treated potable water tanks 15/120 (12.5%), followed by River Nile (Demiatta branch) 22/120 (18.3%) and sub-branch Bahr-El-Saghear 24/120 (20%). The highest prevalence was in water of the main local draining 33/120 (27.5%). In the 2nd survey, 840 potable water samples from seven districts were examined. Prevalence in descending order was C. parvum (3.1%), G. intestinalis (2.1%), E. histolytica (1%), Blastocystis homi-nis (1%), Iodamoeba sp, (0.5%), Isospora belli (0.47%), E. coli (0.36%), Cyclospora cayetanensis (0.24%), and Chilomastix mesnilli (0.12%). Data suggested that C. parvum and G. intestinalis were the commonest disease-agent. The implementation of preventive measures to protect water system from protozoa contamination was given.

  5. [Residual levels of acetochlor in source water and drinking water of China's major cities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhi-Yong; Jin, Fen; Li, Hong-Yan; An, Wei; Yang, Min

    2014-05-01

    The concentration levels of acetochlor were investigated in source water and drinking water from 36 major cities in China by solid phase extraction (SPE) combined with gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Acetochlor detection rate was 66.9% in all the 145 source water samples collected with an average concentration of 33.9 ng L-1. The average removal rate of acetochlor was limited through the drinking water treatment process. The detection concentration of the northeast region was the highest. The concentrations of acetochlor detected in lake were higher than those in river and groundwater as source water. The detection rate and concentration of Liaohe river watershed and the coastal watershed were the highest.

  6. Quality of source water and drinking water in urban areas of Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Hiroshi; Kataoka, Yatsuka; Fukushi, Kensuke

    2013-01-01

    Myanmar is one of the least developed countries in the world, and very little information is available regarding the nation's water quality. This report gives an overview of the current situation in the country, presenting the results of various water-quality assessments in urban areas of Myanmar. River, dam, lake, and well water sources were examined and found to be of generally good quality. Both As and F(-) were present in relatively high concentrations and must be removed before deep wells are used. Heterotrophic plate counts in drinking water were highest in public pots, followed by nonpiped tap water, piped tap water, and bottled water. Measures need to be taken to improve low-quality water in pots and nonpiped tap waters.

  7. Monitoring source water for microbial contamination: evaluation of water quality measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Jeanine D; Long, Sharon C

    2007-08-01

    Watershed management programs often rely on monitoring for a large number of water quality parameters to define contaminant issues. While coliforms have traditionally been used to identify microbial contamination, these indicators cannot discriminate among potential contaminant sources. Microbial source tracking (MST) can provide the missing link that implicates the sources of contamination. The objective of this study was to use a weight-of-evidence approach (land use analysis using GIS, sanitary surveys, traditional water quality monitoring, and MST targets) to identify sources of pollution within a watershed that contains a raw drinking water source. For the study watersheds, statistical analyses demonstrated that one measure each of particulate matter (turbidity, particle counts), organic matter (total organic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, UV(254) absorbance), and indicator organisms (fecal coliforms, enterococci) were adequate for characterizing water quality. While these traditional parameters were useful for assessing overall water quality, they were not intended to differentiate between microbial sources at different locations. In contrast, the MST targets utilized (Rhodococcus coprophilus, sorbitol-fermenting Bifidobacteria, and male-specific coliphages) pinpointed specific sources of microbial pollution. However, these targets could not be used for routine monitoring due to a high percentage of non-detects.

  8. Modeling of water radiolysis at spallation neutron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daemen, L.L.; Kanner, G.S.; Lillard, R.S.; Butt, D.P.; Brun, T.O.; Sommer, W.F.

    1998-12-01

    In spallation neutron sources neutrons are produced when a beam of high-energy particles (e.g., 1 GeV protons) collides with a (water-cooled) heavy metal target such as tungsten. The resulting spallation reactions produce a complex radiation environment (which differs from typical conditions at fission and fusion reactors) leading to the radiolysis of water molecules. Most water radiolysis products are short-lived but extremely reactive. When formed in the vicinity of the target surface they can react with metal atoms, thereby contributing to target corrosion. The authors will describe the results of calculations and experiments performed at Los Alamos to determine the impact on target corrosion of water radiolysis in the spallation radiation environment. The computational methodology relies on the use of the Los Alamos radiation transport code, LAHET, to determine the radiation environment, and the AEA code, FACSIMILE, to model reaction-diffusion processes.

  9. Global net irrigation water requirements from various water supply sources during past and future periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, S.; Cho, J.; Hanasaki, N.; Kanae, S.

    2014-12-01

    Water supply sources for irrigation (e.g. rivers and reservoirs) are critically important for agricultural productivity. The current rapid increase in irrigation water use is considered unsustainable and threatens food production. In this study, we estimated the time-varying dependence of irrigation water requirements from water supply sources, with a particular focus on variations in irrigation area during past (1960-2001) and future (2002-2050) periods using the global water resources model, H08. The H08 model can simulate water requirements on a daily basis at a resolution of 1.0° × 1.0° latitude and longitude. The sources of irrigation water requirements in the past simulations were specified using four categories: rivers (RIV), large reservoirs (LR), medium-size reservoirs (MSR), and non-local non-renewable blue water (NNBW). The simulated results from 1960 to 2001 showed that RIV, MSR and NNBW increased significantly from the 1960s to the early 1990s globally, but LR increased at a relatively low rate. After the early 1990s, the increase in RIV declined as it approached a critical limit, due to the continued expansion of irrigation area. MSR and NNBW increased significantly, during the same time period, following the expansion of the irrigation area and the increased storage capacity of the medium-size reservoirs. We also estimated future irrigation water requirements from the above four water supply sources and an additional water supply source (ADD) in three future simulation designs; irrigation area change, climate change, and changes in both irrigation area and climate. ADD was defined as a future increase in NNBW. After the 2020s, MSR was predicted to approach the critical limit, and ADD would account for 11-23% of the total requirements in the 2040s.

  10. Reclaimed water as an alternative source of water for the city of Bulawayo, Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taigbenu, Akpofure E.; Ncube, Mthokozisi

    Perennial water problems, precipitated by increased water demand in Bulawayo, the second largest city in Zimbabwe, has prompted the consideration of a wide array of strategies from demand management and water conservation measures to exploitation of alternative water sources. One of such strategies in the latter category includes recycling of blue water for both potable and non-potable purposes. This paper examines the existing reclaimed water system with a view at revamping the existing infrastructure to maximise reclaimed water use for purposes that are amenable to water of lower quality. It is a generally accepted practice to avoid the use of water of high quality for purposes that can tolerate a lower grade, unless it is in excess in amount [ Okun, D.A., 1973. Planning for water reuse. Journal of AWWA 65(10)]. The reclaimed water is assessed in terms of its quality and quantity vis-à-vis possible uses. Perceptions and expectations of both current and identified prospective consumers are examined and discussed, in addition to the feasibility of accommodating these identified prospective consumers in an expanded network. Apart from enhancement of the existing infrastructure, the paper highlights the need for social marketing and education in order to realise the optimum benefits of this alternative water source. The cost implications of implementing the proposed project are evaluated, including suggestions on suitable tariff structure and an allocation distribution that achieves equity.

  11. Water quality in the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area, 2005-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.; Waldron, Marcus C.

    2015-01-01

    During 2005-8, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Cambridge, Massachusetts, Water Department, measured concentrations of sodium and chloride, plant nutrients, commonly used pesticides, and caffeine in base-flow and stormwater samples collected from 11 tributaries in the Cambridge drinking-water source area. These data were used to characterize current water-quality conditions, to establish a baseline for future comparisons, and to describe trends in surface-water quality. The data also were used to assess the effects of watershed characteristics on surface-water quality and to inform future watershed management.

  12. Gas Well Top Hole Locations, LP and LNG - Marcellus Gas Well Water Sources View

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This data set contains all approved water sources within water managment plans (WMP). A WMP contains water sources utilized in the fracture stimulation of Marcellus...

  13. The water environment as a source of potentially pathogenic mycobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makovcova, Jitka; Slany, Michal; Babak, Vladimir; Slana, Iva; Kralik, Petr

    2014-06-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are ubiquitous organisms of a wide variety of environmental reservoirs, including natural and municipal water, soil, aerosols, protozoans, animals and humans. Several of these species are potential pathogens which affect human health. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of NTM in the water environment. Samples were taken from 13 water-related facilities including fish ponds, storage ponds, drinking water reservoirs and an experimental recirculation system. Altogether, 396 samples of water, sediment and aquatic plants were collected and analysed. All samples were examined using conventional culture methods. Suspected microbial isolates were subjected to polymerase chain reaction analysis and identified using partial sequence analysis of the 16S rDNA gene. The culture revealed 94/396 samples (23.7%) that contained mycobacteria. Among known NTM we identified potentially pathogenic mycobacteria isolated from the fresh water environment for the first time: Mycobacterium asiaticum, M. chimaera, M. interjectum, M. kumamotonense, M. lentiflavum, M. montefiorense, M. nebraskense, M. paraffinicum and M. simiae. Epidemiologic studies suggest that the natural water environment is the principal source of human exposure. Our results indicate that besides the well-known potentially pathogenic mycobacteria it is important to observe occurrence, proliferation and persistence of newly discovered mycobacterial species.

  14. Critical issues with cryogenic water extraction for tracing plant's source water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlowski, Natalie; Winkler, Anna; McDonnell, Jeffrey J.; Breuer, Lutz

    2016-04-01

    Numerous scientists and disciplines around the world are applying stable water isotope techniques-, especially in the ecohydrological context. For more than two decades, cryogenic vacuum extraction has been the most widely used method for obtaining water from soils and plant tissues for isotope analysis. Recent findings suggested that cryogenic extraction conditions (extraction time, temperature, vacuum threshold) and physicochemical soil properties considerably affected the extracted soil water isotope results. The key question therefore is: Which soil water pool/s are we actually extracting cryogenically under certain extraction conditions and is this soil water pool the source of plant water uptake? We conducted a greenhouse trial with two different plant species grown on two physicochemically different soils (sandy soil and clayey loam) to test the effects of varying cryogenic extraction conditions and physicochemical soil properties on extracted soil water isotope results. We further aimed to identify the unique soil water isotopic signature which mirrors plant's water source. We sampled root crowns and an aliquot of the first and second soil layer for cryogenic water extraction. To determine the plant water available soil water pool/s, we varied water extraction parameters (time and temperature). Our dual-isotope study showed that physicochemical soil properties (i.e. clay content, pore size) along with extraction parameters lead to isotope fractionation effects of soil water. Extraction temperature and time significantly impacted isotope results of clayey loam samples but no effect could be observed for the sandy soil. In general, for water extracts of both soil types, longer extraction times and higher temperatures resulted in enriched isotopic signatures, although this influence was more pronounced for the clayey loam. Determining ideal soil water extraction parameters to identify plant available soil water pools revealed that extraction settings of 200

  15. Biofilm in water pipelines; a potential source for off-flavours in the drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skjevrak, I; Lund, V; Ormerod, K; Due, A; Herikstad, H

    2004-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOC) are identified in natural biofilm established in plastic pipes used at the drinking water supply. Odour potent VOCs such as ectocarpene, dictyopterene A and C', geosmin, beta-ionone, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, menthol and menthone were prominent compounds in biofilm in the distribution network and at raw water test sites, and are associated with algae and cyanobacteria present in the raw water source.

  16. Nonlinear programming strategies for source detection of municipal water networks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; Biegler, Lorenz T. (Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA); Bartlett, Roscoe Ainsworth; Laird, Carl Damon (Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA)

    2003-01-01

    Increasing concerns for the security of the national infrastructure have led to a growing need for improved management and control of municipal water networks. To deal with this issue, optimization offers a general and extremely effective method to identify (possibly harmful) disturbances, assess the current state of the network, and determine operating decisions that meet network requirements and lead to optimal performance. This paper details an optimization strategy for the identification of source disturbances in the network. Here we consider the source inversion problem modeled as a nonlinear programming problem. Dynamic behavior of municipal water networks is simulated using EPANET. This approach allows for a widely accepted, general purpose user interface. For the source inversion problem, flows and concentrations of the network will be reconciled and unknown sources will be determined at network nodes. Moreover, intrusive optimization and sensitivity analysis techniques are identified to assess the influence of various parameters and models in the network in a computational efficient manner. A number of numerical comparisons are made to demonstrate the effectiveness of various optimization approaches.

  17. Comparison of fipronil sources in North Carolina surface water ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fipronil is a phenylpyrazole insecticide that is widely used in residential and agricultural settings to control ants, roaches, termites, and other pests. Fipronil and its transformation products have been found in a variety of environmental matrices, but the source[s] which makes the greatest contribution to fipronil in surface water has yet to be determined. A sampling effort designed to prioritize known fipronil inputs (golf courses, residential areas, biosolids application sites and wastewater facilities) was conducted in North Carolina to learn more about the origins of fipronil in surface water. High resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) analysis indicated that fipronil and its known derivatives were routinely present in all samples, but concentrations were substantially elevated near wastewater treatment plant outfalls (range 10–500 ng/L combined), suggesting that they predominate as environmental sources. Corresponding recycled wastewater samples, which were treated with NaOCl for disinfection, showed disappearance of fipronil and all known degradates. HRMS and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis techniques were used to determine that all fipronil-related compounds are oxidized to a previously unidentified fipronil sulfone chloramine species in recycled wastewater. The implications of the presence of a new fipronil-related compound in recycled wastewater need to be considered. Journal Article Highlights • The most important sources of fipronil in

  18. Processes and challenges of community mobilisation for latrine promotion under Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan in rural Odisha, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routray, Parimita; Torondel, Belen; Jenkins, Marion W; Clasen, Thomas; Schmidt, Wolf-Peter

    2017-05-16

    Despite efforts to eradicate it, open defecation remains widely practiced in India, especially in rural areas. Between 2013 and 2014, 50 villages in one district of Odisha, India, received a sanitation programme under the Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan (NBA - "Clean India Campaign"), the successor of India's Total Sanitation Campaign. This paper documents the strategies and processes of NBA community mobilisation for latrine promotion in these villages and assesses the strengths and limitations of the mobilisation activities. NBA's community mobilisation activities were observed and assessed against the programme's theory of change in 10 randomly selected programme villages from start to finish. Additional data was collected through review of documents, individual interviews (n = 80) and focus group discussions (n = 26) with staff of the implementing NGOs and community members. Our study revealed the lack of a consistent implementation strategy, lack of capacities and facilitation skills of NGO staff to implement sanitation programmes, political interference, challenges in accessing government financial incentives for latrine construction, and lack of clarity on the roles and responsibilities among government and NGO staff, leading to failure in translating government policies into sustainable actions. Social divisions and village dynamics related to gender and caste further constrained the effectiveness of mobilisation activities. Meetings were often dominated by male members of upper caste households, and excluded low caste community members and views of women. Community discussions revolved largely around the government's cash incentive for latrines. Activities aimed at creating demand for sanitation and use of latrines often resonated poorly with community members. An assessment by the implementers, 1 year after community mobilisation found 19% of households had a completed latrine across the 50 villages, a marginal increase of 7 percentage points over baseline. In

  19. Revised accident source terms for light-water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soffer, L. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-02-01

    This paper presents revised accident source terms for light-water reactors incorporating the severe accident research insights gained in this area over the last 15 years. Current LWR reactor accident source terms used for licensing date from 1962 and are contained in Regulatory Guides 1.3 and 1.4. These specify that 100% of the core inventory of noble gases and 25% of the iodine fission products are assumed to be instantaneously available for release from the containment. The chemical form of the iodine fission products is also assumed to be predominantly elemental iodine. These assumptions have strongly affected present nuclear air cleaning requirements by emphasizing rapid actuation of spray systems and filtration systems optimized to retain elemental iodine. A proposed revision of reactor accident source terms and some im implications for nuclear air cleaning requirements was presented at the 22nd DOE/NRC Nuclear Air Cleaning Conference. A draft report was issued by the NRC for comment in July 1992. Extensive comments were received, with the most significant comments involving (a) release fractions for both volatile and non-volatile species in the early in-vessel release phase, (b) gap release fractions of the noble gases, iodine and cesium, and (c) the timing and duration for the release phases. The final source term report is expected to be issued in late 1994. Although the revised source terms are intended primarily for future plants, current nuclear power plants may request use of revised accident source term insights as well in licensing. This paper emphasizes additional information obtained since the 22nd Conference, including studies on fission product removal mechanisms, results obtained from improved severe accident code calculations and resolution of major comments, and their impact upon the revised accident source terms. Revised accident source terms for both BWRS and PWRS are presented.

  20. Unexpected Sources of Reactive Oxygen Species in Natural Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, T.; Grossman, J. N.

    2016-12-01

    We report novel formation methods of hydroxyl radicals (OH) and singlet oxygen (1O2) relevant to surface waters and aqueous aerosols. In one set of studies, we demonstrate that 1O2 can be produced photochemically in aqueous solutions containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and halide ions under environmentally relevant conditions. This process may be important to oxidizing capacity and pollutant fate in saline waters including oceans and aqueous aerosols. In a second set of studies, we present a potentially important dark radical source. The Fenton reaction is a major dark radical source in natural waters, but it is negligibly slow at neutral pH due to the insolubility of Fe(III). We demonstrate that OH production rates from the dark Fenton reaction at pH 7 can be greatly increased by the iron-reducing bacterium Shewanella Oneidensis (SO). Our results suggest that OH production (and therefore oxidizing capacity) may be much greater than currently expected in dark circumneutral waters containing iron-reducing bacteria.

  1. Drinking water in Michigan: source, quality, and contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Vincent R

    2006-01-01

    The Michigan Safe Drinking Water Act (Act 399) was enacted in 1976 and enables the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) to maintain the state's authority over drinking water in the state. The DEQ also contracts with local health departments to maintain non-community programs in each county. Private water wells throughout the state are clearly the most troublesome for users and regulators. An abundant array of contaminants (e.g., pesticides, metals, etc.) may impact wells without the user's knowledge. Most private wells are only inspected when they are installed and have no further regulatory requirements. With regards to contaminants in public systems, lead is problematic. Irregardless of the source or treatment, the piping infrastructure leading to and inside the home can be a source affecting the quality. Thus, the problem of lead in drinking water can be from the service lines, the pipes inside the home, the solder connecting the pipes, or in some case the treatment chemicals used for disinfection.

  2. Prevalent flucocorticoid and androgen activity in US water sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavreva, Diana A.; George, Anuja A.; Klausmeyer, Paul; Varticovski, Lyuba; Sack, Daniel; Voss, Ty C.; Schiltz, R. Louis; Blazer, Vicki; Iwanowiczl, Luke R.; Hager, Gordon L.

    2012-01-01

    Contamination of the environment with endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is a major health concern. The presence of estrogenic compounds in water and their deleterious effect are well documented. However, detection and monitoring of other classes of EDCs is limited. Here we utilize a high-throughput live cell assay based on sub-cellular relocalization of GFP-tagged glucocorticoid and androgen receptors (GFP-GR and GFP-AR), in combination with gene transcription analysis, to screen for glucocorticoid and androgen activity in water samples. We report previously unrecognized glucocorticoid activity in 27%, and androgen activity in 35% of tested water sources from 14 states in the US. Steroids of both classes impact body development, metabolism, and interfere with reproductive, endocrine, and immune systems. This prevalent contamination could negatively affect wildlife and human populations.

  3. An Assessment of Global Net Irrigation Water Requirements from Various Water Supply Sources to Sustain Irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Sayaka; Cho, Jail; Yamada, Hannah; Khajuria, Anupam; Hanasaki, Naota; Kanae, Shinjiro

    2014-05-01

    Water supply sources for irrigation, such as rivers, reservoirs, and groundwater, are critically important for agricultural productivity. The current rapid increase in irrigation water use threatens sustainable food production. In this study, we estimated the time-varying dependence of irrigation water requirements from water supply sources, with a particular focus on variations in irrigation area during the period 1960-2050 using the global water resources model, H08. The H08 model simulates water requirements on a daily basis at a resolution of 1.0° × 1.0° . The sources of irrigation water requirements in the past simulations were specified using four categories: rivers (RIV), large reservoirs (LR) with a storage capacity greater than 1.0 km3, medium-size reservoirs (MSR) with storage capacities ranging from 1.0 km3 to 3.0 M m3, and non-local non-renewable blue water (NNBW). We also estimated future irrigation water requirements from the above four water supply sources and an additional water supply source (ADD) in three future simulation designs; irrigation area change, climate change, and changes in both irrigation area and climate. ADD was defined as the difference between NNBW in the 1990s and NNBW in the 2040s, because it was difficult to distinguish the types of future water supply sources except for RIV. The simulated results showed that RIV, MSR, and NNBW increased significantly through the 1960s to the early 1990s globally, but LR increased at a relatively low rate. After the early 1990s, RIV approached a critical limit due to the continued expansion of the irrigation area. Furthermore, MSR and NNBW increased significantly following the expansion of the irrigation area and the increased storage capacity of the medium-size reservoirs. After the 2020s, MSR could be expected to approach the critical limit without the construction of medium-size reservoirs. ADD would account for 11-23% of the total requirements in the 2040s. We found that an expansion of

  4. Hydrologic, Water-Quality, and Meteorological Data for the Cambridge, Massachusetts, Drinking-Water Source Area, Water Year 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2008-01-01

    Records of water quantity, water quality, and meteorological parameters were continuously collected from three reservoirs, two primary streams, and four subbasin tributaries in the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area during water year 2006 (October 2005 through September 2006). Water samples were collected during base-flow conditions and storms in the subbasins of the Cambridge Reservoir and Stony Brook Reservoir drainage areas and analyzed for dissolved calcium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate; total nitrogen and phosphorus; and polar pesticides and metabolites. These data were collected to assist watershed administrators in managing the drinking-water source area and to identify potential sources of contaminants and trends in contaminant loading to the water supply. Monthly reservoir contents for the Cambridge Reservoir varied from about 59 to 98 percent of capacity during water year 2006, while monthly reservoir contents for the Stony Brook Reservoir and the Fresh Pond Reservoir was maintained at greater than 83 and 94 percent of capacity, respectively. If water demand is assumed to be 15 million gallons per day by the city of Cambridge, the volume of water released from the Stony Brook Reservoir to the Charles River during the 2006 water year is equivalent to an annual water surplus of about 127 percent. Recorded precipitation in the source area was about 16 percent greater for the 2006 water year than for the previous water year and was between 12 and 73 percent greater than for any recorded amount since water year 2002. The monthly mean specific-conductance values for all continuously monitored stations within the drinking-water source area were generally within the range of historical data collected since water year 1997, and in many cases were less than the historical medians. The annual mean specific conductance of 738 uS/cm (microsiemens per centimeter) for water discharged from the Cambridge Reservoir was nearly identical to the annual

  5. Antiquarian books as source of environment historical water data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schram, Jürgen; Schneider, Mario; Horst, Rasmus; Thieme, Hagen

    2009-05-01

    Historical environment considerations are inevitable also for modern environmental analysis. They alone allow evaluation of anthropogenic impact into the environment. To receive information about the historical environment situation in inhabited regions, we approached this task by examining historical well dated and locatable products of the Homo faber. The work introduced here uses books as a source of environment historical data specially for the environmental compartment of water. The paper of historical books, dated by their printing and allocated by their watermark(1) (Wasserzeichensammlung Piccard, Piccard online, Hauptstaatsarchiv Stuttgart, ) is a trap for traces of heavy metals contaminating their production water in historical times. Great amounts of water were brought into contact with the paper pulp in the historical paper mill process. The cellulose of the pulp acts as an ion exchange material for heavy metals, forming a dynamic equilibrium. A well defined pulp production process, starting with used clothes, allows estimation of the concentration of historical heavy metals (Cu(2+), Pb(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+)) in the production water (river water). Ancient papers from well dated books are eluted without destruction of their paper and the resulting solution is analysed by ETAAS and inverse stripping voltammetry to determine the historical impact of metals. Afterwards in a flow system the eluted paper spot is equilibrated with different concentrations of heavy metals (Cu(2+), Pb(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+)) to plot the adsorption isotherm of that very spot. Both data together allows a calculation of the heavy metal content of the historical river. For different waters of Germany and the Netherlands of the 16th-18th Century the heavy metal load could be estimated. The resulting concentrations were mostly similar to the level of modern surface waters, but in the case of the Dutch waters of the 17th Century, they were e.g. for Pb(2+) significantly higher than modern

  6. Protection Planning for Rural Centralized Drinking Water Source Areas in Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Protection planning is made for rural centralized drinking water source areas according to current situations of rural drinking water and existing problems of centralized drinking water source areas in Chongqing,and in combination with survey,analysis and evaluation of urban-rural drinking water source areas in whole city.There are engineering measures and non-engineering measures,to guarantee drinking water security of rural residents,improve rural ecological environment,realize sustainable use of water resource,and promote sustainable development of society.Engineering measures include conservation and protection of water resource,ecological restoration,isolation,and comprehensive control of pointsource and area-source pollution.Non-engineering measures include construction of monitoring system for drinking water source area,construction of security information system for rural centralized drinking water source area,and construction of emergency mechanism for water pollution accidents in rural water source areas.

  7. Comparison of biofilm formation and water quality when water from different sources was stored in large commercial water storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Merwe, Venessa; Duvenage, Stacey; Korsten, Lise

    2013-03-01

    Rain-, ground- and municipal potable water were stored in low density polyethylene storage tanks for a period of 90 days to determine the effects of long-term storage on the deterioration in the microbial quality of the water. Total viable bacteria present in the stored water and the resultant biofilms were enumerated using heterotrophic plate counts. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Colilert-18(®) tests were performed to determine if the faecal indicator bacteria Escherichia coli was present in the water and in the biofilm samples collected throughout the study. The municipal potable water at the start of the study was the only water source that conformed to the South African Water Quality Guidelines for Domestic Use. After 15 days of storage, this water source had deteriorated microbiologically to levels considered unfit for human consumption. E. coli was detected in the ground- and potable water and ground- and potable biofilms periodically, whereas it was detected in the rainwater and associated biofilms at every sampling point. Imperfections in the UV resistant inner lining of the tanks were shown to be ecological niches for microbial colonisation and biofilm development. The results from the current study confirmed that long-term storage can influence water quality and increase the number of microbial cells associated with biofilms on the interior surfaces of water storage tanks.

  8. Vermicomposting toilets, an alternative to latrine style microbial composting toilets, prove far superior in mass reduction, pathogen destruction, compost quality, and operational cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Geoffrey B; Baldwin, Susan A

    2012-10-01

    Composting toilets aim to recycle excrement into safe, stable humus. Preceding this, low costs, low risks, and mass reduction should be ensured. Source separating vermicomposting toilets (SSVCs) outperformed mixed latrine microbial composting toilets (MLMCs) in all categories. MLMCs: incurred ten times greater operational costs; created 10x more operator exposure; employed no proven pathogen reduction mechanism since solid end-products averaged 71,000±230,000CFU/g (fecal-origin) Escherichia coli and 24±5% total solids, consistently failed NSF/ANSI Standard 41; failed to reduce volatile solids compared to raw fecal matter; increased total contaminated dry mass by 274%, and produced alkaline end-product (8.0±0.7) high in toxic free ammonia (Solvita® 2.6±1.5). SSVCs have low maintenance costs and risks; adequate worm density for pathogen destruction (0.03±0.04g-worm/g-material); reduced E. coli 200±244CFU/g in neutral (7.4±0.3), stable (60±10% volatile solids), and mature (4±0 Solvita® NH(3)) end-product.

  9. [Spatiotemporal variation of water source supply service in Three Rivers Source Area of China based on InVEST model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Tao; Wu, Shao-Hong; Dai, Er-Fu; Liu, Yu-Jie

    2013-01-01

    The Three Rivers Source Area is the largest ecological function region of water source supply and conservation in China. As affected by a variety of driving factors, the ecosystems in this region are seriously degraded, giving definite impacts on the water source supply service. This paper approached the variation patterns of precipitation and runoff coefficient from 1981 to 2010, quantitatively estimated the water source supply of the ecosystems in the region from 1980 to 2005 based on InVEST model, and analyzed the spatiotemporal variation pattern and its causes of the water source supply in different periods. In 1981-2010, the precipitation in the Three Rivers Source Area had a trend of increase after an initial decrease, while the precipitation runoff coefficient presented an obvious decreasing trend, suggesting a reduced capability of runoff water source supply of this region. The potential evapotranspiration had a declining trend, but not obvious, with a rate of -0.226 mm x a(-1). In 1980-2005, the water source supply of the region represented an overall decreasing trend, which was most obvious in the Yellow River Source Area. The spatiotemporal variation of the water source supply in the Three Rivers Source Area was the results of the combined effects of climate and land use change, and the climate factors affected the water source supply mainly through affecting the precipitation and potential evapotranspiration. Climate and land use change induced the ecosystem degradation and underlying surface change, which could be the main driving forces of the declined water source supply in the Three Rivers Source Area.

  10. Estrogen-related receptor γ disruption of source water and drinking water treatment processes extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na Li; Weiwei Jiang; Kaifeng Rao; Mei Ma; Zijian Wang; Satyanarayanan Senthik Kumaran

    2011-01-01

    Environmental chemicals in drinking water can impact human health through nuclear receptors.Additionally, estrogen-related receptors (ERRs) are vulnerable to endocrine-disrupting effects.To date, however, ERR disruption of drinking water potency has not been reported.We used ERRγtwo-hybrid yeast assay to screen ERRγ disrupting activities in a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) located in north China and in source water from a reservoir, focusing on agonistic, antagonistic, and inverse agonisfic activity to 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT).Water treatment processes in the DWTP consisted of pre-chlorination, coagulation, coal and sand filtration, activated carbon filtration, and secondary chlorination processes.Samples were extracted by solid phase extraction.Results showed that ERRγ antagonistic activities were found in all sample extracts, but agonistic and inverse agonistic activity to 4-OHT was not found.When calibrated with the toxic equivalent of 4-OHT, antagonistic effluent effects ranged from 3.4 to 33.1 μg/L.In the treatment processes, secondary chlorination was effective in removing ERRγ antagonists, but the coagulation process led to significantly increased ERRγ antagonistic activity.The drinking water treatment processes removed 73.5% of ERRγ antagonists.To our knowledge,the occurrence of ERRγ disruption activities on source and drinking water in vitro had not been reported previously.It is vital, therefore,to increase our understanding of ERRγdisrupting activities in drinking water.

  11. Optimization of a Water Window Capillary Discharge Radiation Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stefanovič

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer modeling of a fast electrical discharge in a nitrogen-filled alumina capillary was performed in order to discover discharge system parameters that lead to high radiation intensity in the so-called water window range of wavelengths (2–4 nm. The modeling was performed by means of the two-dimensional RMHD code Z*. The time and spatial distribution of plasma quantities were used for calculating the ion level populations and for estimating the absorption of the 2.88 nm radiation line in the capillary plasma, using the FLYCHK code. Optimum discharge parameters for the capillary discharge water window source are suggested. The heating of the electrodes and the role of capillary channel shielding were analyzed according to the Z* code.

  12. Water Residence Times and Runoff Sources Across an Urbanizing Gradient (Croton Water Supply Area, New York)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitvar, T.; Burns, D. A.; Duncan, J. M.; Hassett, J. M.; McDonnell, J. J.

    2002-12-01

    Water residence times and nutrient budgets were measured in 3 small watersheds in the Croton water supply area, NY. The watersheds (less than 1km 2) have different levels of urbanization (natural, semi-developed and fully developed), different mechanisms of runoff generation (quick flow on impervious surfaces and slow flow through the subsurface) and different watershed landscape characteristics (wet zones, hillslopes). Throughfall, stream water, soil water and groundwater in the saturated zone were sampled bi-weekly during a period of up to 2 years and analyzed for major chemical constituents, oxygen-18 content, and nitrogen species. Mean residence times of the stream water of about 30 weeks were estimated using Oxygen-18 and Helium-3/Tritium isotopes for all 3 watersheds. There was no significant difference in mean residence times among the three study watersheds, despite their different levels of urbanization. However, residence times from a few weeks up to ca 2 years vary within the watersheds, depending on the local runoff sources and their geographical conditions (riparian and hillslope topography, aquifer type). The runoff sources were quantified for selected streamwater and groundwater sampling sites using the end member mixing analysis technique (EMMA). The mixing analysis shows the impact of the runoff sources on runoff generation in the selected watersheds, i.e. it shows how big is the impact of urbanization on the runoff generation and how big is the natural control. These results may be useful in watershed management and planning of further urbanization in the Croton water supply area.

  13. Characterization of haloacetic acid precursors in source water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanokkantapong, Vorapot; Marhaba, Taha F; Pavasant, Prasert; Panyapinyophol, Bunyarit

    2006-08-01

    Raw water from the Bangkok (Thailand) main municipal water supply canal was examined for its natural organic composition by fractionation with adsorption resins. DAX-8 resin was the first resin employed to fractionate the hydrophobic fractions. Fractionation at neutral pH resulted in the separation of the hydrophobic neutral components; at a high pH level (approx. 10) separation of the hydrophobic base components occurred; and at a low pH level (approx. 2) the hydrophobic acid components were separated. AG-MP-50 cationic resin was then used to separate the hydrophilic base components, and WA-10, a weak anionic resin, was applied finally to fractionate the hydrophilic acid and neutral components. Subsequently, each fraction was tested for its chlorine disinfection by-product (DBP) formation potential. The HAA formation tests demonstrated that the various organic fractions had different reactivity levels for the formation of haloacetic acids (HAAs). For this source water, the hydrophilic neutral fraction dominated over the other five fractions in being the main organic component and the most significant precursor of HAAs formation. On the other hand, in terms of specific HAA formation potential (FP), the hydrophobic and hydrophilic base fractions were the most reactive precursors to the formation of HAAs. In all cases, the quantity of HAAs formed depended linearly upon the amount of organic constituents in the water sample.

  14. Water defluoridation using Malawi’s locally sourced gypsum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masamba, W. R. L.; Sajidu, S. M.; Thole, B.; Mwatseteza, J. F.

    Free fluoride levels above the WHO guideline maximum value of 1.5 mg/l have been reported in several parts of Malawi. Dental fluorosis has also been observed in the same areas such that search for local defluoridation techniques has become important in the country. The present research intended to determine the potential of using Malawi gypsum in defluoridation, identify the best pre-treatment of the gypsum and optimum conditions under which effective water defluoridation with the gypsum may be obtained. Laboratory experiments were carried out to explore defluoridation of drinking water using locally sourced gypsum and gypsum calcined at high temperatures. A 400 °C calcined phase of gypsum gave the highest defluoridation capacity of 67.80% compared to raw (uncalcined) gypsum, 200, 300 and 500 °C calcined phases. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) pattern of the 400 °C phase revealed existence of less crystalline CaSO 4 that was thought to be responsible for such relatively high defluoridation capacity. The dependence of the fluoride removal by the 400 °C calcined phase on other drinking water quality parameters was assessed by simple correlation analysis. Reaction kinetics and mechanisms of fluoride removal by the materials were also investigated. It was found that ion exchange was the dominant mechanism through which fluoride was removed from water by the materials.

  15. Occurrence and profiling of multiple nitrosamines in source water and drinking water of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wanfeng; Yu, Jianwei; An, Wei; Yang, Min

    2016-05-01

    The occurrence of multiple nitrosamines was investigated in 54 drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) from 30 cities across major watersheds of China, and the formation potential (FP) and cancer risk of the dominant nitrosamines were studied for profiling purposes. The results showed that N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) and N-nitrosodi-n-butylamine (NDBA) were the most abundant in DWTPs, and the concentrations in source water and finished water samples were not detected (ND) -53.6ng/L (NDMA), ND -68.5ng/L (NDEA), ND -48.2ng/L (NDBA). The frequencies of detection in source waters were 64.8%, 61.1% and 51.8%, and 57.4%, 53.7%, and 37% for finished waters, respectively. Further study indicated that the FPs of the three main nitrosamines during chloramination were higher than those during chlorination and in drinking water. The results of Principal Components Analysis (PCA) showed that ammonia was the most closely associated factor in nitrosamine formation in the investigated source water; however, there was no significant correlation between nitrosamine-FPs and the values of dominant water-quality parameters. The advanced treatment units (i.e., ozonation and biological activated carbon) used in DWTPs were able to control the nitrosamine-FPs effectively after disinfection. The target pollutants posed median and maximum cancer risks of 2.99×10(-5) and 35.5×10(-5) to the local populations due to their occurrence in drinking water.

  16. Source regions and water release mechanisms of Martian Valley Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaumann, R.; Reiss, D.; Sander, T.; Gwinner, K.; Roatsch, T.; Matz, K.-D.; Hauber, E.; Mertens, V.; Hoffmann, H.; Neukum, G.; HRSC Co-Investigator Team

    Martian valley networks have been cited as the best evidence that Mars maintained flow of liquid water across the surface. Although internal structures associated with a fluvial origin within valleys like inner channels, terraces, slip-off and undercut slopes are extremely rare on Mars (Carr and Malin, 2000) such features can be identified in high-resolution imagery (e.g. Malin and Edgett, 2001; Jaumann et al., 2005). However, besides internal features the source regions are an important indicator for the flow processes in Martian valleys because they define the drainage area and thus constrain the amount of available water for eroding the valley network. Furthermore, the morphology of the source regions and their topographic characteristics provide information about the origin of the water. On Mars valley networks are thought to be formed by retreating erosion where the water is supplied from the sub-surface. However, the mechanisms that are responsible for the release of ground water are poorly understood. The three dimensional highly resolved data of the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) on the Mars Express Mission (Neukum et al., 2004) allow the detailed examination of valley network source regions. A valley network in the western Lybia Montes region valley between 1.4°N to 3.5°N and 81.6°E to 82.5°E originates at a highland mountain region and drains down to Isidis Planitia over a distance of 400 km. Most of its distance the valley exhibits an interior channel that allows to constraint discharge and erosion budgets (Jaumann, et al., 2005). The valley was formed in the Noachian/Hesperian between 3.7 and 3.3 billion years. However, discharge and erosion budgets restrict the erosion time to a few million years in total, indicating single events rather than continuous flow over long periods. The source region of the valley is covered by a series of lava flows. Even the upstream part of the valley is covered by lava flows that cover the interior channel

  17. [Water environmental capacity calculation model for the rivers in drinking water source conservation area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ding-jiang; Lü, Jun; Shen, Ye-na; Jin, Shu-quan; Shi, Yi-ming

    2008-09-01

    Based on the one-dimension model for water environmental capacity (WEC) in river, a new model for the WEC estimation in river-reservoir system was developed in drinking water source conservation area (DWSCA). In the new model, the concept was introduced that the water quality target of the rivers in DWSCA was determined by the water quality demand of reservoir for drinking water source. It implied that the WEC of the reservoir could be used as the water quality control target at the reach-end of the upstream rivers in DWSCA so that the problems for WEC estimation might be avoided that the differences of the standards for a water quality control target between in river and in reservoir, such as the criterions differences for total phosphorus (TP)/total nitrogen (TN) between in reservoir and in river according to the National Surface Water Quality Standard of China (GB 3838-2002), and the difference of designed hydrology conditions for WEC estimation between in reservoir and in river. The new model described the quantitative relationship between the WEC of drinking water source and of the river, and it factually expressed the continuity and interplay of these low water areas. As a case study, WEC for the rivers in DWSCA of Laohutan reservoir located in southeast China was estimated using the new model. Results indicated that the WEC for TN and TP was 65.05 t x a(-1) and 5.05 t x a(-1) in the rivers of the DWSCA, respectively. According to the WEC of Laohutan reservoir and current TN and TP quantity that entered into the rivers, about 33.86 t x a(-1) of current TN quantity should be reduced in the DWSCA, while there was 2.23 t x a(-1) of residual WEC of TP in the rivers. The modeling method was also widely applicable for the continuous water bodies with different water quality targets, especially for the situation of higher water quality control target in downstream water body than that in upstream.

  18. WATER QUALITY INDEX FOR ASSESSMENT OF DRINKING WATER SOURCES FROM MEDIAŞ TOWN, SIBIU COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROŞU CRISTINA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the drinking water sources quality from Mediaş Town, Sibiu County. In November 2013, 6 water samples were taken from different drinking water sources and each water sample was analysed to determinate physico-chemical parameters (using a portable multiparameter WTW 320i major ions (using DIONEX ICS1500 ion chromatograph and heavy metals (using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer model ZENIT 700 Analytik Jena. The investigated physico-chemical parameters were: temperature, salinity, electrical conductivity (EC, pH, total dissolved solids (TDS and redox potential (ORP. The analysed major ions were: lithium (Li+, sodium (Na+, potassium (K+, magnesium (Mg2+, calcium (Ca2+, fluoride( F-, chloride (Cl-, bromide (Br-, nitrite (NO2-, nitrate (NO3-, phosphate (PO43- and sulphate (SO42-. The investigated heavy metals were: lead (Pb, zinc (Zn, cooper (Cu, iron (Fe, cadmium (Cd, nickel (Ni, chromium (Cr and arsenic (As. The Water Quality Index (WQI was calculated using the analysed water quality parameters and it ranged from 76 (very poor water quality to 375 (unsuitable for drinking.

  19. Characterization of the relationship between ceramic pot filter water production and turbidity in source water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvinelli, Carlo; Elmore, A Curt; Reidmeyer, Mary R; Drake, K David; Ahmad, Khaldoun I

    2016-11-01

    Ceramic pot filters represent a common and effective household water treatment technology in developing countries, but factors impacting water production rate are not well-known. Turbidity of source water may be principal indicator in characterizing the filter's lifetime in terms of water production capacity. A flow rate study was conducted by creating four controlled scenarios with different turbidities, and influent and effluent water samples were tested for total suspended solids and particle size distribution. A relationship between average flow rate and turbidity was identified with a negative linear trend of 50 mLh(-1)/NTU. Also, a positive linear relationship was found between the initial flow rate of the filters and average flow rate calculated over the 23 day life of the experiment. Therefore, it was possible to establish a method to estimate the average flow rate given the initial flow rate and the turbidity in the influent water source, and to back calculate the maximum average turbidity that would need to be maintained in order to achieve a specific average flow rate. However, long-term investigations should be conducted to assess how these relationships change over the expected CPF lifetime. CPFs rejected fine suspended particles (below 75 μm), especially particles with diameters between 0.375 μm and 10 μm. The results confirmed that ceramic pot filters are able to effectively reduce turbidity, but pretreatment of influent water should be performed to avoid premature failure.

  20. Fecal source tracking in water using a mitochondrial DNA microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Nguyet-Minh; Villemur, Richard; Payment, Pierre; Brousseau, Roland; Topp, Edward; Masson, Luke

    2013-01-01

    A mitochondrial-based microarray (mitoArray) was developed for rapid identification of the presence of 28 animals and one family (cervidae) potentially implicated in fecal pollution in mixed activity watersheds. Oligonucleotide probes for genus or subfamily-level identification were targeted within the 12S rRNA - Val tRNA - 16S rRNA region in the mitochondrial genome. This region, called MI-50, was selected based on three criteria: 1) the ability to be amplified by universal primers 2) these universal primer sequences are present in most commercial and domestic animals of interest in source tracking, and 3) that sufficient sequence variation exists within this region to meet the minimal requirements for microarray probe discrimination. To quantify the overall level of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in samples, a quantitative-PCR (Q-PCR) universal primer pair was also developed. Probe validation was performed using DNA extracted from animal tissues and, for many cases, animal-specific fecal samples. To reduce the amplification of potentially interfering fish mtDNA sequences during the MI-50 enrichment step, a clamping PCR method was designed using a fish-specific peptide nucleic acid. DNA extracted from 19 water samples were subjected to both array and independent PCR analyses. Our results confirm that the mitochondrial microarray approach method could accurately detect the dominant animals present in water samples emphasizing the potential for this methodology in the parallel scanning of a large variety of animals normally monitored in fecal source tracking.

  1. High prevalence of enteric viruses in untreated individual drinking water sources and surface water in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyer, Andrej; Torkar, Karmen Godič; Gutiérrez-Aguirre, Ion; Poljšak-Prijatelj, Mateja

    2011-09-01

    Waterborne infections have been shown to be important in outbreaks of gastroenteritis throughout the world. Although improved sanitary conditions are being progressively applied, fecal contaminations remain an emerging problem also in developed countries. The aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of fecal contaminated water sources in Slovenia, including surface waters and groundwater sources throughout the country. In total, 152 water samples were investigated, of which 72 samples represents groundwater from individual wells, 17 samples from public collection supplies and 63 samples from surface stream waters. Two liters of untreated water samples were collected and concentrated by the adsorption/elution technique with positively charged filters followed by an additional ultracentrifugation step. Group A rotaviruses, noroviruses (genogroups I and II) and astroviruses were detected with real-time RT-PCR method in 69 (45.4%) out of 152 samples collected, of which 31/89 (34.8%) drinking water and 38/63 (60.3%) surface water samples were positive for at least one virus tested. In 30.3% of drinking water samples group A rotaviruses were detected (27/89), followed by noroviruses GI (2.2%; 2/89) and astroviruses (2.2%; 2/89). In drinking groundwater samples group A rotaviruses were detected in 27 out of 72 tested samples (37.5%), genogroup I noroviruses in two (2.8%), and human astroviruses in one (1.4%) samples. In surface water samples norovirus genogroup GII was the most frequently detected (41.3%; 26/63), followed by norovirus GI (33.3%; 21/63), human astrovirus (27.0%; 17/63) and group A rotavirus (17.5%; 11/63). Our study demonstrates relatively high percentage of groundwater contamination in Slovenia and, suggests that raw groundwater used as individual drinking water supply may constitute a possible source of enteric virus infections. In the future, testing for enteric viruses should be applied for drinking water sources in waterborne outbreaks.

  2. Fecal Contamination in the Surface Waters of a Rural- and an Urban-Source Watershed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stea, Emma C.; Hansen, Lisbeth Truelstrup; Jamieson, Rob C.

    2015-01-01

    Surface waters are commonly used as source water for drinking water and irrigation. Knowledge of sources of fecal pollution in source watersheds benefits the design of effective source water protection plans. This study analyzed the relationships between enteric pathogens (Escherichia coli O157:H...... and fecal marker concentrations in the waterways. The employment of multiple FST methods suggested failing onsite wastewater systems contribute to human fecal pollution in both watersheds....

  3. Water, sanitation, and hygiene in schools: Status and implications of low coverage in Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique, Rwanda, Uganda, and Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Camille; Bowling, Michael; Bartram, Jamie; Lyn Kayser, Georgia

    2017-08-01

    Adequate access to water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) in schools impacts health, educational outcomes, and gender disparities. Little multi-country research has been published on WaSH in rural schools in Sub-Saharan Africa. In this multi-national cross-sectional WaSH study, we document WaSH access, continuity, quality, quantity, and reliability in 2270 schools that were randomly sampled in rural regions of six Sub-Saharan African countries: Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique, Rwanda, Uganda, and Zambia. Data collection included: school WaSH surveys containing internationally established WaSH indicators, direct observation, and field- and laboratory-based microbiological water quality testing. We found 1% of rural schools in Ethiopia and Mozambique to 23% of rural schools in Rwanda had improved water sources on premises, improved sanitation, and water and soap for handwashing. Fewer than 23% of rural schools in the six countries studied met the World Health Organization's recommended student-to-latrine ratios for boys and for girls. Fewer than 20% were observed to have at least four of five recommended menstrual hygiene services (separate-sex latrines with doors and locks, water for use, waste bin). The low access to safe and adequate WaSH services in rural schools suggest opportunities for WaSH interventions that could have substantive impact on health, education, and gender disparities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. 40 CFR 144.12 - Prohibition of movement of fluid into underground sources of drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... underground sources of drinking water. 144.12 Section 144.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Program Requirements § 144.12 Prohibition of movement of fluid into underground sources of drinking water... underground sources of drinking water, if the presence of that contaminant may cause a violation of...

  5. Hydrologic, Water-Quality, and Meteorological Data for the Cambridge, Massachusetts, Drinking-Water Source Area, Water Year 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2007-01-01

    Records of water quantity, water quality, and meteorological parameters were continuously collected from three reservoirs, two primary streams, and four subbasin tributaries in the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area during water year 2005 (October 2004 through September 2005). Water samples were collected during base-flow conditions and storms in the subbasins of the Cambridge Reservoir and Stony Brook Reservoir drainage areas and analyzed for selected elements, organic constituents, suspended sediment, and Escherichia coli bacteria. These data were collected to assist watershed administrators in managing the drinking-water source area and to identify potential sources of contaminants and trends in contaminant loading to the water supply. Monthly reservoir capacities for the Cambridge Reservoir varied from about 59 to 98 percent during water year 2005, while monthly reservoir capacities for the Stony Brook Reservoir and the Fresh Pond Reservoir were maintained at capacities greater than 84 and 96 percent, respectively. Assuming a water demand of 15 million gallons per day by the city of Cambridge, the volume of water released from the Stony Brook Reservoir to the Charles River during the 2005 water year is equivalent to an annual water surplus of about 119 percent. Recorded precipitation in the source area for the 2005 water year was within 2 inches of the total annual precipitation for the previous 2 water years. The monthly mean specific conductances for the outflow of the Cambridge Reservoir were similar to historical monthly mean values. However, monthly mean specific conductances for Stony Brook near Route 20, in Waltham (U.S. Geological Survey station 01104460), which is the principal tributary feeding the Stony Brook Reservoir, were generally higher than the medians of the monthly mean specific conductances for the period of record. Similarly, monthly mean specific conductances for a small tributary to Stony Brook (U.S. Geological Survey

  6. Watering holes: The use of arboreal sources of drinking water by Old World monkeys and apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Narayan; Huffman, Michael A; Gupta, Shreejata; Nautiyal, Himani; Mendonça, Renata; Morino, Luca; Sinha, Anindya

    2016-08-01

    Water is one of the most important components of an animal's diet, as it is essential for life. Primates, as do most animals, procure water directly from standing or free-flowing sources such as pools, ponds and rivers, or indirectly by the ingestion of certain plant parts. The latter is frequently described as the main source of water for predominantly arboreal species. However, in addition to these, many species are known to drink water accumulated in tree-holes. This has been commonly observed in several arboreal New World primate species, but rarely reported systematically from Old World primates. Here, we report observations of this behaviour from eight great ape and Old World monkey species, namely chimpanzee, orangutan, siamang, western hoolock gibbon, northern pig-tailed macaque, bonnet macaque, rhesus macaque and the central Himalayan langur. We hypothesise three possible reasons why these primates drink water from tree-holes: (1) coping with seasonal or habitat-specific water shortages, (2) predator/human conflict avoidance, and (3) potential medicinal benefits. We also suggest some alternative hypotheses that should be tested in future studies. This behaviour is likely to be more prevalent than currently thought, and may have significant, previously unknown, influences on primate survival and health, warranting further detailed studies.

  7. Bacterial composition in a metropolitan drinking water distribution system utilizing different source waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Alvarez, Vicente; Humrighouse, Ben W; Revetta, Randy P; Santo Domingo, Jorge W

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the bacterial composition of water samples from two service areas within a drinking water distribution system (DWDS), each associated with a different primary source of water (groundwater, GW; surface water, SW) and different treatment process. Community analysis based on 16S rRNA gene clone libraries indicated that Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium spp.) and α-Proteobacteria represented nearly 43 and 38% of the total sequences, respectively. Sequences closely related to Legionella, Pseudomonas, and Vibrio spp. were also identified. In spite of the high number of sequences (71%) shared in both areas, multivariable analysis revealed significant differences between the GW and SW areas. While the dominant phylotypes where not significantly contributing in the ordination of samples, the populations associated with the core of phylotypes (1-10% in each sample) significantly contributed to the differences between both service areas. Diversity indices indicate that the microbial community inhabiting the SW area is more diverse and contains more distantly related species coexisting with local assemblages as compared with the GW area. The bacterial community structure of SW and GW service areas were dissimilar, suggesting that their respective source water and/or water quality parameters shaped by the treatment processes may contribute to the differences in community structure observed.

  8. Size distributions, sources and source areas of water-soluble organic carbon in urban background air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Timonen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents the results of one year long measurement period of the size distributions of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC, inorganic ions and gravimetric mass of particulate matter. Measurements were done at an urban background station (SMEAR III by using a micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI. The site is located in northern European boreal region in Helsinki, Finland. The WSOC size distribution measurements were completed with the chemical analysis of inorganic ions, organic carbon (OC and monosaccharide anhydrides from the filter samples (particle aerodynamic diameter smaller than 1 μm, PM1. Gravimetric mass concentration varied during the MOUDI samplings between 3.4 and 55.0 μg m−3 and the WSOC concentrations were between 0.3 and 7.4 μg m−3. On average, water-soluble particulate organic matter (WSPOM, WSOC multiplied by 1.6 to convert the analyzed carbon mass to organic matter mass comprised 25±7.7% and 7.5±3.4% of aerosol PM1 mass and the PM1–10 mass, respectively. Inorganic ions contributed 33±12% and 28±19% of the analyzed PM1 and PM1–10 aerosol mass.

    Five different aerosol categories corresponding to different sources or source areas were identified (long-range transport aerosols, biomass burning aerosols from wild land fires and from small-scale wood combustion, aerosols originating from marine areas and from the clean arctic areas. Categories were identified mainly using levoglucosan concentration level for wood combustion and air mass backward trajectories for other groups. Clear differences in WSOC concentrations and size distributions originating from different sources or source areas were observed, although there are also many other factors which might affect the results. E.g. the local conditions and sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs and aerosols as well as various transformation processes are likely

  9. Roofing as a source of nonpoint water pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mingteh; McBroom, Matthew W; Scott Beasley, R

    2004-12-01

    new wood-shingle roofs were significantly higher than those from aged roofs of a previous study. The study demonstrated that roofs could be a serious source of nonpoint water pollution. Since Zn is the most serious water pollutant and wood shingle is the worst of the four roof types, using less compounds and materials associated with Zn along with good care and maintenance of roofs are critical in reducing Zn pollution in roof runoff.

  10. Challenges in the potable water industry due to changes in source ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Challenges in the potable water industry due to changes in source water quality: ... with the South African National Standard (SANS) 241:2015 for drinking water. ... this process was confirmed during a brief maintenance shutdown during 2015.

  11. HEAVY METAL CONTAMINATION OF WATER IN NEGOMBO LAGOON AND INTERCONNECTED WATER SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Kanchana.N.K.CHANDRASEKARA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Water quality in natural lagoons that are located within close proximity to human settlements is generally at contamination risk due to increasing anthropogenic activities. The Negombo lagoon situated in the Gampaha District in Sri Lanka is a lagoonal estuary. It receives surface water runoff mainly from Dandugamoya, Ja-ela, Hamilton and Dutch canals. During the recent past, it has been noted by several researches that there is increasing evidence in anthropogenic activities in Negombo lagoon and surrounding areas. The present study was carried out to assess the contamination levels of heavy metals of water in the Negombo lagoon and interconnected water sources. Sampling was carried out in 19 locations; 6 in the Negombo lagoon and 13 from the interconnected sources (5 samples from Hamilton canal, 2 samples each from Dutch canal, Dandugamoya and Ja-Ela and one sample each from Kelani estuary and Ocean-Negombo. The data collection was conducted during relatively wet (May and relatively dry (September months in 2013. Water samples were analysed in the laboratory as per the standards methods of American Public Health Association (APHA manual by using the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The tests were carried out to detect heavy metals: cadmium (Cd, chromium (Cr, copper (Cu, Lead (Pb, manganese (Mn, and zinc (Zn in water. Data analysis was accomplished using ArcGIS (version 9.3 software package along with Microsoft Excel. Standards for inland water and drinking water of Sri Lanka were used to determine the threshold levels of heavy metals. The results show that concentrations of Cr, Cu, Mn and Zn of all water bodies were below the threshold level of human consumption and quality standards for inland waters in Sri Lanka. The Cd and Pb levels of water in Negombo lagoon and Hamilton canal were comparatively high. Furthermore the Cd and Pb levels of Dandugamoya, Ja-ela and Dutch canals were below the maximum permissible levels in both relatively wet

  12. [Countermeasures for strict water quality management of drinking water sources: some thoughts and suggestions on implementing strict water resources management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Guo-Wei

    2013-08-01

    Suggestions on Carrying Out Strict Management Regulations of Water Resources were promulgated by the State Council in January, 2012. This is an important issue which has drawn public attention. I strongly support the principle and spirit of the regulations, as well as the request that governments above the county level bear the overall management responsibility. However, as to the technical route of and countermeasures for achieving strict management, several problems exist in reality. Relevant opinions and suggestions are given in this paper (the paper focuses exclusively on drinking water sources which are most in need of strict protection and management). Main opinions are as follows. (1) The sources of drinking water meeting the Class II standard in Surface Water Environment Quality Standards (GB 3838-2002) may not necessarily be unpolluted; (2) A necessary condition for protecting drinking water sources is that the effluents of enterprises' workshops discharged into the conservation zone should meet the regulation on the permitted maximum concentration of priority-I pollutants defined in the Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard (GB 8978-1996); (3) There is a strong doubt about whether Class II standard in GB 3838-2002 for priority I pollutants reflects environmental background values in water.

  13. Surface-water, water-quality, and meteorological data for the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area, water years 2007-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2011-01-01

    Records of water quantity, water quality, and meteorological parameters were continuously collected from three reservoirs, two primary streams, and five subbasin tributaries in the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area during water years 2007-08 (October 2006 through September 2008). Water samples were collected during base-flow conditions and storms in the Cambridge Reservoir and Stony Brook Reservoir drainage areas and analyzed for dissolved calcium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate; total nitrogen and phosphorus; and polar pesticides and metabolites. Composite samples of stormwater also were analyzed for concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons and suspended sediment in one subbasin in the Stony Brook Reservoir drainage basin. These data were collected to assist watershed administrators in managing the drinking-water source area and to identify potential sources of contaminants and trends in contaminant loading to the water supply.

  14. Self-supporting power plant. Capturing evaporated water and save energy a new source of water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daal, Ludwin; Vos, Frank de [KEMA Netherlands BV, Arnhem (Netherlands). Process and Cooling Water; KEMA Energy Consulting Co.Ltd, Beijing (China); Wageningen Univ. (Netherlands). Environmental Systems Analysis; Heijboer, Rob [KEMA Netherlands BV, Arnhem (Netherlands). Process and Cooling Water; Bekker, Bert [KEMA Energy Consulting Co.Ltd, Beijing (China); Gao, Xiu Xiu [Wageningen Univ. (Netherlands). Environmental Systems Analysis

    2013-07-01

    One of the major challenges of this century is the provision of water for a growing population and industry. The shortage in water resources in arid areas requires the availability of more efficient and cheaper water production processes. In some arid regions water is even more important than electricity. A large source of water is found in the form of evaporated water emitted from different industrial processes. If for example 20% of the evaporated water from the flue gas stream of a coal fired power plant would be captured, the plant would be self-supporting from a process water point of view. This is about 30m{sup 3} of water per hour. The results of the proof of principle project (2001-2008) show that >40% recovery can be achieved. Also an overall energy efficiency improvement can be achieved for industrial plants that reheat their flue gases. Calculations show that this can be about 1% overall efficiency for a coal fired power plant utilizing flue gas reheating. With an installed capacity of more than 600GWe in China, this energy saving results in a very large economic and fuel (coal) impact. This energy efficiency will most likely be the driving force to implement the technology in both water rich and water poor regions. For the capture of evaporated water no chemicals are used, there is no waste water formed and corrosion attack in stacks is mitigated. These results have led to the set up of a large international project named CapWa which aims to produce a membrane modular system suitable for industrial applications within 2-3years. The produced demin water from this system should be competitive with existing demin water technologies. The starting point will be the water vapour selective composite membranes that are developed in the proof of principle project. The CapWa project started in 2010 and consists of 14 partners of which 9 from the EU, 3 from the African continent and 2 from the Middle East.

  15. The sources of trace element pollution of dry depositions nearby a drinking water source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xinyue; Ji, Hongbing; Li, Cai; Gao, Yang; Ding, Huaijian; Tang, Lei; Feng, Jinguo

    2017-02-01

    Miyun Reservoir is one of the most important drinking water sources for Beijing. Thirteen atmospheric PM sampling sites were established around this reservoir to analyze the mineral composition, morphological characteristics, element concentration, and sources of atmospheric PM pollution, using transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analyses. The average monthly dry deposition flux of aerosols was 15.18 g/m(2), with a range of 5.78-47.56 g/m(2). The maximum flux season was winter, followed by summer, autumn, and spring. Zn and Pb pollution in this area was serious, and some of the sample sites had Cr, Co, Ni, and Cu pollution. Deposition fluxes of Zn/Pb in winter and summer reached 99.77/143.63 and 17.04/33.23 g/(hm(2) month), respectively. Principal component analysis showed two main components in the dry deposition; the first was Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn, and the other was Pb and Cd. Principal sources of the trace elements were iron mining and other anthropogenic activities in the surrounding areas and mountainous area north of the reservoir. Mineralogy analysis and microscopic conformation results showed many iron minerals and some unweathered minerals in dry deposition and atmospheric particulate matter, which came from an iron ore yard in the northern mountainous area of Miyun County. There was possible iron-rich dry deposition into Miyun Reservoir, affecting its water quality and harming the health of people living in areas around the reservoir and Beijing.

  16. Applying water quality indexes (WQI to the use of water sources for human consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Torres

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Naturally occurring and anthropic contamination of water sources limits the use of water for human consumption. Fast and representative tools, such as water quality indexes (WQI,allow performing an integral assessment of the resource, this being essential when making decisions about the management and control of sanitary risks through different purification processes. A comparative analysis of applying WQINSF,Dinius WQI, ICAUCA and UWQI indexes at five points or stations on the Cauca River located in the Salvajina–Puerto Mallarino water uptake section, gave evidence of growing river deterioration due to the different socio-economic activities carried out in the river basin. This water quality condition brings about the incorporation of additional or specific treatment operations such as activated carbon or adsorption for the destination of the resource for human consumption. The presence of pathogens and particulate material were the variables mostly affecting WQI value. It is thus recommended that the development or adaptation of an index having a similar structure to the DQWI index should be considered to make a thorough river assessment and the additional use of soil which might generate the presence of other substances causing a sanitary risk in the source, considering variation in time and space of the parameters comprising it and its comparison with current legislation.

  17. An integrated risk management model for source water protection areas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chiueh, Pei-Te; Shang, Wei-Ting; Lo, Shang-Lien

    2012-01-01

    .... For surface water supplies that use water from upstream watersheds, evaluating threats to water quality and implementing a watershed management plan are crucial for the maintenance of drinking water safe for humans...

  18. High latrine coverage is not reducing the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Hoa Binh province, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajima, Aya; Jouquet, Pascal; Do, Trung Dung; Dang, Thi Cam Thach; Tran, Cong Dai; Orange, Didier; Montresor, Antonio

    2009-03-01

    A baseline epidemiological survey for parasite infections was conducted between December 2007 and January 2008 in 155 villagers in a rural commune in Hoa Binh province, Vietnam. The prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm infection was 13.5%, 45.2% and 58.1%, respectively. At least one of the parasites was detected in 72.3% of the samples. We found no association between infection with A. lumbricoides or T. trichiura and engagement in agriculture, while hookworm infection was more prevalent in populations having frequent contact with soil. Agricultural use of human faeces was not correlated with any of the infections. We suggest that the consumption of vegetables that are commonly fertilized with human faeces in the community has led to the high infection rates with A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura, rather than the manipulation of faeces in farming activity. This also explains the high infection prevalence, despite high latrine coverage (98.1%) in the study population. The presence of latrines alone is not sufficient to reduce the prevalence of helminthiasis in a rural agricultural community if fresh faeces are used as fertilizer.

  19. Preozonation of bromide-bearing source water in south China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The effectiveness of preozonation was evaluated on treating a bromide-bearing dam source water in south China through batch-scale experiments. Preozonation at ozone doses of 0.5-1.0 mg/L (at ozone consumption base) enhanced total organic carbon(TOC) removal through coagulation, and resulted in an almost linear reduction of ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm (UV254). The removals of TOC (after coagulation) and UV254 at the ozone dose of 1.0 mg/L were 36% and 70%, respectively. Preozonation at an ozone dose between 0.5 and 1.0 mg/L resulted in the removal of disinfection byproducts formation potential (DBFP) including trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) and haloacetic acid formation potential (HAAFP) for about 50%. The removals of THMFP and HAAFP decreased with the further increase of ozone dose. Ozonation of bromide-bearing water (bromide concentration,34 μg/L) produced a bromate concentration under the detection limit(2 μg/L) at ozone doses < 1.5 mg/L. However, bromate >10 μg/L could be produced when the bromide concentration was increased to 96 μg/L.

  20. Occurrence of selected volatile organic compounds and soluble pesticides in Texas public water-supply source waters, 1999-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Barbara June; Canova, Michael G.; Gary, Marcus O.

    2002-01-01

    During 1999?2001, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission, collected samples of untreated water from 48 public water-supply reservoirs and 174 public water-supply wells. The samples were analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and soluble pesticides; in addition, well samples were analyzed for nitrite plus nitrate and tritium. This fact sheet summarizes the findings of the source-water sampling and analyses. Both VOCs and pesticides were detected much more frequently in surface water than in ground water. The only constituent detected at concentrations exceeding the maximum contaminant level for drinking water was nitrate. These results will be used in the Texas Source-Water Assessment Program to evaluate the susceptibility of public water-supply source waters to contamination.

  1. Microbial water quality of treated water and raw water sources in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-10-05

    Oct 5, 2015 ... Morton-Jaffray Treatment Plant supplies potable water to Harare City and areas surrounding ... must suffice to meet basic human needs in terms of drinking, ..... the years, maintenance of the pipelines and the treatment plant.

  2. Knowledge and practices regarding water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) among mothers of under-fives in Mawabeni, Umzingwane District of Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demberere, Tendai; Chidziya, Tayedza; Ncozana, Tatenda; Manyeruke, Norman

    2016-04-01

    The research study sought to assess knowledge and practices of mothers of under-fives regarding WASH in Mawabeni communal area in Zimbabwe. Focus group discussions, interviews, questionnaires and observation checklists were used to collect data. Data was analysed by developing specific themes related to the objectives and then frequencies were computed in Microsoft Excel. The mean score on WASH knowledge for the mothers of under-fives according to the Knowledge Index was 1. Knowledge regarding safety of water from different sources was generally poor with 70% of the mothers regarding water from surface sources to be safe to drink without treatment. Use of wide mouthed containers without lids was also common in the study area. However, no relationship was established between the type of water container used and the socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents. Knowledge regarding the importance of ablutions was generally good as highlighted by 78% of the mothers who regarded latrines as being important in prevention and control of diseases as well as for hygiene purposes. However, latrine ownership was noted to be related to the income level of the household (p factor to the high incidence of diarrheal diseases for under-fives in the area.

  3. Drinking water: a major source of lead exposure in Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ul-Haq, N; Arain, M A; Badar, N; Rasheed, M; Haque, Z

    2011-11-01

    Excess lead in drinking water is a neglected source of lead toxicity in Pakistan. A cross-sectional survey in 2007/08 was made of water samples from drinking water sources in Karachi, a large industrial city. This study aimed to compare lead levels between untreated ground water and treated surface (tap) water in 18 different districts. Of 216 ground and surface water samples collected, 86% had lead levels higher than the World Health Organization maximum acceptable concentration of l0 ppb. Mean lead concentration in ground water [146 (SD 119) ppb] was significantly higher than in surface water [77.1 (SD 54) ppb]. None of the 18 districts had a mean lead level of ground or surface water below the WHO cut-off and ground water sources in 9 districts had a severe level of contamination (>150 ppb). Urgent action is needed to eliminate sources of contamination.

  4. Source apportionment of atmospheric water over East Asia - a source tracer study in CAM5.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chen; Zhu, Bin; Gao, Jinhui; Kang, Hanqing

    2017-02-01

    The atmospheric water tracer (AWT) method is implemented in the Community Atmosphere Model version 5.1 (CAM5.1) to quantitatively identify the contributions of various source regions to precipitation and water vapour over East Asia. Compared to other source apportionment methods, the AWT method was developed based on detailed physical parameterisations, and can therefore trace the behaviour of atmospheric water substances directly and exactly. According to the simulation, the northern Indian Ocean (NIO) is the dominant oceanic moisture source region for precipitation over the Yangtze River valley (YRV) and southern China (SCN) in summer, while the north-western Pacific (NWP) dominates during other seasons. Evaporation over the South China Sea (SCS) is responsible for only 2.7-3.7 % of summer precipitation over the YRV and SCN. In addition, the Indo-China Peninsula is an important terrestrial moisture source region (annual contribution of ˜ 10 %). The overall relative contribution of each source region to the water vapour amount is similar to the corresponding contribution to precipitation over the YRV and SCN. A case study for the SCS shows that only a small part ( ≤ 5.5 %) of water vapour originates from local evaporation, whereas much more water vapour is supplied by the NWP and NIO. In addition, because evaporation from the SCS represents only a small contribution to the water vapour over the YRV and SCN in summer, the SCS mainly acts as a water vapour transport pathway where moisture from the NIO and NWP meet.

  5. Chromium in drinking water: sources, metabolism, and cancer risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhitkovich, Anatoly

    2011-10-17

    Drinking water supplies in many geographic areas contain chromium in the +3 and +6 oxidation states. Public health concerns are centered on the presence of hexavalent Cr that is classified as a known human carcinogen via inhalation. Cr(VI) has high environmental mobility and can originate from anthropogenic and natural sources. Acidic environments with high organic content promote the reduction of Cr(VI) to nontoxic Cr(III). The opposite process of Cr(VI) formation from Cr(III) also occurs, particularly in the presence of common minerals containing Mn(IV) oxides. Limited epidemiological evidence for Cr(VI) ingestion is suggestive of elevated risks for stomach cancers. Exposure of animals to Cr(VI) in drinking water induced tumors in the alimentary tract, with linear and supralinear responses in the mouse small intestine. Chromate, the predominant form of Cr(VI) at neutral pH, is taken up by all cells through sulfate channels and is activated nonenzymatically by ubiquitously present ascorbate and small thiols. The most abundant form of DNA damage induced by Cr(VI) is Cr-DNA adducts, which cause mutations and chromosomal breaks. Emerging evidence points to two-way interactions between DNA damage and epigenetic changes that collectively determine the spectrum of genomic rearrangements and profiles of gene expression in tumors. Extensive formation of DNA adducts, clear positivity in genotoxicity assays with high predictive values for carcinogenicity, the shape of tumor-dose responses in mice, and a biological signature of mutagenic carcinogens (multispecies, multisite, and trans-sex tumorigenic potency) strongly support the importance of the DNA-reactive mutagenic mechanisms in carcinogenic effects of Cr(VI). Bioavailability results and kinetic considerations suggest that 10-20% of ingested low-dose Cr(VI) escapes human gastric inactivation. The directly mutagenic mode of action and the incompleteness of gastric detoxification argue against a threshold in low

  6. 40 CFR 194.53 - Consideration of underground sources of drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of drinking water. 194.53 Section 194.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... underground sources of drinking water. In compliance assessments that analyze compliance with part 191, subpart C of this chapter, all underground sources of drinking water in the accessible environment...

  7. 78 FR 19261 - Safe Drinking Water Act Sole Source Aquifer Program; Designation of Bainbridge Island, Washington...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... AGENCY Safe Drinking Water Act Sole Source Aquifer Program; Designation of Bainbridge Island, Washington.... SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that pursuant to Section 1424(e) of the Safe Drinking Water Act, the... Aquifer System located in Kitsap County, Washington is the sole or principle source of drinking water...

  8. Monte Carlo modeling of 60 Co HDR brachytherapy source in water and in different solid water phantom materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahoo S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The reference medium for brachytherapy dose measurements is water. Accuracy of dose measurements of brachytherapy sources is critically dependent on precise measurement of the source-detector distance. A solid phantom can be precisely machined and hence source-detector distances can be accurately determined. In the present study, four different solid phantom materials such as polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA, polystyrene, Solid Water, and RW1 are modeled using the Monte Carlo methods to investigate the influence of phantom material on dose rate distributions of the new model of BEBIG 60 Co brachytherapy source. The calculated dose rate constant is 1.086 ± 0.06% cGy h−1 U−1 for water, PMMA, polystyrene, Solid Water, and RW1. The investigation suggests that the phantom materials RW1 and Solid Water represent water-equivalent up to 20 cm from the source. PMMA and polystyrene are water-equivalent up to 10 cm and 15 cm from the source, respectively, as the differences in the dose data obtained in these phantom materials are not significantly different from the corresponding data obtained in liquid water phantom. At a radial distance of 20 cm from the source, polystyrene overestimates the dose by 3% and PMMA underestimates it by about 8% when compared to the corresponding data obtained in water phantom.

  9. Occurrence and potential causes of androgenic activities in source and drinking water in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xinxin; Shi, Wei; Wei, Si; Zhang, Xiaowei; Feng, Jianfang; Hu, Guanjiu; Chen, Sulan; Giesy, John P; Yu, Hongxia

    2013-09-17

    The increased incidences of disorders of male reproductive tract as well as testicular and prostate cancers have been attributed to androgenic pollutants in the environment. Drinking water is one pathway of exposure through which humans can be exposed. In this study, both potencies of androgen receptor (AR) agonists and antagonists were determined in organic extracts of raw source water as well as finished water from waterworks, tap water, boiled water, and poured boiled water in eastern China. Ten of 13 samples of source water exhibited detectable AR antagonistic potencies with AR antagonist equivalents (Ant-AR-EQs) ranging from activity was detected in any source water. All finished water from waterworks, tap water, boiled water, and poured boiled water exhibited neither AR agonistic nor antagonistic activity. Although potential risks are posed by source water, water treatment processes effectively removed AR antagonists. Boiling and pouring of water further removed these pollutants. Phthalate esters (PAEs) including diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) were identified as major contributors to AR antagonistic potencies in source waters. Metabolites of PAEs exhibited no AR antagonistic activity and did not increase potencies of PAEs when they coexist.

  10. Estimating plant water uptake source depths with optimized stable water isotope labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeger, Stefan; Weiler, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Depth profiles of pore water stable isotopes in soils in conjunction with measurements of stable water isotopes (SWI) in plant transpiration allow the estimation of the contributions of different soil depths to plant water uptake (PWU).
 However, SWI depth profiles that result from the variations of SWI in natural precipitation may lead to highly ambiguous results, i.e. the same SWI signature in transpiration could result from different PWU patterns or SWI depth profiles. The aim of this study was to find an optimal stable water isotope depth profile to estimate plant water uptake patterns and to compare different PWU source depth estimation methods. We used a new soil water transport model including fractionation effects of SWI and exchange between the vapor and liquid phase to simulate different irrigation scenarios. Different amounts of water with differing SWI signatures (glacier melt water, summer precipitation water, deuterated water) were applied in order to obtain a wide variety of SWI depth profiles. Based on these simulated SWI depth profiles and a set of hypothetical PWU patterns, the theoretical SWI signatures of the respective plant transpiration were computed. In the next step, two methods - Bayesian isotope mixing models (BIMs) and optimization of a parametric distribution function (beta function) - were used to estimate the PWU patterns from the different SWI depth profiles and their respective SWI signatures in the resulting transpiration. Eventually, the estimated and computed profiles were compared to find the best SWI depth profile and the best method. The results showed, that compared to naturally occurring SWI depth profiles, the application of multiple, in terms of SWI, distinct labeling pulses greatly improves the possible spatial resolution and at the same time reduces the uncertainty of PWU estimates.
 For the PWU patterns which were assumed for this study, PWU pattern estimates based on an optimized parametric distribution function

  11. Methodology for Identifying and Quantifying Metal Pollutant Sources in Storm Water Runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    February 2015 METHODOLOGY FOR IDENTIFYING AND QUANTIFYING METAL POLLUTANT SOURCES IN STORM WATER RUNOFF Edwin Chiang P.E. Naval Facilities Engineering...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER METHODOLOGY FOR IDENTIFYING AND QUANTIFYING METAL POLLUTANT SOURCES IN STORM WATER RUNOFF 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...This page intentionally left blank. v Methodology for Identifying and Quantifying Metal Pollutant Sources in Storm Water Runoff NESDI Project Number

  12. Source Water Protection Planning for Ontario First Nations Communities: Case Studies Identifying Challenges and Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Leslie Collins; Deborah McGregor; Stephanie Allen; Craig Murray; Chris Metcalfe

    2017-01-01

    After the Walkerton tragedy in 2000, where drinking water contamination left seven people dead and many suffering from chronic illness, the Province of Ontario, Canada implemented policies to develop Source Water Protection (SWP) plans. Under the Clean Water Act (2006), thirty-six regional Conservation Authorities were mandated to develop watershed-based SWP plans under 19 Source Protection Regions. Most First Nations in Ontario are outside of these Source Protection Regions and reserve lands...

  13. Satellite Monitoring of Cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Bloom Frequency in Recreational Waters and Drinking Water Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, John M.; Schaeffer, Blake A.; Darling, John A.; Urquhart, Erin A.; Johnston, John M.; Ignatius, Amber R.; Myer, Mark H.; Loftin, Keith A.; Werdell, P. Jeremy; Stumpf, Richard P.

    2017-01-01

    Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (cyanoHAB) cause extensive problems in lakes worldwide, including human and ecological health risks, anoxia and sh kills, and taste and odor problems. CyanoHABs are a particular concern in both recreational waters and drinking water sources because of their dense biomass and the risk of exposure to toxins. Successful cyanoHAB assessment using satellites may provide an indicator for human and ecological health protection. In this study, methods were developed to assess the utility of satellite technology for detecting cyanoHAB frequency of occurrence at locations of potential management interest. The European Space Agency's MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) was evaluated to prepare for the equivalent series of Sentinel-3 Ocean and Land Colour Imagers (OLCI) launched in 2016 as part of the Copernicus program. Based on the 2012 National Lakes Assessment site evaluation guidelines and National Hydrography Dataset, the continental United States contains 275,897 lakes and reservoirs greater than 1 ha in area. Results from this study show that 5.6% of waterbodies were resolvable by satellites with 300 m single-pixel resolution and 0.7% of waterbodies were resolvable when a three by three pixel (3 x 3-pixel) array was applied based on minimum Euclidian distance from shore. Satellite data were spatially joined to U.S. public water surface intake (PWSI) locations, where single-pixel resolution resolved 57% of the PWSI locations and a 3 x 3-pixel array resolved 33% of the PWSI locations. Recreational and drinking water sources in Florida and Ohio were ranked from 2008 through 2011 by cyanoHAB frequency above the World Health Organizations (WHO) high threshold for risk of 100,000 cells m/L. The ranking identified waterbodies with values above the WHO high threshold, where Lake Apopka, FL (99.1%) and Grand Lake St. Marys, OH (83%) had the highest observed bloom frequencies per region. The method presented here may indicate

  14. Uneven access to safe drinking water for First Nations in Canada: connecting health and place through source water protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    Source water protection has gained considerable attention in the water resources literature particularly after several well publicized (non-First Nations) water contamination events in Canada. This short report explores health and place through an examination of access to safe drinking water in a developed country. For First Nations in Canada, safe drinking water remains a serious, albeit under-reported, problem. The incidence of contaminated drinking water is pervasive in many First Nations communities. Attempts to "fix" water quality problems using technology alone have produced only limited success. It will be shown that greater attention to source water protection has potential for both to improve drinking water quality as well as to re-connect health and place for First Nations in Canada.

  15. Detection of water masers in a sample of 84 IRAS sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU YueFang; ESIMBEK Jarken; WANG JunZhi; LIU Xiang; QIN ShengLi; ZHANG Jin

    2007-01-01

    Using a newly installed system on the 25 m telescope of Urumqi Observatory, we searched for H2O maser emission towards 84 IRAS sources including young stellar objects (YSOs) and candidates for OH/IR stars. Water masers were detected in four star formation regions and one envelope of late type of stars for the first time. New water maser components were measured in two sources. In a maser source with no water maser emission detected six years ago, strong maser emission was found at different velocities, showing that there was a new explosion of water maser in this source.

  16. Seeds Recovered from the Droppings at Latrines of the Raccoon Dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus): The Possibility of Seed Dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Yuka; Takatsuki, Seiki

    2015-04-01

    Medium-sized carnivorous mammals are important seed dispersers of fleshy fruits. The raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus) often feeds on fleshy fruits and forms latrines. This behavior may potentially lead to seed dispersal. To determine if this is the case, we studied 1) seed recovery in the droppings of raccoon dogs, and 2) the transportation of seeds between habitats using plastic markers in a western suburb of Tokyo, Japan. In total, 32,473 seeds of 50 plant taxa were recovered from 120 raccoon dog droppings during a year, and 95.7% of the seeds were found to be those of fleshy fruits. The species most frequently recovered were the eurya (Eurya japonica, 52.6%), the brambles (Rubus spp., 17.4%), and the black night shade (Solanum nigrum, 16.0%). A total of 7,412 plastic markers were embedded in baits at 14 bait plots and were recovered in the feces of the raccoon dogs at 22 latrines. The "transportation rates" were calculated in 50-m distance classes and found that most seeds (43.5%) were deposited within 50 m from the bait point, suggesting very short seed dispersal distances. Inter-habitat transportation was observed: 64.9% of the retrieved markers deposited in the forest were transported to other places within the forest. In contrast, almost all of the markers (99.4%) deposited in the open site were transported within the same habitat. These findings suggest that the seeds of forest plants bearing berries can be dispersed out of the forest to open areas by raccoon dogs.

  17. Warming combined with more extreme precipitation regimes modifies the water sources used by trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossiord, Charlotte; Sevanto, Sanna; Dawson, Todd E; Adams, Henry D; Collins, Adam D; Dickman, Lee T; Newman, Brent D; Stockton, Elizabeth A; McDowell, Nate G

    2017-01-01

    The persistence of vegetation under climate change will depend on a plant's capacity to exploit water resources. We analyzed water source dynamics in piñon pine and juniper trees subjected to precipitation reduction, atmospheric warming, and to both simultaneously. Piñon and juniper exhibited different and opposite shifts in water uptake depth in response to experimental stress and background climate over 3 yr. During a dry summer, juniper responded to warming with a shift to shallow water sources, whereas piñon pine responded to precipitation reduction with a shift to deeper sources in autumn. In normal and wet summers, both species responded to precipitation reduction, but juniper increased deep water uptake and piñon increased shallow water uptake. Shifts in the utilization of water sources were associated with reduced stomatal conductance and photosynthesis, suggesting that belowground compensation in response to warming and water reduction did not alleviate stress impacts for gas exchange. We have demonstrated that predicted climate change could modify water sources of trees. Warming impairs juniper uptake of deep sources during extended dry periods. Precipitation reduction alters the uptake of shallow sources following extended droughts for piñon. Shifts in water sources may not compensate for climate change impacts on tree physiology.

  18. investigation of factors affecting drinking water quality from source to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2Addis Ababa City Administration, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia ... access to improved supply of clean water. ..... Jimma University for funding the research. REFERENCES. 1. WHO. Small community water supplies, Technical paper series 18,.

  19. Tracing water sources of terrestrial animal populations with stable isotopes: laboratory tests with crickets and spiders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin E McCluney

    Full Text Available Fluxes of carbon, nitrogen, and water between ecosystem components and organisms have great impacts across levels of biological organization. Although much progress has been made in tracing carbon and nitrogen, difficulty remains in tracing water sources from the ecosystem to animals and among animals (the "water web". Naturally occurring, non-radioactive isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water provide a potential method for tracing water sources. However, using this approach for terrestrial animals is complicated by a change in water isotopes within the body due to differences in activity of heavy and light isotopes during cuticular and transpiratory water losses. Here we present a technique to use stable water isotopes to estimate the mean mix of water sources in a population by sampling a group of sympatric animals over time. Strong correlations between H and O isotopes in the body water of animals collected over time provide linear patterns of enrichment that can be used to predict a mean mix of water sources useful in standard mixing models to determine relative source contribution. Multiple temperature and humidity treatment levels do not greatly alter these relationships, thus having little effect on our ability to estimate this population-level mix of water sources. We show evidence for the validity of using multiple samples of animal body water, collected across time, to estimate the isotopic mix of water sources in a population and more accurately trace water sources. The ability to use isotopes to document patterns of animal water use should be a great asset to biologists globally, especially those studying drylands, droughts, streamside areas, irrigated landscapes, and the effects of climate change.

  20. Application of the second theory of quantification in identifying gushing water sources of coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Peng, S. [CUMT, Beijing (China). School of Resources and Safety Engineering

    2003-05-01

    Mathematical model for identifying the source of water burst was established using the second theory of quantification and based on 35 water samples form the main aquifers in Jiaozuo mine area. The newly burst water samples were tested using the identification software developed by VC + 6.0 and the 3D discrimination method. The result indicates that the test effect is good which has provided a convenient tool for discriminating the new sources of water burst. 6 refs., 2 tabs.

  1. Applicability of a desiccant dew-point cooling system independent of external water sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellemo, Lorenzo; Elmegaard, Brian; Kærn, Martin Ryhl

    2015-01-01

    The applicability of a technical solution for making desiccant cooling systems independent of external water sources is investigated. Water is produced by condensing the desorbed water vapour in a closed regeneration circuit. Desorbed water recovery is applied to a desiccant dew-point cooling...

  2. Piped water consumption in Ghana: A case study of temporal and spatial patterns of clean water demand relative to alternative water sources in rural small towns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulinkina, Alexandra V; Kosinski, Karen C; Liss, Alexander; Adjei, Michael N; Ayamgah, Gilbert A; Webb, Patrick; Gute, David M; Plummer, Jeanine D; Naumova, Elena N

    2016-07-15

    Continuous access to adequate quantities of safe water is essential for human health and socioeconomic development. Piped water systems (PWSs) are an increasingly common type of water supply in rural African small towns. We assessed temporal and spatial patterns in water consumption from public standpipes of four PWSs in Ghana in order to assess clean water demand relative to other available water sources. Low water consumption was evident in all study towns, which manifested temporally and spatially. Temporal variability in water consumption that is negatively correlated with rainfall is an indicator of rainwater preference when it is available. Furthermore, our findings show that standpipes in close proximity to alternative water sources such as streams and hand-dug wells suffer further reductions in water consumption. Qualitative data suggest that consumer demand in the study towns appears to be driven more by water quantity, accessibility, and perceived aesthetic water quality, as compared to microbiological water quality or price. In settings with chronic under-utilization of improved water sources, increasing water demand through household connections, improving water quality with respect to taste and appropriateness for laundry, and educating residents about health benefits of using piped water should be prioritized. Continued consumer demand and sufficient revenue generation are important attributes of a water service that ensure its function over time. Our findings suggest that analyzing water consumption of existing metered PWSs in combination with qualitative approaches may enable more efficient planning of community-based water supplies and support sustainable development.

  3. Application of isotopic and hydro-geochemical methods in identifying sources of mine inrushing water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dou Huiping; Ma Zhiyuan; Cao Haidong; Liu Feng; Hu Weiwei; Li Ting

    2011-01-01

    Isotopic and hydro-geochemical surveys were carried out to identify the source of mine inrushing water at the #73003 face in the Laohutai Mine.Based on the analysis of isotopes and hydro-chemical features of surface water,groundwater from different levels and the inrushing water,a special relationship between water at the #73003 face and cretaceous water has been found.The results show that the isotopic and hydro-chemical features of the inrushing water are completely different from those of other groundwater bodies,except for the cretaceous water.The isotopic and hydrochemical characteristics of cretaceous water are similar to the inrushing water of the #73003 face,which aided with obtaining the evidence for the possible source of the inrushing water at the #73003 face.The isotope calculations show that the inrushing water at the #73003 face is a mixture of cretaceous water and Quaternary water,water from the cretaceous conglomerate is the main source,accounting for 67% of the inrushing water,while the Quaternary water accounts for 33%.The conclusion is also supported by a study of inrushing-water channels and an active fault near the inrushing-water plot on the #73003 face.

  4. Drinking water sources, availability, quality, access and utilization for goats in the Karak Governorate, Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khaza'leh, Ja'far Mansur; Reiber, Christoph; Al Baqain, Raid; Valle Zárate, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Goat production is an important agricultural activity in Jordan. The country is one of the poorest countries in the world in terms of water scarcity. Provision of sufficient quantity of good quality drinking water is important for goats to maintain feed intake and production. This study aimed to evaluate the seasonal availability and quality of goats' drinking water sources, accessibility, and utilization in different zones in the Karak Governorate in southern Jordan. Data collection methods comprised interviews with purposively selected farmers and quality assessment of water sources. The provision of drinking water was considered as one of the major constraints for goat production, particularly during the dry season (DS). Long travel distances to the water sources, waiting time at watering points, and high fuel and labor costs were the key reasons associated with the problem. All the values of water quality (WQ) parameters were within acceptable limits of the guidelines for livestock drinking WQ with exception of iron, which showed slightly elevated concentration in one borehole source in the DS. These findings show that water shortage is an important problem leading to consequences for goat keepers. To alleviate the water shortage constraint and in view of the depleted groundwater sources, alternative water sources at reasonable distance have to be tapped and monitored for water quality and more efficient use of rainwater harvesting systems in the study area is recommended.

  5. A NEW PUBLIC HEALTH ISSUE: CONTAMINATION WITH ARSENIC OF PRIVATE WATER SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANCA ELENA GURZAU

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A new public health issue: contamination with arsenic of private water sources. Known since the early ‘40s, the natural contamination with arsenic of depth water in Bihor and Arad areas continues to incite interest, especially since the rural localities still use depth water as the main source of drinking water. Arsenic concentrations measured in the water sources in the area range between 0-176 μg/L, and it is estimated that over 45,000 people are exposed via drinking water to arsenic concentrations above 10 μg/L. The present study proposed the measurement of arsenic concentrations from old public sources and individual private water sources from recent wells located in five localities in Arad County, samples being collected during 2010-2011. The results showed that public water sources declared or not non-potable contain arsenic above the maximum allowable concentration of 10 μg/L. Individual water sources recently drilled as an alternative for the population to the lack of access to safe water from public water systems, presented high concentrations of arsenic in most cases, even higher than the concentrations of the public sources declared by authorities as non-potable. In the absence of informing and counseling the population regarding the natural uneven distribution of arsenic in the depth water and its potential carcinogenicity, human exposure continues and it is even more intense. The significance of the problem in terms of public health becomes even more important as for the private water sources quality is not monitored by the authorities according to law, water analysis being performed on request and for a fee.

  6. Water hyacinth a potential source for value addition: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindhu, Raveendran; Binod, Parameswaran; Pandey, Ashok; Madhavan, Aravind; Alphonsa, Jose Anju; Vivek, Narisetty; Gnansounou, Edgard; Castro, Eulogio; Faraco, Vincenza

    2017-04-01

    Water hyacinth a fresh water aquatic plant is considered as a noxious weed in many parts of the world since it grows very fast and depletes nutrients and oxygen from water bodies adversely affecting the growth of both plants and animals. Hence conversion of this problematic weed to value added chemicals and fuels helps in the self-sustainability especially for developing countries. The present review discusses the various value added products and fuels which can be produced from water hyacinth, the recent research and developmental activities on the bioconversion of water hyacinth for the production of fuels and value added products as well as its possibilities and challenges in commercialization.

  7. Precipitation Recycling and the Vertical Distribution of Local and Remote Sources of Water for Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Precipitation recycling is defined as the amount of water that evaporates from a region that precipitates within the same region. This is also interpreted as the local source of water for precipitation. In this study, the local and remote sources of water for precipitation have been diagnosed through the use of passive constituent tracers that represent regional evaporative sources along with their transport and precipitation. We will discuss the differences between this method and the simpler bulk diagnostic approach to precipitation recycling. A summer seasonal simulation has been analyzed for the regional sources of the United States Great Plains precipitation. While the tropical Atlantic Ocean (including the Gulf of Mexico) and the local continental sources of precipitation are most dominant, the vertically integrated column of water contains substantial water content originating from the Northern Pacific Ocean, which is not precipitated. The vertical profiles of regional water sources indicate that local Great Plains source of water dominates the lower troposphere, predominantly in the PBL. However, the Pacific Ocean source is dominant over a large portion of the middle to upper troposphere. The influence of the tropical Atlantic Ocean is reasonably uniform throughout the column. While the results are not unexpected given the formulation of the model's convective parameterization, the analysis provides a quantitative assessment of the impact of local evaporation on the occurrence of convective precipitation in the GCM. Further, these results suggest that local source of water is not well mixed throughout the vertical column.

  8. [Water pollution and health risks at Yaoundé, Cameroon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youmbi, Jean Ghislain Tabué; Feumba, Roger; Njitat, Valérie Tsama; de Marsily, Ghislain; Ekodeck, Georges Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article consists of developing an ecosystemic approach to collect information about groundwater pollution in order to determine its origin and infer the health risks in Mingoa's watershed through the study of 12 spontaneous settlements. From an environmental point of view, family interviews and direct observations allowed us to inventory springs, wells and latrines, and to collect information. So, we have selected, on the basis of predefined criteria, 21 wells and springs for physico-chemical and bacteriological laboratory analyses. Two hundred children aged less than 5 years were subjected to KOAP examination. A number of 1224 latrines were inventoried, for an average use of 15 people per latrine, producing 913.3 kg/year of excreta. Most of 91% of people use these latrines. The superficial aquifers, connected to the wells and springs, present high values of nitrogen, phosphorous pollutant and fecal contamination indicators (coliforms and fecal streptococcus), which make water inappropriate to human consumption. PCA analysis establishes that water pollution comes mainly from traditional pit latrines. The overall prevalence of diarrhea and parasite infestation was important (=40%). The presence of cysts of Entamoeba histolytica, Ascaris limbricoides, and Entamoeba coli confirms this high prevalence and testify to very approximate hygiene and environment conditions.

  9. Water Quality Assessment of Various Sources in Rural Areas in the Lowveld Region of Swaziland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amos Olutola Fadiran

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses water quality levels of sources used by rural communities in the lowveld region of Swaziland. The water quality assessments are based on household perceptions about water quality and laboratory water quality analyses which were carried out on selected water quality parameters. A total of 180 household heads were interviewed and in addition water samples from 13 locations were analysed. The parameters considered were physical factors including pH, colour, taste and odour. Results of pH tests indicated that 23.1% of the water sources were acidic, 7.7% were neutral and 69.2% were alkaline. Water collected from the unprotected wells tested acidic, had a pH of 5.96, implying that it is corrosive and might present health risks to humans and livestock. Sources with highly alkaline water were the borehole, spring, hot spring standpipes, and rivers. Survey findings show that colour, taste, smell and turbidity are the quality parameters mostly used by rural households to determine water suitability for domestic use. Most ground water sources were found to have saline water due to low ground water recharge in the area. Water quality remains a sustainable development challenge in the rural areas of Swaziland.

  10. Hydrogeochemical characteristics of water intakes from groundwater sources in Seversk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmalov, A. I.; Dutova, E. M.; Vologdina, I. V.; Pokrovsky, D. S.; Pokrovskiy, V. D.; Kuzevanov, K. K.

    2016-09-01

    The article describes the hydrogeochemical environment behavior analysis of groundwater intake which, in its turn. provides the utility and drinking water supply for Seversk. The reasons for temporary changes of the hydrogeochemical aquifer indicators in the producing areas have been highlighted. The main factor could be upset hydrodynamic conditions during long-term operation. Changed hydrogeochemical indicators have been revealed not only during the technological water treatment process but also during water transportation to consumers. Chemical composition water changes are related to secondary mineral and sludge formation on technological equipment. Precipitation is a polymineral mixture predominantly a ferrous phase. whereas phosphate and carbonate phases are secondary. Clay minerals are also found.

  11. IMPACTS OF SOURCE TERM HETEROGENEITIES ON WATER PATHWAY DOSE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SULLIVAN, T.; GUSKOV, A.; POSKAS, P.; RUPERTI, N.; HANUSIK, V.; ET AL.

    2004-09-15

    Radioactive sealed sources are used extensively throughout the world in different field and various activities such as medicine, agriculture, industry, research, education military applications, as well as nuclear facilities. The International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation sources [1] defines a sealed source as ''radioactive material that is (a) permanently sealed in capsule or (b) closely bounded and in a solid form. The capsule or material of sealed source shall be strong enough to maintain remain leak free under the conditions of use and wear for which the source was designed, also under foreseeable mishaps''. When a radioactive sealed source is no longer needed, or becomes unfit for the intended application it is considered spent. A spent sealed source is not necessarily a waste because it can be used in other applications. If for any technical or economic reason (decay, obsolete equipment and technique, worn out equipment) no further use is foreseen, the spent sealed source is considered spent and becomes radioactive waste [2] [3]. In addition, a source may be taken out of service temporarily or indefinitely. In this case the source is out of used (''disused'') but not considered spent [4]. Sources that are not in active use and have not being declared as spent are considered as disused sealed sources [4]. Considering the potential radiation hazards associated with such waste it has to be managed and disposed of in a way that will ensure that the potential radiation hazards are adequately managed and controlled in compliance with the appropriate safety principles and criteria. It is recognized that there exists today experience and means for all steps in the management of disused sealed sources, except disposal of [2]. In many countries, disused sealed sources represent a part of the radioactive waste inventory being characterized generally with high

  12. Coliform Sources and Mechanisms for Regrowth in Household Drinking Water in Limpopo, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Jonathan E; Smith, James A; Samie, Amidou; Dillingham, Rebecca A

    2013-09-01

    Resource-limited communities throughout the developing world face significant environmental health problems related to the myriad of coliform sources within those communities. This study comprehensively investigated contamination sources and the biological and chemical mechanisms sustaining them in two adjacent communities in rural Limpopo, South Africa. An 8-month study was conducted of household (n = 14) and source water quality, measurements of biofilm layers on the inside of household water storage containers and water transfer devices, and also hand-based coliforms and hand-washing effectiveness. A 7-day water container incubation experiment was also performed to determine the biological and chemical changes that occur in a household water storage container independent of human interference. Results indicate that household drinking water frequently becomes contaminated after collection but before consumption (197 versus 1,046 colony-forming units/100 mL; n = 266; p water treatment and other interventions aimed at maintaining the safe water chain and preventing biological regrowth.

  13. mpacts of Agricultural Non-point Pollution on Water-source Area in Songhua Dam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to research impacts of agricultural non-point pol- lution on water-source region in Songhua Dam, laying foundation for control of water pollution and scientific protection of water-source region. [Method] Water in Muyang River, lengshui River and Zizania aquatica region were sampled to measure content of pollutants in water and conclude relation between water contamination and agri- cultural non-point pollution to find the major cause of pollution. [Result] Organic pollu- tant in Muyang River was higher; N and P contents in Lengshui River were higher; the measured indices in Zizania aquatica region excessively exceeded related stan- dard. [Conclusion] The chemical fertilizers and pesticides are the toxic materials lead- ing to water contamination and constitute a major cause of pollution in Songhua Dam water-source region. Agricultural non-point pollution should be controlled in a scientific way.

  14. 40 CFR 144.7 - Identification of underground sources of drinking water and exempted aquifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of drinking water and exempted aquifers. 144.7 Section 144.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Provisions § 144.7 Identification of underground sources of drinking water and exempted aquifers. (a) The..., except where exempted under paragraph (b) of this section, as an underground source of drinking...

  15. Water supply dynamics and quality of alternative water sources in low-income areas of Lilongwe City, Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidya, Russel C. G.; Mulwafu, Wapulumuka O.; Banda, Sembeyawo C. T.

    2016-06-01

    Recent studies in many developing countries have shown that Small Scale Independent Providers (SSIPs) in low-income areas (LIAs) are practical alternatives to water utilities. This study explored supply dynamics and quality of alternative water sources in four LIAs of Lilongwe City in Malawi using qualitative and quantitative methods. Household-level surveys (n = 120) and transect walks were employed to determine the socio-economic activities in the areas. One-on-one discussions were made with water source owners (SSIPs) (n = 24). Data on policy and institutional frameworks was collected through desktop study and Key Informant Interviews (n = 25). Quality of the water sources (shallow wells and boreholes) was determined by collecting grab samples (n = 24) in triplicate using 500 mL bottles. Selected physico-chemical and microbiological parameters were measured: pH, EC, TDS, turbidity, water temperature, salinity, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Cl-, F-, NO3-, alkalinity, water hardness, Fecal coliform (FC) and Faecal Streptococci (FS) bacteria. Water quality data was compared with Malawi Bureau of Standards (MBS) and World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for drinking water. Shallow wells were reported (65%, n = 120) to be the main source of water for household use in all areas. Some policies like prohibition of boreholes and shallow wells in City locations were in conflict with other provisions of water supply, sanitation and housing. High levels of FC (0-2100 cfu/100 mL) and FS (0-1490 cfu/100 mL) at several sites (>90%, n = 24) suggest water contamination likely to impact on human health. This calls for upgrading and recognition of the water sources for improved water service delivery.

  16. Using Dual Isotopes and a Bayesian Isotope Mixing Model to Evaluate Nitrate Sources of Surface Water in a Drinking Water Source Watershed, East China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A high concentration of nitrate (NO3− in surface water threatens aquatic systems and human health. Revealing nitrate characteristics and identifying its sources are fundamental to making effective water management strategies. However, nitrate sources in multi-tributaries and mix land use watersheds remain unclear. In this study, based on 20 surface water sampling sites for more than two years’ monitoring from April 2012 to December 2014, water chemical and dual isotopic approaches (δ15N-NO3− and δ18O-NO3− were integrated for the first time to evaluate nitrate characteristics and sources in the Huashan watershed, Jianghuai hilly region, China. Nitrate-nitrogen concentrations (ranging from 0.02 to 8.57 mg/L were spatially heterogeneous that were influenced by hydrogeological and land use conditions. Proportional contributions of five potential nitrate sources (i.e., precipitation; manure and sewage, M & S; soil nitrogen, NS; nitrate fertilizer; nitrate derived from ammonia fertilizer and rainfall were estimated by using a Bayesian isotope mixing model. The results showed that nitrate sources contributions varied significantly among different rainfall conditions and land use types. As for the whole watershed, M & S (manure and sewage and NS (soil nitrogen were major nitrate sources in both wet and dry seasons (from 28% to 36% for manure and sewage and from 24% to 27% for soil nitrogen, respectively. Overall, combining a dual isotopes method with a Bayesian isotope mixing model offered a useful and practical way to qualitatively analyze nitrate sources and transformations as well as quantitatively estimate the contributions of potential nitrate sources in drinking water source watersheds, Jianghuai hilly region, eastern China.

  17. Attributes of Domestic Water Sources in a Rapidly Urbanizing State Capital in a Developing Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Olajuyigbe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The efficiency and effectiveness of domestic water sources are often gauged by availability, accessibility and adequacy. This study examined various variables that could be harnessed in measuring these parameters with respect to water supply in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. Approach: The purpose of this study is to investigate the various attributes of domestic water sources in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. Three residential zones were identified in the city. They included the urban core, transitional zone and urban periphery. A sample size of 1,200 amounting to 4.0% of the total number of households in Ado-Ekiti, was chosen. Specific areas referred to as Data Delineation Areas (DDAs were identified in each zone. Based on the estimated population of each DDA, the number of households to be interviewed was estimated. In consonance with some assumptions, 600 (50.0% questionnaires were administered in the city core while 420 (35.0% and 180 (15.0% questionnaires were administered in the transitional zone and urban periphery, respectively. Subsequently, systematic sampling procedure was adopted in the choice of households to be interviewed. Some of the attributes investigated included the main source of domestic water used by household, access to improved source of water, distance from improved source to residence, average time spent to fetch from main source, average number of trips per person per day, quantity of water used per person per day and attack by water-borne diseases. Results: Households in Ado-Ekiti had access to diverse sources of domestic water including wells, boreholes, streams/rivers/springs, tanker-drawn water and rainwater. However, most households (59.8% depended on wells. Nevertheless, 84.3% had access to improved sources. Only 10.0% of these households obtained supplies from piped water while piped network is largely restricted to the city core. The research showed that distance, time, number of trips and adequacy of supplies

  18. Hydrogeology, ground-water quality, and source of ground water causing water-quality changes in the Davis well field at Memphis, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, William S.; Mirecki, June E.; Kingsbury, James A.

    1995-01-01

    An investigation was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey from 1992 to 1994 to collect and interpret hydrogeologic and water-quality data to determine the source of ground water causing water-quality changes in water from wells screened in the Memphis aquifer in the Davis well field at Memphis, Tennessee. Water-quality changes in aquifers used for water supply are of concern because these changes can indicate a potential for contamination of the aquifers by downward leakage from near-surface sources.

  19. Performance of pond-wetland complexes as a preliminary processor of drinking water sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weidong; Zheng, Jun; Wang, Zhongqiong; Zhang, Rongbin; Chen, Qinghua; Yu, Xinfeng; Yin, Chengqing

    2016-01-01

    Shijiuyang Constructed Wetland (110 hm(2)) is a drinking water source treatment wetland with primary structural units of ponds and plant-bed/ditch systems. The wetland can process about 250,000 tonnes of source water in the Xincheng River every day and supplies raw water for Shijiuyang Drinking Water Plant. Daily data for 28 months indicated that the major water quality indexes of source water had been improved by one grade. The percentage increase for dissolved oxygen and the removal rates of ammonia nitrogen, iron and manganese were 73.63%, 38.86%, 35.64%, and 22.14% respectively. The treatment performance weight of ponds and plant-bed/ditch systems was roughly equal but they treated different pollutants preferentially. Most water quality indexes had better treatment efficacy with increasing temperature and inlet concentrations. These results revealed that the pond-wetland complexes exhibited strong buffering capacity for source water quality improvement. The treatment cost of Shijiuyang Drinking Water Plant was reduced by about 30.3%. Regional rainfall significantly determined the external river water levels and adversely deteriorated the inlet water quality, thus suggesting that the "hidden" diffuse pollution in the multitudinous stream branches as well as their catchments should be the controlling emphases for river source water protection in the future. The combination of pond and plant-bed/ditch systems provides a successful paradigm for drinking water source pretreatment. Three other drinking water source treatment wetlands with ponds and plant-bed/ditch systems are in operation or construction in the stream networks of the Yangtze River Delta and more people will be benefited.

  20. Fecal contamination of drinking water in Kericho District, Western Kenya: role of source and household water handling and hygiene practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Too, Johana Kiplagat; Kipkemboi Sang, Willy; Ng'ang'a, Zipporah; Ngayo, Musa Otieno

    2016-08-01

    Inadequate protection of water sources, and poor household hygienic and handling practices have exacerbated fecal water contamination in Kenya. This study evaluated the rate and correlates of thermotolerant coliform (TTC) household water contamination in Kericho District, Western Kenya. Culture and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques were used to characterize TTCs. The disk diffusion method was used for antibiotic susceptibility profiling of pathogenic Escherichia coli. Out of the 103 households surveyed, 48 (46.6%) had TTC contaminated drinking water (TTC levels of >10 cfu/100 mL). Five of these households were contaminated with pathogenic E. coli, including 40% enteroaggregative E. coli, 40% enterotoxigenic E. coli, and 20% enteropathogenic E. coli. All these pathogenic E. coli strains were multidrug resistant to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, ampicillin, tetracycline and ampicillin/sulbactam. Rural household locality, drinking water hand contact, water storage container cleaning practice, hand washing before water withdrawal, water source total coliforms water. Significant proportions of household drinking water in Kericho District are contaminated with TTCs including with pathogenic multidrug-resistant E. coli. Source and household hygiene and practices contribute significantly to drinking water contamination.

  1. Early warning system for detection of microbial contamination of source waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogensen, Claus Tilsted; Bentien, Anders; Lau, Mogens; Højris, Bo; Iversen, Kåre; Klinting, Mette; Berg, Tommy Winter; Agersnap, Niels; Valvik, Martin

    2011-06-01

    Ensuring chemical and microbial water quality is an ever increasing important issue world-wide. Currently, determination of microbial water quality is a time (and money) consuming manual laboratory process. We have developed and field-tested an online and real-time sensor for measuring the microbial water quality of a wide range of source waters. The novel optical technique, in combination with advanced data analysis, yields a measure for the microbial content present in the sample. This gives a fast and reliable detection capability of microbial contamination of the source. Sample acquisition and analysis is performed real-time where objects in suspension are differentiated into e.g. organic/inorganic subgroups. The detection system is a compact, low power, reagentless device and thus ideal for applications where long service intervals and remote operations are desired. Due to the very large dynamic range in measured parameters, the system is able to monitor process water in industry and food production as well as monitor waste water, source water and water distribution systems. The applications envisioned for this system includes early warning of source water contamination and/or variation. This includes: water plants/water distribution networks, filtration systems (water purification), commercial buildings, swimming pools, waste water effluent, and industry in general.

  2. Isotopic Analysis of Source Waters Contributing to a Submarine Spring in San Salvador, Bahamas

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVivero, A. E.; Stalker, J. C.; Swart, P. K.

    2015-12-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge supplies coastlines with a source of fresh, nutrient-rich water. The connection between inland fresh/brackish waters and submarine springs is unknown on San Salvador, Bahamas. A submarine spring within the Cockburntown formation outcrop at Grotto Beach has been identified. In May 2014, a Hobo sonde was placed within the vent for 24 hours collecting conductivity and temperature data. Analysis concluded the springs salinity was at its lowest of 23.9 psu (practical salinity units) at low tide and highest of 29.4 psu at high tide. During May 2015, multiple water samples were collected from the spring vent and 9 surrounding inland water sources. These water sources include fresh and brackish blue holes, and preexisting man-made wells. Analysis of hydrogen and oxygen isotopes gives insight to the conduit connections and source waters of the submarine spring.

  3. Exploring the China-India Relationship, Roundable Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    slab; and composting toilets . See: JMP, "Types of drinking-water sources and sanitation," March 16, 2010. Available online at: http://www.wssinfo.org...to: flush toilets ; piped sewer systems; septic tanks; flush or pour flush to a pit latrine; ventilated improved pit latrines; pit latrines with

  4. Rapid In Situ Identification of Source Water and Leaf Water in a Variety of Plant Species and Functional Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Still, C. J.; Hu, J.; Berkelhammer, M. B.; Barnard, H. R.; Rahn, T.; Hsiao, G.; Raudzens Bailey, A.; Noone, D. C.

    2011-12-01

    Plant rooting distributions and use of soil water resources are important determinants of ecological and hydrological function. The isotope composition of plant xylem water can be used to infer soil water source variations, in particular differences among species and plant functional types. We report here on dynamics in the oxygen and hydrogen isotope composition of plant and soil water pools and fluxes within the Manitou Experimental Forest in the Colorado Rockies. For this work, we used multiple in situ laser-based spectroscopic analyzers to collect isotope data on soil water, leaf water, stem water, transpiration water, and canopy vapor from multiple heights in the canopy. Using an Induction Module - Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy system, which extracts and analyzes soil and plant samples in a few minutes, we measured soil and plant water isotopic composition from multiple soil depths and plant species at several points throughout the growing season. Stem (source) water isotopic composition varied greatly among the various plant species and functional types (pine trees, shrubs, forbs, grasses), broadly in agreement with expected plant rooting depths. The steady-state isotopic composition of leaf transpiration, another proxy of source water, was also consistent with this variation by plant functional type and rooting depth. Leaf water generally followed these patterns, but pine needles exhibited dramatic isotopic gradients along the needle length, with hydrogen isotope gradients of close to 100 per mil from leaf base to tip. We also introduced an isotopic label in two pines of different sizes (that were previously instrumented with sapflow probes and dendrometers) to further identify the pathways and pace of water flow though the trees. These results demonstrate the complex interactions between multiple source and fluxes of water, and that simple ecosystem isotope models, while generally valid, require careful evaluation as high-frequency and in situ isotopic data

  5. Water vapor: An extraordinary terahertz wave source under optical excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Keith [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, PO Box 380792, Cambridge, MA 02238-0792 (United States); HydroElectron Ventures Inc., 1303 Greene Avenue Suite 102, Westmount, QC, H3Z 2A7 (Canada)], E-mail: kjohnson@mit.edu; Price-Gallagher, Matthew [HydroElectron Ventures Inc., 1303 Greene Avenue Suite 102, Westmount, QC, H3Z 2A7 (Canada); Mamer, Orval; Lesimple, Alain [Mass Spectroscopy Unit, 740 Dr. Penfield, Suite 5300, McGill University, Montreal, QC, H3A 1A4 (Canada); Fletcher, Clark [HydroElectron Ventures Inc., 1303 Greene Avenue Suite 102, Westmount, QC, H3Z 2A7 (Canada); Chen Yunqing; Lu Xiaofei; Yamaguchi, Masashi; Zhang, X.-C. [W.M. Keck Laboratory for Terahertz Science, Center for Terahertz Research, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)

    2008-09-15

    In modern terahertz (THz) sensing and imaging spectroscopy, water is considered a nemesis to be avoided due to strong absorption in the THz frequency range. Here we report the first experimental demonstration and theoretical implications of using femtosecond laser pulses to generate intense broadband THz emission from water vapor. When we focused an intense laser pulse in water vapor contained in a gas cell or injected from a gas jet nozzle, an extraordinarily strong THz field from optically excited water vapor is observed. Water vapor has more than 50% greater THz generation efficiency than dry nitrogen. It had previously been assumed that the nonlinear generation of THz waves in this manner primarily involves a free-electron plasma, but we show that the molecular structure plays an essential role in the process. In particular, we found that THz wave generation from H{sub 2}O vapor is significantly stronger than that from D{sub 2}O vapor. Vibronic activities of water cluster ions, occurring naturally in water vapor, may possibly contribute to the observed isotope effect along with rovibrational contributions from the predominant monomers.

  6. Wetlands as a large carbon source for inland waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abril, Gwenaël; Martinez, Jean-Michel; Artigas, L. Felipe; Moreira-Turcq, Patricia; Benedetti, Marc F.; Vidal, Luciana; Meziane, Tarik; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Bernardes, Marcelo C.; Deborde, Jonathan; Lima Souza, Edivaldo; Albéric, Patrick; Landim de Souza, Marcelo F.; Roland, Fabio

    2014-05-01

    Recent estimates suggests that up to 3 PgC y-1 could be emitted as CO2 from global inland waters, offsetting the carbon uptake by terrestrial ecosystems. It is generally assumed that inland waters emit carbon previously fixed upstream by land plant photosynthesis and subsequently transported downstream with runoff. But the observed carbon fluxes from first-order streams do not account for all of the CO2 outgassing at the scale of entire watersheds. Three-quarters of the world's flooded land are temporary wetlands. However, the contribution of these productive ecosystems to the inland water carbon budget has been largely overlooked. Based on observations in rivers and floodplains of the central Amazon, we suggest that wetlands pump large amounts of atmospheric CO2 into river waters. Indeed, the magnitude of CO2 outgassing in Amazonian waters is spatially and temporally related to their connection with the semi-aquatic vegetation that performs aerial photosynthesis (Flooded forests and floating macrophytes). These wetlands export half of their gross primary production to waters as dissolved CO2 and organic carbon, compared to only a few percent of gross primary production in upland ecosystems. Global carbon budgets should explicitly address temporary or vegetated flooded areas, as these ecosystems combine high aerial primary production with a large and fast carbon export capacity, potentially supporting a significant fraction of CO2 evasion from inland waters.

  7. Waste-water impacts on groundwater: Cl/Br ratios and implications for arsenic pollution of groundwater in the Bengal Basin and Red River Basin, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, J M; Sikdar, P K; Hoque, M A; Ghosal, U

    2012-10-15

    Across West Bengal and Bangladesh, concentrations of Cl in much groundwater exceed the natural, upper limit of 10 mg/L. The Cl/Br mass ratios in groundwaters range up to 2500 and scatter along mixing lines between waste-water and dilute groundwater, with many falling near the mean end-member value for waste-water of 1561 at 126 mg/L Cl. Values of Cl/Br exceed the seawater ratio of 288 in uncommon NO(3)-bearing groundwaters, and in those containing measurable amounts of salt-corrected SO(4) (SO(4) corrected for marine salt). The data show that shallow groundwater tapped by tube-wells in the Bengal Basin has been widely contaminated by waste-water derived from pit latrines, septic tanks, and other methods of sanitary disposal, although reducing conditions in the aquifers have removed most evidence of NO(3) additions from these sources, and much evidence of their additions of SO(4). In groundwaters from wells in palaeo-channel settings, end-member modelling shows that >25% of wells yield water that comprises ≥10% of waste-water. In palaeo-interfluvial settings, only wells at the margins of the palaeo-interfluvial sequence contain detectable waste water. Settings are identifiable by well-colour survey, owner information, water composition, and drilling. Values of Cl/Br and faecal coliform counts are both inversely related to concentrations of pollutant As in groundwater, suggesting that waste-water contributions to groundwater in the near-field of septic-tanks and pit-latrines (within 30 m) suppress the mechanism of As-pollution and lessen the prevalence and severity of As pollution. In the far-field of such sources, organic matter in waste-water may increase groundwater pollution by As. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Genotoxicity evaluation of drinking water sources in human peripheral blood lymphocytes using the comet assay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yulin; CHEN Haigang; LI Zhaoli; SUN Liwei; QU Mengmeng; LI Mei; KONG Zhiming

    2008-01-01

    The potential harm of organic pollutants in drinking water to human health is widely focused on in the world; more and more pollutants with genotoxic substances are released into the aquatic environment. Water source samples were collected from 7 different localities of Nanjing City. The potential genotoxicity of organic extracts from drinking water sources were investigated by means of the comet assay in human peripheral lymphocytes. The results showed that all the organic extracts from all the water source samples could induce DNA damages of human peripheral blood lymphocytes at different levels. A significant difference (P < 0.01) was observed when compared with the solvent control. The DNA damage increased with the increase of the dosage of the original water source. Significant differences of DNA damage were observed in different drinking water sources, as shown by the multiple comparisons analysis at the dosage of 100×; the degree of DNA damage treated by Hushu waterworks (at town level) was the most serious, the arbitrary units (AU) was 141.62±6.96, however, that of Shangyuanmen waterworks (at city level) was only 109.64±2.97. The analysis also revealed that the genotoxicity of town's water sources was higher than that of the city. The results demonstrated that the comet assay can be successfully applied to the genotoxicity monitoring programs of drinking water sources.

  9. Community and household determinants of water quality in coastal Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarvey, Stephen T; Buszin, Justin; Reed, Holly; Smith, David C; Rahman, Zarah; Andrzejewski, Catherine; Awusabo-Asare, Kofi; White, Michael J

    2008-09-01

    Associations between water sources, socio-demographic characteristics and household drinking water quality are described in a representative sample of six coastal districts of Ghana's Central Region. Thirty-six enumeration areas (EAs) were randomly chosen from a representative survey of 90 EAs in rural, semi-urban and urban residence strata. In each EA, 24 households were randomly chosen for water quality sampling and socio-demographic interview. Escherichia coli per 100 ml H2O was quantified using the IDEXX Colilert system and multi-stage regression models estimated cross-sectional associations between water sources, sanitation and socio-demographic factors. Almost three quarters, 74%, of the households have > 2 E. coli /100 ml H2O. Tap water has significantly lower E. coli levels compared with surface or rainwater and well water had the highest levels. Households with a water closet toilet have significantly lower E. coli compared with those using pit latrines or no toilets. Household size is positively associated, and a possessions index is negatively associated, with E. coli. Variations in community and household socio-demographic and behavioural factors are key determinants of drinking water quality. These factors should be included in planning health education associated with investments in water systems.

  10. Evaluation of the effectiveness of rural latrine improvement on intestinal parasitic infection in residents of Kaiyang County%农村改厕对居民肠道寄生虫感染的效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李全芳; 刘明强; 张春芳; 易永强; 刘俊伦; 陈晓琴; 蒋国书; 卢嵘

    2011-01-01

    Villages in Kaiyang County with different rates of coverage by hygienic latrines were studied. The rates of intestinal verminosis and parasite infection in a villages with improved latrines and villages with unimproved latrines were investigated and analyzed using a questionnaire, fecal examination, and testing for ova of soil-transmitted parasites. The rate of coverage by hygienic latrines was 80. 75% in villages with improved latrines and 29. 76% in villages with unimproved latrines. Residents in villages with improved latrines had a rate of intestinal parasitic infection of 6.62% compared to 12.84% for residents in villages with unimproved latrines; the difference between the two was significant(x2= 11.61,P<0. 01). Ova of soil-transmitted parasites were detected at a rate of 4.00% in residents of villages with improved latrines and 40.00% in residents of villages with unimproved latrines; the difference between the two rates was significant (x2 =93.00,P<0.01). Hygienic latrines have reduced the rate of intestinal verminosis and environmental pollution and play an important role in the control of parasite infections in rural residents.%选择开阳县无害化厕所改造村和未改造村为调查点,采用问卷调查、检测粪便和土壤寄生虫卵,对两村的肠道寄生虫病、寄生虫感染率进行调查.改厕村和未改厕的卫生厕所覆盖率分别80.75%和29.76%,其居民肠道寄生虫感染率分别为6.62%和12.84%,差异有统计学意义(x2=11.61,P<0.01),土壤蠕虫虫卵检出率分别为4.00%和40.00%,差异有统计学意义(x2=93.00,P<0.01).卫生厕所可降低人群肠道寄生虫病的感染率,同时也降低对周围环境污染,对农村防治人群感染寄生虫病有积极作用.

  11. Anthropogenic nutrient sources rival natural sources on small scales in the coastal waters of the Southern California Bight

    KAUST Repository

    Howard, Meredith D. A.

    2014-01-26

    Anthropogenic nutrients have been shown to provide significant sources of nitrogen (N) that have been linked to increased primary production and harmful algal blooms worldwide. There is a general perception that in upwelling regions, the flux of anthropogenic nutrient inputs is small relative to upwelling flux, and therefore anthropogenic inputs have relatively little effect on the productivity of coastal waters. To test the hypothesis that natural sources (e.g., upwelling) greatly exceed anthropogenic nutrient sources to the Southern California Bight (SCB), this study compared the source contributions of N from four major nutrient sources: (1) upwelling, (2) treated wastewater effluent discharged to ocean outfalls, (3) riverine runoff, and (4) atmospheric deposition. This comparison was made using large regional data sets combined with modeling on both regional and local scales. At the regional bight-wide spatial scale, upwelling was the largest source of N by an order of magnitude to effluent and two orders of magnitude to riverine runoff. However, at smaller spatial scales, more relevant to algal bloom development, natural and anthropogenic contributions were equivalent. In particular, wastewater effluent and upwelling contributed the same quantity of N in several subregions of the SCB. These findings contradict the currently held perception that in upwelling-dominated regions anthropogenic nutrient inputs are negligible, and suggest that anthropogenic nutrients, mainly wastewater effluent, can provide a significant source of nitrogen for nearshore productivity in Southern California coastal waters.

  12. Source determination of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-02-05

    Feb 5, 2008 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 7 (3), pp. 282-285, 5 ... Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in surface water and sediment of Ekpan Creek of the Warri River ... contaminated with industrial PAHs wastes have directly.

  13. 40 CFR 144.82 - What must I do to protect underground sources of drinking water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sources of drinking water? 144.82 Section 144.82 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM Requirements for Owners and... contaminant may cause a violation of the primary drinking water standards under 40 CFR part 141, other...

  14. 33 CFR 385.36 - Elimination or transfer of existing legal sources of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Elimination or transfer of existing legal sources of water. 385.36 Section 385.36 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PROGRAMMATIC REGULATIONS FOR THE COMPREHENSIVE...

  15. Assessment of variable drinking water sources used in Egypt on broiler health and welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. ELSaidy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study assessed the impact of four water sources used as drinking water in Egypt for broiler chickens on its performance, carcass characteristic, hematological, and immunological responses. Materials and Methods: A total of 204 unsexed 1-day old Indian River broiler chickens were used in this study. They were randomly allocated into four treatment groups of 51 birds in each, with three replicates, 17 birds per replicate. Groups were classified according to water source they had been received into (T1 received farm tap water; (T2 received filtered tap water (T3 received farm stored water at rooftop tanks, (T4 received underground (well water. Results: All water sources showed no significant differences among treated groups at (p>0.05 for most of the performance parameters and carcass characteristics. However (T2 group showed higher records for body weight (BWT, BWT gain (BWG, feed conversion ratio, bursa weight, serum total protein, globulin (G, albumin (A and A/G ratio, Ab titer against New castle disease virus vaccine. On the other hand, it showed lower records for water intake (WI, WI/Feed intake ratio, total leukocytes count %, heterophil %, lymphocyte %, H/L ratio, liver weight, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, serum uric acid and creatinine. Where filtered water reverse osmosis showed lowest records for bacterial load, the absence of coliform bacteria, total dissolved solids (TDS, electrical conductivity (EC and salinity. On the other hand stored water showed higher numerical values for TDS, EC, alkalinity, salinity, pH, bacterial count, and coliform count. Conclusion: Base on the results of this study, it is concluded that different water sources could safely be used as drinking water for poultry; as long as it is present within the acceptable range of drinking water quality for chickens. Suggesting the benefits of treatment of water sources on improving chickens’ health and welfare. Draw

  16. Potential Chemical Effects of Changes in the Source of Water Supply for the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bexfield, Laura M.; Anderholm, Scott K.

    2008-01-01

    Chemical modeling was used by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority (henceforth, Authority), to gain insight into the potential chemical effects that could occur in the Authority's water distribution system as a result of changing the source of water used for municipal and industrial supply from ground water to surface water, or to some mixture of the two sources. From historical data, representative samples of ground-water and surface-water chemistry were selected for modeling under a range of environmental conditions anticipated to be present in the distribution system. Mineral phases calculated to have the potential to precipitate from ground water were compared with the compositions of precipitate samples collected from the current water distribution system and with mineral phases calculated to have the potential to precipitate from surface water and ground-water/surface-water mixtures. Several minerals that were calculated to have the potential to precipitate from ground water in the current distribution system were identified in precipitate samples from pipes, reservoirs, and water heaters. These minerals were the calcium carbonates aragonite and calcite, and the iron oxides/hydroxides goethite, hematite, and lepidocrocite. Several other minerals that were indicated by modeling to have the potential to precipitate were not found in precipitate samples. For most of these minerals, either the kinetics of formation were known to be unfavorable under conditions present in the distribution system or the minerals typically are not formed through direct precipitation from aqueous solutions. The minerals with potential to precipitate as simulated for surface-water samples and ground-water/surface-water mixtures were quite similar to the minerals with potential to precipitate from ground-water samples. Based on the modeling results along with kinetic considerations, minerals that appear most likely to

  17. Early warning system for detection of protozoal contamination of source waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Mogensen, Claus; Berg, Tommy W.

    2012-01-01

    water contamination e.g. water plants/water distribution networks, filtration systems (water purification), commercial buildings, swimming pools, and industry in general. Data from on-going field tests as well as sensitivity and specificity testing of the system will be presented at the conference.......Ensuring water quality is an ever increasing important issue world-wide. Currently, detection of protozoa in drinking water is a costly and time consuming process. We have developed an online, real-time sensor for detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia spp. in a range of source waters. The novel...

  18. Bacteriological assessment of urban water sources in Khamis Mushait Governorate, southwestern Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh AlOtaibi Eed L

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urban water sources of Khamis Mushait Governorate, southwestern Saudi Arabia, were studied to assess their bacteriological characteristics and suitability for potable purposes. A cross-sectional epidemiological method was adopted to investigate the four main urban water sources (i.e. bottled, desalinated, surface, and well water. These were sampled and examined between February and June 2007. Results A total of 95 water samples from bottled, desalinated, surface, and well water were collected randomly from the study area using different gathering and analysing techniques. The bacteriological examination of water samples included the most probable number of presumptive coliforms, faecal coliforms, and faecal streptococci (MPN/100 ml. The results showed that the total coliform count (MPN/100 ml was not detected in any samples taken from bottled water, while it was detected in those taken from desalinated, surface, and well water: percentages were 12.9, 80.0, and 100.0, respectively. Faecal coliforms were detected in desalinated, surface, and well water, with percentages of 3.23, 60.0 and 87.88, respectively. About 6.45% of desalinated water, 53.33% of surface water, and 57.58% of well water was found positive for faecal streptococci. Colonies of coliforms were identified in different micro-organisms with various percentages. Conclusion Water derived from traditional sources (wells showed increases in most of the investigated bacteriological parameters, followed by surface water as compared to bottled or desalinated water. This may be attributed to the fact that well and surface water are at risk of contamination as indicated by the higher levels of most bacteriological parameters. Moreover, well water is exposed to point sources of pollution such as septic wells and domestic and farming effluents, as well as to soil with a high humus content. The lower bacteriological characteristics in samples from bottled water indicate that

  19. Establishment of a Practical Approach for Characterizing the Source of Particulates in Water Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seon-Ha Chae

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Water quality complaints related to particulate matter and discolored water can be troublesome for water utilities in terms of follow-up investigations and implementation of appropriate actions because particulate matter can enter from a variety of sources; moreover, physicochemical processes can affect the water quality during the purification and transportation processes. The origin of particulates can be attributed to sources such as background organic/inorganic materials from water sources, water treatment plants, water distribution pipelines that have deteriorated, and rehabilitation activities in the water distribution systems. In this study, a practical method is proposed for tracing particulate sources. The method entails collecting information related to hydraulic, water quality, and structural conditions, employing a network flow-path model, and establishing a database of physicochemical properties for tubercles and slimes. The proposed method was implemented within two city water distribution systems that were located in Korea. These applications were conducted to demonstrate the practical applicability of the method for providing solutions to customer complaints. The results of the field studies indicated that the proposed method would be feasible for investigating the sources of particulates and for preparing appropriate action plans for complaints related to particulate matter.

  20. Pollution source control by water utilities – characterisation and implications for water management: research results from England and Wales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiller, M.; McIntosh, B.S.; Seaton, R.A.F.; Jeffrey, P.

    2013-01-01

    The treatment of agriculturally polluted water to potable standards is costly for water companies. Changes in agricultural practice can reduce these costs while also meeting the objectives of European Union (EU) environmental legislation. In this paper, the uptake of source control interventions (SC

  1. Anaerobic treatment as a core technology for energy, nutrients and water from source-separated domestic waste(water)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeman, G.; Kujawa, K.; Mes, de T.Z.D.; Graaff, de M.S.; Abu-Ghunmi, L.N.A.H.; Mels, A.R.; Meulman, B.; Temmink, B.G.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Lier, van J.B.; Lettinga, G.

    2008-01-01

    Based on results of pilot scale research with source-separated black water (BW) and grey water (GW), a new sanitation concept is proposed. BW and GW are both treated in a UASB (-septic tank) for recovery of CH4 gas. Kitchen waste is added to the anaerobic BW treatment for doubling the biogas product

  2. Pollution source control by water utilities – characterisation and implications for water management: research results from England and Wales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiller, M.; McIntosh, B.S.; Seaton, R.A.F.; Jeffrey, P.

    2013-01-01

    The treatment of agriculturally polluted water to potable standards is costly for water companies. Changes in agricultural practice can reduce these costs while also meeting the objectives of European Union (EU) environmental legislation. In this paper, the uptake of source control interventions

  3. Community shift of biofilms developed in a full-scale drinking water distribution system switching from different water sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weiying; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Junpeng; Qiao, Yu; Xu, Chen; Liu, Yao; Qian, Lin; Li, Wenming; Dong, Bingzhi

    2016-02-15

    The bacterial community of biofilms in drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) with various water sources has been rarely reported. In this research, biofilms were sampled at three points (A, B, and C) during the river water source phase (phase I), the interim period (phase II) and the reservoir water source phase (phase III), and the biofilm community was determined using the 454-pyrosequencing method. Results showed that microbial diversity declined in phase II but increased in phase III. The primary phylum was Proteobacteria during three phases, while the dominant class at points A and B was Betaproteobacteria (>49%) during all phases, but that changed to Holophagae in phase II (62.7%) and Actinobacteria in phase III (35.6%) for point C, which was closely related to its water quality. More remarkable community shift was found at the genus level. In addition, analysis results showed that water quality could significantly affect microbial diversity together, while the nutrient composition (e.g. C/N ration) of the water environment might determine the microbial community. Furthermore, Mycobacterium spp. and Pseudomonas spp. were detected in the biofilm, which should give rise to attention. This study revealed that water source switching produced substantial impact on the biofilm community. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Field experiment on coalmine heat disaster governance using cold source from surface water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Pingye; Zhu Guolong; Liu Yuqing; Duan Mengmeng; Wu Junyin

    2014-01-01

    Regarding the lack of cold source for underground cooling systems from either mine inflow or return air, field experiments were taken in a high temperature deep coal mine with abundant cold source from surface water. Taking Sanhejian coal mine as an example, this paper introduced the technology scheme of heat disaster governance using surface water cold source. The paper presents the basics of this field experiment at the beginning, following by the design and site layout of the cooling system including the analysis and calculation of cold source. Numerical calculation method is also applied based on the operation parameters to simulate the influence to the surface river ecosystem. The results suggest that the temperature of surface water shall be lower than 34 ?C after heat exchange, and when more cooling capacities are needed in the future, increasing the water flow is more favorable than increasing the cooling range of water, which is better for the ecological environment protection.

  5. Modeling Source Water TOC Using Hydroclimate Variables and Local Polynomial Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Carleigh C; Rajagopalan, Balaji; Summers, R Scott

    2016-04-19

    To control disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation in drinking water, an understanding of the source water total organic carbon (TOC) concentration variability can be critical. Previously, TOC concentrations in water treatment plant source waters have been modeled using streamflow data. However, the lack of streamflow data or unimpaired flow scenarios makes it difficult to model TOC. In addition, TOC variability under climate change further exacerbates the problem. Here we proposed a modeling approach based on local polynomial regression that uses climate, e.g. temperature, and land surface, e.g., soil moisture, variables as predictors of TOC concentration, obviating the need for streamflow. The local polynomial approach has the ability to capture non-Gaussian and nonlinear features that might be present in the relationships. The utility of the methodology is demonstrated using source water quality and climate data in three case study locations with surface source waters including river and reservoir sources. The models show good predictive skill in general at these locations, with lower skills at locations with the most anthropogenic influences in their streams. Source water TOC predictive models can provide water treatment utilities important information for making treatment decisions for DBP regulation compliance under future climate scenarios.

  6. Source Water Flow Pathways In Forested, Mountain, Headwater Streams: A Link Between Sediment Movement Patterns And Stream Water Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, S.; Conklin, M. H.; Liu, F.

    2015-12-01

    Three years of continuous and discrete sediment and water quality data, from four forested, mountain, headwater catchments in the Sierra Nevada, is used to identify water sources, determine the importance of sub-surface flow pathways, detect any changes in source waters due to seasonal variation or drought, and link flow pathways with observed patterns of in-channel sediment movement within the study watersheds. Patterns in stream chemistry and turbidity point to infiltration as the dominant flow pathway within these catchments. Data support a flow pathway conceptual model in which precipitation water infiltrates into the shallow or deeper subsurface, increasing the hydraulic head of the water table and pushing pre-event water into the stream ahead of event water. Study catchments contain perennial streams and are characterized by a Mediterranean climate with a distinct wet and dry season. Sites are located in the rain-snow transition zone with snow making up 40 to 60 percent of average annual precipitation. Barring human disturbances such as logging/grazing (compaction) or fire (hydrophobicity), catchment soils have high infiltration capacities. Springs and seeps maintain baseflow during the summer low-flow season, and shifting chemical signals within the streams indicate the increased importance of sub-surface water sources during drought years. End-member mixing analysis was conducted to identify possible water end members. Turbidity hysteresis patterns described by previous studies show in-channel sources are dominant for discharge events year round, and there is no difference in fine sediment delivery to streams with or without a soil protecting layer of snow on the land surface. The dominance of sub-surface water sources and evidence for infiltration flow fits with turbidity data, as little material is reaching the stream due to erosive overland flow. An understanding of flow pathways provides a foundation for sustainable land use management in forested

  7. The impact of Kuroshio water on the source water of the southeastern Taiwan Strait:numerical results

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wenzhou; ZHUANG Xuefen; CHEN Chentung Arthur; HUANG Tinghsuan

    2015-01-01

    Model output from a Pacific basin-wide three-dimensional physical-biogeochemical model during the period of 1991 to 2008 was used to investigate the impact of Kuroshio water on the source water of the southeastern Taiwan Strait. Based on the characteristic salinities of both Kuroshio water and the South China Sea water, a Kuroshio impact index (KII) was designed to measure the degree of impact. The KII correlates significantly with the northeast-southwest component of wind stress, but the former lags the latter by approximately two months. The correlation coefficient between them increases from 0.267 4 to 0.852 9, with a lag time increasing from 0 to 63 days. The impact of Kuroshio Water is greater in winter and spring than in summer and autumn. At the interannual time scale, El Niño and La Niña events play an important role in impacting the KII. During El Niño events, more Kuroshio water contributes to the source water of the southeastern Taiwan Strait. Conversely, during La Niña events, less Kuroshio water contributes to the source water.

  8. Molecular detection of Fasciola hepatica in water sources of District Nowshehra Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Imran; Khan, Amir Muhammad; Ayaz, Khan, Sanaullah; Anees, Muhammad; Khan, Shaukat Ali

    2012-12-01

    Fascioliasis is spread through contamination of water sources and cause morbidity throughout the world. In the current study 300 water samples were processed by PCR for detection of Fasciola hepatica. The overall prevalence in different water sources was 9.66 % (29/300). Highest prevalence was recorded in drain water16 % (16/100) followed by tube well water 10% (4/40), open well water 8 % (8/100) and the lowest was recorded in tap water 1.66 %(1/60). The significant difference P < 0.05 was recorded during data analysis. The highest prevalence was recorded in summer. It was concluded from the study that cleaning and filtration should be adopted to avoid the health hazards against water borne zoonotic parasites.

  9. Prevalence of Giardia lamblia in Different Water Sources of District Nowshehra, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    khan, Shaukat Ali; Ayaz, Sultan; Khan, Sanaullah; Anees, Muhammad; Khan, Amir Muhammad; Khan, Imran

    2012-12-01

    Giardia lamblia is a cosmopolitan parasite that occurs worldwide and generally effects gastrointestinal tract. Water played a media for transmission of Giardia to different hosts. A total of 300 water samples were examined from different water sources, i.e. tap, open well, bore well and drain waters and DNA was extracted by trizol method through prescribed protocol. DNA was amplified through PCR. The overall prevalence of G. lamblia was 27.66% (83/300). Among these 2.5% (1/40) in bore well water, 29% (29/100) open well, 18.83% (11/60) tap water and 42% (42/100) drain water. It is concluded from the study that Giardia is frequently found in all water sources and is the main cause of ill health.

  10. Application of a Stereo Constructed Wetland Mode to the Treatment of Slightly Polluted Source Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Yu-quan; ZUO; Zhuo; GUO; Xiao

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The study aimed to discuss the application of a stereo constructed wetland to the treatment of slightly polluted source water. [Method] In this study, a new stereo constructed wetland mode was put forward, and a pilot project of water ecological purification in Xinsheng River, the diversion channel of Shijiuyang Waterwork in Jiaxing City, were analyzed. Afterwards, the impact factors of water purification by the technology were discussed from water quality and quantity, season and climate, species configuration, management and maintenance. [Result] Under three different hydraulic loading conditions, the pilot project effectively improved water SD and DO level, and reduced SS, CODCr, NH3-N, TN and TP significantly in summer and autumn, so that effluent water quality reached surface water standard at Grade III. [Conclusion] The stereo constructed wetland mode composed of constructed wetland and underwater forest used to treat slightly polluted source water is feasible and has a good promotion prospect.

  11. Human-, Ovine-, and Bovine-Specific Viral Source Tracking Tools to Discriminate Between the Major Fecal Sources in Agricultural Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusiñol, Marta; Moriarty, Elaine; Lin, Susan; Bofill-Mas, Sílvia; Gilpin, Brent

    2016-03-01

    This study evaluated the sources of fecal contamination in different river catchments, using a combination of microbial source tracking tools, for human, ruminant, ovine and bovine livestock, in order to define appropriate water management strategies. Every source of waterway pollution was evaluated in river water samples from one urban river catchment and two important farming regions in New Zealand. Fecal pollution was initially measured by testing Escherichia coli and evaluating the presence of human- and ruminant-associated DNA markers of Bacteroidales (BiAdo, BacHum-UCD, BacH, and BacR) and human and ruminant fecal sterols/stanols ratios. Then specific fecal pollution sources were assessed with previously reported quantitative PCR assays targeting human-, bovine-, and ovine-specific viruses: human adenoviruses (HAdV), human JC polyomaviruses, bovine polyomaviruses (BPyV), and ovine polyomaviruses (OPyV). High level of ruminant fecal contamination was detected all over the farming areas, whereas no ruminant sources were identified in the urban river sampling sites. BacR was the most frequently observed ruminant marker and OPyV and BPyV allowed the identification of ovine and bovine fecal sources. The human fecal viral marker (HAdV) was the most frequently observed human marker, highly abundant in the urban sites, and also present in farming areas. This is the first study using simultaneously the ovine and the bovine viral markers to identify and quantify both bovine and ovine fecal pollution.

  12. The Influence of Drinking Water Access on the Occurrence of Water-borne Diseases (Diarrhea and Typhoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijah Azhar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poor and inadequate drinking water supply are the cause of the high occurrence of water-borne diseases,such as diarrhea and typhoid. These diseases often caused an outbreak among the citizens. This article was a furtheranalysis of data obtained from Basic Health Research (Riskesdas in 2007 with the aim to figure out the influence of drinkingwater access against the occurrence of diarrhea and typhoid. Methods: the used samples were taken from all samples ofthe 2007 Riskesdas, which had complete data about drinking water supply. The dependent variables were diarrhea andtyphoid, and the independent variables were total water usage, physical quality of the water, the water access, type offacilities, type of sanitation facilities, hygiene behavior (e. g. hand washing with soap before having and preparing meals,hand washing with soap after defecation, the use of latrine, and characteristic of respondents (educational background,occupation, age, and gender. Analysis was performed by using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. Results:showed that diarrhea and typhoid were influenced by the difficulty of the access to get water from sources, difficulty levelfor obtaining the water, non physical-standards water, low educational background, behavior of hand washing and latrineusage. Conclusion: was water-borne diseases occured if the access of water was limited, inadequate water’s physicalquality and unhigienic behavior.

  13. Multiple sources of soluble atmospheric iron to Antarctic waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winton, V. H. L.; Edwards, R.; Delmonte, B.; Ellis, A.; Andersson, P. S.; Bowie, A.; Bertler, N. A. N.; Neff, P.; Tuohy, A.

    2016-03-01

    The Ross Sea, Antarctica, is a highly productive region of the Southern Ocean. Significant new sources of iron (Fe) are required to sustain phytoplankton blooms in the austral summer. Atmospheric deposition is one potential source. The fractional solubility of Fe is an important variable determining Fe availability for biological uptake. To constrain aerosol Fe inputs to the Ross Sea region, fractional solubility of Fe was analyzed in a snow pit from Roosevelt Island, eastern Ross Sea. In addition, aluminum, dust, and refractory black carbon (rBC) concentrations were analyzed, to determine the contribution of mineral dust and combustion sources to the supply of aerosol Fe. We estimate exceptionally high dissolved Fe (dFe) flux of 1.2 × 10-6 g m-2 y-1 and total dissolvable Fe flux of 140 × 10-6 g m-2 y-1 for 2011/2012. Deposition of dust, Fe, Al, and rBC occurs primarily during spring-summer. The observed background fractional Fe solubility of ~0.7% is consistent with a mineral dust source. Radiogenic isotopic ratios and particle size distribution of dust indicates that the site is influenced by local and remote sources. In 2011/2012 summer, relatively high dFe concentrations paralleled both mineral dust and rBC deposition. Around half of the annual aerosol Fe deposition occurred in the austral summer phytoplankton growth season; however, the fractional Fe solubility was low. Our results suggest that the seasonality of dFe deposition can vary and should be considered on longer glacial-interglacial timescales.

  14. Uranium in Hot Water Tanks: A Source of Tenorm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-08-01

    geologic timescale evaluations (McCall et al., 2001), and for actinide characterization ( Havrilla , 1997). Drinking Water Regulations The EPA has...L.J., Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials (Reinhold Publishing Corp. 1957). (As quoted from IAEA Tech. Report Series No. 15, 1963.) Havrilla

  15. Partitioning evapotranspiration into green and blue water sources in the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velpuri, Naga Manohar; Senay, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we combined two actual evapotranspiration datasets (ET), one obtained from a root zone water balance model and another from an energy balance model, to partition annual ET into green (rainfall-based) and blue (surface/groundwater) water sources. Time series maps of green water ET (GWET) and blue water ET (BWET) are produced for the conterminous United States (CONUS) over 2001–2015.

  16. Water Quality Deterioration in Artificial Lake: Their Impact and Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Azlina Abd Aziz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Seven sampling stations were identified to determine the status of water quality in Cempaka Lake, Bandar Baru Bangi within two sampling periods of June 2010 and August 2010. The objectives of the study are to identify and classify the current water quality in the lake. A total of twelve water quality parameters have been analyzed in-situ and ex-situ and classified under WQI and NWQS classifications, four parameters were analyzed using HYDROLAB meter DataSonde, eight parameters were analyzed under the standard of the HACH and APHA methods. The results are pH  between 6.13 to 6.92, DO 1.63 to 4.94 mg/L, temperature 26.02 to 28.37 ºC, conductivity of 94 to 213mS/cm, BOD  0.38 up to 2.4 mg/L, NH3-N  2.00 to 2.84 mg/L, phosphate 0.21 to 0.56 mg/L, sulphate 21 to 35 mg/L, COD 9.3 to 69 mg/L, TSS of 1.8 to 33.3 mg/L, oil and grease 5.7 to 11.8 mg/L  and hardness 13.89 to 35.57 mg/L. Based on this classification, the water quality of Cempaka Lake was classified as Class II and III. The results are clearly shown that the majority of the water quality parameters in the study area are more polluted during the first sampling compared to the second sampling. Cempaka Lake has been contaminated due to residential activities, clinic centres, restaurants, petrol pump stations that release discharge into streams, rivers and eventually the lake become a brownish color and a smell of ammonia.

  17. Bacterial community diversity and variation in spray water sources and the tomato fruit surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ottesen Andrea R

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum consumption has been one of the most common causes of produce-associated salmonellosis in the United States. Contamination may originate from animal waste, insects, soil or water. Current guidelines for fresh tomato production recommend the use of potable water for applications coming in direct contact with the fruit, but due to high demand, water from other sources is frequently used. We sought to describe the overall bacterial diversity on the surface of tomato fruit and the effect of two different water sources (ground and surface water when used for direct crop applications by generating a 454-pyrosequencing 16S rRNA dataset of these different environments. This study represents the first in depth characterization of bacterial communities in the tomato fruit surface and the water sources commonly used in commercial vegetable production. Results The two water sources tested had a significantly different bacterial composition. Proteobacteria was predominant in groundwater samples, whereas in the significantly more diverse surface water, abundant phyla also included Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Verrucomicrobia. The fruit surface bacterial communities on tomatoes sprayed with both water sources could not be differentiated using various statistical methods. Both fruit surface environments had a high representation of Gammaproteobacteria, and within this class the genera Pantoea and Enterobacter were the most abundant. Conclusions Despite the major differences observed in the bacterial composition of ground and surface water, the season long use of these very different water sources did not have a significant impact on the bacterial composition of the tomato fruit surface. This study has provided the first next-generation sequencing database describing the bacterial communities living in the fruit surface of a tomato crop under two different spray water regimes, and therefore represents an

  18. Potential Impacts of Food Production on Freshwater Availability Considering Water Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinjiro Yano

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We quantify the potential impacts of global food production on freshwater availability (water scarcity footprint; WSF by applying the water unavailability factor (fwua as a characterization factor and a global water resource model based on life cycle impact assessment (LCIA. Each water source, including rainfall, surface water, and groundwater, has a distinct fwua that is estimated based on the renewability rate of each geographical water cycle. The aggregated consumptive water use level for food production (water footprint inventory; WI was found to be 4344 km3/year, and the calculated global total WSF was 18,031 km3 H2Oeq/year, when considering the difference in water sources. According to the fwua concept, which is based on the land area required to obtain a unit volume of water from each source, the calculated annual impact can also be represented as 98.5 × 106 km2. This value implies that current agricultural activities requires a land area that is over six times larger than global total cropland. We also present the net import of the WI and WSF, highlighting the importance of quantitative assessments for utilizing global water resources to achieve sustainable water use globally.

  19. Spatial variation and source apportionment of water pollution in Qiantang River (China) using statistical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fang; Wang, Xiaoquan; Lou, Liping; Zhou, Zhiqing; Wu, Jiaping

    2010-03-01

    Understanding the spatial distribution and apportioning the sources of water pollution are important in the study and efficient management of water resources. In this work, we considered data for 13 water quality variables collected during the year 2004 at 46 monitoring sites along the Qiantang River (China). Fuzzy comprehensive analysis categorized the data into three major pollution zones (low, moderate, and high) based on national quality standards for surface waters, China. Most sites classified as "low pollution zones" (LP) occurred in the main river channel, whereas those classified as "moderate and high pollution zones" (MP and HP, respectively) occurred in the tributaries. Factor analysis identified two potential pollution sources that explained 67% of the total variance in LP, two potential pollution sources that explained 73% of the total variance in MP, and three potential pollution sources that explained 80% of the total variance in HP. UNMIX was used to estimate contributions from identified pollution sources to each water quality variable and each monitoring site. Most water quality variables were influenced primarily by pollution due to industrial wastewater, agricultural activities and urban runoff. In LP, non-point source pollution such as agricultural runoff and urban runoff dominated; in MP and HP, mixed source pollution dominated. The pollution in the small tributaries was more serious than that in the main channel. These results provide information for developing better pollution control strategies for the Qiantang River.

  20. The interesting cross-paths of HIV/AIDS and water in Southern Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improving water quality will lead to a decline in child and adult mortality as well ... in infants; anti-retroviral treatment, as safe water is needed during anti-retroviral ... safe water, supply points and latrines should be close to points of use as this will ... as stigmatisation of HIV/AIDS has made the disease a human rights issue.

  1. Multi-dimensional water quality assessment of an urban drinking water source elucidated by high resolution underwater towed vehicle mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Alan; Spiers, Graeme; Hostetler, Blair; Ray, James; Wallschläger, Dirk

    2016-04-15

    Spatial surveys of Ramsey Lake, Sudbury, Ontario water quality were conducted using an innovative underwater towed vehicle (UTV) equipped with a multi-parameter probe providing real-time water quality data. The UTV revealed underwater vent sites through high resolution monitoring of different spatial chemical characteristics using common sensors (turbidity, chloride, dissolved oxygen, and oxidation/reduction sensors) that would not be feasible with traditional water sampling methods. Multi-parameter probe vent site identification is supported by elevated alkalinity and silica concentrations at these sites. The identified groundwater vent sites appear to be controlled by bedrock fractures that transport water from different sources with different contaminants of concern. Elevated contaminants, such as, arsenic and nickel and/or nutrient concentrations are evident at the vent sites, illustrating the potential of these sources to degrade water quality.

  2. Source and fate of hydraulic fracturing water in the Barnett Shale: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicot, Jean-Philippe; Scanlon, Bridget R; Reedy, Robert C; Costley, Ruth A

    2014-02-18

    Considerable controversy continues about water availability for and potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing (HF) of hydrocarbon assets on water resources. Our objective was to quantify HF water volume in terms of source, reuse, and disposal, using the Barnett Shale in Texas as a case study. Data were obtained from commercial and state databases, river authorities, groundwater conservation districts, and operators. Cumulative water use from ∼ 18,000 (mostly horizontal) wells since 1981 through 2012 totaled ∼ 170,000 AF (210 Mm(3)); ∼ 26 000 AF (32 Mm(3)) in 2011, representing 32% of Texas HF water use and ∼ 0.2% of 2011 state water consumption. Increase in water use per well by 60% (from 3 to 5 Mgal/well; 0.011-0.019 Mm(3)) since the mid-2000s reflects the near-doubling of horizontal-well lengths (2000-3800 ft), offset by a reduction in water-use intensity by 40% (2000-1200 gal/ft; 2.5-1.5 m(3)/m). Water sources include fresh surface water and groundwater in approximately equal amounts. Produced water amount is inversely related to gas production, exceeds HF water volume, and is mostly disposed in injection wells. Understanding the historical evolution of water use in the longest-producing shale play is invaluable for assessing its water footprint for energy production.

  3. Distribution, sources and composition of antibiotics in sediment, overlying water and pore water from Taihu Lake, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Jian [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Laboratory of Riverine Ecological Conservation and Technology, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Zhang, Yuan, E-mail: zhangyuan@craes.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Laboratory of Riverine Ecological Conservation and Technology, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Zhou, Changbo [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Guo, Changsheng; Wang, Dingming [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Laboratory of Riverine Ecological Conservation and Technology, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Du, Ping [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Luo, Yi [College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Wan, Jun; Meng, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Laboratory of Riverine Ecological Conservation and Technology, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2014-11-01

    The occurrence of 15 antibiotics classified as sulphonamides, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, tetracyclines and trimethoprim in sediment, overlying water, and pore water matrices in Taihu Lake, China was studied. The total concentrations were from 4.1 μg/kg to 731 μg/kg, from 127 ng/L to 1210 ng/L, and from 1.5 ng/L to 216 ng/L in sediment, overlying water and pore water, respectively. Antibiotics in different locations originated from various sources, depending on human, agricultural and aquacultural activities. Composition analysis indicated that human-derived and animal-derived drugs significantly contributed to the total contamination of antibiotics in the lake, indicating the high complexity of contamination sources in Taihu Lake Basin. The in situ sediment–pore water partitioning coefficients were generally greater than sediment–overlying water partitioning coefficients, suggesting continuous inputs into the lake water. This study shows that antibiotics are ubiquitous in all compartments in Taihu Lake, and their potential hazards to the aquatic ecosystem need further investigation. - Highlights: • Antibiotics are ubiquitous in sediment, overlying water and pore water in Taihu Lake. • Antibiotics in Taihu Lake originated from human and nonhuman activities. • Ksp is higher than Ksw, indicating the continuous antibiotics input to lake water.

  4. Carbon Sequestration through Sustainably Sourced Algal Fertilizer: Deep Ocean Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, M. T.

    2014-12-01

    Drawing down carbon from the atmosphere happens in the oceans when marine plants are growing due to the use of carbon dioxide for biological processes and by raising the pH of the water. Macro- and microscopic marine photosynthesizers are limited in their growth by the availability of light and nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorous, iron, etc.) Deep ocean water (DOW), oceanic water from bellow about 1000m, is a natural medium for marine algae, which contains all (except in rare circumstances) necessary components for algal growth and represents over 90% of the volume of the ocean. The introduction of DOW to a tropical or summer sea can increase chlorophyll from near zero to 60 mg per M3 or more. The form of the utilization infrastructure for DOW can roughly be divided into two effective types; the unconstrained release and the open pond system. Unconstrained release has the advantage of having relatively low infrastructure investment and is available to any area of the ocean. The open pond system has high infrastructure costs but enables intensive use of DOW for harvesting macro- and microalgae and sustainable mariculture. It also enables greater concomitant production of DOW's other potential products such as electricity or potable water. However, unlike an unconstrained release the open pond system can capture much of the biomaterial from the water and limits the impact to the surrounding ecosystem. The Tidal Irrigation and Electrical System (TIESystem), is an open pond that is to be constructed on a continental shelf. It harnesses the tidal flux to pump DOW into the pond on the rising tide and then uses the falling tide to pump biologically rich material out of the pond. This biomaterial represents fixed CO2 and can be used for biofuel or fertilizers. The TIESystem benefits from an economy of scale that increases at a rate that is roughly equal to the relationship of the circumference of a circle (the barrier that creates the open pond) to the area of the pond

  5. Decay of Bacteroidales genetic markers in relation to traditional fecal indicators for water quality modeling of drinking water sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, Ekaterina; Aström, Johan; Pettersson, Thomas J R; Bergstedt, Olof; Hermansson, Malte

    2012-01-17

    The implementation of microbial fecal source tracking (MST) methods in drinking water management is limited by the lack of knowledge on the transport and decay of host-specific genetic markers in water sources. To address these limitations, the decay and transport of human (BacH) and ruminant (BacR) fecal Bacteroidales 16S rRNA genetic markers in a drinking water source (Lake Rådasjön in Sweden) were simulated using a microbiological model coupled to a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model. The microbiological model was calibrated using data from outdoor microcosm trials performed in March, August, and November 2010 to determine the decay of BacH and BacR markers in relation to traditional fecal indicators. The microcosm trials indicated that the persistence of BacH and BacR in the microcosms was not significantly different from the persistence of traditional fecal indicators. The modeling of BacH and BacR transport within the lake illustrated that the highest levels of genetic markers at the raw water intakes were associated with human fecal sources (on-site sewers and emergency sewer overflow). This novel modeling approach improves the interpretation of MST data, especially when fecal pollution from the same host group is released into the water source from different sites in the catchment.

  6. Sub-annual variability in historical water source use by Mediterranean riparian trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, Christopher; Singer, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The seasonal availability of water within a tree's rooting zone may be an important determinant for individual tree growth and overall forest health, particularly in riparian corridors of Mediterranean climate zones that are vulnerable to water stress. Here, we present a new method that combines dendro-isotopes and isotope-modelling for determining how water source use varies over 10 consecutive growing seasons (2000-2010) for co-occurring species P. nigra and F. excelsior, along the Rhône River, south-eastern France. We conducted highly resolved cellulose δ18O analysis of micro-slices within tree rings and back-calculated the δ18O signature of source water available at the time of growth using a biochemical fractionation model. We related these patterns to inferred seasonal hydrological partitioning through comparison with δ18O of waters from the vadose and phreatic zones, precipitation, and streamflow. The shallowly rooted Fraxinus displayed greater sub-annual source water variability, as well as greater isotopic enrichment, reflecting use of precipitation-derived vadose moisture. Its earlywood component was formed mainly from winter rainfall (depleted) whilst the latewood relied on growing season precipitation (enriched). In Populus, the sub-annual source water use was relatively depleted, suggesting use of hyporheic water and regional groundwater. From 2007, both species converged in their pattern of water source uptake which was attributed to a decline in phreatic water access for Populus. These results demonstrate that the seasonal variability in source water use can be identified retrospectively, a method which may prove important for anticipating the future consequences of climatic driven changes to the hydrological cycle.

  7. Agricultural phosphorus and water quality: sources, transport and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. SHARPLEY

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater eutrophication is usually controlled by inputs of phosphorus (P. To identify critical sources of P export from agricultural catchments we investigated hydrological and chemical factors controlling P export from a mixed land use (30% wooded, 50% cultivated, 20% pasture 39.5-ha catchment in east-central Pennsylvania, USA. Mehlich-3 extractable soil P, determined on a 30-m grid over the catchment, ranged from 7 to 788 mg kg-1. Generally, soils in wooded areas had low Mehlich-3 P (

  8. Apportionment of sources affecting water quality: Case study of Kandla Creek, Gulf of Katchchh

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dalal, S.G.; Shirodkar, P.V.; Verlekar, X.N.; Jagtap, T.G.; Rao, G.S.

    study. Water Research 38:3980–3992. Stevens, J. 1986. Applied Multivariate Statistics for the Social Science, Hillsdale, NJ: Thurston, G. D., and Spengler, J. D. 1985. A quantitative assessment of source contributions to inhalable particulate matter...

  9. Identification and spatial patterns of coastal water pollution sources based on GIS and chemometric approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Feng; GUO Huai-cheng; LIU Yong; HAO Ze-jia

    2007-01-01

    Comprehensive and joint applications of GIS and chemometric approach were applied in identification and spatial patterns of coastal water pollution sources with a large data set (5 years (2000-2004), 17 parameters) obtained through coastal water monitoring of Southern Water Control Zone in Hong Kong. According to cluster analysis the pollution degree was significantly different between September-next May (the 1st period) and June-August (the 2nd period). Based on these results, four potential pollution sources, such as organic/eutrophication pollution, natural pollution, mineral/anthropic pollution and fecal pollution were identified by factor analysis/principal component analysis. Then the factor scores of each monitoring site were analyzed using inverse distance weighting method, and the results indicated degree of the influence by various potential pollution sources differed among the monitoring sites. This study indicated that hybrid approach was useful and effective for identification of coastal water pollution source and spatial pattern.

  10. Affinity adsorption for the removal of organic micropollutants in drinking water sources; proof of principle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman-Caris, R.C.M.; Bäuerlein, P.S.; Siegers, W.G.; Ziaie, J.; Tolkamp, H.H.; de Voogt, P.

    2015-01-01

    Sources for drinking water (DW) production contain increasing concentrations of organic micropollutants, such as pesticides and pharmaceuticals. Traditional purification processes are not suitable for their removal or conversion, but even sophisticated technologies, like advanced oxidation processes

  11. Dataset for Testing Contamination Source Identification Methods for Water Distribution Networks

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset includes the results of a simulation study using the source inversion techniques available in the Water Security Toolkit. The data was created to test...

  12. Anthropogenic Organic Compounds in Source Water of Nine Community Water Systems that Withdraw from Streams, 2002-05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsbury, James A.; Delzer, Gregory C.; Hopple, Jessica A.

    2008-01-01

    Source water, herein defined as stream water collected at a water-system intake prior to water treatment, was sampled at nine community water systems, ranging in size from a system serving about 3,000 people to one that serves about 2 million people. As many as 17 source-water samples were collected at each site over about a 12-month period between 2002 and 2004 for analysis of 258 anthropogenic organic compounds. Most of these compounds are unregulated in drinking water, and the compounds analyzed include pesticides and selected pesticide degradates, gasoline hydrocarbons, personal-care and domestic-use compounds, and solvents. The laboratory analytical methods used in this study have relatively low detection levels - commonly 100 to 1,000 times lower than State and Federal standards and guidelines for protecting water quality. Detections, therefore, do not necessarily indicate a concern to human health but rather help to identify emerging issues and to track changes in occurrence and concentrations over time. About one-half (134) of the compounds were detected at least once in source-water samples. Forty-seven compounds were detected commonly (in 10 percent or more of the samples), and six compounds (chloroform, atrazine, simazine, metolachlor, deethylatrazine, and hexahydrohexamethylcyclopentabenzopyran (HHCB) were detected in more than one-half of the samples. Chloroform was the most commonly detected compound - in every sample (year round) at five sites. Findings for chloroform and the fragrances HHCB and acetyl hexamethyl tetrahydronaphthalene (AHTN) indicate an association between occurrence and the presence of large upstream wastewater discharges in the watersheds. The herbicides atrazine, simazine, and metolachlor also were among the most commonly detected compounds. Degradates of these herbicides, as well as those of a few other commonly occurring herbicides, generally were detected at concentrations similar to or greater than concentrations of the parent

  13. Irrigation water as a source of drinking water: is safe use possible?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoek, Wim van der; Konradsen, F; Ensink, J H;

    2001-01-01

    was used (relative risk 1.68; 95% CI 1.31-2.15). For people with less water available the direction of the association between water quality and diarrhoea was different (relative risk 0.80; 95% CI 0.69-0.93). This indicates that good quality drinking water provides additional health benefits only when...... and have a continuous water supply for sanitation and hygiene. Irrigation water management clearly has an impact on health and bridging the gap between the irrigation and drinking water supply sectors could provide important health benefits by taking into account the domestic water availability when......BACKGROUND: In arid and semi-arid countries there are often large areas where groundwater is brackish and where people have to obtain water from irrigation canals for all uses, including domestic ones. An alternative to drawing drinking water directly from irrigation canals or village water...

  14. Drinking water quality and source reliability in rural Ashanti region, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Meghan; VanDerslice, James A; Taylor, Brooke; Benson, Scott; Allen, Sam; Johnson, Mark; Kiefer, Joe; Boakye, Isaac; Arhinn, Bernard; Crookston, Benjamin T; Ansong, Daniel

    2013-03-01

    Site-specific information about local water sources is an important part of a community-driven effort to improve environmental conditions. The purpose of this assessment was to gather this information for residents of rural villages in Ghana. Sanitary surveys and bacteriological testing for total coliforms and Escherichia coli (EC) using Colilert(®) were conducted at nearly 80 water sources serving eight villages. A focus group was carried out to assess the desirability and perceived quality of water sources. Standpipes accounted for almost half of the available water sources; however, a third of them were not functioning at the time of the survey. EC bacteria were found in the majority of shallow wells (80%), rivers (67%), and standpipes (61%), as well as 28% of dug wells. Boreholes were free of EC. Residents felt that the standpipes and boreholes produced safe drinking water. Intermittent service and poor water quality from the piped supply has led to limited access to drinking water. The perception of residents, that the water from standpipes is clean and does not need to be treated at home, is particularly troubling in light of the poor bacteriological quality of water from the standpipes.

  15. Water-vapor source shift of Xinjiang region during the recent twenty years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dai Xingang; Li Weijing; Ma Zhuguo; Wang Ping

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the climate water-vapor sources of Xinjiang region and their shifts during the past 20 years. First, the principle and steps are roughly regulated to seek the water-vapor sources. Second, the climate stationary water-vapor transport in troposphere is calculated to distinguish where the water vapor comes from by ERA-40 reanalysis. In addition, the collocation between the transport and the atmospheric column water vapor content is analyzed. The results show that the major vapor comes from the west side of Xinjiang for mid-month of seasons, apart from July while the water vapor comes from the north or northwest direction. The water vapor sources are different for different seasons, for example, the Caspian Sea and Mediterranean are the sources in January and April, the North Atlantic and the Arctic sea in July, and the Black Sea and Caspian Sea in October, respectively. In recent ten years more water vapor above Xinjiang comes from the high latitudes and the Arctic sea with global warming, and less from Mediterranean in comparison with the case of 1973-1986. In fact, the air over subtropics becomes dry and the anomalous water vapor transport direction turns to west or southwest during 1987-2000. By contrast, the air over middle and high latitudes is warmer and wetter than 14 years ago.

  16. Stream restoration and sewers impact sources and fluxes of water,carbon, and nutrients in urban watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    An improved understanding of sources and timing of water and nutrient fluxes associated with urban stream restoration is critical for guiding effective watershed management. We investigated how sources, fluxes, and flowpaths of water, carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P)...

  17. Uranium mine waste water: potential source of ground water in northwestern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiss, W.L.

    1977-01-01

    Substantial quantities of water are being pumped from the Morrison Formation of Late Jurassic age in uranium mines in the Grants mineral belt in northwestern New Mexico. The water often contains unacceptable amounts of dissolved uranium, radium, iron, and selenium and suspended solids, but with treatment it can be made suitable for municipal and industrial purposes. Water salvaged from current and projected mining operations constitutes the most readily available water in this otherwise water-deficient area.

  18. Impacts by point and diffuse micropollutant sources on the stream water quality at catchment scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mette Fjendbo; Eriksson, Eva; Binning, Philip John

    2012-01-01

    pollution sources were identified including a pharmaceutical factory site with a contaminated old drainage ditch, two waste deposits, a wastewater treatment plant, overflow structures, fish farms, industrial discharges and diffuse agricultural and urban sources. Six water samples were collected along...... impacts by releases of organic matter and nutrients were found after the fish farms and the waste water treatment plant. Nickel was found at concentrations 5.8 – 8.8 g/l. Nine pesticides and metabolites of both agricultural and urban use were detected along the stream; among these were the two most......The water quality of surface waters is threatened by multiple anthropogenic pollutants and the large variety of pollutants challenges the monitoring and assessment of the water quality. The aim of this study was to characterize and quantify both point and diffuse sources of micropollutants...

  19. Presence of the β-triketone herbicide tefuryltrione in drinking water sources and its degradation product in drinking waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamata, Motoyuki; Asami, Mari; Matsui, Yoshihiko

    2017-07-01

    Triketone herbicides are becoming popular because of their herbicidal activity against sulfonylurea-resistant weeds. Among these herbicides, tefuryltrione (TFT) is the first registered herbicide for rice farming, and recently its distribution has grown dramatically. In this study, we developed analytical methods for TFT and its degradation product 2-chloro-4-methylsulfonyl-3-[(tetrahydrofuran-2-yl-methoxy) methyl] benzoic acid (CMTBA). TFT was found frequently in surface waters in rice production areas at concentrations as high as 1.9 μg/L. The maximum observed concentration was lower than but close to 2 μg/L, which is the Japanese reference concentration of ambient water quality for pesticides. However, TFT was not found in any drinking waters even though the source waters were purified by conventional coagulation and filtration processes; this was due to chlorination, which transforms TFT to CMTBA. The conversion rate of TFT to CMBA on chlorination was almost 100%, and CMTBA was stable in the presence of chlorine. Moreover, CMTBA was found in drinking waters sampled from household water taps at a similar concentration to that of TFT in the source water of the water purification plant. Although the acceptable daily intake and the reference concentration of CMTBA are unknown, the highest concentration in drinking water exceeded 0.1 μg/L, which is the maximum allowable concentration for any individual pesticide and its relevant metabolites in the European Union Drinking Directive. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Seasonal transfer of oxygen isotopes from precipitation and soil to the tree ring: source water versus needle water enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treydte, Kerstin; Boda, Sonja; Graf Pannatier, Elisabeth; Fonti, Patrick; Frank, David; Ullrich, Bastian; Saurer, Matthias; Siegwolf, Rolf; Battipaglia, Giovanna; Werner, Willy; Gessler, Arthur

    2014-05-01

    For accurate interpretation of oxygen isotopes in tree rings (δ(18) O), it is necessary to disentangle the mechanisms underlying the variations in the tree's internal water cycle and to understand the transfer of source versus leaf water δ(18) O to phloem sugars and stem wood. We studied the seasonal transfer of oxygen isotopes from precipitation and soil water through the xylem, needles and phloem to the tree rings of Larix decidua at two alpine sites in the Lötschental (Switzerland). Weekly resolved δ(18) O records of precipitation, soil water, xylem and needle water, phloem organic matter and tree rings were developed. Week-to-week variations in needle-water (18) O enrichment were strongly controlled by weather conditions during the growing season. These short-term variations were, however, not significantly fingerprinted in tree-ring δ(18) O. Instead, seasonal trends in tree-ring δ(18) O predominantly mirrored trends in the source water, including recent precipitation and soil water pools. Modelling results support these findings: seasonal tree-ring δ(18) O variations are captured best when the week-to-week variations of the leaf water signal are suppressed. Our results suggest that climate signals in tree-ring δ(18) O variations should be strongest at temperate sites with humid conditions and precipitation maxima during the growing season.

  1. Horse paddocks - an emerging source of agricultural water pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masud Parvage, Mohammed; Ulén, Barbro; Kirchmann, Holger

    2015-04-01

    Horse farms occupy about 4% of the total agricultural land in the EU but are not well investigated with regard to their impact on water quality. Horse paddocks commonly hold horses on a limited space and the animal density often exceeds the recommended density. Therefore, paddock soils receive significant amounts of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) through feed residues and deposition of faeces and urine, which can lead to nutrient build-up in the soil and subsequent losses to aquatic systems. This study characterized the potential risk of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) leaching losses from Swedish horse paddocks through three stage examination of soil and water P and N status. The experiment began with a pilot study where surface soil P status and eight years of drainage P data were examined from a paddock catchment and an adjacent arable catchment both receiving similar amount of P and N over years. Results showed that there were no signi?cant differences in water-soluble P (WSP) or total P data in soils but the drainage water P concentrations, being higher in the paddock catchment (0.33 mg P l-1, mainly in dissolved reactive form) than the arable catchment (0.10 mg P l-1). In the second experiment, soil P and N status were examined in different parts of horse paddocks (feeding, grazing, and excretion areas) to identify existence of any potential hotspots for losses within the paddock. In total, seven horse farms, covering different grazing densities and soil textures representative of Swedish horse paddocks were examined. The results showed that concentrations of WSP, plant available P or P-AL (P extracted in ammonium acetate lactate solution at pH 3.75), and total N were highest in feeding and excretion areas within the paddocks. It was also observed that the WSP concentration in the paddocks was strongly correlated with horse density (R2 = 0.80, p < 0.001) and P-AL with years of paddock management (R2 = 0.78, p < 0.001). In the final experiment, topsoil

  2. Characterization factors for water footprint considering the scarcity of green and blue water sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, T.; Kondo, T.; Pokhrel, Y. N.; Hanasaki, N.

    2011-12-01

    The original concept of virtual water trade was invented to illustrate how much water demand can be reduced by importing food products (Allan 1996), and expanded for meat products and industrial products (Oki and Kanae, 2004). However, there was a confusion between "virtual trade of water" (original) and "trade of virtual water" (misinterpretation but widely accepted), and "virtual water" has been recognized as how much water was used to produce the commodity. Then, the concept has some analogy to carbon footprint (CFP) which is an indicator of total emission of greenhouse gases, and nowadays called water footprint (WFP, Hoekstra, 2004). However, WFP itself is just an inventory of water usages under the framework of life cycle assessment (LCA), and the volume of WFP does not necessary reflect the environmental impacts of water usages because consumptive water use of 100 liter from ground water in arid regions just before rainy season would have more environmental impacts than consumptive water use of 100 liter from rain water in humid regions during snow melt season. In the case of CFP, the emissions of five greenhouse gases except for CO2 were converted into CO2 equivalent volumes by considering the sensitivity for the global warming potential, and summed up into CFP. Here, we propose a new idea objectively determining the weights (characterization factors) for blue water usages, such as from river and ground water, to be converted into green water equivalent in each region and time. The weights are inversely proportional to the area required to obtain the same amount of green water, and water balance model can provide the basic information. The new concept was applied to the WFP of Japan through the imports of major crops. As an inventory, WFP was 15.5 km3/y of rain water, 2.2 km3/y of river water, and 2.0 km3/y of non-renewable and non-local water (NRNL water) for year 2000, however, considering the proposed characterization factors in each region (0.5 x 0

  3. Source Water Protection in Rural Newfoundland and Labrador: Limitations and Promising Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Bomangsaan Eledi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to exemplify through recent research in Newfoundland and Labrador (NL the extent of the current limitations for source water protection and potential opportunities for improvement in the province, particularly for rural communities. The findings of this paper draw from the results of four related studies led by the co-authors. These four studies took place in NL between 2012 and 2016, and derived data through a mixed-method approach using literature reviews, key informant interviews, surveys, and consultations. The article provides an overview of the state of source water protection in NL and the challenges faced, with case examples to illustrate key points. Findings indicate there is currently a source water protection gap in NL limiting local governments in implementing their source water protection obligations under provincial policy and regulations. This implementation gap has been attributed to a lack of capacity for watershed monitoring, a lack of awareness of the need for source water protection and of municipal responsibilities, conflicts over multi-use watersheds and a lack of watershed planning and management. Greater education and collaboration in source water protection efforts amongst all watershed users, watershed groups, local governments and the provincial government could offer promise to fill this gap.

  4. USE OF BACTEROIDES PCR-BASED METHODS TO EXAMINE FECAL CONTAMINATION SOURCES IN TROPICAL COASTAL WATERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several library independent Microbial Source Tracking methods have been developed to rapidly determine the source of fecal contamination. Thus far, none of these methods have been tested in tropical marine waters. In this study, we used a Bacteroides 16S rDNA PCR-based...

  5. Risk of gastric cancer by water source: evidence from the Golestan case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Eichelberger

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer (GC is the world's fifth most common cancer, and the third leading cause of cancer-related death. Over 70% of incident cases and deaths occur in developing countries. We explored whether disparities in access to improved drinking water sources were associated with GC risk in the Golestan Gastric Cancer Case Control Study.306 cases and 605 controls were matched on age, gender, and place of residence. We conducted unconditional logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI, adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity, marital status, education, head of household education, place of birth and residence, homeownership, home size, wealth score, vegetable consumption, and H. pylori seropositivity. Fully-adjusted ORs were 0.23 (95% CI: 0.05-1.04 for chlorinated well water, 4.58 (95% CI: 2.07-10.16 for unchlorinated well water, 4.26 (95% CI: 1.81-10.04 for surface water, 1.11 (95% CI: 0.61-2.03 for water from cisterns, and 1.79 (95% CI: 1.20-2.69 for all unpiped sources, compared to in-home piped water. Comparing unchlorinated water to chlorinated water, we found over a two-fold increased GC risk (OR 2.37, 95% CI: 1.56-3.61.Unpiped and unchlorinated drinking water sources, particularly wells and surface water, were significantly associated with the risk of GC.

  6. Association of drinking-water source and use characteristics with urinary antimony concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makris, Konstantinos C; Andra, Syam S; Herrick, Lisa; Christophi, Costas A; Snyder, Shane A; Hauser, Russ

    2013-03-01

    Environmental factors, such as storage time, frequency of bottle reuse and temperature, have been shown to facilitate antimony (Sb) leaching from water- and food-packaging materials. The globally escalating consumption of water packaged in Sb-containing bottles, such as that of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), could increase human daily Sb doses. This study set out to investigate the relationship between drinking-water source, use characteristics, and urinary Sb concentrations (U-Sb) accompanied with survey responses of a healthy (n=35) Cypriot participant pool. One spot urine sample was collected during administration of questionnaire, while a second spot urine sample was collected from the same individual about 7 days later. Urinary and water Sb concentrations were measured with an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Survey responses showed that bottled water summed over various volumes and plastic types, such as polycarbonate and PET contributed to an average 61% of daily water consumption. Water sources such as tap, mobile stations (explained in a following section), and well water contributed to 24%, 14%, and 2% of an individual's daily water consumption pattern, respectively. Average daily potable water use of both bottled and tap water by individuals consisted of 65% drinking-water, while the remaining 35% was water used for preparing cold and hot beverages, such as, tea, coffee, and juices. A significant (P=0.02) association between per capita water consumption from PET bottles and urinary creatinine-unadjusted concentrations was observed, but this relationship did not remain after inclusion of covariates in a multivariate regression model. In the creatinine-adjusted regression model, only gender (female) was a significant (P<0.01) predictor of U-Sb, after adjusting for several covariates. It is proposed that consumption data collection on various water uses and sources among individuals could perhaps decrease the uncertainty associated with

  7. The impact of point source pollution on shallow groundwater used for human consumption in a threshold country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Mercedes Cecilia; Cacciabue, Dolores Gutiérrez; Gil, José F; Gamboni, Oscar; Vicente, María Soledad; Wuertz, Stefan; Gonzo, Elio; Rajal, Verónica B

    2012-09-01

    Many developing and threshold countries rely on shallow groundwater wells for their water supply whilst pit latrines are used for sanitation. We employed a unified strategy involving satellite images and environmental monitoring of 16 physico-chemical and microbiological water quality parameters to identify significant land uses that can lead to unacceptable deterioration of source water, in a region with a subtropical climate and seasonally restricted torrential rainfall in Northern Argentina. Agricultural and non-agricultural sources of nitrate were illustrated in satellite images and used to assess the organic load discharged. The estimated human organic load per year was 28.5 BOD(5) tons and the N load was 7.5 tons, while for poultry farms it was 9940-BOD(5) tons and 1037-N tons, respectively. Concentrations of nitrates and organics were significantly different between seasons in well water (p values of 0.026 and 0.039, respectively). The onset of the wet season had an extraordinarily negative impact on well water due in part to the high permeability of soils made up of fine gravels and coarse sand. Discriminant analysis showed that land uses had a pronounced seasonal influence on nitrates and introduced additional microbial contamination, causing nitrification and denitrification in shallow groundwater. P-well was highly impacted by a poultry farm while S-well was affected by anthropogenic pollution and background load, as revealed by Principal Component Analysis. The application of microbial source tracking techniques is recommended to corroborate local sources of human versus animal origin.

  8. Optimizing Irrigation Water Allocation under Multiple Sources of Uncertainty in an Arid River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Y.; Tang, D.; Gao, H.; Ding, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Population growth and climate change add additional pressures affecting water resources management strategies for meeting demands from different economic sectors. It is especially challenging in arid regions where fresh water is limited. For instance, in the Tailanhe River Basin (Xinjiang, China), a compromise must be made between water suppliers and users during drought years. This study presents a multi-objective irrigation water allocation model to cope with water scarcity in arid river basins. To deal with the uncertainties from multiple sources in the water allocation system (e.g., variations of available water amount, crop yield, crop prices, and water price), the model employs a interval linear programming approach. The multi-objective optimization model developed from this study is characterized by integrating eco-system service theory into water-saving measures. For evaluation purposes, the model is used to construct an optimal allocation system for irrigation areas fed by the Tailan River (Xinjiang Province, China). The objective functions to be optimized are formulated based on these irrigation areas' economic, social, and ecological benefits. The optimal irrigation water allocation plans are made under different hydroclimate conditions (wet year, normal year, and dry year), with multiple sources of uncertainty represented. The modeling tool and results are valuable for advising decision making by the local water authority—and the agricultural community—especially on measures for coping with water scarcity (by incorporating uncertain factors associated with crop production planning).

  9. 40 CFR 141.88 - Monitoring requirements for lead and copper in source water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 141.88 Monitoring requirements for lead and copper in source water. (a) Sample location, collection... water samples in accordance with the following requirements regarding sample location, number of samples... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Monitoring requirements for lead...

  10. REGIONAL SOIL WATER RETENTION IN THE CONTIGUOUS US: SOURCES OF VARIABILITY AND VOLCANIC SOIL EFFECTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water retention of mineral soil is often well predicted using algorithms (pedotransfer functions) with basic soil properties but the spatial variability of these properties has not been well characterized. A further source of uncertainty is that water retention by volcanic soils...

  11. REGIONAL SOIL WATER RETENTION IN THE CONTIGUOUS US: SOURCES OF VARIABILITY AND VOLCANIC SOIL EFFECTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water retention of mineral soil is often well predicted using algorithms (pedotransfer functions) with basic soil properties but the spatial variability of these properties has not been well characterized. A further source of uncertainty is that water retention by volcanic soils...

  12. Isolation, identification, characterization and antibiotic sensitivity profile of pathogenic Legionella pneumophila isolates from different water sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kannan Subbaram

    2017-05-01

    Conclusions: Serious and fatal L. pneumophila infections may be transmitted through water. Legionella can survive under various conditions in various water sources. L. pneumophila is the important pathogen causing human disease. Great challenge prevails to health care professionals because these Legionellae acquired antibiotic resistance to many routinely prescribed antibiotics.

  13. Sources of variability in livestock water quality over 5 years in the Northern Great Plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, M K; Muscha, J M; Mulliniks, J T; Waterman, R C; Roberts, A J; Rinella, M J

    2015-04-01

    Concentrated dissolved minerals in naturally occurring water accessible to livestock grazing semiarid landscapes can negatively influence animal productivity and well-being. Twelve indicators of water quality (Ca, Cl, Fe, F, Mg, Mn, Na, nitrate N, pH, SO4, total dissolved solids [TDS], and temperature) were measured at 45 livestock water sites over 5 yr from 2009 through 2013 at the 22,257-ha USDA-ARS Fort Keogh Livestock and Range Research Laboratory (Miles City, MT) to estimate variation. Water was sampled from 4 sources: 1) flowing surface water, 2) groundwater, 3) reservoirs, and 4) springs. The sampled area was classified by 3 cardinal compass bearings (locations): 1) north, 2) southeast, and 3) southwest of the Yellowstone River. Samples were collected twice yearly in 2 seasons, May (wet) and September (dry). Year, location, source, and season and their interactions were analyzed as a 5 × 3 × 4 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. A location × year interaction (P < 0.04) was found for Mg, Na, SO4, and TDS. The southwest location had the greatest concentrations in 2012 of Na, SO4, and TDS. A source × year interaction (P < 0.02) was found for Ca, Fe, F, Mg, Mn, Na, SO4, TDS, and temperature. Iron, Mg, and Mn had the greatest concentrations in flowing surface water in 2012. Greater and then lower precipitation in 2011 followed by below-average precipitation in 2012 was associated with elevated mineral concentrations in sources in the southwest location and flowing surface water sources demonstrating sources of water quality variability within time and space at the study site. Average concentrations of Ca, Cl, Mg, and nitrate N and pH levels across sources and locations did not exceed the upper maximum intake level for beef cattle. In contrast, concentrations of F, Fe, Na, SO4, and TDS at times exceeded the upper maximum level for beef cattle, indicating these minerals may negatively impact range beef cattle performance.

  14. EPA Office of Water (OW): STORET Water Quality Monitoring Stations Source Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Storage and Retrieval for Water Quality Data (STORET and the Water Quality Exchange, WQX) defines the methods and the data systems by which EPA compiles monitoring...

  15. EPA Office of Water (OW): SDWIS - HUC12 Densities for Public Surface Water and Groundwater Sources

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Public Water System location points, based on information from the Safe Drinking Water Act Information System (SDWIS/Federal) for a 2010 third quarter (SDWIS_2010Q3)...

  16. EPA Office of Water (OW): STORET Water Quality Monitoring Stations Source Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Storage and Retrieval for Water Quality Data (STORET and the Water Quality Exchange, WQX) defines the methods and the data systems by which EPA compiles monitoring...

  17. The function of advanced treatment process in a drinking water treatment plant with organic matter-polluted source water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Huirong; Zhang, Shuting; Zhang, Shenghua; Lin, Wenfang; Yu, Xin

    2017-04-01

    To understand the relationship between chemical and microbial treatment at each treatment step, as well as the relationship between microbial community structure in biofilms in biofilters and their ecological functions, a drinking water plant with severe organic matter-polluted source water was investigated. The bacterial community dynamics of two drinking water supply systems (traditional and advanced treatment processes) in this plant were studied from the source to the product water. Analysis by 454 pyrosequencing was conducted to characterize the bacterial diversity in each step of the treatment processes. The bacterial communities in these two treatment processes were highly diverse. Proteobacteria, which mainly consisted of beta-proteobacteria, was the dominant phylum. The two treatment processes used in the plant could effectively remove organic pollutants and microbial polution, especially the advanced treatment process. Significant differences in the detection of the major groups were observed in the product water samples in the treatment processes. The treatment processes, particularly the biological pretreatment and O3-biological activated carbon in the advanced treatment process, highly influenced the microbial community composition and the water quality. Some opportunistic pathogens were found in the water. Nitrogen-relative microorganisms found in the biofilm of filters may perform an important function on the microbial community composition and water quality improvement.

  18. Legionella and other gram-negative bacteria in potable water from various rural and urban sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojek, Nimfa; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2006-01-01

    A total of 107 potable water samples were collected from various rural and urban sources located in the Lublin region (eastern Poland). 54 samples from rural sources comprised 32 samples of untreated well water and 22 samples of treated (chlorinated) tap water from rural dwellings distributed by the municipal water supply system (MWSS). 53 samples of treated water from urban sources were supplied by the city of Lublin MWSS. They comprised: 11 samples of tap water from offices and shops, 8 samples of tap water from dwellings, 19 samples from showerheads in health care units, and 15 samples from the outlets of medical appliances used for hydrotherapy in a rehabilitation centre. Water samples were examined for the presence and species composition of Legionella, Yersinia, Gram-negative bacteria belonging to family Enterobacteriaceae (GNB-E) and Gram-negative bacteria not belonging to family Enterobacteriaceae (GNB-NE), by filtering through cellulose filters and culture on respectively GVPC, CIN, EMB and tryptic soya agar media. Legionella was recovered from samples of well water, tap water from rural dwellings, tap water from urban dwellings, and water from medical appliances - with the isolation frequency of 27.8-50.0 %, and the low concentrations ranging from 0.7-13.3 x 10 (1) cfu/l. No Legionella strains were detected in tap water from offices and shops, and in water from showerheads in health care units. Strains of the Legionella pneumophila types 2-14 predominated, forming 89.9 % of total Legionella isolates, while other species of Legionella formed 10.1 %. Neither Legionella pneumophila type 1 strains nor Yersinia strains were isolated from the examined water samples. The isolation frequency and mean concentration of GNB-E in water samples from rural sources was significantly greater than in water samples from urban sources (respectively 61.1 % vs. 20.8 %, 17.1 vs. 3.4 x 10(1) cfu/l, p spp., Klebsiella spp., Serratia spp., and Pantoea agglomerans were most common

  19. Northern Regions of Russia as Alternative Sources of Pure Water for Sustainable Development: Challenges and Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukerman, V. A.; Gudkov, A. V.; Ivanov, S. V.

    The paper discusses problems associated with the existing crisis of water scarcity in the modern conditions of the global water use. Available alternative sources of fresh water may be underground and surface waters of the North and the Arctic. Investigated the current situation and condition of fresh water resources in the technological and industrial development of the North and Arctic. The necessity of developing and using green technologies and measures to prevent pollution of surface and ground water from industrial sectors of the Northern regions is shown. Studied modern technologies and techniques for monitoring groundwater and determination of their age in order to avoid and prevent the effects of environmental contaminants. The ways of use of innovative production technologies of fresh and clean water of north Russia for sustainable development, and delivery of water in the needy regions of the world are investigated.

  20. Pesticide pollution of multiple drinking water sources in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam: evidence from two provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, N D G; Sebesvari, Z; Amelung, W; Renaud, F G

    2015-06-01

    Pollution of drinking water sources with agrochemicals is often a major threat to human and ecosystem health in some river deltas, where agricultural production must meet the requirements of national food security or export aspirations. This study was performed to survey the use of different drinking water sources and their pollution with pesticides in order to inform on potential exposure sources to pesticides in rural areas of the Mekong River delta, Vietnam. The field work comprised both household surveys and monitoring of 15 frequently used pesticide active ingredients in different water sources used for drinking (surface water, groundwater, water at public pumping stations, surface water chemically treated at household level, harvested rainwater, and bottled water). Our research also considered the surrounding land use systems as well as the cropping seasons. Improper pesticide storage and waste disposal as well as inadequate personal protection during pesticide handling and application were widespread amongst the interviewed households, with little overall risk awareness for human and environmental health. The results show that despite the local differences in the amount and frequency of pesticides applied, pesticide pollution was ubiquitous. Isoprothiolane (max. concentration 8.49 μg L(-1)), fenobucarb (max. 2.32 μg L(-1)), and fipronil (max. 0.41 μg L(-1)) were detected in almost all analyzed water samples (98 % of all surface samples contained isoprothiolane, for instance). Other pesticides quantified comprised butachlor, pretilachlor, propiconazole, hexaconazole, difenoconazole, cypermethrin, fenoxapro-p-ethyl, tebuconazole, trifloxystrobin, azoxystrobin, quinalphos, and thiamethoxam. Among the studied water sources, concentrations were highest in canal waters. Pesticide concentrations varied with cropping season but did not diminish through the year. Even in harvested rainwater or purchased bottled water, up to 12 different pesticides were detected at

  1. Production of Algal-based Biofuel from Non-fresh Water Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, A. C.; Reno, M. D.

    2008-12-01

    A system dynamics model is developed to assess the availability and feasibility of non-traditional water sources from dairy wastewater, produced water from crude oil production and from coal-bed methane gas extraction for the production of algal-based biofuel. The conceptual framework is based on two locales within New Mexico, the San Juan basin in the northwest and the Permian basin in the southeast, where oil and gas drilling have increased considerably in the last ten years. The simulation framework contains an algal growth module, a dairy module, an oil production module, and a gas production module. Our preliminary investigation indicates a cyclical demand for non-fresh water due to the cyclical nature of algal biomass production and crop evapotranspiration. The wastewater from the dairy industry is not a feasible non-fresh water source because the agricultural water demand for cow's dry feed far exceeds the amount generated at the dairy. The uncertainty associated with the water demand for cow's dry matter intake is the greatest in this model. The oil and gas produced water, ignoring the quality, provides ample supply for water demand in algal biomass production. There remains work to address technical challenges associated with coupling the appropriate non-fresh water source to the local demand.

  2. Determination of viable Salmonellae from potable and source water through PMA assisted qPCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gulshan; Vajpayee, Poornima; Bhatti, Saurabh; Ronnie, Nirmala; Shah, Nimish; McClure, Peter; Shanker, Rishi

    2013-07-01

    Resource constrained countries identified as endemic zones for pathogenicity of Salmonella bear an economic burden due to recurring expenditure on medical treatment. qPCR used for Salmonella detection could not discriminate between viable and nonviable cells. Propidium monoazide (PMA) that selectively penetrates nonviable cells to cross-link their DNA, was coupled with ttr gene specific qPCR for quantifying viable salmonellae in source/potable waters collected from a north Indian city. Source water (raw water for urban potable water supply) and urban potable water exhibited viable salmonellae in the range of 2.1×10(4)-2.6×10(6) and 2-7160CFU/100mL, respectively. Potable water at water works exhibited DNA from dead cells but no viable cells were detected. PMA assisted qPCR could specifically detect low numbers of live salmonellae in Source and potable waters. This strategy can be used in surveillance of urban potable water distribution networks to map contamination points for better microbial risk management.

  3. On the Vertical Distribution of Local and Remote Sources of Water for Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.

    2001-01-01

    The vertical distribution of local and remote sources of water for precipitation and total column water over the United States are evaluated in a general circulation model simulation. The Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) general circulation model (GCM) includes passive constituent tracers to determine the geographical sources of the water in the column. Results show that the local percentage of precipitable water and local percentage of precipitation can be very different. The transport of water vapor from remote oceanic sources at mid and upper levels is important to the total water in the column over the central United States, while the access of locally evaporated water in convective precipitation processes is important to the local precipitation ratio. This result resembles the conceptual formulation of the convective parameterization. However, the formulations of simple models of precipitation recycling include the assumption that the ratio of the local water in the column is equal to the ratio of the local precipitation. The present results demonstrate the uncertainty in that assumption, as locally evaporated water is more concentrated near the surface.

  4. Development and Validation of an Acid Mine Drainage Treatment Process for Source Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Ann [Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Throughout Northern Appalachia and surrounding regions, hundreds of abandoned mine sites exist which frequently are the source of Acid Mine Drainage (AMD). AMD typically contains metal ions in solution with sulfate ions which have been leached from the mine. These large volumes of water, if treated to a minimum standard, may be of use in Hydraulic Fracturing (HF) or other industrial processes. This project’s focus is to evaluate an AMD water treatment technology for the purpose of providing treated AMD as an alternative source of water for HF operations. The HydroFlex™ technology allows the conversion of a previous environmental liability into an asset while reducing stress on potable water sources. The technology achieves greater than 95% water recovery, while removing sulfate to concentrations below 100 mg/L and common metals (e.g., iron and aluminum) below 1 mg/L. The project is intended to demonstrate the capability of the process to provide AMD as alternative source water for HF operations. The second budget period of the project has been completed during which Battelle conducted two individual test campaigns in the field. The first test campaign demonstrated the ability of the HydroFlex system to remove sulfate to levels below 100 mg/L, meeting the requirements indicated by industry stakeholders for use of the treated AMD as source water. The second test campaign consisted of a series of focused confirmatory tests aimed at gathering additional data to refine the economic projections for the process. Throughout the project, regular communications were held with a group of project stakeholders to ensure alignment of the project objectives with industry requirements. Finally, the process byproduct generated by the HydroFlex process was evaluated for the treatment of produced water against commercial treatment chemicals. It was found that the process byproduct achieved similar results for produced water treatment as the chemicals currently in use. Further

  5. Spatio-Temporal Patterns and Source Identification of Water Pollution in Lake Taihu (China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Chen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Various multivariate methods were used to analyze datasets of river water quality for 11 variables measured at 20 different sites surrounding Lake Taihu from 2006 to 2010 (13,200 observations, to determine temporal and spatial variations in river water quality and to identify potential pollution sources. Hierarchical cluster analysis (CA grouped the 12 months into two periods (May to November, December to the next April and the 20 sampling sites into two groups (A and B based on similarities in river water quality characteristics. Discriminant analysis (DA was important in data reduction because it used only three variables (water temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO and five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5 to correctly assign about 94% of the cases and five variables (petroleum, volatile phenol, dissolved oxygen, ammonium nitrogen and total phosphorus to correctly assign >88.6% of the cases. In addition, principal component analysis (PCA identified four potential pollution sources for Clusters A and B: industrial source (chemical-related, petroleum-related or N-related, domestic source, combination of point and non-point sources and natural source. The Cluster A area received more industrial and domestic pollution-related agricultural runoff, whereas Cluster B was mainly influenced by the combination of point and non-point sources. The results imply that comprehensive analysis by using multiple methods could be more effective for facilitating effective management for the Lake Taihu Watershed in the future.

  6. Evaluation of Disinfection Byproducts formed from the Chlorination of Lyophilized and Reconstituted NOM Concentrate from a Drinking Water Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking water treatment and disinfection byproduct (DBP) research can be complicated by difficulties in shipping large water quantities and NOM geographical and temporal variability. Access to a drinking water representative, shelf-stable, concentrated NOM source would solve th...

  7. Evaluation of Disinfection Byproducts Formed from the Chlorination of Lyophilized and Reconstituted NOM Concentrate from a Drinking Water Source - Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking water treatment and disinfection byproduct (DBP) research can be complicated by difficulties in shipping large water quantities and NOM geographical and temporal variability. Access to a drinking water representative, shelf-stable, concentrated NOM source would solve th...

  8. Institutional impediments to using alternative water sources in thermoelectric power plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D. (Environmental Science Division)

    2011-08-03

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the Existing Plants Research Program's overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. Obtaining adequate water supplies for cooling and other operations at a reasonable cost is a key factor in siting new and maintaining existing thermoelectric power plant operations. One way to reduce freshwater consumption is to use alternative water sources such as reclaimed (or recycled) water, mine pool water, and other nontraditional sources. The use of these alternative sources can pose institutional challenges that can cause schedule delays, increase costs, or even require plants to abandon their plans to use alternative sources. This report identifies and describes a variety of institutional challenges experienced by power plant owners and operators across the country, and for many of these challenges it identifies potential mitigating approaches. The information comes from publically available sources and from conversations with power plant owners/operators familiar with using alternative sources. Institutional challenges identified in this investigation include, but are not limited to, the following: (1) Institutional actions and decisions that are beyond the control of the power plant. Such actions can include changes in local administrative policies that can affect the use of reclaimed water, inaccurate growth projections regarding the amount of water that will be available when needed, and agency workloads and other priorities that can cause delays in the permitting and approval processes. (2) Developing, cultivating, and maintaining institutional relationships with the purveyor(s) of the alternative water source, typically a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP

  9. Endotoxin contamination and control in surface water sources and a drinking water treatment plant in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Zhang; Wenjun, Liu; Wen, Sun; Minglu, Zhang; Lingjia, Qian; Cuiping, Li; Fang, Tian

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, endotoxin contamination was determined in treated water following each unit of a drinking water treatment plant (WTP) in Beijing, China and its source water (SW) from a long water diversion channel (Shijiazhuang-Beijing) originating from four reservoirs in Hebei province, China. The total-endotoxin activities in SW ranged from 21 to 41 EU/ml at five selected cross sections of the diversion channel. The total-endotoxin in raw water of the WTP ranged from 11 to 16 EU/ml due to dilution and pretreatment during water transportation from Tuancheng Lake to the WTP, and finished water of the WTP ranged from 4 to 10 EU/ml, showing a 49% decrease following the full-scale treatment process at the WTP. Compared with the 31% removal of free-endotoxin, the WTP removed up to 71% of bound-endotoxin in raw water. The traditional treatment processes (coagulation, sedimentation and filtration) in the WTP removed substantial amounts of total-endotoxin (up to 63%), while endotoxin activities increased after granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption and chlorination. The total-endotoxin in the actual water was composed of free-endotoxin and bound-endotoxin (endotoxin aggregates, bacteria-bound endotoxins and particle-attached endotoxins). The endotoxin aggregates, bacteria-bound endotoxins and particle-attached endotoxins co-exist as suspended particles in water, and only the bacteria-bound endotoxins were correlated with bacterial cells suspended in water. The particle distribution of endotoxin aggregates in ultrapure water was also tested and the results showed that the majority (64-89%) of endotoxin aggregates had diameters endotoxin contamination and control in treated water following each unit of the WTP processes and its SW from reservoirs are discussed and compared with regard to bacterial cell counts and particle characteristics, which were dependent, to a certain extent, on different flow rates and turbulence of the water environments.

  10. Anaerobic treatment as a core technology for energy, nutrients and water recovery from source-separated domestic waste(water).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeman, Grietje; Kujawa, Katarzyna; de Mes, Titia; Hernandez, Lucia; de Graaff, Marthe; Abu-Ghunmi, Lina; Mels, Adriaan; Meulman, Brendo; Temmink, Hardy; Buisman, Cees; van Lier, Jules; Lettinga, Gatze

    2008-01-01

    Based on results of pilot scale research with source-separated black water (BW) and grey water (GW), a new sanitation concept is proposed. BW and GW are both treated in a UASB (-septic tank) for recovery of CH4 gas. Kitchen waste is added to the anaerobic BW treatment for doubling the biogas production. Post-treatment of the effluent is providing recovery of phosphorus and removal of remaining COD and nitrogen. The total energy saving of the new sanitation concept amounts to 200 MJ/year in comparison with conventional sanitation, moreover 0.14 kg P/p/year and 90 litres of potential reusable water are produced.

  11. Study of Arsenic Presence in Drinking Water Sources: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Kamali

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Conducted studies about arsenic have shown that consumption of water contaminated with arsenic can causes different adverse health effects in consumers. World Health Organization (WHO has enacted 10µg/L arsenic in drinking water as a guideline value. Regarding some reports about arsenic presence in a village of Hashtrood county and related health effects and also considering this fact that determination of arsenic as a poisoning chemical is not included in routine monitoring of water by responsible organizations, in present study all of drinking water sources in Hashtrood county in East Azerbaijan province were studied for arsenic presence."nMaterials and Methods: Water supply and its sanitation situation were studied in all of cities and residential villages (200 villages by field visiting. Arsenic content of water samples were determined using Ez arsenic test kit, a product of Hach Company. For assurance of the kit results, 20 water samples with different concentration of arsenic were analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP method and then achieved results was compared together."nResults: Arsenic was present in drinking water of 50 villages that in 9 villages its level was higher than Iranian standard (50µg/L. During the study totally 11087 persons (21.96% of rural areas population in Hashtrood county were exposed to different levels of arsenic via drinking water. Correlation between kit and ICP results was significant (R2 = 0.9715"nConclusion: Studied region in present study is a polluted area to arsenic by geogenic sources. It is necessary to replace water source of villages with higher level than national standard with safe drinking water. Annually measurement of arsenic in drinking water of all villages spatially polluted villages should be considered by responsible organization e.g. Health Network and Rural Water and Wastewater Company. Used kit in our study is recommendable for this purpose.

  12. Effect of drinking water source on associations between gastrointestinal illness and heavy rainfall in New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Jessie A; Fagliano, Jerald A

    2017-01-01

    Gastrointestinal illness (GI) has been associated with heavy rainfall. Storm events and periods of heavy rainfall and runoff can result in increased microbiological contaminants in raw water. Surface water supplies are open to the environment and runoff can directly influence the presence of contaminants. A time-stratified bi-directional case-crossover study design was used to estimate associations of heavy rainfall and hospitalizations for GI. Cases of GI were identified as in-patient hospitalization with a primary diagnosis of infectious disease associated diarrhea [ICD-9 codes: specified gastrointestinal infections 001-009.9 or diarrhea 787.91] among the residents of New Jersey from 2009 to 2013 resulting in a final sample size of 47,527 cases. Two control days were selected on the same days of the week as the case day, within fixed 21-day strata. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios controlling for temperature and humidity. To determine potential effect modification estimates were stratified by season (warm or cold) and drinking water source (groundwater, surface water, or 'other' category). Stratified analyses by drinking water source and season identified positive associations of rainfall and GI hospitalizations in surface water systems during the warm season with no lag (OR = 1.12, 95% CI 1.05-1.19) and a 2-day lag (OR = 1.09, 95% CI 1.03-1.16). Positive associations in 'Other' water source areas (served by very small community water systems, private wells, or unknown) during the warm season with a 4-day lag were also found. However, there were no statistically significant positive associations in groundwater systems during the warm season. The results suggest that water systems with surface water sources can play an important role in preventing GI hospitalizations during and immediately following heavy rainfall. Regulators should work with water system providers to develop system specific prevention techniques to limit the impact

  13. Managed groundwater development for water-supply security in Sub ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Global Water Partnership, c/o Drottninggatan 33, SE-111-51 Stockholm, ... from the standpoint of the GW-MATE experience in some World Bank-supported projects in eastern ..... basic pit latrine) and around 10% have no sanitation system.

  14. Identification and contribution of water sources to the extent of floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezowski, Tomasz; Partington, Daniel; Chormański, Jarosław; Batelaan, Okke

    2015-04-01

    The extent of floods is the result of the discharge of various water sources in the floodplain. These water sources originate from upstream river discharge, direct rainfall on the floodplain, snowmelt or groundwater discharge. The differentiation between these water sources, including the spatial delineation of their contributing areas is an important issue for flood protection, ecohydrology and hydrological modelling. So far the most reliable method for differentiation and spatial delineation of the water sources in the overall flood extent is extensive hydrochemical analysis involving numerous sampling points. In this study we compare results from such an analysis with a coupled groundwater-surface water simulation approach. The comparison is performed for the Lower Biebrza Basin, north-eastern Poland (453 km2). This study area is a natural wetland river valley dominated by peat soils with extensive agriculture. Floods in this area occur yearly and are considered of major importance for the ecology of the basin. The hydrochemical analysis was conducted for the 2002 spring flood and consisted of sampling 538 points for 19 parameters (pH, electrical conductivity, organic carbon and concentration of 16 ions). The identification of spatial water sources was further conducted by means of dimensionality reduction and cluster analysis. The hydrological modelling of different water sources was conducted with a HydroGeoSphere (HGS) model for the whole Biebrza catchment (7000 km2). HGS is a finite element, fully integrated physically based hydrological model, which simulates unsaturated/saturated groundwater flow, surface flow, evapotranspiration, snowmelt, etc. Hence, it offers coupled groundwater-surface water interaction and an important new feature that allows to calculate the composition of different water sources in each computational node of the model. Results of this mixing-cell methodology are compared with the hydrochemical analysis and show good agreement for

  15. Identification of sources of pollution and contamination in water distribution networks based on pattern recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao TAO; Ying-jun LU; Xiang FU; Kun-lun XIN

    2012-01-01

    An intrusion of contaminants into the water distribution network (WDN) can occur through storage tanks (via animals.dust-carrying bacteria,and infiltration) and pipes.A sensor network could yield useful observations that help identify the location of the source,the strength,the time of occurrence.and the duration of contamination.This paper proposes a methodology for identifying the contamination sources in a water distribution system,which identifies the key characteristics of contamination.such as location,starting time.and injection rates at different time intervals.Based on simplified hypotheses and associated with a high computational efficiency.the methodology is designed to be a simple and easy-to-use tool for water companies to ensure rapid identification of the contamination sources,The proposed methodology identifies the characteristics of pollution sources by matching the dynamic patterns of the simulated and measured concentrations.The application of this methodology to a literature network and a real WDN are illustrated with the aid of an example.The results showed that if contaminants are transported from the sources to the sensors at intervals,then this method can identify the most possible ones from candidate pollution sources.However,if the contamination data is minimal,a greater number of redundant contamination source nodes will be present.Consequently,more data from different sensors obtained through network monitoring are required to effectively use this method for locating multi-sources of contamination in the WDN.

  16. Age and residence time of terrestrial source water in the northwest Atlantic shelf seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, R.; Todd, A. C.

    2016-02-01

    Coastal river mouths and bays are the junctions where terrestrial-source water meets and mixes with water from the open ocean. Once the riverine water reaches the coastal ocean, its eventual fate is largely unknown and difficult to trace. Rivers that flow into the ocean may contain high levels of nutrients and organic matter, so understanding the fate of terrestrial source water is important for a variety of biogeochemical processes that occur in the shelf seas. The fate of this terrestrial source water may be described in terms of its mean age (the time since it reached the ocean) and its residence time (the time it remains on the continental shelf). Using a high-resolution ocean model, we apply the constituent-oriented age and residence time (CART) theory to a large region encompassing the northwest Atlantic shelf seas to calculate the mean age of terrestrial source water and its residence time. For this application, 196 river mouths are used as sources of terrestrial water from South America to Nova Scotia. We investigate the spatial and seasonal variability of the water's mean age and compute the residence time within four different shelf regions: the Carribean Sea, the Gulf of Mexico, the South Atlantic Bight, and the Mid-Atlantic Bight/Gulf of Maine. From the estimates of mean age and residence time, we describe the impact of the coastal circulation on the eventual fate of terrestrial waters, and provide conjecture on how varying transport time scales may affect the general biogeochemical processes in the coastal ocean.

  17. Release of accumulated arsenic from distribution pipes into tap water after arsenic treatment of source water- presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxic arsenic (As) is known to incorporate from source well water onto the scales of distribution system pipes such as iron, copper, galvanized steel and even plastic containing internal buildup of iron coatings (Lytle et al., 2010, 2004; Schock, 2015; Reiber and Dostal, 2000). W...

  18. Nano-silver in drinking water and drinking water sources: stability and influences on disinfection by-product formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugulea, A-M; Bérubé, D; Giddings, M; Lemieux, F; Hnatiw, J; Priem, J; Avramescu, M-L

    2014-10-01

    Nano-silver is increasingly used in consumer products from washing machines and refrigerators to devices marketed for the disinfection of drinking water or recreational water. The nano-silver in these products may be released, ending up in surface water bodies which may be used as drinking water sources. Little information is available about the stability of the nano-silver in sources of drinking water, its fate during drinking water disinfection processes, and its interaction with disinfection agents and disinfection by-products (DBPs). This study aims to investigate the stability of nano-silver in drinking water sources and in the finished drinking water when chlorine and chloramines are used for disinfection and to observe changes in the composition of DBPs formed when nano-silver is present in the source water. A dispersion of nano-silver particles (10 nm; PVP-coated) was used to spike untreated Ottawa River water, treated Ottawa River water, organic-free water, and a groundwater at concentrations of 5 mg/L. The diluted dispersions were kept under stirred and non-stirred conditions for up to 9 months and analyzed weekly using UV absorption to assess the stability of the nano-silver particles. In a separate experiment, Ottawa River water containing nano-silver particles (at 0.1 and 1 mg/L concentration, respectively) was disinfected by adding sodium hypochlorite (a chlorinating agent) in sufficient amounts to maintain a free chlorine residual of approximately 0.4 mg/L after 24 h. The disinfected drinking water was then quenched with ascorbic acid and analyzed for 34 neutral DBPs (trihalomethanes, haloacetonitriles, haloacetaldehydes, 1,1 dichloro-2-propanone, 1,1,1 trichloro-2-propanone, chloropicrin, and cyanogen chloride). The results were compared to the profile of DBPs obtained under the same conditions in the absence of nano-silver and in the presence of an equivalent concentration of Ag(+) ions (as AgNO3). The stability of the nano-silver dispersions in

  19. Risk-based prioritisation of point sources through assessment of the impact on a water supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overheu, Niels D.; Tuxen, Nina; Troldborg, Mads

    2011-01-01

    A large number of point sources threaten groundwater resources. A tool is presented which enables a uniform and transparent risk assessment and prioritisation of these point sources at the catchment scale with respect to the needs of further investigation or remediation. The tool integrates aquifer...... vulnerability mapping, site-specific mass flux estimates on a local scale from all the sources, and 3-D catchment-scale fate and transport modelling. It handles sources at various knowledge levels and accounts for uncertainties. The tool estimates the impacts on the water supply in the catchment and provides...

  20. Microbial pathogens in source and treated waters from drinking water treatment plants in the United States and implications for human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Dawn N.; Donohue, Maura J.; Vesper, Stephen J.; Villegas, Eric N.; Ware, Michael W.; Vogel, Megan E.; Furlong, Edward; Kolpin, Dana W.; Glassmeyer, Susan T.; Pfaller, Stacy

    2016-01-01

    An occurrence survey was conducted on selected pathogens in source and treated drinking water collected from 25 drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) in the United States. Water samples were analyzed for the protozoa Giardia and Cryptosporidium (EPA Method 1623); the fungi Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus terreus (quantitative PCR [qPCR]); and the bacteria Legionella pneumophila (qPCR), Mycobacterium avium, M. avium subspecies paratuberculosis, and Mycobacterium intracellulare (qPCR and culture). Cryptosporidium and Giardia were detected in 25% and in 46% of the source water samples, respectively (treated waters were not tested). Aspergillus fumigatus was the most commonly detected fungus in source waters (48%) but none of the three fungi were detected in treated water. Legionella pneumophila was detected in 25% of the source water samples but in only 4% of treated water samples. M. avium and M. intracellulare were both detected in 25% of source water, while all three mycobacteria were detected in 36% of treated water samples. Five species of mycobacteria, Mycobacterium mucogenicum, Mycobacterium phocaicum, Mycobacterium triplex, Mycobacterium fortuitum, and Mycobacterium lentiflavum were cultured from treated water samples. Although these DWTPs represent a fraction of those in the U.S., the results suggest that many of these pathogens are widespread in source waters but that treatment is generally effective in reducing them to below detection limits. The one exception is the mycobacteria, which were commonly detected in treated water, even when not detected in source waters.

  1. Improvements to water purification and sanitation infrastructure may reduce the diarrheal burden in a marginalized and flood prone population in remote Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wurzelmann Daniel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The isolated northern region of Nicaragua has one of the highest rates of diarrheal disease in Central America. Political and environmental hardships faced by inhabitants of this region are contributing factors to this health inequity. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between water and latrine infrastructure and the prevalence of diarrhea in this region. Methods A population-based, cross-sectional survey of women of reproductive age was conducted in the Sahsa region of northern Nicaragua in July, 2009. Households were selected by two stage cluster sampling methodology. A questionnaire was administered in Spanish and Miskito with assessment of household and socioeconomic conditions, sanitation practices, and health care access. Diarrhea prevalence differences at the household level over a two week reporting period were estimated with a standardized instrument which included assessment of water treatment and latrine use and maintenance. Results There were 189 women enrolled in the current study. The use of water purification methods, such as chlorine and filters, and latrine ownership were not associated with reduced prevalence of household diarrhea in the two week reporting period. Latrine overflow, however, was associated with an increased prevalence of diarrhea during the same two week period [adjusted prevalence difference and 95% CI: 0.19 (0.03, 0.36]. Conclusions Simple, low cost interventions that improve water and latrine infrastructure may reduce the prevalence of diarrheal disease in the isolated regions of Nicaragua and Central America.

  2. Improvements to water purification and sanitation infrastructure may reduce the diarrheal burden in a marginalized and flood prone population in remote Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denslow, Sheri A; Edwards, Jess; Horney, Jennifer; Peña, Rodolfo; Wurzelmann, Daniel; Morgan, Douglas

    2010-12-08

    The isolated northern region of Nicaragua has one of the highest rates of diarrheal disease in Central America. Political and environmental hardships faced by inhabitants of this region are contributing factors to this health inequity. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between water and latrine infrastructure and the prevalence of diarrhea in this region. A population-based, cross-sectional survey of women of reproductive age was conducted in the Sahsa region of northern Nicaragua in July, 2009. Households were selected by two stage cluster sampling methodology. A questionnaire was administered in Spanish and Miskito with assessment of household and socioeconomic conditions, sanitation practices, and health care access. Diarrhea prevalence differences at the household level over a two week reporting period were estimated with a standardized instrument which included assessment of water treatment and latrine use and maintenance. There were 189 women enrolled in the current study. The use of water purification methods, such as chlorine and filters, and latrine ownership were not associated with reduced prevalence of household diarrhea in the two week reporting period. Latrine overflow, however, was associated with an increased prevalence of diarrhea during the same two week period [adjusted prevalence difference and 95% CI: 0.19 (0.03, 0.36)]. Simple, low cost interventions that improve water and latrine infrastructure may reduce the prevalence of diarrheal disease in the isolated regions of Nicaragua and Central America.

  3. Occurrence and Removal Characteristics of Phthalate Esters from Typical Water Sources in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of phthalate esters (PAEs in the environment has gained a considerable attention due to their potential impacts on public health. This study reports the first data on the occurrence of 15 PAEs in the water near the Mopanshan Reservoir—the new and important water source of Harbin city in Northeast China. As drinking water is a major source for human exposure to PAEs, the fate of target PAEs in the two waterworks (Mopanshan Waterworks and Seven Waterworks was also analyzed. The results demonstrated that the total concentrations of 15 PAEs in the water near the Mopanshan Reservoir were relatively moderate, ranging from 355.8 to 9226.5 ng/L, with the mean value of 2943.1 ng/L. DBP and DEHP dominated the PAE concentrations, which ranged from 52.5 to 4498.2 ng/L and 128.9 to 6570.9 ng/L, respectively. The occurrence and concentrations of these compounds were heavily spatially dependent. Meanwhile, the results on the waterworks samples suggested no significant differences in PAE levels with the input of the raw waters. Without effective and stable removal of PAEs after the conventional drinking water treatment in the waterworks (25.8% to 76.5%, the risks posed by PAEs through drinking water ingestion were still existing, which should be paid special attention to the source control in the Mopanshan Reservoir and some advanced treatment processes for drinking water supplies.

  4. Longitudinal and Source-to-Tap New Orleans, LA, U.S.A. Drinking Water Microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Natalie M; Holinger, Eric P; Ross, Kimberly A; Robertson, Charles E; Harris, J Kirk; Stevens, Mark J; Pace, Norman R

    2017-04-18

    The two municipal drinking water systems of New Orleans, LA, U.S.A. were sampled to compare the microbiology of independent systems that treat the same surface water from the Mississippi River. To better understand temporal trends and sources of microbiology delivered to taps, these treatment plants and distribution systems were subjected to source-to-tap sampling over four years. Both plants employ traditional treatment by chloramination, applied during or after settling, followed by filtration before distribution in a warm, low water age system. Longitudinal samples indicated microbiology to have stability both spatially and temporally, and between treatment plants and distribution systems. Disinfection had the greatest impact on microbial composition, which was further refined by filtration and influenced by distribution and premise plumbing. Actinobacteria spp. exhibited trends with treatment. In particular, Mycobacterium spp., very low in finished waters, occurred idiosyncratically at high levels in some tap waters, indicating distribution and/or premise plumbing as main contributors of mycobacteria. Legionella spp., another genus containing potential opportunistic pathogens, also occurred ubiquitously. Source water microbiology was most divergent from tap water, and each step of treatment brought samples more closely similar to tap waters.

  5. Isolation and Identification of Arcobacter spp. by Multiplex PCR from Water Sources in Kars Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Elif; Ünver, Ahmet

    2015-11-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Arcobacter spp. in various water sources of stream, creek, pond, and drinking water in Kars and surrounding areas. A total of 113 water samples including 19 samples from creeks, 49 from streams, 10 from ponds, and 35 from drinking water samples collected from different regions were examined for presence of Arcobacter spp. by cultural methods. Arcobacter spp. were isolated from 14 (12.38 %) samples including 5 (26.31 %) creek and 9 (18.36 %) stream water samples and all were identified as Arcobacter butzleri by multiplex PCR. No agent was isolated from pond and drinking water samples. The results of this study demonstrated that creek and stream waters are contaminated by this agent showing high potential risk of Arcobacter species to be transmitted to humans and animals and in the contamination of food. It is concluded that water sources should also be considered as a factor not only carrying agents but also as a primary source of the infection.

  6. Water from air: An overlooked source of moisture in arid and semiarid regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Theresa; Morrissey, Ember M; Reed, Sasha C.; Hungate, Bruce A.; Schwartz, Egbert

    2015-01-01

    Water drives the functioning of Earth’s arid and semiarid lands. Drylands can obtain water from sources other than precipitation, yet little is known about how non-rainfall water inputs influence dryland communities and their activity. In particular, water vapor adsorption – movement of atmospheric water vapor into soil when soil air is drier than the overlying air – likely occurs often in drylands, yet its effects on ecosystem processes are not known. By adding 18O-enriched water vapor to the atmosphere of a closed system, we documented the conversion of water vapor to soil liquid water across a temperature range typical of arid ecosystems. This phenomenon rapidly increased soil moisture and stimulated microbial carbon (C) cycling, and the flux of water vapor to soil had a stronger impact than temperature on microbial activity. In a semiarid grassland, we also observed that non-rainfall water inputs stimulated microbial activity and C cycling. Together these data suggest that, during rain-free periods, atmospheric moisture in drylands may significantly contribute to variation in soil water content, thereby influencing ecosystem processes. The simple physical process of adsorption of water vapor to soil particles, forming liquid water, represents an overlooked but potentially important contributor to C cycling in drylands.

  7. Vanishing Springs in Nepalese Mountains: Assessment of Water Sources, Farmers' Perceptions, and Climate Change Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durga D. Poudel

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Thulokhola watershed of the Nuwakot district in the midhills region of Nepal can be considered typical of climate change-related stresses in the region. To assess the status of water resources and document farmers' perceptions of and adaptation to climate change impacts in this watershed, we invited community groups to monitor water quality and conducted 6 focus group meetings, 3 participatory rural appraisals, and spring and household surveys in 2011 and 2012. Historical precipitation data from a nearby weather station and discharge data for the Tadi Khola, the nearest major river, were also analyzed. The spring survey results confirmed farmers' perceptions and showed that 73.2% of the springs used as water sources had a decreased flow and 12.2% had dried up over the past 10 or more years, as recognized by local residents. In response to the severe decline of precipitation and the drying up of springs, local communities have implemented some climate change adaptation measures, such as constructing water tanks at water sources, using pipes to transport drinking water, diverting water from other springs, digging deeper wells, and traveling farther to wash clothes and fetch drinking water. To enhance drinking water supplies and ensure the agricultural, ecological, and environmental integrity of the watershed, initiatives such as comprehensive research on springs and groundwater hydrology, a spring rejuvenation program, and community capacity building for water sustainability and climate change adaptation are suggested.

  8. Early warning system for detection of microbial contamination of source waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Claus Tilsted; Bentien, Anders; Lau, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    Ensuring chemical and microbial water quality is an ever increasing important issue world-wide. Currently, determination of microbial water quality is a time (and money) consuming manual laboratory process. We have developed and field-tested an online and real-time sensor for measuring the microb....../or variation. This includes: water plants/water distribution networks, filtration systems (water purification), commercial buildings, swimming pools, waste water effluent, and industry in general.......Ensuring chemical and microbial water quality is an ever increasing important issue world-wide. Currently, determination of microbial water quality is a time (and money) consuming manual laboratory process. We have developed and field-tested an online and real-time sensor for measuring...... the microbial water quality of a wide range of source waters. The novel optical technique, in combination with advanced data analysis, yields a measure for the microbial content present in the sample. This gives a fast and reliable detection capability of microbial contamination of the source. Sample...

  9. Phthalate esters in main source water and drinking water of Zhejiang Province (China): Distribution and health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Lou, Xiaoming; Zhang, Nianhua; Ding, Gangqiang; Chen, Zhijian; Xu, Peiwei; Wu, Lizhi; Cai, Jianmin; Han, Jianlong; Qiu, Xueting

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the distributions and health risks of phthalate esters in the main source water and corresponding drinking water of Zhejiang Province, the concentrations of 16 phthalate esters in water samples from 19 sites were measured from samples taken in the dry season and wet season. The concentration of the total phthalate ester congeners in source water ranged from 1.07 μg/L to 7.12 μg/L in the wet season, from 0.01 μg/L to 1.58 μg/L in the dry season, from 1.18 μg/L to 15.28 μg/L from drinking water in the wet season, and from 0.16 μg/L to 1.86 μg/L from drinking water in the dry season. Of the 16 phthalate esters, dimethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, di-(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate, di-iso-butyl phthalate, bis-2-n-butoxyethyl phthalate, and dicyclohexyl phthalate were present in the samples analyzed, dominated by di-iso-butyl phthalate and di-(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate. The concentrations of phthalate esters in the wet season were all relatively higher than those in the dry season, and the drinking water had higher concentrations of phthalate esters than source water. The phthalate ester congeners studied pose little health risk to nearby citizens. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:2205-2212. © 2015 SETAC.

  10. Ozone application in water sources: effects of operational parameters and water quality variables on ozone residual profiles and decay rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Lage Filho

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Systematic ozonation tests were conducted by means of a mobile pilot plant. Water source 1 was a low turbidity stream with very low solids content and very low turbidity, apparent color and alkalinity. Water source 2 was reservoir water with higher turbidity, solids content and alkalinity than source 1. The ozone plant was a counter-current contactor composed of four columns in series. Variations in contact time, in the feed gas concentration (in terms of percent by weight of ozone and in splitting of the total applied ozone dosage between columns 1 and 2 were tested. Concentration - time (CT products were calculated and decay coefficients K were estimated from experimental data. The relative importance of water quality and certain operational parameters with regard to CT products and ozone decay was assessed. Total CT values seemed to increase with: (a total applied ozone dosage, (b percent by weight of ozone in the feed gas to the bubble contactor, (c increasing contact time and (d higher water quality, with regard to turbidity, apparent color, total organic carbon and particle counts. As the total applied ozone dosage was increased, the more important the contact time and ozone dosage configuration became for the total CT value. The apparent first order ozone decay rate constant (K decreased with increasing total applied ozone dosage. The contact time appeared to exert a much stronger influence on total CT values than on K values, particularly so as the total applied ozone dosage was increased.

  11. Headwater management alters sources, flowpaths, and fluxes of water, carbon, and nitrogen in urban watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennino, M. J.; Kaushal, S.; Mayer, P. M.; Welty, C.; Miller, A. J.

    2012-12-01

    Increased urbanization has altered watershed hydrology and increased nutrient pollution, leading to eutrophication and hypoxia in downstream coastal ecosystems. Due to urban stream degradation, there have been efforts to restore streams and reduce peak-flow discharges and contaminant export through stormwater management and stream restoration. However, there have been relatively few studies comparing watershed scale impacts of contrasting headwater management practices on sources and fluxes of water, carbon, and nutrients across space and time. In this study we compared sources and fluxes of water, carbon (C), and nitrogen (N) along 4 watersheds of contrasting headwater management: 2 urban degraded watersheds with minimal or no stormwater management and 2 managed urban watersheds with stormwater controls and stream restoration. Surface water samples were collected biweekly at USGS gauging stations located within each watershed over 2 years. Spatially, watersheds were sampled longitudinally during 4 seasons. Sources of water, nitrate, and carbon were investigated using isotopic and spectroscopic tracer techniques. Indicator anions (F-, Cl-, I-, SO42-) were also used to trace anthropogenic vs. natural water sources. Hydrologic flowpaths (groundwater vs. overland flow) were assessed with longitudinal synoptic surveys using stable water isotopes of H and O. Annual fluxes of water, C, and N, were estimated using the USGS program LOADEST. H and O isotope data showed that the source of stream water is primarily groundwater during summer months, with greater contributions from stormflow during winter months for all 4 watersheds. Elevated levels of indicator anions (F-, Cl-, I-, SO42-) as well as greater "pulses" of C and N over time in the degraded vs. managed watersheds indicate potential sewage sources due to leaky sanitary sewers and greater stormdrain inputs. Unlike the managed watersheds where hydrologic flowpaths were from groundwater in headwaters, the longitudinal

  12. Highway as a source of water pollution: an appraisal with the heavy metal lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laxen, D.P.H.; Harrison, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    Factors influencing the impact of highway lead on the quality of water resources are discussed, and the available information on each factor critically evaluated. Hence, the sources of lead input to the highway environment are described and the subsequent airborne and waterborne dispersal to the receiving waters discussed in detail. It appears that the impact on surface waters is confined to the lead contained in surface runoff, as the lead dispersed to roadside soils is effectively immobilized in the top 10 cm of soil. The concentration of lead in highway runoff can reach levels far in excess of those normally encountered in surface waters. However, when evaluating the impact on the receiving waters, the importance of considering both the lead mass discharge from the highway and the subsequent dilution by the receiving water is stressed. Finally, the present inadequate understanding of the physiochemical forms of lead in polluted and natural waters is highlighted.

  13. Sources and circulation of water and arsenic in the Giant Mine, Yellowknife, NWT, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ian D; Raven, Kenneth G

    2004-06-01

    Recovery of gold from arsenopyrite-hosted ore in the Giant Mine camp, Yellowknife, NWT, Canada, has left a legacy of arsenic contamination that poses challenges for mine closure planning. Seepage from underground chambers storing some 237,000 tonnes of arsenic trioxide dust, has As concentrations exceeding 4000 ppm. Other potential sources and sinks of As also exist. Sources and movement of water and arsenic are traced using the isotopes of water and sulphate. Mine waters (16 ppm As; AsV/AsIII approximately 150) are a mixture of two principal water sources--locally recharged, low As groundwaters (0.5 ppm As) and Great Slave Lake (GSL; 0.004 ppm As) water, formerly used in ore processing and discharged to the northwest tailings impoundment (NWTP). Mass balance with delta18O shows that recirculation of NWTP water to the underground through faults and unsealed drillholes contributes about 60% of the mine water. Sulphate serves to trace direct infiltration to the As2O3 chambers. Sulphate in local, low As groundwaters (0.3-0.6 ppm As; delta34SSO4 approximately 4% and delta18OSO4 approximately -10%) originates from low-temperature aqueous oxidation of sulphide-rich waste rock. The high As waters gain a component of 18O-enriched sulphate derived from roaster gases (delta18OSO4) = + 3.5%), consistent with their arsenic source from the As2O3 chambers. High arsenic in NWTP water (approximately 8 ppm As; delta18OSO4 = -2%) derived from mine water, is attenuated to close to 1 ppm during infiltration back to the underground, probably by oxidation and sorption by ferrihydrite.

  14. Diarrhoea prevention in a high-risk rural Kenyan population through point-of-use chlorination, safe water storage, sanitation, and rainwater harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, V; Ogutu, P; Mabonga, P; Ombeki, S; Mwaki, A; Aluoch, G; Phelan, M; Quick, R E

    2008-11-01

    Lack of access to safe water and sanitation contributes to diarrhoea moribidity and mortality in developing countries. We evaluated the impact of household water treatment, latrines, shallow wells, and rainwater harvesting on diarrhoea incidence in rural Kenyan children. We compared diarrhoea rates in 960 children aged home visits over an 8-week period. On multivariate analysis, chlorinating stored water [relative risk (RR) 0.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.28-0.69], latrine presence (RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.54-0.92), rainwater use (RR 0.70, 95% CI 0.52-0.95), and living in an intervention village (RR 0.31, 95% CI 0.23-0.41), were independently associated with lower diarrhoea risk. Diarrhoea risk was higher among shallow well users (RR 1.78, 95% CI 1.12-2.83). Chlorinating stored water, latrines, and rainwater use all decreased diarrhoea risk; combined interventions may have increased health impact.

  15. Microbial and metal water quality in rain catchments compared with traditional drinking water sources in the East Sepik Province, Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, Helena M; Chynoweth, Joshua S; Myers, Ward P; Davis, Jennifer; Fendorf, Scott; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2010-03-01

    In Papua New Guinea, a significant portion of morbidity and mortality is attributed to water-borne diseases. To reduce incidence of disease, communities and non-governmental organizations have installed rain catchments to provide drinking water of improved quality. However, little work has been done to determine whether these rain catchments provide drinking water of better quality than traditional drinking water sources, and if morbidity is decreased in villages with rain catchments. The specific aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of water produced by rain catchments in comparison with traditional drinking water sources in rural villages in the East Sepik Province. Fifty-four water sources in 22 villages were evaluated for enterococci and Escherichia coli densities as well as 14 health-relevant metals. In addition, we examined how the prevalence of diarrhoeal illness in villages relates to the type of primary drinking water source. The majority of tested metals were below World Health Organization safety limits. Catchment water sources had lower enterococci and E. coli than other water sources. Individuals in villages using Sepik River water as their primary water source had significantly higher incidence of diarrhoea than those primarily using other water sources (streams, dug wells and catchments).

  16. Nutrient sources in a Mediterranean catchment and their improvement for water quality management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, Angela; Viviani, Gaspare

    2010-05-01

    Changes in land-use or management strategies may affect water outflow, sediment and nutrients loads. Thus, there is an increasing demand for quantitative information at the catchment scale that would help decision makers or planners to take appropriate decisions. The characterisation of water status, the description of pollution sources impact, the establishment of monitoring programs and the implementation of river basin management plans require an analysis of the current basin status and estimates of the relative significance of the different sources of pollution. Particularly, in this study the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT2000) model was considered since it is an integrated hydrological model that simulates both the qualitative as well as quantitative terms of hydrological balances. It is a spatially distributed hydrological model that operates on a daily time step at catchment scale developed by the Agricultural Research Service at the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Its purpose is to simulate water sediment and chemical yields on large river basins and possible impacts of land use, climate changes and watershed management. Integrated hydrological models are, nowadays, needed to support the implementation of integrated water management plans and to comply with the current requirements of the European Water Directive. Actually, they can help in evaluating current water resources, identify pollution sources, evaluate alternative management policies. More specifically, the analysis has been applied to the Oreto catchment (77 Km2), an agricultural and urbanised catchment located in Sicily (Italy). Residential, commercial, farm and industrial settlements cover almost the entire area. The climate is Mediterranean with hot dry summer and rainy winter season. The hydrological response of this basin is dominated by long dry seasons and following wetting-up periods, during which even large inputs of rainfall may produce little or no response at the basin outlet

  17. Detailed Design of Cooling Water System for Cold Neutron Source in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bong Soo; Choi, Jung Woon; Kim, Y. K.; Wu, S. I.; Lee, Y. S

    2007-04-15

    To make cold neutron, a cryogenic refrigerator is necessary to transform moderator into cryogenic state so, thermal neutron is changed into cold neutron through heat transfer with moderator. A cryogenic refrigerator mainly consists of two apparatus, a helium compressor and a cold box which needs supply of cooling water. Therefore, cooling water system is essential to operate of cryogenic refrigerator normally. This report is mainly focused on the detailed design of the cooling water system for the HANARO cold neutron source, and describes design requirement, calculation, specification of equipment and water treatment method.

  18. Detailed Design of Cooling Water System for Cold Neutron Source in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bong Soo; Choi, Jung Woon; Kim, Y. K.; Wu, S. I.; Lee, Y. S

    2007-04-15

    To make cold neutron, a cryogenic refrigerator is necessary to transform moderator into cryogenic state so, thermal neutron is changed into cold neutron through heat transfer with moderator. A cryogenic refrigerator mainly consists of two apparatus, a helium compressor and a cold box which needs supply of cooling water. Therefore, cooling water system is essential to operate of cryogenic refrigerator normally. This report is mainly focused on the detailed design of the cooling water system for the HANARO cold neutron source, and describes design requirement, calculation, specification of equipment and water treatment method.

  19. The source of replenishment of geothermal water around Xi’an

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶书华

    2001-01-01

    The meteoric origin of the geothermal water in Xi’an is evidenced by its H and O isotope composition. Based on the temperature dependence of isotopic composition, the temperature of meteoric water that replenishes the geothermal aquifers in Xi’an and its neighboring regions is calculated to be -13.28℃. The age of the geothermal water based on 14C dating method is 10-30 kaBP, belonging to a secondary glacial period in Late Quaternary. The source of replenishment is considered to have mainly derived from glacial snow melt water from elevations higher than 2,000m (ASL) in Qinling Mountains.

  20. A three step approach for removing organic matter from South African water sources and treatment plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkambule, T. I.; Krause, R. W. M.; Haarhoff, J.; Mamba, B. B.

    The high variability in the levels and composition of natural organic matter (NOM) in South-African water sources in different regions means that no single treatment process can be prescribed for each water treatment plant operating in the country. In order to remove NOM from water in a water treatment train, the composition of the NOM in the source water must be taken into account, especially as it may not necessarily be uniform since the composition is dependent on local environmental situation. The primary objective of this study was to characterise the NOM present in South African source waters through an extensive sampling of representative water types across the country and then develop a rapid NOM characterisation protocol. Water samples were thus collected from eight different water treatment plants located throughout the country at different sites of their water treatment trains. Raw water samples, the intermediate samples before filtration and water samples before disinfection were collected at these drinking water treatment plants. The fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (FEEMs), biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC), ultraviolet (UV) characterisation (200-900 nm) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) analysis were used to characterise the NOM in the water samples. The FEEM and UV results revealed that the samples were composed mainly of humic substances with a high UV-254 absorbance, while some samples had marine humic substances and non-humic substances. The sample’s DOC results were within the range of 3.25-21.44 mg C/L, which was indicative of the varying nature of the NOM composition in the regions where samples were obtained. The BDOC fraction of the NOM, on the other hand, ranged from 20% to 65%, depending on the geographical location of the sampling site. It is evident from the results obtained that the NOM composition varied per sampling site which would eventually have a bearing on its treatability. The various water treatment

  1. Sequence types diversity of Legionella pneumophila isolates from environmental water sources in Guangzhou and Jiangmen, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jingyu; Liang, Ting; Hu, Chaohui; Lv, Ruichen; Yang, Xianwei; Cui, Yujun; Song, Youtao; Yang, Ruifu; Zhu, Qingyi; Song, Yajun

    2015-01-01

    In this study, 159 Legionella pneumophila strains isolated from various natural and artificial water sources in Guangzhou and Jiangmen, China, were subjected to genotyping by the sequence-based typing (SBT) scheme. These isolates were assigned into 53 sequence types (STs) (50 STs with seven loci data and three unidentified STs with incomplete loci profiles) with ST1 as the dominant one (14.5%), and the index of diversity (IOD) was 0.950. Eight new alleles and 34 new STs were reported here. Notably, most of the newly identified STs with seven loci data (24/34) contained no new allele, implying frequent recombination events in L. pneumophila. Five intragenic recombination events were identified in the concatenated sequences of seven loci. The diversity of STs in natural environmental isolates (41 STs, IOD=0.956) is higher than that of artificial environmental ones (17 STs, IOD=0.824). The ST patterns varied in isolates from these two sources: the most common STs from artificial water sources, ST1 and ST752 (39.2% and 13.7%), were only occasionally isolated from natural water sources (2.9% and 3.8%, respectively); while the predominant STs from natural water sources, ST1048, ST739 and ST1267 (15.2%, 6.7% and 6.7%), were less frequently seen in artificial environments (2.0%, 0% and 0%, respectively). We also found out that Legionnaires' disease associated STs might be more frequently isolated in artificial environments than in natural ones. Our data revealed remarkable genetic diversity of L. pneumophila isolates from environmental water systems of Guangzhou and Jiangmen, and the different ST distribution patterns between natural water and artificial water sources as well.

  2. Hydrogen isotopes from source water to leaf lipid in a continental-scale sample network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Daniel; Kahmen, Ansgar

    2015-04-01

    Sedimentary plant waxes are useful paleoclimate proxies because they are preserved in depositional settings on geologic timescales and the isotopic composition of the hydrogen in these molecules reflects that of the source water available during biosynthesis. This application is based largely on empirical calibrations that have demonstrated continental-scale correlations between source water and lipid hydrogen isotope values. However, the importance of variable net isotopic fractionation between source water and lipid for different species and environmental conditions is increasingly recognized. Isotopic enrichment of leaf water during transpiration is key among these secondary factors, and is itself sensitive to changes in hydroclimate. Leaf water enrichment also occurs prior to photosynthetic water uptake, and is therefore independent from cellular-level biomarker synthesis. Mechanistic models can predict the mean leaf water hydrogen isotope composition from readily available meteorological variables. This permits global-scale isoscape maps of leaf water isotopic composition and enrichment above source water to be generated, but these models have not been widely validated at continental spatial scales. We have established a network of twenty-one sites across Europe where we are sampling for leaf-, xylem-, and soil-water isotopes (H and O) at approximately 5-week intervals over the summer growing season. We augment the sample set with weekly to monthly precipitation samples and early- and late-season plant wax lipid samples. Collaborators at each site are conducting the sampling, and most sites are members of the FLUXNET tower network that also record high-resolution meteorological data. We present information on the implementation of the network and preliminary results from the 2014 summer season. The complete dataset will be used to track the evolution of water isotopes from source to leaf water and from leaf water to lipid hydrogen across diverse environments

  3. Meeting water needs for sustainable development: an overview of approaches, measures and data sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissner, Tabea; Reusser, Dominik E.; Sullivan, Caroline A.; Kropp, Jürgen P.

    2013-04-01

    An essential part of a global transition towards sustainability is the Millennium Development Goals (MDG), providing a blueprint of goals to meet human needs. Water is an essential resource in itself, but also a vital factor of production for food, energy and other industrial products. Access to sufficient water has only recently been recognized as a human right. One central MDG is halving the population without access to safe drinking water and sanitation. To adequately assess the state of development and the potential for a transition towards sustainability, consistent and meaningful measures of water availability and adequate access are thus fundamental. Much work has been done to identify thresholds and definitions to measure water scarcity. This includes some work on defining basic water needs of different sectors. A range of data and approaches has been made available from a variety of sources, but all of these approaches differ in their underlying assumptions, the nature of the data used, and consequently in the final results. We review and compare approaches, methods and data sources on human water use and human water needs. This data review enables identifying levels of consumption in different countries and different sectors. Further comparison is made between actual water needs (based on human and ecological requirements), and recognised levels of water abstraction. The results of our review highlight the differences between different accounts of water use and needs, and reflect the importance of standardised approaches to data definitions and measurements, making studies more comparable across space and time. The comparison of different use and allocation patterns in countries enables levels of water use to be identified which allow for an adequate level of human wellbeing to be maintained within sustainable water abstraction limits. Recommendations are provided of how data can be defined more clearly to make comparisons of water use more meaningful and

  4. Evaluation of Genotoxic and Mutagenic Activity of Organic Extracts from Drinking Water Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Ying; Wang, Xiaodong; Wong, Minghung; Sun, Guoping; An, Taicheng; Guo, Jun; Zhang, Guoxia

    2017-01-01

    An increasing number of industrial, agricultural and commercial chemicals in the aquatic environment lead to various deleterious effects on organisms, which is becoming a serious global health concern. In this study, the Ames test and SOS/umu test were conducted to investigate the potential genotoxicity and mutagenicity caused by organic extracts from drinking water sources. Organic content of source water was extracted with XAD-2 resin column and organic solvents. Four doses of the extract equivalent to 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2L of source water were tested for toxicity. All the water samples were collected from six different locations in Guangdong province. The results of the Ames test and SOS/umu test showed that all the organic extracts from the water samples could induce different levels of DNA damage and mutagenic potentials at the dose of 2 L in the absence of S9 mix, which demonstrated the existence of genotoxicity and mutagenicity. Additionally, we found that Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 was more sensitive for the mutagen. Correlation analysis between genotoxicity, Organochlorine Pesticides (OCPs) and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) showed that most individual OCPs were frame shift toxicants in drinking water sources, and there was no correlation with total OCPs and PAHs.

  5. Quality of Source Water from Public-Supply Wells in the United States, 1993-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toccalino, Patricia L.; Norman, Julia E.; Hitt, Kerie J.

    2010-01-01

    More than one-third of the Nation's population receives their drinking water from public water systems that use groundwater as their source. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) sampled untreated source water from 932 public-supply wells, hereafter referred to as public wells, as part of multiple groundwater assessments conducted across the Nation during 1993-2007. The objectives of this study were to evaluate (1) contaminant occurrence in source water from public wells and the potential significance of contaminant concentrations to human health, (2) national and regional distributions of groundwater quality, and (3) the occurrence and characteristics of contaminant mixtures. Treated finished water was not sampled. The 932 public wells are widely distributed nationally and include wells in selected parts of 41 states and withdraw water from parts of 30 regionally extensive aquifers used for public water supply. These wells are distributed among 629 unique public water systems-less than 1 percent of all groundwater-supplied public water systems in the United States-but the wells were randomly selected within the sampled hydrogeologic settings to represent typical aquifer conditions. Samples from the 629 systems represent source water used by one-quarter of the U.S. population served by groundwater-supplied public water systems, or about 9 percent of the entire U.S. population in 2008. One groundwater sample was collected prior to treatment or blending from each of the 932 public wells and analyzed for as many as six water-quality properties and 215 contaminants. Consistent with the terminology used in the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), all constituents analyzed in water samples in this study are referred to as 'contaminants'. More contaminant groups were assessed in this study than in any previous national study of public wells and included major ions, nutrients, radionuclides, trace elements, pesticide compounds, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and fecal

  6. Identifying (subsurface) anthropogenic heat sources that influence temperature in the drinking water distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo-Vera, Claudia M.; Blokker, Mirjam; de Kater, Henk; Lafort, Rob

    2017-09-01

    The water temperature in the drinking water distribution system and at customers' taps approaches the surrounding soil temperature at a depth of 1 m. Water temperature is an important determinant of water quality. In the Netherlands drinking water is distributed without additional residual disinfectant and the temperature of drinking water at customers' taps is not allowed to exceed 25 °C. In recent decades, the urban (sub)surface has been getting more occupied by various types of infrastructures, and some of these can be heat sources. Only recently have the anthropogenic sources and their influence on the underground been studied on coarse spatial scales. Little is known about the urban shallow underground heat profile on small spatial scales, of the order of 10 m × 10 m. Routine water quality samples at the tap in urban areas have shown up locations - so-called hotspots - in the city, with relatively high soil temperatures - up to 7 °C warmer - compared to the soil temperatures in the surrounding rural areas. Yet the sources and the locations of these hotspots have not been identified. It is expected that with climate change during a warm summer the soil temperature in the hotspots can be above 25 °C. The objective of this paper is to find a method to identify heat sources and urban characteristics that locally influence the soil temperature. The proposed method combines mapping of urban anthropogenic heat sources, retrospective modelling of the soil temperature, analysis of water temperature measurements at the tap, and extensive soil temperature measurements. This approach provided insight into the typical range of the variation of the urban soil temperature, and it is a first step to identifying areas with potential underground heat stress towards thermal underground management in cities.

  7. Hypothesis-driven approach for the identification of fecal pollution sources in water resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reischer, G H; Kollanur, D; Vierheilig, J; Wehrspaun, C; Mach, R L; Sommer, R; Stadler, H; Farnleitner, A H

    2011-05-01

    Water resource management must strive to link catchment information with water quality monitoring. The present study attempted this for the field of microbial fecal source tracking (MST). A fecal pollution source profile based on catchment data (e.g., prevalence of fecal sources) was used to formulate a hypothesis about the dominant sources of pollution in an Austrian mountainous karst spring catchment. This allowed a statistical definition of methodical requirements necessary for an informed choice of MST methods. The hypothesis was tested in a 17-month investigation of spring water quality. The study followed a nested sampling design in order to cover the hydrological and pollution dynamics of the spring and to assess effects such as differential persistence between parameters. Genetic markers for the potential fecal sources as well as microbiological, hydrological, and chemo-physical parameters were measured. The hypothesis that ruminant animals were the dominant sources of fecal pollution in the catchment was clearly confirmed. It was also shown that the concentration of ruminant markers in feces was equally distributed in different ruminant source groups. The developed approach provides a tool for careful decision-making in MST study design and might be applied on various types of catchments and pollution situations.

  8. Assessing the Impact of Active Land Management in Mitigating Wildfire Threat to Source Water Supply Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bladon, K. D.; Silins, U.; Emelko, M. B.; Flannigan, M.; Dupont, D.; Robinne, F.; Wang, X.; Parisien, M. A.; Stone, M.; Thompson, D. K.; Tymstra, C.; Schroeder, D.; Kienzle, S. W.; Anderson, A.

    2014-12-01

    The vast majority of surface water supplies in Alberta originates in forested regions of the province, and supports approximately 94 municipal utilities, 208 communities, and 67% of the provincial population. These surface water supplies are highly vulnerable to contamination inputs and changing water conditions associated with wildfires. A provincial scale risk analysis framework is being used to investigate the magnitude and likelihood of wildfire occurrence in source water regions to evaluate the potential for altered water quality and quantity. The initial analysis identified which forested regions and which municipal drinking water treatment facilities are most at risk from wildfire. The efficacy of several current and potential landscape treatments to mitigate wildfire threats, along with the likely outcome of these treatments on mitigation of potential impacts of wildfire to drinking water treatment, are being modeled. A Monte Carlo modeling approach incorporating wildfire regime characteristics is used to simulate the ignition and growth of wildfires and generate outcome distributions for the different mitigation strategies. Cumulative changes in water quality at large river basin scales are being modeled and linked to water treatment impacts with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). A critical foundation of this approach is the close interaction of a large, trans-disciplinary team of researchers capable of integrating highly diverse issues of landscape wildfire dynamics, cross-scale water supply issues, and their linkage to downstream risks to drinking water treatment engineering.

  9. Identification of sources and production processes of bottled waters by stable hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brencic, Mihael; Vreca, Polona

    2006-01-01

    Bottled water is a food product that considerably depends on the environment from which it originates, not only at the place where it is produced, but predominantly on the conditions in the recharge area of the wells captured for bottling. According to their source and the bottling process, bottled waters can be divided into natural and artificially sparkling waters, still and flavoured waters. These waters originate from various parts of the hydrological cycle and their natural origin is reflected in their hydrogen and oxygen stable isotopic compositions (delta(2)H and delta(18)O). A total of 58 domestic and foreign brands and 16 replicates of bottled waters, randomly collected on the Slovene market in September 2004, were analysed for delta(2)H and delta(18)O. The isotopic composition varied between -83 per thousand and -46 per thousand with an average of -66 per thousand for hydrogen, and between -11.9 per thousand and -7.5 per thousand with an average of -9.6 per thousand for oxygen. This investigation helped (1) to determine and test the classification of bottled waters, (2) to determine the natural origin of bottled water, and (3) to indicate differences between the natural and production processes. The production process may influence the isotopic composition of flavoured waters and artificially sparkling waters. No such modification was observed for still and natural sparkling waters. The methods applied, together with hydrological knowledge, can be used for the authentication of bottled waters for regulatory and consumer control applications.

  10. Cumulative effects of fecal contamination from combined sewer overflows: Management for source water protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalliffier-Verne, Isabelle; Heniche, Mourad; Madoux-Humery, Anne-Sophie; Galarneau, Martine; Servais, Pierre; Prévost, Michèle; Dorner, Sarah

    2016-06-01

    The quality of a drinking water source depends largely on upstream contaminant discharges. Sewer overflows can have a large influence on downstream drinking water intakes as they discharge untreated or partially treated wastewaters that may be contaminated with pathogens. This study focuses on the quantification of Escherichia coli discharges from combined sewer overflows (CSOs) and the dispersion and diffusion in receiving waters in order to prioritize actions for source water protection. E. coli concentrations from CSOs were estimated from monitoring data at a series of overflow structures and then applied to the 42 active overflow structures between 2009 and 2012 using a simple relationship based upon the population within the drainage network. From these estimates, a transport-dispersion model was calibrated with data from a monitoring program from both overflow structures and downstream drinking water intakes. The model was validated with 15 extreme events such as a large number of overflows (n > 8) or high concentrations at drinking water intakes. Model results demonstrated the importance of the cumulative effects of CSOs on the degradation of water quality downstream. However, permits are typically issued on a discharge point basis and do not consider cumulative effects. Source water protection plans must consider the cumulative effects of discharges and their concentrations because the simultaneous discharge of multiple overflows can lead to elevated E. coli concentrations at a drinking water intake. In addition, some CSOs have a disproportionate impact on peak concentrations at drinking water intakes. As such, it is recommended that the management of CSOs move away from frequency based permitting at the discharge point to focus on the development of comprehensive strategies to reduce cumulative and peak discharges from CSOs upstream of drinking water intakes.

  11. Biodegradability of immidazolium, pyridinium, piperidinium and pyrrolidinium based ionic liquid in different water source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, S.; Quraishi, K. S.; Aminuddin, N. F.; Mazlan, F. A.; Leveque, J.-M.

    2016-11-01

    Ionic Liquid (IL), combination of an organic cation with an organic or inorganic cation, possess some remarkable physical chemical properties such as no virtual vapor pressure (allowing recyclability and reusability), wide liquid range, high thermal and chemical stability, ease to choose hydrophobic/hydrophilic character and wide electrochemical window. Owing to that, they have become increasingly popular as green solvents/additives/catalysts for organic synthetic chemistry, extraction, electrochemistry, catalysis, biomass conversion, biotechnologies and pharmaceutical applications. This is acknowledged by the exponential number of yearly published articles related to them. However, even if these are very widely studied in the international scientific community, they are not or very little used on an industrial scale, particularly because of the lack of data on their toxicity and biodegradability. Notably hydrophobic ILs seems to display higher toxicity towards microorganisms and lower biodegradability compared to their hydrophilic analogues since they are not readily disassociated in water. This present work aims to explore the biodegradability of 8 different insoluble ILs in different sources of water bearing varied amount of microorganisms to study the impact of the used water on the biodegradability assessment. The water sources used are Type III Water, Pond water and filtered Sewage Water. Based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that the type of water has a very minor influence on the biodegradability effect of insoluble ILs. However, there is still some degree of influence on the type of water with the biodegradability.

  12. Water Sources of Temperate Upland Swamps of Eastern Australia. Implications for Groundwater Management and Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, K.; Fryirs, K.; Chisari, R.; Hose, G. C.

    2016-12-01

    Temperate upland swamps in Eastern Australia are endangered ecological communities under State and National legislation. They occur in headwaters of low order streams on low relief plateaus, providing base flow to streams that contribute to Sydney's major drinking water supplies that support some 4.5 million people. The swamps are also subject to aquifer interference activities from long wall mining and groundwater extraction, and are threatened by a changing climate. It is therefore critical that we understand their water source, storage capacity and residence times. We collected seasonal water samples from perched swamp aquifers in two highland regions of Eastern Australia for analysis of hydrogen and oxygen isotopes and compared them with rainwater, surface water and deeper groundwater to determine whether the swamps were primarily rainwater or groundwater fed. 222Rn was used as an environmental tracer to calculate residence times and relative groundwater/surface water ratios. We found over 60% of the swamps were sensitive to evaporation which has implications for swamp health in a warmer climate. Over a third of water from the perched swamp aquifer is derived from deeper sandstone aquifers with residence times of between 1.2 and 15 days. This swamp-groundwater connectivity means that mining activities or large-scale groundwater extraction could interfere with a significant component of the swamps' water source, its water storage capacity and downstream contributions to Sydney's drinking water supplies.

  13. Fire Source Accessibility of Water Mist Fire Suppression Improvement through Flow Method Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jun Ho; Kim, Hyeong Taek; Kim, Yun Jung; Park, Mun Hee [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Recently, nuclear power plants set CO{sub 2} fire suppression system. However it is hard to establish and to maintain and it also has difficulties performing function test. Therefore, it needs to develop a new fire suppression system to replace the existing CO{sub 2} fire suppression systems in nuclear power plant. In fact, already, there exist alternatives - gas fire suppression system or clean fire extinguishing agent, but it is hard to apply because it requires a highly complicated plan. However, water mist fire suppression system which has both water system and gas system uses small amount of water and droplet, so it is excellent at oxygen displacement and more suitable for nuclear power plant because it can avoid second damage caused by fire fighting water. This paper explains about enclosure effect of water mist fire suppression. And it suggests a study direction about water mist fire source approach improvement and enclosure effect improvement, using flow method control of ventilation system. Water mist fire suppression can be influenced by various variable. And flow and direction of ventilation system are important variable. Expectations of the plan for more fire source ventilation system is as in the following. It enhances enclosure effects of water mists, so it improves extinguish performance. Also the same effect as a inert gas injection causes can be achieved. Lastly, it is considered that combustible accessibility of water mists will increase because of descending air currents.

  14. Statistical Analysis and water Quality Modeling for a Drinking Water Source Watershed for the City of Houston, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teague, A.; Bedient, P.; Vieux, B. E.

    2009-12-01

    Water quality is a problem in Lake Houston, the primary source of drinking water for the City of Houston, due to pollutant loads coming from the influent watersheds, including Cypress Creek. Water quality issues in the watershed that are of concern for the lake include nutrient enrichment bacterial impairment, both of which present operational challenges for the drinking water treatment plant operations. Statistical analysis of the historic water quality data was developed in order to understand the source characterization and seasonality of the watershed. Multivariate analysis including principal component, cluster, and discriminant analysis provided a unique seasonal assessment of the watershed leading to refined loading curves have been analyzed using data collected by the USGS at 3 sites in Cypress Creek with corresponding City of Houston water quality data at the sites for the past 5 years to characterize the behavior of the pollutant source and watershed. A VfloTM hydrologic model from Vieux & Assoc., Inc for the watershed of the influent stream Cypress Creek was developed to predict the watershed flows into Lake Houston. A distributed model of a large scale watershed, it uses finite element analysis to solve the kinematic wave equation. The model incorporates land use relationships to predict runoff from Radar rainfall data. Continuous VfloTM was run for storm events and the distributed discharge of the watershed simulated. From the spatial discharge output, nutrient wash-off and convective transport was simulated. The simulated nutrient transport was then compared to storm sampling data at a downstream location to assess the water quality model and determine needed future refinements.

  15. Water source partitioning among trees growing on shallow karst soils in a seasonally dry tropical climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querejeta, José Ignacio; Estrada-Medina, Héctor; Allen, Michael F; Jiménez-Osornio, Juan José

    2007-05-01

    The sources of water used by woody vegetation growing on karst soils in seasonally dry tropical regions are little known. In northern Yucatan (Mexico), trees withstand 4-6 months of annual drought in spite of the small water storage capacity of the shallow karst soil. We hypothesized that adult evergreen trees in Yucatan tap the aquifer for a reliable supply of water during the prolonged dry season. The naturally occurring concentration gradients in oxygen and hydrogen stable isotopes in soil, bedrock, groundwater and plant stem water were used to determine the sources of water used by native evergreen and drought-deciduous tree species. While the trees studied grew over a permanent water table (9-20 m depth), pit excavation showed that roots were largely restricted to the upper 2 m of the soil/bedrock profile. At the peak of the dry season, the delta(18)O signatures of potential water sources for the vegetation ranged from 4.1 +/- 1.1 per thousand in topsoil to -4.3 +/- 0.1 per thousand in groundwater. The delta(18)O values of tree stem water ranged from -2.8 +/- 0.3 per thousand in Talisia olivaeformis to 0.8 +/- 1 per thousand in Ficus cotinifolia, demonstrating vertical partitioning of soil/bedrock water among tree species. Stem water delta(18)O values were significantly different from that of groundwater for all the tree species investigated. Stem water samples plotted to the right of the meteoric water line, indicating utilization of water sources subject to evaporative isotopic enrichment. Foliar delta(13)C in adult trees varied widely among species, ranging from -25.3 +/- 0.3 per thousand in Enterolobium cyclocarpum to -28.7 +/- 0.4 per thousand in T. olivaeformis. Contrary to initial expectations, data indicate that native trees growing on shallow karst soils in northern Yucatan use little or no groundwater and depend mostly on water stored within the upper 2-3 m of the soil/bedrock profile. Water storage in subsurface soil-filled cavities and in the

  16. Prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Salmonella spp. from water sources in Tamale, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Adzitey

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study investigated the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella species isolated from drinking water sources in Tamale Metropolis. Materials and Methods: Isolation of Salmonella species from 275 different drinking water samples (25 each from dam, well, rain, and bottle, 35 from tap, 40 from water trough, and 100 from sachet was done using a slightly modified method of the Bacteriological Analytical Manual of the Food and Drugs Administration, USA. 34 Salmonella species isolated from the water samples were examined for their susceptibility to nine different antibiotics using the disc diffusion method. The study was carried out from July 2014 to January 2015. Results: The overall prevalence of Salmonella species was 4.36% (12/275. Dam 16.00% (4/25 and well 16.00% (4/25 water samples were the most contaminated source, followed by rain water (stored 12.00% (3/25 and tap water samples 2.86% (1/35. There were no significant differences among water samples which were positive for Salmonella species (p>0.05; however, dam and well samples that were positive for Salmonella species differ significantly (p<0.05 from bottle water, sachet water, and water trough samples, which were negative for Salmonella species. The 34 Salmonella isolates were highly resistant to erythromycin (E (100% and vancomycin (VA (94.12%. Few isolates exhibited intermediate resistances to ceftriaxone (CRO (17.65%, gentamicin (CN (17.65%, tetracycline (14.71%, chloramphenicol (C (5.88%, ciprofloxacin (CIP (2.94%, and amoxicillin (AMC (2.94%. Salmonella isolates also exhibited six different antibiotic resistant patterns (VA-E, VA-E-AMC, VA-E-CRO, VA-E-C, VA-E-CRO-AMC, and VA-E-AMC-CN. The resistant pattern VA-E (with multiple antibiotic resistance index of 0.22 was the commonest. Conclusion: This study indicated that some drinking water sources for humans and animals in Tamale Metropolis are contaminated with Salmonella species which exhibited varying resistance to

  17. The source, discharge, and chemical characteristics of water from Agua Caliente Spring, Palm Springs, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    : Martin, Peter; Contributors: Brandt, Justin; Catchings, Rufus D.; Christensen, Allen H.; Flint, Alan L.; Gandhok, Gini; Goldman, Mark R.; Halford, Keith J.; Langenheim, V.E.; Martin, Peter; Rymer, Michael J.; Schroeder, Roy A.; Smith, Gregory A.; Sneed, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Agua Caliente Spring, in downtown Palm Springs, California, has been used for recreation and medicinal therapy for hundreds of years and currently (2008) is the source of hot water for the Spa Resort owned by the Agua Caliente Band of the Cahuilla Indians. The Agua Caliente Spring is located about 1,500 feet east of the eastern front of the San Jacinto Mountains on the southeast-sloping alluvial plain of the Coachella Valley. The objectives of this study were to (1) define the geologic structure associated with the Agua Caliente Spring; (2) define the source(s), and possibly the age(s), of water discharged by the spring; (3) ascertain the seasonal and longer-term variability of the natural discharge, water temperature, and chemical characteristics of the spring water; (4) evaluate whether water-level declines in the regional aquifer will influence the temperature of the spring discharge; and, (5) estimate the quantity of spring water that leaks out of the water-collector tank at the spring orifice.

  18. POLLUTION SOURCES AND WATER QUALITY STATE OF THE SUPRAŚL RIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Skorbiłowicz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the study was to evaluate water quality of the Supraśl river and identify its main pollution sources. On the river and its tributaries, 8 control points were selected, located near Krynica, Gródek, Nowosiółki, Zasady (mouth of the tributary Sokołda, Supraśl, Nowodworce, Dobrzyniewo (mouth of the tributary Biała and Dzikie. The control points were selected in such a way as to take into account the impact of major point sources of analyzed components located along the river and its main tributaries on water quality in the main stream catchment. Water samples were collected once a month during the period from May to November in 2014. In water samples the concentration of dissolved oxygen, Cl-, SO42-, N-NH4+, P-PO43- and the values of pH, BOD5 and electrolytic conductivity were indicated. Based on the obtained results, loads of the individual components in river waters were calculated as a product of concentration and Supraśl waters flow rate in a particular month. Supraśl waters, due to values of most analyzed parameters, should be classified as first quality class. The source of Cl-, SO42-, N-NH4+ in Supraśl waters were treated wastewater and other anthropogenic sources associated with the basin development. Reduced Supraśl water quality is caused by the inflow of organic substances expressed by BZT5 from natural and anthropogenic origin and concentration of PO43-, which were mainly delivered with treated wastewater.

  19. Nitrate source indicators in ground water of the Scimitar Subdivision, Peters Creek area, Anchorage, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bronwen; Strelakos, Pat M.; Jokela, Brett

    2000-01-01

    A combination of aqueous chemistry, isotopic measurement, and in situ tracers were used to study the possible nitrate sources, the factors contributing to the spatial distribution of nitrate, and possible septic system influence in the ground water in the Scimitar Subdivision, Municipality of Anchorage, Alaska. Two water types were distinguished on the basis of the major ion chemistry: (1) a calcium sodium carbonate water, which was associated with isotopically heavier boron and with chlorofluorocarbons (CFC's) that were in the range expected from equilibration with the atmosphere (group A water) and (2) a calcium magnesium carbonate water, which was associated with elevated nitrate, chloride, and magnesium concentrations, generally isotopically lighter boron, and CFC's concentrations that were generally in excess of that expected from equilibration with the atmosphere (group B water). Water from wells in group B had nitrate concentrations that were greater than 3 milligrams per liter, whereas those in group A had nitrate concentrations of 0.2 milligram per liter or less. Nitrate does not appear to be undergoing extensive transformation in the ground-water system and behaves as a conservative ion. The major ion chemistry trends and the presence of CFC's in excess of an atmospheric source for group B wells are consistent with waste-water influences. The spatial distribution of the nitrate among wells is likely due to the magnitude of this influence on any given well. Using an expanded data set composed of 16 wells sampled only for nitrate concentration, a significant difference in the static water level relative to bedrock was found. Well water samples with less than 1 milligram per liter nitrate had static water levels within the bedrock, whereas those samples with greater than 1 milligram per liter nitrate had static water levels near or above the top of the bedrock. This observation would be consistent with a conceptual model of a low-nitrate fractured bedrock

  20. A Study on the Optimal Position for the Secondary Neutron Source in Pressurized Water Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungwon Sun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new and efficient scheme to determine the optimal neutron source position in a model near-equilibrium pressurized water reactor, which is based on the OPR1000 Hanul Unit 3 Cycle 7 configuration. The proposed scheme particularly assigns importance of source positions according to the local adjoint flux distribution. In this research, detailed pin-by-pin reactor adjoint fluxes are determined by using the Monte Carlo KENO-VI code from solutions of the reactor homogeneous critical adjoint transport equations. The adjoint fluxes at each allowable source position are subsequently ranked to yield four candidate positions with the four highest adjoint fluxes. The study next simulates ex-core detector responses using the Monte Carlo MAVRIC code by assuming a neutron source is installed in one of the four candidate positions. The calculation is repeated for all positions. These detector responses are later converted into an inverse count rate ratio curve for each candidate source position. The study confirms that the optimal source position is the one with very high adjoint fluxes and detector responses, which is interestingly the original source position in the OPR1000 core, as it yields an inverse count rate ratio curve closest to the traditional 1/M line. The current work also clearly demonstrates that the proposed adjoint flux-based approach can be used to efficiently determine the optimal geometry for a neutron source and a detector in a modern pressurized water reactor core.

  1. Temporal trend and source apportionment of water pollution in different functional zones of Qiantang River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shiliang; Li, Dan; Zhang, Qi; Xiao, Rui; Huang, Fang; Wu, Jiaping

    2011-02-01

    The increasingly serious river water pollution in developing countries poses great threat to environmental health and human welfare. The assignment of river function to specific uses, known as zoning, is a useful tool to reveal variations of water environmental adaptability to human impact. Therefore, characterizing the temporal trend and identifying responsible pollution sources in different functional zones could greatly improve our knowledge about human impacts on the river water environment. The aim of this study is to obtain a deeper understanding of temporal trends and sources of water pollution in different functional zones with a case study of the Qiantang River, China. Measurement data were obtained and pretreated for 13 variables from 41 monitoring sites in four categories of functional zones during the period 1996-2004. An exploratory approach, which combines smoothing and non-parametric statistical tests, was applied to characterize trends of four significant parameters (permanganate index, ammonia nitrogen, total cadmium and fluoride) accounting for differences among different functional zones identified by discriminant analysis. Aided by GIS, yearly pollution index (PI) for each monitoring site was further mapped to compare the within-group variations in temporal dynamics for different functional zones. Rotated principal component analysis and receptor model (absolute principle component score-multiple linear regression, APCS-MLR) revealed that potential pollution sources and their corresponding contributions varied among the four functional zones. Variations of APCS values for each site of one functional zone as well as their annual average values highlighted the uncertainties associated with cross space-time effects in source apportionment. All these results reinforce the notion that the concept of zoning should be taken seriously in water pollution control. Being applicable to other rivers, the framework of management-oriented source apportionment

  2. Satellite monitoring of cyanobacterial harmful algal bloom frequency in recreational waters and drinking water sources

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset shows the concentration of cyanobacteria cells/ml in fresh water bodies and estuaries of the Ohio and Florida derived from 300x300 meter MEdium...

  3. Anthropogenic organic compounds in source water of select community water systems in the United States, 2002-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valder, Joshua F.; Delzer, Gregory C.; Kingsbury, James A.; Hopple, Jessica A.; Price, Curtis V.; Bender, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Drinking water delivered by community water systems (CWSs) comes from one or both of two sources: surface water and groundwater. Source water is raw, untreated water used by CWSs and is usually treated before distribution to consumers. Beginning in 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment Program initiated Source Water-Quality Assessments (SWQAs) at select CWSs across the United States, primarily to characterize the occurrence of a large number of anthropogenic organic compounds that are predominantly unregulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Source-water samples from CWSs were collected during 2002–10 from 20 surface-water sites (river intakes) and during 2002–09 from 448 groundwater sites (supply wells). River intakes were sampled approximately 16 times during a 1-year sampling period, and supply wells were sampled once. Samples were monitored for 265 anthropogenic organic compounds. An additional 3 herbicides and 16 herbicide degradates were monitored in samples collected from 8 river intakes and 118 supply wells in areas where these compounds likely have been used. Thirty-seven compounds have an established U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for drinking water, 123 have USGS Health-Based Screening Levels (HBSLs), and 29 are included on the EPA Contaminant Candidate List 3. All compounds detected in source water were evaluated both with and without an assessment level and were grouped into 13 categories (hereafter termed as “use groups”) based on their primary use or source. The CWS sites were characterized in a national context using an extract of the EPA Safe Drinking Water Information System to develop spatially derived and system-specific ancillary data. Community water system information is contained in the EPA Public Supply Database, which includes 2,016 active river intakes and 112,099 active supply wells. Ancillary variables including population served

  4. An open source hydroeconomic model for California's water supply system: PyVIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, M. S.; White, E.; Herman, J. D.; Hart, Q.; Merz, J.; Medellin-Azuara, J.; Lund, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    Models help operators and decision makers explore and compare different management and policy alternatives, better allocate scarce resources, and predict the future behavior of existing or proposed water systems. Hydroeconomic models are useful tools to increase benefits or decrease costs of managing water. Bringing hydrology and economics together, these models provide a framework for different disciplines that share similar objectives. This work proposes a new model to evaluate operation and adaptation strategies under existing and future hydrologic conditions for California's interconnected water system. This model combines the network structure of CALVIN, a statewide optimization model for California's water infrastructure, along with an open source solver written in the Python programming language. With the flexibilities of the model, reservoir operations, including water supply and hydropower, groundwater pumping, and the Delta water operations and requirements can now be better represented. Given time series of hydrologic inputs to the model, typical outputs include urban, agricultural and wildlife refuge water deliveries and shortage costs, conjunctive use of surface and groundwater systems, and insights into policy and management decisions, such as capacity expansion and groundwater management policies. Water market operations also represented in the model, allocating water from lower-valued users to higher-valued users. PyVIN serves as a cross-platform, extensible model to evaluate systemwide water operations. PyVIN separates data from the model structure, enabling model to be easily applied to other parts of the world where water is a scarce resource.

  5. Simultaneous observation of water and class I methanol masers toward class II methanol maser sources

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, Hyunwoo; Byun, Do-Young; Lee, Seokho; Park, Yong-Sun

    2015-01-01

    We present a simultaneous single-dish survey of 22 GHz water maser and 44 GHz and 95 GHz class I methanol masers toward 77 6.7 GHz class II methanol maser sources, which were selected from the Arecibo methanol maser Galactic plane survey (AMGPS) catalog.Water maser emission is detected in 39 (51%) sources, of which 15 are new detections. Methanol maser emission at 44 GHz and 95 GHz is found in 25 (32%) and 19 (25%) sources, of which 21 and 13 sources are newly detected, respectively. We find 4 high-velocity (> 30 km/s) water maser sources, including 3 dominant blue- or redshifted outflows.The 95 GHz masers always appear with the 44 GHz maser emission. They are strongly correlated with 44 GHz masers in velocity, flux density, and luminosity, while they are not correlated with either water or 6.7 GHz class II methanol masers. The average peak flux density ratio of 95 GHz to 44 GHz masers is close to unity, which is two times higher than previous estimates. The flux densities of class I methanol masers are more ...

  6. Response of water budget to recent climatic changes in the source region of the Yellow River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, D.; Huang, R.

    2012-04-01

    The variation of surface water budget in the source region of the Yellow River is investigated. It is found that the spatial pattern of precipitation change is an important factor except precipitation amount itself and its intensity to determine the response of runoff change to precipitation change. Discharge in the source region had a significant decline after 1990; precipitation was low in the 1990s and in agreement with runoff, but it returned above normal after 2002 for more increase occurred in the dry area. The source region was experiencing rapid changes including decadal warming, wetting and wind speed decaying in recent decades. Surface water budget at the CMA stations within and surrounding the source region was simulated during 1960-2006 with an improved land surface model. The results indicated that evaporation was mainly limited by water availability in the dry area and thus most of precipitation increase was evaporated. By contrast, energy availability was a more important factor to determine evaporation in the wet area, and therefore, more evaporation occurred due to rapid warming although precipitation amount partly decreased, which contributed to the decrease of runoff generation after 2002. This mechanism controlling evaporation and its response together with the changed spatial pattern of precipitation led to water budget unfavorable for runoff generation in the source region during recent years.

  7. Triple-beam negative hydrogen-ion source based on water vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkomchuk, V.V.; Kot, N.K.

    1985-07-01

    A Penning three-beam source of negative hydrogen-ions has been devised, which works with water vapor. The steady negative hydrogen-ion current in each beam is less than 4 microamps, but the negative hydrogen-ions constitute 92% of the beam current, while the water vapor consumption is 2.5 cm/sup 3//h and the distance between the beams is 20 mm. The source has been set up on an EG-1.5 accelerator, where it has worked without fail for over 400 h at 1 MeV.

  8. [Impacts of the urbanization on waters non-point source pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu; Ma, Ke-Ming; Guo, Qing-hai; Zhao, Jing-zhu

    2004-11-01

    Non-point source (NPS) pollution is the prominent source of water pollution in many countries, included America and China, of the world. Urban NPS pollution was attached little importance for long, compared with agriculture NPS pollution. While urbanization is the dominant form of land-use change in terms of impacts on water quality, the hydrology, other physical properties of watersheds as well as their NPS pollution potential at present. The formation of urban NPS pollution of water could be described by "source-process-sink". Urbanization has changed the source, process and sink of urban NPS pollution. A review was conducted on the international researches of urbanization impacts on NPS pollution in urban water environment from the point of view of "describe-predict and evaluation-application". The studies of urbanization impacts on urban NPS pollution were focused on modeling the process of urban NPS pollution by hydrologic model, predicting the pollutants load of NPS pollution. It is a fresh methodology that the relationship between urbanization and urban NPS pollution of water was analyzed by the method of landscape change and ecological process. The research on temporal-spatial comprehensive impacts of landscape pattern changes, led by urbanization, on the urban NPS pollution will be one of the hotspots.

  9. Assessment of the manganese content of the drinking water source in Yancheng, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinnan; Li, Aimin; Wang, Qiongjie; Zhou, Yang; Fu, Lichun; Li, Yan

    2010-10-15

    Excessive intake of manganese can damage the nervous system of the human body. In August 2009, the manganese content of the drinking water source in Yancheng exceeded the national standard of drinking water source, which influenced the daily life of the local residents. The aim of this study was to investigate the factors leading to the manganese content of river water in Yancheng exceeding the national standard. To the data, the manganese content of surface water in Yancheng already met the national standard of drinking water source in September 2009, but the manganese content of river sediment was relatively high, especially in Mangshe River and Tongyu River. It was worthwhile to note that the soluble manganese content of the sediment in Mangshe River was even as high as 270 mg kg(-1), which suggested that the release of manganese from the sediment was the major cause of the pollution. The manganese content of the soil near the rivers was also determined, and the results indicated that the wastewater and waste slag discharged by the stainless steel factories nearby were the main pollution sources of manganese. Furthermore, the environmental factors affecting the release of manganese from the sediment were also investigated. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Source-water susceptibility assessment in Texas—Approach and methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulery, Randy L.; Meyer, John E.; Andren, Robert W.; Newson, Jeremy K.

    2011-01-01

    Public water systems provide potable water for the public's use. The Safe Drinking Water Act amendments of 1996 required States to prepare a source-water susceptibility assessment (SWSA) for each public water system (PWS). States were required to determine the source of water for each PWS, the origin of any contaminant of concern (COC) monitored or to be monitored, and the susceptibility of the public water system to COC exposure, to protect public water supplies from contamination. In Texas, the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) was responsible for preparing SWSAs for the more than 6,000 public water systems, representing more than 18,000 surface-water intakes or groundwater wells. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) worked in cooperation with TCEQ to develop the Source Water Assessment Program (SWAP) approach and methodology. Texas' SWAP meets all requirements of the Safe Drinking Water Act and ultimately provides the TCEQ with a comprehensive tool for protection of public water systems from contamination by up to 247 individual COCs. TCEQ staff identified both the list of contaminants to be assessed and contaminant threshold values (THR) to be applied. COCs were chosen because they were regulated contaminants, were expected to become regulated contaminants in the near future, or were unregulated but thought to represent long-term health concerns. THRs were based on maximum contaminant levels from U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)'s National Primary Drinking Water Regulations. For reporting purposes, COCs were grouped into seven contaminant groups: inorganic compounds, volatile organic compounds, synthetic organic compounds, radiochemicals, disinfection byproducts, microbial organisms, and physical properties. Expanding on the TCEQ's definition of susceptibility, subject-matter expert working groups formulated the SWSA approach based on assumptions that natural processes and human activities contribute COCs in quantities that vary in space

  11. Source and transport of human enteric viruses in deep municipal water supply wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Kenneth R; Borchardt, Mark A; Gotkowitz, Madeline; Spencer, Susan K; Zhu, Jun; Hunt, Randall J

    2013-05-07

    Until recently, few water utilities or researchers were aware of possible virus presence in deep aquifers and wells. During 2008 and 2009 we collected a time series of virus samples from six deep municipal water-supply wells. The wells range in depth from approximately 220 to 300 m and draw water from a sandstone aquifer. Three of these wells draw water from beneath a regional aquitard, and three draw water from both above and below the aquitard. We also sampled a local lake and untreated sewage as potential virus sources. Viruses were detected up to 61% of the time in each well sampled, and many groundwater samples were positive for virus infectivity. Lake samples contained viruses over 75% of the time. Virus concentrations and serotypes observed varied markedly with time in all samples. Sewage samples were all extremely high in virus concentration. Virus serotypes detected in sewage and groundwater were temporally correlated, suggesting very rapid virus transport, on the order of weeks, from the source(s) to wells. Adenovirus and enterovirus levels in the wells were associated with precipitation events. The most likely source of the viruses in the wells was leakage of untreated sewage from sanitary sewer pipes.

  12. The Isolation and Detection of Acanthamoeba Keratitis in Rural Water Sources of Arak, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosayebi, M. (PhD

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Acanthamoeba species are free-living protozoa that can be isolated from all environments. They can bring about different diseases in healthy individuals and immune suppressed patients, for example, Granulomatous Amoebic Encephalitis (GAE, Acanthamoeba Keratitis (AK, Cutaneous and Nasopharyngeal infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the Acanthamoeba prevalence in rural water sources of Markazi province. Material and Methods: In this cross sectional study, 54 water samples were collected from 36 villages of Markus province. First, the Samples were filtered by filter paper (watchman 42. Next, the filtered paper were placed in page saline solution and centrifuged. Then, the obtained sediment was cultured on non-nutrient agar (NNA plates overlaid with heat-killed Escherichia coli. After that, the provided smear (after 4 - 7 days stained with Geimsa. Results: The samples were positive (33; 61.11% and negative (21; 38.89% for Acanthamoeba cyst. The best result for isolation of Acanthamoeba cysts was obtained after shaking of filter paper. Conclusion: A high percentage of rural water sources have been contaminated with Acanthamoeba, which can be the major factor in causing human infections. Therefore, some effective methods are required to prevent from water sources contamination. Keywords: Acanthamoeba; Acanthamoeba Keratitis; Markazi Province; Rural; Water Sources

  13. Characterization of disinfection byproduct formation potential in 13 source waters in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junzhi Zhang; Jianwei Yu; Wei An; Juan Liu; Yongjing Wang; Youjun Chen; Jia Tai; Min Yang

    2011-01-01

    The formation potential of four trihalomethanes (THMFP) and seven haloacetic acids (HAA7FP) in 13 source waters taken from four major water basin areas in China was evaluated using the simulated distribution system (SDS) chlorination method.The specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA254: the ratio of UV254 to dissolved organic carbon (DOC)), which ranged between 0.9 and 5.0 L/(mg·m), showed that the organic compounds in different source waters exhibited different reactivities with chlorine.The HAA7FP of source waters ranged from 20 to 448 μg/L and the THMFP ranged from 29 to 259 μg/L.The HAA7FP concentrations were higher than the THMFP concentrations in all but one of the samples.Therefore, the risks of haloacetic acids (HAAs) should be of concern in some source waters.TCM (chloroform) and BDCM (bromodichloromethane) were the major THM constituents, while TCAA (trichioroacetic acid) and DCAA (dichloroacetic acid) were the major HAA species.Br-THM (brominated THM species) were much higher than BrHAA (brominated HAA species), and the formation of Br-DBP (Br-THM and Br-HAA) should be of concern when the bromide concentration is over 100 μg/L.

  14. Saline sewage treatment and source separation of urine for more sustainable urban water management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekama, G A; Wilsenach, J A; Chen, G H

    2011-01-01

    While energy consumption and its associated carbon emission should be minimized in wastewater treatment, it has a much lower priority than human and environmental health, which are both closely related to efficient water quality management. So conservation of surface water quality and quantity are more important for sustainable development than green house gas (GHG) emissions per se. In this paper, two urban water management strategies to conserve fresh water quality and quantity are considered: (1) source separation of urine for improved water quality and (2) saline (e.g. sea) water toilet flushing for reduced fresh water consumption in coastal and mining cities. The former holds promise for simpler and shorter sludge age activated sludge wastewater treatment plants (no nitrification and denitrification), nutrient (Mg, K, P) recovery and improved effluent quality (reduced endocrine disruptor and environmental oestrogen concentrations) and the latter for significantly reduced fresh water consumption, sludge production and oxygen demand (through using anaerobic bioprocesses) and hence energy consumption. Combining source separation of urine and saline water toilet flushing can reduce sewer crown corrosion and reduce effluent P concentrations. To realize the advantages of these two approaches will require significant urban water management changes in that both need dual (fresh and saline) water distribution and (yellow and grey/brown) wastewater collection systems. While considerable work is still required to evaluate these new approaches and quantify their advantages and disadvantages, it would appear that the investment for dual water distribution and wastewater collection systems may be worth making to unlock their benefits for more sustainable urban development.

  15. Shallow water source localization using a mobile shor t horizontal array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dexin Zhao; Woojae Seong; Keunhwa Lee; Zhiping Huang

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to the chal enging is-sue of passive source localization in shal ow water using a mobile short horizontal linear array with length less than ten meters. The short array can be conveniently placed on autonomous underwa-ter vehicles and deployed for adaptive spatial sampling. However, the use of such smal aperture passive sonar systems makes it difficult to acquire sufficient spatial gain for localizing long-range sources. To meet the requirement, a localization approach that employs matched-field based techniques that enable the short ho-rizontal linear array is used to passively localize acoustic sources in shal ow water. Furthermore, the broadband processing and inter-position processing provide robustness against ocean en-vironmental mismatch and enhance the stability of the estima-tion process. The proposed approach’s ability to localize acoustic sources in shal ow water at different signal-to-noise ratios is exa-mined through the synthetic test cases where the sources are lo-cated at the endfire and some other bearing of the mobile short horizontal linear array. The presented results demonstrate that the positional parameters of the estimated source build up over time as the array moves at a low speed along a straight line at a con-stant depth.

  16. Geological-hydrogeochemical characteristics of a "silver spring" water source (the Lozovy ridge)

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanova, Irina Sergeevna; Bragin, I. V.; Chelnokov, G. A.; Bushkareva, K. Yu.; Shvagrukova, E. V.

    2016-01-01

    Geological and hydrogeological characteristics of the Lozovy ridge (Southern Primorye) are studied, as far as karst phenomena are widely distributed within its boundaries. Water-bearing rocks of the karst water source "Silver Spring" ("Serebryany Klyuch"), which is located near the bottom of the "Bear's fang" ("Medvezhiy klyk") cave, are investigated. It is found that karst rocks are presented by calcite (CaCO[3]), and an accessory mineral is barite (BaSO[4]). It is determined that among the ...

  17. Evaluating the influence of source basins on downstream water quality in the Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, G.M.; Broshears, R.E.; Hooper, R.P.; Goolsby, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    Chemical variability in the Mississippi River during water years 1989 to 1998 was evaluated using stream discharge and water-quality data in conjunction with the DAFLOW/BLTM hydraulic model. Model simulations were used to identify subbasin contributions of water and chemical constituents to the Mississippi River upstream from its confluence with the Ohio and the Mississippi River and at the Atchafalaya Diversion in Louisiana. Concentrations of dissolved solids, sodium, and sulfate at the Thebes site showed a general decreasing trend, and concentrations of silica and nitrate showed a general increasing trend as the percentage of discharge from the Mississippi River upstream from Grafton increased. Concentrations of most chemical constituents in the Mississippi River at the Atchafalaya Diversion exhibited a decreasing trend as the percentage of water from the Ohio River increased. Regression models were used to evaluate the importance of the source of water to the water chemistry in the Mississippi River at Thebes and the Atchafalaya Diversion. The addition of terms in regression equations to account for the percent of water from subbasins improved coefficients of determination for predicting chemical concentrations by as much as nine percent at the Thebes site and by as much as 48 percent at the Atchafalaya Diversion site. The addition of source-water terms to regression equations increased the estimated annual loads of nitrate and silica delivered from the Mississippi River Basin to the Gulf of Mexico by as much as 14 and 13 percent, respectively.

  18. Occurrence of fibrates and their metabolites in source and drinking water in Shanghai and Zhejiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ido, Akiko; Hiromori, Youhei; Meng, Liping; Usuda, Haruki; Nagase, Hisamitsu; Yang, Min; Hu, Jianying; Nakanishi, Tsuyoshi

    2017-04-12

    Fibrates, which are widely used lipidaemic-modulating drugs, are emerging environmental pollutants. However, fibrate concentrations in the environment have not been thoroughly surveyed. Here, we determined concentrations of the most commonly used fibrates and their metabolites in source water and drinking water samples from ten drinking water treatment plants in Shanghai and Zhejiang, China, using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. All the target compounds were detected in at least some of the source water samples, at concentrations ranging from 0.04 ng/L (fenofibrate) to 1.53 ng/L (gemfibrozil). All the compounds except fenofibrate were also detected in at least some of the drinking water samples, at recoveries ranging from 35.5% to 91.7%, suggesting that these compounds are poorly removed by typical drinking water treatment processes. In a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α agonistic activity assay, the target compounds showed no significant activity at nanogram per litre concentrations; therefore, our results suggest that the fibrate concentrations in drinking water in Shanghai and Zhejiang, China do not significantly affect human health. However, because of the increasing westernization of the Chinese diet, fibrate use may increase, and thus monitoring fibrate concentrations in aquatic environments and drinking water in China will become increasingly important.

  19. Impacts by point and diffuse micropollutant sources on the stream water quality at catchment scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, M. F.; Eriksson, E.; Binning, P. J.; Bjerg, P. L.

    2012-04-01

    The water quality of surface waters is threatened by multiple anthropogenic pollutants and the large variety of pollutants challenges the monitoring and assessment of the water quality. The aim of this study was to characterize and quantify both point and diffuse sources of micropollutants impacting the water quality of a stream at catchment scale. Grindsted stream in western Jutland, Denmark was used as a study site. The stream passes both urban and agricultural areas and is impacted by severe groundwater contamination in Grindsted city. Along a 12 km reach of Grindsted stream, the potential pollution sources were identified including a pharmaceutical factory site with a contaminated old drainage ditch, two waste deposits, a wastewater treatment plant, overflow structures, fish farms, industrial discharges and diffuse agricultural and urban sources. Six water samples were collected along the stream and analyzed for general water quality parameters, inorganic constituents, pesticides, sulfonamides, chlorinated solvents, BTEXs, and paracetamol and ibuprofen. The latter two groups were not detected. The general water quality showed typical conditions for a stream in western Jutland. Minor impacts by releases of organic matter and nutrients were found after the fish farms and the waste water treatment plant. Nickel was found at concentrations 5.8 - 8.8 μg/l. Nine pesticides and metabolites of both agricultural and urban use were detected along the stream; among these were the two most frequently detected and some rarely detected pesticides in Danish water courses. The concentrations were generally consistent with other findings in Danish streams and in the range 0.01 - 0.09 μg/l; except for metribuzin-diketo that showed high concentrations up to 0.74 μg/l. The groundwater contamination at the pharmaceutical factory site, the drainage ditch and the waste deposits is similar in composition containing among others sulfonamides and chlorinated solvents (including vinyl

  20. Finite water depth effect on wave-body problems solved by Rankine source method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Aichun; Tang, Peng; You, Yunxiang; Liu, Kaizhou

    2017-04-01

    Finite water depth effect for wave-body problems are studied by continuous Rankine source method and non- desingularized technique. Free surface and seabed surface profiles are represented by continuous panels rather than a discretization by isolated points. These panels are positioned exactly on the fluid boundary surfaces and therefore no desingularization technique is required. Space increment method is applied for both free surface source and seabed source arrangements to reduce computational cost and improve numerical efficiency. Fourth order Runge-Kutta iteration scheme is adopted on the free surface updating at every time step. The finite water depth effect is studied quantitatively for a series of cylinders with different B/T ratios. The accuracy and efficiency of the proposed model are validated by comparison with published numerical results and experimental data. Numerical results show that hydrodynamic coefficients vary for cylinder bodies with different ratios of B/T. For certain set of B/T ratios the effect of finite water depth increases quickly with the increase of motion frequency and becomes stable when frequency is relatively large. It also shows that water depths have larger hydrodynamic effects on cylinder with larger breadth to draft ratios. Both the heave added mass and damping coefficients increase across the frequency range with the water depths decrease for forced heave motion. The water depths have smaller effects on sway motion response than on heave motion response.

  1. Seasonal variation of fecal contamination in drinking water sources in developing countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyla, Caroline; Bain, Rob; Cronk, Ryan; Bartram, Jamie

    2015-05-01

    Accounting for fecal contamination of drinking water sources is an important step in improving monitoring of global access to safe drinking water. Fecal contamination varies with time while its monitoring is often infrequent. We sought to understand seasonal trends in fecal contamination to guide best practices to capture seasonal variation and ascertain the extent to which the results of a single sample may overestimate compliance with health guidelines. The findings from 22 studies from developing countries written in English and identified through a systematic review were analyzed. Fecal contamination in improved drinking water sources was shown to follow a statistically significant seasonal trend of greater contamination during the wet season (p<0.001). This trend was consistent across fecal indicator bacteria, five source types, twelve Köppen-Geiger climate zones, and across both rural and urban areas. Guidance on seasonally representative water quality monitoring by the World Health Organization and national water quality agencies could lead to improved assessments of access to safe drinking water. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Hydrogeochemistry of the drinking water sources of Derebogazi Village (Kahramanmaras) and their effects on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uras, Yusuf; Uysal, Yagmur; Arikan, Tugba Atilan; Kop, Alican; Caliskan, Mustafa

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the sources of drinking water for Derebogazi Village, Kahramanmaras Province, Turkey, in terms of hydrogeochemistry, isotope geochemistry, and medical geology. Water samples were obtained from seven different water sources in the area, all of which are located within quartzite units of Paleozoic age, and isotopic analyses of (18)O and (2)H (deuterium) were conducted on the samples. Samples were collected from the region for 1 year. Water quality of the samples was assessed in terms of various water quality parameters, such as temperature, pH, conductivity, alkalinity, trace element concentrations, anion-cation measurements, and metal concentrations, using ion chromatography, inductively coupled plasma (ICP) mass spectrometry, ICP-optical emission spectrometry techniques. Regional health surveys had revealed that the heights of local people are significantly below the average for the country. In terms of medical geology, the sampled drinking water from the seven sources was deficient in calcium and magnesium ions, which promote bone development. Bone mineral density screening tests were conducted on ten females using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry to investigate possible developmental disorder(s) and potential for mineral loss in the region. Of these ten women, three had T-scores close to the osteoporosis range (T-score < -2.5).

  3. Urban Water Services in Fragile States: An Analysis of Drinking Water Sources and Quality in Port Harcourt, Nigeria, and Monrovia, Liberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpel, Emily; Albert, Jeff; Peletz, Rachel; de Waal, Dominick; Hirn, Maximilian; Danilenko, Alexander; Uhl, Vincent; Daw, Ashish; Khush, Ranjiv

    2016-07-06

    Establishing and maintaining public water services in fragile states is a significant development challenge. In anticipation of water infrastructure investments, this study compares drinking water sources and quality between Port Harcourt, Nigeria, and Monrovia, Liberia, two cities recovering from political and economic instability. In both cities, access to piped water is low, and residents rely on a range of other private and public water sources. In Port Harcourt, geographic points for sampling were randomly selected and stratified by population density, whereas in Monrovia, locations for sampling were selected from a current inventory of public water sources. In Port Harcourt, the sampling frame demonstrated extensive reliance on private boreholes and a preference, in both planned and unplanned settlements, for drinking bottled and sachet water. In Monrovia, sample collection focused on public sources (predominantly shallow dug wells). In Port Harcourt, fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) were detected in 25% of sources (N = 566), though concentrations were low. In Monrovia, 57% of sources contained FIB and 22% of sources had nitrate levels that exceeded standards (N = 204). In Monrovia, the convenience of piped water may promote acceptance of the associated water tariffs. However, in Port Harcourt, the high prevalence of self-supply and bottled and sachet drinking water suggests that the consumer's willingness to pay for ongoing municipal water supply improvements may be determined by service reliability and perceptions of water quality.

  4. Water-equivalent solid sources prepared by means of two distinct methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koskinas, Marina F.; Yamazaki, Ione M.; Potiens Junior, Ademar, E-mail: koskinas@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The Nuclear Metrology Laboratory at IPEN is involved in developing radioactive water-equivalent solid sources prepared from an aqueous solution of acrylamide using two distinct methods for polymerization. One of them is the polymerization by high dose of {sup 60}Co irradiation; in the other method the solid matrix-polyacrylamide is obtained from an aqueous solution composed by acrylamide, catalyzers and an aliquot of a radionuclide. The sources have been prepared in cylindrical geometry. In this paper, the study of the distribution of radioactive material in the solid sources prepared by both methods is presented. (author)

  5. Drinking water from alternative water sources: differences in beliefs, social norms and factors of perceived behavioural control across eight Australian locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolnicar, S; Hurlimann, A

    2009-01-01

    Australia is facing serious challenges in the management of water in various urban and regional locations. Two popular responses to these challenges are increasing supply through alternative water sources such as recycled and desalinated water. However, significant gaps exist in our knowledge of community attitudes to these alternative sources of water, particularly for potable use. This paper reports results from an Australian study of community attitudes to alternative water sources. Sixty six qualitative interviews were held at eight locations with distinctly different water situations. This paper explores all three antecedents to the behaviour of drinking recycled water and desalinated water as postulated by the Theory of Planned Behaviour: attitudes, social norms and factors of perceived behavioural control. Key results indicate that while people hold both positive and negative beliefs (mostly cost, health and environmental concerns) about water from alternative sources, nearly all of them are willing to drink it if the water crisis were to deteriorate further. People also feel they lack knowledge and state that information from scientists would influence their decision to drink recycled and desalinated water most. Friends and relatives are most influential in preventing people from drinking recycled water. The findings reported in this paper have major implications for water policy, and will be of particular interest to water engineers. The paper raises a provocative question: Is it better to avoid public consultation in introducing water from alternative sources?

  6. Water from Air: an Overlooked Source of Moisture in Arid and Semiarid Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, T. A.; Morrissey, E. M.; Reed, S.; Schwartz, E.; Hungate, B. A.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding water sources, use, and availability in Earth's arid and semiarid lands is fundamental to understanding and forecasting dryland ecosystem function. While it is accepted that drylands can obtain water from sources other than precipitation (e.g., from dew), little is known about how liquid water supplied to dryland soils via water vapor adsorption (WVA) helps to regulate dryland communities and their activity. WVA - the adsorption of water vapor and subsequent formation of liquid water within soil - occurs at times when the relative humidity in the soil atmosphere is lower than the relative humidity of the overlying air. Surprisingly little research has been focused on WVA, though environmental conditions are such that this phenomenon is likely to occur quite regularly in dryland regions throughout the world. Here we used an observational study in a semiarid grassland and a series of laboratory experiments to explore the role of WVA in providing soil moisture and regulating soil microbial activity (assessed as CO2 efflux rates). Through the introduction of 18O liquid water into the atmosphere of a closed system, we were able to trace the movement of water from the atmosphere to the soil via WVA under a range of temperature conditions. Both in the field setting and in the laboratory, elevated rates of soil respiration were observed with WVA-induced increases in soil moisture. Taken together, these results indicate that vapor adsorption is occurring under a variety of common conditions and provide compelling evidence that this water source may strongly influence the activity of soil microorganisms, including fundamental aspects of the soil carbon cycle.

  7. Exploring a water/energy trade-off in regional sourcing of livestock feed crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Martin C; Keoleian, Gregory A

    2011-12-15

    Feed production constitutes a major portion of the energy and water resource inputs in modern livestock production. Schemes to reduce these inputs may include local sourcing of animal feed. However, in water stressed regions where irrigation of feed crops is necessary, a trade-off between local sourcing (with high water stress) and transport from less water stressed regions can occur. We demonstrate this trade-off in the U.S. by combining state-level irrigation water use and pumping energy demand from USDA surveys with fertilizer and transportation energy demands for producing major feed crops (corn grain, soybean, alfalfa hay, corn silage) in each state and delivering them to two hypothetical dairy farms located in Kersey, CO and Rosendale, WI. A back-up technology approach is employed to express freshwater resource depletion in units of energy, allowing direct comparison with other energy resource demands. Corn grain, soybean, and alfalfa hay delivered to CO demonstrate a clear trade-off between transportation energy (proportional to the distance between CO and the production state) and water stress. On the other hand, transportation burdens dominate for corn silage, making local production most attractive, even in water stressed regions. All crops delivered to WI (a region of low water stress and minimal irrigation) are dominated by transportation burdens, making local production preferable, but this is clearly not a universal principal, as other cases show. This paper quantitatively elucidates the water-energy trade-off in sourcing feed for livestock and the method is expected to be applicable in managing supply chain logistics of other farm commodities.

  8. Performance analysis on solar-water compound source heat pump for radiant floor heating system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲世林; 马飞; 仇安兵

    2009-01-01

    A solar-water compound source heat pump for radiant floor heating (SWHP-RFH) experimental system was introduced and analyzed. The SWHP-RFH system mainly consists of 11.44 m2 vacuum tube solar collector,1 000 L water tank assisted 3 kW electrical heater,a water source heat pump,the radiant floor heating system with cross-linked polyethylene (PE-X) of diameter 20 mm,temperature controller and solar testing system. The SWHP-RFH system was tested from December to February during the heating season in Beijing,China under different operation situations. The test parameters include the outdoor air temperature,solar radiation intensity,indoor air temperature,radiation floor average surface temperature,average surface temperature of the building envelope,the inlet and outlet temperatures of solar collector,the temperature of water tank,the heat medium temperatures of heat pump condenser side and evaporator side,and the power consumption includes the water source heat pump system,the solar source heat pump system,the auxiliary heater and the radiant floor heating systems etc. The experimental results were used to calculate the collector efficiency,heat pump dynamic coefficient of performance (COP),total energy consumption and seasonal heating performance during the heating season. The results indicate that the performance of the compound source heat pump system is better than that of the air source heat pump system. Furthermore,some methods are suggested to improve the thermal performance of each component and the whole SWHP-RFH system.

  9. Endocrine Disrupting Compounds from the Source Water of the Huai River (Huainan City), China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Siping; Zhang, Cunliang

    2017-09-09

    The occurrence and environmental risk of eight endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), namely dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), nonyl phenol (NP), bisphenol A (BPA), 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) and estrone (E1), from four water sources (Pingshantou, Wanfenggang, Shisi, and Shiyi) of Huai River (Huainan section) were investigated in this study. Except for DMP only found in Pingshantou, all of the selected EDCs existed widely in the source water. DMP, DEP, BBP, DBP, NP, BPA, EE2, and E1 had the ranges of nd (cannot be detected)-130 ng/L, 25-310, 76-1351, 431-1299, 215-627, 23-107, nd-0.174, and 0.143-0.334 ng/L, respectively. Therefore, the studied water sources were associated with notable levels of EDCs, wherein the concentrations of BBP, DBP, and NP were much higher than the other five chemicals. The selected EDCs appeared to be higher in upstream than in downstream (p < 0.05) for each water source, suggesting that EDCs were subjected to a decreasing with water flow. Correlation analysis suggests that DEP-BP-DBP, NP-BPA, and EE2-E1 might have the same sources, respectively; and the source of NP, EE2, and E1 was different from that of BBP, BEP and BBP, and DEP, respectively. It was observed that both the TAS (total ambient severity) and RQ (risk quotient) were less than 1, indicating that EDCs in Huai River (Huainan section) posed little or no thread to the health of local inhabitants and ecological environmental.

  10. Contamination event detection using multiple types of conventional water quality sensors in source water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuming; Che, Han; Smith, Kate; Chen, Lei

    2014-08-01

    Early warning systems are often used to detect deliberate and accidental contamination events in a water system. Conventional methods normally detect a contamination event by comparing the predicted and observed water quality values from one sensor. This paper proposes a new method for event detection by exploring the correlative relationships between multiple types of conventional water quality sensors. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated using data from contaminant injection experiments in a laboratory. Results from these experiments demonstrated the correlative responses of multiple types of sensors. It was observed that the proposed method could detect a contamination event 9 minutes after the introduction of lead nitrate solution with a concentration of 0.01 mg L(-1). The proposed method employs three parameters. Their impact on the detection performance was also analyzed. The initial analysis showed that the correlative response is contaminant-specific, which implies that it can be utilized not only for contamination detection, but also for contaminant identification.

  11. Quality of water sources used as drinking water in a Brazilian peri-urban area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tereza Pepe Razzolini

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to assess bacteriological quality of drinking water in a peri-urban area located in the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo, Brazil. A total of 89 water samples were collected from community plastic tanks and 177 water samples from wells were collected bimonthly, from September 2007 to November 2008, for evaluating bacteriological parameters including: Escherichia coli, Enterococcus and heterotrophic plate count (HPC. Clostridium perfringens was investigated in a subsample (40 samples from community plastic tank and 40 from wells. E. coli was present in 5 (5.6% samples from community plastic tanks (2.0 - 5.1x10(4 MPN/100mL and in 70 (39.5% well samples (2.0 - 8.6x10(4 MPN/100mL. Thus, these samples were not in accordance with the Brazilian Regulation. Enterococcus was detected in 20 (22.5% samples of the community plastic tanks (1 to 79 NC/100mL and in 142 (80.2% well samples (1 to >200 NC/100mL. C. perfringens was detected in 5 (12.5% community plastic tanks samples and in 35 (87.5% wells samples (2.2 to >16 MPN/100mL. HPC were above 500 CFU/mL in 5 (5.6% waters from community plastic tanks. In wells samples, the HPC ranged from <1 to 1.6x10(4 CFU/mL. The residual chlorine did not attend the standard established in the drinking water legislation (0.2 mg/L, except in 20 (22.5% samples. These results confirm the vulnerability of the water supply systems in this peri-urban area what is clearly a public health concern.

  12. All coliforms are not created equal: A comparison of the effects of water source and in-house water contamination on Infantile Diarrheal Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDerslice, James; Briscoe, James

    1993-07-01

    Storing drinking water in the home is common in the developing world. Several studies have documented increased concentrations of fecal coliforms during household storage. This has led to the belief that in-house water contamination is an important transmission route for enteric pathogens and, moreover, that improving water source quality is not warranted until that quality can be maintained in the home. We contend that in-house water contamination does not pose a serious risk of diarrhea because family members would likely develop some level of immunity to pathogens commonly encountered in the household environment. Even when there is no such immunity, transmission of these pathogens via stored water may be inefficient relative to other household transmission routes, such as person-to-person contact or food contamination. A contaminated water source poses much more of a risk since it may introduce new pathogens into the household, The effects of water source and in-house contamination on diarrheal disease are estimated for 2355 Filipino infants. The results confirm our hypothesis: contaminated water sources pose a serious risk of diarrhea while contamination of drinking water in the home does not. Water boiling is shown to eliminate the risk of diarrhea due to water source contamination. The results imply that improvements in water source quality are more important than improving water storage practices.

  13. A "Tail" Of Two Mines: Determining The Sources Of Lead In Mine Waters Using Pb Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousens, B. L.; Allen, D. M.; Lepitre, M. E.; Mortensen, J. K.; Gabites, J. E.; Nugent, M.; Fortin, D.

    2004-12-01

    Acid mine drainage can be a significant environmental problem in regions where mine tailings are exposed to surface water and shallow groundwater flow. Whereas high metal concentrations in surface waters and groundwaters indicate that metals are being mobilized, these data do not uniquely identify the source of the contamination. The isotopic composition of Pb in mine waters is a superb tracer of Pb sources, because the isotopic composition of ore Pb is usually significantly different from that of host rocks, other surficial deposits, and aerosols. We have investigated metal mobility at two abandoned Pb-Zn mines in different geological settings: the sediment-hosted Sullivan Mine in southeastern British Columbia, and the New Calumet Mine of western Quebec that is hosted in metamorphic rocks of the Grenville Province. Ores from both mines have homogeneous Pb isotopic compositions that are much less radiogenic than surrounding host rocks. At Sullivan, the Pb isotopic compositions of water samples define a mixing line between Sullivan ore and at least one other more radiogenic end-member. Water samples with high Pb concentrations (0.002 to 0.3 mg/L) generally are acidic and have Pb isotope ratios equal to Sullivan ore, whereas waters with low Pb contents have near-neutral pH and have variably more radiogenic Pb isotope ratios. Thus not all the waters collected in the study area originate from Sullivan ore or mining operations, as previously thought. The dominant source of ore Pb in mine waters are the waste rock dumps. Based on their isotopic compositions, host shales or aerosols from the local Pb smelter are potential sources of non-Sullivan ore Pb; local glacial tills are an unlikely source due to their heterogeneous Pb isotopic composition. Similarly, at the New Calumet mine, water samples collected in direct contact with either ore at the surface or tailings have high Pb concentrations (up to 0.02 mg/L) and Pb isotope ratios equal to New Calumet Pb-Zn ore. However

  14. Changes in Escherichia coli to Cryptosporidium ratios for various fecal pollution sources and drinking water intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalancette, Cindy; Papineau, Isabelle; Payment, Pierre; Dorner, Sarah; Servais, Pierre; Barbeau, Benoit; Di Giovanni, George D; Prévost, Michèle

    2014-05-15

    Assessing the presence of human pathogenic Cryptosporidium oocysts in surface water remains a significant water treatment and public health challenge. Most drinking water suppliers rely on fecal indicators, such as the well-established Escherichia coli (E. coli), to avoid costly Cryptosporidium assays. However, the use of E. coli has significant limitations in predicting the concentration, the removal and the transport of Cryptosporidium. This study presents a meta-analysis of E. coli to Cryptosporidium concentration paired ratios to compare their complex relationships in eight municipal wastewater sources, five agricultural fecal pollution sources and at 13 drinking water intakes (DWI) to a risk threshold based on US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) regulations. Ratios lower than the USEPA risk threshold suggested higher concentrations of oocysts in relation to E. coli concentrations, revealing an underestimed risk for Cryptosporidium based on E. coli measurements. In raw sewage (RS), high ratios proved E. coli (or fecal coliforms) concentrations were a conservative indicator of Cryptosporidium concentrations, which was also typically true for secondary treated wastewater (TWW). Removals of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and parasites were quantified in WWTPs and their differences are put forward as a plausible explanation of the sporadic ratio shift. Ratios measured from agricultural runoff surface water were typically lower than the USEPA risk threshold and within the range of risk misinterpretation. Indeed, heavy precipitation events in the agricultural watershed led to high oocyst concentrations but not to E. coli or enterococci concentrations. More importantly, ratios established in variously impacted DWI from 13 Canadian drinking water plants were found to be related to dominant fecal pollution sources, namely municipal sewage. In most cases, when DWIs were mainly influenced by municipal sewage, E. coli or fecal coliforms concentrations agreed with

  15. Impact of saline water sources on hypertension and cardiovascular disease risk in coastal Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Adrian; Hoque, Mohammad; Mathewson, Eleanor; Ahmed, Kazi; Rahman, Moshuir; Vineis, Paolo; Scheelbeek, Pauline

    2016-04-01

    Southern Bangladesh is periodically affected by tropical cyclone induced storm surges. Such events can result in the inundation of large areas of the coastal plain by sea water. Over time these episodic influxes of saline water have led to the build-up of a high of salinities (e.g. > 1,000 mg/l) in the shallow (up to ca. 150 m depth) groundwater. Owing to the highly saline groundwater, local communities have developed alternative surface water sources by constructing artificial drinking water ponds, which collect monsoonal rainwater. These have far greater storage than traditional rainwater harvesting systems, which typically use 40 litre storage containers that are quickly depleted during the dry season. Unfortunately, the ponds can also become salinised during storm surge events, the impacts of which can last for a number of years. A combined hydrological and epidemiological research programme over the past two years has been undertaken to understand the potential health risks associated with these saline water sources, as excessive intake of sodium can lead to hypertension and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (such as stroke and heart attack). An important aspect of the selected research sites was the variety of drinking water sources available. These included the presence of managed aquifer recharge sites where monsoonal rainwater is stored in near-surface (semi-)confined aquifers for abstraction during the dry season. This provided an opportunity for the effects of interventions with lower salinity sources to be assessed. Adjusting for confounding factors such as age, gender and diet, the results show a significant association between salinity and blood pressure. Furthermore, the results also showed such impacts are reversible. In order to evaluate the costs and benefits of such interventions, a water salinity - dose impact model is being developed to assess the effectiveness of alternative drinking water sources, such as enhanced rainwater

  16. Significant impacts of irrigation water sources and methods on modeling irrigation effects in the ACME Land Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leng, Guoyong; Leung, Lai-Yung; Huang, Maoyi

    2017-07-01

    An irrigation module that considers both irrigation water sources and irrigation methods has been incorporated into the ACME Land Model (ALM). Global numerical experiments were conducted to evaluate the impacts of irrigation water sources and irrigation methods on the simulated irrigation effects. All simulations shared the same irrigation soil moisture target constrained by a global census dataset of irrigation amounts. Irrigation has large impacts on terrestrial water balances especially in regions with extensive irrigation. Such effects depend on the irrigation water sources: surface-water-fed irrigation leads to decreases in runoff and water table depth, while groundwater-fed irrigation increases water table depth, with positive or negative effects on runoff depending on the pumping intensity. Irrigation effects also depend significantly on the irrigation methods. Flood irrigation applies water in large volumes within short durations, resulting in much larger impacts on runoff and water table depth than drip and sprinkler irrigations. Differentiating the irrigation water sources and methods is important not only for representing the distinct pathways of how irrigation influences the terrestrial water balances, but also for estimating irrigation water use efficiency. Specifically, groundwater pumping has lower irrigation water use efficiency due to enhanced recharge rates. Different irrigation methods also affect water use efficiency, with drip irrigation the most efficient followed by sprinkler and flood irrigation. Our results highlight the importance of explicitly accounting for irrigation sources and irrigation methods, which are the least understood and constrained aspects in modeling irrigation water demand, water scarcity and irrigation effects in Earth System Models.

  17. Integrating water quality modeling with ecological risk assessment for nonpoint source pollution control: A conceptual framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y.D.; McCutcheon, S.C.; Rasmussen, T.C.; Nutter, W.L.; Carsel, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    The historical development of water quality protection goals and strategies in the United States is reviewed. The review leads to the identification and discussion of three components (i.e., management mechanism, environmental investigation approaches, and environmental assessment and criteria) for establishing a management framework for nonpoint source pollution control. Water quality modeling and ecological risk assessment are the two most important and promising approaches to the operation of the proposed management framework. A conceptual framework that shows the general integrative relationships between water quality modeling and ecological risk assessment is presented. (Copyright (c) 1993 IAWQ.)

  18. A commercial trial evaluating three open water sources for farmed ducks: effects on water usage and water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liste, G; Kirkden, R D; Broom, D M

    2013-01-01

    1. Providing open water to farmed ducks is beneficial for their health and behaviour but, at commercial densities, may also have negative consequences for the health of the ducks, the productivity of the farms and environmental contamination. 2. The current experiment investigated the suitability of three types of open water resources in a commercial setting, assessing their effects on water usage and water quality. The three resources were: narrow troughs (15 cm wide and 8 cm deep), intermediate troughs (20 cm wide and 12 cm deep) and wide troughs (50 cm wide and 8 cm deep). A total of 23 flocks of ducks with a mean size of 4,540 ± 680 individuals and a final stocking density less than 17 kg/m(2) were studied. 3. Intermediate troughs used twice as much water as narrow troughs and wide troughs. Intermediate troughs had the best microbiological water quality, wide troughs had the worst physical and microbiological quality and narrow troughs tended to be intermediate. 4. Open water provision resulted in high water usage, but this might be reduced by further investigating cleaning regimes, ballcock systems and the volumetric capacity of the troughs. It was difficult to maintain good water quality, and more research is needed to investigate the long term effects on productivity and public health.

  19. Seasonal Shifts in Primary Water Source Type: A Comparison of Largely Pastoral Communities in Uganda and Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Amber L; Zwickle, Adam; Namanya, Judith; Rzotkiewicz, Amanda; Mwita, Emiliana

    2016-01-27

    Many water-related illnesses show an increase during the wet season. This is often due to fecal contamination from runoff, yet, it is unknown whether seasonal changes in water availability may also play a role in increased illness via changes in the type of primary water source used by households. Very little is known about the dynamic aspects of access to water and changes in source type across seasons, particularly in semi-arid regions with annual water scarcity. The research questions in this study were: (1) To what degree do households in Uganda (UG) and Tanzania (TZ) change primary water source type between wet and dry seasons?; and (2) How might seasonal changes relate to water quality and health? Using spatial survey data from 92 households each in UG and TZ this study found that, from wet to dry season, 26% (UG) and 9% (TZ) of households switched from a source with higher risk of contamination to a source with lower risk. By comparison, only 20% (UG) and 0% (TZ) of households switched from a source with lower risk of contamination to a source with higher risk of contamination. This research suggests that one pathway through which water-related disease prevalence may differ across seasons is the use of water sources with higher risk contamination, and that households with access to sources with lower risks of contamination sometimes choose to use more contaminated sources.

  20. Association of Supply Type with Fecal Contamination of Source Water and Household Stored Drinking Water in Developing Countries: A Bivariate Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Katherine F; Bain, Robert E S; Cronk, Ryan; Wright, Jim A; Bartram, Jamie

    2015-12-01

    Access to safe drinking water is essential for health. Monitoring access to drinking water focuses on water supply type at the source, but there is limited evidence on whether quality differences at the source persist in water stored in the household. We assessed the extent of fecal contamination at the source and in household stored water (HSW) and explored the relationship between contamination at each sampling point and water supply type. We performed a bivariate random-effects meta-analysis of 45 studies, identified through a systematic review, that reported either the proportion of samples free of fecal indicator bacteria and/or individual sample bacteria counts for source and HSW, disaggregated by supply type. Water quality deteriorated substantially between source and stored water. The mean percentage of contaminated samples (noncompliance) at the source was 46% (95% CI: 33, 60%), whereas mean noncompliance in HSW was 75% (95% CI: 64, 84%). Water supply type was significantly associated with noncompliance at the source (p < 0.001) and in HSW (p = 0.03). Source water (OR = 0.2; 95% CI: 0.1, 0.5) and HSW (OR = 0.3; 95% CI: 0.2, 0.8) from piped supplies had significantly lower odds of contamination compared with non-piped water, potentially due to residual chlorine. Piped water is less likely to be contaminated compared with other water supply types at both the source and in HSW. A focus on upgrading water services to piped supplies may help improve safety, including for those drinking stored water.

  1. Radon-222 from different sources of water and the assessment of health hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ademola, Janet A; Ojeniran, Oluwaferanmi R

    2017-02-01

    Water samples collected from different sources were analysed for radon concentrations in order to evaluate the health effect associated with radon in water. The radon concentrations were in the range of 3.56-98.57, 0.88-25.49, 0.73-1.35 and 0.24-1.03 Bq.L(-1) for borehole, well, packaged and utility water, respectively. Samples from boreholes had the highest radon concentrations with about 67% being higher than the threshold value of 11.1 Bq.L(-1) recommended by the USEPA. The mean annual effective dose (AED) due to ingestion for adult, child and infant ranged from 8.71 × 10(-3) to 0.831 mSv.y(-1) for the different sources. The mean AED calculated for consuming water from boreholes and wells for the three age groups were higher than the recommended reference dose level of 0.1 mSv.y(-1). The mean AED due to inhalation of radon in drinking water was negligible, ranging from 0.13 to 6.20 μSv.y(-1). The health burden associated with radon in water in the study is through ingestion of water directly from boreholes.

  2. Evaluation of source water protection strategies: a fuzzy-based model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Nilufar; Sadiq, Rehan; Rodriguez, Manuel J; Francisque, Alex

    2013-05-30

    Source water protection (SWP) is an important step in the implementation of a multi-barrier approach that ensures the delivery of safe drinking water. Available decision-making models for SWP primarily use complex mathematical formulations that require large data sets to perform analysis, which limit their use. Moreover, most of them cannot handle interconnection and redundancy among the parameters, or missing information. A fuzzy-based model is proposed in this study to overcome the above limitations. This model can estimate a reduction in the pollutant loads based on selected SWP strategies (e.g., storm water management ponds, vegetated filter strips). The proposed model employs an export coefficient approach and account for the number of animals to estimate the pollutant loads generated by different land usages (e.g., agriculture, forests, highways, livestock, and pasture land). Water quality index is used for the assessment of water quality once these pollutant loads are discharged into the receiving waters. To demonstrate the application of the proposed model, a case study of Page Creek was performed in the Clayburn watershed (British Columbia, Canada). The results show that increasing urban development and poorly managed agricultural areas have the most adverse effects on source water quality. The proposed model can help decision makers to make informed decisions related to the land use and resource allocation.

  3. Removal of phenolic estrogen pollutants from different sources of water using molecularly imprinted polymeric microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi; Shi, Yun; Jiang, Ming; Jin, Yuan; Peng, Yan; Lu, Bin; Dai, Kang

    2008-05-01

    The efficiency and effects of using Bisphenol A-molecularly imprinted polymeric microspheres (MIPMs) to remove phenolic estrogens from different sources of water were evaluated. MIPMs prepared by precipitation polymerization removed a group of phenolic estrogens from different kinds of water selectively and effectively. The highest removal efficiency was observed at pH=5. Fifty millimoles per litre ions or 10mg/L humid acid improved removal efficiency. MIPMs were more suitable to remove trace estrogens in large volume than high concentration of estrogens in small volume. The removal efficiency of spiked tap water, lake water and river water were better than that of distilled water. Hundred milligrams of MIPMs had higher removal selectivity and efficiency than those of 100mg or 300mg activated carbons. Moreover, MIPMs can be re-used for at least 30 times without losing any removal efficiency. MIPMs provided a selective, simple, reliable and practicable solution to remove trace phenolic estrogens from different sources of water.

  4. National Conference on Mining-Influenced Waters: Approaches for Characterization, Source Control and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The conference goal was to provide a forum for the exchange of scientific information on current and emerging approaches to assessing characterization, monitoring, source control, treatment and/or remediation on mining-influenced waters. The conference was aimed at mining remedi...

  5. Rainfall-induced runoff from exposed streambed sediments: an important source of water pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, S K; Gottschall, N; Wilkes, G; Grégoire, D S; Topp, E; Pintar, K D M; Sunohara, M; Marti, R; Lapen, D R

    2015-01-01

    When surface water levels decline, exposed streambed sediments can be mobilized and washed into the water course when subjected to erosive rainfall. In this study, rainfall simulations were conducted over exposed sediments along stream banks at four distinct locations in an agriculturally dominated river basin with the objective of quantifying the potential for contaminant loading from these often overlooked runoff source areas. At each location, simulations were performed at three different sites. Nitrogen, phosphorus, sediment, fecal indicator bacteria, pathogenic bacteria, and microbial source tracking (MST) markers were examined in both prerainfall sediments and rainfall-induced runoff water. Runoff generation and sediment mobilization occurred quickly (10-150 s) after rainfall initiation. Temporal trends in runoff concentrations were highly variable within and between locations. Total runoff event loads were considered large for many pollutants considered. For instance, the maximum observed total phosphorus runoff load was on the order of 1.5 kg ha. Results also demonstrate that runoff from exposed sediments can be a source of pathogenic bacteria. spp. and spp. were present in runoff from one and three locations, respectively. Ruminant MST markers were also present in runoff from two locations, one of which hosted pasturing cattle with stream access. Overall, this study demonstrated that rainfall-induced runoff from exposed streambed sediments can be an important source of surface water pollution.

  6. Determinants of epidemiologic transition in rural Africa: the role of socioeconomic status and drinking water source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelaer, Frouke M; Koopman, Jacob J E; van Bodegom, David; Eriksson, Ulrika K; Westendorp, Rudi G J

    2014-06-01

    Many African countries experience a protracted epidemiologic transition, different from the classical transition in western societies. The factors driving this protracted transition are largely unknown. In northeast Ghana, we studied an ongoing epidemiologic transition and investigated the effects of socioeconomic status and drinking water source on the transition. During a 9-year period, we followed a cohort of almost 30 000 individuals and collected information on mortality and fertility rates. In addition, using the standards set out by the WHO, we obtained the causes of death by verbal autopsy. Individuals were stratified according to their socioeconomic status and the households' use of an improved or unimproved drinking water source. Mortality rates decreased by -5.0% annually (pfertility rates and child-women ratios decreased annually by -12.7% (pfertility depending on socioeconomic status or drinking water source. Factors other than socioeconomic status and drinking water source are responsible for the observed declines in mortality and fertility observed during the protracted epidemiologic transition. Identifying the specific determinants of the ongoing transition is of importance, as they could be targeted in order to further improve public health in rural African countries. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Online Biomonitoring and Early Warning Systems for Protection of Water Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability to perform real time biomonitoring of behavioral responses and stress levels experienced by fish is important as it could be used for assessing source water toxicity as a first line of defense to protect and encourage recreational use of waterbodies. This paper propos...

  8. Isotopic Tracers for Delineating Non-Point Source Pollutants in Surface Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davisson, M L

    2001-03-01

    This study tested whether isotope measurements of surface water and dissolved constituents in surface water could be used as tracers of non-point source pollution. Oxygen-18 was used as a water tracer, while carbon-14, carbon-13, and deuterium were tested as tracers of DOC. Carbon-14 and carbon-13 were also used as tracers of dissolved inorganic carbon, and chlorine-36 and uranium isotopes were tested as tracers of other dissolved salts. In addition, large databases of water quality measurements were assembled for the Missouri River at St. Louis and the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta in California to enhance interpretive results of the isotope measurements. Much of the water quality data has been under-interpreted and provides a valuable resource to investigative research, for which this report exploits and integrates with the isotope measurements.

  9. Ground-water temperature of the Wyoming quadrangle in central Delaware : with application to ground-water-source heat pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Arthur L.

    1982-01-01

    Ground-water temperature was measured during a one-year period (1980-81) in 20 wells in the Wyoming Quadrangle in central Delaware. Data from thermistors set at fixed depths in two wells were collected twice each week, and vertical temperature profiles of the remaining 18 wells were made monthly. Ground-water temperature at 8 feet below land surface in well Jc55-1 ranged from 45.0 degrees F in February to 70.1 degrees F in September. Temperature at 35 feet below land surface in the same well reached a minimum of 56.0 degrees F in August, and a maximum of 57.8 degrees F in February. Average annual temperature of ground water at 25 feet below land surface in all wells ranged from 54.6 degrees F to 57.8 degrees F. Variations of average temperature probably reflect the presence or absence of forestation in the recharge areas of the wells. Ground-water-source heat pumps supplied with water from wells 30 or more feet below land surface will operate more efficiently in both heating and cooling modes than those supplied with water from shallower depths. (USGS)

  10. Isotopic tracing of clear water sources in an urban sewer: A combined water and dissolved sulfate stable isotope approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houhou, J; Lartiges, B S; France-Lanord, C; Guilmette, C; Poix, S; Mustin, C

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the potential of stable isotopes of both water (deltaD and deltaOH(2)O18) and dissolved sulfate (delta(34)S and deltaOSO(4)18) for determining the origin and the amount of clear waters entering an urban sewer. The dynamics of various hydrological processes that commonly occur within the sewer system such as groundwater infiltration, rainwater percolation, or stormwater release from retention basins, can be readily described using water isotope ratios. In particular, stable water isotopes indicate that the relative volumes of infiltrated groundwater and sewage remain approximately constant and independent of wastewater flow rate during the day, thus demonstrating that the usual quantification of parasitic discharge from minimal nocturnal flow measurements can lead to completely erroneous results. The isotopic signature of dissolved sulfate can also provide valuable information about the nature of water inputs to the sewage flow, but could not be used in our case to quantify the infiltrating water. Indeed, even though the microbial activity had a limited effect on the isotopic composition of dissolved sulfate at the sampling sites investigated, the dissolved sulfate concentration in sewage was regulated by the formation of barite and calcium-phosphate mineral species. Sulfate originating from urine was also detected as a source using the oxygen isotopic composition of sulfate, which suggests that deltaOSO(4)18 might find use as a urine tracer.

  11. Sources of nitrate contamination and age of water in large karstic springs of Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, B.G.

    2004-01-01

    In response to concerns about the steady increase in nitrate concentrations over the past several decades in many of Florida's first magnitude spring waters (discharge ???2.8 m3/s), multiple isotopic and other chemical tracers were analyzed in water samples from 12 large springs to assess sources and timescales of nitrate contamination. Nitrate-N concentrations in spring waters ranged from 0.50 to 4.2 mg/L, and ??15N values of nitrate in spring waters ranged from 2.6 to 7.9 per mil. Most ??15N values were below 6 per mil indicating that inorganic fertilizers were the dominant source of nitrogen in these waters. Apparent ages of groundwater discharging from springs ranged from 5 to about 35 years, based on multi-tracer analyses (CFC-12, CFC-113, SF6, 3H/3He) and a piston flow assumption; however, apparent tracer ages generally were not concordant. The most reliable spring-water ages appear to be based on tritium and 3He data, because concentrations of CFCs and SF6 in several spring waters were much higher than would be expected from equilibration with modern atmospheric concentrations. Data for all tracers were most consistent with output curves for exponential and binary mixing models that represent mixtures of water in the Upper Floridan aquifer recharged since the early 1960s. Given that groundwater transit times are on the order of decades and are related to the prolonged input of nitrogen from multiple sources to the aquifer, nitrate could persist in groundwater that flows toward springs for several decades due to slow transport of solutes through the aquifer matrix.

  12. Effect of Water Stress and Source Limitation on Accumulation and Remobilization of Photoassimilates in Wheat Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ezzat Ahmadi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to study dry matter accumulation in different developmental stages and photoassimilates remobilization in bread wheat genotypes, a field experiment was carried out using a split split plot design based on a randomized complete block design with three replications in Torogh Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Station (Mashhad, Iran in 2006-2007 and 2007-2008. Main plots were assigned to two levels of water stress treatments; D1: optimum irrigation, and D2: cessation of watering from anthesis to maturity stages. Sub plots were assigned to eight bread wheat genotypes: 9103, 9116, 9203, 9205, 9207, 9212, C-81-10, and Cross Shahi; and source limitations with two levels; P1: no source limitation and P2: inhibition of current photosynthesis from anthesis were in sub-sub plots. Results of combined analysis showed that, grain yield, accumulation of dry matter in different developmental stages (soft dough stage and physiological maturity stage, amount of remobilized dry matter (DMT, remobilization efficiency (RE, remobilization percentage (CPAAG, canopy temperature depression (CTD and leaf relative water content (RWC in anthesis and grain watering stages was significantly affected by water stress treatment. Water stress increased DMT, RE, and CPAAG by 15%, 18%, and 50.6%, respectively; compared with well-watered treatment. Current photosynthesis inhibition increased CPAAG by 43.1%, and decreased DMT and RE by 44% and 60.8%, respectively; compared with P1 treatment. Postanthesis water stress and current photosynthesis inhibition caused source and sink limitations, and decreased CTD and RWC. Considering that C-81-10, 9103 and 9116 genotypes showed the highest grain yield and translocated dry matter under different moisture conditions; thus, these genotypes could be introduced as promising lines in breeding programs for arid and semi-arid regions. Significantly positive correlations between CTD and RWC with grain yield, particularly at grain

  13. Investigation of the Performance of a Heat Pump Using Waste Water as a Heat Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kahraman

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In this research, a water-water heat pump system using waste water as a heat source, a type that is not often used in Turkey and the World, was experimentally modeled. The experiments were performed under the conditions of simulated waste water temperature values of 20 °C, 30 °C and 40 °C. Inlet and outlet water temperatures of the evaporator and condenser, water flow rates in the evaporator and condenser circuits, pressures at the compressor inlet and outlet and power consumption of the system were measured. The heating coefficients of performance were calculated based on the measurements. It was found that the maximum temperature in the energy storage tank was about 50.6 °C. For the heat source temperatures of 20 °C, 30 °C and 40 °C, the heating coefficients of the performance of the system became 3.36, 3.43 and 3.69, respectively, 6 min. after the start time of the experiments and then they were decreased to 1.87, 1.83 and 1.77 with increasing water temperature in the condenser tank. The mean uncertainty value of the measurement parameters was found to be about ±2.47%. Finally, for the purpose of meeting hot water need as well as floor heating system requirements, it is seen that energy quality level of a waste low grade temperature heat source can be increased by using a heat pump system.

  14. VARIATIONS OF CHEMICAL QUALITY FOR DRINKING WATER SOURCES IN ZARAND PLAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Malakootian

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive investigation was conducted in order to evaluate the quality of the groundwater in Zarand plain of Chatrood region which supplies drinking water of Zarand city. Zarand plain with longitude of 55°, 46َ- 57°,7َ and latitude of 30°,20َ -31°,44َ is one of Iran's plains located in sub-basin of Daranjir desert. Groundwater of Zarand plain supplies drinking water of many cities and villages located in and near the plain. Samples were collected from 11 water wells used as drinking water sources in Zarand plain "Chatrood region", at least once at the middle of each month. By means of the standard methods, a number of parameters were analyzed for each sample for the period of 7 years from 1996 to 2003. Tests included measuring pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solid, total hardness, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, bicarbonate, sulfate, chloride, and nitrate ions. Data analysis was done by using t and Z-Test. Results indicated that water quality of water wells during studied period did not show any undesireable change. The quality of each parameter in drinking water wells of Zarand plain was within permissible limit and did not exceed neither the Iran's standards nor WHO guidelines. Meanwhile, the quality of raw water resources of the plain in the final year of experiment was within "good" potability limit based on Schuller's diagram; it means raw water resources still kept its quality. Although the quality of Zarand plain water resources comply with Iran's standards and WHO guidelines increasing trend of water consumption and consecutive droughts in the studied region as well as severe water shortage, ask for conservation, preservation and monitoring of water resources.

  15. Mapping human health risks from exposure to trace metal contamination of drinking water sources in Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhowmik, Avit Kumar [Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Koblenz-Landau, Fortstrasse 7, D-76829 Landau in der Pfalz (Germany); Alamdar, Ambreen [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Katsoyiannis, Ioannis [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Chemistry, Division of Chemical Technology, Box 116, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece); Shen, Heqing [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Ali, Nadeem [Department of Environmental Sciences, FBAS, International Islamic University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ali, Syeda Maria [Center of Excellence in Environmental Studies, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Bokhari, Habib [Public Health and Environment Division, Department of Biosciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Schäfer, Ralf B. [Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Koblenz-Landau, Fortstrasse 7, D-76829 Landau in der Pfalz (Germany); Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah, E-mail: ali_ebl2@yahoo.com [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Public Health and Environment Division, Department of Biosciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2015-12-15

    The consumption of contaminated drinking water is one of the major causes of mortality and many severe diseases in developing countries. The principal drinking water sources in Pakistan, i.e. ground and surface water, are subject to geogenic and anthropogenic trace metal contamination. However, water quality monitoring activities have been limited to a few administrative areas and a nationwide human health risk assessment from trace metal exposure is lacking. Using geographically weighted regression (GWR) and eight relevant spatial predictors, we calculated nationwide human health risk maps by predicting the concentration of 10 trace metals in the drinking water sources of Pakistan and comparing them to guideline values. GWR incorporated local variations of trace metal concentrations into prediction models and hence mitigated effects of large distances between sampled districts due to data scarcity. Predicted concentrations mostly exhibited high accuracy and low uncertainty, and were in good agreement with observed concentrations. Concentrations for Central Pakistan were predicted with higher accuracy than for the North and South. A maximum 150–200 fold exceedance of guideline values was observed for predicted cadmium concentrations in ground water and arsenic concentrations in surface water. In more than 53% (4 and 100% for the lower and upper boundaries of 95% confidence interval (CI)) of the total area of Pakistan, the drinking water was predicted to be at risk of contamination from arsenic, chromium, iron, nickel and lead. The area with elevated risks is inhabited by more than 74 million (8 and 172 million for the lower and upper boundaries of 95% CI) people. Although these predictions require further validation by field monitoring, the results can inform disease mitigation and water resources management regarding potential hot spots. - Highlights: • Predictions of trace metal concentration use geographically weighted regression • Human health risk

  16. [Spatiotemporal variation analysis and identification of water pollution sources in the Zhangweinan River basin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hua-Shan; Xu, Zong-Xue; Tang, Fang-Fang; Yu, Wei-Dong; Cheng, Yan-Ping

    2012-02-01

    In this study, several statistical methods including cluster analysis, seasonal Kendall test, factor analysis/principal component analysis and principal component regression were used to evaluate the spatiotemporal variation of water quality and identify the sources of water pollution in the Zhangweinan River basin. Results of spatial cluster analysis and principal component analysis indicated that the Zhangweinan River basin can be classified into two regions. One is the Zhang River upstream located in the northwest of the Zhangweinan River basin where water quality is good. The other one covers the Wei River and eastern plain of the Zhangweinan River basin, where water is seriously polluted. In this region, pollutants from point sources flow into the river and the water quality changes greatly. Results of temporal cluster analysis and seasonal Kendall test indicated that the study periods may be classified into three periods and two different trends were detected during the period of 2002-2009. The first period was the year of 2002-2003, during which water quality had deteriorated and serious pollution was observed in the Wei river basin and eastern plain of the Zhangweinan River basin. The second period was the year of 2004-2006, during which water quality became better. The year of 2007-2009 is the third period, during which water quality had been improved greatly. Despite that water quality in the Zhangweinan River basin had been improved during the period of 2004-2009, the water quality in the Wei River (southwestern part of the basin), the Wei Canal River and the Zhangweixin River (eastern plain of the basin) is still poor. Principal component analysis and multi-linear regression of the absolute principal component scores showed that the main pollutants of the Zhangweinan River basin came from point source discharge such as heavy industrial wastewater, municipal sewage, chemical industries wasterwater and mine drainage in upstream. Non-point source pollution

  17. Water quality and possible sources of nitrate in the Cimarron Terrace Aquifer, Oklahoma, 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoner, Jason R.; Mashburn, Shana L.

    2004-01-01

    Water from the Cimarron terrace aquifer in northwest Oklahoma commonly has nitrate concentrations that exceed the maximum contaminant level of 10 milligrams per liter of nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen (referred to as nitrate) set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for public drinking water supplies. Starting in July 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality, conducted a study in the Cimarron terrace aquifer to assess the water quality and possible sources of nitrate. A qualitative and quantitative approach based on multiple lines of evidence from chemical analysis of nitrate, nitrogen isotopes in nitrate, pesticides (indicative of cropland fertilizer application), and wastewater compounds (indicative of animal or human wastewater) were used to indicate possible sources of nitrate in the Cimarron terrace aquifer. Nitrate was detected in 44 of 45 ground-water samples and had the greatest median concentration (8.03 milligrams per liter) of any nutrient analyzed. Nitrate concentrations ranged from nitrate concentrations exceeding the maximum contaminant level of 10 milligrams per liter. Nitrate concentrations in agricultural areas were significantly greater than nitrate concentrations in grassland areas. Pesticides were detected in 15 of 45 ground-water samples. Atrazine and deethylatrazine, a metabolite of atrazine, were detected most frequently. Deethylatrazine was detected in water samples from 9 wells and atrazine was detected in samples from 8 wells. Tebuthiuron was detected in water samples from 5 wells; metolachlor was detected in samples from 4 wells; prometon was detected in samples from 4 wells; and alachlor was detected in 1 well. None of the detected pesticide concentrations exceeded the maximum contaminant level or health advisory level set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Wastewater compounds were detected in 28 of 45 groundwater samples. Of the 20 wastewater compounds

  18. Comparison of Particle-Associated Bacteria from a Drinking Water Treatment Plant and Distribution Reservoirs with Different Water Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, G.; Ling, F. Q.; van der Mark, E. J.; Zhang, X. D.; Knezev, A.; Verberk, J. Q. J. C.; van der Meer, W. G. J.; Medema, G. J.; Liu, W. T.; van Dijk, J. C.

    2016-02-01

    This study assessed the characteristics of and changes in the suspended particles and the associated bacteria in an unchlorinated drinking water distribution system and its reservoirs with different water sources. The results show that particle-associated bacteria (PAB) were present at a level of 0.8-4.5 × 103 cells ml-1 with a biological activity of 0.01-0.04 ng l-1 ATP. Different PAB communities in the waters produced from different sources were revealed by a 16S rRNA-based pyrosequencing analysis. The quantified biomass underestimation due to the multiple cells attached per particle was ≥ 85%. The distribution of the biologically stable water increased the number of cells per particle (from 48 to 90) but had minor effects on the PAB community. Significant changes were observed at the mixing reservoir. Our results show the characteristics of and changes in suspended PAB during distribution, and highlight the significance of suspended PAB in the distribution system, because suspended PAB can lead to a considerable underestimation of biomass, and because they exist as biofilm, which has a greater mobility than pipe-wall biofilm and therefore presents a greater risk, given the higher probability that it will reach the customers’ taps and be ingested.

  19. Comparison of Particle-Associated Bacteria from a Drinking Water Treatment Plant and Distribution Reservoirs with Different Water Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, G; Ling, F Q; van der Mark, E J; Zhang, X D; Knezev, A; Verberk, J Q J C; van der Meer, W G J; Medema, G J; Liu, W T; van Dijk, J C

    2016-02-02

    This study assessed the characteristics of and changes in the suspended particles and the associated bacteria in an unchlorinated drinking water distribution system and its reservoirs with different water sources. The results show that particle-associated bacteria (PAB) were present at a level of 0.8-4.5 × 10(3) cells ml(-1) with a biological activity of 0.01-0.04 ng l(-1) ATP. Different PAB communities in the waters produced from different sources were revealed by a 16S rRNA-based pyrosequencing analysis. The quantified biomass underestimation due to the multiple cells attached per particle was ≥ 85%. The distribution of the biologically stable water increased the number of cells per particle (from 48 to 90) but had minor effects on the PAB community. Significant changes were observed at the mixing reservoir. Our results show the characteristics of and changes in suspended PAB during distribution, and highlight the significance of suspended PAB in the distribution system, because suspended PAB can lead to a considerable underestimation of biomass, and because they exist as biofilm, which has a greater mobility than pipe-wall biofilm and therefore presents a greater risk, given the higher probability that it will reach the customers' taps and be ingested.

  20. Investigating Multiple Household Water Sources and Uses with a Computer-Assisted Personal Interviewing (CAPI Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan C. MacDonald

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of multiple sources in household water management is considered overly complicated and time consuming using paper and pen interviewing (PAPI. We assess the advantages of computer-assisted personal interviewing (CAPI in Pacific Island Countries (PICs. We adapted an existing PAPI survey on multiple water sources and expanded it to incorporate location of water use and the impacts of extreme weather events using SurveyCTO on Android tablets. We then compared the efficiency and accuracy of data collection using the PAPI version (n = 44 with the CAPI version (n = 291, including interview duration, error rate and trends in interview duration with enumerator experience. CAPI surveys facilitated high-quality data collection and were an average of 15.2 min faster than PAPI. CAPI survey duration decreased by 0.55% per survey delivered (p < 0.0001, whilst embedded skip patterns and answer lists lowered data entry error rates, relative to PAPI (p < 0.0001. Large-scale household surveys commonly used in global monitoring and evaluation do not differentiate multiple water sources and uses. CAPI equips water researchers with a quick and reliable tool to address these knowledge gaps and advance our understanding of development research priorities.

  1. Assessment of Nitrogen Pollutant Sources in Surface Waters of Taihu Lake Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Ying-Xin; XIONG Zheng-Qin; XING Guang-Xi; SUN Guo-Qing; ZHU Zhao-Liang

    2007-01-01

    The nitrogen(N)pollution status of the 12 most important rivers in Changshu,Taihu Lake region was investigated.Water samples were collected from depths of 0.5-1.0 m with the aid of the global positioning system (GPS).The seasonal variations in the concentrations of different N components in the rivers were measured.Using tension-free monolith lysimeters and 15 N-labeled fertilizer,field experiments were carried out in this region to determine variations of 15Nabundance of NO-3 in the leachate during the rice and wheat growing seasons,respectively.Results showed that the main source of N pollution of surface waters in the Taihu Lake region was not the N fertilizer applied in the farmland but the urban domestic sewage and rural human and animal excreta directly discharged into the water bodies without treatment.Atmospheric dry and wet N deposition was another evident source of N pollutant of the surface waters.In conclusion.it would not be correct to attribute the N applied to farmlands as the source of N pollution of the surface waters in this region.

  2. Associations among dental caries experience, fluorosis, and fluoride exposure from drinking water sources in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlDosari, Abdullah M; Akpata, Enosakhare S; Khan, Nazeer

    2010-01-01

    a) To correlate fluoride levels in drinking water sources with caries experience and dental fluorosis in Saudi Arabia, and suggest appropriate fluoride concentration for drinking water in the country. Fluoride levels were determined from 3,629 samples obtained from drinking water sources in 11 regions of Saudi Arabia. Based on the fluoride concentrations, a stratified sample of subjects aged 6-7, 12-13, and 15-18 years was obtained from the regions. A total of 12,200 selected subjects were examined for dental caries according to the World Health Organization criteria, and dental fluorosis, using Thylstrup and Fejerskov classification. There was an inverse relationship between fluoride exposure and caries experience, but the prevalence of dental fluorosis increased with increase in fluoride concentration. There was no significant difference in caries experience or in the prevalence of dental fluorosis when fluoride levels increased from 0.3 ppm to 0.6 ppm. In contrast, caries experience was lower, while severity of fluorosis was significantly higher at fluoride levels above 0.6 ppm. a) Fluoride levels in drinking water sources in Saudi Arabia correlate significantly with caries experience and prevalence of dental fluorosis. b) Appropriate fluoride concentration for drinking water in Saudi Arabia may be about 0.6 ppm.

  3. Characterisation of sources and pathways of microbiological pollutants to protect remote private water supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, Aaron; Tetzlaff, Doerthe; Strachan, Norval; Hough, Rupert; Soulsby, Chris

    2016-04-01

    In order to comply with legislation such as the Water Framework Directive and to safeguard public health, there is a critical need to maintain the quality of water sources that are used to supply drinking water. Private water supplies (PWS) are still common in many rural areas in the UK, and are especially vulnerable to poor water quality, owing to the limited treatment they often receive and variable raw water quality in groundwater and surface water sources. A significant issue affecting PWS quality is contamination by faecal pathogens derived from grazing animals or agricultural practices. In Scotland, approximately 20,000 PWS serve around 200,000 people, with a number of these PWS consistently failing to meet water quality targets relating to coliform bacteria and E. coli, both of which can be indicative of faecal contamination (faecal indicator organisms - FIOs). The purpose of our study was to employ integrated empirical and modelling approaches from hydrology and microbiology to elucidate the nature of the still poorly-understood interplay between hydrological flow pathways which connect sources of pathogens to PWS sources, antecedent conditions, seasonality and pathogen transfer risk, for two catchments with contrasting land uses in Scotland: an agricultural catchment (Tarland Burn) and a montane catchment (Bruntland Burn). In the Tarland Burn, 15 years of spatially-distributed samples collected at the catchment-scale of FIO counts were analysed alongside hydrometric data to identify "hot spots" of faecal pathogen transfer risk and possible spatial and temporal controls. We also used a combination of tracer-based and numerical modelling approaches to identify the relationship between hydrological connectivity, flow pathways, and the mobilisation of faecal pathogens from different sources. In the Bruntland Burn, we coupled a pathogen storage, mobilisation and transport scheme to a previously developed tracer-informed hydrological model for the catchment to

  4. Investigating the effects of point source and nonpoint source pollution on the water quality of the East River (Dongjiang) in South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiping; Chen, Ji

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the physical processes of point source (PS) and nonpoint source (NPS) pollution is critical to evaluate river water quality and identify major pollutant sources in a watershed. In this study, we used the physically-based hydrological/water quality model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool, to investigate the influence of PS and NPS pollution on the water quality of the East River (Dongjiang in Chinese) in southern China. Our results indicate that NPS pollution was the dominant contribution (>94%) to nutrient loads except for mineral phosphorus (50%). A comprehensive Water Quality Index (WQI) computed using eight key water quality variables demonstrates that water quality is better upstream than downstream despite the higher level of ammonium nitrogen found in upstream waters. Also, the temporal (seasonal) and spatial distributions of nutrient loads clearly indicate the critical time period (from late dry season to early wet season) and pollution source areas within the basin (middle and downstream agricultural lands), which resource managers can use to accomplish substantial reduction of NPS pollutant loadings. Overall, this study helps our understanding of the relationship between human activities and pollutant loads and further contributes to decision support for local watershed managers to protect water quality in this region. In particular, the methods presented such as integrating WQI with watershed modeling and identifying the critical time period and pollutions source areas can be valuable for other researchers worldwide.

  5. Nonpoint source water pollution abatement and the feasibility of voluntary programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicki, David S.; Judd, Lynne B.

    1983-09-01

    This article details a case study of a voluntary, decentralized institutional arrangement for nonpint source water pollution control used in the Root River watershed in southeastern Wisconsin. This watershed was chosen because of its mix of urban, agricultural, and urbanizing land uses. The project objectives were to monitor and draw conclusions about the effectiveness of a voluntary, decentralized institutional system, to specify deficiencies of the approach and suggest means to correct them, and to use the conclusions to speculate about the need for regulations regarding nonpoint source pollution control or the appropriateness of financial incentives for nonpoint source control. Institutional factors considered include diversity of land uses in the watershed, educational needs, economic conditions, personality, water quality, number of agencies involved, definition of authority, and bureaucratic requirements

  6. Water Use in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS): Geology of U.S. Stimulation Projects, Water Costs, and Alternative Water Source Policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harto, C. B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Schroeder, J. N. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Horner, R. M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Patton, T. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Durham, L. A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Murphy, D. J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Clark, C. E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-10-01

    According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), geothermal energy generation in the United States is projected to more than triple by 2040 (EIA 2013). This addition, which translates to more than 5 GW of generation capacity, is anticipated because of technological advances and an increase in available sources through the continued development of enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs) and low-temperature resources (EIA 2013). Studies have shown that air emissions, water consumption, and land use for geothermal electricity generation have less of an impact than traditional fossil fuel–based electricity generation; however, the long-term sustainability of geothermal power plants can be affected by insufficient replacement of aboveground or belowground operational fluid losses resulting from normal operations (Schroeder et al. 2014). Thus, access to water is therefore critical for increased deployment of EGS technologies and, therefore, growth of the geothermal sector. This paper examines water issues relating to EGS development from a variety of perspectives. It starts by exploring the relationship between EGS site geology, stimulation protocols, and below ground water loss, which is one of the largest drivers of water consumption for EGS projects. It then examines the relative costs of different potential traditional and alternative water sources for EGS. Finally it summarizes specific state policies relevant to the use of alternative water sources for EGS, and finally explores the relationship between EGS site geology, stimulation protocols, and below ground water loss, which is one of the largest drivers of water consumption for EGS projects.

  7. Distribution of Acanthamoeba Genotypes Isolated from Recreational and Therapeutic Geothermal Water Sources in Southwestern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niyyati, Maryam; Saberi, Reza; Latifi, Alireza; Lasjerdi, Zohreh

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive survey was conducted along 10 km of geothermal rivers in southwestern Iran. A total of 40 water samples were tested for the presence of Acanthamoeba spp., and genotypes were determined by targeting the diagnostic fragment 3 region of the 18S rRNA gene. The pathogenic potential of all positive isolates was also identified using tolerance ability test. High occurrences of Acanthamoeba (50%) were detected in the sampling areas. Based on sequencing analysis, isolates belonging to T4 (93.7%) and T2 (6.25%) genotypes were reported. Thermo- and osmotolerance tests revealed that five strains are highly pathogenic. Since every collection site of this study was associated with high human activity, posting of warning signs, monitoring of recreational water sources, and awareness of high-risk people are of utmost importance. To the best of our knowledge, the present research is the first to report T2 genotype from geothermal water sources in Iran.

  8. Impacts by point and diffuse micropollutant sources on the stream water quality at catchment scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mette Fjendbo; Eriksson, Eva; Binning, Philip John

    2012-01-01

    pollution sources were identified including a pharmaceutical factory site with a contaminated old drainage ditch, two waste deposits, a wastewater treatment plant, overflow structures, fish farms, industrial discharges and diffuse agricultural and urban sources. Six water samples were collected along...... impacts by releases of organic matter and nutrients were found after the fish farms and the waste water treatment plant. Nickel was found at concentrations 5.8 – 8.8 g/l. Nine pesticides and metabolites of both agricultural and urban use were detected along the stream; among these were the two most...... at the pharmaceutical factory site, the drainage ditch and the waste deposits is similar in composition containing among others sulfonamides and chlorinated solvents (including vinyl chloride). Vinyl chloride concentrations surpassed Danish stream water quality criteria with a factor 10. The largest chemical impact...

  9. Semi-volatile organic compounds and trace elements in the Yangtze River source of drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bing; Zhang, Xuxiang; Zhang, Xiaolin; Yasun, Aishangjiang; Zhang, Yan; Zhao, Dayong; Ford, Tim; Cheng, Shupei

    2009-08-01

    Determination of 24 semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) and 24 trace elements in water samples was conducted in order to investigate the quality of the Nanjing source of drinking water taken from Yangtze River. The total concentrations of SVOCs and trace elements were in the range of 1,951-11,098 ng/l and 51,274-72,384 microg/l, respectively. No significant seasonal changes were found for the pollutants' concentrations. A primary health risk assessment was carried out to evaluate potential health effects. Risk quotients involving carcinogenic effects for benzo(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, dibenz(a,h)anthracene, bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate and arsenic were >1 under the worst-case scenario. The results of this study demonstrate the importance of further studies on the environmental health effects of exposure to the source water.

  10. Characterizing the Source Water for Montane Meadows to Assess Resiliency under Changing Hydroclimatic Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnell, S. M.; Peek, R.; Bell, A.; Weixelman, D.; Viers, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    Ecologically and hydrologically functioning montane meadows provide a variety of ecosystem services and create biological hotspots in high-elevation landscapes. They serve as wetlands that filter water, attenuate floods, sequester carbon, sustain downstream flows, and provide high productivity habitat in typically lower productivity mountain regions. Their importance to watershed quality and health is well recognized, and restoration of meadows is a high priority for resource management agencies and non-governmental organizations. Yet many meadow restoration projects have limited outcomes or fail to achieve the desired effects due to a lack of understanding the underlying hydrological and geomorphic processes inherent to meadows that contribute to their resiliency. Few studies exist on how meadows are sustained through time despite various land use impacts or how the origin of water supplying the meadow (snowmelt-dominated versus regional groundwater-dominated) may influence meadow conditions. Furthermore, as climate conditions continue to change, questions remain regarding which meadows will be most resistant to and resilient from climate warming and thus have the highest potential for successful and sustainable restoration of meadow processes. We discuss these concepts and present two methods for assessing the regional and local contributions of source water to meadows as an indicator of resiliency. On a broad scale, comparisons of satellite imagery using metrics such as normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) for regions with meadows may be useful to detect inter-annual and seasonal variations in meadow wetness and thus indicate meadow sites with larger groundwater sources that are more resilient over time. Locally, use of a hydrogeomorphic typing key that relates water source, geomorphic position, groundwater table elevation, and plant species composition may be useful to detect local groundwater sources that provide greater consistency of conditions and

  11. Source term attenuation by water in the Mark I boiling water reactor drywell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, D.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-09-01

    Mechanistic models of aerosol decontamination by an overlying water pool during core debris/concrete interactions and spray removal of aerosols from a Mark I drywell atmosphere are developed. Eighteen uncertain features of the pool decontamination model and 19 uncertain features of the model for the rate coefficient of spray removal of aerosols are identified. Ranges for values of parameters that characterize these uncertain features of the models are established. Probability density functions for values within these ranges are assigned according to a set of rules. A Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis of the decontamination factor produced by water pools 30 and 50 cm deep and subcooled 0--70 K is performed. An uncertainty analysis for the rate constant of spray removal of aerosols is done for water fluxes of 0.25, 0.01, and 0.001 cm{sup 3} H{sub 2}O/cm{sup 2}-s and decontamination factors of 1.1, 2, 3.3, 10, 100, and 1000.

  12. Pollutant source identification model for water pollution incidents in small straight rivers based on genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shou-ping; Xin, Xiao-kang

    2016-01-01

    Identification of pollutant sources for river pollution incidents is an important and difficult task in the emergency rescue, and an intelligent optimization method can effectively compensate for the weakness of traditional methods. An intelligent model for pollutant source identification has been established using the basic genetic algorithm (BGA) as an optimization search tool and applying an analytic solution formula of one-dimensional unsteady water quality equation to construct the objective function. Experimental tests show that the identification model is effective and efficient: the model can accurately figure out the pollutant amounts or positions no matter single pollution source or multiple sources. Especially when the population size of BGA is set as 10, the computing results are sound agree with analytic results for a single source amount and position identification, the relative errors are no more than 5 %. For cases of multi-point sources and multi-variable, there are some errors in computing results for the reasons that there exist many possible combinations of the pollution sources. But, with the help of previous experience to narrow the search scope, the relative errors of the identification results are less than 5 %, which proves the established source identification model can be used to direct emergency responses.

  13. Pollutant source identification model for water pollution incidents in small straight rivers based on genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shou-ping; Xin, Xiao-kang

    2017-07-01

    Identification of pollutant sources for river pollution incidents is an important and difficult task in the emergency rescue, and an intelligent optimization method can effectively compensate for the weakness of traditional methods. An intelligent model for pollutant source identification has been established using the basic genetic algorithm (BGA) as an optimization search tool and applying an analytic solution formula of one-dimensional unsteady water quality equation to construct the objective function. Experimental tests show that the identification model is effective and efficient: the model can accurately figure out the pollutant amounts or positions no matter single pollution source or multiple sources. Especially when the population size of BGA is set as 10, the computing results are sound agree with analytic results for a single source amount and position identification, the relative errors are no more than 5 %. For cases of multi-point sources and multi-variable, there are some errors in computing results for the reasons that there exist many possible combinations of the pollution sources. But, with the help of previous experience to narrow the search scope, the relative errors of the identification results are less than 5 %, which proves the established source identification model can be used to direct emergency responses.

  14. CrossWater - Modelling micropollutant loads from different sources in the Rhine basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Andreas; Bader, Hans-Peter; Fenicia, Fabrizio; Scheidegger, Ruth; Stamm, Christian

    2016-04-01

    The pressure on rivers from micropollutants (MPs) originating from various sources is a growing environmental issue and requiring political regulations. The challenges for the water management are numerous, particularly for international water basins. Spatial knowledge of MP sources and the water quality are prerequisites for an effective water quality policy. In this study we analyze the sources of MPs in the international Rhine basin in Europe, and model their transport to the streams. The spatial patterns of MP loads and concentrations from different use classes are investigated with a mass flow analysis and compared to the territorial jurisdictions that shape the spatial arrangement of water management. The source area of MPs depends on the specific use of a compound. Here, we focus on i) herbicides from agricultural land use, ii) biocides from material protection on buildings and iii) human pharmaceuticals from households. The total mass of MPs available for release to the stream network is estimated from statistical application and consumption data. The available mass of MPs is spatially distributed to the catchments areas based on GIS data of agricultural land use, vector data of buildings and wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) locations, respectively. The actual release of MPs to the stream network is calculated with empirical loss rates related to river discharge for agricultural herbicides and to precipitation for biocides. For the pharmaceuticals the release is coupled to the human metabolism rates and elimination rates in WWTP. The released loads from the catchments are propagated downstream with hydraulic routing. Water flow, transport and fate of the substances are simulated within linked river reaches. Time series of herbicide concentrations and loads are simulated for the main rivers in the Rhine basin. Accordingly the loads from the primary catchments are aggregated and constitute lateral or upstream input to the simulated river reaches. Pronounced

  15. Water vapour source impacts on oxygen isotope variability in tropical precipitation during Heinrich events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Lewis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Water isotope records such as speleothems provide extensive evidence of past tropical hydrological changes. During Heinrich events, isotopic changes in monsoon regions have been interpreted as implying a widespread drying through the Northern Hemisphere tropics and an anti-phased precipitation response in the south. Here, we examine the sources of this variability using a water isotope-enabled general circulation model, Goddard Institute for Space Studies ModelE. We incorporate a new suite of vapour source distribution tracers to help constrain the impact of precipitation source region changes on the isotopic composition of precipitation and to identify nonlocal amount effects. We simulate a collapse of the North Atlantic meridional overturning circulation with a large freshwater input to the region as an idealised analogue to iceberg discharge during Heinrich events. An increase in monsoon intensity, defined by vertical wind shear, is modelled over the South American domain, with small decreases simulated over Asia. Simulated isotopic anomalies agree well with proxy climate records, with lighter isotopic values simulated over South America and enriched values across East Asia. For this particular abrupt climate event, we identify which climatic change is most likely linked to water isotope change – changes in local precipitation amount, monsoon intensity, water vapour source distributions or precipitation seasonality. We categorise individual sites according to the climate variability that water isotope changes are most closely associated with, and find that the dominant isotopic controls are not consistent across the tropics – simple local explanations, in particular, fall short of explaining water isotope variability at all sites. Instead, the best interpretations appear to be site specific and often regional in scale.

  16. Water vapour source impacts on oxygen isotope variability in tropical precipitation during Heinrich events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Lewis

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Water isotope records such as speleothems provide extensive evidence of past tropical hydrological changes. During Heinrich events, isotopic changes in monsoon regions have been interpreted as implying a widespread drying through the Northern Hemisphere tropics and an anti-phased precipitation response in the south. Here, we examine the sources of this variability using a water isotope-enabled general circulation model, Goddard Institute for Space Studies ModelE. We incorporate a new suite of vapour source distribution tracers to help constrain the impact of precipitation source region changes on the isotopic composition of precipitation and to identify nonlocal amount effects. We simulate a collapse of the North Atlantic meridional overturning circulation with a large freshwater input to the region as an idealised analogue to iceberg discharge during Heinrich events. A decrease in monsoon intensity, defined by vertical wind shear, is modelled over East Asia and an increase over the South American domain. Simulated isotopic anomalies agree well with proxy climate records, with lighter isotopic values simulated over South America and enriched values across East Asia. For this particular abrupt climate event, we identify which climatic change is most likely linked to water isotope change – changes in local precipitation amount, monsoon intensity, water vapour source distributions or precipitation seasonality. We categorise individual sites according to the climate variability that water isotope changes are most closely associated with, and find that the dominant isotopic controls are not consistent across the tropics – simple local explanations, in particular, fall short of explaining water isotope variability at all sites. Instead, the best interpretations appear to be site specific and often regional in scale.

  17. Occurrence of selected aliphatic amines in source water of major cities in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haifeng Zhang; Shuoyi Ren; Jianwei Yu; Min Yang

    2012-01-01

    The formation of toxic nitrogenous disinfection byproducts (N-DBPs),such as nitrosamines,halonitromethanes and haloacetonitriles,from reactions between chlorine/chloramine and dissolved organic nitrogen in drinking water has caused great concern with regarding public health.This study revealed the occurrence of 17 aliphatic amines,some of which have been confirmed to be the precursors of N-DBPs,in source water across China.A sensitive method based on benzenesulfonyl chloride derivatization and liquid-liquid extraction followed by GC-MS analysis was established for the simultaneous analysis of the selected amines in aqueous samples.In total,37 source water samples from the capital cities of 20 provinces were collected for the survey.Among the 17 amines,14 were detected with an average frequency of detection of 36%.The most relevant amines in terms of frequency and maximum concentrations detected were dimethylamine (100%,24.82 μg/L),methylamine (78%,0.92 μg/L),N-methylethylamine (70%,8.84 μg/L),propylamine (59%,10.69 μg/L),diethylamine (54%,3.76 μg/L),N-methylbutylamine (35%,3.07 μg/L),N-ethylpropylamine (35%,0.52 μg/L),and piperidine (32%,2.35 μg/L).This is the first large scale survey of the aliphatic amines occurrence in source water in the world.The wide presence of nitrosamine precursors like dimethylamine,N-methylethylamine and diethylamine,and the precursors of haloacetonitriles and halonitromethanes like methylamine and propylamine suggests that better source water management is required to ensure the safety of drinking water.

  18. Water Sources and Quantity for Energy Development in Colorado's Denver-Julesburg Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waskom, R.; Kallenberger, J.; Boone, K.; Plombon, B.; Ryan, J. N.

    2014-12-01

    Over the past decade, Colorado has experienced a significant rise in oil and gas development with the greatest concentration of activity occurring in the Denver-Julesburg Basin (DJB) in the Northeast corner of the state. According to the Colorado Oil and Gas Association, as of June 2014, there are approximately 52,200 active oil and gas wells statewide, with over 21,300 located in Weld County, the epicenter of the DJB. In this water-scarce region, much attention is paid to the source and quantity of water being used to produce energy. This information is not readily accessible, but is of great importance to many. In response, our research team is undertaking an evaluation of water quantity impacts and tradeoffs associated with oil and gas development. Technological advancements in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing require additional sources of water - about 2.8 million gallons of per well (Goodwin et al.). The statewide water use for hydraulic fracturing is estimated to be less than 0.1%; however, on a local scale, when water is transferred from agricultural and municipal uses to industrial use, there are economic, environmental and social tradeoffs. Unfortunately, the pathway of a particular water transfer and its associated tradeoffs can be difficult to predict and quantify, further complicating the ability of local and state stakeholders to make sound and informative decisions about energy development. Energy companies are implementing new strategies to ensure reliable water supplies for their operations. These include tapping into non-tributary aquifers to help reduce competition for fully appropriated surface and tributary groundwater sources and recycling and reusing wastewater that results from the drilling and extraction practices. Many conflicting perspectives shape the water-energy discussion in the DJB so non-biased scientific data plays an important role in addressing the questions surrounding water use for energy development. This

  19. Storm water runoff-a source of emerging contaminants in urban streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, K.; Chen, C.; FitzGerald, K.; Badgley, B.

    2016-12-01

    Emerging contaminants (ECs) that refers to prescription, over-the-counter, veterinary, and illicit drugs in addition to products intended to have primary effects on the human body, such as sunscreens and insect repellants. Historically municipal wastewater treatment effluent has been considered to be the main source of ECs in aquatic environment. However, recent investigations have suggested urban storm water runoff as an important source of ECs in the environment. The objective of this multi-year study was to investigate the occurrence of a wide range of ECs and the special and temporal change of 4-Nonlyphenol (4-NP), an endocrine disruptor, in a stream solely impacted by the storm water runoff from Blacksburg, VA. Urban land cover has doubled during the past 15 years surrounding this. Water and sediment samples were collected periodically along the stream during a 3-year period and analyzed for 4-NP using a gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry and for EC screening using an ultra- performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. In addition, human-associated Bacteroides sp. (HF183) was analyzed to explore possible cross contamination between the sewer system and storm water collection system of the city. Fifteen ECs were detected in water samples from various locations along the stream at estimated levels ranging from low ppt to low ppb. The levels of 4-NP in the storm water sediment samples, ranging from 30-1500 µg/kg (d.w.), positively correlated with the levels of Human-associated Bacteroides sp. (HF183) in the storm water. Our study suggested: 1) collective urban activity and leaky urban sewer systems are significant sources of ECs in storm water runoff that are often untreated or with minimum treatment before flowing into urban streams; and 2) sediment transport and re-suspension can further releases accumulated ECs back into stream water during rain events, resulting in occurrence of ECs downstream and possibly in the receiving river. This

  20. Surface waters as a sink and source of atmospheric gas phase ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, G Brooks; Foley, Laura; Carroll, Angela L; Roebuck, Jesse Alan; Guy, Amanda; Mead, Ralph N; Kieber, Robert J; Willey, Joan D; Skrabal, Stephen A; Felix, J David; Mullaugh, Katherine M; Helms, John R

    2016-02-01

    This study reports the first ethanol concentrations in fresh and estuarine waters and greatly expands the current data set for coastal ocean waters. Concentrations for 153 individual measurements of 11 freshwater sites ranged from 5 to 598 nM. Concentrations obtained for one estuarine transect ranged from 56 to 77 nM and levels in five coastal ocean depth profiles ranged from 81 to 334 nM. Variability in ethanol concentrations was high and appears to be driven primarily by photochemical and biological processes. 47 gas phase concentrations of ethanol were also obtained during this study to determine the surface water degree of saturation with respect to the atmosphere. Generally fresh and estuarine waters were undersaturated indicating they are not a source and may be a net sink for atmospheric ethanol in this region. Aqueous phase ethanol is likely converted rapidly to acetaldehyde in these aquatic ecosystems creating the undersaturated conditions resulting in this previously unrecognized sink for atmospheric ethanol. Coastal ocean waters may act as either a sink or source of atmospheric ethanol depending on the partial pressure of ethanol in the overlying air mass. Results from this study are significant because they suggest that surface waters may act as an important vector for the uptake of ethanol emitted into the atmosphere including ethanol from biofuel production and usage.

  1. Definitions of database files and fields of the Personal Computer-Based Water Data Sources Directory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, J. Wayne

    1991-01-01

    This report describes the data-base files and fields of the personal computer-based Water Data Sources Directory (WDSD). The personal computer-based WDSD was derived from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) mainframe computer version. The mainframe version of the WDSD is a hierarchical data-base design. The personal computer-based WDSD is a relational data- base design. This report describes the data-base files and fields of the relational data-base design in dBASE IV (the use of brand names in this abstract is for identification purposes only and does not constitute endorsement by the U.S. Geological Survey) for the personal computer. The WDSD contains information on (1) the type of organization, (2) the major orientation of water-data activities conducted by each organization, (3) the names, addresses, and telephone numbers of offices within each organization from which water data may be obtained, (4) the types of data held by each organization and the geographic locations within which these data have been collected, (5) alternative sources of an organization's data, (6) the designation of liaison personnel in matters related to water-data acquisition and indexing, (7) the volume of water data indexed for the organization, and (8) information about other types of data and services available from the organization that are pertinent to water-resources activities.

  2. Health risk assessment for arsenic in water sources of cankiri province of Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caylak, Emrah [Department of Biochemistry, School of Health, Karatekin University, Cankiri (Turkey)

    2012-07-15

    To investigate the levels of arsenic (As) in the water sources of Cankiri Province, the samples were collected from the stations of central Cankiri (n = 27) and Kursunlu town (n = 12) during 2009 and 2010. The concentrations of As were analyzed with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer, and then compared with permissible limit, 10 {mu}g/L in drinking water, by Turkish legislation and World Health Organization (WHO). The As levels were higher than this limit (mean value 10-30 {mu}g/L in 26 stations), whereas, they were found to be >30 {mu}g/L in 12 sampling points. The water sources were categorized for health risk assessment such as reservoir, tap, well, and spring, and then chronic daily intake for oral and dermal exposure to As via drinking water, hazard quotient (HQ), and hazard index were calculated by using indices. The HQ values were found to be >1 in all samples of Cankiri Province. The effects of As on human health were then evaluated using carcinogenic risk (CR). CR values for As were also estimated to be >10{sup -5} in drinking water samples of Cankiri Province and might exert potential CR for people. These assessments would point out required drinking water treatment strategy to ensure safety of consumers. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. The drinking water treatment process as a potential source of affecting the bacterial antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xiaohui; Ma, Xiaolin; Xu, Fengming; Li, Jing; Zhang, Hang; Xiao, Xiang

    2015-11-15

    Two waterworks, with source water derived from the Huangpu or Yangtze River in Shanghai, were investigated, and the effluents were plate-screened for antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) using five antibiotics: ampicillin (AMP), kanamycin (KAN), rifampicin (RFP), chloramphenicol (CM) and streptomycin (STR). The influence of water treatment procedures on the bacterial antibiotic resistance rate and the changes that bacteria underwent when exposed to the five antibiotics at concentration levels ranging from 1 to 100 μg/mL were studied. Multi-drug resistance was also analyzed using drug sensitivity tests. The results indicated that bacteria derived from water treatment plant effluent that used the Huangpu River rather than the Yangtze River as source water exhibited higher antibiotic resistance rates against AMP, STR, RFP and CM but lower antibiotic resistance rates against KAN. When the antibiotic concentration levels ranged from 1 to 10 μg/mL, the antibiotic resistance rates of the bacteria in the water increased as water treatment progressed. Biological activated carbon (BAC) filtration played a key role in increasing the antibiotic resistance rate of bacteria. Chloramine disinfection can enhance antibiotic resistance. Among the isolated ARB, 75% were resistant to multiple antibiotics. Ozone oxidation, BAC filtration and chloramine disinfection can greatly affect the relative abundance of bacteria in the community.

  4. Estimating the susceptibility of surface water in Texas to nonpoint-source contamination by use of logistic regression modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglin, William A.; Ulery, Randy L.; Winterstein, Thomas; Welborn, Toby

    2003-01-01

    In the State of Texas, surface water (streams, canals, and reservoirs) and ground water are used as sources of public water supply. Surface-water sources of public water supply are susceptible to contamination from point and nonpoint sources. To help protect sources of drinking water and to aid water managers in designing protective yet cost-effective and risk-mitigated monitoring strategies, the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality and the U.S. Geological Survey developed procedures to assess the susceptibility of public water-supply source waters in Texas to the occurrence of 227 contaminants. One component of the assessments is the determination of susceptibility of surface-water sources to nonpoint-source contamination. To accomplish this, water-quality data at 323 monitoring sites were matched with geographic information system-derived watershed- characteristic data for the watersheds upstream from the sites. Logistic regression models then were developed to estimate the probability that a particular contaminant will exceed a threshold concentration specified by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. Logistic regression models were developed for 63 of the 227 contaminants. Of the remaining contaminants, 106 were not modeled because monitoring data were available at less than 10 percent of the monitoring sites; 29 were not modeled because there were less than 15 percent detections of the contaminant in the monitoring data; 27 were not modeled because of the lack of any monitoring data; and 2 were not modeled because threshold values were not specified.

  5. Screening of sustainable groundwater sources for integration into a regional drought-prone water supply system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)<