WorldWideScience

Sample records for water source heat pumps

  1. Performance analysis of air——water dual source heat pump water heater with heat recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN ZeShao; TAO WenQuan; ZHU YanWen; HU Peng

    2012-01-01

    A new air-water dual source heat pump water heater with heat recovery is proposed.The heat pump system can heat water by using a single air source,a single water source,or air-water dual sources.The water is first pre-heated by waste hot water,then heated by the heat pump.Waste heat is recovered by first preheating the cold water and as water source of the heat pump.According to the correlated formulas of the coefficient of performance of air-source heat pump and water-source heat pump,and the gain coefficient of heat recovery-preheater,the formulas for the coefficient of performance of heat pump in six operating modes are obtained by using the dimensionless correspondence analysis method.The system characteristics of heat absorption and release associated with the heat recovery-preheater are analyzed at different working conditions.The developed approaches can provide reference for the optimization of the operating modes and parameters.The results of analysis and experiments show that the coefficient of performance of the device can reach 4-5.5 in winter,twice as much as air source heat pump water heater.The utilization of waste heat in the proposed system is higher than that in the system which only uses waste water to preheating or as heat source.Thus,the effect of energy saving of the new system is obvious.On the other hand,the dimensionless correspondence analysis method is introduced to performance analysis of the heat pump,which also has theoretical significance and practical value.

  2. Performance analysis on solar-water compound source heat pump for radiant floor heating system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲世林; 马飞; 仇安兵

    2009-01-01

    A solar-water compound source heat pump for radiant floor heating (SWHP-RFH) experimental system was introduced and analyzed. The SWHP-RFH system mainly consists of 11.44 m2 vacuum tube solar collector,1 000 L water tank assisted 3 kW electrical heater,a water source heat pump,the radiant floor heating system with cross-linked polyethylene (PE-X) of diameter 20 mm,temperature controller and solar testing system. The SWHP-RFH system was tested from December to February during the heating season in Beijing,China under different operation situations. The test parameters include the outdoor air temperature,solar radiation intensity,indoor air temperature,radiation floor average surface temperature,average surface temperature of the building envelope,the inlet and outlet temperatures of solar collector,the temperature of water tank,the heat medium temperatures of heat pump condenser side and evaporator side,and the power consumption includes the water source heat pump system,the solar source heat pump system,the auxiliary heater and the radiant floor heating systems etc. The experimental results were used to calculate the collector efficiency,heat pump dynamic coefficient of performance (COP),total energy consumption and seasonal heating performance during the heating season. The results indicate that the performance of the compound source heat pump system is better than that of the air source heat pump system. Furthermore,some methods are suggested to improve the thermal performance of each component and the whole SWHP-RFH system.

  3. Experimental investigation on water quality standard of Yangtze River water source heat pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zenghu; Tong, Mingwei; Kun, Lin

    2012-01-01

    Due to the surface water in the upper reaches of Yangtze River in China containing large amounts of silt and algae, high content of microorganisms and suspended solids, the water in Yangtze River cannot be used for cooling a heat pump directly. In this paper, the possibility of using Yangtze River, which goes through Chongqing, a city in southwest China, as a heat source-sink was investigated. Water temperature and quality of the Yangtze River in the Chongqing area were analyzed and the performance of water source heat pump units in different sediment concentrations, turbidity and algae material conditions were tested experimentally, and the water quality standards, in particular surface water conditions, in the Yangtze River region that adapt to energy-efficient heat pumps were also proposed. The experimental results show that the coefficient of performance heat pump falls by 3.73% to the greatest extent, and the fouling resistance of cooling water in the heat exchanger increases up to 25.6% in different water conditions. When the sediment concentration and the turbidity in the river water are no more than 100 g/m3 and 50 NTU respectively, the performance of the heat pump is better, which can be used as a suitable river water quality standard for river water source heat pumps.

  4. Heat pump using dual heat sources of air and water. Performance in cooling mode; Mizu kuki ryonetsugen heat pump no kenkyu. Reibo unten ni okeru seino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, S.; Miura, N. [Kanagawa Institute of Technology, Kanagawa (Japan); Uchikawa, Y. [Kubota Corp., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    When a heat pump is used for cooling purpose, it is possible to utilize different kinds of waste water as high-heat sources. However, these heat sources would have their temperatures vary with seasons and time in a day. Therefore, a discussion was given on performance of a heat pump when water and air heat sources are used for condensers during cooling operation independently, in series and in parallel, respectively. The air condenser shows an equivalent COP as compared with the water condenser when air temperature is lower by about 8 degC than water temperature. At the same heat source temperature, the COP for the water condenser indicated a value higher by about 0.6 than the case of the air condenser. A method to use condensers in parallel experiences little contribution from the air heat source, and performance of the heat pump decreases below the case of using the water heat source independently when the air heat source temperature becomes higher than that of the water heat source. In the case of series use in which a water condenser is installed in front and an air condenser in rear, its effect is exhibited when temperature in the air heat source is lower than that in the water heat source. Better performance was shown than in operating the water heat source independently. 2 refs., 9 figs.

  5. Development of an Air-Source Heat Pump Integrated with a Water Heating / Dehumidification Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, C Keith [ORNL; Uselton, Robert B. [Lennox Industries, Inc; Shen, Bo [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL; Shrestha, Som S [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    A residential-sized dual air-source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) concept is under development in partnership between ORNL and a manufacturer. The concept design consists of a two-stage air-source heat pump (ASHP) coupled on the air distribution side with a separate novel water heating/dehumidification (WH/DH) module. The motivation for this unusual equipment combination is the forecast trend for home sensible loads to be reduced more than latent loads. Integration of water heating with a space dehumidification cycle addresses humidity control while performing double-duty. This approach can be applied to retrofit/upgrade applications as well as new construction. A WH/DH module capable of ~1.47 L/h water removal and ~2 kW water heating capacity was assembled by the manufacturer. A heat pump system model was used to guide the controls design; lab testing was conducted and used to calibrate the models. Performance maps were generated and used in a TRNSYS sub-hourly simulation to predict annual performance in a well-insulated house. Annual HVAC/WH energy savings of ~35% are predicted in cold and hot-humid U.S. climates compared to a minimum efficiency baseline.

  6. Investigation of the Performance of a Heat Pump Using Waste Water as a Heat Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kahraman

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In this research, a water-water heat pump system using waste water as a heat source, a type that is not often used in Turkey and the World, was experimentally modeled. The experiments were performed under the conditions of simulated waste water temperature values of 20 °C, 30 °C and 40 °C. Inlet and outlet water temperatures of the evaporator and condenser, water flow rates in the evaporator and condenser circuits, pressures at the compressor inlet and outlet and power consumption of the system were measured. The heating coefficients of performance were calculated based on the measurements. It was found that the maximum temperature in the energy storage tank was about 50.6 °C. For the heat source temperatures of 20 °C, 30 °C and 40 °C, the heating coefficients of the performance of the system became 3.36, 3.43 and 3.69, respectively, 6 min. after the start time of the experiments and then they were decreased to 1.87, 1.83 and 1.77 with increasing water temperature in the condenser tank. The mean uncertainty value of the measurement parameters was found to be about ±2.47%. Finally, for the purpose of meeting hot water need as well as floor heating system requirements, it is seen that energy quality level of a waste low grade temperature heat source can be increased by using a heat pump system.

  7. Domestic Hot Water Production with Ground Source Heat Pump in Apartment Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka Yrjölä

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Producing domestic hot water (DHW with a ground source heat pump (GSHP is challenging due to the high temperature (HT of DHW. There are many studies proving the better performance of cascade heat pumps compared to single-stage heat pumps when the difference between the condensing and the evaporation temperature is large. In this system approach study, different GSHP arrangements are described and computationally compared. A two-stage heat pump arrangement is introduced in which water tanks of the heating system are utilized for warming up the DHW in two stages. It is shown that the electricity consumption with this two-stage system is approximately 31% less than with the single-stage heat pump and 12% less than with the cascade system. Further, both low temperature (LT and HT heat pumps can run alone, which is not common in cascade or other two-stage heat pumps. This is advantageous because the high loads of the space heating and DHW production are not simultaneous. Proper insulation of the DHW and recirculation pipe network is essential, and drying towel rails or other heating coils should be avoided when aiming for a high efficiency. The refrigerants in the calculations are R407C for the LT heat pump and R134a for the HT heat pump. Investment costs are excluded from calculations.

  8. Water source heat pumps for greenhouse soil cooling. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spieser, H.

    1987-06-01

    In an attempt to diversify and grow flowers which are in high demand, growers are looking to produce certain exotic flowers which require unique growing conditions. One example is the Alstroemerias also knwon as the Peruvian Lily. If the plants are grown continuously at about 12-15/sup 0/C soil temperature, the plant will continue to flower regardless of air temperature and photoriod. These latter two factors are considered secondary to the importance of cool soil temperatures. Alstroemeria production is still relatively new to the greenhouse industry. Some controversy still exists as to the direct benefits of planned soil cooling. This project was set up to evaluate a mechanical soil cooling system for continuous year round Alstroemeria production. A heat pump soil cooling system was installed in two greenhouses each with dimensions of 16 m by 61 m. Combined these greenhouses have a growing area of 1952 m/sup 2/. These greenhouses are older wooden greenhouses, covered by double poly, air-inflated glazing. This system worked very well, maintaining the soil temperature at the proper levels throughout the spring and summer months. During the rest of the year the soil cooling system is used less intensely. During winter months when soil cooling is not required, the heat pumps provide base load heating to the greenhouse through fan forced unit heaters.

  9. Evaluation of water source heat pumps for the Juneau, Alaska Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsen, J.J.; King, J.C.; Eisenhauer, J.L.; Gibson, C.I.

    1980-07-01

    The purposes of this project were to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of water source heat pumps (WSHP) for use in Juneau, Alaska and to identify potential demonstration projects to verify their feasibility. Information is included on the design, cost, and availability of heat pumps, possible use of seawater as a heat source, heating costs with WSHP and conventional space heating systems, and life cycle costs for WSHP-based heating systems. The results showed that WSHP's are technically viable in the Juneau area, proper installation and maintenance is imperative to prevent equipment failures, use of WSHP would save fuel oil but increase electric power consumption. Life cycle costs for WSHP's are about 8% above that for electric resistance heating systems, and a field demonstration program to verify these results should be conducted. (LCL)

  10. Unitary water-to-air heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, J.E.

    1977-10-01

    Performance and cost functions for nine unitary water-to-air heat pumps ranging in nominal size from /sup 1///sub 2/ to 26 tons are presented in mathematical form for easy use in heat pump computer simulations. COPs at nominal water source temperature of 60/sup 0/F range from 2.5 to 3.4 during the heating cycle; during the cooling cycle EERs range from 8.33 to 9.09 with 85/sup 0/F entering water source temperatures. The COP and EER values do not include water source pumping power or any energy requirements associated with a central heat source and heat rejection equipment.

  11. Performance of water source heat pump system using high-density polyethylene tube heat exchanger wound with square copper wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wen Zhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Surface water source heat pump system is an energy-efficient heat pump system. Surface water heat exchanger is an important part of heat pump system that can affect the performance of the system. In order to enhance the performance of the system, the overall heat transfer coefficient (U value of the water exchanger using a 32A square copper coiled high-density polyethylene tube was researched. Comparative experiments were conducted between the performance of the coiled high-density polyethylene tube and the 32A smooth high-density polyethylene tube. At the same time, the coefficient of performance of the heat pump was investigated. According to the result, the U value of the coiled tube was 18% higher than that of the smooth tube in natural convection and 19% higher in forced convection. The coefficient of performance of the heat pump with the coiled tube is higher than that with the smooth tube. The economic evaluation of the coiled tube was also investigated.

  12. Optimization and thermoeconomics research of a large reclaimed water source heat pump system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zi-ping; Du, Fang-hui

    2013-01-01

    This work describes a large reclaimed water source heat pump system (RWSHPS) and elaborates on the composition of the system and its design principles. According to the characteristics of the reclaimed water and taking into account the initial investment, the project is divided into two stages: the first stage adopts distributed heat pump heating system and the second adopts the combination of centralized and decentralized systems. We analyze the heating capacity of the RWSHPS, when the phase II project is completed, the system can provide hydronic heating water with the supply and return water temperature of 55°C/15°C and meet the hydronic heating demand of 8 million square meters of residential buildings. We make a thermal economics analysis by using Thermal Economics theory on RWSHPS and gas boiler system, it is known that the RWSHPS has more advantages, compared with the gas boiler heating system; both its thermal efficiency and economic efficiency are relatively high. It provides a reference for future applications of the RWSHPS.

  13. Research on a Household Dual Heat Source Heat Pump Water Heater with Preheater Based on ASPEN PLUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Gou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a dual heat source heat pump bathroom unit with preheater which is feasible for a single family. The system effectively integrates the air source heat pump (ASHP and wastewater source heat pump (WSHP technologies, and incorporates a preheater to recover shower wastewater heat and thus improve the total coefficient of performance (COP of the system, and it has no electric auxiliary heating device, which is favorable to improve the security of the system operation. The process simulation software ASPEN PLUS, widely used in the design and optimization of thermodynamic systems, was used to simulate various cases of system use and to analyze the impact of the preheater on the system. The average COP value of a system with preheater is 6.588 and without preheater it is 4.677. Based on the optimization and analysis, under the standard conditions of air at 25 °C, relative humidity of 70%, wastewater at 35 °C, wastewater flow rate of 0.07 kg/s, tap water at 15 °C, and condenser outlet water temperature at 50 °C, the theoretical COP of the system can reach 9.784 at an evaporating temperature of 14.96 °C, condensing temperature of 48.74 °C, and preheated water temperature of 27.19 °C.

  14. Quantifying Systemic Efficiency using Exergy and Energy Analysis for Ground Source Heat Pumps: Domestic Space Conditioning and Water Heating Applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    Although air temperatures over land surfaces show wide seasonal and daily variations, the ground, approximately 10 meters below the earth s surface, remains relatively stable in temperature thereby serving as an energy source or sink. Ground source heat pumps can heat, cool, and supply homes with hot water efficiently by utilizing the earth s renewable and essentially inexhaustible energy resources, saving fossil fuels, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and lowering the environmental footprint. In this paper, evidence is shown that ground source heat pumps can provide up to 79%-87% of domestic hot water energy needs, and up to 77% of space heating needs with the ground s thermal energy resources. The case refers to a 12-month study conducted at a 253 m2 research house located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, 36.01 N 84.26 W in a mixed-humid climate with HDD of 2218 C-days and CDD of 723 C-days under simulated occupancy conditions. A single 94.5m vertical bore interfaced the heat pump with the ground. The research shows that this technology is capable of achieving US DOE targets of 25 % and 35% energy savings in HVAC, and in water heating, respectively by 2030. It is also a viable technology to meet greenhouse gas target emissions under the IECC 2012 Standard, as well as the European Union (EU) 2020 targets of using renewable energy resources. The paper quantifies systemic efficiencies using Exergy analysis of the major components, clearly pointing areas for further improvement.

  15. Design of serially connected ammonia-water hybrid absorption-compression heat pumps for district heating with the utilisation of a geothermal heat source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Wiebke Brix;

    2016-01-01

    District heating (DH) can reduce the primary energy consumption in urban areas with significant heat demands. The design of a serially connected ammonia-water hybrid absorption-compression heat pump system was investigated for operation in the Greater Copenhagen DH network in Denmark, in order...... to supply 7.2 MW heat at 85 °C utilizing a geothermal heat source at 73 °C. Both the heat source and heat sink experience a large temperature change over the heat transfer process, of which a significant part may be achieved by direct heat exchange. First a generic study with a simple representation...

  16. Investment and Economy Analysis of Water-Source Heat Pump System in Chongqing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Ding

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In China, the application of renewable energy witnesses rapid development. In the near future, a lot of demonstration projects will be built and thus it is urgent to know the economics of renewable energy building application technologies. Based on the renewable energy demonstration projects in Chongqing city, the author discussed the economy issue of water-source heat pump system (WSHPs in order to provide suggestions for the application projects. According to the design information of demonstration projects, the average incremental investment, allowance, and payback period are calculated in this paper. Comparing WSHPs with traditional heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC system, the saved energy of WSHPs is estimated in the current paper. The author calculated the amount of saved energy in unit applied area and unit intake water. Besides, the economy and efficiency of WSHPs project is analyzed at the end of this paper.

  17. Heat pump using dual heat sources of air and water. Performance with heat sources arranged in parallel; Mizu kuki ryonetsugen heat pump no kenkyu. Netsugen heiretsu unten ni okeru seino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, S.; Miura, N.; Sato, S. [Kanagawa Institute of Technology, Kanagawa (Japan); Uchikawa, Y.; Hamada, K. [Kubota Corp., Osaka (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    A heat pump system using water and air as heat sources was built and evaluated for its performance. In this system, evaporators may be operated singly or as connected in parallel or series, and, for each case, the quantity of heat acquired may be measured and system performance may be quantitatively evaluated. The findings follow. When the two heat sources are equal in temperature in the single-evaporator operation, the evaporation temperature is about 7{degree}C higher on the water side than on the air side, and the performance coefficient is about 0.7 higher. When the air heat source temperature is 25{degree}C in the parallel operation, like quantities of heat are obtained from both heat sources, and collection of heat from the water increases with a decrease in the air heat source temperature but, with an increase, collection from the air increases. When the air heat source temperature decreases, the evaporation temperature decreases in the single-evaporator working on the air and in the parallel operation but it levels off in the single-evaporator working on the water alone. When the water heat source temperature decreases, evaporation temperature drop is sharper in the single-evaporator working on the water than in the parallel operation, which suggests the transfer from the parallel operation to the single-evaporator working on the air. In the single-evaporator operation on the water heat source, the evaporation temperature linearly decreases with an increase in superheating. 1 ref., 10 figs.

  18. Energy Efficiency Modelling of Residential Air Source Heat Pump Water Heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Toan Tran

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The heat pump water heater is one of the most energy efficient technologies for heating water for household use. The present work proposes a simplified model of coefficient of performance and examines its predictive capability. The model is based on polynomial functions where the variables are temperatures and the coefficients are derived from the Australian standard test data, using regression technics. The model enables to estimate the coefficient of performance of the same heat pump water heater under other test standards (i.e. US, Japanese, European and Korean standards. The resulting estimations over a heat-up phase and a full test cycle including a draw off pattern are in close agreement with the measured data. Thus the model allows manufacturers to avoid the need to carry out physical tests for some standards and to reduce product cost. The limitations of the methodology proposed are also discussed.

  19. Some comments on air source heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haukaas, H.T. (Norges tekniska hoegskola, Trondheim (Norway)). Institutt for kuldeteknikk

    1982-02-01

    Some vital conditions regarding air/water heat pumps are analyzed by use of computer simulators of a middle sized heat pump system. Heat pumps, and specially air source units, should always be used in combination with conventional heating equipment for peak load supply. (Bivalent systems). The economic optimum heat pump capacity compared to system design load is strongly related to the climate. At typical coastal conditions a ratio of 60-70 per cent is found favourable, while 40-50 per cent will be the correct choice for Norwegian inland area. Analysis of the evaporator shows that it should be designed for 120-130 W/m/sup 2/ specific load and 2-2.2 m/s inlet air velocity, which is well below common practice in designing standard air coolers. The condenser LMTD (logaritmic mean temperature difference) should be chosen about 4 degrees C, while the corresponding 'sellers optimum' is calculated to app. 8.5 degrees C. The difference in total heating costs between systems fully designed according to 'sellers optimum' and 'buyers optimum' respectively is found to be about 0.01 Nkr/kWh.

  20. A novel design method for ground source heat pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Xing-Jie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel design method for ground source heat pump. The ground source heat pump operation is controllable by using several parameters, such as the total meters of buried pipe, the space between wells, the thermal properties of soil, thermal resistance of the well, the initial temperature of soil, and annual dynamic load. By studying the effect of well number and well space, we conclude that with the increase of the well number, the inlet and outlet water temperatures decrease in summer and increase in winter, which enhance the efficiency of ground source heat pump. The well space slightly affects the water temperatures, but it affects the soil temperature to some extent. Also the ground source heat pump operations matching with cooling tower are investigated to achieve the thermal balance. This method greatly facilitates ground source heat pump design.

  1. Ground Source Heat Pump in Heating System with Electronics Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEAMŢU Ovidiu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring system is implemented for a ground coupled heat pump in heating/ system. The borehole heat exchangers – which are 150 m long - are filled with a mixture of water and ethilene glycol calledbrine. Metering and monitoring energy consumption is achieved for: heat pump, circulation pumps, additional electrical heating, hot air ventilation systems, control systems with sensors: analog and smart sensors. Instantaneous values are stored in a local computer.

  2. Ground-water temperature of the Wyoming quadrangle in central Delaware : with application to ground-water-source heat pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Arthur L.

    1982-01-01

    Ground-water temperature was measured during a one-year period (1980-81) in 20 wells in the Wyoming Quadrangle in central Delaware. Data from thermistors set at fixed depths in two wells were collected twice each week, and vertical temperature profiles of the remaining 18 wells were made monthly. Ground-water temperature at 8 feet below land surface in well Jc55-1 ranged from 45.0 degrees F in February to 70.1 degrees F in September. Temperature at 35 feet below land surface in the same well reached a minimum of 56.0 degrees F in August, and a maximum of 57.8 degrees F in February. Average annual temperature of ground water at 25 feet below land surface in all wells ranged from 54.6 degrees F to 57.8 degrees F. Variations of average temperature probably reflect the presence or absence of forestation in the recharge areas of the wells. Ground-water-source heat pumps supplied with water from wells 30 or more feet below land surface will operate more efficiently in both heating and cooling modes than those supplied with water from shallower depths. (USGS)

  3. 太阳能-空气复合热源热泵热水系统%Solar-air composite heat source heat pump hot water system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王岗; 全贞花; 赵耀华; 侯隆澍; 徐俊芳; 邓月超

    2014-01-01

    In the light of low efficiency of photovoltaic power generation and the problems of air source heat pump applied in cold regions, a composite heat exchanger evaporator is developed and a new type of solar-air composite heat source heat pump hot water system is designed in this study, which is comprised of independent solar photovoltaic-thermal collector based on flat plate micro heat pipe and air source heat pump. The performance of heat pump hot water system is evaluated experimentally under different operating conditions, including water temperature of the tank, heating time of hot water, suction and discharge pressure, consumption of compressor power and heat pump coefficient of performance (COP), etc. Experimental results show that at ambient temperature of 5℃, 10℃ and 15℃, with 73 L hot water heated by heat pump and water temperature in the tank ranged from 15℃ to 50℃, the running time of composite heat source operation is shorter than that of separate air heat source operation, decreased by 5.14%, 10.29% and 11.38%, respectively. COPs are increased by 5.99%, 9.28%and 11.96%, respectively.%针对光伏发电效率较低和空气源热泵在寒冷地区应用中存在的问题,研发了一种新型复合蒸发器,将平板微热管阵列太阳能光伏光热(PV/T)集热器与空气源热泵相结合,组成新型太阳能-空气复合热源热泵热水系统。并对该热水系统在不同运行工况下的水箱水温、吸排气压力、压缩机功率和性能等进行了实验研究。实验结果表明,在环境温度分别为5、10和15℃的条件下,热泵加热73 L水,水温从15℃加热到50℃时,双热源运行工况的加热时间比单空气热源运行工况依次缩短了5.14%、10.29%和11.38%,COP依次提高了5.99%、9.28%和11.96%。

  4. Field Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in the Northeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, Carl [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States); Puttagunta, Srikanth [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are finally entering the mainstream residential water heater market. Potential catalysts are increased consumer demand for higher energy efficiency electric water heating and a new Federal water heating standard that effectively mandates use of HPWHs for electric storage water heaters with nominal capacities greater than 55 gallons. When compared to electric resistance water heating, the energy and cost savings potential of HPWHs is tremendous. Converting all electric resistance water heaters to HPWHs could save American consumers 7.8 billion dollars annually ($182 per household) in water heating operating costs and cut annual residential source energy consumption for water heating by 0.70 quads.

  5. Ground as a possible heat pump source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzarin, R. [Padova Univ. (Germany). Dipt. di Tecnica e Gestione die Istemi Industriali

    2001-06-01

    Heat pumps are devices that can increase the thermal level of heat taken from an available source. Their performances are usually very sensible to the temperatures. This is the reason why sources different from the outside air are welcome, since that source is thermally unfavourable. The ground is a possible very favourable source: temperature variations are damped in the ground so much the more deeper one descends. The variations are also delayed, so that in the coldest period one can find equality very good thermal levels. The two main used systems are: horizontal tubes at a depth between 0.8 and 1.5m and vertical tubes. This last technology has gained an increasing popularity with depths which are sometimes deeper than 100m. It interests a large volume of ground with a comparatively small surface area. It is a technology already widespread in Switzerland (where more than 15.000 ground heat pumps were installed in these years), Germany and Austria. It could be a very favourable technology also in Italy and other mediterranean countries both for the presence of good thermal levels underground with excellent characteristics of heat exchange and for the possible use of the ground as a suitable summer thermal sink. (orig.)

  6. Reflection of ground-source heat pump systems' application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGSuyun; LINZhenguo; WUXiangsheng; WUTian

    2003-01-01

    Ground-source heat pump system is an air-conditioning form of energy efficient and environment protection. This article introduced the forms of ground-source heat pump systems, analyzed the problems of ground-source heat pump systems in application in China, and put forward the solutions to these problems.

  7. Energy Savings Potential for Pumping Water in District Heating Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Sarbu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In district heating stations, the heat carrier is circulated between the energy source and consumers by a pumping system. Fluid handling systems, such as pumping systems, are responsible for a significant portion of the total electrical energy use. Significant opportunities exist to reduce pumping energy through smart design, retrofitting, and operating practices. Most existing systems requiring flow control make use of bypass lines, throttling valves or pump speed adjustments. The most efficient of these options is pump speed control. One of the issues in using variable-speed pumping systems, however, is the total efficiency of the electric motor/pump arrangement under a given operating condition. This paper provides a comprehensive discussion about pump control in heating stations and analyzes the energy efficiency of flow control methods. Specific attention is also given to the selection of motor types, sizing and pump duty cycle. A comparative energy analysis is performed on the hot water discharge adjustment using throttling control valves and variable-speed drives in a district heating station constructed in Romania. To correlate the pumped flow rate with the heat demand and to ensure the necessary pressure using minimum energy, an automatic system has been designed. The performances of these control methods are evaluated in two practical applications. The results show that approximately 20%–50% of total pumping energy could be saved by using the optimal control method with variable-speed pumps. Additionally, some modernization solutions to reduce the environmental impact of heating stations are described.

  8. Air-to-water heat pumps for the home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodzin, S. [ed.

    1997-07-01

    Heat pump water heaters may be on the rise again. Retrofitters have shied away from this form of water heating due to concerns about cost, moise, efficiency, and maintaenance. Recent advances have overcome some of these problems and are helping the technology find a niche in both hot and cold climates. The topics covered in this article include the following: how heat pump water heaters work; air source from where to where, including air conditioning, heat recovery ventilation, hybrid systems; nuisances; maintenance; costs; to install or not to install; performance: a trick to quantify. 2 figs.

  9. Study on the Adaptability of Lake Water-source Heat Pump in the Heating Engineering%湖水源热泵冬季供暖适应性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁昌祝; 陈静; 邓博

    2014-01-01

    The adaptability of lake water source heat pump in winter for heating is analyzed from aspects of lake water temperature, energy efficiency of heat pump units, environmental impact of cooling water drainage and energy saving of heat pump systems. The research shows that lake water source heat pump has good energy-saving effect when used for heating, with measured energy efficiency of heat pump units reaching 4.34 ~ 4.81. The relative energy-saving rate of water source heat pump system reaches 5%, 68% and 29.8% compared with air source heat pump, electric boiler and gas boiler respectively.%从湖体水温、热泵机组能效、冷排水对水环境的影响及热泵系统节能性四个方面分析了湖水源热泵在冬季供暖的适应性。研究表明,湖水源热泵供暖技术具有良好的节能效益,实测热泵机组能效达到4.34~4.81,相对传统的风冷热泵、电锅炉、燃气锅炉系统而言,水源热泵系统的节能率分别达到5%、68%和29.8%。

  10. Control strategy research of variable flow at heat source side for water source heat pump%水源热泵系统热源侧变流量控制策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋小强; 龙惟定; 李敏

    2012-01-01

    分析水源热泵系统供热运行的技术经济性.建立适用于TRNSYS软件模拟的水源热泵系统模型,针对不同水源温度通过改变热源侧水流量方式优化运行.比较水源热泵系统、燃气和燃油3种供热方式的运行经济性,结果表明,不同水源温度下的最佳供热方式不同.%Technical economy analysis of water source heat pump system is done in heating operation. The model of water source heat pump is established at TRNSYS platform, the optimal operation under different temperature of source water are carried by changing the water flow of heat source side. The running economy of heating by wate soure heat pump system, the combustion gas or oil is compared, the best heating mode is obtained at different water source temperature.

  11. Optimal Ground Source Heat Pump System Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozbek, Metin [ENVIRON; Yavuzturk, Cy [University of Hartford; Pinder, George [University of Vermont

    2015-04-15

    Despite the facts that GSHPs first gained popularity as early as the 1940’s and they can achieve 30 to 60 percent in energy savings and carbon emission reductions relative to conventional HVAC systems, the use of geothermal energy in the U.S. has been less than 1 percent of the total energy consumption. The key barriers preventing this technically-mature technology from reaching its full commercial potential have been its high installation cost and limited consumer knowledge and trust in GSHP systems to deliver the technology in a cost-effective manner in the market place. Led by ENVIRON, with support from University Hartford and University of Vermont, the team developed and tested a software-based a decision making tool (‘OptGSHP’) for the least-cost design of ground-source heat pump (‘GSHP’) systems. OptGSHP combines state of the art optimization algorithms with GSHP-specific HVAC and groundwater flow and heat transport simulation. The particular strength of OptGSHP is in integrating heat transport due to groundwater flow into the design, which most of the GSHP designs do not get credit for and therefore are overdesigned.

  12. Optimal Ground Source Heat Pump System Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozbek, Metin [Environ Holdings Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States); Yavuzturk, Cy [Univ. of Hartford, West Hartford, CT (United States); Pinder, George [Univ. of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Despite the facts that GSHPs first gained popularity as early as the 1940’s and they can achieve 30 to 60 percent in energy savings and carbon emission reductions relative to conventional HVAC systems, the use of geothermal energy in the U.S. has been less than 1 percent of the total energy consumption. The key barriers preventing this technically-mature technology from reaching its full commercial potential have been its high installation cost and limited consumer knowledge and trust in GSHP systems to deliver the technology in a cost-effective manner in the market place. Led by ENVIRON, with support from University Hartford and University of Vermont, the team developed and tested a software-based a decision making tool (‘OptGSHP’) for the least-cost design of ground-source heat pump (‘GSHP’) systems. OptGSHP combines state of the art optimization algorithms with GSHP-specific HVAC and groundwater flow and heat transport simulation. The particular strength of OptGSHP is in integrating heat transport due to groundwater flow into the design, which most of the GSHP designs do not get credit for and therefore are overdesigned.

  13. Design of serially connected district heating heat pumps utilising a geothermal heat source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Wiebke Brix

    2017-01-01

    The design of two heat pumps (HP), connected in series, was investigated for operation in the district heating (DH) network of the Greater Copenhagen area, Denmark. The installation was dimensioned to supply 7.2 MW of heat at a temperature of 85 °C. The heat pumps utilise a geothermal heat source...

  14. Research on ground heat exchanger of Ground Source Heat Pump technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Dong-sheng; SUN You-hong; GAO Ke; WU Xiao-hang

    2004-01-01

    Ground Source Heat Pump technique and its operating principle are described in this paper. Ground heat exchanger is the key technique of ground source heat pump and its pattems are discussed. Software is helpful to design ground heat exchanger. A project of Chinese Ground Source Heat Pump is introduced and its market is more and more extensive.

  15. Field Monitoring Protocol: Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, B.; Earle, L.; Christensen, D.; Maguire, J.; Wilson, E.; Hancock, E.

    2013-02-01

    This document provides a standard field monitoring protocol for evaluating the installed performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in residential buildings. The report is organized to be consistent with the chronology of field test planning and execution. Research questions are identified first, followed by a discussion of analysis methods, and then the details of measuring the required information are laid out. A field validation of the protocol at a house near the NREL campus is included for reference.

  16. Field Monitoring Protocol. Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Earle, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maguire, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wilson, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hancock, C. E. [Mountain Energy Partnership, Longmont, CO (United States)

    2013-02-01

    This document provides a standard field monitoring protocol for evaluating the installed performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in residential buildings. The report is organized to be consistent with the chronology of field test planning and execution. Research questions are identified first, followed by a discussion of analysis methods, and then the details of measuring the required information are laid out. A field validation of the protocol at a house near the NREL campus is included for reference.

  17. 水源热泵技术在铀矿山应用的探讨%Discussion on application of water source heat pump technology to uranium mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安强

    2011-01-01

    Application of water source heat pump units in recovering waste heat from uranium mines is discussed, and several forms of waste heat recovery are introduced. The problems in the application of water source heat pump technology are analyzed. Analysis results show that the water source heat pump technology has broad application prospects in uranium mines, and it is a way to exchange existing structure of heat and cold sources in uranium mines.%探讨水源热泵机组在回收铀矿山废热中的应用,介绍其回收废热的几种形式,同时分析其在铀矿山应用存在的问题.研究分析表明,水源热泵在铀矿山具有广阔的应用前景,是改变矿山现有冷热源结构的一条理想出路.

  18. Heating performance of a ground source heat pump system installed in a school building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jaedo; SONG; Kwangho; LEE; Youngman; JEONG; Seongir; CHEONG; Jaekeun; LEE; Yujin; HWANG; Yeongho; LEE; Donghyuk; LEE

    2010-01-01

    The heating performance of a water-to-refrigerant type ground source heat pump system is represented in this paper under the actual working conditions of the GSHP(ground source heat pump) system during the winter season of 2008.Ten heat pump equipments with the capacity of 10 HP each and a closed vertical typed-ground heat exchanger with 24 boreholes of 175 m in depth were constructed.We investigated a variety of working conditions,including the outdoor temperature,the ground temperature,and the water temperature of inlet and outlet of the ground heat exchanger in order to examine the heating performance of the GSHP system.Subsequently,the heating capacity and the input power were investigated to determine the heating performance of the GSHP system.The average heating coefficient of performance(COP) of the heat pump was noted to be 5.1 at partial load of 47%,while the overall system COP was found to be 4.2.Also,performance of the GSHP system was compared with that of air source heat pump.

  19. Heat pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Brodowicz, Kazimierz; Wyszynski, M L; Wyszynski

    2013-01-01

    Heat pumps and related technology are in widespread use in industrial processes and installations. This book presents a unified, comprehensive and systematic treatment of the design and operation of both compression and sorption heat pumps. Heat pump thermodynamics, the choice of working fluid and the characteristics of low temperature heat sources and their application to heat pumps are covered in detail.Economic aspects are discussed and the extensive use of the exergy concept in evaluating performance of heat pumps is a unique feature of the book. The thermodynamic and chemical properties o

  20. Ground-source Heat Pump Barometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-09-15

    The double whammy dealt by the economic crisis and housing slump has stifled expansion of the ground-source heat pump market in many European countries. The European Union market contracted for the second year running (by 2.9% between 2009 and 2010), and this despite the fact that more than 100,000 units were sold over the twelve-month period, taking the number of installed units past the one million mark. [French] La crise economique ainsi que la crise immobiliere qui touchent de nombreux pays europeens ne facilitent pas l'essor du marche de la pompe a chaleur geothermique. Pour la deuxieme annee consecutive, le marche de l'union europeenne est en baisse (-2,9 % entre 2009 et 2010). il parvient tout de meme a se maintenir au-dessus des 100 000 unites vendues par an, ce qui lui permet de depasser pour la premiere fois le cap du million d'unites installees.

  1. Recovery Act: Tennessee Energy Efficient Schools Initiative Ground Source Heat Pump Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Townsend, Terry [Townsend Engineering, Inc., Davenport, IA (United States); Slusher, Scott [Townsend Engineering, Inc., Davenport, IA (United States)

    2017-04-24

    The Tennessee Energy Efficient Schools Initiative (EESI) Hybrid-Water Source Heat Pump (HY-GSHP) Program sought to provide installation costs and operation costs for different Hybrid water source heat pump systems’ configurations so that other State of Tennessee School Districts will have a resource for comparison purposes if considering a geothermal system.

  2. Biocorrosion of evaporators of water/water heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denier, P.; Sutter, E.M.M.; Cornet, A. (Ecole Nationale Superieure des Arts et Industries, 67 - Strasbourg (FR))

    1990-12-01

    During the last twenty years, many heat pumps were installed in Alsace (France) using groundwater. It appeared that water contained bacteria able to induce metallic corrosion. Thus, it was necessary to have a better knowledge of the situation. A statistical study on water analysis was realised. There is no noticeable relation between bacterial contamination and water chemistry or geographical location. Most of corrosion origines were - a bad water network conception (erosion, cavitation, oxygen differential cells...) - a bad use of metal coupling (galvanic corrosion). The presence of bacteria generally increases the phenomena described above. Solutions proposed are: PVC casing, stainless steel water pumps, heat pump evaporators in noble alloys or metals, PVC or resines lagging. For the actual set of heat pumps, there are less solutions but in some cases an intermediary exchanger would be a good and easy solution.

  3. Heat pump contracting: a source of heat that takes care of the climate; Klimaschonende Waermeversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyeler, F.

    2003-07-01

    This article discusses heat pump 'contracting solutions' used in the refurbishment of the central heating systems of two housing developments in Zurich and Thun, Switzerland. In these and other projects, the high level of investment needed for the installation of the heat pumps was met by third-party contractors, who install and operate the space heating and domestic hot water systems and sell the heat energy to the tenants. The system serving the 96 'Rietlihof' apartments in Zurich is operated by the public utilities of the City of Zurich, EWZ, the housing development in Thun by the Bernese power utility BKW. The article stresses the importance of professional planning and the correct choice of heat sources. The ecological and economical advantages of heating system refurbishment projects that use heat pumps built, financed and operated by contractors are discussed.

  4. Technical and Economic Working Domains of Industrial Heat Pumps: Part 2 - Ammonia-Water Hybrid Absorption-Compression Heat Pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Wiebke Brix

    2014-01-01

    The ammonia-water hybrid absorption-compression heat pump (HACHP) is a relevant technology for industrial heat supply, especially for high sink temperatures and high temperature glides in the sink and source. This is due to the reduced vapour pressure and the non-isothermal phase change...... of the zeotropic mixture, ammonia-water. To evaluate to which extent these advantages can be translated into feasible heat pump solutions, the working domain of the HACHP is investigated based on technical and economic constraints. The HACHP working domain is compared to that of the best possible vapour...... compression heat pump with natural working fluids. This shows that the HACHP increases the temperature lifts and heat supply temperatures that are feasible to produce with a heat pump. The HACHP is shown to be capable of delivering heat supply temperatures as high as 140 XC and temperature lifts up to 60 K...

  5. Technical and economic working domains of industrial heat pumps: Part 2 - ammonia-water hybrid absorption-compression heat pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Wiebke Brix

    2015-01-01

    The ammonia-water hybrid absorption-compression heat pump (HACHP) has been proposed as a relevant technology for industrial heat supply, especially for high sink temperatures and high temperature glides in the sink and source. This is due to the reduced vapour pressure and the non-isothermal phase...... change of the zeotropic mixture, ammonia-water. To evaluate to which extent these advantages can be translated into feasible heat pump solutions, the working domain of the HACHP is investigated based on technical and economic constraints. The HACHP working domain is compared to that of the best available...... vapour compression heat pump with natural working fluids. This shows that the HACHP increases the temperature lifts and heat supply temperatures that are feasible to produce with a heat pump. The HACHP is shown to be capable of delivering heat supply temperatures as high as 150 °C and temperature lifts...

  6. A ground water source heat pump for the air-conditioning of a supermarket; Une PAC sur nappe phreatique pour climatiser un hypermarche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2002-04-01

    A thermodynamical solution involving a ground water source heat pump and 19 roof top air-conditioners has been retained for the air-conditioning of a 41000 m{sup 2} supermarket of Colmar (Alsace, France). The supermarket is also equipped with a computer-monitored refrigeration system for the food products and a centralized technical management for the optimization of the installation operation. (J.S.)

  7. Multifamily Heat Pump Water Heater Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeschele, M. [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States). Alliance for Residential Building Innovation; Weitzel, E. [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States). Alliance for Residential Building Innovation

    2017-03-03

    Although heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have gained significant attention in recent years as a high efficiency electric water heating solution for single family homes, central HPWHs for commercial or multi-family applications are not as well documented in terms of measured performance and cost effectiveness. To evaluate this technology, the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team monitored the performance of a 10.5 ton central HPWH installed on a student apartment building at the West Village Zero Net Energy Community in Davis, California. Monitoring data collected over a 16 month period were then used to validate a TRNSYS simulation model. The TRNSYS model was then used to project performance in different climates using local electric rates. Results of the study indicate that after some initial commissioning issues, the HPWH operated reliably with an annual average efficiency of 2.12 (Coefficient of Performance). The observed efficiency was lower than the unit's rated efficiency, primarily due to the fact that the system rarely operated under steady-state conditions. Changes in the system configuration, storage tank sizing, and control settings would likely improve the observed field efficiency. Modeling results suggest significant energy savings relative to electric storage water heating systems (typical annual efficiencies around 0.90) providing for typical simple paybacks of six to ten years without any incentives. The economics versus gas water heating are currently much more challenging given the current low natural gas prices in much of the country. Increased market size for this technology would benefit cost effectiveness and spur greater technology innovation.

  8. Multifamily Heat Pump Water Heater Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Weitzel, E. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2013-11-22

    Although heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have gained significant attention in recent years as a high efficiency electric water heating solution for single family homes, central HPWHs for commercial or multi-family applications are not as well documented in terms of measured performance and cost effectiveness. To evaluate this technology, the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team monitored the performance of a 10.5 ton central HPWH installed on a student apartment building at the West Village Zero Net Energy Community in Davis, California. Monitoring data collected over a 16 month period were then used to validate a TRNSYS simulation model. The TRNSYS model was then used to project performance in different climates using local electric rates. Results of the study indicate that after some initial commissioning issues, the HPWH operated reliably with an annual average efficiency of 2.12 (Coefficient of Performance). The observed efficiency was lower than the unit's rated efficiency, primarily due to the fact that the system rarely operated under steady-state conditions. Changes in the system configuration, storage tank sizing, and control settings would likely improve the observed field efficiency. Modeling results suggest significant energy savings relative to electric storage water heating systems (typical annual efficiencies around 0.90) providing for typical simple paybacks of six to ten years without any incentives. The economics versus gas water heating are currently much more challenging given the current low natural gas prices in much of the country. Increased market size for this technology would benefit cost effectiveness and spur greater technology innovation.

  9. Multifamily Heat Pump Water Heater Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Weitzel, E. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Although heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have gained significant attention in recent years as a high efficiency electric water heating solution for single family homes, central HPWHs for commercial or multi-family applications are not as well documented in terms of measured performance and cost effectiveness. To evaluate this technology, the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team monitored the performance of a 10.5 ton central HPWH installed on a student apartment building at the West Village Zero Net Energy Community in Davis, California. Monitoring data collected over a 16 month period were then used to validate a TRNSYS simulation model. The TRNSYS model was then used to project performance in different climates using local electric rates. Results of the study indicate that after some initial commissioning issues, the HPWH operated reliably with an annual average efficiency of 2.12 (Coefficient of Performance). The observed efficiency was lower than the unit's rated efficiency, primarily due to the fact that the system rarely operated under steady-state conditions. Changes in the system configuration, storage tank sizing, and control settings would likely improve the observed field efficiency. Modeling results suggest significant energy savings relative to electric storage water heating systems (typical annual efficiencies around 0.90) providing for typical simple paybacks of six to ten years without any incentives. The economics versus gas water heating are currently much more challenging given the current low natural gas prices in much of the country. Increased market size for this technology would benefit cost effectiveness and spur greater technology innovation.

  10. Heat transfer analysis of underground U-type heat exchanger of ground source heat pump system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Guihong; Zhang, Liyin

    2016-01-01

    Ground source heat pumps is a building energy conservation technique. The underground buried pipe heat exchanging system of a ground source heat pump (GSHP) is the basis for the normal operation of an entire heat pump system. Computational-fluid-dynamics (CFD) numerical simulation software, ANSYS-FLUENT17.0 have been performed the calculations under the working conditions of a continuous and intermittent operation over 7 days on a GSHP with a single-well, single-U and double-U heat exchanger and the impact of single-U and double-U buried heat pipes on the surrounding rock-soil temperature field and the impact of intermittent operation and continuous operation on the outlet water temperature. The influence on the rock-soil temperature is approximately 13 % higher for the double-U heat exchanger than that of the single-U heat exchanger. The extracted energy of the intermittent operation is 36.44 kw·h higher than that of the continuous mode, although the running time is lower than that of continuous mode, over the course of 7 days. The thermal interference loss and quantity of heat exchanged for unit well depths at steady-state condition of 2.5 De, 3 De, 4 De, 4.5 De, 5 De, 5.5 De and 6 De of sidetube spacing are detailed in this work. The simulation results of seven working conditions are compared. It is recommended that the side-tube spacing of double-U underground pipes shall be greater than or equal to five times of outer diameter (borehole diameter: 180 mm).

  11. Optimal usage of low temperature heat sources to supply district heating by heat pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pieper, Henrik; Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Wiebke Brix

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical study on the optimal usage of different low temperature heat sources to supply district heating by heat pumps. The study is based on data for the Copenhagen region. The heat sources were prioritized based on the coefficient of performance calculated for each hour....... Groundwater, seawater and air heat sources were compared with each other as well as to a scenario consisting of a combination of these heat sources. In addition, base load and peak load units were included. Characteristic parameters were the coefficient of performance, the number of full load hours...

  12. Residential CO2 Heat Pump System for Combined Space Heating and Hot Water Heating

    OpenAIRE

    Stene, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2, R-744) has been identified as a promising alternative to conventional working fluids in a number of applications due to its favourable environmental and thermophysical properties. Previous work on residential CO2 heat pumps has been dealing with systems for either space heating or hot water heating, and it was therefore considered interesting to carry out a theoretical and experimental study of residential CO2 heat pump systems for combined space heating and hot water hea...

  13. Analysis of using air-source heat pump water chiller-heater units in the cold regions%空气源热泵冷热水机组在寒冷地区应用的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马最良; 杨自强; 姚杨; 喻银平

    2001-01-01

    针对空气源热泵冷热水机组在寒冷地区冬季使用时结霜、热效率低等问题,提出一种双级热泵系统,即由空气源热泵冷热水机组提供10~20 ℃温水,作为水源热泵的低位热源,组成水源热泵供热系统。分析了这种系统的技术经济性,认为该系统是可行的,具有节能和环保意义。%imed at solving frosting and low heating efficiency of heat pumps in cold regions, puts forward a twin heat pumps heating system that consists of an air source heat pump and a water source heat pump. The air source heat pump supplies 10-20 ℃ water as low grade heat source of the water source heat pump. Analyses the technical and economical features of the system. Considers that the system is practicable and has energy conservation and environment protection effects.

  14. 重庆地区地表水地源热泵系统冬季供暖工程应用%Engineering application of surface water source heat pump for winter heating in Chongqing area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢军; 黄俊杰; 廖兴中

    2013-01-01

    Tests the heating operating conditions of five surface water source heat pump projects in Chongqing area,and compares them with those of the air source heat pump and boiler heating mode.The results show that the heating coefficient of performance (COP) of the river water source heat pump unit reaches 2.8 to 5.3 and the heating energy efficiency ratio (EER) reaches 2.7 to 4.3,and the COP and EER of the lake water source heat pump system reach 4.4 and 3.0 respectively; the indoor temperature and relative humidity can be maintained about 20℃ and above 40% respectively; the improving rates in energy efficiency of a surface water source heat pump system for winter heating are respectively 8.0% to 72.0%and 18.0% to 87.9% compared with the air source heat pump and boiler heating,and energy saving is significant.%以重庆地区5个地表水地源热泵项目为例,对其冬季供暖运行工况进行了实测,并与空气源热泵和锅炉供暖进行了比较.结果表明,江水源热泵系统的机组制热性能系数COP和系统制热能效比EER分别能达到2.8~5.3和2.7~4.3,湖水源热泵系统的COP和EER分别能达到4.4和3.0,并且室内温度和相对湿度分别能保持在20℃左右和40%以上;相比于空气源热泵和锅炉供暖,地表水地源热泵系统冬季供暖的能效提高率分别达到了8.0%~72.0%和18.0%~87.9%,节能显著.

  15. Efficient air-water heat pumps for high temperature lift residential heating, including oil migration aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Zehnder, Michele; Favrat, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    This thesis presents a system approach with the aim to develop improved concepts for small capacity, high temperature lift air-water heat pumps. These are intended to replace fuel fired heating systems in the residential sector, which leads to a major reduction of the local greenhouse gas emissions. Unfavorable temperature conditions set by the existing heat distribution systems and by the use of atmospheric air, as the only accessible heat source, have to be overcome. The proposed concepts a...

  16. Refrigerant charge management in a heat pump water heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jie; Hampton, Justin W.

    2016-07-05

    Heat pumps that heat or cool a space and that also heat water, refrigerant management systems for such heat pumps, and methods of managing refrigerant charge. Various embodiments remove idle refrigerant from a heat exchanger that is not needed for transferring heat by opening a refrigerant recovery valve and delivering the idle refrigerant from the heat exchanger to an inlet port on the compressor. The heat exchanger can be isolated by closing an electronic expansion valve, actuating a refrigerant management valve, or both. Refrigerant charge can be controlled by controlling how much refrigerant is drawn from the heat exchanger, by letting some refrigerant back into the heat exchanger, or both. Heat pumps can be operated in different modes of operation, and various components can be interconnected with refrigerant conduit. Some embodiments deliver refrigerant gas to the heat exchanger and drive liquid refrigerant out prior to isolating the heat exchanger.

  17. Computational Simulation of a Water-Cooled Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozarth, Duane

    2008-01-01

    A Fortran-language computer program for simulating the operation of a water-cooled vapor-compression heat pump in any orientation with respect to gravity has been developed by modifying a prior general-purpose heat-pump design code used at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).

  18. Corrosion protection of steel in ammonia/water heat pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfeld, Florian B.; Sun, Zhaoli

    2003-10-14

    Corrosion of steel surfaces in a heat pump is inhibited by adding a rare earth metal salt to the heat pump's ammonia/water working fluid. In preferred embodiments, the rare earth metal salt includes cerium, and the steel surfaces are cerated to enhance the corrosion-inhibiting effects.

  19. 开式湖水源热泵系统的水体热承载能力计算方法%CALCULATION MEETHOD OF THE HEAT CARRING CAPACITY OF WATER IN LAKE-WATER SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勇; 韩传璞

    2012-01-01

    在流体运动基本方程N-S方程的基础上,利用水温、质量和能量方程,建立了湖水源热泵系统利用水体水温变化的二维数学模型,并耦合求解得到水体水温的数值解.以夏季取水温度限值为依据,求解出在供冷期间不同负荷特征以及不同初始水温下水体能够承受的最大排热量.通过回归方法,得到水体热承载能力的检验方程.根据工程案例测试数据分析,该计算方法下的理论结果和实际测试结果较吻合,能够应用于湖水源热泵系统的可行性研究.%Based on N-S equations, dynamic two-dimensional model of lake water used for lake-water source heat pump system was built using temperature equation mass equation and energy equation. And arithmetic solution of wate temperature was attained by coupled solution. Based on limit temperature of water abstraction in summer, the largest quantity of heat the water can carried was obtained in different load and different start water temperature in heating period. Through regression, heat carrying capacity of water was obtained. Based on test data analysis, engineering project, theoretical result and test result in this computational method were coincide well,and this computational method can be used in feasibility study for lake-water source heat pump system.

  20. 云驾岭煤矿双水源热泵系统设计%Double water-source heat pump system designing for Yunjialing colliery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张昌建; 王景刚; 梁界武; 袁常升

    2012-01-01

    The heat pump system adopts the cooling water from power plant and the drainage from coal mine as double water source, of which the temperature varies from 7 to 50 "C . By optimally matching the high and low temperature heat pump units, the system can output 70 to 80 °C high-temperature hot water, 40 to 55 °C mid-temperature hot water and 7 to 12 °C air conditioning chilled water at the same time, and recycle the waste water from the cooling water and the drainage for heating, air conditioning,, providing domestic hot water for industrial site buildings and preventing freeze in the pit shaft.%该热泵系统以云驾岭煤矿电厂冷却水、矿井排水作为双水源,热源温度变化范围在7~50℃之间;采用高温热泵机组和低温热泵机组优化匹配,可以同时输出70~80℃高温热水和40~55℃中温热水及7~12℃空调冷水,回收电厂冷却水和矿井排水中的废热用于云驾岭煤矿工业区建筑供暖、空调和制取生活热水及井筒防冻.

  1. EnergyPlus Air Source Integrated Heat Pump Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Energy and Transportation Science Division; Adams, Mark B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Energy and Transportation Science Division; New, Joshua Ryan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Energy and Transportation Science Division

    2016-03-30

    This report summarizes the development of the EnergyPlus air-source integrated heat pump model. It introduces its physics, sub-models, working modes, and control logic. In addition, inputs and outputs of the new model are described, and input data file (IDF) examples are given.

  2. Ground Source Integrated Heat Pump (GS-IHP) Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, V. D. [ORNL; Rice, K. [ORNL; Murphy, R. [ORNL; Munk, J. [ORNL; Ally, Moonis [ORNL; Shen, Bo [ORNL; Craddick, William [ORNL; Hearn, Shawn A. [ClimateMaster, Inc.

    2013-05-24

    Between October 2008 and May 2013 ORNL and ClimateMaster, Inc. (CM) engaged in a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to develop a groundsource integrated heat pump (GS-IHP) system for the US residential market. A initial prototype was designed and fabricated, lab-tested, and modeled in TRNSYS (SOLAR Energy Laboratory, et al, 2010) to predict annual performance relative to 1) a baseline suite of equipment meeting minimum efficiency standards in effect in 2006 (combination of air-source heat pump (ASHP) and resistance water heater) and 2) a state-of-the-art (SOA) two-capacity ground-source heat pump with desuperheater water heater (WH) option (GSHPwDS). Predicted total annual energy savings, while providing space conditioning and water heating for a 2600 ft{sup 2} (242 m{sup 2}) house at 5 U.S. locations, ranged from 52 to 59%, averaging 55%, relative to the minimum efficiency suite. Predicted energy use for water heating was reduced 68 to 78% relative to resistance WH. Predicted total annual savings for the GSHPwDS relative to the same baseline averaged 22.6% with water heating energy use reduced by 10 to 30% from desuperheater contributions. The 1st generation (or alpha) prototype design for the GS-IHP was finalized in 2010 and field test samples were fabricated for testing by CM and by ORNL. Two of the alpha units were installed in 3700 ft{sup 2} (345 m{sup 2}) houses at the ZEBRAlliance site in Oak Ridge and field tested during 2011. Based on the steady-state performance demonstrated by the GS-IHPs it was projected that it would achieve >52% energy savings relative to the minimum efficiency suite at this specific site. A number of operational issues with the alpha units were identified indicating design changes needed to the system before market introduction could be accomplished. These were communicated to CM throughout the field test period. Based on the alpha unit test results and the diagnostic information coming from the field test

  3. Air Source Cold Climate Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Unico, Inc. received ISO 9001 :2008 certification. 7.1 COST MODEL The market for CCHP consists includes both residential and light commercial...by electricity that could come from renewable energy. The field demonstration was conducted at the Camp Atterbury Joint Maneuver Training Center...American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning Engineers CAJMTC Camp Atterbury Joint Maneuver Training Center CCHP Cold Climate

  4. Residential CO{sub 2} heat pump system for combined space heating and hot water heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stene, Joern

    2004-02-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}, R-744) has been identified as a promising alternative to conventional working fluids in a number of applications due to its favourable environmental and thermophysical properties. Previous work on residential CO{sub 2} heat pumps has been dealing with systems for either space heating or hot water heating, and it was therefore considered interesting to carry out a theoretical and experimental study of residential CO{sub 2} heat pump systems for combined space heating and hot water heating - o-called integrated CO{sub 2} heat pump systems. The scope of this thesis is limited to brine-to-water and water-to-water heat pumps connected to low-temperature hydronic space heating systems. The main conclusions are: (1) Under certain conditions residential CO{sub 2} heat pump systems for combined space heating and hot water heating may achieve the same or higher seasonal performance factor (SPF) than the most energy efficient state-of-the-art brine-to-water heat pumps. (2) In contrary to conventional heat pump systems for combined space heating and DHW heating, the integrated CO{sub 2} heat pump system achieves the highest COP in the combined heating mode and the DHW heating mode, and the lowest COP in the space heating mode. Hence, the larger the annual DHW heating demand, the higher the SPF of the integrated CO{sub 2} heat pump system. (3) The lower the return temperature in the space heating system and the lower the DHW storage temperature, the higher the COP of the integrated CO{sub 2} heat pump. A low return temperature in the space heating system also results in a moderate DHW heating capacity ratio, which means that a relatively large part of the annual space heating demand can be covered by operation in the combined heating mode, where the COP is considerably higher than in the space heating mode. (4) During operation in the combined heating mode and the DHW heating mode, the COP of the integrated CO{sub 2} heat pump is heavily influenced by

  5. Development of Air Source Heat Pump Water Heater Performance Test Rig%空气源热泵热水器性能测试系统实验台的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘笑笑; 丁强

    2015-01-01

    为了满足空气源热泵热水器性能测试的需要,基于对空气源热泵热水器原理、工作特点、热工测试技术、工业控制技术、上位机编写技术等基础,严格参照空气源热泵热水器的相关国家标准设计了一套空气源热泵热水器性能测试系统。该系统不仅能自动计算出被测空气源热泵热水器的性能参数,且具有良好的人机交互界面、可操作性强、性能可靠等优点。%In order to meet the needs of the air source heat pump water heater performance test,according to the work-ing principle of the air source heat pump water heater,working characteristics,thermal testing technology,industrial control technology,computer technology and other related technology,strictly according to the air source heat pump water heater national standards to design a set of water heater performance of air source heat pump test system,it can calculate the performance parameters of the tested air source heat pump water heater automatical y.

  6. 太阳能-空气源热泵热水系统节能分析%SOLAR-AIR SOURCE HEAT PUMP HOT WATER SYSTEM ENERGY EFFICIENCY ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冠竹; 刘学来

    2011-01-01

    介绍了太阳能生活热水系统,以山东省为例,对太阳能热水器配备空气源热泵的热水系统进行了节能效益分析.结果表明,配备空气源热泵的太阳能热水系统回收期为4.21年,对我国走低碳经济之路有重要的参考价值.%This article describes the solar hot water system. It conducts the energy-saving benefit a-nalysis of solar energy -air source heat pump hot water system. The results show that the payback period of this system is 4.21 years. It has important reference value for going low-carbon economy road in China.

  7. Vapor compression CuCl heat pump integrated with a thermochemical water splitting cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamfirescu, C., E-mail: Calin.Zamfirescu@uoit.ca [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT), 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, ON, Canada L1H 74K (Canada); Naterer, G.F., E-mail: Greg.Naterer@uoit.ca [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT), 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, ON, Canada L1H 74K (Canada); Dincer, I., E-mail: Ibrahim.Dincer@uoit.ca [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT), 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, ON, Canada L1H 74K (Canada)

    2011-01-10

    In this paper, the feasibility of using cuprous chloride (CuCl) as a working fluid in a new high temperature heat pump with vapor compression is analyzed. The heat pump is integrated with a copper-chlorine (Cu-Cl) thermochemical water splitting cycle for internal heat recovery, temperature upgrades and hydrogen production. The minimum temperature of heat supply necessary for driving the water splitting cycle can be lowered because the heat pump increases the working fluid temperature from 755 K up to {approx}950 K, at a high COP of {approx}6.5. Based on measured data available in past literature, the authors have determined the T-s diagram of CuCl, which is then used for the thermodynamic modeling of the cycle. In the heat pump cycle, molten CuCl is flashed in a vacuum where the vapor quality reaches {approx}2.5%, and then it is boiled to produce saturated vapor. The vapor is then compressed in stages (with inter-cooling and heat recovery), and condensed in a direct contact heat exchanger to transfer heat at a higher temperature. The heat pump is then integrated with a copper-chlorine water splitting plant. The heat pump evaporator is connected thermally with the hydrogen production reactor of the water splitting plant, which performs an exothermic reaction that generates heat at 760 K. Additional source heat is obtained from heat recovery from the hot reaction products of the oxy-decomposer. The heat pump transfers heat at {approx}950 K to the oxy-decomposer to drive its endothermic chemical reaction. It is shown that the heat required at the heat pump source can be obtained completely from internal heat recovery within the plant. First and second law analyses and a parametric study are performed for the proposed system to study the influence of the compressor's isentropic efficiency and temperature levels on the heat pump's COP. Two new indicators are presented: one represents the heat recovery ratio (the ratio between the thermal energy obtained by

  8. TEM Pump With External Heat Source And Sink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesmith, Bill J.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed thermoelectric/electromagnetic (TEM) pump driven by external source of heat and by two or more heat pipe radiator heat sink(s). Thermoelectrics generate electrical current to circulate liquid metal in secondary loop of two-fluid-loop system. Intended for use with space and terrestrial dual loop liquid metal nuclear reactors. Applications include spacecraft on long missions or terrestrial beacons or scientific instruments having to operate in remote areas for long times. Design modified to include multiple radiators, converters, and ducts, as dictated by particular application.

  9. Applicability Analysis of Open Type River Water Source Heat Pump System in Chongqing%开式江水源热泵系统在重庆地区的适用性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林勇豹; 王勇

    2013-01-01

      This review summarized the design requirements of open type surface water source heat pump system. Technical, economic and environmental can be considered as the three aspects of the river water source heat pump feasibility analysis. The river water temperature, quantity and other characteristics can meet the requirement of the water source heat pump. In order to ensure the river water source heat pump technology suitability, the key technology is looking for solutions to reduce the sand content. Reasonable design of the water source heat pump system has good economic performance and the tail water discharge can cause less water pollution. The river water source heat pump system has strong feasibility and applicability in Chongqing.%  在总结前人研究的基础上,综述了开式地表水源热泵系统方案设计要求,认为可以从技术、经济和环保性三方面分析江水源热泵的可行性。重庆江水水量、水温等水质参数完全满足机组要求,为了确保江水源热泵在重庆地区的技术适用性,重点在于寻找解决含砂量过高的技术方案。同时,合理设计的水源热泵系统具有较好的经济性能,尾水排放对江水的污染较小,满足经济环保性要求。认为江水源热泵系统在重庆地区具有较强的可行性及适用性。

  10. Field Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in the Northeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, Carl [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norfolk, CT (United States); Puttagunta, Srikanth [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norfolk, CT (United States)

    2016-02-05

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are finally entering the mainstream residential water heater market. Potential catalysts are increased consumer demand for higher energy efficiency electric water heating and a new Federal water heating standard that effectively mandates use of HPWHs for electric storage water heaters with nominal capacities greater than 55 gallons. When compared to electric resistance water heating, the energy and cost savings potential of HPWHs is tremendous. Converting all electric resistance water heaters to HPWHs could save American consumers 7.8 billion dollars annually ($182 per household) in water heating operating costs and cut annual residential source energy consumption for water heating by 0.70 quads. Steven Winter Associates, Inc. embarked on one of the first in situ studies of these newly released HPWH products through a partnership with two sponsoring electric utility companies, National Grid and NSTAR, and one sponsoring energy efficiency service program administrator, Cape Light Compact. Recent laboratory studies have measured performance of HPWHs under various operating conditions, but publically available field studies have not been as available. This evaluation attempts to provide publicly available field data on new HPWHs by monitoring the performance of three recently released products (General Electric GeoSpring(TM), A.O. Smith Voltex(R), and Stiebel Eltron Accelera(R) 300). Fourteen HPWHs were installed in Massachusetts and Rhode Island and monitored for over a year. Of the 14 units, ten were General Electric models (50 gallon units), two were Stiebel Eltron models (80 gallon units), and two were A.O. Smith models (one 60-gallon and one 80-gallon unit).

  11. Field Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in the Northeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, C.; Puttagunta, S.

    2013-08-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are finally entering the mainstream residential water heater market. Potential catalysts are increased consumer demand for higher energy efficiency electric water heating and a new Federal water heating standard that effectively mandates use of HPWHs for electric storage water heaters with nominal capacities greater than 55 gallons. When compared to electric resistance water heating, the energy and cost savings potential of HPWHs is tremendous. Converting all electric resistance water heaters to HPWHs could save American consumers 7.8 billion dollars annually ($182 per household) in water heating operating costs and cut annual residential source energy consumption for water heating by 0.70 quads. Steven Winter Associates, Inc. embarked on one of the first in situ studies of these newly released HPWH products through a partnership with two sponsoring electric utility companies, National Grid and NSTAR, and one sponsoring energy efficiency service program administrator, Cape Light Compact. Recent laboratory studies have measured performance of HPWHs under various operating conditions, but publicly available field studies have not been as available. This evaluation attempts to provide publicly available field data on new HPWHs by monitoring the performance of three recently released products (General Electric GeoSpring(tm), A.O. Smith Voltex(r), and Stiebel Eltron Accelera(r)300). Fourteen HPWHs were installed in Massachusetts and Rhode Island and monitored for over a year. Of the 14 units, ten were General Electric models (50 gallon units), two were Stiebel Eltron models (80 gallon units), and two were A.O. Smith models (one 60-gallon and one 80-gallon unit).

  12. Heat pump technology

    CERN Document Server

    Von Cube, Hans Ludwig; Goodall, E G A

    2013-01-01

    Heat Pump Technology discusses the history, underlying concepts, usage, and advancements in the use of heat pumps. The book covers topics such as the applications and types of heat pumps; thermodynamic principles involved in heat pumps such as internal energy, enthalpy, and exergy; and natural heat sources and energy storage. Also discussed are topics such as the importance of the heat pump in the energy industry; heat pump designs and systems; the development of heat pumps over time; and examples of practical everyday uses of heat pumps. The text is recommended for those who would like to kno

  13. Measured Performance of a Low Temperature Air Source Heat Pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.K. Johnson

    2013-09-01

    A 4-ton Low Temperature Heat Pump (LTHP) manufactured by Hallowell International was installed in a residence near New Haven, Connecticut and monitored over two winters of operation. After attending to some significant service issues, the heat pump operated as designed. This report should be considered a review of the dual compressor “boosted heat pump” technology. The Low Temperature Heat Pump system operates with four increasing levels of capacity (heat output) as the outdoor temperature drops.

  14. A flexible and low cost experimental stand for air source heat pump for Smart Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crăciun, Vasile S.; Bojesen, Carsten; Blarke, Morten

    2012-01-01

    prices. A significant part of this challenge may be dealt with in the way space heating, space cooling, and domestic hot water production which is provided to residential and commercial buildings. Air source heat pumps (ASHP) are widely used conversion technologies for providing building thermal energy...

  15. Operation Performance of Air Source Heat Pump System for Space Heating in Tianjin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jun; CHEN Yan; QU Hang; LI Xinguo

    2007-01-01

    An air source heat pump system (ASHPS) used in an office building is set up and studied experimentally. Its operating performance in winter is evaluated based on test data and a comparative discussion is given on the effect of climate conditions and heating load ratio on the operation behavior.Then heating capacity variation caused by evaporator frosting is analyzed as well. Finally, the defrosting parameters and the technical feasibility are studied for a constant heating demand. The experimental results indicate that both the outlet water temperature drop and the system COP should be taken into account when setting defrosting parameters, and ASHPS is a viable technology for space heating and hotwater production in winter in Tianjin, which can maintain the room temperature above 19 ℃ when the outdoor temperature is -2 ℃.

  16. Heat pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Macmichael, DBA

    1988-01-01

    A fully revised and extended account of the design, manufacture and use of heat pumps in both industrial and domestic applications. Topics covered include a detailed description of the various heat pump cycles, the components of a heat pump system - drive, compressor, heat exchangers etc., and the more practical considerations to be taken into account in their selection.

  17. Ground-source heat pump case studies and utility programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P.J.; Boyd, T.L.; Rogers, R.L.

    1995-04-01

    Ground-source heat pump systems are one of the promising new energy technologies that has shown rapid increase in usage over the past ten years in the United States. These systems offer substantial benefits to consumers and utilities in energy (kWh) and demand (kW) savings. The purpose of this study was to determine what existing monitored data was available mainly from electric utilities on heat pump performance, energy savings and demand reduction for residential, school and commercial building applications. In order to verify the performance, information was collected for 253 case studies from mainly utilities throughout the United States. The case studies were compiled into a database. The database was organized into general information, system information, ground system information, system performance, and additional information. Information was developed on the status of demand-side management of ground-source heat pump programs for about 60 electric utility and rural electric cooperatives on marketing, incentive programs, barriers to market penetration, number units installed in service area, and benefits.

  18. North Village Ground Source Heat Pump Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redderson, Jeff

    2015-08-03

    This project demonstrated the feasibility of converting from a traditional direct exchange system to a ground source heat pump system on a large scale, multiple building apartment complex on a university campus. A total of ten apartment buildings were converted using vertical well fields and a ground source loop that connected the 24 apartments in each building into a common system. The system has yielded significant operational savings in both energy and maintenance and transformed the living environments of these residential buildings for our students.

  19. Numerical analysis of heat exchange processes for the ground source heat pump system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, H.; Muto, H.; Moritani, S.; Kohgo, Y.; Hamamoto, S.; Takemura, T.; Ohnishi, J.; Komatsu, T.

    2012-12-01

    Ground source heat pump systems (GSHP) use ground or groundwater as a heat source. They can achieve much higher coefficient of performance (COP) than conventional air source heat pump systems because the temperature of the ground is much more stable than that of the air. Heat energy in the ground is then viewed as one of the renewable energy sources. GSHP has been receiving great interests among countries in North America and Western Europe, as well as some developed countries in Asia because it can potentially reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emission. While GSHP can inject heat from the buildings to the ground for cooling during the summer, it can pump heat stored in the ground for heating during the winter. As some physical, chemical, and biological properties of the ground and groundwater are temperature dependent, running GSHP can eventually affect groundwater quality. The main objective of this project was to develop a model that allows predicting not only ground and groundwater temperatures but also changes in physical, chemical, and biological properties of ground and groundwater with GSHP under operations. This particular study aims at simulating heat exchange and transfer processes in the ground for a vertical-loop closed GSHP system. In the closed GSHP system, an anti-freezing solution is circulated inside the closed-loop tube, called U-tube, that is buried in the ground. Heat is then transferred to the anti-freezing solution in the U-tube by a heat exchanger. In this study we used HYDRUS to predict temperature of the anti-freezing solution, as well as that of the ground. HYDRUS allows one to simulate variably-saturated water flow and solute and heat transport in porous media numerically in two- and three-dimensional domains with great flexibility in defining boundary conditions. At first changes in anti-freezing solution temperatures measured were predicted in response to Thermal Response Test (TRT) conducted at our study site. Then, heat

  20. 江水源热泵换热器污垢形成的关键水质因素分析%Key factors of water quality affecting fouling of the river water source pump heat exchanger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白雪莲; 程可辉

    2012-01-01

    江水引起的热泵换热器结垢不仅会增大枧组进出口阻力,还会导致换热器的换热效率下降.江水水质对换热器污染起决定作用.江水源热泵污垢形成的关键水质因素及相关性分析是热泵用水体评价和水处理决策的基础.通过对重庆地区长江和嘉陵江水质测试分析,并与现行允许水质指标的对比,表明含沙量和浊度是江水源热泵的重点解决问题.对江水源热泵换热器污垢的成份分析则表明,污垢是以小粒径泥沙的颗粒污垢为主.从而确定关键水质因素是含沙量和浊度.根据与实际江水泥沙配置保持一致的自配水样分析,得到了含沙量与浊度的关系方程,误差分析表明预测值与实测值能较好地吻合.%Fouling on heat exchanger of water source heat pump will not only increase resistance of import and export of the units, but also will cause efficiency of the heat exchanger to drop. River water quality plays a decisive role in polluting heat exchanger. The key of water quality factor to the formation of fouling on river water source heat pump and correlation analysis is foundation of water treatment evaluation and decision - making. Annual water quality testing and analysis in the Yangtze River and Jialing River in Chongqing area have been done. With the current allowing the water quality index contrast, comparison shows that the sediment concentration and turbidity is the key to solve the problem of river water source heat pump. Studies have shown that fouling of water source heat pump exchanger are mainly particulate fouling. Main ingredients are small particle size of sediment. Therefore, the sediment concentration and turbidity are identified to be the key factors of quality. For river sediment in accordance with the actual configuration consistent with the analysis of water samples, relationship between sediment concentration and turbidity equation has been obtained. And error analysis shows that

  1. Analysis of Fuel Cell Driven Ground Source Heat Pump Systems in Community Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Keun Shin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a fuel cell driven ground source heat pump (GSHP system is applied in a community building and heat pump system performance is analyzed by computational methods. Conduction heat transfer between the brine pipe and ground is analyzed by TEACH code in order to predict the performance of the heat pump system. The predicted coefficient of performance (COP of the heat pump system and the energy cost were compared with the variation of the location of the objective building, the water saturation rate of the soil, and the driven powers of the heat pump system. Compared to the late-night electricity driven system, a significant reduction of energy cost can be accomplished by employing the fuel cell driven heat pump system. This is due to the low cost of electricity production of the fuel cell system and to the application of the recovered waste heat generated during the electricity production process to the heating of the community building.

  2. Climate Adaptivity and Field Test of the Space Heating Used Air-Source Transcritical CO2 Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yulong; Ye, Zuliang; Cao, Feng

    2017-08-01

    In this study, an innovation of air-sourced transcritical CO2 heat pump which was employed in the space heating application was presented and discussed in order to solve the problem that the heating performances of the transcritical CO2 heat pump water heater deteriorated sharply with the augment in water feed temperature. An R134a cycle was adopted as a subcooling device in the proposed system. The prototype of the presented system was installed and supplied hot water for three places in northern China in winter. The field test results showed that the acceptable return water temperature can be increased up to 55°C, while the supply water temperature was raised rapidly by the presented prototype to up to 70°C directly, which was obviously appropriate to the various conditions of heating radiator in space heating application. Additionally, though the heating capacity and power dissipation decreased with the decline in ambient temperature or the augment in water temperature, the presented heat pump system performed efficiently whatever the climate and water feed temperature were. The real time COP of the presented system was generally more than 1.8 in the whole heating season, while the seasonal performance coefficient (SPC) was also appreciable, which signified that the economic efficiency of the presented system was more excellent than other space heating approaches such as fuel, gas, coal or electric boiler. As a result, the novel system will be a promising project to solve the energy issues in future space heating application.

  3. Low Temperature District Heating Consumer Unit with Micro Heat Pump for Domestic Hot Water Preparation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zvingilaite, Erika; Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Elmegaard, Brian

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present and analyse the feasibility of a district heating (DH) consumer unit with micro heat pump for domestic hot water (DHW) preparation in a low temperature (40 °C) DH network. We propose a micro booster heat pump of high efficiency (COP equal to 5,3) in a consumer DH unit...... in order to boost the temperature of the district heating water for heating the DHW. The paper presents the main designs of the suggested system and different alternative micro booster heat pump concepts. Energy efficiency and thermodynamic performance of these concepts are calculated and compared....... The results show that the proposed system has the highest efficiency. Furthermore, we compare thermodynamic and economic performance of the suggested heat pump-based concept with different solutions, using electric water heater. The micro booster heat pump system has the highest annualised investment (390 EUR...

  4. Earliest Deadline Control of a Group of Heat Pumps with a Single Energy Source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fink, J.; van Leeuwen, Richard Pieter

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we develop and investigate the optimal control of a group of 104 heat pumps and a central Combined Heat and Power unit (CHP). The heat pumps supply space heating and domestic hot water to households. Each house has a buffer for domestic hot water and a floor heating system for space h

  5. Earliest Deadline Control of a Group of Heat Pumps with a Single Energy Source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fink, J.; van Leeuwen, Richard Pieter

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we develop and investigate the optimal control of a group of 104 heat pumps and a central Combined Heat and Power unit (CHP). The heat pumps supply space heating and domestic hot water to households. Each house has a buffer for domestic hot water and a floor heating system for space

  6. Radon as a tracer to characterize the interactions between groundwater and surface water around the ground source heat pump system in riverside area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaeyeon; Lee, Seong-Sun; Lee, Kang-Kun

    2016-04-01

    The interaction characteristics between groundwater and surface water was examined by using Radon-222 at Han River Environmental Research Center (HRERC) in Korea where a geothermal resource using indirect open loop ground source heat pump (GSHP) has been developed. For designing a high efficiency performance of the open loop system in shallow aquifer, the riverside area was selected for great advantage of full capacity of well. From this reason groundwater properties of the study site can be easily influenced by influx of surrounding Han River. Therefore, 12 groundwater wells were used for monitoring radon concentration and groundwater level with fluctuation of river stage from May, 2014 to Apr., 2015. The short term monitoring data showed that the radon concentration was changed in accordance with flow meter data which was reflected well by the river stage fluctuation. The spatial distribution of radon concentration from long term monitoring data was also found to be affected by water level fluctuation by nearby dam activity and seasonal effect such as heavy rainfall and groundwater pumping. The estimated residence time indicates that river flows to the study site change its direction according to the combined effect of river stage and groundwater hydrology. In the linear regression of the values, flow velocities were yielded around 0.04 to 0.25 m/day which were similar to flow meter data. These results reveal that Radon-222 can be used as an appropriate environmental tracer in examining the characteristics of interaction in consideration of fluctuating river flow on operation of GSHP in the riverside area. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This work was supported by the research project of "Advanced Technology for Groundwater Development and Application in Riversides (Geowater+) in "Water Resources Management Program (code 11 Technology Innovation C05)" of the MOLIT and the KAIA in Korea.

  7. Application of Heat Pump in Cooling Water System of HIRFL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Accelerator generates a lot of heat when it is working.It must be cooled by the circulating cooling water.Generally the heat was released to atimosphere by the cooling water tower.Because the heat energy is very huge(about 2M watts for HIRFL),it is big waste and the machine can’t be cooled to appropriate temperature when ambient temperature is high in summer.In order to solve the problems,the heat pump has been used

  8. 涡旋式水源热泵系统性能仿真%Performance Simulation of Scroll Water Source Heat Pump System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤志远; 丁国良

    2011-01-01

    为了预测涡旋式水源热泵系统变结构和变工况稳态性能,建立了稳态涡旋式热泵系统仿真模型.其中涡旋式压缩机模型考虑了吸、排气换热对工质流量和排气温度的影响以及流量、排气温度和输入功率三者的耦合关系;通过增加电子膨胀阀开度对蒸发器出口过热度的控制模型,反映了过热度对膨胀阀流量的影响.系统算法综合了顺序模块法和连续迭代法,改善了迭代收敛性,且易于实现部件模型的模块化.与实验结果对比表明:模型预测值与实验值的误差小于4.4%.%To predict the steady performance of scroll water source heat pumps with different configuration and working condition a steady systematic model for scroll water source heat pump is established. In modeling the compressor, the effect of suction heatin on mass flow and the effect of discharge heat exchange on discharge temperature as well as coupling relationship between mas flow, discharge temperature and input power are considered. The effect of the superheat of evaporator on the mass flow through tfc electrical expansion valve (EEV) is reflected by the control model of EEV opening degree on the superheat of evaporator. Successrv Substitution Method and Sequential Modular Method are used in the system simulation, which is 'in favor of modulization an maintainability of components, as well as convergence of algorithm. The deviations between the model predictions and the test dai are less than 4.4%.

  9. Geothermal source heat pump performance for a greenhouse heating system: an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandros Sotirios Anifantis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouses play a significant function in the modern agriculture economy even if require great amount of energy for heating systems. An interesting solution to alleviate the energy costs and environmental problems may be represented by the use of geothermal energy. The aim of this paper, based on measured experimental data, such as the inside greenhouse temperature and the heat pump performance (input and output temperatures of the working fluid, electric consumption, was the evaluation of the suitability of low enthalpy geothermal heat sources for agricultural needs such as greenhouses heating. The study was carried out at the experimental farm of the University of Bari, where a greenhouse was arranged with a heating system connected to a ground-source heat pump (GSHP, which had to cover the thermal energy request. The experimental results of this survey highlight the capability of the geothermal heat source to ensue thermal conditions suitable for cultivation in greenhouses even if the compressor inside the heat pump have operated continuously in a fluctuating state without ever reaching the steady condition. Probably, to increase the performance of the heat pump and then its coefficient of performance within GSHP systems for heating greenhouses, it is important to analyse and maximise the power conductivity of the greenhouse heating system, before to design an expensive borehole ground exchanger. Nevertheless, according to the experimental data obtained, the GSHP systems are effective, efficient and environmental friendly and may be useful to supply the heating energy demand of greenhouses.

  10. Comfortable, high-efficiency heat pump with desiccant-coated, water-sorbing heat exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Y D; Wang, R Z; Ge, T S; Zheng, X

    2017-01-12

    Comfortable, efficient, and affordable heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems in buildings are highly desirable due to the demands of energy efficiency and environmental friendliness. Traditional vapor-compression air conditioners exhibit a lower coefficient of performance (COP) (typically 2.8-3.8) owing to the cooling-based dehumidification methods that handle both sensible and latent loads together. Temperature- and humidity-independent control or desiccant systems have been proposed to overcome these challenges; however, the COP of current desiccant systems is quite small and additional heat sources are usually needed. Here, we report on a desiccant-enhanced, direct expansion heat pump based on a water-sorbing heat exchanger with a desiccant coating that exhibits an ultrahigh COP value of more than 7 without sacrificing any comfort or compactness. The pump's efficiency is doubled compared to that of pumps currently used in conventional room air conditioners, which is a revolutionary HVAC breakthrough. Our proposed water-sorbing heat exchanger can independently handle sensible and latent loads at the same time. The desiccants adsorb moisture almost isothermally and can be regenerated by condensation heat. This new approach opens up the possibility of achieving ultrahigh efficiency for a broad range of temperature- and humidity-control applications.

  11. Solar Assisted Water Source Heat Pump System for Heating in Winter%关于太阳能辅助水源热泵系统联合冬季供暖的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石东森; 赵展

    2014-01-01

    Along with the increased awareness of energy shortage and environmental protection in China, solar energy and shallow geothermal energy as renewable energy are getting more and more atten-tion. But regardless of the solar system or single water source heat pump system has some limitations, few of joint operation for both applications. Based on the actual project as an example, the solar system can be combined with water source heat pump system, and the system will achieve the required indoor air temper-ature; and the technical analysis of operation cost for solar system with water source heat pump system shows the energy efficiency is completely obvious.%随着我国能源的紧缺和环保意识的加强,太阳能、浅层地热能作为可再生能源,越来越受到人们的重视。但无论是太阳能系统,还是水源热泵系统,单独运行时均有一定的局限性,两者联合运行的应用很少。通过实际工程分析,太阳能系统与水源热泵系统可以联合工作,并可达到预期的室内空调温度;对太阳能系统与水源热泵系统联合运行的运行费用做了技术分析,证实这种联合模式节能效果十分明显。

  12. Accommodation Mode of Wind Power Based on Water Source Heat Pump Technology%基于水源热泵技术的风电消纳模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李群英; 冯利民; 许宇辉; 李春亮; 王绍然

    2012-01-01

    Based on the water source heat pump technology,a novel mode on wind power accommodation is proposed.The principle of this mode is analyzed firstly,its impacts on the improvement of the wind power accommodation,the promotion of energy-saving and emission-reduction,the improvement of city heat supply and the economic enhancement of the electrical generation enterprises are studied.With the proposed mode,the residual heat of the circulating water in the heat-engine plants can be recycled to improve the quality of city heat supply,the stability of the heat supply network and the capacity of wind power accommodation in the power grid,and reduce carbon emission during the process of electric power generation.The economic,social,environmental benefits and its application prospect are verified by the research data.%提出了基于水源热泵技术的风电消纳模式。分析了该模式的原理,研究了其在增加风电消纳、促进节能减排、改善城市供热及提高发电企业经济效益等方面的作用。研究表明,通过该模式,可将火力发电厂冷却循环水中的低品位余热转变为有用热能进行城市供暖,提高城市集中供热的质量和稳定性,同时还能够显著增加电网风电消纳能力,并有利于减少电能生产过程中的污染物排放。分析表明,该模式具有良好的经济、社会与环境效益,具备良好的发展前景。

  13. COMPARATIVE STUDY AMONG HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEM, COMPLETE GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP AND CONVENTIONAL HVAC SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Zhu; Yong X. Tao

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, a hotel with hybrid geothermal heat pump system (HyGSHP) in the Pensacola is selected and simulated by the transient simulation software package TRNSYS [1]. To verify the simulation results, the validations are conducted by using the monthly average entering water temperature, monthly facility consumption data, and etc. And three types of HVAC systems are compared based on the same building model and HVAC system capacity. The results are presented to show the advantages and disadvantages of HyGSHP compared with the other two systems in terms of energy consumptions, life cycle cost analysis.

  14. Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

    2014-06-01

    This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of US climate regions. HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in certain climate zones when compared to typical electric resistance water heaters. Results show that this technology is a viable option in most climates, but differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the units tested. Tests were conducted to map heat pump performance across the operating range and to determine the logic used to control the heat pump and the backup electric heaters. Other tests performed include two unique draw profile tests, reduced air flow performance tests and the standard DOE rating tests. The results from all these tests are presented here for all five units tested. The results of these tests will be used to improve the EnergyPlus heat pump water heater for use in BEopt(tm) whole-house building simulations.

  15. Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

    2014-06-01

    This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of U.S. climate regions. HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in certain climate zones when compared to typical electric resistance water heaters. Results show that this technology is a viable option in most climates, but differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the units tested. Tests were conducted to map heat pump performance across the operating range and to determine the logic used to control the heat pump and the backup electric heaters. Other tests performed include two unique draw profile tests, reduced air flow performance tests and the standard DOE rating tests. The results from all these tests are presented here for all five units tested. The results of these tests will be used to improve the EnergyPlus heat pump water heater for use in BEopt™ whole-house building simulations.

  16. Simulation of embedded heat exchangers of solar aided ground source heat pump system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 郑茂余; 邵俊鹏; 李忠建

    2008-01-01

    Aimed at unbalance of soil temperature field of ground source heat pump system, solar aided energy storage system was established. In solar assisted ground-source heat pump (SAGSHP) system with soil storage, solar energy collected in three seasons was stored in the soil by vertical U type soil exchangers. The heat abstracted by the ground-source heat pump and collected by the solar collector was employed to heating. Some of the soil heat exchangers were used to store solar energy in the soil so as to be used in next winter after this heating period; and the others were used to extract cooling energy directly in the soil by circulation pump for air conditioning in summer. After that solar energy began to be stored in the soil and ended before heating period. Three dimensional dynamic numerical simulations were built for soil and soil heat exchanger through finite element method. Simulation was done in different strata month by month. Variation and restoration of soil temperature were studied. Economy and reliability of long term SAGSHP system were revealed. It can be seen that soil temperature is about 3 ℃ higher than the original one after one year’s running. It is beneficial for the system to operate for long period.

  17. A New Type of Complex System of Solar Energy Air Source Heat Pump Water Heater%一种新型的太阳能——空气源复合热泵热水器系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军军

    2011-01-01

    基于太阳能热利用技术、空气源热泵热水器理论,介绍了一种将太阳能与空气源相结合的双热源热泵热水器系统。该系统可充分利用太阳能加热生活用热水,辅以空气源热泵来满足太阳辐射照度不足时的用热水需求,同时用太阳能辅助加热来解决低温环境下空气源热泵运行工况恶劣的问题。系统充分利用了低品位的太阳能,保证稳定性,又可提高夏季阴雨天气、过渡季节及冬季太阳能热水器的热水温度,对于节约能源和环境保护具有重要意义。%Based on the technology of solar thermal and the theory of air-source heat pump water heater, a combined water heater system about solar and air source heat pump was introduced. The system Could make full use of solar energy to heat domestic hot water, combined with air-source heat pump to meet the shortage of solar irradiance when the hot water demand, and the auxiliary heating with solar energy to solve the problems of air source heat pump operating conditions in low temperature. The system took full use of the low-grade solar energy, and stability could be assured. And it could improve the temperature of the water in solar water heaters in rainy summers, transition seasons and winters. The system had significance for energy conservation and environmental protection.

  18. 空气源热泵在学生公寓的热水改造工程中的应用%Application of Air Source Heat Pump Water Heater to Reconstruction Project of Domestic Hot Water in Student Apartment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何绪春

    2012-01-01

    The domestic water-heating system with gas-fired boiler of a college apartment in Chongqing was discussed.The reconstruction plans concerning air-source heat pump heating system and solar assisted air-source heat system were processed and discussed respectively after the analysis on daily hot water load.Compared with the original water-heating system,the annual operating costs of solar heating systems would be the lowest.%以重庆某学校采用燃气锅炉房作为热源的洗浴热水加热系统作为研究对象。对热水系统日用热量进行了分析。对原加热系统提出两种改造方案:空气源热泵加热系统、太阳能辅助空气源加热系统,探讨了这两种加热系统的系统流程,与原加热系统的年运行费用进行了比较,太阳能加热系统的年运行费用最低。

  19. Energetic Efficiency Evaluation by Using GroundWater Heat Pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokar Adriana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Romania has significant energy potential from renewable sources, but the potential used is much lower due to technical and functional disadvantages, to economic efficiency, the cost elements and environmental limitations. However, efforts are being made to integrate renewable energy in the national energy system. To promote and encourage private investments for renewable energy utilization, programs have been created in order to access funds needed to implement these technologies. Assessment of such investments was carried out from technical and economical point of view, by analyzing a heat pump using as heat source the solar energy from the ground.

  20. High Efficiency R-744 Commercial Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elbel, Dr. Stefan W.; Petersen, Michael

    2013-04-25

    The project investigated the development and improvement process of a R744 (CO2) commercial heat pump water heater (HPWH) package of approximately 35 kW. The improvement process covered all main components of the system. More specific the heat exchangers (Internal heat exchanger, Evaporator, Gas cooler) as well as the expansion device and the compressor were investigated. In addition, a comparison to a commercially available baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint was made in order to compare performance as well as package size reduction potential.

  1. 空气源热泵辅助型太阳能热水系统标准的探讨%Research on Specifications of Air Source Heat Pump Assisted Domestic Solar Water Heating Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐言生; 何钦波; 陈学锋; 李锡宇

    2013-01-01

    The Specifications of Air Source Heat Pump Assisted Domestic Solar Water Heating Systems have stipulated a certain range of variations on the mean environment temperature and the amount of solar radiation in the coefficient of performance (COP) testing of whole unit. In order to research the influence of the variations on COP, the performance testing was divided into two phases. The test of solar water heating system was performed outdoors. The test of air source heat pump heating was performed in an environmental test chamber whose temperature could be adjusted. The experimental results show that the variations in the mean environment temperature and the amount of solar radiation had a great influence on the COP of air source heat pump assisted domestic solar water heating systems. The variation of the COP of the whole unit was minor with the influence of the mean environment temperature and the amount of solar radiation on the solar water heating system performance. But the maximum change of the COP of the whole unit could reach 40%with the influence of the mean environment temperature on the air source heat pump performance. Hence, the amending advice on the testing methods and conditions of the specifications were presented.%《家用空气源热泵辅助型太阳能热水系统技术条件》中对整机综合制热性能系数(COP)试验的平均环境温度和全天太阳能辐照量给出了一定变化范围,为研究这一变化对整机综合COP的影响,将整机的性能试验分两个阶段进行,其中太阳能热水系统加热段在户外进行,空气源热泵加热段在环境温度可控的环境试验室进行。试验表明在标准规定的变化范围内,平均环境温度的变化及全天辐照量的变化对空气源热泵辅助太阳能热水系统整机综合COP有较大影响,其中因平均环境温度的变化及全天辐照量的变化对太阳能热水系统性能影响而引起整机综合COP

  2. Optimization of systems with the combination of ground-source heat pump and solar collectors in dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellsson, Elisabeth; Hellström, Göran; Perers, Bengt

    2010-01-01

    The use of ground-source heat pumps for heating and domestic hot water in dwellings is common in Sweden. The combination with solar collectors has been introduced to reduce the electricity demand in the system. In order to analyze different systems with combinations of solar collectors and ground......-source heat pumps, computer simulations have been carried out with the simulation program TRNSYS. Large differences were found between the system alternatives. The optimal design is when solar heat produces domestic hot water during summertime and recharges the borehole during wintertime. The advantage...... is related to the rate of heat extraction from the borehole as well as the overall design of the system. The demand of electricity may increase with solar recharging, because of the increased operating time of the circulation pumps. Another advantage with solar heat in combination with heat pumps is when...

  3. Nano-porous-water Absorbents for Solid-absorbebt Heat Pump System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizota, Tadato; Nakayama, Noriaki

    Zeolite-water heat-pump system has been developed in these 25 years. Recently, an instant beer-cooling system has appeared by using the zeolite heat pump system as a commercial product. It takes so long time for the development since the first proposal. The most serious problem through the development has been of the ability of absorbents. Themaximum heat exchange capacity to date exceeds 1MJ•kg-1 for Mg89-A, which is comparable to the energy storage capacity of modern alkaline-ion batteries in weight-bases. But it needs high temperature heat sources more than 200°C for the activation. Absorbents useful at lower temperatures are thus desirable for effective use of various kinds of lower temperature heat sources Various nano-porous materials as well as zeolites now under investigation as candidates of heat-pump absorbents, such as silica-gels, allophane, imogolite, hydrotalcite, etc.

  4. Comfortable, high-efficiency heat pump with desiccant-coated, water-sorbing heat exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Y. D.; Wang, R. Z.; Ge, T. S.; Zheng, X.

    2017-01-01

    Comfortable, efficient, and affordable heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems in buildings are highly desirable due to the demands of energy efficiency and environmental friendliness. Traditional vapor-compression air conditioners exhibit a lower coefficient of performance (COP) (typically 2.8-3.8) owing to the cooling-based dehumidification methods that handle both sensible and latent loads together. Temperature- and humidity-independent control or desiccant systems have been proposed to overcome these challenges; however, the COP of current desiccant systems is quite small and additional heat sources are usually needed. Here, we report on a desiccant-enhanced, direct expansion heat pump based on a water-sorbing heat exchanger with a desiccant coating that exhibits an ultrahigh COP value of more than 7 without sacrificing any comfort or compactness. The pump’s efficiency is doubled compared to that of pumps currently used in conventional room air conditioners, which is a revolutionary HVAC breakthrough. Our proposed water-sorbing heat exchanger can independently handle sensible and latent loads at the same time. The desiccants adsorb moisture almost isothermally and can be regenerated by condensation heat. This new approach opens up the possibility of achieving ultrahigh efficiency for a broad range of temperature- and humidity-control applications.

  5. Comfortable, high-efficiency heat pump with desiccant-coated, water-sorbing heat exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Y. D.; Wang, R. Z.; Ge, T. S.; Zheng, X.

    2017-01-01

    Comfortable, efficient, and affordable heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems in buildings are highly desirable due to the demands of energy efficiency and environmental friendliness. Traditional vapor-compression air conditioners exhibit a lower coefficient of performance (COP) (typically 2.8–3.8) owing to the cooling-based dehumidification methods that handle both sensible and latent loads together. Temperature- and humidity-independent control or desiccant systems have been proposed to overcome these challenges; however, the COP of current desiccant systems is quite small and additional heat sources are usually needed. Here, we report on a desiccant-enhanced, direct expansion heat pump based on a water-sorbing heat exchanger with a desiccant coating that exhibits an ultrahigh COP value of more than 7 without sacrificing any comfort or compactness. The pump’s efficiency is doubled compared to that of pumps currently used in conventional room air conditioners, which is a revolutionary HVAC breakthrough. Our proposed water-sorbing heat exchanger can independently handle sensible and latent loads at the same time. The desiccants adsorb moisture almost isothermally and can be regenerated by condensation heat. This new approach opens up the possibility of achieving ultrahigh efficiency for a broad range of temperature- and humidity-control applications. PMID:28079171

  6. Measured Performance of a Low Temperature Air Source Heat Pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R. K. [Johnson Research LLC, Pueblo West, CO (United States)

    2013-09-01

    A 4-ton Low Temperature Heat Pump (LTHP) manufactured by Hallowell International was installed in a residence near New Haven, Connecticut and monitored over two winters of operation. After attending to some significant service issues, the heat pump operated as designed. This report should be considered a review of the dual compressor 'boosted heat pump' technology. The Low Temperature Heat Pumpsystem operates with four increasing levels of capacity (heat output) as the outdoor temperature drops. The system was shown to select capacity correctly, supplying the appropriate amount of heat to the house across the full range of outdoor temperatures. The system's Coefficient of Performance (Seasonal COP, or SCOP) over two entire winters was calculated, based on measured data, to be 3.29over the first winter and 2.68 over the second winter. A second seasonal efficiency calculation by a different method yielded a SCOP of 2.78 for the first winter and 2.83 for the second winter. This second seasonal efficiency calculation was determined by comparing measured heat pump energy use to the in situ energy use with resistance heat alone. This method is the ratio of the slopes of thedaily energy use load lines.

  7. 空气能热泵热水机不锈钢内胆焊接工艺优化研究%Optimization of Stainless Steel Tank Welding Procedure in Air-source Heat Pump Water Heater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘树清; 余文鹏

    2015-01-01

    The stainless steel tank in air-source heat pump water heater was an container which bear pressure and heat. It is the key component of the air-source heat pump water heater and suffered sever environment at working condition. Welding joint corrosion is the Achilles' heel of stainless tank service life at existing welding procedure. This condition restricted air-source heat pump water heater putting into use and popularize widely. Optimization of stainless steel tank welding procedure in air-source heat pump water heater has been applied several aspect and enhance the service life obviously.%空气能热泵热水器保温水箱的不锈钢内胆是一个承压承热的容器,是热水机产品的关键构件,其工作环境较为恶劣。在现有的焊接工艺条件下,不锈钢内胆的各个焊缝处的腐蚀失效是整个水箱寿命的短板,严重影响了空气能热泵热水机这种新型的节能减排产品的使用和发展。因此对空气能热泵热水机的焊接工艺作了几个方面的优化调整,使得不锈钢内胆的使用寿命得到了较大幅度的提高,取得了良好的效果。

  8. Using Ground Source Heat Pumps for Renewable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xhevat BERISHA

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides background information on the current energy supply, energy demand, and energy sources in Kosovo. Moreover, it presents the country‟s current level of applying alternative energy sources. Additionally, this paper focuses on geothermal energy as a renewable energy resource with the potential to contribute to a sustainable use of resources to meet renewable energy and energy efficiency requirements of the European Union (EU, “EU 20 20 by 2020” policy. Hence, a careful analysis is included on how to approach the aforementioned targets through investments in geothermal energy through providing an energy consumption forecast and analysing geothermal energy projects in Europe and specifically in Kosovo. This paper carefully represents the potential usage of geothermal energy in Kosovo, renewable energy source targets, and it addresses the importance of laws, regulations, and reports regarding the utilization of this type of energy. Economic and environmental implications of investing in geothermal energy - geothermal heat pumps for the case of International Village are additionally analysed. Lastly, recommendations and conclusions, for future actions, are derived and addressed to relevant stakeholders, primarily policy-makers, and government representatives.

  9. European Regional Climate Zone Modeling of a Commercial Absorption Heat Pump Hot Water Heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Vishaldeep [ORNL; Shen, Bo [ORNL; Keinath, Chris [Stone Mountain Technologies, Inc., Johnson City; Garrabrant, Michael A. [Stone Mountain Technologies, Inc., Johnson City; Geoghegan, Patrick J [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    High efficiency gas-burning hot water heating takes advantage of a condensing heat exchanger to deliver improved combustion efficiency over a standard non-condensing configuration. The water heating is always lower than the gas heating value. In contrast, Gas Absorption Heat Pump (GAHP) hot water heating combines the efficiency of gas burning with the performance increase from a heat pump to offer significant gas energy savings. An ammonia-water system also has the advantage of zero Ozone Depletion Potential and low Global Warming Potential. In comparison with air source electric heat pumps, the absorption system can maintain higher coefficients of performance in colder climates. In this work, a GAHP commercial water heating system was compared to a condensing gas storage system for a range of locations and climate zones across Europe. The thermodynamic performance map of a single effect ammonia-water absorption system was used in a building energy modeling software that could also incorporate the changing ambient air temperature and water mains temperature for a specific location, as well as a full-service restaurant water draw pattern.

  10. Air Source Heat Pump a Key Role in the Development of Smart Buildings in Future Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craciun, Vasile S.; Trifa, Viorel; Bojesen, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    of energy is used for space heating, space cooling, and domestic hot water production which are provided to residential and commercial buildings. Air source heat pumps (ASHP) are widely used conversion technologies all over the world for providing building thermal energy services as: cooling, heating...

  11. Annual investigation of vertical type ground source heat pump system performance on a wall heating and cooling system in Istanbul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbulut, U.; Yoru, Y.; Kincay, O. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yildiz Technical University (Turkey)], email: akbulutugur@yahoo.com, email: yilmazyoru@gmail.com, email: okincay@yildiz.edu.tr

    2011-07-01

    Wall heating and cooling systems (WHCS) are equipped with heating serpentines or panels for water circulation. These systems operate in a low temperature range so they are preferable to other, conventional systems. Furthermore, when these systems are connected to a ground source heat pump (GSHP) system, energy performance and thermal comfort are further enhanced. The purpose of this paper is to report the results of an annual inspection done on a vertical type ground-coupled heat pump systems (V-GSHP) WHCS in Istanbul and present the results. The performance data from the Yildiz Renewable Energy House at Davutpasa Campus of Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey, during the year 2010 were collected and analyzed. The conclusions drawn from the inspection and analysis were listed in this paper. Using renewable energy sources effectively will bring both economic and environmental benefits and it is hoped that the use of these energy efficient WHCS systems will become widespread.

  12. Investigation of direct expansion in ground source heat pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalman, M. D.

    A fully instrumented subscale ground coupled heat pump system was developed, and built, and used to test and obtain data on three different earth heat exchanger configurations under heating conditions (ground cooling). Various refrigerant flow control and compressor protection devices were tested for their applicability to the direct expansion system. Undistributed Earth temperature data were acquired at various depths. The problem of oil return at low evaporator temperatures and low refrigerant velocities was addressed. An analysis was performed to theoretically determine what evaporator temperature can be expected with an isolated ground pipe configuration with given length, pipe size, soil conditions and constant heat load. Technical accomplishments to data are summarized.

  13. Development of a nonazeotropic heat pump for crew hygiene water heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, David H.; Deming, Glenn I.

    1991-01-01

    A Phase 2 SBIR Program funded by the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to develop a Nonazeotropic Heat Pump is described. The heat pump system which was designed, fabricated, and tested in the Foster-Miller laboratory, is capable of providing crew hygiene water heating for future manned missions. The heat pump utilizes a nonazeotropic refrigerant mixture which, in this application, provides a significant Coefficient of Performance improvement over a single-constituent working fluid. In order to take full advantage of the refrigerant mixture, compact tube-in-tube heat exchangers were designed. A high efficiency scroll compressor with a proprietary lubrication system was developed to meet the requirements of operation in zero-gravity. The prototype heat pump system consumes less than 200W of power compared to the alternative of electric cartridge heaters which would require 2 to 5 kW.

  14. Temperature and Humidity Independent Control Research on Ground Source Heat Pump Air Conditioning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, G.; Wang, L. L.

    Taking green demonstration center building air conditioning system as an example, this paper presents the temperature and humidity independent control system combined with ground source heat pump system, emphasis on the design of dry terminal device system, fresh air system and ground source heat pump system.

  15. Demand Response Performance of GE Hybrid Heat Pump Water Heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Parker, Graham B.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2013-07-01

    This report describes a project to evaluate and document the DR performance of HPWH as compared to ERWH for two primary types of DR events: peak curtailments and balancing reserves. The experiments were conducted with GE second-generation “Brillion”-enabled GeoSpring hybrid water heaters in the PNNL Lab Homes, with one GE GeoSpring water heater operating in “Standard” electric resistance mode to represent the baseline and one GE GeoSpring water heater operating in “Heat Pump” mode to provide the comparison to heat pump-only demand response. It is expected that “Hybrid” DR performance, which would engage both the heat pump and electric elements, could be interpolated from these two experimental extremes. Signals were sent simultaneously to the two water heaters in the side-by-side PNNL Lab Homes under highly controlled, simulated occupancy conditions. This report presents the results of the evaluation, which documents the demand-response capability of the GE GeoSpring HPWH for peak load reduction and regulation services. The sections describe the experimental protocol and test apparatus used to collect data, present the baselining procedure, discuss the results of the simulated DR events for the HPWH and ERWH, and synthesize key conclusions based on the collected data.

  16. Recovery Act - Geothermal Technologies Program: Ground Source Heat Pumps Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nick Rosenberry, Harris Companies

    2012-05-04

    A large centralized geothermal heat pump system was installed to provide ice making, space cooling, space heating, process water heating, and domestic hot water heating for an ice arena in Eagan Minnesota. This paper provides information related to the design and construction of the project. Additionally, operating conditions for 12 months after start-up are provided.

  17. Application Examples of Heat Pump Central Air Conditioning of Water Source of Poyang Lake%鄱阳湖水源热泵中央空调运用实例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾宇军

    2014-01-01

    Through the selection of model test of central air conditioning cooling and heating mode of Poyang Lake, the author introduces the composition and operation of lake water source heat pump and ground source ground principle coupled heat exchanger auxiliary heating system, analyzing the system operation ef iciency, which has obtained the good use ef ect, and providing a theoretical basis and examples of templates for water source heat pump project in Poyang Lake region.%通过鄱阳湖模型试验研究基地中央空调供冷供热方式的比选,介绍了湖水源热泵和地源土壤耦合换热器辅助供热系统组成和运行原理,进行了该系统运行的效益分析,取得了较好的使用效果,为环鄱阳湖区域利用水源热泵工程提供了理论依据和实例样板。

  18. Hot water preparation using only a heat-pump; Warmwasserbereitung immer mit Waermepumpe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, H.; Gabathuler, H. R. [Gabathuler AG, beratende Ingenieure, Diessenhofen (Switzerland); Baumgartner, T. [Th. Baumgartner und Partner AG, Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2007-07-01

    This article discusses the use of heat-pumps to heat up domestic hot water. The authors note that previously, heat-pumps were used to provide only space heating and domestic hot water was heated up using separate electrical heating elements. The results of a research and development project that defined standard configurations for small heat-pump installations that also provide hot water are discussed. An existing installation with two heat-pumps with ground-loop heat probes and a hot water store was used for tests. Measurements made and the results obtained are presented and discussed. Six configuration variants are described and their operation examined in detail. It is concluded that heat pumps may always be used for hot water preparation despite hygiene regulations demanding hot water temperatures up to 60 {sup o}C to prevent legionella growth.

  19. Operation Characteristics of Ground Source Heat Pump for Centralized Hot Water Supply in High-rise Buildings%地源热泵用于高层建筑集中供热水的运行特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳; 胡映宁; 林俊

    2012-01-01

    自主设计了地源热泵热水/空调冷热联供系统和单纯的地源热泵供热水系统,并将其应用于高层建筑中.运用单因素方法,研究循环介质流量等对热泵系统运行特性的影响,确定最佳流量,并通过测试计算系统的能耗.结果表明,在地源热泵热水/空调冷热联供系统中,采用地源制热水时的机组能效比和系统能效比分别为4.7和4.2,冷热联供时的机组综合能效比和系统综合能效比分别为8.63和6.39;系统全年制热水耗电量为6.35 kW·h/m3,与电锅炉加热方式和太阳能+电辅助加热方式相比,可分别节省82.2%和46.7%的电量.在单纯的地源热泵供热水系统中,机组能效比和系统能效比分别为4.8和4.3,全年制热水总耗电量为11.13 kW·h/m3,与电锅炉加热方式和太阳能+电辅助加热方式相比,可分别节省74.69%和24%的电量.由此说明,地源热泵集中供热水系统应用于高层建筑的节能效果显著.%A ground source heat pump hot-water/air-conditioning system and a stand-alone ground source heat pump hot-water system were designed and used in high-rise buildings. The influence of circulation medium flow on the operation characteristics of heat pump system was studied, the optimal flow was determined, and the energy consumption of the systems was calculated by testing. The results showed that for the ground source heap pump hot-water/air-conditioning system, the unit energy efficiency ratio and the system energy efficiency ratio were 4. 7 and 4. 2, respectively, when supplying hot water. The unit integrated energy efficiency ratio and the system integrated energy efficiency ratio were 8. 63 and 6. 39, respectively, when supplying hot water and cooling. The annual power consumption for supplying hot water was 6. 35 kW · h/m3, and the power savings were 82. 2% and 46. 7% compared with electric boiler heating and solar electric heating. For the ground source heat pump hot-water system, the

  20. Magnetic pumping as a source of particle heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichko, Emily; Egedal, Jan; Daughton, William; Kasper, Justin

    2016-10-01

    Magnetic pumping is a means of heating plasmas for both fusion and astrophysical applications. This study presents a generalized model, related to the compressional pumping model Fisk & Gloeckler applied to the solar wind (2006). Unlike previous models, this model includes diffusion of the anisotropic features which develop in velocity space, thereby allowing energy to be transferred to the particles directly from the turbulence. By using various orderings, the drift kinetic equation can be reduced to a more general form of Parker's equation with an anisotropic distribution function. Through expansions in both pitch angle and in space, it can be shown that this equation has power law solutions and results in an overall heating of the plasma. This form of heating is related to transit-time damping. Kinetic simulations were performed to test the theoretical model and explore regimes where spatial and velocity diffusion are of the same order of importance, regimes not easily available to analytical calculations. These simulations appear to confirm the pumping model in the appropriate limits.

  1. Energy Savings and Breakeven Cost for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, J.; Burch, J.; Merrigan, T.; Ong, S.

    2013-07-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently reemerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, simulations were performed of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern US. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern US, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

  2. Energy Savings and Breakeven Costs for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burch, Jay [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Merrigan, Tim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ong, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently re-emerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, NREL performed simulations of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern United States. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern United States, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

  3. Theoretical heating coefficient of a heat pump water heater with heat recovery applied in household bathing room

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KOUGuangxiao; WANGHanqing; GUWeili; KOUJianguo

    2003-01-01

    Presents the components and flow diagram of a heat pump water heater with heat reclaim applied In household bathing room, analyzes its characteristics from thermodynamical principle, calculates its theoretical heating coefficient under different operating conditions. The result shows that the maximum value of its heating coefficient is 12.9 under a typical operating condition.

  4. Performance improvement of air source heat pump by using gas-injected rotary compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B. L.; Liu, X. R.; Ding, Y. C.; Shi, W. X.

    2017-08-01

    Rotary compressor is most widely used in small capacity refrigeration and heat pump systems. For the air source heat pump, the heating capacity and the COP will be obviously degraded when it is utilized in low temperature ambient. Gas injection is an effective method to enhance its performance under those situations, which has been well applied in air source heat pump with scroll compressor. However, the development of the gas injection technology in rotary compressor is relatively slow due to limited performance improvement. In this research, the essential reason constraining the improvement of the gas injection on the rotary compressor and its heat pump system is identified. Two new injection structures for rotary compressors has been put forward to overcome the drawback of traditional injection structures. Based on a verified numerical model, the thermodynamic performance of air source heat pumps with the new gas-injected rotary compressor are investigated. The results indicate that, compared to the air source heat pump with the traditional gas injected rotary compressor, the new injection structures both can enhance heating capacity and COP of the air source heat pump obviously.

  5. Analysis of air-to-water heat pump in cold climate: comparison between experiment and simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolis Januševičius

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Heat pump systems are promising technologies for current and future buildings and this research presents the performance of air source heat pump (ASHP system. The system was monitored, analysed and simulated using TRNSYS software. The experimental data were used to calibrate the simulation model of ASHP. The specific climate conditions are evaluated in the model. It was noticed for the heating mode that the coefficient of performance (COP varied from 1.98 to 3.05 as the outdoor temperature changed from –7.0 ºC to +5.0 ºC, respectively. TRNSYS simulations were also performed to predict seasonal performance factor of the ASHP for Vilnius city. It was identified that seasonal performance prediction could be approximately 15% lower if frost formation effects are not included to air-water heat pump simulation model.

  6. Application and summary of fresh water-source heat pump system in Chengdu Jinjiangchuangyi Science and Technology Building%成都锦江创意科技大厦淡水源热泵应用及总结

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王波; 徐净宇; 黄进

    2012-01-01

    The project is a demonstration project of renewable energy application in buildings, adopting a fresh water-source heat pump system for cooling, heating and domestic hot water supply. To realize the system energy efficiency ratio over 3.0 both in winter and summer, considering the water quality of the water source, adopts the scheme of the water entering the heat pump unit directly. By selecting anti-corrosion units and installing rubber-ball cleaning devices, guarantees the stability of system operation.%该工程为可再生能源建筑应用示范工程,采用淡水源热泵系统为建筑供冷、供热和生活热水提供冷热源.为达到示范工程所要求的冬夏季系统能效比均在3.0以上,结合该工程的水源水质情况,采用了水源水直接进热泵主机的方案;通过选用耐腐蚀的水源热泵主机并加装胶球清洗装置,保证了系统的稳定运行.

  7. Nonazeotropic Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ealker, David H.; Deming, Glenn

    1991-01-01

    Heat pump collects heat from water circulating in heat-rejection loop, raises temperature of collected heat, and transfers collected heat to water in separate pipe. Includes sealed motor/compressor with cooling coils, evaporator, and condenser, all mounted in outer housing. Gradients of temperature in evaporator and condenser increase heat-transfer efficiency of vapor-compression cycle. Intended to recover relatively-low-temperature waste heat and use it to make hot water.

  8. Nonazeotropic Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ealker, David H.; Deming, Glenn

    1991-01-01

    Heat pump collects heat from water circulating in heat-rejection loop, raises temperature of collected heat, and transfers collected heat to water in separate pipe. Includes sealed motor/compressor with cooling coils, evaporator, and condenser, all mounted in outer housing. Gradients of temperature in evaporator and condenser increase heat-transfer efficiency of vapor-compression cycle. Intended to recover relatively-low-temperature waste heat and use it to make hot water.

  9. Advanced heat pump cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groll, E.A.; Radermacher, R.

    1993-07-01

    The desorption and absorption process of a vapor compression heat pump with a solution circuit (VCHSC) proceeds at gliding temperature intervals, which can be adjusted over a wide range. In case that the gliding temperature intervals in the desorber and the absorber overlap, a modification of the VCHSC employing a desorber/absorber heat exchange (DAHX) can be introduced, which results in an extreme reduction of the pressure ratio. Although the DAHX-cycle has features of a two-stage cycle, it still requires only one solution pump, one separator and one compressor. Such a cycle for the working pair ammonia/water is built in the Energy Laboratory of the Center for Environmental Energy Engineering at the University of Maryland. The experimental results obtained with the research plant are discussed and compared to those calculated with a simulation program. The possible temperature lift between heat source and heat sink depending on the achievable COP are presented.

  10. Numerical and experimental study on heat pump water heater with PCM for thermal storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Jian-You; Zhu, Dong-Sheng [Key Laboratory of Enhanced Heat Transfer and Energy Conservation of the Ministry of Education, Academy of Chemistry and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510640 (China)

    2008-07-01

    An air source heat pump water heater with phase change material (PCM) for thermal storage was designed to take advantage of off-peak electrical energy. The heat transfer model of PCM was based upon a pure conduction formulation. Quasi-steady state method was used to calculate the temperature distribution and phase front location of PCM during thermal storage process. Temperature and thermal resistance iteration approach has been developed for the analysis of temperature variation of heat transfer fluid (HTF) and phase front location of PCM during thermal release process. To test the physical validity of the calculational results, experimental studies about storing heat and releasing heat of PCM were carried. Comparison between the calculational results and the experimental data shows good agreement. Graphical results including system pressure and input power of heat pump, time-wise variation of stored and released thermal energy of PCM were presented and discussed. (author)

  11. Earliest Deadline Control of a Group of Heat Pumps with a Single Energy Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Fink

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we develop and investigate the optimal control of a group of 104 heat pumps and a central Combined Heat and Power unit (CHP. The heat pumps supply space heating and domestic hot water to households. Each house has a buffer for domestic hot water and a floor heating system for space heating. Electricity for the heat pumps is generated by a central CHP unit, which also provides thermal energy to a district heating system. The paper reviews recent smart grid control approaches for central and distributed levels. An online algorithm is described based on the earliest deadline first theory that can be used on the aggregator level to control the CHP and to give signals to the heat pump controllers if they should start or should wait. The central controller requires only a limited amount of privacy-insensitive information from the heat pump controllers about their deadlines, which the heat pump controllers calculate for themselves by model predictions. In this way, a robust heat pump and CHP control is obtained, which is able to minimize energy demand and results in the desired thermal comfort for the households. The simulations demonstrate fast computation times due to minor computational and communication overheads.

  12. Application of Air Source Heat Pump plus Solar Energy in Domestic Hot Water Preparation System%空气源热泵+太阳能在热水制备系统中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李超; 卢强; 郭萌; 赵勇

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the commonly used heating modes and gives a detailed introduction of both air source heat pump technology and solar heating technology. Combined with the actual project, the steam heating system of hot water is changed into air source heat pump plus solar heating. By analyzing the actual enetgy consumption data, we obtain the energy -saving value, thus achieve the goal of energy efficiency.%通过对常用供热方式的分析,并对空气源热泵技术、太阳能制热技术原理的介绍,结合工程实际情况,将原蒸汽加热制热水方式改造为空气源热泵+太阳能制热。通过对实际能耗数据的经济分析,得出改造后的节能价值,达到了节约能源的目的。

  13. Federal Technology Alert: Ground-Source Heat Pumps Applied to Federal Facilities--Second Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, Donald L.

    2001-03-01

    This Federal Technology Alert, which was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Federal Energy Management Programs, provides the detailed information and procedures that a Federal energy manager needs to evaluate most ground-source heat pump applications. This report updates an earlier report on ground-source heat pumps that was published in September 1995. In the current report, general benefits of this technology to the Federal sector are described, as are ground-source heat pump operation, system types, design variations, energy savings, and other benefits. In addition, information on current manufacturers, technology users, and references for further reading are provided.

  14. 欧盟空气源热泵(静态)热水器生态设计测试研究%Study of the Test about Ecodesign of Air Source Heat Pump (Static) Water Heater in European Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马洁丹; 臧松彦

    2015-01-01

    本文结合法规EU No.812/2013、 EU No.814/2013和标准EN 16147:2011对空气源热泵热水器的ERP测试方法和要求进行分析和总结,并提出测试过程中的各个注意事项,以便读者更好了解新法规对热泵能效的测试要求。%This paper analyzed and summarized the ERP test of Air source heat pump water heater, with the code of EU No.812/2013, EU No.814/2013 and the standard of EN 16147: 2011, and brought forward notice of the test, for the reader knowing more about the energy efficiency test of heat pump.

  15. Ground Source Heat Pump Sub-Slab Heat Exchange Loop Performance in a Cold Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittereder, Nick [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Poerschke, Andrew [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2013-11-01

    This report presents a cold-climate project that examines an alternative approach to ground source heat pump (GSHP) ground loop design. The innovative ground loop design is an attempt to reduce the installed cost of the ground loop heat exchange portion of the system by containing the entire ground loop within the excavated location beneath the basement slab. Prior to the installation and operation of the sub-slab heat exchanger, energy modeling using TRNSYS software and concurrent design efforts were performed to determine the size and orientation of the system. One key parameter in the design is the installation of the GSHP in a low-load home, which considerably reduces the needed capacity of the ground loop heat exchanger. This report analyzes data from two cooling seasons and one heating season.

  16. Innovative commercial ``ground source'' heat pump system sources and sinks: Engineering and economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachs, H.M.; Lowenstein, A.I.; Henderson, H.I. Jr.; Carlson, S.W.; Risser, J.E.

    1998-07-01

    Geothermal heat pumps, which will be called GX systems in this paper, have been employed in specialty applications on both residential and commercial buildings for several decades. GX systems generally have very competitive life cycle costs, but somewhat higher initial costs. The incremental cost of the ground heat exchanger cost is close to the average cost per ton, so GX systems work best with very efficient building shells. Innovative methods can reduce the ground heat exchanger cost. These include better coupling of the heat exchange boreholes to the ground, hybrid systems that use low cost closed fluid coolers to supplement the ground heat exchanger where cooling loads dominate, open loop systems, and opportunistic systems that use sewage effluent or other non-standard sources for heat exchange. These approaches and their benefits are illustrated through five case studies.

  17. Champagne Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.

    2004-01-01

    The term champagne heat pump denotes a developmental heat pump that exploits a cycle of absorption and desorption of carbon dioxide in an alcohol or other organic liquid. Whereas most heat pumps in common use in the United States are energized by mechanical compression, the champagne heat pump is energized by heating. The concept of heat pumps based on other absorption cycles energized by heat has been understood for years, but some of these heat pumps are outlawed in many areas because of the potential hazards posed by leakage of working fluids. For example, in the case of the water/ammonia cycle, there are potential hazards of toxicity and flammability. The organic-liquid/carbon dioxide absorption/desorption cycle of the champagne heat pump is similar to the water/ammonia cycle, but carbon dioxide is nontoxic and environmentally benign, and one can choose an alcohol or other organic liquid that is also relatively nontoxic and environmentally benign. Two candidate nonalcohol organic liquids are isobutyl acetate and amyl acetate. Although alcohols and many other organic liquids are flammable, they present little or no flammability hazard in the champagne heat pump because only the nonflammable carbon dioxide component of the refrigerant mixture is circulated to the evaporator and condenser heat exchangers, which are the only components of the heat pump in direct contact with air in habitable spaces.

  18. National Certification Standard for Ground Source Heat Pump Personnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, John [Geothermal Heat Pump Consortium, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-07-31

    The National Certification Standard for the Geothermal Heat Pump Industry adds to the understanding of the barriers to rapid growth of the geothermal heat pump (GHP) industry by bringing together for the first time an analysis of the roles and responsibilities of each of the individual job tasks involved in the design and installation of GHP systems. The standard addresses applicable qualifications for all primary personnel involved in the design, installation, commissioning, operation and maintenance of GHP systems, including their knowledge, skills and abilities. The resulting standard serves as a foundation for subsequent development of curriculum, training and certification programs, which are not included in the scope of this project, but are briefly addressed in the standard to describe ways in which the standard developed in this project may form a foundation to support further progress in accomplishing those other efforts. Follow-on efforts may use the standard developed in this project to improve the technical effectiveness and economic feasibility of curriculum development and training programs for GHP industry personnel, by providing a more complete and objective assessment of the individual job tasks necessary for successful implementation of GHP systems. When incorporated into future certification programs for GHP personnel, the standard will facilitate increased consumer confidence in GHP technology, reduce the potential for improperly installed GHP systems, and assure GHP system quality and performance, all of which benefit the public through improved energy efficiency and mitigated environmental impacts of the heating and cooling of homes and businesses.

  19. Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump System Development – Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, Van D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rice, C. Keith [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Munk, Jeffrey D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ally, Moonis R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shen, Bo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Uselton, R. B. [Lennox Industries, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Between October 2007 and September 2017, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Lennox Industries, Inc. (Lennox) engaged in a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to develop an air-source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) system for the US residential market. The Lennox AS-IHP concept consisted of a high-efficiency air-source heat pump (ASHP) for space heating and cooling services and a separate heat pump water heater/dehumidifier (WH/DH) module for domestic water heating and dehumidification (DH) services. A key feature of this system approach with the separate WH/DH is capability to pretreat (i.e., dehumidify) ventilation air and dedicated whole-house DH independent of the ASHP. Two generations of laboratory prototype WH/DH units were designed, fabricated, and lab tested. Performance maps for the system were developed using the latest research version of the US Department of Energy/ORNL heat pump design model (Rice 1992; Rice and Jackson 2005; Shen et al. 2012) as calibrated against the lab test data. These maps served as the input to TRNSYS (Solar Energy Laboratory et al. 2010) to predict annual performance relative to a baseline suite of equipment meeting minimum efficiency standards in effect in 2006 (i.e., a combination of an ASHP with a seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER) of 13 and resistance water heater with an energy factor (EF) of 0.9). Predicted total annual energy savings (based on use of a two-speed ASHP and the second-generation WH/DH prototype for the AS-IHP), while providing space conditioning, water heating, and dehumidification for a tight, well-insulated 2600 ft2 (242 m2) house at three US locations, ranged from 33 to 36%, averaging 35%, relative to the baseline system. The lowest savings were seen at the cold-climate Chicago location. Predicted energy use for water heating was reduced by about 50 to 60% relative to a resistance WH.

  20. Heat Pump Water Heater Durabliltiy Testing - Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, VAND.

    2004-05-29

    Ten heat pump water heaters (HPWH) were placed in an environmentally controlled test facility and run through a durability test program of approximately 7300 duty cycles (actual cycles accumulated ranged from 6640 to 8324 for the ten units). Five of the units were upgraded integral types (HPWH mounted on storage tank, no pump) from the same manufacturer as those tested in our first durability program in 2001 (Baxter and Linkous, 2002). The other five were ''add-on'' type units (HPWH with circulation pump plumbed to a separate storage tank) from another manufacturer. This durability test was designed to represent approximately 7-10 years of normal operation to meet the hot water needs of a residence. The integral units operated without incident apart from two control board failures. Both of these were caused by inadvertent exposure to very hot and humid (>135 F dry bulb and >120 F dew point) conditions that occurred due to a test loop failure. It is not likely that any residential water heater would be installed where such conditions were expected so these failures are not considered a long-term reliability concern. Two of the integral HPWHs featured a condensate management system (CMS) option that effectively eliminated any need for an evaporator condensate drain, but imposed significant efficiency penalties when operating in high humidity ambient conditions. The add-on units experienced no operational failures (breakdowns with loss of hot water production) during the course of the testing. However, their control systems exhibited some performance degradation under the high temperature, high humidity test conditions--HPWHs would shut off with tank water temperatures 15-20 F lower than when operating under moderate ambient conditions. One unit developed a refrigerant leak during the test program and lost about 50% of its charge resulting in reduced efficiency. Efficiency measurements on all the integral units and four of the add-on units showed

  1. Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, Victor; Lekov, Alex; Meyers, Steve; Letschert, Virginie

    2010-05-14

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are over twice as energy-efficient as conventional electric resistance water heaters, with the potential to save substantial amounts of electricity. Drawing on analysis conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's recently-concluded rulemaking on amended standards for water heaters, this paper evaluates key issues that will determine how well, and to what extent, this technology will fit in American homes. The key issues include: 1) equipment cost of HPWHs; 2) cooling of the indoor environment by HPWHs; 3) size and air flow requirements of HPWHs; 4) performance of HPWH under different climate conditions and varying hot water use patterns; and 5) operating cost savings under different electricity prices and hot water use. The paper presents the results of a life-cycle cost analysis of the adoption of HPWHs in a representative sample of American homes, as well as national impact analysis for different market share scenarios. Assuming equipment costs that would result from high production volume, the results show that HPWHs can be cost effective in all regions for most single family homes, especially when the water heater is not installed in a conditioned space. HPWHs are not cost effective for most manufactured home and multi-family installations, due to lower average hot water use and the water heater in the majority of cases being installed in conditioned space, where cooling of the indoor environment and size and air flow requirements of HPWHs increase installation costs.

  2. Analysis of a Residential Heating System Utilizing a Solar Assisted Water-to-Air Heat Pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-07-01

    heat pump heating system were analyzed. A realistic residence and solar assisted water-to-air heat pump system were modeled for this northern climate using the transient simulation computer code TRNSYS developed by the University of Wisconsin. The system was studied over a one month winter period, December, using actual hourly weather data. The system was analyzed for both the cloudiest and clearest December weather recorded in the last 30 years. The collector area and storage tank capacity were varied and the effects on system performance were

  3. Hourly Calculation Method of Air Source Heat Pump Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovico Danza

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes an hourly simplified model for the evaluation of the energy performance of heat pumps in cooling mode maintaining a high accuracy and low computational cost. This approach differs from the methods used for the assessment of the overall energy consumption of the building, normally placed in the so-called white or black box models, where the transient conduction equation is deterministically and stochastically solved, respectively. The present method wants to be the expression of the grey box model, taking place between the previous approaches. The building envelope is defined using a building thermal model realized with a 3 Resistance 1 Capacitance (3R1C thermal network based on the solution of the lumped capacitance method. The simplified model evaluates the energy efficiency ratio (EER of a heat pump through the determination of the hourly second law efficiency of a reversed Carnot cycle. The results of the simplified method were finally compared with those provided by EnergyPlus, a dynamic building energy simulation program, and those collected from an outdoor test cell in real working conditions. The results are presented in temperatures and energy consumptions profiles and are validated using the Bland-Altman test.

  4. Development of dual-source hybrid heat pump system using groundwater and air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Yujin; Ooka, Ryozo [Cw403 Institute of Industry Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Shiba, Yoshiro [Zeneral Heatpump Industry Co., Ltd., Nagoya 459-8001 (Japan)

    2010-06-15

    To achieve high heat pump efficiency, groundwater heat pump (GWHP) system uses groundwater, which is relatively stable AT temperature compared with outdoor air, as a heat source. However, it is difficult to meet annual heating and cooling loads using only groundwater as a heat source. In order to optimize the operation method of GWHP systems, it is necessary to develop a system utilizing both groundwater and air sources according to the building load conditions. Furthermore, during intermediate seasons (such as spring and autumn) with reduced heating and cooling loads, GWHP system is less efficient than air source heat pump (ASHP) system according to temperature conditions. In order to more efficiently use GWHP systems, it is necessary to develop a system which utilizes both groundwater and air sources according to temperature conditions and building loads. This research has developed a GWHP system that employs a hybrid heat pump system with groundwater wells using dual groundwater and air heat sources. In this paper, the annual performance of the developed system has been calculated, and several case studies have been conducted on the effect of introduction location, refrigerant and pumping rate. Furthermore, the coefficient of system performance and the effects on underground environments have been evaluated by real-scale experiment using two wells. (author)

  5. ENERGY STAR Certified Non-AHRI Central Air Conditioner Equipment and Air Source Heat Pump

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 5.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Air Source Heat Pump and Central Air Conditioner...

  6. Performance analysis of air source heat pump system for office building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Dong Won; KIm, Yong Chan [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Young Soo [School of Mechanical System Engineering, Kookmin University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    In this study, the performance of an air source heat pump system installed in a commercial building is analyzed using the developed heat pump performance model and building load simulation data of several regions in Korea. The performance test of an air source heat pump system with a variable speed compressor is tested to develop model that considers changes in the performance characteristics of the heat pump system under various operating conditions. The heat pump system is installed in an environmental chamber, and the experimental equipment is set up according to the manufacturer' specifications as well as the AHRI 1230 test specifications. The performance test conditions of the heat pump system are selected using a central composite design method, in which 29 points for each cooling and heating mode are selected. The developed performance model based on experimental data predicts experimental values with an error of ±5 %. Building cooling and heating loads in three regions in Korea are analyzed using TRNSYS software, which includes standard building and weather data from Seoul, Daejeon and Busan in Korea. The effects of outdoor air temperature and part load ratio on the performance and regional monthly average power consumption of the heat pump system are analyzed.

  7. Ground Source Heat Pump Sub-Slab Heat Exchange Loop Performance in a Cold Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittereder, N.; Poerschke, A.

    2013-11-01

    This report presents a cold-climate project that examines an alternative approach to ground source heat pump (GSHP) ground loop design. The innovative ground loop design is an attempt to reduce the installed cost of the ground loop heat exchange portion of the system by containing the entire ground loop within the excavated location beneath the basement slab. Prior to the installation and operation of the sub-slab heat exchanger, energy modeling using TRNSYS software and concurrent design efforts were performed to determine the size and orientation of the system. One key parameter in the design is the installation of the GSHP in a low-load home, which considerably reduces the needed capacity of the ground loop heat exchanger. This report analyzes data from two cooling seasons and one heating season. Upon completion of the monitoring phase, measurements revealed that the initial TRNSYS simulated horizontal sub-slab ground loop heat exchanger fluid temperatures and heat transfer rates differed from the measured values. To determine the cause of this discrepancy, an updated model was developed utilizing a new TRNSYS subroutine for simulating sub-slab heat exchangers. Measurements of fluid temperature, soil temperature, and heat transfer were used to validate the updated model.

  8. On the Design and Response of Domestic Ground-Source Heat Pumps in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Underwood

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The design and response of ground source heat pumps coupled to vertical closed loop arrays in UK domestic applications are investigated in this article. Two typical UK house types are selected as the vehicle for the study and a detailed dynamic thermal modelling method is used to arrive at time-series heating demands for the two houses. A new empirical heat pump model is derived using experimental data taking into account the deteriorating performance of the heat pump during periods of light load. The heat pump model is incorporated into an existing numerical ground model and completed with a classical effectiveness type heat exchange model of the closed loop array. The model is used to analyse array sizing and performance over an extended time period, as well as sensitivity of the design to soil conductivity and borehole heat exchanger resistance and sensitivity to over-sizing and part-load behavior of the heat pump. Results show that the UK’s standard for ground source design (the Microgeneration Certification Scheme may lead to under-estimated array sizes and that heating system over-sizing and deleterious part-load heat pump performance can add up to 20% to the electrical consumption of these systems.

  9. Field Investigation of an Air-Source Cold Climate Heat Pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Rice, C Keith [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    In the U.S., there are approximately 2.6 million dwellings that use electricity for heating in cold and very cold regions with an annual energy consumption of 0.16 quads (0.17 EJ). A high performance cold climate heat pump (CCHP) would result in significant savings over current technologies (greater than 60% compared to electric resistance heating). We developed an air-source cold climate heat pump, which uses tandem compressors, with a single compressor rated for the building design cooling load, and running two compressors to provide, at -13 F (-25 C), 75% of rated heating capacity. The tandem compressors were optimized for heating operation and are able to tolerate discharge temperatures up to 280 F (138 C). A field investigation was conducted in the winter of 2015, in an occupied home in Ohio, USA. During the heating season, the seasonal COP was measured at 3.16, and the heat pump was able to operate down to -13 F (-25 C) and eliminate resistance heat use. The heat pump maintained an acceptable comfort level throughout the heating season. In comparison to a previous single-speed heat pump in the home, the CCHP demonstrated more than 40% energy savings in the peak heating load month. This paper illustrates the measured field performance, including compressor run time, frost/defrosting operations, distributions of building heating load and capacity delivery, comfort level, field measured COPs, etc.

  10. Optimized ground coupled heat pump mechanical package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catan, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    This project addresses the question of how well a ground coupled heat pump system could perform with a heat pump which was designed specifically for such systems operating in a northern climate. Conventionally, systems are designed around water source heat pumps which are not designed for ground coupled heat pump application. The objective of the project is to minimize the life cycle cost for a ground coupled system given the freedom to design the heat pump and the ground coil in concert. In order to achieve this objective a number of modeling tools were developed which will likely be of interest in their own right.

  11. Regenerative adsorbent heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A regenerative adsorbent heat pump process and system is provided which can regenerate a high percentage of the sensible heat of the system and at least a portion of the heat of adsorption. A series of at least four compressors containing an adsorbent is provided. A large amount of heat is transferred from compressor to compressor so that heat is regenerated. The process and system are useful for air conditioning rooms, providing room heat in the winter or for hot water heating throughout the year, and, in general, for pumping heat from a lower temperature to a higher temperature.

  12. 某水源热泵抽灌试验及建筑物沉降影响分析%Pumpwater & Recharge Experimental of a Water-source Heat Pump and Analysis of Building Settlement Influence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洋

    2015-01-01

    水源热泵在一些项目中应用时,存在缺乏前期论证、过度开采等问题。文中结合某水源热泵项目开展试验研究工作,通过抽灌试验数据,对场地管井的布置、土壤的渗透系数、影响半径、建筑物的沉降影响进行了分析计算。%The application of ground source heat pump in some projects, there is a lack of pre feasibility studies, overexploiting problems. This paper combined with the experimental research work of a ground source heat pump project, Which analyses the arrangement of the site well、the permeability coefficient of soil、 radius of influence and building settle-ment according to the pumping and recharging water test data.

  13. Heat pumps in agricultural uses. Factsheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, R.D.

    1986-04-01

    This paper provides an elementary introduction to heat pumps and their potential for use in Ontario agricultural applications, taking into account local climatic conditions which mean high heating loads and small cooling loads. A heat pump's ability to remove heat from a variety of sources and boost this heat to a useable temperature enables such farm uses as recovery of heat from exhaust air in livestock barns, greenhouse heating using ground water, and heat extraction from manure. Basic types of heat pumps are evaluated and compared, and their costs are estimated.

  14. 广州亚运城太阳能水源热泵项目设计要点介绍%Introduction of the design points of Guangzhou Asian Games Town solar hot water and water source heat pump project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王耀堂; 王则慧; 董立; 赵世明; 刘振印

    2011-01-01

    Guangzhou Asian Games Town is located in Panyu district of Guangzhou City, including athlete village, media village, technical official village, logistic service village, gyms village, and Asian Games Park. As the initialization district of new city construction, Asian Games Town is positioned as medium and high level residential community and regional service center with comprehensive facilities, and will be used as Asian Games Village in 2010 for the 16th Asian Games. As an important special technology project, the Asian Games Town solar energy and water source heat pump project were designed, constructed and managed solely, and this system would supply the Asian Games Town residential buildings domestic hot water and partial singular building air condition cold source. The engineering background, general situation and system design principles of Guangzhou Asian Games Town solar energy and water source heat pump project were introduced, and the engineering project design content and difficult problems were also summarized.%广州亚运城位于广州市番禺区,分为运动员村、媒体村、技术官员村、后勤服务区、体育馆区及亚运公园六大部分.亚运城作为新城建设的启动区,定位为配套完善的中高档居住社区及区域服务中心,2010年作为第16届亚运会亚运村使用.亚运城太阳能和水源热泵利用工程作为亚运城重大技术专项进行单独设计、施工和运行管理,系统集中供应亚运城居住建筑生活热水和部分单体建筑空调冷源.介绍了广州亚运城太阳能水源热泵项目的工程背景、工程概况和系统设计原则,总结了主要工程设计内容和难点问题.

  15. System simulation for an untreated sewage source heat pump (USSHP) in winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Na; Hao, Peng Z.

    2017-01-01

    The paper discusses the system characteristics of an untreated sewage source heat pump in winter. In this system, the sewage enters into the evaporator directly. The variable parameters to control the system contain the sewage temperature at evaporator inlet and the water temperature at condenser inlet. It is found that most parameters, except the condensation heat transfer coefficient, change in the form of sine wave the same as the sewage temperature at inlet. The heating load and consumed power are 12.9kW and 3.45kW when the sewage temperature at inlet is 13°C. COP is about 3.75 in the range of the sewage temperature at inlet of 12-13°C.

  16. Demonstration of a heat pump water heater. Volume 3. Design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloane, B.D.; Krise, R.C.; Kent, D.D.

    1979-12-01

    Work performed during the pilot run manufacturing and laboratory testing stages of a heat pump water heater for residential installations is described. A general description of the heat pump water heater is provided, as are detailed discussions of individual components. Also included is a description of the pilot run manufacturing facility and experience, laboratory operations, and laboratory test data.

  17. 16 CFR Appendix D5 to Part 305 - Water Heaters-Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water Heaters-Heat Pump D5 Appendix D5 to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULE... Appendix D5 to Part 305—Water Heaters—Heat Pump Range Information CAPACITY FIRST HOUR RATING Range of...

  18. 基于复合热源的热泵型空调器%Heat pump air conditioner based on multiple heat sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴国珊; 凌勋

    2012-01-01

    It is proposed that the air-water multiple heat sources could be the heat source of heat pump air conditioner. Based on the current study condition, the heat pump air conditioner which has a air/family waste water multiple heat source is preliminary designed. The working cycle and characteristics of the air conditioner are analyzed by using the thermodynamic principle. The results show that the refrigeration performance of the heat pump air conditioner is better than that of air source heat pump air conditioner, the heating performance and the situation which the outdoor heat exchanger frosts are improved.%提出将空气-水作为热泵型空调器的复合热源.根据当前的研究状况,初步设计空气-水复合热源热泵型空调器,利用热力学原理分析该空调器的工作循环和特点,结果表明该空调器的制冷性能高于空气源热泵空调器,制热和室外换热器结霜状况得到一定改善.

  19. Parallel Operation Characteristics Analysis of Sewage Source Heat Pump Units in Winter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄兆意; 张承虎; 王海燕; 孙德兴

    2010-01-01

    Sewage source heat pump unit operates under partial load most of the time, and study on the law of coefficient of performance (COP) of the unit varying with load ratio can provide basis for the heat pump units running in high efficiency. A mathematical model determining COP, evaporation temperature and condensation temperature of a single unit was proposed. Under the condition of uniform load distribution, the model was established according to different ways of bearing partial load with the same type multi...

  20. Heat pump applications and water heating by means of solar collectors. Waermepumpenanwendungen und Wasserwaermung mit Sonnenkollektoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szokody, G.

    1990-01-15

    About 25 to 30% of all newly constructed single-family houses in Switzerland are equipped with heat pump systems. This increasing attractivity is partly due to new techniques, e.g. microprocessor control, as well as to higher component efficiencies, a more efficient heat exchange technology, and to the compactness of systems. Active solar energy conversion, i.e. by means of solar collectors, is another technique which is predominantly applied for water heating in single-family buildings. Public investments in this field are scarce. (BWI).

  1. Solar Assisted Ground Source Heat Pump Performance in Nearly Zero Energy Building in Baltic Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januševičius, Karolis; Streckienė, Giedrė

    2013-12-01

    In near zero energy buildings (NZEB) built in Baltic countries, heat production systems meet the challenge of large share domestic hot water demand and high required heating capacity. Due to passive solar design, cooling demand in residential buildings also needs an assessment and solution. Heat pump systems are a widespread solution to reduce energy use. A combination of heat pump and solar thermal collectors helps to meet standard requirements and increases the share of renewable energy use in total energy balance of country. The presented paper describes a simulation study of solar assisted heat pump systems carried out in TRNSYS. The purpose of this simulation was to investigate how the performance of a solar assisted heat pump combination varies in near zero energy building. Results of three systems were compared to autonomous (independent) systems simulated performance. Different solar assisted heat pump design solutions with serial and parallel solar thermal collector connections to the heat pump loop were modelled and a passive cooling possibility was assessed. Simulations were performed for three Baltic countries: Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia.

  2. Technology Solutions Case Study: Ground Source Heat Pump Research, TaC Studios Residence, Atlanta, Georigia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-09-01

    This case study describes the construction of a new test home that demonstrates current best practices for the mixed-humid climate, including a high performance ground source heat pump for heating and cooling, a building envelope featuring advanced air sealing details and low-density spray foam insulation, and glazing that exceeds ENERGY STAR requirements.

  3. Study on the Performance of a Ground Source Heat Pump System Assisted by Solar Thermal Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Jin Nam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A ground source heat pump system (GSHPS utilizes a relatively stable underground temperature to achieve energy-saving for heating and cooling in buildings. However, continuous long-term operation will reduce the soil temperature in winter, resulting in a decline in system performance. In this research, in order to improve the system performance of a GSHPS, a ground heat pump system integrated with solar thermal storage was developed. This solar-assisted ground heat pump system (SAGHPS can both maintain the balance of the soil temperature effectively and achieve higher system performance than the conventional system. In this paper, in order to examine the characteristics of the system, a dynamic simulation was conducted under various conditions. The results of our case study provide specific operation data such as heat exchange rate, heat source temperature, and heat pump COP. As a result, the heat pump COP of SAGHPS was 4.7%, 9.3% higher than that of the GSHPS.

  4. WEXA: exergy analysis for increasing the efficiency of air/water heat pumps - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasser, L.; Wellig, B.; Hilfiker, K.

    2008-04-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study at the made by the Engineering and Architecture department at the Lucerne University of Applied Sciences and Arts. The subject of the WEXA study (Waermepumpen-Exergie-Analyse - heat pump exergy analysis) is the analysis of the operation of air/water heat-pumps using exergy analysis methods. The basic thermodynamics of heating systems using heat-pumps is discussed. The exergy analyses and exergy balances for the various components and processes of an air/water heat-pump are presented and discussed. Comparisons are presented for heat-pumps with on/off and continuous control systems for their compressors and fans. The paper is concluded with a collection of appendices on the subject.

  5. Characterization of Site for Installing Open Loop Ground Source Heat Pump System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, S. W.; Park, Y.; Lee, J. Y.; Yi, M. J.; Cha, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to understand hydrogeological properties of site where open loop ground source heat pump system will be installed and operated. Groundwater level and water temperature were hourly measured at the well developed for usage of open loop ground source heat pump system from 11 October 2013 to 8 January 2014. Groundwater was sampled in January and August 2013 and its chemical and isotopic compositions were analyzed. The bedrock of study area is the Jurassic granodiorite that mainly consists of quartz (27.9 to 46.8%), plagioclase (26.0 to 45.5%), and alkali feldspar (9.5 to 18.7%). The groundwater level ranged from 68.30 to 68.94 m (above mean sea level). Recharge rate was estimated using modified watertable fluctuation method and the recharge ratios was 9.1%. The water temperature ranged from 14.8 to 15.0oC. The vertical Increase rates of water temperature were 1.91 to 1.94/100 m. The water temperature showed the significant seasonal variation above 50 m depth, but had constant value below 50 m depth. Therefore, heat energy of the groundwater can be used securely in open loop ground source heat pump system. Electrical conductivity ranged from 120 to 320 µS/cm in dry season and from 133 to 310 µS/cm in wet season. The electrical conductivity gradually decreased with depth. In particular, electrical conductivity in approximately 30 m depth decreased dramatically (287 to 249 µS/cm) in wet season. The groundwater was Ca-HCO3 type. The concentrations of dissolved components did not show the vertically significant variations from 0 to 250 m depth. The δ18O and δD ranged from -9.5 to -9.4‰ and from -69 to -68‰. This work is supported by the New and Renewable Energy of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) grant funded by the Korea government Ministry of Knowledge Economy (No.20123040110010).

  6. On the development of high temperature ammonia-water hybrid absorption-compression heat pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Markussen, Wiebke Brix; Reinholdt, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Ammonia-water hybrid absorption-compression heat pumps (HACHP) are a promising technology for development of ecient high temperature industrial heat pumps. Using 28 bar components HACHPs up to 100 °C are commercially available. Components developed for 50 bar and 140 bar show that these pressure...

  7. Conventional and advanced exergoenvironmental analysis of an ammonia-water hybridabsorption-compression heat pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Markussen, Wiebke Brix; Reinholdt, Lars

    2015-01-01

    The ammonia-water hybrid absorption-compression heat pump (HACHP) is a technology suitable for industrial scale heat pumps in the process industry. A helpful tool in the design of cost effective and low environmental impact energy conversion systems, such as the HACHP, is the application...

  8. Heat pumps using vertical boreholls as heat source; Varmepumper med lodrette boringer som varmeoptager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, Svend V. [Teknologisk Institut, Aarhus (Denmark); Thoegersen, L.; Soerensen, Inga [VIA University College, Risskov (Denmark)] [and others

    2013-01-15

    This report presents instructions on what to consider when you have to establish vertical wells as energy sources for ground source heating systems. The report provides an introduction into what to be aware of when it comes to sizing vertical ground hoses as heat absorbers for heat pumps. The initial geological assessments, you have to make are described and there are references to the available tools and websites that exist today. A calculation model is developed for the design of vertical ground hoses. This calculation model is intended as a tool for installers and consultants as well as well drillers. The calculation model contains two computational models, one can be used for initial calculations and dimensioning of vertical ground hoses, and the detailed model can be used for costing by well driller. The simple calculation is based on proven design approach from the German standard VDI 4640, and the detailed calculation is based on a known empirical calculation, which assumes that you know the geology in more detail. In the project measurements were carried out on four installations, and the calculations show that there is good agreement between the measurements and the calculation model. (LN)

  9. Experimental Study of Thermoelectric Heat Pump Water Heater with Exhaust Heat Recovery from Kitchens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhong-bing; ZHANG Ling; YANG Zhang; XU Ming; HAN Tian-he

    2009-01-01

    A new kind of thermoelectric heat pump water heater for kitchens exhaust heat recovery was pre-sented,and its performances were investigated under different operating voltages.The experiment results show that the coefficient of performance decreases and the temperature difference between the hot and cold sides be-comes larger with the increase of the operating voltage,but the heating time becomes short.The higher the temperature of water,the greater the temperature difference between the hot and cold sides,leading to a smaller eoeffieient of performance.Under an exhaust temperature of 36℃,the coefficient of performance decreases from 1.66 tO 1.22 when the temperature of water increases from 28℃to 46℃with operating voltage 16 V.Performance tests illustrate that,compared with the conventional electrical water heaters,the new kind of ther-moelectric heat pump water heater is more coefficient.

  10. Ground-Source Integrated Heat Pump for Near-Zero Energy Houses: Technology Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Richard W [ORNL; Rice, C Keith [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL; Craddick, William G [ORNL

    2007-09-01

    . With the greater energy savings the cost of the more energy efficient components required for the IHP can be recovered more quickly than if they were applied to individual pieces of equipment to meet each individual energy service need. An IHP can be designed to use either outdoor air or geothermal resources (e.g., ground, ground water, surface water) as the environmental energy source/sink. Based on a scoping study of a wide variety of possible approaches to meeting the energy service needs for a ZEH, DOE selected the IHP concept as the most promising and has supported research directed toward the development of both air- and ground-source versions. This report describes the ground-source IHP (GS-IHP) design and includes the lessons learned and best practices revealed by the research and development (R&D) effort throughout. Salient features of the GS-IHP include a variable-speed rotary compressor incorporating a brushless direct current permanent magnet motor which provides all refrigerant compression, a variable-speed fan for the indoor section, a multiple-speed ground coil circuit pump, and a single-speed pump for water heating operation. Laboratory IHP testing has thus far used R-22 because of the availability of the needed components that use this refrigerant. It is expected that HFC R-410A will be used for any products arising from the IHP concept. Data for a variable-speed compressor that uses R-410A has been incorporated into the DOE/ORNL Mark VI Heat Pump Design Model (HPDM). HPDM was then linked to TRNSYS, a time-series-dependent simulation model capable of determining the energy use of building cooling and heating equipment as applied to a defined house on a sub-hourly basis. This provided a highly flexible design analysis capability for advanced heat pump equipment; however, the program also took a relatively long time to run. This approach was used with the initial prototype design reported in Murphy et al. (2007a) and in the business case analysis of

  11. Ground-water heat pumps: an examination of hydrogeologic, environmental, legal, and economic factors affecting their use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armitage, D M; Bacon, D J; Massey-Norton, J T; Miller, J D

    1980-11-12

    Groundwater is attractive as a potential low-temperature energy source in residential space-conditioning applications. When used in conjuncton with a heat pump, ground water can serve as both a heat source (for heating) and a heat sink (for cooling). Major hydrogeologic aspects that affect system use include groundwater temperature and availability at shallow depths as these factors influence operational efficiency. Ground-water quality is considered as it affects the performance and life-expectancy of the water-side heat exchanger. Environmental impacts related to groundwater heat pump system use are most influenced by water use and disposal methods. In general, recharge to the subsurface (usually via injection wells) is recommended. Legal restrictions on system use are often stricter at the municipal and county levels than at state and Federal levels. Although Federal regulations currently exist, the agencies are not equipped to regulate individual, domestic installations. Computer smulations indicate that under a variety of climatologic conditions, groundwater heat pumps use less energy than conventional heating and cooling equipment. Life-cycle cost comparisons with conventional equipment depend on alternative system choices and well cost options included in the groundwater heat pump system.

  12. Crystallization Analysis and Control of Ammonia-Based Air Source Absorption Heat Pump in Cold Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption of heating and domestic hot water is very high and will keep increasing. Air source absorption heat pump (ASAHP was proposed to overcome the problems of low energy efficiency and high air pollution existing in boiler systems, as well as the problem of bad performance under low ambient temperatures for electrical heat pumps. In order to investigate the crystallization possibility of ammonia-salt ASAHP, crystallization margin (evaluated by solution mass concentration at generating temperature ranging from 100 to 150°C, evaporating temperature from −30 to 10°C, and condensing temperature from 30 to 65°C are analyzed. To prevent the NH3–NaSCN solution from crystallizing, ASAHP integrated with pressure booster located between the evaporator and absorber is simulated. Analysis and comparisons show that NH3–NaSCN is easy to crystallize at relatively high generating temperature, low evaporating temperature, and low condensing temperature. But crystallization margin of NH3–LiNO3 can always stay above 5% for most conditions, keeping away from crystallization. Pressure booster can effectively avoid the crystallization problem that will take place in the NH3–NaSCN ASAHP system.

  13. Advanced variable speed air source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) development - CRADA final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, Van D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rice, C. Keith [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Munk, Jeffrey D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ally, Moonis Raza [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shen, Bo [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Between August 2011 and September 2015, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Nordyne, LLC (now Nortek Global HVAC LLC, NGHVAC) engaged in a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to develop an air-source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) system for the US residential market. Two generations of laboratory prototype systems were designed, fabricated, and lab-tested during 2011-2013. Performance maps for the system were developed using the latest research version of the DOE/ORNL Heat Pump Design Model, or HPDM, (Rice 1991; Rice and Jackson 2005; Shen et al 2012) as calibrated against the lab test data. These maps were the input to the TRNSYS (SOLAR Energy Laboratory, et al, 2010) system to predict annual performance relative to a baseline suite of equipment meeting minimum efficiency standards in effect in 2006 (combination of 13 SEER air-source heat pump (ASHP) and resistance water heater with Energy Factor (EF) of 0.9). Predicted total annual energy savings, while providing space conditioning and water heating for a tight, well insulated 2600 ft2 (242 m2) house at 5 U.S. locations, ranged from 46 to 61%, averaging 52%, relative to the baseline system (lowest savings at the cold-climate Chicago location). Predicted energy use for water heating was reduced 62 to 76% relative to resistance WH. Based on these lab prototype test and analyses results a field test prototype was designed and fabricated by NGHVAC. The unit was installed in a 2400 ft2 (223 m2) research house in Knoxville, TN and field tested from May 2014 to April 2015. Based on the demonstrated field performance of the AS-IHP prototype and estimated performance of a baseline system operating under the same loads and weather conditions, it was estimated that the prototype would achieve ~40% energy savings relative to the minimum efficiency suite. The estimated WH savings were >60% and SC mode savings were >50%. But estimated SH savings were only about 20%. It is believed that had the test

  14. Influence of heat storage mode of domestic hot water on the performance of ground heat exchanger in ground-source heat pump system%卫生热水蓄热方式对地埋管换热性能的影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勇; 唐曦

    2012-01-01

    竖埋管地源热泵系统为室内环境控制提供冷热量。在空调工况下,热回收机组可以提供卫生热水。卫生热水的供应在冬夏不同的运行模式下,对地埋管的换热性能影响不同。通过某地源热泵工程设计,分析了冬夏季卫生热水系统在蓄热方式下对地源热泵系统地埋管换热性能的影响。利用卫生热水的蓄热能力,对地埋管换热器在不同工况下的动态换热性能进行了对比分析,并通过数值计算得到了不同运行模式下地埋管的换热性能参数。根据计算结果提出了在该工程负荷特性下的系统调节方式。%The vertical U-tube ground-coupled heat pump system provides cold and heat for the controlling of indoor environment.Under the air-conditioning condition,the vertical U-tube ground-coupled heat pump system with heat recovery can provide domestic hot water.The influence of supplying domestic hot water on the heat transfer performance of ground heat exchangers is different under different operating modes in summer and winter.Through a project design of ground-source heat pump system,the influence of supplying domestic hot water under heat storage mode on the heat transfer performance of ground heat exchangers in summer and winter is respectively analyzed.The dynamic performance of heat exchangers under different working conditions is analyzed,and through numerical calculation,the heat transfer performance parameters of ground heat exchangers under different operating modes are obtained.From the calculation results,the adjusting methods based on the load characteristics of this project represent.

  15. High efficient ammonia heat pump system for industrial process water using the ISEC concept. Part 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothuizen, Erasmus Damgaard; Madsen, C.; Elmegaard, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the Isolated System Energy Charging (ISEC) is to provide a high-efficient ammonia heat pump system for hot water production. The ISEC concept uses two storage tanks for the water, one discharged and one charged. The charged tank is used for the industrial process while the discharged...... to investigate the performance of the ISEC system. The ISEC concept approaches the efficiency of a number of heat pumps in series and the COP of the system may reach 6.8, which is up to 25 % higher than a conventional heat pump heating water in one step....... tank, is charging. Charging is done by circulating the water in the tank through the condenser several times and thereby gradually heats the water. This result in a lower condensing temperature than if the water was heated in one step. A dynamic model of the system, implemented in Dymola, is used...

  16. Flow characteristics of the raw sewage for the design of sewage-source heat pump systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ying; Wu, Yuebin; Sun, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    The flow characteristics of raw sewage directly affect the technical and economic performance of sewage-source heat pump systems. The purpose of this research is to characterize the flow characteristics of sewage by experimental means. A sophisticated and flexible experimental apparatus was designed and constructed. Then the flow characteristics of the raw sewage were studied through laboratorial testing and theoretical analyses. Results indicated that raw sewage could be characterized as a power-law fluid with the rheological exponent n being 0.891 and the rheological coefficient k being 0.00175. In addition, the frictional loss factor formula in laminar flow for raw sewage was deduced by theoretical analysis of the power-law fluid. Furthermore, an explicit empirical formula for the frictional loss factor in turbulent flow was obtained through curve fitting of the experimental data. Finally, the equivalent viscosity of the raw sewage is defined in order to calculate the Reynolds number in turbulent flow regions; it was found that sewage had two to three times the viscosity of water at the same temperature. These results contributed to appropriate parameters of fluid properties when designing and operating sewage-source heat pump systems.

  17. Performance of a Solar Heating System with Photovoltaic Thermal Hybrid Collectors and Heat Pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dannemand, Mark; Furbo, Simon; Perers, Bengt

    2017-01-01

    . When the solar collectors are unable to supply the heat demand an auxiliary heat source is used. Heat pumps can generate this heat. Liquid/water heat pumps have better performance than air/water heat pumps in cold climates but requires installation of a tubing system for the cold side of the heat pump....... The tubes are typically placed in the ground, requires a significant land area and increase the installation cost. A new system design of a solar heating system with two storage tanks and a liquid/water heat pump is presented. The system consists of PVT collectors that generate both heat and electricity....... Heat from the collectors is transferred to a domestic hot water storage tank or to a cold storage tank, which is used as the source for the heat pump. When the heat pump charges the warm storage tank, heat is extracted from the cold storage tank, which then can be reheated by the PVT collectors...

  18. 地埋管地源热泵热水供应系统运行性能的影响因素%Influencing factors of operating performance of ground-source heat pump hot water supply systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王成勇; 雷俊; 王雁生; 宋月贤

    2012-01-01

    建立了地埋管地源热泵热水供应系统实验平台,研究了环境温度、间歇/连续运行工况、管内循环液流速等对地埋管换热器换热能力的影响,并研究了地埋管换热器周围土壤温度场的变化.结果表明,地埋管地源热泵热水供应系统基本不受环境温度的影响;采用间歇运行,有利于提高地埋管换热器的换热能力;地埋管换热器平均单位井深换热量随管内循环液流速的增大而增大,但当流速增大到一定程度时,其增幅趋于平缓.%Establishes an experimental platform for ground-source heat pump system (GCHP) hot water supply system. Studies the influences of ambient temperature, intermittent or continuous operation mode and flow rate of circulating fluid on the heat exchange efficiency, and studies the variation of soil temperature field around ground heat exchangers. The results show that the GSHP hot water supply system is little influenced by the ambient temperature; intermittent operation mode is conducive to improving the heat exchange capacity of the ground heat exchanger; the heat flow of unit borehole depth of the ground heat exchanger increases along with the fluid flow rate until the fluid flow rate rises to a certain extent when the increasing trends became flat.

  19. Study on the Influence of Water Source Heat Pump Wells'Layout on Groundwater Flow%水源热泵井群布置方案对地下水流场影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦婷; 车巧慧; 韩玉杰

    2014-01-01

    According to the actual field text data of pumping and recharging test on a real case , the paper establishes a numerical simulation model of underground flow to find out the optimum layout of water source heat pump and made quantitative research on the influence scope and degree of ground water flow field under different wells layout scheme .Research results shows that for the same re-charging aquifer , longer recharging time leads to greater pumping and recharging capacity and more little influence on exploitation of surrounding groundwater .That is to say, the most practical and reasonable layout is to make pumping wells and recharging wells inter -lace and centralize partial recharge wells .%以某地下水源热泵系统工程为例,依据工程场地实际抽水-回灌试验数据,建立研究区地下水流数值模拟模型,分析该地区适宜的井群布置方案,并定量研究不同井群布置方案对地下水流场的影响范围与程度,为确定合理的井群布置方案提供技术支撑。研究表明:对于同一含水层回灌,随着抽水-回灌时间的延长,就有利于抽水-回灌能力及尽量减小对周边地下水开采的影响而言,抽水井、回灌井交叉布置,部分回灌井集中布置的方案较为合理。

  20. Improved Design Tools for Surface Water and Standing Column Well Heat Pump Systems (DE-EE0002961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitler, J. D.; Culling, J. R.; Conjeevaram, K.; Ramesh, M.; Selvakumar, M.

    2012-11-30

    Ground-source heat pump (GSHP) systems are perhaps the most widely used “sustainable” heating and cooling systems, with an estimated 1.7 million installed units with total installed heating capacity on the order of 18 GW. They are widely used in residential, commercial, and institutional buildings. Standing column wells (SCW) are one form of ground heat exchanger that, under the right geological conditions, can provide excellent energy efficiency at a relatively low capital cost. Closed-loop surface water heat pump (SWHP) systems utilize surface water heat exchangers (SWHE) to reject or extract heat from nearby surface water bodies. For building near surface water bodies, these systems also offer a high degree of energy efficiency at a low capital cost. However, there have been few design tools available for properly sizing standing column wells or surface water heat exchangers. Nor have tools for analyzing the energy consumption and supporting economics-based design decisions been available. The main contributions of this project lie in providing new tools that support design and energy analysis. These include a design tool for sizing surface water heat exchangers, a design tool for sizing standing column wells, a new model of surface water heat pump systems implemented in EnergyPlus and a new model of standing column wells implemented in EnergyPlus. These tools will better help engineers design these systems and determine the economic and technical feasibility.

  1. Optimal design of district heating and cooling pipe network of seawater-source heat pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiang-li; Duanmu, Lin; Shu, Hai-wen [School of Civil and Hydraulic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, Liaoning Province 116024 (China)

    2010-01-15

    The district heating and cooling (DHC) system of a seawater-source heat pump is large system engineering. The investments and the operational cost of DHC pipe network are higher than a tradition system. Traditional design methods only satisfy the needs of the technology but dissatisfy the needs of the economy, which not only waste a mass of money but also bring problems to the operation, the maintenance and the management. So we build a least-annualized-cost global optimal mathematic model that comprises all constrict conditions. Furthermore, this model considers the variety of heating load and cooling load, the operational adjustment in different periods of the year. Genetic algorithm (GA) is used to obtain the optimal combinations of discrete diameters. Some operators of GA are selected to reduce the calculation time and obtain good calculation accuracy. This optimal method is used to the design of the DHC network of Xinghai Bay commercial district which is a real engineering. The design optimization can avoid the matter of the hydraulic unbalance of the system, enhance the running efficiency and greatly reduce the annualized-cost comparing with the traditional design method. (author)

  2. Numerical simulation of seepage flow field in groundwater source heat pump system and its influence on temperature field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jihua HU; Yanjun ZHANG; Danyan DU; Gang WU; Ziwang YU; Chen WANG; Fuquan NI

    2008-01-01

    Energy utilization in the aquifers is a new technology closely related to development of heat pump technique. It is significant for the flow distribution to be predicted in the aquifer surrounding the Groundwater Source Heat Pump System (GSHPS). The authors presented a new concept of "flow transfixion" by analyzing general features of aquifers, and then discussed interaction of the flow transfixion with the heat transfixion, which has practical significance to projects. A numerical model of groundwater flow was established based on the basic tenets of water-heat transferring in the aquifer. On this basis the flow field and the temperature field of GSHPS for a site in Shenyang City were numerically simulated. The basis of the flow transfixion was obtained; it was discussed for the influence of the flow transfixion on the heat transfixion. To a certain extent, the study offers some reference for the projects' design of GSHP in the studied area.

  3. Performance and Economic Modeling of Horizontally Drilled Ground-Source Heat Pumps in Select California Climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiryadinata, Steven

    Service life modeling was performed to gage the viability of unitary 3.5 kWt, ground-source terminal heat pumps (GTHP) employing horizontal directionally drilled geothermal heat exchangers (GHX) over air-source terminal heat pumps (PTHP) in hotels and motels and residential apartment building sectors in California's coastal and inland climates. Results suggest the GTHP can reduce hourly peak demand for the utility by 7%-25% compared to PTHP, depending on the climate and building type. The annual energy savings, which range from -1% to 5%, are highly dependent on the GTHP pump energy use relative to the energy savings attributed to the difference in ground and air temperatures (DeltaT). In mild climates with small ?T, the pump energy use may overcome any advantage to utilizing a GHX. The majority of total levelized cost savings - ranging from 0.18/ft2 to 0.3/ft 2 - are due to reduced maintenance and lifetime capital cost normally associated with geothermal heat pump systems. Without these reductions (not validated for the GTHP system studied), the GTHP technology does not appear to offer significant advantages over PTHP in the climate zones studied here. The GTHP levelized cost was most sensitive to variations in installed cost and in some cases, energy use (influenced by climate zone choice), which together highlights the importance of climate selection for installation, and the need for larger market penetration of ground-source systems in order to bring down installed costs as the technology matures.

  4. Lunar Base Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D.; Fischbach, D.; Tetreault, R.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this project was to investigate the feasibility of constructing a heat pump suitable for use as a heat rejection device in applications such as a lunar base. In this situation, direct heat rejection through the use of radiators is not possible at a temperature suitable for lde support systems. Initial analysis of a heat pump of this type called for a temperature lift of approximately 378 deg. K, which is considerably higher than is commonly called for in HVAC and refrigeration applications where heat pumps are most often employed. Also because of the variation of the rejection temperature (from 100 to 381 deg. K), extreme flexibility in the configuration and operation of the heat pump is required. A three-stage compression cycle using a refrigerant such as CFC-11 or HCFC-123 was formulated with operation possible with one, two or three stages of compression. Also, to meet the redundancy requirements, compression was divided up over multiple compressors in each stage. A control scheme was devised that allowed these multiple compressors to be operated as required so that the heat pump could perform with variable heat loads and rejection conditions. A prototype heat pump was designed and constructed to investigate the key elements of the high-lift heat pump concept. Control software was written and implemented in the prototype to allow fully automatic operation. The heat pump was capable of operation over a wide range of rejection temperatures and cooling loads, while maintaining cooling water temperature well within the required specification of 40 deg. C +/- 1.7 deg. C. This performance was verified through testing.

  5. Development and application of engineering-scale solar water heater system assisted by heat pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Xiufeng; Feng Shiyu; Hu Wei; Zheng Feifei [Xi' an Jiaotong Univ., Xi' an (China); Wang Huiyu; Luo Cong [Yangzhou Sunleada Co, Ltd, Yangzhou (China); Wang Jianguo; Fan Guiyou [TongLing Real Estate Co. Ltd, TongLing (China)

    2008-07-01

    An engineering-scale solar water heater system assisted by heat pump was developed based on a modularized structure. The subunits of modularized system include vacuum solar energy collectors, air source heat pump, heat storage and supplying system and control panel. All devices could be controlled and monitored centrally. Energy source of this system was composed of solar energy (70%), air thermal energy (20%) and electric power (10%). The system has advantages of high average annual comprehensive energy efficiency and elementary energy utilization efficiency. The product can be employed in central heat water supplying project with a capacity of more than 6 ton, in such facilities as residential districts, hotels, restaurants, dormitories, bathing centers and so on. The economical efficiency is better as the scale is bigger. The project has been supported by innovation funds of Science and Technology of Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST), being applied in a residential district successfully as a demonstration project of renewable and new energy by Chinese Ministry of Construction. (orig.)

  6. 水源热泵与蓄能结合系统的评价体系研究%Evaluation methods of water-source heat pump systems combined with thermal storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白雪莲; 张南桥

    2011-01-01

    针对水源热泵和冰蓄冷的技术特点,确定了水源热泵与蓄能结合的系统的评价指标.对系统的经济性、节能性、安全性、环境效益、特性进行分析,提出该系统的综合评价体系.采用模糊综合评价方法,建立了评价模型,并得到相应的评价步骤.结合工程实例,分析了综合评价体系的应用结果,研究表明,综合评价体系可以全面反映该系统的特性,为方案决策和系统设计提供了量化依据.%Aiming at the characteristics of water-source heat pump and ice storage, determines the evaluation indices for the system of water-source heat pump combined with thermal storage. Analysing economic effects, energy saving, safety, environment benefits and exergy characteristics, puts forward a comprehensive evaluation method for the system. Adopting fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method, sets up an evaluation model and presents corresponding steps. Taking an actual project as example, analyses the application results of the evaluation method. The results show that the evaluation method can reflect totally the characteristics of the system and provide quantitative reference for scheme decision and system design.

  7. Case Study for the ARRA-Funded Ground Source Heat Pump Demonstration at Ball State University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Piljae [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Liu, Xiaobing [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Henderson, Jr., Hugh [CDH Energy Corp., Beijing (China)

    2016-12-01

    With funding provided by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), 26 ground-source heat pump (GSHP) projects were competitively selected in 2009 to demonstrate the benefits of GSHP systems and innovative technologies for cost reduction and/or performance improvement. One of the selected demonstration projects is a district central GSHP system installed at Ball State University (BSU) in Muncie, IN. Prior to implementing the district GSHP system, 47 major buildings in BSU were served by a central steam plant with four coal-fired and three natural-gas-fired steam boilers. Cooling was provided by five water-cooled centrifugal chillers at the District Energy Station South (DESS). The new district GSHP system replaced the existing coal-fired steam boilers and conventional water-cooled chillers. It uses ground-coupled heat recovery (HR) chillers to meet the simultaneous heating and cooling demands of the campus. The actual performance of the GSHP system was analyzed based on available measured data from August 2015 through July 2016, construction drawings, maintenance records, personal communications, and construction costs. Since Phase 1 was funded in part by the ARRA grant, it is the focus of this case study. The annual energy consumption of the GSHP system was calculated based on the available measured data and other related information. It was compared with the performance of a baseline scenario— a conventional water-cooled chiller and natural-gas-fired boiler system, both of which meet the minimum energy efficiencies allowed by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE 90.1-2013). The comparison was made to determine source energy savings, energy cost savings, and CO2 emission reductions achieved by the GSHP system. A cost analysis was performed to evaluate the simple payback of the GSHP system. The following sections summarize the results of the analysis, the lessons learned, and recommendations for improvement

  8. Municipal water-based heat pump heating and/or cooling systems: Findings and recommendations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomquist, R.G. [Washington, State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Wegman, S. [South Dakota Utilities Commission (United States)

    1998-04-01

    The purpose of the present work was to determine if existing heat pump systems based on municipal water systems meet existing water quality standards, to analyze water that has passed through a heat pump or heat exchanger to determine if corrosion products can be detected, to determine residual chlorine levels in municipal waters on the inlet as well as the outlet side of such installations, to analyses for bacterial contaminants and/or regrowth due to the presence of a heat pump or heat exchanger, to develop and suggest criteria for system design and construction, to provide recommendations and specifications for material and fluid selection, and to develop model rules and regulations for the installation, operation, and monitoring of new and existing systems. In addition, the Washington State University (WSU) has evaluated availability of computer models that would allow for water system mapping, water quality modeling and system operation.

  9. Commercial Integrated Heat Pump with Thermal Storage --Demonstrate Greater than 50% Average Annual Energy Savings, Compared with Baseline Heat Pump and Water Heater (Go/No-Go) FY16 4th Quarter Milestone Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Baxter, Van D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rice, C. Keith [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Abu-Heiba, Ahmad [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    For this study, we authored a new air source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) model in EnergyPlus, and conducted building energy simulations to demonstrate greater than 50% average energy savings, in comparison to a baseline heat pump with electric water heater, over 10 US cities, based on the EnergyPlus quick-service restaurant template building. We also assessed water heating energy saving potentials using ASIHP versus gas heating, and pointed out climate zones where AS-IHPs are promising.

  10. Using Ground Source Heat Pumps for Renewable Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Xhevat BERISHA

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides background information on the current energy supply, energy demand, and energy sources in Kosovo. Moreover, it presents the country‟s current level of applying alternative energy sources. Additionally, this paper focuses on geothermal energy as a renewable energy resource with the potential to contribute to a sustainable use of resources to meet renewable energy and energy efficiency requirements of the European Union (EU), “EU 20 20 by 2020” policy. Hence, a careful analy...

  11. Heat pump planning handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Bonin, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    The Heat Pump Planning Handbook contains practical information and guidance on the design, planning and selection of heat pump systems, allowing engineers, designers, architects and construction specialists to compare a number of different systems and options. Including detailed descriptions of components and their functions and reflecting the current state of technology this guide contains sample tasks and solutions as well as new model calculations and planning evaluations. Also economic factors and alternative energy sources are covered, which are essential at a time of rising heat costs. T

  12. Sorption product heat pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonini, G.; Francois, O.; Gendarme, J.P.; Guilleminot, J.J.; Meunier, F.

    1988-07-15

    A continuous operating, and thus with enhanced performance, heat pump is presented. In this heat pump, the heat transfer between the hot source and the output system or network is realized through a solid adsorbent-refrigerant couple having endothermal desorption properties and exothermal adsorption or absorption properties. The sorption products are carried in a closed cycle movement between the two parts of the reactor. Each side of the reactor is assuming always the same function and the thermal inertia have to be overcome only when starting the reactor.

  13. Application analysis of ground source heat pumps in building space conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Hua; Wang, Yungang

    2013-07-01

    The adoption of geothermal energy in space conditioning of buildings through utilizing ground source heat pump (GSHP, also known as geothermal heat pump) has increased rapidly during the past several decades. However, the impacts of the GSHP utilization on the efficiency of heat pumps and soil temperature distribution remained unclear and needs further investigation. This paper presents a novel model to calculate the soil temperature distribution and the coefficient of performance (COP) of GSHP. Different scenarios were simulated to quantify the impact of different factors on the GSHP performance, including heat balance, daily running mode, and spacing between boreholes. Our results show that GSHP is suitable for buildings with balanced cooling and heating loads. It can keep soil temperature at a relatively constant level for more than 10 years. Long boreholes, additional space between boreholes, intermittent running mode will improve the performance of GSHP, but large initial investment is required. The improper design will make the COP of GSHP even lower than traditional heat pumps. Professional design and maintenance technologies are greatly needed in order to promote this promising technology in the developing world.

  14. Low-cost water-lifting from groundwater sources: a comparison of the EMAS Pump with the Rope Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCarthy, Michael F.; Carpenter, Jacob D.; Mihelcic, James R.

    2017-08-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, low-cost groundwater supply systems offer great opportunities for the current unserved population of >300 million to access drinking water. A comparative study was performed in Uganda of the EMAS Pump (designed by Escuela Móvil Aguas y Saneamiento Básico) with the trade-named Rope Pump, two low-cost manual water-lifting devices appropriate to pumping from shallow groundwater sources. Pumping rates, energy expended, material costs, and construction requirements were analyzed. Focus was on low-cost application for use in shallow groundwater systems at the household level in developing countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. The study site was northern Uganda, with testing performed at several drilled boreholes. Two variants of each pump were tested by a male and female user, pumping from multiple static water-level depths ranging from 5 to 28 m. Results demonstrated the most common version of the EMAS Pump to perform similarly to the comparable version of the Rope Pump in terms of average pumping rate at depth range 5 to 18 m (93-111%), but less so at deeper depths (63-85%). Normalized pumping rates (considering energy expended) accentuated differences between these versions of the EMAS Pump and Rope Pump (47-97%). Cost of materials to construct the EMAS Pump were 21-60% those of the Rope Pump, and EMAS Pump construction requirements were also less. Based on the assessed factors, it is concluded that the EMAS Pump has potential for success in "self-supply" groundwater systems in sub-Saharan Africa and is particularly appropriate to link with low-cost shallow groundwater sources.

  15. Study on a groundwater source heat pump cooling system in solar greenhouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chai, Lilong; Ma, Chengwei [China Agricultural Univ., Beijing (China). Coll. of Water Conservancy and Civil Engineering. Dept. of Agricultural Structure and Bio-environmental Engineering], E-mail: macwbs@cau.edu.cn

    2008-07-01

    This study aims at exploiting the potential of ground source heat pump (GSHP) technology in cooling agricultural greenhouse, and advocating the use of renewable and clean energy in agriculture. GSHP has the multi-function of heating, cooling and dehumidifying, which is one of the fastest growing technologies of renewable energy air conditioning in recent years. The authors carried out experiment on the ground source heat pump system in cooling greenhouse in Beijing region during the summertime of 2007, and conducted analysis on the energy efficiency of the system by using coefficient of performance (COP). According to the data collected during Aug.13-18th, 2007, the coefficient of performance of GSHP system (COP{sub sys}) has reached 3.15 on average during the test. (author)

  16. Study on a groundwater source heat pump cooling system in solar greenhouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chai, Lilong; Ma, Chengwei [China Agricultural Univ., Beijing (China). Coll. of Water Conservancy and Civil Engineering. Dept. of Agricultural Structure and Bio-environmental Engineering], E-mail: macwbs@cau.edu.cn

    2008-07-01

    This study aims at exploiting the potential of ground source heat pump (GSHP) technology in cooling agricultural greenhouse, and advocating the use of renewable and clean energy in agriculture. GSHP has the multi-function of heating, cooling and dehumidifying, which is one of the fastest growing technologies of renewable energy air conditioning in recent years. The authors carried out experiment on the ground source heat pump system in cooling greenhouse in Beijing region during the summertime of 2007, and conducted analysis on the energy efficiency of the system by using coefficient of performance (COP). According to the data collected during Aug.13-18th, 2007, the coefficient of performance of GSHP system (COP{sub sys}) has reached 3.15 on average during the test. (author)

  17. Solar Assisted Ground Source Heat Pump Performance in Nearly Zero Energy Building in Baltic Countries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karolis Januševičius; Giedrė Streckienė

    2013-01-01

    .... Heat pump systems are a widespread solution to reduce energy use. A combination of heat pump and solar thermal collectors helps to meet standard requirements and increases the share of renewable energy use in total energy balance of country...

  18. In Situ Measurement of the Undisturbed Ground Temperature for Ground Source Heat Pump System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Ya-su

    2008-01-01

    The undisturbed ground are important for design of the ground heat exchangers in ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems. In this paper, the undisturbed ground temperatures measured in two different methods are presented. The investigation was carried out in two cases. The temperature measured with the direct method is assumed to give the correct undisturbed ground temperature profile. The temperature measured with indirect method overestimates the undisturbed ground temperature by 2.1℃ and 1.7℃. This difference is mainly caused by the circulation pump and ambient air to the fluid. Therefore, the results that are decreased about 2℃ as compared with the indirect measured are recommended to estimate the undisturbed ground temperature in situ measuring. A smaller pump or deeper borehole or mild weather would result in a more correct temperature. Because the undisturbed ground temperature is affected by many factors. Whether or not these conclusions are correct to other areas, this would need further investigation.

  19. 空气源热泵用于低温热水地板辐射供暖系统的模拟研究%Simulation Research on Low Temperature Hot Water Floor Radiant Heating System with Air Source Heat Pump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许可; 王树刚; 蒋爽; 张腾飞

    2014-01-01

    低温热水地板辐射供暖具有舒适、节能和节省空间等优势。空气源热泵以其高效、稳定及其与前者的良好匹配性被认为是低温热水地板辐射供暖系统的理想热源。空气源热泵与地板辐射供暖系统相结合能充分利用围护结构及地板各构造层等蓄热体的蓄热特性,减小环境温度变化对空气源热泵制热性能的影响。本文利用TRNSYS和EES软件建立某高层建筑以空气源热泵为热源的低温热水地板辐射供暖系统的瞬态仿真模型,模拟结果与文献报道的实验数据取得了较好的一致性。基于地板辐射供暖系统的蓄热特性,本文提出电力负荷波峰波谷分时段运行控制策略,可避开空气源热泵运行的不利工况以提高制热效率。针对波峰波谷分时段运行及全波谷运行这两种模式,比较供暖房间温度及运行费用的模拟结果表明,波峰波谷分时段运行模式优于全波谷运行模式。%Low temperature hot water floor radiant heating has advantages of being comfortable and saving energy and space. The air source heat pump is believed to be an ideal heat source of the low temperature hot water floor radiant heating system because of its high-efficiency, stability and good matching with the floor radiant heating system. The combination of air source heat pump and floor radiant heating system may make full use of the heat storage capacity of the enclosure and each structural layer of the floor, which reduces the influence of environment temperature changes on the heating performance of the air source heat pump. In this paper, a transient simulation model of low temperature hot water floor radiant heating system with an air source heat pump for a high-rise building was developed by using TRNSYS and EES software, and it has a good agreement with the reported experimental data. Peak and off-peak intermittent running control strategy was presented here based on the heat

  20. Development and Validation of a Gas-Fired Residential Heat Pump Water Heater - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Garrabrant; Roger Stout; Paul Glanville; Janice Fitzgerald; Chris Keinath

    2013-01-21

    For gas-fired residential water heating, the U.S. and Canada is predominantly supplied by minimum efficiency storage water heaters with Energy Factors (EF) in the range of 0.59 to 0.62. Higher efficiency and higher cost ($700 - $2,000) options serve about 15% of the market, but still have EFs below 1.0, ranging from 0.65 to 0.95. To develop a new class of water heating products that exceeds the traditional limit of thermal efficiency, the project team designed and demonstrated a packaged water heater driven by a gas-fired ammonia-water absorption heat pump. This gas-fired heat pump water heater can achieve EFs of 1.3 or higher, at a consumer cost of $2,000 or less. Led by Stone Mountain Technologies Inc. (SMTI), with support from A.O. Smith, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), and Georgia Tech, the cross-functional team completed research and development tasks including cycle modeling, breadboard evaluation of two cycles and two heat exchanger classes, heat pump/storage tank integration, compact solution pump development, combustion system specification, and evaluation of packaged prototype GHPWHs. The heat pump system extracts low grade heat from the ambient air and produces high grade heat suitable for heating water in a storage tank for domestic use. Product features that include conventional installation practices, standard footprint and reasonable economic payback, position the technology to gain significant market penetration, resulting in a large reduction of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions from domestic hot water production.

  1. Design and Evaluation of a Photovoltaic/Thermal-Assisted Heat Pump Water Heating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan-Liang Tsai

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design, modelling and performance evaluation of a photovoltaic/thermal-assisted heat pump water heating (PVTA-HPWH system. The cooling effect of a refrigerant simultaneously enhances the PVT efficiency and effectively improves the coefficient of performance (COP of the HPWH system. The proposed model was built in the MATLAB/Simulink environment by considering the reciprocal energy exchange between a PVT evaporator and a HPWH system. In addition, the power consumption needs of the HPWH are provided by the PV electricity using a model-based control methodology. System performance is evaluated through a real field test. The results have demonstrated the power autarchy of the proposed PVTA-HPWH system with better PVT efficiency and COP. In addition, the good agreement between the model simulation and the experimental measurements demonstrate the proposed model with sufficient confidence.

  2. Sensitivity analysis on the performances of a closed-loop Ground Source Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasso, Alessandro; Sethi, Rajandrea

    2014-05-01

    Ground Source Heat Pumps (GSHP) permit to achieve a significant reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, and the margins for economic saving of this technology are strongly correlated to the long-term sustainability of the exploitation of the heat stored in the soil. The operation of a GSHP over its lifetime should be therefore modelled considering realistic conditions, and a thorough characterization of the physical properties of the soil is essential to avoid large errors of prediction. In this work, a BHE modelling procedure with the finite-element code FEFLOW is presented. Starting from the governing equations of the heat transport in the soil around a GSHP and inside the BHE, the most important parameters are individuated and the adopted program settings are explained. A sensitivity analysis is then carried on both the design parameters of the heat exchanger, in order to understand the margins of improvement of a careful design and installation, and the physical properties of the soil, with the aim of quantifying the uncertainty induced by their variability. The relative importance of each parameter is therefore assessed by comparing the statistical distributions of the fluid temperatures and estimating the energy consumption of the heat pump, and practical conclusions are from these results about the site characterization, the design and the installation of a BHE. References Casasso A., Sethi R., 2014 Efficiency of closed loop geothermal heat pumps: A sensitivity analysis, Renewable Energy 62 (2014), pp. 737-746 Chiasson A.C., Rees S.J., Spitler J.D., 2000, A preliminary assessment of the effects of groundwater flow on closed-loop ground-source heat pump systems, ASHRAE Transactions 106 (2000), pp. 380-393 Delaleux F., Py X., Olives R., Dominguez A., 2012, Enhancement of geothermal borehole heat exchangers performances by improvement of bentonite grouts conductivity, Applied Thermal Engineering 33-34, pp. 92-99 Diao N., Li Q., Fang Z., 2004, Heat transfer in

  3. Exergoeconomic optimization of an ammonia-water hybrid heat pump for heat supply in a spray drying facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Markussen, Wiebke Brix; Reinholdt, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Spray drying facilities are among the most energy intensive industrial processes. Using a heat pump to recover waste heat and replace gas combustion has the potential to attain both economic and emissions savings. In the case examined a drying gas of ambient air is heated to 200 XC. The inlet flow...... rate is 100,000 m3/h which yields a heat load of 6.1 MW. The exhaust air from the drying process is 80 XC. The implementation of an ammonia-water hybrid absorption-compression heat pump to partly cover the heat load is investigated. A thermodynamic analysis is applied to determine optimal circulation...... ratios for a number of ammonia mass fractions and heat pump loads. An exergoeconomic optimization is applied to minimize the lifetime cost of the system. Technological limitations are applied to constrain the solution to commercial components. The best possible implementation is identified in terms...

  4. Economic Research on Gas-Fired Water Source Heat Pump System Solution%燃气-水源热泵系统方案的经济性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐龙; 俞增盛

    2015-01-01

    The article presents economic and technical analysis and comparison of gas-fired watersource heat pump chiller/heater unit and other eight heating and cooling sources, whose result shows that gas-fired watersource heat pumpunit has great economic benefit when it is applied as heating and cooling source forms in this kind of architecture and area.%#对燃气水源热泵冷热水机组和其他的8种冷热源形式进行了经济性和技术性的分析和比较,结果表明:对于研究的这类建筑和地区,燃气水源热泵机组作为建筑的冷热源形式,具有很好的经济性。

  5. ENERGY STAR Certified Non-AHRI Central Air Conditioner Equipment and Air Source Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 5.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Air Source Heat Pump and Central Air Conditioner Equipment that are effective as of September 15, 2015. A detailed listing of key efficiency criteria are available at http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=airsrc_heat.pr_crit_as_heat_pumps Listed products have been submitted to EPA by ENERGY STAR partners that do not participate in the AHRI certification program. EPA will continue to update this list with products that are certified by EPA-recognized certification bodies other than AHRI. The majority of ENERGY STAR products, certified by AHRI, can be found on the CEE/AHRI Verified Directory at http://www.ceedirectory.org/

  6. Performance tests of air source heat pumps under frosting conditions. Quality of results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahlen, P.

    This report focuses on the analysis of uncertainties in research regarding air-source heat pumps. The principles recommended by the Western European Calibration Conference (WECC) are applied and the generated information is condensed in the form of uncertainty budgets. The ensuring discussion, and the Measurement Assurance Program that was applied during the research work are also relevant to general testing of cooling coils, e.g. for air source heat pumps. The general conclusion of the analysis is that the method of determining frost mass by continuous weighing and frost density by inference from pressure drop considerations, which is presented in the report, has the potential to produce results with an accuracy on a par with the best previously used techniques to investigate frosting and defrosting phenomena. Furthermore, the methodology has the distinct advantage of yielding online measuring possibilities and being much less time consuming than traditional techniques.

  7. Temperature distribution of air source heat pump barn with different air flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, X.; Li, J. C.; Zhao, G. Q.

    2016-08-01

    There are two type of airflow form in tobacco barn, one is air rising, the other is air falling. They are different in the structure layout and working principle, which affect the tobacco barn in the distribution of temperature field and velocity distribution. In order to compare the temperature and air distribution of the two, thereby obtain a tobacco barn whose temperature field and velocity distribution are more uniform. Taking the air source heat pump tobacco barn as the investigated subject and establishing relevant mathematical model, the thermodynamics of the two type of curing barn was analysed and compared based on Fluent. Provide a reasonable evidence for chamber arrangement and selection of outlet for air source heat pump tobacco barn.

  8. Thermal Interface Evaluation of Heat Transfer from a Pumped Loop to Titanium-Water Thermosyphons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworske, Donald A.; Sanzi, James L.; Gibson, Marc A.; Sechkar, Edward A.

    2009-01-01

    Titanium-water thermosyphons are being considered for use in the heat rejection system for lunar outpost fission surface power. Key to their use is heat transfer between a closed loop heat source and the heat pipe evaporators. This work describes laboratory testing of several interfaces that were evaluated for their thermal performance characteristics, in the temperature range of 350 to 400 K, utilizing a water closed loop heat source and multiple thermosyphon evaporator geometries. A gas gap calorimeter was used to measure heat flow at steady state. Thermocouples in the closed loop heat source and on the evaporator were used to measure thermal conductance. The interfaces were in two generic categories, those immersed in the water closed loop heat source and those clamped to the water closed loop heat source with differing thermal conductive agents. In general, immersed evaporators showed better overall performance than their clamped counterparts. Selected clamped evaporator geometries offered promise.

  9. Water temperature adjustment in spas by the aid of heat pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riznić Dejan T.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mineral spas are considered an important national resource, used mainly for therapeutical and recreational purposes. However, raw mineral waters are often at temperatures different from the required ones and need to be cooled or heated to be adjusted to the level adequate for a specified purpose. For such an adjustment, energy is either released (when cooling down the mineral water or consumed (for heating up the mineral water. Heat pumps may be used to multiply the gain of energy when released, or reduce the energy needed for heating the water. The report deals with technical possibilities and economic benefits of the use of heat pumps in such case studies in two spas of Serbia, Mataruska spa near Kraljevo, and Bukovicka spa in Arandjelovac.

  10. Finite Volume Based Computer Program for Ground Source Heat Pump System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menart, James A. [Wright State University

    2013-02-22

    This report is a compilation of the work that has been done on the grant DE-EE0002805 entitled ?Finite Volume Based Computer Program for Ground Source Heat Pump Systems.? The goal of this project was to develop a detailed computer simulation tool for GSHP (ground source heat pump) heating and cooling systems. Two such tools were developed as part of this DOE (Department of Energy) grant; the first is a two-dimensional computer program called GEO2D and the second is a three-dimensional computer program called GEO3D. Both of these simulation tools provide an extensive array of results to the user. A unique aspect of both these simulation tools is the complete temperature profile information calculated and presented. Complete temperature profiles throughout the ground, casing, tube wall, and fluid are provided as a function of time. The fluid temperatures from and to the heat pump, as a function of time, are also provided. In addition to temperature information, detailed heat rate information at several locations as a function of time is determined. Heat rates between the heat pump and the building indoor environment, between the working fluid and the heat pump, and between the working fluid and the ground are computed. The heat rates between the ground and the working fluid are calculated as a function time and position along the ground loop. The heating and cooling loads of the building being fitted with a GSHP are determined with the computer program developed by DOE called ENERGYPLUS. Lastly COP (coefficient of performance) results as a function of time are provided. Both the two-dimensional and three-dimensional computer programs developed as part of this work are based upon a detailed finite volume solution of the energy equation for the ground and ground loop. Real heat pump characteristics are entered into the program and used to model the heat pump performance. Thus these computer tools simulate the coupled performance of the ground loop and the heat pump

  11. Recovery Act: Finite Volume Based Computer Program for Ground Source Heat Pump Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James A Menart, Professor

    2013-02-22

    This report is a compilation of the work that has been done on the grant DE-EE0002805 entitled Finite Volume Based Computer Program for Ground Source Heat Pump Systems. The goal of this project was to develop a detailed computer simulation tool for GSHP (ground source heat pump) heating and cooling systems. Two such tools were developed as part of this DOE (Department of Energy) grant; the first is a two-dimensional computer program called GEO2D and the second is a three-dimensional computer program called GEO3D. Both of these simulation tools provide an extensive array of results to the user. A unique aspect of both these simulation tools is the complete temperature profile information calculated and presented. Complete temperature profiles throughout the ground, casing, tube wall, and fluid are provided as a function of time. The fluid temperatures from and to the heat pump, as a function of time, are also provided. In addition to temperature information, detailed heat rate information at several locations as a function of time is determined. Heat rates between the heat pump and the building indoor environment, between the working fluid and the heat pump, and between the working fluid and the ground are computed. The heat rates between the ground and the working fluid are calculated as a function time and position along the ground loop. The heating and cooling loads of the building being fitted with a GSHP are determined with the computer program developed by DOE called ENERGYPLUS. Lastly COP (coefficient of performance) results as a function of time are provided. Both the two-dimensional and three-dimensional computer programs developed as part of this work are based upon a detailed finite volume solution of the energy equation for the ground and ground loop. Real heat pump characteristics are entered into the program and used to model the heat pump performance. Thus these computer tools simulate the coupled performance of the ground loop and the heat pump. The

  12. Exergoeconomic optimization of an ammonia–water hybrid absorption–compression heat pump for heat supply in a spraydrying facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Markussen, Wiebke Brix; Reinholdt, Lars

    2015-01-01

    load of 6.1 MW. The exhaust air from the drying process is 80 C. The implementation of anammonia–water hybrid absorption–compression heat pump to partly cover the heat load is investigated. A thermodynamic analysis is applied to determine optimal circulation ratios for a number of ammonia mass...... fractions and heat pump loads. An exergo economic optimization is applied to minimize the lifetime cost of the system. Technological limitations are imposed to constrain the solution to commercial components. The best possible implementation is identified in terms of heat load, ammonia mass fraction...

  13. Heat-Powered Pump for Liquid Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campana, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    Proposed thermoelectromagnetic pump for liquid metal powered by waste heat; needs no battery, generator, or other external energy source. Pump turns part of heat in liquid metal into pumping energy. In combination with primary pump or on its own, thermoelectric pump circulates coolant between reactor and radiator. As long as there is decay heat to be removed, unit performs function.

  14. Heat-Powered Pump for Liquid Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campana, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    Proposed thermoelectromagnetic pump for liquid metal powered by waste heat; needs no battery, generator, or other external energy source. Pump turns part of heat in liquid metal into pumping energy. In combination with primary pump or on its own, thermoelectric pump circulates coolant between reactor and radiator. As long as there is decay heat to be removed, unit performs function.

  15. Heat pumps for sanitary hot water; Bombas de calor para agua caliente sanitaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, I.

    2010-07-01

    Directive 2009/28/EC on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources, published last summer is a policy that makes a difference in that for the first time, it envisages the aerothermal renewable energy source. One of the more energies used by heat pumps. (Author)

  16. 辛集市以地热弃水为热源的热泵供暖方式探讨%Heating mode of geothermal abandoned water-source heat pump system in Xinji City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛利敏; 孟冲; 毛晓峰; 兰文治; 田建章; 李红艳

    2011-01-01

    Presents the application of the system to a residential quarter in Xinji. Tests the application effect and the COP of heat pump units and the heat pump system. Analyses and evaluates the energy saving property and economic efficiency of the system based on the field test data, providing reference for other similar applications.%介绍了辛集某小区地热弃水热泵供暖系统的应用情况,并对其应用效果、热泵机组的性能、热泵系统的性能进行了测试,依据测试结果对其节能性、经济性进行了分析评价,供其他地热弃水热泵供暖项目参考.

  17. Case Study for the ARRA-funded Ground Source Heat Pump Demonstration at Denver Museum of Nature & Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Piljae [ORNL; Liu, Xiaobing [ORNL

    2016-09-01

    High initial costs and lack of public awareness of ground-source heat pump (GSHP) technology are the two major barriers preventing rapid deployment of this energy-saving technology in the United States. Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), 26 GSHP projects were competitively selected and carried out to demonstrate the benefits of GSHP systems and innovative technologies for cost reduction and/or performance improvement. This report highlights the findings of a case study of one such GSHP demonstration projects that uses a recycled water heat pump (RWHP) system installed at the Denver Museum of Nature & Science in Denver, Colorado. The RWHP system uses recycled water from the city’s water system as the heat sink and source for a modular water-to-water heat pump (WWHP). This case study was conducted based on the available measured performance data from December 2014 through August 2015, utility bills of the building in 2014 and 2015, construction drawings, maintenance records, personal communications, and construction costs. The annual energy consumption of the RWHP system was calculated based on the available measured data and other related information. It was compared with the performance of a baseline scenario— a conventional VAV system using a water-cooled chiller and a natural gas fired boiler, both of which have the minimum energy efficiencies allowed by ASHRAE 90.1-2010. The comparison was made to determine energy savings, operating cost savings, and CO2 emission reductions achieved by the RWHP system. A cost analysis was performed to evaluate the simple payback of the RWHP system. Summarized below are the results of the performance analysis, the learned lessons, and recommended improvement in the operation of the RWHP system.

  18. Case Study for the ARRA-funded Ground Source Heat Pump Demonstration at Denver Museum of Nature & Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Piljae [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Energy and Transportation Science Division; Liu, Xiaobing [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Energy and Transportation Science Division

    2015-11-30

    High initial costs and lack of public awareness of ground-source heat pump (GSHP) technology are the two major barriers preventing rapid deployment of this energy-saving technology in the United States. Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), 26 GSHP projects were competitively selected and carried out to demonstrate the benefits of GSHP systems and innovative technologies for cost reduction and/or performance improvement. This report highlights the findings of a case study of one such GSHP demonstration projects that uses a recycled water heat pump (RWHP) system installed at the Denver Museum of Nature & Science in Denver, Colorado. The RWHP system uses recycled water from the city’s water system as the heat sink and source for a modular water-to-water heat pump (WWHP). This case study was conducted based on the available measured performance data from December 2014 through August 2015, utility bills of the building in 2014 and 2015, construction drawings, maintenance records, personal communications, and construction costs. The annual energy consumption of the RWHP system was calculated based on the available measured data and other related information. It was compared with the performance of a baseline scenario— a conventional VAV system using a water-cooled chiller and a natural gas fired boiler, both of which have the minimum energy efficiencies allowed by ASHRAE 90.1-2010. The comparison was made to determine energy savings, operating cost savings, and CO2 emission reductions achieved by the RWHP system. A cost analysis was performed to evaluate the simple payback of the RWHP system. Summarized below are the results of the performance analysis, the learned lessons, and recommended improvement in the operation of the RWHP system.

  19. Gas Engine-Driven Heat Pump Chiller for Air-Conditioning and Hot Water Supply Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Toshihiko; Mita, Nobuhiro; Moriyama, Tadashi; Hoshino, Norimasa; Kimura, Yoshihisa

    In Part 1 of this study, the performance characteristics of a 457kW gas engine-driven heat pump (GHP) chiller have been obtained from a simulation model analysis for both cooling and heating modes and it has been found that the part-load characteristics of the GHP chiller are fairly well. On the back of Part 1, a computer simulation program has been developed for the evaluation of GHP chiller systems to compare with the other types of heat source systems for air-conditioning and hot water supply applications. The simulation program can be used to estimate annual energy consumption, annual CO2 emission, etc. of the systems with the data of monthly and hourly thermal loads on various buildings, outdoor air conditions, and characteristics of various components comprising the systems. By applying this to some cases of medium-scale hotel, office, shop, and hospital buildings, it has been found that the GHP chiller systems have advantages particularly in the cases of hotels and hospitals where a lot of hot water demand exists. It has also been found that the combination of a GHP chiller and a direct-fired absorption water chiller boiler (hot and chilled water generator) appears promising.

  20. The integration of water loop heat pump and building structural thermal storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marseille, T.J.; Schliesing, J.S.

    1991-10-01

    Many commercial buildings need heat in one part and, at the same time, cooling in another part. Even more common is the need for heating during one part of the day and cooling during another in the same spaces. If that energy could be shifted or stored for later use, significant energy might be saved. If a building's heating and cooling subsystems could be integrated with the building's structural mass and used to collect, store, and deliver energy, the energy might be save cost-effectively. To explore this opportunity, researchers at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) examined the thermal interactions between the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system and the structure of a commercial building. Computer models were developed to simulate the interactions in an existing building located in Seattle, Washington, to determine how these building subsystems could be integrated to improve energy efficiency. The HVAC subsystems in the existing building were modeled. These subsystems consist of decentralized water-source heat pumps (WSHP) in a closed water loop, connected to cooling towers for heat rejection during cooling mode and boilers to augment heating. An initial base case'' computer model of the Seattle building, as-built, was developed. Metered data available for the building were used to calibrate this model to ensure that the analysis would provide information that closely reflected the operation of a real building. The HVAC system and building structure were integrated in the model using the concrete floor slabs as thermal storage media. The slabs may be actively charged during off-peak periods with the chilled water in the loop and then either actively or passively discharged into the conditioned space during peak periods. 21 refs., 37 figs., 17 tabs.

  1. Impact factors on the long-term sustainability of Borehole Heat Exchanger coupled Ground Source Heat Pump System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Haibing; Hein, Philipp; Görke, Uwe-Jens; Bucher, Anke; Kolditz, Olaf

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, Ground Source Heat Pump System (GSHPS) has been recognized as an efficient technology to utilize shallow geothermal energy. Along with its wide application, some GSHPS are experiencing a gradual decrease in Borehole Heat Exchanger (BHE) outflow temperatures and thus have to be turned off after couple of years' operation. A comprehensive numerical investigation was then performed to model the flow and heat transport processes in and around the BHE, together with the dynamic change of heat pump efficiency. The model parameters were based on the soil temperature and surface weather condition in the Leipzig area. Different scenarios were modelled for a service life of 30 years, to reveal the evolution of BHE outflow and surrounding soil temperatures. It is found that lateral groundwater flow and using BHE for cooling will be beneficial to the energy recovery, along with the efficiency improvement of the heat pump. In comparison to other factors, the soil heat capacity and thermal conductivity are considered to have minor impact on the long-term sustainability of the system. Furthermore, the application of thermally enhanced grout material will improve the sustainability and efficiency. In contrast, it is very likely that undersized systems and improper grouting are the causes of strong system degradation.

  2. Multifunctional Heat Pump Installation for Dairy Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sit M.L.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the installation based on the approach using the integration of the carbon dioxide heat pump in pasteurization and cooling installation for milk and in installations for preparing of hot and "icy" water. The scheme differs from the prototype by the use of additional heat exchangers and of their connection to the main elements of the installation. A proposed technique of elements connection in the heat pump installation permits to compensate the effect of temperature of cold water supply source, which is low-grade heat source for the heat pump, on the quality the work of the installation. The design of the installation enables to compensate the impact of seasonal variation of water temperature. The installation ensures the COP = 5.3.

  3. Case study for ARRA-funded ground-source heat pump (GSHP) demonstration at Oakland University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Piljae [ORNL; Liu, Xiaobing [ORNL

    2015-09-01

    High initial costs and lack of public awareness of ground-source heat pump (GSHP) technology are the two major barriers preventing rapid deployment of this energy-saving technology in the United States. Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), 26 GSHP projects have been competitively selected and carried out to demonstrate the benefits of GSHP systems and innovative technologies for cost reduction and/or performance improvement. This paper highlights the findings of a case study of one of the ARRA-funded GSHP demonstration projects, a ground-source variable refrigerant flow (GS-VRF) system installed at the Human Health Building at Oakland University in Rochester, Michigan. This case study is based on the analysis of measured performance data, maintenance records, construction costs, and simulations of the energy consumption of conventional central heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems providing the same level of space conditioning as the demonstrated GS-VRF system. The evaluated performance metrics include the energy efficiency of the heat pump equipment and the overall GS-VRF system, pumping performance, energy savings, carbon emission reductions, and cost-effectiveness of the GS-VRF system compared with conventional HVAC systems. This case study also identified opportunities for reducing uncertainties in the performance evaluation, improving the operational efficiency, and reducing the installed cost of similar GSHP systems in the future.

  4. Analysis of a Hybrid PV/Thermal Solar-Assisted Heat Pump System for Sports Center Water Heating Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Bai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of solar energy provides an alternative way to replace the primary source of energy, especially for large-scale installations. Heat pump technology is also an effective means to reduce the consumption of fossil fuels. This paper presents a practical case study of combined hybrid PV/T solar assisted heat pump (SAHP system for sports center hot water production. The initial design procedure was first presented. The entire system was then modeled with the TRNSYS 16 computation environment and the energy performance was evaluated based on year round simulation results. The results show that the system COP can reach 4.1 under the subtropical climate of Hong Kong, and as compared to the conventional heating system, a high fractional factor of energy saving at 67% can be obtained. The energy performances of the same system under different climatic conditions, that include three other cities in France, were analyzed and compared. Economic implications were also considered in this study.

  5. On the development of high temperature ammonia-water hybrid absorption-compression heat pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Markussen, Wiebke Brix; Reinholdt, Lars;

    2015-01-01

    Ammonia-water hybrid absorption-compression heat pumps (HACHP) are a promising technology for development of ecient high temperature industrial heat pumps. Using 28 bar components HACHPs up to 100 °C are commercially available. Components developed for 50 bar and 140 bar show that these pressure ......, and 140 bar up to 147 °C. If the compressor discharge temperature limit is increased to 250 °C and the vapour water content constraint is removed, this becomes: 182 °C, 193 °C and 223 °C....

  6. Groundwater heat pumps with turbines for the return water; Grundwasser-Waermepumpe mit Rueckgabe-Turbinierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberhard, M.

    2007-09-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on improvements in the efficiency of a ground water heat pump installation in an office building. The water return well was equipped with a turbine. In this installation, the ground water is pumped up from a depth of 45 meters which means that a lot of electricity is needed for the pumping of the water. Coefficients of performance of the system are quoted for the situation with and without the turbine. The conversion of a pump for use as a turbine is commented on. The construction of a specially developed turbine with reduced electricity consumption is suggested. Seasonal performance data of the system is provided in tabular form.

  7. 节能型水源热泵中央空调在居住小区中的应用%On application of energy-saving water source heat pump center air-conditioner in residential complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵艳军

    2012-01-01

    The paper introduces the basic principle for the energy-saving water source heat pump center air-conditioner,has the detailed indication of the "green,environmental-friendly,energy-saving and comfortable" new resource,undertakes the comparative analysis by comparing it with other resources by the list intercomparison from the comfortableness,the initial investment and the running cost,and concludes the energy-saving geothermic air-conditioner can bring newer and more comfortable living environment%介绍了节能型水源热泵中央空调的基本原理,对这种"绿色、环保、节能、舒适"的新能源做了详尽的说明,并通过列表比对等方法与其他能源形式从舒适性、初投资及运行费等方面进行了对比分析,得出节能型地温中央空调将为居住小区带来全新和更为舒适的生活环境的结论。

  8. Regional Variation in Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in the U.S.: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, J.; Burch, J.; Merrigan, T.; Ong, S.

    2014-01-01

    Residential heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently reemerged on the U.S. market. These units have the potential to provide homeowners significant cost and energy savings. However, actual in use performance of a HPWH will vary significantly with climate, installation location, HVAC equipment, and hot water use. To determine what actual in use energy consumption of a HPWH may be in different regions of the U.S., annual simulations of both 50 and 80 gallon HPWHs as well as a standard electric water heater were performed for over 900 locations across the U.S. The simulations included a benchmark home to take into account interactions between the space conditioning equipment and the HPWH and a realistic hot water draw profile. It was found that the HPWH will always save some source energy when compared to a standard electric resistance water heater, although savings varies widely with location. In addition to looking at source energy savings, the breakeven cost (the net installed cost a HPWH would have to have to be a cost neutral replacement for a standard water heater) was also examined. The highest breakeven costs were seen in cases with high energy savings, such as the southeastern U.S., or high energy costs, such as New England and California. While the breakeven cost is higher for 80 gallon units than 50 gallon units, the higher net installed costs of an 80 gallon unit lead to the 50 gallon HPWHs being more likely to be cost effective.

  9. Regional Variation in Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in the U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burch, Jay [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Merrigan, Tim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ong, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Residential heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently re-emerged on the U.S. market, and they have the potential to provide homeowners significant cost and energy savings. However, actual in use performance of a HPWH will vary significantly with climate, installation location, HVAC equipment, and hot water use. To determine the actual energy consumption of a HPWH in different U.S. regions, annual simulations of both 50 and 80 gallon HPWHs as well as a standard electric water heater were performed for over 900 locations across the United States. The simulations included a benchmark home to take into account interactions between the space conditioning equipment and the HPWH and a realistic hot water draw profile. It was found that the HPWH will always save some source energy when compared to a standard electric resistance water heater, although savings varies widely with location. In addition to looking at source energy savings, the breakeven cost (the net installed cost a HPWH would have to have to be a cost neutral replacement for a standard water heater) was also examined. The highest breakeven costs were seen in cases with high energy savings, such as the southeastern U.S., or high energy costs, such as New England and California. While the breakeven cost is higher for 80 gallon units than 50 gallon units, the higher net installed costs of an 80 gallon unit lead to the 50 gallon HPWHs being more likely to be cost effective.

  10. Experiences with large heat pumps for space heating. Erfaringer med store varmepumper til rumopvarmning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willumsen, O.

    1984-01-01

    In Denmark, only a moderate number of large heat pumps has been installed. Large heat pumps are in this context defined as heat pumps with a heat output exceeding 50 kW. Heat sources for these heat pumps are - to some extent - the same as for smaller heat pumps, i.e. outdoor air, exhaust air, soil and ground water. The use of sewage water, water from lakes or seawater also is rather commen. Besides, more special heat sources based on industrial waste heat are being utilized. The report primarily deals with heat pumps using the most common heat sources. This means that industrial heat pumps are not included in this report. In a few cases it has been considered appropriate to include heat pumps with a heat output smaller than 50 kW, when the experiences from these installations are considered relevant for larger plants. Some of the main findings of the survey are: - When designing heat pump installations, greater attention should be paid towards a more precise evaluation of the annual energy demand of the heat load. - Consulting firms generally have inadequate knowledge of the practical attainable seasonal COP's. - The energy surveillance equipment is insufficient in many installations - or is missing completely. - Salt-based antifreeze solutions should normally be avoided. - Utilizing ground water as a heat source can be problematic due to fouling problems or corrosion damages.

  11. Pioneering Heat Pump Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschliman, Dave [Indiana Inst. of Technology, Inc., Fort Wayne, IN (United States); Lubbehusen, Mike [Indiana Inst. of Technology, Inc., Fort Wayne, IN (United States)

    2015-06-30

    This project was initiated at a time when ground coupled heat pump systems in this region were limited in size and quantity. There were economic pressures with costs for natural gas and electric utilities that had many organizations considering ground coupled heat pumps; The research has added to the understanding of how ground temperatures fluctuate seasonally and how this affects the performance and operation of the heat pumps. This was done by using a series of temperature sensors buried within the middle of one of the vertical bore fields with sensors located at various depths below grade. Trending of the data showed that there is a lag in ground temperature with respect to air temperatures in the shoulder months, however as full cooling and heating season arrives, the heat rejection and heat extraction from the ground has a significant effect on the ground temps; Additionally it is better understood that while a large community geothermal bore field serving multiple buildings does provide a convenient central plant to use, it introduces complexity of not being able to easily model and predict how each building will contribute to the loads in real time. Additional controllers and programming were added to provide more insight into this real time load profile and allow for intelligent shedding of load via a dry cooler during cool nights in lieu of rejecting to the ground loop. This serves as a means to ‘condition’ the ground loop and mitigate thermal creep of the field, as is typically observed; and It has been observed when compared to traditional heating and cooling equipment, there is still a cost premium to use ground source heat pumps that is driven mostly by the cost for vertical bore holes. Horizontal loop systems are less costly to install, but do not perform as well in this climate zone for heating mode

  12. Regenerative Hydride Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.

    1992-01-01

    Hydride heat pump features regenerative heating and single circulation loop. Counterflow heat exchangers accommodate different temperatures of FeTi and LaNi4.7Al0.3 subloops. Heating scheme increases efficiency.

  13. Regenerative Hydride Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.

    1992-01-01

    Hydride heat pump features regenerative heating and single circulation loop. Counterflow heat exchangers accommodate different temperatures of FeTi and LaNi4.7Al0.3 subloops. Heating scheme increases efficiency.

  14. Development of High Efficiency Carbon Dioxide Commercial Heat Pump Water Heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael PETERSEN; Chad D. BOWERS; Stefan ELBEL; Pega HRNJAK

    2012-07-01

    Although heat pump water heaters are today widely accepted in both Japan and Europe, where energy costs are high and government incentives for their use exist, acceptance of such products in the US has been limited. While this trend is slowly changing with the introduction of heat pump water heaters into the residential market, but acceptance remains low in the commercial sector. The objective of the presented work is the development of a high efficiency R744 heat pump water heater for commercial applications with effective utilization of the cooling capability for air conditioning and/or refrigeration. The ultimate goal is to achieve total system COP of up to 8. This unit will be targeted at commercial use where some cooling load is typically needed year round, such as restaurants, hotels, nursing homes, and hospitals. This paper presents the performance results from the development of four R744 commercial heat pump water heater packages of approximately 35 kW and comparison to a commercially available baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint. In addition, the influences of an internal heat exchanger and an enhanced evaporator on the system performance are described and recommendations are made for further improvements of the R744 system.

  15. Experimental study on heat supply of soil-seawater-source heat pump%土壤海水源热泵供暖实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴君华; 李海山; 牛林

    2014-01-01

    Sets up a field test platform of soil-seawater-source heat pump and performs heating experiment.The experimental results show that the higher the sand soil temperature is,the more the inlet water temperature of heat pump is,which results in larger heat exchanger capacity per unit length and higher COP of the heat pump system.Under the experimental conditions,the average value of heat exchanger capacity per unit length is 38.2 W/m,and the average value of COP is 1.8.The heat exchanger of soil-seawater-source heat pump system has little effect on the soil thermal environment due to stronger temperature restoration ability of shallow layer seabed soil.%搭建了土壤海水源现场实验台,进行了供暖实验。结果表明,沙层土壤温度越高,则机组进水温度也越高,单位管长换热量也就越大,热泵系统 COP 也就越大;实验工况下,单位管长换热量平均值为38.2 W/m,热泵系统COP 平均值为1.8;浅层海底沙层土壤温度恢复能力较强,盘管换热器对周围土壤热环境影响较小。

  16. The Analysis of Ground Source Heat Pump Applied in Mianyang City%地源热泵在绵阳地区的应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘东; 蒋斌; 韩如冰; 邹国荣

    2013-01-01

      介绍了地源热泵的工作原理,并结合绵阳地区的地质情况及地源热泵系统形式,分析了地源热泵技术在绵阳地区的应用方式,并针对地表水、地下水和地下耦合地源热泵系统的可行性进行了分析和说明,为地源热泵技术在绵阳地区的工程应用提供参考。%This paper introduced the operational principle of ground source heat pump. Based on the geologic environment of Mianyang city and the ground source heat pump forms, the application of different ground source heat pump were compared. And analyses the feasibility of surface water,ground water and underground coupling source heat pump in Mianyang city. This paper can provide the reference for the ground source heat pump engineering application in Mianyang city.

  17. ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF AN OPEN-LOOP GROUND-WATER HEAT PUMP SYSTEM IN AN URBAN AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgia Baccino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a multidisciplinary methodology for analyzing the opportunities for exploitation of open-loop groundwater heat pump is proposed. The approach starts from a model for calculation of a time profile of thermal requirements (heat and domestic hot water. This curve is then coupled with a model of the control system in order to determine the heat pump operation, which includes its energy performances (primary energy consumption as well as profiles of water discharge to the aquifer in terms of mass flow rate and temperature. Then the thermo-fluid dynamics of the aquifer is performed in order to determine the system impact on the environment as on possible other systems. The application to a case study in the Piedmont region, in Italy, is proposed. Energy analysis of the system shows that ground-water heat pumps constitute an interesting option in areas with small housing density, where there is not district heating. In comparison with typical heating/cooling systems, environmental benefits are related with reduction in global emissions. These benefits may be significantly enhanced using renewables as the primary energy source to produce electricity. The analysis also shows that possible issues related with the extension of the subsurface thermal plume may arise in the case of massive utilization of this technology.

  18. Summer Indoor Heat Pump Water Heater Evaluation in a Hot-Dry Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeschele, Marc [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Seitzler, Matthew [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Heat pump water heaters offer a significant opportunity to improve water heating performance for the over 40% of U.S. households that heat domestic hot water using electric resistance storage water heaters. Numerous field studies have also been completed documenting performance in a variety of climates and applications. More recent evaluation efforts have focused attention on the performance of May through September 2014, with ongoing winter monitoring being sponsored by California utility partners. Summer results show favorable system performance with extrapolated annual water heating savings of 1,466 to 2,300 kWh per year, based on the observed hot water loads. Additional summer space cooling benefits savings of 121 to 135 kWh per year were projected, further increasing the water energy savings.

  19. Hydride heat pump with heat regenerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A regenerative hydride heat pump process and system is provided which can regenerate a high percentage of the sensible heat of the system. A series of at least four canisters containing a lower temperature performing hydride and a series of at least four canisters containing a higher temperature performing hydride is provided. Each canister contains a heat conductive passageway through which a heat transfer fluid is circulated so that sensible heat is regenerated. The process and system are useful for air conditioning rooms, providing room heat in the winter or for hot water heating throughout the year, and, in general, for pumping heat from a lower temperature to a higher temperature.

  20. High efficient ammonia heat pump system for industrial process water using the ISEC concept. Part 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Martin F.; Madsen, Claus; Olsen, Lars

    2014-01-01

    The Isolated System Energy Charging (ISEC) concept allows for a high efficiency of a heat pump system for hot water production. The ISEC concept consists of two water storage tanks, one charged and one discharged. The charged tank is used for the industrial process, while the discharged tank...... modelling of the heat pump and tank system is performed (in continuation of Part I). The modelling is extended to include the system performance with different natural refrigerants and the influence of different types of compressors....... is charging. The charging of the tank is done by recirculating water through the condenser and thereby gradually heating the water. The modelling of the system is described in Part I [1]. In this part, Part II, an experimental test setup of the tank system is reported, the results are presented and further...

  1. Possibility of Heat Pump Use in Hot Water Supply Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Babak

    2016-09-01

    The results of this work may be used for in Total Site methodology development allowing heat recovery for district heating needs of both new designs and as retrofits to existing sites to ensure fast, widespread and cost-efficient industrial deployment. It leads to carbon footprint reduction and energy efficiency improvement of regions with heating and cooling demands during winter and summer seasons.

  2. Measure Guideline. Heat Pump Water Heaters in New and Existing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, Carl [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Puttagunta, Srikanth [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Owens, Douglas [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This Building America Measure Guideline is intended for builders, contractors, homeowners, and policy-makers. This document is intended to explore the issues surrounding heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) to ensure that homeowners and contractors have the tools needed to appropriately and efficiently install HPWHs

  3. 10 CFR 431.107 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial heat pump water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial heat pump water heaters. 431.107 Section 431.107 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial heat pump water heaters. Energy...

  4. Investigation on A Ground Source Heat Pump System Integrated With Renewable Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Qian, Defeng; Niu, Fuxin; Kavanaugh, Steven; O'Neill, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Buildings consumed 40% of the energy and represented 40% of the carbon emissions in the United States. This is more than any other sector of the U.S. economy, including transportation and industry. About 24% of all energy used in the nation is for space heating, cooling and water heating in buildings. Enhancing building efficiency represents one of the easiest, most immediate and most cost effective ways to reduce carbon emissions. One of energy efficient and environment friendly technologies...

  5. Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump for Near-Zero Energy Houses: Technology Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Richard W [ORNL; Rice, C Keith [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL; Craddick, William G [ORNL

    2007-07-01

    This report documents the development of an air-source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) through the third quarter of FY2007. It describes the design, analyses and testing of the AS-IHP, and provides performance specifications for a field test prototype and proposed control strategy. The results obtained so far continue to support the AS-IHP being a promising candidate to meet the energy service needs for DOE's development of a Zero Energy Home (ZEH) by the year 2020.

  6. Potential of the heat pump; Potenziale der Waermepumpe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flade, F. [Bundesverband WaermePumpe (BWP) e.V., Muenchen (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Heat pumps have been around for years. They are a mature and economically efficient heating technology which will reduce primary energy consumption and CO2 emissions quickly and sustainably. In 2002, 251,000 million l of heating oil and 289,000 million cubic metres of gas were consumed for heating in Germany, which might have been greatly reduced with heat pumps. At a seasonal performance factor of 4.5 as is common in groundwater and ground source heat pumps, heat pumps will produce 40 percent less CO2 than gas-fuelled high-efficiency boilers. At 'normal' values of 3.5 which are more or less standard values for air-to-water heat pumps, CO2 emissions will be reduced by 30 percent. The heat pump is an ecologically effective and economically efficient alternative to conventional heating systems. (orig.)

  7. Absorption heat pump system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, G.

    1982-06-16

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  8. High Temperature Thermoacoustic Heat Pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tijani, H.; Spoelstra, S. [ECN Biomass and Energy Efficiency, Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-07-15

    Thermoacoustic technology can provide new types of heat pumps that can be deployed in different applications. Thermoacoustic heat pumps can for example be applied in dwellings to generate cooling or heating. Typically, space and water heating makes up about 60% of domestic and office energy consumption. The application of heat pumps can contribute to achieve energy savings and environmental benefits by reducing CO2 and NOx emissions. This paper presents the study of a laboratory scale thermoacoustic-Stirling heat pump operating between 10C and 80C which can be applied in domestics and offices. The heat pump is driven by a thermoacoustic-Stirling engine. The experimental results show that the heat pump pumps 250 W of heat at 60C at a drive ratio of 3.6 % and 200 W at 80C at a drive ratio of 3.5 %. The performance for both cases is about 40% of the Carnot performance. The design, construction, and performance measurements of the heat pump will be presented and discussed.

  9. West Village Community: Quality Management Processes and Preliminary Heat Pump Water Heater Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dakin, B.; Backman, C.; Hoeschele, M.; German, A.

    2012-11-01

    West Village, a multi-use project underway at the University of California Davis, represents a ground-breaking sustainable community incorporating energy efficiency measures and on-site renewable generation to achieve community-level Zero Net Energy (ZNE) goals. The project when complete will provide housing for students, faculty, and staff with a vision to minimize the community's impact on energy use by reducing building energy use, providing on-site generation, and encouraging alternative forms of transportation. This focus of this research is on the 192 student apartments that were completed in 2011 under Phase I of the West Village multi-year project. The numerous aggressive energy efficiency measures implemented result in estimated source energy savings of 37% over the B10 Benchmark. There are two primary objectives of this research. The first is to evaluate performance and efficiency of the central heat pump water heaters as a strategy to provide efficient electric water heating for net-zero all-electric buildings and where natural gas is not available on site. In addition, effectiveness of the quality assurance and quality control processes implemented to ensure proper system commissioning and to meet program participation requirements is evaluated. Recommendations for improvements that could improve successful implementation for large-scale, high performance communities are identified.

  10. West Village Community. Quality Management Processes and Preliminary Heat Pump Water Heater Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dakin, B. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Backman, C. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); German, A. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2012-11-01

    West Village, a multi-use project underway at the University of California Davis, represents a ground-breaking sustainable community incorporating energy efficiency measures and on-site renewable generation to achieve community-level Zero Net Energy (ZNE) goals. When complete, the project will provide housing for students, faculty, and staff with a vision to minimize the community’s impact on energy use by reducing building energy use, providing on-site generation, and encouraging alternative forms of transportation. This focus of this research is on the 192 student apartments that were completed in 2011 under Phase I of the West Village multi-year project. The numerous aggressive energy efficiency measures implemented result in estimated source energy savings of 37% over the B10 Benchmark. There are two primary objectives of this research. The first is to evaluate performance and efficiency of the central heat pump water heaters as a strategy to provide efficient electric water heating for net-zero all-electric buildings and where natural gas is not available on site. In addition, effectiveness of the quality assurance and quality control processes implemented to ensure proper system commissioning and to meet program participation requirements is evaluated. Recommendations for improvements that could improve successful implementation for large-scale, high performance communities are identified.

  11. Hybrid Ground-Source Heat Pump Installations: Experiences, Improvements, and Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Hackel; Amanda Pertzborn

    2011-06-30

    One innovation to ground-source heat pump (GSHP, or GHP) systems is the hybrid GSHP (HyGSHP) system, which can dramatically decrease the first cost of GSHP systems by using conventional technology (such as a cooling tower or a boiler) to meet a portion of the peak heating or cooling load. This work uses three case studies (two cooling-dominated, one heating-dominated) to demonstrate the performance of the hybrid approach. Three buildings were studied for a year; the measured data was used to validate models of each system. The models were used to analyze further improvements to the hybrid approach, and establish that this approach has positive impacts, both economically and environmentally. Lessons learned by those who design and operate the systems are also documented, including discussions of equipment sizing, pump operation, and cooling tower control. Finally, the measured data sets and models that were created during this work are described; these materials have been made freely available for further study of hybrid systems.

  12. Statistical Modeling of Controllable Heat Pump Water Heaters Considering Customers' Convenience and Uncertainty and its Application to Frequency Control in Power System with a Large Penetration of Renewable Energy Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuta, Taisuke; Gunjikake, Yasutoshi; Yokoyama, Akihiko; Tada, Yasuyuki

    Nowadays, electric power systems confront many problems, such as environmental issues, aging infrastructures, energy security, and quality of electricity supply. The smart grid is a new concept of a better future grid, which enables us to solve the mentioned problems with Information and Communication Technology (ICT). In this research, a number of Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs), one of the energy efficient-use customer equipment, and Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) are considered as controllable equipment for the frequency control. The utilization of customer equipment such as HPWH for power system control is one of the key elements in the concept of Ubiquitous Power Grid, which was proposed by our research group as a smart grid in Japanese context. The frequency control using a number of HPWHs with thermal storage of hot water tank is evaluated. Moreover, a novel statistical modeling of controllable HPWHs taking into account customers' convenience and uncertainty is proposed.

  13. 火力发电厂水源热泵空调系统与传统空调系统的技术经济性比较%Technical and Economic Comparison between Water-Source Heat Pump Air-Conditioning System and Classical Air-Conditioning System in Fossil Fuel Power Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王明国; 毛永东; 卢柏春; 谢网度

    2013-01-01

    Water-source heat pump air-conditioning as an energy-efficient, environmentally friendly air-conditioning system is gained more attention, and has a broad development prospects. According to Huarun Lianyuan power plant project, this paper has discussed the advantages about water-source heat pump air-conditioning system through the theoretical and economic comparison. The Water source heat pump air-conditioning system has a broad application value.%  水源热泵空调作为一种高效节能,环保型的空调系统正日益受到人们的重视,有着广阔的发展前景。介绍了华润电力涟源坑口电厂工程,通过与传统空调系统的技术经济比较论述其优越性,具有推广应用的价值。

  14. Performance Analysis of Air-to-Water Heat Pump in Latvian Climate Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazjonovs, Janis; Sipkevics, Andrejs; Jakovics, Andris; Dancigs, Andris; Bajare, Diana; Dancigs, Leonards

    2014-12-01

    Strategy of the European Union in efficient energy usage demands to have a higher proportion of renewable energy in the energy market. Since heat pumps are considered to be one of the most efficient heating and cooling systems, they will play an important role in the energy consumption reduction in buildings aimed to meet the target of nearly zero energy buildings set out in the EU Directive 2010/31/EU. Unfortunately, the declared heat pump Coefficient of Performance (COP) corresponds to a certain outdoor temperature (+7 °C), therefore different climate conditions, building characteristics and settings result in different COP values during the year. The aim of this research is to investigate the Seasonal Performance factor (SPF) values of air-to-water heat pump which better characterize the effectiveness of heat pump in a longer selected period of time, especially during the winter season, in different types of residential buildings in Latvian climate conditions. Latvia has four pronounced seasons of near-equal length. Winter starts in mid-December and lasts until mid-March. Latvia is characterized by cold, maritime climate (duration of the average heating period being 203 days, the average outdoor air temperature during the heating period being 0.0 °C, the coldest five-day average temperature being -20.7 °C, the average annual air temperature being +6.2 °C, the daily average relative humidity being 79 %). The first part of this research consists of operational air-towater heat pump energy performance monitoring in different residential buildings during the winter season. The second part of the research takes place under natural conditions in an experimental construction stand which is located in an urban environment in Riga, Latvia. The inner area of this test stand, where air-to-water heat pump performance is analyzed, is 9 m2. The ceiling height is 3 m, all external wall constructions (U = 0.16 W/(m2K)) have ventilated facades. To calculate SPF, the

  15. Measure Guideline: Heat Pump Water Heaters in New and Existing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, C.; Puttagunta, S.; Owens, D.

    2012-02-01

    This Building America Measure Guideline is intended for builders, contractors, homeowners, and policy-makers. This document is intended to explore the issues surrounding heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) to ensure that homeowners and contractors have the tools needed to appropriately and efficiently install HPWHs. Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) promise to significantly reduce energy consumption for domestic hot water (DHW) over standard electric resistance water heaters (ERWHs). While ERWHs perform with energy factors (EFs) around 0.9, new HPWHs boast EFs upwards of 2.0. High energy factors in HPWHs are achieved by combining a vapor compression system, which extracts heat from the surrounding air at high efficiencies, with electric resistance element(s), which are better suited to meet large hot water demands. Swapping ERWHs with HPWHs could result in roughly 50% reduction in water heating energy consumption for 35.6% of all U.S. households. This Building America Measure Guideline is intended for builders, contractors, homeowners, and policy-makers. While HPWHs promise to significantly reduce energy use for DHW, proper installation, selection, and maintenance of HPWHs is required to ensure high operating efficiency and reliability. This document is intended to explore the issues surrounding HPWHs to ensure that homeowners and contractors have the tools needed to appropriately and efficiently install HPWHs. Section 1 of this guideline provides a brief description of HPWHs and their operation. Section 2 highlights the cost and energy savings of HPWHs as well as the variables that affect HPWH performance, reliability, and efficiency. Section 3 gives guidelines for proper installation and maintenance of HPWHs, selection criteria for locating HPWHs, and highlights of important differences between ERWH and HPWH installations. Throughout this document, CARB has included results from the evaluation of 14 heat pump water heaters (including three recently released HPWH

  16. 热回收地源热泵机组的水温控制%Control of water temperature for ground-source heat pump units with heat recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方徐根; 王建奎; 陆麟; 曾宪纯; 林奕

    2012-01-01

    Presents the indirect control scheme of variable flow rate, I. E. Regulating the temperature of hot water of heat recovery by regulating the water flow rate in ground side to safeguard the steady temperature of chilled water and heat recovery water. Presents the control principle and scheme. With an example project in Hangzhou, verifies the control accuracy of the system, and the result shows that the control effect is favorable.%提出了变流量间接控制方案,即通过调节地源侧水流量间接控制热回收热水温度,以保证冷水和热回收热水温度恒定的方法.给出了控制原理和控制方案.结合杭州某办公楼示范工程,验证了该系统的控制精度,结果表明该系统控制效果良好.

  17. Geothermal(Ground-Source)Heat Pumps: Market Status, Barriers to Adoption, and Actions to Overcome Barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Patrick [ORNL

    2008-12-01

    More effective stewardship of our resources contributes to the security, environmental sustainability, and economic well-being of the nation. Buildings present one of the best opportunities to economically reduce energy consumption and limit greenhouse gas emissions. Geothermal heat pumps (GHPs), sometimes called ground-source heat pumps, have been proven capable of producing large reductions in energy use and peak demand in buildings. However, GHPs have received little attention at the policy level as an important component of a national strategy. Have policymakers mistakenly overlooked GHPs, or are GHPs simply unable to make a major contribution to the national goals for various reasons? This brief study was undertaken at DOE's request to address this conundrum. The scope of the study includes determining the status of global GHP markets and the status of the GHP industry and technology in the United States, assembling previous estimates of GHP energy savings potential, identifying key barriers to application of GHPs, and identifying actions that could accelerate market adoption of GHPs. The findings are documented in this report along with conclusions and recommendations.

  18. Hot water preparation with heat pumps; Warmwasserbereitung mit Waermepumpe. Messungen an einer Anlage in Rorschacherberg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, H.; Gabathuler, H. R. [Gabathuler AG, Beratende Ingenieure, Diessenhofen (Switzerland); Baumgartner, Th. [Th. Baumgartner and Partner AG, Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2007-07-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of measurements made on an installation in Rorschacherberg, Switzerland. The paper examines the results obtained as a result of implementing recommendations for designing domestic hot water heating systems using heat pumps. These were published in the STASCH project on standard circuit diagrams for small-scale heat pump plants. The effectiveness of these recommendations was investigated in this project. Furthermore, optimum hydraulic circuits and control procedures were developed based on measurements made on the experimental plant in Rorschacherberg. The installation examined is described and commented on. Six configuration variants conforming to the STASCH concept are examined and operational aspects are commented on. Finally, recommendations on temperatures and operational modi are made.

  19. Portable Heat Pump Testing Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kłosowiak R.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the design and working principle of a portable testing device for heat pumps in the energy recirculation system. The presented test stand can be used for any refrigerating/reverse flow cycle device to calculate the device energy balance. The equipment is made of two portable containers of the capacity of 250 liters to simulate the air heat source and ground heat source with a system of temperature stabilization, compressor heat pump of the coefficient of performance (COP of = 4.3, a failsafe system and a control and measurement system.

  20. District Heating System Using Heat Pump Installations and CHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sit M.L.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the district heating system, in which part of the heat of return water thermal power is used to supply heat to the district heating puThe article describes the district heating system, in which part of the heat of return water thermal power is used to supply heat to the district heating pumps, evaporators heating and hot water. Heat pumps use carbon dioxide as refrigerant. During the transitional period of the year, and the summer heat pump for preparing hot-water supply system uses the heat of the surrounding air. The heat of the ambient air is used in the intermediate heat exchanger between the first and second stages of the heat pump to cool the gas after the first stage of the compressor of the heat pump.

  1. Focus group discussions among owners and non-owners of ground source heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberson, B.F.

    1988-07-01

    This research was sponsored by the Office of Buildings and Community Systems and conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory as part of an ongoing effort to enhance the commercial use of federally developed technology. Federal dollars have supported research on the development of ground source heat pumps (GSHP) for several years. Though several companies currently sell GSHP's for residential use, their share of the total heating and air conditioning business remains less than one percent. Large manufacturing companies with national distribution have not yet added GSHP equipment to their product line. GSHP's use only about one half (Braud 1987) to one third (Bose 1987) of the energy needed to operate conventional furnaces and air conditioners. Consequently, a high level of market penetration by the GSHP offers direct benefits to both utility companies and individual users of the systems. Widespread use of these highly efficient systems will reduce both total energy consupmtion, and problems associated with high levels of energy use during peak periods. This will allow utility companies to delay capital expenditures for new facilities to meet the growing energy demand during peak periods. The cost effective use of electricity also reduces the likelihood of homeowners switching to a different fuel source for heating. 5 refs.

  2. 太阳能辅助地源热泵供暖实验研究%Experimental study of a solar assisted ground source heat pump for heating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵忠超; 丰威仙; 巩学梅; 米浩君; 成华; 云龙

    2014-01-01

    An experimental study is performed to determine the performance of the solar assisted ground source heat pump(SAGSHP)by using a solar-ground source heat pump hybrid system in the city of Ningbo. The result shows that comparing with the ground source heat pump(GSHP),when the ratio of solar energy to the whole en-ergy is 41. 9% ,the coefficient of performance( COP)of the heat pump and system can improve 15. 1% and 7. 7% respectively. Therefore,the solar assisted ground source heat pump has a significant performance advan-tage according to the experimental result.%选取宁波某公用建筑的太阳能-地源热泵复合系统为实验系统,对太阳能辅助地源热泵( solar assisted ground source heat pump,SAGSHP)供暖进行了实验研究.研究结果表明:与单一的地源热泵(ground source heat pump,GSHP)相比,当太阳能承担41.9%负荷时,热泵机组和整个系统的能效比(coefficient of performance,COP)分别提高了15.1%和7.7%, SAGSHP 供暖运行模式具有明显的性能优势.

  3. 污水源热泵技术应用%The sewage-source heat pump technology application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永清; 那威

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduced the typical sewage-source heat pump system engineering at home and abroad,analyzed the advantages and dis-advantages of sewage-source heat pump system,and elaborated four principles promotion of sewage-source heat pump technology,conducive to the popularization and application and continuous development of the technology in our country.%对国内外典型的污水源热泵系统工程进行了介绍,分析了污水源热泵系统的优缺点,并阐述了推广污水源热泵技术应遵循的四项原则,有利于该技术在我国的推广应用与不断发展。

  4. 地源热泵的研究与应用现状%Research and Application Status of Ground Source Heat Pump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武曈; 刘钰莹; 董喆; 方莹; 刘益才

    2014-01-01

    The paper starts with a brief introduction to the classification and working principle of ground source heat pump (GSHP) in three aspects of ground coupled heat pump system, ground water source heat pump system, surface water source heat pump system, and a brief overview of these three ground source heat pump systems is illustrated on the basis of the features and quality. Based on the research and application at home and abroad, new trends and new research progress of ground source heat pump in twenty-first century are mainly analyzed, i. e. using modern means to analysis and improve the water carrying capacity and the performance of the pump system. At the same time, the concise examples about the combination of the new technology and the original technology of heat pump are listed in the paper, such as the summary of solar, ice storage and waste heat utilization. A conclusion can be drawn that notable advantages of GSHP with respects to energy saving and environment protection must lead to a wide application prospect of GSHP system in China.%本文从土壤耦合热泵系统、地下水地源热泵系统、地表水地源热泵系统三个方面,介绍了地源热泵的分类及工作原理,并在分类的基础上对三大地源热泵系统进行了简要的概述,说明其特点和优劣。在综合国内外研究应用的基础上,重点总结分析了21世纪地源热泵的研究进展及新研究趋势--针对水体承载能力、热泵系统的效能等利用现代手段进行分析和提高。同时,本文对新技术与热泵原有技术的结合进行了简明例举,列举出与太阳能、冰蓄冷、余热利用相关的概要。通过本文表明地源热泵在节能环保方面的显著优势,也证明其在我国拥有广泛的应用前景。

  5. Development of Absorption Heat Pump Driven by Low Temperature Hot Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshida, Toshihiro; Nakamura, Naoto; Asai, Hiroshi; Hasatani, Masanobu; Watanabe, Fujio; Fujisawa, Ryou

    We developed an Adsorption Heat Pump (AHP) system, which applies silica-gel as adsorbent and H2O as refrigerant, and is possibly intended to use low temperature hot water (333K) as a driving force. The growing importance to save energy, leads us to develop energy saving systems such as Co-generation systems, including fuel cell system. It is important to use low temperature hot water in order to achieve high efficiency in total. It is, however, noticed that the lower water temperature is, the more difficult its' heat recovery becomes. We reported experimental results of the AHP system, and estimated the possibility to apply low temperature hot water from fuel cell system to the AHP system. We showed quantitatively that the AHP system is able to be driven by low temperature hot water(333K).

  6. Heat Pump Water Heater Ducting Strategies with Encapsulated Attics in Climate Zones 2 and 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweet, M. L. [Southface Energy Inst., Atlanta, GA (United States); Francisco, A. [Southface Energy Inst., Atlanta, GA (United States); Roberts, S. G. [Southface Energy Inst., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The focus of this study is on the performance of HPWHs with several different duct configurations and their effects on whole building heating, cooling, and moisture loads. A.O. Smith 60 gallon Voltex (PHPT-60) heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) were included at two project sites and ducted to or located within spray foamed encapsulated attics. The effect of ducting a HPWH's air stream does not diminish its efficiency if the ducting does not reduce intake air temperature, which expands HPWH application to confined areas.

  7. Anti-freezing performance research of dry type shell-tube heat exchanger for air source heat pump water chiller-heater unit%空气源热泵冷(热)水机组用干式壳管换热器防冻性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张龙爱; 陈忠杰; 王传华

    2012-01-01

    针对空气源热泵冷(热)水机组运行中可能出现的干式壳管换热器冻裂问题,分析其被冻裂的主要因素,并且对壳管换热器冻裂的关键因素——蒸发压力过低的原因进行分析.基于分析结果,对壳管换热器的设计进行改进,同时对低流量保护点进行试验验证.%Aiming at the frost-cracking problem of the dry type shell-tube heat exchanger for air source heat pump water chiller-heater unit, the main influencing factors are analyzed. The key reason of shell-tube heat exchanger frost-cracking is analyzed that is too low evaporating pressure. The design of shell-tube heat exchanger is improved based on the analysis results, and the limited flow rate for protection of flow switch is verified by the test.

  8. Performance prediction between horizontal and vertical source heat pump systems for greenhouse heating with the use of artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benli, Hüseyin

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents the suitability of artificial neural networks (ANNs) to predict the performance and comparison between a horizontal and a vertical ground source heat pump system. Performance forecasting is the precondition for the optimal control and energy saving operation of heat pump systems. In this study, performance parameters such as air temperature entering condenser fan-coil unit, air temperature leaving condenser fan-coil unit, and ground temperatures (2 and 60 m) obtained experimental studies are input data; coefficient of performance of system (COPsys) is in output layer. The back propagation learning algorithm with three different variants such as Levenberg-Marguardt, Pola-Ribiere conjugate gradient, and scaled conjugate gradient, and also tangent sigmoid transfer function were used in the network so that the best approach can be found. The results showed that LM with three neurons in the hidden layer is the most suitable algorithm with maximum correlation coefficients R2 of 0.999, minimum root mean square RMS value and low coefficient variance COV. The reported results confirmed that the use of ANN for performance prediction of COPsys,H-V is acceptable in these studies.

  9. 暖通空调设计中地源热泵的运用%The Use of Ground Source Heat Pump in HVAC Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜志宏; 陈昀; 米泉龄; 尤炜

    2011-01-01

    地源热泵的能量来源是由各种资源所提供,主要包括了地源、水源、空气源等,当这些能量集中到一起之后能够与建筑物供冷供热的热泵技术想结合,由此处理成为城市供冷供暖的最佳方式.本文结合工程案例针对暖通空调设计中地源热泵问题进行了多方面的研究.%The energy sources of ground source heat pump are provided by various resources, including ground source, water source, air source, and others. When these energy is concentrated together, it can combine with cooling and heating heat pump technology of building, which became the best way to deal with urban cooling and heating. In this paper, the problems of ground source heat pump in design for HVAC are analyzed from many aspects with the projects.

  10. Building America Case Study: Indoor Heat Pump Water Heaters During Summer in a Hot-Dry Climate, Redding, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Hoeschele, M. Seitzler

    2017-06-01

    Heat pump water heaters offer a significant opportunity to improve water heating performance for the over 40% of U.S. households that heat domestic hot water using electric resistance storage water heaters. Numerous field studies have also been completed documenting performance in a variety of climates and applications. More recent evaluation efforts have focused attention on the performance of May through September 2014, with ongoing winter monitoring being sponsored by California utility partners.

  11. Research and Application Progress of Sewage Source Heat Pump System%污水源热泵系统的研究与应用进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张静; 陈洪斌; 戴晓虎; 何群彪

    2013-01-01

    Sewage heat recovery has got more and more attention.The development of sewage source heat pump technology is important for building energy-saving and consumption reduction.The working principle,characteristics and classification of sewage source heat pump technology as well as the system design were introduced.The development of new heat exchangers,latest progress in technologies of anti-clogging,scale control and anticorrosion were reviewed.The bottleneck for the widespread application of sewage water source heat pump technology was pointed out.The source separation of domestic sewage in residential areas,recovery and reuse of waste heat from grey water (bath and washing sewage) are a prospective developing trend of sewage source heat pump system in future.%污水的能源回收越来越受到关注和重视,开发污水源热泵技术对建筑节能降耗具有重要意义.就污水源热泵技术的工作原理、特点、分类以及系统设计、新型换热器开发、防堵、防垢、防腐蚀技术研究进展等方面进行了介绍,分析了该技术大量推广应用面临的问题,指出居住区生活污水源分离并就近回收利用灰水(洗浴和盥洗废水等)的余热,是污水源热泵系统发展的重要方向.

  12. Energy saving analysis of ground-source heat pump and air-source heat pump in Shanghai area%上海地区地埋管地源热泵和空气源热泵的节能性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张静波; 吴建兵; 寿炜炜

    2011-01-01

    从热力学角度对地埋管地源热泵和空气源热泵的节能性进行对比分析,提出了在上海地区地埋管地源热泵相对于空气源热泵节能的设计条件:地埋管换热器出水温度夏季低于30℃,冬季高于10℃.%Compares the energy saving performance of ground-source heat pump and air-source heat pump from the aspect of thermodynamics. Brings forward some suggestions for the application of groundsource heat pump in Shanghai area that the temperature of water from the ground heat exchanger should be less than 30 ℃ in summer and higher than 10 ℃ in winter.

  13. Regional Climate Zone Modeling of a Commercial Absorption Heat Pump Hot Water Heater Part 1: Southern and South Central Climate Zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geoghegan, Patrick J [ORNL; Shen, Bo [ORNL; Keinath, Christopher M. [Stone Mountain Technologies, Inc., Johnson City; Garrabrant, Michael A. [Stone Mountain Technologies, Inc., Johnson City

    2016-01-01

    Commercial hot water heating accounts for approximately 0.78 Quads of primary energy use with 0.44 Quads of this amount from natural gas fired heaters. An ammonia-water based commercial absorption system, if fully deployed, could achieve a high level of savings, much higher than would be possible by conversion to the high efficiency nonheat-pump gas fired alternatives. In comparison with air source electric heat pumps, the absorption system is able to maintain higher coefficients of performance in colder climates. The ammonia-water system also has the advantage of zero Ozone Depletion Potential and low Global Warming Potential. A thermodynamic model of a single effect ammonia-water absorption system for commercial space and water heating was developed, and its performance was investigated for a range of ambient and return water temperatures. This allowed for the development of a performance map which was then used in a building energy modeling software. Modeling of two commercial water heating systems was performed; one using an absorption heat pump and another using a condensing gas storage system. The energy and financial savings were investigated for a range of locations and climate zones in the southern and south central United States. A follow up paper will analyze northern and north/central regions. Results showed that the system using an absorption heat pump offers significant savings.

  14. Efficiency of Vertical Geothermal Heat Exchangers in the Ground Source Heat Pump System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heyi Zeng; Nairen Diao; Zhaohong Fang

    2003-01-01

    Taking the fluid temperature distribution along the borehole depth into account, a new quasi-three-dimensional model for vertical ground heat exchangers has been established, which provides a better understanding of the heat transfer processes in the geothermal heat exchangers. On this basis the efficiency of the borehole has been defined and its analytical expression derived. Comparison with the previous two-dimensional model shows that the quasi-three-dimensional model is more rational and more accurate to depict the practical feature of the conduction of geothermal heat exchanger, and the efficiency notion can be easily used to determine the inlet and outlet temperature of the circulating fluid inside the heat exchanger.

  15. Discussion on the Ground Source Heat Pump Pechnology%浅谈地源热泵技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐游洋; 辛立民

    2015-01-01

    The ground source heat pump system is the use of shallow geothermal heating and cooling system can be used in a new type of energy. Efficient use of ground source heat pump technology offers cold energy to the building, in order to meet a variety of building functions, for easy, fast and comfortable en-vironment is the goal of ground source heat pump technology. In order to solve the problem of building energy consumption is too serious, the best way is to research more new and renewable en-ergy, so as to achieve the purpose of building energy efficiency. This paper details the principle of ground source heat pump tech-nology, as well as ground-source heat pump classification and characteristics, and prospects of its development prospects.%地源热泵系统是利用浅层地能进行供热制冷的新型能源所使用的系统。高效利用地源热泵技术提供给建筑的冷热能量,以满足建筑的各种使用功能,实现方便、快捷、舒适的环境,是地源热泵技术实现的目标。为了解决建筑耗能过于严重的问题,最好的办法就是更多地去研究新的可再生能源,从而达到建筑节能的目的。本文主要详细阐述了地源热泵技术的原理,以及地源热泵的分类及其特点,并展望其发展前景。

  16. An Experimental Facility to Validate Ground Source Heat Pump Optimisation Models for the Australian Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanshen Lu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ground source heat pumps (GSHPs are one of the most widespread forms of geothermal energy technology. They utilise the near-constant temperature of the ground below the frost line to achieve energy-efficiencies two or three times that of conventional air-conditioners, consequently allowing a significant offset in electricity demand for space heating and cooling. Relatively mature GSHP markets are established in Europe and North America. GSHP implementation in Australia, however, is limited, due to high capital price, uncertainties regarding optimum designs for the Australian climate, and limited consumer confidence in the technology. Existing GSHP design standards developed in the Northern Hemisphere are likely to lead to suboptimal performance in Australia where demand might be much more cooling-dominated. There is an urgent need to develop Australia’s own GSHP system optimisation principles on top of the industry standards to provide confidence to bring the GSHP market out of its infancy. To assist in this, the Queensland Geothermal Energy Centre of Excellence (QGECE has commissioned a fully instrumented GSHP experimental facility in Gatton, Australia, as a publically-accessible demonstration of the technology and a platform for systematic studies of GSHPs, including optimisation of design and operations. This paper presents a brief review on current GSHP use in Australia, the technical details of the Gatton GSHP facility, and an analysis on the observed cooling performance of this facility to date.

  17. High Efficiency Water Heating Technology Development Final Report, Part II: CO2 and Absorption-Based Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gluesenkamp, Kyle R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Abdelaziz, Omar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Patel, Viral K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mandel, Bracha T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); de Almeida, Valmor F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The two objectives of this project were to 1.demonstrate an affordable path to an ENERGY STAR qualified electric heat pump water heater (HPWH) based on low-global warming potential (GWP) CO2 refrigerant, and 2.demonstrate an affordable path to a gas-fired absorption-based heat pump water heater with a gas energy factor (EF) greater than 1.0. The first objective has been met, and the project has identified a promising low-cost option capable of meeting the second objective. This report documents the process followed and results obtained in addressing these objectives.

  18. Chiral brownian heat pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Broek, M; Van den Broeck, C

    2008-04-04

    We present the exact analysis of a chiral Brownian motor and heat pump. Optimization of the construction predicts, for a nanoscale device, frequencies of the order of kHz and cooling rates of the order of femtojoule per second.

  19. Chiral Brownian heat pump

    OpenAIRE

    Van Den Broek, Martijn; Van Den Broeck, Christian

    2007-01-01

    We present the exact analysis of a chiral Brownian motor and heat pump. Optimization of the construction predicts, for a nanoscale device, frequencies of the order of kHz and cooling rates of the order of femtojoule per second.

  20. Optimization design and compare of different solar-ground source heat pump system of office building in cold regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, H.; He, S.; Fu, Y.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents two different operation modes of Solar-Ground Source Heat Pump System (SGSHP(S)). With the simulation tool TRNSYS, two different SGSHP system models were built to taking simulation. After making analysis and compare of different simulation results, series operation mode was believed to be better than parallel in the target building.

  1. On the Technology of Ground Source Heat Pump%浅谈地源热泵技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈东升

    2012-01-01

    The concept of ground source heat pump technology is described. The working principle and classification, the composition of ground source heat pump is introduced. The characteristics and actual application of ground source heat pump is analyzed. It is pointed out that the ground source heat pump which is a renewable energy has broad developing and applying prospects in energy saving and exhaustion-reducing, environmental protection, sustainable development in our country.%阐述地源热泵技术的概念。介绍地源热泵系统的组成部分、工作原理和分类,分析地源热泵系统的特点和实际应用情况。提出地源热泵这种可再生能源在我国节能降耗、生态环保、可持续发展中具有广阔的发展和应用前景。

  2. Simulation and design of ground source heat pump systems%地源热泵系统的模拟与设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JeffreyD.Spitler; CenkYavuzturk; 等

    2003-01-01

    总结了近年来地源热泵系统的模拟和设计方面的研究和进展.首先给出了地源热泵系统各部件建模方面的进展,包括竖直埋管地热换热器、单井循环系统以及在地源热泵混合系统中采用的几种辅助散热装置.其次,讨论现场测定深层岩土热物性的技术.第三,介绍竖直埋管地热换热器的设计方法.最后,给出在设计地源热泵系统中采用系统模拟的几个应用实例.%This paper gives an overview of recent research and developments in ground source heat pump system simulation and design. First, developments related to modeling of components of the Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) system are presented-vertical ground loop heat exchanger, water source heat pump, standing column well, and several types of supplemental heat rejecters used in hybrid GSHP systems. Second, in situ measurement techniques for ground thermal properties are discussed. Third, a methodology for the design of the vertical ground loop heat exchanger is introduced. Last, several applications of using system simulation in the design of GSHP systems are presented.

  3. Financial viability study using a heat pump as an alternative to support solar collector for water heating in Southeastern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Roberts Vinicius de Melo; Oliveira, Raphael Nunes; Machado, Luiz; Koury, Ricardo Nassau N. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering], E-mails: robertsreis@ufmg.br, luizm@demec.ufmg.br, koury@ufmg.br

    2010-07-01

    Along with related greenhouse effect environmental issues, constant problems changes in oil prices,make the use of solar energy an important renewable energy source. Brazil is a country which is privilege, considering the high rates of solar irradiation present throughout most of the entire national territory. Nevertheless, during certain times of the year, a solar energy deficit, leads solar systems to require electrical resistance support. The use of electrical resistance represents 23.5% of electric energy consumption and it presents a low residential energy efficiency. The purpose of this work is conducting a study of Brazilian States in the Southeastern region regarding the financial viability of replacing a resistive system combined with the use of solar collector and a heat pump. One such heat pump has been designed, constructed and tested experimentally. The average performance coefficient is equal to 2.10, a low value due to the use of a hermetic reciprocating compressor. Despite this low-moderate price coefficient of acquisition and installation of a heat pump, a return on investment in from 2.1 to 2.7 years can be expected. Whereas the equipment has a useful life of about 20 years, this period of return on investment is interesting. (author)

  4. Heat Pump Water Heater Technology: Experiences of Residential Consumers and Utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashdown, BG

    2004-08-04

    This paper presents a case study of the residential heat pump water heater (HPWH) market. Its principal purpose is to evaluate the extent to which the HPWH will penetrate the residential market sector, given current market trends, producer and consumer attributes, and technical parameters. The report's secondary purpose is to gather background information leading to a generic framework for conducting market analyses of technologies. This framework can be used to compare readiness and to factor attributes of market demand back into product design. This study is a rapid prototype analysis rather than a detailed case analysis. For this reason, primary data collection was limited and reliance on secondary sources was extensive. Despite having met its technical goals and having been on the market for twenty years, the HPWH has had virtually no impact on contributing to the nation's water heating. In some cases, HPWH reliability and quality control are well below market expectations, and early units developed a reputation for unreliability, especially when measured against conventional water heaters. In addition to reliability problems, first costs of HPWH units can be three to five times higher than conventional units. Without a solid, well-managed business plan, most consumers will not be drawn to this product. This is unfortunate. Despite its higher first costs, efficiency of an HPWH is double that of a conventional water heater. The HPWH also offers an attractive payback period of two to five years, depending on hot water usage. On a strict life-cycle basis it supplies hot water very cost effectively. Water heating accounts for 17% of the nation's residential consumption of electricity (see chart at left)--water heating is second only to space heating in total residential energy use. Simple arithmetic suggests that this figure could be reduced to the extent HPWH technology displaces conventional water heating. In addition, the HPWH offers other

  5. Thermal load capacity analysis on small lakes utilized as heat source-sink of surface water heat pump systems%小型湖泊应用于地表水源热泵时的热承载能力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓; 林汉柱; 林宣军; 李明

    2011-01-01

    Two thermal load capacity calculation methods including the water surface temperature method and the uniform mixing method for small lakes utilized as heat source-sink of surface water heat pump systems were introduced. The calculation results of the Hangzhou City indicate that the water surface temperature method is more convincing because it objectively reflects the process of discharge-mixing and water temperature recovering. Thermal load capacity calculations of small lakes in seven representative cities were performed. The results show that the thermal load capacity in summer varies from 23,4W/m2 to 29.5W/m2, and that in winter varies from 31.6W/m2 to 45.7W/m2. The key issue for the design of such surface water heat pump systems is to satisfy the constraint of thermal load capacity in summer.%分析了小型湖泊应用于地表水源热泵时的两种热承载能力计算方法——水面温度法和均匀混合法,并采用其计算了杭州小型湖泊应用于地表水源热泵时的热承载能力。计算结果表明:水面温度法较客观地反映了实际的排水混合及水温恢复过程,可信度更高。用水面温度法对7个代表性城市小型湖泊热承载能力进行分析的结果表明:夏季热承载能力在23-4—29.5W/m2之间,冬季热承载能力在31.6~45.7W/m2之间;设计这类系统的关键在于满足夏季热承载能力的约束。

  6. 多功能地源热泵机组的节能性分析%Energy-saving Analysis on Multifunction Ground Source Heat Pump Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹永存; 曾庆新

    2014-01-01

    According to the requirements of cooling, heating and hot-water for villa project in Zhengzhou, the advantages and disadvantages of the two kinds of air-conditioning system are compared, those are household air-conditioning unit plus heat-pump water heater, and multifunction ground source heat pump unit. And its energy-saving is analyzed.%结合郑州某别墅工程对供冷、供暖、热水的需求,对比了两种不同空调系统:户式空调机组+热泵热水器,和多功能地源热泵机组性能的优劣;并进行了节能性分析。

  7. Magnetocaloric heat pump device, a heating or cooling system and a magnetocaloric heat pump assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The invention provides a magnetocaloric heat pump device, comprising a magnetocaloric bed; a magnetic field source, the magnetocaloric bed and the magnetic field source being arranged to move relative to each other so as to generate a magnetocaloric refrigeration cycle within the heat pump, wherein...

  8. Carbon dioxide as refrigerant for tap water heat pumps: A comparison with the traditional solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecchinato, Luca; Corradi, Marco; Fornasieri, Ezio; Zamboni, Lorenzo [Dipartimento di Fisica Tecnica, Universita degli Studi di Padova, Via Venezia, 1 I-35131 Padova (Italy)

    2005-12-01

    Increased concern about the environmental impact of the refrigeration technology is leading toward design solutions aimed at improving the energy efficiency of the related applications, using eco-friendly refrigerants, i.e. ozone-friendly and with the least possible global warming potential (GWP). In this respect, carbon dioxide (ASHRAE R744) is seen today as one of the most promising refrigerants and is raising great interest in industrial and scientific fields. In the present work, the plant options are investigated, which are related to the design of air/water heat pumps for tap water using CO{sub 2}. A comparison is made, in terms of energy efficiency, between a system working with CO{sub 2} and a similar one working with HFC R134a; such a comparison is carried out by means of a simulation model of a refrigerating machine/heat pump, characterized by a detailed representation of the heat exchangers, based on their subdivision into elementary volumes. Results show that carbon dioxide is an interesting substitute for synthetic fluids, if the design of the system is focused to take advantage of its properties. (author)

  9. Optimum bleeding rate of open loop ground source heat pump systems determined by hydrogeological modeling in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, W. H.; Kim, N.; Lee, J. Y.

    2014-12-01

    This study aims to evaluate the influence of open loop ground source heat pump systems operation on hydrological conditions of aquifer. Test bed is located in Chuncheon, Korea. The step drawdown test was conducted in five stages for 300 minutes. The variation of groundwater levels by open loop ground source heat pump systems operation was estimated using Visual MODFLOW. Transmissivity ranged from 2.02×10-4 to 9.36×10-4, and storage coefficient ranged from 0.00067 to 0.021. The amount of optimum bleeding was calculated to be 240 m3/day. When bleeding will be 50, 90, 240 and 450 m3/day for 5 years, groundwater levels may decrease 1.84, 3.31, 8.89 and 17.0 m, respectively. If the amount of bleeding is 50 m3/day, the influence of bleeding will not reach the boundary regions of the Soyang River after 5 years. Regarding the open loop ground source heat pump system installed at the test bed, the amount of optimum bleeding in accordance with the stand are proposed by the government is 90 m3/day, which is 20% of the 450 m3/day circulation quantity of the system. However, if continuous bleeding of more than 90 m3/day occurs, then the radius of influence is expected to reach the boundary regions of the Soyang River after 5 years. These results indicate that amount of optimum bleeding differ in each open loop ground soured heat pump system. Therefore, the debate for the amount of optimum bleeding in open loop ground source heat pump systems is demanded. This work is supported by the Energy Efficiency and Resources of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) grant funded by the Korea government Ministry of Knowledge Economy (No.20123040110010).

  10. Cold Climate Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    12. Data set 7 – energy consumption of heat pump and furnace ................................ 22 Figure 13. Experimentally adjusted TRNSYS model...minute SCF standard cubic feet SEER seasonal energy efficiency ratio SH superheated TMY Typical Meteorological Year TRNSYS Transient Systems...Simulation Program ( TRNSYS ), to generate an experimentally adjusted, simulation heating seasonal performance. 6.4.1 Simulation Results The TRNSYS model

  11. Offshore watersource heat pump applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, W.H. II [ARK Associates, Round Rock, TX (United States)

    1996-10-01

    This paper discusses applications of the Water Source Heat Pump (WSHP) technology for offshore drilling or production operations to result in a substantial savings in space conditioning to result in a substantial savings in space conditioning and domestic hot water production. An even more cost competitive application of the WSHP is the once thorough design which circulates cool water from deep in the ocean straight through the unit, then discharges it to the ocean surface. A modification of this open loop technique circulates the fluid within an abandoned well bore casing. The advantage of this system is that natural convection of warm water from deep in the well upward, as the unit returns cool water at or near the surface, will greatly enhance the thermal advantage of the system. This will enable direct use in the heating season and perhaps be sufficient to operate an absorption chiller in the cooling season. The initial cost of either of these systems is equivalent to a packaged ac system, making the WSHP an ideal energy conservation measure.

  12. Geothermal heat in a heat pump use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, A.; Hansen, J.; Obermeyer, H.; Pavlova, I.

    2016-09-01

    The considered innovative technology proposes to use alternative energy sources for the process efficiency in low-height construction. The world economy depends on price rises for energy sources and the danger of environmental pollution increases. Geothermal energy is the basic resource saving and environmentally safe renewable heat source that is characterized by inexhaustibility, permanent all the-year-round use, universal prevalence of resources and the ability to replace considerable volumes of traditional energy carriers. The expediency and power efficiency to apply a heat pump with the use of geothermal heat is proved for low-height construction.

  13. Molecular heat pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Dvira; Nitzan, Abraham

    2006-02-01

    We propose a molecular device that pumps heat against a thermal gradient. The system consists of a molecular element connecting two thermal reservoirs that are characterized by different spectral properties. The pumping action is achieved by applying an external force that periodically modulates molecular levels. This modulation affects periodic oscillations of the internal temperature of the molecule and the strength of its coupling to each reservoir resulting in a net heat flow in the desired direction. The heat flow is examined in the slow and fast modulation limits and for different modulation wave forms, thus making it possible to optimize the device performance.

  14. Evaluation of federal and state subsidies for ground-source heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumsack, S.; Kleit, A. [Department of Energy and Mineral Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, 213 Hosler Building University Park, PA (United States); Smith, S.W. [Westcott Consulting, 110 Hosler Building, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Energy efficiency can be a powerful way to lower energy bills, as well as the external (social) costs associated with energy consumption. Previous experience and research, however, has demonstrated that consumers are often unwilling to make investments in energy efficiency, even when such investments have relatively short payback periods. Because energy efficiency can contribute to correcting negative externalities associated with energy use, subsidies and other programs have been proposed as a way to increase efficiency investments. Thus, under the right circumstances, such subsidies can improve economic efficiency. In this paper, we analyze the economics of energy-efficient space conditioning using data from an actual household in rural Pennsylvania to evaluate ground-source heat pumps (GHP). GHP technology has been advocated as a potentially appealing energy efficiency measure for rural communities. We find that with current subsidies GHP is economically viable for a wide range of electricity prices. We also find, however, that current subsidies are actually greater than those that can be economically justified. Using the efficient level of subsidies reduces, but does not eliminate, the economic case for GHP technology. We also evaluate the economics of efficiency subsidies using an ambitious program in Pennsylvania as a case study. The program, known as the Alternative Energy Investment Act (AEIA), provides subsidies for GHP among other technologies. We find that the substantial federal subsidies for GHP undercut the economic efficiency arguments for the AEIA with respect to GHP.

  15. Heat Pump Water Heater Ducting Strategies with Encapsulated Attics in Climate Zones 2 and 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweet, M. L. [Southface Energy Inst., Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Francisco, A.; Roberts, S. G.

    2016-05-01

    The focus of this study is on the performance of HPWHs with several different duct configurations and their effects on whole building heating, cooling, and moisture loads. A.O. Smith 60 gallon Voltex (PHPT-60) heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) were included at two project sites and ducted to or located within spray foamed encapsulated attics. The effect of ducting a HPWH's air stream does not diminish its efficiency if the ducting does not reduce intake air temperature, which expands HPWH application to confined areas. Exhaust ducts should be insulated to avoid condensation on the exterior, however this imposes a risk of condensation occurring in the duct's interior near the HPWH due to large variation of temperatures between the compressor and the duct and the presence of bulk moisture around the condenser. The HPWH's air conditioning impact on HVAC equipment loads is minimal when the intake and exhaust air streams are connected to a sealed attic and not the living space. A HPWH is not suitable as a replacement dehumidifier in sealed attics as peak moisture loads were observed to only be reduced if the heat pump operated during the morning. It appears that the intake air temperature and humidity was the most dominant variable affecting HPWH performance. Different ducting strategies such as exhaust duct only, intake duct only, and exhaust and intake ducting did not have any effect on HPWH performance.

  16. 包头市某地源热泵工程设计%Ground-source heat pump project design in Baotou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张士领

    2014-01-01

    Ground heat exchanger system is the key to the smooth running of the ground-source heat pump system.Through the ground-source heat pump system design idea,the ground heat exchanger system selection calculation,and the project cooling and heating load comparative analysis,adopts the gas boiler as the system peak load heat source.To reduce the energy consumption,combined with the characteristics of radiant cooling terminal,supplies the ground source water cooling directly in transition seasons,and obtains good energy conservation effect.%地埋管换热系统是整个地源热泵系统能否良好运行的关键。通过对地源热泵系统设计思路、地埋管换热系统选择计算、工程冷热负荷的对比分析,采用燃气锅炉作为系统的调峰热源。为减少能源消耗,结合工程末端为辐射供冷的特点,在过渡季节使用地源水直接供冷,取得了较好的节能效果。

  17. 地源热泵能效比试验与研究%Source Heat Pump Energy Efficiency Ratio Experiments and Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭彬; 刘林; 王劲松; 季家艳; 张圣勇

    2014-01-01

    We used to test different models of well pipe to the cooling capacity, heat transfer capability of further study the impact of ground source heat pump. Ground source heat pump energy efficiency ratio of prospects for a brief introduction, the test part through the sensor calibration and error analysis, to ensure the accuracy of experimental test data, cooling, thermal test and test taking, as applied heat transfer model, based on heat and get hot water flow in the pipe flow and temperature, horizontal tube can be calculated in a variety of conditions, the average cooling and heating capacity to take in view of the ground source heat pump applications, the ground heat exchanger design is the most critical part, while the energy efficiency of ground source heat pump is closely linked with another, to know the different types of wells can be buried on the energy efficiency of ground source heat pump.%采用对比试验,对不同型号井埋管的散热能力、传热能力进行研究,从而得出不同井埋管对地源热泵的不同影响。对地源热泵能效比研究前景作简单介绍,在试验部分,通过对传感器进行校正与误差分析,保证试验中数据的精确性,使散热试验和取热试验一样。应用传热模型,根据散热和取热中管内水流的流量和温度,就可以计算出水平管在各种工况下的平均散热和取热能力,鉴于在地源热泵系统应用中,地埋管换热器的设计是最关键的部分,而地源热泵的能效比又与其有密切联系,可以由此知道不同型号井埋管对地源热泵能效比的影响。

  18. Geothermal Heat Pump Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Tonya L.; Lienau, Paul J.

    1995-01-01

    Geothermal heat pump systems are a promising new energy technology that has shown rapid increase in usage over the past ten years in the United States. These systems offer substantial benefits to customers and utilities in energy (kWh) and demand (kW) savings. The purpose of this study was to determine what existing monitored data was available mainly from electric utilities on heat pump performance, energy savings and demand reduction for residential, school, and commercial building applications. Information was developed on the status of electric utility marketing programs, barriers to market penetration, incentive programs, and benefits.

  19. Geothermal heat pump performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Tonya L.; Lienau, Paul J.

    1995-01-01

    Geothermal heat pump systems are a promising new energy technology that has shown rapid increase in usage over the past ten years in the United States. These systems offer substantial benefits to customers and utilities in energy (kWh) and demand (kW) savings. The purpose of this study was to determine what existing monitored data was available mainly from electric utilities on heat pump performance, energy savings and demand reduction for residential, school, and commercial building applications. Information was developed on the status of electric utility marketing programs, barriers to market penetration, incentive programs, and benefits.

  20. Ground source heat pump technology in colleges and universities to explore application%地源热泵技术在高校的探索应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚伟申

    2011-01-01

    Focuses on the Nanjing Railway,Suzhou Vocational and Technical College Campus Library case of ground-source heat pump systems engineering and operational effectiveness analysis that the ground-source heat pump air-conditioning and domestic water in the school application is feasible,energy-efficient,economy is also clear is worthy of dissemination and application.%介绍了南京铁道职业技术学院苏州校区图书馆地源热泵系统工程案例及运行效果分析,认为土壤源热泵在学校空调及生活用水的应用是可行的、节能的,经济性也是明显的,值得推广应用.

  1. Heat Pump Water Heater Technology Assessment Based on Laboratory Research and Energy Simulation Models: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudon, K.; Sparn, B.; Christensen, D.; Maguire, J.

    2012-02-01

    This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of US climate regions. Laboratory results demonstrate the efficiency of this technology under most of the conditions tested and show that differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the individual units. These results were used to understand current model limitations, and then to bracket the energy savings potential for HPWH technology in various US climate regions. Simulation results show that HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in many climate zones when compared to other types of water heaters (up to 64%, including impact on HVAC systems).

  2. Exergy analysis of the performance of low-temperature district heating system with geothermal heat pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekret Robert

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Exergy analysis of low temperature geothermal heat plant with compressor and absorption heat pump was carried out. In these two concepts heat pumps are using geothermal water at 19.5 oC with spontaneous outflow 24 m3/h as a heat source. The research compares exergy efficiency and exergy destruction of considered systems and its components as well. For the purpose of analysis, the heating system was divided into five components: geothermal heat exchanger, heat pump, heat distribution, heat exchanger and electricity production and transportation. For considered systems the primary exergy consumption from renewable and non-renewable sources was estimated. The analysis was carried out for heat network temperature at 50/40 oC, and the quality regulation was assumed. The results of exergy analysis of the system with electrical and absorption heat pump show that exergy destruction during the whole heating season is lower for the system with electrical heat pump. The exergy efficiencies of total system are 12.8% and 11.2% for the system with electrical heat pump and absorption heat pump, respectively.

  3. First experience gained with heat-pump utilization in animal-husbandry plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuemmritz, W.; Schaeffel, W.

    1982-10-01

    For cleaning and desinfection of all milk-conducting plant parts, the LPG Tierproduktion at the town of Berlstedt (capacity of 2000 animal stands) needs a daily amount of c. 60 cbm of heated water. Recently 50% of this useful-water requirement has been covered by four small-size heat pumps WW 12 of a water/water configuration. In the heating house, two heat pumps have been installed on top of each other in each case. The circuit plan of the heat-pump facility is demonstrated. The facility operates at open and closed loop, contains two-step rotary pumps and heats useful water to 50-60/sup 0/C. Two heat pumps are operated via shift water throughout the year, the remaining two use brook water in summer and well water in winter as their heat source. 40 t of fuel oil were saved in 1981.

  4. Heat driven pulse pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, Steve M (Inventor); Martins, Mario S. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A heat driven pulse pump includes a chamber having an inlet port, an outlet port, two check valves, a wick, and a heater. The chamber may include a plurality of grooves inside wall of the chamber. When heated within the chamber, a liquid to be pumped vaporizes and creates pressure head that expels the liquid through the outlet port. As liquid separating means, the wick, disposed within the chamber, is to allow, when saturated with the liquid, the passage of only liquid being forced by the pressure head in the chamber, preventing the vapor from exiting from the chamber through the outlet port. A plurality of grooves along the inside surface wall of the chamber can sustain the liquid, which is amount enough to produce vapor for the pressure head in the chamber. With only two simple moving parts, two check valves, the heat driven pulse pump can effectively function over the long lifetimes without maintenance or replacement. For continuous flow of the liquid to be pumped a plurality of pumps may be connected in parallel.

  5. Design of Dynamic Wind Pump Circulating Water Heat Recovery%动力风泵房循环水余热回收方案设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋学良; 宋玉强

    2014-01-01

    介绍了动力风泵房每年有大量的工业余热为没经过处理直接排放,造成能源的浪费,以及其解决的思路:利用水源热泵吸收动力风泵房中产生的余热来加热水源,变成洗浴用水,从而达到节能减排的目的。%This article introduces that there is much industrial waste heat in the dynamic wind house which is directly discharge without treating, which produces energy wasting, and there is also the solution-making use of waste heat generated from dynamic wind pump house to heat water with water source heat pump unit, which can achieve the goal of energy conservation and emission reduction.

  6. GB/T 19409-2013《水(地)源热泵机组》国家标准解析%Analysis of GB/T 19409-2013"Water Source (Ground Source) Heat Pump Units"National Standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马金平; 钟瑜; 程立权; 范欢欢; 蔡松素; 刘杰

    2015-01-01

    Based on the comparisons of the last version and the revised version of GB/T 19409-2013 "Water Source (Ground Source) Heat Pump units" national standard, the contents were studied in detail, including definitions, types, testing methods and conditions, performance coefficient limits and safety requirements, etc. The original intention and the key problems to be solved are pointed out. The research results provide the technical guidance for better understanding the items of the standard and for performance evaluation of the products.%通过与上一版标准的比对分析,本文详细解读了国家标准GB/T 19409-2013《水(地)源热泵机组》,包括产品的定义与型式、测试方法与试验工况、性能系数限定值以及安全要求等内容,并指出了标准修订的初衷与解决的重点问题,为正确理解标准条款、评价产品性能提供了技术指导。

  7. 关于住宅用空气源热泵空调、供暖与热水设计要素的思考%Discussion on the Design Elements of Air Source Heat Pump Air-conditioning, Heating and Hot Water System for Residential Uses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王如竹; 张川; 翟晓强

    2014-01-01

    The paper discusses some key design elements about air source heat pump (ASHP) air-conditioning, heating and domestic hot water system for residential uses. The design of ASHP air-conditioning system should focus more on energy-saving, also emphasize air distribution and humidity control to ensure good indoor comfort for a whole year;ASHP domestic water heater should be designed in good consideration on the adaptability of the control strategy under the local climate condition, and the design for a condensing heat recovery ASHP should consider wisely the total energy consumption for air-conditioning and hot water functions. Besides, the feasibility of using ASHP for efficient room heating and air-conditioning by using small temperature difference terminals in hot summer and cold winter areas was analyzed, thereby a multi-function ASHP energy center was discussed. It is indicated that, the heating and air-conditioning problems in most areas of China can be solved by updating the related standards, optimizing the key parameters of the system and developing heat pumping technology with climate adaptability, and the HVAC&R industries can be innovated and updated.%本文对目前家用空气源热泵空调、供暖与热水系统设计过程中的问题进行了探讨:指出家用空气源热泵空调系统的设计应该更加注重节能性,强调气流组织和湿度控制的重要性,满足人们全年生活的热舒适性要求;提出了针对气候特征的空气源热泵热水器控制策略以及合理评价冷凝热回收空调系统;分析了通过采用小温差末端实现空气源热泵高效舒适供暖来解决夏热冬冷地区冬季供暖的可行性,进而提出了空气源热泵冷热水系统一机多能的系统方案。在此基础上提出通过出台相关标准规范、优化系统的关键参数、研发气候适应性热泵技术,可以有效解决我国大多数地区的供暖和空调问题,促进产业革新与升级。

  8. Ground-Source Heat Pumps. Overview of Market Status, Barriers to Adoption, and Options for Overcoming Barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Chicago, IL (United States); Zogg, Robert [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Chicago, IL (United States); Lisle, Heather [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Chicago, IL (United States); Burgos, Javier [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Chicago, IL (United States)

    2009-02-03

    February 2009 final report submitted to DOE by Navigant Consulting, Inc. This report summarizes the status of ground-source heat pump (GSHP) technology and market penetration globally, estimates the energy saving potential of GSHPs in the U.S., identifies key market barriers that are inhibiting wider market adoption of GSHPs, and recommends initiatives that can be implemented or facilitated by the DOE to accelerate market adoption.

  9. An In-Depth Look at Ground Source Heat Pumps and Other Electric Loads in Two GreenMax Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puttagunta, Srikanth [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Shapiro, Carl [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Building America research team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) partnered with WPPI Energy to answer key research questions on in-field performance of ground-source heat pumps and lighting, appliance, and miscellaneous loads (LAMELs) through extensive field monitoring at two WPPI GreenMax demonstration homes in Wisconsin. These two test home evaluations provided valuable data on the true in-field performance of various building mechanical systems and LAMELs.

  10. Building America Case Study: Multifamily Central Heat Pump Water Heaters, Davis, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-03-08

    Although heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have gained significant attention in recent years as a high efficiency electric water heating solution for single family homes, central HPWHs for commercial or multi-family applications are not as well documented in terms of measured performance and cost effectiveness. To evaluate this technology, the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team monitored the performance of a 10.5 ton central HPWH installed on a student apartment building at the West Village Zero Net Energy Community in Davis, California. Monitoring data collected over a 16-month period were then used to validate a TRNSYS simulation model. The TRNSYS model was then used to project performance in different climates using local electric rates. Results of the study indicate that after some initial commissioning issues, the HPWH operated reliably with an annual average efficiency of 2.12 (Coefficient of Performance). The observed efficiency was lower than the unit's rated efficiency, primarily due to the fact that the system rarely operated under steady-state conditions. Changes in the system configuration, storage tank sizing, and control settings would likely improve the observed field efficiency. Modeling results suggest significant energy savings relative to electric storage water heating systems (typical annual efficiencies around 0.90) providing for typical simple paybacks of six to ten years without any incentives. The economics versus gas water heating are currently much more challenging given the current low natural gas prices in much of the country. Increased market size for this technology would benefit cost effectiveness and spur greater technology innovation.

  11. Building America Case Study: Multifamily Central Heat Pump Water Heaters, Davis, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Hoeschele, E. Weitzel

    2017-03-01

    Although heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have gained significant attention in recent years as a high efficiency electric water heating solution for single family homes, central HPWHs for commercial or multi-family applications are not as well documented in terms of measured performance and cost effectiveness. To evaluate this technology, the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team monitored the performance of a 10.5 ton central HPWH installed on a student apartment building at the West Village Zero Net Energy Community in Davis, California. Monitoring data collected over a 16-month period were then used to validate a TRNSYS simulation model. The TRNSYS model was then used to project performance in different climates using local electric rates. Results of the study indicate that after some initial commissioning issues, the HPWH operated reliably with an annual average efficiency of 2.12 (Coefficient of Performance). The observed efficiency was lower than the unit's rated efficiency, primarily due to the fact that the system rarely operated under steady-state conditions. Changes in the system configuration, storage tank sizing, and control settings would likely improve the observed field efficiency. Modeling results suggest significant energy savings relative to electric storage water heating systems (typical annual efficiencies around 0.90) providing for typical simple paybacks of six to ten years without any incentives. The economics versus gas water heating are currently much more challenging given the current low natural gas prices in much of the country. Increased market size for this technology would benefit cost effectiveness and spur greater technology innovation.

  12. Reliable, Economic, Efficient CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater for North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radcliff, Thomas D; Sienel, Tobias; Huff, Hans-Joachim; Thompson, Adrian; Sadegh, Payman; Olsommer, Benoit; Park, Young

    2006-12-31

    Adoption of heat pump water heating technology for commercial hot water could save up to 0.4 quads of energy and 5 million metric tons of CO2 production annually in North America, but industry perception is that this technology does not offer adequate performance or reliability and comes at too high of a cost. Development and demonstration of a CO2 heat pump water heater is proposed to reduce these barriers to adoption. Three major themes are addressed: market analysis to understand barriers to adoption, use of advanced reliability models to design optimum qualification test plans, and field testing of two phases of water heater prototypes. Market experts claim that beyond good performance, market adoption requires 'drop and forget' system reliability and a six month payback of first costs. Performance, reliability and cost targets are determined and reliability models are developed to evaluate the minimum testing required to meet reliability targets. Three phase 1 prototypes are designed and installed in the field. Based on results from these trials a product specification is developed and a second phase of five field trial units are built and installed. These eight units accumulate 11 unit-years of service including 15,650 hours and 25,242 cycles of compressor operation. Performance targets can be met. An availability of 60% is achieved and the capability to achieve >90% is demonstrated, but overall reliability is below target, with an average of 3.6 failures/unit-year on the phase 2 demonstration. Most reliability issues are shown to be common to new HVAC products, giving high confidence in mature product reliability, but the need for further work to minimize leaks and ensure reliability of the electronic expansion valve is clear. First cost is projected to be above target, leading to an expectation of 8-24 month payback when substituted for an electric water heater. Despite not meeting all targets, arguments are made that an industry leader could

  13. 新型节能型两段加热热泵开水器的研制%Research and manufacture of a new type energy-saving heat pump drinking water boiler with two-stages heating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金云学; 江勇; 成志方

    2011-01-01

    分析了电加热开水器的现状和空气源热泵优点,以及热泵制取高温热水存在的问题.提出将空气源热泵和电加热开水器相结合的设想,并与先进的步进补水技术相结合,设计了一种新型节能型开水器,并阐述了其设计简图、工作原理、加热模式、补水方式、除霜控制,分析了其低温段及整体能效,体现了其节能效果.%The status of electric heating drinking water boiler and the advantages of air source heat pump are analyzed, and the problems of making high temperature hot water with heat pump are discussed. Based on the idea of combining air source heat pump and electric heating drinking water boiler, a new type energy-saving drinking water boiler is presented with the advanced technology of step water-supply. The details of design sketch, working principle, heating mode, water supply method and defrost control are described. Furthermore, low-temperature part and the overall energy efficiency of the drinking water boiler are analyzed. Also, its energy-saving effect is reflected.

  14. Experimental evaluation of a heat pump for the water-supply heating of a public swimming pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, R.; Vaca, M.; Terres, H.; Lizardi, A.; Morales, J.; Chávez, S.

    2017-01-01

    In this work the analysis of the thermodynamic behavior of heat pumps (HP) which supply the energy needed in the public pool at the Aquatic Center of Azcapotzalco was performed. There are 18 installed HP’s but only those needed to provide the energy required are alternately activated. The evaluation was conducted during May and June of 2015. We selected one of the HP to implement temperature and pressure gauges at the inlet and outlet of the compressor. The measurements were made every day at three times, 6:30, 13:00 and 18:00 hours. In a period of 24 hours, 1 000 L evaporated, there was no variation registered overnight, since the pool was covered with plastic to avoid loss of the fluid. The heat pump provided 150 kW to maintain the water temperature at the right level of operation, namely 28 °C. The coefficients of performance (COP) of the HP were 6.39 at 6:30, 7.42 at 13:00 and 7:32 at 18:00 hrs., values which are very close to the one provided by the manufacturer.

  15. Technology assessment heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudolph, R.; Purper, G. (Battelle-Institut e.V., Frankfurt am Main (Germany, F.R.))

    Technology assessment for an increased application of heat pumps is carried out in four areas: Effects in the economics area, i.e. effects on the economic goals which are defined in the Stability Law, on the goals of the power supply policy which result from the energy programme and its projections, and on the economic structure as a whole. The whole range of social problems concerning the use of heat pumps, i.e. the questions which social groups are affected, how they react, and what consequences are they expected to have on energy conservation as an object of social policy. Consequences in the governmental and administrative sectors, i.e. effects on legislation, administration and government budgets. Effects on the ecological systems; of prime interest in this context are the utilisation of environmental energy, changes in the heat balance, and emmission of pollutants.

  16. Design Optimization and the Limits of Steady-State Heating Efficiency for Conventional Single-Speed Air-Source Heat Pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, C.K.

    2001-06-06

    The ORNL Heat Pump Model and an optimizing program were used to explore the limits of steady-state heating efficiency for conventional air-source heat pumps. The method used allows for the simultaneous optimization of ten selected design variables, taking proper account of their interactions, while constraining other parameters to chosen limits or fixed values. Designs were optimized for a fixed heating capacity, but the results may be scaled to other capacities. Substantial performance improvement is predicted compared to today's state of the art heat pump. With increased component efficiencies that are expected in the near future and with modest increases in heat exchanger area, a 28% increase in heating efficiency is predicted; for long-term improvements with considerably larger heat exchangers, a 56% increase is possible. The improved efficiencies are accompanied by substantial reductions in the requirements for compressor and motor size. The predicted performance improvements are attributed not only to improved components and larger heat exchangers but also to the use of an optimizing design procedure. Deviations from the optimized design may be necessary to make use of available component sizes and to maintain good cooling-mode performance while improving the heating efficiency. Sensitivity plots (i.e., COP as a function of one or more design parameters) were developed to explore design flexibilities and to evaluate their consequences. The performance of the optimized designs was compared to that of modified ideal cycles to assess the factors that limit further improvement. It is hoped that the design methods developed will be useful to designers in the heat pump industry.

  17. RSES heat pump technician certification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeiner, J.

    1996-06-01

    In 1987 the National Heat Pump certification test was developed by the Refrigeration Service Engineers Society (RSES), and in 1994, the program was more specifically named Heat Pump Service Technician Certification. This report describes the benefits of certification.

  18. Energy performance of a ventilation system for a block of apartments with a ground source heat pump as generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchi, M.; Lorenzini, M.; Valdiserri, P.

    2017-01-01

    This work presents a numerical simulation of the annual performance of two different systems: a traditional one composed by a gas boiler-chiller pair and one consisting of a ground source heat pump (GSHP) both coupled to two thermal storage tanks. The systems serve a bloc of flats located in northern Italy and are assessed over a typical weather year, covering both the heating and cooling seasons. The air handling unit (AHU) coupled with the GSHP exhibits excellent characteristics in terms of temperature control, and has high performance parameters (EER and COP), which make conduction costs about 30% lower than those estimated for the traditional plant.

  19. Optimized ground coupled heat pump design: Phase 1, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, J.W.; Catan, M.; Le Doux, P.; Metz, P.D.; Saunders, J.H.

    1985-10-01

    This report describes the first phase of a project to design a water-to-air heat pump optimized for ground coupling applications. The project is being conducted jointly by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and an industrial partner to be selected via a competitive procurement. In the completion of Phase I, three major tasks were completed. First, based on experimental work performed at BNL, water-refrigerant heat exchanger models were developed for incorporation into the ORNL heat pump optimization program. Next, a procedure was developed to generate correlations between heat pump entering fluid temperature and load. The correlations, called ''Source Temperature/Load Maps'', will tell the optimization program how many hours/season the heat pump will operate with any pair of values for these quantities. This report discusses these first two tasks within Phase I.

  20. An Integrated Approach on Groundwater Flow and Heat/Solute Transport for Sustainable Groundwater Source Heat Pump (GWHP) System Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, D. K.; Bae, G. O.; Joun, W.; Park, B. H.; Park, J.; Park, I.; Lee, K. K.

    2015-12-01

    The GWHP system uses a stable temperature of groundwater for cooling and heating in buildings and thus has been known as one of the most energy-saving and cost-efficient renewable energy techniques. A GWHP facility was installed at an island located at the confluence of North Han and South Han rivers, Korea. Because of well-developed alluvium, the aquifer is suitable for application of this system, extracting and injecting a large amount of groundwater. However, the numerical experiments under various operational conditions showed that it could be vulnerable to thermal interference due to the highly permeable gravel layer, as a preferential path of thermal plume migration, and limited space for well installation. Thus, regional groundwater flow must be an important factor of consideration for the efficient operation under these conditions but was found to be not simple in this site. While the groundwater level in this site totally depends on the river stage control of Paldang dam, the direction and velocity of the regional groundwater flow, observed using the colloidal borescope, have been changed hour by hour with the combined flows of both the rivers. During the pumping and injection tests, the water discharges in Cheongpyeong dam affected their respective results. Moreover, the measured NO3-N concentrations might imply the effect of agricultural activities around the facility on the groundwater quality along the regional flow. It is obvious that the extraction and injection of groundwater during the facility operation will affect the fate of the agricultural contaminants. Particularly, the gravel layer must also be a main path for contaminant migration. The simulations for contaminant transport during the facility operation showed that the operation strategy for only thermal efficiency could be unsafe and unstable in respect of groundwater quality. All these results concluded that the integrated approach on groundwater flow and heat/solute transport is necessary

  1. Industrial Heat Pump for a High Temperature District Heating Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Claus Nørgaard

    2013-01-01

    by excess thermal energy from thermal solar panels. An industrial heat pump system using the natural refrigerant ammonia, is extracting the thermal energy from the storage when needed, and produce hot water at 85°C, for the district heating grid. The heat pump also acts as contributor to electricity grid...

  2. 某商业建筑地下水源热泵系统设计%The System Design of Ground Water Heat Pumps in a Commercial Building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高亮

    2014-01-01

    地下水源热泵是地源热泵的一种形式。与土壤源热泵比,其具有投资小、运行费用低的特点,因此在工程实际中可推广性更强。文章以某商业建筑为例,以建筑形式、面积为基础,进行了水源热泵系统设计,并对工程投资和运行费用进行了估算。%Ground water heat pump is a form of ground source heat pumps, and compare with the soil source heat pump, its investment smal and operating cost low, so it has stronger generalization in engineering practice. This article takes a commercial building as example and based on the architectural form and area, designs the water heat pump system and estimate the engineering investment and operation cost.

  3. Simulation and optimisation of a ground source heat pump with different ground heat exchanger configurations for a single-family residential house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlov, Georgi Krasimiroy; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2012-01-01

    In the future there will be an increased demand for energy efficient cooling of residential buildings. Therefore it is essential to develop cooling concepts that are passive and/or using very little primary energy. A possible solution is a ground source heat pump combined with a low....... For the studied geographical location, passive cooling by bypassing the heat pump and using only the ground heat exchanger can provide acceptable room temperatures.......-temperature heating and high-temperature cooling system. The present work evaluates the performance in relation to thermal comfort and energy consumption of a GSHP with different GHE concepts. The different configurations are analyzed being part of the energy supply system of a low-energy residential house...

  4. Air-to-Water Heat Pumps With Radiant Delivery in Low-Load Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backman, C.; German, A.; Dakin, B.; Springer, D.

    2013-12-01

    Space conditioning represents nearly 50% of average residential household energy consumption, highlighting the need to identify alternative cost-effective, energy-efficient cooling and heating strategies. As homes are better built, there is an increasing need for strategies that are particularly well suited for high performance, low load homes. ARBI researchers worked with two test homes in hot-dry climates to evaluate the in-situ performance of air-to-water heat pump (AWHP) systems, an energy efficient space conditioning solution designed to cost-effectively provide comfort in homes with efficient, safe, and durable operation. Two monitoring projects of test houses in hot-dry climates were initiated in 2010 to test this system. Both systems were fully instrumented and have been monitored over one year to capture complete performance data over the cooling and heating seasons. Results are used to quantify energy savings, cost-effectiveness, and system performance using different operating modes and strategies. A calibrated TRNSYS model was developed and used to evaluate performance in various climate regions. This strategy is most effective in tight, insulated homes with high levels of thermal mass (i.e. exposed slab floors).

  5. Air-to-Water Heat Pumps With Radiant Delivery in Low-Load Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backman, C. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); German, A. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Dakin, B. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Springer, D. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Space conditioning represents nearly 50% of average residential household energy consumption, highlighting the need to identify alternative cost-effective, energy-efficient cooling and heating strategies. As homes are better built, there is an increasing need for strategies that are particularly well suited for high performance, low load homes. ARBI researchers worked with two test homes in hot-dry climates to evaluate the in-situ performance of air-to-water heat pump systems, an energy efficient space conditioning solution designed to cost-effectively provide comfort in homes with efficient, safe, and durable operation. Two monitoring projects of test houses in hot-dry climates were initiated in 2010 to test this system. Both systems were fully instrumented and have been monitored over one year to capture complete performance data over the cooling and heating seasons. Results are used to quantify energy savings, cost-effectiveness, and system performance using different operating modes and strategies. A calibrated TRNSYS model was developed and used to evaluate performance in various climate regions. This strategy is most effective in tight, insulated homes with high levels of thermal mass (i.e. exposed slab floors).

  6. Air/water heat pumps in older buildings. Energy conservation in a stock; Luft/Wasser-Waermepumpen im Altbau. Energiesparen im Bestand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauknecht, Steffen [Mitsubishi Electric, Ratingen (Germany)

    2010-02-15

    Due to the technical development, nowadays it is possible to heat older buildings which are not insulated thermally subsequently with monovalent air/water heat pumps. For example, in Bonn-Oberkassel (Federal Republic of Germany) a nearly one hundred year old art nouveau mansion is supplied with apartment warmth and warm water by means of two air/water heat pumps. The economical heat supply as well as the small structural expenditure decided to use this technology.

  7. Building America Case Study: Indoor Heat Pump Water Heaters During Summer in a Hot-Dry Climate, Redding, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-06-15

    Heat pump water heaters offer a significant opportunity to improve water heating performance for the over 40% of U.S. households that heat domestic hot water using electric resistance storage water heaters. Numerous field studies have also been completed documenting performance in a variety of climates and applications. More recent evaluation efforts have focused attention on the performance of May through September 2014, with ongoing winter monitoring being sponsored by California utility partners. Summer results show favorable system performance with extrapolated annual water heating savings of 1,466 to 2,300 kWh per year, based on the observed hot water loads. Additional summer space cooling benefits savings of 121 to 135 kWh per year were projected, further increasing the water heating savings by 5-9%. Given the project schedule for 2014 completion, no heating season impacts were able to be monitored. May through September 2014, with ongoing winter monitoring being sponsored by California utility partners. Summer results show favorable system performance with extrapolated annual water heating savings of 1,466 to 2,300 kWh per year, based on the observed hot water loads. Additional summer space cooling benefits savings of 121 to 135 kWh per year were projected, further increasing the water heating savings by 5-9%. Given the project schedule for 2014 completion, no heating season impacts were able to be monitored.

  8. HVAC system design of liquid desiccant fresh air unit combined with ground-source heat pump%溶液调湿新风机组与地源热泵相结合的空调设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟程; 滕汜颖

    2013-01-01

    以上海虹桥产业楼空调系统为例,介绍了溶液调湿新风机组与地源热泵系统的设计,重点介绍了干式末端设备、冷热源主机、地埋管系统、空调水系统及自控系统设计的要点.根据实际运行调试情况,对冷热源水系统、干式风机盘管、高温型地源热泵机组、免费冷热源板式换热器、地源热泵与冷水机组的运行策略及生活热水应用进行了经验总结.%Taking the Shanghai Hongqiao Industrial Building air conditioning system as example, presents the liquid desiccant fresh air unit and ground-source heat pump design. Highlights the design points of the dry terminal device, cold and heat source unit, ground buried pipe system, air conditioning water system and automatic control system. According to the actual operation and commissioning, summarizes experiences of designing the cold and heat sources water system, dry fan-coil unit, high temperature ground-source heat pump, free cold and heat sources plate heat exchanger, water chiller and ground-source heat pump operation strategy and domestic hot water supply.

  9. Impact of Ducting on Heat Pump Water Heater Space Conditioning Energy Use and Comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Parker, Graham B.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2014-07-21

    Increasing penetration of heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) in the residential sector will offer an important opportunity for energy savings, with a theoretical energy savings of up to 63% per water heater and up to 11% of residential energy use (EIA 2009). However, significant barriers must be overcome before this technology will reach widespread adoption in the Pacific Northwest region and nationwide. One significant barrier noted by the Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (NEEA) is the possible interaction with the homes’ space conditioning system for units installed in conditioned spaces. Such complex interactions may decrease the magnitude of whole-house savings available from HPWH installed in the conditioned space in cold climates and could lead to comfort concerns (Larson et al. 2011; Kresta 2012). Modeling studies indicate that the installation location of HPWHs can significantly impact their performance and the resultant whole-house energy savings (Larson et al. 2012; Maguire et al. 2013). However, field data are not currently available to validate these results. This field evaluation of two GE GeoSpring HPWHs in the PNNL Lab Homes is designed to measure the performance and impact on the Lab Home HVAC system of a GE GeoSpring HPWH configured with exhaust ducting compared to an unducted GeoSpring HPWH during heating and cooling season periods; and measure the performance and impact on the Lab Home HVAC system of the GeoSpring HPWH with both supply and exhaust air ducting as compared to an unducted GeoSpring HPWH during heating and cooling season periods. Important metrics evaluated in these experiments include water heater energy use, HVAC energy use, whole house energy use, interior temperatures (as a proxy for thermal comfort), and cost impacts. This technical report presents results from the PNNL Lab Homes experiment.

  10. The use of water as a high temperature heat pump fluid at the Auchroisk distillery, Scotland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castle, T. [EA Technology Ltd., Chester (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-01

    The first steam heat pump for distillation in the UK was installed in a malt whisky distillery in 1987. Novel aspects of the system are modifications to the batch process to enable continuous and efficient operation of the heat pump across a number of stills, the use of steam in a closed cycle and compression of the steam by a twin-screw compressor. The heat pump is incorporated into the distillery steam distribution system operating in parallel with the existing boiler, allowing complete flexibility of operation. The installation demonstrates the large primary energy savings that can be achieved by the optimisation of integrated heat pumps in batch processes. The principle and much of the system design could be applied to continuous distillation processes and to other batch operations such as drying, steam stripping and solvent recovery. In this paper a steam heat pump is described which has been installed in the Auchroisk malt whisky distillery of International Distillers and Vintners Ltd (IDV). It is a result of a four year R and D programme at EA Technology Ltd. 7 figs., 3 refs.

  11. Construction Technology of Soil Source Heat Exchanger of Ground Source Heat Pump%地源热泵土壤源换热器的施工技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程金明; 王巧真

    2007-01-01

    地源热泵(Ground Source Heat Pump, GSHP)作为最有发展潜力的热泵技术在各级政府的积极推介下发展迅速,但由于地源换热器施工安装成本高,技术的发展遇到了很大的阻力.探讨了土壤源换热器施工技术和土壤源换热器的热平衡问题,力图提高土源换热器施工技术,降低地源热泵成本,促进该技术的推广应用.

  12. Heat transfer enhancement and pumping power optimization using CuO-water nanofluid through rectangular corrugated pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehin, Musfequs; Ehsan, Mohammad Monjurul; Islam, A. K. M. Sadrul

    2017-06-01

    Heat transfer enhancement by corrugation in fluid domain is a popular method. The rate of improvement is more when it is used highly thermal conductive fluid as heating or cooling medium. In this present study, heat transfer augmentation was investigated numerically by implementing corrugation in the fluid domain and nanofluid as the base fluid in the turbulent forced convection regime. Finite volume method (FVM) was applied to solve the continuity, momentum and energy equations. All the numerical simulations were considered for single phase flow. A rectangle corrugated pipe with 5000 W/m2 constant heat flux subjected to the corrugated wall was considered as the fluid domain. In the range of Reynolds number 15000 to 40000, thermo-physical and hydrodynamic behavior was investigated by using CuO-water nanofluid from 1% to 5% volume fraction as the base fluid through the corrugated fluid domain. Corrugation justification was performed by changing the amplitude of the corrugation and the corrugation wave length for obtaining the increased heat transfer rate with minimum pumping power. For using CuO-water nanofluid, augmentation was also found more in the rectangle corrugated pipe both in heat transfer and pumping power requirement with the increase of Reynolds number and the volume fraction of nanofluid. For the increased pumping power, optimization of pumping power by using nanofluid was also performed for economic finding.

  13. Wavy tube heat pumping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haldeman, C. W.

    1985-12-03

    A PVC conduit about 4'' in diameter and a little more than 40 feet long is adapted for being seated in a hole in the earth and surrounds a coaxial copper tube along its length that carries Freon between a heat pump and a distributor at the bottom. A number of wavy conducting tubes located between the central conducting tube and the wall of the conduit interconnect the distributor with a Freon distributor at the top arranged for connection to the heat pump. The wavy conducting tubing is made by passing straight soft copper tubing between a pair of like opposed meshing gears each having four convex points in space quadrature separated by four convex recesses with the radius of curvature of each point slightly less than that of each concave recess.

  14. Application Study on Ground Source Heat Pump System%地源热泵系统的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李异; 石新会

    2011-01-01

    为了减少一次性能源的使用和对环境的污染,本文以陕西安康市某综合建筑为例,通过对比地源热泵系统和常规空调系统的初投资和运行费用,论证了地源热泵系统的经济性.%In order to reduce the pollution to environment of the primary energy, a packaged building in Ankang is taken for example, and this paper proves the ground-source heal pumps economy by comparing the initial investment and operating costs of ground-source heat pumps system and conventional air conditioning systems.

  15. Heat cascading regenerative sorption heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A simple heat cascading regenerative sorption heat pump process with rejected or waste heat from a higher temperature chemisorption circuit (HTCC) powering a lower temperature physisorption circuit (LTPC) which provides a 30% total improvement over simple regenerative physisorption compression heat pumps when ammonia is both the chemisorbate and physisorbate, and a total improvement of 50% or more for LTPC having two pressure stages. The HTCC contains ammonia and a chemisorbent therefor contained in a plurality of canisters, a condenser-evaporator-radiator system, and a heater, operatively connected together. The LTPC contains ammonia and a physisorbent therefor contained in a plurality of compressors, a condenser-evaporator-radiator system, operatively connected together. A closed heat transfer circuit (CHTC) is provided which contains a flowing heat transfer liquid (FHTL) in thermal communication with each canister and each compressor for cascading heat from the HTCC to the LTPC. Heat is regenerated within the LTPC by transferring heat from one compressor to another. In one embodiment the regeneration is performed by another CHTC containing another FHTL in thermal communication with each compressor. In another embodiment the HTCC powers a lower temperature ammonia water absorption circuit (LTAWAC) which contains a generator-absorber system containing the absorbent, and a condenser-evaporator-radiator system, operatively connected together. The absorbent is water or an absorbent aqueous solution. A CHTC is provided which contains a FHTL in thermal communication with the generator for cascading heat from the HTCC to the LTAWAC. Heat is regenerated within the LTAWAC by transferring heat from the generator to the absorber. The chemical composition of the chemisorbent is different than the chemical composition of the physisorbent, and the absorbent. The chemical composition of the FHTL is different than the chemisorbent, the physisorbent, the absorbent, and ammonia.

  16. Stirling Engine Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, Noboru

    Recent advances in the feasibility studies related to the Stirling engines and Stirling engine heat pumps which have been considered attractive due to their promising role in helping to solve the global environmental and energy problems,are reviewed. This article begins to describe the brief history of the Stirling engines and theoretical thermodynamic analysis of the Stirling cycle in order to understand several advantages on the Stirling engine. Furthermore,they could throw light on our question why the dream engines had not been promoted to practical applications during two hundred years. The present review shows that the Stirling engines with several unique advantages including 30 to 40% thermal efficiency and preferable exhaust characteristics,had been designed and constructed by recent tackling for the development of the advanced automobile and other applications using them. Based on the current state of art,it is being provided to push the Stirling engines combined with heat pumps based on the reversed Rankine cycle to the market. At present,however, many problems, especially for the durability, cost, and delicate engine parts must be enforced to solve. In addition,there are some possibilities which can increase the attractiveness of the Stirling engines and heat pumps. The review closes with suggestions for further research.

  17. Exergy cost analysis of ground source heat pump system%土壤源热泵系统的火用成本分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚光彩; 冯启辉; 苏欢; 徐春雯

    2011-01-01

    在对火用分析与经济学原理研究的基础上,利用火用成本分析方法,建立了土壤源热泵系统的(火用) 成本分析模型.以实际的建筑空调系统为背景,运用所建火用成本分析模型与能量成本分析方法,对土壤源热泵系统与风冷热泵系统进行了对比分析计算,并以空气源热泵为基础对土壤源热泵进行了敏感性分析.对土壤源热泵的实际应用具有指导意义.%Based on the study of the exergy analysis and economics theory, an exergy cost analysis model of ground source heat pump system was established by using the exergy cost analysis method. With the background of an actual building air - conditioning system, the ground source heat pump system and the air source heat pump system were calculated by using exergy cost analysis model and energy cost analysis method. And the sensitivity analysis method was used in the exergy cost of ground source heat pump basing on air source heat pump. The analysis method has guiding significance for practical application of ground source heat pump.

  18. Duplex Stirling gas fired heating only heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beale, W.

    1982-03-01

    In phase I the Duplex Stirling Gas fired Heat Pump was analyzed with the aid of the Sunpower third order simulation and optimization code and found to show heating COP of 1.7 at the rating point of 8 C (17 F) with a heat delivery of 10 kW. Also it was found that a direct heat exchange between working fluid and source and sink air was consistent with high COP in the heat pump, thus eliminating the need for an intermediate heat transfer fluid and its associated pumps and controls. Further, it was demonstrated in the simulation that the heat engine power output could be matched to the heat pump load over the range of source temperatures without need of complex control systems. Cost estimates, along with COP figures from the analysis indicated a payback time of 2 to 4 years in completion with existing combustion heating systems in northern climates.

  19. Research and development of a heat-pump water heater. Volume 2. R and D task reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunning, R.L.; Amthor, F.R.; Doyle, E.J.

    1978-08-01

    The heat pump water heater is a device that works much like a window air conditioner except that heat from the home is pumped into a water tank rather than to the outdoors. The objective established for the device is to operate with a Coefficient of Performance (COP) of 3 or, an input of one unit of electric energy would create three units of heat energy in the form of hot water. With such a COP, the device would use only one-third the energy and at one-third the cost of a standard resistance water heater. This Volume 2 contains the final reports of the three major tasks performed in Phase I. In Task 2, a market study identifies the future market and selects an initial target market and channel of distribution, all based on an analysis of the parameters affecting feasibility of the device and the factors that will affect its market acceptance. In the Task 3 report, the results of a design and test program to arrive at final designs of heat pumps for both new water heaters and for retrofitting existing water heaters are presented. In the Task 4 report, a plan for an extensive field demonstration involving use in actual homes is presented. Volume 1 contains a final summary report of the information in Volume 2.

  20. 太阳能-地源热泵与热网互补供暖系统的仿真性能研究%Research on the Simulation of Solar-Ground Source Heat Pump and Heating Network Complementary Heating System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝红; 付晓晨; 冯国会; 张剑

    2014-01-01

    以沈阳地区典型民用住宅建筑为例,对太阳能-地源热泵与热网互补供暖系统进行仿真研究。利用TRNSYS软件,建立太阳能-地源热泵与热网互补供暖系统仿真模型和地源热泵与热网互补供暖系统仿真模型,对2种系统的蒸发器进出水温度、热泵机组COP,及热网加热量进行对比分析,结果表明:太阳能-地源热泵与热网互补供暖系统相比地源热泵与热网互补供暖系统的平均出水温度提高了50.41%;平均进水温度提高了53.08%;平均COP由3.167增加到4.65;热网运行时间由1540h增加到2032h;热网供暖季的平均换热量由114566.62kJ/h减少到101257.27kJ/h。%Taking the typical building in severe cold region as an example,the simulation of solar-ground source heat pump and heating network complementary heating system was studied. By using TRNSYS software, build a solar-ground source heat pump and heating network complementary heating system simulation model and ground source heat pump and heating network comple-mentary heating system simulation model, then make the contrast analysis of the in and out of the water temperature of evapora-tor, the COP of heat pump units, and the heating capacity of heat supply network in the two systems. The results show that com-pare ground source heat pump and heating network complementary heating system with solar-ground source heat pump and heating network complementary heating system, the average inlet water temperature increased by 50. 41%,the average outlet water tem-perature increased by 53. 08%;the average COP increased from 3. 167 to 3. 167; heat supply network running time increased from 1540 h to 2032 h, the average heat transfer of heat supply network heating season from 114566. 62kJ/h is reduced to 101257. 27kJ/h .

  1. 污水源热泵技术在城市住宅供暖中的应用研究%Application Research on Sewage Source Heat Pump Technology in Urban Residential Heating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于浩; 刘静; 肖天鹏

    2015-01-01

    With the development of the city and the growth of energy demand, the heat recovery and utilization of waste water is getting more and more attention. The development of sewage source heat pump technology is important for building energy saving. This paper introduces the working principle and characteristics of sewage source heat pump system, describes the development and utilization process of sewage source heat pump technology and engineering situation in domestic and foreign countries, analyses the potential of urban sewage and the development prospect of sewage source heat pump technology, and points out that it has a great prospect of the energy resources through utilizing the temperature difference between the sewage water and the environment, the optimum heat source distance is the precondition of the development and utilization of sewage source heat pump, the development of sewage source heat pump system can fully utilize the secondary eflfuent water or sewage from city sewage treatment plant as water source, through the rational use of water lfow and temperature difference for urban residential heating. Based on the current situation of China's energy and environment, sewage source heat pump system has a good market prospect, is a kind of energy development and utilization method which worth promoting.%随着城市的发展和能源需求的增长,污水的热能回收利用越来越受到关注,开发污水源热泵技术对建筑节能降耗具有重要意义。本文就污水源热泵系统的工作原理、特点等方面进行了介绍,阐述了国内外污水源热泵技术的开发利用历程与工程现状,分析了城市污水热能资源潜力以及污水源热泵技术的发展前景,指出利用污水与环境的温差获取热能具有十分巨大的能量资源前景,适宜的热源距离是污水源热泵开发利用的先决条件,开发污水源热泵系统,可以充分利用城市污水处理厂的二级出水或城市

  2. Building America Case Study: Ground Source Heat Pump Research, TaC Studios Residence, Atlanta, Georigia (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-09-01

    As part of the NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Southface partnered with TaC Studios, an Atlanta based architecture firm specializing in residential and light commercial design, on the construction of a new test home in Atlanta, GA in the mixed-humid climate. This home serves as a residence and home office for the firm's owners, as well as a demonstration of their design approach to potential and current clients. Southface believes the home demonstrates current best practices for the mixed-humid climate, including a building envelope featuring advanced air sealing details and low density spray foam insulation, glazing that exceeds ENERGY STAR requirements, and a high performance heating and cooling system. Construction quality and execution was a high priority for TaC Studios and was ensured by a third party review process. Post construction testing showed that the project met stated goals for envelope performance, an air infiltration rate of 2.15 ACH50. The homeowner's wished to further validate whole house energy savings through the project's involvement with Building America and this long-term monitoring effort. As a Building America test home, this home was evaluated to detail whole house energy use, end use loads, and the efficiency and operation of the ground source heat pump and associated systems. Given that the home includes many non-typical end use loads including a home office, pool, landscape water feature, and other luxury features not accounted for in Building America modeling tools, these end uses were separately monitored to determine their impact on overall energy consumption.

  3. 地源热泵系统冷凝热回收在降温除湿工况的研究%Cooling and Dehumidifying Conditions of the Condensation Heat Recovery of Ground-Source Heat Pump Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江盼; 陈剑波; 陈希望

    2015-01-01

    Considering the reheat process in cooling and dehumidifying conditions during the transitional season causes problems that cold and hot counteraction does not meet the energy requirements, and heat accumulation exists generally in the ground -source heat pump system in cold and wet load dominated area. The thesis proposes a ground-source heat pump system which can recover the condensation heat to reheat air. This system can not only reduce the emission of heat to the soil to relieve heat accumulation of the soil and improve the coefficient of performance, but also effectively use the waste heat from the water of the heat of condensation. Through simulation and experimental analysis, the advantages and feasibility can be drawn with a condensing heat recovery ground source heat pump system.%综合考虑在过渡季节降温除湿工况的再热过程会造成冷热抵消引起的不符合节能要求的问题和地源热泵系统在冷(湿)负荷为主的地区普遍存在的热堆积问题,提出了一种利用冷凝热再热空气的地源热泵系统。此系统既能减少向土壤侧排放的热量,缓解土壤的热堆积,并提高机组的运行效率,同时,又有效地利用了冷凝排放的热量。通过模拟计算和实验分析,得出带有冷凝热回收的地源热泵系统的可行性和应用优势。

  4. IMPACT OF GEOTHERMAL GRADIENT ON GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEM MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Kurevija

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available ndisturbed ground temperature is one of the most crucial thermogeological parameters needed for shallow geothermal resources assessment. Energy considered to be geothermal is energy stored in the ground at depths where solar radiation has no effect. At depth where undisturbed ground temperature occurs there is no influence of seasonal variations in air temperature from surface. Exact temperature value, and depth where it occurs, is functionally dependent on surface climate parameters and thermogeologic properties of ground. After abovementioned depth, increase of ground temperature is solely dependent on geothermal gradient. Accurately determined value of undisturbed ground temperature is beneficial for proper sizing of borehole heat exchangers. On practical example of building which is being heated and cooled with shallow geothermal resource, influences of undisturbed ground temperature and geothermal gradient, on size of borehole heat exchanger are going to be presented. Sizing of borehole heat exchanger was calculated with commercial software Ground Loop Designer (GLD, which uses modified line source and cylinder source solutions of heat conduction in solids.

  5. Optimization of ground source heat pumps related to soil and groundwater conditions as well as grouting material; Optimierung von Waermepumpen in Bezug auf Boden- und Grundwasserverhaeltnisse sowie Verpressmaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katzenbach, R.; Clauss, F.; Waberseck, T. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. und Versuchsanstalt fuer Geotechnik; Sass, J. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften, Fachgebiet Ingenieurgeologie

    2006-07-01

    The capacity and the performance of ground source heat pumps and seasonal thermal storage systems with borehole heat exchangers depend on the conditions of the encountered subsoil and the groundwater and furthermore on the thermal properties of the grouting material used for conclusive backfilling of the annular space after installing the heat exchanger pipes in the borehole. Intensive investigations are carried out at the Technische Universitaet Darmstadt with the aim of an economical optimisation of the dimensioning of ground source heat pumps and seasonal thermal storage systems. (orig.)

  6. Maldistribution in air-water heat pump evaporators. Part 2: Economic analysis of counteracting technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mader, Gunda; Palm, Björn; Elmegaard, Brian

    2015-01-01

    In this study a methodology is applied to quantify the effect of evaporator maldistributionon operating costs of airewater heat pumps. The approach is used to investigate the cost-effectivenessof two technologies enabling to counteract maldistribution: a flash gasbypass setup and the individual...

  7. Assessment of two-level heat pump installations’ power efficiency for heat supply systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Аlla Е. Denysova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of energy saving becomes one of the most important in power engineering. It is caused by exhaustion of world reserves in hydrocarbon fuel, such as gas, oil and coal representing sources of traditional heat supply. Conventional sources has essential shortcomings: low power, ecological and economic efficiencies, that can be eliminated by using alternative methods of power supply, like the considered one: low-temperature natural heat of ground waters of on the basis of heat pump installations application. The heat supply system considered provides an effective use of two-level heat pump installation operating as heat source the Odessa city ground waters during the lowest ambient temperature period. Proposed is a calculation method of heat pump installations on the basis of geothermal heat supply. Calculated are the values of electric energy consumption N by the compressors’ drive, and the heat supply system transformation coefficient µ for a source of geothermal heat from ground waters of Odessa city allowing to estimate efficiency of two-level heat pump installations.

  8. 地源热泵与混合式地源热泵应用对比分析%Comparative Analysis of Ground Source Heat Pumps and Hybrid Ground Source Heat Pump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈正顺

    2014-01-01

    Ground Source Heat Pumps(GSHPs) and Hybrid Ground Source Heat Pumps(HGSHPs) in-stalled in several public buildings are compared. The annual energy consumption of buildings are simulated respectively, taking selection calculation of GSHPs and HGSHPs, as well as the initial investment, annual operating costs and the comprehensive fee of two programs.%对合肥几种常见公共建筑已完全使用地埋管换热器的地源热泵系统与混合式地源热泵系统进行了比较。分别对各类型建筑进行了全年能耗模拟,对地源热泵、混合式地源热泵系统进行了选型计算,并对比了两种方案的初投资、年运行费用、年综合费用。

  9. Field Demonstration of Ground-Source Integrated Heat Pump - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, Van D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Munk, Jeffrey D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gehl, Anthony C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Reducing energy consumption in buildings is key to reducing or limiting the negative environmental impacts from the building sector. According to the United States (U.S.) Energy Information Administration (EIA), in 2013, commercial buildings consumed 18.1 quads of primary energy, which was 18.6% of the total U.S. primary energy consumption. The primary energy consumption in the commercial sector is projected to increase by 2.8 quads from 2013 to 2040, the second largest increase after the industrial sector. Further space heating, space cooling, and ventilation (HVAC) services accounted for 31% of the energy consumption in commercial buildings. The technical objective of this project is to demonstrate the capability of the new GS-IHP system to reduce overall energy use for space heating, space cooling, and water heating by at least 45% vs. a conventional electric RTU and electric WH in a light commercial building application. This project supports the DOE-Building Technologies Office (BTO) goals of reducing HVAC energy use by 20% and water heating by 60% by 2030.

  10. Hot Topics! Heat Pumps and Geothermal Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    The recent rapid rises in the cost of energy has significantly increased interest in alternative energy sources. The author discusses the underlying principles of heat pumps and geothermal energy. Related activities for technology education students are included.

  11. Hot Topics! Heat Pumps and Geothermal Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    The recent rapid rises in the cost of energy has significantly increased interest in alternative energy sources. The author discusses the underlying principles of heat pumps and geothermal energy. Related activities for technology education students are included.

  12. Energy efficient ammonia heat pump. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, Claus; Pijnenburg, B.; Schumann Grindorf, H. [Danish Technological Institute, Aarhus (Denmark); Christensen, Rolf [Alfa Laval, Lund (Sweden); Rasmussen, Bjarne D. [Grundfos, Bjerringbro (Denmark); Gram, S.; Fredborg Jakobsen, D. [Svedan Industri Koeleanlaeg, Greve (Denmark)

    2013-09-15

    The report describes the development of a highly effective ammonia heat pump. Heat pumps play an increasingly important role in the search for more effective use of energy in our society. Highly efficient heat pumps can contribute to reduced energy consumption and improved economy of the systems which they are a part of. An ammonia heat pump with high pressure reciprocating compressor and a novel split condenser was developed to prove potential for efficiency optimization. The split of the condenser in two parts can be utilized to obtain smaller temperature approaches and, thereby, improved heat pump efficiency at an equal heat exchanger area, when compared to the traditional solution with separate condenser and de-superheater. The split condenser design can also be exploited for heating a significant share of the total heating capacity to a temperature far above the condensing temperature. Furthermore, the prototype heat pump was equipped with a plate type evaporator combined with a U-turn separator with a minimum liquid height and a liquid pump with the purpose of creating optimum liquid circulation ratio for the highest possible heat transfer coefficients at the lowest possible pressure drop. The test results successfully confirmed the highest possible efficiency; a COP of 4.3 was obtained when heating water from 40 deg. C to 80 deg. C while operating with evaporating/condensing temperatures of +20 deg C/+73 deg C. (Author)

  13. Ground source thermo-pumps for individual residential houses; Les thermopompes a capteur enterres dans les residences individuelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ossant, G. [Societe Syrec (France)

    1997-12-31

    The main principles, performances and constraints of the various types of ground source thermo-pumps for individual houses, i.e. ground/ground thermo-pumps, glycol water/water thermo-pumps and ground/water thermo-pumps are reviewed, and their energy consumptions are discussed. The design and operating conditions of a reverse ground source thermo-pump (Syrec) for space heating and air conditioning through a hot and cold floor system and a Syrec ground source thermo-pump for water heating, are presented

  14. Solar energy and heat pumps: evaluation of combined systems for heating and cooling of buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, J.W.; Catan, M.A.; Le Doux, P.

    1982-09-01

    An analysis of a broad range of solar assisted heat pump systems was carried out. Systems were divided into three categories on the basis of whether ground coupling was included in the system and, if so, whether solar energy was stored in the ground or used in some other way. In the category of non-ground-coupled systems, an advanced air-source heat pump concept designed to improve capacity and coefficient of performance at low source temperatures was used as the basis for a dual source heat pump. For ground coupled systems which do not store solar heat in the ground, three options were considered: use of simple passive techniques to reduce the effective heating load; use of photovoltaics to drive the heat pump compressor; and use of active solar components as a source to the heat pump, for direct space heating, or for domestic hot water only. For systems which do store solar energy in the ground, the minimum size for efficient thermal carryover from summer to winter was determined to be a system capable of serving approx. 100 houses. Use of a fuel-fired heat pump is also an advantage in these larger systems. Economic analyses were based on a maximum allowable payback of 8 years for residential systems. For the large-scale system, a simplified 10-year life-cycle costing was employed.

  15. Absorption heat pump for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuan; Simon, William E.; Warrier, Gopinath R.; Woramontri, Woranun

    1993-01-01

    In the first part, the performance of the Absorption Heat Pump (AHP) with water-sulfuric acid and water-magnesium chloride as two new refrigerant-absorbent fluid pairs was investigated. A model was proposed for the analysis of the new working pairs in a heat pump system, subject to different temperature lifts. Computer codes were developed to calculate the Coefficient of Performance (COP) of the system with the thermodynamic properties of the working fluids obtained from the literature. The study shows the potential of water-sulfuric acid as a satisfactory replacement for water-lithium bromide in the targeted temperature range. The performance of the AHP using water-magnesium chloride as refrigerant-absorbent pair does not compare well with those obtained using water-lithium bromide. The second part concentrated on the design and testing of a simple ElectroHydrodynamic (EHD) Pump. A theoretical design model based on continuum electromechanics was analyzed to predict the performance characteristics of the EHD pump to circulate the fluid in the absorption heat pump. A numerical method of solving the governing equations was established to predict the velocity profile, pressure - flow rate relationship and efficiency of the pump. The predicted operational characteristics of the EHD pump is comparable to that of turbomachinery hardware; however, the overall efficiency of the electromagnetic pump is much lower. An experimental investigation to verify the numerical results was conducted. The pressure - flow rate performance characteristics and overall efficiency of the pump obtained experimentally agree well with the theoretical model.

  16. 地源热泵单U型地埋管换热器的传热模拟分析%Simulation Analysis of Single U-tube Underground Heat Exchanger for Ground Source Heat Pump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓伟; 曹红奋

    2016-01-01

    Aunderground heat exchanger heat transfer model for single U -tube underground heat exchanger was es-tablished based on the heat transfer characteristics of the ground source heat pump .The influences of the different in-let water temperature , different flow rate and different backfill materials on the single U -tube underground heat ex-changer capability were simulation analysis .The results may provide guidance for the same type of ground source heat pump.%本文针对地源热泵单U型地埋管换热器的换热特性,建立了地埋管换热器的传热模型,模拟分析了不同的进口水温、不同的流速以及不同的回填材料对单U型地埋管换热器换热能力的影响,研究结果可为同类型的地源热泵项目提供参考和借鉴。

  17. High Efficiency Water Heating Technology Development Final Report. Part I, Lab/Field Performance Evaluation and Accelerated Life Testing of a Hybrid Electric Heat Pump Water Heater (HPWH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, Van D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Murphy, Richard W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rice, C. Keith [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Linkous, Randall Lee [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-04-01

    DOE has supported efforts for many years with the objective of getting a water heater that uses heat pump technology (aka a heat pump water heater or HPWH) successfully on the residential equipment market. The most recent previous effort (1999-2002) produced a product that performed very well in ORNL-led accelerated durability and field tests. The commercial partner for this effort, Enviromaster International (EMI), introduced the product to the market under the trade name Watter$aver in 2002 but ceased production in 2005 due to low sales. A combination of high sales price and lack of any significant infrastructure for service after the sale were the principal reasons for the failure of this effort. What was needed for market success was a commercial partner with the manufacturing and market distribution capability necessary to allow economies of scale to lead to a viable unit price together with a strong customer service infrastructure. General Electric certainly meets these requirements, and knowing of ORNL s expertise in this area, approached ORNL with the proposal to partner in a CRADA to produce a high efficiency electric water heater. A CRADA with GE was initiated early in Fiscal Year, 2008. GE initially named its product the Hybrid Electric Water Heater (HEWH).

  18. The use of an absorption heat pump by a thermal bathing establishment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzarin, R.M.; Longo, G. (Padua Univ. (Italy)); Piccininni, F. (Bari Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Tecnica)

    1992-07-01

    An energy saving plant was realized by a thermal bathing establishment. The plant is composed of a three fluid plate heat exchanger and an absorption heat pump between the source preheated water and the discharged one. During the cold winter the establishment is maintained at a temperature of 5[sup o]C. The absorption heat pump uses the thermal water as the cold source. (Author).

  19. Thermodynamic Analysis of the Use a Chemical Heat Pump to Link a Supercritical Water-Cooled Nuclear Reactor and a Thermochemical Water-Splitting Cycle for Hydrogen Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granovskii, Mikhail; Dincer, Ibrahim; Rosen, Marc A.; Pioro, Igor

    Increases in the power generation efficiency of nuclear power plants (NPPs) are mainly limited by the permissible temperatures in nuclear reactors and the corresponding temperatures and pressures of the coolants in reactors. Coolant parameters are limited by the corrosion rates of materials and nuclear-reactor safety constraints. The advanced construction materials for the next generation of CANDU reactors, which employ supercritical water (SCW) as a coolant and heat carrier, permit improved “steam” parameters (outlet temperatures up to 625°C and pressures of about 25 MPa). An increase in the temperature of steam allows it to be utilized in thermochemical water splitting cycles to produce hydrogen. These methods are considered by many to be among the most efficient ways to produce hydrogen from water and to have advantages over traditional low-temperature water electrolysis. However, even lower temperature water splitting cycles (Cu-Cl, UT-3, etc.) require an intensive heat supply at temperatures higher than 550-600°C. A sufficient increase in the heat transfer from the nuclear reactor to a thermochemical water splitting cycle, without jeopardizing nuclear reactor safety, might be effectively achieved by application of a heat pump, which increases the temperature of the heat supplied by virtue of a cyclic process driven by mechanical or electrical work. Here, a high-temperature chemical heat pump, which employs the reversible catalytic methane conversion reaction, is proposed. The reaction shift from exothermic to endothermic and back is achieved by a change of the steam concentration in the reaction mixture. This heat pump, coupled with the second steam cycle of a SCW nuclear power generation plant on one side and a thermochemical water splitting cycle on the other, increases the temperature of the “nuclear” heat and, consequently, the intensity of heat transfer into the water splitting cycle. A comparative preliminary thermodynamic analysis is conducted

  20. Heat pumps in industry. Pt. 2: Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzarin, R.M. [Padova Univ., Vicenza (Italy). Ist. di Ingegneria Gestionale

    1995-04-01

    A selection of applications of heat pumps in industry is described, reporting plant lay-outs and performances. The selection includes compression heat pumps at different temperatures, vapour recompression systems, absorption heat pumps and heat transformers. (author)

  1. A regenerative elastocaloric heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tušek, Jaka; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Eriksen, Dan; Dall'Olio, Stefano; Tušek, Janez; Pryds, Nini

    2016-10-01

    A large fraction of global energy use is for refrigeration and air-conditioning, which could be decarbonized if efficient renewable energy technologies could be found. Vapour-compression technology remains the most widely used system to move heat up the temperature scale after more than 100 years; however, caloric-based technologies (those using the magnetocaloric, electrocaloric, barocaloric or elastocaloric effect) have recently shown a significant potential as alternatives to replace this technology due to high efficiency and the use of green solid-state refrigerants. Here, we report a regenerative elastocaloric heat pump that exhibits a temperature span of 15.3 K on the water side with a corresponding specific heating power up to 800 W kg-1 and maximum COP (coefficient-of-performance) values of up to 7. The efficiency and specific heating power of this device exceeds those of other devices based on caloric effects. These results open up the possibility of using the elastocaloric effect in various cooling and heat-pumping applications.

  2. Heat pumps for the home

    CERN Document Server

    Cantor, John

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, heat pumps have emerged as a promising new form of technology with a relatively low environmental impact. Moreover, they have presented householders with an opportunity to reduce their heating bills. Heat pumps can heat a building by 'pumping' heat from either the ground or the air outside: an intriguing process which utilizes principles that are somewhat analogous to those employed in the domestic refrigerator. Armed with the practical information contained in these pages, homeowners will have the necessary knowledge to take advantage of this potentially low-carbon t

  3. Compact High Efficiency Adsorption Heat Pump

    OpenAIRE

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward E; Humble, Paul H; Sweeney, Josh B

    2012-01-01

    An innovative adsorption cycle heat pump technology is presented that is compact and capable of achieving high energy efficiency for integrated space heating, air conditioning, and water heating. High energy efficiency is accomplished by effectively recuperating heat within the system to minimize energy consumption. This substantially reduces the thermodynamic losses that occur when the sorbent beds are thermally cycled without effective heat recuperation. Furthermore, equipment cost is reduc...

  4. Commercialization of air conditioning heat pump/water heater. Final technical report, Volume 2: Appendix A through E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-30

    This is the final technical report on a commercialization project for an air conditioning heat pump water heater. The objective of the project was to produce a saleable system which would be economically competitive with natural gas and cost effective with regard to initial cost versus annual operating costs. The development and commercialization of the system is described. Compiled data included in numerous figures, tables and graphs.

  5. Peltier heat pumps. Peltiervaermepumpar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torstensson, H. (Studsvik Energy, Nykoeping (SE))

    1990-06-01

    Todays Peltier devices in heat pump applications gives a low coeffificent of performance. A temperature difference of 40 deg C results in a COP-value of approx. 1.3. Peltier devices are manufactured of alloys composed of heavy elements like tellurium, selenium, bismuth and antimony. These elements thermoelectrical properties, figure of merit are decisive to the performance of the Peltier devices. An upper limit for the figure of merit, ZT, is said to be 2, which at {Delta}T=40 deg C would yield a COP of 2.0 as a maximum. Organic compounds have been investigated with regard to the electric conductivity. Thin film technique have been used for Peltier devices in micro-scale. There are no large-scale applications. The method does not give enhanced termoelectrical properties, but more rational and cheaper manufacturing. (author) (47 refs., 26 figs.).

  6. Heat pumps in district heating networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Wiebke Brix; Elmegaard, Brian

    constraints limit the power plants. Efficient heat pumps can be used to decouple the constraints of electricity and heat production, while maintaining the high energy efficiency needed to match the politically agreed carbon emission goals. The requirements in terms of COP, location, capacity and economy...... are calculated using an energy system model which includes power plants, heat pumps and district heating consumption profiles. The model is developed with focus on accurate representation of the performance of the units in different locations and operating modes. The model can assist in investment decisions...... and strategic planning in the energy sector. The paper presents a case study of optimal implementation of heat pumps in the present energy system of the Copenhagen area. By introduction of the correct capacity of heat pumps, a 1,6 % reduction in fuel consumption for electricity and heat production can...

  7. Heat-pump-centered integrated community energy systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-01

    A Heat Pump Centered-Integrated Community Energy System (HP-ICES) concept was explored and developed that is based on use of privately owned ice-making heat pumps in each building or complex within a community. These heat pumps will provide all of the space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water needs. All of the community input energy required is provided by electrical power, thereby eliminating a community's dependence on gas or oil supplies. The heat pumps will operate in both air and water source modes, deriving performance advantages of both. The possible forms of an HP-ICES system, the technical and economic limitations, environmental impacts and other factors are discussed from a general viewpoint. The concept is applied to a specific planned community and its performance and economic features are examined in detail. It is concluded that the HP-ICES concept is technically viable, but that its economic desirability as compared with conventional heat pump systems is hampered by much higher initial costs, and that the economic feasibility of HP-ICES systems will depend on future fuel source costs and supply and on electric power rates. (LCL)

  8. 欧盟家用空气源热泵热水器能效标准测试方法的研究%The Experimental Research on the European Coefficient of Performance Testing Methods of Household Air-source Heat-pump Water Heater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒宏; 何林; 杨加政

    2015-01-01

    目前欧盟热泵热水器测试标准 EN 16147:2011,Heat pumps with electrically driven compressors- Testing and requirements for marking of domestic hot water units已于2011年7月开始实施,但国内的标准GB/T 23137-2008并未有相应的更改。本文将通过测试静态加热式热泵热水器来对比分析其能效测试结果相对于国标测试方法的不同,并分析出目前国内开发的主流的热泵热水器在售后使用时的真正能效是否节能,并考虑到售后使用的能效情况,提出设计热泵热水器时的优化节能方向和售后客户使用的节能注意事项。%The European standard, EN 16147:2011,Heat pumps with electrically driven compressors - Testing and requirements for marking of domestic hot water units, has been put into effect from July, 2011. However, Chinese na-tional standard is still the GB/T 23137-2008 which hasn’t made the corresponding changes. In this paper, it tests the static heating water heat pump and use its data to compare and analyze the differences of Chinese national standard and European standard, including the coefficient of performance which used by users. Furthermore, this paper points out the development direction of energy conservation of heat-pump water heater and the matters needing attention for us-ers in consideration of the coefficient of performance.

  9. Research Progress of Composite Ground Source Heat Pump Air Conditioning System%复合地源热泵系统的研究进展探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程晋洋; 朱彩霞; 李晓光

    2015-01-01

    The paper mainly introduces the advantages of ground source heat pump and its development trend, the classification and working principle of composite ground source heat pump depend on various forms of cold and heat source. The research status both at home and abroad in different times are expounded, analyzing the reason of heat imbalance and coefficient of performance reduction caused by long-term use of ground source heat pump system. A series of recommendations are proposed to improve the performance of ground source heat pump as the direction for the future research.%主要介绍地源热泵的优点及其发展趋势,以及不同冷热源形式的复合地源热泵的分类及其工作原理。探讨了不同时期复合地源热泵国内外的研究现状,分析了地源热泵长期使用系统热量失衡、COP 减小的原因,并提出一些改善地源热泵性能的建议,为其今后的研究提供方向。

  10. 浙北地区地源热泵土壤换热性能测试研究%Study on Measurement of Heat Transfer Characteristics of Ground Source in a Ground Source Heat Pump System in Northern Zhejiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓勤; 郑锦龙; 郑翀

    2011-01-01

    The heat transfer characteristics of ground source in Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) in Northem Zhejiang were experimentally measured. The experimental results showed that the initial ground source temperature in the coldest month was approximately 17.0℃, which was significantly higher than the temperature of the outside environment. The mean thermal conductivity of the ground source was 1.73W/(m· ℃). It indicated that the ground source had good heat transfer capacity and could be used for the ground source heat pump system. The experimental measurement of the heat transfer coefficient was also conducted on a single U type underground heat exchanger at the depth of 60 m. The experimental results showed that the heat dissipating capacity of the single pipe were 3666W in summer and 2508 W in winter, respectively. The heat dissipating capacity could meet the requirement of the ground source heat pump system.%对浙北地区某地源热泵工程土壤换热性能进行了实验测试,结果显示,浙北地区冬季最冷月地下土壤初始温度稳定在17.0℃左右,远高于室外环境温度;土壤的平均导热系数为1.73W/(m·℃),有较强的地下换热能力,适合做地源热泵系统;对60m深的单U形式地下换热器进行换热性能测试,夏季单根盘管散热量3666W,冬季单根盘管散热量2508W,能满足系统工作要求。

  11. Commercial absorption heat pumps (design, performance)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzarin, R. (Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Tecnica)

    1986-04-01

    After a historical review of the development of absorption heat pumps, a critical analysis is presented of the design and operation of typical 25-40 kW, commercially available heat pumps. This engineering critique is followed by an analysis of the performance of 25 kW plant thoroughly tested to provide, by means of statistically significant data, a reliable assessment of the coefficient of performance and capacity in function of the cold source temperature for different return temperatures.

  12. 地源热泵技术的推广与应用%The Promotion and Application of Ground Source Heat Pump Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张斌; 张力; 田忠春

    2013-01-01

      阐述了地源热泵的发展历程、工作原理、地源热泵种类和技术特点,例举了地源热泵技术在工程中的应用实例,分析了目前存在的需要注意的问题,对地源热泵技术的发展前景进行了展望。%In this text, several problems on the ground source heat pump are researched, such as its development history, principle of operation, the kind of ground source heat pump, technical characteristics and application examples of engineering technology. The paper also analyses the current problems and look further into the future of ground source heat pump.

  13. MULTI-HEAT SOURCE SOLAR HEAT PUMP HEAT SUPPLY SYSTEM AND PERFORMANCE SIMULATION%复合热源太阳能热泵供热系统及其性能模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨磊; 张小松

    2011-01-01

    提出了一种复合热源太阳能热泵供热系统,通过阀门切换,可根据不同的天气状况改变运行模式,以空气和太阳辐射作为热源制取供暖用水.针对所设计的lOkw供热系统,建立了系统的数学模型,对热泵串联集热器(SC+HP)及集热器串联热泵(HP+SC)两种运行模式下的循环性能进行了计算机模拟分析,并计算了系统的全年运行状况.从模拟结果可以看出,在模拟进水温度区间内,HP+SC模式下热泵COP较高,最高比SC+HP模式高2.58%;而SC+HP模式集热器热性能较好,总热效率更高,最高比HP+SC模式高2.62%.%A compound solar heat pump heat supply system was presented. The system can make heating water from air source and solar radiation by valve switching, based on different weather conditions. A numerical model for a l0kW heating utilizing was established. The circulation performances of solar collector with heat pump( SC + HP) and heat pump with solar collector( Hp + SC) operation modes were simulated. The all year round operation status was also caculated.The results have shown that the COP of HP + SC mode is at most 2.58 % higher than SC + HP mode in simulation water temperature range. But the latter has a better collector thermal performance and overall thermal efficiency is at most 2.62 % higher than the former.

  14. Industrial heat pump assessment study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, R. N.; Priebe, S. J.; Wilfert, G. L.

    1989-03-01

    This report summarizes preliminary studies that assess the potential of industrial heat pumps for reduction of process heating requirements in industries receiving power from the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). This project was initiated at the request of BPA to determine the potential of industrial heat pumps in BPA's service area. Working from known heat pump principles and from a list of BPA's industrial customers, the authors estimated the fuel savings potential for six industries. Findings indicate that the pulp and paper industry would yield the greatest fuel savings and increased electrical consumption. Assessments presented in this report represent a cooperative effort between The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), and Battelle-Northwest Laboratories.

  15. 2012 International Conference on Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering Thermal Economic Analysis on LiBr Refrigeration -Heat Pump System Applied in CCHP System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, CuiZhen; Yang, Mo; Lu, Mei; Zhu, Jiaxian; Xu, Wendong

    LiBr refrigeration cooling water contains a lot of low-temperature heat source, can use this part of the heat source heat boiler feed water. This paper introduced LiBr refrigeration - heat pump system which recovery heat of the LiBr refrigeration cooling water by heat pump system to heat the feed water of boiler. Hot economic analysis on the system has been performed based on the experimental data. Results show that LiBr refrigeration-heat pump system brings 26.6 percent decrease in primary energy rate consumption comparing with the combined heat and power production system(CHP) and separate generation of cold;

  16. High temperature absorption compression heat pump for industrial waste heat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinholdt, Lars; Horntvedt, B.; Nordtvedt, S. R.

    2016-01-01

    Heat pumps are currently receiving extensive interest because they may be able to support the integration of large shares of fluctuating electricity production based on renewable sources, and they have the potential for the utilization of low temperature waste heat from industry. In most industries......, the needed temperature levels often range from 100°C and up, but until now, it has been quite difficult to find heat pump technologies that reach this level, and thereby opening up the large-scale heat recovery in the industry. Absorption compression heat pumps can reach temperatures above 100°C......, and they have proved themselves a very efficient and reliable technology for applications that have large temperature changes on the heat sink and/or heat source. The concept of Carnot and Lorenz efficiency and its use in the analysis of system integration is shown. A 1.25 MW system having a Carnot efficiency...

  17. Solar-powered Rankine heat pump for heating and cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, J.

    1978-01-01

    The design, operation and performance of a familyy of solar heating and cooling systems are discussed. The systems feature a reversible heat pump operating with R-11 as the working fluid and using a motor-driven centrifugal compressor. In the cooling mode, solar energy provides the heat source for a Rankine power loop. The system is operational with heat source temperatures ranging from 155 to 220 F; the estimated coefficient of performance is 0.7. In the heating mode, the vapor-cycle heat pump processes solar energy collected at low temperatures (40 to 80 F). The speed of the compressor can be adjusted so that the heat pump capacity matches the load, allowing a seasonal coefficient of performance of about 8 to be attained.

  18. Air-source heat pump coupled with economized vapor injection scroll compressor and ejector:Design and experimental research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Ejector can utilize high pressure energy from liquid mechanism,it can be used in heat pump system coupled with economized vapor injection(EVI)scroll compressor.When running under low temperature conditions,the performance of the EVI system with ejector can be improved further.In this paper,the design method of the heat pump system with ejector is presented,and the process for designing the heat pump with ejector(EVIe)was summarized.One prototype heat pump was designed under the condition of the evaporation temperature of -20oC,and an experimental setup was established to test the prototype.The measured results demonstrated that the heating EER(energy efficiency ratio)of the EVIe could reach about 4%higher than that of the system without the ejector when the heating capacity remained nearly constant.The design method is helpful to development of a heat pump system coupled with scroll compressor and ejector.

  19. Magnetic heat pump flow director

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Frank S. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A fluid flow director is disclosed. The director comprises a handle body and combed-teeth extending from one side of the body. The body can be formed of a clear plastic such as acrylic. The director can be used with heat exchangers such as a magnetic heat pump and can minimize the undesired mixing of fluid flows. The types of heat exchangers can encompass both heat pumps and refrigerators. The director can adjust the fluid flow of liquid or gas along desired flow directions. A method of applying the flow director within a magnetic heat pump application is also disclosed where the comb-teeth portions of the director are inserted into the fluid flow paths of the heat pump.

  20. Technical Feasibility Study for Deployment of Ground-Source Heat Pump Systems: Portsmouth Naval Shipyard -- Kittery, Maine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillesheim, M.; Mosey, G.

    2014-11-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Lands initiative, engaged the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to conduct feasibility studies to assess the viability of developing renewable energy generating facilities on contaminated sites. Portsmouth Naval Shipyard (PNSY) is a United States Navy facility located on a series of conjoined islands in the Piscataqua River between Kittery, ME and Portsmouth, NH. EPA engaged NREL to conduct a study to determine technical feasibility of deploying ground-source heat pump systems to help PNSY achieve energy reduction goals.

  1. 海水源热泵系统的(火用)经济分析%Exergy economic analysis of seawater source heat pump systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    芦铁键; 张朝辉

    2011-01-01

    Using exergy economic analysis method, builds up an exergy economic analysis model for seawater source heat pump system. After calculating the exergy flow cost in seawater source heat pump system, finds out that the exergy flow cost of heat pump plant room is the highest. So the exergy flow cost could be reduced by means of improving the efficiency of the heat pump. Suggests that minimal exergy flow cost should be used as a constraint function and the exergy economic analysis method should be applied to the optimization design for seawater source heat pump system.%利用(火用)经济分析方法建立了海水源热泵系统的(火用)经济分析模型,并对海水源热泵系统流程的(火用)成本进行计算,结果表明热泵机房的(火用)流成本最高,因此可以通过提高热泵效率等途径来减小(火用)流成本.建议以(火用)流成本最小作为约束函数,并将(火用)经济分析法用于海水源热泵系统的优化设计中.

  2. 3D-CFD Design Study And Optimization Of A Centrifugal Turbo Compressor For The Operation In A Hybrid Sorption/ Compression Heat Pump Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Eckert, Thomas; Dostal, Leo; Helm, Martin; Schweigler, Christian

    2016-01-01

    In various applications the use of sorption chillers and heat pumps is limited by the available temperature level of the driving heat source or the heat sink for export of reject heat. These constraints can be overcome by integrating an efficient high-speed transonic turbo-compressor into the internal cycle of a thermally driven water/lithium bromide absorption heat pump. The operation in a hybrid heat pump with the refrigerant water implies specific challenges for the design of the compresso...

  3. An optimized ground-coupled heat pump system design for northern climate applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catan, M.A.; Baxter, V.D.

    1985-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of the performance of a ground coupled heat pump (GCHP) system with a water-source heat pump package designed expressly for such systems operating in a northern climate. The project objective was to minimize the life-cycle cost of a GCHP system by optimizing the design of both the heat pump package and the group coil in concert. In order to achieve this objective, a number of modelling tools were developed to analyze the heat pump's performance and cost, and the ground coil's performance.

  4. 直热式热泵热水器冷凝器结构优化试验研究%Experimental Research on Structure Optimization of Condenser of Directly-heated Type Heat-pump Water Heater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛瑞萍

    2015-01-01

    搭建了空气源热泵热水器试验台。在标准工况下,分别比较了普通套管式冷凝器,3套管式冷凝器和板式冷凝器对热泵系统运行性能的影响。结果表明,板式换热器在热泵热水器系统中换热性能大大优于另外两种常规换热器,其性能系数达到4.1,比使用其他两种冷凝器性能系数提高20%左右。试验结果为如何提高热泵热水器性能提供了依据。%The air source heat pump water heater test rig was set up. Under the standard operating conditions, the influence of the ordinary casing type condenser, the 3 tube condenser and the plate condenser on the operating perfor-mance of the heat pump system are compared. The results show that the plate heat exchanger in heat pump water heater system in heat transfer performance is much better than other two conventional heat exchangers. Its coefficient of per-formance reached 4.1, which higher than the performance coefficient of other two condensers increased by about 20%. The experimental results provided the basis for improving the performance of the heat pump water heater.

  5. Thermoeconomic comparison of industrial heat pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Christen Malte; Reinholdt, L.

    2011-01-01

    Four natural working fluids in various heat pump cycles are expected to cover the heating range between 50oC and 150°C. The different thermodynamic cycles are the Condensing Vapour, Transcritical and Compression/Absorption. As the considered technologies have significant differences in application......, limitations and design, a generic comparison is used. To establish the optimal individual temperature range of operation, a thermoeconomic evaluation is performed, with heat price as the decision parameter. Each individual heat pump is favourable in specific temperature intervals, which will vary according...... to the temperature lift between sink and source. At temperature lifts below 30°C the entire temperature range is covered. Exceeding this temperature lift, the range of sink temperatures is not completely covered above 125°C. Three of the heat pumps prove very cost competitive when compared to heating with natural...

  6. Thermoeconomic comparison of industrial heat pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Christen Malte; Reinholdt, L.

    2011-01-01

    Four natural working fluids in various heat pump cycles are expected to cover the heating range between 50oC and 150°C. The different thermodynamic cycles are the Condensing Vapour, Transcritical and Compression/Absorption. As the considered technologies have significant differences in application......, limitations and design, a generic comparison is used. To establish the optimal individual temperature range of operation, a thermoeconomic evaluation is performed, with heat price as the decision parameter. Each individual heat pump is favourable in specific temperature intervals, which will vary according...... to the temperature lift between sink and source. At temperature lifts below 30°C the entire temperature range is covered. Exceeding this temperature lift, the range of sink temperatures is not completely covered above 125°C. Three of the heat pumps prove very cost competitive when compared to heating with natural...

  7. 地源热泵系统在上海地区学校建筑中的应用%Application of ground-source heat pump system into the school building of Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚哲卿; 邓波

    2012-01-01

    上海地区学校建筑空调系统可以以土壤作为热源/热汇.针对学校案例分析介绍地源热泵系统流程、系统的控制及经济性等,认为地源热泵空调系统应该与生活热水系统相结合,并综合考虑冷热平衡问题.%The school building may adopt soil as the heat source/sink of the heat pump system in Shanghai. The system flow,control system and economics in school project are presented and analyzed. The ground-source heat pump system should be combined with domestic hot water system. It's necessary to pay attention to the heat balance.

  8. Demand flexibility from residential heat pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattarai, Bishnu Prasad; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    2014-01-01

    with high thermal time constant, heat pumps (HP) can offer a great deal of flexibility in the future intelligent grids especially to compensate fluctuating generation. However, the HP flexibility is highly dependent on thermal demand profile, namely hot water and space heating demand. This paper proposes...

  9. Technical and Economic Working Domains of Industrial Heat Pumps: Part 1 - Vapour Compression Heat Pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Markussen, Wiebke Brix

    2014-01-01

    A large amount of operational and economic constraints limit the applicability of heat pumps operated with natural working fluids. The limitations are highly dependent on the integration of heat source and sink streams. An evaluation of feasible operating conditions is carried out considering...... the constraints of available refrigeration equipment and a requirement of a positive Net Present Value of the investment. The considered sink outlet temperature range is from 40 °C to 140 °C, but for the heat pumps considered in this paper, the upper limit is 100 °C. Five heat pumps are studied. For each set...... of heat sink and source temperatures the optimal solution is determined. At low sink temperature glide R717 heat pumps show best performance, while at higher sink glide transcritical R744 may become important. In a second paper, the results of the VCHP are compared to a similar study considering...

  10. Optimized ground-coupled heat pump system design for northern climate applications. [Including ground coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catan, M.A.; Baxter, V.D.

    1985-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of the performance of a ground coupled heat pump (GCHP) system with a water - source heat pump package designed expressly for such systems operating in a northern climate. The project objective was to minimize the life-cycle cost of a GCHP system by optimizing the design of both the heat pump package and the ground coil in concert. In order to achieve this objective, a number of modelling tools were developed or modified to analyze the heat pump's performance and cost and the ground coil's performance. The life-cycle cost of a GCHP system (water-source heat pump with a horizontal ground coil) for an 1800 ft/sup 2/ (167 m/sup 2/) house in Pittsburgh, PA, was minimized over a 7 year economic life. Simple payback for the optimized GCHP system, relative to conventional air-source heat pumps, was under 3 years. The water-source heat pump package resulting from this optimization is calculated to cost 21% more than its conventional counterpart with a heating coefficient of performance (COP) about 20% higher, and a cooling COP about 23% higher. In the GCHP system modeled, its annual energy savings are predicted to be about 11% compared to a system designed around the conventional heat pump while having about the same installation cost. The major conclusion of this study is - GCHP system performance improvement can be attained by improving the water-source heat pump package at less cost than by buying more ground coil. The following conclusions were drawn from the steady-state performance optimization results: (1) By adding about $100.00 to the manufacturer's cost off construction, both the heating and cooling COPs can be improved by 20% or more. (2) Cooling COP need not be sacrificed for the sake of heating performance and vice versa. 13 refs., 11 figs., 12 tabs.

  11. Composite ground source heat pump used in scattered oilfield%复合地源热泵在油田边零井中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟; 杨鹏; 侯静

    2012-01-01

    In the Remote areas, oil is stored in storage tanks, and needed to be heated in order to output. Compared with fuel, gas boilers and electric heating system, ground source heat pump heating system has the features as safe, energy saving, environmentally friendly. But a separate ground source heat pump sys- tem only take the heat from soil, not release heat to the soil. To overcome this shortcoming the paper pro- poses solar--assisted ground-source heat pump system. Through the use of trnsys software simulation, it is proved that this system is feasible, and should be promoted.%油田边零井中的原油储存在储油罐中,需要加热才能输出,地源热泵加热系统较燃油、燃气锅炉和电加热系统,具有安全,节能,环保的特点,但是单独地源热泵系统地下地埋管只取热不放热,为了克服这个缺点,提出了太阳能辅助地源热泵系统,通过运用trnsys软件模拟,证明此系统用于油田边零井是可行的,值得推广的。

  12. On the Application of Ground Source Heat Pump System in the Airport Hotel%机场宾馆地源热泵系统方案的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    嵇竑

    2016-01-01

    The construction of the airport hotel needs to consider air conditioning supply and hot water service throughout the year. From the perspective of energy saving transformation, the construction of ground source heat pump system has huge difference with the conventional system in economic and environmental protection terms. From the basic principle of ground source heat pump system, this paper analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of the application of ground source heat pump system in airport hotel to explore the practical application value and broad prospects of the development of ground source heat pump system.%机场宾馆建设需要考虑全年提供冷暖空调、热水服务等,从节能改造的角度出发,建设地源热泵系统对比常规系统在经济方面和环保方面将产生巨大差异.本文从地源热泵系统的基本原理出发,分析研究地源热泵系统在机场宾馆应用中的优势与劣势,并由此探究地源热泵系统发展的实际应用价值和广阔前景.

  13. Heat pumps at the maltings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-11-01

    Heat pumps have halved the energy costs of producing finished malt at two of the country's maltsters. The fuel-fired kilning processes described are now performed by heat pumps with considerable energy and production benefits at the maltings of J.P. Simpson and Co. (Alnwick) Ltd, in Tivetshall St Margaret, Norfolk, and of Munton and Fison Plc of Stowmarket, Suffolk. The heat pump system installed at the Station Malting of J.P. Simpson was devised by the Electricity Council Research Centre at Capenhurst near Chester. Energy cost benefits of Pound 6,000 a month are being realised at Simpsons, but there is the added benefit that the system has been designed to provide conditioned air to the germination cycle to ensure that the correct temperature is maintained throughout the year. At the Cedars factory of Munton and Fison, heat pumps were used on a trial basis for plant micropropagation and for a fish farming unit.

  14. 地源热泵的应用与技术性分析%Application and Technical Analysis of Ground Source Heat Pumps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘孝刚

    2015-01-01

    Ground source heat pump is a shallow underground resources of both cooling and heating functions heat pump system. The unit has the advantages of easy maintenance, energy saving, no secondary environment pollution. Taking a ground source heat pump works as a technical analysis examples, the number of options the air conditioning units were analyzed and compared. The development prospects of ground-source heat pump system were discussed.%地源热泵是一种利用地下浅层资源兼有制冷制热功能的热泵空调系统,其机组维护方便、节能环保,对环境没有二次污染。文中通过对地源热泵工程实例的技术性分析,对多个方案的空调机组进行了分析比较,对地源热泵系统的发展前景进行了展望。

  15. Nanofluids and a method of making nanofluids for ground source heat pumps and other applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, John Melvin

    2013-11-12

    This invention covers nanofluids. Nanofluids are a combination of particles between 1 and 100 nanometers, a surfactant and the base fluid. The nanoparticles for this invention are either pyrogenic nanoparticles or carbon nanotubes. These nanofluids improve the heat transfer of the base fluids. The base fluid can be ethylene glycol, or propylene glycol, or an aliphatic-hydrocarbon based heat transfer fluid. This invention also includes a method of making nanofluids. No surfactant is used to suspend the pyrogenic nanoparticles in glycols.

  16. 地源热泵技术的概念及应用%The Concept and Application of Ground Source Heat Pump Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程应欣

    2014-01-01

    Ground source heat pump is a new air conditioning heating method which features high efficiency, energy saving and environmental protection. The application of ground source heat pump technology facilitates the solvement of two major problems: energy crisis and environmental pol ution and thus brings opportunity of sustainable development of China. The development of ground source heat pump in China has a vast prospect. This paper starts with the origin of ground source heat pump, and then combines with analysis of its development both in China and abroad so as to put forward opinions and sug-gestions for the development of ground source heat pump technology in China.%地源热泵是一种集高效、节能、环保、有利于可持续发展于一身的新型空调采暖方式,地源热泵技术的应用有利于解决能源危机和环境污染这两个困扰中国发展的重大问题,进而为中国的可持续发展带来了契机,地源热泵在中国有广阔的发展前景。从地源热泵的由来入手,结合国内外地源热泵发展情况的分析,得出地源热泵的特点,从而为中国发展地源热泵技术提出了意见和建议。

  17. Development and Experimental Validation of a TRNSYS Dynamic Tool for Design and Energy Optimization of Ground Source Heat Pump Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Ruiz-Calvo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ground source heat pump (GSHP systems stand for an efficient technology for renewable heating and cooling in buildings. To optimize not only the design but also the operation of the system, a complete dynamic model becomes a highly useful tool, since it allows testing any design modifications and different optimization strategies without actually implementing them at the experimental facility. Usually, this type of systems presents strong dynamic operating conditions. Therefore, the model should be able to predict not only the steady-state behavior of the system but also the short-term response. This paper presents a complete GSHP system model based on an experimental facility, located at Universitat Politècnica de València. The installation was constructed in the framework of a European collaborative project with title GeoCool. The model, developed in TRNSYS, has been validated against experimental data, and it accurately predicts both the short- and long-term behavior of the system.

  18. Water Treatment Technology - Pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on pumps provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: types of pumps in plant and distribution systems, pump…

  19. Optimized ground coupled heat pump mechanical package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catan, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    The system which was optimized was a horizontal earth coil in a given house in the Pittsburgh area. The types of components used in the heat pump are essentially conventional. The method of this study is derived from one used to optimize an air-source heat pump for operation at standard steady state conditions. A computer model, created at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), is used to predict heat pump performance for specified configuration and operating conditions. A predetermined set of design parameters is automatically altered by a constrained minimization program (a Numerical Algorithms Group library routine hereafter referred to as the optimizer) to find the combination for which the highest COP is predicted by the heat pump model. In the present study, the set of parameters to be varied include some pertaining to the ground coil as well as some pertaining to the heat pump. The optimizer, in this case, pursues a minimum life cycle cost which is calculated using the heat pump model, a ground coil model (called FTECM for Fast Transient Earth Coil model), and a parameterized cost model. The flow chart shows how the optimizer interacts with these programs to minimize life cycle cost.

  20. The use of new refrigerants in high-temperature heat pumps for heating water up to 80 degrees C in chocolate factories; L`utilisation des nouveaux frigorigenes en pompes a chaleur a haute temperature : production d`eau chaude a 80 degres C en chocolaterie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaise; Dutto [EDF, 75 - Paris (France); Lindt; Michel [Safrair (France)

    1992-12-31

    A cascade refrigeration system utilizing a new refrigerant, R142b (difluorochloroethane), in heating and cooling of water with heat pumps, was described. R142b has been extensively tested by Electricite de France (EDF) since 1984. The heat-carrying fluid can produce hot air or water up to 90 degrees C from a source between 30 and 50 degrees C. It is non-toxic and has low ozone depleting potential and low global warming potential. The utilisation of R142b along with R22 in the industrial heat pumps installations of a French chocolate factory with demanding needs in both hot and cold water have demonstrated that it is possible to produce hot water in the range of 50 to 80 degrees C without CFCs in heat pump installations. 1 tab., 1 fig.

  1. Discussion on the Form of Soil Source Heat Pump Buried Tube%土壤源热泵地埋管形式探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨标; 刘业凤; 张峰

    2013-01-01

    The paper classifies the forms of buried tube according to the underground coupling mode of ground source heat pump system, lists some new burying methods of buried pipe, and does some analysis on heat transfer, compares the characteristics of the U-tube and sleeve, providing a reference for further study of ground source heat pump heat exchange.%  依据土壤源热泵系统中地下耦合方式对地埋管的形式进行分类,列举了一些新的地埋管的埋管方式,并对其换热进行分析;通过对U型管和套管的特点进行对比,为土壤源热泵地埋管换热的进一步研究提供参考。

  2. 溴化锂吸收式热泵回收循环水余热的模拟研究%Using lithium bromide absorption heat pump to recycle circulating water heat:a simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车德勇; 吕婧; 高龙; 李少华; 白章

    2014-01-01

    循环水的余热造成环境热污染,同时也损失了大量的热能。对此,利用吸收式热泵对其进行回收利用。以某200 MW抽凝机组及其供热系统为例,采用Aspen Plus软件建立单、双效溴化锂吸收式热泵模型,并进行变工况模拟对比分析。研究结果表明:当热泵出口热网水温度升高或热泵驱动汽源汽量增加时,单、双效循环热泵热力系数均降低;在相同热泵出口热网水温度下,双效循环比单效循环节省蒸汽率约30%;当采用多效循环且热泵出口热网水温度高于90℃时,可采用热泵先将热网回水加热到90℃左右,然后采用尖峰加热器加热热网水到需要的温度,以保证系统稳定运行。%Waste heat of circulating water emitted to the environment causes huge thermal pollution and los-ses lots of thermal energy.Thus,absorption heat pump is applied to recycle the heat.Taking a certain 200 MW extraction condensing unit and its heating system as the example,the Aspen Plus software was employed to establish the single/double effect lithium bromide absorption heat pump model.Moreover, comparative analysis for the system under variable conditions was performed.The results indicate that, with an increase in the heat pump outlet heating network water temperature or the heat pump driven steam source,the coefficient of performance (COP)of both the single and double effect cycle heat pump declined. For the same heating temperature,the double-effect cycle can save steam by about 30% more than the sin-gle-effect cycle.When the temperature of heat pump outlet heating network water exceeded 90 ℃,the heat-ing network return water can be heated to about 90 ℃ by heat pump first,and then to the required temper-ature by spike heater,thus to ensure the stable operation of system.

  3. How to Ensure Long -term Stable Operation of Ground Source Heat Pump System for Heating Biogas Digester%如何保证地源热泵式沼气池加温系统长期稳定运行

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张迪; 石惠娴; 朱洪光; 雷勇; 王卓

    2011-01-01

    针对地源热泵式沼气池加温系统中出现的冬夏季取排热不平衡从而影响其长期稳定运行的问题,本文在采取控制运行方式、增加辅助热源和蓄热系统解决方法的分析基础上,从充分利用可再生能源和地源热泵设备的角度出发,提出热泵供热和制冷互补模式与太阳能-地源热泵多功能互补模式,并对其可行性进行分析.%To address the problem of heat imbalance of soil between winter and summer led by ground source heat pump system for heating biogas digester and to ensure the system running more stably, effectively in a long time , the paper presents the advantages and disadvantages of controlling operation model and solar assisted ground source heat pump system with heat storage.What's more, the paper also proposes complementary models of heafing and cooling of heat pump and multifunctional system integrationg solar energy with ground source heat pump, and analyses the possibility of the above two solutions from the perspective of making full use of renewable energy and the equipment of ground soure heat pump.

  4. Performance on Solar-Assisted Ground-Source Heat Pump System%太阳能-地源热泵串联复合式系统的性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁力勤

    2016-01-01

    对于总热负荷与总冷负荷不平衡的建筑,单独采用土壤源热泵系统供暖或供冷时,系统运行末期土壤温度发生很大的变化,降低了系统的运行性能。针对此类建筑,搭建太阳能-土壤源串联复合式热泵系统,从集热器单位面积流量、存储水箱体积的影响因素出发,研究供暖期热泵机组蒸发器侧进水温度、系统运行性能和能耗的变化情况,为常规土壤源热泵系统引起的土壤热平衡问题提出解决方案,为今后的实际工程设计及应用提供参考依据。%In the heating load dominated area of cold winter zone, the heat taken and released to the soil is unbalanced, when the ground source heat pump (GSHP) system is responsible for all air conditioning loads in most cases. Then it results that the soil temperature would change greatly, and the performance of the system would bring down. The paper builds the ground source heat pump system and the solar-assisted ground-source heat pump system, and then analyzes the different inlet water temperature of heat pump, the different performance and energy consumption according to different collector unit area and tank volume parameters. It is important to provide reference to build the integrated heat pump system and solution for the soil thermal balance.

  5. Energy performance and economic evaluation of heat pump/organic rankine cycle system with sensible thermal storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carmo, Carolina; Dumont, Olivier; Nielsen, Mads Pagh

    2016-01-01

    -life conditions knowledge, the paper considers two different sensible energy storage (TES) configurations for the reversible heat pump/organic Rankine cycle (HP/ORC) system: a buffer tank for both space heating and domestic hot water and a hot water storage tank used exclusively for domestic hot water...... that consists of a ground-source heat pump with possibility of reversing operation as an ORC power cycle combined with solar heating in a single-family building is introduced. The ORC mode enables the use of solar energy in periods of no heat energy demand and reverses the heat pump cycle to supply electrical...

  6. 浅层地下水源热泵系统若干问题的研究%Research on several issues of shallow groundwater source heat pump system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭银华

    2012-01-01

    对浅层地下水源热泵系统中易忽视的空调循环水泵并联、空调井外网保温、空调井、水源热泵+地板辐射采暖系统等相关问题进行了探讨,并对可能解决的方案进行了讨论,对浅层地下水源热泵系统的设计与施工有一定指导意义。%This article explores issues including parallel air-conditioning cycling pumping, thermal insulation of external airconditioning shaft network, air-conditioning shaft, water source heating pump + radiant floor heating system which are easily neglected in shallow groundwater source heat pump system, and discusses possible solving schemes, which has certain guiding meaning for the design and construction of shallow groundwater source heat pump system.

  7. Evaluation report. House owners' experiences with heat pumps with energy wells as heat source; Evalueringsrapport. Boligeieres erfaringer med varmepumper med energibroenn som varmekilde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehn, Trond Ivar

    2003-05-01

    The report describes the result of a telephone interview of house owners to find out whether heat pumps with energy wells as implemented from the 1990s have been a success. It is found that the house owners are quite pleased with the installations. Bad reputation of heat pumps are due to experiences from the 1980s and the the attention paid to the few house owners who are still not happy with their installations.

  8. Performance testing of an air/water heat pump using CO{sub 2} (R744) as refrigerant for the preparation of sanitary hot water in a hospital; Mesures des donnees energetiques d'une pompe a chaleur air/eau au CO{sub 2} (R744) pour preparation d'eau chaude sanitaire dans un hopital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anstett, P.

    2006-07-01

    This final report prepared for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes the monitoring equipment and the results of performance tests made on a prototype heat pump of 60 kW power output used for hot water production at the hospital of Le Locle, Switzerland. The heat pump uses carbon dioxide (R744) as the working fluid and ambient air as the heat source. The heat output and the coefficient of performance for various values of cold water temperature and air temperature have been measured. The practically measured values of heat output and COP showed a low reproducibility and remained far behind the theoretical values given by the manufacturer. Instead of producing hot water at 80 {sup o}C as intended originally the authors recommend to use the heat pump only for preheating the water to 60 {sup o}C.

  9. The Comparison Analysis of Energy Saving Performance of Ground-source Heat Pump and Air Cooled Heat Pump%土壤源热泵与风冷热泵节能性能比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏; 苏令宇

    2013-01-01

    本课题通过一定的实验方案和实验平台,以及数据采集和比较,较全面地反映了土壤源热泵系统和风冷热泵系统在基本相同的外界条件下,采用土壤源热泵的节能优势。%This topic through a certain experiment schemes and experiment platform, and the data collection and comparison, reflects the energy saving advantage of ground-source heat pump in basically the same external conditions.

  10. GEOTHERMAL HEAT PUMP GROUTING MATERIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ALLAN,M.

    1998-04-01

    The thermal conductivity of cementitious grouts has been investigated in order to determine suitability of these materials for grouting vertical boreholes used with geothermal heat pumps. The roles of mix variables such as water/cement ratio, sand/cement ratio and superplasticizer dosage were measured. The cement-sand grouts were also tested for rheological characteristics, bleeding, permeability, bond to HDPE pipe, shrinkage, coefficient of thermal expansion, exotherm, durability and environmental impact. This paper summarizes the thermal conductivity, permeability, bonding and exotherm data for selected cementitious grouts. The theoretical reduction in bore length that could be achieved with the BNL-developed cement-sand grouts is examined. Finally, the FY 98 research and field trials are discussed.

  11. Geothermal heat pump grouting materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, M.

    1998-08-01

    The thermal conductivity of cementitious grouts has been investigated in order to determine suitability of these materials for grouting vertical boreholes used with geothermal heat pumps. The roles of mix variables such as water/cement ratio, sand/cement ratio and superplasticizer dosage were measured. The cement-sand grouts were also tested for rheological characteristics, bleeding, permeability, bond to HDPE pipe, shrinkage, coefficient of thermal expansion, exotherm, durability and environmental impact. This paper summarizes the thermal conductivity, permeability, bonding and exotherm data for selected cementitious grouts. The theoretical reduction in bore length that could be achieved with the BNL-developed cement-sand grouts is examined. Finally, the FY 98 research and field trials are discussed.

  12. HEAT PUMP APPLICATION IN FOOD TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Korzenszky

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The economy of food technologies is greatly influenced by their energy consumption. Almost no operation or procedure exists that could be executed without the need for electricity. At the same time, several technologies require direct or indirect input of thermal energy as well. An example to quote is the heating of the raw materials of food industry or the pasteurisation or sterilisation of finished products, but heating the production rooms or cleaning or washing the machinery also require energy. Needless to say food industry plants constantly seek ways to improve their energy efficiency such as the reintroduction of waste heat into the technology and the use of renewables. Heat recovering heat exchangers are used in the pasteurisation technology of milk. In case of lower temperatures, however, simple heat exchangers are of no use. Few practical examples of heat recovery obtained upon cooling products or raw materials exist in the food industry even though the possibility of this is available using heat pumps. Heat pumps have been successfully applied to heat apartments with thermal energy recovered from the cooling of soils, water or air or to utilise the excess heat of thermal spring waters. Our present article introduces the application possibility in a soda water plant, fundamentally determining the quality of soda water and showing an example of rational utilisation.

  13. Crawl space-assisted heat pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, R. N.

    By means of field tests in real houses, it was found that the source air for the heat pump can be preheated (or precooled) by drawing the outdoor air through the crawl space before it is used by the heat pump. The outdoor air is warmed (or cooled) by flowing over the crawl space earth. Most of the data is from winter months, when one would expect the most benefit for heat pump performance. Generally, greater preheating occurs at lower outdoor air temperatures; and, the effect tapers off to virtually no gain at about 10 C. The preheating effect has been shown to be sustained for an entire winter season. Another experiment proved that the preheating does come, in great part, from the earth and not simply from the house above. Analysis had also led to the conclusion that the heat transfer mechanism is by simple conduction within the upper 0.3 m of the crawl space earth.

  14. Application on Ground Source Heat Pump in Urumqi%地源热泵在乌鲁木齐的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭亮

    2016-01-01

    地源热泵技术就是充分利用地热能的一种可再生能源的高效、节能、环保型工程系统。阐述地源热泵技术的工作原理,并以新疆电力科学研究院地源热泵工程系统为例,通过运用对季节系统能效比和能源利用系数的计算,分析了地源热泵系统的节能优势;通过与传统燃煤锅炉对环境影响的对比,分析了地源热泵在环境保护方面的优势。通过分析得出,地源热泵系统在主要靠燃煤锅炉供热的乌鲁木齐推广很有意义,可以替代传统的燃煤锅炉,减少原煤的使用,减少污染物的排放,对解决乌鲁木齐冬季空气污染起到很好的作用。%Ground source heat pump technology is a kind of high efficiency, energy saving and environmental protec-tion engineering system of renewable en-ergy sources by the use of geothermal energy. In the study, operating principle of ground source heat pump technology was expounded, ground source heat pump engineering system of Xinjiang electric power research institute was tak-en as an example. Energy-saving advan-tages of ground-source heat pump system was analyzed by the calculation of ener-gy ratio and seasonal system energy effi-ciency ratio. The results showed that there was an important significance on the promotion of ground-source heat pump system in Urumqi. At present, the major heat addition system of Urumqi was still coal-fired boiler, the application of ground-source heat pump system could reduce the use of raw coal and the emissions of pollutants, which had a pos-itive influence on the solution of air pol-lution in winter in Urumqi.

  15. Study on Recharge Ability of Ground Water Heat Pump System%地下水源热泵系统中回灌能力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵宏亮

    2012-01-01

    近年,地下水源热泵技术在我国被广泛应用,并在节能、环保等方面取得了一定效益.但是,回灌问题仍是困扰我国地下水源热泵发展的瓶颈.以唐山市丰润区乡居假日住宅区A4区地下水源热泵系统的应用为例,从区域水文地质条件方面,对水源热泵系统中地下水回灌能力进行了分析,指出开展地下水源热泵项目时,掌握热源井所在区域水文地质条件的重要性.探讨了影响地下水回灌能力的关键因素,其中包括区域水文地质条件、热源井成井工艺、回灌井阻塞以及地下水回灌方式.%In recent years, ground water beat pump technology has been widely applied in China and has made certain benefits in energy saving and environmental protection. However, groundwater recharge is still the main difficulty. This paper studied on the recharge of ground water heat pump according to the local hydrogeologic conditions at A4 area in the Fengrun countryside holiday block in Tangshan City, pointed out that the local hydrogeological condition is very important, and discussed the key factors impacting the recharge ability of ground water heat pump, including local hydrogeologic conditions,heat source well completion technology, clogging problem of disposal well and groundwater recharge mode.

  16. 土壤含水率及渗流对土壤源热泵影响研究进展%Research development on the impact of ground moisture content and seepage upon ground source heat pump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段妍; 晋华; 刘虎

    2012-01-01

    主要介绍了土壤含水率和地下水渗流两个主要水文地质因素,具体分析了两因素在实验和数值模拟方面对土壤源热泵地埋管换热能力的影响,并指出了土壤源热泵在水文地质因素研究方面存在的问题和今后发展的方向,为土壤源热泵运行的稳定性及经济效益的最大化提供保障。%The thesis mainly introduces ground moisture content and underground water seepage,specifically analyzes the impact of ground moisture content and underground water seepage upon ground source heat pump heat-exchanging ability in the two aspects of experiments and numerical simulation,and points out existing problems and development trend of ground source heat pump in the angle of hydrogeology,which has provided maximum guarantee for stable and economic operation of ground source heat pump.

  17. 采用热泵技术回收工业循环水余热%Recovery of Waste Heat from Industrial Circulating Water Using Heat Pump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫晓燕

    2014-01-01

    如何利用工业余热,特别是30~50℃低温余热,是行业内普遍关注的问题,热泵技术在这方面具有很大潜力,是一项值得推广的节能技术。介绍了太钢自备电厂采用热泵技术回收工业循环水余热的方案与效℃计算。%It has been an issue of common concern in the steel sector to recover indus-trial waste heat, especially 30-50℃ low temperature waste heat. With great potential in this field the heat pump is of an energy saving technology deserving promotion. The project of recovering waste heat from industrial circulating water using heat pump technology at the self-supply power plant of Taiyuan Steel is introduced and economic benefit of the project is calculated as well.

  18. IEA Annex 21. Global environmental benefits of industrial heat pumps; IEA Annex 21. Globala miljoefoerdelar med industriella vaermepumpar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westermark, M. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology

    1996-12-01

    Industrial heat pumps uses heat from an industrial process as heat source (e.g. cooling water, waste steam, or flue gas). The study thus excludes heat pumps using natural heat sources as sea water or ambient air. The advantage of industrial heat pumps are high heat source temperature (often 30-100 deg C) and high operational time (industries are often operated during the whole year). Produced heat from the heat pump replaces oil or other fuels for process heating or is exported to a district heating network. The total number of industrial heat pumps in the 8 participating countries was approx. 4600. About 2700 are used for drying of wood products and are small by Swedish standards (50-150 kW/unit). Other sectors with large numbers of heat pumps are food industry (1100 units) and chemical industry (350 units). The remaining 460 units are used in textile industry, steel industry and pulp and paper industry. Sweden has relatively few industrial heat pumps (150 units). However, the produced heat is about 500 MW and in terms of installed capacity Sweden is among the leading countries for upgrading of industrial heat sources. The energy saving potential for industrial heat pumps was computed to 2-4 % of the industrial fuel consumption (if profitability has to be obtained). About the same reductions can be reached for carbon dioxide as well as sulphur dioxide, dust, nitric oxide and hydrocarbons. In Sweden heating alternatives with low carbon dioxide emission is already common (hydro power, nuclear power, biofuels, and heat pumps). The potential for further carbon dioxide savings by industrial heat pumps is therefore relatively less than in most other countries. 16 figs, 6 tabs

  19. 地源热泵的地埋管群换热特性研究%Heat transfer characteristics of underground heat exchanger group in ground-source heat pump systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    於仲义; 陈焰华; 雷建平

    2012-01-01

    结合武汉某实际工程的地埋管群阵列布置情况和地源热泵系统的运行情况,对典型区域的地埋管群运行5年中的埋管换热特性进行了动态数值模拟和分析.提出了温度偏离度和换热保证度的概念,并研究了二者在地源热泵长期运行过程中的变化规律.建议尽量减小冷热负荷不平衡率,以保证地源热泵系统稳定可靠的运行.%Based on the arrangement of the underground heat exchanger group and the operation conditions of the ground-source heat pump system of an actual project in Wuhan, performs a dynamic numerical simulation and analysis of the heat transfer characteristics of the underground heat exchanger group during a five-year operation period in typical zones. Presents the concepts of temperature deviation degree and heat transfer assurance factor, and studies their variation in a long term operation process of ground-source heat pump systems. Proposes that the imbalance rate between cooling and heating load should be reduced as much as possible to ensure the stability and reliability of ground-source heat pump system operation.

  20. Design of the Seawater Source Heat Pump and Ice Thermal Storage Complex System for A Certain Residential Section%某住宅小区海水源热泵与冰蓄冷复合系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢文利; 罗苏瑜

    2015-01-01

    According to the seawater source heat pump and ice thermal storage complex system designs, the paper in-troduced the selection of the system’s major equipment, the operation strategy of the ice thermal storage air-condition system under different load factors, design of the seawater source heat pump water intake and heat exchange system, economic analysis of the system, which provide theoretical and practical templet for large-scale heating and cooling construction of the seawater source heat pump and ice thermal storage system.%本文通过海水源热泵与冰蓄冷复合系统设计实例,介绍了系统主要设备选型、不同负荷率下冰蓄冷空调系统的运行策略、海水源热泵取水及其换热系统设计、系统经济性分析。为实施大型海水源热泵与冰蓄冷复合系统工程供热供冷提供理论和实践样板。

  1. 污水源热泵技术研究现状及分析%Research status and analysis of sewage-source heat pump technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙春锦; 吴荣华; 孙源渊; 郑记莘

    2015-01-01

    Plugging and fouling are key challenges need to be addressed in sewage-source heat pump technology.At present,pre-filter and unblocked heat exchange technology are applied to solve plugging problem.Summarizes and analyses the research status of sewage-source heat pump technology.Compares the advantages and disadvantages between pre-filter and unblocked heat exchange technology,which provides a reference for the development and application of sewage-source heat pump technology.%堵塞和污垢是污水源热泵技术应用需要解决的关键难题。目前主要采用前置过滤技术和疏导式换热技术解决堵塞问题。总结并分析了污水源热泵技术的研究现状,比较了前置过滤技术和疏导式换热技术的优缺点,为污水源热泵技术的发展与应用提供参考。

  2. A Numerical Study on System Performance of Groundwater Heat Pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Sang Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater heat pumps have energy saving potential where the groundwater resources are sufficient. System Coefficients of Performance (COPs are measurements of performance of groundwater heat pump systems. In this study, the head and power of submersible pumps, heat pump units, piping, and heat exchangers are expressed as polynomial equations, and these equations are solved numerically to determine the system performance. Regression analysis is used to find the coefficients of the polynomial equations from a catalog of performance data. The cooling and heating capacities of water-to-water heat pumps are determined using Energy Plus. Results show that system performance drops as the water level drops, and the lowest flow rates generally achieve the highest system performance. The system COPs are used to compare the system performance of various system configurations. The groundwater pumping level and temperature provide the greatest effects on the system performance of groundwater heat pumps along with the submersible pumps and heat exchangers. The effects of groundwater pumping levels, groundwater temperatures, and the heat transfer coefficient in heat exchanger on the system performance are given and compared. This analysis needs to be included in the design process of groundwater heat pump systems, possibly with analysis tools that include a wide range of performance data.

  3. Carbon dioxide heat pump for dual-temperature drinking fountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨大章; 吕静; 何哲彬; 黄秀芝

    2009-01-01

    Carbon dioxide trans-critical heat pump system for heating and cooling water was designed,and its thermodynamic steady-state concentration model was established. Based on the steady-state model,parameters of the carbon dioxide trans-critical heat pump were calculated by computer programming. According to these parameters,the effects and application prospect of the heat pump system were analyzed for dual-temperature drinking fountains.

  4. Absorption-heat-pump system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, G.; Perez-Blanco, H.

    1983-06-16

    An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

  5. The Application Advantage of Heat-source-tower Heat Pump in Hot Summer and Cold Winter Area%热源塔热泵在夏热冬暖地区的应用优势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许国强; 黄德祥; 张旭东

    2016-01-01

    The heat-source-tower heat pump technology is briefly introduced in this paper,comparative analyzed the heat-source-tower heat pump technology and the traditional heating in hot summer and warm winter area,it believe that the heat-source-tower heat pump technology has advantage application in the hot summer and warm winter area,it has the lowest cost in the whole life cycle,is a kind of new heat pump air conditioning system which is a energy saving and environmental protection type.%本文对热源塔热泵技术作了简要介绍,将热源塔热泵技术与夏热冬暖地区传统空调供暖方式进行比较分析,认为热源塔热泵技术在夏热冬暖地区有其应用优势,全寿命周期内费用最低,运行稳定,是一种新的节能、环保类热泵空调形式。

  6. Measurement and Evaluation of Heating Performance of Heat Pump Systems Using Wasted Heat from Electric Devices for an Electric Bus

    OpenAIRE

    Moo-Yeon Lee; Jong-Phil Won; Chung-Won Cho; Ho-Seong Lee

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate heating performance characteristics of a coolant source heat pump using the wasted heat from electric devices for an electric bus. The heat pump, using R-134a, is designed for heating a passengers’ compartment by using discharged energy from the coolant of electric devices, such as motors and inverters of the electric bus. The heating performance of the heat pump was tested by varying the operating parameters, such as outdoor temperature and volum...

  7. Numerical Prediction of Performance of Water Type Stirling Engine Considering Heat Exchange with Heat Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Yoshiyuki; Higuchi, Tetsuya

    Two different analytical models were developed on water type Stirling engine. One is the resonance model which qualitatively clarifies the relationship between performance and resonance tube length, and the other is the heat transfer model considering heat transfer between working gas and the tube walls of heating and cooling units. These analyses and experiments were carried out changing the resonance tube length variously, then it was confirmed that the resonance tube length which maximizes the water column amplitude of the power piston agrees well and the oscillations of water columns at that resonance tube length also agrees. In addition, a series of analysis using the heat transfer model was carried out with changing cross sectional area of the resonance tube, loss factors of the elbows, heat transfer area of heating and cooling unit, and pressure of working gas. By this numerical investigation, the effect on the resonance tube length and the work at the length in which these parameters maximize the amplitude of power piston water column was clarified.

  8. Multistage quantum absorption heat pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Luis A.

    2014-04-01

    It is well known that heat pumps, while being all limited by the same basic thermodynamic laws, may find realization on systems as "small" and "quantum" as a three-level maser. In order to quantitatively assess how the performance of these devices scales with their size, we design generalized N-dimensional ideal heat pumps by merging N -2 elementary three-level stages. We set them to operate in the absorption chiller mode between given hot and cold baths and study their maximum achievable cooling power and the corresponding efficiency as a function of N. While the efficiency at maximum power is roughly size-independent, the power itself slightly increases with the dimension, quickly saturating to a constant. Thus, interestingly, scaling up autonomous quantum heat pumps does not render a significant enhancement beyond the optimal double-stage configuration.

  9. Measurement and Evaluation of Heating Performance of Heat Pump Systems Using Wasted Heat from Electric Devices for an Electric Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moo-Yeon Lee

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate heating performance characteristics of a coolant source heat pump using the wasted heat from electric devices for an electric bus. The heat pump, using R-134a, is designed for heating a passengers’ compartment by using discharged energy from the coolant of electric devices, such as motors and inverters of the electric bus. The heating performance of the heat pump was tested by varying the operating parameters, such as outdoor temperature and volume flow rate of the coolant water of the electrical devices. Heating capacity, compressor work, and heating COP were measured; their behaviors with regard to the parameters were observed. Experimental results showed that heating COP increased with decrease of outdoor temperature, from 20.0 °C to 0 °C, and it observed to be 3.0 in the case of 0 °C outdoor temperature. The observed characteristics of the heating COP suggest that the heat pump is applicable as the cabin heater of an electric vehicle, which is limited by short driving range.

  10. 土壤源热泵系统地下温度场的热平衡模拟分析%On heat balance simulation analysis of temperature field in ground heat source heat pump system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋智军

    2012-01-01

    以成都来福士广场的土壤源热泵工程为例,采用Fluent6.2软件的TransientSolver模块对该项目的地下温度场进行了模拟计算,分别按照土壤源热泵间歇运行模式和连续运行模式来模拟计算地下温度场20年,从模拟结果可以清楚的看到,间歇运行模式下土壤的热平衡状况良好,突出了地下温度场的取热量和排热量的平衡是保证土壤源热泵系统长期稳定运行的重要因素。%Taking the project of the ground source heat pump on Laifushi Square of Chengdu as the example, the paper adopts the Transient Solver Module of the Fluent6.2 software to have the simulation calculation for the underground temperature field of the program, simulates and cal- culates the twenty years of the underground temperature field by adopting the intermittent operation module and its continuous operation one of the ground source heat pump, and shows from the simulation result that the heat balance of the soil in the intermittent operation module has better heat balance, and highlights the balance of the accumulated heat and the extracted heat of the underground temperature field is important for en- suring the long-term and stable operation of the ground source heat pump.

  11. Economics of heat pump systems for simultaneous heating and cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, S.; Devotta, S.; Patwardhan, V.S.

    1987-01-01

    Heat pumps can be incorporated advantageously into processes which require simultaneously both cooling and heating. The economics of heat pumps in India for simultaneous heat and cooling is assessed with respect to process, design and economic parameters. For the typical conditions of various parameters in India, a heat pump system for simultaneous heating and cooling is very attractive.

  12. 寒冷地区某办公楼地源热泵空调系统运行分析%Operational analysis of ground-source heat pump air conditioning system for an office building in cold zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑晓娜

    2015-01-01

    Combined with the project,presents the test results of ground-source heat pump under the shallow geothermal condition.The soil thermal balance analysis results show that the soil temperature increases by 0.3 ℃ after a period of cooling and heating season on condition that heat released from ground-source heat pump units to soil is 1.425 TJ.The analysis of operational data shows that temperature differences of entering and leaving water of condensers or evaporators on operation condition are commonly smaller than those on design condition for ground-source heat pump units,resulting in higher energy consumption of pumps.Suggests to apply the control mode of constant temperature difference and variable frequency of pump.%结合寒冷地区某办公楼地源热泵项目,介绍了浅层地热地质条件的测试结果。土壤热平衡分析结果表明,如果地源热泵机组全年向岩土体排热量为1.425 TJ,经过一个制冷季和一个供暖季后,岩土体温度升高幅度为0.30℃。运行数据分析结果表明,地源热泵冷凝器与蒸发器进出口温差在运行过程中通常小于设计温差,造成水泵能耗偏高,建议采用定温差、水泵变频调节的控制方式。

  13. Performance analysis of a soil-based thermal energy storage system using solar-driven air-source heat pump for Danish buildings sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jradi, M.; Veje, C.; Jørgensen, B. N.

    2017-01-01

    source. Employing a PV system of 30 kW capacity, it was found that a storage medium of 900 m3 of soil is capable of providing the heating needs for a housing project of 1000 m2 internal floor area. The year round transient behaviour of the thermal energy storage medium is reported in addition to the heat...... and evaluation of the performance of an underground soil-based thermal energy storage system for solar energy storage, coupled with a combined heat and power generation system. A combined PV-Air Source Heat Pump (ASHP) system is utilized to fulfil heating and electricity needs of a housing project in Odense.......2% for the combined PV-ASHP system employing a seasonal underground thermal energy storage block....

  14. Replacing an electrical heating system by an air/water heat pump; Remplacement du chauffage electrique par une installation PAC air/eau (pompe a chaleur)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    A group of thirteen houses in Plan-les-Ouates (southwestern Switzerland) constructed in 1985 was originally equipped with direct electric heaters. Their inhabitants complained about high electricity bills and bad thermal comfort due to uneven room temperatures and insufficient amounts of warm water. A group of specialists from the Swiss Federal Office of Energy, the energy service of the canton of Geneva and from an engineering company studied the case and suggested to replace the direct electric heating system by an air to water heat pump. Seven owners have decided for this modification and the retrofit has been made in autumn 2000. The paper presents the results of performance measurements, operating experience gained and economic considerations for the years 2001, 2002 and 2003 for six installations. The average coefficients of performance ranged from 2.3 to 2.9.

  15. The Application Research of the Solar Energy Combines with Air Source Heat Pump System%太阳能结合空气源热泵系统应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文周

    2014-01-01

    太阳能结合空气源热泵系统作为生活热水、低温采暖热源、空调冷源,通过系统智能化优化控制及精准控温运行模式,完全采集太阳能、空气能免费能源,实现了工程上的节能、经济运行。%Solar energy combines with air source heat pump system as domestic hot water, low temperature heat sources for heating, and air conditioning cold source, which achieve the project on energy saving and economic operation through the intel igent optimization control system and precise temperature control operation mode with the completely col ection of solar energy and free air source energy.

  16. Open cycle vapor compression heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhuja, R.; Becker, F. E.

    1980-07-01

    A compressor test facility was built incorporating a screw compressor modified for steam service. The compressor was tested over a wide range of operating conditions with experimental results showing excellent agreement with predicted performance. The compressor operation with wet steam and water injection was completely satisfactory, demonstrating its suitability for use in a steam heat pump system.

  17. Field experiment on coalmine heat disaster governance using cold source from surface water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Pingye; Zhu Guolong; Liu Yuqing; Duan Mengmeng; Wu Junyin

    2014-01-01

    Regarding the lack of cold source for underground cooling systems from either mine inflow or return air, field experiments were taken in a high temperature deep coal mine with abundant cold source from surface water. Taking Sanhejian coal mine as an example, this paper introduced the technology scheme of heat disaster governance using surface water cold source. The paper presents the basics of this field experiment at the beginning, following by the design and site layout of the cooling system including the analysis and calculation of cold source. Numerical calculation method is also applied based on the operation parameters to simulate the influence to the surface river ecosystem. The results suggest that the temperature of surface water shall be lower than 34 ?C after heat exchange, and when more cooling capacities are needed in the future, increasing the water flow is more favorable than increasing the cooling range of water, which is better for the ecological environment protection.

  18. Use of solar assisted absorption heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzarin, R.

    An absorption system can be used for both ambient cooling and heating by solar energy. Heating by an absorption heat pump can represent an interesting alternative, especially in the countries where electric power is not always easily available. Some machines available on the market have been tested. The COP behavior and heating capacity have been examined as a function of the cold source temperature and with regard to different thermal levels. The COP has reached 1.7. Some simulations have been carried out - with two different climatic conditions - to compare the performances of various ''conventional'' solar installation types with solar assisted absorption heat pumps. The series system has shown better performances, 25% to 75%, in comparison with the simpler solar installation. 16 refs.

  19. 地源热泵系统节能潜力分析%Analysis of energy saving potential of ground source heat pump system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新付

    2015-01-01

    在三星级绿色公共建筑中采用地源热泵系统供冷供热,可以在建筑全寿命期内最大限度地节约能源、保护环境减少污染。本文通过对安阳市民之家(三星绿建)采用的地下室地源热泵进行定性定量分析,阐明地源热泵系统的巨大节能空间。%The use of ground source heat pump system for cold heating in the three star green building, can save energy and protect the environment to reduce pollution in the whole life period. In this paper, a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the ground source heat pump is carried out, and the great energy saving space of the ground source heat pump system is expounded.

  20. 污水源热泵供热系统实际运行工况分析%Operating Performance Analysis on Heating System of Sewage Source Heat Pumps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王佳娜; 廖吉香; 马庆艳

    2014-01-01

    以哈尔滨市应用的某污水源热泵为例,通过应用实际测试的方法,分析了污水热能利用情况及系统供热过程中热泵机组的供热性能。结果表明:在测试期间,室内外温差很大的情况下,污水源热泵仍能满足供热要求,具有良好的稳定性。热泵机组的平均供热性能系数为2.92。%Taking the sewage source heat pump applied in Harbin as an example, the utilization of sewage energy and the heating performance of heat pump unit during the system heating progress was analyzed by the actual test way. The results show that, at the test period and under the condition of large difference between indoor temperature and outdoor temperature, the sewage source heat pump still satisfy the heating quest and have a good stability. The average heating performance of the heat pump unit is 2.92.

  1. Current status of the problem of heat pumps and refrigerating devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliev, L. L.

    2010-09-01

    In connection with the limited energy reserves in the Republic of Belarus, it is expedient to use sorption heat pumps and refrigerators in heating and refrigeration supply systems. Such heat engines possess a unique capability of utilizing the heat of low-temperature energy sources: water ponds, groundwater, and waste water and steam in combination with traditional heaters of rooms (boilers, furnaces, etc.). Adsorption reversible heat pumps developed at the A. V. Luikov Heat and Mass Transfer Institute of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus make it possible to obtain 20 to 30 kW/m3 of thermal energy and up to 5 kW/m3 of cold. Such heat pumps save up to 15-20% of primary energy (fuel) for production of electricity, heat, and cold.

  2. Magnetic Heat Pump Containing Flow Diverters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Frank S.

    1995-01-01

    Proposed magnetic heat pump contains flow diverters for suppression of undesired flows. If left unchecked, undesired flows mix substantial amounts of partially heated and partially cooled portions of working fluid, effectively causing leakage of heat from heated side to cooled side. By reducing leakage of heat, flow diverters increase energy efficiency of magnetic heat pump, potentially offering efficiency greater than compressor-driven refrigerator.

  3. Magnetic Heat Pump Containing Flow Diverters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Frank S.

    1995-01-01

    Proposed magnetic heat pump contains flow diverters for suppression of undesired flows. If left unchecked, undesired flows mix substantial amounts of partially heated and partially cooled portions of working fluid, effectively causing leakage of heat from heated side to cooled side. By reducing leakage of heat, flow diverters increase energy efficiency of magnetic heat pump, potentially offering efficiency greater than compressor-driven refrigerator.

  4. Solar assisted heat pump on air collectors: A simulation tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karagiorgas, Michalis; Galatis, Kostas; Tsagouri, Manolis [Department of Mechanical Engineering Educators, ASPETE, N. Iraklio, GR 14121 (Greece); Tsoutsos, Theocharis [Environmental Engineering Dept., Technical University of Crete, Technical University Campus, GR 73100, Chania (Greece); Botzios-Valaskakis, Aristotelis [Centre for Renewable Energy Sources (CRES), 19th km Marathon Ave., GR 19001, Pikermi (Greece)

    2010-01-15

    The heating system of the bioclimatic building of the Greek National Centre for Renewable Energy Sources (CRES) comprises two heating plants: the first one includes an air source heat pump, Solar Air Collectors (SACs) and a heat distribution system (comprising a fan coil unit network); the second one is, mainly, a geothermal heat pump unit to cover the ground floor thermal needs. The SAC configuration as well as the fraction of the building heating load covered by the heating plant are assessed in two operation modes; the direct (hot air from the collectors is supplied directly to the heated space) and the indirect mode (warm air from the SAC or its mixture with ambient air is not supplied directly to the heated space but indirectly into the evaporator of the air source heat pump). The technique of the indirect mode of heating aims at maximizing the efficiency of the SAC, saving electrical power consumed by the compressor of the heat pump, and therefore, at optimizing the coefficient of performance (COP) of the heat pump due to the increased intake of ambient thermal energy by means of the SAC. Results are given for three research objectives: assessment of the heat pump efficiency whether in direct or indirect heating mode; Assessment of the overall heating plant efficiency on a daily or hourly basis; Assessment of the credibility of the suggested simulation model TSAGAIR by comparing its results with the TRNSYS ones. (author)

  5. Ground water heat pumps and cooling with ground water basins as seasonal storage; Grundvandsvarmepumper og -koeling med grundvandsmagasiner som saesonlager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-04-15

    Ground water temperature is constant all the year round, in Denmark approximately 9 deg. C, which is ideal for a number of cooling purposes including cooling of buildings. The structures in which the ground water flows (sand, gravel and chalk) are efficient for storing coldness and heat over longer periods. By using seasonal storage of low-temperature heat and coldness in ground water layers close to the terrain it is feasible to reach profitable energy savings of up to 90% for cooling and heating of e.g. hotels, airports, shopping malls, office buildings and other larger buildings. At the same time the large energy savings means major reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions. (BA)

  6. Ground water heat pumps and cooling with ground water basins as seasonal storage; Grundvandsvarmepumper og -koeling med grundvandsmagasiner som saesonlager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-04-15

    Ground water temperature is constant all the year round, in Denmark approximately 9 deg. C, which is ideal for a number of cooling purposes including cooling of buildings. The structures in which the ground water flows (sand, gravel and chalk) are efficient for storing coldness and heat over longer periods. By using seasonal storage of low-temperature heat and coldness in ground water layers close to the terrain it is feasible to reach profitable energy savings of up to 90% for cooling and heating of e.g. hotels, airports, shopping malls, office buildings and other larger buildings. At the same time the large energy savings means major reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions. (BA)

  7. Bounding Limitations in the Practical Design of Adsorption Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL; Sharma, Vishaldeep [ORNL; Gluesenkamp, Kyle R [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    The boundary temperatures for any sorption-based technology can be estimated on the basis of Trouton s hypothesis that isosteres, extrapolated to infinite pressure (or analogously to infinite temperature) meet at a single point. In this paper we discuss the consequences of this hypothesis for many sorption devices that are thermally operated, suitable for exploiting renewable energy resources, or making better use of high or low level thermal energy. Trouton s hypothesis is independent of the working fluids making it particularly useful to both liquid-vapor and solid-vapor systems. We exemplify the use of the derived boundary temperatures derived from Trouton s hypothesis to important processes such as ice making, space cooling in hot climates, deep freezing, and residential hot water production. The boundary temperatures help determine which sorption or solar heating technology may be better suited to serve the given application, or whether it is beyond the scope of sorption systems.

  8. Staged regenerative sorption heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A regenerative adsorbent heat pump process and system for cooling and heating a space. A sorbent is confined in a plurality of compressors of which at least four are first stage and at least four are second stage. The first stage operates over a first pressure region and the second stage over a second pressure region which is higher than the first. Sorbate from the first stage enters the second stage. The sorbate loop includes a condenser, expansion valve, evaporator and the compressors. A single sorbate loop can be employed for single-temperature-control such as air conditioning and heating. Two sorbate loops can be used for two-temperature-control as in a refrigerator and freezer. The evaporator temperatures control the freezer and refrigerator temperatures. Alternatively the refrigerator temperature can be cooled by the freezer with one sorbate loop. A heat transfer fluid is circulated in a closed loop which includes a radiator and the compressors. Low temperature heat is exhausted by the radiator. High temperature heat is added to the heat transfer fluid entering the compressors which are desorbing vapor. Heat is transferred from compressors which are sorbing vapor to the heat transfer fluid, and from the heat transfer fluid to the compressors which are desorbing vapor. Each compressor is subjected to the following phases, heating to its highest temperature, cooling down from its highest temperature, cooling to its lowest temperature, and warming up from its lowest temperature. The phases are repeated to complete a cycle and regenerate heat.

  9. Upscaling a district heating system based on biogas cogeneration and heat pumps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Richard Pieter; Fink, J.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; de Wit, Jan B.

    2015-01-01

    The energy supply of the Meppel district Nieuwveense landen is based on biogas cogeneration, district heating, and ground source heat pumps. A centrally located combined heat and power engine (CHP) converts biogas from the municipal wastewater treatment facility into electricity for heat pumps and

  10. Upscaling a district heating system based on biogas cogeneration and heat pumps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van Richard P.; Fink, Jiří; Wit, de Jan B.; Smit, Gerard J.M.

    2015-01-01

    The energy supply of the Meppel district Nieuwveense landen is based on biogas cogeneration, district heating, and ground source heat pumps. A centrally located combined heat and power engine (CHP) converts biogas from the municipal wastewater treatment facility into electricity for heat pumps and h

  11. Upscaling a district heating system based on biogas cogeneration and heat pumps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Richard Pieter; Fink, J.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; de Wit, Jan B.

    2015-01-01

    The energy supply of the Meppel district Nieuwveense landen is based on biogas cogeneration, district heating, and ground source heat pumps. A centrally located combined heat and power engine (CHP) converts biogas from the municipal wastewater treatment facility into electricity for heat pumps and h

  12. Carbon Dioxide Absorption Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A carbon dioxide absorption heat pump cycle is disclosed using a high pressure stage and a super-critical cooling stage to provide a non-toxic system. Using carbon dioxide gas as the working fluid in the system, the present invention desorbs the CO2 from an absorbent and cools the gas in the super-critical state to deliver heat thereby. The cooled CO2 gas is then expanded thereby providing cooling and is returned to an absorber for further cycling. Strategic use of heat exchangers can increase the efficiency and performance of the system.

  13. Carbon Dioxide Absorption Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A carbon dioxide absorption heat pump cycle is disclosed using a high pressure stage and a super-critical cooling stage to provide a non-toxic system. Using carbon dioxide gas as the working fluid in the system, the present invention desorbs the CO2 from an absorbent and cools the gas in the super-critical state to deliver heat thereby. The cooled CO2 gas is then expanded thereby providing cooling and is returned to an absorber for further cycling. Strategic use of heat exchangers can increase the efficiency and performance of the system.

  14. About Variable Speed Heating and Cooling Pumps

    OpenAIRE

    Cătălin Popovici; Jan Ignat

    2009-01-01

    The present work has the purpose of underlying the advantages of variable speed heating and cooling pumps use for the perspective of general and particular pumping costs and efficiency. The study approaches comparisons between constant flow pumps and variable flow pumps in different given situations and comparatively analyses the pumping costs.

  15. Air-To-Water Heat Pumps with Radiant Delivery in Low Load Homes: Tucson, Arizona and Chico, California (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-11-01

    Space conditioning represents nearly 50% of average residential household energy consumption, highlighting the need to identify alternative cost-effective, energy-efficient cooling and heating strategies. As homes are better built, there is an increasing need for strategies that are particularly well suited for high performance, low load homes. ARBI researchers worked with two test homes in hot-dry climates to evaluate the in-situ performance of air-to-water heat pump (AWHP) systems, an energy efficient space conditioning solution designed to cost-effectively provide comfort in homes with efficient, safe, and durable operation. Two monitoring projects of test houses in hot-dry climates were initiated in 2010 to test this system. Both systems were fully instrumented and have been monitored over one year to capture complete performance data over the cooling and heating seasons. Results are used to quantify energy savings, cost-effectiveness, and system performance using different operating modes and strategies. A calibrated TRNSYS model was developed and used to evaluate performance in various climate regions. This strategy is most effective in tight, insulated homes with high levels of thermal mass (i.e. exposed slab floors).

  16. Automation of a water pumping station

    OpenAIRE

    Mesec, Rožle

    2014-01-01

    In the thesis we displayed an automation of an industrial facility on an example of a water pumping station. We described the structure of a typical automated system and presented it's key components. We designed a water pumping station with three main components – a water pump, a reservoir and a drain. The proposed water pumping station could be used for suplying water to a small settlement, in case the settlement had access to a water source with adequate capacity in it's vicinity. As part ...

  17. Performance prediction of an absorption heat pump for utilization in industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzarin, R.M.; Longo, G.A. (Padua Univ. (Italy))

    1994-01-01

    Recently, an absorption heat pump has been put on the market for industrial utilization. It is a H[sub 2]O-LiBr absorption machine which heats up water to 90[sup o]C with cold source at 40[sup o]C. The capacity and Coefficient of performance (COP) of the machine have been studied by a computer program as a function of cold source temperature and heated fluid temperature. Also, a comparison with a compression heat pump is reported. (Author)

  18. Identifying (subsurface) anthropogenic heat sources that influence temperature in the drinking water distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo-Vera, Claudia M.; Blokker, Mirjam; de Kater, Henk; Lafort, Rob

    2017-09-01

    The water temperature in the drinking water distribution system and at customers' taps approaches the surrounding soil temperature at a depth of 1 m. Water temperature is an important determinant of water quality. In the Netherlands drinking water is distributed without additional residual disinfectant and the temperature of drinking water at customers' taps is not allowed to exceed 25 °C. In recent decades, the urban (sub)surface has been getting more occupied by various types of infrastructures, and some of these can be heat sources. Only recently have the anthropogenic sources and their influence on the underground been studied on coarse spatial scales. Little is known about the urban shallow underground heat profile on small spatial scales, of the order of 10 m × 10 m. Routine water quality samples at the tap in urban areas have shown up locations - so-called hotspots - in the city, with relatively high soil temperatures - up to 7 °C warmer - compared to the soil temperatures in the surrounding rural areas. Yet the sources and the locations of these hotspots have not been identified. It is expected that with climate change during a warm summer the soil temperature in the hotspots can be above 25 °C. The objective of this paper is to find a method to identify heat sources and urban characteristics that locally influence the soil temperature. The proposed method combines mapping of urban anthropogenic heat sources, retrospective modelling of the soil temperature, analysis of water temperature measurements at the tap, and extensive soil temperature measurements. This approach provided insight into the typical range of the variation of the urban soil temperature, and it is a first step to identifying areas with potential underground heat stress towards thermal underground management in cities.

  19. Solar Energy and Dual-Source Heat Pump Combined Drying System on Larch%太阳能与双热源热泵组合干燥落叶松

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张力; 胡传坤; 高建民; 张璧光

    2014-01-01

    For further reducing the energy consumption of wood drying process , the rational use of solar energy , we described and tested the principles , structure, the main parameters and system performance of a new solar energy and heat pump combined drying system by Beijing Forestry University .The average of air source heat pump heating coefficient P was 2.48, and the water source heat pump heating coefficient P was 3.77.By using the system for energy-saving drying test on larch , compared with the conventional steam drying , the average energy consumption of heat pump drying and combined drying saved by 67.8%and 70.32%, respectively.%为进一步降低木材干燥过程的能耗,合理利用太阳能,对北京林业大学研制的太阳能与双热源热泵联合干燥系统的主要参数、原理、结构,进行了说明和系统性能测试。设备在空气源热泵模式下平均供热系数P为2.48,水源热泵模式供热系数P为3.77。使用该系统对落叶松进行初步干燥实验,与常规蒸气干燥做对比,结果显示,热泵干燥和联合干燥与常规蒸气干燥相比分别节能67.8%和70.32%,两者均有明显节能效果。

  20. 地下水源热泵系统热平衡模拟三维数值模型%Three-dimensional numerical model for heat balance simulation of ground-water heat pump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆祖江; 李伟; 王琰; 张德忠; 方连育

    2014-01-01

    In order to simulate and predict the change law of heat balance accurately and avoid heat penetration phenomenon during the groundwater heat pump operation, a three dimensional coupling numerical model of groundwater seepage and thermal transport was established and applied to the demonstration project of groundwater heat pump system in Zhengding, Hebei province. The model was based on the groundwater seepage theory, saturated water-bearing medium thermal transport theory and Terzaghi effective stress principle, combined with the design scheme and operation situation of groundwater heat pump, the future heat balance development tendency of groundwater heat pump system under three different conditions was forecasted and analyzed. The water temperature difference between the pumping well and recharge well reduced by 20%(eight degree centigrade) or increased by 20%(twelve degree centigrade) was the first condition which means the cooling and heating load was kept constant. Second condition was the water temperature difference between pumping well and recharge well confirmed and the circulating water volume increased by 20%, or the volume of circulating water kept constant and water temperature difference between pumping well and recharge well increased 20%, which means the cooling and heating load was increased. Meanwhile, in the third condition, the cooling and heating load was reduced. The water temperature difference between the pumping well and recharge well was confirmed and the volume of circulating water reduced 20%, or the water temperature difference between pumping well and recharge well reduced 20%while the circulating water volume kept constant. It was shown that there is a heat penetration phenomenon between the pumping well and recharge well in the demonstration project under the condition of design scheme, which has one pumping well and one recharge well. When the cooling and heating load of the groundwater heat pump system is confirmed, increasing 20

  1. Motionless heat pump - A new application of thermal transpiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugimoto, K.; Hirota, Y.; Kizaki, Y.

    2016-11-01

    A motionless heat pump system using a combination of thermal transpiration flow of a rarefied gas and a phase change of water has been proposed. This system consists primarily of a thermal transpiration pump, referred to as a Knudsen pump, and two chambers filled with water and water vapor, respectively. The Knudsen pump moves water vapor from one chamber to the other. The pressure drop in the outflow chamber promotes the evaporation of water and heat absorption, whereas the pressure increase in the inflow chamber promotes vapor condensation and heat generation. The maximum pressure difference and mass flow rate obtained by a Knudsen pump composed of a glass fiber filter were 57.6 Pa and 0.0484 mg/s/cm2, respectively, at a temperature difference across the filter of 120 K between the two chambers. The vapor delivery capacity of this pump was also measured experimentally.

  2. 太阳能-土壤源热泵复合系统优化与性能分析%System Optimization and Performance Analysis of Solar Energy and Ground-source Heat Pump Hybrid System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁力勤

    2016-01-01

    本文利用瞬时系统模拟软件(Trnsys)搭建了常规土壤源热泵系统及太阳能-土壤源热泵并联复合式系统的模型,并根据不同集热器单位面积流量和水箱体积等参数进行了模拟计算。结果表明,土壤源热泵系统性能系数达3.6~3.8,具有明显的节能优势。%The models of ground-source heat pump system and the solar energy and ground-source heat pump shunt-wound hybrid system have been built by transient system (Trnsys) simulation software, and the simulation calculation has been processed according to the flow rate per unit area and water tank volume for different collectors. According to the simulation results, the coefficient of performance of the ground-source heat pump system is 3.6~3.8, and the system has advantages on energy saving.

  3. Domestic heat pumps in the UK. User behaviour, satisfaction and performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caird, S.; Roy, R.; Potter, S. [Design Innovation Group, Dept. Design, Development, Environment and Materials, Faculty of Mathematics, Computing and Technology, The Open University, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-15

    Consumer adoption of microgeneration technologies is part of the UK strategy to reduce carbon emissions from buildings. Domestic heat pumps are viewed as a potentially important carbon saving technology, given the ongoing decarbonisation of the electricity supply system. To address the lack of independent evaluation of heat pump performance, the Energy Saving Trust undertook the UK's first large-scale heat pump field trial, which monitored 83 systems in real installations. As part of the trial, the Open University studied the consumers' experience of using a domestic heat pump. An in-depth user survey investigated the characteristics, behaviour, and satisfactions of private householders and social housing residents using ground source and air source heat pumps for space and/or water heating, and examined the influence of user-related factors on measured heat pump system efficiency. The surveys found that most users were satisfied with the reliability, heating, hot water, warmth and comfort provided by their system. Analysis of user characteristics showed that higher system efficiencies were associated with greater user understanding of their heat pump system, and more continuous heat pump operation, although larger samples are needed for robust statistical confirmation. The analysis also found that the more efficient systems in the sample were more frequently located in the private dwellings than at the social housing sites and this difference was significant. This is explained by the interaction between differences in the systems, dwellings and users at the private and social housing sites. The implications for heat pump research, practice and policy are discussed.

  4. Maldistribution in airewater heat pump evaporators. Part 1: Effects on evaporator, heat pump and system level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mader, Gunda; Palm, Björn; Elmegaard, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to quantify the effect of evaporator maldistribution onoperating costs of air-water heat pumps. In the proposed simulation model maldistributionis induced by two parameters describing refrigerant phase and air flow distribution.Annual operating costs are calculated...... based on heat pump performance at distinct operatingconditions. Results show that percentage increase of operating costs is similar for thethree considered climate zones, even though the effect of maldistribution on heat pumpperformance varies with operating conditions. Differences in terms of absolute...

  5. 铁路站房地源热泵系统工程热平衡分析%Analysis on Heat Balance of Ground Source Heat Pump System in Railway Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈德安

    2013-01-01

    Abstract:In regard to an actual railway station,based on its design circumstance of air-condition heating system and its testing report of ground heat transfer characteristics,the ground source heat pump system was adopted as its cold and heat source.Considering the need for heat balance of the ground source heat pump system,this thesis analyzes the two different schemes used in railway station buildings:the one is a ground source heat pump system assisted by boiler,and the other is a coupled system of solar energy with ground source heat pump.And then respectively for both schemes,this thesis calculates the required capacity of ground source heat pump unit and the required design scale of ground heat exchanger.This thesis also discusses how to achieve the cold and heat balance for the two different schemes,and analyzes each characteristics and applicability in actual projects.Finally this thesis points out:it is necessary to use suitable and customized heat balance modes for different projects on the basis of local conditions.%结合具体工程,根据某车站空调采暖系统设计工况及该工程地埋管换热特性测试报告,采用地源热泵系统作为冷热源.考虑地源热泵系统的冷热平衡需要,分析采用地源热泵+锅炉辅助系统及太阳能地源热泵耦合系统两种不同热平衡方案用于铁路站房,计算各自需要的热泵机组容量及室外埋管换热器具体设计规模.详细介绍两种系统的冷热平衡方式,并对各自特点及工程运用进行论述,提出在具体工程中因地制宜,应根据不同情况,采用合适的系统热平衡方式.

  6. Electrical heat pumps - a renewable energy? What is the environmental balance of electrical heat pumps in comparison to other heating systems?; Elektrische Waermepumpen - eine erneuerbare Energie? Wie ist die Umweltbilanz elektrischer Waermepumpen im Vergleich zu anderen Heizungssystemen?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuberth, Jens; Kaschenz, Helmut [Umweltbundesamt Dessau (Germany). Fachgebiet I 2.4 Energieeffizienz

    2008-05-29

    Electrical heat pumps deliver energy for the heating of buildings whereby relatively ambient heat from soil, water or air is increased on a usable temperature level. In this case, electrical power is used. Electrical heat pumps do not only use renewable environmental energy, but also electricity from not-renewable sources of energy. An installation and a correct adjustment of a heat meter are recommended. The calculation of production costs should consider not only the operating cost, but also all resulting costs in a total cost calculation. Electrical heat pumps offer a high discharge of the environment, if electric power effectively is produced. In this case, electrical heat pumps can exceed also fuel cells.

  7. Experimental Results and Model Calculations of a Hybrid Adsorption-Compression Heat Pump Based on a Roots Compressor and Silica Gel-Water Sorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Pal, M.; De Boer, R.; Wemmers, A.K.; Smeding, S.F.; Veldhuis, J.B.J.; Lycklama a Nijeholt, J.A.

    2013-10-15

    Thermally driven sorption systems can provide significant energy savings, especially in industrial applications. The driving temperature for operation of such systems limits the operating window and can be a barrier for market-introduction. By adding a compressor, the sorption cycle can be run using lower waste heat temperatures. ECN has recently started the development of such a hybrid heat pump. The final goal is to develop a hybrid heat pump for upgrading lower (<100C) temperature industrial waste heat to above pinch temperatures. The paper presents the first measurements and model calculations of a hybrid heat pump system using a water-silica gel system combined with a Roots type compressor. From the measurements can be seen that the effect of the compressor is dependent on where in the cycle it is placed. When placed between the evaporator and the sorption reactor, it has a considerable larger effect compared to the compressor placed between the sorption reactor and the condenser. The latter hardly improves the performance compared to purely heat-driven operation. This shows the importance of studying the interaction between all components of the system. The model, which shows reasonable correlation with the measurements, could proof to be a valuable tool to determine the optimal hybrid heat pump configuration.

  8. Geothermal Heat Pump Benchmarking Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1997-01-17

    A benchmarking study was conducted on behalf of the Department of Energy to determine the critical factors in successful utility geothermal heat pump programs. A Successful program is one that has achieved significant market penetration. Successfully marketing geothermal heat pumps has presented some major challenges to the utility industry. However, select utilities have developed programs that generate significant GHP sales. This benchmarking study concludes that there are three factors critical to the success of utility GHP marking programs: (1) Top management marketing commitment; (2) An understanding of the fundamentals of marketing and business development; and (3) An aggressive competitive posture. To generate significant GHP sales, competitive market forces must by used. However, because utilities have functioned only in a regulated arena, these companies and their leaders are unschooled in competitive business practices. Therefore, a lack of experience coupled with an intrinsically non-competitive culture yields an industry environment that impedes the generation of significant GHP sales in many, but not all, utilities.

  9. Simulating the thermal operating conditions in the thermal wells of ground-source heat-pump heat supply systems. Part I: Porous moisture freezing processes in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyev, G. P.; Peskov, N. V.; Lichman, V. A.; Gornov, V. F.; Kolesova, M. V.

    2015-08-01

    The mathematical models laid down in the new blocks of the INSOLAR.GSHP.12 software system simulating unsteady operating conditions of ground-source heat-pump (GSHP) heat supply systems are presented. The new model blocks take into account the effect the freezing of porous moisture in soil has on the GSHP system performance efficiency. Illustration is given to the need of taking into account the porous moisture freezing/thawing processes in soil, and the results from investigations devoted to the opening possibilities of constructing adaptive GSHP systems with controlled intensity of heat transfer in the soil-thermal well system are presented. The development of software simulating the porous moisture phase state variation processes in soil was preceded by development of mathematical equations representing the thermal conditions of soil body involving porous moisture freezing/thawing processes. A description of these equations is also given in the article. In constructing the mathematical model, the notion "effective thermal conductivity" of soil was introduced for taking into account the latent heat of phase transition that releases during the freezing of moisture. The above-mentioned effective thermal conductivity of soil involves two components: the soil thermal conductivity coefficient itself and an additional term modifying the thermal conductivity value for taking into account the influence of phase transition. For quantitatively evaluating the soil effective thermal conductivity component that takes into account the influence of phase transition, the soil freezing zone radius around the thermal well was determined. The obtained analytic solutions have been implemented in the form of computer program blocks, after which a "numerical experiment" was carried out for estimating the effect the porous moisture freezing/thawing processes have on the soil thermal conditions. It was demonstrated during that experiment that the soil thermal conductivities determined

  10. A simplified heat pump model for use in solar plus heat pump system simulation studies

    OpenAIRE

    Perers, Bengt; Anderssen, Elsa; Nordman, Roger; Kovacs, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Solar plus heat pump systems are often very complex in design, with sometimes special heat pump arrangements and control. Therefore detailed heat pump models can give very slow system simulations and still not so accurate results compared to real heat pump performance in a system. The idea here is to start from a standard measured performance map of test points for a heat pump according to EN 14825 and then determine characteristic parameters for a simplified correlation based model of the he...

  11. Sorption Refrigeration / Heat Pump Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Bidyut Baran; Alam, K. C. Amanul; Hamamoto, Yoshinori; Akisawa, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Takao

    Over the past few decades there have been considerable efforts to use adsorption (solid/vapor) for cooling and heat pump applications, but intensified efforts were initiated only since the imposition of international restrictions on the production and use of CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons) and HCFCs (hydrochlorofluorocarbons). Up to now, only the desiccant evaporative cooling system of the open type has achieved commercial use, predominantly in the United States. Closed-type adsorption refrigeration and heat pump systems are rarely seen in the market, or are still in the laboratory testing stage. Promising recent development have been made in Japan for the use of porous metal hydrides and composite adsorbents. In this paper, a short description of adsorption theories along with an overview of present status and future development trends of thermally powered adsorption refrigeration cycles are outlined putting emphasis on experimental achievements. This paper also addressed some advanced absorption cycles having relatively higher COP, and also summarizes fundamental concepts of GAX cycles and various GAX cycles developed for heat pump applications.

  12. Residential heat pumps in the future Danish energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrovic, Stefan; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Denmark is striving towards 100% renewable energy system in 2050. Residential heat pumps are expected to be a part of that system.We propose two novel approaches to improve the representation of residential heat pumps: Coefficients of performance (COPs) are modelled as dependent on air and ground...... temperature while installation of ground-source heat pumps is constrained by available ground area. In this study, TIMES-DK model is utilised to test the effects of improved modelling of residential heat pumps on the Danish energy system until 2050.The analysis of the Danish energy system was done...... for politically agreed targets which include: at least 50% of electricity consumption from wind power starting from 2020, fossil fuel free heat and power sector from 2035 and 100% renewable energy system starting from 2050. Residential heat pumps supply around 25% of total residential heating demand after 2035...

  13. The Pumping Up Phenomenon of Double-Stage Bubble Pump with Water and Aqueous LiBr Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongtao Gao

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The double-stage bubble pump, using thermal energy as driving force to transport the solution, can replace the mechanical solution pump in the double-effect lithium bromide absorption chiller. By building a bench, a lot of experimental research and analysis were conducted with water and different concentrations of lithium bromide solution as the working fluid of the bubble pump. The first-stage bubble pump in the experiment pumps up by the external heat source. The heat for driving the second-stage bubble pump is provided by refrigerant steam produced from the first-stage bubble pump. The experiment data shows that the heating of refrigerant vapor is only one of the elements of pump-up phenomenon. Another is that the intermediate solution flashes to vapor to become bubbles. The pump-up phenomenon of double-stage bubble pump has much to do with the pressure difference of intermediate solution and first-stage refrigerant vapor. With water as the working fluid, when the pressure difference between refrigerant vapor and the intermediate liquefied refrigerant is 3.5-3.9 kPa, the bubble pump can pump up and run for some time and the start-up time decreases with the driving head. When the working fluid is lithium bromide solution, the pressure difference of the double-stage bubble pump increases with the solution concentration and is bigger than that of water. The start-up time increases with the concentrations of lithium bromide solution within the range of 45.5 to 54% and decreases within the range of 54-59.5%. The start-up time is largest at 54% under this experimental condition. The experimental result is also compared with the single-stage bubble pump. The start-up time of double-stage bubble pump decreases with the driving height, which is contrary to the single-stage bubble pump.

  14. Open-cycle vapor compression heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, F. E.; Ruggles, A. E.

    1985-03-01

    Large quantities of low-grade energy in the form of low-pressure steam and low-temperature heat are often discharged to the environment by industry. The practical and economical recovery of energy from these sources is often limited by the number of applications that can directly use low-temperature heat. Thermo Electron has developed an open-cycle steam heat pump system capable of the direct recovery and upgrading of low-grade waste energy. The system compresses low-pressure waste steam (or steam made from sources of low-temperature waste heat) to produce high-pressure steam suitable for use in industrial processes. A prototype system has been developed that is capable of recovering and recompressing up to 10,000 lb/hr of waste steam, while using only 50 percent of the fuel that would be required to produce comparable steam in a boiler.

  15. Refrigerant Selection for Cascade Water-to-water Heat Pump%复叠式水水热泵的制冷剂筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵海波; 杨昭

    2012-01-01

    结合我国现行制冷剂标准,按照环境相容性、安全性、热工循环性能原则进行了高温复叠式热泵循环的制冷剂筛选,对不同制冷剂组合进行了计算和分析.结果表明,高低温侧制冷剂可采用R245fa/R134a、R245fa/R420A、R245fa/R413A、R245ca/R420A等组合.若进一步考虑制冷剂获得的容易程度、经济性等因素时,可选择R245fa/R134a组合.%Based on China National Standard-Number Designation and Safety Classification of Refrigerants, refrigerant for the cascade water-to-water heat pump were selected according to principles of environmental-friendly, safety and thermodynamic cycle performances. Different refrigerant combinations for high- and low-temperature cycles in the cascade heat pump were calculated and compared. Results show that combinations of R245fa/R134a, R245fa/R420A, R245fa/R413A, R245ca/R420A are better for the cascade heat pump. It also shows that, considering easy access and economy of refrigerants, R245fa/R134a combination will be a better choice.

  16. Selection of pipe diameter for ground-source heat pump system%地埋管地源热泵地埋管管径的选取

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海琳; 余跃进; 胡纯良

    2012-01-01

    详细阐述了地埋管管径对水泵能耗和地埋管换热性能的影响,在地埋管内水流量一定的情况下,选取5种不同管径进行了分析.结果显示,适当增大地埋管管径可减小流体在地埋管内流动时的沿程阻力,降低水泵运行能耗;减小地埋管管径可以增强地埋管内循环水与管壁的对流换热.应该综合考虑,确定最佳管径.%Analyses the influence of pipe diameter on the energy consumption of the water pump and the ground heat exchanger performance in detail. Selects five kinds of different pipe diameter to analyse on the condition of the constant water flow in pipe. The results show that an appropriate increase in pipe diameter can reduce the frictional resistance caused by water flowing in pipe, and reduce the energy consumption of the water pump; a decrease in pipe diameter can enhance the convection heat transfer between the circulating water and the pipe wall. A comprehensive consideration should be given to determining an optimal pipe diameter.

  17. Natural refrigerants. Future heat pumps for district heating; Naturliga koeldmedier. Framtida vaermepumpar foer fjaerrvaerme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingvarsson, Paul; Steen Ronnermark, Ingela [Fortum Teknik och Miljoe AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Eriksson, Marcus [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Science

    2004-01-01

    improvement in components, system and external preconditions. In the future it might be more interesting to use turbine driven heat pumps instead of electric motors. The absorption process is not considered to be an alternative to replace present heat pumps, but there is a certain niche where heat source and driving energy, considering temperature levels, are more suitable for district heating. A technique that seems to be an alternative to the compression cycle is a combination of compression and absorption. Using the media pair water and ammonia might be an interesting solution and should be compared to the alternative using carbon dioxide. A further study is recommended on this subject.

  18. Harnessing geothermal energy with heat pumps : a literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arisi, J.A. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2009-07-01

    Fossil fuel combustion emits large amounts of greenhouse gases (GHGs) into the atmosphere. Renewable fuel sources that do not have a negative impact on the environment are needed to reduce the risk of climatic change. This abstract discussed recent research related to geothermal energy. Two types of geothermal energy were investigated: (1) deep underground heat using turbines to produce electricity; and (2) shallow depth heat using heat pumps to provide space heating. A review of recent research on shallow depth heat harnessing was presented. The costs and GHG emission reductions related to the installation of a geothermal heat pump system for space heating were also discussed.

  19. Empirical Platform Data Analysis to Investigate how Heat Pumps Operate in Real-Life Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carmo, Carolina; Elmegaard, Brian; Nielsen, Mads Pagh

    2015-01-01

    Heat pumps have been widely acknowledged, by academia and industry, as highly efficient thermal energy technologies, for space heating and domestic hot water production. However, there is a lack of information about real performance in residential single family houses with active participation...... heat pump configurations are considered depending on source (ground or air) and sink (radiators, floor heating and/or combined systems). This unique study intends to point out the benefits and limitations of such technologies in terms of energy efficiency and comfort delivery, as well as investigating...

  20. Application and Design of Ground Source Heat Pump in Villa Air-conditioning System%地源热泵空调系统在某别墅中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红霞; 崔璐

    2012-01-01

    总结了别墅地源热泵系统的形式,以工程为例,详细介绍了地源热泵+风机盘管+地板采暖+全热交换新风系统的设计。%Summarize systems of ground source heat pump used in the villa. With an engineering example, show details of ground source heat pump contains fan coil floor heating and total heat exchange of the fresh air system design.

  1. Temperature distributions in pavement and bridge slabs heated by using vertical ground-source heat pump systems - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i4.15712

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asım Balbay

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Temperature distribution which occurs in pavement and bridge slabs heated for de-icing and snow melting during cold periods is determined by using vertical ground-source heat pump (GSHP systems with U-tube ground heat exchanger (GHE. The bridge and pavement models (slabs for de-icing and snow melting were constructed. A three-dimensional finite element model (FEM was developed to simulate temperature distribution of bridge slab (BS and pavement slab (PS. The temperature distribution simulations of PS and BS were conducted numerically by computational fluid dynamics (CFD program named ‘Fluent’. Congruence between the simulations and experimental data was determined.   

  2. HEAT PUMP TECHNOLOGY – POTENTIAL IMPACT ON ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROBLEM AND CLIMATE ACTION GOALS WITHIN UKRAINIAN ENERGY SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Ostapenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand of energy sources for urban, household and industrial facilities requires strategies development for seeking new energy sources. In recent years an important problem is to have energy storage, energy production and energy consumption which fulfill the environment friendly expectations. A lot of attention is devoted to renewable energy sources. One of the most attracting among them is energy production form geothermal sources. At a few meters below the earth’s surface the underground maintains a constant temperature in an approximation through the year allowing to withdraw heat in winter for heating needs and to surrender heat during summer for air-conditioning purposes. Heat pump is a rapidly developing technology for heating and domestic hot water production. Using ground as a heat source, heat exchange is carried out with heat pumps compound to vertical ground heat exchanger tubes that allows the heating and cooling of the buildings utilizing a single unit installation. Heat pump unit provides a high degree of productivity with moderate electric power consumption. In this paper a theoretical performance study of a vapor compression heat pump system with various natural and synthetic refrigerants (HFCs is presented. Operation mode of the heat pump unit was chosen according to European Standard EN14511-2:2007 and EN255-2. An influence of discharge temperature on system performance was evaluated at different boiling temperatures. The comparison of mass flow rate and coefficient of performance for considered refrigerants at constant cooling capacity and condensation temperature was performed.

  3. Structure Parameter Optimization of Air-water Dual-source Compound Heat-exchanger%空气-水双热源复合换热器结构参数优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张超; 董家昀; 赵晓丹; 周光辉

    2012-01-01

    空气-水双热源复合换热器是太阳能-空气双热源复合热泵系统的核心部件,空气-水双热源复台换热器的结构参数对空气-水双热源复合换热器的换热性能以及太阳能-空气双热源复合热泵的系统性能具有重要影响.建立了太阳能-空气双热源复合热泵系统的数学模型,利用数学模拟的方法研究了空气-水双热源复合换热器结构参数对热泵系统能效比的影响,并确定了模拟工况下换热器结构参数的优化方案.%The air-water dual-source compound heat-exchanger is the key component of the solar-air dual-source compound heat pump system. The heat-exchanging performance of the air-water dual-source compound heat-exchanger and the system performance of the solar-air dual-source compound heat pump system are largely depended on the structure parameter of the air-water dual-source compound heat-exchanger. The mathematic model of the solar-air dual-source compound heat pump system has been established. The mathematic simulation method has been used to study the effect of the structure parameters of air-water dual-source compound heat-exchanger on the energy-efficiency ratio of the solar-air dual-source compound heat pump system, and the optimization scheme of the structure parameters under the simulating condition have been determined.

  4. Absorption Cycle Heat Pump Model for Control Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Kasper; Just Nielsen, Rene; Nielsen, Kirsten Mølgaard

    2015-01-01

    Heat pumps have recently received increasing interest due to green energy initiatives and increasing energy prices. In this paper, a nonlinear dynamic mo