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Sample records for water soluble fraction

  1. Physical and ionic characteristics in water soluble fraction (WSF) of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-01-04

    Jan 4, 2008 ... Key words: Physical and ionic characteristics, heavy metals, water soluble fraction, crude oil and Azolla africana. ... impact on aquatic life (Camougis, 1981). Water ..... Fish, fisheries, aquatic macrophytes and water quality in.

  2. Which Starch Fraction is Water-Soluble, Amylose or Amylopectin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Mark M.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    A survey of 22 popular organic chemistry textbooks showed that only four correctly stated that of the two components of starch, amylopectin is the water-soluble, and amylose is the water-insoluble. (MLH)

  3. Comparative toxicity of water soluble fractions of four oils on the growth of a Microalga

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Phatarpekar, P.V.; Ansari, Z.A.

    Toxic effects of water soluble fractions (WSF) of four different fuel oils on a microalga. Tetraselmis gracilis, were examined and compared. On applying different concentrations of WSF, a decrease in cell population was observed. Depending...

  4. Bioassay using the water soluble fraction of a Nigerian Light Crude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioassay using the water soluble fraction of a Nigerian Light Crude oil on Clarias ... Heavy metal and total hydrocarbon contents of the water and fish were ... THC concentrations in fish were higher at 96 hours and 14days than in the water ...

  5. Sensory and chromatographic evaluations of water soluble fractions from air-dried sausages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Anders Peter; Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller

    1997-01-01

    Low molecular weight water soluble compounds were extracted from Danish salami, Italian sausage, and Spanish Chorizo. The extracts were fractionated by gel filtration chromatography revealing peptides with a molecular weight less than 4200 Dalton. Fractions consisting of smaller peptides and free...

  6. Characterization of Gasolines, Diesel Fuels and Their Water Soluble Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    low on the basis of comparison to the dynamic headspace analysis data (Table IV.) The best estimates of the levels of aromatic hydrocarbons appear to...0.2 0.1 a determined by dynamic headspace analysis (see Table 3). bincludes ethylbenzene and xylenes. 6 Table III. Chemical Composition of the Water

  7. Growth and Histopathological Effects of Chronic Exposition of Marine Pejerrey Odontesthes argentinensis Larvae to Petroleum Water-Soluble Fraction (WSF)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Emeline Pereira Gusmão; Ricardo Vieira Rodrigues; Cauê Bonucci Moreira; Luis Alberto Romano; Luís André Sampaio; Kleber Campos Miranda-Filho

    2012-01-01

    The water-soluble fraction (WSF) of petroleum contains a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, volatile hydrocarbons, phenols, and heterocyclic compounds, considered deleterious to aquatic biota...

  8. Sensory and chromatographic evaluations of water soluble fractions from air-dried sausages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Anders Peter; Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller

    1997-01-01

    Low molecular weight water soluble compounds were extracted from Danish salami, Italian sausage, and Spanish Chorizo. The extracts were fractionated by gel filtration chromatography revealing peptides with a molecular weight less than 4200 Dalton. Fractions consisting of smaller peptides and free...... squares regression of the amino acid data and the sensory results indicated that bouillon taste was related to a mixture of different amino acids and peptides, that potato odor in particular correlated with high content of tyrosine, free and as the peptide residue, that bitterness was related to the level...

  9. Characterization of the Water-Soluble Fraction of Woody Biomass Pyrolysis Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stankovikj, Filip; McDonald, Armando G.; Helms, Gregory L.; Olarte, Mariefel V.; Garcia-Perez, Manuel

    2017-01-31

    This paper reports a study of the chemical composition of the water soluble (WS) fraction obtained by cold water precipitation of two commercial wood pyrolysis oils (BTG and Amaron). The fraction studied accounts for between 50.3 and 51.3 wt. % of the oils. With the most common analytical techniques used today for the characterization of this fraction (KF titration, GC/MS, hydrolysable sugars and total carbohydrates), it is possible to quantify only between 45 and 50 wt. % of it. Our results confirm that most of the total carbohydrates (hydrolysable sugars and non-hydrolysable) are soluble in water. The ion chromatography hydrolysis method showed that between 11.6 and 17.3 wt. % of these oils were hydrolysable sugars. A small quantity of phenols detectable by GC/MS (between 2.5 and 3.9 wt. %) were identified. It is postulated that the unknown high molecular weight fraction (30-55 wt. %) is formed by highly dehydrated sugars rich in carbonyl groups and WS phenols. The overall content of carbonyl, carboxyl, hydroxyl and phenolic compounds in the WS fraction were quantified by titration, Folin-Ciocalteu, 31P-NMR and 1H-NMR. The WS fraction contains between 5.5 and 6.2 mmol/g of carbonyl groups, between 0.4 and 1.0 mmol/g of carboxylic acid groups, between 1.2 and 1.8 mmol/g phenolic -OH, and between 6.0 and 7.9 mmol/g of aliphatic alcohol groups. Translation into weight fractions of the WS was done by supposing surrogate structures for the water soluble phenols, carbonyl and carboxyl groups and we estimated the content of WS phenols (21-27 wt. %), carbonyl (5-14 wt.%), and carboxyl (0-4 wt.%). Together with the total carbohydrates (23-27 wt.%), this approach leads to > 90 wt. % of the WS material in the bio-oils being quantified. We speculate the larger portion of the difference between the total carbohydrates and hydrolysable sugars is the missing furanic fraction. Further refinement of the suggested methods and development of separation schemes to obtain and

  10. Effect of Bombay high crude oil and its water-soluble fraction on growth and metabolism of diatom Thalassiosira sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parab, S.R.; Pandit, R.A.; Kadam, A.N.; Indap, M.M.

    Effect of Bombay high crude oil (BHC) and its water-soluble fraction (WSF) on growth and metabolism of the phytoplankton, Thalassiosira sp. was assessed. The study revealed the signs of acute toxicity at higher concentrations of crude oil (0...

  11. Sunlight creates oxygenated species in water-soluble fractions of Deepwater horizon oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, Phoebe Z. [Department of Chemistry, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA 70148 (United States); Chen, Huan [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, 1800 East Paul Dirac Drive, Tallahassee, FL 32310-4005 (United States); Podgorski, David C. [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, 1800 East Paul Dirac Drive, Tallahassee, FL 32310-4005 (United States); Future Fuels Institute, Florida State University, 1800 East Paul Dirac Drive, Tallahassee, FL 32310-4005 (United States); McKenna, Amy M. [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, 1800 East Paul Dirac Drive, Tallahassee, FL 32310-4005 (United States); Tarr, Matthew A., E-mail: mtarr@uno.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA 70148 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Sunlight oxygenates petroleum. - Highlights: • Oxidation seen in water-soluble oil fraction after exposure to simulated sunlight. • Oxygen addition occurred across a wide range of carbon number and DBE. • Oil compounds were susceptible to addition of multiple oxygens to each molecule. • Results provide understanding of fate of oil on water after exposure to sunlight. - Abstract: In order to assess the impact of sunlight on oil fate, Macondo well oil from the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) rig was mixed with pure water and irradiated with simulated sunlight. After irradiation, the water-soluble organics (WSO) from the dark and irradiated samples were extracted and characterized by ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS). Liquid–liquid extraction yielded two fractions from dark and irradiated water/oil mixtures: acidic WSOs (negative-ion electrospray (ESI)), and base/neutral WSOs (positive-ion ESI) coupled to FT-ICR MS to catalog molecular-level transformations that occur to Macondo-derived WSOs after solar irradiation. Such direct measure of oil phototransformation has not been previously reported. The most abundant heteroatom class detected in the irradiated WSO acid fractions correspond to molecules that contain five oxygens (O{sub 5}), while the most abundant acids in the dark samples contain two oxygen atoms per molecule (O{sub 2}). Higher-order oxygen classes (O{sub 5}–O{sub 9}) were abundant in the irradiated samples, but <1.5% relative abundance in the dark sample. The increased abundance of higher-order oxygen classes in the irradiated samples relative to the dark samples indicates that photooxidized components of the Macondo crude oil become water-soluble after irradiation. The base/neutral fraction showed decreased abundance of pyridinic nitrogen (N{sub 1}) concurrent with an increased abundance of N{sub 1}O{sub x} classes after irradiation. The predominance of higher

  12. Lightsticks content toxicity: effects of the water soluble fraction on the oyster embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo, Milena Maria Sampaio; Menezes Filho, Adalberto; Nascimento, Iracema Andrade; Pereira, Pedro Afonso P

    2015-11-01

    Lightsticks are artifacts used as attractors in a type of commercial fishery, known as surface longline gear. Despite the excessive use, the contamination risks of these devices have not yet been properly investigated. This research aimed to fill up this gap by determining the chemical composition and the toxicity of lightsticks recently activated, compared to those one year after activation and to the ones collected on the beaches. The analyzes were carried out by Gas Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Additionally, the variations in composition and the toxicity of their sea Water Soluble Fractions (WSF) were evaluated based on the WSF-effects of Crassostrea rhizophorae embryonic development. The GC-MS analysis made possible the identification of nineteen substances in the water soluble fraction of the lightsticks, such as dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and dimethyl phthalate (DMP). The value of the WSF-effective concentration (EC50) was in an average of 0.35%. After one year of the lightsticks activation, the toxicity was even higher (0.65%). Furthermore, other substances, also present in the lightsticks-WSF caused persistent toxicity even more dangerous to the environment than DBP and DMP. This essay discusses their toxicity effects and possible environment damages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Partitioning of water soluble organic carbon in three sediment size fractions: Effect of the humic substances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Liying; SUN Weiling; NI Jinren

    2009-01-01

    Water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in sediments plays an important role in transference and transformation of aquatic pollutants. This article investigated the inherent mechanisms of how sediemnt grain size affect the partitioning coeffcient (k) of WSOC. Influences of NaOH extracted humic substances were particularly focused on. Sediments were sampled from two cross-sections of the middle Yellow River and sieved into three size fractions (< 63 μm, 63-100 μm, and 100--300 μm). The total concentration of WSOC in sediments (CWSOC) and k were estimated using multiple water-sediment ratio experiments. Results show that CWSOC ranges from 0.012 to 0.022 mg/g, while k ranges from 0.8 to 3.9 L/kg. Correlations between the spectrum characteristics of NaOH extracted humic substances and k were analyzed. Strong positive correlations are determined between k and the aromaticity indicators of NaOH extracted humic substances in different sediment size fractions. Comparing with finer fractions (< 63 μm), k is higher in larger size fractions (63--100 and 100--300 μm) related to higher aromaticity degree of NaOH extracted humic substances mostly. While negative relationship between k and the area ratio of fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) at 3400 and 1430 cm-1 implied that the lowest k was related to the highest concentration of the acidic humic groups in particles < 63 μm. WSOC in finer fractions (< 63 μm) is likely to enter into pore water, which may further accelerate the transportation of aquatic contaminants from sediment to water.

  14. Characteristics of size-fractionated atmospheric metals and water-soluble metals in two typical episodes in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingqing; Ma, Yongliang; Tan, Jihua; Zheng, Naijia; Duan, Jingchun; Sun, Yele; He, Kebin; Zhang, Yuanxun

    2015-10-01

    The abundance and behaviour of metals and water-soluble metals (V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Ba and Pb) in size-fractionated aerosols were investigated during two typical episodes in Beijing. Water-soluble inorganic ions (Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, NH4+ , F-, Cl-, SO42- and NO3-) were also measured. Atmospheric metals and water-soluble metals were both found at high levels; for PM2.5, average As, Cr, Cd, Cu, Mn and Pb concentrations were 14.8, 203.3, 2.5, 18.5, 42.6 and 135.3 ng/m3, respectively, and their water-soluble components were 11.1, 1.7, 2.4, 14.5, 19.8 and 97.8 ng/m3, respectively. Daily concentrations of atmospheric metals and water-soluble metals were generally in accordance with particle mass. The highest concentrations of metals and water-soluble metals were generally located in coarse mode and droplet mode, respectively. The lowest mass of metals and water-soluble metals was mostly in Aitken mode. The water solubility of all metals was low in Aitken and coarse modes, indicating that freshly emitted metals have low solubility. Metal water solubility generally increased with the decrease in particle size in the range of 0.26-10 μm. The water solubility of metals for PM10 was: 50% ≤ Cd, As, Sb, Pb; 26% water-soluble metals and their water solubility increased when polluted air mass came from the near west, near north-west, south-west and south-east of the mainland, and decreased when clean air mass came from the far north-west and far due south. The influence of dust-storms and clean days on water-soluble metals and size distribution was significant; however, the influence of rainfall was negligible. Aerosols with high concentrations of SO42- , K+ and NH4+ might indicate increased potential for human health effects because of their high correlation with water-soluble metals. Industrial emissions contribute substantially to water-soluble metal pollution as water-soluble metals show higher correlation with Cd, Sn, Sb and Pb that are mainly

  15. Biochemical responses in freshwater fish after exposure to water-soluble fraction of gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettim, Franciele Lima; Galvan, Gabrieli Limberger; Cestari, Marta Margarete; Yamamoto, Carlos Itsuo; de Assis, Helena Cristina Silva

    2016-02-01

    The water-soluble fraction of gasoline (WSFG) is a complex mixture of mono-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The study aimed to evaluate the effects of WSFG diluted 1.5% on freshwater fish. Astyanax altiparanae were exposed to the WSFG for 96 h, under a semi-static system, with renewal of 25% of the gasoline test solution every 24 h. In addition, a decay of the contamination (DC) was carried out. During DC, the fish was exposed to the WSFG for 8 d, followed by another 7 d with renewal of 25% of volume aquaria with clean water every 24 h. For depuration, fish were transferred to aquaria with clean water, and in addition, 25% of the water was replaced every 24 h. The liver and kidney biotransformation, antioxidant defenses and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels were evaluated. In the liver, the WSFG 1.5% caused reduction of glutathione S-transferase (GST) after 96 h and DC. In the kidney, only in depuration an increased GST activity was observed, and after DC a higher LPO levels. An increase of the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity occurred at 96 h in both tissues; however, in the liver was also observed during the depuration. In WSFG 96 h, the glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in the kidney increased. As biomarkers of neurotoxicity, the brain and muscle acetylcholinesterase activities were measured, but the WSFG 1.5% did not change them. Therefore, this study brought forth more data about WSFG effects on freshwater fish after lower concentrations exposure and a DC, simulating an environmental contamination.

  16. The effect of sublethal concentrations of the water-soluble fraction of crude oil on the chemosensory function of Caspian roach, Rutilus caspicus (YAKOVLEV, 1870).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lari, Ebrahim; Abtahi, Behrooz; Hashtroudi, Mehri Seyed; Mohaddes, Effat; Døving, Kjell B

    2015-08-01

    The water-soluble fraction of crude oil is a complex and toxic mixture of hydrocarbons. Because aquatic organisms directly encounter it, the water-soluble fraction plays an important role in the toxicity of crude oil in aquatic environments. To determine whether fish are attracted to or avoid the water-soluble fraction, Caspian roaches (Rutilus caspicus) were exposed to different concentrations of the water-soluble fraction in a choice maze apparatus. The results showed that Caspian roaches can detect and avoid 2 mg/L of the water-soluble fraction. To study the effect of the water-soluble fraction on the olfactory function of fish, Caspian roaches were exposed to 3.2 mg/L and 16 mg/L of the water-soluble fraction for 96 h; afterward, exposed fish encountered food extract in a choice maze apparatus. The present study showed that the water-soluble fraction significantly impairs the olfactory function of roaches. To investigate the effect of olfactory system dysfunction on the feeding behavior of fish, Caspian roaches were exposed to 3.2 mg/L and 16 mg/L of the water-soluble fraction. After 4 d, 8 d, and 12 d of exposure, the feeding behavior toward the food extract was tested. The results showed that both 3.2 mg/L and 16 mg/L of the water-soluble fraction suppress the feeding behavior of Caspian roaches. The present study demonstrates that sublethal concentrations of crude oil's water-soluble fraction impair the olfactory function of fish and consequently suppress the feeding behavior. © 2015 SETAC.

  17. Microbial respiration activities correlated to sequentially separated, particulate and water-soluble organic matter fractions from arable and forest topsoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, M.; Wirth, S.; Ellerbrock, R.; Sommer, M.

    2009-12-01

    Michael Kaiser1, Stephan Wirth2, Ruth H. Ellerbrock3, Michael Sommer3,4 1University of California Merced, Natural Science, 4225 N. Hospital Rd., Atwater, CA 95301 2,3 Leibniz-Center for Agricultural Research (ZALF) e. V. 2 Institute of Landscape Matter Dynamics 3 Institute of Soil Landscape Research Eberswalder Str. 84, D-15374 Muencheberg, Germany 4University of Potsdam, Institute of Geoecology, Karl-Liebknecht-Str. 24-25, 14476 Potsdam, Germany Microbial respiration activities correlated to sequentially separated, particulate and water-soluble organic matter fractions from arable and forest topsoils Microbial decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) accounts for roughly half of CO2 evolution from vegetated soil surfaces and plays a crucial role in the ability of soil to mitigate the greenhouse effect. The separation and identification of labile (i.e., easily decomposable) organic matter (OM) fractions from bulk SOM is of particular importance for a mechanistic understanding of microbial decomposition processes and for predicting the response of SOM to changes in land use, management, and climate. This work aimed to reveal differences in the relevance of particulate as well as water-soluble organic matter (OM) fractions from topsoils to the easily biodegradable soil organic matter (SOM). We selected eight paired sites with quite different soil types (Udorthent, Paleudalf, Glossudalf, Aquept, Hapludalf, Aquert, Udert, Haplorthod) and soil properties (e.g., clay content: 28 to 564 g kg-1). For each of these sites, we took samples from adjacent arable and forest topsoils. Physically uncomplexed, macro-, and micro-aggregate-occluded organic particle, as well as water-soluble OM fractions were sequentially separated by a combination of electrostatic attraction, ultrasonic treatment, density separation, sieving, and water extraction. The easily biodegradable SOM of the topsoil samples was determined by measuring microbial respiration during a short-term incubation

  18. Toxicity of water-soluble gasoline fractions to fourth-instar larvae of the mosquito Aedes aegypti L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, W.O.; Brammer, J.D.

    1977-07-01

    The toxicity of water-soluble components of gasoline to laboratory-reared fourth-instar larvae of the mosquito, Aedes aegypti (L.) was investigated. A median lethal dose (LD/sub 50/) and a non-lethal dose (NLD) were established for these larvae following a 24 h exposure to water-soluble fractions of benzene, toluene, and xylenes. Based on the actual amount of each component in solution, static toxicity/bioassays showed that acute toxicity of these monoaromatics increased in the sequence benzene, toluene, xylenes. However, toxicity increased in the sequence xylenes, benzene, toluene when results were examined with respect to the amount of aromatic added to water to produce the LD/sub 50/. The importance of determining the concentrations of compounds dissolved in water when conducting any investigation of biological effects of water pollutants is stressed.

  19. Effects of water-soluble fraction of petroleum on growth and prey consumption of juvenile Hoplias aff. malabaricus (Osteichthyes: Erythrinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, R M; Weber, L; Souza, V L; Soares, A R; Petry, A C

    2016-02-01

    The influence of the water-soluble fraction of petroleum (WSF) on prey consumption and growth of juvenile trahira Hoplias aff. malabaricus was investigated. Juveniles were submitted to either WSF or Control treatment over 28 days, and jewel tetra Hyphessobrycon eques adults were offered daily as prey for each predator. Total prey consumption ranged from 16 to 86 individuals. Despite the initially lower prey consumption under WSF exposure, there were no significant differences in overall feeding rates between the two treatments. Water-soluble fraction of petroleum had a negative effect on the growth in length of H. aff. malabaricus juveniles. Although unaffected, prey consumption suggested a relative resistance in H. aff. malabaricus to WSF exposition and the lower growth of individuals exposed to WSF than the Control possibly reflects metabolic costs. The implications of the main findings for the individual and the food chain are discussed, including behavioral aspects and the role played by this predator in shallow aquatic systems.

  20. Evaluating the mutagenicity of the water-soluble fraction of air particulate matter: A comparison of two extraction strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacio, Isabel C; Oliveira, Ivo F; Franklin, Robson L; Barros, Silvia B M; Roubicek, Deborah A

    2016-09-01

    Many studies have focused on assessing the genotoxic potential of the organic fraction of airborne particulate matter. However, the determination of water-soluble compounds, and the evaluation of the toxic effects of these elements can also provide valuable information for the development of novel strategies to control atmospheric air pollution. To determine an appropriate extraction method for assessing the mutagenicity of the water-soluble fraction of PM, we performed microwave assisted (MW) and ultrasonic bath (US) extractions, using water as solvent, in eight different air samples (TSP and PM10). Mutagenicity and extraction performances were evaluated using the Salmonella/microsome assay with strains TA98 and TA100, followed by chemical determination of water-soluble metals. Additionally, we evaluated the chemical and biological stability of the extracts testing their mutagenic potential and chemically determining elements present in the samples along several periods after extraction. Reference material SRM 1648a was used. The comparison of MW and US extractions did not show differences on the metals concentrations, however positive mutagenic responses were detected with TA98 strain in all samples extracted using the MW method, but not with the US bath extraction. The recovery, using reference material was better in samples extracted with MW. We concluded that the MW extraction is more efficient to assess the mutagenic activity of the soluble fraction of airborne PM. We also observed that the extract freezing and storage over 60 days has a significant effect on the mutagenic and analytical results on PM samples, and should be avoided.

  1. Effects of acute and chronic exposition on larvae of pejerrey Odontesthes Argentinensis to water soluble fraction (WSF) of crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gusmao, Emeline P.; Rodrigues, Ricardo V.; Moreira, Caue B.; Seyffert, Bianca; Ignacio, Gabriela; Fillmann, Gilberto; Sampaio, Luis A.; Miranda-Filho, Kleber C. [Fundacao Universidade do Rio Grande (FURG), RS (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Petroleum is considered one of the greatest marine water pollutants, but there have been few studies on the impact of oil on biota. The water-soluble fraction (WSF) of a crude oil contains a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phenols and heterocyclic compounds. Marine 'pejerrey' Odontesthes argentinensis (Teleostei: Atherinopsidae) is a important commercial species in Brazilian southern region and has great potential for mariculture. The aim of this study was to investigate the lethal and sub-lethal effects of the WSF crude oil exposition on the early life stages of O. argentinensis using acute (96 hours) and chronic (21 days) toxicity tests. Water-soluble fraction of heavy crude oil was prepared using a ratio of one part crude oil to nine parts filtered seawater and mixing for 24 h. Newly hatched larvae and 17 days old larvae were used for the tests, respectively. According to the results, median lethal concentration (LC50) was estimated in 55.0% of the WSF and safe level was estimated in 5.5% of WSF. These data can be used as a tool in environmental conservation studies. Heavy crude oil WSF presented total PAHs of 197.83 ng/mL and total BTEX of 106.1 {mu}g/L. (author)

  2. Effects of water-soluble fraction of petroleum on growth and prey consumption of juvenile Hoplias aff. malabaricus (Osteichthyes: Erythrinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Santos

    Full Text Available Abstract The influence of the water-soluble fraction of petroleum (WSF on prey consumption and growth of juvenile trahira Hoplias aff. malabaricus was investigated. Juveniles were submitted to either WSF or Control treatment over 28 days, and jewel tetra Hyphessobrycon eques adults were offered daily as prey for each predator. Total prey consumption ranged from 16 to 86 individuals. Despite the initially lower prey consumption under WSF exposure, there were no significant differences in overall feeding rates between the two treatments. Water-soluble fraction of petroleum had a negative effect on the growth in length of H. aff. malabaricus juveniles. Although unaffected, prey consumption suggested a relative resistance in H. aff. malabaricus to WSF exposition and the lower growth of individuals exposed to WSF than the Control possibly reflects metabolic costs. The implications of the main findings for the individual and the food chain are discussed, including behavioral aspects and the role played by this predator in shallow aquatic systems.

  3. The application of water-soluble ruthenium catalysts for the hydrogenation of the dichloromethane soluble fraction of fast pyrolysis oil and related model compounds in a two phase aqueous-organic system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahfud, F.H.; Bussemaker, S.; Kooi, B.J.; ten Brink, Gert; Heeres, H.J.

    2007-01-01

    The hydrogenation of a dichloromethane soluble fraction of flash pyrolysis oil (bio-oil, BO), obtained by treatment of BO with a water–dichloromethane solvent mixture, was investigated using a water-soluble homogeneous ruthenium catalyst (RuCl3·3H2O/tris(m-sulfonatophenyl)phosphine, TPPTS). The

  4. The antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effect of water-soluble fraction of bee venom on rheumatoid arthritis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang-Hern Lee

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available We recently demonstrated that bee venom (BV injection into acupoint (i.e. Zusanli produced more potent anti-inflammatory and antinociciptive effect in Freunds adjuvant induced rheumatoid arthritis (RA model as compared with that of non-acupoint injection(i.e back. However, the precise components underlying BV-induced antinociceptive and/or anti-inflammatory effects have not been fully understood. Therefore, we further investigated the anti-arthritic effect of BV after extracting the whole BV according to solubility (water soluble: BVA, ethylacetate soluble: BVE. Subcutaneous BVA treatment (0.9 mg/kg/day into Zusanli acupoint was found to dramatically inhibit paw edema and radiological change (i.e. new bone proliferation and soft tissue swelling caused by Freunds adjuvant injection. In addition, the increase of serum interleukin-6 by RA induction was normalized by the BVA treatment as similar with that of non-arthritic animals. On the other hand, BVA therapy significantly reduced arthritis induced nociceptive behaviors (i.e., nociceptive score for mechanical hyperalgesia and thermal hyperalgesia. Furthermore, BVA treatment significantly suppressed adjuvant induced Fos expression in the lumbar spinal cord at 3 weeks post-adjuvant injection. However, BVE treatment (0.05 mg/kg/day has not any anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effect on RA. Based on the present results, we demonstrated that BVA might be a effective fraction in whole BV for long-term treatment of RA-induced pain and inflammation. However, it is clear necessary that further fraction study about BVA was required for elucidating an effective component of BVA.

  5. Effects of water soluble oncostatic fraction from Rheum officinale Baill. rhizomes on Allium cepa root meristem. I. The mitotic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dawidowicz-Grzegorzewska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the oncostatic extracts from Rheum officinale rhizomes on the activity of meristematic cells from Allium cepa roots were investigated. A statistically significant decrease of the IM value was noted as well as of the total number of mitoses during incubation. The disturbances in the course of mitosis and cytokinesis are described and discussed. The kind of disturbances during postincubation points to damage of the S and G2 phases of the interphase nuclei. Cytochemical and autoradiographic studies demonstrated a diminished intensity of staining of DNA and RNA and inhibition of DNA synthesis during incubation, this leading in tum to a lower intensity of protein staining in postincubation. Disturbances in mitosis and cytokinesis after treatment wth 2,6-dihydroxyantraquinone, supposed to be the antimitotically active compound of the extract, are the same as those produced by the total water soluble fraction.

  6. Growth and histopathological effects of chronic exposition of marine pejerrey Odontesthes argentinensis larvae to petroleum water-soluble fraction (WSF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusmão, Emeline Pereira; Rodrigues, Ricardo Vieira; Moreira, Cauê Bonucci; Romano, Luis Alberto; Sampaio, Luís André; Miranda-Filho, Kleber Campos

    2012-07-01

    The water-soluble fraction (WSF) of petroleum contains a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, volatile hydrocarbons, phenols, and heterocyclic compounds, considered deleterious to aquatic biota. Marine "pejerrey" Odontesthes argentinensis (Teleostei: Atherinopsidae) has a great commercial importance in local fisheries and a high potential for aquaculture. The aim of this study was to evaluate the histopathological effects in "pejerrey" larvae exposed to different concentrations of petroleum WSF. The chronic toxicity test was conducted with newly hatched larvae exposed for 21 days to sublethal concentrations of WSF (2.5, 5, 10, and 20 % of WSF), plus one control. Survival and growth were significantly lower in the highest concentration. Several histopathological changes were found in the gills (e.g., hyperplasia, aneurisms, edema, and necrosis), kidney (e.g., nuclear alterations, decrease in the hematopoietic cells), and liver (e.g., hypertrophy, karyorrhexis, and karyopyknosis). An index of branchial lesion was proposed to standardize gill lesions to different pollutants.

  7. Water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and its temperature-resolved carbon fractions in atmospheric aerosols in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiong; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Wang, Zhangwei; Ci, Zhijia

    2016-11-01

    Investigation of temperature-resolved carbon fractions of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) can improve our understanding of the chemical properties, formation processes and sources of WSOC in aerosols. We developed a method that can examine different temperature-resolved carbon fractions of WSOC and used this method to characterize aerosol samples (n = 102) collected from an urban site in Beijing in 2010-2011. The aerosol composition data including inorganic ions, elements and temperature-resolved carbon fractions of WSOC were used as input of positive matrix factorization (PMF) model to investigate the sources of WSOC. The results showed that the mean concentrations of WSOC were 10.2 μg m- 3 with increased values in winter and decreased values in summer, while WSOC/OC ratios (mean: 51.7%) were higher in spring and summer than in fall and winter. The sampling artifacts of WSOC (18.2%) were higher than those of OC (13.4%). Though WSOC was significantly influenced by biomass burning in spring and winter, the strong correlations between WSOC and other secondary components suggested that WSOC was secondary in nature. Results of temperature-resolved carbon fractions of OC and WSOC showed that WSOC/OC ratios for different carbon fractions had the highest value of 0.92 and lowest value of 0.30. PMF analysis identified four factors, three of which were associated with three organic polar compounds groups (low, medium, and high molecular weight compounds) based on their thermal evolution features, and one of which was attributed to inorganic secondary formation processes. Annually, the contributions of four factors were 20.5%, 46.2%, 12.4% and 20.9%, respectively.

  8. Size distributions of hydrophilic and hydrophobic fractions of water-soluble organic carbon in an urban atmosphere in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nijing; Yu, Jian Zhen

    2017-10-01

    Water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) is a significant part of ambient aerosol and plays an active role in contributing to aerosol's effect on visibility degradation and radiation budget through its interactions with atmospheric water. Size-segregated aerosol samples in the range of 0.056-18 μm were collected using a ten-stage impactor sampler at an urban site in Hong Kong over one-year period. The WSOC samples were separated into hydrophilic (termed WSOC_h) and hydrophobic fractions (i.e., the humic-like substances (HULIS) fraction) through solid-phase extraction procedure. Carbon in HULIS accounted for 40 ± 14% of WSOC. The size distribution of HULIS was consistently characterized in all seasons with a dominant droplet mode (46-71%) and minor condensation (9.0-18%) and coarse modes (20-35%). The droplet mode had a mass median aerodynamic diameter in the range of 0.7-0.8 μm. This size mode showed the largest seasonal variation in abundance, lowest in the summer (0.41 μg/m3) and highest in the winter (3.3 μg/m3). WSOC_h also had a dominant droplet mode, but was more evenly distributed among different size modes. Inter-species correlations within the same size mode suggest that the condensation-mode HULIS was partly associated with combustion sources and the droplet-mode was strongly associated with secondary sulfate formation and biomass burning particle aging processes. There is evidence to suggest that the coarse-mode HULIS largely originated from coagulation of condensation-mode HULIS with coarse soil/sea salt particles. The formation process and possible sources of WSOC_h was more complicated and multiple than HULIS and need further investigation. Our measurements indicate that WSOC components contributed a dominant fraction of water-soluble aerosol mass in particles smaller than 0.32 μm while roughly 20-30% in the larger particles.

  9. Response of antioxidase in viscera of Pagrosuma Major larvae to water soluble fraction of hydrocarbons in No.0 diesel oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Pagrosomus major larvae were exposed to thewater-soluble fraction of hydrocarbon in No.0 diesel oil(corresponding to No. 2 fuel oil) at concentrations of 0, 0.l7,l.22 and 8.82 mg/L for up to l5 days. Larvae were sampled on days9 and l5 of the experiment. Supernatants of viscera tissueextractions were assayed for biochemical response in terms ofoxidative stress-superoxide dismutase(SOD), activity ofselenium-dependant glutathione peroxidase(Se-GPx) and catalase(Ca), and the concentration of reduced glutathione(GSH). On day 9of exposure, statistically significant dose-related increases inSe-GPx and SOD activity, and GSH concentration were observed in allcases except for Se-GPx activity under the highest dosage of hydrocarbon. However, on day l5 of exposure, a similar dose-relatedresponse was only observed for Se-GPx activity. GSH concentrationdecreased and SOD activity showed no statistical difference ascompared to controls. However, a significant decrease in comparedto day 9 Se-GPx activity and GSH concentration, in contrast toincreased SOD activity at day 15 as indicates an acceleratedaccumulation of H2O2 and potential oxidative damage under long termexposure of larvae to hydrocarbons. No statistical changes wereobserved in Ca activity throughout the experiment, possibly owingto the high efficiency of Se-GPx.A recovery experiment was performed on indicating that theresponse of antioxidants measured tending to return to theircontrol levels. These results prove the function of the antioxidantdefense system of the larvae to the water-soluble fraction ofhydrocarbons in No. 0 diesel oil.

  10. Asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation in the study of water-soluble macromolecules

    OpenAIRE

    Yohannes, Gebrenegus

    2007-01-01

    Asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AsFlFFF) was constructed, and its applicability to industrial, biochemical, and pharmaceutical applications was studied. The effect of several parameters, such as pH, ionic strength, temperature and the reactants mixing ratios on the particle sizes, molar masses, and the formation of aggregates of macromolecules was determined by AsFlFFF. In the case of industrial application AsFlFFF proved to be a valuable tool in the characterization of the hydrod...

  11. Genetic and Hematologic Endpoints in Astyanax altiparanae (Characidae) After Exposure and Recovery to Water-Soluble Fraction of Gasoline (WSFG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvan, Gabrieli L; Lirola, Juliana R; Felisbino, Karoline; Vicari, Taynah; Yamamoto, Carlos I; Cestari, Marta M

    2016-07-01

    The sublethal effects of water-soluble fraction of gasoline (WSFG, 1.5 % v/v) were evaluated in the freshwater fish, Astynax altiparanae, after acute exposure (96 h) under a semi-static system. In addition, the recovery process was assessed in the fish following contaminant depuration. Recovery treatments were carried out with gradual depuration (GD), consisting of 7 days in the WSFG, followed by 8 days in clean water; and treatments with total depuration in clean water for 15 (DEP 15) and 30 days (DEP 30). The effects were evaluated through the piscine micronucleus test and by differential counting of organic defense cells. Acute exposure increased the frequency of neutrophils. In the GD treatment, the thrombocyte count and erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities (ENA) increased. In the DEP 15 treatment, there was a reduction of ENA; and following 30 days of depuration (i.e., DEP 30), the number of lymphocytes increased and the thrombocyte count remained high. These results indicate a long-term response to a condition of stress from WSFG.

  12. Uptake of water-soluble gasoline fractions and their effect on oxygen consumption in aquatic stages of the mosquito (Ades aegypti (L. ))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, W.O.; Brammer, J.D.; Bee, D.E.

    1978-01-01

    Oxygen consumption in aquatic stages of the mosquito (Aedes aegypti (L)) was measured following a 24-h pretreatment in sublethal doses of water-soluble fractions from whole gasoline or its individual components (benzene, toluene and xylenes). A significant increase in O/sub 2/ consumption occurred in treated-fed larvae following exposure to water-soluble fractions from either 1 ml gasoline/liter water or a mixture of 0.2 ml benzene and 0.2 ml toluene/litre water. No significant differences in respiration were observed in either unfed larvae or fed larvae pretreated with the separate fractions or combinations of xylenes with benzene or toluene. Uptake and discharge of toluene by 4th-instar larvae were measured in solutions containing water-soluble amounts of H/sup 3/ toluene alone and in combination with benzene. These experiments suggest that water-soluble gasoline fractions are taken up by food particles and assimilated by the insects via feeding. The respiratory response of the larvae appears to be due to a synergistic effect of benzene and toluene that may affect cell permeability.

  13. Acute toxicity of water soluble fraction of petroleum, diesel and gasoline for newly hatched larvae of marine pejerrey Odontesthes Argentinensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Ricardo V.; Miranda-Filho, Kleber C.; Gusmao, Emeline P.; Moreira, Caue B.; Santos, Renato A.; Oliveira, Marcelo G.; Sampaio, Luis Andre [Fundacao Universidade do Rio Grande (FURG), RS (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The hydrocarbons of petroleum are the main aquatic pollutants and can cause toxicity to aquatic organisms, however, only a few toxicological studies were already conducted with early life stages of fish. The aim of this work was to determine the toxicity (LC50-96h) of water soluble fraction (WSF) of petroleum, diesel and gasoline for newly hatched larvae of marine pejerrey Odontesthes argentinensis. During the experiments the concentrations tested were: to petroleum (5%, 10%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of), to diesel (1%, 2%, 4%, 8%, 16%, 32%, e 64% of WSF) and to gasoline (1%, 2.5%, 5%, 10%, and 20% of WSF) plus a control to each pollutant. All treatments were done with 3 repetitions and 30 larvae. During the experiments the water quality were maintained at temperature 22,5 deg C, salinity 30, pH 7.95 and dissolved oxygen approximately around 4mg/L. The petroleum presented an CL50-96h equal to 70.68% (65.73 - 76.01), while the diesel and gasoline presented the toxicity values of 13.46% (10.19-17.79) and 5.48% (4.85-6.20), respectively. The results demonstrated a higher toxicity of light fuels (diesel and gasoline) compared to heavy petroleum. (author)

  14. Toxicity of water-soluble fractions of biodiesel fuels derived from castor oil, palm oil, and waste cooking oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Maria Bernadete Neiva Lemos; de Araújo, Milena Maria Sampaio; Nascimento, Iracema Andrade; da Cruz, Andrea Cristina Santos; Pereira, Solange Andrade; do Nascimento, Núbia Costa

    2011-04-01

    Concerns over the sustained availability of fossil fuels and their impact on global warming and pollution have led to the search for fuels from renewable sources to address worldwide rising energy demands. Biodiesel is emerging as one of the possible solutions for the transport sector. It shows comparable engine performance to that of conventional diesel fuel, while reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, the toxicity of products and effluents from the biodiesel industry has not yet been sufficiently investigated. Brazil has a very high potential as a biodiesel producer, in view of its climatic conditions and vast areas for cropland, with consequent environmental risks because of possible accidental biodiesel spillages into water bodies and runoff to coastal areas. This research determined the toxicity to two marine organisms of the water-soluble fractions (WSF) of three different biodiesel fuels obtained by methanol transesterification of castor oil (CO), palm oil (PO), and waste cooking oil (WCO). Microalgae and sea urchins were used as the test organisms, respectively, for culture-growth-inhibition and early-life-stage-toxicity tests. The toxicity levels of the analyzed biodiesel WSF showed the highest toxicity for the CO, followed by WCO and the PO. Methanol was the most prominent contaminant; concentrations increased over time in WSF samples stored up to 120 d. Copyright © 2010 SETAC.

  15. Cytotoxicity of water-soluble fraction from biodiesel and its diesel blends to human cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leme, Daniela Morais; Grummt, Tamara; Heinze, Rita; Sehr, Andrea; Skerswetat, Matthias; de Marchi, Mary Rosa Rodrigues; Machado, Marcos Canto; de Oliveira, Danielle Palma; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida

    2011-11-01

    The designation of biodiesel as a green fuel has increased its commercialization and use, making its fate in the environment a matter of concern. Fuel spills constitute a major source of aquatic pollution and, like diesel spills, biodiesel can produce adverse effects on aquatic environments, animals and humans. The present study assessed cytotoxic effects of water systems contaminated with neat biodiesel and its diesel blends by means of different procedures on human T cell leukemia (Jurkat) and human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells [detection of changes in mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ(m)) using tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester (TMRE), apoptosis recognition by Annexin V and impedance real-time cell analyzer (xCELLigence™ system)]. The data obtained showed concordance across the different bioassays, with cytotoxic effects observed as a dose-dependent response only for waters contaminated with pure diesel (D100) and B5 blend, which is characterized by a mixture of 95% diesel and 5% biodiesel. The data can also lead us to hypothesize that diesel accounts for the harmful effects observed, and that biodiesel does not worsen the impacts caused by diesel pollution. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of salinity on PAH Uptake from water soluble fraction of crude oil in Tilapia mossambica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, P; Gopalani, M; Ramteke, D S; Wate, S R

    2007-12-01

    Accidents during marine transport and offshore production facilities often are responsible for oil spills in the open sea. In few cases, these oil slicks drift towards the shore and further into the estuaries, which serve as an important spawning and nursing grounds for many fish species. This study examined the role of salinity in the uptake and accumulation of toxic PAH from crude oil in select somatic and reproductive organs of Tilapia mossambica. Our results showed significantly (ANOVA, p waters and its uptake by fish. The differences were largest with the low molecular weight (LMW) two (naphthalenes) and three (phenanthrene) ring compounds as compared with higher molecular weight (HMW) compounds such as pyrene (four ringed).

  17. Acute toxicity of the water-soluble fraction of diesel in Prochilodus vimboidesKner (Characiformes: Prochilodontidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celina Alcoforado Santos

    Full Text Available Diesel oil can be a source of contamination in aquatic environments, mainly as a result of spills. The effects of the water-soluble fraction of diesel (WSF on Prochilodus vimboideswere assessed. Fish were exposed to three different WSF dilutions for up to 96 h and were compared to a control group. Damages in the fragments of DNA were analyzed using the Comet assay. The presence of erytrocyts abnormalities was assessed by micronucleus test. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT activity and the accumulation of copper in gills were also analyzed. Fish exposed for 96 h had higher rates of damage than those exposed for 24 h. There was no significant difference regarding the presence of micronuclei between exposed and control fish and between 24-h and 96-h exposures. For AST, no significant difference was observed between samples collected at the two exposure times. Fish exposed to a 1:100 dilution of WSF showed higher activity of the enzyme ALT than the control fish after a 24-h exposure period. There was no bioaccumulation of copper in the gills. We conclude that the genotoxic effects of WSF in the cells are more evident in P. vimboides during an acute exposure.

  18. Growth and Histopathological Effects of Chronic Exposition of Marine Pejerrey Odontesthes argentinensis Larvae to Petroleum Water-Soluble Fraction (WSF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gusmao, Emeline Pereira; Rodrigues, Ricardo Vieira; Moreira, Caue Bonucci [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Aquicultura, Laboratorio de Piscicultura Estuarina e Marinha, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Rio Grande (Brazil); Romano, Luis Alberto; Sampaio, Luis Andre [Laboratorio de Piscicultura Estuarina e Marinha, Instituto de Oceanografia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Rio Grande (Brazil); Miranda-Filho, Kleber Campos [Escola de Veterinaria, Departamento de Zootecnia, Laboratorio de Aquacultura, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte (Brazil)], e-mail: kmiranda2010@ufmg.br

    2012-07-15

    The water-soluble fraction (WSF) of petroleum contains a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, volatile hydrocarbons, phenols, and heterocyclic compounds, considered deleterious to aquatic biota. Marine 'pejerrey' Odontesthes argentinensis (Teleostei: Atherinopsidae) has a great commercial importance in local fisheries and a high potential for aquaculture. The aim of this study was to evaluate the histopathological effects in 'pejerrey' larvae exposed to different concentrations of petroleum WSF. The chronic toxicity test was conducted with newly hatched larvae exposed for 21 days to sublethal concentrations of WSF (2.5, 5, 10, and 20 % of WSF), plus one control. Survival and growth were significantly lower in the highest concentration. Several histopathological changes were found in the gills (e.g., hyperplasia, aneurysms, edema, and necrosis), kidney (e.g., nuclear alterations, decrease in the hematopoietic cells), and liver (e.g., hypertrophy, karyorrhexis, and karyopyknosis). An index of branchial lesion was proposed to standardize gill lesions to different pollutants.

  19. Antioxidant effects of the water-soluble fraction of baked sponge cake made with silky fowl egg: comparison with White Leghorn egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyosaki, T; Koketsu, M

    2007-08-01

    1. The antioxidant effects of the water-soluble fraction of baked sponge cakes made with silky fowl eggs and White Leghorn eggs were studied. The mechanism of the antioxidant effect was also investigated. 2. The antioxidant effect on the oxidation of linoleic acid increased in the water-soluble fraction of cake made with silky eggs. In contrast, Leghorn eggs significantly decreased the rate of antioxidant activity. The browning index of the water-soluble fraction of baked sponge cake made with silky fowl eggs changed from 0.052 to 1.240 after 20 min at 180 degrees C, while that made with Leghorn eggs changed from 0.037 to 0.710. 3. There are correlations between the rate of browning index and antioxidant activity. Superoxide anion (O2(-)) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) in water-soluble fractions of baked sponge cakes made with silky fowl eggs and hen's eggs were formed during light exposure for 20 min at 10,000 lux, and their formation could be significantly inhibited by the addition of tryptophan or mannitol, scavengers of hydroxyl radicals (*OH). These results were strong evidence of direct participation of *OH, formed by the Haber-Weiss reaction, in the water-soluble fraction of baked sponge cakes. The rate of decrease in active oxygen by scavengers decreased in Leghorn eggs more efficiently than in silky eggs. 4. The present experiments suggested that the use of silky fowl eggs could improve the quality and oxidative stability of baked cakes.

  20. Fractionation, partial characterization and bioactivity of water-soluble polysaccharides and polysaccharide-protein complexes from Pleurotus geesteranus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mei; Zhu, Lin; Cui, Steve W; Wang, Qi; Zhou, Ting; Shen, Hengsheng

    2011-01-01

    Fractionation and purification of mushroom polysaccharides is a critical process for mushroom clinical application. After a hot-water treatment, the crude Pleurotus geesteranus (PG) was further fractionated into four fractions (PG-1, -2, -3, -4) using gradient precipitation with water and ammonia sulphate. By controlling the initial polymer concentration and ratio of solvents, this process produced PG fractions with high chemical uniformity and narrow Mw distribution without free proteins. Structurally, PG-1 and PG-2 are pure homopolysaccharide mainly composed of glucose; and PG-3 and PG-4 are heteropolysaccharide-protein complexes. PG-2, a high M(w) fraction mainly composed of glucose presented significant cytotoxicity at the concentration of 200 and 100 μg/ml to human breast cancer cells. Here, we report a new mushroom polysaccharides extraction and fractionation method, with which we produced four fractions of PG with PG-2 appearing effective anti-tumour activity.

  1. Genotoxicity and histological alterations in grey mullet Mugil liza exposed to petroleum water-soluble fraction (PWSF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Cauê Bonucci; Rodrigues, Ricardo Vieira; Romano, Luis Alberto; Gusmão, Emeline Pereira; Seyffert, Bianca Hartwig; Sampaio, Luís André; Miranda-Filho, Kleber Campos

    2014-04-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons are considered one of the main organic chemicals found in water bodies. In the present study, the median lethal concentration (LC50) was estimated for mullet Mugil liza after acute exposure to petroleum water-soluble fraction (PWSF). Furthermore, histopathological studies and micronuclei frequency were also performed in order to observe deleterious effects of medium-term exposition to PWSF. Mullets (25 ± 2.3 g) were exposed to chronic concentrations (1.7, 3.5 and 7 % of PWSF), plus the control group, for 14 and 7 days of clearance time. Throughout the experimental period (1, 4, 14 and 21 days), blood samples were collected for analysis of micronucleus (MN) and liver and gills for histopathological study. For these procedures, seven fish were sampled per concentration tested. The LC50-96 h was estimated at 37.5 % of the PWSF. The time required for MN induction was 96 h of exposure. The time of clearance was sufficient to achieve a MN frequency similar to that of the control group. Histopathological studies showed severe changes in the gill and liver tissues. The most relevant histopathology in the gills was telangiectasia. Hepatic histopathology such as cholestasis, dilated sinusoids and inflammatory infiltrates were commonly described. The MN test and histological study effectively detected damages caused by medium-term exposition to the PWSF, and despite the toxicity, a few days without exposure can minimize PWSF genotoxicity in juveniles of M. liza.

  2. Preparative separation of polyphenols from water-soluble fraction of Chinese propolis using macroporous absorptive resin coupled with preparative high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Aifeng; Xuan, Hongzhuan; Sun, Ailing; Liu, Renmin; Cui, Jichun

    2016-02-15

    In this study, a preparative separation method was developed for isolation of eleven polyphenols from water-soluble fraction of Chinese propolis using macroporous absorptive resin (MAR) coupled with preparative high performance liquid chromatography (PHPLC). Water-soluble fraction of Chinese propolis was first "prefractioned" using MAR, which yielded four subfractions. The four subfractions were then isolated by PHPLC with an isocratic elution of methanol-water. Finally, eleven polyphenols were purified from Chinese propolis including caffeic acid, ferulic acid, isoferulic acid, 3,4-dimethoxy cinnamic acid, pinobanksin, caffeic acid benzyl ester, caffeic acid phenethyl ester, apigenin, pinocembrin, chrysin and galangin. The purities of the compounds were determined by HPLC and the chemical structures were confirmed by UV and NMR analysis. The method developed was simple, effective, rapid, scalable and economical, and it was a promising basis for large-scale preparation of multiple components from natural products.

  3. Deleterious effects of water-soluble fraction of petroleum, diesel and gasoline on marine pejerrey Odontesthes argentinensis larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Ricardo Vieira [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Aquicultura, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Laboratorio de Piscicultura Estuarina e Marinha, CEP 96201-900, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Miranda-Filho, Kleber Campos, E-mail: kleber08@gmail.com [Instituto de Oceanografia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Laboratorio de Piscicultura Estuarina e Marinha, CEP 96210-030, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Gusmao, Emeline Pereira; Moreira, Caue Bonucci [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Aquicultura, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Laboratorio de Piscicultura Estuarina e Marinha, CEP 96201-900, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Romano, Luis Alberto; Sampaio, Luis Andre [Instituto de Oceanografia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Laboratorio de Piscicultura Estuarina e Marinha, CEP 96210-030, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil)

    2010-04-01

    Accidental discharges and oil spills are frequent around the world. Petroleum-derived hydrocarbons are considered one of the main pollutants of aquatic ecosystem. The importance of petroleum and refined fuels is notorious because today's society depends on them. Researches related to the toxic water-soluble fraction (WSF) of petroleum and derivatives to aquatic biota are scarce. For this reason, deleterious effects of WSF of Brazilian petroleum, automotive diesel and unleaded gasoline to marine pejerrey Odontesthes argentinensis larvae were studied employing toxicity tests and histopathological examination. Each WSF was generated in a laboratory by mixing four parts of seawater with one part of pollutant by approximately 22 h. Larvae were exposed during 96 h to different concentrations of WSF of petroleum, diesel, and gasoline, plus a control. After 96 h of exposure to the different WSFs, three larvae were sampled for histopathological studies. The median lethal concentration after 96 h (LC50) of exposure for WSF of petroleum was equal to 70.68%, it was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than the values for WSF of diesel and gasoline, which were 13.46% and 5.48%, respectively. The histological examination of pejerrey larvae exposed to WSF of petroleum, diesel and gasoline after 96 h revealed a variety of lesions in the larvae. The gills, pseudobranchs and esophagus presented epithelial hyperplasia, and the liver presented dilatation of hepatic sinusoids, hepatocitomegaly, bi-nucleated and nuclear degeneration of hepatocytes, such as pyknotic nuclei. The acute toxicity of diesel and gasoline is at least fivefold higher than Brazilian petroleum. However, all toxicants induced histopathological abnormalities in pejerrey larvae. The results are of importance since much attention has been paid to large visible surfaces of petroleum spills instead of potential toxic effects of dissolved aromatic hydrocarbons, which are more available to marine biota.

  4. The activity of milk leukocytes in response to a water-soluble fraction of Mycobacterium phlei in bovine subclinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, R; Ram, G C; Dash, P K; Goswami, T

    2004-01-01

    The effect of a water-soluble fraction (WSF) of a non-pathogenic strain of Mycobacterium phlei was studied in bovine subclinical mastitis (SCM) by measuring the myeloperoxidase and acid phosphatase enzyme levels in the milk leukocytes. Forty-five cows were divided into three equal groups. Group I, consisting of 15 healthy cows, served as the control, whereas groups II and III each contained 15 cows with subclinical mastitis on the basis of a positive reaction in the California mastitis test (CMT). The cows in group II received 100 microg of WSF in 5 ml sterile phosphate-buffered saline, pH 7.4 (PBS) once only, while those in group III received 5 ml sterile PBS daily for 7 days, both treatments being given by the intramammary route. Observations were made up to 30 days after treatment (AT). The CMT of the healthy milk was negative (0), whereas it ranged between 1 and 2 points in SCM. The somatic cell count (SCC) increased significantly (p < 0.05) on day 3, then fell steeply from day 7 up to day 30 AT in the cows in group II. A steady decrease in the total bacterial count (TBC) was observed in the group treated with WSF but the bacterial counts remained high in the groups treated with PBS. The mean acid phosphatase level was enhanced by 119% on day 3 AT in group II but only by 18.7% in the cows in group III. The mean myeloperoxidase level was enhanced by 100% in the cows in group II but only by 18% in those in group III on day 3 AT. This significant reduction in the bacterial load in infected cows caused by intramammary infusion of WSF may be due to activation of the microbicidal activity of the neutrophils, but this requires confirmation.

  5. Fractionation and Biological Activities of Water-Soluble Polysaccharides from Sclerotium of Tiger Milk Medicinal Mushroom, Lignosus rhinocerotis (Agaricomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keong, Choong Yew; B, Vimala; Daker, Maelinda; Hamzah, Mohd Yusof; Mohamad, Shaiful Azuar; Lan, Jin; Chen, Xiangdong; Yang, Yu-Ping

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, and the direct cytotoxic effect of Lignosus rhinocerotis fractions, especially the polysaccharide fraction, on nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells. L. rhinocerotis crude extract was obtained through hot water extraction. The precipitate saturated with 30% ammonium sulfate was purified with ion-exchanged chromatography. Gel permeation chromatography multiangle laser light scattering analysis equipped with light scattering and UV signals revealed two district groups of polymers. A total of four peaks were observed in the total carbohydrate test. Fraction C, which was the second region of the second peak eluted with 0.3 M NaOH, showed the highest integrated molecular weight, whereas fraction E had the lowest integrated molecular weight of 19,790 Da. Fraction A contained the highest β-D-glucan content. Enzymatic analysis showed that most of the polysaccharide fractions contained β-1-3 and β-1-6 skeletal backbones. The peak eluted with 0.6 M NaOH was separated in fraction D (flask 89-92) and fraction E (93-96). The results showed that fraction E expressed higher antioxidant activities than fraction D whereas fraction D expressed higher chelating activity than fraction E. The extract saturated with 30% ammonium sulfate exhibited higher reducing power than the extract saturated with 100% ammonium sulfate. Fractions D and E significantly inhibited the secretion of tumor necrosis factor-α in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. There was no apparent difference in the viability of cells exposed or unexposed to L. rhinocerotis fractions.

  6. Insights Into Water-Soluble Organic Aerosol Sources From Carbon-13 Ratios of Size Exclusion Chromatography Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruehl, C. R.; Chuang, P. Y.; McCarthy, M. D.

    2008-12-01

    Many sources of organic aerosols have been identified and quantified, and much of this work has used individual (mosty water-insoluble) compounds as tracers of primary sources. However, most organic aerosol cannot be molecularly characterized, and the water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in many aerosols is thought to originate from gaseous precursors (i.e., it is secondary in nature). It can therefore be difficult to infer aerosol sources, particularly of background (i.e., aged) aerosols, and of the relatively high-MW component of aerosols. The stable isotope ratios (δ13C) of organic aerosols have been used to distinguish between sources, with lighter values (-30‰ to -25‰) interpreted as having originated from fossil fuel combustion and C4 biogenic emission, and heavier values (-25‰ to - 20‰) indicating a marine or C3 biogenic source. Most published measurements were of either total suspended particulates or PM2.5, however, and it is unknown to what extent these fractions differ from submicron WSOC. We report δ13C for submicron WSOC collected at a variety of sites, ranging from marine to polluted to background continental. Bulk marine organic δ13C ranged from -30.4 to - 27.6‰, slightly lighter than previously published results. This could be due to the elimination of supermicron cellular material or other biogenic primary emissions from the sample. Continental WSOC δ13C ranged from -19.1 to -29.8‰, with heavier values (-19.8 ± 1.0‰) in Oklahoma and lighter values at Great Smoky Mountain National Park in Tennessee (-25.8 ± 2.6‰) and Illinois (-24.5 ± 1.0‰). This likely results from the greater proportional of C3 plant material in the Oklahoma samples. In addition to bulk samples, we used size exclusion chromatography (SEC) to report δ13C of organic aerosols as a function of hydrodynamic diameter. Variability and magnitude of hydrodynamic diameter was greatest at low SEC pH, indicative of the acidic character of submicron WSOC. Tennessee

  7. Effects of motor patterns on water-soluble and membrane proteins and cholinesterase activity in subcellular fractions of rat brain tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pevzner, L. Z.; Venkov, L.; Cheresharov, L.

    1980-01-01

    Albino rats were kept for a year under conditions of daily motor load or constant hypokinesia. An increase in motor activity results in a rise in the acetylcholinesterase activity determined in the synaptosomal and purified mitochondrial fractions while hypokinesia induces a pronounced decrease in this enzyme activity. The butyrylcholinesterase activity somewhat decreases in the synaptosomal fraction after hypokinesia but does not change under the motor load pattern. Motor load causes an increase in the amount of synaptosomal water-soluble proteins possessing an intermediate electrophoretic mobility and seem to correspond to the brain-specific protein 14-3-2. In the synaptosomal fraction the amount of membrane proteins with a low electrophoretic mobility and with the cholinesterase activity rises. Hypokinesia, on the contrary, decreases the amount of these membrane proteins.

  8. Production of furfural from xylose, water-insoluble hemicelluloses and water-soluble fraction of corncob via a tin-loaded montmorillonite solid acid catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huiling; Ren, Junli; Zhong, Linjie; Sun, Runcang; Liang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    The conversion of xylose, water-insoluble hemicelluloses (WIH) and water-soluble fraction (WSF) of corncob to furfural was performed using montmorillonite with tin ions (Sn-MMT) containing double acid sites as a solid acid catalyst. The co-existence of Lewis acids and Brønsted acids in Sn-MMT was shown to improve the furfural yield and selectivity. 76.79% furfural yield and 82.45% furfural selectivity were obtained from xylose using Sn-MMT as a catalyst in a biphasic system with 2-s-butylphenol (SBP) as the organic extracting layer and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as the co-solvent in contact with an aqueous phase saturated with NaCl (SBP/NaCl-DMSO) at 180°C for 30min. Furthermore, Sn-MMT also demonstrated the excellent catalytic performance in the conversion of pentose-rich materials of corncob and 39.56% and 54.15% furfural yields can be directly obtained from WIH and WSF in the SBP/NaCl-DMSO system, respectively.

  9. Potential cytotoxicity of water-soluble fraction of dust and particulate matters and relation to metal(loid)s based on three human cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Minjuan; Kang, Yuan; Wang, Wei; Chan, Chuen Yu; Wang, Xuemei; Wong, Ming Hung

    2015-09-01

    Hepatocellular liver carcinoma (HepG2), human skin derived keratinocyte (KERTr,) and lung epithelial carcinoma (A549) were employed in MTT assay to evaluate the cytotoxicity of water-soluble fraction of road dust, air-conditioning (AC) filter dust and PM2.5 via ingestion, dermal contact and inhalation. Their effects on cell growth were dependent on exposure time and concentration. The LC20s of PM2.5 for A549 cell were approximately one order of magnitude lower than those of road dust and AC filter dust for KERTr cell and HepG2 cell. The LC20s of aqueous extracts were negatively correlated to the water-soluble metal(loid)s contained in dust coarse particles (KERTr: p=0.004; HepG2: p0.05). Other water-soluble components in dust and PM might cause the cell hazards synergistically or additively with metal(loid)s. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A~fine fraction of soil used as an aerosol analogue during the DUNE experiment: sequential solubility in water with step-by-step decreasing pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Aghnatios

    2014-02-01

    provides information on the necessary strength for the solubilisation of a given element and its lability. The behaviour of the elemental fractional solubility is sorted into two groups: (i Ca, Sr, Ba, Mn, P constitute group 1, with a solubility between 23% and 70% and with a maximum solubility at pH 3; (ii whereas in group 2 (Al, Fe, the solubility is less than 2% with the highest release at pH 1. Similar solubility patterns in group 1 for Ca, P and Mn suggest a~possible association of the elements in the same minerals, most probably carbonates, which gives phosphorus an unexpected high lability.

  11. Water-soluble fractions from defatted sesame seeds protect human neuroblast cells against peroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Othman, Sana; Katsuno, Nakako; Kitayama, Akemi; Fujimura, Makoto; Kitaguchi, Kohji; Yabe, Tomio

    2016-09-01

    Oxidative stress is involved in the development of aging-related diseases, such as neurodegenerative diseases. Dietary antioxidants that can protect neuronal cells from oxidative damage play an important role in preventing such diseases. Previously, we reported that water-soluble fractions purified from defatted sesame seed flour exhibit good antioxidant activity in vitro. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of white and gold sesame seed water-soluble fractions (WS-wsf and GS-wsf, respectively) against 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced oxidative stress in human neuroblast SH-SY5Y cells. Pretreatment with WS-wsf and GS-wsf did not protect cells against AAPH-induced cytotoxicity, while simultaneous co-treatment with AAPH significantly improved cell viability and inhibited membrane lipid peroxidation. These results suggest that WS-wsf and GS-wsf protect cells from AAPH-induced extracellular oxidative damage via direct scavenging of peroxyl radicals. When oxidative stress was induced by H2O2, pretreatment WS-wsf and GS-wsf significantly enhanced cell viability. These results suggest that in addition to radical scavenging, WS-wsf and GS-wsf enhance cellular resistance to intracellular oxidative stress by activation of the Nrf-2/ARE pathway as confirmed by the increased Nrf2 protein level in the nucleus and increased heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) mRNA expression. The roles of ferulic and vanillic acids as bioactive antioxidants in these fractions were also confirmed. In conclusion, our results indicated that WS-wsf and GS-wsf, which showed antioxidant activity in vitro, are also efficient antioxidants in a cell system protecting SH-SY5Y cells against both extracellular and intracellular oxidative stress.

  12. Chemical characterization of the ambient organic aerosol soluble in water: 1. Isolation of hydrophobic and hydrophilic fractions with a XAD-8 resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Amy P.; Weber, Rodney J.

    2006-03-01

    Group separation of the aqueous extract of fine particles bearing water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) provides unique insights into the sources of organic carbon (OC). XAD-8 resin coupled with a Total Organic Carbon analyzer allows for direct quantification. We term the fraction of WSOC not retained by a XAD-8 resin column at pH 2 as hydrophilic WSOC (WSOCxp); this includes saccharides, amines, and carbonyls and aliphatic monocarboxylic/dicarboxylic/oxocarboxylic acids with less than 4 or 5 carbons. The fraction of WSOC retained by XAD-8, termed the hydrophobic fraction (WSOCxr), include aromatic acids, phenols, organic nitrates, cyclic acids, and carbonyls and monocarboxylic/dicarboxylic acids with greater than 3 or 4 carbons. However, only aromatic compounds (or aromatic-like compounds with similar properties) can subsequently be extracted from XAD-8 with high efficiency. By coupling a Particle-into-Liquid Sampler with this technique, online measurements of WSOC, WSOCxp, and WSOCxr are possible. Urban measurements from St. Louis and Atlanta, on a carbon mass basis, show an increase in the mean WSOC fraction from winter (51%) to summer (61%), due to increases in the WSOCxp/OC from 0.25 to 0.35. During a summer Atlanta PM event, WSOC to OC was 0.75, driven largely by increases in the WSOCxp. The results are consistent with the view that in the summer, there are increased amounts of oxygenated polar compounds, possibly from secondary organic aerosol production, and that these compounds account for an even larger fraction of OC during stagnation events. A companion paper describes a method to further group speciate these XAD-8 isolated fractions.

  13. Influence of Saharan dust outbreaks and carbon content on oxidative potential of water-soluble fractions of PM2.5 and PM10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirizzi, Daniela; Cesari, Daniela; Guascito, Maria Rachele; Dinoi, Adelaide; Giotta, Livia; Donateo, Antonio; Contini, Daniele

    2017-08-01

    Exposure to atmospheric particulate matter (PM) leads to adverse health effects although the exact mechanisms of toxicity are still poorly understood. Several studies suggested that a large number of PM health effects could be due to the oxidative potential (OP) of ambient particles leading to high concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The contribution to OP of specific anthropogenic sources like road traffic, biomass burning, and industrial emissions has been investigated in several sites. However, information about the OP of natural sources are scarce and no data is available regarding the OP during Saharan dust outbreaks (SDO) in Mediterranean regions. This work uses the a-cellular DTT (dithiothreitol) assay to evaluate OP of the water-soluble fraction of PM2.5 and PM10 collected at an urban background site in Southern Italy. OP values in three groups of samples were compared: standard characterised by concentrations similar to the yearly averages; high carbon samples associated to combustion sources (mainly road traffic and biomass burning) and SDO events. DTT activity normalised by sampled air volume (DTTV), representative of personal exposure, and normalised by collected aerosol mass (DTTM), representing source-specific characteristics, were investigated. The DTTV is larger for high PM concentrations. DTTV is well correlated with secondary organic carbon concentration. An increased DTTV response was found for PM2.5 compared to the coarse fraction PM2.5-10. DTTV is larger for high carbon content samples but during SDO events is statistically comparable with that of standard samples. DTTM is larger for PM2.5 compared to PM10 and the relative difference between the two size fractions is maximised during SDO events. This indicates that Saharan dust advection is a natural source of particles having a lower specific OP with respect to the other sources acting on the area (for water-soluble fraction). OP should be taken into account in epidemiological

  14. The effect of dietary water soluble carbohydrate to nitrogen ratio on nitrogen partitioning and isotopic fractionation of lactating goats offered a high-nitrogen diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, L; Edwards, G R; Dewhurst, R J; Nicol, A M; Pacheco, D

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between nitrogen (N) partitioning and isotopic fractionation in lactating goats consuming diets with a constant high concentration of N and increasing levels of water soluble carbohydrate (WSC). Eight lactating goats were offered four different ratios of WSC : N in the diet. A two-period incomplete cross-over design was used, with two goats assigned to each treatment in each period. N balance measurements were conducted, with measurement of feed N intake and total output of N in milk, faeces and urine. Treatment, period and infusion effects were tested using general ANOVA; the relationships between variables were analysed by linear regression. Dietary treatment and period had significant effects on dry matter (DM) intake (g/day). DM digestibility (g/kg DM) and N digestibility (g/kg N) increased as the ratio of WSC : N increased in the diet. No treatment effect was observed on milk urea N concentration (g/l) or urinary excretion of purine derivatives (mM/day). Although dietary treatment and period had significant effects on N intake, the change of N intake was small; no effect was observed for N partitioning among faeces, milk and urine. Milk, plasma and faeces were enriched in 15N compared with feed, whilst urine was depleted in 15N relative to feed. No significant relationship was established between N partitioning and isotopic fractionation. This study failed to confirm the potential to use N isotopic fractionation as an indicator of N partitioning in dairy goats when diets provided N in excess to requirements, most likely because the range of milk N output/N intake and urinary N output/N intake were narrow.

  15. Comparing the Toxicity of Water-Soluble Fractions of Biodiesel, Diesel and 5% Biodiesel/Diesel Blend on Oreochromis niloticus Using Histological Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Maria Bernadete Neiva Lemos; da Cruz, André Luís; Rodrigues, Luiz Erlon Araújo; Yamashita, Sayuri Rocha; Carqueija, César Roberto Goes; Nascimento, Iracema Andrade

    2015-11-01

    This study estimated end compared the potential toxic effects of the water-soluble fractions (WSF) of biodiesel (B100), diesel and the commercial biodiesel (B5) on Oreochromis niloticus. After a 24 h-exposition to WSF-0% (control) and WSF-serial concentrations of 4.6%, 10%, 22%, 46% and 100%, samples of gill and liver of the exposed fishes were fixed in Bouin's solution, processed, stained using hematoxylin/eosin and analyzed by light-microscopy. WSF-hydrocarbons and methanol contents, analyzed by gas chromatography, were checked against the occurrence of abnormal histopathological alterations. These were not found in the control and WSF-4.6% exposed fishes, while exposures to or above 10%-WSF resulted in histopathological alterations whose severity increased in a dose-dependent manner, being higher in fishes exposed to WSF-diesel, or WSF-B5 when compared to biodiesel. These results, which were corroborated by the chemical analyses, highlighted the histological technique as an appropriate diagnostic tool that can be used for the preservation of water bodies' quality.

  16. Effects of Temperature and Water Soluble Fraction of Palm Biodiesel and Diesel Fuel on Hatchability and Survival of First Stage Larvae of Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puncharas Gorcharoenwat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of temperature and water soluble fraction (WSF of biodiesel and diesel on hatchability and survival of early stage Macrobrachium rosenbergii were investigated at the temperature of 25, 28, 31 and 34oC. The purpose of this study was to determine toxic effects of biodiesel and diesel on incubation period, hatchability, and survival of the first larval stage. The results showed a significant difference of incubation period among temperatures. The highest temperature (34°C resulted in the shortest incubation period (15 days while the lowest temperature (25°C gave the longest incubation period (19 days. One hundred percent of hatchability was found at temperature 28 and 31°C in the control group. The lowest hatchability occurred at 100% of WSF of palm biodiesel. The hatchability and survival of eggs through the first stage larvae in control and WSF of biodiesel decreased in higher temperature. However, in 50% WSF of diesel, the highest temperature (34°C increased the hatchability and survival whereas 100% WSF of diesel, no larval survival could be found. In comparison between WSF of biodiesel and diesel on newly hatched larvae, the diesel was more toxic to the larvae than that of the biodiesel. Regarding temperature and WSF of biodiesel and diesel effects on the first larval stage of M. rosenbergii, clearly diesel was more harmful to the larvae than biodiesel.

  17. Maternal exposure to the water soluble fraction of crude oil, lead and their mixture induces autism-like behavioral deficits in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanchuan; Zhong, Hongxiu; Wang, Chonggang; Gao, Dongxu; Zhou, Yulin; Zuo, Zhenghong

    2016-12-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a serious debilitating mental illness with complex symptoms and multi-factorial pathogenesis. Although the pathogenesis of ASD remains unclear, etiology is thought to involve complex, multigenic interactions and possible environmental contributions. In the present study, we used zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a model to investigate whether maternal exposure to the water soluble fraction of crude oil (WSF, 5μg/L), lead (Pb, 20μg/L) and their mixture (5 μg/L WSF+20 μg/L Pb) could induce autism-like behavior in larvae. Our results showed that isolated and combined WSF/Pb exposure altered the behavioral pattern of fish swimming. WSF significantly increased anxiety and locomotor activity, decreased repetitive behavior in the open field test, and reduced the level of serotonin. However, co-exposure to WSF/Pb decreased behavioral activity and shoaling behavior, and increased cycle swimming and edge preference. Significant changes in the expression level of the multiple genes potentially critical for regulating environmental factor induced autism-like behavior were found. A gene network regulating ASD disturbed by WSF/Pb exposure was established using computational analysis. The information from the network could provide a clue for further mechanistic studies explaining molecular events regulating WSF/Pb mediated ASD.

  18. Stage-dependent and sex-dependent sensitivity to water-soluble fractions of fresh and weathered oil in the marine copepod Calanus finmarchicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager, Tjalling; Altin, Dag; Miljeteig, Cecilie; Hansen, Bjørn Henrik

    2016-03-01

    Acute toxicity differs between species but also varies within a species. Important intraspecific factors are the exposure duration and properties of the animal such as life stage, sex, and physiological status. In the present study, the acute toxicity of water-soluble fractions (WSFs) from fresh and artificially weathered oil was followed over time in different life stages of the calanoid copepod Calanus finmarchicus, including adult males and females. The life stages differ in size but also in lipid content and physiology. To meaningfully compare the sensitivity of the different stages, the authors fitted a toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic (TKTD) model from the framework of the General Unified Threshold Model of Survival (GUTS) to the mortality patterns over time. The oil WSFs could not be treated as single compounds: the rapid effect at high doses could not be reconciled with the slow effect at low doses. Treating the oil as a mixture of 2 component blocks could, however, capture these patterns satisfactorily. Even though the early life stages of animals are generally considered to be the most vulnerable, the adult males of C. finmarchicus turned out to be most sensitive, followed by the early copepodites. Naupliar larvae were equally susceptible to oil toxicity as late copepodites and adult females. The relationship between the GUTS model parameters and the physiological traits for the different life stages remains, however, unclear.

  19. Water-soluble cavitands - synthesis, solubilities and binding properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middel, Oskar; Verboom, Willem; Reinhoudt, David N.

    2002-01-01

    Water-soluble cavitand receptors have been obtained by the introduction of ionizable groups (5, 21-28, 39) and neutral hydrophilic tetraethylene glycol based dendritic wedges (19, 20). The synthesis of these cavitands and a study of their water solubilities and binding properties toward neutral orga

  20. Characterization of Soluble Organics in Produced Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostick, D.T.

    2002-01-16

    -selective electrodes and inductively coupled plasma (ICP)-atomic emission spectrometry (AES). The WSO found in produced water samples was primarily polar in nature and distributed between the low and midrange carbon ranges. Typical levels of total extractable material (TEM) was about 20 mg/L; that associated with the aromatic fraction was present at 0.2 mg/L and that in the saturated hydrocarbon fraction was present at less than 0.02 mg/L. Formic, acetic, and propionic acids were also found in the produced water, occurring at a total concentration of 30 mg/L. It was estimated that the presence of 30 mg/L organic acids would artificially overstate TEM content by 2 mg/L. Of the five tested parameters, the factor that most controlled the total WSO in produced water was that of aqueous phase pH. Beyond a value of pH7 significant quantities of C{sub 10}-C{sub 20} range material become markedly soluble as they deprotonate in a basic aqueous phase. Both the absolute and relative volumes of GOM brine and crude additionally affected total WSO. Produced water appeared to reach a saturation level of WSO at a.50% water/oil ratio. Pressure slightly enhanced WSO by increasing the relative quantity of C{sub 6}-C{sub 10} range material. Temperature primarily altered the relative ratio of carbon ranges within the WSO without significantly elevating the total WSO in the GOM brine. Salinity had the least affect on the chemical character or the carbon size of WSO in produced water.

  1. Determination of water-soluble and insoluble (dilute-HCl-extractable) fractions of Cd, Pb and Cu in Antarctic aerosol by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry: distribution and summer seasonal evolution at Terra Nova Bay (Victoria Land)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annibaldi, A.; Truzzi, C.; Illuminati, S.; Bassotti, E.; Scarponi, G. [Polytechnic University of Marche - Ancona, Department of Marine Science, Ancona (Italy)

    2007-02-15

    Eight PM10 aerosol samples were collected in the vicinity of the ''Mario Zucchelli'' Italian Antarctic Station (formerly Terra Nova Bay Station) during the 2000-2001 austral summer using a high-volume sampler and precleaned cellulose filters. The aerosol mass was determined by differential weighing of filters carried out in a clean chemistry laboratory under controlled temperature and humidity. A two-step sequential extraction procedure was used to separate the water-soluble and the insoluble (dilute-HCl-extractable) fractions. Cd, Pb and Cu were determined in the two fractions using an ultrasensitive square wave anodic stripping voltammetric (SWASV) procedure set up for and applied to aerosol samples for the first time. Total extractable metals showed maxima at midsummer for Cd and Pb and a less clear trend for Cu. In particular, particulate metal concentrations ranged as follows: Cd 0.84-9.2 {mu}g g{sup -1} (average 4.7 {mu}g g{sup -1}), Pb 13.2-81 {mu}g g{sup -1} (average 33 {mu}g g{sup -1}), Cu 126-628 {mu}g g{sup -1} (average 378 {mu}g g{sup -1}). In terms of atmospheric concentration, the values were: Cd 0.55-6.3 pg m{sup -3} (average 3.4 pg m{sup -3}), Pb 8.7-48 pg m{sup -3} (average 24 pg m{sup -3}), Cu 75-365 pg m{sup -3} (average 266 pg m{sup -3}). At the beginning of the season the three metals appear widely distributed in the insoluble (HCl-extractable) fraction (higher proportions for Cd and Pb, 90-100%, and lower for Cu, 70-90%) with maxima in the second half of December. The soluble fraction then increases, and at the end of the season Cd and Pb are approximately equidistributed between the two fractions, while for Cu the soluble fraction reaches its maximum level of 36%. Practically negligible contributions are estimated for crustal and sea-spray sources. Low but significant volcanic contributions are estimated for Cd and Pb ({proportional_to}10% and {proportional_to}5%, respectively), while there is an evident although not

  2. Solubility prediction of satranidazole in propylene glycol-water mixtures using extended hildebrand solubility approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P B Rathi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Extended Hildebrand solubility approach is used to estimate the solubility of satranidazole in binary solvent systems. The solubility of satranidazole in various propylene glycol-water mixtures was analyzed in terms of solute-solvent interactions using a modified version of Hildebrand-Scatchard treatment for regular solutions. The solubility equation employs term interaction energy (W to replace the geometric mean (δ1δ2 , where δ1 and δ2 are the cohesive energy densities for the solvent and solute, respectively. The new equation provides an accurate prediction of solubility once the interaction energy, W, is obtained. In this case, the energy term is regressed against a polynomial in δ1 of the binary mixture. A quartic expression of W in terms of solvent solubility parameter was found for predicting the solubility of satranidazole in propylene glycol-water mixtures. The expression yields an error in mole fraction solubility of ~3.74%, a value approximating that of the experimentally determined solubility. The method has potential usefulness in preformulation and formulation studies during which solubility prediction is important for drug design.

  3. Solubility prediction of satranidazole in propylene glycol-water mixtures using extended hildebrand solubility approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathi, P B

    2011-11-01

    Extended Hildebrand solubility approach is used to estimate the solubility of satranidazole in binary solvent systems. The solubility of satranidazole in various propylene glycol-water mixtures was analyzed in terms of solute-solvent interactions using a modified version of Hildebrand-Scatchard treatment for regular solutions. The solubility equation employs term interaction energy (W) to replace the geometric mean (δ(1)δ(2)), where δ(1) and δ(2) are the cohesive energy densities for the solvent and solute, respectively. The new equation provides an accurate prediction of solubility once the interaction energy, W, is obtained. In this case, the energy term is regressed against a polynomial in δ(1) of the binary mixture. A quartic expression of W in terms of solvent solubility parameter was found for predicting the solubility of satranidazole in propylene glycol-water mixtures. The expression yields an error in mole fraction solubility of ~3.74%, a value approximating that of the experimentally determined solubility. The method has potential usefulness in preformulation and formulation studies during which solubility prediction is important for drug design.

  4. Water-soluble ions in atmospheric aerosols measured in five sites in the Yangtze River Delta, China: Size-fractionated, seasonal variations and sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Honglei; Zhu, Bin; Shen, Lijuan; Xu, Honghui; An, Junlin; Xue, Guoqiang; Cao, Jinfei

    2015-12-01

    In order to investigate the regional variations of water-soluble ions (WSIs), size-resolved measurement of aerosol particles and WSIs was conducted by using Anderson Sampler and Ion Chromatography at five sites (Nanjing, Suzhou, Lin'an, Hangzhou and Ningbo) in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region, China in the Autumn of 2012 and Winter, Spring and Summer of 2013. WSIs exhibited obvious seasonal variations due to the monsoon conversion, with the highest level in winter and lowest level in summer. The aerosol mass concentrations and WSIs in different size segments varied with four seasons. The dominant ions concentrations in PM2.1 ranked in the order of SO42- > NO3- > NH4+ > Cl- > K+ > Ca2+, and the dominant ions concentrations in PM2.1-10 ranked in the order of Ca2+ > NO3- > SO42- > Cl- > NH4+ > Na+. The size spectra of mass and WSIs concentration peaked mostly at 0.43-0.65 μm in four seasons. The concentration discrepancies of WSIs in different cities were caused by the geographic locations and emission source. It's belonged to ammonium-rich distribution in PM2.1 and ammonium-poor distribution in PM2.1-10 in the YRD region. The impact of temperature on mass concentrations of NO3- and NH4+ in PM2.1 were stronger than those in PM2.1-10. PCA analysis shows that the sources of WSIs dominant by anthropogenic sources, soil particles or falling dust, sea salt and burning process.

  5. Characterizing and sourcing ambient PM2.5 over key emission regions in China I: Water-soluble ions and carbonaceous fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiabin; Xing, Zhenyu; Deng, Junjun; Du, Ke

    2016-06-01

    During the past decade, huge research resources have been devoted into studies of air pollution in China, which generated abundant datasets on emissions and pollution characterization. Due to the complex nature of air pollution as well as the limitations of each individual investigating approach, the published results were sometimes perplexing and even contradicting. This research adopted a multi-method approach to investigate region-specific air pollution characteristics and sources in China, results obtained using different analytical and receptor modeling methods were inter-compared for validation and interpretation. A year-round campaign was completed for comprehensive characterization of PM2.5 over four key emission regions: Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH), Yangzi River Delta (YRD), Pearl River Delta (PRD), and Sichuan Basin (SB). Atmospheric PM2.5 samples were collected from 10/2012 to 08/2013 at four regional sites, located on the diffusion paths of air masses from their corresponding megacities (i.e., Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, and Chengdu). The annual average PM2.5 mass concentrations showed distinct regional difference, with the highest observed at BTH and lowest at PRD site. Nine water-soluble ions together contributed 33-41% of PM2.5 mass, with three dominant ionic species being SO42-, NO3-, NH4+, and carbonaceous particulate matter contributed 16-23% of PM2.5 mass. This implied that combustion and secondary formation were the main sources for PM2.5 in China. In addition, SO42-, NO3-, NH4+, and carbonaceous components (OC, EC) showed clear seasonal patterns with the highest concentration occurring in winter while the lowest in summer. Principal component analysis performed on aerosol data revealed that vehicular emissions, coal/biomass combustion, industry source, soil dust as well as secondary formation were the main potential sources for the ionic components of PM2.5. The characteristic chemical species combined with back trajectory analysis indicated

  6. Influence of measurement uncertainties on fractional solubility of iron in mineral aerosols over the oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meskhidze, Nicholas; Johnson, Matthew S.; Hurley, David; Dawson, Kyle

    2016-09-01

    The atmospheric supply of mineral dust iron (Fe) plays a crucial role in the Earth's biogeochemical cycle and is of specific importance as a micronutrient in the marine environment. Observations show several orders of magnitude variability in the fractional solubility of Fe in mineral dust aerosols, making it hard to assess the role of mineral dust in the global ocean biogeochemical Fe cycle. In this study we compare the operational solubility of mineral dust aerosol Fe associated with the flow-through leaching protocol to the results of the global 3-D chemical transport model GEOS-Chem. According to the protocol, aerosol Fe is defined as soluble by first deionized water leaching of mineral dust through a 0.45 μm pore size membrane followed by acidification and storage of the leachate over a long period of time prior to analysis. To estimate the uncertainty in soluble Fe results introduced by the flow-through leaching protocol, we prescribe an average 50% (range of 30-70%) fractional solubility to sub-0.45 μm sized mineral dust particles that may inadvertently pass the filter and end up in the acidified (at pH ∼ 1.7) leachate for a couple of month period. In the model, the fractional solubility of Fe is either explicitly calculated using a complex mineral aerosol Fe dissolution equations, or prescribed to be 1% and 4% often used by global ocean biogeochemical Fe cycle models to reproduce the broad characteristics of the presently observed ocean dissolved iron distribution. Calculations show that the fractional solubility of Fe derived through the flow-through leaching is higher compared to the model results. The largest differences (∼40%) are predicted to occur farther away from the dust source regions, over the areas where sub-0.45 μm sized mineral dust particles contribute a larger fraction of the total mineral dust mass. This study suggests that different methods used in soluble Fe measurements and inconsistences in the operational definition of

  7. SOLUBILITY ENHANCEMENT OF POORLY WATER SOLUBLE DRUGS BY SOLID DISPERSIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amita Verm

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid dispersions have been employed to enhance the dissolution rates of poorly water-soluble drugs. Many approaches have been investigated for the preparation of solid dispersions. This paper reports the various solubility enhancement strategies in solid dispersion. The approaches described are fusion (melting, solvent evaporation, lyophilization (freeze drying, melt agglomeration process, extruding method, spray drying technology, use of surfactant, electro static spinning method and super critical fluid technology. This paper also highlights the potential applications and limitations of theseapproaches in solid dispersions.

  8. Water Soluble Polymers for Pharmaceutical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veeran Gowda Kadajji

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Advances in polymer science have led to the development of novel drug delivery systems. Some polymers are obtained from natural resources and then chemically modified for various applications, while others are chemically synthesized and used. A large number of natural and synthetic polymers are available. In the present paper, only water soluble polymers are described. They have been explained in two categories (1 synthetic and (2 natural. Drug polymer conjugates, block copolymers, hydrogels and other water soluble drug polymer complexes have also been explained. The general properties and applications of different water soluble polymers in the formulation of different dosage forms, novel delivery systems and biomedical applications will be discussed.

  9. Lysine Rich Proteins in the Salt-Soluble Protein Fraction of Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingversen, J.; Køie, B.

    1973-01-01

    Fractionation of the protein complex from Emir barley showed that the salt-soluble fraction accounts for 44% of the total lysine content but only for 2.......Fractionation of the protein complex from Emir barley showed that the salt-soluble fraction accounts for 44% of the total lysine content but only for 2....

  10. Solubilities of Isophthalic Acid in Acetic Acid + Water Solvent Mixtures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Youwei; HUO Lei; LI Xi

    2013-01-01

    The solubilities of isophthalic acid (1) in binary acetic acid (2) + water (3) solvent mixtures were determined in a pressurized vessel.The temperature range was from 373.2 to 473.2K and the range of the mole fraction of acetic acid in the solvent mixtures was from x2 =0 to 1.A new method to measure the solubility was developed,which solved the problem of sampling at high temperature.The experimental results indicated that within the temperature range studied,the solubilities of isophthalic acid in all mixtures showed an increasing trend with increasing temperature.The experimental solubilities were correlated by the Buchowski equation,and the calculate results showed good agreement with the experimental solubilities.Furthermore,the mixed solvent systems were found to exhibit a maximum solubility effect on the solubility,which may be attributed to the intermolecular association between the solute and the solvent mixture.The maximum solubility effect was well modeled by the modified Wilson equation.

  11. Reduction of atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits and decrease of expressions of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor in foam cells by a water-soluble fraction of Polygonum multiflorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peng-Yuan; Almofti, Mohamad Radwan; Lu, Ling; Kang, Hui; Zhang, Jing; Li, Tie-Jun; Rui, Yao-Cheng; Sun, Lian-Na; Chen, Wan-Sheng

    2005-11-01

    Polygonum multiflorum stilbeneglycoside (PMS) is a water-soluble fraction of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb., one of the most famous tonic traditional Chinese medicines, that has protective effects on the cardiovascular system. The purpose of the present study is to elucidate the effects of PMS on macrophage-derived foam cell functions and the reduction of severity of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits. NZW rabbits were fed for 12 weeks with a normal diet, a high cholesterol diet, or a high cholesterol diet associated with irrigation with different doses of PMS (25, 50, or 100 mg/kg). Treatment of NZW rabbits fed with high cholesterol diet with 100 mg/kg PMS attenuated the increase in plasma cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and plasma triglyceride. Treatment with 50 and 100 mg/kg PMS caused 43% and 60% decrease in atherosclerotic lesioned area ratio to total surface area, respectively. In U937 foam cells, PMS could decrease the high expression of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 protein and the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein levels in the medium induced by oxidized lipoprotein when analyzed by flow cytometry. The results proved that PMS is a powerful agent against atherosclerosis and that PMS action could possibly be through the inhibition of the expression of ICAM-1 and VEGF in foam cells.

  12. Soluble/insoluble (dilute-HCl-extractable fractionation of Cd, Pb and Cu in Antarctic snow and its relationship with metal fractionations in the aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annibaldi A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A chemical fractionation methodology for determination of the (water soluble and the insoluble (dilute-HCl-extractable fractions of Cd, Pb and Cu in Antarctic snow was set-up and verified for the additivity of the two fractions detected. Molten samples were filtrated and the water-insoluble fraction was extracted by dilute ultrapure HCl (pH ~1.5. Metal determinations were carried out in the two fractions by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry. The total metal concentrations in samples collected in the 2000–2001 austral summer in a clean area (Faraglione Camp in the neighbourhood of the Mario Zucchelli Italian Station were of the order of Cd 10-20 pg g−1, Pb 20–40 pg g−1, Cu 60–120 pg g−1 with an approximate equidistribution between soluble and insoluble fractions. These fractionations compare well (and show a quite consistent temporal trend with those observed in the aerosol samples collected in the same area/period and confirm the close relationship between metal distributions in snow/ice and in the aerosol. At the station metal concentrations increase due to anthropic contribution and the distribution changes with Cd predominantly present in the soluble fraction (~80%, while Pb and Cu are more concentrated in the insoluble fraction, 70–80% and ~70%, respectively.

  13. Water-soluble polymers and compositions thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B.F.; Robison, T.W.; Gohdes, J.W.

    1999-04-06

    Water-soluble polymers including functionalization from the group of amino groups, carboxylic acid groups, phosphonic acid groups, phosphonic ester groups, acylpyrazolone groups, hydroxamic acid groups, aza crown ether groups, oxy crown ethers groups, guanidinium groups, amide groups, ester groups, aminodicarboxylic groups, permethylated polyvinylpyridine groups, permethylated amine groups, mercaptosuccinic acid groups, alkyl thiol groups, and N-alkylthiourea groups are disclosed.

  14. Structural investigation of water-soluble polysaccharides extracted from the fruit bodies of Coprinus comatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Bo; Dobruchowska, Justyna M.; Gerwig, Gerrit J.; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Kamerling, Johannis P.

    2013-01-01

    Water-soluble polysaccharide material, extracted from the stipes of the fruit bodies of Coprinus comatus by hot water, was fractionated by sequential weak anion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography. The relevant fractions were subjected to structural analysis, including (D/L) monosaccharide/me

  15. Proteomic analysis of the soluble fraction from human corneal fibroblasts with reference to ocular transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karring, Henrik; Thøgersen, Ida B; Klintworth, Gordon K; Enghild, Jan J; Møller-Pedersen, Torben

    2004-07-01

    The transparent corneal stroma contains a population of corneal fibroblasts termed keratocytes, which are interspersed between the collagen lamellae. Under normal conditions, the keratocytes are quiescent and transparent. However, after corneal injury the keratocytes become activated and transform into backscattering wound-healing fibroblasts resulting in corneal opacification. At present, the most popular hypothesis suggests that particular abundant water-soluble proteins called enzyme-crystallins are involved in maintaining corneal cellular transparency. Specifically, corneal haze development is thought to be related to low levels of cytoplasmic enzyme-crystallins in reflective corneal fibroblasts. To further investigate this hypothesis, we have used a proteomic approach to identify the most abundant water-soluble proteins in serum-cultured human corneal fibroblasts that represent an in vitro model of the reflective wound-healing keratocyte phenotype. Densitometry of one-dimensional gels revealed that no single protein isoform exceeded 5% of the total water-soluble protein fraction, which is the qualifying property of a corneal enzyme-crystallin according to the current definition. This result indicates that wound-healing corneal fibroblasts do not contain enzyme-crystallins. A total of 254 protein identifications from two-dimensional gels were performed representing 118 distinct proteins. Proteins protecting against oxidative stress and protein misfolding were prominent, suggesting that these processes may participate in the generation of cytoplasmic light-scattering from corneal fibroblasts.

  16. Cell wall polysaccharides of Chinese Wolfberry (Lycium barbarum) : Part 1. Characterisation of soluble and insoluble polymer fractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Redgwell, Robert J.; Curti, Delphine; Wang, Juankuan; Dobruchowska, Justyna M.; Gerwig, Gerrit J.; Kamerling, Johannis P.; Bucheli, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Water-soluble polysaccharides (WSP) and insoluble cell wall material (CWM) were isolated from Wolfberry fruit (Lycium barbarum). WSP were fractionated by treatment with a quaternary ammonium salt and anion-exchange chromatography. Pectic polysaccharides were major components but a glucan, xylan and

  17. Cell wall polysaccharides of Chinese Wolfberry (Lycium barbarum) : Part 1. Characterisation of soluble and insoluble polymer fractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Redgwell, Robert J.; Curti, Delphine; Wang, Juankuan; Dobruchowska, Justyna M.; Gerwig, Gerrit J.; Kamerling, Johannis P.; Bucheli, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Water-soluble polysaccharides (WSP) and insoluble cell wall material (CWM) were isolated from Wolfberry fruit (Lycium barbarum). WSP were fractionated by treatment with a quaternary ammonium salt and anion-exchange chromatography. Pectic polysaccharides were major components but a glucan, xylan and

  18. Measurement of Solubilities of o-Phenylphenol in Petroleum Ether and DDP in Acetone + Water Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-sheng; LONG Bing-wen; XIONG You-qing; WU Jun-sheng; KANG Hui-bao

    2006-01-01

    [(6-oxide-6H-dibenze(c, e)(1, 2) oxaphosphorin-6-yl) methyl]-butanedioic acid (DDP) was prepared and characterized. Solubilities of o-phenylphenol(OPP) in petroleum ether and DDP in acetone + water solution were measured by a gravimetrical method. The solubility data of OPP were well correlated using Francis equation. For the solubility of DDP in acetone aqueous solution, it was found that at each fixed temperature there existed a maximum when the acetone mass fraction in the solvent reached a certain concentration. The experiment shows that the fraction is approximately 0.6. The solubility data would be helpful for their industrial crystallization process.

  19. Water Fractions in Extrasolar Planetesimals

    CERN Document Server

    Jura, M

    2011-01-01

    With the goal of using externally-polluted white dwarfs to investigate the water fractions of extrasolar planetesimals, we assemble from the literature a sample that we estimate to be more than 60% complete of DB white dwarfs warmer than 13,000 K, more luminous than 3 ${\\times}$ 10$^{-3}$ L$_{\\odot}$ and within 80 pc of the Sun. When considering all the stars together, we find the summed mass accretion rate of heavy atoms exceeds that of hydrogen by over a factor of 1000. If so, this sub-population of extrasolar asteroids treated as an ensemble has little water and is at least a factor of 20 drier than CI chondrites, the most primitive meteorites. In contrast, while an apparent "excess" of oxygen in a single DB can be interpreted as evidence that the accreted material originated in a water-rich parent body, we show that at least in some cases, there can be sufficient uncertainties in the time history of the accretion rate that such an argument may be ambiguous. Regardless of the difficulty associated with int...

  20. Biochemical synthesis of water soluble conducting polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Ferdinando F.; Bernabei, Manuele

    2016-05-01

    An efficient biomimetic route for the synthesis of conducting polymers/copolymers complexed with lignin sulfonate and sodium (polystyrenesulfonate) (SPS) will be presented. This polyelectrolyte assisted PEG-hematin or horseradish peroxidase catalyzed polymerization of pyrrole (PYR), 3,4 ethyldioxithiophene (EDOT) and aniline has provided a route to synthesize water-soluble conducting polymers/copolymers under acidic conditions. The UV-vis, FTIR, conductivity and cyclic voltammetry studies for the polymers/copolymer complex indicated the presence of a thermally stable and electroactive polymers. Moreover, the use of water-soluble templates, used as well as dopants, provided a unique combination of properties such as high electronic conductivity, and processability. These polymers/copolymers are nowadays tested/evaluated for antirust features on airplanes and helicopters. However, other electronic applications, such as photovoltaics, for transparent conductive polyaniline, actuators, for polypyrrole, and antistatic films, for polyEDOT, will be proposed.

  1. Biochemical synthesis of water soluble conducting polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, Ferdinando F., E-mail: Ferdinando-Bruno@uml.edu [US Army Natick Soldier Research, Development and Engineering Center, Natick, MA 01760 (United States); Bernabei, Manuele [ITAF, Test Flight Centre, Chemistry Dept. Pratica di Mare AFB, 00071 Pomezia (Rome), Italy (UE) (Italy)

    2016-05-18

    An efficient biomimetic route for the synthesis of conducting polymers/copolymers complexed with lignin sulfonate and sodium (polystyrenesulfonate) (SPS) will be presented. This polyelectrolyte assisted PEG-hematin or horseradish peroxidase catalyzed polymerization of pyrrole (PYR), 3,4 ethyldioxithiophene (EDOT) and aniline has provided a route to synthesize water-soluble conducting polymers/copolymers under acidic conditions. The UV-vis, FTIR, conductivity and cyclic voltammetry studies for the polymers/copolymer complex indicated the presence of a thermally stable and electroactive polymers. Moreover, the use of water-soluble templates, used as well as dopants, provided a unique combination of properties such as high electronic conductivity, and processability. These polymers/copolymers are nowadays tested/evaluated for antirust features on airplanes and helicopters. However, other electronic applications, such as photovoltaics, for transparent conductive polyaniline, actuators, for polypyrrole, and antistatic films, for polyEDOT, will be proposed.

  2. 生物油水溶性组分重整制氢研究进展及关键问题分析%Overview on Hydrogen Production by Upgrading of Water Soluble Fractions in Bio-Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢建军; 阴秀丽; 黄艳琴; 吴创之

    2011-01-01

    随着全球化石燃料枯竭和气候变暖加剧,H2作为一种洁净能源载体备受关注.生物质热解工艺制取的生物油具有易于储运、可再生、CO2零排放等特征,可作为一种潜在的制氢原料.笔者对生物油水溶性组分提质制取H2的水蒸气重整、自热氧化重整、水相催化重整3种制氢技术进行了综述,分析了各工艺的反应机理、研究现状及关键科学问题,指出了各种方法的特点、优势与不足及改进方法.针对生物油利用过程中的瓶颈问题,简要展望了生物油水溶性组分提质制取H2的研究重点.%With the fossil fuel depletion increasing and global warming, hydrogen has attracted much attention as a clean energy carrier. Bio-oil, a mixture of organic oxygenates that derived from biomass pyrolysis process, has many virtues, such as easy to store and transport, renewable and CO2 neutral, which makes it being a potential feedstock for hydrogen production. In this paper the present status of hydrogen production from water soluble fractions in bio-oil, such as steam reforming, auto-thermal reforming and aqueous-phase reforming are critically reviewed, issues on mechanism of hydrogen production, state-of-the-art, key scientific and technical problems of the three above mentioned processes are analyzed. Besides, the characteristics, advantages and also disadvantages of the three processes in terms of industrial applications as well as their potential solutions are also presented. Further, for the purpose of solving the long-standing bottleneck problems on industrial applications of bio-oil, several research items to be urgently dealt with in the near future involved with hydrogen production from bio-oil are finally pointed out briefly.

  3. Water soluble azido polyisocyanopeptides as functional β-sheet mimics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwartz, Erik; Koepf, Matthieu; Kitto, Heather J.; Espelt, Mónica; Nebot-Carda, Vicent J.; Gelder, de Rene; Nolte, Roeland J.M.; Cornelissen, Jeroen J.L.M.; Rowan, Alan E.

    2009-01-01

    The design and synthesis of functional biomimetic water soluble polymers with a defined secondary structure has been developed using β-sheet polyisocyanopeptide scaffolds. Water soluble isocyanopolymers were prepared by random copolymerisation of the azido functionalized isocyanopeptides with nonfun

  4. Hydroxylamine hydrochloride-acetic acid-soluble and -insoluble fractions of pelagic sediment: Readsorption revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, D.Z.; Wandless, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    The extraction of the rare earth elements (REE) from deep-ocean pelagic sediment, using hydroxylamine hydrochloride-acetic acid, leads to the separation of approximately 70% of the bulk REE content into the soluble fraction and 30% into the insoluble fraction. The REE pattern of the soluble fraction, i.e., the content of REE normalized to average shale on an element-by-element basis and plotted against atomic number, resembles the pattern for seawater, whereas the pattern, as well as the absolute concentrations, in the insoluble fraction resembles the North American shale composite. These results preclude significant readsorption of the REE by the insoluble phases during the leaching procedure.

  5. Effects of ash forming temperature on water-soluble fraction of biomass ash and it’s elements%成灰温度对三种生物质灰及其元素水溶性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何芳; 于如军; 张毅; 朱继英; 高振强; 孙鹏

    2015-01-01

    The implementation of biomass ash as a fertilizer is beneficial to the sustainable development of agriculture because it can return the elements taken by the plants from soil during the growth. Water solubility of biomass ash together with its elements is a vital property for the fertilizer’s utilization. In this paper, the effects of ash forming temperature on the water solubility of biomass ash and its elements were investigated experimentally. Three typical types of agro-residues in China, i.e. wheat straw, corn stover and rice husk, were chosen for investigation. Materials were collected and the corresponding proximate and elemental analyses were performed. In preparation process, wheat straw and corn stover were milled into powder with the particle size of less than 1 mm. Ashes were prepared in a muffle furnace at different ash forming temperatures in the scope from 400 to 800℃with the temperature interval of 50℃. About 4-5 g of each sample powder and rice husk were put in the crucibles, heated from ambient temperature to ash forming temperature, and then kept at the ash forming temperature for 4 hours in the muffle furnace. After the temperature of the furnace dropped to less than 200℃, the ashes were taken out to the cabinet dryer, cooled to the ambient temperature, and then weighted and sealed in the sample bag for further measurements. It showed that ash contents of wheat straw, corn stover and rice husk decreased significantly with the increase of ash forming temperature. They decreased from 9.8%, 10.9%and 18.4% at 400℃to 6.9%, 8.7%and 16.8%at 800℃respectively. After the preparation of all the ash, two types of measurements were performed. The first was the water solubility measurement of the ashes according to the standard of GB8307-2002. Total ash of about 0.2-0.3 g was put in a beaker of 50 ml and about 25 ml distilled water was added in it. The mixture was heated and boiled for 2 min and then the solution was filtered through a

  6. Solubility Enhancement of a Poorly Water Soluble Drug by Forming Solid Dispersions using Mechanochemical Activation

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas-Oviedo, I.; Retchkiman-Corona, B.; Quirino-Barreda, C. T.; Cárdenas, J.; Schabes-Retchkiman, P. S.

    2012-01-01

    Mechanochemical activation is a practical cogrinding operation used to obtain a solid dispersion of a poorly water soluble drug through changes in the solid state molecular aggregation of drug-carrier mixtures and the formation of noncovalent interactions (hydrogen bonds) between two crystalline solids such as a soluble carrier, lactose, and a poorly soluble drug, indomethacin, in order to improve its solubility and dissolution rate. Samples of indomethacin and a physical mixture with a weigh...

  7. Nonlinear water waves with soluble surfactant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapham, Gary; Dowling, David; Schultz, William

    1998-11-01

    The hydrodynamic effects of surfactants have fascinated scientists for generations. This presentation describes an experimental investigation into the influence of a soluble surfactant on nonlinear capillary-gravity waves in the frequency range from 12 to 20 Hz. Waves were generated in a plexiglass wave tank (254 cm long, 30.5 cm wide, and 18 cm deep) with a triangular plunger wave maker. The tank was filled with carbon- and particulate-filtered water into which the soluble surfactant Triton-X-100® was added in known amounts. Wave slope was measured nonintrusively with a digital camera running at 225 fps by monitoring the position of light beams which passed up through the bottom of the tank, out through the wavy surface, and onto a white screen. Wave slope data were reduced to determine wave damping and the frequency content of the wave train. Both were influenced by the presence of the surfactant. Interestingly, a subharmonic wave occurring at one-sixth the paddle-driving frequency was found only when surfactant was present and the paddle was driven at amplitudes high enough to produce nonlinear waves in clean water. Although the origins of this subharmonic wave remain unclear, it appears to be a genuine manifestation of the combined effects of the surfactant and nonlinearity.

  8. Comprehensive identification of cytochrome p450 isoforms from solubility-based fractionated rat liver microsomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Hidenori; Takeyoshi, Masahiro; Minobe, Yasushi; Yakabe, Yoshikuni; Takatsuki, Mineo; Sato, Hisaya

    2007-12-01

    Cytochrome P450 isoforms from male rat liver microsomes were comprehensively identified using nano liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-MS/MS). The enrichment of P450, an endomembrane-anchored heme protein, was achieved by solubility-based protein fractionation, and greatly improved the total number of identified P450 isoforms. LC-MS/MS analysis of fractions resulted in the identification of total 36 P450 isoforms. The combination of proteomic analysis and the solubility-based fractionation would provide powerful tool for the expression analysis of the superfamily proteins having great similarities between the amino acids sequences.

  9. CYCLODEXTRIN INCLUSION COMPLEX TO ENHANCE SOLUBILITY OF POORLY WATER SOLUBLE DRUGS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.B. Chaudhary * 1 and J. K. Patel 2

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Low solubility compounds show dissolution rate limited absorption and hence poor absorption, distribution and target organ delivery. Improvement of aqueous solubility in such a case is valuable goal to improve therapeutic efficacy. Complexation with CDs by different methods like physical mixing, melting, kneding, spray drying, freeze drying, co-evaporation has been reported to enhance the solubility, dissolution rate and bioavability of poorly water soluble drugs. The formation of inclusion complex can be confirmed by DSC, FTIR, XRD and SEM study. This review aims to assess the use of cyclodextrines as complexing agents to enhance the solubility of poorly soluble drugs and hence to resolve the many issues associated with developing and commercializing poorly water soluble drugs.

  10. Indomethacin solubility estimation in 1,4-dioxane + water mixtures by the extended hildebrand solubility approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller A Ruidiaz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Extended Hildebrand Solubility Approach (EHSA was successfully applied to evaluate the solubility of Indomethacin in 1,4-dioxane + water mixtures at 298.15 K. An acceptable correlation-performance of EHSA was found by using a regular polynomial model in order four of the W interaction parameter vs. solubility parameter of the mixtures (overall deviation was 8.9%. Although the mean deviation obtained was similar to that obtained directly by means of an empiric regression of the experimental solubility vs. mixtures solubility parameters, the advantages of EHSA are evident because it requires physicochemical properties easily available for drugs.

  11. “ Enhancement of Solubility of poorly water soluble drug by solid dispersion technique”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.R.Tagalpallewar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Atovaquone and Satrinidazole has poor solubility resulting in low oral absorption hence low oral bioavailability. Hence to improve the solubility of poorly Atovaquone and Satrinidazole , hydrophilic polymers were used to enhance the dissolution by solid dispersion technique. Polyehylene Glycol 4000 and PVP k30 used to enhance the dissolution of both the drug by Solubilisation. Many alternative techniques have been used to improve such bioavailability; this study thus employed the simple solid dispersion technique and incorporated excipients which can increase the bioavailability of these drugs directly enhancing the dissolution rate of the drug and indirectly by reducing particle size.The aim of present work is to enhance the dissolution of poorly water soluble drug by using solid dispersion technique. To improve the dissolution rate, by using the various concentration of carrier or matrix with drug and hence ,improve the bioavailability of poorly water soluble drug by formulating solid dispersion.To enhance the solubility of poorly water soluble drug ,by means of solubilising agent. In case of poorly water soluble drug, dissolution may be the rate limiting step in the process of absorption. In such case ,we can improve their solubility and dissolution rate.To study the effect of surfactant on the solid dispersion of poorly water soluble drug.

  12. Water-soluble extracts from defatted sesame seed flour show antioxidant activity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Othman, Sana; Katsuno, Nakako; Kanamaru, Yoshihiro; Yabe, Tomio

    2015-05-15

    Defatted white and gold sesame seed flour, recovered as a byproduct after sesame oil extraction, was extracted with 70% ethanol to obtain polar-soluble crude extracts. The in vitro antioxidant activity of the extract was evaluated by DPPH free radical scavenging activity and oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC). The polar-soluble crude extracts of both sesame seed types exhibited good antioxidant capacity, especially by the ORAC method with 34,720 and 21,700 μmol Trolox equivalent/100g of white and gold sesame seed extract, respectively. HPLC, butanol extraction, and UPLC-MS analyses showed that different compounds contributed to the antioxidant activity of the polar-soluble crude extracts. Sesaminol glycosides were identified in the butanol-soluble fractions; whereas, purified water-soluble fraction contained ferulic and vanillic acids. This study shows that hydrophilic antioxidants in the purified water-soluble fraction contributed to the antioxidant activity of white and gold sesame seed polar-soluble crude extracts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Prediction of solubilities for ginger bioactive compounds in hot water by the COSMO-RS method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaimah Syed Jaapar, Syaripah; Azian Morad, Noor; Iwai, Yoshio

    2013-04-01

    The solubilities in water of four main ginger bioactives, 6-gingerol, 6-shogaol, 8-gingerol and 10-gingerol, were predicted using a conductor-like screening model for real solvent (COSMO-RS) calculations. This study was conducted since no experimental data are available for ginger bioactive solubilities in hot water. The σ-profiles of these selected molecules were calculated using Gaussian software and the solubilities were calculated using the COSMO-RS method. The solubilities of these ginger bioactives were calculated at 50 to 200 °C. In order to validate the accuracy of the COSMO-RS method, the solubilities of five hydrocarbon molecules were calculated using the COSMO-RS method and compared with the experimental data in the literature. The selected hydrocarbon molecules were 3-pentanone, 1-hexanol, benzene, 3-methylphenol and 2-hydroxy-5-methylbenzaldehyde. The calculated results of the hydrocarbon molecules are in good agreement with the data in the literature. These results confirm that the solubilities of ginger bioactives can be predicted using the COSMO-RS method. The solubilities of the ginger bioactives are lower than 0.0001 at temperatures lower than 130 °C. At 130 to 200 °C, the solubilities increase dramatically with the highest being 6-shogaol, which is 0.00037 mole fraction, and the lowest is 10-gingerol, which is 0.000039 mole fraction at 200 °C.

  14. Solubility and diffusivity study for light gases in heavy oil and its fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapathi, Rajkumar

    Solvent-based recovery (VAPEX) is one of the most promising alternatives to thermal techniques to enhance heavy oil/bitumen recovery. Knowledge of the phase behavior and diffusion coefficients of gases in heavy oil is very important when designing recovery operations and facilities. In this work, a gravimetric microbalance was used to measure the solubility of carbon dioxide, ethane, propane and butane in a Lloydminster heavy oil and its fractions. Measurements were carried out on carbon dioxide and ethane at (290, 298 and 313) K over a pressure range from (200 to 2000) kPa. Similar measurements were performed on propane and butane below their vapor pressures. The Peng-Robinson equation of state was used to correlate the experimental results. The Solubility Parameter Theory was used to predict the solubility of CO2 and propane in heavy oil/bitumen over a wide range of pressures and temperatures. The associated Henry's Law constants for carbon dioxide, ethane and propane in heavy oil, its saturate fractions and aromatic fractions, were also determined from the absorption data. The gases had higher solubilities and the strongest interactions at lower temperatures in the heavy oil and its fractions. The diffusion coefficients of carbon dioxide, ethane and propane in heavy oil, its saturate and aromatic fractions were calculated using a simple diffusion model. The diffusion coefficient of carbon dioxide, ethane, propane and butane in heavy oil were calculated at different pressures. Estimated values were in agreement with published results and were found satisfactory.

  15. Effect of Cyclodextrin Types and Co-Solvent on Solubility of a Poorly Water Soluble Drug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charumanee, Suporn; Okonogi, Siriporn; Sirithunyalug, Jakkapan; Wolschann, Peter; Viernstein, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the solubility of piroxicam (Prx) depending on the inclusion complexation with various cyclodextrins (CDs) and on ethanol as a co-solvent. The phase-solubility method was applied to determine drug solubility in binary and ternary systems. The results showed that in systems consisting of the drug dissolved in ethanol–water mixtures, the drug solubility increased exponentially with a rising concentration of ethanol. The phase solubility measurements of the drug in aqueous solutions of CDs, β-CD and γ-CD exhibited diagrams of AL-type, whereas 2,6-dimethyl-β-CD revealed AP-type. The destabilizing effect of ethanol as a co-solvent was observed for all complexes regardless of the CD type, as a consequence of it the lowering of the complex formation constants. In systems with a higher concentration of ethanol, the drug solubility was increased in opposition to the decreasing complex formation constants. According to this study, the type of CDs played a more important role on the solubility of Prx, and the use of ethanol as a co-solvent exhibited no synergistic effect on the improvement of Prx solubility. The Prx solubility was increased again due to the better solubility in ethanol. PMID:27763573

  16. Effect of Cyclodextrin Types and Co-Solvent on Solubility of a Poorly Water Soluble Drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suporn Charumanee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the solubility of piroxicam (Prx depending on the inclusion complexation with various cyclodextrins (CDs and on ethanol as a co-solvent. The phase-solubility method was applied to determine drug solubility in binary and ternary systems. The results showed that in systems consisting of the drug dissolved in ethanol–water mixtures, the drug solubility increased exponentially with a rising concentration of ethanol. The phase solubility measurements of the drug in aqueous solutions of CDs, β-CD and γ-CD exhibited diagrams of AL-type, whereas 2,6-dimethyl-β-CD revealed AP-type. The destabilizing effect of ethanol as a co-solvent was observed for all complexes regardless of the CD type, as a consequence of it the lowering of the complex formation constants. In systems with a higher concentration of ethanol, the drug solubility was increased in opposition to the decreasing complex formation constants. According to this study, the type of CDs played a more important role on the solubility of Prx, and the use of ethanol as a co-solvent exhibited no synergistic effect on the improvement of Prx solubility. The Prx solubility was increased again due to the better solubility in ethanol.

  17. Surfactant recovery from water using foam fractionation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tharapiwattananon, N.; Osuwan, S. [Chulalongkorn Univ., Bangkok (Thailand); Scamehorn, J.F. [Inst. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)] [and others

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of foam fractionation to recover surfactant from water. A simple continuous mode foam fractionation was used and three surfactants were studied (two anionic and one cationic). The effects of air flow rate, foam height, liquid height, liquid feed surfactant concentration, and sparger porosity were studied. This technique was shown to be effective in either surfactant recovery or the reduction of surfactant concentration in water to acceptable levels. As an example of the effectiveness of this technique, the cetylpyridinium chloride concentration in water can be reduced by 90% in one stage with a liquid residence time of 375 minutes. The surfactant concentration in the collapsed foam is 21.5 times the feed concentration. This cationic surfactant was easier to remove from water by foam fractionation than the anionic surfactants studied.

  18. Antioxidative activity of water soluble polysaccharide in pumpkin fruits (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nara, Kazuhiro; Yamaguchi, Akira; Maeda, Naomi; Koga, Hidenori

    2009-06-01

    We evaluated the antioxidative activity of a water soluble polysaccharide fraction (WSP) from pumpkin fruits (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne). In the WSP, DPPH radical scavenging and superoxide dismutase-like activity increased depending on the total sugar content. Furthermore, the WSP can serve as an inhibitor of ascorbic acid oxidation. The efficacy was also affected by the total sugar content.

  19. Water Solubility in the Proto-Lunar Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauri, E. H.; Nakajima, M.

    2016-12-01

    The giant impact model is the scenario most widely accepted for the origin of the Moon, yet no satisfactory version of this model exists to explain the Earth-like H2O content of primitive lunar magmas. Here we investigate the likelihood that H2O from the Earth was transferred to the Moon in the aftermath of the giant impact. Nearly all variants of the giant impact model produce an energetic impact-generated debris disk that eventually coalesces to form the Moon [1]. Here we investigate the behavior of H2O in disks of Bulk Silicate Earth (BSE) composition produced by three impact scenarios; (a) the standard model of a Mars-sized impactor striking the proto-Earth [2]; (b) impact into a fast-spinning Earth [3]; and (c) impact of two sub-earths each being half the mass of the current Earth [4]. All of these models have been shown to be sufficiently energetic that, at maximum entropy and hydrostatic equilibrium following the impact, most of the mass of the proto-lunar disk consists of silicate melt and vapor, with vapor mass fractions ranging from 20-100% and mid-plane temperatures of 3500-6000K [1]. From these models, we calculate the 2D axisymmetric pressure structure of the disk, and calculate the solubility of H2O in liquid droplets that condense from the vapor atmosphere. Assuming a high bulk Earth H2O content of 1000 ppm, at the Roche radius and close to the disk midplane where pressures are highest (1 to 1000 bars), the mass fraction of all H-bearing species in the vapor is calculated to be ≤0.001, and the maximum H2O solubility in silicate melt is predicted to be ppm because most of the water is dissociated at these high temperatures, in agreement with [5]. As the disk cools past the condensation of silicate vapor, the remaining vapor is dominated by Na and similarly volatile elements, with H2O a minor component of the vapor phase from 2500-1000K. The calculated vapor pressures are low at the midplane with strong vertical gradients, and thus calculated H2O

  20. Water-soluble UV curable urethane methyl acrylate coating:preparation and properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏燕彦; 罗英武; 李宝芳; 李伯耿

    2004-01-01

    Two kinds of water-soluble and ultraviolet (UV) curable oligomers were synthesized and characterized. The oligomers were evaluated as resins for water-based UV curable coating. The rheology of the two oligomers' aqueous so-lutions was investigated in terms of solid fraction, pH dependence, and temperature dependence. The solutions were found to be Newtonian fluid showing rather low viscosity even at high solid fraction of 0.55. The drying process of the coatings and the properties of the cured coatings were studied by comparing them with water-dispersed UV-curable polyurethane methyl acrylate. It was evident that the water-soluble coating dried more slowly; and that the overall properties were inferior to those of the water-dispersed coating.

  1. Water-soluble UV curable urethane methyl acrylate coating:preparation and properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏燕彦; 罗英武; 李宝芳; 李伯耿

    2004-01-01

    Two kinds of water-soluble and ultraviolet (UV) curable oligomers were synthesized and characterized. The oligomers were evaluated as resins for water-based UV curable coating. The rheology of the two oligomers' aqueous solutions was investigated in terms of solid fraction, pH dependence, and temperature dependence. The solutions were found to be Newtonian fluid showing rather low viscosity even at high solid fraction of 0.55. The drying process of the coatings and the properties of the cured coatings were studied by comparing them with water-dispersed UV-curable polyurethane methyl acrylate. It was evident that the water-soluble coating dried more slowly; and that the overall properties were inferior to those of the water-dispersed coating.

  2. Enhancement of solubility and dissolution rate of poorly water soluble raloxifene using microwave induced fusion method

    OpenAIRE

    Payal Hasmukhlal Patil; Veena Sailendra Belgamwar; Pratibha Ramratan Patil; Sanjay Javerilal Surana

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to enhance the solubility and dissolution rate of the drug raloxifene HCl (RLX), which is poorly soluble in water. The solubility of RLX was observed to increase with increasing concentration of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC E5 LV). The optimized ratio for preparing a solid dispersion (SD) of RLX with HPMC E5 LV using the microwave-induced fusion method was 1:5 w/w. Microwave energy was used to prepare SDs. HPMC E5 LV was used as a hydrophilic carri...

  3. Interlaboratory validation of small-scale solubility and dissolution measurements of poorly water-soluble drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Sara B. E.; Alvebratt, Caroline; Bevernage, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the interlaboratory variability in determination of apparent solubility (Sapp) and intrinsic dissolution rate (IDR) using a miniaturized dissolution instrument. Three poorly water-soluble compounds were selected as reference compounds and measured...... the concentrations reached are typically below the limit of detection. The following guidelines were established: for compounds with Sapp >1 mg/mL, the disc method is recommended. For compounds with Sapp

  4. Application of various water soluble polymers in gas hydrate inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamal, Muhammad Shahzad; Hussein, Ibnelwaleed A.; Sultan, Abdullah S.

    2016-01-01

    . This review presents the various types of water soluble polymers used for hydrate inhibition, including conventional and novel polymeric inhibitors along with their limitations. The review covers the relevant properties of vinyl lactam, amide, dendrimeric, fluorinated, and natural biodegradable polymers...

  5. Deep cavitand receptors with pH-independent water solubility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lledó, Agustí; Rebek, Julius

    2010-12-07

    Pendant oligoethyleneglycol groups confer water solubility to a cavitand over a wide pH range. The kinetic stability of the host-guest complexes reveals an effective stabilization through hydrogen bonding even in the highly competitive aqueous environment.

  6. Water-soluble pyrrolopyrrole cyanine (PPCy) NIR fluorophores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiktorowski, Simon; Rosazza, Christelle; Winterhalder, Martin J; Daltrozzo, Ewald; Zumbusch, Andreas

    2014-05-11

    Water-soluble derivatives of pyrrolopyrrole cyanines (PPCys) have been synthesized by a post-synthetic modification route. In highly polar media, these dyes are excellent NIR fluorophores. Labeling experiments show how these novel dyes are internalized into mammalian cells.

  7. Water-soluble dopamine-based polymers for photoacoustic imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Repenko, T.; Fokong, S.; De Laporte, L.; Go, D.; Kiessling, F.; Lammers, Twan Gerardus Gertudis Maria; Kuehne, A.

    2015-01-01

    Here we present a facile synthetic method yielding a linear form of polydopamine via Kumada-coupling, which can be converted into water-soluble melanin, generating high contrast in photoacoustic imaging.

  8. Plasma concentrations of water-soluble vitamins in metabolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-01-21

    Jan 21, 2012 ... levels of water-soluble vitamins with metabolic syndrome and its various components. Aims: This ... thiamine has a role in reducing cellular oxidative stress.[2,12] ... a protective effect on pancreatic beta-cell survival, probably.

  9. Improved water solubility of neohesperidin dihydrochalcone in sweetener blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavente-García, O; Castillo, J; Del Baño, M J; Lorente, J

    2001-01-01

    Significant technological advantages in terms of sweetness synergy and hence cost-saving can be obtained if neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC) is used in sweetener blends with other intense or bulk sweeteners. The combination of NHDC with sodium saccharin or sodium cyclamate is an excellent method to improve the water solubility at room temperature of NHDC. In the case of NHDC-sodium saccharin, two different methods for blend preparation, a simple mixture and a cosolubilized mixture, can be used, with similar results obtained for solubility and solution stability properties. To improve temporally the water solubility of NHDC in combination with sodium cyclamate, it is absolutely necessary to prepare cosolubilized blends.

  10. Water sorption and solubility of polyamide denture base materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Long G; Kopperud, Hilde M; Øilo, Marit

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Some patients experience adverse reactions to poly(methyl methacrylate)-based (PMMA) dentures. Polyamide (PA) as an alternative to PMMA has, however, not been well documented with regard to water sorption and water solubility. The aim of this in vitro study was to measure water sorption and water solubility of two PA materials compared with PMMA, and to evaluate the major components released from the PA materials and the effect on hardness of the materials. Methods: Ten discs (40.0 mm diameter, 2.0 mm thick) of each material (PA: Valplast and Breflex; PMMA: SR Ivocap HIP) were prepared according to manufacturers' recommendations. The specimens were tested for water sorption and water solubility, according to a modification of ISO 20795-1:2008. Released substances were analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Results: There were statistically significant differences among the materials regarding water sorption, water solubility and time to water saturation. Breflex had the highest water sorption (30.4 μg/mm(3)), followed by PMMA-material (25.8 μg/mm(3)) and Valplast (13.6 μg/mm(3)). Both PA materials had statistically significant lower water solubility than the PMMA. Both PA had a net increase in weight. Analysis by GC/MS identified release of the compound 12-aminododecanolactam from the material Valplast. No release was found from the Breflex material. Conclusions: The PA denture materials show differences in water sorption and solubility, but within the limits of the standard requirements. The PA showed a net increase in weight after long-term water sorption. The clinical implications of the findings are not elucidated.

  11. Molecular characterization of whey protein hydrolysate fractions with ferrous chelating and enhanced iron solubility capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Loughlin, Ian B; Kelly, Phil M; Murray, Brian A; FitzGerald, Richard J; Brodkorb, Andre

    2015-03-18

    The ferrous (Fe2+) chelating capabilities of WPI hydrolysate fractions produced via cascade membrane filtration were investigated, specifically 1 kDa permeate (P) and 30 kDa retentate (R) fractions. The 1 kDa-P possessed a Fe2+ chelating capability at 1 g L(-1) equivalent to 84.4 μM EDTA (for 30 kDa-R the value was 8.7 μM EDTA). Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was utilized to investigate the structural characteristics of hydrolysates and molecular interactions with Fe2+. Solid-phase extraction was employed to enrich for chelating activity; the most potent chelating fraction was enriched in histidine and lysine. The solubility of ferrous sulfate solutions (10 mM) over a range of pH values was significantly (P<0.05) improved in dispersions of hydrolysate fraction solutions (10 g protein L(-1)). Total iron solubility was improved by 72% in the presence of the 1 kDa-P fraction following simulated gastrointestinal digestion (SGID) compared to control FeSO4·7H2O solutions.

  12. Solubility Enhancement of Ethyl AcetateFraction of The Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson Fosberg Leaves with Addition of β-Cyclodextrin-HPMC by Using Kneading Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Sabrina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ethyl acetate fraction of the Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson Fosberg extract have a potency to treat the cardiovascular diseases have poorly solubility in water. The purpose of this study was to improve the solubility of the extract. One of method to improve the solubility of the extract by mixing with cyclodextrin polymers and their derivatives. Hydroxyl propyl methylcellulose (HPMC as a water-soluble polymer can enhance the β-cyclodextrin (β-CD activity. Three comparisons extract and ß-cyclodextrin were: 1:2, 1:4, and 1:6 by mixing with the addition hydroxyl propyl methylcellulose 0.12%of the total weight of extract and β-CD for each formula. The sample was prepared by kneading method. The sample characterization was used Karl Fischer titration, Scanning Electron Microscopy and solubility study.Content of total flavonoid from the extract was 32.7%. The Result showed that the addition polymer combination of β-CD + HPMC caused increasing the solubility of extract in water7.04% (F1, 19.47% (F2 and 59.92% (F3 compared to extract control with significant differences at level of confidence 95% (p ≤ 0.05. Keywords : ethyl acetate fraction of breadfruit, kneading method, β-cyclodextryn, hydroxy propyl methylcellulose, total flavonoid

  13. Novel electrosprayed nanospherules for enhanced aqueous solubility and oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble fenofibrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousaf, Abid Mehmood; Mustapha, Omer; Kim, Dong Wuk; Kim, Dong Shik; Kim, Kyeong Soo; Jin, Sung Giu; Yong, Chul Soon; Youn, Yu Seok; Oh, Yu-Kyoung; Kim, Jong Oh; Choi, Han-Gon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the present research was to develop a novel electrosprayed nanospherule providing the most optimized aqueous solubility and oral bioavailability for poorly water-soluble fenofibrate. Methods Numerous fenofibrate-loaded electrosprayed nanospherules were prepared with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and Labrafil® M 2125 as carriers using the electrospray technique, and the effect of the carriers on drug solubility and solvation was assessed. The solid state characterization of an optimized formulation was conducted by scanning electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analyses. Oral bioavailability in rats was also evaluated for the formulation of an optimized nanospherule in comparison with free drug and a conventional fenofibrate-loaded solid dispersion. Results All of the electrosprayed nanospherule formulations had remarkably enhanced aqueous solubility and dissolution compared with free drug. Moreover, Labrafil M 2125, a surfactant, had a positive influence on the solubility and dissolution of the drug in the electrosprayed nanospherule. Increases were observed as the PVP/drug ratio increased to 4:1, but higher ratios gave no significant increases. In particular, an electrosprayed nanospherule composed of fenofibrate, PVP, and Labrafil M 2125 at the weight ratio of 1:4:0.5 resulted in a particle size of amorphous state. It demonstrated the highest solubility (32.51±2.41 μg/mL), an excellent dissolution (~85% in 10 minutes), and an oral bioavailability ~2.5-fold better than that of the free drug. It showed similar oral bioavailability compared to the conventional solid dispersion. Conclusion Electrosprayed nanospherules, which provide improved solubility and bioavailability, are promising drug delivery tools for oral administration of poorly water-soluble fenofibrate. PMID:26834471

  14. Solubility Enhancement of a Poorly Water Soluble Drug by Forming Solid Dispersions using Mechanochemical Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Oviedo, I.; Retchkiman-Corona, B.; Quirino-Barreda, C. T.; Cárdenas, J.; Schabes-Retchkiman, P. S.

    2012-01-01

    Mechanochemical activation is a practical cogrinding operation used to obtain a solid dispersion of a poorly water soluble drug through changes in the solid state molecular aggregation of drug-carrier mixtures and the formation of noncovalent interactions (hydrogen bonds) between two crystalline solids such as a soluble carrier, lactose, and a poorly soluble drug, indomethacin, in order to improve its solubility and dissolution rate. Samples of indomethacin and a physical mixture with a weight ratio of 1:1 of indomethacin and lactose were ground using a high speed vibrating ball mill. Particle size was determined by electron microscopy, the reduction of crystallinity was determined by calorimetry and transmission electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy was used to find evidence of any interactions between the drug and the carrier and the determination of apparent solubility allowed for the corroboration of changes in solubility. Before grinding, scanning electron microscopy showed the drug and lactose to have an average particle size of around 50 and 30 μm, respectively. After high speed grinding, indomethacin and the mixture had a reduced average particle size of around 5 and 2 μm, respectively, showing a morphological change. The ground mixture produced a solid dispersion that had a loss of crystallinity that reached 81% after 30 min of grinding while the drug solubility of indomethacin within the solid dispersion increased by 2.76 fold as compared to the pure drug. Drug activation due to hydrogen bonds between the carboxylic group of the drug and the hydroxyl group of lactose as well as the decrease in crystallinity of the solid dispersion and the reduction of the particle size led to a better water solubility of indomethacin. PMID:23798775

  15. Comparative study of emulsifying properties in acidic condition of soluble polysaccharides fractions obtained from soy hull and defatted soy flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porfiri, María Cecilia; Cabezas, Darío Marcelino; Wagner, Jorge Ricardo

    2016-02-01

    The present study compares the emulsifying properties in acidic conditions of hull soluble polysaccharides (HSPS), soybean soluble polysaccharides (SSPS) and its mixtures. These fractions were obtained from byproducts of soybean processing industry (soy hull and residual fiber after isolation of soy cotyledon protein, respectively). Although SSPS is already characterized, HSPS is a novel fraction which has not been studied in deep and it is still unexplored as emulsifier. Dispersions of both fraction and a mixture 50:50 of them at pH 3.0 were used as aqueous phase (1.0-3.0 % w/w) in coarse and fine oil-in-water emulsions (oil mass fraction = 0.3). Its stability was evaluated through the evolution of backscattering profiles (%BS), particle size distribution and mean particle diameters. The rheology of the emulsions was also analyzed. Both fractions provided stability to creaming when increasing the polysaccharide concentration and energy of homogenization. While coarse emulsions were unstable systems, fine emulsions were stable enough and allowed a deeper analysis of the destabilizing processes. A bridging flocculation phenomenon in the presence of HSPS and HSPS/SSPS mixtures is suggested, which influences the creaming and rheological behavior. Also, coalescence index increases according HSPS and HSPS/SSPS concentrations, but particle sizes reached were smaller than in SSPS emulsions. Fine emulsions with 3 % of HSPS/SSPS mixtures yielded the best results on the overall stability at 28 days. So, functional properties of the fractions may improve by the formulation of emulsions consisting in mixtures of them. These results are of interest to the manufacturing of acidic foods, taking advantage of obtaining byproducts from residual materials.

  16. Fabrication and Mechanical Characterization of Water-Soluble Resin-Coated Natural Fiber Green Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manabe, Ken-Ichi; Hayakawa, Tomoyuki

    In this study, water-soluble biodegradable resin was introduced as a coating agent to improve the interfacial strength and then to fabricate a high-performance green composite with polylactic acid (PLA) and hemp yarn. Dip coating was carried out for hemp yarn and the green composites were fabricated by hot processing. The coated green composite achieves a high tensile strength of 117 MPa even though the fiber volume fraction is less than 30%. Interfacial shear strength (IFSS) was measured by a single fiber pull-out test, and the effect of water-soluble resin on the tensile properties of the composites was evaluated. As a result, when using coated natural bundles, the IFSS value is smaller than when using noncoated natural bundles. On the basis of observations of the fractured surface of composites and initial yarns using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), the effect of the impregnation of water-soluble resin into the natural bundles on the tensile strength is discussed in detail. It is found that water-soluble resin is effective in improving the mechanical properties of the composite, although the interfacial strength between PLA and water-soluble resin was decreased, and as a result, the tensile strength of green composites increases by almost 20%.

  17. Zinc solubility and fractionation in cultivated calcareous soils irrigated with wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazif, W; Marzouk, E R; Perveen, S; Crout, N M J; Young, S D

    2015-06-15

    The solubility, lability and fractionation of zinc in a range of calcareous soils from Peshawar, Pakistan were studied (18 topsoils and 18 subsoils). The lability (E-value) of Zn was assessed as the fraction isotopically exchangeable with (70)Zn(2+); comparative extractions included 0.005 M DTPA, 0.43 M HNO3 and a Tessier-style sequential extraction procedure (SEP). Because of the extremely low concentration of labile Zn the E-value was determined in soils suspended in 0.0001 M Na2-EDTA which provided reliable analytical conditions in which approximately 20% of the labile Zn was dissolved. On average, only 2.4% of soil Zn was isotopically exchangeable. This corresponded closely to Zn solubilised by extraction with 0.005 DTPA and by the carbonate extraction step (F1+F2) of the Tessier-style SEP. Crucially, although the majority of the soil CaCO3 was dissolved in F2 of the SEP, the DTPA dissolved only a very small proportion of the soil CaCO3. This suggests a superficial carbonate-bound form of labile Zn, accessible to extraction with DTPA and to isotopic exchange. Zinc solubility from soil suspended in 0.01 M Ca(NO3)2 (PCO2 controlled at 0.03) was measured over three days. Following solution speciation using WHAM(VII) two simple solubility models were parameterised: a pH dependent 'adsorption' model based on the labile (isotopically exchangeable) Zn distribution coefficient (Kd) and an apparent solubility product (Ks) for ZnCO3. The distribution coefficient showed no pH-dependence and the solubility model provided the best fit to the free ion activity (Zn(2+)) data, although the apparent value of log10 Ks (5.1) was 2.8 log units lower than that of the mineral smithsonite (ZnCO3).

  18. Fractional study of alkali-soluble hemicelluloses obtained by graded ethanol precipitation from sugar cane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Feng; Ren, Jun-Li; Xu, Feng; Bian, Jing; Peng, Pai; Sun, Run-Cang

    2010-02-10

    The two hemicellulosic fractions were subsequentially extracted with 5% and 8% NaOH aqueous solution at a solid to liquid ratio of 1:25 (g mL(-1)) at 50 degrees C for 3 h from the water, 1 and 3% NaOH-treated sugar cane bagasse, and subfractionated into six preparations by a graded ethanol precipitation method at concentrations of 15%, 30% and 60% (v/v). Sugar composition and molecular weight analysis showed that, with an increasing concentration of ethanol, hemicellulosic subfractions with both higher Ara/Xyl ratios and higher molecular weights were obtained. In other words, with an increasing ethanol concentration from 15% to 60%, the Ara/Xyl ratios increased from 0.043 in H(1) to 0.088 in H(3) and from 0.040 in H(4) to 0.088 in H(6), and the weight-average molecular weights of hemicellulosic subfractions increased from 42 430 (H(1)) to 85 510 (H(3)) g mol(-1) and from 46 130 (H(4)) to 64 070 (H(6)) g mol(-1), respectively. The results obtained by the analysis of Fourier transform infrared, sugar composition, and (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic spectroscopy showed that the alkali-soluble hemicelluloses had a backbone of xylose residues with a beta-(1-->4)-linkage and were branched mainly through arabinofuranosyl units at C-2 and/or C-3 of the main chain, whereas the differences may occur in the distribution of branches along the xylan backbone.

  19. Water sorption/solubility of dental adhesive resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malacarne, Juliana; Carvalho, Ricardo M; de Goes, Mario F; Svizero, Nadia; Pashley, David H; Tay, Franklin R; Yiu, Cynthia K; Carrilho, Marcela Rocha de Oliveira; de Oliveira Carrilho, Marcela Rocha

    2006-10-01

    This study evaluated the water sorption, solubility and kinetics of water diffusion in commercial and experimental resins that are formulated to be used as dentin and enamel bonding agents. Four commercial adhesives were selected along with their solvent-monomer combination: the bonding resins were of Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (MP) and Clearfil SE Bond (SE) systems, and the "one-bottle" systems, Adper Single Bond (SB) and Excite (EX). Five experimental methacrylate-based resins of known hydrophilicities (R1, R2, R3, R4 and R5) were used as reference materials. Specimen disks were prepared by dispensing the uncured resin into a mould (5.8mm x 0.8mm). After desiccation, the cured specimens were weighed and then stored in distilled water for evaluation of the water diffusion kinetics over a 28-day period. Resin composition and hydrophilicity (ranked by their Hoy's solubility parameters) influenced water sorption, solubility and water diffusion in both commercial and experimental dental resins. The most hydrophilic experimental resin, R5, showed the highest water sorption, solubility and water diffusion coefficient. Among the commercial adhesives, the solvated systems, SB and EX, showed water sorption, solubility and water diffusion coefficients significantly greater than those observed for the non-solvated systems, MP and SE (p<0.05). In general, the extent and rate of water sorption increased with the hydrophilicity of the resin blends. The extensive amount of water sorption in the current hydrophilic dental resins is a cause of concern. This may affect the mechanical stability of these resins and favor the rapid and catastrophic degradation of resin-dentin bonds.

  20. Enhancement of solubility and dissolution rate of poorly water soluble raloxifene using microwave induced fusion method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payal Hasmukhlal Patil

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to enhance the solubility and dissolution rate of the drug raloxifene HCl (RLX, which is poorly soluble in water. The solubility of RLX was observed to increase with increasing concentration of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC E5 LV. The optimized ratio for preparing a solid dispersion (SD of RLX with HPMC E5 LV using the microwave-induced fusion method was 1:5 w/w. Microwave energy was used to prepare SDs. HPMC E5 LV was used as a hydrophilic carrier to enhance the solubility and dissolution rate of RLX. After microwave treatment, the drug and hydrophilic polymer are fused together, and the drug is converted from the crystalline form into an amorphous form. This was confirmed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD studies. These results suggested that the microwave method is a simple and efficient method of preparing SDs. The solubility and dissolution rate of the SDs were increased significantly compared with pure RLX due to the surfactant and wetting properties of HPMC E5 LV and the formation of molecular dispersions of the drug in HPMC E5 LV. It was concluded that the solubility and dissolution rate of RLX are increased significantly when an SD of the drug is prepared using the microwave-induced fusion method.

  1. CHARACTERIZATION OF BULK SOIL HUMIN AND ITS ALKALINE-SOLUBLE AND ALKALINE-INSOLUBLE FRACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuilan Li

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Humic substances are the major components of soil organic matter. Among the three humic substance components (humic acid, fulvic acid, and humin, humin is the most insoluble in aqueous solution at any pH value and, in turn, the least understood. Humin has poor solubility mainly because it is tightly bonded to inorganic soil colloids. By breaking the linkage between humin and inorganic soil colloids using inorganic or organic solvents, bulk humin can be partially soluble in alkali, enabling a better understanding of the structure and properties of humin. However, the structural relationship between bulk humin and its alkaline-soluble (AS and alkaline-insoluble (AIS fractions is still unknown. In this study, we isolated bulk humin from two soils of Northeast China by exhaustive extraction (25 to 28 times with 0.1 mol L-1 NaOH + 0.1 mol L-1 Na4P2O7, followed by the traditional treatment with 10 % HF-HCl. The isolated bulk humin was then fractionated into AS-humin and AIS-humin by exhaustive extraction (12 to 15 times with 0.1 mol L-1 NaOH. Elemental analysis and solid-state 13C cross-polarization magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (13C CPMAS NMR spectroscopy were used to characterize and compare the chemical structures of bulk humin and its corresponding fractions. The results showed that, regardless of soil types, bulk humin was the most aliphatic and most hydrophobic, AS-humin was the least aliphatic, and AIS-humin was the least alkylated among the three humic components. The results showed that bulk humin and its corresponding AS-humin and AIS-humin fractions are structurally differed from one another, implying that the functions of these humic components in the soil environment differed.

  2. Characterization and functional properties of sub-fractions of soluble soybean polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Matsumoto, Shinya; Nakamura, Akihiro; Maeda, Hirokazu; Matsumura, Yasuki

    2009-12-01

    Soluble soybean polysaccharide (SSPS) was fractionated into two sub-fractions, a high-molecular-weight fraction (HMF) and a low-molecular-weight fraction (LMF) by the ethanol-extraction method. Characterization of the sub-fractions, that is, analysis of chemical composition, gel filtration, and SDS-PAGE, revealed that the main component of HMF was a large polysaccharide molecule with covalently-attached peptides, possibly corresponding to the intact SSPS molecule. LMF consisted of free peptides and saccharides of small size, which might have occurred as by-products during the production process of SSPS. HMF exhibited high ability to emulsify oil droplets and stabilize alpha-casein dispersions in an acidic pH region, but this ability of LMF was inferior to HMF. On the other hand, LMF had higher activity to prevent the oxidation of emulsified lipids than HMF. These results suggest that HMF and LMF had different characteristics and functional properties, and that the combination of the two sub-fractions generates the multi-functions of commercial SSPS.

  3. Phosphoryl choline-grafted water-soluble carbon nanotube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Zhang; Kai Xi; Min Gu; Zheng Sheng Jiang

    2008-01-01

    Water-soluble property is the precondition of biomedical evaluation and application of carbon nanotube (CNT). Novel watersoluble CNT was synthesized in this letter by grafting phosphoryi choline (PC) onto multi-wall CNTs. Utilizing FTIR, XPS, TGAand TEM, the title CNTs were characterized and it was found that the target products could facilely dissolve in water.

  4. Efficient and Convenient Preparation of Water-Soluble Fullerenol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian-Min章建民; YANG Wen杨文; HE Ping何萍; ZHU Shi-Zheng朱士正

    2004-01-01

    An efficient and convenient preparation of fullerenols was described. With polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400 as catalyst, fullerenols were conveniently synthesized via the direct reaction of fullerene with aqueous NaOH. By control of reaction conditions, either water-soluble C60 fullerenol or water-insoluble C60 fullerenol could be obtained selectively.

  5. Group separation and analysis of a carbon disulfide-soluble fraction from Shenfu coal by column chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Ming-jie; WEI Xian-yong; ZONG Zhi-min; ZONG Ying; OUYANG Xiao-dong; HUANG Yao-guo; ZHOU Lei; ZHENG Yu-xuan; ZHOU Xiao; WEI Yan-bin

    2008-01-01

    A carbon disulfide-soluble fraction (CDSSF) from Shenfu coal was separated into five fractions by silica-gel column chromatography using hexane and n-hexane/ethyl acetate binary eluent. The five fractions include four clear group fractions and a nonpolar fraction. All the fractions were analyzed by GC/MS. A total of 204 compounds were detected from the original CDSSF and its further separated fractions, with 173 compounds more than those detected by studying the original CDSSF directly. The results demonstrate a clear group separation by column chromatography in coal organic components and a more accessibility to coal components compared with the solvent extraction only.

  6. Hydrogen Solubility in Heavy Undefined Petroleum Fractions Using Group Contributions Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguilar-Cisneros Humberto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen solubility in heavy undefined petroleum fractions is estimated by taking as starting point a method of characterization based on functional groups [ Carreón-Calderón et al. (2012 Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 51, 14188-14198 ]. Such method provides properties entering into equations of states and molecular pseudostructures formed by non-integer numbers of functional groups. Using Vapor-Liquid Equilibria (VLE data from binary mixtures of known compounds, interaction parameters between hydrogen and the calculated functional groups were estimated. Besides, the incorporation of the hydrogen-carbon ratio of the undefined petroleum fractions into the method allows the corresponding hydrogen solubility to be properly estimated. This procedure was tested with seven undefined petroleum fractions from 27 to 6 API over wide ranges of pressure and temperature (323.15 to 623.15 K. The results seem to be in good agreement with experimental data (overall Relative Average Deviation, RAD < 15%.

  7. Hydrodistillation-adsorption method for the isolation of water-soluble, non-soluble and high volatile compounds from plant materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastelić, J; Jerković, I; Blazević, I; Radonić, A; Krstulović, L

    2008-08-15

    Proposed method of hydrodistillation-adsorption (HDA) on activated carbon and hydrodistillation (HD) with solvent trap were compared for the isolation of water-soluble, non-soluble and high volatile compounds, such as acids, monoterpenes, isothiocyanates and others from carob (Certonia siliqua L.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) and rocket (Eruca sativa L.). Isolated volatiles were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The main advantages of HDA method over ubiquitous HD method were higher yields of volatile compounds and their simultaneous separation in three fractions that enabled more detail analyses. This method is particularly suitable for the isolation and analysis of the plant volatiles with high amounts of water-soluble compounds. In distinction from previously published adsorption of remaining volatile compounds from distillation water on activated carbon, this method offers simultaneous hydrodistillation and adsorption in the same apparatus.

  8. Composition, hygroscopicity and light absorption of water-soluble fraction of PM2.5 at a rural site near Beijing%华北农村大气PM2.5中水溶性物质化学组成、吸湿性能及光学特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩艳妮; 王格慧

    2016-01-01

    scattering and absorbing, transportation, gasparticle phase partitioning and aqueous reaction. This paper aims to investigate the chemical composition,hygroscopic growth factor and optical absorption efficiency of fine particles at Gucheng, a rural site with a distance of about 100 km southwest to Beijing. Materials and methods 121 PM2.5 samples were collected during June 10th—25th 2013 at Gucheng, Hebei Province by using high-volume sampler (1.13 m3∙min−1) with a 3 h interval. The samples were measured for element carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), watersoluble organic carbon (WSOC) and water-soluble organic nitrogen (WSON), inorganic ions, hygroscopic growth factor (Gf) and optical mass absorption efficiency (MAE) at 365 nm light wavelength. Results During sampling period PM2.5 ranged from 5.0 μg∙m−3 to 372 μg∙m−3 with an average of 135 μg∙m−3, which was about two times the national air quality secondary standard (GB 3095—2012, 75 μg∙m−3). During the sampling period , and were the dominant inorganic ions, accounting for 29%, 30%, 14% of the total inorganic ions, respectively. The average concentration of WSON was 5.0 ± 4.0 μg∙m−3 with a maximum of 15 μg∙m−3 during the whole campaign and four times higher in polluted periods (6.9 ± 3.9 μg∙m−3) than in the clean periods (1.7 ± 0.9 μg∙m−3). In the whole sampling period WSON well correlated with , and (R2 > 0.89), and enahced with an increase in the equivalent ratio of cations to anions from 1.01 in the polluted periods to 1.45 in the clean periods, suggesting that acidity of PM2.5 was favorable for the gas-to-particle partitioning of WSON species such as low molecular weight amines. Hygroscopic growth factors (Gf) of the water-soluble fraction of the PM2.5 samples were measured by hygroscopic tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA). The results showed that Gf negatively correlated with the mass ratio of (WSOC + WSON) to (inorganic ions), indicating that water-soluble

  9. Zinc solubility and fractionation in cultivated calcareous soils irrigated with wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazif, W. [Division of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington, Leicestershire LE12 5RD (United Kingdom); Marzouk, E.R. [Division of Soil and Water Sciences, Faculty of Environmental Agricultural Sciences, Suez Canal University, North Sinai 45516 (Egypt); Perveen, S. [Department of Soil and Environmental Sciences, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Agricultural University, Peshawar (Pakistan); Crout, N.M.J. [Division of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington, Leicestershire LE12 5RD (United Kingdom); Young, S.D., E-mail: scott.young@nottingham.ac.uk [Division of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington, Leicestershire LE12 5RD (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-15

    The solubility, lability and fractionation of zinc in a range of calcareous soils from Peshawar, Pakistan were studied (18 topsoils and 18 subsoils). The lability (E-value) of Zn was assessed as the fraction isotopically exchangeable with {sup 70}Zn{sup 2+}; comparative extractions included 0.005 M DTPA, 0.43 M HNO{sub 3} and a Tessier-style sequential extraction procedure (SEP). Because of the extremely low concentration of labile Zn the E-value was determined in soils suspended in 0.0001 M Na{sub 2}-EDTA which provided reliable analytical conditions in which approximately 20% of the labile Zn was dissolved. On average, only 2.4% of soil Zn was isotopically exchangeable. This corresponded closely to Zn solubilised by extraction with 0.005 DTPA and by the carbonate extraction step (F1 + F2) of the Tessier-style SEP. Crucially, although the majority of the soil CaCO{sub 3} was dissolved in F2 of the SEP, the DTPA dissolved only a very small proportion of the soil CaCO{sub 3}. This suggests a superficial carbonate-bound form of labile Zn, accessible to extraction with DTPA and to isotopic exchange. Zinc solubility from soil suspended in 0.01 M Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} (PCO{sub 2} controlled at 0.03) was measured over three days. Following solution speciation using WHAM(VII) two simple solubility models were parameterised: a pH dependent ‘adsorption’ model based on the labile (isotopically exchangeable) Zn distribution coefficient (Kd) and an apparent solubility product (Ks) for ZnCO{sub 3}. The distribution coefficient showed no pH-dependence and the solubility model provided the best fit to the free ion activity (Zn{sup 2+}) data, although the apparent value of log{sub 10} Ks (5.1) was 2.8 log units lower than that of the mineral smithsonite (ZnCO{sub 3}). - Highlights: • Isotopically exchangeable Zn in the calcareous soils of Peshawar is extremely low. • There is no evidence of topsoil enrichment from the use of wastewater for irrigation. • Solubility

  10. Multiple sources of soluble atmospheric iron to Antarctic waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winton, V. H. L.; Edwards, R.; Delmonte, B.; Ellis, A.; Andersson, P. S.; Bowie, A.; Bertler, N. A. N.; Neff, P.; Tuohy, A.

    2016-03-01

    The Ross Sea, Antarctica, is a highly productive region of the Southern Ocean. Significant new sources of iron (Fe) are required to sustain phytoplankton blooms in the austral summer. Atmospheric deposition is one potential source. The fractional solubility of Fe is an important variable determining Fe availability for biological uptake. To constrain aerosol Fe inputs to the Ross Sea region, fractional solubility of Fe was analyzed in a snow pit from Roosevelt Island, eastern Ross Sea. In addition, aluminum, dust, and refractory black carbon (rBC) concentrations were analyzed, to determine the contribution of mineral dust and combustion sources to the supply of aerosol Fe. We estimate exceptionally high dissolved Fe (dFe) flux of 1.2 × 10-6 g m-2 y-1 and total dissolvable Fe flux of 140 × 10-6 g m-2 y-1 for 2011/2012. Deposition of dust, Fe, Al, and rBC occurs primarily during spring-summer. The observed background fractional Fe solubility of ~0.7% is consistent with a mineral dust source. Radiogenic isotopic ratios and particle size distribution of dust indicates that the site is influenced by local and remote sources. In 2011/2012 summer, relatively high dFe concentrations paralleled both mineral dust and rBC deposition. Around half of the annual aerosol Fe deposition occurred in the austral summer phytoplankton growth season; however, the fractional Fe solubility was low. Our results suggest that the seasonality of dFe deposition can vary and should be considered on longer glacial-interglacial timescales.

  11. Search for fractional charges in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, D. C.; Abrams, P. C.; Bland, R. W.; Johnson, R. T.; Lindgren, M. A.; Savage, M. H.; Scholz, M. H.; Young, B. A.; Hodges, C. L.

    1983-08-01

    The results of a search for quarks in water, using a modified Millikan-oil-drop experiment, are presented. A total of 51 micrograms of water from different fresh and salt sources were investigated in a computer-controlled device comprising a piezoelectric drop injector, a series of 90 optical timing slits, and a chamber with an electric field that is reversed as the drop reaches split 39 and again at slit 74. Only drops with a charge between -12 and +12 e were accepted. A typical drift-velocity plot and the residual-charge frequency distribution for all the observations are shown. No fractional charges were detected in the samples, corresponding to an upper limit of quark concentration per nucleon of 9.8 x 10 to the -20th. This negative finding is discussed in terms of the presumed chemical properties of quarked atoms and compared with the results of other quark searches.

  12. Novel electrosprayed nanospherules for enhanced aqueous solubility and oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble fenofibrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousaf AM

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abid Mehmood Yousaf,1,2 Omer Mustapha,1 Dong Wuk Kim,1 Dong Shik Kim,1 Kyeong Soo Kim,1 Sung Giu Jin,1 Chul Soon Yong,3 Yu Seok Youn,4 Yu-Kyoung Oh,5 Jong Oh Kim,3 Han-Gon Choi1 1College of Pharmacy and Institute of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Hanyang University, Ansan, Gyeonggi, South Korea; 2Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Central Punjab, Johar, Lahore, Pakistan; 3College of Pharmacy, Yeungnam University, Gyongsan, North Gyeongsang, 4School of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Gyeonggi, 5College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea Purpose: The purpose of the present research was to develop a novel electrosprayed nanospherule providing the most optimized aqueous solubility and oral bioavailability for poorly water-soluble fenofibrate.Methods: Numerous fenofibrate-loaded electrosprayed nanospherules were prepared with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP and Labrafil® M 2125 as carriers using the electrospray technique, and the effect of the carriers on drug solubility and solvation was assessed. The solid state characterization of an optimized formulation was conducted by scanning electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analyses. Oral bioavailability in rats was also evaluated for the formulation of an optimized nanospherule in comparison with free drug and a conventional fenofibrate-loaded solid dispersion.Results: All of the electrosprayed nanospherule formulations had remarkably enhanced aqueous solubility and dissolution compared with free drug. Moreover, Labrafil M 2125, a surfactant, had a positive influence on the solubility and dissolution of the drug in the electrosprayed nanospherule. Increases were observed as the PVP/drug ratio increased to 4:1, but higher ratios gave no significant increases. In particular, an electrosprayed nanospherule composed of fenofibrate, PVP, and Labrafil M 2125 at the weight ratio of 1

  13. Solubility and thermodynamic behavior of vanillin in propane-1,2-diol+water cosolvent mixtures at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeel, Faiyaz; Haq, Nazrul; Siddiqui, Nasir A; Alanazi, Fars K; Alsarra, Ibrahim A

    2015-12-01

    The solubilities of bioactive compound vanillin were measured in various propane-1,2-diol+water cosolvent mixtures at T=(298-318)K and p=0.1 MPa. The experimental solubility of crystalline vanillin was determined and correlated with calculated solubility. The results showed good correlation of experimental solubilities of crystalline vanillin with calculated ones. The mole fraction solubility of crystalline vanillin was recorded highest in pure propane-1,2-diol (7.06×10(-2) at 298 K) and lowest in pure water (1.25×10(-3) at 298 K) over the entire temperature range investigated. Thermodynamic behavior of vanillin in various propane-1,2-diol+water cosolvent mixtures was evaluated by Van't Hoff and Krug analysis. The results showed an endothermic, spontaneous and an entropy-driven dissolution of crystalline vanillin in all propane-1,2-diol+water cosolvent mixtures. Based on solubility data of this work, vanillin has been considered as soluble in water and freely soluble in propane-1,2-diol.

  14. Study of pH-dependent drugs solubility in water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pobudkowska A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The solubilities of five sparingly soluble drug-compounds in water have been measured at constant temperatures (298.1K and 310.1K by the classical saturation shake-flask method. All substances presented in this work are derivatives of anthranilic acid: flufenamic acid, (FLU, mefenamic acid, (MEF, niflumic acid, (NIF, diclofenac sodium, (DIC, and meclofenamic sodium, (MEC. All of them have anti-inflammatory action. Since the aqueous solubility of the ionized drug is significantly higher than the unionized, the experimental conditions that affect equilibrium solubility values such as composition of aqueous buffer have been examined. The Henderson-Hasselbalch (HH relationship has been used to predict the pH-dependent solubility profiles of chosen drugs at two temperatures. For this purpose the pKa values of the investigated drugs have been determined with Bates-Schwarzenbach spectrophotometric method at temperature 310.1 K. At temperature 298.1K these values were reported earlier. Similar values of pKa were obtained from the solubility measurements.

  15. Acetylcholine-hydrolyzing activities in soluble brain fraction: Characterization with reversible and irreversible inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, Jorge; Selva, Verónica; Benabent, Mónica; Mangas, Iris; Sogorb, Miguel Ángel; Vilanova, Eugenio

    2016-11-25

    Some effects of organophosphorus compounds (OPs) esters cannot be explained through actions on currently recognized targets acetylcholinesterase or neuropathy target esterase (NTE). In soluble chicken brain fraction, three components (Eα, Eβ and Eγ) of pheny lvalerate esterase activity (PVase) were kinetically discriminated and their relationship with acetylcholine-hydrolyzing activity (cholinesterase activity) were studied in previous works. In this work, four enzymatic components (CS1, CS2, CS3 and CS4) of cholinesterase activity have been discriminated in soluble fraction, according to their sensitivity to irreversible inhibitors mipafox, paraoxon, PMSF and iso-OMPA and to reversible inhibitors ethopropazine and BW284C51. Cholinesterase component CS1 can be related to the Eα component of PVase activity and identified as butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE). No association and similarities can be stablished among the other PVase component (Eβ and Eγ) with the other cholinesterase components (CS2, CS3, CS4). The kinetic analysis has allowed us to stablish a method for discriminating the enzymatic component based on a simple test with two inhibitors. It can be used as biomarker in toxicological studies and for monitoring these cholinesterase components during isolation and molecular identification processes, which will allow OP toxicity to be understood by a multi-target approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Chronic administration of the soluble, nonbacterial fraction of kefir attenuates lipid deposition in LDLr(-/-) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santanna, Adriélly F; Filete, Placielle F; Lima, Ewelyne M; Porto, Marcella L; Meyrelles, Silvana S; Vasquez, Elisardo C; Endringer, Denise C; Lenz, Dominik; Abdalla, Dulcineia S P; Pereira, Thiago M C; Andrade, Tadeu U

    2017-03-01

    Kefir is obtained by the action of acidic bacteria and yeasts that exist in symbiotic association in kefir grains. Recently, this fermented milk drink has been recommended for the treatment of several clinical conditions, such as inflammatory, gastrointestinal, or cardiovascular-related diseases, or a combination of these diseases. However, its effects on atherosclerosis are not yet clear. The aim of this study was to prove that chronic treatment with a soluble, nonbacterial fraction of kefir could reduce the progression of atherosclerosis in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (LDLr(-/-)) mice. LDLr(-/-) mice were divided into four groups as follows: RESULTS: The soluble, nonbacterial fraction of kefir reduced lipid deposition (P kefir was capable of diminishing the circulating proinflammatory intereukin (IL)-6 level and the ratio of tumor necrosis factor-α to IL-10 (50% and 42%, P kefir was able to decrease the lipid deposition in LDLr(-/-) hypercholesteremic mice, at least in part through modifying the circulating cytokine profile. The beneficial effects of kefir provide new perspectives for its use as an adjuvant in the prevention of atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Water-Soluble Gold Nanoparticles Protected by Fluorinated Amphiphilic Thiolates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gentilini, Cristina; Evangelista, Fabrizio; Rudolf, Petra; Franchi, Paola; Lucarini, Marco; Pasquato, Lucia

    2008-01-01

    The preparation and the properties of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) protected by perfluorinated amphiphiles are described. The thiols were devised to form a perfluorinated region close to the gold surface and to have a hydrophilic portion in contact with the bulk solvent to impart solubility in water.

  18. Determination of Carboxylic Acids and Water-soluble Inorganic Ions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    radiation balance.4,5 Major water-soluble inorganic ions are associated with ... central area and major road systems and possible aerosol sources include biomass ..... Tanzania than at European rural sites32 and Asia.33,34. To determine the ...

  19. Water-soluble diphosphadiazacyclooctanes as ligands for aqueous organometallic catalysis

    KAUST Repository

    Boulanger, Jérôme

    2012-12-01

    Two new water-soluble diphosphacyclooctanes been synthesized and characterized by NMR and surface tension measurements. Both phosphanes proved to coordinate rhodium in a very selective way as well-defined bidentates were obtained. When used in Rh-catalyzed hydroformylation of terminal alkenes, both ligands positively impacted the reaction chemoselectivity. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  20. Water-soluble constituents of cumin: monoterpenoid glucosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Toru; Takayanagi, Tomomi; Kitajima, Junichi

    2002-11-01

    From the water-soluble portion of the methanol extract of cumin (fruit of Cuminum cyminum L.), which has been used as a spice and medicine since antiquity, sixteen monoterpenoid glucosides, including twelve new compounds, were isolated. Their structures were clarified by spectral investigation.

  1. Biodegradation of the water-soluble gasoline components in a novel hybrid bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-De-Jesus, A.; Lara-Rodriguez, A.; Santoyo-Tepole, F.; Juarez-Ramirez, C.; Cristiani-Urbina, E.; Ruiz-Ordaz, N.; Galindez Mayer, J. [Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biologicas, del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Departamento de Ingenieria Bioquimica, Carpio y Plan de Ayala, ' ' Centro Operativo Naranjo' ' , Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    A novel hybrid bioreactor was designed to remove volatile organic compounds from water contaminated with water-soluble gasoline components, and the performance of this new bioreactor was investigated. It was composed of two biotrickling filter sections and one biofilter section. The liquid phase pollutants were removed by a mixed culture in the biotrickling filter sections and the gas phase pollutants stripped by air injection in the biofilter section. The specific rates of chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal obtained in the reactor were directly proportional to the pollutant-loading rate. A stable operation of the hybrid bioreactor was attained for long periods of time. The bioreactor had the potential to simultaneously treat a complex mixture of volatile organic compounds, e.g., those present in the water-soluble fraction of gasoline, as well as the capacity to readily adapt to changing operational conditions, such as an increased contaminant loading, and variations in the airflow rate. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  2. Morphological Analysis and Solubility of Lead Particles: Effect of Phosphates and Implications to Drinking Water (Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describe lead synthesis experiments conduced to model the impact of water quality on lead particles and solubility Develop a model system that can be used for lead solubility studies Understand how phosphates impact morphology and solubility transformations with time

  3. A mathematical model to predict the release of water-soluble drugs from HPMC matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, X C; Wang, G P; Fu, C Y; Liang, W Q

    2004-09-01

    A mathematical model to predict the fraction of water-soluble drug released as a function of release time (t, h), HPMC concentration (CH, w/w), and volume of drug molecule (V, nm3) was derived with ranitidine hydrochloride, diltiazem hydrochloride, and ribavirin as model drugs. The model is log (M(t)/M(infinity)) = 0.5 log t-0.3322CH-0.2222V-0.2988 (n = 140, r = 0.9848), where M(t) is the amount of drug released at time t, M(infinity) is the amount of drug released over a very long time, which corresponds in principle to the initial loading, n is the number of samples, and r is the correlation coefficient. The model was validated using isoniazid and satisfactory results were obtained. The model can be used to predict the release fraction of various soluble drugs from HPMC matrices having different polymer levels.

  4. Antibacterial activities of peptides from the water-soluble extracts of Italian cheese varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzello, C G; Losito, I; Gobbetti, M; Carbonara, T; De Bari, M D; Zambonin, P G

    2005-07-01

    Water-soluble extracts of 9 Italian cheese varieties that differed mainly for type of cheese milk, starter, technology, and time of ripening were fractionated by reversed-phase fast protein liquid chromatography, and the antimicrobial activity of each fraction was first assayed toward Lactobacillus sakei A15 by well-diffusion assay. Active fractions were further analyzed by HPLC coupled to electrospray ionization-ion trap mass spectrometry, and peptide sequences were identified by comparison with a proteomic database. Parmigiano Reggiano, Fossa, and Gorgonzola water-soluble extracts did not show antibacterial peptides. Fractions of Pecorino Romano, Canestrato Pugliese, Crescenza, and Caprino del Piemonte contained a mixture of peptides with a high degree of homology. Pasta filata cheeses (Caciocavallo and Mozzarella) also had antibacterial peptides. Peptides showed high levels of homology with N-terminal, C-terminal, or whole fragments of well known antimicrobial or multifunctional peptides reported in the literature: alphaS1-casokinin (e.g., sheep alphaS1-casein (CN) f22-30 of Pecorino Romano and cow alphaS1-CN f24-33 of Canestrato Pugliese); isracidin (e.g., sheep alphaS1-CN f10-21 of Pecorino Romano); kappacin and casoplatelin (e.g., cow kappa-CN f106-115 of Canestrato Pugliese and Crescenza); and beta-casomorphin-11 (e.g., goat beta-CN f60-68 of Caprino del Piemonte). As shown by the broth microdilution technique, most of the water-soluble fractions had a large spectrum of inhibition (minimal inhibitory concentration of 20 to 200 microg/mL) toward gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial species, including potentially pathogenic bacteria of clinical interest. Cheeses manufactured from different types of cheese milk (cow, sheep, and goat) have the potential to generate similar peptides with antimicrobial activity.

  5. Sorption and solubility of ofloxacin and norfloxacin in water-methanol cosolvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hongbo; Li, Hao; Wang, Chi; Zhang, Di; Pan, Bo; Xing, Baoshan

    2014-05-01

    Prediction of the properties and behavior of antibiotics is important for their risk assessment and pollution control. Theoretical calculation was incorporated in our experimental study to investigate the sorption of ofloxacin (OFL) and norfloxacin (NOR) on carbon nanotubes and their solubilities in water, methanol, and their mixture. Sorption for OFL and NOR decreased as methanol volume fractions (fc) increased. But the log-linear cosolvency model could not be applied as a general model to describe the cosolvent effect on OFL and NOR sorption. We computed the bond lengths of possible hydrogen bonds between solute and solvent and the corresponding interaction energies using Density Functional Theory. The decreased OFL solubility with increased fc could be attributed to the generally stronger hydrogen bond between OFL and H2O than that between OFL and CH3OH. Solubility of NOR varied nonmonotonically with increasing fc, which may be understood from the stronger hydrogen bond of NOR-CH3OH than NOR-H2O at two important sites (-O18 and -O21). The interaction energies were also calculated for the solute surrounded by solvent molecules at all the possible hydrogen bond sites, but it did not match the solubility variations with fc for both chemicals. The difference between the simulated and real systems was discussed. Similar sorption but different solubility of NOR and OFL from water-methanol cosolvent suggested that sorbate-solvent interaction seems not control their sorption.

  6. Fractionation and solubility of cadmium in paddy soils amended with porous hydrated calcium silicate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xiu-lan; Saigusa Masaihiko

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that porous hydrated calcium silicate(PS)is very effective in decreasing cadmium(Cd)content in brown rice.However,it is unclear whether me PS influences cadmium transformation in soil.The present study examined the effect of PS on pH,cadmium transformation and cadmium solubility in Andosol and Alluvial soil,and also compared its effects with CaCO3,acidic porous hydrated calcium silicate(APS)and silica gel.Soil cadmium was operationally fractionationed into exchangeable(Exch),bound to carbonates(Carb).bound to iron and manganese oxides(FeMnOx),bound to organic matters(OM)and residual(Res)fraction.ApplicatiOn of PS and CaCO3 at hig rates enhanced soil pH,while APS and silica gel did not obviously change soil pH.PS and CaCO3 also increased the FeMnOx-Cd in Andosol and Carb-Cd in Alluvial soil,thus reducing the Exch-Cd in me tested soils.However,PS was less effecfive than CaCO3 at the same application rate.Cadmium fractions in the two soils were not changed by the treatments of APS and silica gel.There were no obvious differences in the solubility of cadmium in soils treated with PS,APS,silica gel and CaCO3 except Andosol treated 2.0%CaCO3 at the same pH of soil-CaCl2 suspensions.These findings suggested that the decrease of cadmium availability in soil was mainly attributed to the increase of soil pH caused by PS.

  7. Mechanisms and solubility equations of gas dissolving in water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付晓泰; 王振平; 卢双舫

    1996-01-01

    The two mechanisms of gas dissolving in water, interstice filling and aquation, are proposed. General equations of gas solubility have been deduced from the mechanisms and experimental observations. Dependence of Henry’s coefficient on temperature, pressure, aquation equilibrium constant and gas molecular wlume is discussed. The theoretical equations were verified by experimental data, which shows that the theoretical results of the solubility of methane are in good agreement with the experimental data in the range of 20 -160℃ and under a pressure of less than 60 MPa.

  8. GC/MS Analysis of Organic Compounds in Hot Water-Extractable Fraction from Shenfu Coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Bao-min; YUAN Cheng; ZONG Zhi-min; CAO Jing-pei; LIU Guang-feng; WEI Xian-yong

    2007-01-01

    Shenfu Coal was extracted with hot pure water and slurry was isolated. The concentrated benzene-soluble fraction (CBSF) was analyzed with GC/MS and four types of organic compounds (OCs) were detected: HACOCs, DTEs, DMDT and LCAs. The amount of benzyl benzoate which is the most abundant OC was calculated by an internal standard method with an indicated amount of BP. The broken hydrogen bonds and ether bonds were responsible for the extraction of OCs from the coal .DTEs, DMDT and LCAs are essentially insoluble in water, whereas they are soluble, probably owing to intermolecular interaction of OCs with HACOCs.

  9. Filterable water-soluble organic nitrogen in fine particles over the southeastern USA during summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Neeraj; Zhang, Xiaolu; Edgerton, Eric S.; Ingall, Ellery; Weber, Rodney J.

    2011-10-01

    Time integrated high-volume PM 2.5 samples were collected separately during day and night from 1 August to 10 September 2008 at a paired urban (Atlanta)-rural (Yorkville) sites as part of the August Mini-Intensive Gas and Aerosol Study (AMIGAS). Selected filters ( n = 96, 48 for each site) were analyzed for a suite of water-soluble chemical species, including major inorganic ions, water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), water-soluble total and inorganic nitrogen (WSTN and WSIN), and levoglucosan. Semi-continuous analyses of PM 2.5 mass, soluble ions, WSOC, and gaseous O 3, SO 2, NO, NO 2, NO y, CO, and meteorological parameters were also carried out in parallel. This study focuses on the characteristics of filterable water-soluble organic nitrogen (WSON), estimated by the difference in the measured concentrations of WSTN and WSIN, determined from aqueous filter extracts. At both sites, WSON varied from below the limit of detection (25 ng-N m -3) to ˜600 ng-N m -3 and on average contributed ˜10% to WSTN mass, with the majority of soluble nitrogen being ammonium (˜82%). WSON:WSOC (or N:C) mass ratios ranged between 0 and 27% at both the sites with a median value of ˜5%, similar to what has been reported in another study in the southeastern USA. At both the urban and rural sites median nighttime levels of WSON and N:C were observed to be consistently higher than daytime values. Based on correlation analyses, daytime WSON sources appeared different than nighttime sources, especially at the urban site. Overall, the data suggest the importance of coal-combustion (e.g., link to SO 2), vehicle emissions, soil dust and biomass burning as WSON sources, and that nitrogenous organic compounds are likely a fairly small fraction of the secondary organic aerosol for this location during summer.

  10. Formulation of a Novel Nanoemulsion System for Enhanced Solubility of a Sparingly Water Soluble Antibiotic, Clarithromycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuti Vatsraj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The sparingly water soluble property of majority of medicinally significant drugs acts as a potential barrier towards its utilization for therapeutic purpose. The present study was thus aimed at development of a novel oil-in-water (o/w nanoemulsion (NE system having ability to function as carrier for poorly soluble drugs with clarithromycin as a model antibiotic. The therapeutically effective concentration of clarithromycin, 5 mg/mL, was achieved using polysorbate 80 combined with olive oil as lipophilic counterion. A three-level three-factorial central composite experimental design was utilized to conduct the experiments. The effects of selected variables, polysorbate 80 and olive oil content and concentration of polyvinyl alcohol, were investigated. The particle size of clarithromycin for the optimized formulation was observed to be 30 nm. The morphology of the nanoemulsion was explored using transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The emulsions prepared with the optimized formula demonstrated good physical stability during storage at room temperature. Antibacterial activity was conducted with the optimized nanoemulsion NESH 01 and compared with free clarithromycin. Zone of inhibition was larger for NESH 01 as compared to that with free clarithromycin. This implies that the solubility and hence the bioavailability of clarithromycin has increased in the formulated nanoemulsion system.

  11. OZONE TREATMENT OF SOLUBLE ORGANICS IN PRODUCED WATER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klasson, KT

    2002-03-14

    This project was an extension of previous research to improve the applicability of ozonation and will help address the petroleum-industry problem of treating produced water containing soluble organics. The goal of this project was to maximize oxidation of hexane-extractable organics during a single-pass operation. The project investigated: (1) oxidant production by electrochemical and sonochemical methods, (2) increasing the mass transfer rate in the reactor by forming microbubbles during ozone injection into the produced water, and (3) using ultraviolet irradiation to enhance the reaction if needed. Several types of methodologies for treatment of soluble organics in synthetic and actual produced waters have been performed. The technologies tested may be categorized as follows: (1) Destruction via sonochemical oxidation at different pH, salt concentration, ultraviolet irradiation, and ferrous iron concentrations. (2) Destruction via ozonation at different pH, salt concentration, hydrogen peroxide concentrations, ultraviolet irradiation, temperature, and reactor configurations.

  12. Solubility effects in waste-glass/demineralized-water systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fullam, H.T.

    1981-06-01

    Aqueous systems involving demineralized water and four glass compositions (including standins for actinides and fission products) at temperatures of up to 150/sup 0/C were studied. Two methods were used to measure the solubility of glass components in demineralized water. One method involved approaching equilibrium from subsaturation, while the second method involved approaching equilibrium from supersaturation. The aqueous solutions were analyzed by induction-coupled plasma spectrometry (ICP). Uranium was determined using a Scintrex U-A3 uranium analyzer and zinc and cesium were determined by atomic absorption. The system that results when a waste glass is contacted with demineralized water is a complex one. The two methods used to determine the solubility limits gave very different results, with the supersaturation method yielding much higher solution concentrations than the subsaturation method for most of the elements present in the waste glasses. The results show that it is impossible to assign solubility limits to the various glass components without thoroughly describing the glass-water systems. This includes not only defining the glass type and solution temperature, but also the glass surface area-to-water volume ratio (S/V) of the system and the complete thermal history of the system. 21 figures, 22 tables. (DLC)

  13. Fractionation of oil palm frond hemicelluloses by water or alkaline impregnation and steam explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabiha-Hanim, Saleh; Mohd Noor, Mohd Azemi; Rosma, Ahmad

    2015-01-22

    Steam explosion of oil palm frond has been carried out under different temperatures between 180 and 210°C for 4 min (severity of 2.96-3.84) after impregnation of the frond chips with water or KOH solution. The effects of impregnation and steam explosion conditions of oil palm fronds on the water soluble fraction and insoluble fraction were investigated. The maximum yield of hemicelluloses in water soluble fractions recovered was 23.49% and 25.33% for water and KOH impregnation, treated with steam explosion at temperature of 210°C (severity of 3.84) with a fractionation efficiency of 77.30% and 83.32%, respectively. Under this condition, the water insoluble fractions contained celluloses at 60.83% and 64.80% for water and KOH impregnation, respectively. The steam explosion temperature of 210°C for 4 min (logR(o) 3.84) was found to be the best condition in the extraction of hemicelluloses from OPF for both types of impregnation.

  14. Ultrasound-enhanced extraction of lignin from bamboo (Neosinocalamus affinis): characterization of the ethanol-soluble fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming-Fei; Sun, Shao-Ni; Xu, Feng; Sun, Run-Cang

    2012-03-01

    Bamboo was submitted to ultrasound-assisted extraction in aqueous ethanol to evaluate the effect of ultrasonic irradiation on the dissolution of lignin. In this case, the dewaxed bamboo culms were subjected to ball milling for 48 h, and then were suspended in 95% ethanol followed by ultrasonic irradiations for varied times at 20 °C to obtain ethanol-soluble fractions. The structural and thermal properties of the ethanol-soluble fractions were comparatively investigated by chemical analysis including alkaline nitrobenzene oxidation, bound carbohydrate determination, FT-IR spectra, HSQC spectra, TG, and DTA. The results showed that the yields of the ethanol-soluble fractions were between 4.29% and 4.76% for the fractions prepared with ultrasonic irradiation time ranging from 5 to 55 min, as compared to 4.02% for the fraction prepared without ultrasonic irradiation. It was found that the lignin content of the fraction increased with the increase of the ultrasonic irradiation time. There was a slight increase of the molecular weight of the lignin with the increase of the ultrasonic irradiation time. Alkaline nitrobenzene oxidation coupled with HSQC analysis indicated that the lignin in the fractions was mainly composed of GSH type units as well as minor amounts of ferulic acids. In addition, the fraction prepared with ultrasonic irradiation exhibited a slightly higher thermal stability as compared to the fraction prepared without ultrasonic irradiation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A predictive model for the release of slightly water-soluble drugs from HPMC matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, X C; Wang, G P; Wang, Y H; Liang, W Q

    2004-08-01

    A model to predict the fraction of slightly water-soluble drug released as a function of release time (t, h), HPMC concentration (C(H), w/w), drug solubility in distilled water at 37 degrees C (C(s), g/100 mL), and volume of drug molecule (V, nm3) was derived when theophyline, tinidazole, and propylthiouracil were selected as model drugs. The model is log (M(t)/M(infinity)) = 0.8683 logt-0.1930C(s) logt + 0.5406V logt-1.227C(H) + 0.1594C(s) + 0.4423C(H)C(s) - 0.8655 (n = 130, r = 0.9969), where Mt is the amount of drug released at time t, Minfinity is the amount of drug released over a very long time, which corresponds in principle to the initial loading, n is the number of samples, and r is the correlation coefficient. The model was validated using sulfamethoxazole and satisfactory results were obtained. The model can be used to predict the release fraction of variousslightly water-soluble drugs from HPMC matrices having different polymer levels.

  16. Modeling phase distribution of water-soluble organics in aqueous solutions using surface tension data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, B.; Hiatt, J.; Aumann, E.; Cabrera, J.; Tabazadeh, A.

    2006-12-01

    A good fraction (greater than 30 percent) of submicron particle mass in the atmosphere is often composed of water-soluble organic carbon. Identifiable, water-miscible organics, such as, known sugars, small alcohols, small diacids, etc. comprise only a small fraction of the water-soluble mass (about 1-2 percent). Most of the water-soluble mass is often composed of unidentifiable, humic-like materials, which are commonly refereed to as HULIS. Humic substances are known to form colloids in aqueous solutions at very low aqueous concentrations. Thus, it is likely for HULIS to also be colloid-forming in aqueous solutions. Here, we present surface tension measurements of water-miscible and colloid-forming organics, using methanol and sodium laurate as analogs, respectively. By relating the change in surface tension to chemical potential of the solution, we determine a relationship between surface tension and the surface excess of solute; that is, the number of molecules of solute adsorbed at the surface. Assuming surface acts as a monolayer, we model the adsorption with a Langmuir isotherm to extract the surface excess as a function of solute mole fraction. This relationship allows us to calculate the solute's distribution between bulk and surface phases for methanol, and in bulk, surface and colloid phases for sodium laurate. A colloid of sodium laurate contains approximately 100 laurate anions in a spherical cluster. We present adsorption constants for methanol and sodium laurate (derived from our surface tension data), critical micelle concentration for sodium laurate (derived from our surface tension data), and all the other thermocehmical constants (obtained from the literature) required to constrain a model for determining phase partitioning of organics in aqueous solutions.

  17. Identification of water-soluble heavy crude oil organic-acids, bases, and neutrals by electrospray ionization and field desorption ionization fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Lateefah A; Kim, Sunghwan; Klein, Geoffrey C; Smith, Donald F; Rodgers, Ryan P; Marshall, Alan G

    2007-04-15

    We identify water-soluble (23 degrees C) crude oil NSO nonvolatile acidic, basic, and neutral crude oil hydrocarbons by negative-ion ESI and continuous flow FD FT-ICR MS at an average mass resolving power, m/deltam50% = 550,000. Of the 7000+ singly charged acidic species identified in South American crude oil, surprisingly, many are water-soluble, and much more so in pure water than in seawater. The truncated m/z distributions for water-soluble components exhibit preferential molecular weight, size, and heteroatom class influences on hydrocarbon solubility. Acidic water-soluble heteroatomic classes detected at >1% relative abundance include O, O2, O3, O4, OS, O2S, O3S, O4S, NO2, NO3, and NO4. Parent oil class abundance does not directly relate to abundance in the water-soluble fraction. Acidic oxygen-containing classes are most prevalent in the water-solubles, whereas acidic nitrogen-containing species are least soluble. In contrast to acidic nitrogen-containing heteroatomic classes, basic nitrogen classes are water-soluble. Water-soluble heteroatomic basic classes detected at >1% relative abundance include N, NO, NO2, NS, NS2, NOS, NO2S, N2, N2O, N2O2, OS, O2S, and O2S2.

  18. Mechanisms for oral absorption of poorly water-soluble compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Marianne Ladegaard

    in the development of lipid-based formulations. However, in order for optimum formulations to be developed, knowledge of the mechanisms of absorption of poorly water-soluble drug substances is desired. Accordingly, the purpose of this PhD study was to study the effects of endogenous surfactants (bile salts...... the intake of a lipid-rich meal can increase the bioavailability due to slower gastric emptying, increased solubilization of the drug substance in the intestinal fluids by endogenous and exogenous components, inhibition of efflux carriers and induction of intestinal lymphatic transport. Some...... of these processes can also be obtained by formulating the poorly water-soluble drug substances in lipid-based formulations. Then the drug substance is in solution when administered. Consequently, an enhanced and less variable bioavailability can be obtained, and this has led to an increasing interest...

  19. Preparation of water soluble chitosan by hydrolysis using hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Zhenqiang; Wu, Shengjun; Chen, Jinhua

    2013-08-01

    Chitosan is not soluble in water, which limits its wide application particularly in the medicine and food industry. In the present study, water soluble chitosan (WSC) was prepared by hydrolyzing chitosan using hydrogen peroxide under the catalysis of phosphotungstic acid in homogeneous phase. Factors affecting hydrolysis were investigated and the optimal hydrolysis conditions were determined. The WSC structure was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The resulting products were composed of chitooligosaccharides of DP 2-9. The WSC content of the product and the yield were 94.7% and 92.3% (w/w), respectively. The results indicate that WSC can be effectively prepared by hydrolysis of chitosan using hydrogen peroxide under the catalysis of phosphotungstic acid.

  20. Solubility and aggregation of Gly(5) in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karandur, Deepti; Wong, Ka-Yiu; Pettitt, B Montgomery

    2014-08-14

    Experimentally, the solubility of oligoglycines in water decreases as its length increases. Computationally, the free energy of solvation becomes more favorable with chain length for short (n = 1-5) oligoglycines. We present results of large scale simulations with over 600 pentaglycines at varying concentrations in explicit solvent to consider the mechanism of aggregation. The solubility limit of Gly5 for the force field used was calculated and compared with experimental values. We find that intermolecular interactions between pentaglycines are favored over interactions between glycine and water, leading to their aggregation. However, the interaction driving peptide associations, liquid-liquid phase separation, are not predominantly hydrogen bonding. Instead, non-hydrogen bonding interactions between partially charged atoms on the peptide backbone allow the formation of dipole-dipole and charge layering correlations that mechanistically stabilize the formation of large, stable peptide clusters.

  1. New water-soluble carbamate ester derivatives of resveratrol

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Mattarei; Massimo Carraro; Michele Azzolini; Cristina Paradisi; Mario Zoratti; Lucia Biasutto

    2014-01-01

    Low bioavailability severely hinders exploitation of the biomedical potential of resveratrol. Extensive phase-II metabolism and poor water solubility contribute to lowering the concentrations of resveratrol in the bloodstream after oral administration. Prodrugs may provide a solution—protection of the phenolic functions hinders conjugative metabolism and can be exploited to modulate the physicochemical properties of the compound. We report here the synthesis and characterization of carb...

  2. Water Soluble Iron aminoclay for Catalytic Reduction of Nitrophenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. ANBU ANJUGAM VANDARKUZHALI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Water soluble iron decorated phyllosilicate is synthesized through one pot sol-gel synthesis by a wet chemical method using NaBH4 as reducing agent. The as-synthesized nanocomposite is characterized by powder-XRD and TGA techniques. The morphology of the composite is obtained using HRSEM and HRTEM. The prepared nanocomposite is an efficient catalyst for the reduction of nitrophenol.

  3. Atmospheric deposition of beryllium in Central Europe: comparison of soluble and insoluble fractions in rime and snow across a pollution gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohdalkova, Leona; Novak, Martin; Voldrichova, Petra; Prechova, Eva; Veselovsky, Frantisek; Erbanova, Lucie; Krachler, Michael; Komarek, Arnost; Mikova, Jitka

    2012-11-15

    Little is known about atmospheric input of beryllium (Be) into ecosystems, despite its highly toxic behavior. For three consecutive winters (2009-2011), we measured Be concentrations in horizontal deposition (rime) and vertical deposition (snow) at 10 remote mountain-top locations in the Czech Republic, Central Europe. Beryllium was determined both in filtered waters, and in HF digests of insoluble particles. Across the sites, soluble Be concentrations in rime were 7 times higher, compared to snow (6.1 vs. 0.9ng·L(-1)). Rime scavenged the pollution-rich lower segments of clouds. The lowest Be concentrations were detected in the soluble fraction of snow. Across the sites, 34% of total Be deposition occurred in the form of soluble (bioavailable) Be, the rest were insoluble particles. Beryllium fluxes decreased in the order: vertical dry deposition insoluble>vertical dry deposition soluble>horizontal deposition soluble>vertical wet deposition insoluble>vertical wet deposition soluble>horizontal deposition insoluble. The average contributions of these Be forms to total deposition were 56, 21, 8, 7, 5 and 3%, respectively. Sites in the northeast were more Be-polluted than the rest of the country with sources of pollution in industrial Silesia.

  4. Enhancing the Solubility and Oral Bioavailability of Poorly Water-Soluble Drugs Using Monoolein Cubosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Md Ashraf; Kataoka, Noriko; Ranneh, Abdul-Hackam; Iwao, Yasunori; Noguchi, Shuji; Oka, Toshihiko; Itai, Shigeru

    2017-01-01

    Monoolein cubosomes containing either spironolactone (SPI) or nifedipine (NI) were prepared using a high-pressure homogenization technique and characterized in terms of their solubility and oral bioavailability. The mean particle size, polydispersity index (PDI), zeta potential, solubility and encapsulation efficiency (EE) values of the SPI- and NI-loaded cubosomes were determined to be 90.4 nm, 0.187, -13.4 mV, 163 µg/mL and 90.2%, and 91.3 nm, 0.168, -12.8 mV, 189 µg/mL and 93.0%, respectively, which were almost identical to those of the blank cubosome. Small-angle X-ray scattering analyses confirmed that the SPI-loaded, NI-loaded and blank cubosomes existed in the cubic space group Im3̄m. The lattice parameters of the SPI- and NI-loaded cubosomes were 147.6 and 151.6 Å, respectively, making them almost identical to that of blank cubosome (151.0 Å). The in vitro release profiles of the SPI- and NI-loaded cubosomes showed that they released less than 5% of the drugs into various media over 12-48 h, indicating that most of the drug remained encapsulated within the cubic phase of their lipid bilayer. Furthermore, the in vivo pharmacokinetic results suggested that these cubosomes led to a considerable increase in the systemic oral bioavailability of the drugs compared with pure dispersions of the same materials. Notably, the stability results indicated that the mean particle size and PDI values of these cubosomes were stable for at least 4 weeks. Taken together, these results demonstrate that monoolein cubosomes represent promising drug carriers for enhancing the solubility and oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs.

  5. Protein extraction and 2-DE of water- and lipid-soluble proteins from bovine pericardium, a low-cellularity tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Leigh G; Choe, Leila; Lee, Kelvin H; Reardon, Kenneth F; Orton, E Christopher

    2008-11-01

    Bovine pericardium (BP) is an important biomaterial used in the production of glutaraldehyde-fixed heart valves and tissue-engineering applications. The ability to perform proteomic analysis on BP is useful for a range of studies, including investigation of immune rejection after implantation. However, proteomic analysis of fibrous tissues such as BP is challenging due to their relative low-cellularity and abundance of extracellular matrix. A variety of methods for tissue treatment, protein extraction, and fractionation were investigated with the aim of producing high-quality 2-DE gels for both water- and lipid-soluble BP proteins. Extraction of water-soluble proteins with 3-(benzyldimethylammonio)-propanesulfonate followed by n-dodecyl beta-D-maltoside extraction and ethanol precipitation for lipid-soluble proteins provided the best combination of yield, spot number, and resolution on 2-DE gels (Protocol E2). ESI-quadrupole/ion trap or MALDI-TOF/TOF MS protein identifications were performed to confirm bovine origin and appropriate subcellular prefractionation of resolved proteins. Twenty-five unique, predominantly cytoplasmic bovine proteins were identified from the water-soluble fraction. Thirty-two unique, predominantly membrane bovine proteins were identified from the lipid-soluble fraction. These results demonstrated that the final protocol produced high-quality proteomic data from this important tissue for both cytoplasmic and membrane proteins.

  6. Polyelectrolyte microcapsules for sustained delivery of water-soluble drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anandhakumar, S.; Debapriya, M. [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, 560012 (India); Nagaraja, V. [Department of Microbiology and Cell Biology, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, 560012 (India); Raichur, Ashok M., E-mail: amr@materials.iisc.ernet.in [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, 560012 (India)

    2011-03-12

    Polyelectrolyte capsules composed of weak polyelectrolytes are introduced as a simple and efficient system for spontaneous encapsulation of low molecular weight water-soluble drugs. Polyelectrolyte capsules were prepared by layer-by-layer (LbL) assembling of weak polyelectrolytes, poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and poly(methacrylic acid) (PMA) on polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) doped CaCO{sub 3} particles followed by core removal with ethylene-diaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). The loading process was observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) using tetramethylrhodamineisothiocyanate labeled dextran (TRITC-dextran) as a fluorescent probe. The intensity of fluorescent probe inside the capsule decreased with increase in cross-linking time. Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (a model water-soluble drug) was spontaneously deposited into PAH/PMA capsules and their morphological changes were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The quantitative study of drug loading was also elucidated which showed that drug loading increased with initial drug concentration, but decreased with increase in pH. The loaded drug was released in a sustained manner for 6 h, which could be further extended by cross-linking the capsule wall. The released drug showed significant antibacterial activity against E. coli. These findings indicate that such capsules can be potential carriers for water-soluble drugs in sustained/controlled drug delivery applications.

  7. Hybrid solar cells from water-soluble polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James T. McLeskey

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on the use of a water-soluble, light-absorbing polythiophene polymer to fabricate novel photovoltaic devices. The polymer is a water-soluble thiophene known as sodium poly[2-(3-thienyl-ethoxy-4-butylsulfonate] or PTEBS. The intention is to take advantage of the properties of conjugated polymers (flexible, tunable, and easy to process and incorporate the additional benefits of water solubility (easily controlled evaporation rates and environmentally friendly. The PTEBS polythiophene has shown significant photovoltaic response and has been found to be effective for making solar cells. To date, solar cells in three different configurations have been produced: titanium dioxide (TiO2 bilayer cells, TiO2 bulk heterojunction solar cells, and carbon nanotubes (CNTs in bulk heterojunctions. The best performance thus far has been achieved with TiO2 bilayer devices. These devices have an open circuit voltage (Voc of 0.84V, a short circuit current (Jsc of 0.15 mA/cm2, a fill factor (ff of 0.91, and an efficiency (η of 0.15 %.

  8. Sources and light absorption of water-soluble organic carbon aerosols in the outflow from northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirillova, E. N.; Andersson, A.; Han, J.; Lee, M.; Gustafsson, Ö.

    2014-02-01

    High loadings of anthropogenic carbonaceous aerosols in Chinese air influence the air quality for over one billion people and impact the regional climate. A large fraction (17-80%) of this aerosol carbon is water-soluble, promoting cloud formation and thus climate cooling. Recent findings, however, suggest that water-soluble carbonaceous aerosols also absorb sunlight, bringing additional direct and indirect climate warming effects, yet the extent and nature of light absorption by this water-soluble "brown carbon" and its relation to sources is poorly understood. Here, we combine source estimates constrained by dual carbon isotopes with light-absorption measurements of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) for a March 2011 campaign at the Korea Climate Observatory at Gosan (KCOG), a receptor station in SE Yellow Sea for the outflow from northern China. The mass absorption cross section at 365 nm (MAC365) of WSOC for air masses from N. China were in general higher (0.8-1.1 m2 g-1), than from other source regions (0.3-0.8 m2 g-1). However, this effect corresponds to only 2-10% of the radiative forcing caused by light absorption by elemental carbon. Radiocarbon constraints show that the WSOC in Chinese outflow had significantly higher fraction fossil sources (30-50%) compared to previous findings in S. Asia, N. America and Europe. Stable carbon (δ13C) measurements were consistent with aging during long-range air mass transport for this large fraction of carbonaceous aerosols.

  9. Water-soluble material on aerosols collected within volcanic eruption clouds ( Fuego, Pacaya, Santiaguito, Guatamala).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.B.; Zielinski, R.A.; Rose, W.I.; Huebert, B.J.

    1982-01-01

    In Feb. and March of 1978, filter samplers mounted on an aircraft were used to collect the aerosol fraction of the eruption clouds from three active Guatemalan volcanoes (Fuego, Pacaya, and Santiaguito). The elements dissolved in the aqueous extracts represent components of water-soluble material either formed directly in the eruption cloud or derived from interaction of ash particles and aerosol components of the plume. Calculations of enrichment factors, based upon concentration ratios, showed the elements most enriched in the extracts relative to bulk ash composition were Cd, Cu, V, F, Cl, Zn, and Pb.-from Authors

  10. Soluble Dietary Fiber Fractions in Wheat Bran and Their Interactions with Wheat Gluten Have Impacts on Dough Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Liu, Rui; Wu, Tao; Wang, Man; Zhang, Min

    2016-11-23

    Six soluble dietary fiber (SDF) fractions were prepared via stepwise ethanol precipitation from natural and fermented wheat bran. The chemical composition, molecular weight distribution, and glycosidic linkage and substitution pattern of each SDF fraction were elucidated by sugar analysis, periodate oxidation and Smith degradation, molecular determination, and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. The impacts of SDF fractions on the rheological properties and morphologies of doughs were investigated by farinography, rheometry, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to clarify the relationship between the microstructural features of SDF fractions and the macroscopic properties of SDF-containing doughs. The interactions between SDF fractions and wheat glutens in doughs were further studied by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The experimental results indicated that the SDF fraction with an intermediate molecular weight but a higher substitution degree and a larger disubstitution ratio was most compatible with the dough network and beneficial to dough quality.

  11. Synthesis and properties of water-soluble asterisk molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menger, Fredric M; Azov, Vladimir A

    2002-09-18

    An asterisk is comprised of six semirigid arms projecting from a benzene nucleus. In the case at hand, asterisks were synthesized with one, two, or three aromatic rings (connected by sulfur atoms) in each of the six arms. A phosphomonoester at the termini of each arm solubilized the asterisks in water. The colloidal properties of these amphiphilic molecules were investigated by UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopy, calorimetry, light scattering, surface tensiometry, and pulse-gradient spin-echo NMR. Solubility, solubilization, metal binding, and micelle "seeding" experiments were also carried out. Chain-conformation and supramolecular assembly into remarkable molecular "scrolls" were investigated by X-ray analysis and electron microscopy, respectively. One of the more interesting properties of the asterisks is that they remain monomeric in water despite having as many as 19 hydrophobic aromatic rings exposed to the water. The reasons for this behavior, and the possibility of exploiting it for constructing enzyme models free from aggregation equilibria, are discussed.

  12. Effects of sulfite ions on water-soluble chlorophyll proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugahara, K.; Uchida, S.; Takimoto, M.

    1980-01-01

    To clarify the mechanisms and processes of chlorophyll destruction and the relation to the appearance of visible symptoms in SO/sub 2/-injured plants, model experiments were carried out by utilizing the peculiar properties of a water-soluble chlorophyll protein from Chenopodium album. The acceleration of chlorophyll destruction by sulfite ions under aerobic and illuminated conditions, reported previously in organic solvent, was not observed for the water-soluble pigment-protein complex, even in 4 x 10/sup -2/ M sulfite. This indicates that pigments are stabilized by combining with protein molecules. On comparison of pigment destruction between the reconstituted chlorophyll a- and chlorophyllide a-proteins in the presence of sulfite ions, the former was slightly sensitive to sulfite ions. On the other hand, it was demonstrated that photoconversion of water-soluble chlorophyll protein was inhibited by denaturation of the protein moiety caused by sulfite ions in the presence of light. In addition it was shown that it was necessary for the pigment absorbing the light energy to be structurally related to the protein moiety for inhibition of photoconversion. From these results, the inhibition processes of photoconversion are inferred as follows: conformational changes of apoprotein molecules were induced by light energy absorbed by the pigments and which allowed sulfite ions to attack the apoprotein molecules. The mechanism of the sulfite action on the apoprotein is the breakdown of disulfide bonds in proteins, the disulfide bonds having important functions in the photoconversion process. From the present model experiments, it is suggested that the breakdown of disulfide bonds occurred and induced damage to the chloroplast lamellae or physiological functions in the SO/sub 2/-injured plant tissues. 17 references, 8 figures.

  13. [Mutagen properties of water-soluble polysaccharides from Acorus calamus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur'ev, A M; Belousov, M B; Akhmedzhanov, R R; Iusubov, M S; Voronova, O L; Karpova, G V; Churin, A A

    2010-08-01

    Mutagenic properties of water soluble polysaccharides (WSPS) extracted from Acorus calamus L. have been studied. Neither a single intravenous injection nor a course intraperitoneal introduction of WSPS in a dose of 1/2 LD50 to mice of the CBA/CaLac line increases the level of cytogenetic disorders in the bone marrow cells. The investigation of WSPS by means of the somatic mosaicism test showed that the given dose of WSPS does not increase the rate of mutant spots on Drosophila wings.

  14. Water-soluble constituents from aerial roots of Ficus microcarpa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, M-A; Kuo, Y-H

    2006-01-01

    Three new water-soluble constituents [ficuscarpanoside B (1), (7E,9Z)-dihydrophaseic acid 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (4) and ficuscarpanic acid (6)] and the natural product 2,2'-dihydroxyl ether (7) have been isolated, together with three known compounds [(7S,8R)-syringoylglycerol (2), (7S,8R)-syringoylglycerol-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3) and icariside D2 (5)] from the aerial roots of Ficus microcarpa. Identification of their structures was achieved by 1D and 2D NMR experiments, including 1H-1H COSY, NOESY, HMQC and HMBC methods and FAB mass spectral data.

  15. Zwitterionic phosphorylcholine-protected water-soluble nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Qiao; LIU XiangSheng; XU JianPing; JI Jian; SHEN JiaCong

    2009-01-01

    The water-soluble Ag nanoparticles capped with novel zwitterionic thioalkylated phosphorylcholine were synthesized. The Ag nanoparticles showed remarkable stability in saline media with salt concen-trations as high as 2.0 mol/L and plasma using UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. Similarly, compared with tiopronin and citrate-protected Ag nanoparticles, the zwitterionic phosphorylcholine Ag nanopar-ticles did not precipitate out of solution when charged polyelectrolytes or biopolymers were added. The zwitterionic phosphorylcholine might be a better ligand for stabilizing metal nanoparticles.

  16. Zwitterionic phosphorylcholine-protected water-soluble Ag nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The water-soluble Ag nanoparticles capped with novel zwitterionic thioalkylated phosphorylcholine were synthesized.The Ag nanoparticles showed remarkable stability in saline media with salt concen-trations as high as 2.0 mol/L and plasma using UV-vis absorption spectroscopy.Similarly,compared with tiopronin and citrate-protected Ag nanoparticles,the zwitterionic phosphorylcholine Ag nanopar-ticles did not precipitate out of solution when charged polyelectrolytes or biopolymers were added.The zwitterionic phosphorylcholine might be a better ligand for stabilizing metal nanoparticles.

  17. Preparation and Properties of Water-soluble Conjugated Polyelectrolyte

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO Xiangjun; HONG Ruibin; HU Jianhua; ZHONG Yiping; LIU Ping; DENG Wenji

    2014-01-01

    The water-soluble conjugated polyelectrolyte, poly[3-(1′-ethyloxy-2′-N- methylimidazole) thiophene] (PEOIMT), was prepared. Its photophysical and electrochemical properties, and response characteristics to the external condition (e g, temperature response, solvent response and pH response), were investigated. The results show the PEOIMT belongs to the organic semiconductor. The interaction between the PEOIMT and the bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated using UV-vis spectroscopy. It was found that the PEOIMT could interact with the BSA. The PEOIMT can be used as a biosensor to detect the BSA.

  18. Wettability, water sorption and water solubility of seven silicone elastomers used for maxillofacial prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulterström, Anna Karin; Berglund, Anders; Ruyter, I Eystein

    2008-01-01

    The wettability, water sorption and solubility of silicone elastomers used for maxillofacial prostheses were studied. The hypothesis was, that a material that has absorbed water would show an increase in the wettability and thus also the surface free energy of the material. Seven silicone elastomers, both addition- and condensation type polymers, were included. Five specimens of each material were subjected to treatment according to ISO standards 1567:1999 and 10477: 2004 for water sorption and solubility. The volumes of the specimens were measured according to Archimedes principle. The contact angle was measured with a contact angle goniometer at various stages of the sorption/solubility test. Wettability changed over the test period, but not according to theory. The addition type silicones showed little or no sorption and solubility, but two of the condensation type polymers tested had a significant sorption and solubility. This study showed that condensation type polymers may show too large volumetric changes when exposed to fluids, and therefore should no longer be used in prosthetic devices. The results of this study also suggests that it might be of interest to test sorption and solubility of materials that are to be implanted, since most of the materials had some solubility.

  19. Antibacterial Characteristics and Activity of Water-Soluble Chitosan Derivatives Prepared by the Maillard Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Chien Chung

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial activity of water-soluble chitosan derivatives prepared by Maillard reactions against Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae, and Salmonella typhimurium was examined. Relatively high antibacterial activity against various microorganisms was noted for the chitosan-glucosamine derivative as compared to the acid-soluble chitosan. In addition, it was found that the susceptibility of the test organisms to the water-soluble chitosan derivative was higher in deionized water than in saline solution. Metal ions were also found to reduce the antibacterial activity of the water-soluble chitosan derivative on S. aureus. The marked increase in glucose level, protein content and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity was observed in the cell supernatant of S. aureus exposed to the water-soluble chitosan derivative in deionized water. The results suggest that the water-soluble chitosan produced by Maillard reaction may be a promising commercial substitute for acid-soluble chitosan.

  20. Determination of water-soluble and insoluble elements in PM2.5 by ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manousakas, M; Papaefthymiou, H; Eleftheriadis, K; Katsanou, K

    2014-09-15

    The elemental composition of water-soluble and acid-soluble fractions of PM2.5 samples from two different Greek cities (Patras and Megalopolis) was investigated. Patras and Megalopolis represent different environments. Specifically, Patras is an urban environment with proximity to a large port, while Megalopolis is a small city located close to lignite power plants. Both cities can serve as a representative example of European cities with similar characteristics. The concentration of 14 elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Fe, Sr, Ti, V and Zn) was determined in each fraction by ICP-MS. Microwave assisted digestion was used to digest the samples using a mixture of HNO3 and HF. For the determination of the water soluble fraction, water was chosen as the simplest and most universal extraction solvent. For the validation of the extraction procedure, the recoveries were tested on two certified reference materials (NIST SRM 1648 Urban Particulate Matter and NIST 1649a Urban Dust). Results showed that Zn has the highest total concentration (273 and 186 ng/m(3)) and Co the lowest (0.48 and 0.23 ng/m(3)) for Patras and Megalopolis samples, respectively. Nickel with 65% for Patras and As with 49% for Megalopolis displayed the highest solubility, whereas Fe (10%) and Ti (2%) the lowest ones, respectively.

  1. "Mixed-solvency approach" - Boon for solubilization of poorly water-soluble drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maheshwari R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on a large number of experiments on solubilization of poorly water-soluble drugs, the author is of the opinion that hydrotropy is another type of cosolvency and all water-soluble substances whether liquids, solids, or gases may act as solubilizers for poorly water-soluble drugs. In the present investigation, a mixed-solvency approach has been utilized for solubility enhancement of poorly water-soluble drug, salicylic acid (as a model drug. Sixteen blends (having total 40% w/v strength of solubilizers containing various solubilizers among the commonly used hydrotropes (urea and sodium citrate, cosolvents (glycerin, propylene glycol, PEG 300 and PEG 400, and water-soluble solids (PEG 4000 and PEG 6000 were made to study the influence on solubility of salicylic acid. Twelve blends were found to increase the solubility of salicylic acid, synergistically. This approach shall prove a boon in pharmaceutical field to develop various formulations of poorly water-soluble drugs by combining various water-soluble excipients in safe concentrations to give a strong solution (say 25% w/v or so to produce a desirable aqueous solubility of poorly water-soluble drugs. In the present investigation, the mixed-solvency approach has been employed to analyze salicylic acid in the bulk drug sample (using six blends precluding the use of organic solvents (a way to green chemistry.

  2. Immunomodulatory effect of water soluble extract separated from mycelium of Phellinus linteus on experimental atopic dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang Ji

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM is becoming a popular treatment for modulating diverse immune disorders. Phellinus linteus (P. linteus as one of the CAMs has been used to modulate cancers, inflammation and allergic activities. However, little evidence has been shown about its underlying mechanism of action by which it exerts a beneficial role in dermatological disease in vivo. In this study, we examined the immunomodulatory effects of P. linteus on experimental atopic dermatitis (AD and elucidated its action mechanism. Methods The immunomodulatory effect of total extract of P. linteus on IgE production by human myeloma U266B1 cells was measured by ELISA. To further identify the effective components, P. linteus was fractionated into methanol soluble, water soluble and boiling water soluble extracts. Each extract was treated to U266B1 cells and primary B cells to compare their inhibitory effects on IgE secretion. To test the in vivo efficacy, experimental atopic dermatitis (AD was established by alternative treatment of DNCB and house dust mite extract into BALB/c mice. Water soluble extract of P. linteus (WA or ceramide as a positive control were topically applied to ears of atopic mouse every day for 2 weeks and progression of the disease was estimated by the following criteria: (a ear thickness, clinical score, (b serum total IgE, IgG and mite specific IgE level by ELSIA, (c histological examination of ear tissue by H&E staining and (d cytokine profile of total ear cells and CD4+ T cells by real time PCR and ELSIA. Results Treatment of total extracts of P. linteus to U266B1 inhibited IgE secretion. Among the diverse extracts of P. linteus, water soluble extract of P. linteus (WA significantly reduced the IgE production in primary B cells and B cell line U266B1. Moreover, treatment of WA reduced AD symptoms such as ear swelling, erythema, and dryness and decreased recruitment of lymphocyte into the inflamed site

  3. Biological properties of water-soluble phosphorhydrazone dendrimers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marie Caminade

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dendrimers are hyperbranched and perfectly defined macromolecules, constituted of branches emanating from a central core in an iterative fashion. Phosphorhydrazone dendrimers constitute a special family of dendrimers, possessing one phosphorus atom at each branching point. The internal structure of these dendrimers is hydrophobic, but hydrophilic terminal groups can induce the solubility of the whole structure in water. Indeed, the properties of these compounds are mainly driven by the type of terminal groups their bear; this is especially true for the biological properties. For instance, positively charged terminal groups are efficient for transfection experiments, as drug carriers, as anti-prion agents, and as inhibitor of the aggregation of Alzheimer's peptides, whereas negatively charged dendrimers have anti-HIV properties and can influence the human immune system, leading to anti-inflammatory properties usable against rheumatoid arthritis. This review will give the most representative examples of the biological properties of water-soluble phosphorhydrazone dendrimers, organized depending on the type of terminal groups they bear.

  4. Therapeutic Effects of Water Soluble Danshen Extracts on Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Hee Cho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Danshen is a traditional Chinese medicine with many beneficial effects on cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanisms responsible for the antiatherogenic effect of water soluble Danshen extracts (DEs. Rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs were treated with DE. To evaluate the effects of DE in vivo, carotid balloon injury and tail vein thrombosis were induced in Sprague-Dawley (SD rats and iliac artery stent was induced in New Zealand white rabbits. The inhibitory action of DE on platelet aggregation was confirmed with an impedance aggregometer. DE inhibited the production of reactive oxygen species, and the migration and proliferation of platelet-derived growth factor-BB stimulated VSMCs. Furthermore, DE prevented inflammation and apoptosis in HUVECs. Both effects of DE were reconfirmed in both rat models. DE treatment attenuated platelet aggregation in both in vivo and ex vivo conditions. Pretreatment with DE prevented tail vein thrombosis, which is normally induced by κ-carrageenan injection. Lastly, DE-treated rabbits showed decreased in-stent restenosis of stented iliac arteries. These results suggest that water soluble DE modulates key atherogenic events in VSMCs, endothelial cells, and platelets in both in vitro and in vivo conditions.

  5. Interaction of water-soluble bridged porphyrin with DNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kai WANG; Zhi ZHANG; Qianni GUO; Xiaoping BAO; Zaoying LI

    2008-01-01

    A water-soluble porphyrin dimer (Por Dimer) containing eight positive charges, bridged by 4,4'-dicarboxy-2,2'-bipyridine, has been synthesized. With Meso-tetrakis(N-methyl-pyridium-4-yl)porphyrin (H2TMPyP) as the reference compound, the water-sol-uble porphyrin dimer was investigated for its inter-action with DNA by absorption, fluorescence, and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. The apparent affinity binding constant (Kapp= 1.2×106) of Por Dimer binding to CT DNA was measured by a com-petition method with ethidium bromide (EB) (that of H2TMPyP was 6.9×106). The cleavage ability of Por Dimer to pBR322 plasmid DNA was studied by gel electrophoresis. The results suggest that the binding modes of Por Dimer were complex and involve both intercalation and outside binding.

  6. Drug delivery by water-soluble organometallic cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therrien, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Until recently, organometallic derivatives were generally viewed as moisture- and air-sensitive compounds, and consequently very challenging to synthesise and very demanding in terms of laboratory requirements (Schlenk techniques, dried solvent, glove box). However, an increasing number of stable, water-soluble organometallic compounds are now available, and organometallic chemistry in aqueous phase is a flourishing area of research. As such, coordination-driven self-assemblies using organometallic building blocks are compatible with water, thus opening new perspectives in bio-organometallic chemistry.This chapter gives a short history of coordination-driven self-assembly, with a special attention to organometallic metalla-cycles, especially those composed of half-sandwich complexes. These metalla-assemblies have been used as sensors, as anticancer agents, as well as drug carriers.

  7. Facile synthesis of water-soluble curcumin nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Zoran M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, facile synthesis of water soluble curcumin nanocrystals is reported. Solvent exchange method was applied to synthesize curcumin nanocrystals. Different techniques were used to characterize the structural and photophysical properties of curcumin nanocrystals. We found that nanocurcumin prepared by this method had good chemical and physical stability, could be stored in the powder form at room temperature, and was freely dispersible in water. It was established that the size of curcumin nanocrystals was varied in the range of 20-500 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and UV-Vis analyses showed the presence of tetrahydrofuran inside the curcumin nanocrystals. Also, it was found that nanocurcumin emitted photoluminescencewith yellow-green colour. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172003

  8. Chemical structure and biological activity of water-soluble polysaccharides from Cassia angustifolia leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, B M; Kraus, J; Franz, G

    1989-12-01

    The water-soluble polysaccharides from Cassia angustifolia L. leaves were isolated and fractionated. The acidic polysaccharide fraction was separated into two subfractions S1 and S2 consisting of L-rhamnose, L-arabinose, D-galactose, and D-galacturonic acid. Further fractionation of the predominant S1 by GPC gave two fractions S1A and S1B with an average molecular weight of 2 x 10(6) and 1.5 x 10(5) d, respectively. Methylation analysis of S1A showed the presence of 1,4-linked galacturonic acid (31.0%), 1,2-linked rhamnose (14.5%), 1,2,4-linked rhamnose (15.8%), 1,3,6-linked galactose (15.3%), smaller amounts of 1,3-linked arabinose, 1.5-linked arabinose, and terminal galactose and arabinose residues. Mild acid hydrolysis of S1A indicated that the backbone consists of 1,4-linked galacturonic acid and 1,2-linked rhamnose residues in the ratio of 1:1. Every second rhamnose is connected via C-4 to arabinogalactan sidechains. The antitumor activity of the polysaccharide fractions was tested against the solid Sarcoma-180 in CD1 mice. Only S1A exhibited a significant antitumor activity with an inhibition rate of 51%.

  9. Effects of soluble fractions of drilling fluids on development of crabs, Rhithropanopeus harrisii and Callinectes sapidus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bookhout, C.G.; Monroe, R.J.; Forward, R.B. Jr.; Costlow, J.D. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The mud aqueous fraction (MAF) and suspended particulate phase (SPP) of low-density lignosulfonate type mud with ferrochrome added were nontoxic to larvae during the complete larval development of Rhithropanopeus harrisii. Five percent (5000 ppm, 0.5 v/v mud in water) MAF and SPP were not toxic to Callinectes sapidus. Survival of C. sapidus larvae decreased as concentrations of MAF and SPP increased from 5% (5000 ppm, 0.5 v/v mud in water) to 50% (50,000 ppm, 5% v/v mud in water). No larvae reached the 1st crab stage in 100% (100,000 ppm, 10% v/v mud in water) MAF and SPP. Statistical analysis of the data on survival, mortality, and behavior are presented. Blue crab larval behavior is affected by exposure to MAF and SPP with the general effect being a decline in swimming speed. A significant reduction was only observed in 100% MAF but was noticed in 5, 25, 50, and 100% SPP.

  10. Simultaneous extraction of oil- and water-soluble phase from sunflower seeds with subcritical water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravber, Matej; Knez, Željko; Škerget, Mojca

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the subcritical water extraction is proposed as an alternative and greener processing method for simultaneous removal of oil- and water-soluble phase from sunflower seeds. Extraction kinetics were studied at different temperatures and material/solvent ratios in a batch extractor. Degree of hydrothermal degradation of oils was observed by analysing amount of formed free fatty acids and their antioxidant capacities. Results were compared to oils obtained by conventional methods. Water soluble extracts were analysed for total proteins, carbohydrates and phenolics and some single products of hydrothermal degradation. Highest amount of oil was obtained at 130 °C at a material/solvent ratio of 1/20 g/mL after 30 min of extraction. For all obtained oils minimal degree of hydrothermal degradation could be identified. High antioxidant capacities of oil samples could be observed. Water soluble extracts were degraded at temperatures ≥100 °C, producing various products of hydrothermal degradation.

  11. Highly water-soluble multi-walled carbon nanotubes amine-functionalized by supercritical water oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Kyoung-Yong; Moon, In-Kyu; Han, Joo-Hee; Do, Seung-Hoe; Lee, Jin-Seo; Jeon, Seong-Yun

    2013-11-07

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) have been amine-functionalized by eco-friendly supercritical water oxidation. The facilely functionalized MWNTs have high solubility (~84 mg L(-1)) in water and 78% transmittance at 30-fold dilution. The Tyndall effect is also shown for several liquids.

  12. A Novel Injectable Water-Soluble Amphotericin B-Arabinogalactan Conjugate

    OpenAIRE

    Falk, Rama; Domb, Abraham J.; Polacheck, Itzhack

    1999-01-01

    New, stable, highly water-soluble, nontoxic polysaccharide conjugates of amphotericin B (AmB) are described. AmB was conjugated by a Schiff-base reaction with oxidized arabinogalactan (AG). AG is a highly branched natural polysaccharide with unusual water solubility (70% in water). A high yield of active AmB was obtained with the conjugates which were similarly highly water soluble and which could be appropriately formulated for injection. They showed comparable MICs for Candida albicans and ...

  13. Fractional conversion of microalgae from water blooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yingdong; Li, Linling; Zhang, Rui; Hu, Changwei

    2017-09-21

    Fractional conversion of natural algae cyanobacteria from Taihu Lake was conducted. The raw Taihu Lake algae (TLA) and pretreated samples were pyrolyzed at 290 °C and 450 °C according to the TGA results. Extraction of lipids or saccharides from the TLA was performed as a pretreatment to obtain lipid extracted algae (LEA) or saccharide extracted algae (SEA). The total yields of bio-oil from fractional pyrolysis were 40.9 wt% from TLA, 42.3 wt% from LEA, and 48.5 wt% from SEA. From TLA, the major components of the bio-oil were fatty acids, amides and hydrocarbons (heptadecane) at 290 °C whereas those at 450 °C were phenols and C10-C15 hydrocarbons. Following the lipid extraction, acids, amides and indoles accounted for a large proportion at 290 °C, while the main products obtained at 450 °C were phenols, indoles and pyrroles. It is worth mentioning that the yield of bio-oil from the LEA had increased, and the composition of the bio-oil was simplified. Moreover, the average molecular weight of the bio-oil obtained from LEA had decreased. Interestingly, the extraction of saccharides inhibited pyrolysis of the lipids, so the distribution of the bio-oil from SEA changed only a little. Fractional pyrolysis of pretreated microalgae not only increased the bio-oil yield but also improved the quality of the bio-oil.

  14. D/H fractionation during the sublimation of water ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lécuyer, Christophe; Royer, Aurélien; Fourel, François; Seris, Magali; Simon, Laurent; Robert, François

    2017-03-01

    Experiments of sublimation of pure water ice have been performed in the temperature range -105 °C to -30 °C and atmospheric partial pressures ranging from 10-6 to 10-1 mb. Sampling of both vapour and residual ice fractions has been performed with the use of a vacuum line designed for the extraction and purification of gases before the measurement of their D/H ratios. Sublimation was responsible for sizable isotopic fractionation factors in the range 0.969-1.123 for temperatures lying between -105 °C and -30 °C. The fractionation factor exhibits a cross-over at temperatures around -50 °C with the water vapour fraction being D-depleted relative to the residual ice fraction at T families nor those that have been documented between Earth's and cometary water.

  15. IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data Series. 101. Alcohols + Hydrocarbons + Water Part 3. C1-C3 Alcohols + Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oracz, Paweł; Góral, Marian; Wiśniewska-Gocłowska, Barbara; Shaw, David G.; Mączyński, Andrzej

    2016-09-01

    The mutual solubilities and related liquid-liquid equilibria for 11 ternary systems of C1-C3 alcohols with aromatic hydrocarbons and water are exhaustively and critically reviewed. Reports of experimental determination of solubility that appeared in the primary literature prior to the end of 2012 are compiled. For nine systems, sufficient data are available (two or more independent determinations) to allow critical evaluation. All new data are expressed as mass percent and mole fraction as well as the originally reported units. In addition to the standard evaluation criteria used throughout the Solubility Data Series, an additional criterion was used for each of the evaluated systems. These systems include one binary miscibility gap in the hydrocarbon + water subsystem. The binary tie lines were compared with the recommended values published previously.

  16. Monosaccharides as Versatile Units for Water-Soluble Supramolecular Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenders, Christianus M A; Jansen, Gijs; Frissen, Martijn M M; Lafleur, René P M; Voets, Ilja K; Palmans, Anja R A; Meijer, E W

    2016-03-18

    We introduce monosaccharides as versatile water-soluble units to compatibilise supramolecular polymers based on the benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamide (BTA) moiety with water. A library of monosaccharide-based BTAs is evaluated, varying the length of the alkyl chain (hexyl, octyl, decyl and dodecyl) separating the BTA and saccharide units, as well as the saccharide units (α-glucose, β-glucose, α-mannose and α-galactose). In all cases, the monosaccharides impart excellent water compatibility. The length of the alkyl chain is the determining factor to obtain either long, one-dimensional supramolecular polymers (dodecyl spacer), small aggregates (decyl spacer) or molecularly dissolved (octyl and hexyl) BTAs in water. For the BTAs comprising a dodecyl spacer, our results suggest that a cooperative self-assembly process is operative and that the introduction of different monosaccharides does not significantly change the self- assembly behaviour. Finally, we investigate the potential of post-assembly functionalisation of the formed supramolecular polymers by taking advantage of dynamic covalent bond formation between the monosaccharides and benzoxaboroles. We observe that the supramolecular polymers readily react with a fluorescent benzoxaborole derivative permitting imaging of these dynamic complexes by confocal fluorescence microscopy.

  17. High-temperature and high-pressure water solubility in ethylbenzene to 200°C and 1 kbar and the acetic acid effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, Damien; Tkachenko, Sergey; Dubessy, Jean; Pironon, Jacques

    2001-10-01

    Water solubility in hydrocarbon systems is of great interest for deep oil fields. A new autoclave has been designed to measure phase equilibria in water-hydrocarbon systems up to 400°C and 1.5 kbar. It has been applied for the measurement of water solubility in ethylbenzene with or without acetic acid to 200°C and 1 kbar in the two-phase field. Water solubility was measured by the Karl Fisher method. The acetic acid concentration was measured by FT-IR microspectroscopy. Both the experimental procedure and analytical techniques were validated by showing the consistency of our data with those of Heidman et al. (;High-temperature mutual solubilities of hydrocarbons and water,; AIChE J.31, 376-384, 1995) along the liquid-liquid-vapor curve. At constant pressure, the solubility of water in ethylbenzene increases significantly with temperature. On the other hand, at constant temperature, the solubility of water is constant to 1 kbar at 100°C, and decreases slightly with pressure at 150 and 200°C. Data were regressed by the Krichevsky-Kasarnovsky equation to obtain estimates of the Henry's law constant and estimates of the molar volume of water at infinite dilution. Acetic acid increases the solubility of water in ethylbenzene and fractionates preferentially into the aqueous phase.

  18. Enzymatic Xylose Release from Pretreated Corn Bran Arabinoxylan: Differential Effects of Deacetylation and Deferuloylation on Insoluble and Soluble Substrate Fractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Jane; Viksø-Nielsen, Ander; Meyer, Anne S.

    2010-01-01

    In the present work enzymatic hydrolysis of arabinoxylan from pretreated corn bran (190 °C, 10 min) was evaluated by measuring the release of xylose and arabinose after treatment with a designed minimal mixture of monocomponent enzymes consisting of α-l-arabinofuranosidases, an endoxylanase......, and a β-xylosidase. The pretreatment divided the corn bran material 50:50 into soluble and insoluble fractions having A:X ratios of 0.66 and 0.40, respectively. Addition of acetyl xylan esterase to the monocomponent enzyme mixture almost doubled the xylose release from the insoluble substrate fraction...

  19. Fluorescence characteristics of water soluble organic carbon in eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Fluorescence excitation and average molecular weight of 46 water soluble organic matter (WSOC) samples extracted from 20 soil types in eastern China were determined. It was found all samples shared similar spectroscopy. A good linear relationship existed between total organic carbon and excitation in the range of 350 to 450 nm though the content of organic carbon and pH of the samples vary in a wide range. No significant correlation between relative excitation intensity and average molecular weight of WSOC and FA was found, but the partial correlation became significant with pH as the controlling factor for WSOC samples. The relative excitation intensity showed a general trend of increasing from south to north in the study area. The pH value might play an important role in regulating the fluorescent spatial variation of WSOC.

  20. Biological activities of water-soluble fullerene derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, S; Mashino, T [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Keio University, 1-5-30 Shiba-koen, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-8512 (Japan)], E-mail: mashino-td@pha.keio.ac.jp

    2009-04-01

    Three types of water-soluble fullerene derivatives were synthesized and their biological activities were investigated. C{sub 60}-dimalonic acid, an anionic fullerene derivative, showed antioxidant activity such as quenching of superoxide and relief from growth inhibition of E. coli by paraquat. C{sub 60}-bis(7V,7V-dimethylpyrrolidinium iodide), a cationic fullerene derivative, has antibacterial activity and antiproliferative effect on cancer cell lines. The mechanism is suggested to be respiratory chain inhibition by reactive oxygen species produced by the cationic fullerene derivative. Proline-type fullerene derivatives showed strong inhibition activities on HIV-reverse transcriptase. The IC{sub 50} values were remarkably lower than nevirapine, a clinically used anti-HIV drug. Fullerene derivatives have a big potential for a new type of lead compound to be used as medicine.

  1. Reactivity of Metal Ions Bound to Water-Soluble Polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauer, N.N.; Watkins, J.G.; Lin, M.; Birnbaum, E.R.; Robison, T.W.; Smith, B.F.; Gohdes, J.W.; McDonald, J.G.

    1999-06-29

    The intent of this work is to determine the effectiveness of catalysts covalently bound to polymers and to understand the consequences of supporting the catalysts on catalyst efficiency and selectivity. Rhodium phosphine complexes with functional groups for coupling to polymers were prepared. These catalyst precursors were characterized using standard techniques including IR, NMR, and elemental analysis. Studies on the modified catalysts showed that they were still active hydrogenation catalysts. However, tethering of the catalysts to polyamines gave systems with low hydrogenation activity. Analogous biphasic systems were also explored. Phosphine ligands with a surfactant-like structure have been synthesized and used to prepare catalytically active complexes of palladium. The palladium complexes were utilized in Heck-type coupling reactions (e.g. coupling of iodobenzene and ethyl acrylate to produce ethyl cinnamate) under vigorously stirred biphasic reaction conditions, and were found to offer superior performance over a standard water-soluble palladium catalyst under analogous conditions.

  2. ANALYSIS OF SOLUBLE CHEMICAL TRANSFER BY RUNOFF WATER IN FIELD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG Ju-xiu; YANG Jin-zhong

    2008-01-01

    In order to determine the main factors influencing soluble chemical transfer and corresponding techniques for reducing fertilizer loss caused by runoff in irrigated fields, a physically based two-layer model was developed with incomplete mixing theory. Different forms of incomplete mixing parameters were introduced in the model, which was successfully verified with previous published experimental data. According to comparison, the chemicals loss of fertilizer is very sensitive to the runoff-related parameter while it is not sensitive to the infiltration-related parameter. The calculated results show that the chemicals in infiltration water play an important role in the early time of rainfall even with saturated soil, and it is mainly in the runoff flow in the late rainfall. Therefore, prevention of shallow subsurface drainage in the early rainfall is an effective way to reduce fertilizer loss, and the coverage on soil surface is another effective way.

  3. Water Soluble Fluorescent Carbon Nanodots from Biosource for Cells Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumud Malika Tripathi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanodots (CNDs derived from a green precursor, kidney beans, was synthesized with high yield via a facile pyrolysis technique. The CND material was easily modified through simple oxidative treatment with nitric acid, leading to a high density “self-passivated” water soluble form (wsCNDs. The synthesized wsCNDs have been extensively characterized by using various microscopic and spectroscopic techniques and were crystalline in nature. The highly carboxylated wsCNDs possessed tunable-photoluminescence emission behavior throughout the visible region of the spectrum, demonstrating their application for multicolor cellular imaging of HeLa cells. The tunable-photoluminescence properties of “self-passivated” wsCNDs make them a promising candidate as a probe in biological cell-imaging applications.

  4. Drug delivery strategies for poorly water-soluble drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahr, Alfred; Liu, Xiangli

    2007-07-01

    The drug candidates coming from combinatorial chemistry research and/or the drugs selected from biologically based high-throughput screening are quite often very lipophilic, as these drug candidates exert their pharmacological action at or in biological membranes or membrane-associated proteins. This challenges drug delivery institutions in industry or academia to develop carrier systems for the optimal oral and parenteral administration of these drugs. To mention only a few of the challenges for this class of drugs: their oral bioavailability is poor and highly variable, and carrier development for parenteral administration is faced with problems, including the massive use of surface-active excipients for solubilisation. Formulation specialists are confronted with an even higher level of difficulties when these drugs have to be delivered site specifically. This article addresses the emerging formulation designs for delivering of poorly water-soluble drugs.

  5. Antioxidant Properties of Water-Soluble Gum from Flaxseed Hulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaziz, Fatma; Koubaa, Mohamed; Barba, Francisco J; Roohinejad, Shahin; Chaabouni, Semia Ellouz

    2016-08-02

    Soluble flaxseed gum (SFG) was extracted from flax (Linum usitatissimum) hulls using hot water, and its functional groups and antioxidant properties were investigated using infrared spectroscopy and different antioxidant assays (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS), reducing power capacity, and β-carotene bleaching inhibition assay), respectively. The antioxidant capacity of SFG showed interesting DPPH radical-scavenging capacity (IC50 SFG = 2.5 mg·mL(-1)), strong ABTS radical scavenging activity (% inhibition ABTS = 75.6% ± 2.6% at 40 mg·mL(-1)), high reducing power capacity (RPSFG = 5 mg·mL(-1)), and potent β-carotene bleaching inhibition activity (IC50 SFG = 10 mg·mL(-1)). All of the obtained results demonstrate the promising potential use of SFG in numerous industrial applications, and a way to valorize flaxseed hulls.

  6. Acid-base properties of water-soluble organic matter of forest soils, studied by the pK-spectroscopy method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamrikova, E V; Ryazanov, M A; Vanchikova, E V

    2006-11-01

    Using the potentiometric titration and pK spectroscopy method, acid-base properties of water-soluble organic matter of forest soils have been studied. Five acidic classes composed of different substances with pK(a) values around 3.6; 4.8; 6.7; 8.7 and 9.7 have been identified. Testing the properties of soluble soil fraction, it is to be taken into account that when it is isolated from non-soluble soil matter, some water-soluble substances remain in soil and do not pass into the solution. Most firmly adsorbed in soil are water-soluble components with pK(a) 9.6-9.8.

  7. ORGANIC CARBON CONTENTS AND STOCKS IN PARTICLE SIZE FRACTIONS OF A TYPIC HAPLUDOX FERTILIZED WITH PIG SLURRY AND SOLUBLE FERTILIZER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Sueli Heberle Mafra

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of pig slurry (PS as fertilizer can affect the soil quality and increase total stocks of soil organic carbon (TOC. However, the effects of PS on TOC amount and forms in the soil are not fully understood, particularly in areas under no-tillage (NT. The purpose of this study was to determine TOC contents and stocks in the particulate (POC and mineral-associated C fractions (MAC of an Oxisol after nine years of maize-oat rotation under NT, with annual applications of PS, soluble fertilizer and combined fertilization (pig slurry + soluble fertilizer. The experiment was initiated in 2001 in Campos Novos, Santa Catarina, with the following treatments: PS at rates of 0 (without fertilization - PS0; 25 (PS25; 50 (PS50; 100 (PS100; and 200 m3 ha-1yr-1 (PS200; fertilization with soluble fertilizer (SF; and mixed fertilization (PS + SF. The TOC content was determined in samples of six soil layers to a depth of 40 cm, and the POC and MAC contents in four layers to a depth of 20 cm. From the rate of 50 m3 ha-1yr-1 and upwards, the soil TOC content and stock increased according to the PS rates in the layers to a depth of 10 cm. The POC and MAC contents and stocks were higher in the surface layers, with a clear predominance of the second fraction, but a greater relative amplitude in the contents of the first fraction.

  8. A hydrophobic peptide fraction that enhances the water dispersibility of curcumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risa Yamashita

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the complexation between curcumin (Cur and a peptide mixture (Pep. Pep was prepared by enzymatic hydrolysis of casein and used as an excipient for poorly water-soluble Cur. An aqueous solution of Pep and an acetone solution of Cur were mixed and lyophilized to obtain a white-yellow powder of the peptide and Cur complex (Cur-Pep. The water dispersibility of Cur was enhanced by the complexation with Pep. Pep was fractionated using ammonium sulfate precipitation and ultrafiltration to identify which peptides preferentially interact with Cur. Relatively hydrophobic peptides with high molecular weights (>5 kDa were more effective in enhancing the water dispersibility of Cur than other fractions. Cur-Pep dispersed under acidic and neutral conditions, at which amphoteric Pep is positively or negatively charged. Cur-Pep exists as a hydrocolloid with particle size 160–330 nm in aqueous media.

  9. Fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamin contents of breast milk from Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Takayuki; Furukawa, Miyako; Asoh, Miyuki; Kanno, Takahiro; Kojima, Tadashi; Yonekubo, Akie

    2005-08-01

    To determine the concentrations of fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins in the maternal milk of Japanese women, we collected human milk samples from more than 4,000 mothers living throughout Japan between December 1998 and September 1999, and defined as group A the 691 samples among these that met the following conditions: breast milk of mothers who were under 40 y of age, who did not smoke habitually and/or use vitamin supplements, and whose babies showed no symptoms of atopy and had birth weights of 2.5 kg or more. We then analyzed the contents of vitamins individually. Large differences were observed among the contents of individual human milk samples. The mean contents of each component were as follows: vitamin A, 159.0 +/- 95.2 IU/100 mL; vitamin E, 0.325 +/- 0.165 alpha-TE mg/100mL; vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol), 8.0 +/- 10.7 ng/100mL; vitamin B1 (thiamin), 12.3 +/- 3.2 microg/100 mL; vitamin B2, 38.4 +/- 12.7 microg/100 mL; vitamin B6, 5.7 +/- 2.5 microg/100 mL; vitamin B12, 0.04 +/- 0.02 microg/100 mL; vitamin C, 5.1 +/- 1.9 mg/100 mL; biotin, 0.50 +/- 0.23 microg/100 mL; choline, 9.2 +/- 1.8 mg/100 mL; folic acid, 6.2 +/- 2.9 microg/100 mL; inositol, 12.6 +/- 3.6 mg/100 mL; niacin (nicotinamide), 32.9 +/- 20.4 microg/100 mL and pantothenic acid, 0.27 +/- 0.09 mg/100 mL. The concentrations of derivatives and/or related compounds of vitamin A (retinol, beta-carotene), vitamin E (alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-tocopherol), and B2 (riboflavin, FMN, and FAD) were determined separately. The contents of each were found to vary greatly as the duration of lactation increased. The present results indicate that it is necessary to evaluate individual differences in human milk in order to perform valid research regarding infant formula.

  10. Water-soluble polymers for recovery of metal ions from aqueous streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Barbara F.; Robison, Thomas W.

    1998-01-01

    A process of selectively separating a target metal contained in an aqueous solution by contacting the aqueous solution containing a target metal with an aqueous solution including a water-soluble polymer capable of binding with the target metal for sufficient time whereby a water-soluble polymer-target metal complex is formed, and, separating the solution including the water-soluble polymer-target metal complex from the solution is disclosed.

  11. Morphological Analysis and Solubility of Lead Particles: Effect of Phosphates and Implications to Drinking Water Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective • Describe lead synthesis experiments conduced to model the impact of water quality on lead particles and solubility • Develop a model system that can be used for lead solubility studies • Understand the how phosphates impact the morphology and solubility transfo...

  12. Effect of water and citrate solubility on agronomic effectiveness of acidulated phosphates in three consecutive corn crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Prochnow

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available In the process of phosphate rock acidulation, several impure P compounds may be formed along with the desirable Ca and NH4 phosphates. Such compounds normally reduce the content of water-soluble P and thus the agronomic effectiveness of commercial fertilizers. In order to study this problem, a greenhouse experiment consisting of three consecutive corn crops was conducted in samples of a Red-Yellow Latosol (Typical Hapludox in a completely randomized design (6 x 2 x 2, with four replicates. Six commercial fertilizers were added to 2 kg of soil at a rate of 70 mg kg-1 P, based on the content of soluble P in neutral ammonium citrate plus water (NAC + H2O of the fertilizers. Fertilizer application occurred either in the original form or leached to remove the water-soluble fraction, either by mixing the fertilizer with the whole soil in the pots or with only 1 % of its volume. The corn plants were harvested 40 days after emergence to determine the shoot dry matter and accumulated P. For the first crop and localized application, the elimination of water-soluble P from the original fertilizers resulted in less bioavailable P for the plants. For the second and third crops, the effects of P source, leaching and application methods were not as evident as for the first, suggesting that the tested P sources may have similar efficiencies when considering successive cropping. The conclusion was drawn that the water-insoluble but NAC-soluble fractions of commercial P fertilizers are not necessarily inert because they can provide P in the long run.

  13. Identification of protective pneumococcal T(H17 antigens from the soluble fraction of a killed whole cell vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin L Moffitt

    Full Text Available Mucosal or parenteral immunization with a killed unencapsulated pneumococcal whole cell antigen (WCA with an adjuvant protects mice from colonization by a T(H17 CD4+ cell-mediated mechanism. Using preparative SDS gels, we separated the soluble proteins that compose the WCA in order to identify fractions that were immunogenic and protective. We screened these fractions for their ability to stimulate IL-17A secretion from splenocytes obtained from mice immunized with WCA and adjuvant. We identified 12 proteins within the stimulatory fractions by mass spectrometry; these proteins were then cloned, recombinantly expressed and purified using an Escherichia coli expression system. The ability of these proteins to induce IL-17A secretion was then evaluated by stimulation of mouse splenocytes. Of the four most stimulatory proteins, three were protective in a mouse pneumococcal serotype 6B colonization model. This work thus describes a method for identifying immunogenic proteins from the soluble fraction of pneumococcus and shows that several of the proteins identified protect mice from colonization when used as mucosal vaccines. We propose that, by providing protection against pneumococcal colonization, one or more of these proteins may serve as components of a multivalent pneumococcal vaccine.

  14. Study on Mixed Solvency Concept in Formulation Development of Aqueous Injection of Poorly Water Soluble Drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailendra Singh Solanki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, mixed-solvency approach has been applied for the enhancement of aqueous solubility of a poorly water- soluble drug, zaltoprofen (selected as a model drug, by making blends (keeping total concentrations 40% w/v, constant of selected water-soluble substances from among the hydrotropes (urea, sodium benzoate, sodium citrate, nicotinamide; water-soluble solids (PEG-4000, PEG-6000; and co-solvents (propylene glycol, glycerine, PEG-200, PEG-400, PEG-600. Aqueous solubility of drug in case of selected blends (12 blends ranged from 9.091 ± 0.011 mg/ml–43.055 ± 0.14 mg/ml (as compared to the solubility in distilled water 0.072 ± 0.012 mg/ml. The enhancement in the solubility of drug in a mixed solvent containing 10% sodium citrate, 5% sodium benzoate and 25 % S cosolvent (25% S cosolvent contains PEG200, PEG 400, PEG600, Glycerine and Propylene glycol was more than 600 fold. This proved a synergistic enhancement in solubility of a poorly water-soluble drug due to mixed cosolvent effect. Each solubilized product was characterized by ultraviolet and infrared techniques. Various properties of solution such as pH, viscosity, specific gravity and surface tension were studied. The developed formulation was studied for physical and chemical stability. This mixed solvency shall prove definitely a boon for pharmaceutical industries for the development of dosage form of poorly water soluble drugs.

  15. Solubility and sorption of petroleum hydrocarbons in water and cosolvent systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hong; CHEN Shuo; QUAN Xie; ZHAO Yazhi; ZHAO Huimin

    2008-01-01

    The solubility and sorption of oil by uncontaminated clay loam and silt loam soils were studied from water and cosolvent/watersolutions using batch techniques. The data obtained from the dissolution and sorption experinaents were used to evaluate theapplicability of the cosolvent theory to oil as a complex mixture. Aqueous solubility and soil-water distribution coefficients (Kd,w,L/kg) were estimated by extrapolating from cosolvent data, with a log-linear cosolvency model, to the volume fraction of cosolvent(fc) 0, and were compared with direct aqueous measurements. The extrapolated water solubility was 3.16 mg/L, in good agreementwith the directly measured value of 3.83 mg/L. Extrapolated values of Kd,w for the two soils were close to each other but consistentlyhigher than the values from direct aqueous measurements, because of the presence of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The partitioncoefficient (KDOC) between the DOC and the reely dissolved phase and the OC-normalized sorption coefficient (KOC) were determined.The average values of logKDOC and logKoc were estimated as 4.34 and 3.32, respectively, giving insight into the possibility of oilbecoming mobilized and/or of the soil being remedied. This study revealed that the cosolvency model can be applied to a broader rangeof hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs) than has been previously thought. The results aided in a reliable determination of watersolubility and sorption coefficients and provide information about the fate of oil in solvent-contaminated environment.

  16. Water-soluble ruthenium complexes bearing activity against protozoan parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarniguet, Cynthia; Toloza, Jeannette; Cipriani, Micaella; Lapier, Michel; Vieites, Marisol; Toledano-Magaña, Yanis; García-Ramos, Juan Carlos; Ruiz-Azuara, Lena; Moreno, Virtudes; Maya, Juan Diego; Azar, Claudio Olea; Gambino, Dinorah; Otero, Lucía

    2014-06-01

    Parasitic illnesses are major causes of human disease and misery worldwide. Among them, both amebiasis and Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan parasites, Entamoeba histolytica and Trypanosoma cruzi, are responsible for thousands of annual deaths. The lack of safe and effective chemotherapy and/or the appearance of current drug resistance make the development of novel pharmacological tools for their treatment relevant. In this sense, within the framework of the medicinal inorganic chemistry, metal-based drugs appear to be a good alternative to find a pharmacological answer to parasitic diseases. In this work, novel ruthenium complexes [RuCl2(HL)(HPTA)2]Cl2 with HL=bioactive 5-nitrofuryl containing thiosemicarbazones and PTA=1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane have been synthesized and fully characterized. PTA was included as co-ligand in order to modulate complexes aqueous solubility. In fact, obtained complexes were water soluble. Their activity against T. cruzi and E. histolytica was evaluated in vitro. [RuCl2(HL4)(HPTA)2]Cl2 complex, with HL4=N-phenyl-5-nitrofuryl-thiosemicarbazone, was the most active compound against both parasites. In particular, it showed an excellent activity against E. histolytica (half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50)=5.2 μM), even higher than that of the reference drug metronidazole. In addition, this complex turns out to be selective for E. histolytica (selectivity index (SI)>38). The potential mechanism of antiparasitic action of the obtained ruthenium complexes could involve oxidative stress for both parasites. Additionally, complexes could interact with DNA as second potential target by an intercalative-like mode. Obtained results could be considered a contribution in the search for metal compounds that could be active against multiple parasites.

  17. Water soluble bioactives of nacre mediate antioxidant activity and osteoblast differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Chaturvedi

    Full Text Available The water soluble matrix of nacre is a proven osteoinductive material. In spite of the differences in the biomolecular compositions of nacre obtained from multiple species of oysters, the common biochemical properties of those principles substantiate their biological activity. However, the mechanism by which nacre stimulates bone differentiation remains largely unknown. Since the positive impact of antioxidants on bone metabolism is well acknowledged, in this study we investigated the antioxidant potential of a water soluble matrix (WSM obtained from the nacre of the marine oyster Pinctada fucata, which could regulate its osteoblast differentiation activity. Enhanced levels of ALP activity observed in pre-osteoblast cells upon treatment with WSM, suggested the induction of bone differentiation events. Furthermore, bone nodule formation and up-regulation of bone differentiation marker transcripts, i.e. collagen type-1 and osteocalcin by WSM confirmed its ability to induce differentiation of the pre-osteoblasts into mature osteoblasts. Remarkably, same WSM fraction upon pre-treatment lowered the H2O2 and UV-B induced oxidative damages in keratinocytes, thus indicating the antioxidant potential of WSM. This was further confirmed from the in vitro scavenging of ABTS and DPPH free radicals and inhibition of lipid peroxidation by WSM. Together, these results indicate that WSM poses both antioxidant potential and osteoblast differentiation property. Thus, bioactivities associated with nacre holds potential in the development of therapeutics for bone regeneration and against oxidative stress induced damages in cells.

  18. [Immunoproteomics of non water-soluble allergens from 4 legumes flours: peanut, soybean, sesame and lentil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouakkadia, Hayette; Boutebba, Aissa; Haddad, Iman; Vinh, Joëlle; Guilloux, Laurence; Sutra, Jean-Pierre; Sénéchal, Hélène; Poncet, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Peanut, soybean, sesame and lentil are members of legumes worldwide consumed by human that can induce food allergy in genetically predisposed individuals. Several protein allergens, mainly water-soluble, have been described. We studied the non water-soluble fraction from these 4 food sources using immunoproteomics tools and techniques. Flour extracts were solubilized in detergent and chaotropes and analysed in 1 and 2 dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D). Results showed numerous proteins exhibiting wide ranges of isoelectric points and relative molecular masses. When IgE immunoreactivities of 18 food allergy patients were individually tested in 1 and 2D western-blots, a very diversified IgE repertoire was observed, reflecting extensive cross-reactivities but also co-sensitizations. Besides already well known and characterized allergens, mass spectrometry analysis allowed the identification of 22 allergens undescribed until now: 10 in peanut, 2 in soybean, 3 in sesame and 7 in lentil. Three allergens are legume storage proteins and the others belong to transport proteins, nucleotide binding proteins and proteins involved in the regulation of metabolism. Seven proteins are potentially similar to allergens described in plants and fungi and 11 are not related to any known allergen. Our results contribute to increase the repertoire of legume allergens that may improve the diagnosis, categorize patients and thus provide a better treatment of patients.

  19. Characterization of water-soluble ion species in urban ambient particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jim Juimin

    2002-04-01

    Concentrations and distributions of water-soluble ion species contained in ambient particles were measured in a coastal urban area, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. PM10 and PM2.5 samples were collected using a dichotomous sampler from November 1998 to April 1999 and were analyzed for water-soluble ion species with ion chromatography. On the average, ion species measured in this study accounted for 42.2% of the PM2.5 and 35.7% of the PM10. It was found that SO4(2-) , NO3-, and NH4+ dominated the identifiable components within both fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM2.5-10) fractions, and occupied 90.0% and 80.6% of total dissolved ionic concentrations for PM2.5 and PM10. The secondary aerosol formed through the NOx/SO2 gas-to-particle conversion was estimated based on the oxidation ratio of sulfur and nitrogen (SOR and NOR, respectively), i.e., sulfate sulfur/nitrate nitrogen to total sulfur/total nitrogen. The average SOR/NOR values were 0.25/0.07 and 0.29/0.12 for PM25 and PM10, respectively. The high SOR and NOR values obtained in this study suggested that there existed a secondary formation of SO4(2-) from SO2 along with NO3- from NOx in the atmosphere.

  20. Solubility of sodium chloride in superionic water ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Jean-Alexis; Caracas, Razvan

    2017-04-01

    In icy planets, complex interactions are expected to occur at the interface between the rocky core and the icy mantle composed of mixtures based on water, methane, and ammonia [1, 2]. The hydration of the silicate layer produces salts (MgSO4, NaCl, KCl) that could mix with the ice, and change considerably its properties [3]. Here, we used first-principles molecular dynamics to investigate the stability and the properties of the binary system NaCl-H2O at the relevant thermodynamic conditions for planetary interiors up to ice giants. In these conditions, pure water ice undergoes several transitions that affect considerably its ionic conductivity and its elastic properties [4]. We calculated the Gibbs free energy of mixing along the NaCl-H2O binary by applying Boltzmann statistics to account for energy differences between configurations. We evaluated vibrational entropy from the vibrational spectra of the nuclei motion using the recently developed two phases thermodynamic memory function (2PT-MF) model for multicomponent systems [5, 6]. We show that the solubility of NaCl in water ice at 1600 K is less than 0.78 mol%. We find that salty ices present an extended superionic domain toward high pressures in comparison to pure water ice. Finally, we predict that the complete symmetrization of the hydrogen bonds (i.e. transition to ice X) occurs at higher pressure than in pure water ice, as observed in LiCl doped water ice at ambient temperature [7]. References: [1] M. R. Frank, C. E. Runge, H. P. Scott, S. J. Maglio, J. Olson, V. B. Prakapenka, G. Shen, PEPI 155 (2006) 152-162 [2] B. Journaux, I. Daniel, R. Caracas, G. Montagnac, H. Cardon, Icarus 226 (2013) 355-363 [3] S. Klotz, L. E. Bove, T. Strässle, T. C. Hansen, A. M. Saitta, Nature Materials 8 (2009) 405-409 [4] J. -A. Hernandez, R. Caracas, Phys. Rev. Lett. 117 (2016) 135503 [5] M. P. Desjarlais, Phys. Rev. E 88 (2013) 062145 [6] M. French, M. P. Desjarlais, R. Redmer, Phys. Rev. E 93 (2016) 022140 [7] L. E. Bove

  1. Simultaneous Rapid Determination of the Solubility and Diffusion Coefficients of a Poorly Water-Soluble Drug Based on a Novel UV Imaging System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yan; Li, Mingzhong

    2016-01-01

    The solubility and diffusion coefficient are two of the most important physicochemical properties of a drug compound. In practice, both have been measured separately, which is time consuming. This work utilizes a novel technique of UV imaging to determine the solubility and diffusion coefficients of poorly water-soluble drugs simultaneously. A 2-step optimal method is proposed to determine the solubility and diffusion coefficients of a poorly water-soluble pharmaceutical substance based on the Fick's second law of diffusion and UV imaging measurements. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can be used to determine the solubility and diffusion coefficients of a drug with reasonable accuracy, indicating that UV imaging may provide a new opportunity to accurately measure the solubility and diffusion coefficients of a poorly water-soluble drug simultaneously and rapidly. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Water-soluble organic compounds (WSOCs) in PM2.5 and PM10 at a subtropical site of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Puja; Baruah, B. P.; Rao, P. G.

    2011-11-01

    PM2.5 and PM10 samples collected at a suburban site of northeastern part of India have been analysed for particle mass, total carbon (TC), water-soluble total carbon (WSTC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), water-soluble inorganic carbon (WSIC), organic acids (formic, acetic, proponoic and oxalic acids) along with inorganic ions (NO3-, SO42- and NH4-). Most of the PM10 consists of PM2.5 in the present site (ratio 54-74%). WSTC content in PM2.5 and PM10 corresponds to 21% and 16%, respectively, of their total particle masses. Thermo gravimetric analysis showed the presence of humic-like substances (16-22%) in particulate samples. Domestic heating and stagnant atmospheric conditions enhanced the levels of these carbonaceous compounds in PM2.5 and PM10 in winter. Qualitative estimation of various functional groups by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis indicates the presence of carboxylic, hydroxyl, aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, amines and sulphurous compounds in these aerosols. Absolute principal component analysis applied on the aerosol data resolves four factors. These factors are associated with carbonaceous aerosols released from combustion of coal and wood, secondary inorganic and organic aerosols and water-soluble inorganic fraction.

  3. High-Resolution Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Water- Soluble Organic Aerosols Collected with a Particle into Liquid Sampler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bateman, Adam P.; Nizkorodov, Serguei; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander

    2010-10-01

    This work demonstrates the utility of a particle-into-liquid sampler (PILS) a technique traditionally used for identification of inorganic ions present in ambient or laboratory aerosols for the analysis of water soluble organic aerosol (OA) using high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HR ESI-MS). Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) was produced from 0.5 ppm mixing ratios of limonene and ozone in a 5 m3 Teflon chamber. SOA was collected simultaneously using a traditional filter sampler and a PILS. The filter samples were later extracted with either water or acetonitrile, while the aqueous PILS samples were analyzed directly. In terms of peak intensities, types of detectable compounds, average O:C ratios, and organic mass to organic carbon ratios, the resulting high resolution mass spectra were essentially identical for the PILS and filter based samples. SOA compounds extracted from both filter/acetonitrile extraction and PILS/water extraction accounted for >95% of the total ion current in ESI mass spectra. This similarity was attributed to high solubility of limonene SOA in water. In contrast, significant differences in detected ions and peak abundances were observed for pine needle biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA) collected with PILS and filter sampling. The water soluble fraction of BBOA is considerably smaller than for SOA, and a number of unique peaks were detectable only by the filter/acetonitrile method. The combination of PILS collection with HR-ESI-MS analysis offers a new approach for molecular analysis of the water-soluble organic fraction in biogenic SOA, aged photochemical smog, and BBOA.

  4. Evaluation of soluble fraction and enzymatic residual fraction of dilute dry acid, ethylenediamine, and steam explosion pretreated corn stover on the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Lei; Liu, Li; Li, Wen-Chao; Zhu, Jia-Qing; Li, Bing-Zhi; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2016-06-01

    This study is aimed to examine the inhibition of soluble fraction (SF) and enzymatic residual fraction (ERF) in dry dilute acid (DDA), ethylenediamine (EDA) and steam explosion (SE) pretreated corn stover (CS) on the enzymatic digestibility of cellulose. SF of DDA, EDA and SE pretreated CS has high xylose, soluble lignin and xylo-oligomer content, respectively. SF of EDA pretreated CS leads to the highest inhibition, followed by SE and DDA pretreated CS. Inhibition of ERF of DDA and SE pretreated CS is higher than that of EDA pretreated CS. The inhibition degree (A0/A) of SF is 1.76 and 1.21 times to that of ERF for EDA and SE pretreated CS, respectively. The inhibition degree of ERF is 1.05 times to that of SF in DDA pretreated CS. The quantitative analysis shows that SF of EDA pretreated CS, SF and ERF of SE pretreated CS cause significant inhibition during enzymatic hydrolysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Study of water-soluble compounds from fungus garden of Odontotermes formosanus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Dejun; Zhou, Hui; Zhang, Min; Xie, Kang; Zhang, Yong

    2005-10-01

    To study water-soluble compounds from fungus garden of Odontotermes formosanus. The chemical constituents of fungus garden were analyzed and identified by GC-MS. 28 compounds were separated and 11 chemical constituents were identified. The main constituents in water-solubles from fungus garden of Odontotermes formosanus are palmitic acid, linolei acid and oleic aid.

  6. Capacity for absorption of water-soluble secondary metabolites greater in birds than in rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William H Karasov

    Full Text Available Plant secondary metabolites (SMs are pervasive in animal foods and potentially influence feeding behavior, interspecies interactions, and the distribution and abundance of animals. Some of the major classes of naturally occurring SMs in plants include many water-soluble compounds in the molecular size range that could cross the intestinal epithelium via the paracellular space by diffusion or solvent drag. There are differences among species in paracellular permeability. Using Middle Eastern rodent and avian consumers of fruits containing SMs, we tested the hypothesis that avian species would have significantly higher paracellular permeability than rodent species. Permeability in intact animals was assessed using standard pharmacological methodology to measure absorption of two radiolabeled, inert, neutral water-soluble probes that do not interact with intestinal nutrient transporters, L-arabinose (M(r = 150.1 Da and lactulose (M(r = 342.3 Da. We also measured absorption of labeled 3-O-methyl-D-glucose (3OMD-glucose; M(r = 194.2 Da, which is a nonmetabolized analogue of D-glucose that is passively absorbed through the paracellular space but also transported across the enterocyte membranes. Most glucose was absorbed by all species, but arabinose fractional absorption (f was nearly three times higher in birds (1.03±0.17, n = 15 in two species compared to rodents (0.37±0.06, n = 10 in two species (P<0.001. Surprisingly, the apparent rates of absorption in birds of arabinose exceeded those of 3OMD-glucose. Our findings are in agreement with previous work showing that the paracellular pathway is more prominent in birds relative to nonflying mammals, and suggests that birds may be challenged by greater absorption of water-soluble, dietary SMs. The increased expression of the paracellular pathway in birds hints at a tradeoff: the free energy birds gain by absorbing water-soluble nutrients passively may be offset by the metabolic

  7. Foam fractionation as a tool to study the air-water interface structure-function relationship of wheat gluten hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Arno G B; Rombouts, Ine; Schoebrechts, Nele; Fierens, Ellen; Brijs, Kristof; Blecker, Christophe; Delcour, Jan A

    2017-03-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat gluten protein improves its solubility and produces hydrolysates with foaming properties which may find applications in food products. First, we here investigated whether foam-liquid fractionation can concentrate wheat gluten peptides with foaming properties. Foam and liquid fractions had high and very low foam stability (FS), respectively. In addition, foam fractions were able to decrease surface tension more pronouncedly than un-fractionated samples and liquid fractions, suggesting they are able to arrange themselves more efficiently at an interface. As a second objective, foam fractionation served as a tool to study the structural properties of the peptides, causing these differences in air-water interfacial behavior. Zeta potential and surface hydrophobicity measurements did not fully explain these differences but suggested that hydrophobic interactions at the air-water interface are more important than electrostatic interactions. RP-HPLC showed a large overlap between foam and liquid fractions. However, a small fraction of very hydrophobic peptides with relatively high average molecular mass was clearly enriched in the foam fraction. These peptides were also more concentrated in un-fractionated DH 2 hydrolysates, which had high FS, than in DH 6 hydrolysates, which had low FS. These peptides most likely play a key role in stabilizing the air-water interface.

  8. Extended Hildebrand solubility approach: Satranidazole in mixtures of dioxane and water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P B Rathi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The extended Hildebrand solubility parameter approach is used to estimate the solubility of satranidazole in binary solvent systems. The solubility of satranidazole in various dioxane-water mixtures was analyzed in terms of solute-solvent interactions using a modified version of Hildebrand-Scatchard treatment for regular solutions. The solubility of satranidazole in the binary solvent, dioxane-water shows a bell-shaped profile with a solubility maximum well above the ideal solubility of the drug. This is attributed to solvation of the drug with the dioxane-water mixture, and indicates that the solute-solvent interaction energy is larger than the geometric mean (δ1δ2 of regular solution theory. The new approach provides an accurate prediction of solubility once the interaction energy is obtained. In this case, the energy term is regressed against a polynomial in δ1 of the binary mixture. A quartic expression of W in terms of solvent solubility parameter was found for predicting the solubility of satranidazole in dioxane-water mixtures. The method has potential usefulness in preformulation and formulation studies during which solubility prediction is important for drug design.

  9. Extended hildebrand solubility approach: satranidazole in mixtures of dioxane and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathi, P B; Mourya, V K

    2011-05-01

    The extended Hildebrand solubility parameter approach is used to estimate the solubility of satranidazole in binary solvent systems. The solubility of satranidazole in various dioxane-water mixtures was analyzed in terms of solute-solvent interactions using a modified version of Hildebrand-Scatchard treatment for regular solutions. The solubility of satranidazole in the binary solvent, dioxane-water shows a bell-shaped profile with a solubility maximum well above the ideal solubility of the drug. This is attributed to solvation of the drug with the dioxane-water mixture, and indicates that the solute-solvent interaction energy is larger than the geometric mean (δ(1)δ(2)) of regular solution theory. The new approach provides an accurate prediction of solubility once the interaction energy is obtained. In this case, the energy term is regressed against a polynomial in δ(1) of the binary mixture. A quartic expression of W in terms of solvent solubility parameter was found for predicting the solubility of satranidazole in dioxane-water mixtures. The method has potential usefulness in preformulation and formulation studies during which solubility prediction is important for drug design.

  10. Water-soluble primary amine compounds in rural continental precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorzelska, Krystyna; Galloway, James N.; Watterson, Karen; Keene, William C.

    Procedures for collecting, storing and analysing precipitation samples for organic nitrogen studies were developed. These procedures preserve chemical integrities of the species of interest, allow for up to 3 months storage and quantitative determination of water-soluble primary amine compounds, with the overall error at the 2 nM detection limit of less than 30%. This methodology was applied to study amino compounds in precipitation samples collected over a period of one year in central Virginia. Nitrogen concentrations of 13 amino acids and 3 aliphatic amines were summed to calculate the total amine nitrogen (TAN). The concentration of TAN ranged from below our detection level to 6658 nM, and possibly reflected a seasonal variation in the source strength of the atmospheric amines. Overall, the most commonly occurring amino compounds were methyl amine, ethyl amine, glutamic acid, glycine and serine. On average, the highest overall contribution to the TAN came from arginine, asparagine, glutamine, methyl amine, serine and alanine. However, large qualitative and quantitative variations observed among samples warrant caution in interpretation and application of the averaged values. TAN in Charlottesville precipitation contributed from less than 1 to ca 10% of the ammonium nitrogen level. However, our estimates show that amino compounds may contribute significantly to reduced nitrogen budget in precipitation in remote regions.

  11. Water Soluble Polymers as Proton Exchange Membranes for Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing-Joe Hwang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The relentless increase in the demand for useable power from energy-hungry economies continues to drive energy-material related research. Fuel cells, as a future potential power source that provide clean-at-the-point-of-use power offer many advantages such as high efficiency, high energy density, quiet operation, and environmental friendliness. Critical to the operation of the fuel cell is the proton exchange membrane (polymer electrolyte membrane responsible for internal proton transport from the anode to the cathode. PEMs have the following requirements: high protonic conductivity, low electronic conductivity, impermeability to fuel gas or liquid, good mechanical toughness in both the dry and hydrated states, and high oxidative and hydrolytic stability in the actual fuel cell environment. Water soluble polymers represent an immensely diverse class of polymers. In this comprehensive review the initial focus is on those members of this group that have attracted publication interest, principally: chitosan, poly (ethylene glycol, poly (vinyl alcohol, poly (vinylpyrrolidone, poly (2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid and poly (styrene sulfonic acid. The paper then considers in detail the relationship of structure to functionality in the context of polymer blends and polymer based networks together with the effects of membrane crosslinking on IPN and semi IPN architectures. This is followed by a review of pore-filling and other impregnation approaches. Throughout the paper detailed numerical results are given for comparison to today’s state-of-the-art Nafion® based materials.

  12. Kinetic Isotopic Fractionation During Diffusion of Ionic Speciesin Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, Frank M.; Mendybaev, Ruslan A.; Christensen, John; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Williams, Ross W.; Sturchio, Neil C.; Beloso Jr.,Abelardo D.

    2005-06-09

    Experiments specifically designed to measure the ratio of the diffusivities of ions dissolved in water were used to determine D{sub Li}/D{sub K}, D{sub 7{sub Li}}/D{sub 6{sub Li}}, D{sub 25{sub Mg}}/D{sub 24{sub Mg}}, D{sub 26{sub Mg}}/D{sub 25{sub Mg}}, and D{sub 37{sub Cl}}/D{sub 35{sub Cl}}. The measured ratio of the diffusion coefficients for Li and K in water (D{sub Li}/D{sub K} = 0.6) is in good agreement with published data, providing evidence that the experimental design being used resolves the relative mobility of ions with adequate precision to also be used for determining the fractionation of isotopes by diffusion in water. In the case of Li we found measurable isotopic fractionation associated with the diffusion of dissolved LiCl (D{sub 7{sub Li}}/D{sub 6{sub Li}} = 0.99772 {+-} 0.00026). This difference in the diffusion coefficient of {sup 7}Li compared to {sup 6}Li is significantly less than reported in an earlier study, a difference we attribute to the fact that in the earlier study Li diffused through a membrane separating the water reservoirs. Our experiments involving Mg diffusing in water found no measurable isotopic fractionation (D{sub 25{sub Mg}}/D{sub 24{sub Mg}} = 1.00003 {+-} 0.00006). Cl isotopes were fractionated during diffusion in water (D{sub 37{sub Cl}}/D{sub 35{sub Cl}} = 0.99857 {+-} 0.00080) whether or not the co-diffuser (Li or Mg) was isotopically fractionated. The isotopic fractionation associated with the diffusion of ions in water is much smaller than values we found previously for the isotopic fractionation of Li and Ca isotopes by diffusion in molten silicate liquids. A major distinction between water and silicate liquids is that water, being a polar liquid, surrounds dissolved ions with hydration shells, which very likely play an important but still poorly understood role in reducing isotopic fractionation associated with diffusion.

  13. Image Charge Effects in the Wetting Behavior of Alkanes on Water with Accounting for Water Solubility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill A. Emelyanenko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Different types of surface forces, acting in the films of pentane, hexane, and heptane on water are discussed. It is shown that an important contribution to the surface forces originates from the solubility of water in alkanes. The equations for the distribution of electric potential inside the film are derived within the Debye-Hückel approximation, taking into account the polarization of the film boundaries by discrete charges at water-alkane interface and by the dipoles of water molecules dissolved in the film. On the basis of above equations we estimate the image charge contribution to the surface forces, excess free energy, isotherms of water adsorption in alkane film, and the total isotherms of disjoining pressure in alkane film. The results indicate the essential influence of water/alkane interface charging on the disjoining pressure in alkane films, and the wettability of water surface by different alkanes is discussed.

  14. Linking Atomistic and Mesoscale Simulations of Water Soluble Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J. L.

    2003-03-01

    There exist a range of techniques for studying surfactants and polymers in the mesoscale regime. One of the challenges is to link mesoscale theories and simulations to other calculation methods which address different length scales of the system. We introduce some mesoscale methods of calculation for polymers and surfactants and then present a case study of where mesoscale modelling is used for mechanistic understanding, by linking the method to high throughput in-silico screening methods. We look at the adsorption onto silica of ethylene oxide (EO)/ propylene oxide (PO) block copolymers (lutrols) which have been modified by end-grafting of short, cationic dimethylamino ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA)chains. Given that the silica surface is negatively charged, it is remarkable that in some circumstances, polymers with longercationic chains have a lower adsorption. The effect is attributed to a competition between strong adsorption of the cationic DMAEMA groups driven by electrostatics, and weaker adsorption of the more numerous EO groups. This then raises the question of how we produce the values for the mesoscale parameters in these models and in the second part of the talk we describe a calculation method for doing this for water soluble polymers. The most promising route, but notoriously costly, is based on free energy calculations at the atomistic level. Free energy calculations are computationally intensive in general, but in an aqueous system one is also faced with the additional problem of using complex continuum models and/or accurate interaction potentials for water. Here we show how potential of mean force (PMF)calculations offer a practical alternative which avoids these drawbacks, though one is still faced with extremely long simulations.

  15. Determination and Prediction of Binary Solubility for Aromatic-Tetraethylene Glycol (with Water) Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The binary solubilities of tetraethylene glycol (TTEG) with benzene, toluene or p-xylene, were measured by the turbidity point method. In TTEG the content of water ranged from 0 to 5% and the test temperature ranged from 20℃ to 120℃. Increasing the temperature resulted in greater solubility of the aromatics in TTEG, while increasing the content of water caused the aromatic solubility to decrease. The benzene solubillity in TTEG was the greatest followed by toluene and xylene at the same water content and temperature. The mutual solubility was predicted by correlating the paramaters of a new group for the UNIFAC model for the aromatics extraction system. The modified UNIFAC group contribution model was used to predict the binary solubility of TTEG and aromatics. The average deviation between the experimental result and prediction is 4.06%. Therefore, the UNIFAC model can be used to describe the solubility phenomena for TTEG-aromatics systems.

  16. Water-Soluble 2-Hydroxyisophthalamides for Sensitization of Lanthanide Luminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuel, Amanda P. S.; Moore, Evan G.; Melchior, Marco; Xu, Jide; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2008-02-20

    A series of octadentate ligands featuring the 2-hydroxyisophthalamide (IAM) antenna chromophore (to sensitize Tb(III) and Eu(III) luminescence) has been prepared and characterized. The length of the alkyl amine scaffold that links the four IAM moieties has been varied in order to investigate the effect of the ligand backbone on the stability and photophysical properties of the Ln(III) complexes. The amine backbones utilized in this study are N,N,N{prime},N{prime}-tetrakis-(2-aminoethyl)-ethane-1,2-diamine [H(2,2)-], N,N,N{prime},N{prime}-tetrakis-(2-aminoethyl)-propane-1,3-diamine [H(3,2)-] and N,N,N{prime},N{prime}-tetrakis-(2-aminoethyl)-butane-1,4-diamine [H(4,2)-]. These ligands also incorporate methoxyethylene [MOE] groups on each of the IAM chromophores to increase their water solubility. The aqueous ligand protonation constants and Tb(III) and Eu(III) formation constants were determined from solution thermodynamic studies. The resulting values indicate that at physiological pH, the Eu(III) and Tb(III) complexes of H(2,2)-IAM-MOE and H(4,2)-IAM-MOE are sufficiently stable to prevent dissociation at nanomolar concentrations. The photophysical measurements for the Tb(III) complexes gave overall quantum yield values of 0.56, 0.39, and 0.52 respectively for the complexes with H(2,2)-IAM-MOE, H(3,2)-IAM-MOE and H(4,2)-IAM-MOE, while the corresponding Eu(III) complexes displayed significantly weaker luminescence, with quantum yield values of 0.0014, 0.0015, and 0.0058, respectively. Analysis of the steady state Eu(III) emission spectra provides insight into the solution symmetries of the complexes. The combined solubility, stability and photophysical performance of the Tb(III) complexes in particular make them well suited to serve as the luminescent reporter group in high sensitivity time-resolved fluoroimmunoassays.

  17. Water-Soluble 2-Hydroxyisophthalamides for Sensitization of Lanthanide Luminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuel, Amanda P. S.; Moore, Evan G.; Melchior, Marco; Xu, Jide; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2008-02-20

    A series of octadentate ligands featuring the 2-hydroxyisophthalamide (IAM) antenna chromophore (to sensitize Tb(III) and Eu(III) luminescence) has been prepared and characterized. The length of the alkyl amine scaffold that links the four IAM moieties has been varied in order to investigate the effect of the ligand backbone on the stability and photophysical properties of the Ln(III) complexes. The amine backbones utilized in this study are N,N,N{prime},N{prime}-tetrakis-(2-aminoethyl)-ethane-1,2-diamine [H(2,2)-], N,N,N{prime},N{prime}-tetrakis-(2-aminoethyl)-propane-1,3-diamine [H(3,2)-] and N,N,N{prime},N{prime}-tetrakis-(2-aminoethyl)-butane-1,4-diamine [H(4,2)-]. These ligands also incorporate methoxyethylene [MOE] groups on each of the IAM chromophores to increase their water solubility. The aqueous ligand protonation constants and Tb(III) and Eu(III) formation constants were determined from solution thermodynamic studies. The resulting values indicate that at physiological pH, the Eu(III) and Tb(III) complexes of H(2,2)-IAM-MOE and H(4,2)-IAM-MOE are sufficiently stable to prevent dissociation at nanomolar concentrations. The photophysical measurements for the Tb(III) complexes gave overall quantum yield values of 0.56, 0.39, and 0.52 respectively for the complexes with H(2,2)-IAM-MOE, H(3,2)-IAM-MOE and H(4,2)-IAM-MOE, while the corresponding Eu(III) complexes displayed significantly weaker luminescence, with quantum yield values of 0.0014, 0.0015, and 0.0058, respectively. Analysis of the steady state Eu(III) emission spectra provides insight into the solution symmetries of the complexes. The combined solubility, stability and photophysical performance of the Tb(III) complexes in particular make them well suited to serve as the luminescent reporter group in high sensitivity time-resolved fluoroimmunoassays.

  18. Overview of milling techniques for improving the solubility of poorly water-soluble drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Hui Loh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Milling involves the application of mechanical energy to physically break down coarse particles to finer ones and is regarded as a “top–down” approach in the production of fine particles. Fine drug particulates are especially desired in formulations designed for parenteral, respiratory and transdermal use. Most drugs after crystallization may have to be comminuted and this physical transformation is required to various extents, often to enhance processability or solubility especially for drugs with limited aqueous solubility. The mechanisms by which milling enhances drug dissolution and solubility include alterations in the size, specific surface area and shape of the drug particles as well as milling-induced amorphization and/or structural disordering of the drug crystal (mechanochemical activation. Technology advancements in milling now enable the production of drug micro- and nano-particles on a commercial scale with relative ease. This review will provide a background on milling followed by the introduction of common milling techniques employed for the micronization and nanonization of drugs. Salient information contained in the cited examples are further extracted and summarized for ease of reference by researchers keen on employing these techniques for drug solubility and bioavailability enhancement.

  19. Oxygen isotope fractionation between analcime and water - An experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Haraldur R.; Clayton, Robert N.

    1990-01-01

    The oxygen isotope fractionation between analcime and water is studied to test the feasibility of using zeolites as low-temperature thermometers. The fractionation of oxygen isotopes between natural analcime and water is determined at 300, 350, and 400 C, and at fluid pressures ranging from 1.5 to 5.0 kbar. Also, isotope ratios for the analcime framework, the channel water, and bulk water are obtained. The results suggest that the channel water is depleted in O-18 relative to bulk water by a constant value of about 5 percent, nearly independent of temperature. The analcime-water fractionation curve is presented, showing that the exchange has little effect on grain morphology and does not involve recrystallization. The exchange is faster than any other observed for a silicate. The exchange rates suggest that zeolites in active high-temperature geothermal areas are in oxygen isotopic equilibrium with ambient fluids. It is concluded that calibrated zeolites may be excellent low-temperature oxygen isotope geothermometers.

  20. Contribution of water-soluble and insoluble components and their hydrophobic/hydrophilic subfractions to the reactive oxygen species-generating potential of fine ambient aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Vishal; Rico-Martinez, Roberto; Kotra, Neel; King, Laura; Liu, Jiumeng; Snell, Terry W; Weber, Rodney J

    2012-10-16

    Relative contributions of water- and methanol-soluble compounds and their hydrophobic/hydrophilic subfractions to the ROS (reactive oxygen species)-generating potential of ambient fine aerosols (D(p) Hydrophobic and hydrophilic fractions were then subsequently segregated via a C-18 solid phase extraction column. The DTT assay response was significantly higher for the methanol extract, and for both extracts a substantial fraction of PM oxidative potential was associated with the hydrophobic compounds as evident from a substantial attenuation in DTT response after passing PM extracts through the C-18 column (64% for water and 83% for methanol extract; both median values). The DTT activities of water and methanol extracts were correlated with the water-soluble (R = 0.86) and water-insoluble organic carbon (R = 0.94) contents of the PM, respectively. Brown carbon (BrC), which predominantly represents the hydrophobic organic fraction (referred to as humic-like substances, HULIS), was also correlated with DTT activity in both the water (R = 0.78) and methanol extracts (R = 0.83). Oxidative potential was not correlated with any metals measured in the extracts. These findings suggest that the hydrophobic components of both water-soluble and insoluble organic aerosols substantially contribute to the oxidative properties of ambient PM. Further investigation of these hydrophobic organic compounds could help identify sources of a significant fraction of ambient aerosol toxicity.

  1. Nootropic Effects of Filipendula Vulgaris Moench Water Extract Fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilova, I V; Suslov, N I; Amelchenko, V P

    2015-07-01

    Nootropic activity of water extract fractions from aerial parts of Filipendula vulgaris Moench was demonstrated on the models of hermetic volume hypoxia, conditioned passive avoidance response, open field test, and forced swimming with a load. The fractions stimulated hypoxic resistance, normalized orientation and exploratory behavior, improved conditioned response reproduction during testing after hypoxic injury, and increased exercise tolerance. Fractionation of the extract led to dissociation of the effect components, which suggests that individual constituents have specific characteristics. Ethylacetate fraction exhibited most pronounced nootropic activity and was superior to plant extract by some characteristics. The detected effects seemed to be caused by modulation of the hippocampus activity the under the effects of phenol and triterpene compounds.

  2. The dynamics of acid-soluble phosphorus compounds in the course of winter and spring wheat germination under various thermic conditions. Part II. Labile phosphorus after hydrolysis of the acid-soluble fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Barbaro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The changes in labile phosphorus compounds content during germination of wheat were investigated. These compounds were determined in acid-soluble germ extracts separated into fractions according to the solubility of their barium salts. Low germination temperature was found to raise the labile phosphorus content in the fraction of insoluble barium salts. If we assume that labile P of this fraction consisted mainly of adenosinedi- and triphosphates, it would seem that the rise, in the ATP and ADP level under the influence of low temperature may be essential for initiating flowering in winter varieties.

  3. pKa and solubility of drugs in water, ethanol, and 1-octanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domańska, Urszula; Pobudkowska, Aneta; Pelczarska, Aleksandra; Gierycz, Paweł

    2009-07-02

    Dissociation constants and corresponding pK(a) values of five drugs were obtained with the Bates-Schwarzenbach method using a Perkin-Elmer Lambda 35 UV/vis spectrophotometer at temperature 298.15 K in the buffer solutions. Atropine, promethazine hydrochloride, ibuprofen, flurbiprofen, and meclofenamic acid sodium salt exhibited pK(a) values of 10.3, 6.47, 5.38, 4.50, and 4.39, respectively. The equilibrium mole fraction solubilities of six drugs were measured in a range of temperatures from 240 to 340 K in three important solvents for drugs: water, ethanol, and 1-octanol using the dynamic method. The basic thermal properties of pure drugs, i.e., melting and glass-transition temperatures, as well as the enthalpy of melting and the molar heat capacity at glass transition (at constant pressure) have been measured with the differential scanning microcalorimetry technique (DSC). Molar volumes have been calculated with the Barton group contribution method. The experimental solubility data have been correlated by means of three commonly known G(E) equations: the Wilson, NRTL, and UNIQUAC, with the assumption that the systems studied here have revealed simple eutectic mixtures. As a measure of goodness of correlation, the root-mean-square deviations of temperature have been used. The activity coefficients of the drugs in saturated solutions for each correlated binary mixture were calculated from the experimental data.

  4. Determination and evaluation of solubility parameter of satranidazole using dioxane-water system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathi P

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Satranidazole, a potent broad spectrum antiprotozoal, is a poorly water-soluble drug and has low bioavailability on oral administration. One of the important methods to improve the solubility and bioavailability of a less water-soluble drug is by the use of cosolvents. The solubility enhancement produced by binary blends with a cosolvent (dioxane was studied against the solubility parameter of solvent blends (d1 to evaluate the solubility parameter of drug (d2 . Solubility parameter of drug (d2 was evaluated in blends of dioxane-water system. The results obtained were compared with the d2 values obtained using Molar Volume Method and Fedor′s Group Substitution Method. The binary blend water-dioxane (10:90 gave maximum solubility with an experimental d2 value of 11.34 (Cal/cm 3 0.5 that was comparable to the theoretical values of 11.34 (Cal/cm 3 0.5 determined by Molar Volume Method and 11.3928 (Cal/cm 3 0.5 when determined by Fedor′s Group Substitution Method, which is in good agreement with solubility measurement method.

  5. QrtzGeotherm: A revised algorithm for quartz solubility geothermometry to estimate geothermal reservoir temperature and vapor fraction with multivariate analytical uncertainty propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Mahendra P.

    2012-11-01

    The quartz solubility geothermometry to calculate geothermal reservoir temperature and vapor fraction with multivariate analytical uncertainty propagation is programmed as two classes, SiO2TD and QrtzGeotherm in Visual Basic in Visual Studio 2010 (VB.NET). The class, SiO2TD calculates the total discharge concentration, SiO2TD and its uncertainty, SiO2TDErr from the analytical concentration of silica, SiO2msd and uncertainty, SiO2msdErr of separated water, sampled after N-separations of vapor and liquid. The class, QrtzGeotherm uses the following properties as input parameters: (i) HRes-reservoir enthalpy (kJ/kg), (ii) HResErr-uncertainty in the reservoir enthalpy (kJ/kg), (iii) SiO2TD-total discharge silica concentration (ppm), (iv) SiO2TDErr-uncertainty in the total discharge silica concentration (ppm) (v) GeoEq-number of quartz solubility regression equation, (vi) TempGuess-a guess value of the reservoir temperature (°C). The properties corresponding to the output parameters are (i) TempRes-reservoir temperature (K), (ii) TempResErr-uncertainty in the reservoir temperature (K), (iii) VaporRes-reservoir vapor fraction and (iv) VaporResErr-uncertainty in the reservoir vapor fraction. Similarly, it has a method, SiO2Eqn(EqNo, Temp) to provide the silica solubility as function of temperature corresponding to the regression equation. Four quartz solubility equations along the liquid-vapor saturation curve: (i) a quadratic equation of 1/T and pressure, (ii) a linear equation relating log SiO2to the inverse of absolute temperature (T), (iii) a polynomial of T including logarithmic terms and (iv) temperature as a polynomial of SiO2including logarithmic terms are programmed. A demonstration program, QGeotherm is written VB.NET. Similarly, the applicability of classes SiO2TD and QrtzGeotherm in MS-Excel is illustrated considering Los Azufres geothermal field as an example.

  6. Nitrogen uptake by size-fractionated phytoplankton in mangrove waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dham, V.V.; Wafar, M.V.M.; Heredia, A.M.

    in mangrove waters on the west coast of India. Seasonal changes in particulate organic nitrogen in the nano- and netplankton fractions were similar, whereas those of chlorophyll a varied, showing high values in nanoplankton in pre-monsoon and in netplankton...

  7. Electroacoustic and ultrasonic attenuation measurements of droplet size and zeta-potential of alkane-in-water emulsions: effects of oil solubility and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djerdjev, Alex M; Beattie, James K

    2008-08-28

    The effects of oil solubility and composition on the zeta potential and drop size of oil-in-water emulsions stabilised by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were studied by electroacoustics and ultrasonic attenuation. The zeta-potentials of toluene and alkane emulsions were found to decrease (be less negative) as the water solubility of the dispersed oil phase increased. The zeta-potentials also depended on the composition of mixed oils, becoming more negative with increasing mole fraction of an insoluble oil (hexadecane). As the water solubility of the dispersed oil phase increased, the conductance within the Stern layer relative to the diffuse layer (K/K) increased, which is interpreted as due to the displacement of the shear plane further into the diffuse layer. The shear plane was calculated to increase from approximately 0.50 nm at the insoluble oil-water interface (hexadecane) to approximately 2.5 nm at a soluble oil-water interface of toluene. The lowering of the zeta-potentials of the soluble oils is ascribed to the shift of the shear plane into the diffuse layer, resulting in a more diffuse interface. The total surface conductance of the mixed oils was related to the log of the oil solubility and decreased from approximately 7 x 10(-9) Omega(-1) to 3 x 10(-9) Omega(-1) with increasing oil solubility from hexadecane to toluene, respectively. The lower surface conductance at the soluble oil-water interface is attributed to a reduction in the dielectric constant of the water inside of the shear plane, caused by the presence of the soluble oil.

  8. Properties of water-soluble and insoluble particulate matter emitted from dewatered sewage sludge incineration in a pilot-scale ash melting furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lian Zhang; Megumi Masui; Hiroharu Mizukoshi; Yoshihiko Ninomiya; Jugo Koketsu; Chikao Kanaoka [Chubu University, Aichi (Japan). Department of Applied Chemistry

    2008-05-15

    Emission of inorganic particulate matter (PM) from the incineration of dewatered sewage sludge has been investigated in a novel ash melting furnace. The sludge containing 79 wt% water was incinerated in an oxygen-enriched atmosphere at the primary temperature of 1400{sup o}C, and its unburned volatile was combusted at 1100{sup o}C in a secondary combustion chamber. A 13-stage low-pressure-impactor and the conventional impinger methods were employed for PM sampling at the outlet of the secondary combustion chamber. The results indicate that, PM is dominated by volatile and semi-volatile elements including Br, Cl, P, S, Na, K, Zn, As, Cu, Mn and Ni. Less refractory elements were found. PM has two major fractions: {lt}0.22 and {ge}0.22 {mu}m. Their chemical forms as well as water solubility are different between two fractions. The majority of Br, nearly half of Cl, and 40% of S and P are present in the small fraction. They are mostly water-soluble due to the association with alkali elements and heavy metals. The water-insoluble calcium sulfate and calcium/iron phosphate were, however, found in the large fraction of PM. Regarding the cations, the water solubilities of Na, K, Mn and Ni are close to their proportions partitioned into the small fraction of PM, since their water-soluble species were preferentially formed in this fraction. A relatively weak correlation for Al, Ca and As, while no such a correlation were found for Cu, Zn and Fe, due to the complex compounds formed for them. 31 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Towards improved solubility of poorly water-soluble drugs: cryogenic co-grinding of piroxicam with carrier polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penkina, Anna; Semjonov, Kristian; Hakola, Maija; Vuorinen, Sirpa; Repo, Timo; Yliruusi, Jouko; Aruväli, Jaan; Kogermann, Karin; Veski, Peep; Heinämäki, Jyrki

    2016-01-01

    Amorphous solid dispersions (SDs) open up exciting opportunities in formulating poorly water-soluble active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). In the present study, novel catalytic pretreated softwood cellulose (CPSC) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) were investigated as carrier polymers for preparing and stabilizing cryogenic co-ground SDs of poorly water-soluble piroxicam (PRX). CPSC was isolated from pine wood (Pinus sylvestris). Raman and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used for characterizing the solid-state changes and drug-polymer interactions. High-resolution scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to analyze the particle size and surface morphology of starting materials and final cryogenic co-ground SDs. In addition, the molecular aspects of drug-polymer interactions and stabilization mechanisms are presented. The results showed that the carrier polymer influenced both the degree of amorphization of PRX and stabilization against crystallization. The cryogenic co-ground SDs prepared from PVP showed an enhanced dissolution rate of PRX, while the corresponding SDs prepared from CPSC exhibited a clear sustained release behavior. In conclusion, cryogenic co-grinding provides a versatile method for preparing amorphous SDs of poorly water-soluble APIs. The solid-state stability and dissolution behavior of such co-ground SDs are to a great extent dependent on the carrier polymer used.

  10. Water-enhanced solubility of carboxylic acids in organic solvents and its applications to extraction processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starr, J.N.; King, C.J.

    1991-11-01

    The solubilities of carboxylic acids in certain organic solvents increase remarkably with an increasing amount of water in the organic phase. This phenomenon leads to a novel extract regeneration process in which the co-extracted water is selectively removed from an extract, and the carboxylic acid precipitates. This approach is potentially advantageous compared to other regeneration processes because it removes a minor component of the extract in order to achieve a large recovery of acid from the extract. Carboxylic acids of interest include adipic acid, fumaric acid, and succinic acid because of their low to moderate solubilities in organic solvents. Solvents were screened for an increase in acid solubility with increased water concentration in the organic phase. Most Lewis-base solvents were found to exhibit this increased solubility phenomena. Solvents that have a carbonyl functional group showed a very large increase in acid solubility. 71 refs., 52 figs., 38 tabs.

  11. Preparation of water-soluble nanographite and its application in water-based cutting fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiang; Wang, Xue; Wang, Zongting; Liu, Yu; You, Tingzheng

    2013-01-01

    Water-soluble nanographite was prepared by in situ emulsion polymerization using methacrylate as polymeric monomer. The dispersion stability and dispersion state of graphite particles were evaluated by UV-visible spectrophotometry and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The water-soluble nanographite was then added into the water-based cutting fluid as lubricant additive. The lubrication performance of water-based cutting fluid with the nanographite additive was studied on four-ball friction tester and surface tensiometer. Results indicate that the modification method of in situ emulsion polymerization realizes the uniform and stabilized dispersion of nanographite in aqueous environment. The optimal polymerization condition is 70°C (polymerization temperature) and 5 h (polymerization time). The addition of nanographite decreases the friction coefficient and wear scar diameter by 44% and 49%. Meanwhile, the maximum non-seizure load ( P B ) increases from 784 to 883 N, and the value of surface tension (32.76 × 10-3 N/m) is at low level. Nanographite additive improves apparently the lubrication performance of water-based cutting fluid.

  12. The synthesis of a water-soluble derivative of rutin as an antiradical agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedriali, Carla Aparecida; Fernandes, Adjaci Uchoa [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Bioquimica]. E-mail: capedriali@hotmail.com; Bernusso, Leandra de Cassia; Polakiewicz, Bronislaw [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Dept. de Tecnologia Bioquimico-Farmaceutica

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to synthesize a water-soluble derivative of rutin (compound 2) by introducing carboxylate groups on rutin's sugar moiety. The rutin derivative showed an almost 100-fold solubility increase in water. The antiradical capacity of compound 2 was evaluated using the luminol/AAPH system, and the derivative's activity was 1.5 times greater than that of Trolox. Despite the derivative's high solubility in water (log P = -1.13), lipid peroxidation of brain homogenate membranes was very efficiently inhibited (inhibition values were only 19% lower than the inhibition values of rutin). (author)

  13. Water-Soluble Multi-Walled Nanotube and its Film Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Wei(郭镇); ZHOU Feng(红); WANG Xiao-Gong(叶瑜黄); WAN Mei-Xiang(星景志); FUJII Akihiko(圣锦); YOSHINO Katsumi(江冰林)

    2003-01-01

    Covalent modification of multi-walled-nanotube (MWNT) surface-enhanced solubility in water yields a thin transparent shining dark-coloured film of soluble MWNT (s-MWNT) with a conductivity of 1.25S/cm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission-electron microscopy, and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy were used for thefilm characterization. The result shows that enhanced interactions between s-MWNT and water and between s-MWNTs play an important role in increasing the solubility of the nanotubes in water and in the formation of uniform thin films.

  14. Explaining Ionic Liquid Water Solubility in Terms of Cation and Anion Hydrophobicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Ranke

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The water solubility of salts is ordinarily dictated by lattice energy and ion solvation. However, in the case of low melting salts also known as ionic liquids, lattice energy is immaterial and differences in hydrophobicity largely account for differences in their water solubility. In this contribution, the activity coefficients of ionic liquids in water are split into cation and anion contributions by regression against cation hydrophobicity parameters that are experimentally determined by reversed phase liquid chromatography. In this way, anion hydrophobicity parameters are derived, as well as an equation to estimate water solubilities for cation-anion combinations for which the water solubility has not been measured. Thus, a new pathway to the quantification of aqueous ion solvation is shown, making use of the relative weakness of interactions between ionic liquid ions as compared to their hydrophobicities.

  15. Determination of Water Content of Water-soluble Paints by Gas Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾润南; 钦维民; 肖舸

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the determination of water content of water-soluble paints by gas chromatography. The water in paints is extracted by dimethyl formamide (DMF) as a solvent.Isopropanol is used as an internal standard. The mixture is separated by low-speed centrifugation.Then a 1-uL sample of the supernatant from the prepared solution is injected into the gas chromatograph. The water content is determined by internal standard calibration curve. The rate of recovery of added standard of this method is more than 98%. Relative mean deviation is less than 3‰.The linearity of calibration curve is good and relativity coefficient is higher than 0.998.

  16. One-year water sorption and solubility of "all-in-one" adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Ricardo; Feiring, Andrew E; Boushell, Lee W; Braswell, Krista; Bartholomew, Whitley; Chung, Yunro; Phillips, Ceib; Pereira, Patricia N R; Swift, Edward J

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the water sorption and solubility of different adhesives. Adper Easy Bond, Adper Single Bond Plus, Bond Force, Clearfil SE Bond (bonding resin only), and Xeno IV were the materials evaluated. Ten disks of each adhesive were made in Teflon molds and evaporation of any volatile components was allowed. The disks were weighed daily in an analytical balance until a constant mass was obtained (m1). Disks were then immersed in water for 12 months when their wet weight was recorded (m2). The disks were again weighed daily until a constant mass was obtained and the final weight recorded (m3). Water sorption and solubility (percentages) were calculated using the recorded mass values. Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to compare the average water sorption and solubility among the different adhesives. Mann-Whitney tests with a Bonferroni correction were used to determine the pairwise differences between adhesives in water sorption and solubility. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Water sorption and solubility were significantly different among the groups (p0.05) between Adper Single Bond Plus and Bond Force, or between Clearfil SE Bond and Xeno IV in either water sorption or solubility. Xeno IV did not differ from Adper Easy Bond in water sorption (p>0.05). Water sorption and solubility of all-in-one adhesives increased with time, and the rates of increase were composition-dependent. The results suggest that monomers other than HEMA contribute to water sorption and solubility of adhesive systems from different categories.

  17. Selection of excipients for melt extrusion with two poorly water-soluble drugs by solubility parameter calculation and thermal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, A; Hempenstall, J; Tucker, I; Rades, T

    2001-09-11

    The aim of this study was to determine the miscibility of drug and excipient to predict if glass solutions are likely to form when drug and excipient are melt extruded. Two poorly water-soluble drugs, indomethacin and lacidipine, were selected along with 11 excipients (polymeric and non-polymeric). Estimation of drug/excipient miscibility was performed using a combination of the Hoy and Hoftzyer/Van Krevelen methods for Hansen solubility parameter calculation. Miscibility was experimentally investigated with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and hot stage microscopy (HSM). Studies were performed at drug/excipient ratios, 1:4, 1:1 and 4:1. Analysis of the glass transition temperature (T(g)) was performed by quench cooling drug/excipient melts in the DSC. Differences in the drug/excipient solubility parameters of 10 MPa(1/2) were expected to indicate a lack of miscibility and not form glass solutions when melt extruded. Experimentally, miscibility was shown by changes in drug/excipient melting endotherms and confirmed by HSM investigations. Experimental results were in agreement with solubility parameter predictions. In addition, drug/excipient combinations predicted to be largely immiscible often exhibited more than one T(g) upon reheating in the DSC. Melt extrusion of miscible components resulted in amorphous solid solution formation, whereas extrusion of an "immiscible" component led to amorphous drug dispersed in crystalline excipient. In conclusion, combining calculation of Hansen solubility parameters with thermal analysis of drug/excipient miscibility can be successfully applied to predict formation of glass solutions with melt extrusion.

  18. Water soluble organic aerosols in indo gangetic plain (IGP): Insights from aerosol mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Abhishek; Rajeev, Pradhi; Rajput, Prashant; Gupta, Tarun

    2017-12-01

    Filter samples collected during winter of 2015-16 from two polluted urban locations (Allahabad and Kanpur) residing within Indo-Gangetic plain (IGP) showed high levels of water-soluble organic aerosols (WSOA). Total organic aerosols (OA) in submicron fraction, measured at Kanpur in real time via Aerosol Mass Spectrometer also showed substantially high concentration levels. WSOA to OA contribution in Kanpur was found to be very high (around 55%) indicating significant contributions from secondary OA (SOA). On average, WSOA oxidation ratio (O/C) was found to be higher (15-20%) in Kanpur than at Allahabad. WSOA from Allahabad was found to be following a much shallower slope (-0.38) in Van Krevelen diagram (H/C vs O/C plot) than Kanpur (-0.58). These differences suggest different composition and chemistry of WSOA at these two different locations. O/C ratios of WSOA were found to be much higher (~40%) than that of OA and independent of WSOA loading. Higher OA loadings were found to be associated with less oxidized primary OAs (POA) and culminated into lower WSOA/OA ratios. The presence of organo sulfate in filter samples from both locations indicate a significant amount of aqueous processing of organics. Concentrations and characteristics of water insoluble OA (WIOA) in Kanpur revealed that although they are present in significant quantity, their oxidation levels are much (almost 3 times) lower than that of WSOA. This finding indicates that less oxidized OAs are less soluble in line with the conventional wisdom. This study provides the first insight into oxidation levels and evolution of WSOA from India and also explores the interplay between WSOA and OA characteristics based on AMS measurements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Improved prediction of octanol-water partition coefficients from liquid-solute water solubilities and molar volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, C.T.; Schmedding, D.W.; Manes, M.

    2005-01-01

    A volume-fraction-based solvent-water partition model for dilute solutes, in which the partition coefficient shows a dependence on solute molar volume (V??), is adapted to predict the octanol-water partition coefficient (K ow) from the liquid or supercooled-liquid solute water solubility (Sw), or vice versa. The established correlation is tested for a wide range of industrial compounds and pesticides (e.g., halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons, alkylbenzenes, halogenated benzenes, ethers, esters, PAHs, PCBs, organochlorines, organophosphates, carbamates, and amidesureas-triazines), which comprise a total of 215 test compounds spanning about 10 orders of magnitude in Sw and 8.5 orders of magnitude in Kow. Except for phenols and alcohols, which require special considerations of the Kow data, the correlation predicts the Kow within 0.1 log units for most compounds, much independent of the compound type or the magnitude in K ow. With reliable Sw and V data for compounds of interest, the correlation provides an effective means for either predicting the unavailable log Kow values or verifying the reliability of the reported log Kow data. ?? 2005 American Chemical Society.

  20. Water soluble nanocurcumin extracted from turmeric challenging the microflora from human oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Judy; Muthu, Manikandan; Chun, Se-Chul

    2016-11-15

    Water soluble nanocurcumin prepared from commercial turmeric powders was compared against ethanol extracted curcumin particles. The oral microflora from five different human volunteers was collected and the efficacy of solvent extracted curcumin versus water extracted nanocurcumin was demonstrated. Nanocurcumin activity against oral microflora confirms its antimicrobial potency. Confocal laser scanning microscopic results revealed the enhanced entry of nanocurcumin particles into microbial cells. The nanosized nature of nanocurcumin appears to have led to increased cellular interaction and thereby efficient destruction of microbial cells in the mouth. In addition, solubility of nanocurcumin is also believed to be a crucial factor behind its successful antimicrobial activity. This study proves that the bioactivity of a compound is greatly influenced by its solubility in water. This work recommends the use of water soluble nanocurcumin (extracted from turmeric) as potent substitute for curcumin in dental formulations.

  1. Thermoresponsive synergistic hydrogen bonding switched by several guest units in a water-soluble polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zhenhua; Li, Guangxiang; Yang, Ke; Cai, Yuanli

    2013-03-12

    Thermoresponsive synergistic hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) switched by several guest units in a water-soluble polymer is reported. Adjusting the distribution of guest units can effectively change the synergistic H-bonding inside polymer chains, thus widely switch the preorganization and thermoresponsive behavior of a water-soluble polymer. The synergistic H-bonding is also evidenced by converting less polar aldehyde groups into water-soluble oxime groups, which bring about the lowering-down of cloud point and an amplified hysteresis effect. This is a general approach toward the wide tunability of thermosensitivity of a water-soluble polymer simply by adjusting the distribution of several guest H-bonding units.

  2. Synthesis and Characterization of Water-Soluble Carboxymethyl-Cyclodextrin Polymer as Capillary Electrophoresis Chiral Selector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The water-soluble carboxymethyl-cyclodextrin polymer (CM-CD polymer) was synthesized and used as capillary electrophoresis chiral selector.Verrapamil and thiopentorusodium were well separated using CM-CD polymer as chiral selector.

  3. Hydroaminomethylation of 1-Dodecene Catalyzed by Water-soluble Rhodium Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Yong WANG; Mei Ming LUO; Yao Zhong LI; Hua CHEN; Xian Jun LI

    2004-01-01

    The hydroaminomethylation of 1-dodecene catalyzed by water soluble rhodium complex RhCl(CO)(TPPTS)2 in the presence of surfactant CTAB was investigated. High reactivity and selectivity for tertiary amine were achieved under relatively mild conditions.

  4. Formation of Anhydrite due to Interaction Between Water Soluble CO2 (aq) and Calcite Mineral During Enhanced Oil Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakravarty, Krishna Hara; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Thomsen, Kaj

    2015-01-01

    place during CO2 injection in limestone reservoirs. At reservoir conditions, a considerable fraction of the injected CO2 becomes soluble in sea water. This dissolved CO2 causes dissolution of CaCO3 from the mineral surface and releases Ca2+ ions into the pore space. Excess Ca2+ ions form anhydrite fines...... injections showed a consistent correlation with the amounts of fines formation taking place in the pore space. The amount of mineral dissolution taking place was also precisely calculated using the Extended UNIQUAC model. Good correlation was also observed between calculated amounts of mineral dissolution...

  5. Abalone water-soluble matrix for self-healing biomineralization of tooth defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Zhenliang [Institute of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Technology, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Chen, Jingdi, E-mail: ibptcjd@fzu.edu.cn [Institute of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Technology, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Wang, Hailiang [The Affiliated Stomatological Hospital, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Zhong, Shengnan; Hu, Yimin; Wang, Zhili [Institute of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Technology, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Zhang, Qiqing, E-mail: zhangqiq@126.com [Institute of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Technology, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Medical Science & Peking Union Medical College, Tianjin 300192 (China)

    2016-10-01

    Enamel cannot heal by itself if damaged. Hydroxyapatite (HAP) is main component of human enamel. Formation of enamel-like materials for healing enamel defects remains a challenge. In this paper, we successfully isolated the abalone water-soluble matrix (AWSM) with 1.53 wt% the abalone water-soluble protein (AWSPro) and 2.04 wt% the abalone water-soluble polysaccharide (AWSPs) from abandoned abalone shell, and self-healing biomineralization of tooth defects was successfully achieved in vitro. Based on X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), hot field emission scanning electron microscopy (HFESEM) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) analysis, the results showed that the AWSM can efficiently induce remineralization of HAP. The enamel-like HAP was successfully achieved onto etched enamel's surface due to the presence of the AWSM. Moreover, the remineralized effect of eroded enamel was growing with the increase of the AWSM. This study provides a solution to the resource waste and environmental pollution caused by abandoned abalone shell, and we provides a new method for self-healing remineralization of enamel defects by AWSM and develops a novel dental material for potential clinical dentistry application. - Graphical abstract: In this paper, we successfully isolated the abalone water-soluble matrix (AWSM) with 1.53 wt% abalone water-soluble protein (AWSPro) and 2.04 wt% abalone water-soluble polysaccharide (AWSPs) from abandoned abalone shell, and self-healing biomineralization of tooth defects was successfully achieved in vitro by self-organized. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Provides a solution to the resource waste and environmental pollution caused by abandoned abalone shell. • The abalone shell water-soluble matrix contains protein and polysaccharide. • The abalone water-soluble matrix can efficiently induce remineralization of HAP by self-organized. • Achieved self-healing biomineralization of tooth defects in

  6. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of the Solubility of H2S and CO2 in Water

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto López Rendón; José Alejandre

    2008-01-01

    We have performed molecular dynamics simulations at constant temperature and pressure to calculate the solubility of carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in water. The solubility of gases in water is important in several technological problems, in particular in the petroleum industry. The calculated liquid densities as function of temperature are in good agreement with experimental data. The results at the liquid-vapor equilibrium show that at low temperatures there is an important...

  7. Synthesis and Cytotoxic Activity of Novel Water-soluble Prodrugs of Combretastatin A-4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi Quan YONG; Xiao Ping XU; Ying Chun CHEN; Xu BAO; Ling Ling WENG; Hu ZHENG

    2006-01-01

    Novel water-soluble prodrugs of combretastatin A-4 (5-8) were synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxicity against lung carcinoma A549. Compound 5, bearing phosphoryl choline (PC) moiety, showed 90% inhibition at 32 μg/mL concentration after 24 h. The findings showed the PC derivative would be a promising candidate for the development of new water-soluble prodrug of cytotoxic combretastatin A-4.

  8. Prediction of water solubilities for selected PCDDs/PCCDFs with COSMO-RS model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oleszek-Kudlak, S.; Grabda, M.; Shibata, E.; Nakamura, T. [Inst. of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials (IMRAM), Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan); Rosik-Dulewska, C. [Inst. of Environmental Engineering of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Zabrze (Poland)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are well identified contaminants ubiquitous in the environment. Of the various parameters that affect the fate and behavior of environmental organic compounds, water solubility is one of the most important. However, when we are studying the aqueous behavior of organic chemicals, we should also take into consideration and evaluate several parameters (temperature, salinity, dissolved organic matter) influencing their solubility. Among the 210 congeners (mono- to octa-chlorinated) of PCDDs and PCDFs, water solubility values are available for a few congeners only. The reported aqueous solubilities of PCDDs and PCDFs are often scattered, despite most of them having been measured by the generator column method, recognized as the most accurate for the determination of the water solubility of hydrophobic organic chemicals. These discrepancies reflect an important problem associated with difficulties in the preparation of the saturated solution and in the analytical measurements, particularly of compounds with a solubility below 1 ppb. In practice, the high cost of the experimental determinations also limits the field of research. In recent years, investigators have developed a number of calculational methods to predict the water solubility of organic chemicals. One of them is the Conductor-like Screening Model for Real Solvents (COSMO-RS) introduced by Klamt et al. This model was successfully used for finding the solubilities of chlorobenzenes (ClBZs) at a wider range of temperatures (from 5 to 60 C) and in a salty environment. In this study, we have applied COSMO-RS to determine the aqueous solubilities of 19 PCDDs/ PCDFs at 25 C. Additionally, we measured the solubilities of 7 PCDDs/PCDFs using the generator column method at 25 C. We used these data and those available from the literature to estimate the accuracy of the COSMO-RS calculations.

  9. Solubility of water in lunar basalt at low pH2O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcombe, M. E.; Brett, A.; Beckett, J. R.; Baker, M. B.; Newman, S.; Guan, Y.; Eiler, J. M.; Stolper, E. M.

    2017-03-01

    We report the solubility of water in Apollo 15 basaltic "Yellow Glass" and an iron-free basaltic analog composition at 1 atm and 1350 °C. We equilibrated melts in a 1-atm furnace with flowing H2/CO2 gas mixtures that spanned ∼8 orders of magnitude in fO2 (from three orders of magnitude more reducing than the iron-wüstite buffer, IW-3.0, to IW+4.8) and ∼4 orders of magnitude in pH2/pH2O (from 0.003 to 24). Based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), our quenched experimental glasses contain 69-425 ppm total water (by weight). Our results demonstrate that under the conditions of our experiments: (1) hydroxyl is the only H-bearing species detected by FTIR; (2) the solubility of water is proportional to the square root of pH2O in the furnace atmosphere and is independent of fO2 and pH2/pH2O; (3) the solubility of water is very similar in both melt compositions; (4) the concentration of H2 in our iron-free experiments is ppm, even at oxygen fugacities as low as IW-2.3 and pH2/pH2O as high as 11; (5) Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analyses of water in iron-rich glasses equilibrated under variable fO2 conditions may be strongly influenced by matrix effects, even when the concentration of water in the glasses is low; and (6) Our results can be used to constrain the entrapment pressure of lunar melt inclusions and the partial pressures of water and molecular hydrogen in the carrier gas of the lunar pyroclastic glass beads. We find that the most water-rich melt inclusion of Hauri et al. (2011) would be in equilibrium with a vapor with pH2O ∼ 3 bar and pH2 ∼ 8 bar. We constrain the partial pressures of water and molecular hydrogen in the carrier gas of the lunar pyroclastic glass beads to be 0.0005 bar and 0.0011 bar respectively. We calculate that batch degassing of lunar magmas containing initial volatile contents of 1200 ppm H2O (dissolved primarily as hydroxyl) and 4-64 ppm C would produce enough vapor to reach the critical vapor volume

  10. Immunological evaluation of the alcohol-soluble protein fraction from gluten-free grains in relation to celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamo, Paolo; Maurano, Francesco; Mazzarella, Giuseppe; Iaquinto, Gaetano; Vocca, Immacolata; Rivelli, Anna Rita; De Falco, Enrica; Gianfrani, Carmen; Rossi, Mauro

    2011-08-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is a gluten-sensitive enteropathy with an immune basis. We established the immune reactivity of the alcohol-soluble fraction from two minor cereals (tef and millet) and two pseudocereals (amaranth and quinoa) which are believed to be nontoxic based on taxonomy. Grains were examined in intestinal T-cell lines (iTCLs), cultures of duodenal explants from HLA-DQ2(+) CD patients and HLA-DQ8 transgenic mice for signs of activation. Our data indicated that tef, millet, amaranth, and quinoa did not show any immune cross-reactivity toward wheat gliadin, and therefore confirming their safety in the diet of CD patients. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Defensive strategies in Geranium sylvaticum, Part 2: Roles of water-soluble tannins, flavonoids and phenolic acids against natural enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuominen, Anu

    2013-11-01

    Geranium sylvaticum is a common herbaceous plant in Fennoscandia, which has a unique phenolic composition. Ellagitannins, proanthocyanidins, galloylglucoses, gallotannins, galloyl quinic acids and flavonoids possess variable distribution in its different organs. These phenolic compounds are thought to have an important role in plant-herbivore interactions. The aim of this study was to quantify these different water-soluble phenolic compounds and measure the biological activity of the eight organs of G. sylvaticum. Compounds were characterized and quantified using HPLC-DAD/MS, in addition, total proanthocyanidins were determined by BuOH-HCl assay and total phenolics by the Folin-Ciocalteau method. Two in vitro biological activity measurements were used: the prooxidant activity was measured by the browning assay and antioxidant activity by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. Organ extracts were fractionated using column chromatography on Sephadex LH-20 and the activities of fractions was similarly measured to evaluate which polyphenol groups contributed the most to the biological activity of each organ. The data on the activity of fractions were examined by multivariate data analysis. The water-soluble extracts of leaves and pistils, which contained over 30% of the dry weight as ellagitannins, showed the highest pro-oxidant activity among the organ extracts. Fraction analysis revealed that flavonoids and galloyl quinic acids also exhibited high pro-oxidant activity. In contrast, the most antioxidant active organ extracts were those of the main roots and hairy roots that contained high amounts of proanthocyanidins in addition to ellagitannins. Analysis of the fractions showed that especially ellagitannins and galloyl quinic acids have high antioxidant activity. We conclude that G. sylvaticum allocates a significant amount of tannins in those plant parts that are important to the fitness of the plant and susceptible to natural enemies, i

  12. Solubility of Stevioside and Rebaudioside A in water, ethanol and their binary mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana S. Celaya

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the solubility of Stevioside and Rebaudioside A in different solvents (ethanol, water, ethanol:water 30:70 and ethanol:water 70:30, supersaturated solutions of pre-crystalized steviol glycosides were maintained at different temperatures (from 5 °C to 50 °C to reach equilibrium. Under these conditions significant differences were found in the extent of solubility. Rebaudioside A was poorly soluble in ethanol and water, and Stevioside was poorly soluble in water. Solvent mixtures more effectively promoted solubilisation, and a significant effect of temperature on solubility was observed. The two steviol glycosides showed higher solubilities and this behavior was promoted by the presence of the other sweetener. The polarity indices of the solvents were determined, and helped to explain the observed behavior. Several solute-solvent and solute-solute interactions can occur, along with the incidence of a strong affinity between solvents. The obtained results are in accordance with technological applications of ethanol, water and their binary mixtures for Stevioside and Rebaudioside A separations.

  13. Buckminsterfullerene's (C60) octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow) and aqueous solubility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafvert, Chad T; Kulkarni, Pradnya P

    2008-08-15

    To assess the risk and fate of fullerene C60 in the environment, its water solubility and partition coefficients in various systems are useful. In this study, the log Kow of C60 was measured to be 6.67, and the toluene-water partition coefficient was measured at log Ktw = 8.44. From these values and the respective solubilities of C60 in water-saturated octanol and water-saturated toluene, C60's aqueous solubility was calculated at 7.96 ng/L(1.11 x 10(-11) M) for the organic solvent-saturated aqueous phase. Additionally, the solubility of C60 was measured in mixtures of ethanol-water and tetrahydrofuran-water and modeled with Wohl's equation to confirm the accuracy of the calculated solubility value. Results of a generator column experiment strongly support the hypothesis that clusters form at aqueous concentrations below or near this calculated solubility. The Kow value is compared to those of other hydrophobic organic compounds, and bioconcentration factors for C60 were estimated on the basis of Kow.

  14. Evaluation of solubility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ethyl lactate/water versus ethanol/water mixtures for contaminated soil remediation applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chiew Lin Yap; Suyin Gan; Hoon Kiat Ng

    2012-01-01

    Solubility data of recalcitrant contaminants in cosolvents is essential to determine their potential applications in enhanced soil remediation.The solubilities of phenanthrene,anthracene,fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene in ethyl lactate/water and ethanol/water mixtures were measured using equilibrium techniques.The cosolvency powers derived from solubility data were then applied to the model developed from the solvophobic approach to predict the capability of ethyl lactate and ethanol in enhancing the desorption of contaminants from soils.Both ethyl lactate and ethanol cosolvents were shown to be able to enhance the solubilisation of the tested four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by > 4 orders of magnitude above the levels obtained with water alone.However,ethyl lactate demonstrated a greater capacity to enhance PAH solubility than ethanol.The cosolvency powers of ethyl lactate/water system obtained from the end-to-end slope (σ) and the end-to-half slope (σ0.5) of the solubilisation curve were 1.0-1.5 and 2.0-2.9 higher than ethanol/water system respectively.In line with this,ethyl lactate/water was demonstrated to enhance the desorption of contaminants from soil by 20%-37% and 18%-61% higher compared to ethanol/water system in low organic content and high organic content soils respectively,with a 2:1 (V/W) ratio of solution:soil and with cosolvent fraction as low as 0.4.With the exception of benzo[a]pyrene,the experimental desorption results agreed fairly with the predicted values,under an applied solution:soil ratio that was enough to hold the capacity of released contaminants.

  15. WATER ACTIVITY DATA ASSESSMENT TO BE USED IN HANFORD WASTE SOLUBILITY CALCULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DISSELKAMP RS

    2011-01-06

    The purpose of this report is to present and assess water activity versus ionic strength for six solutes:sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, sodium chloride, sodium carbonate, sodium sulfate, and potassium nitrate. Water activity is given versus molality (e.g., ionic strength) and temperature. Water activity is used to estimate Hanford crystal hydrate solubility present in the waste.

  16. Photocatalytic hydrogen production from a simple water-soluble [FeFe]-hydrogenase model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wei-Ning; Wang, Feng; Wang, Hong-Yan; Chen, Bin; Feng, Ke; Tung, Chen-Ho; Wu, Li-Zhu

    2012-08-21

    Combined with a simple water soluble [FeFe]-hydrogenase mimic 1, Ru(bpy)(3)(2+) and ascorbic acid enable hydrogen production photocatalytically. More than 88 equivalents of H(2) were achieved in water, which is much better than that obtained in an organic solvent or a mixture of organic solvent and water.

  17. Experimental study on desorption of soluble matter as influenced by cations in static water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-sheng XU; Li CHEN; Xiao-xia TONG; Xiao-ping CHEN; Ping-cang ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    With variation of drainage basin environments, desorption of soluble matter has become one of the significant erosion processes in rivers. It has a considerable impact on flow and sediment transport, as well as processes of river bed deformation and landform evolution throughout a watershed. In this study, considering influences on sediment movement, especially on cohesive sediment transport, Ca2+ and H+ were chosen as characteristic ions of soluble matter, and the total desorption quantity of Ca2+ and pH value when the desorption equilibrium is reached were employed as two indexes representing the desorption of soluble matter. By means of an indoor experiment, desorption of soluble matter as influenced by cations in static water was investigated. The results show that the total desorption quantity of soluble matter increases with the initial cation concentration until a maximum desorption quantity value is obtained and maintained. The total desorption quantity of soluble matter depends on properties of the specific cations in static water, and the stronger the affinity is between the cation and sediment surface, the higher the total desorption quantity will be. Finally, a strong approximate linear relationship between desorption quantities for different kinds of soluble matters was obtained, which means that variation of pH values can accurately reflect the desorption results of soluble matter.

  18. Method of immobilizing water-soluble bioorganic compounds on a capillary-porous carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershov, Gennady Moiseevich; Timofeev, Eduard Nikolaevich; Ivanov, Igor Borisovich; Florentiev, Vladimir Leonidovich; Mirzabekov, Andrei Darievich

    1998-01-01

    The method for immobilizing water-soluble bioorganic compounds to capillary-porous carrier comprises application of solutions of water-soluble bioorganic compounds onto a capillary-porous carrier, setting the carrier temperature equal to or below the dew point of the ambient air, keeping the carrier till appearance of water condensate and complete swelling of the carrier, whereupon the carrier surface is coated with a layer of water-immiscible nonluminescent inert oil and is allowed to stand till completion of the chemical reaction of bonding the bioorganic compounds with the carrier.

  19. Antibacterial effect of water-soluble chitosan on representative dental pathogens Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli brevis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Yu Chen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is still a major oral health problem in most industrialized countries. The development of dental caries primarily involves Lactobacilli spp. and Streptococcus mutans. Although antibacterial ingredients are used against oral bacteria to reduce dental caries, some reports that show partial antibacterial ingredients could result in side effects. OBJECTIVES: The main objective is to test the antibacterial effect of water-soluble chitosan while the evaluation of the mouthwash appears as a secondary aim. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The chitosan was obtained from the Application Chemistry Company (Taiwan. The authors investigated the antibacterial effects of water-soluble chitosan against oral bacteria at different temperatures (25-37ºC and pH values (pH 5-8, and evaluated the antibacterial activities of a self-made water-soluble chitosan-containing mouthwash by in vitro and in vivo experiments, and analyzed the acute toxicity of the mouthwashes. The acute toxicity was analyzed with the pollen tube growth (PTG test. The growth inhibition values against the logarithmic scale of the test concentrations produced a concentrationresponse curve. The IC50 value was calculated by interpolation from the data. RESULTS: The effect of the pH variation (5-8 on the antibacterial activity of water-soluble chitosan against tested oral bacteria was not significant. The maximal antibacterial activity of water-soluble chitosan occurred at 37ºC. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC of water-soluble chitosan on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli brevis were 400 µg/mL and 500 µg/mL, respectively. Only 5 s of contact between water-soluble chitosan and oral bacteria attained at least 99.60% antibacterial activity at a concentration of 500 µg/mL. The water-soluble chitosan-containing mouthwash significantly demonstrated antibacterial activity that was similar to that of commercial mouthwashes (>99.91% in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. In addition

  20. Solubility and permeability of steroids in water in the presence of potassium halides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messner, M; Loftsson, T

    2010-02-01

    Water forms a network of hydrogen bonded water molecules that gives liquid water unique physicochemical properties. Ions that affect the network structure, e.g. potassium halides, are known to either increase or decrease aqueous solubilities of drugs. Most biological membranes consist of hydrophilic exterior and a lipophilic interior. Mathematically they can be treated as two-layer membranes, i.e. a hydrophilic water layer that is referred to as unstirred water layer (UWL) and a lipophilic membrane. The purpose of this study was to investigate if and then how ions affect drug permeation through the UWL. The effects of potassium halides on the solubility and permeability of dexamethasone and hydrocortisone was investigated. The potassium halides had either increasing or decreasing effect on their aqueous solubility but did not have any effect on their permeability through UWL.

  1. Development of water soluble binder systems for low pressure injection molding of alumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakan, H.I.; Gunes, M. [TUBITAK-MRC Materials and Chemical Technologies Research Inst., Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2004-07-01

    Low pressure injection molding of alumina powder using a water-soluble binder system has been carried out successfully. The water-soluble based binder system consisted of poly (2-ethyl-2-oxaline), low density polyethylene and stearic acid. The critical powder loading of the binder-powder mixture was determined based on torque rheometry experiments. The rheological properties of the powder-binder mixture were investigated systematically. The binder system used provides satisfactory mixture stability, excellent mouldability and reasonably fast water leaching and thermal debinding rates. The water-soluble constituent, poly (2-ethyl-2-oxaline), was removed by leaching in convecting water at 60 C within 6 hour. The remaining binder constituents were thermally removed during heating to 450 C. Sintering of the parts was conducted at 1550 C for an hour in air. (orig.)

  2. Kinetics fermentation and gas production of the neutral detergent-soluble fraction of fresh forage, silage and hay of Avena sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Piccolo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Neutral detergent treatment to evaluate the structural polysaccharides (NDF removes soluble sugars, pectin substances, starch and the non-carbohydrate fraction (Van Soest, 1991. Despite the widely recognized importance of neutral detergent-soluble carbohydrates (NDS in the early stages of forage digestion, little is known about their digestion kinetics because most in vitro methods have studied the disappearance of insoluble cell wall components. However, knowledge of the degradation characteristics of both fractions is very important to formulate balanced diets for high-yielding animals. Using the in vitro gas production system........

  3. Mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium mutants of the benzene-soluble organic matter derived from air-borne particulate matter and its five fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teranishi, K; Hamada, K; Watanabe, H

    1978-01-01

    Air-borne particulate matter was collected on a filter, then extracted with benzene. The benzene-soluble material was separated into 5 fractions, namely acidic, basic, alipathic, polyaromatic and oxygenated fractions. The mutagenic activities of these fractions were examined with a set of Salmonella typhimurium mutants. The 6 mutants were from the TA1535 series, deep rough strains without excision repair, namely TA100 and TA98 (having a resistance-transfer factor) and the standard strain TA1535, TA1536, TA1537 and TA1538. Linear dose-response curves were obtained for the benzene-soluble organic matter, and its acidic, polyaromatic and oxygenated fractions with strain TA98 and a 9000 X g liver supernatant from both phenobarbital(PB)- and dibenz(a,h)anthracene(DBA)-treated rats. Among the 5 fractions tested, 3 fractions, namely the acidic, polyaromatic and oxygenated, played an important role in the mutagenicity of the benzene-soluble organic matter derived from air-borne particulate matter. The 9000 X g rat-liver supernatant was not required to make the acidic fraction mutagenic.

  4. Long-term fungal inhibitory activity of water-soluble extracts of Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Pinto and sourdough lactic acid bacteria during bread storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coda, Rossana; Rizzello, Carlo G; Nigro, Franco; De Angelis, Maria; Arnault, Philip; Gobbetti, Marco

    2008-12-01

    The antifungal activity of proteinaceous compounds from different food matrices was investigated. In initial experiments, water-soluble extracts of wheat sourdoughs, cheeses, and vegetables were screened by agar diffusion assays with Penicillium roqueforti DPPMAF1 as the indicator fungus. Water-soluble extracts of sourdough fermented with Lactobacillus brevis AM7 and Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Pinto were selected for further study. The crude water-soluble extracts of L. brevis AM7 sourdough and P. vulgaris cv. Pinto had a MIC of 40 mg of peptide/ml and 30.9 mg of protein/ml, respectively. MICs were markedly lower when chemically synthesized peptides or partially purified protein fractions were used. The water-soluble extract of P. vulgaris cv. Pinto showed inhibition toward a large number of fungal species isolated from bakeries. Phaseolin alpha-type precursor, phaseolin, and erythroagglutinating phytohemagglutinin precursor were identified in the water-soluble extract of P. vulgaris cv. Pinto by nano liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. When the antifungal activity was assayed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, all three proteins were inhibitory. A mixture of eight peptides was identified from the water-soluble extract of sourdough L. brevis AM7, and five of these exhibited inhibitory activity. Bread was made at the pilot plant scale by sourdough fermentation with L. brevis AM7 and addition of the water-soluble extract (27%, vol/wt; 5 mg of protein/ml) of P. vulgaris cv. Pinto. Slices of bread packed in polyethylene bags did not show contamination by fungi until at least 21 days of storage at room temperature, a level of protection comparable to that afforded by 0.3% (wt/wt) calcium propionate.

  5. Chemical Composition and Potential Environmental Impacts of Water-Soluble Polar Crude Oil Components Inferred from ESI FT-ICR MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yina; Kujawinski, Elizabeth B

    2015-01-01

    Polar petroleum components enter marine environments through oil spills and natural seepages each year. Lately, they are receiving increased attention due to their potential toxicity to marine organisms and persistence in the environment. We conducted a laboratory experiment and employed state-of-the-art Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) to characterize the polar petroleum components within two operationally-defined seawater fractions: the water-soluble fraction (WSF), which includes only water-soluble molecules, and the water-accommodated fraction (WAF), which includes WSF and microscopic oil droplets. Our results show that compounds with higher heteroatom (N, S, O) to carbon ratios (NSO:C) than the parent oil were selectively partitioned into seawater in both fractions, reflecting the influence of polarity on aqueous solubility. WAF and WSF were compositionally distinct, with unique distributions of compounds across a range of hydrophobicity. These compositional differences will likely result in disparate impacts on environmental health and organismal toxicity, and thus highlight the need to distinguish between these often-interchangeable terminologies in toxicology studies. We use an empirical model to estimate hydrophobicity character for individual molecules within these complex mixtures and provide an estimate of the potential environmental impacts of different crude oil components.

  6. Chemical Composition and Potential Environmental Impacts of Water-Soluble Polar Crude Oil Components Inferred from ESI FT-ICR MS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yina Liu

    Full Text Available Polar petroleum components enter marine environments through oil spills and natural seepages each year. Lately, they are receiving increased attention due to their potential toxicity to marine organisms and persistence in the environment. We conducted a laboratory experiment and employed state-of-the-art Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS to characterize the polar petroleum components within two operationally-defined seawater fractions: the water-soluble fraction (WSF, which includes only water-soluble molecules, and the water-accommodated fraction (WAF, which includes WSF and microscopic oil droplets. Our results show that compounds with higher heteroatom (N, S, O to carbon ratios (NSO:C than the parent oil were selectively partitioned into seawater in both fractions, reflecting the influence of polarity on aqueous solubility. WAF and WSF were compositionally distinct, with unique distributions of compounds across a range of hydrophobicity. These compositional differences will likely result in disparate impacts on environmental health and organismal toxicity, and thus highlight the need to distinguish between these often-interchangeable terminologies in toxicology studies. We use an empirical model to estimate hydrophobicity character for individual molecules within these complex mixtures and provide an estimate of the potential environmental impacts of different crude oil components.

  7. Assessment of absorption potential of poorly water-soluble drugs by using the dissolution/permeation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Makoto; Yano, Koji; Hamatsu, Yoriko; Masaoka, Yoshie; Sakuma, Shinji; Yamashita, Shinji

    2013-11-01

    This study aims to assess the absorption potential of oral absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs by using the dissolution/permeation system (D/P system). The D/P system can be used to perform analysis of drug permeation under dissolution process and can predict the fraction of absorbed dose in humans. When celecoxib at 1/100 of a clinical dose was applied to the D/P system, percentage of dose dissolved and permeated significantly decreased with an increase in the applied amount, resulting in the oral absorption being predicted to be 22-55%. Whereas similar dissolution and permeation profiles of montelukast sodium were observed, estimated absorption (69-85%) was slightly affected. Zafirlukast absorption (33-36%) was not significantly affected by the dose, although zafirlukast did not show complete dissolution. The relationship between clinical dose and predicted oral absorption of drugs corresponded well to clinical observations. The limiting step of the oral absorption of celecoxib and montelukast sodium was solubility, while that of zafirlukast was dissolution rate. However, due to high permeability of montelukast, oral absorption was not affected by dose. Therefore, the D/P system is a useful tool to assess the absorption potential of poorly water-soluble drugs for oral use.

  8. PRESENCE OF WATER-SOLUBLE COMPOUNDS IN THERMALLY MODIFIED WOOD: CARBOHYDRATES AND FURFURALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olov Karlsson,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available With thermal modification, changes in properties of wood, such as the presence of VOC and water-soluble carbohydrates, may occur. Thermal modifications under saturated steam conditions (160 °C or 170 °C and superheated steam conditions (170, 185, and 212 °C were investigated by analysing the presence of water-soluble 5-(hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF, furfural, and carbohydrates in heat-treated wood. The influence of thermal modifications on Scots pine, Norway spruce, and silver birch was also studied. Furfurals were analysed using HPLC at 280 nm, while monosaccharides and water-soluble carbohydrates were determined by GC-FID as their acetylated alditiols and, after methanolysis, as their trimethylsilylated methyl-glycosides, respectively. The amount of furfurals was larger in boards thermally modified under saturated steam conditions than those treated under superheated steam conditions. Generally, more of HMF than furfural was found in the thermally modified boards. In process water, in which saturated steam conditions had been used, furfural and only traces of HMF were found. Higher content of water-soluble carbohydrates was found in boards treated in saturated steam rather than in superheated steam. After modification in saturated steam, substantial parts of the water-soluble carbohydrates were due to monosaccharides, but only traces of monosaccharides were found in boards treated under superheated steam conditions.

  9. Water sorption and solubility of dental composites and identification of monomers released in an aqueous environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortengren, U; Wellendorf, H; Karlsson, S; Ruyter, I E

    2001-12-01

    Water sorption and solubility of six proprietary composite resin materials were assessed, and monomers eluted from the organic matrix during water storage identified. Water sorption and solubility tests were carried out with the following storage times: 4 h, 24 h and 7, 60 and 180 days. After storage, water sorption and solubility were determined. Eluted monomers were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Correlation between the retention time of the registered peak and the reference peak was observed, and UV-spectra confirmed the identity. The results showed an increase in water sorption until equilibrium for all materials with one exception. The solubility behaviour of the composite resin materials tested revealed variations, with both mass decrease and increase. The resin composition influences the water sorption and solubility behaviour of composite resin materials. The HPLC analysis of eluted components revealed that triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) was the main monomer released. Maximal monomer concentration in the eluate was observed after 7 days. During the test period, quantifiable quantities of urethanedimethacrylate (UEDMA) monomer were observed, whereas 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloyloxypropoxy)-phenyl]propane (Bis-GMA) was only found in detectable quantities. No detectable quantities of bisphenol-A were observed during the test period.

  10. Modified water solubility of milk protein concentrate powders through the application of static high pressure treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udabage, Punsandani; Puvanenthiran, Amirtha; Yoo, Jin Ah; Versteeg, Cornelis; Augustin, Mary Ann

    2012-02-01

    The effects of high pressure (HP) treatment (100-400 MPa at 10-60 °C) on the solubility of milk protein concentrate (MPC) powders were tested. The solubility, measured at 20 °C, of fresh MPC powders made with no HP treatment was 66%. It decreased by 10% when stored for 6 weeks at ambient temperature (~20 °C) and continued to decrease to less than 50% of its initial solubility after 12 months of storage. Of the combinations of pressure and heat used, a pressure of 200 MPa at 40 °C applied to the concentrate before spray drying was found to be the most beneficial for improved solubility of MPC powders. This combination of pressure/heat improved the initial cold water solubility to 85%. The solubility was maintained at this level after 6 weeks storage at ambient temperature and 85% of the initial solubility was preserved after 12 months. The improved solubility of MPC powders on manufacture and on storage are attributed to an altered surface composition arising from an increased concentration of non-micellar casein in the milk due to HP treatment prior to drying. The improved solubility of high protein powders (95% protein) made from blends of sodium caseinate and whey protein isolate compared with MPC powders (~85% protein) made from ultrafiltered/diafiltered milk confirmed the detrimental role of micellar casein on solubility. The results suggest that increasing the non-micellar casein content by HP treatment of milk or use of blends of sodium caseinate and whey proteins are strategies that may be used to obtain high protein milk powders with enhanced solubility.

  11. Methanolic soluble fractions of lingzhi or reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (higher Basidiomycetes) extract inhibit neuraminidase activity in Newcastle disease virus (LaSota).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamaki, Bala U; Sandabe, Umar K; Ogbe, Adamu O; Abdulrahman, Fanna I; El-Yuguda, Abdul-Dahiru

    2014-01-01

    The antineuraminidase activity of different organic soluble fractions of Ganoderma lucidum extract was investigated using inhibition of hemagglutination and elution of chicken erythrocytes by Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Fractions of methanol, ethylacetate, and normal butanol (n-butanol) of the G. lucidum were tested against neuraminidase producing NDV as antigen. Different dilutions of the organic soluble fractions inhibited elution of 1% red blood cells by neuraminidase of NDV While the methanolic and n-butanol extracts inhibited neuraminidase activity even at a dilution of 1:16 and that of ethylacetate fraction inhibited even at 1:32 respectively. This finding indicates that G. lucidum has some antineuraminidase activity against NDV and may be exploited in the management of NDV infection.

  12. Formation of water-soluble soybean polysaccharides from spent flakes by hydrogen peroxide treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Brian C; Wichmann, Jesper; Tran, Tam H; Cheetamun, Roshan; Bacic, Antony; Meyer, Anne S

    2016-06-25

    In this paper we propose a novel chemical process for the generation of water-soluble polysaccharides from soy spent flake, a by-product of the soy food industry. This process entails treatment of spent flake with hydrogen peroxide at an elevated temperature, resulting in the release of more than 70% of the original insoluble material as high molar mass soluble polysaccharides. A design of experiment was used to quantify the effects of pH, reaction time, and hydrogen peroxide concentration on the reaction yield, average molar mass, and free monosaccharides generated. The resulting product is low in protein, fat, and minerals and contains predominantly water-soluble polysaccharides of high molar mass, including arabinan, type I arabinogalactan, homogalacturonan, xyloglucan, rhamnogalacturonan, and (glucurono)arabinoxylan. This treatment provides a straightforward approach for generation of soluble soy polysaccharides and opens a new range of opportunities for this abundant and underutilized material in future research and industrial applications.

  13. Design, synthesis and in vitro evaluation of novel water-soluble prodrugs of buparvaquone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäntylä, Antti; Rautio, Jarkko; Nevalainen, Tapio; Keski-Rahkonen, Pekka; Vepsälainen, Jouko; Järvinen, Tomi

    2004-10-01

    Novel water-soluble phosphate prodrugs (2b-5b) of buparvaquone-oxime (1a) and buparvaquone-O-methyloxime (1b) were synthesized and evaluated in vitro as potential oral prodrugs against leishmaniasis. Buparvaquone-oxime (1a), and most probably also buparvaquone-O-methyloxime (1b), released the parent buparvaquone via a cytochrome P450-catalysed reaction. The prodrugs 2b-5b showed significantly higher aqueous solubilities (>4 mg/ml) than buparvaquone ( 8 days). Although buparvaquone-oxime (1a) has been shown to undergo a cytochrome P450-catalysed oxidation in liver microsomes to the parent buparvaquone and behave as a novel bioreversible prodrug, its usefulness is limited in oral drug delivery due to its poor aqueous solubility, like buparvaquone itself. Further phosphorylation of an oxime form of buparvaquone significantly increased water solubility, and this novel approach is therefore useful to improve physicochemical properties of drugs containing a ketone functional group.

  14. An experimental study on the solubility of copper bichloride in water vapor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHANG LinBo; BI XianWu; HU RuiZhong; FAN WenLing

    2007-01-01

    Using the solubility method, the solubility of CuCl2 in liquid-undersaturated HCl-bearing water vapor was investigated experimentally at temperatures of 330-370℃ and pressures of 4.2-10 MPa. The results have shown that hydration could significantly enhance copper solubility and the concentrations of copper were positively correlated with PH2O. The solubility of copper in vapor phase increased with increasing PH2O at the constant temperature. CuCl2 was transported as hydrated species CuCl2(H2O)ngas in water vapor. The formation of complexes is proposed to be the result of the following reaction:CuCl2solid + nH2Ogas = CuCl2 (H2O)ngas The hydration number n decreased slightly with increasing temperature. Statistical hydration numbers are 4.0, 3.6 and 3.3 at 330, 350 and 370℃, respectively.

  15. Water-soluble organic carbon in urban aerosol: concentrations, size distributions and contribution to particulate matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timonen, H. J.; Saarikoski, S. K.; Aurela, M. A.; Saarnio, K. M.; Hillamo, R. E. (Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland))

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the concentrations and particle mass size distributions of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in urban aerosols. The sample collection was carried out in spring 2006 at the SMEAR III station in Helsinki, Finland, by using a size-segregating method (MOUDI) and by collecting sub-micrometer fraction of aerosols on the filter. During the three-month measurement period, a major 12-day biomass burning pollution episode was observed. Concentrations of WSOC, organic carbon, monosaccharide anhydrides, inorganic ions and some organic acids (oxalic, succinic and malonic acid) were analyzed from the PM{sub 1} samples. The measured OC and WSOC concentrations varied in ranges 0.67-15.7 mug m-3 and 0.26-10.7 mug m3, respectively. The WSOC/OC concentration ratio was between 0.30 and 0.89 with an average of 0.54. Size distributions of WSOC, inorganic ions and total mass were determined from the MOUDI samples. WSOC had bimodal size distributions with a clear accumulation mode below 1 mum of particle aerodynamic diameter and minor coarse mode at sizes > 1 mum. (orig.)

  16. Fluorescence quenching behaviour of uric acid interacting with water-soluble cationic porphyrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarska-Bialokoz, Magdalena, E-mail: makarska@hektor.umcs.lublin.pl [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University M. C. Sklodowska Sq. 2, 20-031 Lublin (Poland); Borowski, Piotr [Faculty of Chemistry, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University M. C. Sklodowska Sq. 3, 20-031 Lublin (Poland)

    2015-04-15

    The process of association between 5,10,15,20-tetrakis[4-(trimethylammonio)phenyl]-21H,23H-porphine tetra-p-tosylate (H{sub 2}TTMePP) and uric acid as well as its sodium salt has been studied in aqueous NaOH solution analysing its absorption and steady-state fluorescence spectra. The fluorescence quenching effect observed during interactions porphyrin-uric acid compounds points at the fractional accessibility of the fluorophore for the quencher. The association and fluorescence quenching constants are of the order of magnitude of 10{sup 5} mol{sup −1}. The fluorescence lifetimes and the quantum yields of the porphyrin anionic form were established. The results demonstrate that uric acid and its sodium salt can interact with H{sub 2}TTMePP at basic pH and through formation of stacking complexes are able to quench its ability to emission. - Highlights: • Association study of water soluble cationic porphyrin with uric acid. • Porphyrin absorption spectra undergo the bathochromic and hypochromic effects. • Uric acid interacts with porphyrin in inhibiting manner, quenching its emission. • Fluorescence quenching effect testifies for the partial inactivation of a porphyrin. • The association and fluorescence quenching constants were calculated.

  17. Immunostimulatory in vitro and in vivo effects of a water-soluble extract from kale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Kosuke; Kondo, Ai; Okamoto, Takeaki; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Daifuku, Miho; Nishimoto, Sogo; Ochi, Kenji; Takaoka, Terumi; Sugahara, Takuya

    2011-01-01

    The water-soluble fraction of kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC.) had immunoglobulin (Ig) production stimulating activity in human hybridoma HB4C5 cells and human peripheral blood lymphocytes. The biochemical and physical properties of the main active substance in kale were found to be a heat-stable protein with a molecular weight higher than 50 kDa. The Ig production-stimulating factors were assumed to act on the translational and/or secreting processes of Igs. This Ig production-stimulating effect was also observed in lymphocytes from the mesenteric lymph node and Peyer's patches of mice that had been administered with the kale extract for 14 d. The partially purified kale extract was analyzed by LC-ESI-MS/MS, the result indicating ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rubisco) as an active substance. Rubisco from spinach indeed exhibited Ig production-stimulating activity in HB4C5 cells. These findings provide another beneficial aspect of kale as a health-promoting foodstuff.

  18. Biological activities of a neutral water-soluble agar polysaccharide prepared by agarase degradation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jingxue; Mou Haijin; Jiang Xiaolu; Guan Huashi

    2005-01-01

    Depolymerization of agar was performed using agarase, which was extracted from the cell-free medium of a culture of marine bacterial Alteromonas sp. nov. SY 37-12. After ethanol fractionation and lyophilization, the water-soluble agar polysaccharide (WSAP3) was collected. The anti-tumor activity of the product was determined by using Sarcoma 180 tumor in mouse. The tumor inhibition rate of WSAP3 reached 48.7% at a dose of 64mg kg-1 after 15 days treatment. WSAP3 enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase, which suggests that WSAP3 was effective in promoting the antioxidation ability and eliminating danger from free radicals. The result of flow cytometry showed that the WSAP3 had no activities of cell cycle inhibition or apoptosis-inducing activities. The anti-oxidation of WSAP3 was further confirmed by test in vitro, which might play an important role in anti-tumor activity. The immunological regulation of WSAP3, especially its effect on the phagocytosis ratio and phagocytosis index of macrophage was also assayed in test in vivo.

  19. A Preliminary Study of the Solubility of Copper in Water Vapor at Elevated Temperatures and Pressures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In order to understand the capacity of water vapor to transport copper and its mechanism,using the solubility method, the solubility of copper in undersaturated water vapor was investigated experimentally at temperatures from 310 ℃ to 350 ℃ and pressures from 42 × 105 to 100 × 105 Pa. Results of these experiments show that the presence of water vapor increases the concentration of Cu in the gus. At a constant temperature, the solubility of copper increases with increasing water vapor pressure.Copper may exist as hydrated gaseous particles in the vapor phase, and the dissolution process can be denumber decreases with increasing temperature, varying from ~6 at 310 ℃, to ~5 at 330 ℃, and ~4at 350 ℃. The results show that interactions between gas-solvent H2O and copper will significantly enhance the dissolution and transport capacity of copper in the gas phase.

  20. Study on the sound absorption mechanism in gradient water-soluble polymer solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yuansheng; YANG Xue; ZHU Jinhua; YAO Shuren

    2006-01-01

    Attention was paid to the study on the sound absorption mechanism of watersoluble polymer during dissolving. A specially designed water-soluble polymer coating was synthesized in our lab. The sound attenuation property was measured in sound tube. The results showed that the sound attenuation of the gradient polymer solution was larger than that of the uniform. Depending on the experimental result and the theory of sound wave propagation in layered medium, a mechanism of gradient water-soluble polymer solution was developed. This mechanism can be described as follows: a water-soluble polymer coating formed a concentration gradient layer when it was dissolved in water. This gradient layer led to multiple reflection and absorption of sound. Finally the sound energy was transferred into heat.

  1. Enhancement of solubility of poorly water soluble anti hypertensive drug by nanosizing approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divyesh Thakar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research study was to optimize formulation and process variables affecting characteristic of nanosuspension in bead milling process. In this study, the practically water-insoluble telmisartan was nanoground by using top down method i.e. media milling method. Here the media used is ZnO 2 beads. A variety of surface active agents were tested for their stabilizing effects. Formulation factors evaluated were ratio of polymer to drug, whereas process parameters were milling time and concentration of ZnO 2 beads. Different concentration of stabilizers such as poloxamer 188, poloxamer 407, HPMC E 15, PVP K30 and combination of stabilizers were used for preparation of telmisartan nanosuspension. Responses measured in this study include particle size measurement, particle size distribution and zeta potential.

  2. Water-soluble carbon nanotube compositions for drug delivery and medicinal applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tour, James M.; Lucente-Schultz, Rebecca; Leonard, Ashley; Kosynkin, Dmitry V.; Price, Brandi Katherine; Hudson, Jared L.; Conyers, Jr., Jodie L.; Moore, Valerie C.; Casscells, S. Ward; Myers, Jeffrey N.; Milas, Zvonimir L.; Mason, Kathy A.; Milas, Luka

    2014-07-22

    Compositions comprising a plurality of functionalized carbon nanotubes and at least one type of payload molecule are provided herein. The compositions are soluble in water and PBS in some embodiments. In certain embodiments, the payload molecules are insoluble in water. Methods are described for making the compositions and administering the compositions. An extended release formulation for paclitaxel utilizing functionalized carbon nanotubes is also described.

  3. Kinetics of Acid Hydrolysis of Water-Soluble Spruce O-Acetyl Galactoglucomannans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, C.; Pranovich, A.; Vahasalo, L.; Hemming, J.; Holmbom, B.; Schols, H.A.; Willfor, S.

    2008-01-01

    Water-soluble O-acetyl galactoglucomannan (GGM) is a softwood-derived polysaccharide, which can be extracted on an industrial scale from wood or mechanical pulping waters and now is available in kilogram scale for research and development of value-added products. To develop applications of GGM, info

  4. Water-soluble carbon nanotube compositions for drug delivery and medicinal applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tour, James M.; Lucente-Schultz, Rebecca; Leonard, Ashley; Kosynkin, Dmitry V.; Price, Brandi Katherine; Hudson, Jared L.; Conyers, Jr., Jodie L.; Moore, Valerie C.; Casscells, S. Ward; Myers, Jeffrey N.; Milas, Zvonimir L.; Mason, Kathy A.; Milas, Luka

    2014-07-22

    Compositions comprising a plurality of functionalized carbon nanotubes and at least one type of payload molecule are provided herein. The compositions are soluble in water and PBS in some embodiments. In certain embodiments, the payload molecules are insoluble in water. Methods are described for making the compositions and administering the compositions. An extended release formulation for paclitaxel utilizing functionalized carbon nanotubes is also described.

  5. Novel Water Soluble Fluorescent Trimethine Indocyanines Containing N-p-Carboxybenzyl Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Two fluorescent indocyanine dyes containing at least one p-carboxybenzyl group on the nitrogen atoms in the hetcrocyclic rings were designed and synthesized. Their absorption maxima were 549 nm and 551 nm in water respectively. They had good water solubility and photostability.

  6. Iodide-assisted total lead measurement and determination of different lead fractions in drinking water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Ng, Ding-Quan; Lin, Yi-Pin

    2012-07-01

    Lead and its compounds are toxic and can harm human health, especially the intelligence development in children. Accurate measurement of total lead present in drinking water is crucial in determining the extent of lead contamination and human exposure due to drinking water consumption. The USEPA method for total lead measurement (no. 200.8) is often used to analyze lead levels in drinking water. However, in the presence of high concentration of the tetravalent lead corrosion product PbO(2), the USEPA method was not able to fully recover particulate lead due to incomplete dissolution of PbO(2) particles during strong acid digestion. In this study, a new procedure that integrates membrane separation, iodometric PbO(2) measurement, strong acid digestion and ICP-MS measurement was proposed and evaluated for accurate total lead measurement and quantification of different lead fractions including soluble Pb(2+), particulate Pb(II) carbonate and PbO(2) in drinking water samples. The proposed procedure was evaluated using drinking water reconstituted with spiked Pb(2+), spiked particulate Pb(II) carbonate and in situ formed or spiked PbO(2). Recovery tests showed that the proposed procedure and the USEPA method can achieve 93-112% and 86-103% recoveries respectively for samples containing low PbO(2) concentrations (0.018-0.076 mg Pb per L). For samples containing higher concentrations of PbO(2) (0.089-1.316 mg Pb per L), the USEPA method failed to meet the recovery requirement for total lead (85-115%) while the proposed method can achieve satisfactory recoveries (91-111%) and differentiate the soluble Pb(2+), particulate Pb(II) carbonate and PbO(2).

  7. Enhanced water-solubility and antibacterial activity of novel chitosan derivatives modified with quaternary phosphonium salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dan; Cheng, Honghao; Li, Jianna; Zhang, Wenwen; Shen, Yuanyuan; Chen, Shaojun; Ge, Zaochuan; Chen, Shiguo

    2016-04-01

    Chitosan (CS) has been widely recognized as an important biomaterial due to its good antimicrobial activity, biocompatibility and biodegradability. However, CS is insoluble in water in neutral and alkaline aqueous solution due to the linear aggregation of chain molecules and the formation of crystallinity. This is one of the key factors that limit its practical applications. Therefore, improving the solubility of CS in neutral and alkaline aqueous solution is a primary research direction for biomedical applications. In this paper, a reactive antibacterial compound (4-(2,5-Dioxo-pyrrolidin-1-yloxycarbonyl)-benzyl)-triphenyl-phosphonium bromide (NHS-QPS) was synthesized for chemical modification of CS, and a series of novel polymeric antimicrobial agents, N-quaternary phosphonium chitosan derivatives (N-QPCSxy, x=1-2,y=1-4) were obtained. The water solubilities and antibacterial activities of N-QPCSxy against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated compare to CS. The water solubility of N-QPCSxy was all better than that of CS at neutral pH aqueous solution, particularly, N-QPCS14 can be soluble in water over the pH range of 3 to 12. The antibacterial activities of CS derivatives were improved by introducing quaternary phosphonium salt, and antibacterial activity of N-QPCSxy increases with degree of substitution. Overall, N-QPCS14 represents a novel antibacterial polymer material with good antibacterial activity, waters solubility and low cytotoxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Membrane Proteins Are Dramatically Less Conserved than Water-Soluble Proteins across the Tree of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojo, Victor; Dessimoz, Christophe; Pomiankowski, Andrew; Lane, Nick

    2016-11-01

    Membrane proteins are crucial in transport, signaling, bioenergetics, catalysis, and as drug targets. Here, we show that membrane proteins have dramatically fewer detectable orthologs than water-soluble proteins, less than half in most species analyzed. This sparse distribution could reflect rapid divergence or gene loss. We find that both mechanisms operate. First, membrane proteins evolve faster than water-soluble proteins, particularly in their exterior-facing portions. Second, we demonstrate that predicted ancestral membrane proteins are preferentially lost compared with water-soluble proteins in closely related species of archaea and bacteria. These patterns are consistent across the whole tree of life, and in each of the three domains of archaea, bacteria, and eukaryotes. Our findings point to a fundamental evolutionary principle: membrane proteins evolve faster due to stronger adaptive selection in changing environments, whereas cytosolic proteins are under more stringent purifying selection in the homeostatic interior of the cell. This effect should be strongest in prokaryotes, weaker in unicellular eukaryotes (with intracellular membranes), and weakest in multicellular eukaryotes (with extracellular homeostasis). We demonstrate that this is indeed the case. Similarly, we show that extracellular water-soluble proteins exhibit an even stronger pattern of low homology than membrane proteins. These striking differences in conservation of membrane proteins versus water-soluble proteins have important implications for evolution and medicine. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  9. Teratogenicity and metabolism of water-soluble forms of vitamin A in the pregnant rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunning, D.B.; Barua, A.B.; Olson, J.A. (Iowa State Univ., Ames (United States))

    1990-02-26

    Retinoyl {beta}-glucuronide, unlike retinoic acid, has been shown to be non-teratogenic when administered orally, even in large doses, to pregnant rats. The degree to which water-solubility is associated with low teratogenicity is not known. Other water-soluble forms of vitamin A have now been synthesized in our laboratory and are being evaluated for teratogenicity. New water-soluble forms of vitamin A were administered orally to pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats in a single dose of 0.35 mmole/kg bw on day 8 of gestation. On day 19, the dams were sacrificed and the litters were examined. Control animals received either vehicle only or an equivalent dose of all-trans retinoic acid. Maternal and fetal tissues were taken and analyzed by HPLC for vitamin A metabolites. In another experiment, a large single oral dose of the radiolabelled water-soluble compound was administered on day 10. At either 30 minutes or 1 hour after the dose, dams were sacrificed and the embryos analyzed both for radioactivity and for specific metabolites. In contrast to retinoyl {beta}-glucuronide, retinoyl {beta}-glucose is highly teratogenic under identical conditions. Thus, water-solubility does not seem to be the determining factor in the teratogenicity of retinoic acid conjugates.

  10. Solubilization of poorly water-soluble compounds using amphiphilic phospholipid polymers with different molecular architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Mingwei; Konno, Tomohiro; Inoue, Yuuki; Ishihara, Kazuhiko

    2017-06-29

    To achieve stable and effective solubilization of poorly water-soluble bioactive compounds, water-soluble and amphiphilic polymers composed of hydrophilic 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) units and hydrophobic n-butyl methacrylate (BMA) units were prepared. MPC polymers having different molecular architectures, such as random-type monomer unit sequences and block-type sequences, formed polymer aggregates when they were dissolved in aqueous media. The structure of the random-type polymer aggregate was loose and flexible. On the other hand, the block-type polymer formed polymeric micelles, which were composed of very stable hydrophobic poly(BMA) cores and hydrophilic poly(MPC) shells. The solubilization of a poorly water-soluble bioactive compound, paclitaxel (PTX), in the polymer aggregates was observed, however, solubilizing efficiency and stability were strongly depended on the polymer architecture; in other words, PTX stayed in the poly(BMA) core of the polymer micelle formed by the block-type polymer even when plasma protein was present in the aqueous medium. On the other hand, when the random-type polymer was used, PTX was transferred from the polymer aggregate to the protein. We conclude that water-soluble and amphiphilic MPC polymers are good candidates as solubilizers for poorly water-soluble bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Water soluble {2-[3-(diethylamino)phenoxy]ethoxy} substituted zinc(II) phthalocyanine photosensitizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Çakır, Dilek [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Göl, Cem [Gebze Institute of Technology, Department of Chemistry, PO Box 141, Gebze, 41400, Kocaeli (Turkey); Çakır, Volkan [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Durmuş, Mahmut [Gebze Institute of Technology, Department of Chemistry, PO Box 141, Gebze, 41400, Kocaeli (Turkey); Bıyıklıoğlu, Zekeriya, E-mail: zekeriya_61@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Kantekin, Halit [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)

    2015-03-15

    The new peripherally and non-peripherally tetra-{2-[3-(diethylamino)phenoxy] ethoxy} substituted zinc phthalocyanines (2a and 3a) were synthesized by cyclotetramerization of phthalonitrile derivatives (2 and 3). 2-[3-(diethylamino)phenoxy] ethoxy group was chosen as substituent because the quaternization of the diethylamino functionality on the structure of this group produced water soluble zinc phthalocyanines (2b and 3b). The water solubility is very important for many different applications such as photosensitizers in the photodynamic therapy of cancer because the water soluble photosensitizers can be injected directly to the body and they can transport to cancer cells through blood stream. The new compounds were characterized by using elemental analysis, UV–vis, IR, {sup 1}H NMR, {sup 13}C NMR and mass spectroscopies. The photophysical and photochemical properties of these novel photosensitizer compounds were examined in DMSO (both non-ionic and ionic complexes) and in PBS (for ionic complexes) solutions. The investigation of these properties is very important for the usage of the compounds as photosensitizers for PDT because determination of these properties is the first stage of potential of the compounds as photosensitizers. The bovine serum albumin (BSA) and DNA binding behaviour of the studied water soluble zinc (II) phthalocyanines were also investigated in PBS solutions for the determination of biological activity of these compounds. - Highlights: • Synthesis of water soluble zinc phthalocyanines. • Photophysical and photochemical properties for phthalocyanines. • Photodynamic therapy studies.

  12. The oxygen isotope equilibrium fractionation between sulfite species and water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Inigo A.; Brunner, Benjamin; Breuer, Christian; Coleman, Max; Bach, Wolfgang

    2013-11-01

    Sulfite is an important sulfoxy intermediate in oxidative and reductive sulfur cycling in the marine and terrestrial environment. Different aqueous sulfite species exist, such as dissolved sulfur dioxide (SO2), bisulfite (HSO3-), pyrosulfite (S2O52-) and sulfite sensu stricto (SO32-), whereas their relative abundance in solution depends on the concentration and the pH. Conversion of one species into another is rapid and involves in many cases incorporation of oxygen from, or release of oxygen to, water (e.g. SO2 + H2O ↔ HSO3- + H+), resulting in rapid oxygen isotope exchange between sulfite species and water. Consequently, the oxygen isotope composition of sulfite is strongly influenced by the oxygen isotope composition of water. Since sulfate does not exchange oxygen isotopes with water under most earth surface conditions, it can preserve the sulfite oxygen isotope signature that it inherits via oxidative and reductive sulfur cycling. Therefore, interpretation of δO values strongly hinges on the oxygen isotope equilibrium fractionation between sulfite and water which is poorly constrained. This is in large part due to technical difficulties in extraction of sulfite from solution for oxygen isotope analysis.

  13. Water Soluble Organic Compounds over the Eastern Mediterranean: Study of their occurrence and sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tziaras, T.; Spyros, A.; Mandalakis, M.; Apostolaki, M.; Stephanou, E. G.

    2010-05-01

    Fine marine aerosols influence the climate system by acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in the atmosphere. The organic chemical composition and origin of the marine fine particulate matter are still largely unknown, because of the insufficient reports on in situ studies, the large variability in the emission from the sea, from the complex transfer of gases and particles at the air-sea interface, and the transport of aerosol particles from very distant sources. As important processes of formation of marine organic aerosol production we consider: transport of terrestrial particles, secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from the oxidation of biogenic dimethyl-sulfide (DMS), and biogenic particle emissions through sea spray. Specific compounds related to the above-mentioned processes have been proposed as molecular markers: e.g. n-alkanoic acids and n-alkanes (terrestrial particles), levoglucosan (biomass burning aerosol), aminoacids (biological terrestrial or marine particles), methanesulphonate (MSA) (DMS oxidation), C8 and C9 dicarboxylic acids and oxo-carboxylic acids (marine SOA) and other short-chain dicarboxylic acids (marine or terrestrial SOA), and humic-like compounds (emission of marine organic carbon). In our study, we made an effort to characterize the water-soluble organic fraction of marine aerosols collected at a background sampling site of Eastern Mediterranean (Finokalia, N35o20', E25o40', Island of Crete, Greece). The sampling period was 2007-2008. In order to identify and quantify the water-soluble organic compounds of marine aerosols determined in the present study we have used gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and ion chromatography (IC). The origin of air masses arriving in the study area was studied by using backward trajectories calculation (NOAA HYSPLIT Model). In addition, we have used the "MODIS fire products" for fire

  14. Water Solubility of Plutonium and Uranium Compounds and Residues at TA-55

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reilly, Sean Douglas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States; Smith, Paul Herrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States; Jarvinen, Gordon D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States; Prochnow, David Adrian [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States; Schulte, Louis D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States; DeBurgomaster, Paul Christopher [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States; Fife, Keith William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States; Rubin, Jim [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States; Worl, Laura Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States

    2016-06-13

    Understanding the water solubility of plutonium and uranium compounds and residues at TA-55 is necessary to provide a technical basis for appropriate criticality safety, safety basis and accountability controls. Individual compound solubility was determined using published solubility data and solution thermodynamic modeling. Residue solubility was estimated using a combination of published technical reports and process knowledge of constituent compounds. The scope of materials considered includes all compounds and residues at TA-55 as of March 2016 that contain Pu-239 or U-235 where any single item in the facility has more than 500 g of nuclear material. This analysis indicates that the following materials are not appreciably soluble in water: plutonium dioxide (IDC=C21), plutonium phosphate (IDC=C66), plutonium tetrafluoride (IDC=C80), plutonium filter residue (IDC=R26), plutonium hydroxide precipitate (IDC=R41), plutonium DOR salt (IDC=R42), plutonium incinerator ash (IDC=R47), uranium carbide (IDC=C13), uranium dioxide (IDC=C21), U3O8 (IDC=C88), and uranium filter residue (IDC=R26). This analysis also indicates that the following materials are soluble in water: plutonium chloride (IDC=C19) and uranium nitrate (IDC=C52). Equilibrium calculations suggest that PuOCl is water soluble under certain conditions, but some plutonium processing reports indicate that it is insoluble when present in electrorefining residues (R65). Plutonium molten salt extraction residues (IDC=R83) contain significant quantities of PuCl3, and are expected to be soluble in water. The solubility of the following plutonium residues is indeterminate due to conflicting reports, insufficient process knowledge or process-dependent composition: calcium salt (IDC=R09), electrorefining salt (IDC=R65), salt (IDC=R71), silica (IDC=R73) and sweepings/screenings (IDC=R78). Solution thermodynamic modeling also indicates that fire suppression water buffered with a

  15. Effect of Vericiguat, a Soluble Guanylate Cyclase Stimulator, on Natriuretic Peptide Levels in Patients With Worsening Chronic Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gheorghiade, Mihai; Greene, Stephen J; Butler, Javed;

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Worsening chronic heart failure (HF) is a major public health problem. OBJECTIVE: To determine the optimal dose and tolerability of vericiguat, a soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator, in patients with worsening chronic HF and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). DESIGN, ...

  16. Solubility of water in fluorocarbons: Experimental and COSMO-RS prediction results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freire, Mara G.; Carvalho, Pedro J. [CICECO, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Santos, Luis M.N.B.F. [CIQ, Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, R. Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Gomes, Ligia R. [REQUIMTE, Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Marrucho, Isabel M. [CICECO, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Coutinho, Joao A.P., E-mail: jcoutinho@ua.p [CICECO, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2010-02-15

    This work aims at providing experimental and theoretical information about the water-perfluorocarbon molecular interactions. For that purpose, experimental solubility results for water in cyclic and aromatic perfluorocarbons (PFCs), over the temperature range between (288.15 and 318.15) K, and at atmospheric pressure, were obtained and are presented. From the experimental solubility dependence on temperature, the partial molar solution and solvation thermodynamic functions such as Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy were determined and are discussed. The process of dissolution of water in PFCs is shown to be spontaneous for cyclic and aromatic compounds. It is demonstrated that the interactions between the non-aromatic PFCs and water are negligible while those between aromatic PFCs and water are favourable. The COSMO-RS predictive capability was explored for the description of the water solubility in PFCs and others substituted fluorocompounds. The COSMO-RS is shown to be a useful model to provide reasonable predictions of the solubility values, as well as to describe their temperature and structural modifications dependence. Moreover, the molar Gibbs free energy and molar enthalpy of solution of water are predicted remarkably well by COSMO-RS while the main deviations appear for the prediction of the molar entropy of solution.

  17. Solubility of methane, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide in bitumen and water for SAGD modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Murayri, M.T.; Harding, T.G.; Maini, B.B.

    2011-07-15

    The steam assisted gravity-drainage (SAGD) process is a technology used in unconventional reservoirs to enhance oil recovery, this technique sometimes uses the co-injection of noncondensable gases (NCGs). The co-injection of NCGs with steam is used to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in SAGD, but this technique also affects the performance of SAGD, making the knowledge of gas solubility in bitumen and water important. This study was undertaken to develop a systematic approach to predict the K-values for the gas-bitumen and gas water phase equilibria at different temperatures and pressures. This research has been carried out by using different existing correlations. It has been observed that the Mehrotra and Svrcek gas-solubility correlation should be used to calculate NCG's solubility in bitumen and that NCGs' solubility in water could be calculated with Harvey's correlation. This study defined successfully an approach to calculate NCGs' solubility in bitumen and water.

  18. Coaxial electrospinning for encapsulation and controlled release of fragile water-soluble bioactive agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hongliang; Wang, Liqun; Zhu, Kangjie

    2014-11-10

    Coaxial electrospinning is a robust technique for one-step encapsulation of fragile, water-soluble bioactive agents, including growth factors, DNA and even living organisms, into core-shell nanofibers. The coaxial electrospinning process eliminates the damaging effects due to direct contact of the agents with organic solvents or harsh conditions during emulsification. The shell layer serves as a barrier to prevent the premature release of the water-soluble core contents. By varying the structure and composition of the nanofibers, it is possible to precisely modulate the release of the encapsulated agents. Promising work has been done with coaxially electrospun non-woven mats integrated with bioactive agents for use in tissue engineering, in local delivery and in wound healing, etc. This paper reviews the origins of the coaxial electrospinning method, its updated status and potential future developments for controlled release of the class of fragile, water-soluble bioactive agents.

  19. Effect of thatch on water-soluble phosphorus of pasture soil fertilized with broiler litter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The presence of a thatch layer in established pastures could reduce the contact between broiler litter and soil, thus increasing the potential for surface runoff contamination with litter P. We conducted a laboratory study to evaluate the effect of a thatch layer on the dynamics of water-soluble P in undisturbed cores taken from a pasture. Cores with and without a thatch layer received a surface application of broiler litter (5 t@hm-2) and were incubated at 25 oC for 56 d. The result showed that on the soil surface the contents of water soluble-P (39 kg@hm-2) of the cores with the thatch layer was higher than that (20 kg@hm-2) of the cores without the thatch layer. Therefore on well-established pastures fertilized with broiler litter, the presence of a thatch layer might lead to high concentrations of water-soluble P on the soil surface.

  20. [Relationship of resistance to diseases and water-soluble amino acids in Konjac leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yongbo; Jiang, Qiaolong

    2008-05-01

    Reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography was used to analyze water-soluble amino acids in the normal Amorphophallus Konjac, Amorphophallus albus, Amorphophallus bulbifer, and the soft rot Amorphophallus Konjac, to determine the relationship of the different soft-rot resistant Konjac varieties and the proportion and content of the multiple water-soluble amino acids. The results showed that there are remarkable differences in the content and proportion of water-soluble amino acids in different resistant varieties and the same variety of normal and diseased leaves of Amorphophallus. In this study, the bank of fingerprint 15 chromatogram was established and can be used to analyze the related characteristic peaks and the resistance of Amorphophallus.

  1. Attributes of aerosol bound water soluble ions and carbon, and their relationships with AOD over the Brahmaputra Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuyan, Pranamika; Barman, Nivedita; Bora, Jayanta; Daimari, Rebecca; Deka, Pratibha; Hoque, Raza Rafiqul

    2016-10-01

    The present study is a ground based investigation of chemical properties of aerosol as PM10 and its relationship with the upper air optical properties. A total of 161 aerosol samples collected during 2010-2014 were characterized for water soluble ions viz. SO42-, NO3-, Cl-, F-, NH4+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+and Na+ and water soluble carbon factions - water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and water soluble inorganic carbon (WSIC). The entire study period was subdivided into four distinct seasons -pre-monsoon, monsoon, post-monsoon and winter to assess the characteristics of chemical species in different times of the year contributing to the particulate loading over the study site. To understand the relationship between chemical species and optical properties, aerosol optical depth (AOD) data of the study area have been retrieved from MODIS satellite data at 550 nm. Mean mass concentration of PM10 was found to be 49.3 ± 37 μg/m3 for the whole study period with an explicit seasonal variation and winter maximum of mass concentration. Also, secondary ions have strong influence on the total aerosol loading in the region. Vivid seasonal variability was found in the concentrations of ions and carbons. The winter season showed maximum loading of ionic and carbonaceous species and the presence of crustal derived ions - Ca2+ and Mg2+ - remained uniform all through the seasons. The anions were found to be dominant over the cations during the study period. Interestingly, K+, originating mostly from biomass burning emissions, also play important neutralizing role together with NH4+. Significant relationships between AOD with PM10 and attributes were observed. Strong correlation of anthropogenic (SO42-, NO3-, NH4+), biomass burning (K+) and organic carbon fraction of PM10 with AOD was observed, which indicated the influence of these fractions on the attenuation of incoming light over the study region. HYSPLIT backward trajectories of air masses, which were computed for the study area

  2. Experimental study of Ni solubility in sulphidic groundwater and cement water under anoxic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, T.; Vuorinen, U.; Kekki, T.; Aalto, H. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    2001-06-01

    The nickel solubility was studied during a 177-day period under anoxic conditions in three types of waters: a synthetic reference groundwater (OL-SR), a natural Olkiluoto groundwater (PVA2), and a cement-conditioned groundwater (C-PVA2). To each water, nickel, ferrous iron and sulphide were added yielding eight combinations of, approximately, the following initial concentrations: nickel: 1.0x10{sup -6} and 1.0x10{sup -3} mol/L, ferrous iron: 1.8 10{sup -6} and 1.8x10{sup -5} mol/L, and sulphide: 3.1x10{sup -6} and 9.4x10{sup -5} mol/L. The concentrations of these elements in the natural groundwater PVA2 as well as in the cement-conditioned water C-PVA2 was insignificant. In the synthetic water, the nickel concentration was unchanged in all samples having a high initial nickel concentration of 1.0x10{sup -3} mol/L. In the samples with an initial low nickel concentration of 1.0x10{sup -6} mol/L, the sulphide content determined the final nickel concentration. Where the initial sulphide concentration was low, the nickel concentration remained at the level of 1.0x10{sup -6} mol/L, but the higher sulphide concentration caused the nickel concentration to drop to below 10{sup -8} mol/L. In the natural groundwater PVA2, the nickel concentration dropped to below 10{sup -4} mol/L in all samples with an initially high nickel concentration, and to values of roughly 10{sup -7} mol/L in samples with an initially low nickel content. In the cement-conditioned water, the nickel concentration reached a value of 3x10{sup -6} mol/L in samples with initial high nickel concentrations, and to a value of 1x10{sup -7} mol/L in samples with a low initial nickel content. The added amounts of iron and sulphide did not have any significant effect on the observed nickel solubility. The solid phases formed in the natural and synthetic groundwater were analyzed by XRD but could not be identified. In the case of cement-conditioned water the XRD analyses showed the presence of Ni(OH){sub 2} as well

  3. Viscosity of water-in-oil emulsions. Variation with temperature and water volume fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farah, Marco A.; Caldas, Jorge Navaes [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A., Rua General Canabarro, 500, Maracana, Rio, CEP 2057-900 (Brazil); Oliveira, Roberto C. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A., Cenpes, Cidade Universitaria (Brazil); Rajagopal, Krishnaswamy [LATCA-Laboratorio de Termodinamica e Cinetica Aplicada-Escola de Quimica, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, UFRJ, Cidade Universitaria, C.P. 68452, CEP 21949-900, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2005-09-15

    Water-in-oil emulsions are important in the petroleum industry in production operations, where the water content of the emulsion can be as high as 60% in volume, also in petroleum refining operations where generally the water content is low. The effective viscosity of water-in-oil emulsions depends mainly on the volume fraction of dispersed phase and temperature, along with several minor effects, such as shear rate, average droplet size, droplet size distribution, viscosity and density of oil. Using six different crude oils, the effective viscosities of several synthetic water-in-oil emulsions are measured at atmospheric pressure using a dynamic viscosimeter for different shear rates, temperatures and volume fractions of the dispersed phase. The ASTM equation, method D-341, for describing viscosity as a function of temperature is extended to include the variation of dispersed phase volume fraction. The proposed equation gives good correlation between the measured viscosities of water-in-oil emulsions as a function of temperature and the volume fraction of water.

  4. The effect of the cation alkyl chain branching on mutual solubilities with water and toxicities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnia, Kiki A.; Sintra, Tânia E.; Neves, Catarina M. S. S.; Shimizu, Karina; Lopes, José N. Canongia; Gonçalves, Fernando; Ventura, Sónia P. M.; Freire, Mara G.; Santos, Luís M. N. B. F.; Coutinho, João A. P.

    2014-01-01

    The design of ionic liquids has been focused on the cation-anion combinations but other more subtle approaches can be used. In this work the effect of the branching of the cation alkyl chain on the design of ionic liquids (ILs) is evaluated. The mutual solubilities with water and toxicities of a series of bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-based ILs, combined with imidazolium, pyridinium, pyrrolidinium, and piperidinium cations with linear or branched alkyl chains, are reported. The mutual solubility measurements were carried out in the temperature range from (288.15 to 323.15) K. From the obtained experimental data, the thermodynamic properties of the solution (in the water-rich phase) were determined and discussed. The COnductor like Screening MOdel for Real Solvents (COSMO-RS) was used to predict the liquid-liquid equilibrium. Furthermore, molecular dynamic simulations were also carried out aiming to get a deeper understanding of these fluids at the molecular level. The results show that the increase in the number of atoms at the cation ring (from five to six) leads to a decrease in the mutual solubilities with water while increasing their toxicity, and as expected from the well-established relationship between toxicities and hydrophobicities of ILs. The branching of the alkyl chain was observed to decrease the water solubility in ILs, while increasing the ILs solubility in water. The inability of COSMO-RS to correctly predict the effect of branching alkyl chains toward water solubility on them was confirmed using molecular dynamic simulations to be due to the formation of nano-segregated structures of the ILs that are not taken into account by the COSMO-RS model. In addition, the impact of branched alkyl chains on the toxicity is shown to be not trivial and to depend on the aromatic nature of the ILs. PMID:25119425

  5. Urinary excretion levels of water-soluble vitamins in pregnant and lactating women in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Katsumi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Sasaki, Satoshi; Sano, Mitsue; Suzuki, Kahoru; Hiratsuka, Chiaki; Aoki, Asami; Nagai, Chiharu

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the urinary excretion levels of water-soluble vitamins can be used as biomarkers for the nutritional status of these vitamins. To determine changes in the urinary excretion levels of water-soluble vitamins during pregnant and lactating stages, we surveyed and compared levels of nine water-soluble vitamins in control (non-pregnant and non-lactating women), pregnant and lactating women. Control women (n=37), women in the 2nd (16-27 wk, n=24) and 3rd trimester of pregnancy (over 28 wk, n=32), and early- (0-5 mo, n=54) and late-stage lactating (6-11 mo, n=49) women took part in the survey. The mean age of subjects was ~30 y, and mean height was ~160 cm. A single 24-h urine sample was collected 1 d after the completion of a validated, self-administered comprehensive diet history questionnaire to measure water-soluble vitamins or metabolites. The average intake of each water-soluble vitamin was ≍ the estimated average requirement value and adequate intake for the Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes in all life stages, except for vitamin B6 and folate intakes during pregnancy. No change was observed in the urinary excretion levels of vitamin B2, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, biotin or vitamin C among stages. Urine nicotinamide and folate levels were higher in pregnant women than in control women. Urine excretion level of vitamin B1 decreased during lactation and that of pantothenic acid decreased during pregnancy and lactation. These results provide valuable information for setting the Dietary Reference Intakes of water-soluble vitamins for pregnant and lactating women.

  6. Solubility and solution thermodynamics of 2,5-thiophenedicarboxylic acid in (water + ethanol) binary solvent mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yang; Zhang, Qi; Cao, Cuicui; Cheng, Limin [State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Shi, Ying [Taiyuan Qiaoyou Chemical Industrial Co. Ltd., Taiyuan 030025 (China); Yang, Wenge [State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Hu, Yonghong, E-mail: yonghonghu11@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2014-09-20

    Highlights: • The solubility increased with increasing temperature. • The solubility decreased with the rise of the ratio of the water. • The solubility data were fitted using Apelblat equation, CNIBS/R–K and JA model. • The Gibbs energy, enthalpy and entropy were calculated by the van’t Hoff analysis. - Abstract: In this paper, we focused on solubility and solution thermodynamics of 2,5-thiophenedicarboxylic acid. By gravimetric method, the solubility of 2,5-thiophenedicarboxylic acid was measured in (water + ethanol) binary solvent mixtures from 278.15 K to 333.15 K under atmosphere pressure. The solubility data were fitted using modified Apelblat equation, a variant of the combined nearly ideal binary solvent/Redlich–Kister (CNIBS/R–K) model and Jouyban–Acree model. Computational results showed that the modified Apelblat equation has the lowest MD (mean deviation). In addition, the thermodynamic properties of the solution process, including the Gibbs energy, enthalpy, and entropy were calculated by the van’t Hoff analysis.

  7. Lipid-based formulations for oral administration of poorly water-soluble drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Holm, René; Müllertz, Anette

    2013-01-01

    Lipid-based drug delivery systems have shown great potentials in oral delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs, primarily for lipophilic drugs, with several successfully marketed products. Pre-dissolving drugs in lipids, surfactants, or mixtures of lipids and surfactants omits the dissolving....../dissolution step, which is a potential rate limiting factor for oral absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs. Lipids not only vary in structures and physiochemical properties, but also in their digestibility and absorption pathway; therefore selection of lipid excipients and dosage form has a pronounced effect...

  8. Smart polyelectrolyte microcapsules as carriers for water-soluble small molecular drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Weixing; He, Qiang; Möhwald, Helmuth; Yang, Yang; Li, Junbai

    2009-10-15

    Heat treatment is introduced as a simple method for the encapsulation of low molecular weight water-soluble drugs within layer-by-layer assembled microcapsules. A water-soluble drug, procainamide hydrochloride, could thus be encapsulated in large amount and enriched by more than 2 orders of magnitude in the assembled PDADMAC/PSS capsules. The shrunk capsules could control the unloading rate of drugs, and the drugs could be easily unloaded using ultrasonic treatment. The encapsulated amount could be quantitatively controlled via the drug concentration in the bulk. We also found that smaller capsules possess higher encapsulation capability.

  9. Hydrogen production by a hyperthermophilic membrane-bound hydrogenase in water-soluble nanolipoprotein particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Sarah E; Hopkins, Robert C; Blanchette, Craig D; Walsworth, Vicki L; Sumbad, Rhoda; Fischer, Nicholas O; Kuhn, Edward A; Coleman, Matt; Chromy, Brett A; Létant, Sonia E; Hoeprich, Paul D; Adams, Michael W W; Henderson, Paul T

    2009-06-10

    Hydrogenases constitute a promising class of enzymes for ex vivo hydrogen production. Implementation of such applications is currently hindered by oxygen sensitivity and, in the case of membrane-bound hydrogenases (MBHs), poor water solubility. Nanolipoprotein particles (NLPs) formed from apolipoproteins and phospholipids offer a novel means of incorporating MBHs into a well-defined water-soluble matrix that maintains the enzymatic activity and is amenable to incorporation into more complex architectures. We report the synthesis, hydrogen-evolving activity, and physical characterization of the first MBH-NLP assembly. This may ultimately lead to the development of biomimetic hydrogen-production devices.

  10. Similar Energetic Contributions of Packing in the Core of Membrane and Water-Soluble Proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joh, Nathan H.; Oberai, Amit; Yang, Duan; Whitelegge, Julian P.; Bowie, James U.; (UCLA)

    2009-09-15

    A major driving force for water-soluble protein folding is the hydrophobic effect, but membrane proteins cannot make use of this stabilizing contribution in the apolar core of the bilayer. It has been proposed that membrane proteins compensate by packing more efficiently. We therefore investigated packing contributions experimentally by observing the energetic and structural consequences of cavity creating mutations in the core of a membrane protein. We observed little difference in the packing energetics of water and membrane soluble proteins. Our results imply that other mechanisms are employed to stabilize the structure of membrane proteins.

  11. Water-Soluble Silicon Quantum Dots with Quasi-Blue Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Wang, Hao; Guo, Jun; Wu, Jiang; Gao, Li J.; Sun, Ying H.; Zhao, J.; Zou, Gui F.

    2015-07-01

    In this study, water-soluble silicon quantum dots have quasi-blue emission at 390 nm by being capped with 1-vinylimidazole in resese micelles. As-obtained silicon quantum dots have a diameter of 2~5 nm and high crystallinity. The quasi-blue emission of the silicon quantum dots is likely attributed to the polarity of the capping ligands. Moreover, the silicon quantum dots are water-soluble and have photoluminescence nanosecond decay time, suggesting their potential application in biological field.

  12. Preparation and tribology properties of water-soluble fullerene derivative nanoball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guichang Jiang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Water-soluble fullerene derivatives were synthesized via radical polymerization. They are completely soluble in water, yielding a clear brown solution. The products were characterized by FTIR, UV–Vis, 1H-NMR, 13CNMR, GPC, TGA, and SEM. Four-ball tests show that the addition of a certain concentration of the fullerene derivatives to base stock (2 wt.% triethanolamine aqueous solution can effectively increase both the load-carrying capacity (PB value, and the resistance to wear. SEM observations confirm the additive results in a reduced diameter of the wear scar and decreased wear.

  13. Quantitative approaches for the description of solubilities of inorganic compounds in near-critical and supercritical water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leusbrock, Ingo; Metz, Sybrand J.; Rexwinkel, Glenn; Versteeg, Geert F.

    2008-01-01

    The decreased solubility of salts in supercritical water is of great interest for industrial applications and scientific work. Several methods to quantify this decreased solubility are described and reviewed by applying them on experimental solubility data. The salts used for comparison are NaCl, N

  14. Quantitative approaches for the description of solubilities of inorganic compounds in near-critical and supercritical water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leusbrock, Ingo; Metz, Sybrand J.; Rexwinkel, Glenn; Versteeg, Geert F.

    2008-01-01

    The decreased solubility of salts in supercritical water is of great interest for industrial applications and scientific work. Several methods to quantify this decreased solubility are described and reviewed by applying them on experimental solubility data. The salts used for comparison are NaCl, Na

  15. Solubility and dissolution thermodynamics of N-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-(pyridin-4-ylcarbonyl)hydrazinecarbothioamide in PG + water co-solvent mixtures at (298.15 to 338.15) K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, Mashooq A. [Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2457, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Haq, Nazrul [Center of Excellence in Biotechnology Research, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2460, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Shakeel, Faiyaz, E-mail: faiyazs@fastmail.fm [Center of Excellence in Biotechnology Research, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2460, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-10-10

    Highlights: • Solubility of isoniazid analog in various PG + water mixtures was measured. • The solubility was observed highest in pure PG. • Experimental solubilities were correlated well with Apelblat and Yalkowsky model. • Solubilities were increased with increase in temperature and mass fraction of PG. - Abstract: The objective of present investigation was to measure the solubility and dissolution thermodynamics of N-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-(pyridin-4-ylcarbonyl)hydrazinecarbothioamide [isoniazid (INH) analog] in various propylene glycol (PG) + water co-solvent mixtures from (298.15 to 338.15) K. The experimental solubilities of INH analog were correlated with Apelblat and Yalkowsky models. The root mean square deviations were found to be (1.13–3.98)% and (1.45–5.73)% for Apelblat equation and Yalkowsky model, respectively. Good correlation was observed between experimental and calculated solubilities of INH analog with correlation coefficients in the range of 0.995–0.999. The mole fraction solubility of INH analog was found to be highest and lowest in pure PG (7.38 × 10{sup −3} at 298.15 K) and pure water (5.17 × 10{sup −7} at 298.15 K), respectively. The results of dissolution thermodynamics indicated endothermic and non-spontaneous dissolution of INH analog.

  16. Review of robust measurement of phosphorus in river water: sampling, storage, fractionation and sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. P. Jarvie

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews current knowledge on sampling, storage and analysis of phosphorus (P in river waters. Potential sensitivity of rivers with different physical, chemical and biological characteristics (trophic status, turbidity, flow regime, matrix chemistry is examined in terms of errors associated with sampling, sample preparation, storage, contamination, interference and analytical errors. Key issues identified include: The need to tailor analytical reagents and concentrations to take into account the characteristics of the sample matrix. The effects of matrix interference on the colorimetric analysis. The influence of variable rates of phospho-molybdenum blue colour formation. The differing responses of river waters to physical and chemical conditions of storage. The higher sensitivities of samples with low P concentrations to storage and analytical errors. Given high variability of river water characteristics in space and time, no single standardised methodology for sampling, storage and analysis of P in rivers can be offered. ‘Good Practice’ guidelines are suggested, which recommend that protocols for sampling, storage and analysis of river water for P is based on thorough site-specific method testing and assessment of P stability on storage. For wider sampling programmes at the regional/national scale where intensive site-specific method and stability testing are not feasible, ‘Precautionary Practice’ guidelines are suggested. The study highlights key areas requiring further investigation for improving methodological rigour. Keywords: phosphorus, orthophosphate, soluble reactive, particulate, colorimetry, stability, sensitivity, analytical error, storage, sampling, filtration, preservative, fractionation, digestion

  17. Solubilization of the poorly water soluble drug, telmisartan, using supercritical anti-solvent (SAS) process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Junsung; Cho, Wonkyung; Cha, Kwang-Ho; Ahn, Junhyun; Han, Kang; Hwang, Sung-Joo

    2013-01-30

    Telmisartan is a biopharmaceutical classification system (BCS) class II drug that has extremely low water solubility but is freely soluble in highly alkalized solutions. Few organic solvents can dissolve telmisartan. This solubility problem is the main obstacle achieving the desired bioavailability. Because of its unique characteristics, the supercritical anti-solvent (SAS) process was used to BCS class II drug in a variety of ways including micronization, amorphization and solid dispersion. Solid dispersions were prepared using hydroxypropylmethylcellulose/polyvinylpyrrolidone (HPMC/PVP) at 1:0.5, 1:1, and 1:2 weight ratios of drug to polymer, and pure telmisartan was also treated using the SAS process. Processed samples were characterized for morphology, particle size, crystallinity, solubility, dissolution rate and polymorphic stability. After the SAS process, all samples were converted to the amorphous form and were confirmed to be hundreds nm in size. Solubility and dissolution rate were increased compared to the raw material. Solubility tended to increase with increases in the amount of polymer used. However, unlike the solubility results, the dissolution rate decreased with increases in polymer concentration due to gel layer formation of the polymer. Processed pure telmisartan showed the best drug release even though it had lower solubility compared to other solid dispersions; however, because there were no stabilizers in processed pure telmisartan, it recrystallized after 1 month under severe conditions, while the other solid dispersion samples remained amorphous form. We conclude that after controlling the formulation of solid dispersion, the SAS process could be a promising approach for improving the solubility and dissolution rate of telmisartan.

  18. Quantification of the recovered oil and water fractions during water flooding laboratory experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katika, Konstantina; Halim, Amalia Yunita; Shapiro, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    During core flooding experiments where water is injected in residual oil saturated core plugs, the fluids are often produced in small amounts. Oil and water come out of the core and are collected in glass vials using a fraction collector. Quantification of these fluids is often difficult since th...... the volume might be less than a few microliters. In this study, we approach the determination of the oil volumes in flooding effluents using predetermined amounts of the North Sea oil with synthetic seawater. The UV/visible spectroscopy method and low-field NMR spectrometry are compared...... for this determination, and an account of advantages and disadvantages of each method is given. Both methods are reproducible with high accuracy. The NMR method was capable of direct quantification of both oil and water fractions, while the UV/visible spectroscopy quantifies only the oil fraction using a standard curve....

  19. Supercritical fluid particle design for poorly water-soluble drugs (review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yongda

    2014-01-01

    Supercritical fluid particle design (SCF PD) offers a number of routes to improve solubility and dissolution rate for enhancing the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs, which can be adopted through an in-depth knowledge of SCF PD processes and the molecular properties of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) and drug delivery system (DDS). Combining with research experiences in our laboratory, this review focuses on the most recent development of different routes (nano-micron particles, polymorphic particles, composite particles and bio-drug particles) to improve solubility and dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble drugs, covering the fundamental concept of SCF and the principle of SCF PD processes which are typically used to control particle size, shape, morphology and particle form and hence enable notable improvement in the dissolution rate of the poorly water-soluble drugs. The progress of the industrialization of SCF PD processes in pharmaceutical manufacturing environment with scaled-up plant under current good manufacturing process (GMP) specification is also considered in this review.

  20. High resolution microprofiling, fractionation and speciation at sediment water interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabricius, Anne-Lena; Duester, Lars; Ecker, Dennis; Ternes, Thomas A.

    2016-04-01

    Within aquatic environments, the exchange between the sediment and the overlaying water is often driven by steep gradients of, e.g., the oxygen concentration, the redox potential or the pH value at the sediment water interface (SWI). Important transport processes at the SWI are sedimentation and resuspension of particulate matter and diffusional fluxes of dissolved substances. To gain a better understanding of the key factors and processes determining the fate of substances at the SWI, methods with a spatial high resolution are required that enable the investigation of several sediment parameters in parallel to different analytes of interest in the sediment pore water. Moreover, beside the total content, questions concerning the speciation and fractionation are of concern in studying the different (transport) processes. Due to the availability of numerous micro-sensors and -electrodes (e.g., O2, redox potential, pH value, H2S, N2O) and the development of methods for pore water sampling [1], the toolbox to study the heterogeneous and often dynamic conditions at the SWI at a sub-millimetre scale were considerably improved. Nevertheless, the methods available for pore water sampling often require the installation of the sampling devices at the sampling site and/or intensive preparation procedures that may influence the conditions at the area studied and/or the characteristics of the samples taken. By combination of a micro profiling system with a new micro filtration probe head connected to a pump and a fraction collector, a micro profiling and micro sampling system ("missy") was developed that enables for the first time a direct, automate and low invasive sampling of small volumes (preparation procedures followed by inductively plasma-mass spectrometry analyses, it was possible to address not only the total content of metal(loid)s, but also their fractionation (size dependent and micelle mediated) or speciation related distributions along sediment depth profiles in

  1. Highly Water-Soluble Magnetic Nanoparticles as Novel Draw Solutes in Forward Osmosis for Water Reuse

    KAUST Repository

    Ling, Ming Ming

    2010-06-16

    Highly hydrophilic magnetic nanoparticles have been molecularly designed. For the first time, the application of highly water-soluble magnetic nanoparticles as novel draw solutes in forward osmosis (FO) was systematically investigated. Magnetic nanoparticles functionalized by various groups were synthesized to explore the correlation between the surface chemistry of magnetic nanoparticles and the achieved osmolality. We verified that magnetic nanoparticles capped with polyacrylic acid can yield the highest driving force and subsequently highest water flux among others. The used magnetic nanoparticles can be captured by the magnetic field and recycled back into the stream as draw solutes in the FO process. In addition, magnetic nanoparticles of different diameters were also synthesized to study the effect of particles size on FO performance. We demonstrate that the engineering of surface hydrophilicity and magnetic nanoparticle size is crucial in the application of nanoparticles as draw solutes in FO. It is believed that magnetic nanoparticles will soon be extensively used in this area. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  2. Synthesis of water-dispersible silver nanoparticles by thermal decomposition of water-soluble silver oxalate precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togashi, Takanari; Saito, Kota; Matsuda, Yukiko; Sato, Ibuki; Kon, Hiroki; Uruma, Keirei; Ishizaki, Manabu; Kanaizuka, Katsuhiko; Sakamoto, Masatomi; Ohya, Norimasa; Kurihara, Masato

    2014-08-01

    Silver oxalate, one of the coordination polymer crystals, is a promising synthetic precursor for transformation into Ag nanoparticles without any reducing chemicals via thermal decomposition of the oxalate ions. However, its insoluble nature in solvents has been a great disadvantage, especially for systematic control of crystal growth of the Ag nanoparticles, while such control of inorganic nanoparticles has been generally performed using soluble precursors in homogeneous solutions. In this paper, we document our discovery of water-soluble species from the reaction between the insoluble silver oxalate and N,N-dimethyl-1,3-diaminopropane. The water-soluble species underwent low-temperature thermal decomposition of the oxalate ions at 30 °C with evolution of CO2 to reduce Ag+ to Ag0. Water-dispersible Ag nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized from the water-soluble species in the presence of gelatin via similar thermal decomposition at 100 °C. The gelatin-protected and water-dispersible Ag nanoparticles with a mean diameter of 25.1 nm appeared. In addition, antibacterial activity of the prepared water-dispersible Ag nanoparticles has been preliminarily investigated.

  3. Simulation of soluble waste transport and buildup in surface waters using tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, F.A.

    1993-01-01

    Soluble tracers can be used to simulate the transport and dispersion of soluble wastes that might have been introduced or are planned for introduction into surface waters. Measured tracer-response curves produced from the injection of a known quantity of soluble tracer can be used in conjunction with the superposition principle to simulate potential waste buildup in streams, lakes, and estuaries. Such information is particularly valuable to environmental and water-resource planners in determining the effects of proposed waste discharges. The theory, techniques, analysis, and presentation of results of tracer-waste simulation tests in rivers, lakes, and estuaries are described. This manual builds on other manuals dealing with dye tracing by emphasizing the expanded use of data from time-of-travel studies.

  4. Sources and light absorption of water-soluble brown carbon aerosols in the outflow from northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirillova, E. N.; Andersson, A.; Han, J.; Lee, M.; Gustafsson, Ö.

    2013-07-01

    High loadings of anthropogenic carbonaceous aerosols in Chinese air influence the air quality for over 1 billion people and impact the regional climate. A large fraction (17-80%) of this aerosol carbon is water soluble, promoting cloud formation and thus climate cooling. Recent findings, however, suggest that water-soluble carbonaceous aerosols also absorb sunlight, bringing additional direct and indirect climate warming effects, yet the extent and nature of light absorption by this water-soluble brown carbon (WS-BrC) and its relation to sources is poorly understood. Here, we combine source estimates constrained by dual-carbon-isotope with light absorption measurements of WS-BrC for a March 2011 campaign at the Korea Climate Observatory at Gosan (KCOG), a receptor station in SE Yellow Sea for the outflow from N. China. The mass absorption cross-section (MAC) of WS-BrC for air masses from N. China were in general higher (0.8-1.1 m2 g-1), than from other source regions (0.3-0.8 m2 g-1). We estimate that this effect corresponds to 13-49% of the radiative forcing caused by light absorption by black carbon. Radiocarbon constraints show that the WS-BrC in Chinese outflow had significantly higher amounts of fossil sources (30-50%) compared to previous findings in S. Asia, N. America and Europe. Stable carbon (δ13C) measurements indicated influence of aging during air mass transport. These results indicate the importance of incorporating WS-BrC in climate models and the need to constrain climate effects by emission source sector.

  5. Sources and light absorption of water-soluble brown carbon aerosols in the outflow from northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Kirillova

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available High loadings of anthropogenic carbonaceous aerosols in Chinese air influence the air quality for over 1 billion people and impact the regional climate. A large fraction (17–80% of this aerosol carbon is water soluble, promoting cloud formation and thus climate cooling. Recent findings, however, suggest that water-soluble carbonaceous aerosols also absorb sunlight, bringing additional direct and indirect climate warming effects, yet the extent and nature of light absorption by this water-soluble brown carbon (WS-BrC and its relation to sources is poorly understood. Here, we combine source estimates constrained by dual-carbon-isotope with light absorption measurements of WS-BrC for a March 2011 campaign at the Korea Climate Observatory at Gosan (KCOG, a receptor station in SE Yellow Sea for the outflow from N. China. The mass absorption cross-section (MAC of WS-BrC for air masses from N. China were in general higher (0.8–1.1 m2 g−1, than from other source regions (0.3–0.8 m2 g−1. We estimate that this effect corresponds to 13–49% of the radiative forcing caused by light absorption by black carbon. Radiocarbon constraints show that the WS-BrC in Chinese outflow had significantly higher amounts of fossil sources (30–50% compared to previous findings in S. Asia, N. America and Europe. Stable carbon (δ13C measurements indicated influence of aging during air mass transport. These results indicate the importance of incorporating WS-BrC in climate models and the need to constrain climate effects by emission source sector.

  6. Carbon deposition in soil rhizosphere following amendments with compost and its soluble fractions, as evaluated by combined soil-plant rhizobox and reporter gene systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglisi, Edoardo; Fragoulis, George; Del Re, Attilio A M; Spaccini, Riccardo; Piccolo, Alessandro; Gigliotti, Giovanni; Said-Pullicino, Daniel; Trevisan, Marco

    2008-11-01

    We determined the organic carbon released by roots of maize plants (Zea mays L.) when grown in soils amended with compost and its soluble fractions. In rhizobox systems, soil and roots are separated from the soil of a lower compartment by a nylon membrane. Treatments are applied to the upper compartment, while in the lower compartment luminescent biosensors measure the bioavailable organic carbon released by roots (rhizodeposition). The rhizobox-plants systems were amended with a compost (COM), its water extract (TEA), the hydrophobic (HoDOM) and hydrophilic (HiDOM) fractions of the dissolved organic matter (DOM) extracted from the compost. After root development, the lower untreated compartments were sampled and sliced into thin layers. The bioavailable organic carbon in each layer was assessed with the lux-marked biosensor Pseudomonas fluorescens 10586 pUCD607, and compared with total organic carbon (TOC) analyses. The TOC values ranged between 8.4 and 9.6 g kg(-1) and did not show any significant differences between bulk and rhizosphere soil samples in any treatment. Conversely, the biosensor detected significant differences in available C compounds for rhizosphere soils amended with various organic materials. Concentrations of available organic compounds in the first 2 mm of soil rhizosphere were 1.69 (control), 1.09 (COM), 2.87 (HiDOM), 4.73 (HoDOM) and 2.14 (TEA)micromol Cg(-1) soil g(-1) roots. The applied rhizobox-biosensor integrated method was successful in detecting and quantifying effects of organic amendments on organic carbon released by maize plant roots. This approach may become important in assessing the carbon cycle in agricultural soils and soil-atmosphere compartments.

  7. The effects of fire temperatures on water soluble heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, P.; Ubeda, X.; Martin, D. A.

    2009-04-01

    Fire ash are majority composed by base cations, however the mineralized organic matter, led also available to transport a higher quantity of heavy metals that potentially could increase a toxicity in soil and water resources. The amount availability of these elements depend on the environment were the fire took place, burning temperature and combusted tree specie. The soil and water contamination from fire ash has been neglected, because the majority of studies are focused on base cations dynamic. Our research, beside contemplate major elements, is focused in to study the behavior of heavy metals released from ash slurries created at several temperatures under laboratory environment, prescribed fires and wildland fires. The results presented in these communication are preliminary and study the presence of Aluminium (Al3+), Manganese (Mn2+), Iron (Fe2+) and Zinc (Zn2+) of ash slurries generated in laboratory environment at several temperatures (150°, 200°, 250°, 300°, 350°, 400°,450°, 500°, 550°C) from Quercus suber, Quercus robur, Pinus pinea and Pinus pinaster and from a low medium temperature prescribed fire in a forest dominated Quercus suber trees. We observed that ash produced at lower and medium temperatures (Quercus species and Mn2+ in Pinus ashes. Fe2+ and Zn2+ showed a reduced concentration in test solution in relation to unburned sample at all temperatures of exposition. In the results obtained from prescribed fire, we identify a higher release of Al3+ and a decrease of the remain elements. The solubilization of these elements are related with pH levels and ash calcite content, because their ability to capture ions in solution. Moreover, the amount and the type of ions released in relation to unburned sample vary in each specie. In this study Al3+ release is related with Quercus species and Mn2+ with Pinus species. Fire ashes can be an environmental problem, because at long term can increase soil acidity. After all base cations have being leached

  8. Large-scale isolation, fractionation, and purification of soluble starch-synthesizing enzymes: starch synthase and branching enzyme from potato tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukerjea, Rupendra; Falconer, Daniel J; Yoon, Seung-Heon; Robyt, John F

    2010-07-19

    Soluble starch-synthesizing enzymes, starch synthase (SSS) and starch-branching enzyme (SBE), were isolated, fractionated, and purified from white potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum) on a large scale. Five steps were used: potato tuber extract from 2 kg of peeled potatoes, two acetone precipitations, and two fractionations on a large ultrafiltration polysulfone hollow fiber 100 kDa cartridge. Three kinds of fractions were obtained: (1) mixtures of SSS and SBE; (2) SSS, free of SBE; and (3) SBE, free of SSS. Contaminating enzymes (amylase, phosphorylase, and disproportionating enzyme) and carbohydrates were absent from the 2nd acetone precipitate and from the column fractions, as judged by the Molisch test and starch triiodide test. Activity yields of 122% (300,000-400,000 units) of SSS fractions and 187% (40,000-50,000 units) of SBE fractions were routinely obtained from the cartridge. Addition of 0.04% (w/v) polyvinyl alcohol 50K and 1 mM dithiothreitol to the glycine buffer (pH 8.4) gave long-term stability and higher yields of SSS and SBE, due to activation of inactive enzymes. Several SSS and SBE fractions from the two fractionations had very high specific activities, indicating high degrees of purification. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of selected SSS and SBE fractions gave two to five SSS and/or SBE activity bands, corresponding to the one to five protein bands present in the 2nd acetone precipitate.

  9. Water-soluble constituents of caraway: aromatic compound, aromatic compound glucoside and glucides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Tetsuko; Ishikawa, Toru; Kitajima, Junichi

    2002-10-01

    From the water-soluble portion of the methanolic extract of caraway (fruit of Carum carvi L.), an aromatic compound, an aromatic compound glucoside and a glucide were isolated together with 16 known compounds. Their structures were clarified as 2-methoxy-2-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)ethanol, junipediol A 2-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and L-fucitol, respectively.

  10. Measurement of solubility and water sorption of dental nanocomposites light cured by argon laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirsasaani, Seyed Shahabeddin; Ghomi, Farhad; Hemati, Mehran; Tavasoli, Tina

    2013-03-01

    Different parameters used for photoactivation process and also composition provide changes in the properties of dental composites. In the present work the effect of different power density of argon laser and filler loading on solubility (SL) and water sorption (WS) of light-cure dental nanocomposites was studied. The resin of nanocomposites was prepared by mixing bisphenol A glycol dimethacrylate (Bis-GMA) and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) with a mass ratio of 65/35. 20 wt.% and 25 wt.% of nanosilica fillers with a primary particle size of 10 nm were added to the resin. Camphorquinone (CQ) and DMAEMA were added as photoinitiator system. The nanocomposites were cured by applying the laser beam at the wavelength of 472 nm and power densities of 260 and 340 mW/cm(2) for 40 sec. Solubility and water sorption were then measured according to ISO 4049, which in our case, the maximums were 2.2% and 4.3% at 260 mW/cm(2) and 20% filler, respectively. The minimum solubility (1.2%) and water sorption (3.8%) were achieved for the composite containing 25% filler cured at 340 mW/cm(2). The results confirmed that higher power density and filler loading decreased solubility of unreacted monomers and water sorption and improved physico-mechanical properties of nanocomposites.

  11. Water sorption and solubility of methacrylate resin-based root canal sealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Adam; Sword, Jeremy; Nishitani, Yoshihiro; Yoshiyama, Masahiro; Agee, Kelli; Tay, Franklin R; Pashley, David H

    2007-08-01

    The water sorption and solubility characteristics of three contemporary methacrylate resin-based endodontic sealers, EndoREZ, Epiphany, and InnoEndo, were compared with those obtained from Kerr EWT, Ketac-Endo (positive control), GuttaFlow, and AH Plus (both negative controls). Ten disks of each material were dehydrated in Drierite for 24 h and weighed to constant dry mass. They were placed in water and weighed periodically until maximum water sorption was obtained. The disks were dehydrated again to determine their mass loss (solubility) at equilibrium. Epiphany exhibited the highest apparent water sorption (8%) followed by Ketac-Endo (6.2%), InnoEndo (3.4%), EndoREZ (3.0%), AH Plus (1.1%), GuttaFlow (0.4%), and Kerr EWT (0.3%). Significantly higher solubility (3.5-4%) were observed for all three methacrylate resin-based sealers and Kerr EWT (3.95%), compared with Ketac-Endo (1.6%), AH Plus (0.16%), and GuttaFlow (0.13%). American Dental Association specifications require<3% solubility for endodontic sealers. Only Ketac-Endo, AH Plus, and GuttaFlow met that criterion.

  12. In vitro degradation of dermal sheep collagen cross-linked using a water-soluble carbodiimide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olde damink, L.H.H.; Olde Damink, L.H.H.; Dijkstra, Pieter J.; van Luyn, M.J.A.; van Wachem, P.B.; Nieuwenhuis, P.; Feijen, Jan

    1996-01-01

    Bacterial collagenase was used to study the susceptibility of dermal sheep collagen (DSC) crosslinked with a mixture of the water-soluble carbodiimide 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl)-carbodiimide hydrochloride and N-hydroxysuccinimide (E/N-DSC) towards enzymatic degradation. Contrary to

  13. In vitro degradation of dermal sheep collagen cross-linked using a water-soluble carbodiimide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damink, LHHO; Dijkstra, PJ; vanLuyn, MJA; vanWachem, PB; Nieuwenhuis, P; Feijen, J

    Bacterial collagenase was used to study the susceptibility of dermal sheep collagen (DSC) cross-inked with a mixture of the water-soluble carbodiimide 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride and N-hydroxysuccinimide (EIN-DSC) towards enzymatic degradation. Contrary to

  14. In vitro degradation of dermal sheep collagen cross-linked using a water-soluble carbodiimide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damink, LHHO; Dijkstra, PJ; vanLuyn, MJA; vanWachem, PB; Nieuwenhuis, P; Feijen, J

    1996-01-01

    Bacterial collagenase was used to study the susceptibility of dermal sheep collagen (DSC) cross-inked with a mixture of the water-soluble carbodiimide 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride and N-hydroxysuccinimide (EIN-DSC) towards enzymatic degradation. Contrary to non-cross-

  15. In vitro degradation of dermal sheep collagen cross-linked using a water-soluble carbodiimide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olde Damink, L.H.H.; Dijkstra, P.J.; Luyn, van M.J.A.; Wachem, van P.B.; Nieuwenhuis, P.; Feijen, J.

    1996-01-01

    Bacterial collagenase was used to study the susceptibility of dermal sheep collagen (DSC) crosslinked with a mixture of the water-soluble carbodiimide 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl)-carbodiimide hydrochloride and N-hydroxysuccinimide (E/N-DSC) towards enzymatic degradation. Contrary to non-cross

  16. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence of highly luminescent water-soluble CdTe quantum dots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Wei Liu; Yu Zhang; Cun Wang Ge; Yong Long Jin; Sun Ling Hu; Ning Gu

    2009-01-01

    Highly luminescent water-soluble CdTe quantum dots (QDs) have been synthesized with an electrogenerated precursor. The obtained CdTe QDs can possess good crystallizability, high quantum yield (QY) and favorable stability. Furthermore, a detection system is designed firstly for the investigation of the temperature-dependent PL of the QDs.

  17. Temperature and sodium chloride effects on the solubility of anthracene in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arias-Gonzalez, Israel [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Direccion de Investigacion y Posgrado, Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Area de Investigacion en Termofisica, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas Norte 152. 07730, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Reza, Joel, E-mail: jreza@imp.m [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Direccion de Investigacion y Posgrado, Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Area de Investigacion en Termofisica, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas Norte 152. 07730, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Trejo, Arturo, E-mail: atrejo@imp.m [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Direccion de Investigacion y Posgrado, Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Area de Investigacion en Termofisica, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas Norte 152. 07730, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-11-15

    The solubility of anthracene was measured in pure water and in sodium chloride aqueous solution (salt concentration, m/mol . kg{sup -1} = 0.1006, 0.5056, and 0.6082) at temperatures between (278 and 333) K. Solubility of anthracene in pure water agrees fairly well with values reported in earlier similar studies. Solubility of anthracene in sodium chloride aqueous solutions ranged from (6 . 10{sup -8} to 143 . 10{sup -8}) mol . kg{sup -1}. Sodium chloride had a salting-out effect on the solubility of anthracene. The salting-out coefficients did not vary significantly with temperature over the range studied. The average salting-out coefficient for anthracene was 0.256 kg . mol{sup -1}. The standard molar Gibbs free energies, {Delta}{sub tr}G{sup o}, enthalpies, {Delta}{sub tr}H{sup o}, and entropies, {Delta}{sub tr}S{sup o}, for the transfer of anthracene from pure water to sodium chloride aqueous solutions were also estimated. Most of the estimated {Delta}{sub tr}G{sup o} values were positive [(20 to 1230) J . mol{sup -1}]. The analysis of the thermodynamic parameters shows that the transfer of anthracene from pure water to sodium chloride aqueous solution is thermodynamically unfavorable, and that this unfavorable condition is caused by a decrease in entropy.

  18. Cross-linking of dermal sheep collagen using a water-soluble carbodiimide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olde Damink, L.H.H.; Dijkstra, P.J.; Luyn, van M.J.A.; Wachem, van P.B.; Nieuwenhuis, P.; Feijen, J.

    1996-01-01

    A cross-linking method for collagen-based biomaterials was developed using the water-soluble carbodiimide 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC). Cross-linking using EDC involves the activation of carboxylic acid groups to give O-acylisourea groups, which form cross-links

  19. Processes controlling the production of aromatic water-soluble organic matter during litter decomposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klotzbücher, T.; Kaiser, K.; Filley, T.R.; Kalbitz, K.

    2013-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays a fundamental role for many soil processes. For instance, production, transport, and retention of DOM control properties and long-term storage of organic matter in mineral soils. Production of water-soluble compounds during the decomposition of plant litter is a

  20. Profiling and relationship of water-soluble sugar and protein compositions in soybean seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaomin; Yuan, Fengjie; Fu, Xujun; Zhu, Danhua

    2016-04-01

    Sugar and protein are important quality traits in soybean seeds for making soy-based food products. However, the investigations on both compositions and their relationship have rarely been reported. In this study, a total of 35 soybean germplasms collected from Zhejiang province of China, were evaluated for both water-soluble sugar and protein. The total water-soluble sugar (TWSS) content of the germplasms studied ranged from 84.70 to 140.91 mg/g and the water-soluble protein (WSP) content varied from 26.5% to 36.0%. The WSP content showed positive correlations with the TWSS and sucrose contents but negative correlations with the fructose and glucose contents. The clustering showed the 35 germplasms could be divided into four groups with specific contents of sugar and protein. The combination of water-soluble sugar and protein profiles provides useful information for future breeding and genetic research. This investigation will facilitate future work for seed quality improvement.

  1. Differences in dinucleotide frequencies of thermophilic genes encoding water soluble and membrane proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hiroshi NAKASHIMA; Yuka KURODA

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence frequencies of the dinucleotides of genes of three thermophilic and three mesophilic species from both archaea and eubacteria were investigated in this study. The genes encoding water soluble proteins were rich in the dinucleotides of purine dimers, whereas the genes encoding membrane proteins were rich in pyrimidine dimers. The dinucleotides of purine dimers are the counterparts of pyrimidine dimers in a double-stranded DNA. The purine/pyrimidine dimers were favored in the thermophiles but not in the mesophiles, based on comparisons of observed and expected frequencies. This finding is in agreement with our previous study which showed that purine/pyrimidine dimers are positive factors that increase the thermal stability of DNA. The dinucleotides AA, AG, and GA are components of the codons of charged residues of Glu, Asp, Lys, and Arg, and the dinucleotides TT, CT, and TC are components of the codons of hydrophobic residues of Leu, He, and Phe. This is consistent with the suitabilities of the different amino acid residues for water soluble and membrane proteins. Our analysis provides a picture of how thermophilic species produce water soluble and membrane proteins with distinctive characters: the genes encoding water soluble proteins use DNA sequences rich in purine dimers, and the genes encoding membrane proteins use DNA sequences rich in pyrimidine dimers on the opposite strand.

  2. Biphasic and SAPC Hydroformylation Catalyzed by Rh-phosphines Bound to Water-Soluble Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmstrøm, Torsten; Andersson, Carlaxel; Hjortkjær, Jes

    1999-01-01

    Coupling of the triphenylphosphine moiety to poly-acrylic acid and poly-ethyleneimine respectively afford the macromolecular ligands PAA-PNH and PEI-PNH. Reaction of the ligands with Rh(CO)2(acac) give water-soluble complexes that are active as catalysts in the hydroformylation ofdifferent olefins...

  3. Water-soluble vitamin deficiencies in complicated peptic ulcer patients soon after ulcer onset in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Kazumasa; Akimoto, Teppei; Kusakabe, Makoto; Sato, Wataru; Yamada, Akiyoshi; Yamawaki, Hiroshi; Kodaka, Yasuhiro; Shinpuku, Mayumi; Nagoya, Hiroyuki; Shindo, Tomotaka; Ueki, Nobue; Kusunoki, Masafumi; Kawagoe, Tetsuro; Futagami, Seiji; Tsukui, Taku; Sakamoto, Choitsu

    2013-01-01

    We investigated over time whether contemporary Japanese patients with complicated peptic ulcers have any water-soluble vitamin deficiencies soon after the onset of the complicated peptic ulcers. In this prospective cohort study, fasting serum levels of water-soluble vitamins (vitamins B1, B2, B6, B12, C, and folic acid) and homocysteine were measured at 3 time points (at admission, hospital discharge, and 3 mo after hospital discharge). Among the 20 patients who were enrolled in the study, 10 consecutive patients who completed measurements at all 3 time points were analyzed. The proportion of patients in whom any of the serum water-soluble vitamins that we examined were deficient was as high as 80% at admission, and remained at 70% at discharge. The proportion of patients with vitamin B6 deficiency was significantly higher at admission and discharge (50% and 60%, respectively, ppeptic ulcers may have a deficiency of one or more water-soluble vitamins in the early phase of the disease after the onset of ulcer complications, even in a contemporary Japanese population.

  4. CORAL: QSPR model of water solubility based on local and global SMILES attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toropov, Andrey A; Toropova, Alla P; Benfenati, Emilio; Gini, Giuseppina; Leszczynska, Danuta; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    Water solubility is an important characteristic of a chemical in many aspects. However experimental definition of the endpoint for all substances is impossible. In this study quantitative structure-property relationships (QSPRs) for negative logarithm of water solubility-logS (mol L(-1)) are built up for five random splits into the sub-training set (≈55%), the calibration set (≈25%), and the test set (≈20%). Simplified molecular input-line entry system (SMILES) is used as the representation of the molecular structure. Optimal SMILES-based descriptors are calculated by means of the Monte Carlo method using the CORAL software (http://www.insilico.eu/coral). These one-variable models for water solubility are characterized by the following average values of the statistical characteristics: n(sub_train)=725-763; n(calib)=312-343; n(test)=231-261; r(sub_train)(2)=0.9211±0.0028; r(calib)(2)=0.9555±0.0045; r(test)(2)=0.9365±0.0073; s(sub_train)=0.561±0.0086; s(calib)=0.453±0.0209; s(test)=0.520±0.0205. Thus, the reproducibility of statistical quality of suggested models for water solubility confirmed for five various splits. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Chemical characterization of extractable water soluble matter associated with PM10 from Mexico City during 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Castillo, M E; Olivos-Ortiz, M; De Vizcaya-Ruiz, A; Cebrián, M E

    2005-11-01

    We report the chemical composition of PM10-associated water-soluble species in Mexico City during the second semester of 2000. PM10 samples were collected at four ambient air quality monitoring sites in Mexico City. We determined soluble ions (chloride, nitrate, sulfate, ammonium, sodium, potassium), ionizable transition metals (Zn, Fe, Ti, Pb, Mn, V, Ni, Cr, Cu) and soluble protein. The higher PM(10) levels were observed in Xalostoc (45-174 microg m(-3)) and the lowest in Pedregal (19-54 microg m(-3)). The highest SO2 average concentrations were observed in Tlalnepantla, NO2 in Merced and O3 and NO(x) in Pedregal. The concentration range of soluble sulfate was 6.7-7.9 and 19-25.5 microg m(-3) for ammonium, and 14.8-29.19 for soluble V and 3.2-7.7 ng m(-3) for Ni, suggesting a higher contribution of combustion sources. PM-associated soluble protein levels varied between 0.038 and 0.169 mg m(-3), representing a readily inhalable constituent that could contribute to adverse outcomes. The higher levels for most parameters studied were observed during the cold dry season, particularly in December. A richer content of soluble metals was observed when they were expressed by mass/mass units rather than by air volume units. Significant correlations between Ni-V, Ni-SO4(-2), V-SO4(-2), V-SO2, Ni-SO2 suggest the same type of emission source. The variable soluble metal and ion concentrations were strongly influenced by the seasonal meteoclimatic conditions and the differential contribution of emission sources. Our data support the idea that PM10 mass concentration by itself does not provide a clear understanding of a local PM air pollution problem.

  6. Insoluble fraction of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) protein possessing cholesterol-binding properties that reduce micelle cholesterol solubility and uptake by Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Brandon T; Barnes, David M; Reed, Jess D

    2007-07-25

    Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) protein (BWP) exhibits hypocholesterolemic activity in several animal models by increasing fecal excretion of neutral and acidic sterols. In the current study, the ability of BWP to disrupt micelle cholesterol solubility by sequestration of cholesterol was investigated. When BWP (0.2%) was incubated with cholesterol and micelle lipid components prior to micelle formation, cholesterol solubility was reduced 40%. In contrast, cholesterol solubility was not decreased when BWP (0.2%) was incubated after micelle formation and incorporation of soluble cholesterol. Buckwheat flour, from which BWP was derived, had no significant effect on cholesterol solubility. Cholesterol uptake in Caco-2 cells from micelles made in the presence of BWP (0.2%) was reduced by 47, 36, 35, and 33% when compared with buckwheat flour, bovine serum albumin, casein, and gelatin, respectively. Reduction in cholesterol uptake in Caco-2 cells was dose-dependent, with maximum reductions at 0.1-0.4% BWP. In cholesterol-binding experiments, 83% of the cholesterol was associated with an insoluble BWP fraction, indicating strong cholesterol-binding capacity that disrupts solubility and uptake by Caco-2 cells.

  7. A study of lipid- and water-soluble arsenic species in liver of Northeast Arctic cod (Gadus morhua) containing high levels of total arsenic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sele, Veronika; Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Julshamn, Kale;

    2015-01-01

    In the present study liver samples (n = 26) of Northeast Arctic cod (Gadus morhua), ranging in total arsenic concentrations from 2.1 to 240 mg/kg liver wet weight (ww), were analysed for their content of total arsenic and arsenic species in the lipid-soluble and water-soluble fractions. The arsenic...... concentrations in the lipid fractions ranged from 1.8 to 16.4 mg As/kg oil of liver, and a linear correlation (r(2) = 0.80, p arsenic concentrations in liver and the total arsenic concentrations in the respective lipid fractions of the same livers. The relative proportion...... of arsenolipids was considerably lower in liver samples with high total arsenic levels (33-240 mg/kg ww), which contained from 3 to 7% of the total arsenic in the lipid-soluble fraction. In contrast liver samples with low arsenic concentrations (2.1-33 mg/kg ww) contained up to 50% of the total arsenic as lipid...

  8. Effect of Application of Increasing Concentrations of Contaminated Water on the Different Fractions of Cu and Co in Sandy Loam and Clay Loam Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Volk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to establish the fate of copper (Cu and cobalt (Co in sandy loam and clay loam soils that had been irrigated with increasing concentrations of contaminated water. A sequential extraction procedure was used to determine the fractions of Cu and Co in these soils. The concentration of bioavailable Cu and Co on clay loam was 1.7 times that of sandy loam soil. Cu on sandy loam soil was largely in the organic > residual > exchangeable > water-soluble > carbonate fractions, whereas on clay loam soil the element was largely in organic > exchangeable > residual > carbonate > water-soluble fractions. Co was largely observed in the exchangeable, water-soluble, and carbonate fractions, but with no particular trend observed in both soil types. When crops are grown on sandy soils that have a low capacity to hold heavy metals, the resulting effect would be high uptake of the heavy metals in crop plants. Because the predominant forms of Cu and Co vary in soils, it is expected that the metals will behave differently in the soils.

  9. Soluble vs. insoluble fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insoluble vs. soluble fiber; Fiber - soluble vs. insoluble ... There are 2 different types of fiber -- soluble and insoluble. Both are important for health, digestion, and preventing diseases. Soluble fiber attracts water and turns to gel during digestion. ...

  10. Seasonal and diurnal characteristics of water soluble inorganic compounds in the gas and aerosol phase in the Zurich area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Fisseha

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas and aerosol samples were taken using a wet effluent diffusion denuder/aerosol collector (WEDD/AC coupled to ion chromatography (IC in the city of Zurich, Switzerland from August to September 2002 and in March 2003. Major water soluble inorganic ions; nitrate, sulfate, and nitrite were analyzed online with a time resolution of two hours for the gas and aerosol phase. The fraction of water soluble inorganic anions in PM10 varied from 15% in August to about 38% in March. Seasonal and diurnal variations of nitrate in the gas and aerosol phase were observed with more than 50% of the total nitrate in the gas phase during August and more than 80% of nitrate in the aerosol phase during March exceeding the concentration of sulfate by a factor of 2. Aerosol sulfate, on the other hand, did not show significant variability with season. However, in the gas phase, the SO2 concentration was 6.5 times higher in winter than in summer. Nitrous acid (HONO also showed a diurnal variation in both the gas and aerosol phase with the lowest concentration (0.2–0.6 µg/m3 in the afternoon. The primary pollutants, NO, CO and SO2 mixing ratios were often at their highest between 04:00–10:00 local time due to the build up of fresh vehicle emission under a nocturnal inversion.

  11. Antimicrobial and Antifungal Effects of Acid and Water-Soluble Chitosan Extracted from Indian Shrimp (Fenneropenaeus indicus Shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Taheri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective : Currently, efforts are underway to seek new and effective antimicrobial agents, and marine resources are potent candidates for this aim. The following study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of water-soluble and acid-soluble chitosan against some pathogenic organisms.   Materials & Method s: Inhibition zone of different concentrations (5, 7.5, and 10 mg/ml of acid- soluble and water-soluble chitosan were examined for in vitro antibacterial activity against 4 kinds of hospital bacteria and penicillium sp. Results were compared with 4 standard antibiotics: streptomycin, gentamicin, tetracycline, and erythromycin. Furthermore, minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum lethal concentration were determined.   Results: Inhibition activity of acid-soluble chitosan (10% showed the best result (p value < 0.05, whereas water-soluble chitosan exhibited the least antibacterial effects (p value < 0.05. Chitosan demonstrated maximum effect on V. cholera cerotype ogava , and the least effect was seen on E. coli (p value < 0.05. Acid-soluble chitosan had a more potent effect than the standard antibiotics. Also, acid-soluble chitosan (10% and water-soluble chitosan showed maximum inhibitory effects on penicillium sp.   Conclusion: Chitosan showed maximum antibacterial effect against S. aureus, V. cholerae cerotype ogava, and water-soluble chitosan demonstrated good antifungal effects, revealing a statistically significant difference with common antibacterial and antifungal medicines.

  12. Occurrence of selected volatile organic compounds and soluble pesticides in Texas public water-supply source waters, 1999-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Barbara June; Canova, Michael G.; Gary, Marcus O.

    2002-01-01

    During 1999?2001, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission, collected samples of untreated water from 48 public water-supply reservoirs and 174 public water-supply wells. The samples were analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and soluble pesticides; in addition, well samples were analyzed for nitrite plus nitrate and tritium. This fact sheet summarizes the findings of the source-water sampling and analyses. Both VOCs and pesticides were detected much more frequently in surface water than in ground water. The only constituent detected at concentrations exceeding the maximum contaminant level for drinking water was nitrate. These results will be used in the Texas Source-Water Assessment Program to evaluate the susceptibility of public water-supply source waters to contamination.

  13. Phytoactivity of secondary compounds in aromatic plants by volatile and water-soluble ways of release

    OpenAIRE

    A. S. Dias; Dias, L. S.

    2005-01-01

    Phytoactivity should be expected as a generalized trait of secondary plant compounds if their primary role is defence against co-occurring plants, and volatilization should be their predominant way of release in dry climates while in wet climates water leaching should prevail. Bioassays were designed to compare the ability of volatiles and water-solubles of four aromatic species thriving in dry environments (Cistus salvifolius L., Foeniculum vulgare Miller, Myrtus communis L., and Rosmarinus ...

  14. Lipid-nanoemulsions as drug delivery carriers for poorly-water soluble drug

    OpenAIRE

    Veerendra K. Nanjwade; F. V. Manvi; Basavaraj K. Nanjwade; Katare, O P

    2013-01-01

    To enhance the bioavailability of the poorly water-soluble drug Aceclofenac, a lipidnanoemulsion comprising ethanolic solution of phospholipid 90 G and tween 80 in 1:1 ratio (Smix), triacetin and anseed oil as oil phase and distilled water as aqueous phase, in the ratio of 55:15:30 (% w/w) was developed by constructing pseudo-ternary phase diagrams and evaluated for viscosity, % transmittance, and surface morphology of nanoemulsions. In vitro diffusion (release) of Aceclofenac from three diff...

  15. Nanoformulation and encapsulation approaches for poorly water-soluble drug nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wais, Ulrike; Jackson, Alexander W.; He, Tao; Zhang, Haifei

    2016-01-01

    During the last few decades the nanomedicine sector has emerged as a feasible and effective solution to the problems faced by the high percentage of poorly water-soluble drugs. Decreasing the size of such drug compounds to the nanoscale can significantly change their physical properties, which lays the foundation for the use of nanomedicine for pharmaceutical applications. Various techniques have been developed to produce poorly water-soluble drug nanoparticles, mainly to address the poor water-soluble issues but also for the efficient and targeted delivery of such drugs. These techniques can be generally categorized into top-down, bottom-up and encapsulation approaches. Among them, the top-down approaches have been the main choice for industrial preparation of drug nanoparticles while other methods are actively investigated by researchers. In this review, we aim to give a comprehensive overview and latest progress of the top-down, bottom-up, and encapsulation methods for the preparation of poorly water-soluble drug nanoparticles and how solvents and additives can be selected for these methods. In addition to the more industrially applied top-down approaches, the review is focused more on bottom-up and encapsulation methods, particularly covering supercritical fluid-related methods, cryogenic techniques, and encapsulation with dendrimers and responsive block copolymers. Some of the approved and mostly used nanodrug formulations on the market are also covered to demonstrate the applications of poorly water-soluble drug nanoparticles. This review is complete with perspectives on the development and challenges of fabrication techniques for more effective nanomedicine.

  16. PURIFICATION OF WATER SOLUBLE PROTEINS (2S ALBUMINS EXTRACTED FROM PEANUT DEFATTED FLOUR AND ISOLATION OF THEIR ISOFORMS BY GEL FILTRATION AND ANION EXCHANGE CHROMATOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IMÈNE BOUALEG

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available 2S albumins are water-soluble seed storage proteins present in dicotyledonous plants, including legumes. In peanuts, 2S albumins have been identified as major allergens. In this work, we aimed to study these water soluble allergenic proteins. They were extracted in water from peanut defatted flour (oilcake. It was quantified by Bradford method. The total and insoluble proteins content was determined by Kjeldahl method (% P = N x 6.25. The crude 2S albumins were purified using gel-filtration chromatography. Anion exchange chromatography analysis was applied to isolate their isoforms. The recorded values for total and insoluble proteins are 45.49 % and 36.65 % consecutively. A value of 9.99 % was determined for water soluble proteins content which correspond to 20 % compared to the total proteins. Analysis by Sephadex G-75 chromatography of soluble extract gave two majors peaks in which, the Mr ~ 25 kDa peak was predicted to be pure 2S albumin fraction. Using DAEA-cellulose chromatography, two peaks were appeared from pure 2S albumins, it were predicted that 2S albumin isoforms theoretically represent the peanut major allergens Ara h2 and Ara h6. These approaches are the basis for further studies may involve immunological analysis to understand the impact of these biomolecules on peanut allergenicity.

  17. Water-soluble organic compounds (WSOCs) in PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10} at a subtropical site of India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khare, Puja; Baruah, B.P.; Rao, P.G. (North East Inst. of Science and Technology (NEIST), Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Jorhat (India)), e-mail: kharepuja@rediffmail.com

    2011-11-15

    PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10} samples collected at a suburban site of northeastern part of India have been analysed for particle mass, total carbon (TC), water-soluble total carbon (WSTC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), water-soluble inorganic carbon (WSIC), organic acids (formic, acetic, proponoic and oxalic acids) along with inorganic ions (NO{sub 3}{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and NH{sup 4-}). Most of the PM{sub 10} consists of PM{sub 2.5} in the present site (ratio 54-74%). WSTC content in PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10} corresponds to 21% and 16%, respectively, of their total particle masses. Thermo gravimetric analysis showed the presence of humic-like substances (16-22%) in particulate samples. Domestic heating and stagnant atmospheric conditions enhanced the levels of these carbonaceous compounds in PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10} in winter. Qualitative estimation of various functional groups by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis indicates the presence of carboxylic, hydroxyl, aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, amines and sulphurous compounds in these aerosols. Absolute principal component analysis applied on the aerosol data resolves four factors. These factors are associated with carbonaceous aerosols released from combustion of coal and wood, secondary inorganic and organic aerosols and water-soluble inorganic fraction

  18. Formation of water-soluble soybean polysaccharides from spent flakes by hydrogen peroxide treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierce, Brian; Wichmann, Jesper; Tran, Tam H.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we propose a novel chemical process for the generation of water-soluble polysaccharides from soy spent flake, a by-product of the soy food industry. This process entails treatment of spent flake with hydrogen peroxide at an elevated temperature, resulting in the release of more than...... 70% of the original insoluble material as high molar mass soluble polysaccharides. A design of experiment was used to quantify the effects of pH, reaction time, and hydrogen peroxide concentration on the reaction yield, average molar mass, and free monosaccharides generated. The resulting product...

  19. Amorphous solid dispersions and nano-crystal technologies for poorly water-soluble drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brough, Chris; Williams, R O

    2013-08-30

    Poor water-solubility is a common characteristic of drug candidates in pharmaceutical development pipelines today. Various processes have been developed to increase the solubility, dissolution rate and bioavailability of these active ingredients belonging to BCS II and IV classifications. Over the last decade, nano-crystal delivery forms and amorphous solid dispersions have become well established in commercially available products and industry literature. This article is a comparative analysis of these two methodologies primarily for orally delivered medicaments. The thermodynamic and kinetic theories relative to these technologies are presented along with marketed product evaluations and a survey of commercial relevant scientific literature.

  20. Water solubility of selected C9-C18 alkanes using a slow-stir technique: Comparison to structure - property models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letinski, Daniel J; Parkerton, Thomas F; Redman, Aaron D; Connelly, Martin J; Peterson, Brian

    2016-05-01

    Aqueous solubility is a fundamental physical-chemical substance property that strongly influences the distribution, fate and effects of chemicals upon release into the environment. Experimental water solubility was determined for 18 selected C9-C18 normal, branched and cyclic alkanes. A slow-stir technique was applied to obviate emulsion formation, which historically has resulted in significant overestimation of the aqueous solubility of such hydrophobic liquid compounds. Sensitive GC-MS based methods coupled with contemporary sample extraction techniques were employed to enable reproducible analysis of low parts-per billion aqueous concentrations. Water solubility measurements for most of the compounds investigated, are reported for the first time expanding available data for branched and cyclic alkanes. Measured water solubilities spanned four orders of magnitude ranging from 0.3 μg/L to 250 μg/L. Good agreement was observed for selected alkanes tested in this work and reported in earlier literature demonstrating the robustness of the slow-stir water solubility technique. Comparisons of measured alkane water solubilities were also made with those predicted by commonly used quantitative structure-property relationship models (e.g. SPARC, EPIWIN, ACD/Labs). Correlations are also presented between alkane measured water solubilities and molecular size parameters (e.g. molar volume, solvent accessible molar volume) affirming a mechanistic description of empirical aqueous solubility results and prediction previously reported for a more limited set of alkanes.

  1. Solubilities of benzene, toluene and diphenyl in the t-butyl alcohol + water mixtures and hydrophobic interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹立壮; 杨冠英; 韩布兴; 刘瑞麟; 阎海科

    1999-01-01

    The solubilitices of benzene, toluene and diphenyl in mixed solvents of t-butyl alcohol (TBA) and water at 283.15, 288.15, 293.15 and 298.15 K have been determined by spectrophotometry. The mole fraction of TBA [x (TBA)] in the mixed solvent are 0.000, 0.010, 0.020, 0.030, 0.040, 0.045, 0.050, 0.060, 0.080 and 0.100, respectively. The standard Gibbs energies of solution of benzene, toluene and diphenyl in the mixed solvent have also been calculated based on the solubility data. The hydrophobic interactions (HI) for the pairs of benzene-benzene, methane-benzene and methane-methane in the mixed solvent were calculated and discussed.

  2. Water solubility enhancements of pyrene by single and mixed surfactant solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Water solubility enhancements of pyrene by both single-surfactant and mixed-surfactant solutions were compared andevaluated. The solubility of pyrene in water was greatly enhanced by each of Triton X-100 (TX100), Triton X-405 (TX405), Brij 35 and SDS, in which the water solubility enhancements increased with increasing surfactant concentrations. The extent of solubility enhancements at surfactant concentrations below the CMC is the order of TX100 > Brij 35 > TX405 > SDS; the sequence at surfactantconcentrations above the CMC is TX100 > Brij 35 > SDS > TX405. Pyrene was solubilized synergistically by anionic-nonionic mixed surfactant solutions, especially at low surfactant concentrations. The synergistic power of the mixed surfactants is SDS-TX405 > SDS-Brij 35 > SDS-TX100. The synergism as noted is attributed to increasing Kmc and/or decreasing the CMC of the mixed surfactan solution. For SDS-TX405 and SDS-Brij 35 mixed surfactant solutions, an increase in Kmc is coupled with a decrease in the CMC; for SDS-TX100, only a decreased in the CMC value is noted. Mixed-surfactant solutions may improve the performance of the surfactant-enhanced remediation (SER) of soils by increasing the bioavailability and biodegradation of non-aqueous-phase organic pollutants and reducing the level of surfactant pollution and remediation expenses.

  3. Temperature dependence of local solubility of hydrophobic molecules in the liquid-vapor interface of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Kiharu; Sumi, Tomonari; Koga, Kenichiro

    2014-11-14

    One important aspect of the hydrophobic effect is that solubility of small, nonpolar molecules in liquid water decreases with increasing temperature. We investigate here how the characteristic temperature dependence in liquid water persists or changes in the vicinity of the liquid-vapor interface. From the molecular dynamics simulation and the test-particle insertion method, the local solubility Σ of methane in the liquid-vapor interface of water as well as Σ of nonpolar solutes in the interface of simple liquids are calculated as a function of the distance z from the interface. We then examine the temperature dependence of Σ under two conditions: variation of Σ at fixed position z and that at fixed local solvent density around the solute molecule. It is found that the temperature dependence of Σ at fixed z depends on the position z and the system, whereas Σ at fixed local density decreases with increasing temperature for all the model solutions at any fixed density between vapor and liquid phases. The monotonic decrease of Σ under the fixed-density condition in the liquid-vapor interface is in accord with what we know for the solubility of nonpolar molecules in bulk liquid water under the fixed-volume condition but it is much robust since the solvent density to be fixed can be anything between the coexisting vapor and liquid phases. A unique feature found in the water interface is that there is a minimum in the local solubility profile Σ(z) on the liquid side of the interface. We find that with decreasing temperature the minimum of Σ grows and at the same time the first peak in the oscillatory density profile of water develops. It is likely that the minimum of Σ is due to the layering structure of the free interface of water.

  4. Ultraviolet-irradiation induced and spontaneous mutation of Rhizobium trifolii 11B in relation to water-soluble and water-insoluble polysaccharide production ability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghai, J.; Ghai, S.K.; Kalra, M.S. (Punjab Agricultural Univ., Ludhiana (India))

    1985-02-01

    Rhizobium trifolii 11B was u.v. irradiated and nine u.v. mutants have been isolated. Among the mutants, only one, R. trifolii 21M11B, produced more (752 mg/100 ml) water-soluble polysaccharide than the parent (704 mg/100 ml). The composition of water-soluble polysaccharide from u.v. mutants differed from that of the parent, R. trifolii 11B, and none of its u.v. mutants produced water-insoluble polysaccharide as detected by the Aniline Blue method. Storage of u.v. mutants for 2 months at 5/sup 0/C gave four spontaneous variants which acquired the ability to produce water-insoluble polysaccharide. The spontaneous mutants also retained their water-soluble polysaccharide producing ability. The water-soluble polysaccharide produced by these mutants was characterized as curdlan type. The chemistry of water-soluble and water-insoluble polysaccharides was also ascertained.

  5. Effect of Straw Amendment on Soil Zn Availability and Ageing of Exogenous Water-Soluble Zn Applied to Calcareous Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanlong; Cui, Juan; Tian, Xiaohong; Zhao, Aiqing; Li, Meng; Wang, Shaoxia; Li, Xiushaung; Jia, Zhou; Liu, Ke

    2017-01-01

    Organic matter plays a key role in availability and transformation of soil Zn (zinc), which greatly controls Zn concentrations in cereal grains and human Zn nutrition level. Accordingly, soils homogenized with the wheat straw (0, 12 g straw kg-1) and Zn fertilizer (0, 7 mg Zn kg-1) were buried and incubated in the field over 210 days to explore the response of soil Zn availability and the ageing of exogenous Zn to straw addition. Results indicated that adding straw alone scarcely affected soil DTPA-Zn concentration and Zn fractions because of the low Zn concentration of wheat straw and the high soil pH, and large clay and calcium carbonate contents. However, adding exogenous Zn plus straw increased the DTPA-Zn abundance by about 5-fold and had the similar results to adding exogenous Zn alone, corresponding to the increased Zn fraction loosely bounded to organic matter, which had a more dominant presence in Zn reaction than soil other constituents such as carbonate and minerals in calcareous soil. The higher relative amount of ineffective Zn (~50%) after water soluble Zn addition also occurred, and at the days of 120–165 and 180–210when the natural temperature and rainfall changed mildly, the ageing process of exogenous Zn over time was well evaluated by the diffusion equation, respectively. Consequently, combining crop residues with exogenous water soluble Zn application is promising strategy to maximize the availability of Zn in calcareous soil, but the higher ageing rate of Zn caused by the higher Zn mobility should be considered. PMID:28081179

  6. Bioavailability Improvement Strategies for Poorly Water-Soluble Drugs Based on the Supersaturation Mechanism: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Meiyan; Gong, Wei; Wang, Yuli; Shan, Li; Li, Ying; Gao, Chunsheng

    2016-01-01

    The formulation development for poorly soluble drugs still remains a challenge. Supersaturating drug delivery systems (SDDS) or drug delivery systems based on supersaturating provide a promising way to improve the oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs. In supersaturable formulations, drug concentration exceeds the equilibrium solubility when exposed to gastrointestinal fluids, and the supersaturation state is maintained long enough to be absorbed, resulting in compromised bioavailability. In this article, the mechanism of generating and maintaining supersaturation and the evaluation methods of supersaturation assays are discussed. Recent advances in different drug delivery systems based on supersaturating are the focus and are discussed in detail.This article is open to POST-PUBLICATION REVIEW. Registered readers (see "For Readers") may comment by clicking on ABSTRACT on the issue's contents page.

  7. Solubility of cellulose in supercritical water studied by molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolonen, Lasse K; Bergenstråhle-Wohlert, Malin; Sixta, Herbert; Wohlert, Jakob

    2015-04-02

    The insolubility of cellulose in ambient water and most aqueous systems presents a major scientific and practical challenge. Intriguingly though, the dissolution of cellulose has been reported to occur in supercritical water. In this study, cellulose solubility in ambient and supercritical water of varying density (0.2, 0.7, and 1.0 g cm(-3)) was studied by atomistic molecular dynamics simulations using the CHARMM36 force field and TIP3P water. The Gibbs energy of dissolution was determined between a nanocrystal (4 × 4 × 20 anhydroglucose residues) and a fully dissociated state using the two-phase thermodynamics model. The analysis of Gibbs energy suggested that cellulose is soluble in supercritical water at each of the studied densities and that cellulose dissolution is typically driven by the entropy gain upon the chain dissociation while simultaneously hindered by the loss of solvent entropy. Chain dissociation caused density augmentation around the cellulose chains, which improved water-water bonding in low density supercritical water whereas the opposite occurred in ambient and high density supercritical water.

  8. Photophysical Properties and Singlet Oxygen Generation Efficiencies of Water-Soluble Fullerene Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasheuski, Alexander S; Galievsky, Victor A; Stupak, Alexander P; Dzhagarov, Boris M; Choi, Mi Jin; Chung, Bong Hyun; Jeong, Jin Young

    2014-01-01

    As various fullerene derivatives have been developed, it is necessary to explore their photophysical properties for potential use in photoelectronics and medicine. Here, we address the photophysical properties of newly synthesized water-soluble fullerene-based nanoparticles and polyhydroxylated fullerene as a representative water-soluble fullerene derivative. They show broad emission band arising from a wide-range of excitation energies. It is attributed to the optical transitions from disorder-induced states, which decay in the nanosecond time range. We determine the kinetic properties of the singlet oxygen (1O2) luminescence generated by the fullerene nanoparticles and polyhydroxylated fullerene to consider the potential as photodynamic agents. Triplet state decay of the nanoparticles was longer than 1O2 lifetime in water. Singlet oxygen quantum yield of a series of the fullerene nanoparticles is comparably higher ranging from 0.15 to 0.2 than that of polyhydroxylated fullerene, which is about 0.06. PMID:24893622

  9. Method of cross-linking polyvinyl alcohol and other water soluble resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipp, W. H.; May, C. E.; Hsu, L. C.; Sheibley, D. W. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A self supporting sheet structure comprising a water soluble, noncrosslinked polymer such as polyvinyl alcohol which is capable of being crosslinked by reaction with hydrogen atom radicals and hydroxyl molecule radicals is contacted with an aqueous solution having a pH of less than 8 and containing a dissolved salt in an amount sufficient to prevent substantial dissolution of the noncrosslinked polymer in the aqueous solution. The aqueous solution is then irradiated with ionizing radiation to form hydrogen atom radicals and hydroxyl molecule radicals and the irradiation is continued for a time sufficient to effect crosslinking of the water soluble polymer to produce a water insoluble polymer sheet structure. The method has particular application in the production of battery separators and electrode envelopes for alkaline batteries.

  10. Enhanced water-solubility, antibacterial activity and biocompatibility upon introducing sulfobetaine and quaternary ammonium to chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuxiang; Li, Jianna; Li, Qingqing; Shen, Yuanyuan; Ge, Zaochuan; Zhang, Wenwen; Chen, Shiguo

    2016-06-05

    Chitosan (CS) has attracted much attention due to its good antibacterial activity and biocompatibility. However, CS is insoluble in neutral and alkaline aqueous solution, limiting its biomedical application to some extent. To circumvent this drawback, we have synthesized a novel N-quaternary ammonium-O-sulfobetaine-chitosan (Q3BCS) by introducing quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) and sulfobetaine, and its water-solubility, antibacterial activity and biocompatibility were evaluated compare to N-quaternary ammonium chitosan and native CS. The results showed that by introducing QAC, antibacterial activities and water-solubilities increase with degrees of substitution. The largest diameter zone of inhibition (DIZ) was improved from 0 (CS) to 15mm (N-Q3CS). And the water solution became completely transparent from pH 6.5 to pH 11; the maximal waters-solubility was improved from almost 0% (CS) to 113% at pH 7 (N-Q3CS). More importantly, by further introducing sulfobetaine, cell survival rate of Q3BCS increased from 30% (N-Q3CS) to 85% at 2000μg/ml, which is even greater than that of native CS. Furthermore, hemolysis of Q3BCS was dropped sharply from 4.07% (N-Q3CS) to 0.06%, while the water-solution and antibacterial activity were further improved significantly. This work proposes an efficient strategy to prepare CS derivatives with enhanced antibacterial activity, biocompatibility and water-solubility. Additionally, these properties can be finely tailored by changing the feed ratio of CS, glycidyl trimethylammonium chloride and NCO-sulfobetaine.

  11. Water solubility enhancements of PAHs by sodium castor oil sulfonate microemulsions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Li-zhong; ZHAO Bao-wei; LI Zong-lai

    2003-01-01

    Water solubility enhancements of naphthalene(Naph), phenantherene(Phen) and pyrene(Py) in sodium castor oil sulfonate(SCOS) microemulsions were evaluated. The apparent solubilities of PAHs are linearly proportional to the concentrations of SCOS microemulsion, and the enhancement extent by SCOS solutions is greater than that by ordinary surfactants on the basis of weight solubilization ratio(WSR). The logKem values of Naph, Phen, and Py are 3.13, 4.44 and 5.01 respectively, which are about the same as the logKow values. At 5000 mg/L of SCOS conccentration, the apparent solubilities are 8.80, 121, and 674 times as the intrinsic solubilities for Naph, Phen, and Py. The effects of inorganic ions and temperature on the solubilization of solutes are also investigated. The solubilization is improved with a moderate addition of Ca2+, Na+, NH4+ and the mixture of Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and NH4+. WSR values are enhanced by 22.0% for Naph, 23.4% for Phen, and 24.6% for Py with temperature increasing by 5℃. The results indicated that SCOS microemulsions improve the performance of the surfactant-enhanced remediation(SER) of soil, by increasing solubilities of organic pollutants and reducing the level of surfactant pollution and remediation expenses.

  12. Effect Of Pressure On The Temperature Dependence Of Water Solubility In Forsterite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bali, E.; Bolfan-Casanova, N.; Koga, K.

    2005-12-01

    Water storage capacity of the upper mantle largely depends on water solubility in mantle olivine. Realistic models must take into account the simultaneous effects of variables such as pressure, temperature, iron content and silica activity. Previous experimental studies have shown that the water solubility in olivine increases with increasing water fugacity up to 12 GPa at 1100°C. Water incorporation in olivine was also observed to increase with increasing temperature and increasing iron content at 0.3 GPa, however the temperature dependence was not studied at higher pressures. Interestingly, the only high-pressure data available, that is for wadsleyite and ringwoodite, show that their water solubility decreases with increasing temperature. The goal of this study is to determine the dependence of water maximum concentration on temperature at pressures higher than 0.3 GPa. We performed experiments at 3 and 6 GPa, and temperatures ranging from 1000 to 1400°C in the MgO-SiO2-H2O system using a multi-anvil apparatus. The olivine and orthopyroxene molar ratio was 1 to 1 in the starting material with 5 wt% H2O. The samples were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The mineralogical assemblage consisted of olivine+orthopyroxene+fluid at temperatures below 1250°C both at 3 and 6 GPa and olivine+melt+/-orthopyroxene at higher temperatures. At 3 GPa, above 1325°C orthopyroxene was missing from the assemblage, whereas in case of the 6 GPa experiments it was present even at higher temperatures. This indicates a change in fluid composition from 3 to 6 GPa. Preliminary data using unpolarized FTIR measurements, but comparing same orientations, indicate that water solubility in olivine at 6 GPa decreases with increasing temperature. This observation agrees with the results on wadsleyite and ringwoodite, but contradict the results of the existing low-pressure data. The explaination we propose for the change in temperature

  13. Soluble hydrocarbons uptake by porous carbonaceous adsorbents at different water ionic strength and temperature: something to consider in oil spills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Chaparro, Carlos E; Ruiz, Luis Felipe Chazaro; Alfaro-De la Torre, Ma Catalina; Rangel-Mendez, Jose Rene

    2016-06-01

    Nowadays, petrochemical operations involve risks to the environment and one of the biggest is oil spills. Low molecular aromatics like benzene, toluene, and naphthalene dissolve in water, and because of their toxicological characteristics, these produce severe consequences to the environment. The oil spill cleanup strategies are mainly designed to deal with the heavy fractions accumulated on the water surface. Unfortunately, very limited information is available regarding the treatment of dissolved fractions.A commercial (Filtrasorb 400) and modified activated carbons were evaluated to remove benzene, toluene, and naphthalene from water, which are the most soluble aromatic hydrocarbons, at different ionic strengths (I) and temperatures (0-0.76 M and 4-25 °C, respectively). This allowed simulating the conditions of fresh and saline waters when assessing the performance of these adsorbents. It was found that the hydrocarbons adsorption affinity increased 12 % at a I of 0.5 M, due to the less negative charge of the adsorbent, while at a high I (≃0.76 M) in a synthetic seawater, the adsorption capacity decreased 21 % that was attributed to the adsorbent's pores occlusion by water clusters. Approximately, 40 h were needed to reach equilibrium; however, the maximum adsorption rate occurred within the first hour in all the cases. Moreover, the hydrocarbons adsorption and desorption capacities increased when the temperature augmented from 4 to 25 °C. On the other hand, thermally and chemically modified materials showed that the interactions between adsorbent-contaminant increased with the basification degree of the adsorbent surface.

  14. Enhancement of quercetin water solubility with steviol glucosides and the studies of biological properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Thanh Hanh Nguyen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Quercetin, a flavonol contained in various vegetables and fruits, has various biological activities including anticancer, antiviral, anti-diabetic, and anti-oxidative. However, it has low oral bioavailability due to insolubility in water. Thus, the bioavailability of quercetin administered to human beings in a capsule form, was reported to be less than 1%, with only a small percentage of ingested quercetin getting absorbed in the blood. This leads to certain difficulties in creating highly effective medicines Methods: Quercetin-rubusoside and quercetin-rebaudioside were prepared. The antioxidant activities of quercetin and Q-rubusoside were evaluated by DPPH radical scavenging method. Inhibition activities of quercetin and Quercetin-rubusoside were determined by measuring the remaining activity of 3CLpro with 200 μM inhibitor. The inhibition activity of quercetin, rubusoside and quercetin-rubusoside were determined by measuring the activity of human maltase which remains at 100 μM rubusoside or quercetin-rubusoside. The mushroom tyrosinase inhibition was assayed with the reaction mixture contained 3.3 mM L-DOPA in 50 mM potassium phosphate buffer (pH 6.8, and 10 U mushroom tyrosinase/ml with or without quercetin or quercetin-rubusoside. Results: With 10% rubusoside treatment, quercetin showed solubility of 7.7 mg/ml in water, and its solubility increased as the concentration of rubusoside increased; the quercetin solubility in water increased to 0.83 mg/mlas rubusoside concentration increased to 1 mg/ml. Quercetin solubilized in rubusoside solution showed DPPH radical-scavenging activity and mushroom tyrosinase inhibition activity, similar to that of quercetin solubilized in dimethyl-sulfoxide. Quercetin-rubusoside also showed 1.2 and 1.9 folds higher inhibition activity against 3CLpro of SARS and human intestinal maltase, respectively, than those of quercetin in DMSO. Conclusions: Quercetin can be solubilized in water with

  15. Biodegradability of soil water soluble organic carbon extracted from seven different soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SCAGLIA Barbara; ADANI Fabrizio

    2009-01-01

    Water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) is considered the most mobile and reactive soil carbon source and its characterization is an important issue for soil ecology study. A biodegradability test was set up to study WSOC extracted from 7 soils differently managed. WSOC was extracted from soil with water (soil/water ratio of 1:2, W/V) for 30 min, and then tested for biodegradability by a liquid state respirometric test. Result obtained confirmed the finding that WSOC biodegradability depended on both land use and management practice. These results suggested the biodegradability test as suitable method to characterize WSOC, adding useful information to soil fertility.

  16. Spray Freeze-drying - The Process of Choice for Low Water Soluble Drugs?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leuenberger, H. [University of Basel, Pharmacenter, Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology (Switzerland)], E-mail: hans.leuenberger@unibas.ch

    2002-04-15

    Most of the novel highly potent drugs, developed on the basis of modern molecular medicine, taking into account cell surface recognition techniques, show poor water solubility. A chemical modification of the drug substance enhancing the solubility often decreases the pharmacological activity. Thus, as an alternative an increase of the solubility can be obtained by the reduction of the size of the drug particles. Unfortunately, it is often difficult to obtain micro or nanosized drug particles by classical or more advanced crystallization using supercritical gases or by milling techniques. In addition, nanosized particles are often not physically stable and need to be stabilized in an appropriate matrix. Thus, it may be of interest to manufacture directly nanosized drug particles stabilized in an inert hydrophilic matrix, i.e. nanostructured and nanocomposite systems. Solid solutions and solid dispersions represent nanostructured and nanocomposite systems. In this context, the use of the vacuum-fluidized-bed technique for the spray-drying of a low water soluble drug cosolubilized with a hydrophilic excipient in a polar organic solvent is discussed. In order to avoid the use of organic solvents, a special spray-freeze-drying technique working at atmospheric pressure is presented. This process is very suitable for temperature and otherwise sensitive drugs such as pharmaproteins.

  17. CV-Dust: Atmospheric aerosol in the Cape Verde region: carbon and soluble fractions of PM10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pio, C.; Nunes, T.; Cardoso, J.; Caseiro, A.; Custódio, D.; Cerqueira, M.; Patoilo, D.; Almeida, S. M.; Freitas, M. C.

    2012-04-01

    than 100 PM10 samples, addressing mainly their mass concentrations and the chemical composition of water soluble ions and carbon species (carbonates and organic and elemental carbon). Different PM10 samplers worked simultaneously in order to collect enough mass to make the aerosol characterization through the different methodologies and to collect aerosols in different filter matrixes, which have to be appropriated to the chemical and mineralogical analysis. The sampling site was located at Santiago Island, in the surroundings of Praia City (14° 55' N e 23° 29' W, 98 m at sea level). High concentrations, up to more than 400 μg m-3, are connected to north-east and north-northeast winds, and it was identified several dust events characteristic of "bruma seca", whose duration is on average of two to four days. Backward trajectories analysis confirms that the high concentrations in Cape Verde are associated with air masses passing over the Sahara. During dust events the percentage of inorganic water soluble ions for the total PM10 mass concentration decreased significantly to values lower than 10% in comparison with remainder data that range around 45±10%. Acknowledgement: This work was funded by the Portuguese Science Foundation (FCT) through the project PTDD/AAC-CLI/100331/2008 and FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-008646 (CV-Dust). J. Cardoso acknowledges the PhD grant SFRH-BD-6105-2009 from FCT.

  18. Characterization of human monocyte activation by a water soluble preparation of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, N; Pasco, D S

    2001-11-01

    Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA) is a fresh-water microalgae that is consumed as a nutrient-dense food source and for its health-enhancing properties. The current research characterizes the effect of a water soluble preparation from AFA on human monocyte/macrophage function and compares the effect of AFA with responses from known agents that modulate the immune system. At 0.5 pg/ml the AFA extract robustly activated nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B) directed luciferase expression in THP-1 human monocytic cells to levels at 50% of those achieved by maximal concentrations (10 microg/ml) of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In addition, the AFA extract substantially increased mRNA levels of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and enhanced the DNA binding activity of NF-kappa B. The effects of AFA water soluble preparation were similar to the responses displayed by LPS, but clearly different from responses exhibited by tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate (TPA) and interferon-gamma (INF-gamma). Pretreatment of THP-1 monocytes with factors known to induce hyporesponsiveness suppressed both AFA-dependent and LPS-dependent activation. These results suggest that the macrophage-activating properties of the AFA water soluble preparation are mediated through pathways that are similar to LPS-dependent activation.

  19. Evidence of soluble microbial products accelerating chloramine decay in nitrifying bulk water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal Krishna, K C; Sathasivan, Arumugam; Chandra Sarker, Dipok

    2012-09-01

    The discovery of a microbially derived soluble product that accelerates chloramine decay is described. Nitrifying bacteria are believed to be wholly responsible for rapid chloramine loss in drinking water systems. However, a recent investigation showed that an unidentified soluble agent significantly accelerated chloramine decay. The agent was suspected to be either natural organic matter (NOM) or soluble microbial products (SMPs). A laboratory scale reactor was fed chloraminated reverse osmosis (RO) treated water to eliminate the interference from NOM. Once nitrification had set in, experiments were conducted on the reactor and feed waters to determine the identity of the component. The study showed the presence of SMPs released by microbes in severely nitrified waters. Further experiments proved that the SMPs significantly accelerated chloramine decay, probably through catalytic reaction. Moreover, application of common protein denaturing techniques stopped the reaction implying that the compound responsible was likely to be a protein. This significant finding will pave the way for better control of chloramine in the distribution systems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Synthesis and properties of amino acid functionalized water-soluble perylene diimides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Yongshan; Li, Xuemei; Wei, Xiaofeng; Jiang, Tianyi; Wu, Junsen; Ren, Huixue [Shandong Jianzhu University, Jinan (China)

    2015-07-15

    We prepared amino acid functionalized water-soluble perylene diimides: N,N'-bi(L-glutamic acid)-perylene-3,4;9,10-dicarboxylic diimide (1), N,N'-bi(L-phenylalanine acid)-perylene-3,4;9,10-dicarboxylic diimide (2), N,N'-bi(Lglutamic amine)-perylene-3,4;9,10-dicarboxylic diimide (3) and N,N'-bi(L-phenylalanine amine)-perylene-3,4;9,10-dicarboxylic diimide (4). The structures of 3 and 4 were confirmed by {sup 1}H NMR, FT-IR and MS. The maximal absorption bands of compound 1 and 2 in concentrated sulfuric acid were red-shifted for about 48 and 74 nm, respectively, compared with that of Perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride (PTCDA). Nearly no fluorescence was observed for compounds 1 and 2 in water, while compounds 3 and 4 were significantly water-soluble and had very high fluorescent quantum. The mechanism of the optical properties change was discussed, and the π-π stacking caused by H{sup +} led to the changes of fluorescence spectrum and absorption spectrum. The calculated molecular orbital energies and the frontier molecular orbital maps of compounds 1-2 based on density function theory (DFT) calculations were reported. Owing to the high water-soluble, the perylene derivatives 3 and 4 were successfully applied as high-performance fluorochromes for living hela cells imaging.

  1. Determination of water-soluble forms of oxalic and formic acids in soils by ion chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karicheva, E.; Guseva, N.; Kambalina, M.

    2016-03-01

    Carboxylic acids (CA) play an important role in the chemical composition origin of soils and migration of elements. The content of these acids and their salts is one of the important characteristics for agrochemical, ecological, ameliorative and hygienic assessment of soils. The aim of the article is to determine water-soluble forms of same carboxylic acids — (oxalic and formic acids) in soils by ion chromatography with gradient elution. For the separation and determination of water-soluble carboxylic acids we used reagent-free gradient elution ion-exchange chromatography ICS-2000 (Dionex, USA), the model solutions of oxalate and formate ions, and leachates from soils of the Kola Peninsula. The optimal gradient program was established for separation and detection of oxalate and formate ions in water solutions by ion chromatography. A stability indicating method was developed for the simultaneous determination of water-soluble organic acids in soils. The method has shown high detection limits such as 0.03 mg/L for oxalate ion and 0.02 mg/L for formate ion. High signal reproducibility was achieved in wide range of intensities which correspond to the following ion concentrations: from 0.04 mg/g to 10 mg/L (formate), from 0.1 mg/g to 25 mg/L (oxalate). The concentration of formate and oxalate ions in soil samples is from 0.04 to 0.9 mg/L and 0.45 to 17 mg/L respectively.

  2. A novel injectable water-soluble amphotericin B-arabinogalactan conjugate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, R; Domb, A J; Polacheck, I

    1999-08-01

    New, stable, highly water-soluble, nontoxic polysaccharide conjugates of amphotericin B (AmB) are described. AmB was conjugated by a Schiff-base reaction with oxidized arabinogalactan (AG). AG is a highly branched natural polysaccharide with unusual water solubility (70% in water). A high yield of active AmB was obtained with the conjugates which were similarly highly water soluble and which could be appropriately formulated for injection. They showed comparable MICs for Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans (MICs, 0.1 to 0.2 microg/ml). The reduced AmB conjugate, which was synthesized at pH 11 for 48 h at 37 degrees C, was nonhemolytic and was much safer than conventional micellar AmB-deoxycholate. It was the least toxic AmB-AG conjugate among those tested with mice (maximal tolerated dose, 50 mg/kg of body weight), and histopathology indicated no damage to the liver or kidneys. This conjugate, similarly to the liposomal formulation (AmBisome), was more effective than AmB-deoxycholate in prolonging survival. It was more effective than both the liposomal and the deoxycholate formulations in eradicating yeast cells from target organs. The overall results suggest that after further development of the AmB-AG conjugate, it may be a potent agent in the treatment of fungal infections.

  3. Geochemical evidence of water-soluble gas accumulation in the Weiyuan gas field, Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengfei Qin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, there are several different opinions on the formation process of the Weiyuan gas field in the Sichuan Basin and the source of its natural gas. In view of the fact that the methane carbon isotope of the natural gas in the Weiyuan gas field is abnormally heavy, the geologic characteristics of gas reservoirs and the geochemical characteristics of natural gas were first analyzed. In the Weiyuan gas field, the principal gas reservoirs belong to Sinian Dengying Fm. The natural gas is mainly composed of methane, with slight ethane and trace propane. The gas reservoirs are higher in water saturation, with well preserved primary water. Then, it was discriminated from the relationship of H2S content vs. methane carbon isotope that the heavier methane carbon isotope of natural gas in this area is not caused by thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR. Based on the comparison of methane carbon isotope in this area with that in adjacent areas, and combined with the tectonic evolution background, it is regarded that the natural gas in the Weiyuan gas field is mainly derived from water-soluble gas rather than be migrated laterally from adjacent areas. Some conclusions are made. First, since methane released from water is carbon isotopically heavier, the water-soluble gas accumulation after degasification results in the heavy methane carbon isotope of the gas produced from Weiyuan gas field. Second, along with Himalayan movement, great uplift occurred in the Weiyuan area and structural traps were formed. Under high temperature and high pressure, the gas dissolved in water experienced decompression precipitation, and the released natural gas accumulated in traps, consequently leading to the formation of Weiyuan gas field. Third, based on calculation, the amount of natural gas released from water which is entrapped in the Weiyuan gas field after the tectonic uplift is basically equal to the proved reserves of this field, confirming the opinion of water-soluble

  4. Assembly of water-soluble chlorophyll-binding proteins with native hydrophobic chlorophylls in water-in-oil emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarczyk, Dominika; Takahashi, Shigekazu; Satoh, Hiroyuki; Noy, Dror

    2015-03-01

    The challenges involved in studying cofactor binding and assembly, as well as energy- and electron transfer mechanisms in the large and elaborate transmembrane protein complexes of photosynthesis and respiration have prompted considerable interest in constructing simplified model systems based on their water-soluble protein analogs. Such analogs are also promising templates and building blocks for artificial bioinspired energy conversion systems. Yet, development is limited by the challenge of introducing the essential cofactors of natural proteins that are highly water-insoluble into the water-soluble protein analogs. Here we introduce a new efficient method based on water-in-oil emulsions for overcoming this challenge. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the method in the assembly of native chlorophylls with four recombinant variants of the water-soluble chlorophyll-binding protein of Brassicaceae plants. We use the method to gain new insights into the protein-chlorophyll assembly process, and demonstrate its potential as a fast screening system for developing novel chlorophyll-protein complexes.

  5. Rapid screening of water soluble arsenic species in edible oils using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-García, Ignacio; Briceño, Marisol; Vicente-Martínez, Yesica; Hernández-Córdoba, Manuel

    2015-01-15

    A methodology for the non-chromatographic screening of the main arsenic species present in edible oils is discussed. Reverse dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was used to extract water soluble arsenic compounds (inorganic arsenic, methylarsonate, dimethylarsinate and arsenobetaine) from the edible oils into a slightly acidic aqueous medium. The total arsenic content was measured in the extracts by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry using palladium as the chemical modifier. By repeating the measurement using cerium instead of palladium, the sum of inorganic arsenic and methylarsonate was obtained. The detection limit was 0.03 ng As per gram of oil. Data for the total and water-soluble arsenic levels of 29 samples of different origin are presented. Inorganic arsenic was not found in any of the samples marketed as edible oils.

  6. Phosphated cyclodextrins as water-soluble chiral NMR solvating agents for cationic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cira Mollings Puentes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The utility of phosphated α-, β- and γ-cyclodextrins as water-soluble chiral NMR solvating agents for cationic substrates is described. Two sets of phosphated cyclodextrins, one with degrees of substitution in the 2–6 range, the other with degrees of substitution in the 6–10 range, are examined. Results with 33 water-soluble cationic substrates are reported. We also explored the possibility that the addition of paramagnetic lanthanide ions such as praseodymium(III and ytterbium(III further enhances the enantiomeric differentiation in the NMR spectra. The chiral differentiation with the phosphated cyclodextrins is compared to prior results obtained with anionic carboxymethylated cyclodextrins. There are a number of examples where a larger differentiation is observed with the phosphated cyclodextrins.

  7. Phosphated cyclodextrins as water-soluble chiral NMR solvating agents for cationic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentes, Cira Mollings

    2017-01-01

    Summary The utility of phosphated α-, β- and γ-cyclodextrins as water-soluble chiral NMR solvating agents for cationic substrates is described. Two sets of phosphated cyclodextrins, one with degrees of substitution in the 2–6 range, the other with degrees of substitution in the 6–10 range, are examined. Results with 33 water-soluble cationic substrates are reported. We also explored the possibility that the addition of paramagnetic lanthanide ions such as praseodymium(III) and ytterbium(III) further enhances the enantiomeric differentiation in the NMR spectra. The chiral differentiation with the phosphated cyclodextrins is compared to prior results obtained with anionic carboxymethylated cyclodextrins. There are a number of examples where a larger differentiation is observed with the phosphated cyclodextrins.

  8. Design of Chitosan and Its Water Soluble Derivatives-Based Drug Carriers with Polyelectrolyte Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qing-Xi; Lin, Dong-Qiang; Yao, Shan-Jing

    2014-01-01

    Chitosan, the cationic polysaccharide derived from the natural polysaccharide chitin, has been studied as a biomaterial for more than two decades. As a polycationic polymer with favorable properties, it has been widely used to form polyelectrolyte complexes with polyanions for various applications in drug delivery fields. In recent years, a growing number of studies have been focused on the preparation of polyelectrolyte complexes based on chitosan and its water soluble derivatives. They have been considered well-suited as biomaterials for a number of vital drug carriers with targeted/controlled release profiles, e.g., films, capsules, microcapsules. In this work, an overview highlights not only the favorable properties of chitosan and its water soluble derivatives but also the good performance of the polyelectrolyte complexes produced based on chitosan. Their various types of applications as drug carriers are reviewed in detail. PMID:25532565

  9. Synthesis and characterization of a hyper-branched water-soluble β-cyclodextrin polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Trotta

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A new hyper-branched water-soluble polymer was synthesized by reacting β-cyclodextrin with pyromellitic dianhydride beyond the critical conditions that allow the phenomenon of gelation to occur. The molar ratio between the monomers is a crucial parameter that rules the gelation process. Nevertheless, the concentration of monomers in the solvent phase plays a key role as well. Hyper-branched β-cyclodextrin-based polymers were obtained performing the syntheses with excess of solvent and cross-linking agent, and the conditions for critical dilution were determined experimentally. A hyper-branched polymer with very high water solubility was obtained and fully characterized both as for its chemical structure and for its capability to encapsulate substances. Fluorescein was used as probe molecule to test the complexation properties of the new material.

  10. Chemical composition, properties, and antimicrobial activity of the water-soluble pigments from Castanea mollissima shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Ting-Ting; Zhou, Su-Kun; Wen, Jia-Long; Ma, Chao; Xu, Feng

    2014-02-26

    Agricultural residues Castanea mollissima shells represent a promising resource for natural pigments for the food industry. This study provides a comprehensive and systematic evaluation of water-soluble pigments (CSP) from C. mollissima shells, which were obtained by 50% ethanol with microwave-assisted extraction. Spectroscopic techniques (UV, FT-IR, (13)C NMR), elemental analysis, and chromatographic techniques (HPAEC, GPC) revealed that the main components in the CSP were flavonoids procyanidin B3 (condensed tannin), quercetin-3-O-glycoside, and steroidal sapogenins. As a consequence, CSP was water-soluble and presented significant DPPH scavenge capacity (EC50 value was 0.057 mg/mL). Specially, CSP gave excellent antibacterial activity, and even better than 5% aqueous phenol in some case. Moreover, CSP was practically nontoxic and exhibited good stability with temperature, natural light, and metal ions. These outstanding properties will enlarge the application of CSP for natural food additives production.

  11. The effect of water on the mechanical properties of soluble and insoluble ceramic cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Ilsoo; López, Alejandro; Pinar, Ana B; Helgason, Benedikt; Ferguson, Stephen J

    2015-11-01

    Ceramic cements are good candidates for the stabilization of fractured bone due to their potential ease of application and biological advantages. New formulations of ceramic cements have been tested for their mechanical properties, including strength, stiffness, toughness and durability. The changes in the mechanical properties of a soluble cement (calcium sulfate) upon water-saturation (saturation) was reported in our previous study, highlighting the need to test ceramic cements using saturated samples. It is not clear if the changes in the mechanical properties of ceramic cements are exclusive to soluble cements. Therefore the aim of the present study was to observe the changes in the mechanical properties of soluble and insoluble ceramic cements upon saturation. A cement with high solubility (calcium sulfate dihydrate, CSD) and a cement with low solubility (dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, DCPD) were tested. Three-point bending tests were performed on four different groups of: saturated CSD, non-saturated CSD, saturated DCPD, and non-saturated DCPD samples. X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy were also performed on a sample from each group. Flexural strength, effective flexural modulus and flexural strain at maximum stress, lattice volume, and crystal sizes and shape were compared, independently, between saturated and non-saturated groups of CSD and DCPD. Although material dissolution did not occur in all cases, all calculated mechanical properties decreased significantly in both CSD and DCPD upon saturation. The results indicate that the reductions in the mechanical properties of saturated ceramic cements are not dependent on the solubility of a ceramic cement. The outcome raised the importance of testing any implantable ceramic cements in saturated condition to estimate its in vivo mechanical properties.

  12. Oxygen isotope fractionation between bird bone phosphate and drinking water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiot, Romain; Angst, Delphine; Legendre, Serge; Buffetaut, Eric; Fourel, François; Adolfssen, Jan; André, Aurore; Bojar, Ana Voica; Canoville, Aurore; Barral, Abel; Goedert, Jean; Halas, Stanislaw; Kusuhashi, Nao; Pestchevitskaya, Ekaterina; Rey, Kevin; Royer, Aurélien; Saraiva, Antônio Álamo Feitosa; Savary-Sismondini, Bérengère; Siméon, Jean-Luc; Touzeau, Alexandra; Zhou, Zhonghe; Lécuyer, Christophe

    2017-06-01

    Oxygen isotope compositions of bone phosphate (δ18Op) were measured in broiler chickens reared in 21 farms worldwide characterized by contrasted latitudes and local climates. These sedentary birds were raised during an approximately 3 to 4-month period, and local precipitation was the ultimate source of their drinking water. This sampling strategy allowed the relationship to be determined between the bone phosphate δ18Op values (from 9.8 to 22.5‰ V-SMOW) and the local rainfall δ18Ow values estimated from nearby IAEA/WMO stations (from -16.0 to -1.0‰ V-SMOW). Linear least square fitting of data provided the following isotopic fractionation equation: δ18Ow = 1.119 (±0.040) δ18Op - 24.222 (±0.644); R 2 = 0.98. The δ18Op-δ18Ow couples of five extant mallard ducks, a common buzzard, a European herring gull, a common ostrich, and a greater rhea fall within the predicted range of the equation, indicating that the relationship established for extant chickens can also be applied to birds of various ecologies and body masses. Applied to published oxygen isotope compositions of Miocene and Pliocene penguins from Peru, this new equation computes estimates of local seawater similar to those previously calculated. Applied to the basal bird Confuciusornis from the Early Cretaceous of Northeastern China, our equation gives a slightly higher δ18Ow value compared to the previously estimated one, possibly as a result of lower body temperature. These data indicate that caution should be exercised when the relationship estimated for modern birds is applied to their basal counterparts that likely had a metabolism intermediate between that of their theropod dinosaur ancestors and that of advanced ornithurines.

  13. Recrystallization of water in non-water-soluble (meth)acrylate polymers is not rare and is not devitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemmei-Ide, Makoto; Ohya, Atsushi; Kitano, Hiromi

    2012-02-16

    Change in the state of water sorbed into four kinds of non-water-soluble poly(meth)acrylates with low water content by temperature (T) perturbation was examined on the basis of T variable mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy. Many studies using differential scanning calorimetry suggested that there was no change in the state. T dependence of their MIR spectra, however, clearly demonstrated various changes in the state. Furthermore, recrystallization, which was crystallization during heating, was observed in all four polymers. The recrystallization observed in this study was not devitrification, which is the change in the state from glassy water to crystalline water, but vapor deposition during heating (vapor re-deposition). There were only two reports about recrystallization of water in a non-water-soluble polymer before this report; therefore, it might be considered to be a rare phenomenon. However, as demonstrated in this study, it is not a rare phenomenon. Recrystallization (vapor re-deposition) of water in the polymer matrices is related to a balance between flexibility and strength of the electrostatic interaction sites of polymer matrices but might not be related to the biocompatibility of polymers.

  14. Biosynthetic Studies on Water-Soluble Derivative 5c (DTX5c

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José J. Fernández

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The dinoflagellate Prorocentrum belizeanum is responsible for the production of several toxins involved in the red tide phenomenon known as Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP. In this paper we report on the biosynthetic origin of an okadaic acid water-soluble ester derivative, DTX5c, on the basis of the spectroscopical analysis of 13C enriched samples obtained by addition of labelled sodium [l-13C], [2-13C] acetate to artificial cultures of this dinoflagellate.

  15. Mechanisms and Regulation of Intestinal Absorption of Water-soluble Vitamins: Cellular and Molecular Aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nexø, Ebba; Said, Hamid M

    2012-01-01

    The water-soluble vitamins represent a group of structurally and functionally unrelated compounds that share the common feature of being essential for normal cellular functions, growth, and development. With the exception of some endogenous production of niacin, human cells cannot synthesize...... or deficiency. An impaired absorptive function occurs in a variety of conditions including congenital defects in the digestive or absorptive processes, intestinal diseases, drug interaction, and chronic alcohol use....

  16. Water-soluble phenylpropanoid constituents from aerial roots of Ficus microcarpa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Ming-An; Chen, Pei-Qing; Wang, Si-Bing

    2007-07-20

    New water-soluble phenylpropanoid constituents, ficuscarpanoside A, guaiacylglycerol 9-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, and erythro-guaiacylglycerol 9-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, along with known guaiacylglycerol, erythro-guaiacylglycerol, 4-methoxy guaiacylglycerol 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, and 3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy phenyl) propan-1,2-diol, have been isolated from the aerial roots of Ficus microcarpa. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR experiments.

  17. Automatic Carbon Dioxide-Methane Gas Sensor Based on the Solubility of Gases in Water

    OpenAIRE

    Cadena-Pereda, Raúl O.; Anaya-Rivera, Ely K.; Gilberto Herrera-Ruiz; Eric M. Rivera-Muñoz; Gomez-Melendez, Domingo J.

    2012-01-01

    Biogas methane content is a relevant variable in anaerobic digestion processing where knowledge of process kinetics or an early indicator of digester failure is needed. The contribution of this work is the development of a novel, simple and low cost automatic carbon dioxide-methane gas sensor based on the solubility of gases in water as the precursor of a sensor for biogas quality monitoring. The device described in this work was used for determining the composition of binary mixtures, such a...

  18. Effect of New Water-Soluble Dendritic Phthalocyanines on Human Colorectal and Liver Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru YABAŞ

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2 cells and colorectal adenocarcinoma (DLD-1 cells were treated with the synthesized water soluble phthalocyanine derivatives to understand the effect of the compounds both on colorectal and liver cancer cells. The compounds inhibited cell proliferation and displayed cytotoxic effect on these cancer cell lines however; the effect of the compounds on healthy control fibroblast cell line was comparatively lower. The compounds can be employed for cancer treatment as anticancer agents.

  19. Selecting water-alcohol mixed solvent for synthesis of polydopamine nano-spheres using solubility parameter

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Xiaoli; Wang, Yinling; Li, Maoguo

    2014-01-01

    The solvent plays an important role in a given chemical reaction. Since most reaction in nature occur in the mixed-solvent systems, a comprehensive principle for solvent optimization was required. By calculating the Hansen solubility parameters (HSP) distance Ra , we designed a model experiment to explore the influence of mixed solvents on the chemical synthesis. The synthesis of polydopamine (PDA) in the water-alcohol system was chosen as model. As predicted, the well-dispersed PDA spheres w...

  20. Biphasic and SAPC Hydroformylation Catalyzed by Rh-phosphines Bound to Water-Soluble Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmstrøm, Torsten; Andersson, Carlaxel; Hjortkjær, Jes

    1999-01-01

    Coupling of the triphenylphosphine moiety to poly-acrylic acid and poly-ethyleneimine respectively afford the macromolecular ligands PAA-PNH and PEI-PNH. Reaction of the ligands with Rh(CO)2(acac) give water-soluble complexes that are active as catalysts in the hydroformylation ofdifferent olefin...... PEI-PNH as ligands show lower stability and activity in both SAPC and biphasic applications....

  1. Preparation and characterization of complexes of RE3+ with furfural modified water-soluble chitosan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Maoyuan; QIU Ligan; MA Guilin

    2008-01-01

    Degraded chitosan, with highly water-solubility, was obtained by the oxidation of chitosan with H2O2, and then reacted with furfural The final product coordinated with the rare earth ions (RE3+ = Sm3+,Eu3+), which led to the formation of the complexes. The prepared complexes were characterized with Inflated Spectroscopy (IR), Ultra Violet (UV), fluorescence, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), and Thermogravimetric-Differential Scanning Calorimetry (TG-DSC) measurements.

  2. Structural features of a water soluble gum polysaccharide from Murraya paniculata fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, S K; Ray, B; Ghosal, P K; Teleman, A; Vuorinen, T

    2001-10-22

    A water soluble gum polysaccharide was isolated from Murraya paniculata fruits. Hydrolytic experiments, methylation analysis, periodate oxidation studies and NMR data revealed that the polysaccharide was extensively branched and it consisted of 1,3-, and 1,3,6-linked beta-D-galactopyranosyl units, terminal beta-D-galactopyranosyl units and terminal alpha-D-glucopyranosyl 1,4-beta-D-galactopyranosyl units. Small amounts of 4-O-methylglucuronic acid residues were also present.

  3. NASA Workmanship Hot Topics: Water Soluble Flux and ESD Charge Device Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Jeannette F.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews two topics of interest to NASA Workmanship: (1) Water Soluble Flux (WSF) and Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) safety. In the first topic, WSF, the presentation reviews voiding and the importance of cleanliness in using WSF for welding and soldering operations. The second topic reviews the NASA-HDBK-8739.21 for Human Body Model, and Machine Model safety methods, and challenges associated with the Charged Device Model (CDM)

  4. Experimental study on stable isotopic fractionation of evaporating water under varying temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-ying HU; Wei-min BAO; Tao WANG; Si-min QU

    2009-01-01

    The variation of stable isotope ratios in natural waters provides valuable information that can be used to trace water movement. Evaporation plays a crucial role in determining the variation of stable isotopes. In this paper, several evaporation experiments were conducted in order to study the stable isotopic fractionation mechanism of water and analyze the influence of different temperatures on evaporation fractionation. Three group experiments of water evaporation under different temperatures and initial isotopic values were carried out. The results show that fractionation factors of hydrogen and oxygen may increase with temperature, and the average enrichment degree of hydrogen isotope D is 3.432 times that of oxygen isotope 18O. The results also show that the isotopic composition of the initial water has little influence on water evaporation fractionation, which is mainly affected by the state variables in the evaporation process, such as temperature. This research provides experimental data for further understanding the evaporation fractionation mechanism.

  5. Studies on Dissolution Enhancement of Prednisolone, a Poorly Water-Soluble Drug by Solid Dispersion Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Zakeri-Milani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prednisolone is a class II substance according to the Biopharmaceutics Classification System. It is a poorly water soluble agent. The aim of the present study was to improve dissolution rate of a poorly water-soluble drug, prednisolone, by a solid dispersion technique. Methods: Solid dispersion of prednisolone was prepared with PEG 6000 or different carbohydrates such as lactose and dextrin with various ratios of the drug to carrier i.e., 1:10, 1:20 and 1:40. Solid dispersions were prepared by coevaporation method. The evaluation of the properties of the dispersions was performed using dissolution studies, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and x-ray powder diffractometery. Results: The results indicated that lactose is suitable carriers to enhance the in vitro dissolution rate of prednisolone. The data from the x-ray diffraction showed that the drug was still detectable in its solid state in all solid dispersions except solid dispersions prepared by dextrin as carrier. The results from infrared spectroscopy showed no well-defined drug–carrier interactions for coevaporates. Conclusion: Solid dispersion of a poorly water-soluble drug, prednisolone may alleviate the problems of delayed and inconsistent rate of dissolution of the drug.

  6. Encapsulation of poorly water-soluble drugs into organic nanotubes for improving drug dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moribe, Kunikazu; Makishima, Takashi; Higashi, Kenjirou; Liu, Nan; Limwikrant, Waree; Ding, Wuxiao; Masuda, Mitsutoshi; Shimizu, Toshimi; Yamamoto, Keiji

    2014-07-20

    Hydrocortisone (HC), a poorly water-soluble drug, was encapsulated within organic nanotubes (ONTs), which were formed via the self-assembly of N-{12-[(2-α,β-d-glucopyranosyl) carbamoyl]dodecanyl}-glycylglycylglycine acid. The stability of the ONTs was evaluated in ten organic solvents, of differing polarities, by field emission transmission electron microscopy. The ONTs maintained their stable tubular structure in the highly polar solvents, such as ethanol and acetone. Furthermore, solution-state (1)H-NMR spectroscopy confirmed that they were practically insoluble in acetone at 25°C (0.015 mg/mL). HC-loaded ONTs were prepared by solvent evaporation using acetone. A sample with a 3/7 weight ratio of HC/ONT was analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction, which confirmed the presence of a halo pattern and the absence of any crystalline HC peak. HC peak broadening, observed by solid-state (13)C-NMR measurements of the evaporated sample, indicated the absence of HC crystals. These results indicated that HC was successfully encapsulated in ONT as an amorphous state. Improvements of the HC dissolution rate were clearly observed in aqueous media at both pH 1.2 and 6.8, probably due to HC amorphization in the ONTs. Phenytoin, another poorly water-soluble drug, also showed significant dissolution improvement upon ONT encapsulation. Therefore, ONTs can serve as an alternative pharmaceutical excipient to enhance the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs.

  7. Seasonal variations of concentrations and optical properties of water soluble HULIS collected in urban environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Baduel

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Major contributors to the organic aerosol include water-soluble macromolecular compounds (e.g. HULISWS: Water Soluble Humic LIke Substances. The nature and sources of HULISWS are still largely unknown. This work is based on a monitoring in six different French cities performed during summer and winter seasons. HULISWS analysis was performed with a selective method of extraction complemented by carbon quantification. UV spectroscopy was also applied for their chemical characterisation. HULISWS carbon represent an important contribution to the organic aerosol mass in summer and winter, as it accounts for 12–22% of Organic Carbon and 34–40% of Water Soluble Organic Carbon. We found strong differences in the optical properties (specific absorbance at 250, 272, 280 nm and E2/E3 ratio and therefore in the chemical structure between HULISWS from samples of summer- and wintertime. These differences highlight different processes responsible for emissions and formation of HULISWS according to the season, namely biomass burning in winter, and secondary processes in summer. Specific absorbance can also be considered as a rapid and useful indicator of the origin of HULISWS in urban environment.

  8. Nanosizing of poorly water soluble compounds using rotation/revolution mixer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatsuka, Takayuki; Endo, Tomoko; Jianguo, Yao; Yuminoki, Kayo; Hashimoto, Naofumi

    2009-10-01

    In this study, nanoparticles of various poorly water soluble compounds were prepared by wet milling that was carried out using a rotation/revolution mixer and zirconia balls. To be compared with Beads mill, rotation/revolution mixer has superior in very quick process (5 min) and needs very few amounts of zirconia balls (2.4 g) for pulverizing drugs to nanometer range. Phenytoin, indomethacin, nifedipine, danazol, and naproxen were selected as the standard poorly water soluble compounds. Various parameters of the rotation/revolution mixer were studied to decide the optimal pulverization conditions for the production of nanoparticles of the abovementioned compounds. The rotation/revolution speed, shape of the mixing vessel, amount of zirconia balls, and volume of the vehicle (methylcellulose solution) mainly affected the pulverization of the compounds. Using the mixer, phenytoin could be pulverized to nanoparticles within a few minutes. The particle size was confirmed by using a scanning electron microscope and a particle size analyzer. The crystallinity of the pulverized phenytoin particles was confirmed by X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It was observed that the pulverized phenytoin particles retained their crystallinity, and amorphous phenytoin was not detected. Particles of other poorly water soluble compounds were also reduced to the nanometer range by using this method.

  9. Poly(ether ester) Ionomers as Water-Soluble Polymers for Material Extrusion Additive Manufacturing Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekkanen, Allison M; Zawaski, Callie; Stevenson, André T; Dickerman, Ross; Whittington, Abby R; Williams, Christopher B; Long, Timothy E

    2017-04-12

    Water-soluble polymers as sacrificial supports for additive manufacturing (AM) facilitate complex features in printed objects. Few water-soluble polymers beyond poly(vinyl alcohol) enable material extrusion AM. In this work, charged poly(ether ester)s with tailored rheological and mechanical properties serve as novel materials for extrusion-based AM at low temperatures. Melt transesterification of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG, 8k) and dimethyl 5-sulfoisophthalate afforded poly(ether ester)s of sufficient molecular weight to impart mechanical integrity. Quantitative ion exchange provided a library of poly(ether ester)s with varying counterions, including both monovalent and divalent cations. Dynamic mechanical and tensile analysis revealed an insignificant difference in mechanical properties for these polymers below the melting temperature, suggesting an insignificant change in final part properties. Rheological analysis, however, revealed the advantageous effect of divalent countercations (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Zn(2+)) in the melt state and exhibited an increase in viscosity of two orders of magnitude. Furthermore, time-temperature superposition identified an elevation in modulus, melt viscosity, and flow activation energy, suggesting intramolecular interactions between polymer chains and a higher apparent molecular weight. In particular, extrusion of poly(PEG8k-co-CaSIP) revealed vast opportunities for extrusion AM of well-defined parts. The unique melt rheological properties highlighted these poly(ether ester) ionomers as ideal candidates for low-temperature material extrusion additive manufacturing of water-soluble parts.

  10. Water-Soluble Coenzyme Q10 Reduces Rotenone-Induced Mitochondrial Fission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hai-Ning; Zimmerman, Mary; Milledge, Gaolin Z; Hou, Xiao-Lin; Cheng, Jiang; Wang, Zhen-Hai; Li, P Andy

    2017-02-11

    Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. It is usually accompanied by an imbalance in mitochondrial dynamics and changes in mitochondrial morphology that are associated with impaired function. The objectives of this study were to identify the effects of rotenone, a drug known to mimic the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease, on mitochondrial dynamics. Additionally, this study explored the protective effects of water-soluble Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) against rotenone-induced cytotoxicity in murine neuronal HT22 cells. Our results demonstrate that rotenone elevates protein expression of mitochondrial fission markers, Drp1 and Fis1, and causes an increase in mitochondrial fragmentation as evidenced through mitochondrial staining and morphological analysis. Water-soluble CoQ10 prevented mitochondrial dynamic imbalance by reducing Drp1 and Fis1 protein expression to pre-rotenone levels, as well as reducing rotenone treatment-associated mitochondrial fragmentation. Hence, water-soluble CoQ10 may have therapeutic potential in treating patients with Parkinson's disease.

  11. Investigation of molar volume and surfactant characteristics of water-soluble organic compounds in biomass burning aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Asa-Awuku

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we characterize the CCN activity of the water-soluble organics in biomass burning aerosol. The aerosol after collection upon filters is dissolved in water using sonication. Hydrophobic and hydrophilic components are fractionated from a portion of the original sample using solid phase extraction, and subsequently desalted. The surface tension and CCN activity of these different samples are measured with a KSV CAM 200 goniometer and a DMT Streamwise Thermal Gradient CCN Counter, respectively. The measurements show that the strongest surfactants are isolated in the hydrophobic fraction, while the hydrophilics exhibit negligible surface tension depression. The presence of salts (primarily (NH42SO4 in the hydrophobic fraction substantially enhances surface tension depression; their synergistic effects considerably enhance CCN activity, exceeding that of pure (NH42SO4. From our analysis, average thermodynamic properties (i.e, molar volume are determined for samples using our newly developed Köhler Theory Analysis (KTA method. The molar mass of the hydrophilic and hydrophobic aerosol components is estimated to be 87±26 g mol−1 and 780±231 g mol−1, respectively. KTA also suggests that the relative proportion (in moles of hydrophobic to hydrophilic compounds in the original sample to be 1:3. For the first time, KTA is applied to an aerosol with this level of complexity and displays its potential for providing physically-based constraints for GCM parameterizations of the aerosol indirect effect.

  12. Study of Oil/Water Interfacial Tension of Vacuum Residual Fractions from Iranian Light Crude Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭勃; 李明远; 赵锁奇; 吴肇亮; JohanSjoblom; HaraldHoiland

    2003-01-01

    The vacuum residual from Iranian Light crude oil are separated into a series of 16 narrow fractions according to the molecular weight by the supercritical fluid extraction and fractional (SFEF) technology. The chemical element and the UV spectrum of each fraction are analyzed. The effects of several factors on the interfacial tension are investigated, which are the fraction concentration in oil phase, the ratio of oil component, the salts dissolved in the water phase and the pH value. The interfacial tension decreases rapidly as the concentration of the residual fraction in the oil increases, showing a higher interfacial activity of the fraction. The interfacial tension changes, as the amount of absorption or the state of the fractions in the interface changes resulting from different ratios of oil, different kinds or concentrations of salts in water, and different pH values. It is concluded that the intrfacial tension changes regularly, corresponding to the regular molecular parameters of the vacuum residual fractions.

  13. Laboratory investigation of aluminum solubility and solid-phase properties following alum treatment of lake waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Jacob; Anderson, Michael A; Graham, Robert C

    2005-10-01

    Water samples from two southern California lakes adversely affected by internal nutrient loading were treated with a 20 mg/L dose of Al3+ in laboratory studies to examine Al solubility and solid-phase speciation over time. Alum [Al2(SO4)3 . 18 H2O] applications to water samples from Big Bear Lake and Lake Elsinore resulted in a rapid initial decrease in pH and alkalinity followed by a gradual recovery in pH over several weeks. Dissolved Al concentrations increased following treatment, reaching a maximum of 2.54 mg/L after 17 days in Lake Elsinore water and 0.91 mg/L after 48 days in Big Bear Lake water; concentrations in both waters then decreased to Lake Elsinore water. Surface areas also decreased over time as crystals reordered to form gibbsite/microcrystalline gibbsite species. DSC-TGA results suggested that the initially formed amorphous Al(OH)3 underwent transformation to >45% gibbsite. These results were supported by geochemical modeling using Visual MINTEQ, with Al solubility putatively controlled by amorphous Al(OH)3 shortly after treatment and approaching that of microcrystalline gibbsite after about 150 days. These findings indicate that Al(OH)3 formed after alum treatment undergoes significant chemical and mineralogical changes that may alter its effectiveness as a reactive barrier to phosphorus release from lake sediments.

  14. Sensitive detection of mercury (II) ion using water-soluble captopril-stabilized fluorescent gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Jiu-Ju; Huang, Hong; Chen, Wei-Jie; Chen, Jian-Rong; Lin, Hong-Jun; Wang, Ai-Jun, E-mail: ajwang@zjnu.cn

    2013-07-01

    In our work, a simple, facile, and green method was developed for the synthesis of water-soluble and well-dispersed fluorescent gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) within 5 min, using captopril as a capping agent. The as-prepared Au NPs showed strong emission at 414 nm, with a quantum yield of 5.5%. The fluorescence of the Au NPs can be strongly quenched by mercury (II) ion (Hg{sup 2+}) due to the stronger interactions between thiolates (RS{sup −}) and Hg{sup 2+}. It was applied to the detection of Hg{sup 2+} in water samples in the linear ranges of 0.033–0.133 μM and 0.167–2.500 μM, with a detection limit of 0.017 μM. Therefore, the as-prepared Au NPs can meet the requirement for monitoring Hg{sup 2+} in environmental samples. - Graphical abstract: In this work, we developed a simple, fast and facile method for the preparation of water-soluble and fluorescent gold nanoparticles (Au NPs). The trace existence of Hg{sup 2+} could strongly quench the fluorescence of the Au NPs. The Au NPs were used to detect highly toxic Hg{sup 2+} in water samples with high sensitivity and selectivity. Highlights: ► Water-soluble fluorescent Au NPs stabilized by captopril ► The synthesis procedure was simple, fast and facile. ► The fluorescence of the Au NPs can be strongly quenched by Hg{sup 2+}. ► The Au NPs were used to the assay of Hg{sup 2+} in water samples with high sensitivity and selectivity.

  15. Water-soluble chelating polymers for removal of actinides from watewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvinen, G. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Polymer filtration is a technology being developed to recover valuable or regulated metal ions selectively from process or wastewaters. Water-soluble chelating polymers are specially designed to bind selectively with metal ions in aqueous solutions. The polymers molecular weight is large enough so they can be separated and concentrated using available ultrafiltration technology. Water and smaller unbound components of the solution pass freely through the ultrafiltration membrane. The polymers can then be reused by changing the solution conditions to release the metal ions, which are recovered in concentrated form, for recycle or disposal.

  16. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity of a water-soluble polysaccharide from dendrobium denneanum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, A.; Ge, Z.; Fan, Y.; Chun, Z.; Jin, He X.

    2011-01-01

    The water-soluble crude polysaccharide (DDP) obtained from the aqueous extracts of the stem of Dendrobium denneanum through hot water extraction followed by ethanol precipitation, was found to have an average molecular weight (Mw) of about 484.7 kDa. Monosaccharide analysis revealed that DDP was composed of arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose and galactose in a molar ratio of 1.00:2.66:8.92:34.20:10.16. The investigation of antioxidant activity both in vitro and in vivo showed that DDP is a potential antioxidant. ?? 2011.

  17. Water soluble decontamination coating for Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canisters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selby, C.L.

    1986-12-17

    Water soluble sodium borate glass coating was successfully codeveloped by Clemson University (Dr. H.G. Lefort) and Du Pont as an alternative decontamination process to frit slurry blasting of Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canisters. Slurry blasting requires transport of abrasive slurries, might cause galling by entrapped frit particles, and could result in frit slurry freezeup in pumps and retention basins. Contamination can be removed from precoated canisters with a gentle hot water rinse. Glass waste spilled on a coated canister will spall off spontaneously during canister cooling. A glass coating appears to prevent transfer of contamination to the Canister Decontamination Cell (CDC) guides and cradle. 1 ref., 5 tabs.

  18. In Vitro and In Vivo Antioxidant Activity of a Water-Soluble Polysaccharide from Dendrobium denneanum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XingJin He

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The water-soluble crude polysaccharide (DDP obtained from the aqueous extracts of the stem of Dendrobium denneanum through hot water extraction followed by ethanol precipitation, was found to have an average molecular weight (Mw of about  484.7 kDa. Monosaccharide analysis revealed that DDP was composed of arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose and galactose in a molar ratio of 1.00:2.66:8.92:34.20:10.16. The investigation of antioxidant activity both in vitro and in vivo showed that DDP is a potential antioxidant.

  19. Mechanistic studies of metal ion binding to water-soluble polymers using potentiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, N V; Wagener, J M

    1995-02-01

    A method for elucidating metal ion binding mechanisms with water-soluble polymers has been developed in which the polymer is treated as a collection of monomeric units. Data obtained from potentiometric titrations are analysed by the ESTA library of programs and apparent formation constants may be calculated. From this information, predictions may be made as to metal ion separation using complexation-ultrafiltration techniques. The polymer used in this study was Polymin Water-Free and its complexation with Hg(II), Cd(II), Pb(II), Co(II) and Ni(II) was successfully modelled.

  20. Gelatinization and solubility of corn starch during heating in excess water: new insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayake, Wajira S; Jackson, David S

    2006-05-17

    Starch gelatinization is associated with the disruption of granular structure causing starch molecules to disperse in water. This study was designed to examine starch granules as they were heated in water, and their resulting morphological, structural, and solubility traits. The results indicate that starch gelatinization is a more complex process than the previously suggested order-to-disorder transition. The energy absorbed by the granules facilitates the rearrangement or formation of new bonds among molecules prior to the temperatures normally associated with the melting of amylopectin crystallites during gelatinization. It is also evident that amylose plays an important role during the initial stages of corn starch gelatinization.

  1. Anaerobic Digestion of the Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste With Recirculation of Process Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, H.; Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2001-01-01

    A new concept of a wet anaerobic digestion treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) is investigated. Once the waste is diluted with water, the entire liquid fraction of the effluent is recirculated and used as process water for dilution of the waste. This enables a well...

  2. Synthesis, optical characterization, and size distribution determination by curve resolution methods of water-soluble CdSe quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Calink Indiara do Livramento; Carvalho, Melissa Souza; Raphael, Ellen; Ferrari, Jefferson Luis; Schiavon, Marco Antonio, E-mail: schiavon@ufsj.edu.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Joao del-Rei (UFSJ), MG (Brazil). Grupo de Pesquisa em Quimica de Materiais; Dantas, Clecio [Universidade Estadual do Maranhao (LQCINMETRIA/UEMA), Caxias, MA (Brazil). Lab. de Quimica Computacional Inorganica e Quimiometria

    2016-11-15

    In this work a colloidal approach to synthesize water-soluble CdSe quantum dots (QDs) bearing a surface ligand, such as thioglycolic acid (TGA), 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA), glutathione (GSH), or thioglycerol (TGH) was applied. The synthesized material was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), and fluorescence spectroscopy (PL). Additionally, a comparative study of the optical properties of different CdSe QDs was performed, demonstrating how the surface ligand affected crystal growth. The particles sizes were calculated from a polynomial function that correlates the particle size with the maximum fluorescence position. Curve resolution methods (EFA and MCR-ALS) were employed to decompose a series of fluorescence spectra to investigate the CdSe QDs size distribution and determine the number of fraction with different particle size. The results for the MPA-capped CdSe sample showed only two main fraction with different particle sizes with maximum emission at 642 and 686 nm. The calculated diameters from these maximum emission were, respectively, 2.74 and 3.05 nm. (author)

  3. Estimating the physicochemical properties of polyhalogenated aromatic and aliphatic compounds using UPPER: part 2. Aqueous solubility, octanol solubility and octanol-water partition coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Admire, Brittany; Lian, Bo; Yalkowsky, Samuel H

    2015-01-01

    The UPPER (Unified Physicochemical Property Estimation Relationships) model uses additive and non-additive parameters to estimate 20 biologically relevant properties of organic compounds. The model has been validated by Lian and Yalkowsky (2014) on a data set of 700 hydrocarbons. Recently, Admire et al. (2014) expanded the model to predict the boiling and melting points of 1288 polyhalogenated benzenes, biphenyls, dibenzo-p-dioxins, diphenyl ethers, anisoles and alkanes. In this work, 19 new group descriptors are determined and used to predict the aqueous solubilities, octanol solubilities and the octanol-water coefficients.

  4. Water-soluble chelating polymers for removal of actinides from wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvinen, G.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Polymer filtration is a technology under development to selectively recover valuable or regulated metal ions from process or wastewaters. The technology uses water-soluble chelating polymers that are designed to selectively bind with metal ions in aqueous solutions. The polymers have a sufficiently large molecular weight that they can be separated and concentrated using available ultrafiltration (UF) technology. The UF range is generally considered to include molecular weights from about 3000 to several million daltons and particles sizes of about 2 to 1000 nm. Water and smaller unbound components of the solution pass freely through the UF membrane. The polymers can then be reused by changing the solution conditions to release the metal ions that are recovered in concentrated form for recycle or disposal. Some of the advantages of polymer filtration relative to technology now in use are rapid binding kinetics, high selectivity, low energy and capital costs, and a small equipment footprint. Some potential commercial applications include electroplating rinse waters, photographic processing, nuclear power plant cooling water; remediation of contaminated soils and groundwater; removal of mercury contamination; and textile, paint and dye production. The purpose of this project is to evaluate this technology to remove plutonium, americium, and other regulated metal ions from various process and waste streams found in nuclear facilities. The work involves preparation of the water-soluble chelating polymers; small-scale testing of the chelating polymer systems for the required solubility, UF properties, selectivity and binding constants; followed by an engineering assessment at a larger scale to allow comparison to competing separation technologies. This project focuses on metal-ion contaminants in waste streams at the Plutonium Facility and the Waste Treatment Facility at LANL. Potential applications at other DOE facilities are also apparent.

  5. Water-soluble carbohydrates and fructan structure patterns from Agave and Dasylirion species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancilla-Margalli, N Alejandra; López, Mercedes G

    2006-10-04

    Fructans, storage carbohydrates with beta-fructofuranosyl linkages, are found in approximately 15% of higher plants. The metabolic flexibility of those molecules allows them easily to polymerize and depolymerize to soluble carbohydrates according to plant development stage and environmental conditions. In this work, water-soluble carbohydrates, including fructan structure patterns, were compared among Agave and Dasylirion species grown in different environmental regions in Mexico. Fructans were the main storage carbohydrate present in Agave stems, in addition to other carbohydrates related to its metabolism, whereas Dasylirion spp. presented a different carbohydrate distribution. A good correlation of water-soluble carbohydrate content with climatic conditions was observed. Fructans in Agave and Dasylirion genera were found in the form of polydisperse molecules, where structural heterogeneity in the same plant was evidenced by methylation linkage analysis and chromatographic methods. Fructans from the studied species were classified into three groups depending on DP and linkage-type abundance. These storage carbohydrates share structural characteristics with fructans in plants that belong to the Asparagales members. Agave and Dasylirion fructans can be categorized as graminans and branched neo-fructans, which we have termed agavins.

  6. Selecting water-alcohol mixed solvent for synthesis of polydopamine nano-spheres using solubility parameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaoli; Wang, Yinling; Li, Maoguo

    2014-08-01

    The solvent plays an important role in a given chemical reaction. Since most reaction in nature occur in the mixed-solvent systems, a comprehensive principle for solvent optimization was required. By calculating the Hansen solubility parameters (HSP) distance Ra, we designed a model experiment to explore the influence of mixed solvents on the chemical synthesis. The synthesis of polydopamine (PDA) in the water-alcohol system was chosen as model. As predicted, the well-dispersed PDA spheres were obtained in selected solvents with smaller Ra values: methanol/water, ethanol/water and 2-propanol/water. In addition, the mixed solvent with smaller Ra values gave a higher conversion of dopamine. The strategy for mixed solvent selection is might be useful to choose optimal reaction media for efficient chemical synthesis.

  7. Selecting water-alcohol mixed solvent for synthesis of polydopamine nano-spheres using solubility parameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaoli; Wang, Yinling; Li, Maoguo

    2014-01-01

    The solvent plays an important role in a given chemical reaction. Since most reaction in nature occur in the mixed-solvent systems, a comprehensive principle for solvent optimization was required. By calculating the Hansen solubility parameters (HSP) distance Ra, we designed a model experiment to explore the influence of mixed solvents on the chemical synthesis. The synthesis of polydopamine (PDA) in the water-alcohol system was chosen as model. As predicted, the well-dispersed PDA spheres were obtained in selected solvents with smaller Ra values: methanol/water, ethanol/water and 2-propanol/water. In addition, the mixed solvent with smaller Ravalues gave a higher conversion of dopamine. The strategy for mixed solvent selection is might be useful to choose optimal reaction media for efficient chemical synthesis. PMID:25317902

  8. Dissolution Enhancement of Poorly Water Soluble Efavirenz by Hot Melt Extrusion Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Kolhe

    2013-06-01

    studies also showed enhancement in release rate of HME complex. Stability studies at 40 º C/75 % RH (relative humidity were studied and it shows that the sample is stable even after 3 months study. HME is simple and efficient method to improve dissolution and permeability of poorly water soluble Efv.

  9. Formulation of poorly water-soluble drugs via coacervation--a pilot study using febantel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jaeghere, W; De Geest, B G; Van Bocxlaer, J; Remon, J P; Vervaet, C; Antunes da Fonseca, A

    2013-11-01

    In this study, febantel was dissolved under increased temperature in a nonionic surfactant Lutrol L44® and subsequently mixed into an aqueous maltodextrin solution. After 8h under static conditions, coacervation or phase separation took place. (1)H NMR spectra and HPLC analysis showed that the upper phase contained mainly all febantel, while no febantel was detected in the lower phase. Fluorescent microscopy showed that maltodextrin is distributed in the lower phase. Coacervation proved to be a promising formulation technology for certain poorly water-soluble drugs, such as febantel. The coacervate phase showed an increase in in vitro dissolution kinetics, compared to Rintal® granules. These results were confirmed in an in vivo study performed on dogs. Febantel and fenbendazole showed a significant increase in plasma concentration compared to Rintal® granules. Further studies have to be performed to transform coacervates into a solid dosage form and to prove broad applicability to other poorly soluble drugs.

  10. A new member of the oxygen-photosensitizers family: a water-soluble polymer binding a platinum complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardi, Loredana; Puoci, Francesco; Cirillo, Giuseppe; La Deda, Massimo

    2012-08-28

    The grafting of a 2-picolylamine Pt(II) complex into polymethacrylic acid has been successfully performed. The obtained polymer is water soluble, and it represents the first example of a platinum-containing polymer able to photogenerate singlet oxygen.

  11. The ultrafast reactions in the photochromic cycle of water-soluble fulgimide photoswitches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavov, C; Boumrifak, C; Hammer, C A; Trojanowski, P; Chen, X; Lees, W J; Wachtveitl, J; Braun, M

    2016-04-21

    Photochromic switches are essential for the control and manipulation of nanoscale reactions and processes. The expansion of their application to aqueous environments depends strongly on the development of optimized water-soluble photoswitches. Here we present a femtosecond time-resolved investigation of the photochromic reactions (transition between the open and the closed form) of a water-soluble indolylfulgimide. We observe a pronounced effect of the protic nature of water as a solvent on the ultrafast ring-opening reaction. Typically, the excited state of the closed form has a larger dipole moment than the ground state, which leads to stabilization of the excited state in polar solvents and hence a lifetime (3 ps) longer than in non-polar solvents (2 ps). However, in water, despite the increased solvent polarity and the increased excited state dipole moment, the opposite trend for the excited state lifetime is observed (1.8 ps). This effect is caused by the opening of a new excited state deactivation pathway involving proton transfer reactions.

  12. A general strategy to fabricate ligand-free water-soluble up-conversion nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhihua, E-mail: lizhihua2006@126.com [Department of Chemistry, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014 (China); State Key Lab of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Li, Ying; Wang, Yanan; Miao, Haixia; Du, Yu [Department of Chemistry, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014 (China); Liu, Hong [State Key Lab of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • We notice that the coordination energy of Y{sup 3+} ions with oleate is less than the normal chemical bond, which can be broken by high power external force. • We report a simple and easily-operated physical method, ultrasonic separation, to remove the oleate ligand from the surface of NaYF{sub 4}:Yb{sup 3+}, Er{sup 3+}. • The oleate removing method can be applied to the converting of many nanomaterials from oil soluble to water soluble. - Abstract: It is a generally accepted method to synthesize the monodisperse NaYF{sub 4}:Yb{sup 3+}, Er{sup 3+} with uniform size and shape by using oleic acid (OA) as surfactant or solvent. However, the obtained oleate-capped up-conversion nanoparticles NaYF{sub 4}:Yb{sup 3+}, Er{sup 3+} (Ln-UCNPs, Ln = Yb{sup 3+}, Er{sup 3+}) have inherent hydrophobia properties, which should be processed by complicated post-treatments to render them water dispersible before used in biomedicine. Herein, we introduce a facile approach, ultrasonic separation, to obtain water-soluble and ligand-free Ln-UCNPs by analyzing the capping effect between Ln{sup 3+} and the carboxy group of oleate anions. After ultrasonic separation, the ligand-free of Ln-UCNPs disperse in water and ethanol easily, which are characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analyses (TGA), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and zeta potential. The experiments demonstrate that the present method is simple and effective to remove oleate layers from the surface of NaYF{sub 4}:Yb{sup 3+}, Er{sup 3+}, and worthy of being generalized.

  13. Studies on Structure and Properties of Water Soluble Polysaccharide from Fruiting Body of Cordyceps Militarvs(L.) Link

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A water soluble crude polysaccharide has been isolated from the fruiting body of cultivated Cordyceps militarvs(L.) Link. The GC analysis indicated that it contained the monosaccharides of Gal, Man, Glc and GlcA. Their molar ratio is 1.00∶1.58∶7.89∶0.19. The crude polysaccharide was fractionated with ethanol to get three fractions, which were CM-Ⅰ, CM-Ⅱ and CM-Ⅲ. CM-Ⅱ was further purified to get one homogeneous fraction named CMB. The molecular weight was estimated to be 60000 by means of gel filtration. CMB is a greyish white powder. The GC analysis indicated that it was composed of Gal, Man, Glc and the molar ratio is 1.00∶1.38∶5.10. Partial hydrolysis with an acid, periodate oxidation, Smith degradation, IR, GC and methylation analyses, GC/MS analyses were used for the structure analyses of CMB. The results reveal that CMB is of a lower branched structure. The main chain is composed of (1→6)-linked-Man, (1→6)-linked-Glc, (1→4)-linked-Glc and (1→4)-linked-Gal. Some of (1→4)-linked-Glc and all (1→4)-linked-Gal residues are substituted at 3-O and 6-O respectively. (1→4)-Linked-Glc residues without branch probably exist with other monosaccharides alternately. On an average, there is one branch every ten hexose residues. The side chain is composed of major (1→4)-linked-Glc and minor (1→6)-linked-Glc. The nonreduced end is composed of Gal and Glc. The main glycosidic link of CMB is α configuration.

  14. Effect of Different Salts on the Solubilities of Benzene and Diphenyl in t-Butyl Alcohol-Water Mixture and Hydrophobic Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU,Li-Zhuang(邹立壮); WANG,Xiao-Ling(王晓玲); ZHU,Shu-Quan(朱书全); HAN,Bu-Xing(韩布兴); LIU,Rui-Lin(刘瑞麟); YAN,Hai-Ke(阎海科)

    2002-01-01

    The solubilities of benzene and diphenyl in mixed solvents of tbutyl alcohol (TBA) and water with different salts have been determined at T = 298.15, 303.15, 308.15 and 313.15 K.The molar fraction of TBA [ x (TBA) ] in mixed solvent is 0.045, and the molality of the salts (ms) in mixed solvents are 0.000, 0.250, 0.500, 0.750 and 1.000 mol/kg, respectively. The standard Gibbs energies of solution of benzene and diphenyl in the mixed solvents have also been calculated based on the solubility data. The effects of different salts on the hydrophobic interaction (HI) for benzene-benzene pair in the systems were discussed.

  15. Impact of cell wall-degrading enzymes on water-holding capacity and solubility of dietary fibre in rye and wheat bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersson, Karin; Nordlund, Emilia; Tornberg, Eva; Eliasson, Ann-Charlotte; Buchert, Johanna

    2013-03-15

    Rye and wheat bran were treated with several xylanases and endoglucanases, and the effects on physicochemical properties such as solubility, viscosity, water-holding capacity and particle size as well as the chemical composition of the soluble and insoluble fractions of the bran were studied. A large number of enzymes with well-defined activities were used. This enabled a comparison between enzymes of different origins and with different activities as well as a comparison between the effects of the enzymes on rye and wheat bran. The xylanases derived from Bacillus subtilis were the most effective in solubilising dietary fibre from wheat and rye bran. There was a tendency for a higher degree of degradation of the soluble or solubilised dietary fibre in rye bran than in wheat bran when treated with most of the enzymes. None of the enzymes increased the water-holding capacity of the bran or the viscosity of the aqueous phase. The content of insoluble material decreased as the dietary fibre was solubilised by the enzymes. The amount of material that may form a network to retain water in the system was thereby decreased. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Urinary water-soluble vitamins and their metabolite contents as nutritional markers for evaluating vitamin intakes in young Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Shibata, Katsumi

    2008-06-01

    Little information is available to estimate water-soluble vitamin intakes from urinary vitamins and their metabolite contents as possible nutritional markers. Determination of the relationships between the oral dose and urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins in human subjects contributes to finding valid nutrition markers of water-soluble vitamin intakes. Six female Japanese college students were given a standard Japanese diet in the first week, the same diet with a synthesized water-soluble vitamin mixture as a diet with approximately onefold vitamin mixture based on Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for Japanese in the second week, with a threefold vitamin mixture in the third week, and a sixfold mixture in the fourth week. Water-soluble vitamins and their metabolites were measured in the 24-h urine collected each week. All urinary vitamins and their metabolite levels except vitamin B(12) increased linearly in a dose-dependent manner, and highly correlated with vitamin intake (r=0.959 for vitamin B(1), r=0.927 for vitamin B(2), r=0.965 for vitamin B(6), r=0.957 for niacin, r=0.934 for pantothenic acid, r=0.907 for folic acid, r=0.962 for biotin, and r=0.952 for vitamin C). These results suggest that measuring urinary water-soluble vitamins and their metabolite levels can be used as good nutritional markers for assessing vitamin intakes.

  17. Fabrication of magnetic water-soluble hyperbranched polyol functionalized graphene oxide for high-efficiency water remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lihua; Li, Yan; Zhang, Xuefei; Wang, Yaoguang; Cui, Limei; Wei, Qin; Ma, Hongmin; Yan, Liangguo; Du, Bin

    2016-06-01

    Magnetic water-soluble hyperbranched polyol functionalized graphene oxide nanocomposite (MWHPO-GO) was successfully prepared and applied to water remediation in this paper. MWHPO-GO was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), magnetization curve, zeta potential, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analyses. MWHPO-GO exhibited excellent adsorption performance for the removal of synthetic dyes (methylene blue (MB) and methyl violet (MV)) and heavy metal (Pb(II)). Moreover, MWHPO-GO could be simply recovered from water with magnetic separation. The pseudo-second order equation and the Langmuir model exhibited good correlation with the adsorption kinetic and isotherm data, respectively, for these three pollutants. The thermodynamic results (ΔG water remediation.

  18. Synthesis and Spectral Properties of Novel Water-soluble Near-infrared Fluorescent Indocyanines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Qiu WANG; Xiao Jun PENG; Wei Bing ZHANG; Fei YIN; Jing Nan CUI; Xin Qin GAO

    2005-01-01

    Two fluorescent pentamethine and a squarylium indocyanines containing at least one p-carboxybenzyl group on N atoms in the heterocyclic rings were synthesized. They had good water solubility and photostability. Their maximum absorption and maximum emission were600-700 nm in water. When it was anchored onto nanostructured TiO2 electrode, compared with in water, the squaraine showed double absorption peaks (one blue shifted and another red shifted)and absorption intensity of the red shift peak increased with the increase of the time of irradiation.The intensity of the blue one decreased simultaneously. We proposed that the presence of two electronic charge forms of squaraine anchored on the TiO2 film might be the reason.

  19. Luminescent, water-soluble silicon quantum dots via micro-plasma surface treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jeslin J.; Kondeti, Vighneswara Siva Santosh Kumar; Bruggeman, Peter J.; Kortshagen, Uwe R.

    2016-03-01

    Silicon quantum dots (SiQDs), with their broad absorption, narrow and size-tunable emission, and potential biocompatibility are highly attractive materials in biological imaging applications. The inherent hydrophobicity and instability of hydrogen-terminated SiQDs are obstacles to their widespread implementation. In this work, we successfully produced highly luminescent, hydrophilic SiQDs with long-term stability in water using non-thermal plasma techniques. Hydrogen-terminated SiQDs were produced in a low-pressure plasma and subsequently treated in water using an atmospheric-pressure plasma jet for surface modification. Preliminary assessments of the chemical mechanism(s) involved in the creation of water-soluble SiQDs were performed using Fenton’s reaction and various plasma chemistries, suggesting both OH and O species play a key role in the oxidation of the SiQDs.

  20. A method for separating water soluble organics from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaiko, David J.; Mego, William A.

    1997-12-01

    The present invention relates to a method for separating water-miscible organic species from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction. In particular, the method includes extracting the organic species into a polymer-rich phase of an aqueous biphase system in which the process stream comprises the salt-rich phase, and, next, separating the polymer from the extracted organic species by contacting the loaded, polymer-rich phase with a water-immiscible organic phase. Alternatively, the polymer can be separated from the extracted organic species by raising the temperature of the loaded, polymer-rich phase above the cloud point, such that the polymer and the water-soluble organic species separate into two distinct aqueous phases. In either case, a substantially salt-free, concentrated aqueous solution containing the organic species is recovered.

  1. CHARACTERIZATION OF MOLECULAR MASS OF SIX WATER-SOLUBLE POLYSACCHARIDE-PROTEIN COMPLEXES FROM GANODERMA TSUGAE MYCELIUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-fei Peng; Li-na Zhang; Xiao-juan Xu; Li-guo Cheng

    2003-01-01

    Six water-soluble polysaccharide-protein complexes coded as GM1, GM2, GM3, GM4, GM5 and GM6 were isolated from the mycelium of Ganoderma tsugae by extracting with 0.2 mol/L phosphate buffer solution at 25, 40 and 80℃, water at 120℃, 0.5 mol/L aqueous NaOH solution at 25 and 65℃, consecutively. Their chemical components were analyzed by using IR, GC, HPLC and 13C-NMR, and some new results were obtained. The four samples GM1, GM2, GM3 and GM4 are heteropolysaccharide-protein complexes, in which, α-(1→3) linked D-glucose is the major monosaccharide while galactose, mannose and ribose are the secondary ones. GM5 and GM6 are β-(1→3)-D-glucan-protein complexes. The protein content increased from 32% to 69% with the progress of isolation. Weight-average molecular mass Mw and the intrinsic viscosity [rη] of the GM samples in 0.5 mol/L aqueous NaCl solution at 25℃ were measured systematically by laser light scattering (LLS), size exclusion chromatography (SEC) combined with LLS, and viscometry. The Mw of GM1 to GM6 are 35.5, 46.8, 58.9, 41.6, 3.3 and 22.0 x 104, respectively. The conformation and molecular mass of the two fractions of sample GM5 were characterized satisfactorily by SEC-LLS without further fractionation.

  2. Water-soluble undenatured type II collagen ameliorates collagen-induced arthritis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinari, Orie; Shiojima, Yoshiaki; Moriyama, Hiroyoshi; Shinozaki, Junichi; Nakane, Takahisa; Masuda, Kazuo; Bagchi, Manashi

    2013-11-01

    Earlier studies have reported the efficacy of type II collagen (C II) in treating rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, a few studies have investigated the ability of the antigenic collagen to induce oral tolerance, which is defined as active nonresponse to an orally administered antigen. We hypothesized that water-soluble undenatured C II had a similar effect as C II in RA. The present study was designed to examine the oral administration of a novel, water-soluble, undenatured C II (commercially known as NEXT-II) on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice. In addition, the underlying mechanism of NEXT-II was also identified. After a booster dose (collagen-Freund's complete adjuvant), mice were assigned to control CIA group, or NEXT-II treatment group, to which saline and NEXT-II were administered, respectively. The arthritis index in the NEXT-II group was significantly lower compared with the CIA group. Serum IL-6 levels in the NEXT-II group were significantly lower compared with the CIA group, while serum IL-2 level was higher. Furthermore, oral administration of NEXT-II enhanced the proportion of CD4+CD25+T (Treg) cells, and gene expressions of stimulated dendritic cells induced markers for regulatory T cells such as forkhead box p3 (Foxp3), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, and CD25. These results demonstrated that orally administered water-soluble undenatured C II (NEXT-II) is highly efficacious in the suppression of CIA by inducing CD4+CD25+ Treg cells.

  3. Equilibrium solubility of carbon dioxide in the amine solvent system of (triethanolamine + piperazine + water)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, P.-Y. [R and D Center for Membrane Technology and Department of Chemical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung Li 32023, Taiwan (China); Soriano, Allan N. [R and D Center for Membrane Technology and Department of Chemical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung Li 32023, Taiwan (China); School of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Mapua Institute of Technology, Manila 1002 (Philippines); Leron, Rhoda B. [R and D Center for Membrane Technology and Department of Chemical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung Li 32023, Taiwan (China); Li, M.-H., E-mail: mhli@cycu.edu.t [R and D Center for Membrane Technology and Department of Chemical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung Li 32023, Taiwan (China)

    2010-06-15

    In this study, a new set of data for the equilibrium solubility of carbon dioxide in the amine solvent system that consists of triethanolamine (TEA), piperazine (PZ), and water is presented. Equilibrium solubility values were obtained at T = (313.2, 333.2, and 353.2) K and pressures up to 153 kPa using the vapour-recirculation equilibrium cell. The TEA concentrations in the considered ternary (solvent) mixture were (2 and 3) kmol . m{sup -3} and those of PZ's were (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5) kmol . m{sup -3}. The solubility data (CO{sub 2} loading in the amine solution) obtained were correlated as a function of CO{sub 2} partial pressure, system temperature, and amine composition via the modified Kent-Eisenberg model. Results showed that the model applied is generally satisfactory in representing the CO{sub 2} absorption into mixed aqueous solutions of TEA and PZ.

  4. Drug carrier systems based on water-soluble cationic beta-cyclodextrin polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianshu; Xiao, Huining; Li, Jiehua; Zhong, YinPing

    2004-07-08

    This study was designed to synthesize, characterize and investigate the drug inclusion property of a series of novel cationic beta-cyclodextrin polymers (CPbetaCDs). Proposed water-soluble polymers were synthesized from beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD), epichlorohydrin (EP) and choline chloride (CC) through a one-step polymerization procedure by varying molar ratio of EP and CC to beta-CD. Physicochemical properties of the polymers were characterized with colloidal titration, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and aqueous solubility determination. The formation of naproxen/CPbetaCDs inclusion complexes was confirmed by NMR and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Cationic beta-CD polymers showed better hemolytic activities than parent beta-CD and neutral beta-CD polymer in hemolysis test. The morphological study of erythrocytes revealed a cell membrane invagination induced by the cationic groups. The effects of molecular weight and charge density of the polymers on their inclusion and release performance of naproxen were also investigated through phase-solubility and dissolution studies. It was found that the cationic beta-CD polymers with high molecular weight or low charge density exhibited better drug inclusion and dissolution abilities.

  5. Chemical constituents: water-soluble vitamins, free amino acids and sugar profile from Ganoderma adspersum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kıvrak, İbrahim

    2015-01-01

    Ganoderma adspersum presents a rigid fruiting body owing to chitin content and having a small quantity of water or moisture. The utility of bioactive constituent of the mushroom can only be available by extraction for human usage. In this study, carbohydrate, water-soluble vitamin compositions and amino acid contents were determined in G. adspersum mushroom. The composition in individual sugars was determined by HPLC-RID, mannitol (13.04 g/100 g) and trehalose (10.27 g/100 g) being the most abundant sugars. The examination of water-soluble vitamins and free amino acid composition was determined by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Essential amino acid constituted 67.79% of total amino acid, which is well worth the attention with regard to researchers and consumers. In addition, G. adspersum, which is also significantly rich in B group vitamins and vitamin C, can provide a wide range of notable applications in the pharmaceutics, cosmetics, food and dietary supplement industries. G. adspersum revealed its value for pharmacy and nutrition fields.

  6. Spherical mesoporous silica nanoparticles for loading and release of the poorly water-soluble drug telmisartan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanzhuo; Zhi, Zhuangzhi; Jiang, Tongying; Zhang, Jinghai; Wang, Zhanyou; Wang, Siling

    2010-08-03

    The purpose of this study was to develop mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) loaded with a poorly water-soluble drug, intended to be orally administered, able to improve the dissolution rate and enhance the drug loading capacity. Spherical MSNs were synthesized using an organic template method in an oil/water phase, and large pore diameter MSNs were functionalized with aminopropyl groups through postsynthesis. MSNs as well as the resulting functionalized MSNs were investigated as matrices for loading and release of the model drug telmisartan (TEL). The effects of different pore sizes and surface chemical groups on TEL uptake and release were systematically studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nitrogen adsorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and HPLC. The total pore volume and the pore diameter of MSNs were the two main factors limiting the maximum drug load capacity. MSNs allow a very high drug loading of about 60% in weight. The release rate of TEL from MSNs with a pore diameter of 12.9 nm was found to be effectively increased and the release rate of TEL from the functionalized MSNs was effectively controlled compared with that from the unmodified MSNs. We believe that the present study will help in the design of oral drug delivery systems for the dissolution enhancement and/or sustained release of poorly water-soluble drugs.

  7. Solubility and some crystallization properties of conglomerate forming chiral drug guaifenesin in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayzullin, Robert R; Lorenz, Heike; Bredikhina, Zemfira A; Bredikhin, Alexander A; Seidel-Morgenstern, Andreas

    2014-10-01

    The solubility of 3-(2-methoxyphenoxy)-propane-1,2-diol, the well-known chiral drug guaifenesin 1, in water has been investigated by means of polythermal and isothermal approaches. It was found that the solubilities of racemic and enantiomeric diols rac- and (R)-1 depend strongly on temperature. The ternary phase diagram of the guaifenesin enantiomers in water in the temperature range between 10°C and 40°C was constructed. Clear evidence was obtained that rac-1 crystallizes as a stable conglomerate. The Meyerhoffer coefficient for the guaifenesin-water system is more than two and strongly depends on temperature. Neither crystalline hydrates nor polymorphs were detected within the range of conditions covered. Metastable zone width data with regard to primary nucleation were also collected for rac-1 and (R)-1. On the basis of the knowledge acquired, the resolution of racemic guaifenesin by preferential crystallization from solution could be realized successfully. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  8. Improvement of dissolution property of poorly water-soluble drug by supercritical freeze granulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoda, Ryoichi; Hara, Yuko; Iwasaki, Tomohiro; Watano, Satoru

    2009-10-01

    The dissolution property of the poorly water-soluble drug, flurbiprofen (FP) was improved by a novel supercritical freeze granulation using supercritical carbon dioxide. Supercritical freeze granulation was defined as a production method of the granulated substances by using the dry ice to generate intentionally for the rapid atomization of the supercritical carbon dioxide to the atmospheric pressure. This process utilized a rapid expansion of supercritical solutions (RESS) process with the mixture of the drug and lactose. In the supercritical freeze granulation, needle-like FP fine particles were obtained which adhered to the surface of lactose particles, which did not dissolve in supercritical carbon dioxide. The number of FP particles that adhered to the surface of particles decreased with an increase in the ratio of lactose added, leading to markedly improve the dissolution rate. This improvement was caused not only by the increase in the specific surface area but also the improvement of the dispersibility of FP in water. It is thus concluded that the supercritical freeze granulation is a useful technique to improve the dissolution property of the poorly water-soluble flurbiprofen.

  9. Structural, functional, and ACE inhibitory properties of water-soluble polysaccharides from chickpea flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokni Ghribi, Abir; Sila, Assaâd; Maklouf Gafsi, Ines; Blecker, Christophe; Danthine, Sabine; Attia, Hamadi; Bougatef, Ali; Besbes, Souhail

    2015-04-01

    The present study aimed to characterize and investigate the functional and angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition activities of chickpea water-soluble polysaccharides (CPWSP). Physico-chemical characteristics were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis, and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). Functional properties (water holding capacity: WHC, water solubility index: WSI, swelling capacity: SC, oil holding capacity: OHC, foaming, and emulsion properties) and ACE activities were also investigated using well-established procedures. The FT-IR spectra obtained for the CPWSP revealed two significant peaks, at about 3500 and 500 cm(-1), which corresponded to the carbohydrate region and were characteristic of polysaccharides. All spectra showed the presence of a broad absorption between 1500 and 670 cm(-1), which could be attributed to CH, CO, and OH bands in the polysaccharides. CPWSP had an XRD pattern that was typical for a semi-crystalline polymer with a major crystalline reflection at 19.6 °C. They also displayed important techno-functional properties (SWC, WSI, WHC, and OHC) that can be modulated according to temperature. The CPWSP were also noted to display good anti-hypertensive activities. Overall, the results indicate that CPWSP have attractive chemical, biological, and functional properties that make them potential promising candidates for application as alternative additives in various food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical preparations.

  10. Water-soluble phosphate-functionalized polyfluorene as fluorescence biosensors toward cytochrome c

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    An anionic water-soluble polyfluorene derivative, poly(9,9-bis(6′-phosphatehexyl)fluorene-alt-1,4-pheny lene) sodium salt (PFHPNa), was synthesized by Suzuki coupling reaction in DMF/water. Polymer PFHPNa was well soluble in water with a strong blue fluorescence emission. Effect of the side chain length on fluorescence sensory properties was studied by comparing quenching efficiencies toward different quenchers of PFHPNa with a reported polymer poly(9,9-bis(3′-phosphatepropyl)fluorene-alt-1,4-phenylene) sodium salt (PFPPNa), which have different side chains in length. For small molecular quenchers (methylviologen, MV2+) and meso-5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphine (TMPyP4), polymer PFHPNa had lower sensitivity due to the much longer side chain length. The positively charged metalloprotein cytochrome c could quench fluorescence of conjugated polymers via energy transfer and electron transfer. Moreover, polymer PFHPNa showed higher fluorescence quenching toward large biomolecules than PFPPNa. The corresponding Stern-Volmer (Ksv) value of polymer PFHPNa was determined to be 2.1×108 M-1 for cytochrome c. It could be used as a sensitive and selective fluorescence sensor for protein cytochrome c.

  11. Water-soluble phosphate-functionalized polyfluorene as fluorescence biosensors toward cytochrome c

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN ChuanJiang; TONG Hui; WANG LiXiang

    2009-01-01

    An anionic water-soluble polyfluorene derivative, poly(9,9-bis(6'-phosphatehexyl)fluorene-a/t-1,4-pheny-lene) sodium salt (PFHPNa), was synthesized by Suzuki coupling reaction in DMF/water. Polymer PFHPNa was well soluble in water with a strong blue fluorescence emission. Effect of the side chain length on fluo-rescenoe sensory properties was studied by comparing quenching efficiencies toward different quenchers of PFHPNa with a reported polymer poly(g,9-bis(3"phosphatepropyl)fluorene-a/t-1,4-phenylene) sodium salt (PFPPNa), which have different side chains in length. For small molecular quenchers (methylviologen, MV2+) and meso-5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphine (TMPyP4), polymer PFHPNa had lower sensi-tivity due to the much longer side chain length. The positively charged metalloprotein cytoohrome c could quench fluorescence of conjugated polymers via energy transfer and electron transfer. Moreover, polymer PFHPNa showed higher fluorescence quenching toward large biomolecules than PFPPNa. The corre-sponding Stern-Volmer (Ksv) value of polymer PFHPNa was determined to be 2.1×108 M-1 for cytochrome c. It could be used as a sensitive and selective fluorescence sensor for protein cytochrome c.

  12. The effects of surfactants on the solubility and dissolution profiles of a poorly water-soluble basic drug, carvedilol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incecayir, T

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the most suitable surfactant medium for the dissolution testing of a poorly soluble basic drug, namely, carvedilol reflecting the in vivo behavior. Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and polysorbate 80 were used as anionic, cationic and nonionic surfactants, respectively. Saturation solubilities of carvedilol were determined in the presence of SLS, CTAB and polysorbate 80 (0.5, 1 and 2% (w/v)) at pH 1.2 and 6.8. Dissolution behaviors of the commercial tablets were studied using USP apparatus II in pH 1.2, 4.5 and 6.8 buffers and pH 6.8 dissolution media with 0.5% (w/v) SLS, polysorbate 80 and CTAB. Polysorbate 80 enhanced the solubility of carvedilol irrespective of pH, while SLS and CTAB exhibited larger solubilization effect than polysorbate 80 depending on pH and the ionic nature of the surfactant. Based on in vitro dissolution profile similarity, pH 6.8 dissolution medium with 0.5% (w/v) polysorbate 80 was found to be the most biorelevant medium, which probably reflects the bioequivalence of test products to the reference product of carvedilol.

  13. Efficient Route to Highly Water-Soluble Aromatic Cyclic Hydroxamic Acid Ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, Michael; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2008-02-06

    2-Hydroxyisoquinolin-1-one (1,2-HOIQO) is a new member of the important class of aromatic cyclic hydroxamic acid ligands which are widely used in metal sequestering applications and metal chelating therapy. The first general approach for the introduction of substituents at the aromatic ring of the chelating moiety is presented. As a useful derivative, the highly water-soluble sulfonic acid has been synthesized by an efficient route that allows general access to 1,2-HOQIO 3-carboxlic acid amides, which are the most relevant for applications.

  14. Encapsulation of Polythiophene by Glycopolymer for Water Soluble Nano-wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T Fukuda; Y Inoue; T Koga; M Matsuoka; Y Miura

    2011-12-31

    A water-soluble polythiophene (PT) was prepared by the self-assembling complex with a glycopolymer. The glycopolymer of poly(N-p-vinylbenzyl-D-lactonamide) (PVLA) formed self-assembling cylindrical structure based on the amphiphilicity even after the complexation with PT. We confirmed the improved optical functionality of PT due to the longer conjugated {pi}-orbital. It suggested that PT behaved like molecular nanowire with the self-assembled structure in the hydrophobic core of PVLA. PVLA-PT also showed specific biorecognition against corresponding lectin. These results suggested that the bioactive nanowire formation of PT with the glycopolymer was developed.

  15. Spectral Properties of a Water-Soluble Squaraine Dye and Its Application in Cell Fluorescent Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, L.; Yuan, H.; Li, Q. Q.; Jin, J. C.; Chang, W. G.; Yan, Z. Q.

    2015-09-01

    A water-soluble bis-1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene squaraine dye (t-OH-SQ) with a D-π-A-π-D conjugated structure was identified and prepared. After its structure was characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR and elemental analysis, the UV-Vis absorption and fluorescent spectra of the target dye were studied in detail. The results showed that t-OH-SQ combining multi-hydroxyl groups possessed excellent optical properties changing with pH and solvents. In aqueous solution under physiological pH ~ 7-8, it had especially high near-infrared fluorescence, which might be a latent application for cell fluorescent imaging.

  16. Biomolecule-assisted synthesis of highly stable dispersions of water-soluble copper nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jing; Wu, Xue-dong; Xue, Qun-ji

    2013-01-15

    Water-soluble and highly stable dispersions of copper nanoparticles were obtained using a biomolecule-assisted synthetic method. Dopamine was utilized as both reducing and capping agent in aqueous medium. The successful formation of DA-stabilized copper particles was demonstrated by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Zeta potential measurement, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The mechanism of dopamine on the effective reduction and excellent stability of copper nanoparticles was also discussed. This facile biomolecule-assisted technique may provide a useful tool to synthesize other nanoparticles that have potential application in biotechnology.

  17. Active Oxygen Radical Scavenging Ability of Water-Soluble β-Alanine C60 Adducts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Water-soluble β-alanine C60 adducts were synthesized, and the scavenging ability to superoxygen anion radical O2-and hydroxyl radicalOH were studied by autoxidation ofpyrogallol and chemiluminescence, respectively. It was found that β-alanine C60 adducts showed an excellent efficiency in eliminating superoxygen anion radical and hydroxyl radical. The 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) for superoxygen anion radical and hydroxyl radical were 0.15 mg/mL and 0.048 mg/mL, respectively. The difference should be mainly attributed to the different scavenging mechanisms.

  18. [Nutrition and bone health. The bone and the foods containing many water-soluble vitamins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Hiromi

    2009-08-01

    On the Dietary Reference Intakes in Japan, nine kinds of water-soluble vitamins are taken up. Those vitamins are supplied from various food. Food from animal sources and vegetable sources are those vitamins source of supply. Vitamin C participates in generation of collagen. Vitamin C is supplied from vegetables or fruits. Since vitamin C is lost by cooking processing, the content of a raw state is not expectable after cooking. Moreover, the vitamin B group of food origin has combined with protein etc., and free types, such as supplement, differ in the bioavailability.

  19. Water soluble reduced graphene oxide as an efficient photoluminescence quencher for semiconductor quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Haiping; Sun, Luwei; He, Haiping

    2017-02-01

    Chemically derived water soluble reduced graphene oxide (rGO) is synthesized via a two-step reduction approach assisted with sulfonation. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms the removal of oxygen-related groups from GO. The obtained rGO can effectively quench the photoluminescence (PL) of CdTe quantum dots. Concentration- and volume-dependent quenching behaviors are investigated to reveal the quenching mechanism. The Stern-Volmer plot shows exponential dependence on the rGO concentration, indicating that "sphere of action" model works when the extent of quenching is large.

  20. Water-soluble constituents of anise: new glucosides of anethole glycol and its related compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Toru; Fujimatu, Eiko; Kitajima, Junichi

    2002-11-01

    From the water-soluble portion of the methanolic extract of the fruit of anise (Pimpinella anisum L.), which has been used as a spice and medicine since antiquity, twelve new and five known glucosides of phenylpropanoids, including four stereoisomers of anethole glycol 2'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and four stereoisomers of 1'-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane-1',2'-diol 2'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside were isolated together with anethole glycols and guaiacyl glycerol. The structures of the new compounds were clarified by spectral investigation.

  1. Sunlight-Induced Photochemical Degradation of Methylene Blue by Water-Soluble Carbon Nanorods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshu Bhati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Water-soluble graphitic hollow carbon nanorods (wsCNRs are exploited for their light-driven photochemical activities under outdoor sunlight. wsCNRs were synthesized by a simple pyrolysis method from castor seed oil, without using any metal catalyst or template. wsCNRs exhibited the light-induced photochemical degradation of methylene blue used as a model pollutant by the generation of singlet oxygen species. Herein, we described a possible degradation mechanism of methylene blue under the irradiation of visible photons via the singlet oxygen-superoxide anion pathway.

  2. Reinforced films based on cross-linked water-soluble sulfonated carbon nanotubes with sulfonated polystyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ying; Haiping, Hong; Guiver, Michael; Welsh, Jeffry S

    2009-09-01

    Reinforced films based on sulfonated polystyrene cross-linked with water-soluble sulfonated carbon nanotubes were fabricated using a free-standing film-making method. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM and SEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to verify the cross-linking reaction. The mechanical properties of these films demonstrated that the tensile strength increases with an increase in the sulfonated nanotube concentration. At 5 wt% nanotube loading, the tensile strength increased 84% compared with polymer containing no nanotube loading. The relationships between structure and mechanical properties are discussed and a possible direction for making ultra thin and ultra lightweight film is proposed.

  3. Reinforced membrane based on crosslink reaction between water soluble sulfonated carbon nanotubes and sulfonated polystyrene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ying; Hong, Haiping; Welsh, Jeffry S.

    2008-08-01

    Reinforced films based on sulfonated polystyrene cross-linked with water-soluble sulfonated carbon nanotubes were fabricated using a free-standing film-making method. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and thermo-gravimetric analysis were used to verify the cross-linking reaction. The mechanical properties of these films demonstrated that the tensile strength increases with an increase in the sulfonated nanotube concentration. At 5 wt% nanotube loading, the tensile strength increased 84% compared with polymer containing no nanotube loading. The relationships between structure and mechanical properties are discussed and a possible direction for making ultra thin and ultra lightweight film is proposed

  4. Water-Soluble Metalloporphyrins as Mimics of Heme-containing Enzymes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This letter compared catalase-, peroxidase-and cytochrome P450-1ike catalytic activities of 15 water-soluble metalloporphyrins produced from Fe, Mn and Co ions and 5 porphyrins. The metalloporphyrins with Fe and Mn as central ions show relatively high catalytic activities of catalase and peroxidase at pH 11.0. Only Mn-meso-tetrakis (4-N-methylpyridinium) porpho-phine of the 15 metalloporphyfins exhibits high cytochrome P450-1ike activity. Effects of imidazole on the catalytic reactions were also studied.

  5. Singlet oxygen generation from water-soluble quantum dot-organic dye nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lixin; Hernandez, Billy; Selke, Matthias

    2006-05-17

    Water-soluble quantum dot-organic dye nanocomposites have been prepared via electrostatic interaction. We used CdTe quantum dots with diameters up to 3.4 nm, 2-aminoethanethiol as a stabilizer, and meso-tetra(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphine dihydrochloride (TSPP) as an organic dye. The photophysical properties of the nanocomposite have been investigated. The fluorescence of the parent CdTe quantum dot is largely suppressed. Instead, indirect excitation of the TSPP moiety leads to production of singlet oxygen with a quantum yield of 0.43. The nanocomposite is sufficiently photostable for biological applications.

  6. Relationship between water solubility of chlorobenzenes and their effects on a freshwater green alga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, P.T.S.; Chau, Y.K.; Rhamey, J.S.; Docker, M.

    1984-01-01

    The effective concentrations of benzene and 12 chlorobenzenes that reduced 50% of the primary productivity (EC/sub 50/) of a freshwater green alga, Ankistrodesmus falcatus, were determined. Benzene was the least toxic chemical and the toxicity increased as the degree of chlorine substitution in the aromatic ring increased. No EC/sub 50/ value could be obtained for HCB. A quantitative relationship was found to exist between water solubility, lipophilicity and the EC/sub 50/. A good correlation was also observed between the EC/sub 50/ for this alga and other toxicity data for various aquatic biota.

  7. Preparation of fructone catalyzed by water-soluble Br(φ)nsted acid ionic liquids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Yuan Wang; Rong Wang; Liang Chun Wu; Li Yi Dai

    2007-01-01

    Fructone (2-methyl-2-ethylacetoacetate-1,3-dioxolane), a flavouring material, has been synthesized from ethyl acetoacetate and glycol using five water-soluble Br(φ)nsted acid ionic liquids as catalysts for the first time. The used Br(φ)nsted acid ionic liquids include [Hmim]Tfa, [Hmim]Tsa, [Hmim]BF4, [Bmim]HSO4, [Bmim]H2PO4, and [Hmim]BF4 showed the highest catalytic activity for the preparation of fructone. After reaction, the product could be isolated from the reaction system automatically, and the ionic liquid could be directly reused without dehydration.

  8. Preparation of nanoparticles of poorly water-soluble antioxidant curcumin by antisolvent precipitation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakran, Mitali; Sahoo, Nanda Gopal; Tan, I.-Lin; Li, Lin

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to enhance the solubility and dissolution rate of a poorly water-soluble antioxidant, curcumin, by fabricating its nanoparticles with two methods: antisolvent precipitation with a syringe pump (APSP) and evaporative precipitation of nanosuspension (EPN). For APSP, process parameters like flow rate, stirring speed, solvent to antisolvent (SAS) ratio, and drug concentration were investigated to obtain the smallest particle size. For EPN, factors like drug concentration and the SAS ratio were examined. The effects of these process parameters on the supersaturation, nucleation, and growth rate were studied and optimized to obtain the smallest particle size of curcumin by both the methods. The average particle size of the original drug was about 10-12 μm and it was decreased to a mean diameter of 330 nm for the APSP method and to 150 nm for the EPN method. Overall, decreasing the drug concentration or increasing the flow rate, stirring rate, and antisolvent amount resulted in smaller particle sizes. Differential scanning calorimetry studies suggested lower crystallinity of curcumin particles fabricated. The solubility and dissolution rates of the prepared curcumin particles were significantly higher than those the original curcumin. The antioxidant activity, studied by the DPPH free radical-scavenging assay, was greater for the curcumin nanoparticles than the original curcumin. This study demonstrated that both the methods can successfully prepare curcumin into submicro to nanoparticles. However, drug particles prepared by EPN were smaller than those by APSP and hence, showed the slightly better solubility, dissolution rate, and antioxidant activity than the latter.

  9. Preparation of nanoparticles of poorly water-soluble antioxidant curcumin by antisolvent precipitation methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakran, Mitali; Sahoo, Nanda Gopal; Tan, I-Lin; Li Lin, E-mail: mlli@ntu.edu.sg [Nanyang Technological University, School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering (Singapore)

    2012-03-15

    The objective of this study was to enhance the solubility and dissolution rate of a poorly water-soluble antioxidant, curcumin, by fabricating its nanoparticles with two methods: antisolvent precipitation with a syringe pump (APSP) and evaporative precipitation of nanosuspension (EPN). For APSP, process parameters like flow rate, stirring speed, solvent to antisolvent (SAS) ratio, and drug concentration were investigated to obtain the smallest particle size. For EPN, factors like drug concentration and the SAS ratio were examined. The effects of these process parameters on the supersaturation, nucleation, and growth rate were studied and optimized to obtain the smallest particle size of curcumin by both the methods. The average particle size of the original drug was about 10-12 {mu}m and it was decreased to a mean diameter of 330 nm for the APSP method and to 150 nm for the EPN method. Overall, decreasing the drug concentration or increasing the flow rate, stirring rate, and antisolvent amount resulted in smaller particle sizes. Differential scanning calorimetry studies suggested lower crystallinity of curcumin particles fabricated. The solubility and dissolution rates of the prepared curcumin particles were significantly higher than those the original curcumin. The antioxidant activity, studied by the DPPH free radical-scavenging assay, was greater for the curcumin nanoparticles than the original curcumin. This study demonstrated that both the methods can successfully prepare curcumin into submicro to nanoparticles. However, drug particles prepared by EPN were smaller than those by APSP and hence, showed the slightly better solubility, dissolution rate, and antioxidant activity than the latter.

  10. Estudo da solubilidade das proteínas de extratos hidrossolúveis de soja em pó Protein solubility study of water soluble soybean dried extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Liliana SOLÓRZANO LEMOS

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudado o efeito da homogeneização e da adição de sacarose, sulfito de sódio e lecitina na solubilidade das proteínas do extrato hidrossolúvel de soja em pó (EHSP.O calor aplicado durante o tratamento térmico do extrato hidrossolúvel de soja líquido (EHSL a 90 ± 2°C por 15 minutos e a secagem afetaram drasticamente a solubilidade das proteínas, provocando uma diminuição no índice de solubilidade do nitrogênio (ISN, de 90,57 % no grão de soja descascado para 25,31 % no EHSP usado como controle. Porém, os valores de ISN para os EHSP que continham sacarose, sulfito de sódio e lecitina, assim como daquele que foi homogeneizado foram significativamente maiores do que o do EHSP (controle que sofreu apenas tratamento térmico.The effect of homogenization and addition of sodium sulphite, sucrose and lecithin was studied on the protein solubility of water soluble soybean extracts (WSSE. The heat treatment of the water soluble soybean liquid extracts at 90 ± 2°C for 15 minutes and drying had a large effect on the protein solubility, decreasing the nitrogen solubility index (NSI from 90.57% in the dehulled soybean to 25.31% in WSSE used as control. However, the NSI values of the WSSE containing sucrose, sodium sulphite and lecithin as well as that one homogenized were significantly higher than the NSI of the WSSE (control which recieved heat treatment only.

  11. Bioassay using the water soluble fraction of a Nigerian Light Crude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Spilled oil produces deleterious effects on both the flora and ... 500ml of crude oil was mixed ..... Applied Ecology , 3:91-97 ... Bartha, R. and Atlas, R.M. (1977). ... ligand model of the acute toxicity of metals. 1. ... Extension, volume 4, pp42- 46.

  12. Glycolytic activities in size-fractionated water samples: emphasis on rhamnosidase, arabinosidase and fucosidase activities

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa Colombo-Corbi; Maria José Dellamano-Oliveira; Armando Augusto Henriques Vieira

    2011-01-01

    Glycolytic activities of eight enzymes in size-fractionated water samples from a eutrophic tropical reservoir are presented in this study, including enzymes assayed for the first time in a freshwater environment. Among these enzymes, rhamnosidase, arabinosidase and fucosidase presented high activity in the free-living fraction, while glucosidase, mannosidase and galactosidase exhibited high activity in the attached fraction. The low activity registered for rhamnosidase, arabinosidase and fuco...

  13. Advantages of ion-based mole fractions for describing phase equilibria in ionic liquids: application to gas solubility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longinotti, María Paula; Alvarez, Jorge L; Japas, M Laura

    2009-03-19

    Despite the obvious ionic character of ionic liquids (ILs), previous studies of phase equilibria in these media were formulated implicitly assuming a "molecular" behavior of the ionic solvent. In this work, a more appropriate thermodynamic treatment is applied to describe the solubility of gases in ILs. According to our results, if the concentration is expressed on an ionic basis, solutions of simple gases in ILs display rather small deviations from ideal behavior in wide composition ranges, whereas deviations are larger when the solvent is considered as an anion-cation pair. The present thermodynamic formulation also accounts for the observed solid-liquid phase equilibria of molecular and IL binary mixtures.

  14. Ultraviolet-visible absorptive features of water extractable and humic fractions of animal manure and compost

    Science.gov (United States)

    UV-vis spectroscopy is a useful tool for characterizing water extractable or humic fractions of natural organic matter (WEOM). Whereas the whole UV-visible spectra of these fractions are more or less featureless, the specific UV absorptivity at 254 and 280 nm as well as spectral E2/E3 and E4/E6 rat...

  15. Predicting Soil-Water Characteristics from Volumetric Contents of Pore-Size Analogue Particle Fractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naveed, Muhammad; Møldrup, Per; Tuller, Markus;

    F value. Hereby, the Xw*-model implicitly assumes that a given particle size fraction creates an analogue pore size fraction and, also, is based on the validity of the well-known capillary law equation relating equivalent drained pore size to the soil-water matric potential. The Xw*-model was found...

  16. Removal of different fractions of NOM foulants during demineralized water backwashing

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Sheng

    2012-09-01

    The effectiveness of demineralized water backwashing on fouling by different fractions of NOM was investigated in this study. Two types of natural surface water (Schie canal and Biesbosch reservoir) were tested to confirm the improvement of demineralized water backwashing on fouling control, and LC-OCD analysis was conducted on Schie canal water to find out which fraction of NOM was removed with those backwashes. Results derived from natural waters showed that demineralized water backwashing substantially improved UF fouling control. LC-OCD analyses showed both UF permeate and demineralized water backwashes were effective on removing part of biopolymers, but demineralized water is also effective for humic substances and a limited amount of low molecular weight substances. However, based on the LC-OCD results, even demineralized water backwashing is not effective to remove all humic substances and biopolymers rejected on the UF membranes. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Water-soluble chemistry and weathering characteristics of some tills in Western Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lintinen, P.

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The water-soluble chemistry and weathering characteristics of tills were studied on three nunataks with differing bedrock characteristics in the Vestfjella and Heimefrontfjella areas of the Western Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica. The chemical analyses were performed using ion chromatography and ICP-AES. The relative weathering characteristics of the till surface boulders was assessed in study locations. No colour differences were observed in test pits dug in Basen and Utpostane nunataks at Vestfjella, whereas the till in Mygehenget nunatak at Heimefrontfjella has a pronounced soil profile in which the surface part has a banded rusty brown and light-coloured accumulations. The highest concentrations of readily soluble ions were recorded in the Mygehenget samples characterized by high (SO42- (5800-39000 ppm and Mg concentrations (540-6000 ppm, while the Basen samples had the highest concentrations of Fe2+(23-390 ppm, Al3+ (60-1000 ppm and Si4+ (23-1700 ppm and the Utpostane samples the lowest ones. The SO4/Na+, Na+/CI- and Mg2+/Na+ ratios for the samples differ markedly from those typically encountered in sea water. The presence of the highest concentrations of many of the analysed ions in the Mygehenget soil samples is in line with the advanced weathering of the surface boulders. The high Fe2+ , Si4+ and Al3+ concentrations in the Basen samples may be attributable to the weathering of olivine alteration products.

  18. Synthesis and photophysicochemical studies of a water soluble conjugate between folic acid and zinc tetraaminophthalocyanine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoza, Phindile; Antunes, Edith [Department of Chemistry, Rhodes University, PO Box 94, Grahamstown (South Africa); Chen, Ji-Yao [State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics and Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Nyokong, Tebello, E-mail: t.nyokong@ru.ac.za [Department of Chemistry, Rhodes University, PO Box 94, Grahamstown (South Africa)

    2013-02-15

    This work reports on the synthesis of zinc tetraaminophthalocyanine (ZnTAPc) functionalized with folic acid (FA), forming ZnTAPcFA. The conjugate between FA and ZnTAPc was soluble in water whereas ZnTAPc alone is not. The structure of ZnTAPcFA conjugate was elucidated by {sup 1}H NMR, MALDI-TOF mass and FTIR spectra. Photophysical and photochemical studies of ZnTAPcFA were conducted in DMSO. The increase in fluorescence quantum yield of the conjugate was accompanied by a decrease in the triplet and singlet oxygen quantum yields. The changes in triplet quantum and singlet oxygen quantum yields were marginal when ZnTAPc was simply mixed with FA without a chemical bond. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A conjugate between folic acid and a zinc tetraaminophthalocyanine was formed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The conjugate is water soluble even though the phthalocyanine alone is not. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fluorescence quantum yield of the conjugate was enhanced compared to the phthalocyanine alone. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Triplet quantum yields decreased for the conjugate.

  19. Lipid nanoparticles with no surfactant improve oral absorption rate of poorly water-soluble drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funakoshi, Yuka; Iwao, Yasunori; Noguchi, Shuji; Itai, Shigeru

    2013-07-15

    A pharmacokinetic study was performed in rats to evaluate the oral absorption ratios of nanoparticle suspensions containing the poorly water-soluble compound nifedipine (NI) and two different types of lipids, including hydrogenated soybean phosphatidylcholine and dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol. NI-lipid nanoparticle (LN) suspensions with a mean particle size of 48.0 nm and a zeta potential of -57.2 mV were prepared by co-grinding combined with a high-pressure homogenization process. The oral administration of NI-LN suspensions to rats led to a significant increase in the NI plasma concentration, and the area under the curve (AUC) value was found to be 108 min μg mL⁻¹, indicating a 4-fold increase relative to the NI suspensions. A comparison of the pharmacokinetic parameters of the NI-LN suspensions with those of the NI solution prepared using only the surfactant polysorbate 80 revealed that although the AUC and bioavailability (59%) values were almost identical, a rapid absorption rate was still observed in the NI-LN suspensions. These results therefore indicated that lipid nanoparticles prepared using only two types of phospholipid with a mean particle size of less than 50 nm could improve the absorption of the poorly water-soluble drug. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Increasing the oral bioavailability of the poorly water soluble drug itraconazole with ordered mesoporous silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellaerts, Randy; Mols, Raf; Jammaer, Jasper A G; Aerts, Caroline A; Annaert, Pieter; Van Humbeeck, Jan; Van den Mooter, Guy; Augustijns, Patrick; Martens, Johan A

    2008-05-01

    This study aims to evaluate the in vivo performance of ordered mesoporous silica (OMS) as a carrier for poorly water soluble drugs. Itraconazole was selected as model compound. Physicochemical characterization was carried out by SEM, TEM, nitrogen adsorption, DSC, TGA and in vitro dissolution. After loading itraconazole into OMS, its oral bioavailability was compared with the crystalline drug and the marketed product Sporanox in rabbits and dogs. Plasma concentrations of itraconazole and OH-itraconazole were determined by HPLC-UV. After administration of crystalline itraconazole in dogs (20mg), no systemic itraconazole could be detected. Using OMS as a carrier, the AUC0-8 was boosted to 681+/-566 nM h. In rabbits, the AUC0-24 increased significantly from 521+/-159 nM h after oral administration of crystalline itraconazole (8 mg) to 1069+/-278 nM h when this dose was loaded into OMS. Tmax decreased from 9.8+/-1.8 to 4.2+/-1.8h. No significant differences (AUC, Cmax, and Tmax) could be determined when comparing OMS with Sporanox in both species. The oral bioavailability of itraconazole formulated with OMS as a carrier compares well with the marketed product Sporanox, in rabbits as well as in dogs. OMS can therefore be considered as a promising carrier to achieve enhanced oral bioavailability for drugs with extremely low water solubility.