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Sample records for water soluble contrast

  1. Radiculography with water-soluble contraste medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo Pinheiro, R.S. de

    1987-01-01

    The etiologic diagnosis of the lumbar pain is discussed. The radiculography with water-soluble contrast medium is used and 250 cases are studied. Some practical criteria of indication executation and interpretation of the examination are reported. (M.A.C.) [pt

  2. Lumbar myelography using water-soluble contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langlotz, M.

    1981-01-01

    With the new water-soluble contrast media developed in the last 10 years, lumbar myelography has become a simple and low-risk diagnostic method of great value which is hardly ever omitted before surgery is undertaken. The book attempts a synopsis of radiology and clinical examinations. In its first part, the pathological, clinical, and radiological aspects of diseases of the lumbosacral spinal duct are reviewed. The second part contains more than 300 myelographic pictures in original size. Each of the myelograms is supplemented by the case history of the patient (anamnesis, neurological examination, therapy and course). Interpretation is facilitated by drawings at the beginning of each chapter which show the major pathological and radiological changes. (orig./MG) [de

  3. Oral water soluble contrast for malignant bowel obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrmis, William; Richard, Russell; Jenkins-Marsh, Sue; Chia, Siew C; Good, Phillip

    2018-03-07

    Malignant bowel obstruction (MBO) is a common problem in patients with intra-abdominal cancer. Oral water soluble contrast (OWSC) has been shown to be useful in the management of adhesive small bowel obstruction in identifying patients who will recover with conservative management alone and also in reducing the length of hospital stay. It is not clear whether the benefits of OWSC in adhesive small bowel obstruction are also seen in patients with MBO. To determine the reliability of OWSC media and follow-up abdominal radiographs in predicting the success of conservative treatment in resolving inoperable MBO with conservative management.To determine the efficacy and safety of OWSC media in reducing the duration of obstruction and reducing hospital stay in people with MBO. We identified studies from searching Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE and MEDLINE in Process, Embase, CINAHL, Science Citation Index (Web of Science) and Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Science (Web of Science). We also searched registries of clinical trials and the CareSearch Grey Literature database. The date of the search was the 6 June 2017. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), or prospective controlled studies, that evaluated the diagnostic potential of OWSC in predicting which malignant bowel obstructions will resolve with conservative treatment.RCTs, or prospective controlled studies, that assessed the therapeutic potential of OWSC in managing MBO at any level compared with placebo, no intervention or usual treatment or supportive care. We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. We assessed risk of bias and assessed the evidence using GRADE and created a 'Summary of findings' table. We found only one RCT meeting the selection criteria for the second objective (therapeutic potential) of this review. This study recruited nine participants. It compared the use of gastrografin versus placebo in adult patients with MBO with no

  4. Review: kinetics of water-soluble contrast media in the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sage, M.R.

    1983-01-01

    In neuroradiology, intraarterial, intravenous, and intrathecal injections of water-soluble contrast media are made. With the growing importance of water-soluble myelography, interventional angiography, and enhanced computed tomography (CT), it is essential to have a clear understanding of the response of the nervous system to such procedures. The blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and extracellular fluid of the parenchyma form the fluid compartments of the brain with three interfaces between, namely, the blood-brain interface, the CSF-brain interface, and the blood-CSF interface. One of more of these interfaces are exposed to water-soluble contrast media after intraarterial, intravenous, or intrathecal administration. The behavior of water-soluble contrast media at these interfaces is discussed on the basis of local experience and a review of the literature

  5. Renal excretion of water-soluble contrast media after enema in the neonatal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Sun; Je, Bo-Kyung; Cha, Sang Hoon; Choi, Byung Min; Lee, Ki Yeol; Lee, Seung Hwa

    2014-08-01

    When abdominal distention occurs or bowel obstruction is suspected in the neonatal period, a water-soluble contrast enema is helpful for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The water-soluble contrast medium is evacuated through the anus as well as excreted via the kidneys in some babies. This study was designed to evaluate the incidence of renal excretion after enemas using water-soluble contrast media and presume the causes. Contrast enemas using diluted water-soluble contrast media were performed in 23 patients under 2 months of age. After the enema, patients were followed with simple abdominal radiographs to assess the improvement in bowel distention, and we could also detect the presence of renal excretion of contrast media on the radiographs. Reviewing the medical records and imaging studies, including enemas and consecutive abdominal radiographs, we evaluated the incidence of renal excretion of water-soluble contrast media and counted the stay duration of contrast media in urinary tract, bladder, and colon. Among 23 patients, 12 patients (52%) experienced the renal excretion of water-soluble contrast media. In these patients, stay-in-bladder durations of contrast media were 1-3 days and stay-in-colon durations of contrast media were 1-10 days, while stay-in-colon durations of contrast media were 1-3 days in the patients not showing renal excretion of contrast media. The Mann-Whitney test for stay-in-colon durations demonstrated the later evacuation of contrast media in the patients with renal excretion of contrast media (p = 0.07). The review of the medical records showed that 19 patients were finally diagnosed as intestinal diseases, including Hirschsprung's disease, meconium ileum, meconium plug syndrome, and small bowel atresia or stenosis. Fisher's exact test between the presence of urinary excretion and intestinal diseases indicated a statistically significant difference (p = 0.04). The intestinal diseases causing bowel obstruction may increase the

  6. General toxicity of water soluble iodinated contrast media: pathogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau, J.F.; Giwerc, M.; Chabriais, J.; Rotkopf, L.

    1987-01-01

    The accidents related to the general toxicity of the watersoluble iodinated contrast media are unfrequent. They still exist despite the availability of new kinds of low osmolar molecules. Their pathogenesis is not yet clearly defined. An anaphylactic mechanism cannot give a satisfying explanation because specific IgE have been exceptionally found in humans. Two theories are discussed. Lalli has made an emphasis on the role played by stress and anxiety. The other theory is based on the prominent role played by the lesion of the vascular endothelial cells then the activation of factor XII. A vicious circle is created by the liberation of pre- and neo-formated ligands, eventually after the activation of the complement system [fr

  7. An experimental study on tissue damage following subcutaneous injection of water soluble contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Hyup; Park, Jae Hyung; Kang, Heung Sik; Kim, Chu Wan; Han, Man Chung; Kim, Yong Il

    1989-01-01

    The water soluble contrast media cause tissue necrosis infrequently by extravasation during intravenous injection in various radiological examinations. However, it has not been well documented that what kind and what concentration of contrast media can cause tissue necrosis. And also, the mechanism of tissue necrosis by extravasated contrast media has not been well known. The purpose of this experimental study was to evaluate the frequency and severity of tissue damage following subcutaneous injection of various water soluble contrast media to investigate the characteristics of the contrast media acting on the tissue damage, and to provide the basic data for the clinical application. Meglumine ioxithalamate,sodium and meglumine ioxithalamate, iopromide, iopamidol, ioxaglate,meglumine diatrizoate and sodium diatrizoate of various iodine content and osmolality were injected into subcutaneous tissue of the dorsum of 970 feet of 485 rats. The tissue reaction of injection sites were grossly examined with period from 1 day to 8 weeks after the injection. Representative gross changes were correlated with histologic findings. The results were as follows; 1. The basic tissue damage by extravasated contrast media was acute and chronic inflammatory reaction of the soft tissue with subsequent progress into the hemorrhagic and necrotizing lesion. 2. Lager volume of contrast media caused more severe tissue damage. 3. Contrast media of higher osmolality caused more severe tissue damage. 4. At same osmolality, contrast media of higher iodine content caused more severe tissue damage

  8. A new procedure for imaging liver and spleen with water soluble contrast media in liposomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zherbin, E.A.; Davidenkova, E.F.; Khanson, K.P.; Gubareva, A.V.; Zhdanova, N.V.; Aliyakparov, M.T.; Loshakova, L.V.; Fomina, Eh.V.; Rozenberg, O.A.

    1983-01-01

    The problems of long-term, reversible, and safe contrast investigation of liver and spleen and reduction of the irritating action of water-soluble contrast media on the wall of blood vessels are unresolved. The production and experimental application of contrast media encapsulated in liposomes are described. It is possible to produce a liposome preparation with 10-20 % Verografin content. After intravenous injection it leads to a quick (after 16-30 min), persisting (10-12 h) and reversible (24-30 h) contrast imaging of liver and spleen in rodents. The contrast medium has no pathological effects on heart, blood and circulatory system and on the morphology of liver, spleen, heart, lungs, kidneys and urinary bladder. The perspectives of clinical application of such contrast media are discussed. (author)

  9. Indirect caudal lymphography using a new water-soluble contrast agent - animal experimental studies in pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apitzsch, D.E.; Kroll, H.U.; Zuehlke, H.V.

    1981-01-01

    Animal experiments on caudal lymphography in pigs are presented, using a new water-soluble contrast medium which is renally excreted. Indirect cutaneous administration renders possible the radiological visualization of the entire lymphatic drainage system of the lower limb, the retro-peritoneal space and the thoracic duct. Visualization of the lymphatic system is rapid, homogeneous and can be repeated as often as desired. The quality of the lymphogram is as good as that obtained by the current methods in common use. (orig.)

  10. An experimental study on MRI signal intensity vs concentration of water-soluble contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ghi Jai; Han, Chang Yul; Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Moon Hee; Han, Man Chung

    1991-01-01

    There has been only one report that water-soluble contrast media containing iodine and used in conventional X -ray radiography reduce T1-and T2-relaxation times. We evaluated the relationship between signal intensity (relative signal intensity to normal saline) and T2-relaxation time of MRI and the concentration of 3 water-soluble contrast media [meglumine ioxithalamate (Telebrix 30), iopromide (Ultravist 300), iotrolan (Isovist 300)] through the phantom study, using both 2.0T and 0.5T MR units. We found that the signal intensity increased significantly on the T1-weighted images as the concentration of contrast media increased. The degree of the increase was larger on 0.5T MR than on 2.0T MR. The signal intensity on proton density image showed no significant difference at various concentrations. However, there were significant decreases of both signal intensity on the T2-weighted images and T2-relaxation time as the concentration of contrast media increased, which was more prominent on 2.0T MR than 0.5T MR. Between the contrast media of the same concentration, there was no significant difference in signal intensity and T2-relaxation time

  11. Application To Bilayer System With Water-Soluble Contrast Enhancing Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabuta, Mitsuo; Ito, Naoki; Yamazaki, Hiroyuki; Nakayama, Toshimasa

    1987-09-01

    We have developed ,a water-soluble contrast enhancing material, TAD-436 ( Tokyo Ohka. Anti-Defocus Material ) which is consisted of a water-soluble diazonium salt as bleaching compounds and a water-soluble anion type polymer as binder polymers. Needless to say that water is used as solvent in TAD; therefore, it can be spincoated directly on a positive photoresist layer of a quinonediazide-novolak resin type without causing intermixing and furtheremore the bilayer can be developed without stripping TAD immediately after exposure. TAD shows a satisfactory bleaching characteristics on g-line, increases r-value of underlying photoresist and reduces the thickness loss of photoresist layer in unexposed area. Application to bilayer system with TAD will raise the resolution of underlying photoresist and when the focus depth is changed it will make the change in the resist profile small. As the result of it, the notches in the resist patterns on steps is reduced, making the difference in the linewidth between the top and the bottom of steps small.

  12. Water-soluble contrast media compared with barium in enteric follow-through

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laerum, F.; Stordahl, A.; Aase, S.

    1988-01-01

    The local effects and radiographic efficacy of 4 water-soluble contrast media, barium and saline were evaluated in 86 anaesthetized rats with the distal ileum ligated. The rats were observed for 8 hours after instillation of 3 ml of the test substance via orogastric tube. Radiographs were taken after 1, 4 and 8 hours of observation. After 8 hours the intestines were weighed and biopsied for light microscopy, and blood and urine were sampled for testing. Sodium diatrizoate caused increased fluid influx to the bowel lumen and, like barium, provided poorer radiographic images as compared with iohexol, ioxaglate or iodixanol. Barium showed slower progression through the small bowel than the other agents, while sodium diatrizoate was the most rapidly progressing contrast medium and caused the greatest distension. Correlation to osmolality was obvious. No significant morphologic effects on the small bowel mucosa were seen in any of the groups. Low-osmolar, water-soluble contrast media may have prospects for clinical use in patients with suspected small bowel obstruction. (orig.)

  13. Improved Bilayer Resist System Using Contrast-Enhanced Lithography With Water-Soluble Photopolymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasago, Masaru; Endo, Masayuki; Hirai, Yoshihiko; Ogawa, Kazufurni; Ishihara, Takeshi

    1986-07-01

    A new water-soluble contract enhanced material, WSP (Water-soluble Photopolymer), has been developed. The WSP is composed of a mainpolymer and a photobleachable reagents. The mainpolymer is a water-soluble polymer mixed with pullulan (refined through biotechnological process) and polyvinyl-pyrolidone (PVP). The photo-bleachable reagent is of a diazonium compound gorup. The introduction of the mainpolymer and photobleach-able reagent mixture has improved filmity, gas transparency, photobleaching characteristics and solubility in alkaline which are essential to the device fabrication. Submicron photoresist patterns are successfully fabricated by a simple sequence of photolithography process. The WSP layer has been applied to the bilayer resist system--deep-UV portable conformable masking (PCM)--that is not affected by VLSI's topography, and is able to fabricate highly accurate pattern. The aqueous developable layer, PMGI, with high organic solvent resistance is used in the bottom layer. Therefore, no interfacial mixing with conventional positive resist top layer is observed. Furthermore, deep-UV exposure method has been used for the KrF excimer laser optical system in order to increase high throughput. From the experiments, it has been confirmed that good resist transfer profile can be realized by the use of WSP, and that the submicron resist patterns with high aspect-ratio can be developed on the nonplaner wafer with steps of up to 41m by the combination of the WSP with the PCM system. By this technology, has been improved the weak point: variation in the line width due to the thickness of contrast-enhanced layer when the CEL technology is applied, and dependency of both the finished resist profile and the line-width accuracy on the thickness of the top layer resist when the PCM system is adopted.

  14. The effects of water soluble contrast agents on the respiratory tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovett, I.; Donchey, S.; Doust, B.; Branson, J.; Munro, V.

    1989-01-01

    The water soluble contrast agents Gastrografin R (Sodium diatrizoate and meglumine diatrizoate, Schering, Berlin), Iopamiro 300 R (Iopamidol, Schering, Berlin), and Dionosil Aqueous R (propyliodone BP, Glaxo, England) were instilled into the tracheobronchial tree of rats in doses of either 0.1 ml and 0.25 ml. Rats being used as controls, underwent sham operations with the instillation of air instead of contrast agent. In all, 85 rats were used. All rats that had not already died from the effects of contrast agent were sacrificed 30 minutes after instillation. The relative effects of the contrast agents were measured by comparing: survival time; radiographic effects of the contrast agents on the lungs; and pathological changes as estimated by post mortem lung section and microscopy. The least toxic agent was the one with the lowest osmotic activity, namely Aqueous Dionosil. It is therefore recommended that Aqueous Dionosil be used in preference to Gastrografin or Iopamidol for studies of the oesophagus whenever there is a danger of aspiration of contrast agent into the tracheobronchial tree. 11 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  15. Ventriculography and cisternography with water-soluble contrast media in infants with myelomeningocele

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, H.; Nakamura, S.; Tanaka, Y.; Tajima, M.; Kageyama, N.

    1982-01-01

    Fifty-four newborn infants with myelomeningocele and hydrocephalus were studied by ventriculography using water-soluble contrast media; 20 were also studied by metrizamide myeloencephalography and computerized tomographic (CT) cisternography. Ventriculography suggested that the aqueduct was patent in all cases. Outflow of contrast medium from the fourth ventricle was slow in most cases, complete obstruction was seen in 15%, communication was delayed at the outlet in 54%, and rather free communication was observedin 31%. Metrizamide myeloencephalography and CT cisternography suggested a partial block at the level of the ambient cisterns in approximately one-third of infants. These findings support the concept that flow of cerebrospinal fluid is reduced in several areas. Aqueductal stenosis was not considered an important factor in hydrocephalus, while the most important site of obstruction was felt to be the lowest portion of the fourth ventricle

  16. Follow-up barium study after a negative water-soluble contrast examination for suspected esophageal leak: is it necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Thomas R; Holz, Grant S; Corwin, Michael T; Wood, Robert J; Wootton-Gorges, Sandra L

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the value of follow-up barium esophogram in diagnosing esophageal injury or leak if the initial water-soluble contrast examination of the esophagus is normal. An institutional review board (IRB)-approved retrospective review of all pediatric patients less than 18 years old referred to the radiology department for evaluation of esophageal injury or leak was performed for a 9-year period from 2005 to 2014. The majority of patients had unexplained pneumomediastinum, chest trauma (gunshot or puncture wound), or foreign body ingestion as the reason for the referral. Forty-nine patients (age range 10 days to 17 years) underwent an initial water-soluble esophogram immediately followed by a barium esophogram. Forty-six studies were negative on both water-soluble contrast and barium studies. Two studies were both positive on the initial water-soluble contrast and subsequent barium studies. A single study showed the esophageal leak only in the water-soluble study, with the follow-up barium exam being normal. The result of this study indicates that a single-contrast water-soluble esophogram alone is sensitive in the diagnosis of esophageal injury or leak. It has a 100 % sensitivity and negative predictive value. A follow-up barium esophogram only increases the study time and radiation dose to the patient.

  17. The use of low-osmolar water-soluble contrast in videofluoroscopic swallowing exams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Julie A; Bartelt, Detlef; Campion, Molly; Gayler, Bob W; Jones, Bronwyn; Hayes, Andrea; Haynos, Judith; Herbick, Seanne; Kling, Therese; Lingaraj, Arpana; Singer, Michele; Starmer, Heather; Smith, Christine; Webster, Kim

    2013-12-01

    The selection of the contrast agent used during fluoroscopic exams is an important clinical decision. The purpose of this article is to document the usage of a nonionic, water-soluble contrast (iohexol) and barium contrast in adult patients undergoing fluoroscopic exams of the pharynx and/or esophagus and provide clinical indications for the use of each. For 1 year, data were collected on the use of iohexol and barium during fluoroscopic exams. The contrast agent used was selected by the speech language pathologist (SLP) or the radiologist based on the exam's indications. A total of 1,978 fluoroscopic exams were completed in the 12-month period of documentation. Of these exams, 60.6 % were completed for medical reasons and 39.4 % for surgical reasons. Fifty-five percent of the exams were performed jointly by a SLP and a radiologist and 45 % were performed by a radiologist alone. Aspiration was present in 22 % of the exams, vestibular penetration occurred in 38 %, extraluminal leakage of contrast was observed in 4.6 %, and both aspiration and leakage were seen in 1 % of the exams. In cases with aspiration, iohexol was used alone in 8 %, iohexol and barium were both used in 45 %, and barium was used alone in 47 %. In cases with extraluminal leakage, iohexol was used alone in 58 %, iohexol and barium were both used in 31 %, and barium was used alone in 11 %. No adverse effects were seen with the use of iohexol. When barium was used in cases of aspiration and extraluminal leakage, the amount of aspirated barium was small and the extraluminal barium in the instances of leakage was small. Iohexol is a useful screening contrast agent and can safely provide information, and its use reduces the risk of aspiration and the chance of leakage of large amounts of barium.

  18. Lumbar myelography using water-soluble contrast media. Lumbale Myelographie mit wasserloelichen Kontrastmitteln. Lehrbuch und Atlas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langlotz, M

    1981-01-01

    With the new water-soluble contrast media developed in the last 10 years, lumbar myelography has become a simple and low-risk diagnostic method of great value which is hardly ever omitted before surgery is undertaken. The book attempts a synopsis of radiology and clinical examinations. In its first part, the pathological, clinical, and radiological aspects of diseases of the lumbosacral spinal duct are reviewed. The second part contains more than 300 myelographic pictures in original size. Each of the myelograms is supplemented by the case history of the patient (anamnesis, neurological examination, therapy and course). Interpretation is facilitated by drawings at the beginning of each chapter which show the major pathological and radiological changes.

  19. The haemodynamic effects of iodinated water soluble radiographic contrast media: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morcos, S.K.; Dawson, P.; Pearson, J.D.; Jeremy, J.Y.; Davenport, A.P.; Yates, M.S.; Tirone, P.; Cipolla, P.; Haeen, C. de; Muschick, P.; Krause, W.; Refsum, H.; Emery, C.J.; Liss, Per; Nygren, A.; Haylor, J.; Pugh, N.D.; Karlsson, J.O.G.

    1998-01-01

    All classes of iodinated water-soluble radiographic contrast media (RCM) are vasoactive with the iso-osmolar dimers inducing the least changes in the vascular tone. The mechanisms responsible for RCM-induced changes in the vascular tone are not fully understood and could be multifactorial. A direct effect on the vascular smooth muscle cells causing alterations in the ion exchanges across the cell membrane is thought to be an important factor in RCM-induced vasodilatation. The release of the endogenous vasoactive mediators adenosine and endothelin may also play a crucial role in the haemodynamic effects of RCM particularly in the kidney. In addition, the effects of RCM on blood rheology can cause a reduction in the blood flow in the microcirculation. The purpose of this review is to discuss the pathophysiology of the haemodynamic effects of RCM and to offer some insight into the biology of the endothelium and vascular smooth muscle cells as well as the pharmacology of the important vasoactive mediators endothelin and adenosine

  20. The effect of newer water-soluble contrast media on I-131 uptake by the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starinsky, R.; Horne, T.; Barr, J.; Ramot, Y.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two water-soluble contrast media (nonionic and Dimer) on iodine uptake by the thyroid gland. Twenty-eight euthyroid patients (16 females and 12 males) were subjected to 24hrs radioiodine uptake (RAIU) studies following brain CT examinations using the above cited two water-soluble contrast media. Radioiodine uptake studies were done at one (Group-1), two (Group-2) and four (Group-3) weeks following performance of contrast enhanced CT scans. The effect of both contrast media on the thyroid uptake was found to be identical. The radio active iodine uptake (RAIU) was observed to be suppressed in 30% of patients in Group-1, 33% of patients in Group-2 and in none of the patients belonging to Group-3. On the basis of this pilot study on a limited number of patients it was concluded that dimer and non-ionic water soluble contrast media cause suppression of radio iodine uptake by the thyroid gland in a significant proportion of patients. It has also been observed that both contrast media have similar suppressive effects on radio iodine uptake by the thyroid gland. This effect is transient and does not persist beyond a period of four weeks following the administration of the contrast media. (author)

  1. Anaphylactoid reactions to the nonvascular administration of water-soluble iodinated contrast media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Peter L

    2015-06-01

    Anaphylactoidlike reactions occur during the nonvascular administration of iodinated contrast media. Many of these reactions have been severe. These reactions have occurred with many procedures, including gastrointestinal imaging, cystography, sialography, and hysterosalpingography. This article reviews reports of these reactions. It also reviews what the literature recommends concerning how to deal with individuals undergoing these procedures who are at a higher risk for anaphylactoidlike reactions.

  2. Dry preparation for virtual CT colonography with fecal tagging using water-soluble contrast medium: initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bielen, Didier; Thomeer, Maarten; Vanbeckevoort, Dirk; Marchal, Guy; Kiss, Gabriel; Maes, Frederik; Rutgeerts, Paul

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a dry bowel preparation, i.e. without laxative fluids, for virtual CT colonography (VCTC), and its impact on patient acceptance compared with conventional colonoscopy (CC). A randomly chosen patient population scheduled for CC (n=11) was first submitted to VCTC after a dry preparation, consisting of low-residue meals combined with a small amount of a iodinated water-soluble contrast medium during each meal 3 days before VCTC. In different colon segments and between different persons, the degree of tagging in VCTC was evaluated and graded. Patient acceptance and future preference were assessed for both preparations as well as for both investigations. The mixing of the contrast with the intestinal content results in contrast impregnated stool, the tagged feces. The degree of fecal tagging was good in the majority of the patients and the colonic segments, especially in the descending colon and sigmoid. Furthermore, patient acceptance and preference were clearly in favour of VCTC compared with CC merely because of the non-invasiveness of the dry preparation. Dry bowel preparation and VCTC is a promising approach towards a patient-friendly colon cancer-screening setup. (orig.)

  3. Skin necrosis following extravasation of water soluble contrast media-report of 2 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae Hyung; Kim, Seung Hyup; Shin, Myung Jin; Minn, Kyung Won; Park, Chul Kyu [College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Chul [Kyung Sang Medical College, Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-08-15

    Two cases of skin necrosis following extravasation of contrast media for intravenous pyelography and computed tomography were experienced in the Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital. The first case was 4 years old girl who suffered from known nephrotic syndrome. About 15cc of meglumine ioxitalamate (Telebrix 30) was injected through 25G needle at dorsum of left foot to visualize the urinary tract for renal biopsy. The 2nd case was 3 years old girl who suffered from seizure. About 12cc of meglumine ioxitalamate (Telebrix 30) was injected through 25G needle at dorsum of left foot. In both cases the dorsum of foot was swollen immediately after the extravastion of the contrast media. Following discoloration the skin showed vesicles with erythema. Consequently the skin showed white discoloration and ulcerated to form crust. In the former case, skin graft was applied successfully. However, in the latter, the lesion healed with only supportive dressings.

  4. Ultrastructural study on the effects of retrograde infusion of water-soluble contrast medium the rabbit submandibular gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun Kyung; Park, Tae Won

    1987-01-01

    The author observed the effects of retrograde infusion of water soluble contrast media (Telebrix 30) on the rabbit submandibular glands and compared the effects of different degrees of filling. 26 rabbit were divided into 2 group of 1 2 each as experimental and 1 group of 2 as normal controls. One experimental group was filed with 0.2 ml and the other with 0.4 ml. Right submandibular gland of each rabbit was infused with contrast media and left one with physiologic saline as a ex perimental control, at a constant rate of 0.12 ml/min. Using an infusion pump via the main excretory duct. Immediately after the inclusion of contrast media, oblique lateral radiographs of the glands were made with occlusal film in order to confirm the glandular filling. The rabbit were sacrificed after varying periods (1, 8, 24 hours and 3, 6, 10 days) and the tissues were prepared for light and electron microscopic examination. The results were as follows: 1. In glands filled with 0.2 ml contrast media, the initial changes were a few vacuole formation in the acini and slight dilation of the intralobular duct. The moderately severe changes such as vacuole formation in the acini, the abnormal substructure within the secretory granule, dilation of acinar and intercalated duct lumen, scalloping of striated duct lumen and inflammatory cell infiltrate were observed at 3 days. The general appearance was successively recovered, so the tissue had a normal appearance at 10 days. 2. In glands filled with 0.4 ml contrast media, the most prominent alterations such as severe acinar atrophy, decreased number of secretory granules, proliferation of connective tissue stroma and pronounced inflammatory cell infiltrates appeared at 6 days. Although the general appearance returned to be almost normal at 10 days, acinar cells showed some atrophy and decreased secretory granules. 3. In glands subjected to 0.4 ml infusion, the alterations were more severe and recovery was slower than those seen in the glands

  5. Water soluble contrast enema examination of the integrity of the rectal anastomosis prior to loop ileostomy reversal may be superfluous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Anna; Lindmark, Gudrun; Syk, Ingvar; Buchwald, Pamela

    2015-03-01

    Defunctioning loop ileostomy in low anterior resection (LAR) is routinely used to reduce consequences of anastomotic leakage. The purpose of this study was to analyze which examination technique is optimal for evaluating the integrity of the anastomosis prior to loop ileostomy reversal. Retrospective analysis of 95 patients who had been subjected to LAR at Helsingborg Hospital and Skåne University Hospital, Sweden, was undertaken between January 2007 and June 2009. The examination techniques of the rectal anastomosis prior to reversal and the clinical outcome after reversal were studied. Radiologic anastomosis control using water soluble contrast enema, digital rectal examination (DRE), and rectoscopy were performed in 53 % (50/95), 98 % (93/95), and 69 % (66/95), respectively. In two patients, no control of the anastomosis was performed before reversal. Fifty-two percent (49/95) of the patients were examined using all techniques. Six patients demonstrated leakage detected before reversal of which two were only radiological leakages. These two patients underwent loop ileostomy reversal after delay without complications. They were the only ones where the three examination techniques did not prove coherence. Four patients had symptomatic leakage; these were detected with rectoscopy and DRE and verified with enema. Three patients developed anastomotic leakage after loop ileostomy reversal despite normal preoperative examinations. Two of these patients had rectovaginal fistulas (AVFs). This retrospective study indicates that contrast enema does not provide additional information if rectoscopy and DRE are normal. Despite negative examinations, three of nine leakages were diagnosed after loop ileostomy reversal. Especially, AVFs seem difficult to diagnose.

  6. Polysorbate 80 and low-osmolality water-soluble contrast medium enema in diagnosis and treatment of faecal obstruction in malignant phaeochromocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratcliffe, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    Stercoral obstruction in a young woman with disseminated phaeochromocytoma was diagnosed and treated successfully using an enema of isosmolar iohexol (Omnipaque) and 1% polysorbate 80 (Tween 80) without complication. Surgical intervention was thus avoided. A low osmolality water-soluble contrast medium (iohexol 150 mg I/ml) with a wetting agent (1% Tween 80) was used because a barium suspension would have inspissated, exacerbating the constipation and a hyperosmolar contrast medium might have precipitated a hypertensive crisis and destablished her critical salt and water balance. (orig.)

  7. Structural signatures of water-soluble organic aerosols in contrasting environments in South America and Western Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Regina M B O; Matos, João T V; Paula, Andreia S; Lopes, Sónia P; Pereira, Guilherme; Vasconcellos, Pérola; Gioda, Adriana; Carreira, Renato; Silva, Artur M S; Duarte, Armando C; Smichowski, Patricia; Rojas, Nestor; Sanchez-Ccoyllo, Odon

    2017-08-01

    This study describes and compares the key structural units present in water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) fraction of atmospheric aerosols collected in different South American (Colombia - Medellín and Bogotá, Peru - Lima, Argentina - Buenos Aires, and Brazil - Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, and Porto Velho, during moderate (MBB) and intense (IBB) biomass burning) and Western European (Portugal - Aveiro and Lisbon) locations. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H NMR) spectroscopy was employed to assess the relative distribution of non-exchangeable proton functional groups in aerosol WSOC of diverse origin, for the first time to the authors' knowledge in South America. The relative contribution of the proton functional groups was in the order H-C > H-C-C= > H-C-O > Ar-H, except in Porto Velho during MBB, Medellín, Bogotá, and Buenos Aires, for which the relative contribution of H-C-O was higher than that of H-C-C=. The 1 H NMR source attribution confirmed differences in aging processes or regional sources between the two geographic regions, allowing the differentiation between urban combustion-related aerosol and biological particles. The aerosol WSOC in Aveiro, Lisbon, and Rio de Janeiro during summer are more oxidized than those from the remaining locations, indicating the predominance of secondary organic aerosols. Fresh emissions, namely of smoke particles, becomes important during winter in Aveiro and São Paulo, and in Porto Velho during IBB. The biosphere is an important source altering the chemical composition of aerosol WSOC in South America locations. The source attribution in Medellín, Bogotá, Buenos Aires, and Lima confirmed the mixed contributions of biological material, secondary formation, as well as urban and biomass burning emissions. Overall, the information and knowledge acquired in this study provide important diagnostic tools for future studies aiming at understanding the water-soluble organic aerosol problem, their sources and

  8. Myelography in achondroplasia: value of a lateral C1-2 puncture and non-ionic, water-soluble contrast medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suss, R.A.; Udvarhelyi, G.B.; Wang, H.; Kumar, A.J.; Zinreich, S.J.; Rosenbaum, A.E.

    1983-01-01

    Because of technical difficulties and diagnostic limitations encountered with other myelographic techniques in patients with achondroplasia, the authors employed a lateral C1-2 puncture and non-ionic, water-soluble contrast medium in 18 achondroplastic patients with spinal compression (21 procedures). This technique proved most appropriate for identifying the upper limit of degenerative osteophytes causing exacerbation of congenital spinal stenosis, which is crucial in planning decompressive surgery. A potentially important additional finding was the presence of degenerative lower cervical spine disease in the majority of patients. There were no serious complications. The authors recommend this technique as safe and effective in achondroplastic patients with severe congenital spinal stenosis

  9. The novel appearance of low rectal anastomosis on contrast enema following laparoscopic anterior resection: discriminating anastomotic leaks from "dog-ears" on water-soluble contrast enema and flexible sigmoidoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katory, Mark; McLean, Ross; Osman, Khalid; Ahmad, Mukhtar; Hughes, Tracey; Newby, Mike; Dennison, Christopher; O'Loughlin, Paul

    2017-02-01

    Interpretation of water-soluble contrast enema following laparoscopic low anterior resection can be very challenging for both radiologists and colorectal surgeons. Discriminating the radiological appearances secondary to anastomotic configuration from those caused by actual anastomotic dehiscence is a common problem and may be made worse with the advent of laparoscopic surgery. The aim of this study is to identify potential novel appearances of the water-soluble contrast enema (WSCE) images of rectal anastomosis following laparoscopic low anterior resection to radiologists and surgeons. We enrolled 45 patients who underwent laparoscopic low anterior resection with proximal de-functioning loop ileostomy within a specialized colorectal unit. The water-soluble contrast enema reports were reviewed. Two blinded colorectal radiologists independently reviewed the images of patients suspected of anastomotic leak. All of these patients also underwent a flexible sigmoidoscopy to confirm or exclude anastomotic leak before reversal of loop ileostomy. Inter-observer concordance was calculated. Seven out of eighteen patients (38.9%) were found to have true anastomotic leaks on flexible sigmoidoscopy (15% overall leak rate). In the remaining eleven patients the image appearances were attributed to the appearance of the anastomotic 'dog-ear effect', created by the anastomotic configuration due to multiple firing of the intra-corporeal laparoscopic stapling device. Radiologist inter-observer concordance was 83%. Sensitivity was 100%, specificity 71%, positive-predictive value (38.9%) and negative-predictive value (100%). The novel appearances of laparoscopic-stapled rectal anastomoses in WSCE can be mistaken for anastomotic leak. To avoid delay in reversal of ileostomy, a flexible sigmoidoscopy can be used to confirm or exclude a leak.

  10. Interindividual testing of water-soluble oral contrast media in respect of diagnostic ranking, side effects and taste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staebler, A.; Fink, U.; Siuda, S.; Neville, S.

    1989-01-01

    Three groups of patients (n = 55, 52 and 54) were examined with the X-ray contrast media Gastrografin, Peritrast-Oral GI, and Telebrix Gastro to assess the diagnostic ranking, side effects and taste of watersoluble oral contrast media. No significant differences were seen in respect of diagnostic ranking and side effects. Side effects were exclusively abdominal symptoms; there was no difference with regard to laxative action. Telebrix Gastroas accepted significantly better in respect of taste than Gastrografin and Peritrast-Oral GI. (orig.) [de

  11. Computed tomography versus water-soluble contrast swallow in the detection of intrathoracic anastomotic leak complicating esophagogastrectomy (Ivor Lewis): a prospective study in 97 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Christiane; Mal, Frederic; Perniceni, Thierry; Bouzar, Nadia; Lenoir, Stephane; Gayet, Brice; Palau, Robert

    2010-04-01

    Water-soluble contrast swallow (CS) is usually performed before refeeding for anastomosis assessment after esophagectomy with intrathoracic anastomosis but the sensitivity of CS is low. Another diagnostic approach is based on analysis of computed tomography (CT) scan with oral contrast and of CT mediastinal air images. We undertook to compare them prospectively. Ninety-seven patients with an esophageal carcinoma operated by intrathoracic anastomosis were included prospectively in a study based on a CT scan at postoperative day 3 (without oral and intravenous contrast) and CT scan and CS at day 7. CT scan analysis consisted of assessing contrast and air leakage. In case of doubt, an endoscopy was done. A diagnosis of anastomotic leak was made in 13 patients (13.4%), in 2 cases before day 7 and in 3 beyond day 7. At day 3, 94 CT scans were performed, but the diagnostic value was poor. In 95 patients with both CS and CT scan at day 7, CS disclosed a leak in 5 of 11, and CT scan was abnormal in 8 of 11. Leakage of contrast and/or presence of mediastinal gas had the best negative predictive value (95.8%). Endoscopy was done in 16 patients with only mediastinal gas at day 7 CT scan. It disclosed a normal anastomosis in 11, fibrin deposits in 4, and a leak in 1. In comparison with CS only, CT at day 7 improves the sensitivity and negative predictive value for diagnosing an anastomotic leak. In case of doubt endoscopy is advisable. This approach provides an accurate assessment of the anastomosis before refeeding.

  12. Water-soluble vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konings, Erik J M

    2006-01-01

    Simultaneous Determination of Vitamins.--Klejdus et al. described a simultaneous determination of 10 water- and 10 fat-soluble vitamins in pharmaceutical preparations by liquid chromatography-diode-array detection (LC-DAD). A combined isocratic and linear gradient allowed separation of vitamins in 3 distinct groups: polar, low-polar, and nonpolar. The method was applied to pharmaceutical preparations, fortified powdered drinks, and food samples, for which results were in good agreement with values claimed. Heudi et al. described a separation of 9 water-soluble vitamins by LC-UV. The method was applied for the quantification of vitamins in polyvitaminated premixes used for the fortification of infant nutrition products. The repeatability of the method was evaluated at different concentration levels and coefficients of variation were based on, for example, LC. Koontz et al. showed results of total folate concentrations measured by microbiological assay in a variety of foods. Samples were submitted in a routine manner to experienced laboratories that regularly perform folate analysis fee-for-service basis in the United States. Each laboratory reported the use of a microbiological method similar to the AOAC Official Method for the determination of folic acid. Striking was, the use of 3 different pH extraction conditions by 4 laboratories. Only one laboratory reported using a tri-enzyme extraction. Results were evaluated. Results for folic acid fortified foods had considerably lower between-laboratory variation, 9-11%, versus >45% for other foods. Mean total folate ranged from 14 to 279 microg/100 g for a mixed vegetable reference material, from 5 to 70 microg/100 g for strawberries, and from 28 to 81 microg/100 g for wholemeal flour. One should realize a large variation in results, which might be caused by slight modifications in the microbiological analysis of total folate in foods or the analysis in various (unfortified) food matrixes. Furthermore, optimal

  13. On nitrogen solubility in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalajda, Yu.A.; Katkov, Yu.D.; Kuznetsov, V.A.; Lastovtsev, A.Yu.; Lastochkin, A.P.; Susoev, V.S.

    1980-01-01

    Presented are the results of experimental investigations on nitrogen solubility in water under 0-15 MPa pressure, at the temperature of 100-340 deg C and nitrogen concentration of 0-5000 n.ml. N 2 /kg H 2 O. Empiric equations are derived and a diagram of nitrogen solubility in water is developed on the basis of the experimental data, as well as critically evaluated published data. The investigation results can be used in analyzing water-gas regime of a primary heat carrier in stream-generating plants with water-water reactors

  14. Noble gases solubility in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crovetto, Rosa; Fernandez Prini, Roberto.

    1980-07-01

    The available experimental data of solubility of noble gases in water for temperatures smaller than 330 0 C have been critically surveyed. Due to the unique structure of the solvent, the solubility of noble gases in water decreases with temperature passing through a temperature of minimum solubility which is different for each gas, and then increases at higher temperatures. As aresult of the analysis of the experimental data and of the features of the solute-solvent interaction, a generalized equation is proposed which enables thecalculation of Henry's coefficient at different temperatures for all noble gases. (author) [es

  15. Efficiency of ammonium nitrate phosphates of varying water-soluble phosphorus content for rice and succeeding maize crop on contrasting soil types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhujbal, B.M.; Mistry, K.B.; Chapke, V.G.; Mutatkar, V.K.

    1977-01-01

    Efficiency of ammonium nitrate phosphates (ANP) containing 30 and 50 percent of water-soluble phosphorus (W.S.P.) vis-a-vis that of entirely water-soluble monoammonium orthophosphate (MAP) for rice and succeeding maize crop on phosphate responsive laterite, red sandy loam (Chalka) and calcareous black soils was examined in greenhouse experiments. Data on dry matter yield, uptake of phosphorus, utilization of applied fertilizer, 'Effective Rate of Application' and 'Relative Efficiency percent' at flowering stage of rice indicated no significant differences between ammonium nitrate phosphate (30 percent and 50 percent water-soluble ohosphorus) and monoammonium orthophosphate (MAP) on laterits and natural red sandy loam soils. MAP was significantly superior to the two ANP fertilizers on calcareous black soil; no significant differences were observed between ANP (30 percent W.S.P.) and ANP (50 percent W.S.P.) on this soil. The succeeding maize crop grown up to flowering in the same pots indicated that the residual value of ANP (30 percent W.S.P.) was equal or superior to that of MAP on the laterits as well as calcareous black soil. No significant differences were detected between the residual values of the two water-solubility grades of ANP. Incubation under submerged conditions for periods upto 60 days showed that 0.5 M NaHCO 3 (pH 8.5) extractable phosphorus (plant-available phosphate) in the ANP (30 percent W.S.P.) treatment was, in general, equal to those in the MAP treatments in the laterite and red sandy loam but was significantly lower in the calcareous black soil. No marked differences were observed between the effects of the two ANP fertilizers. (author)

  16. Efficiency of ammonium nitrate phosphates of varying water-soluble phosphorus content for rice and succeeding maize crop on contrasting soil types. [/sup 32/P-labelled fertilizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhujbal, B M; Mistry, K B [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Biology and Agriculture Div.; Chapke, V G; Mutatkar, V K [Fertilizer Corp. of India Ltd., Bombay

    1977-09-01

    Efficiency of ammonium nitrate phosphates (ANP) containing 30 and 50 percent of water-soluble phosphorus (W.S.P.) vis-a-vis that of entirely water-soluble monoammonium orthophosphate (MAP) for rice and succeeding maize crop on phosphate responsive laterite, red sandy loam (Chalka) and calcareous black soils was examined in greenhouse experiments. Data on dry matter yield, uptake of phosphorus, utilization of applied fertilizer, 'Effective Rate of Application' and 'Relative Efficiency percent' at flowering stage of rice indicated no significant differences between ammonium nitrate phosphate (30 percent and 50 percent water-soluble ohosphorus) and monoammonium orthophosphate (MAP) on laterits and natural red sandy loam soils. MAP was significantly superior to the two ANP fertilizers on calcareous black soil; no significant differences were observed between ANP (30 percent W.S.P.) and ANP (50 percent W.S.P.) on this soil. The succeeding maize crop grown up to flowering in the same pots indicated that the residual value of ANP (30 percent W.S.P.) was equal or superior to that of MAP on the laterits as well as calcareous black soil. No significant differences were detected between the residual values of the two water-solubility grades of ANP. Incubation under submerged conditions for periods upto 60 days showed that 0.5 M NaHCO/sub 3/ (pH 8.5) extractable phosphorus (plant-available phosphate) in the ANP (30 percent W.S.P.) treatment was, in general, equal to those in the MAP treatments in the laterite and red sandy loam but was significantly lower in the calcareous black soil. No marked differences were observed between the effects of the two ANP fertilizers.

  17. Lectin conjugates as biospecific contrast agents for MRI. Coupling of Lycopersicon esculentum agglutinin to linear water-soluble DTPA-loaded oligomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashkunova-Martic, Irena; Kremser, Christian; Galanski, Markus; Schluga, Petra; Arion, Vladimir; Debbage, Paul; Jaschke, Werner; Keppler, Bernhard

    2011-06-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) requires synthesis of contrast media bearing targeting groups and numerous gadolinium chelating groups generating high relaxivity. This paper explores the results of linking the gadolinium chelates to the targeting group, a protein molecule, via various types of linkers. Polycondensates of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) with either diols or diamines were synthesised and coupled to the targeting group, a lectin (Lycopersicon esculentum agglutinin, tomato lectin) which binds with high affinity to specific oligosaccharide configurations in the endothelial glycocalyx. The polycondensates bear up to four carboxylic groups per constitutive unit. Gd-chelate bonds are created through dative interactions with the unshared pair of electrons on each oxygen and nitrogen atom on DTPA. This is mandatory for complexation of Gd(III) and avoidance of the severe toxicity of free gadolinium ions. The polymer-DTPA compounds were characterised by (1)H NMR and mass spectrometry. The final lectin-DTPA-polycondensate conjugates were purified by fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC). The capacity for specific binding was assessed, and the MRI properties were examined in order to evaluate the use of these oligomers as components of selective perfusional contrast agents.

  18. Influence of tri-iodinated water soluble X-ray contrast medium for uro, angio and cholangiography on the plasmic coagulation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaps, H.P.

    1982-01-01

    In-vitro coagulation studies comprising overall and individual factor determinations were carried out with the aim of clarifying the nature of unforeseen incidents arising from the use of contrast media in X-ray diagnosis. In all tests a reproducible, dose-dependent, exponential coagulation inhibition was obtained, and resulted in complete inhibition at higher dose levels. This effect occurred by a factor of ten earlier, on average, with iodine ipamide, representative of liver passage bile CM, compared to uro, and angiographic CM diatrozoate and iodine thalamate used for kidney passage. Hepatotrophic CM act initially hypercoagulative at low dises through activation of the thrombin coagulase complex; later inhibition of coagulation sets in through direct fixation on functional proteins and their subsequent denaturation. A discussion is given of the importance of direct physico-chemical toxicity, histamine liberation reactions and cellular reactions, and the controversial role of the complement system is presented. (orig./MG) [de

  19. Water Soluble Polymers for Pharmaceutical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veeran Gowda Kadajji

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Advances in polymer science have led to the development of novel drug delivery systems. Some polymers are obtained from natural resources and then chemically modified for various applications, while others are chemically synthesized and used. A large number of natural and synthetic polymers are available. In the present paper, only water soluble polymers are described. They have been explained in two categories (1 synthetic and (2 natural. Drug polymer conjugates, block copolymers, hydrogels and other water soluble drug polymer complexes have also been explained. The general properties and applications of different water soluble polymers in the formulation of different dosage forms, novel delivery systems and biomedical applications will be discussed.

  20. Solubilities of boric acid in heavy water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, Shigetsugu; Aoi, Hideki; Hayashi, Ken-ichi; Katoh, Taizo; Watanabe, Takashi.

    1988-01-01

    A gravimetric analysis using meta-boric acid (HBO 2 or DBO 2 ) as a weighing form has been developed for solubility measurement. The method gave satisfactory results in preliminary measurement of solubilities of boric acid in light water. By using this method, the solubilities of 10 B enriched D 3 BO 3 in heavy water were measured. The results are as follows; 2.67 (7deg C), 3.52 (15deg C), 5.70 (30deg C), 8.87 (50deg C) and 12.92 (70deg C) w/o, respectively. These values are about 10% lower than those in light water. Thermodynamical consideration based on the data shows that boric acid is the water structure breaker. (author)

  1. Oxidative potential of ambient water-soluble PM2.5 in the southeastern United States: contrasts in sources and health associations between ascorbic acid (AA and dithiothreitol (DTT assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Fang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The ability of certain components of particulate matter to induce oxidative stress through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS in vivo may be one mechanism accounting for observed linkages between ambient aerosols and adverse health outcomes. A variety of assays have been used to measure this so-called aerosol oxidative potential. We developed a semi-automated system to quantify oxidative potential of filter aqueous extracts utilizing the dithiothreitol (DTT assay and report here the development of a similar semi-automated system for the ascorbic acid (AA assay. Approximately 500 PM2.5 filter samples collected in contrasting locations in the southeastern US were analyzed for a host of aerosol species, along with AA and DTT activities. We present a detailed contrast in findings from these two assays. Water-soluble AA activity was higher in summer and fall than in winter, with highest levels near heavily trafficked highways, whereas DTT activity was higher in winter compared to summer and fall and more spatially homogeneous. AA activity was nearly exclusively correlated with water-soluble Cu (r  =  0.70–0.94 at most sites, whereas DTT activity was correlated with organic and metal species. Source apportionment models, positive matrix factorization (PMF and a chemical mass balance method with ensemble-averaged source impact profiles (CMB-E, suggest a strong contribution from traffic emissions and secondary processes (e.g., organic aerosol oxidation or metals mobilization by secondary acids to both AA and DTT activities in urban Atlanta. In contrast, biomass burning was a large source for DTT activity, but insignificant for AA. AA activity was not correlated with PM2.5 mass, while DTT activity co-varied strongly with mass (r  =  0.49–0.86 across sites and seasons. Various linear models were developed to estimate AA and DTT activities for the central Atlanta Jefferson Street site, based on the CMB-E sources. The

  2. Solubility of carbohydrates in heavy water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Marcus V C; Carvalho, Larissa V C; Sabadini, Edvaldo

    2012-05-15

    The solubility of several mono-(glucose and xylose), di-(sucrose and maltose), tri-(raffinose) and cyclic (α-cyclodextrin) saccharides in H(2)O and in D(2)O were measured over a range of temperatures. The solution enthalpies for the different carbohydrates in the two solvents were determined using the vant' Hoff equation and the values in D(2)O are presented here for the first time. Our findings indicate that the replacement of H(2)O by D(2)O remarkably decreases the solubilities of the less soluble carbohydrates, such as maltose, raffinose and α-cyclodextrin. On the other hand, the more soluble saccharides, glucose, xylose, and sucrose, are practically insensitive to the H/D replacement in water. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization of Soluble Organics in Produced Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostick, D.T.

    2002-01-16

    Soluble organics in produced water and refinery effluents represent treatment problems for the petroleum industry. Neither the chemistry involved in the production of soluble organics nor the impact of these chemicals on total effluent toxicity is well understood. The U.S. Department of Energy provides funding for Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to support a collaborative project with Shell, Chevron, Phillips, and Statoil entitled ''Petroleum and Environmental Research Forum project (PERF 9844: Manage Water-Soluble Organics in Produced Water''). The goal of this project, which involves characterization and evaluation of these water-soluble compounds, is aimed at reducing the future production of such contaminants. To determine the effect that various drilling conditions might have on water-soluble organics (WSO) content in produced water, a simulated brine water containing the principal inorganic components normally found in Gulf of Mexico (GOM) brine sources was prepared. The GOM simulant was then contacted with as-received crude oil from a deep well site to study the effects of water cut, produced-water pH, salinity, pressure, temperature, and crude oil sources on the type and content of the WSO in produced water. The identities of individual semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) were determined in all as-received crude and actual produced water samples using standard USEPA Method (8270C) protocol. These analyses were supplemented with the more general measurements of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content in the gas (C{sub 6}-C{sub 10}), diesel (C{sub 10}-C{sub 20}), and oil (C{sub 20}-C{sub 28}) carbon ranges as determined by both gas chromatographic (GC) and infrared (IR) analyses. An open liquid chromatographic procedure was also used to differentiate the saturated hydrocarbon, aromatic hydrocarbon, and polar components within the extractable TPH. Inorganic constituents in the produced water were analyzed by ion

  4. Biochemical synthesis of water soluble conducting polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Ferdinando F.; Bernabei, Manuele

    2016-05-01

    An efficient biomimetic route for the synthesis of conducting polymers/copolymers complexed with lignin sulfonate and sodium (polystyrenesulfonate) (SPS) will be presented. This polyelectrolyte assisted PEG-hematin or horseradish peroxidase catalyzed polymerization of pyrrole (PYR), 3,4 ethyldioxithiophene (EDOT) and aniline has provided a route to synthesize water-soluble conducting polymers/copolymers under acidic conditions. The UV-vis, FTIR, conductivity and cyclic voltammetry studies for the polymers/copolymer complex indicated the presence of a thermally stable and electroactive polymers. Moreover, the use of water-soluble templates, used as well as dopants, provided a unique combination of properties such as high electronic conductivity, and processability. These polymers/copolymers are nowadays tested/evaluated for antirust features on airplanes and helicopters. However, other electronic applications, such as photovoltaics, for transparent conductive polyaniline, actuators, for polypyrrole, and antistatic films, for polyEDOT, will be proposed.

  5. Biochemical synthesis of water soluble conducting polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, Ferdinando F., E-mail: Ferdinando-Bruno@uml.edu [US Army Natick Soldier Research, Development and Engineering Center, Natick, MA 01760 (United States); Bernabei, Manuele [ITAF, Test Flight Centre, Chemistry Dept. Pratica di Mare AFB, 00071 Pomezia (Rome), Italy (UE) (Italy)

    2016-05-18

    An efficient biomimetic route for the synthesis of conducting polymers/copolymers complexed with lignin sulfonate and sodium (polystyrenesulfonate) (SPS) will be presented. This polyelectrolyte assisted PEG-hematin or horseradish peroxidase catalyzed polymerization of pyrrole (PYR), 3,4 ethyldioxithiophene (EDOT) and aniline has provided a route to synthesize water-soluble conducting polymers/copolymers under acidic conditions. The UV-vis, FTIR, conductivity and cyclic voltammetry studies for the polymers/copolymer complex indicated the presence of a thermally stable and electroactive polymers. Moreover, the use of water-soluble templates, used as well as dopants, provided a unique combination of properties such as high electronic conductivity, and processability. These polymers/copolymers are nowadays tested/evaluated for antirust features on airplanes and helicopters. However, other electronic applications, such as photovoltaics, for transparent conductive polyaniline, actuators, for polypyrrole, and antistatic films, for polyEDOT, will be proposed.

  6. Biochemical synthesis of water soluble conducting polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, Ferdinando F.; Bernabei, Manuele

    2016-01-01

    An efficient biomimetic route for the synthesis of conducting polymers/copolymers complexed with lignin sulfonate and sodium (polystyrenesulfonate) (SPS) will be presented. This polyelectrolyte assisted PEG-hematin or horseradish peroxidase catalyzed polymerization of pyrrole (PYR), 3,4 ethyldioxithiophene (EDOT) and aniline has provided a route to synthesize water-soluble conducting polymers/copolymers under acidic conditions. The UV-vis, FTIR, conductivity and cyclic voltammetry studies for the polymers/copolymer complex indicated the presence of a thermally stable and electroactive polymers. Moreover, the use of water-soluble templates, used as well as dopants, provided a unique combination of properties such as high electronic conductivity, and processability. These polymers/copolymers are nowadays tested/evaluated for antirust features on airplanes and helicopters. However, other electronic applications, such as photovoltaics, for transparent conductive polyaniline, actuators, for polypyrrole, and antistatic films, for polyEDOT, will be proposed.

  7. Water Soluble Polymers for Pharmaceutical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Veeran Gowda Kadajji; Guru V. Betageri

    2011-01-01

    Advances in polymer science have led to the development of novel drug delivery systems. Some polymers are obtained from natural resources and then chemically modified for various applications, while others are chemically synthesized and used. A large number of natural and synthetic polymers are available. In the present paper, only water soluble polymers are described. They have been explained in two categories (1) synthetic and (2) natural. Drug polymer conjugates, block copolymers, hydrogel...

  8. Indomethacin solubility estimation in 1,4-dioxane + water mixtures by the extended hildebrand solubility approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller A Ruidiaz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Extended Hildebrand Solubility Approach (EHSA was successfully applied to evaluate the solubility of Indomethacin in 1,4-dioxane + water mixtures at 298.15 K. An acceptable correlation-performance of EHSA was found by using a regular polynomial model in order four of the W interaction parameter vs. solubility parameter of the mixtures (overall deviation was 8.9%. Although the mean deviation obtained was similar to that obtained directly by means of an empiric regression of the experimental solubility vs. mixtures solubility parameters, the advantages of EHSA are evident because it requires physicochemical properties easily available for drugs.

  9. On the solubility of plutonium in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naegele, G.

    1977-12-01

    In a theoretical study, the chemical equilibrium state of saturated Pu solutions in water was determined and the effect of the addition of EDTA on the solubility of Pu estimated. Concentrations of Plutonium in true solution in the range of grams/litre seem to be achievable, at least in principle. The amount of EDTA necessary is not larger than the total amount of Pu. It is however questionable, specially after taking into account all possible effects of reaction kinetics, whether such high concentrations can be achieved at all under normal environmental conditions. Only experiments under real world conditions can give an answer to this question. (orig./HK) 891 HK 892 AP [de

  10. Interlaboratory validation of small-scale solubility and dissolution measurements of poorly water-soluble drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Sara B. E.; Alvebratt, Caroline; Bevernage, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the interlaboratory variability in determination of apparent solubility (Sapp) and intrinsic dissolution rate (IDR) using a miniaturized dissolution instrument. Three poorly water-soluble compounds were selected as reference compounds and measured at m...

  11. Water-soluble resorcin[4]arene based cavitands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grote gansey, M.H.B.; Grote Gansey, Marcel H.B.; Bakker, Frank K.G.; Feiters, Martinus C.; Geurts, Hubertus P.M.; Verboom, Willem; Reinhoudt, David

    1998-01-01

    Water-soluble resorcin[4]arene based cavitands were obtained in good yields by reaction of bromomethylcavitands with pyridine. Their solubility was determined by conductometry. The behaviour in water depends on the alkyl chain length; the methylcavitand does not aggregate, whereas the pentyl- and

  12. Leaching behavior of water-soluble carbohydrates from almond hulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over 58% of the dry matter content of the hulls from the commercial almond (Prunus dulcis (Miller) D.A. Webb) is soluble in warm water (50-70°C) extraction. The water-soluble extractables include useful amounts of fermentable sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose), sugar alcohols (inositol and sorbito...

  13. Linear correlation of interfacial tension at water-solvent interface, solubility of water in organic solvents, and SE* scale parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezhov, E.A.; Khananashvili, N.L.; Shmidt, V.S.

    1988-01-01

    A linear correlation has been established between the solubility of water in water-immiscible organic solvents and the interfacial tension at the water-solvent interface on the one hand and the parameters of the SE* and π* scales for these solvents on the other hand. This allows us, using the known tabulated SE* or π* parameters for each solvent, to predict the values of the interfacial tension and the solubility of water for the corresponding systems. We have shown that the SE* scale allows us to predict these values more accurately than other known solvent scales, since in contrast to other scales it characterizes solvents found in equilibrium with water

  14. Uranium solubility and speciation in ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ollila, K.

    1985-04-01

    The purpose of this study has been to assess the solubility and possible species of uranium in groundwater at the disposal conditions of spent fuel. The effects of radiolysis and bentonite are considered. The assessment is based on the theoretical calculations found in the literature. The Finnish experimental results are included. The conservative estimate for uranium solubility under the oxidizing conditions caused by alpha radiolysis is based on the oxidation of uranium to the U(VI) state and formation of carbonate complex. For the groundwater with the typical carbonate content of 275 mg/l and the high carbonate content of 485 mg/l due to bentonite, the solubility values of 360 mg u/l and 950 mg U/l, are obtained, respectively. The experimental results predict considerably lower values, 0.5-20 mg U/l. The solubility of uranium under the undisturbed reducing conditions may be calculated based on the hydrolysis, carbonate complexation and redox reactions. The results vary considerably depending on the thermodynamic data used. The wide ranges of the most important groundwater parameters are seen in the solubility values. The experimental results show the same trends. As a conservative value for the solubility in reducing groundwater 50-500 μg U/l is estimated. (author)

  15. Solubility of corrosion products in high temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, M.P.; Narasimhan, S.V.

    1995-01-01

    A short review of solubility of corrosion products at high temperature in either neutral or alkaline water as encountered in BWR, PHWR and PWR primary coolant reactor circuits is presented in this report. Based on the available literature, various experimental techniques involved in the study of the solubility, theory for fitting the solubility data to the thermodynamic model and discussion of the published results with a scope for future work have been brought out. (author). 17 refs., 7 figs

  16. Water-soluble dietary fibers and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theuwissen, Elke; Mensink, Ronald P

    2008-05-23

    One well-established way to reduce the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) is to lower serum LDL cholesterol levels by reducing saturated fat intake. However, the importance of other dietary approaches, such as increasing the intake of water-soluble dietary fibers is increasingly recognized. Well-controlled intervention studies have now shown that four major water-soluble fiber types-beta-glucan, psyllium, pectin and guar gum-effectively lower serum LDL cholesterol concentrations, without affecting HDL cholesterol or triacylglycerol concentrations. It is estimated that for each additional gram of water-soluble fiber in the diet serum total and LDL cholesterol concentrations decrease by -0.028 mmol/L and -0.029 mmol/L, respectively. Despite large differences in molecular structure, no major differences existed between the different types of water-soluble fiber, suggesting a common underlying mechanism. In this respect, it is most likely that water-soluble fibers lower the (re)absorption of in particular bile acids. As a result hepatic conversion of cholesterol into bile acids increases, which will ultimately lead to increased LDL uptake by the liver. Additionally, epidemiological studies suggest that a diet high in water-soluble fiber is inversely associated with the risk of CVD. These findings underlie current dietary recommendations to increase water-soluble fiber intake.

  17. Solubility and physical properties of sugars in pressurized water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saldaña, Marleny D.A.; Alvarez, Víctor H.; Haldar, Anupam

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Sugar solubility in pressurized water and density at high pressures were measured. ► Glucose solubility was higher than that of lactose as predicted by their σ-profiles. ► Sugar aqueous solubility decreased with an increase in pressure from 15 to 120 bar. ► Aqueous glucose molecular packing shows high sensitivity to pressure. ► The COSMO-SAC model qualitatively predicted the sugar solubility data. - Abstract: In this study, the solubility, density, and refractive index of glucose and lactose in water as a function of temperature were measured. For solubility of sugars in pressurized water, experimental data were obtained at pressures of (15 to 120) bar and temperatures of (373 to 433) K using a dynamic flow high pressure system. Density data for aqueous sugar solutions were obtained at pressures of (1 to 300) bar and temperatures of (298 to 343) K. The refractive index of aqueous sugar solutions was obtained at 293 K and atmospheric pressure. Activity coefficient models, Van Laar and the Conductor-like Screening Model-Segment Activity Coefficient (COSMO-SAC), were used to fit and predict the experimental solubility data, respectively. The results obtained showed that the solubility of both sugars in pressurized water increase with an increase in temperature. However, with the increase of pressure from 15 bar to 120 bar, the solubility of both sugars in pressurized water decreased. The Van Laar model fit the experimental aqueous solubility data with deviations lower than 13 and 53% for glucose and lactose, respectively. The COSMO-SAC model predicted qualitatively the aqueous solubility of these sugars.

  18. Study on REE bound water-soluble polysaccharides in plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuqi; Guo Fanqing; Xu Lei; Chen Hongmin; Sun Jingxin; Cao Guoyin

    1999-01-01

    The binding of REE with water-soluble polysaccharides (PSs) in leaves of fern Dicranopteris Dichotoma (DD) has been studied by molecular activation analysis. The cold-water-soluble and hot-water-soluble PSs in leaves of DD were obtained by using biochemical separation techniques. The PSs of non-deproteinization and deproteinization, were separated on Sephadex G-200 gel permeation chromatography. The absorption curves of elution for the PSs were obtained by colorimetry, and the proteins were detected using Coomassic brilliant G-250. Eight REEs (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu) in these PSs were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The results obtained show that the REEs are bound firmly with the water-soluble PSs in the plant. A measurement demonstrates that the PSs bound with REEs are mainly of smaller molecular weight (10,000 to 20,000 Dalton)

  19. Determination of Carboxylic Acids and Water-soluble Inorganic Ions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    radiation balance.4,5 Major water-soluble inorganic ions are associated with atmospheric ... molecular weight carboxylic acids in aerosol samples collected from a rural ... include biomass burning, agriculture, livestock and soil dust. Tropical ...

  20. Effect of water deficit stress on proline contents, soluble sugars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of water deficit stress on proline contents, soluble sugars, chlorophyll and grain yield of sunflower ... Journal Home > Vol 11, No 1 (2012) > ... The objective of the present work was to determine the mechanisms of tolerance of four ...

  1. Solubility and degradation of paracetamol in subcritical water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emire Zuhal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, solubility and degradation of paracetamol were examined using subcritical water. Effect of temperature and static time was investigated during solubility process in subcritical water at constant pressure (50 bar. Experimental results show that temperature and static time have crucial effect on the degradation and solubility rates. Maximum mole fraction for solubility of paracetamol was obtained at 403 K as (14.68 ± 0.74×103. Approximation model for solubility of paracetamol was proposed. O2 and H2O2 were used in degradation process of paracetamol. Maximum degradation rate was found as 68.66 ± 1.05 and 100 ± 0.00 % using O2 and H2O2, respectively.

  2. Characterization of Gasolines, Diesel Fuels and Their Water Soluble Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    Hutchinson, et al.,1979 ) with the marine algae, Chlorella vulgaris and Chlamydomonas angulosa, suggests that the toxicity of hydrocarbons is a...water-soluble petroleum components on the growth of Chlorella vulgaris Beijernck. Environ. Poll. 9: 157. Morrow, J.E., et al. 1975. Effects of some...P.B., and T.C. Hutchison. 1975. The effects of water-soluble petroleum components on the growth of Chlorella vulqaris Beijerinck. Environ. Poll. 9

  3. Novel electrosprayed nanospherules for enhanced aqueous solubility and oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble fenofibrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousaf, Abid Mehmood; Mustapha, Omer; Kim, Dong Wuk; Kim, Dong Shik; Kim, Kyeong Soo; Jin, Sung Giu; Yong, Chul Soon; Youn, Yu Seok; Oh, Yu-Kyoung; Kim, Jong Oh; Choi, Han-Gon

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present research was to develop a novel electrosprayed nanospherule providing the most optimized aqueous solubility and oral bioavailability for poorly water-soluble fenofibrate. Numerous fenofibrate-loaded electrosprayed nanospherules were prepared with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and Labrafil(®) M 2125 as carriers using the electrospray technique, and the effect of the carriers on drug solubility and solvation was assessed. The solid state characterization of an optimized formulation was conducted by scanning electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analyses. Oral bioavailability in rats was also evaluated for the formulation of an optimized nanospherule in comparison with free drug and a conventional fenofibrate-loaded solid dispersion. All of the electrosprayed nanospherule formulations had remarkably enhanced aqueous solubility and dissolution compared with free drug. Moreover, Labrafil M 2125, a surfactant, had a positive influence on the solubility and dissolution of the drug in the electrosprayed nanospherule. Increases were observed as the PVP/drug ratio increased to 4:1, but higher ratios gave no significant increases. In particular, an electrosprayed nanospherule composed of fenofibrate, PVP, and Labrafil M 2125 at the weight ratio of 1:4:0.5 resulted in a particle size of water-soluble fenofibrate.

  4. Mechanisms for oral absorption of poorly water-soluble compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Marianne Ladegaard

    Abstract A large part of the new drug candidates discovered by the pharmaceutical industry have poor solubility in aqueous media. The preferred route of drug administration is the oral route, but for these poorly water-soluble drug candidates the oral bioavailability can be low and variable. Often......, phospholipids) and exogenous surfactants used in pharmaceutical formulations on the oral absorption of poorly water-soluble drug substances. Three different models were used for this purpose. The first model was the in vitro Caco-2 cell model. Simulated intestinal fluids which did not decrease cellular...... products are important for the solubilization of poorly water-soluble drug substances and thus absorption. The second model used was the lipoprotein secreting Caco-2 cell model, which was used to simulate intestinal lymphatic transport in vitro. Various simulated intestinal fluids were composed...

  5. The solubilities of benzene polycarboxylic acids in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apelblat, Alexander; Manzurola, Emanuel; Abo Balal, Nazmia

    2006-01-01

    The solubilities in water of all benzene polycarboxylic acids are discussed, using data determined in this work (benzoic, terephthalic, trimellitic, trimesic, and pyromellitic acids) and available from the literature (benzoic, phthalic, isophthalic, terephthalic, hemimellitic, trimelitic, trimesic, mellophanic, prehnitic, pyromellitic, benzene-pentacarboxylic and mellitic acids). The apparent molar enthalpies of solution at the saturation point for these benzene polycarboxylic acids were determined from the temperature dependence of the solubilities

  6. Quantitative analysis of soluble elements in environmental waters by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niizeki, T.; Kawasaki, K.; Adachi, M.; Tsuji, M.; Hattori, T.

    1999-01-01

    We have started PIXE research for environmental science at Van de Graaff accelerator facility in Tokyo Institute of Technology. Quantitative measurements of soluble fractions in river waters have been carried out using the preconcentrate method developed in Tohoku University. We reveal that this PIXE target preparation can be also applied to waste water samples. (author)

  7. Enhancing the solubility and bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs using supercritical antisolvent (SAS) process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuzar, Sharif Md; Hyun, Sang-Min; Kim, Jun-Hee; Park, Hee Jun; Kim, Min-Soo; Park, Jeong-Sook; Hwang, Sung-Joo

    2018-03-01

    Poor water solubility and poor bioavailability are problems with many pharmaceuticals. Increasing surface area by micronization is an effective strategy to overcome these problems, but conventional techniques often utilize solvents and harsh processing, which restricts their use. Newer, green technologies, such as supercritical fluid (SCF)-assisted particle formation, can produce solvent-free products under relatively mild conditions, offering many advantages over conventional methods. The antisolvent properties of the SCFs used for microparticle and nanoparticle formation have generated great interest in recent years, because the kinetics of the precipitation process and morphologies of the particles can be accurately controlled. The characteristics of the supercritical antisolvent (SAS) technique make it an ideal tool for enhancing the solubility and bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs. This review article focuses on SCFs and their properties, as well as the fundamentals of overcoming poorly water-soluble drug properties by micronization, crystal morphology control, and formation of composite solid dispersion nanoparticles with polymers and/or surfactants. This article also presents an overview of the main aspects of the SAS-assisted particle precipitation process, its mechanism, and parameters, as well as our own experiences, recent advances, and trends in development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Teratogenicity and metabolism of water-soluble forms of vitamin A in the pregnant rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunning, D.B.; Barua, A.B.; Olson, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Retinoyl β-glucuronide, unlike retinoic acid, has been shown to be non-teratogenic when administered orally, even in large doses, to pregnant rats. The degree to which water-solubility is associated with low teratogenicity is not known. Other water-soluble forms of vitamin A have now been synthesized in our laboratory and are being evaluated for teratogenicity. New water-soluble forms of vitamin A were administered orally to pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats in a single dose of 0.35 mmole/kg bw on day 8 of gestation. On day 19, the dams were sacrificed and the litters were examined. Control animals received either vehicle only or an equivalent dose of all-trans retinoic acid. Maternal and fetal tissues were taken and analyzed by HPLC for vitamin A metabolites. In another experiment, a large single oral dose of the radiolabelled water-soluble compound was administered on day 10. At either 30 minutes or 1 hour after the dose, dams were sacrificed and the embryos analyzed both for radioactivity and for specific metabolites. In contrast to retinoyl β-glucuronide, retinoyl β-glucose is highly teratogenic under identical conditions. Thus, water-solubility does not seem to be the determining factor in the teratogenicity of retinoic acid conjugates

  9. Micelles from lipid derivatives of water-soluble polymers as delivery systems for poorly soluble drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukyanov, Anatoly N; Torchilin, Vladimir P

    2004-05-07

    Polymeric micelles have a whole set of unique characteristics, which make them very promising drug carriers, in particular, for poorly soluble drugs. Our review article focuses on micelles prepared from conjugates of water-soluble polymers, such as polyethylene glycol (PEG) or polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), with phospholipids or long-chain fatty acids. The preparation of micelles from certain polymer-lipid conjugates and the loading of these micelles with various poorly soluble anticancer agents are discussed. The data on the characterization of micellar preparations in terms of their morphology, stability, longevity in circulation, and ability to spontaneously accumulate in experimental tumors via the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect are presented. The review also considers the preparation of targeted immunomicelles with specific antibodies attached to their surface. Available in vivo results on the efficiency of anticancer drugs incorporated into plain micelles and immunomicelles in animal models are also discussed.

  10. Removal of soluble toxic metals from water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckley, L.P.; Vijayan, S.; McConeghy, G.J.; Maves, S.R.; Martin, J.F.

    1990-05-01

    The removal of selected, soluble toxic metals from aqueous solutions has been accomplished using a combination of chemical treatment and ultrafiltration. The process has been evaluated at the bench-scale and is undergoing pilot-scale testing. Removal efficiencies in excess of 95-99% have been realized. The test program at the bench-scale investigated the limitations and established the optimum range of operating parameters for the process, while the tests conducted with the pilot-scale process equipment are providing information on longer-term process efficiencies, effective processing rates, and fouling potential of the membranes. With the typically found average concentrations of the toxic metals in groundwaters at Superfund sites used as the feed solution, the process has decreased levels up to 100-fold or more. Experiments were also conducted with concentrated solutions to determine their release from silica-based matrices. The solidified wastes were subjected to EP Toxicity test procedures and met the criteria successfully. The final phase of the program involving a field demonstration at a uranium tailings site will be outlined

  11. Carcinogenicity assessment of water-soluble nickel compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Julie E; Prueitt, Robyn L; Dodge, David G; Thakali, Sagar

    2009-01-01

    IARC is reassessing the human carcinogenicity of nickel compounds in 2009. To address the inconsistencies among results from studies of water-soluble nickel compounds, we conducted a weight-of-evidence analysis of the relevant epidemiological, toxicological, and carcinogenic mode-of-action data. We found the epidemiological evidence to be limited, in that some, but not all, data suggest that exposure to soluble nickel compounds leads to increased cancer risk in the presence of certain forms of insoluble nickel. Although there is no evidence that soluble nickel acts as a complete carcinogen in animals, there is limited evidence that suggests it may act as a tumor promoter. The mode-of-action data suggest that soluble nickel compounds will not be able to cause genotoxic effects in vivo because they cannot deliver sufficient nickel ions to nuclear sites of target cells. Although the mode-of-action data suggest several possible non-genotoxic effects of the nickel ion, it is unclear whether soluble nickel compounds can elicit these effects in vivo or whether these effects, if elicited, would result in tumor promotion. The mode-of-action data equally support soluble nickel as a promoter or as not being a causal factor in carcinogenesis at all. The weight of evidence does not indicate that soluble nickel compounds are complete carcinogens, and there is only limited evidence that they could act as tumor promoters.

  12. Solubility studies of Np(V) in simulated underground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yingjie; Ren Lilong; Jiao Haiyang; Yao Jun; Su Xiguang; Fan Xianhua

    2004-01-01

    The solubility of Np(V) in simulated underground water has been measured with the variation of pH, storage time (0-100 days). All experiments were performed in an Ar glove box which contained high purity Ar, with an oxygen content of less than 5ppm. Experimental results show that the solubility of Np(V) in simulated underground water decreased with increasing pH value of solution; the solubility of Np(V) in simulated underground water determined at different pH is : pH=6.96, [Np(V)]=(3.52±0.37) x 10 -4 mol/L; pH=8.04, [Np(V)]=(8.24±0.32) x 10 -5 mol/L; pH=9.01, [Np(V)]=(3.04±0.48) x 10'- 5 mol/L, respectively. (author)

  13. Oral formulation strategies to improve solubility of poorly water-soluble drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Abhishek; Worku, Zelalem Ayenew; Van den Mooter, Guy

    2011-10-01

    In the past two decades, there has been a spiraling increase in the complexity and specificity of drug-receptor targets. It is possible to design drugs for these diverse targets with advances in combinatorial chemistry and high throughput screening. Unfortunately, but not entirely unexpectedly, these advances have been accompanied by an increase in the structural complexity and a decrease in the solubility of the active pharmaceutical ingredient. Therefore, the importance of formulation strategies to improve the solubility of poorly water-soluble drugs is inevitable, thus making it crucial to understand and explore the recent trends. Drug delivery systems (DDS), such as solid dispersions, soluble complexes, self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS), nanocrystals and mesoporous inorganic carriers, are discussed briefly in this review, along with examples of marketed products. This article provides the reader with a concise overview of currently relevant formulation strategies and proposes anticipated future trends. Today, the pharmaceutical industry has at its disposal a series of reliable and scalable formulation strategies for poorly soluble drugs. However, due to a lack of understanding of the basic physical chemistry behind these strategies, formulation development is still driven by trial and error.

  14. OCTANOL/WATER PARTITION COEFFICIENTS AND WATER SOLUBILITIES OF PHTHALATE ESTERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measurements of the octanol/water partition coefficients (K-ow) and water solubilities of di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) and di-n-decyl phthalate (DnDP) by the slow-stirring method are reported. The water solubility was also measured for di-n-hexyl phthalate (DnHP). The log K-ow val...

  15. Novel electrosprayed nanospherules for enhanced aqueous solubility and oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble fenofibrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousaf AM

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abid Mehmood Yousaf,1,2 Omer Mustapha,1 Dong Wuk Kim,1 Dong Shik Kim,1 Kyeong Soo Kim,1 Sung Giu Jin,1 Chul Soon Yong,3 Yu Seok Youn,4 Yu-Kyoung Oh,5 Jong Oh Kim,3 Han-Gon Choi1 1College of Pharmacy and Institute of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Hanyang University, Ansan, Gyeonggi, South Korea; 2Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Central Punjab, Johar, Lahore, Pakistan; 3College of Pharmacy, Yeungnam University, Gyongsan, North Gyeongsang, 4School of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Gyeonggi, 5College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea Purpose: The purpose of the present research was to develop a novel electrosprayed nanospherule providing the most optimized aqueous solubility and oral bioavailability for poorly water-soluble fenofibrate.Methods: Numerous fenofibrate-loaded electrosprayed nanospherules were prepared with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP and Labrafil® M 2125 as carriers using the electrospray technique, and the effect of the carriers on drug solubility and solvation was assessed. The solid state characterization of an optimized formulation was conducted by scanning electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analyses. Oral bioavailability in rats was also evaluated for the formulation of an optimized nanospherule in comparison with free drug and a conventional fenofibrate-loaded solid dispersion.Results: All of the electrosprayed nanospherule formulations had remarkably enhanced aqueous solubility and dissolution compared with free drug. Moreover, Labrafil M 2125, a surfactant, had a positive influence on the solubility and dissolution of the drug in the electrosprayed nanospherule. Increases were observed as the PVP/drug ratio increased to 4:1, but higher ratios gave no significant increases. In particular, an electrosprayed nanospherule composed of fenofibrate, PVP, and Labrafil M 2125 at the weight ratio of 1

  16. Solubilization of poorly water-soluble drugs using solid dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thao T-D; Tran, Phuong H-L; Khanh, Tran N; Van, Toi V; Lee, Beom-Jin

    2013-08-01

    Many new drugs have been discovered in pharmaceutical industry and exposed their surprised potential therapeutic effects. Unfortunately, these drugs possess low absorption and bioavailability since their solubility limitation in water. Solid dispersion (SD) is the current technique gaining so many attractions from scientists due to its effect on improving solubility and dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble drugs. A number of patents including the most recent inventions have been undertaken in this review to address various respects of this strategy in solubilization of poorly watersoluble drugs including type of carriers, preparation methods and view of technologies used to detect SD properties and mechanisms with the aim to accomplish a SD not only effective on enhanced bioavailability but also overcome difficulties associated with stability and production. Future prospects are as well discussed with an only hope that many developments and researches in this field will be successfully reached and contributed to commercial use for treatment as much as possible.

  17. Solubility of magnetite in high temperature water and an approach to generalized solubility computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinov, K.; Ishigure, K.; Matsuura, C.; Hiroishi, D.

    1993-01-01

    Magnetite solubility in pure water was measured at 423 K in a fully teflon-covered autoclave system. A fairly good agreement was found to exist between the experimental data and calculation results obtained from the thermodynamical model, based on the assumption of Fe 3 O 4 dissolution and Fe 2 O 3 deposition reactions. A generalized thermodynamical approach to the solubility computations under complex conditions on the basis of minimization of the total system Gibbs free energy was proposed. The forms of the chemical equilibria were obtained for various systems initially defined and successfully justified by the subsequent computations. A [Fe 3+ ] T -[Fe 2+ ] T phase diagram was introduced as a tool for systematic understanding of the magnetite dissolution phenomena in pure water and under oxidizing and reducing conditions. (orig.)

  18. Solubility study of Tc(IV) in a granitic water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, D.J.; Yao, J.; Wang, B.; Bruggeman, C.; Maes, N.

    2007-01-01

    The deep geological disposal of the high level radioactive wastes is expected to be a safe disposal method in most countries. The long-lived fission product 99 Tc is present in large quantities in nuclear wastes and its chemical behavior in aqueous solution is of considerable interest. Under oxidizing conditions technetium exists as the anionic species TcO 4 - whereas under the reducing conditions, expected to exist in a deep geological repository, it is generally predicted that technetium will be present as TcO 2 .nH 2 O. Hence, the mobility of Tc(IV) in reducing groundwater may be limited by the solubility of TcO 2 .nH 2 O under these conditions. Due to this fact it is important to investigate the solubility of TcO 2 .nH 2 O. The solubility determines the release of radionuclides from waste form and is used as a source term in radionuclide migration analysis in performance assessment of radioactive waste repository. Technetium(IV) was prepared by reduction of a technetate solution with Sn 2+ . The solubility of Tc(IV) has been determined in simulated groundwater and redistilled water under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The effects of pH and CO 3 2- concentration of solution on solubility of Tc(IV) were studied. The concentration of total technetium and Tc(IV) species in the solutions were periodically determined by separating the oxidized and reduced technetium species using a solvent extraction procedure and counting the beta activity of the 99 Tc with a liquid scintillation counter. The experimental results show that the rate of oxidation of Tc(IV) in simulated groundwater and redistilled water is about (1.49 ∝ 1.86) x 10 -9 mol L -1 d -1 under aerobic conditions, while no Tc(IV) oxidation was detected in simulated groundwater and redistilled water under anaerobic conditions. Under aerobic or anaerobic conditions the solubility of Tc(IV) in simulated groundwater and redistilled water is equal on the whole after centrifugation or ultrafiltration. The

  19. IMPROVEMENT OF SOLUBILITY OF BADLY WATER SOLUBLE DRUG (IBUPROFEN) BY USING SURFACTANTS AND CARRIERS

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Zakaria Faruki*, Rishikesh, Elizabeth Razzaque, Mohiuddin Ahmed Bhuiyan

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Although there was a great interest in solid dispersion systems during the past four decades to increase dissolution rate and bioavailability of badly water-soluble drugs, their profitable use has been very limited, primarily because of manufacturing difficulties and stability problems. In this study solid solutions of drugs were generally produced by fusion method. The drug along with the excipients (surfactants and carriers) was heated first and then hardened by cooling to room te...

  20. Physical and ionic characteristics in water soluble fraction (WSF) of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The values of ionic and physical characteristics at 25, 50 and 100% water soluble fraction (WSF) of Olomoro well-head crude oil before and after exposure to Azolla africana were investigated. The WSF values before and after exposure to the plants showed that more ions were available after the introduction of the test plant.

  1. Bioremediation prospects of fungi isolated from water soluble ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fungi associated with water soluble fraction (WSF) of crude oil from two different locations were investigated. The samples were collected from Ezibin oil well (Sample A), Okwagbe village in Ughelli South Local Government Area of Delta State and from NPDC laboratory (Sample B) in Benin City, Oredo Local ...

  2. Process for radiation cocrosslinking water soluble polymers and products thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assarsson, P.G.; King, P.A.

    1976-01-01

    Poly(ethylene oxide) and at least one other water soluble polymer are conveniently cocrosslinked by exposing aqueous systems of the polymers to high energy irradiation. The resulting products are insoluble hydrophilic gels which can contain or when dried absorb large quantities of aqueous fluids and hence are useful as absorbing media for disposable absorbent articles, agricultural applications and the like

  3. Water-soluble diphosphadiazacyclooctanes as ligands for aqueous organometallic catalysis

    KAUST Repository

    Boulanger, Jérôme

    2012-12-01

    Two new water-soluble diphosphacyclooctanes been synthesized and characterized by NMR and surface tension measurements. Both phosphanes proved to coordinate rhodium in a very selective way as well-defined bidentates were obtained. When used in Rh-catalyzed hydroformylation of terminal alkenes, both ligands positively impacted the reaction chemoselectivity. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  4. Determination of Carboxylic Acids and Water-soluble Inorganic Ions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Atmospheric aerosol samples of PM2.5 and PM10 were collected in April–May 2011 from a rural site in Tanzania and analyzed for water-soluble inorganic ions and low molecular weight carboxylic acids using ion chromatography. PM2.5 and PM10 low-volume samplers with quartz fibre filters were deployed and aerosol ...

  5. Plasma concentrations of water.soluble vitamins in metabolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Vitamins B1 (thiamine), B3 (niacin), B6 (pyridoxine), and C (ascorbic acid) are vital for energy, carbohydrate, lipid, and amino acid metabolism and in the regulation of the cellular redox state. Some studies have associated low levels of water.soluble vitamins with metabolic syndrome and its various components.

  6. Aggregation and Photophysical Properties of Water-Soluble Sapphyrins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubát, Pavel; Lang, Kamil; Zelinger, Zdeněk; Král, V.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 395, - (2004), s. 82-86 ISSN 0009-2614 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK4040110 Keywords : water-soluble * sapphyrins * photophysical Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.438, year: 2004

  7. Short Communication Relationships between the water solubility of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    132. Short Communication. Relationships between the water solubility of roughage dry matter and certain chemical characteristics. J.W. Cilliers- and H.J. Cilliers. North West Agricultural Development lnstitute, Private. Bag X804, Potchefstroom, 2520 Republic of South Africa. Received 17 May 1995; accepted 8 August 1995.

  8. Synthesis of water soluble photo-initiators of thioxanthone derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Guozhen; Wang Jindi; Lin Yiqing

    1999-01-01

    Eight new photo-initiators of water-soluble thioxanthone derivatives were prepared. These compounds were identified by IR, NMR, MS and elemental analysis etc. The UV absorption wavelength, molar absorption coefficient and fluorescent quantum yield were determined. Furthermore, the relationship between structure and properties was discussed

  9. Synthesis of water soluble photo-initiators of thioxanthone derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guozhen, Qi; Jindi, Wang; Yiqing, Lin [Inst. of Fine Chemicals ECUST, Shanghai (China)

    1999-07-01

    Eight new photo-initiators of water-soluble thioxanthone derivatives were prepared. These compounds were identified by IR, NMR, MS and elemental analysis etc. The UV absorption wavelength, molar absorption coefficient and fluorescent quantum yield were determined. Furthermore, the relationship between structure and properties was discussed.

  10. Water-soluble diphosphadiazacyclooctanes as ligands for aqueous organometallic catalysis

    KAUST Repository

    Boulanger, Jé rô me; Bricout, Hervé ; Tilloy, Sé bastien; Fihri, Aziz; Len, Christophe; Hapiot, Fré dé ric; Monflier, É ric

    2012-01-01

    Two new water-soluble diphosphacyclooctanes been synthesized and characterized by NMR and surface tension measurements. Both phosphanes proved to coordinate rhodium in a very selective way as well-defined bidentates were obtained. When used in Rh-catalyzed hydroformylation of terminal alkenes, both ligands positively impacted the reaction chemoselectivity. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  11. Selective Photooxidation Reactions using Water-Soluble Anthraquinone Photocatalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, W.; Gacs, Jenő; Arends, I.W.C.E.; Hollmann, F.

    2017-01-01

    The aerobic organocatalytic oxidation of alcohols was achieved by using water-soluble sodium anthraquinone sulfonate. Under visible-light activation, this catalyst mediated the aerobic oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes and ketones. The photo-oxyfunctionalization of alkanes was also possible

  12. Some physicochemical aspects of water-soluble mineral flotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhijian; Wang, Xuming; Liu, Haining; Zhang, Huifang; Miller, Jan D

    2016-09-01

    Some physicochemical aspects of water-soluble mineral flotation including hydration phenomena, associations and interactions between collectors, air bubbles, and water-soluble mineral particles are presented. Flotation carried out in saturated salt solutions, and a wide range of collector concentrations for effective flotation of different salts are two basic aspects of water-soluble mineral flotation. Hydration of salt ions, mineral particle surfaces, collector molecules or ions, and collector aggregates play an important role in water-soluble mineral flotation. The adsorption of collectors onto bubble surfaces is suggested to be the precondition for the association of mineral particles with bubbles. The association of collectors with water-soluble minerals is a complicated process, which may include the adsorption of collector molecules or ions onto such surfaces, and/or the attachment of collector precipitates or crystals onto the mineral surfaces. The interactions between the collectors and the minerals include electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions, hydrogen bonding, and specific interactions, with electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions being the common mechanisms. For the association of ionic collectors with minerals with an opposite charge, electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions could have a synergistic effect, with the hydrophobic interactions between the hydrophobic groups of the previously associated collectors and the hydrophobic groups of oncoming collectors being an important attractive force. Association between solid particles and air bubbles is the key to froth flotation, which is affected by hydrophobicity of the mineral particle surfaces, surface charges of mineral particles and bubbles, mineral particle size and shape, temperature, bubble size, etc. The use of a collector together with a frother and the use of mixed surfactants as collectors are suggested to improve flotation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Nanonization strategies for poorly water-soluble drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huabing; Khemtong, Chalermchai; Yang, Xiangliang; Chang, Xueling; Gao, Jinming

    2011-04-01

    Poor water solubility for many drugs and drug candidates remains a major obstacle to their development and clinical application. Conventional formulations to improve solubility suffer from low bioavailability and poor pharmacokinetics, with some carriers rendering systemic toxicities (e.g. Cremophor(®) EL). In this review, several major nanonization techniques that seek to overcome these limitations for drug solubilization are presented. Strategies including drug nanocrystals, nanoemulsions and polymeric micelles are reviewed. Finally, perspectives on existing challenges and future opportunities are highlighted. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Solubility of the Proteinogenic α-Amino Acids in Water, Ethanol, and Ethanol-Water Mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bowden, Nathan A.; Sanders, Johan P.M.; Bruins, Marieke E.

    2018-01-01

    The addition of organic solvents to α-amino acids in aqueous solution could be an effective method in crystallization. We reviewed the available data on the solubility of α-amino acids in water, water-ethanol mixtures, and ethanol at 298.15 K and 0.1 MPa. The solubility of l-alanine, l-proline,

  15. Water-Soluble Vitamin E-Tocopheryl Phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingg, Jean-Marc

    The hydrophobicity of vitamin E poses transport and metabolic challenges to regulate its bioavailability and to prevent its accumulation in lipid-rich tissues such as adipose tissue, brain, and liver. Water-soluble precursors of vitamin E (α-tocopherol, αT), such as its esters with acetate (αTA), succinate (αTS), or phosphate (αTP), have increased solubility in water and stability against reaction with free radicals, but they are rapidly converted during their uptake into the lipid-soluble vitamin E. Therefore, the bioavailability of these precursors as intact molecules is low; nevertheless, at least for αTS and αTP, the recent research has revealed unique regulatory effects on signal transduction and gene expression and the modulation of cellular events ranging from proliferation, survival/apoptosis, lipid uptake and metabolism, phagocytosis, long term potentiation, cell migration, telomere maintenance, and angiogenesis. Moreover, water-soluble derivatives of vitamin E including some based on αTP are increasingly used as components of nanocarriers for enhanced and targeted delivery of drugs and other molecules (vitamins, including αT and αTP itself, vitamin D3, carnosine, caffeine, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), insulin) and cofactors such as coenzyme Q10. In this review, the chemical characteristics, transport, metabolic pathways, and molecular mechanisms of action of αTP in cells and tissues are summarized and put into perspective with its possible role in the prevention of a number of diseases. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. OZONE TREATMENT OF SOLUBLE ORGANICS IN PRODUCED WATER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klasson, KT

    2002-03-14

    This project was an extension of previous research to improve the applicability of ozonation and will help address the petroleum-industry problem of treating produced water containing soluble organics. The goal of this project was to maximize oxidation of hexane-extractable organics during a single-pass operation. The project investigated: (1) oxidant production by electrochemical and sonochemical methods, (2) increasing the mass transfer rate in the reactor by forming microbubbles during ozone injection into the produced water, and (3) using ultraviolet irradiation to enhance the reaction if needed. Several types of methodologies for treatment of soluble organics in synthetic and actual produced waters have been performed. The technologies tested may be categorized as follows: (1) Destruction via sonochemical oxidation at different pH, salt concentration, ultraviolet irradiation, and ferrous iron concentrations. (2) Destruction via ozonation at different pH, salt concentration, hydrogen peroxide concentrations, ultraviolet irradiation, temperature, and reactor configurations.

  17. Solubility effects in waste-glass/demineralized-water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fullam, H.T.

    1981-06-01

    Aqueous systems involving demineralized water and four glass compositions (including standins for actinides and fission products) at temperatures of up to 150 0 C were studied. Two methods were used to measure the solubility of glass components in demineralized water. One method involved approaching equilibrium from subsaturation, while the second method involved approaching equilibrium from supersaturation. The aqueous solutions were analyzed by induction-coupled plasma spectrometry (ICP). Uranium was determined using a Scintrex U-A3 uranium analyzer and zinc and cesium were determined by atomic absorption. The system that results when a waste glass is contacted with demineralized water is a complex one. The two methods used to determine the solubility limits gave very different results, with the supersaturation method yielding much higher solution concentrations than the subsaturation method for most of the elements present in the waste glasses. The results show that it is impossible to assign solubility limits to the various glass components without thoroughly describing the glass-water systems. This includes not only defining the glass type and solution temperature, but also the glass surface area-to-water volume ratio (S/V) of the system and the complete thermal history of the system. 21 figures, 22 tables

  18. Enhancing the Solubility and Oral Bioavailability of Poorly Water-Soluble Drugs Using Monoolein Cubosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Md Ashraf; Kataoka, Noriko; Ranneh, Abdul-Hackam; Iwao, Yasunori; Noguchi, Shuji; Oka, Toshihiko; Itai, Shigeru

    2017-01-01

    Monoolein cubosomes containing either spironolactone (SPI) or nifedipine (NI) were prepared using a high-pressure homogenization technique and characterized in terms of their solubility and oral bioavailability. The mean particle size, polydispersity index (PDI), zeta potential, solubility and encapsulation efficiency (EE) values of the SPI- and NI-loaded cubosomes were determined to be 90.4 nm, 0.187, -13.4 mV, 163 µg/mL and 90.2%, and 91.3 nm, 0.168, -12.8 mV, 189 µg/mL and 93.0%, respectively, which were almost identical to those of the blank cubosome. Small-angle X-ray scattering analyses confirmed that the SPI-loaded, NI-loaded and blank cubosomes existed in the cubic space group Im3̄m. The lattice parameters of the SPI- and NI-loaded cubosomes were 147.6 and 151.6 Å, respectively, making them almost identical to that of blank cubosome (151.0 Å). The in vitro release profiles of the SPI- and NI-loaded cubosomes showed that they released less than 5% of the drugs into various media over 12-48 h, indicating that most of the drug remained encapsulated within the cubic phase of their lipid bilayer. Furthermore, the in vivo pharmacokinetic results suggested that these cubosomes led to a considerable increase in the systemic oral bioavailability of the drugs compared with pure dispersions of the same materials. Notably, the stability results indicated that the mean particle size and PDI values of these cubosomes were stable for at least 4 weeks. Taken together, these results demonstrate that monoolein cubosomes represent promising drug carriers for enhancing the solubility and oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs.

  19. Water insoluble and soluble lipids for gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahato, Ram I

    2005-04-05

    Among various synthetic gene carriers currently in use, liposomes composed of cationic lipids and co-lipids remain the most efficient transfection reagents. Physicochemical properties of lipid/plasmid complexes, such as cationic lipid structure, cationic lipid to co-lipid ratio, charge ratio, particle size and zeta potential have significant influence on gene expression and biodistribution. However, most cationic lipids are toxic and cationic liposomes/plasmid complexes do not disperse well inside the target tissues because of their large particle size. To overcome the problems associated with cationic lipids, we designed water soluble lipopolymers for gene delivery to various cells and tissues. This review provides a critical discussion on how the components of water insoluble and soluble lipids affect their transfection efficiency and biodistribution of lipid/plasmid complexes.

  20. Femtosecond study of laser dyes soluble in water: coumarins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassara, Laurence

    1996-01-01

    Coumarins build up one of the great families of laser dyes, and this research thesis addresses the study of four water-soluble coumarins (ATC, DMATC, DATC, and CHOS) which are analogue to conventional coumarins (C120, C311, C1, and C102). These molecules are made water-soluble by substitution of the methyl group in position 4 by a polyether group. Mechanisms of deactivation are studied by means of time-resolved fluorescence and transient adsorption methods which allow the reaction dynamics of coumarins after light excitation to be studied. Several time scales, from femto- to nano-second, have been reached and allowed various processes to be studied: relaxation, solvation dynamics, solute orientation diffusion, process of deactivation of radiative and non-radiative relaxation in various solvents [fr

  1. Preparation of water soluble chitosan by hydrolysis using hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Zhenqiang; Wu, Shengjun; Chen, Jinhua

    2013-08-01

    Chitosan is not soluble in water, which limits its wide application particularly in the medicine and food industry. In the present study, water soluble chitosan (WSC) was prepared by hydrolyzing chitosan using hydrogen peroxide under the catalysis of phosphotungstic acid in homogeneous phase. Factors affecting hydrolysis were investigated and the optimal hydrolysis conditions were determined. The WSC structure was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The resulting products were composed of chitooligosaccharides of DP 2-9. The WSC content of the product and the yield were 94.7% and 92.3% (w/w), respectively. The results indicate that WSC can be effectively prepared by hydrolysis of chitosan using hydrogen peroxide under the catalysis of phosphotungstic acid. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Solubility study of Tc(Ⅳ) in a granitic water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Dejun; Yao Jun; Wang Bo

    2008-01-01

    The deep geological disposal of the high level radioactive wastes is expected to be a safe disposal method in most countries. The long-lived fission product 99 Tc is present in large quantities in nuclear wastes and its chemical behavior in aqueous solution is of considerable interest. Under oxidizing conditions technetium exists as the anionic species TcO 4 - whereas under the reducing conditions, expected to exist in a deep geological repository, it is generally predicted that technetium will be present as TcO 2 -nH 2 O. Hence, the mobility of Tc(Ⅳ) in reducing groundwater may be limited by the solubility of TcO 2 ·nH 2 O under these conditions. Due to this fact it is important to investigate the solubility of TcO 2 ·nH 2 O. The solubility determines the release of radionuclides from waste form and is used as a source term in radionuclide migration analysis in performance assessment of radioactive waste repository. Technetium (Ⅳ) was prepared by reduction of a technetate solution with Sn 2+ . The solubility of Tc(Ⅳ) has been determined in simulated groundwater and redistilled water under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The effects of pH and CO 3 2- concentration of solution on solubility of Tc(Ⅳ) were studied. The concentration of total technetium and Tc(Ⅳ) species in the solutions were periodically determined by separating the oxidized and reduced technetium species using a solvent extraction procedure and counting the beta activity of the 99 Tc with a liquid scintillation counter. The experimental results show that the rate of oxidation of Tc(Ⅳ) in simulated groundwater and redistilled water is about (1.49-1.86)x10 -9 mol·L -1 d -1 under aerobic conditions, while no Tc(Ⅳ) oxidation was detected in simulated groundwater and redistilled water under anaerobic conditions. Under aerobic or anaerobic conditions the solubility of Tc(Ⅳ) in simulated groundwater and redistilled water is equal on the whole after centrifugation or ultrafiltration. The

  3. Application of various water soluble polymers in gas hydrate inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamal, Muhammad Shahzad; Hussein, Ibnelwaleed A.; Sultan, Abdullah S.

    2016-01-01

    . This review presents the various types of water soluble polymers used for hydrate inhibition, including conventional and novel polymeric inhibitors along with their limitations. The review covers the relevant properties of vinyl lactam, amide, dendrimeric, fluorinated, and natural biodegradable polymers....... The factors affecting the performance of these polymers and the structure-property relationships are reviewed. A comprehensive review of the techniques used to evaluate the performance of the polymeric inhibitors is given. This review also addresses recent developments, current and future challenges...

  4. Solubility of solid ferrocene in pressurized hot water

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karásek, Pavel; Hohnová, Barbora; Planeta, Josef; Roth, Michal

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 8 (2010), s. 2866-2869 ISSN 0021-9568 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/07/0886; GA ČR GA203/08/1465; GA ČR GA203/08/1536 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : pressurized hot water * ferrocene * solubility Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.089, year: 2010

  5. Extraction vitamins of group B water-soluble polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. I. Korenman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available General lows of extraction of B vitamins in aquatic environments of the solution of polymers (poly-N-vinylpyrrolidone, poly-N-vinilkaprolaktam has been studied. The influence of polymer concentration and structure on the distribution coefficients and degree of extraction of vitamins has been established. As a result, the direct search of a stable two-phase systems based on water-soluble polymers has been developed effective systems for the extraction of vitamin B from aqueous salt solutions.

  6. Water soluble vitamins and peritoneal dialysis - State of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowska, Magdalena; Lichodziejewska-Niemierko, Monika; Rutkowski, Bolesław; Dębska-Ślizień, Alicja; Małgorzewicz, Sylwia

    2017-12-01

    This review presents the results of a systematic literature search concerning water soluble vitamins and peritoneal dialysis modality. We provide an overview of the data available on vitamin requirements, dietary intake, dialysis related losses, metabolism and the benefits of supplementation. We also summarise the current recommendations concerning the supplementation of vitamins in peritoneal dialysis and discuss the safety of an administration of vitamins in pharmacological doses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  7. Solubilities of oxygenated aromatic solids in pressurized hot water

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karásek, Pavel; Planeta, Josef; Roth, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 5 (2009), s. 1457-1461 ISSN 0021-9568 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/07/0886; GA ČR GA203/08/1536 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : oxygenated aromatics * solubility * pressurized hot water Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.695, year: 2009

  8. Polyelectrolyte microcapsules for sustained delivery of water-soluble drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anandhakumar, S.; Debapriya, M. [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, 560012 (India); Nagaraja, V. [Department of Microbiology and Cell Biology, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, 560012 (India); Raichur, Ashok M., E-mail: amr@materials.iisc.ernet.in [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, 560012 (India)

    2011-03-12

    Polyelectrolyte capsules composed of weak polyelectrolytes are introduced as a simple and efficient system for spontaneous encapsulation of low molecular weight water-soluble drugs. Polyelectrolyte capsules were prepared by layer-by-layer (LbL) assembling of weak polyelectrolytes, poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and poly(methacrylic acid) (PMA) on polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) doped CaCO{sub 3} particles followed by core removal with ethylene-diaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). The loading process was observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) using tetramethylrhodamineisothiocyanate labeled dextran (TRITC-dextran) as a fluorescent probe. The intensity of fluorescent probe inside the capsule decreased with increase in cross-linking time. Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (a model water-soluble drug) was spontaneously deposited into PAH/PMA capsules and their morphological changes were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The quantitative study of drug loading was also elucidated which showed that drug loading increased with initial drug concentration, but decreased with increase in pH. The loaded drug was released in a sustained manner for 6 h, which could be further extended by cross-linking the capsule wall. The released drug showed significant antibacterial activity against E. coli. These findings indicate that such capsules can be potential carriers for water-soluble drugs in sustained/controlled drug delivery applications.

  9. Polyelectrolyte microcapsules for sustained delivery of water-soluble drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anandhakumar, S.; Debapriya, M.; Nagaraja, V.; Raichur, Ashok M.

    2011-01-01

    Polyelectrolyte capsules composed of weak polyelectrolytes are introduced as a simple and efficient system for spontaneous encapsulation of low molecular weight water-soluble drugs. Polyelectrolyte capsules were prepared by layer-by-layer (LbL) assembling of weak polyelectrolytes, poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and poly(methacrylic acid) (PMA) on polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) doped CaCO 3 particles followed by core removal with ethylene-diaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). The loading process was observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) using tetramethylrhodamineisothiocyanate labeled dextran (TRITC-dextran) as a fluorescent probe. The intensity of fluorescent probe inside the capsule decreased with increase in cross-linking time. Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (a model water-soluble drug) was spontaneously deposited into PAH/PMA capsules and their morphological changes were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The quantitative study of drug loading was also elucidated which showed that drug loading increased with initial drug concentration, but decreased with increase in pH. The loaded drug was released in a sustained manner for 6 h, which could be further extended by cross-linking the capsule wall. The released drug showed significant antibacterial activity against E. coli. These findings indicate that such capsules can be potential carriers for water-soluble drugs in sustained/controlled drug delivery applications.

  10. 40 CFR 799.6784 - TSCA water solubility: Column elution method; shake flask method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in water is a significant parameter because: (A) The spatial and temporal movement (mobility) of a... Solubility in Water of Slightly Soluble, Low Volatility Organic Substances ER15DE00.054 1 = Leveling vessel...

  11. Effect of surfactants on the fluorescence spectra of water-soluble ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    Effect of surfactants on the fluorescence spectra of water-soluble. MEHPPV ... polyacrylic acid (PAA) chains grafted onto their backbone were found to be water soluble, and they exhi- ..... in other words the variation of emission intensity.

  12. Identification of water-soluble heavy crude oil organic-acids, bases, and neutrals by electrospray ionization and field desorption ionization fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Lateefah A; Kim, Sunghwan; Klein, Geoffrey C; Smith, Donald F; Rodgers, Ryan P; Marshall, Alan G

    2007-04-15

    We identify water-soluble (23 degrees C) crude oil NSO nonvolatile acidic, basic, and neutral crude oil hydrocarbons by negative-ion ESI and continuous flow FD FT-ICR MS at an average mass resolving power, m/deltam50% = 550,000. Of the 7000+ singly charged acidic species identified in South American crude oil, surprisingly, many are water-soluble, and much more so in pure water than in seawater. The truncated m/z distributions for water-soluble components exhibit preferential molecular weight, size, and heteroatom class influences on hydrocarbon solubility. Acidic water-soluble heteroatomic classes detected at >1% relative abundance include O, O2, O3, O4, OS, O2S, O3S, O4S, NO2, NO3, and NO4. Parent oil class abundance does not directly relate to abundance in the water-soluble fraction. Acidic oxygen-containing classes are most prevalent in the water-solubles, whereas acidic nitrogen-containing species are least soluble. In contrast to acidic nitrogen-containing heteroatomic classes, basic nitrogen classes are water-soluble. Water-soluble heteroatomic basic classes detected at >1% relative abundance include N, NO, NO2, NS, NS2, NOS, NO2S, N2, N2O, N2O2, OS, O2S, and O2S2.

  13. Lipid nanoparticles for administration of poorly water soluble neuroactive drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Elisabetta; Drechsler, Markus; Mariani, Paolo; Carducci, Federica; Servadio, Michela; Melancia, Francesca; Ratano, Patrizia; Campolongo, Patrizia; Trezza, Viviana; Cortesi, Rita; Nastruzzi, Claudio

    2017-09-01

    This study describes the potential of solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers as nano-formulations to administer to the central nervous system poorly water soluble drugs. Different neuroactive drugs, i.e. dimethylfumarate, retinyl palmitate, progesterone and the endocannabinoid hydrolysis inhibitor URB597 have been studied. Lipid nanoparticles constituted of tristearin or tristearin in association with gliceryl monoolein were produced. The nanoencapsulation strategy allowed to obtain biocompatible and non-toxic vehicles, able to increase the solubility of the considered neuroactive drugs. To improve URB597 targeting to the brain, stealth nanoparticles were produced modifying the SLN surface with polysorbate 80. A behavioural study was conducted in rats to test the ability of SLN containing URB597 given by intranasal administration to alter behaviours relevant to psychiatric disorders. URB597 maintained its activity after nanoencapsulation, suggesting the possibility to propose this kind of vehicle as alternative to unphysiological mixtures usually employed for animal and clinical studies.

  14. Formulation of poorly water-soluble Gemfibrozil applying power ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrus, R; Naghipour Amirzadi, N; Aigner, Z; Szabó-Révész, P

    2012-03-01

    The dissolution properties of a drug and its release from the dosage form have a basic impact on its bioavailability. Solubility problems are a major challenge for the pharmaceutical industry as concerns the development of new pharmaceutical products. Formulation problems may possibly be overcome by modification of particle size and morphology. The application of power ultrasound is a novel possibility in drug formulation. This article reports on solvent diffusion and melt emulsification, as new methods supplemented with drying in the field of sonocrystallization of poorly water-soluble Gemfibrozil. During thermoanalytical characterization, a modified structure was detected. The specific surface area of the drug was increased following particle size reduction and the poor wettability properties could also be improved. The dissolution rate was therefore significantly increased. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Solubility of Aragonite in Subduction Water-Rich Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, I.; Facq, S.; Petitgirard, S.; Cardon, H.; Sverjensky, D. A.

    2017-12-01

    Carbonate dissolution in subduction zone fluids is critical to the carbon budget in subduction zones. Depending on the solubility of carbonate minerals in aqueous fluids, the subducting lithosphere may be either strongly depleted and the mantle metasomatized if the solubility is high, as recently suggested by natural samples or transport carbon deeper into the Earth's mantle if the solubility is low enough [1, 2]. Dissolution of carbonate minerals strongly depends on pressure and temperature as well as on the chemistry of the fluid, leading to a highly variable speciation of aqueous carbon. Thanks to recent advances in theoretical aqueous geochemistry [3, 4], combined experimental and theoretical efforts now allow the investigation of speciation and solubility of carbonate minerals in aqueous fluids at PT conditions higher than previously feasible [4, 5]. In this study, we present new in situ X-ray fluorescence measurements of aragonite dissolution up to 5 GPa and 500°C and the subsequent thermodynamic model of aragonite solubility in aqueous fluids thanks to the Deep Earth Water model. The amount of dissolved aragonite in the fluid was calculated from challenging and unprecedented measurements of the Ca fluorescence K-lines at low-energy. Experiments were performed at the ESRF, beamline ID27 using a dedicated design of an externally-heated diamond anvil cell and an incident high-flux and highly focused monochromatic X-Ray beam at 20 keV. The results show a spectacularly high solubility of aragonite at HP-HT in water, further enhanced in presence of NaCl and silica in the solution. [1] Frezzotti, M. L. et al. (2011) doi:10.1038/ngeo1246. [2] Ague, J. J. and Nicolescu, S. (2014) doi:10.1038/ngeo2143. [3] Pan, D. et al. (2013) doi: 10.1073/pnas.1221581110. [4] Sverjensky, D. A et al. (2014) doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2013.12.019. [5] Facq, S. et al. (2014) doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2014.01.030.

  16. On linear correlation between interfacial tension of water-solvent interface solubility of water in organic solvents and parameters of diluent effect scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezhov, Eh.A.; Khananashvili, N.L.; Shmidt, V.S.

    1988-01-01

    Presence of linear correlation between water solubility in nonmiscible with it organic solvents, interfacial tension of water-solvent interface, on the one hand, and solvent effect scale parameters and these solvents π* - on the other hand, is established. It allows, using certain tabular parameters of solvent effect or each solvent π*, to predict values of interfacial tension and water solubility for corresponding systems. It is shown, that solvent effect scale allows to predict values more accurately, than other known solvent scales, as it in contrast to other scales characterizes solvents, which are in equilibrium with water

  17. Chelating water-soluble polymers for waste minimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, B.; Cournoyer, M.; Duran, B.; Ford, D.; Gibson, R.; Lin, M.; Meck, A.; Robinson, P.; Robison, T.

    1996-01-01

    Within the DOE complex and in industry there is a tremendous need for advanced metal ion recovery and waste minimization techniques. This project sought to employ capabilities for ligand-design and separations chemistry in which one can develop and evaluate water- soluble chelating polymers for recovering actinides and toxic metals from various process streams. Focus of this work was (1) to develop and select a set of water-soluble polymers suitable for a selected waste stream and (2) demonstrate this technology in 2 areas: removal of (a) actinides and toxic RCRA metals from waste water and (b) recovery of Cu and other precious metals from industrial process streams including from solid catalysts and aqueous waste streams. The R ampersand D was done in 4 phases for each of the 2 target areas: polymer synthesis for scaleup, equipment assembly, process demonstration at a DOE or industrial site, and advanced ligand/polymer synthesis. The TA- 50 site at Los Alamos was thought to be appropriate due to logistics and to its being representative of similar problems throughout the DOE complex

  18. Antibacterial Characteristics and Activity of Water-Soluble Chitosan Derivatives Prepared by the Maillard Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Chien Chung

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial activity of water-soluble chitosan derivatives prepared by Maillard reactions against Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae, and Salmonella typhimurium was examined. Relatively high antibacterial activity against various microorganisms was noted for the chitosan-glucosamine derivative as compared to the acid-soluble chitosan. In addition, it was found that the susceptibility of the test organisms to the water-soluble chitosan derivative was higher in deionized water than in saline solution. Metal ions were also found to reduce the antibacterial activity of the water-soluble chitosan derivative on S. aureus. The marked increase in glucose level, protein content and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity was observed in the cell supernatant of S. aureus exposed to the water-soluble chitosan derivative in deionized water. The results suggest that the water-soluble chitosan produced by Maillard reaction may be a promising commercial substitute for acid-soluble chitosan.

  19. Biological properties of water-soluble phosphorhydrazone dendrimers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marie Caminade

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dendrimers are hyperbranched and perfectly defined macromolecules, constituted of branches emanating from a central core in an iterative fashion. Phosphorhydrazone dendrimers constitute a special family of dendrimers, possessing one phosphorus atom at each branching point. The internal structure of these dendrimers is hydrophobic, but hydrophilic terminal groups can induce the solubility of the whole structure in water. Indeed, the properties of these compounds are mainly driven by the type of terminal groups their bear; this is especially true for the biological properties. For instance, positively charged terminal groups are efficient for transfection experiments, as drug carriers, as anti-prion agents, and as inhibitor of the aggregation of Alzheimer's peptides, whereas negatively charged dendrimers have anti-HIV properties and can influence the human immune system, leading to anti-inflammatory properties usable against rheumatoid arthritis. This review will give the most representative examples of the biological properties of water-soluble phosphorhydrazone dendrimers, organized depending on the type of terminal groups they bear.

  20. Water-soluble, triflate-based, pyrrolidinium ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, M.; Montanino, M.; Carewska, M.; Appetecchi, G.B.; Jeremias, S.; Passerini, S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Water-soluble, pyrrolidinium triflate ILs as solvents for extraction processes. • Electrolyte components for high safety, electrochemical devices. • Effect of the oxygen atom in the alkyl main side chain of pyrrolidinium cation. -- Abstract: The physicochemical and electrochemical properties of the water-soluble, N-methoxyethyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium trifluoromethanesulfonate (PYR 1(2O1) OSO 2 CF 3 ) ionic liquid (IL) were investigated and compared with those of commercial N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium trifluoromethanesulfonate (PYR 14 OSO 2 CF 3 ). The results have shown that the transport properties are well correlated with the rheological and thermal behavior. The incorporation of an oxygen atom in the pyrrolidinium cation aliphatic side chain resulted in enhanced flexibility of the ether side chain, this supporting for the higher ionic conductivity, self-diffusion coefficient and density of PYR 1(2O1) OSO 2 CF 3 with respect to PYR 14 OSO 2 CF 3 , whereas no relevant effect on the crystallization of the ionic liquid was found. Finally, the presence of the ether side chain material in the pyrrolidinium cation led to a reduction in electrochemical stability, particularly on the cathodic verse

  1. Facile synthesis of water-soluble curcumin nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Zoran M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, facile synthesis of water soluble curcumin nanocrystals is reported. Solvent exchange method was applied to synthesize curcumin nanocrystals. Different techniques were used to characterize the structural and photophysical properties of curcumin nanocrystals. We found that nanocurcumin prepared by this method had good chemical and physical stability, could be stored in the powder form at room temperature, and was freely dispersible in water. It was established that the size of curcumin nanocrystals was varied in the range of 20-500 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and UV-Vis analyses showed the presence of tetrahydrofuran inside the curcumin nanocrystals. Also, it was found that nanocurcumin emitted photoluminescencewith yellow-green colour. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172003

  2. Changing oxidoreduction potential to improve water-soluble yellow pigment production with Monascus ruber CGMCC 10910.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Tan, Hailing; Lu, Fangju; Chen, Gong; Wu, Zhenqiang

    2017-11-21

    Monascus pigments are widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industries due to their safety to human health. Our previous study found that glucose concentration induced extracellular oxidoreduction potential (ORP) changes could influence extracellular water-soluble yellow pigment production by Monascus ruber CGMCC 10910 in submerged fermentation. In this study, H 2 O 2 and dithiothreitol (DTT) were used to change the oxidoreduction potential for investigating the effects of oxidative or reductive substances on Monascus yellow pigment production by Monascus ruber CGMCC 10910. The extracellular ORP could be controlled by H 2 O 2 and DTT. Both cell growth and extracellular water-soluble yellow pigment production were enhanced under H 2 O 2 -induced oxidative (HIO) conditions and were inhibited under dithiothreitol-induced reductive conditions. By optimizing the amount of H 2 O 2 added and the timing of the addition, the yield of extracellular water-soluble yellow pigments significantly increased and reached a maximum of 209 AU, when 10 mM H 2 O 2 was added on the 3rd day of fermentation with M. ruber CGMCC 10910. Under HIO conditions, the ratio of NADH/NAD+ was much lower than that in the control group, and the expression levels of relative pigment biosynthesis genes were up-regulated; moreover, the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) was increased while 6-phosphofructokinase (PFK) activity was inhibited. Oxidative conditions induced by H 2 O 2 increased water-soluble yellow pigment accumulation via up-regulation of the expression levels of relative genes and by increasing the precursors of pigment biosynthesis through redirection of metabolic flux. In contrast, reductive conditions induced by dithiothreitol inhibited yellow pigment accumulation. This experiment provides a potential strategy for improving the production of Monascus yellow pigments.

  3. SOLUBILITY AND BIOAVAILABILITY ENHANCEMENT STRATEGIES FOR EFFECTIVE DELIVERY OF POORLY WATER SOLUBLE DRUGS BY NANO FORMULATIONS AND SOLID DISPERSIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Rayapolu Ranga Goud*, Gunnala Krishnaveni, Girija Prasad Patro

    2018-01-01

    For the ancient few years, there has been a substantial research done on diverse methodologies for poorly water soluble and lipophilic drugs. More in modern times voluminous molecules cannot be distributed due to low solubility. Now a day frequently, particulate vesicle systems such as nanoparticles, liposomes, microspheres, niosomes, pronisomes, ethosomes, and proliposomes have been used as drug carriers. Drug delivery designates the technique and methodology to conveying medications or drug...

  4. Impact of fog processing on water soluble organic aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, S. N.; Chakraborty, A.; Gupta, T.

    2017-12-01

    Fog is a natural meteorological phenomenon that occurs all around the world, and contains a substantial quantity of liquid water. Fog is generally seen as a natural cleansing agent but can also form secondary organic aerosols (SOA) via aqueous processing of ambient organics. Few field studies have reported elevated O/C ratio and SOA mass during or after fog events. However, mechanism behind aqueous SOA formation and its contribution to total organic aerosols (OA) still remains unclear. In this study we have tried to explore the impact of fog/aqueous processing on the characteristics of water soluble organic aerosols (WSOC), which to our knowledge has not been studied before. To assess this, both online (using HR-ToF-AMS) and offline (using a medium volume PM2.5 sampler and quartz filter) aerosol sampling were carried out at Kanpur, India from 15 December 2014 - 10 February 2015. Further, offline analysis of the aqueous extracts of the collected filters were carried out by AMS to characterize the water soluble OA (WSOA). Several (17) fog events occurred during the campaign and high concentrations of OA (151 ± 68 µg/m3) and WSOA (47 ± 19 µg/m3) were observed. WSOA/OA ratios were similar during fog (0.36 ± 0.14) and nofog (0.34 ± 0.15) periods. WSOA concentrations were also similar (slightly higher) during foggy (49 ± 18 µg/m3) and non-foggy periods (46 ± 20 µg/m3), in spite of fog scavenging. However, WSOA was more oxidized during foggy period (average O/C = 0.81) than non foggy periods (average O/C = 0.70). Like WSOA, OA was also more oxidized during foggy periods (average O/C = 0.64) than non foggy periods (average O/C = 0.53). During fog, WSOA to WIOA (water insoluble OA) ratios were higher (0.65 ± 0.16) compared to non foggy periods (0.56 ± 0.15). These observations clearly showed that WSOA become more dominant and processed during fog events, possibly due to the presence of fog droplets. This study highlights that fog processing of soluble organics

  5. Water-soluble resist for environmentally friendly lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qinghuang; Simpson, Logan L.; Steinhaeusler, Thomas; Wilder, Michelle; Willson, C. Grant; Havard, Jennifer M.; Frechet, Jean M. J.

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes an 'environmentally friendly,' water castable, water developable photoresist system. The chemically amplified negative-tone resist system consists of three water-soluble components: a polymer, poly(methyl acrylamidoglycolate methyl ether), [poly(MAGME)]; a photoacid generator, dimethyl dihydroxyphenylsulfonium triflate and a crosslinker, butanediol. Poly(MAGME) was synthesized by solution free radical polymerization. In the three-component resist system, the acid generated by photolysis of the photoacid generator catalyzes the crosslinking of poly(MAGME) in the exposed regions during post-exposure baking, thus rendering the exposed regions insoluble in water. Negative tone relief images are obtained by developing with pure water. The resist is able to resolve 1 micrometer line/space features (1:1 aspect ratio) with an exposure dose of 100 mJ/cm2 at 248 nm. The resist can be used to generate etched copper relief images on printed circuit boards using aqueous sodium persulfate as the etchant. The crosslinking mechanism has been investigated by model compound studies using 13C NMR. These studies have revealed that the acid catalyzed reaction of the poly(MAGME) with butanediol proceeds via both transesterification and transacetalization (transaminalization) reactions at low temperatures, and also via transamidation at high temperatures.

  6. Solubility of the Proteinogenic α-Amino Acids in Water, Ethanol, and Ethanol–Water Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The addition of organic solvents to α-amino acids in aqueous solution could be an effective method in crystallization. We reviewed the available data on the solubility of α-amino acids in water, water–ethanol mixtures, and ethanol at 298.15 K and 0.1 MPa. The solubility of l-alanine, l-proline, l-arginine, l-cysteine, and l-lysine in water and ethanol mixtures and the solubility of l-alanine, l-proline, l-arginine, l-cysteine, l-lysine, l-asparagine, l-glutamine, l-histidine, and l-leucine in pure ethanol systems were measured and are published here for the first time. The impact on the solubility of amino acids that can convert in solution, l-glutamic acid and l-cysteine, was studied. At lower concentrations, only the ninhydrin method and the ultraperfomance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method yield reliable results. In the case of α-amino acids that convert in solution, only the UPLC method was able to discern between the different α-amino acids and yields reliable results. Our results demonstrate that α-amino acids with similar physical structures have similar changes in solubility in mixed water/ethanol mixtures. The solubility of l-tryptophan increased at moderate ethanol concentrations. PMID:29545650

  7. Monosaccharides as Versatile Units for Water-Soluble Supramolecular Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenders, Christianus M A; Jansen, Gijs; Frissen, Martijn M M; Lafleur, René P M; Voets, Ilja K; Palmans, Anja R A; Meijer, E W

    2016-03-18

    We introduce monosaccharides as versatile water-soluble units to compatibilise supramolecular polymers based on the benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamide (BTA) moiety with water. A library of monosaccharide-based BTAs is evaluated, varying the length of the alkyl chain (hexyl, octyl, decyl and dodecyl) separating the BTA and saccharide units, as well as the saccharide units (α-glucose, β-glucose, α-mannose and α-galactose). In all cases, the monosaccharides impart excellent water compatibility. The length of the alkyl chain is the determining factor to obtain either long, one-dimensional supramolecular polymers (dodecyl spacer), small aggregates (decyl spacer) or molecularly dissolved (octyl and hexyl) BTAs in water. For the BTAs comprising a dodecyl spacer, our results suggest that a cooperative self-assembly process is operative and that the introduction of different monosaccharides does not significantly change the self- assembly behaviour. Finally, we investigate the potential of post-assembly functionalisation of the formed supramolecular polymers by taking advantage of dynamic covalent bond formation between the monosaccharides and benzoxaboroles. We observe that the supramolecular polymers readily react with a fluorescent benzoxaborole derivative permitting imaging of these dynamic complexes by confocal fluorescence microscopy. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Catalytic hydrotreating of lignin with water-soluble molybdenum catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osmaa, A.; Johansson, A. (Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland). Lab. of Fuel and Process Technology)

    High yields (61% of the original lignin) of low molecular weight oil (84% of the oil eluted through GC) have been obtained by hydrotreating kraft pine lignin with a water-soluble molybdenum catalyst at 430[degree]C for 60 min. The main compounds in the product oil were phenols (8.7% of the original lignin), cyclohexanes (5.0%), benzenes (3.8%), naphthalenes (4.0%), and phenanthrenes (1.2%). The degree of hydrodeoxygenation was 98%. The quality (measured by GPC and GC) of the product was as good as when using more expensive solid NiMo-CR[sub 2]O[sub 3] catalysts. 30 refs., 6 tabs.

  9. Novel water-soluble curcumin derivative mediating erectile signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Aziz, Mohamed Talaat; El Asmer, Mohammed F; Rezq, Ameen; Kumosani, Taha Abdullah; Mostafa, Samya; Mostafa, Taymour; Atta, Hazem; Abdel Aziz Wassef, Mohamed; Fouad, Hanan H; Rashed, Laila; Sabry, Dina; Hassouna, Amira A; Senbel, Amira; Abdel Aziz, Ahmed

    2010-08-01

    Curcumin is an inducer of heme oxygenase enzyme-1 (HO-1) that is involved in erectile signaling via elevating cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)levels. To assess the effect of oral administration of a water-soluble long-acting curcumin derivative on erectile signaling. Two hundred and thirty six male white albino rats were divided into four groups; group 1 (N = 20) includes control. Group 2 (N = 72) was equally divided into four subgroups; subgroup 1 received pure curcumin (10 mg/kg), subgroup 2 received the long-acting curcumin derivative (2 mg/kg), subgroup 3 received the long-acting curcumin derivative (10 mg/kg), and subgroup 4 received sildenafil (4 mg/kg). Subgroups were sacrificed after the first, second, and third hour. Group 3 (N = 72) was equally divided into the same four subgroups already mentioned and were sacrificed after 24 hours, 48 hours, and 1 week. Group 4 (N = 72) was subjected to intracavernosal pressure (ICP) measurements 1 hour following oral administration of the same previous doses in the same rat subgroups. Cavernous tissue HO enzyme activity, cGMP, and ICP. In group 2, there was a significant progressive maintained elevation of HO activity and cGMP tissue levels starting from the first hour in subgroups 3 and 4, whereas, the rise in HO activity and cGMP started from second hour regarding the other rat subgroups. Sildenafil effect decreased after 3 hours. In group 3, there was a significant maintained elevation of HO activity and cGMP tissue levels extended to 1 week as compared to controls for all rat subgroups that received both forms of curcumin. In group 4, long-acting curcumin derivative exhibited more significant potentiation of intracavernosal pressure as compared to control and to the pure curcumin. Water-soluble long-acting curcumin derivative could mediate erectile function via upregulating cavernous tissue cGMP. © 2009 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  10. Spectrofluorimetric determination of some water-soluble vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Abdel-Maaboud I; Mohamed, Horria A; Abdel-Latif, Niveen M; Mohamed, Marwa R

    2011-01-01

    Two simple and sensitive spectrofluorimetric methods were developed for determination of three water-soluble vitamins (B1, B2, and B6) in mixtures in the presence of cyanocobalamin. The first one was for thiamine determination, which depends on the oxidation of thiamine HCl to thiochrome by iodine in an alkaline medium. The method was applied accurately to determine thiamine in binary, ternary, and quaternary mixtures with pyridoxine HCl, riboflavin, and cyanocobalamin without interference. In the second method, riboflavin and pyridoxine HCl were determined fluorimetrically in acetate buffer, pH 6. The three water-soluble vitamins (B1, B2, and B6) were determined spectrofluorimetrically in binary, ternary, and quaternary mixtures in the presence of cyanocobalamin. All variables were studied in order to optimize the reaction conditions. Linear relationship was obeyed for all studied vitamins by the proposed methods at their corresponding lambda(exc) or lambda(em). The linear calibration curves were obtained from 10 to 500 ng/mL; the correlation ranged from 0.9991 to 0.9999. The suggested procedures were applied to the analysis of the investigated vitamins in their laboratory-prepared mixtures and pharmaceutical dosage forms from different manufacturers. The RSD range was 0.46-1.02%, which indicates good precision. No interference was observed from common pharmaceutical additives. Good recoveries (97.6 +/- 0.7-101.2 +/- 0.8%) were obtained. Statistical comparison of the results with reported methods shows excellent agreement and indicates no significant difference in accuracy and precision.

  11. Novel micellar systems for the formulation of poorly water soluble drugs : biocompatibility aspects and pharmaceutical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Dumontet Mondon, Karine

    2010-01-01

    Amongst the large number of novel drugs, 95% are lipophilic and poorly water soluble. Particularly, this renders their aqueous formulation very difficult. In this regard this thesis focused on polymeric micelles based on novel MPEG-hexPLA copolymers forming a hydrophilic shell and a very hydrophobic core that favors the incorporation of poorly water soluble drugs. Although the drug hydrophobicity and water solubility are the main parameters in respect to their incorporation efficiency, struct...

  12. Ceramic membrane ozonator for soluble organics removal from produced water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siagian, U. W. R.; Dwipramana, A. S.; Perwira, S. B.; Khoiruddin; Wenten, I. G.

    2018-01-01

    In this work, the performance of ozonation for degradation of soluble organic compounds in produced water was investigated. Tubular ceramic membrane diffuser (with and without a static mixer in the lumen side) was used to facilitate contact between ozone and produced water. The ozonation was conducted at ozone flow rate of 8 L.min-1, ozone concentration of 0.4 ppm, original pH of the solution, and pressure of 1.2 bar, while the flow rates of the produced water were varied (192, 378 and 830 mL.min-1). It was found that the reduction of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene were 85%, 99%, 85%, and 95%, respectively. A lower liquid flow rate in a laminar state showed a better component reduction due to the longer contacting time between the liquid and the gas phase. The introduction of the static mixer in the lumen side of the membrane as a turbulence promoter provided a positive effect on the performance of the membrane diffuser. The twisted static mixer exhibited the better removal rate than the spiral static mixer.

  13. Study on Mixed Solvency Concept in Formulation Development of Aqueous Injection of Poorly Water Soluble Drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailendra Singh Solanki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, mixed-solvency approach has been applied for the enhancement of aqueous solubility of a poorly water- soluble drug, zaltoprofen (selected as a model drug, by making blends (keeping total concentrations 40% w/v, constant of selected water-soluble substances from among the hydrotropes (urea, sodium benzoate, sodium citrate, nicotinamide; water-soluble solids (PEG-4000, PEG-6000; and co-solvents (propylene glycol, glycerine, PEG-200, PEG-400, PEG-600. Aqueous solubility of drug in case of selected blends (12 blends ranged from 9.091 ± 0.011 mg/ml–43.055 ± 0.14 mg/ml (as compared to the solubility in distilled water 0.072 ± 0.012 mg/ml. The enhancement in the solubility of drug in a mixed solvent containing 10% sodium citrate, 5% sodium benzoate and 25 % S cosolvent (25% S cosolvent contains PEG200, PEG 400, PEG600, Glycerine and Propylene glycol was more than 600 fold. This proved a synergistic enhancement in solubility of a poorly water-soluble drug due to mixed cosolvent effect. Each solubilized product was characterized by ultraviolet and infrared techniques. Various properties of solution such as pH, viscosity, specific gravity and surface tension were studied. The developed formulation was studied for physical and chemical stability. This mixed solvency shall prove definitely a boon for pharmaceutical industries for the development of dosage form of poorly water soluble drugs.

  14. [Emission Characteristics of Water-Soluble Ions in Fumes of Coal Fired Boilers in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yue-qi; Ma, Zhao-hui; Feng, Ya-jun; Wang, Chen; Chen, Yuan-yuan; He, Ming

    2015-06-01

    Selecting coal fired boilers with typical flue gas desulfurization and dust extraction systems in Beijing as the study objects, the issues and characteristics of the water-soluble ions in fumes of coal fired boilers and theirs influence factors were analyzed and evaluated. The maximum mass concentration of total water-soluble ions in fumes of coal fired boilers in Beijing was 51.240 mg x m(-3) in the benchmark fume oxygen content, the minimum was 7.186 mg x m(-3), and the issues of the water-soluble ions were uncorrelated with the fume moisture content. SO4(2-) was the primary characteristic water-soluble ion for desulfurization reaction, and the rate of contribution of SO4(2-) in total water-soluble ions ranged from 63.8% to 81.0%. F- was another characteristic water-soluble ion in fumes of thermal power plant, and the rate of contribution of F- in total water-soluble ions ranged from 22.2% to 32.5%. The fume purification technologies significantly influenced the issues and the emission characteristics of water-soluble ions in fumes of coal fired boilers. Na+ was a characteristic water-soluble ion for the desulfurizer NaOH, NH4+ and NO3+ were characteristic for the desulfurizer NH4HCO3, and Mg2+ was characteristic for the desulfurizer MgO, but the Ca2+ emission was not increased by addition of the desulfurizer CaO or CaCO3 The concentrations of NH4+ and NO3- in fumes of thermal power plant were lower than those in fumes of industrial or heating coal fired boilers. The form of water-soluble ions was significantly correlated with fume temperature. The most water-soluble ions were in superfine state at higher fume temperature and were not easily captured by the filter membrane.

  15. Solubility isotherms in ternary systems of samarium nitrate, water and nitrates of amidopyrine, benzotriazole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starikova, L.I.

    1991-01-01

    Solubility in the system of samarium nitrate-amidopyrine nitrate-water at 25 and 50 deg C was studied. Solubility isotherms consist of three branches, corresponding to crystallization of samarium nitrate tetrahydrate, amidopyrine nitrate and congruently soluble compounds of Sm(NO 3 ) 3 · 2C 13 H 17 ON 3 ·HNO 3 composition. Its thermal behaviour was studied. The system of samarium nitrate-benzotriazole nitrate-water is referred to eutonic type

  16. Water uptake by fresh Indonesian peat burning particles is limited by water-soluble organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Hapsari Budisulistiorini, Sri; Itoh, Masayuki; Lee, Wen-Chien; Miyakawa, Takuma; Komazaki, Yuichi; Qing Yang, Liu Dong; Kuwata, Mikinori

    2017-09-01

    The relationship between hygroscopic properties and chemical characteristics of Indonesian biomass burning (BB) particles, which are dominantly generated from peatland fires, was investigated using a humidified tandem differential mobility analyzer. In addition to peat, acacia (a popular species at plantation) and fern (a pioneering species after disturbance by fire) were used for experiments. Fresh Indonesian peat burning particles are almost non-hygroscopic (mean hygroscopicity parameter, κ octanol-water partitioning method. κ values for the water extracts are high, especially for peat burning particles (A0 (a whole part of the water-soluble fraction): κ = 0.18, A1 (highly water-soluble fraction): κ = 0.30). This result stresses the importance of both the WSOC fraction and κ of the water-soluble fraction in determining the hygroscopicity of organic aerosol particles. Values of κ correlate positively (R = 0.89) with the fraction of m/z 44 ion signal quantified using a mass spectrometric technique, demonstrating the importance of highly oxygenated organic compounds to the water uptake by Indonesian BB particles. These results provide an experimentally validated reference for hygroscopicity of organics-dominated particles, thus contributing to more accurate estimation of environmental and climatic impacts driven by Indonesian BB particles on both regional and global scales.

  17. Process for the production of furfural from pentoses and/or water soluble pentosans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, W.; Marcotullio, G.

    2012-01-01

    The invention is directed to a process for the production of furfural from pentoses and/or water soluble pentosans, said process comprising converting the said pentoses and/or water soluble pentosans in aqueous solution in a first step to furfural and in a second step feeding the aqueous solution

  18. Analyzing water soluble soil organics as Trifluoroacetyl derivatives by liquid state proton nuclear magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felipe Garza Sanchez; Zakiya Holmes Leggett; Sabapathy Sankar

    2005-01-01

    In forested ecosystems, water soluble organics play an important role in soil processes including carbon and nutrient turnover, microbial activity and pedogenesis. The quantity and quality (i.e., chemistry) of these materials is sensitive to land management practices. Monitoring alterations in the chemistry of water soluble organics resulting from land management...

  19. Calorimetric measurements on slightly soluble gases in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olofsson, G.; Oshodj, A.A.; Qvarnstroem, E.; Wadsoe, I.

    1984-01-01

    Calorimetric measurements have been made of enthalpies of solution Δsub(sol)Hsub(m)sup(infinity) in water of helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, methane, ethane, propane, n-butane, and oxygen at 288.15, 298.15, and 308.15 K. Values of the heat-capacity changes Δsub(sol)Csub(p,m)sup(infinity) have been derived. The found values for both the enthalpy and heat-capacity changes for the rare gases and for oxygen fully confirm the values derived by Benson and Krause, Jr. (1976), and Benson, Krause, Jr., and Peterson (1979) from the results of their very careful gas-solubility measurements. The partial molar heat capacities Csub(p,2)sup(infinity) of the hydrocarbons studied were derived. The group-additivity schemes that have been used successfully for the estimation of values for Csub(p,2)sup(infinity) for various non-ionic organic compounds do not correctly predict values of Csub(p,2)sup(infinity) for the hydrocarbons in the present study. (author)

  20. Water Soluble Polymers as Proton Exchange Membranes for Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing-Joe Hwang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The relentless increase in the demand for useable power from energy-hungry economies continues to drive energy-material related research. Fuel cells, as a future potential power source that provide clean-at-the-point-of-use power offer many advantages such as high efficiency, high energy density, quiet operation, and environmental friendliness. Critical to the operation of the fuel cell is the proton exchange membrane (polymer electrolyte membrane responsible for internal proton transport from the anode to the cathode. PEMs have the following requirements: high protonic conductivity, low electronic conductivity, impermeability to fuel gas or liquid, good mechanical toughness in both the dry and hydrated states, and high oxidative and hydrolytic stability in the actual fuel cell environment. Water soluble polymers represent an immensely diverse class of polymers. In this comprehensive review the initial focus is on those members of this group that have attracted publication interest, principally: chitosan, poly (ethylene glycol, poly (vinyl alcohol, poly (vinylpyrrolidone, poly (2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid and poly (styrene sulfonic acid. The paper then considers in detail the relationship of structure to functionality in the context of polymer blends and polymer based networks together with the effects of membrane crosslinking on IPN and semi IPN architectures. This is followed by a review of pore-filling and other impregnation approaches. Throughout the paper detailed numerical results are given for comparison to today’s state-of-the-art Nafion® based materials.

  1. Aerobic Biodegradation Characteristic of Different Water-Soluble Azo Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shixiong Sheng

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the biodegradation performance and characteristics of Sudan I and Acid Orange 7 (AO7 to improve the biological dye removal efficiency in wastewater and optimize the treatment process. The dyes with different water-solubility and similar molecular structure were biologically treated under aerobic condition in parallel continuous-flow mixed stirred reactors. The biophase analysis using microscopic examination suggested that the removal process of the two azo dyes is different. Removal of Sudan I was through biosorption, since it easily assembled and adsorbed on the surface of zoogloea due to its insolubility, while AO7 was biodegraded incompletely and bioconverted, the AO7 molecule was decomposed to benzene series and inorganic ions, since it could reach the interior area of zoogloea due to the low oxidation-reduction potential conditions and corresponding anaerobic microorganisms. The transformation of NH3-N, SO42− together with the presence of tryptophan-like components confirm that AO7 can be decomposed to non-toxic products in an aerobic bioreactor. This study provides a theoretical basis for the use of biosorption or biodegradation mechanisms for the treatment of different azo dyes in wastewater.

  2. Enhancement of carvedilol solubility by solid dispersion technique using cyclodextrins, water soluble polymers and hydroxyl acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuvaraja, K; Khanam, Jasmina

    2014-08-05

    Aim of the present work is to enhance aqueous solubility of carvedilol (CV) by solid dispersion technique using wide variety of carriers such as: β-cyclodextrin (βCD), hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD), tartaric acid (TA), polyvinyl pyrrolidone K-30 (PVP K-30) and poloxamer-407 (PLX-407). Various products of 'CV-solid dispersion' had been studied extensively in various pH conditions to check enhancement of solubility and dissolution characteristics of carvedilol. Any physical change upon interaction between CV and carriers was confirmed by instrumental analysis: XRD, DSC, FTIR and SEM. Negative change of Gibb's free energy and complexation constants (Kc, 75-240M(-1), for cyclodextrins and 1111-20,365M(-1), for PVP K-30 and PLX-407) were the evidence of stable nature of the binding between CV and carriers. 'Solubility enhancement factor' of ionized-CV was found high enough (340 times) with HPβCD in presence of TA. TA increases the binding efficiency of cyclodextrin and changing the pH of microenvironment in dissolution medium. In addition, ionization process was used to increase the apparent intrinsic solubility of drug. In vitro, dissolution time of CV was remarkably reduced in the solid dispersion system compared to that of pure drug. This may be attributed to increased wettability, dispersing ability and transformation of crystalline state of drug to amorphous one. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Overview of milling techniques for improving the solubility of poorly water-soluble drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Hui Loh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Milling involves the application of mechanical energy to physically break down coarse particles to finer ones and is regarded as a “top–down” approach in the production of fine particles. Fine drug particulates are especially desired in formulations designed for parenteral, respiratory and transdermal use. Most drugs after crystallization may have to be comminuted and this physical transformation is required to various extents, often to enhance processability or solubility especially for drugs with limited aqueous solubility. The mechanisms by which milling enhances drug dissolution and solubility include alterations in the size, specific surface area and shape of the drug particles as well as milling-induced amorphization and/or structural disordering of the drug crystal (mechanochemical activation. Technology advancements in milling now enable the production of drug micro- and nano-particles on a commercial scale with relative ease. This review will provide a background on milling followed by the introduction of common milling techniques employed for the micronization and nanonization of drugs. Salient information contained in the cited examples are further extracted and summarized for ease of reference by researchers keen on employing these techniques for drug solubility and bioavailability enhancement.

  4. Study on spraying water soluble resin to reduce pollution for Fukushima daiichi NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qiong; Guo Ruiping; Zhang Chunming; Han Fujuan; Hua Jie; Zhang Jiankui

    2012-01-01

    After Fukushima nuclear accident, Tokyo electric power company used the method of spraying water soluble resin synthesis at the scene of the accident, to restrain and control the spread of the radioactive dust, by forming consolidation layer in pollution area surface. This paper briefly introduced the accident, motivation of spraying water soluble resin, spraying range and implementation process. According to the relevant report on Fukushima nuclear accident, the effect of spraying water soluble resin for reducing pollution was analyzed. The mechanism of reducing pollution for water soluble resin and the application prospect were discussed. Spraying water soluble resin for fixing radioactive dust has reasonable reducing pollution effect. It is worth to use as reference and study in China. (authors)

  5. Predicting water solubility of congeners: Chloronaphthalenes-A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puzyn, Tomasz, E-mail: puzi@qsar.eu.org [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Mostrag, Aleksandra; Falandysz, Jerzy [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Kholod, Yana; Leszczynski, Jerzy [NSF CREST Nanotoxicity Center, Department of Chemistry, Jackson State University, 1325 Lynch St, Jackson, MS 39217-0510 (United States)

    2009-10-30

    Since the important physicochemical data for chloronaphtalenes (PCNs) are still scarce, we have predicted water solubility (log S) of all 75 congeners with the Quantitative Structure-Property Relationship (QSPR) scheme. The values of log S, predicted by the most efficient model, varied from 0.01 to 1660 {mu}g dm{sup -3} (2.85 x 10{sup -11}-1.02 x 10{sup -5} mol dm{sup -3}), depending on the number of chlorine atoms present in the molecule and the substitution pattern. We found that the main factor determining relative differences in solubility between the congeners is the solvent accessible volume related to the cavitation process occurring in the solvent. The results are presented as a case study of QSPR modeling for those Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) that exist as families of congeners. By investigating the impact of (i) the way of the molecular descriptors' calculation, (ii) the size of applied database and (iii) chemometric method of modeling (Multiple Linear Regression, MLR, and/or Partial Least Squares regression, PLS) on the quality of the models we proposed general recommendations for dealing with congeners. We found that the combination of the B3LYP functional with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set was the most optimal technique of the molecular descriptors' calculation for congeners when comparing with semi-empirical PM3, ab initio Hartee-Fock (HF), and Moller-Pleset 2 (MP2) method carried out with different-size basis sets. Moreover, the model developed with a larger and more general database that includes chloronaphthalenes, polychlorinated dibezno-p-dioxins, furans and biphenyls predicted the values of log S for PCNs noticeable worse than the model calibrated only on PCNs. In the later case it was possible to obtain satisfactory results by employing even the simplest MLR method and only one molecular descriptor. The values of log S were also calculated with the WSKOWIN and COSMO-RS models as the reference techniques and then compared to our

  6. Predicting water solubility of congeners: Chloronaphthalenes-A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puzyn, Tomasz; Mostrag, Aleksandra; Falandysz, Jerzy; Kholod, Yana; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2009-01-01

    Since the important physicochemical data for chloronaphtalenes (PCNs) are still scarce, we have predicted water solubility (log S) of all 75 congeners with the Quantitative Structure-Property Relationship (QSPR) scheme. The values of log S, predicted by the most efficient model, varied from 0.01 to 1660 μg dm -3 (2.85 x 10 -11 -1.02 x 10 -5 mol dm -3 ), depending on the number of chlorine atoms present in the molecule and the substitution pattern. We found that the main factor determining relative differences in solubility between the congeners is the solvent accessible volume related to the cavitation process occurring in the solvent. The results are presented as a case study of QSPR modeling for those Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) that exist as families of congeners. By investigating the impact of (i) the way of the molecular descriptors' calculation, (ii) the size of applied database and (iii) chemometric method of modeling (Multiple Linear Regression, MLR, and/or Partial Least Squares regression, PLS) on the quality of the models we proposed general recommendations for dealing with congeners. We found that the combination of the B3LYP functional with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set was the most optimal technique of the molecular descriptors' calculation for congeners when comparing with semi-empirical PM3, ab initio Hartee-Fock (HF), and Moller-Pleset 2 (MP2) method carried out with different-size basis sets. Moreover, the model developed with a larger and more general database that includes chloronaphthalenes, polychlorinated dibezno-p-dioxins, furans and biphenyls predicted the values of log S for PCNs noticeable worse than the model calibrated only on PCNs. In the later case it was possible to obtain satisfactory results by employing even the simplest MLR method and only one molecular descriptor. The values of log S were also calculated with the WSKOWIN and COSMO-RS models as the reference techniques and then compared to our results.

  7. Image Charge Effects in the Wetting Behavior of Alkanes on Water with Accounting for Water Solubility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill A. Emelyanenko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Different types of surface forces, acting in the films of pentane, hexane, and heptane on water are discussed. It is shown that an important contribution to the surface forces originates from the solubility of water in alkanes. The equations for the distribution of electric potential inside the film are derived within the Debye-Hückel approximation, taking into account the polarization of the film boundaries by discrete charges at water-alkane interface and by the dipoles of water molecules dissolved in the film. On the basis of above equations we estimate the image charge contribution to the surface forces, excess free energy, isotherms of water adsorption in alkane film, and the total isotherms of disjoining pressure in alkane film. The results indicate the essential influence of water/alkane interface charging on the disjoining pressure in alkane films, and the wettability of water surface by different alkanes is discussed.

  8. Water uptake by fresh Indonesian peat burning particles is limited by water-soluble organic matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Chen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between hygroscopic properties and chemical characteristics of Indonesian biomass burning (BB particles, which are dominantly generated from peatland fires, was investigated using a humidified tandem differential mobility analyzer. In addition to peat, acacia (a popular species at plantation and fern (a pioneering species after disturbance by fire were used for experiments. Fresh Indonesian peat burning particles are almost non-hygroscopic (mean hygroscopicity parameter, κ < 0.06 due to predominant contribution of water-insoluble organics. The range of κ spans from 0.02 to 0.04 (dry diameter = 100 nm, hereinafter for Riau peat burning particles, while that for Central Kalimantan ranges from 0.05 to 0.06. Fern combustion particles are more hygroscopic (κ = 0. 08, whereas the acacia burning particles have a mediate κ value (0.04. These results suggest that κ is significantly dependent on biomass types. This variance in κ is partially determined by fractions of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC, as demonstrated by a correlation analysis (R = 0.65. κ of water-soluble organic matter is also quantified, incorporating the 1-octanol–water partitioning method. κ values for the water extracts are high, especially for peat burning particles (A0 (a whole part of the water-soluble fraction: κ = 0.18, A1 (highly water-soluble fraction: κ = 0.30. This result stresses the importance of both the WSOC fraction and κ of the water-soluble fraction in determining the hygroscopicity of organic aerosol particles. Values of κ correlate positively (R = 0.89 with the fraction of m∕z 44 ion signal quantified using a mass spectrometric technique, demonstrating the importance of highly oxygenated organic compounds to the water uptake by Indonesian BB particles. These results provide an experimentally validated reference for hygroscopicity of organics-dominated particles, thus contributing to more accurate

  9. Dual Activity of Hydroxypropyl-β-Cyclodextrin and Water-Soluble Carriers on the Solubility of Carvedilol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoghbi, Abdelmoumin; Geng, Tianjiao; Wang, Bo

    2017-11-01

    Carvedilol (CAR) is a non-selective α and β blocker categorized as class II drug with low water solubility. Several recent studies have investigated ways to overcome this problem. The aim of the present study was to combine two of these methods: the inclusion complex using hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) with solid dispersion using two carriers: Poloxamer 188 (PLX) and Polyvinylpyrrolidone K-30 (PVP) to enhance the solubility, bioavailability, and the stability of CAR. Kneading method was used to prepare CAR-HPβCD inclusion complex (KD). The action of different carriers separately and in combination on Carvedilol solubility was investigated in three series. CAR-carrier and KD-carrier solid dispersions were prepared by solvent evaporation method. In vitro dissolution test was conducted in three different media: double-distilled water (DDW), simulative gastric fluid (SGF), and PBS pH 6.8 (PBS). The interactions between CAR, HPβCD, and different carriers were explored by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), powder X-ray diffractometry (XRD), and differential scanning colorimetry (DSC). The results showed higher solubility of CAR in KD-PVP solid dispersions up to 70, 25, and 22 fold compared to pure CAR in DDW, SGF, and PBS, respectively. DSC and XRD analyses indicated an improved degree of transformation of CAR in KD-PVP solid dispersion from crystalline to amorphous state. This study provides a new successful combination of two polymers with the dual action of HPβCD and PLX/PVP on water solubility and bioavailability of CAR.

  10. Solubility of gases in water at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crovetto, Rosa; Fernandez Prini, R.J.; Japas, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    In the primary circuits of the PWR, it is usual to find apolar gases such as the noble gases like, nitrogen, hydrogen (deuterium) and oxygen. These gases enter into the circuit partly due to failures in the fuel elements, accidental entries of air into the system and corrosion processes and radiolisis in the coolant media. For the operation of several auxiliary systems in the primary circuit, it is important to know the solubility of these gases in the flux of the circuit and the evaluation of physicochemical processes that take place. A cell has been built that allows to carry out determinations of solubility in the range of 350 deg C and 100 Mega Pascal. Three alternative experimental techniques have been developed to determine the solubility of the gases which are compared to each other. Measures of solubility of argon in H2O and D2O have been made in a wide range of temperatures. (V.B.) [es

  11. Electrochemical detection of dopamine using water-soluble sulfonated graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Su-Juan; He, Jun-Zhi; Zhang, Meng-Jie; Zhang, Rong-Xia; Lv, Xia-Lei; Li, Shao-Hua; Pang, Huan

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: DPV responses of dopamine (DA) at sulfonated graphene based glassy carbon electrode in the presence of ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA). The separation of the oxidation peak potentials for AA-DA, DA-UA and UA-AA was about 227 mV, 125 mV and 352 mV, which allowed selectively determining DA. -- Abstract: In the present study, a biosensor was prepared using the water-soluble sulfonated graphene with the aim of achieving the selective and sensitive determination of dopamine (DA) in the presence of ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA). The aromatic π–π stacking and electrostatic attraction between positively charged DA and negatively charged sulfonated graphene can accelerate the electron transfer whereas weakening AA and UA oxidation on the sulfonated graphene-modified electrode. Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the successful synthesis of sulfonated graphene sheets. Differential pulse voltammetry was used for electrochemical detection, the separation of the oxidation peak potentials for AA-DA, DA-UA and UA-AA was about 227 mV, 125 mV and 352 mV, which allowed selectively determining DA. A broad linear range, low detection limit, along with good ability to suppress the background current from large excess ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA) were obtained. The as-prepared sulfonated graphene sheets exhibited superior performance over conventional negatively charged Nafion films, such as flexible film thickness, unique nanostructure, excellent anti-interference ability, high sensitivity and selectivity. The proposed method was used to detect DA in real hydrochloride injection sample, human urine and serum samples with satisfactory recovery results

  12. Water soluble vitamin E (TMG) as a radioprotector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Cherupally Krishnan K; Devi, Pathirissery Uma; Shimanskaya, R; Kunugita, N; Murase, Hironobu; Gu, Yeun-Hwa; Kagiya, Tsutomu V

    2003-12-01

    Tocopherol monoglucoside (TMG), a water soluble derivative of vitamin E offers protection against deleterious effects of ionizing radiation, both under in vivo and in vitro conditions, to biological systems. TMG was found to be a potent antioxidant and an effective free radical scavenger. It forms a phenoxyl radical similar to trolox upon reaction with various one-electron oxidants. TMG protected DNA from radiation-induced strand breaks. It also protected thymine glycol formation induced by gamma-radiation. Gamma-radiation-induced loss of viability of EL-tumor cells and peroxidation of lipids in microsomal and mitochondrial membranes were prevented by TMG. TMG was nontoxic to mice when administered orally up to 7.0 g/kg body weight. The LD50 dose of TMG for ip administration in mice was 1.15 g/kg body wt. In rats, following oral and ip administration of TMG, the absorption (distribution) half lives were 5.8 and 3.0 min respectively and elimination half lives were 6.7 and 3.1 min respectively. Embryonic mortality resulting from exposure of pregnant mice to ionizing radiation (2 Gy) was reduced by 75% by ip administration of TMG (0.6 g/kg, body wt) prior to irradiation. TMG offered protection to mice against whole body gamma-radiation-induced lethality and weight loss. The LD50(30) of mice increased from 6 to 6.72 Gy upon post irradiation administration of a single dose of TMG (0.6 g/kg, body wt) by ip.

  13. Solubility of daidzin in different organic solvents and (ethyl alcohol + water) mixed solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Jie-Ping; Yang, Dan; Xu, Xiao-Kang; Guo, Xiao-Jie; Zhang, Xue-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The solubilities of daidzin were measured in various solvents. • The solubility data were correlated by three models. • The thermodynamic properties of the dissolution process were also determined. - Abstract: The solubility of daidzin in different organic solvents and (ethyl alcohol + water) mixed solvents was measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis method from T = (283.2 to 323.2) K at atmosphere pressure. The results show that at higher temperature more daidzin dissolves, and moreover, the solubility increases with the ethyl alcohol mole fraction increase in the (ethyl alcohol + water) mixed solvents. The experimental solubility values were correlated by a simplified thermodynamic equation, λh equation and modified Apelblat equation. Based on the solubility of daidzin, the enthalpy and entropy of solution were also evaluated by van’t Hoff equation. The results illustrated that the dissolution process of daidzin is endothermic and entropy driven

  14. Determination of water-soluble vitamins using a colorimetric microbial viability assay based on the reduction of water-soluble tetrazolium salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukatani, Tadayuki; Suenaga, Hikaru; Ishiyama, Munetaka; Ezoe, Takatoshi; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi

    2011-07-15

    A method for the determination of water-soluble vitamins using a colorimetric microbial viability assay based on the reduction of the tetrazolium salt {2-(2-methoxy-4-nitrophenyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-(2,4-disulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, monosodium salt (WST-8)} via 2-methyl-1,4-napthoquinone (NQ) was developed. Measurement conditions were optimized for the microbiological determination of water-soluble vitamins, such as vitamin B(6), biotin, folic acid, niacin, and pantothenic acid, using microorganisms that have a water-soluble vitamin requirement. A linear relationship between absorbance and water-soluble vitamin concentration was obtained. The proposed method was applied to determine the concentration of vitamin B(6) in various foodstuffs. There was good agreement between vitamin B(6) concentrations determined after 24h using the WST-8 colorimetric method and those obtained after 48h using a conventional method. The results suggest that the WST-8 colorimetric assay is a useful method for the rapid determination of water-soluble vitamins in a 96-well microtiter plate. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Towards improved solubility of poorly water-soluble drugs: cryogenic co-grinding of piroxicam with carrier polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penkina, Anna; Semjonov, Kristian; Hakola, Maija; Vuorinen, Sirpa; Repo, Timo; Yliruusi, Jouko; Aruväli, Jaan; Kogermann, Karin; Veski, Peep; Heinämäki, Jyrki

    2016-01-01

    Amorphous solid dispersions (SDs) open up exciting opportunities in formulating poorly water-soluble active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). In the present study, novel catalytic pretreated softwood cellulose (CPSC) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) were investigated as carrier polymers for preparing and stabilizing cryogenic co-ground SDs of poorly water-soluble piroxicam (PRX). CPSC was isolated from pine wood (Pinus sylvestris). Raman and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used for characterizing the solid-state changes and drug-polymer interactions. High-resolution scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to analyze the particle size and surface morphology of starting materials and final cryogenic co-ground SDs. In addition, the molecular aspects of drug-polymer interactions and stabilization mechanisms are presented. The results showed that the carrier polymer influenced both the degree of amorphization of PRX and stabilization against crystallization. The cryogenic co-ground SDs prepared from PVP showed an enhanced dissolution rate of PRX, while the corresponding SDs prepared from CPSC exhibited a clear sustained release behavior. In conclusion, cryogenic co-grinding provides a versatile method for preparing amorphous SDs of poorly water-soluble APIs. The solid-state stability and dissolution behavior of such co-ground SDs are to a great extent dependent on the carrier polymer used.

  16. The water-soluble fraction of potentially toxic elements in contaminated soils: relationships between ecotoxicity, solubility and geochemical reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, L; Rodrigues, S M; Lopes, I; Soares, A M V M; Duarte, A C; Pereira, E

    2011-09-01

    To better understand the impacts posed by soil contamination to aquatic ecosystems it is crucial to characterise the links between ecotoxicity, chemical availability and geochemical reactivity of potentially toxic elements (PTE's) in soils. We evaluated the adverse effects of water extracts obtained from soils contaminated by chemical industry and mining, using a test battery including organisms from different trophic levels (bacteria, algae and daphnids). These tests provided a quick assessment of the ecotoxicity of soils with respect to possible adverse effects on aquatic organisms although the ecotoxicological responses could be related to the solubility of PTE's only to a limited extent. The analysis of results of bioassays together with the chemical characterisation of water extracts provided additional relevant insight into the role of conductivity, pH, Al, Fe, and Mn of soil extracts on toxicity to organisms. Furthermore, an important conclusion of this study was that the toxicity of extracts to the aquatic organisms could also be related to the soil properties (pH, Org C and Fe(ox)) and to the reactivity of PTE's in soils which in fact control the soluble fraction of the contaminants. The combined assessment of ecotoxicity in water fractions, solubility and geochemical reactivity of PTE's in soils provided a more comprehensive understanding of the bioavailability of inorganic contaminants than ecotoxicological or chemical studies alone and can therefore be most useful for environmental risks assessment of contaminated soils. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Bioassay using the water soluble fraction of a Nigerian Light Crude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary: A 96-hour bioassay was conducted using the water soluble fraction of a Nigerian light crude oil sample on Clarias gariepinus fingerlings. 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10 mls of water soluble fractions (WSF) of the oil were added to 1000 litres of de-chlorinated tap water to form 0, 25, 50 , 75 and 100 parts per million ...

  18. Polymer-assisted synthesis of water-soluble PbSe quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melnig, V.; Apostu, M.-O.; Foca, N.

    2008-01-01

    Stable PbSe quantum dots were synthesised in water-based media using poly(amidehydroxyurethane) water-soluble polymer. The polymer acts like a precursor carrier, blocks the particles aggregation and assures their solubility. Atomic force microscopy data show that the particle radius is smaller than the Bohr radius of PbSe. Interactions studies, performed by Fourier transform IR spectroscopy, show that the quantum dots are capped with poly(amidehydroxyurethane). The proposed synthesis was realised in the absence of any organic solvent. As a result, the produced particles have good water solubility, stability and good arguments to be biologically compatible.

  19. The synthesis of a water-soluble derivative of rutin as an antiradical agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedriali, Carla Aparecida; Fernandes, Adjaci Uchoa [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Bioquimica]. E-mail: capedriali@hotmail.com; Bernusso, Leandra de Cassia; Polakiewicz, Bronislaw [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Dept. de Tecnologia Bioquimico-Farmaceutica

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to synthesize a water-soluble derivative of rutin (compound 2) by introducing carboxylate groups on rutin's sugar moiety. The rutin derivative showed an almost 100-fold solubility increase in water. The antiradical capacity of compound 2 was evaluated using the luminol/AAPH system, and the derivative's activity was 1.5 times greater than that of Trolox. Despite the derivative's high solubility in water (log P = -1.13), lipid peroxidation of brain homogenate membranes was very efficiently inhibited (inhibition values were only 19% lower than the inhibition values of rutin). (author)

  20. The synthesis of a water-soluble derivative of rutin as an antiradical agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedriali, Carla Aparecida; Fernandes, Adjaci Uchoa; Bernusso, Leandra de Cassia; Polakiewicz, Bronislaw

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to synthesize a water-soluble derivative of rutin (compound 2) by introducing carboxylate groups on rutin's sugar moiety. The rutin derivative showed an almost 100-fold solubility increase in water. The antiradical capacity of compound 2 was evaluated using the luminol/AAPH system, and the derivative's activity was 1.5 times greater than that of Trolox. Despite the derivative's high solubility in water (log P = -1.13), lipid peroxidation of brain homogenate membranes was very efficiently inhibited (inhibition values were only 19% lower than the inhibition values of rutin). (author)

  1. Visualizing monolayers with a water-soluble fluorophore to quantify adsorption, desorption, and the double layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Ian C; Zasadzinski, Joseph A

    2015-02-24

    Contrast in confocal microscopy of phase-separated monolayers at the air-water interface can be generated by the selective adsorption of water-soluble fluorescent dyes to disordered monolayer phases. Optical sectioning minimizes the fluorescence signal from the subphase, whereas convolution of the measured point spread function with a simple box model of the interface provides quantitative assessment of the excess dye concentration associated with the monolayer. Coexisting liquid-expanded, liquid-condensed, and gas phases could be visualized due to differential dye adsorption in the liquid-expanded and gas phases. Dye preferentially adsorbed to the liquid-disordered phase during immiscible liquid-liquid phase coexistence, and the contrast persisted through the critical point as shown by characteristic circle-to-stripe shape transitions. The measured dye concentration in the disordered phase depended on the phase composition and surface pressure, and the dye was expelled from the film at the end of coexistence. The excess concentration of a cationic dye within the double layer adjacent to an anionic phospholipid monolayer was quantified as a function of subphase ionic strength, and the changes in measured excess agreed with those predicted by the mean-field Gouy-Chapman equations. This provided a rapid and noninvasive optical method of measuring the fractional dissociation of lipid headgroups and the monolayer surface potential.

  2. Cross-linking of wheat gluten using a water-soluble carbodiimide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tropini, V.; Lens, J.P.; Mulder, W.J.; Silvestre, F.

    2000-01-01

    Wheat gluten was cross-linked using water-soluble 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide HCl (EDC). To enhance cross-linking, N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) was added to the reaction mixture. The cross-linking efficiency was evaluated by the decrease in the amount of amino groups, the solubility

  3. Solubility of corrosion products of plain steel in oxygen-containing water solutions at high parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martynova, O.I.; Samojlov, Yu.F.; Petrova, T.I.; Kharitonova, N.L.

    1983-01-01

    Technique for calculation of solubility of iron corrosion products in oxygen-containing aqueous solutions in the 298-573 K temperature range is presented. Solubility of corrosion products of plain steel in deeply-desalinizated water in the presence of oxygen for the such range of the temperatures is experimentally determined. Rather good convergence between calculated and experimental data is noted

  4. Formulation of a poorly water-soluble drug in sustained-release hollow granules with a high viscosity water-soluble polymer using a fluidized bed rotor granulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Takumi; Yoshihara, Naoki; Ochiai, Yasushi; Kimura, Shin-Ichiro; Iwao, Yasunori; Itai, Shigeru

    2018-04-25

    Water-soluble polymers with high viscosity are frequently used in the design of sustained-release formulations of poorly water-soluble drugs to enable complete release of the drug in the gastrointestinal tract. Tablets containing matrix granules with a water-soluble polymer are preferred because tablets are easier to handle and the multiple drug-release units of the matrix granules decreases the influences of the physiological environment on the drug. However, matrix granules with a particle size of over 800 μm sometimes cause a content uniformity problem in the tableting process because of the large particle size. An effective method of manufacturing controlled-release matrix granules with a smaller particle size is desired. The aim of this study was to develop tablets containing matrix granules with a smaller size and good controlled-release properties, using phenytoin as a model poorly water-soluble drug. We adapted the recently developed hollow spherical granule granulation technology, using water-soluble polymers with different viscosities. The prepared granules had an average particle size of 300 μm and sharp particle size distribution (relative width: 0.52-0.64). The values for the particle strength of the granules were 1.86-1.97 N/mm 2 , and the dissolution profiles of the granules were not affected by the tableting process. The dissolution profiles and the blood concentration levels of drug released from the granules depended on the viscosity of the polymer contained in the granules. We succeeded in developing the desired controlled-release granules, and this study should be valuable in the development of sustained-release formulations of poorly water-soluble drugs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Hygroscopic behavior of atmospheric aerosols containing nitrate salts and water-soluble organic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Bo; Wang, Zhen; Tan, Fang; Guo, Yucong; Tong, Shengrui; Wang, Weigang; Zhang, Yunhong; Ge, Maofa

    2018-04-01

    While nitrate salts have critical impacts on environmental effects of atmospheric aerosols, the effects of coexisting species on hygroscopicity of nitrate salts remain uncertain. The hygroscopic behaviors of nitrate salt aerosols (NH4NO3, NaNO3, Ca(NO3)2) and their internal mixtures with water-soluble organic acids were determined using a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA). The nitrate salt / organic acid mixed aerosols exhibit varying phase behavior and hygroscopic growth depending upon the type of components in the particles. Whereas pure nitrate salt particles show continuous water uptake with increasing relative humidity (RH), the deliquescence transition is still observed for ammonium nitrate particles internally mixed with organic acids such as oxalic acid and succinic acid with a high deliquescence point. The hygroscopicity of submicron aerosols containing sodium nitrate and an organic acid is also characterized by continuous growth, indicating that sodium nitrate tends to exist in a liquid-like state under dry conditions. It is observed that in contrast to the pure components, the water uptake is hindered at low and moderate RH for calcium nitrate particles containing malonic acid or phthalic acid, suggesting the potential effects of mass transfer limitation in highly viscous mixed systems. Our findings improve fundamental understanding of the phase behavior and water uptake of nitrate-salt-containing aerosols in the atmospheric environment.

  6. Hygroscopic behavior of atmospheric aerosols containing nitrate salts and water-soluble organic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Jing

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available While nitrate salts have critical impacts on environmental effects of atmospheric aerosols, the effects of coexisting species on hygroscopicity of nitrate salts remain uncertain. The hygroscopic behaviors of nitrate salt aerosols (NH4NO3, NaNO3, Ca(NO32 and their internal mixtures with water-soluble organic acids were determined using a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA. The nitrate salt ∕ organic acid mixed aerosols exhibit varying phase behavior and hygroscopic growth depending upon the type of components in the particles. Whereas pure nitrate salt particles show continuous water uptake with increasing relative humidity (RH, the deliquescence transition is still observed for ammonium nitrate particles internally mixed with organic acids such as oxalic acid and succinic acid with a high deliquescence point. The hygroscopicity of submicron aerosols containing sodium nitrate and an organic acid is also characterized by continuous growth, indicating that sodium nitrate tends to exist in a liquid-like state under dry conditions. It is observed that in contrast to the pure components, the water uptake is hindered at low and moderate RH for calcium nitrate particles containing malonic acid or phthalic acid, suggesting the potential effects of mass transfer limitation in highly viscous mixed systems. Our findings improve fundamental understanding of the phase behavior and water uptake of nitrate-salt-containing aerosols in the atmospheric environment.

  7. Formulation of a Novel Nano emulsion System for Enhanced Solubility of a Sparingly Water Soluble Antibiotic, Clarithromycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatsraj, S.; Pathak, H.; Chauhan, K.

    2014-01-01

    The sparingly water soluble property of majority of medicinally significant drugs acts as a potential barrier towards its utilization for therapeutic purpose. The present study was thus aimed at development of a novel oil-in-water (o/w) nano emulsion (NE) system having ability to function as carrier for poorly soluble drugs with clarithromycin as a model antibiotic. The therapeutically effective concentration of clarithromycin, 5 mg/mL, was achieved using polysorbate 80 combined with olive oil as lipophilic counterion. A three-level three-factorial central composite experimental design was utilized to conduct the experiments. The effects of selected variables, polysorbate 80 and olive oil content and concentration of polyvinyl alcohol, were investigated. The particle size of clarithromycin for the optimized formulation was observed to be 30 nm. The morphology of the nano emulsion was explored using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The emulsions prepared with the optimized formula demonstrated good physical stability during storage at room temperature. Antibacterial activity was conducted with the optimized nano emulsion NESH 01 and compared with free clarithromycin. Zone of inhibition was larger for NESH 01 as compared to that with free clarithromycin. This implies that the solubility and hence the bioavailability of clarithromycin has increased in the formulated nano emulsion system.

  8. N-succinyl-chitosan as a drug carrier: water-insoluble and water-soluble conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yoshinori; Onishi, Hiraku; Machida, Yoshiharu

    2004-02-01

    N-succinyl-chitosan (Suc-Chi) has favourable properties as a drug carrier such as biocompatibility, low toxicity and long-term retention in the body. It was long retained in the systemic circulation after intravenous administration, and the plasma half-lives of Suc-Chi (MW: 3.4 x 10(5); succinylation degree: 0.81 mol/sugar unit; deacetylation degree: 1.0 mol/sugar unit) were ca. 100.3h in normal mice and 43 h in Sarcoma 180-bearing mice. The biodistribution of Suc-Chi into other tissues was trace apart from the prostate and lymph nodes. The maximum tolerable dose for the intraperitoneal injection of Suc-Chi to mice was greater than 2 g/kg. The water-insoluble and water-soluble conjugates could be prepared using a water-soluble carbodiimide and mitomycin C (MMC) or using an activated ester of glutaric MMC. In vitro release characteristics of these conjugates showed similar patterns, i.e. a pH-dependent manner, except that water-insoluble conjugates showed a slightly slower release of MMC than water-soluble ones. The conjugates of MMC with Suc-Chi showed good antitumour activities against various tumours such as murine leukaemias (L1210 and P388), B16 melanoma, Sarcoma 180 solid tumour, a murine liver metastatic tumour (M5076) and a murine hepatic cell carcinoma (MH134). This review summarizes the utilization of Suc-Chi as a drug carrier for macromolecular conjugates of MMC and the therapeutic efficacy of the conjugates against various tumours.

  9. Growth responses and accumulation of soluble sugars in Inga marginata Wild. (Fabaceae) subjected to flooding under contrasting light conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, B; Capellesso, E S; Lottici, M E; Sentkovski, J; Mielniczki-Pereira, A A; Rosa, L M G; Sausen, T L

    2017-01-01

    Flood events in riparian forests of southern Brazil, can be characterized as unpredictable and of low magnitude with an average duration of less than 15 days. Inga marginata is an evergreen tree which grows in Southeast South America on a wide range of environments, including riparian forests. In this paper, the interactive effects of the light environment and soil flooding on morphological parameters of I. marginata were examined. Seedlings were acclimated in two contrasting light conditions: sun or shade for 30 days. Sun and shade plants were subjected to soil flooding for two periods; five or 15 days. After 5 days, the interaction between flooding and light did not affect growth, chlorophyll content and dry mass or the root-shoot ratio. After 15 days, flooded plants from the sunny treatment had a lower shoot dry mass compared to control sun plants and flooded plants from the shaded treatment. Moreover, the higher dry mass observed for shade plants compared to sun plants, following flooding, can also be directly associated with a higher content of soluble sugars. Shade plants of I. marginata showed a greater acclimation to soil waterlogging. This acclimation appears to be associated with a larger accumulation of soluble sugars compared to non-flooded plants. The responses observed on the shade plants appear to be decisive to indicate the use of I. marginata in degraded areas.

  10. On the solubility of nicotinic acid and isonicotinic acid in water and organic solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, Michael H.; Acree, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Solubilities of nicotinic acid and isonicotinic acids in organicsolvents have been determined. ► Solubilities are used to calculate Abraham descriptors for the two acids. ► These descriptors then yield water-solvent and gas-solvent partitions into numerous solvents. ► The solubility of the neutral acids in water is obtained. ► The method is straightforward and can be applied to any set of compound solubilities. -- Abstract: We have determined the solubility of nicotinic acid in four solvents and the solubility of isonicotinic acid in another four solvents. These results, together with literature data on the solubility of nicotinic acid in five other organic solvents and isonicotinic acid in four other organic solvents, have been analyzed through two linear Gibbs energy relationships in order to extract compound properties, or descriptors, that encode various solute–solvent interactions. The descriptors for nicotinic acid and isonicotinic acid can then be used in known equations for partition of solutes between water and organic solvents to predict partition coefficients and then further solubility in a host of organic solvents, as well as to predict a number of other physicochemical properties

  11. Comparative toxicity of water soluble fractions of four oils on the growth of a Microalga

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Phatarpekar, P.V.; Ansari, Z.A.

    Toxic effects of water soluble fractions (WSF) of four different fuel oils on a microalga. Tetraselmis gracilis, were examined and compared. On applying different concentrations of WSF, a decrease in cell population was observed. Depending...

  12. Application of spray-drying and electrospraying/electospinning for poorly water-soluble drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Adam; Boetker, Johan P; Rades, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Solid dispersions have been widely studied as an attractive formulation strategy for the increasingly prevalent poorly water-soluble drug compounds, including herbal medicines, often leading to improvements in drug dissolution rate and bioavailability. However, several challenges are encountered...

  13. Calculated solubility isotherm of a system of alkaline earth sulfates and hydroxides in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MOshinskii, A.S.; TIkomirova, K.A.

    1986-01-01

    Tis paper examines the calculation of the isothermal solubility diagram of a system of alkaline earth sulfates and hydroxides in water which makes it possible to substantiate, to a considerable extent, the natural physicochemical mineralization of natural waters, in particular water from geochemical sources. The present paper investigates the solubility of the equilibrium solid phases of a system of alkaline earth sulfates and hydroxides in water. A projection is shown of the composition prism of the quinary reciprocal system with demarcation of the crystallization areas of each sulfate and hydroxide of the component subsystems. The computational formulas for calculating solubility were derived from the solubility product principle, with allowance for ion activity coefficients in saturated hydroxide solutions

  14. One-step enzymatic synthesis of nucleosides from low water-soluble purine bases in non-conventional media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Lucas, Jesús; Fresco-Taboada, Alba; de la Mata, Isabel; Arroyo, Miguel

    2012-07-01

    The effect of several water-miscible cosolvents on activity and stability of soluble and immobilized 2'-deoxyribosyltransferase from Lactobacillus reuteri on Sepabeads® has been studied in order to establish optimal conditions for enzymatic synthesis of nucleosides using purine bases with low solubility in aqueous buffer. As a rule of thumb, there was a general reduction of soluble enzyme activity when cosolvent content was gradually increased in reaction medium. In contrast, immobilized enzyme activity was enhanced 1.2-1.4-fold at 20% of methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol, diethylene glycol, and acetone; and at 10% and 30% acetonitrile. Likewise, highest increased activity (1.8-fold) was also obtained in presence of 20% acetonitrile. Immobilized enzyme was successfully used in the synthesis of 2'-deoxyxanthosine and 2'-deoxyguanosine using 2'-deoxyuridine as sugar donor and the corresponding poor water-soluble base in the presence of 30% of methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol, ethylene glycol, acetonitrile, and DMSO, giving high nucleoside yields at 4h. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Solvent-Free Polymerization of L-Aspartic Acid in the Presence of D-Sorbitol to Obtain Water Soluble or Network Copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    L-aspartic acid was thermally polymerized in the presence of D-sorbitol with the goal of synthesizing new, higher molecular weight water soluble and absorbent copolymers. No reaction occurred when aspartic acid alone was heated at 170 or 200 degrees C. In contrast, heating sorbitol and aspartic ac...

  16. Intestinal absorption of water-soluble vitamins in health and disease

    OpenAIRE

    Said, Hamid M.

    2011-01-01

    Our knowledge of the mechanisms and regulation of intestinal absorption of water-soluble vitamins under normal physiological conditions, and of the factors/conditions that affect and interfere with theses processes has been significantly expanded in recent years as a result of the availability of a host of valuable molecular/cellular tools. Although structurally and functionally unrelated, the water-soluble vitamins share the feature of being essential for normal cellular functions, growth an...

  17. The role of vitamins in the diet of the elderly II. Water-soluble vitamins

    OpenAIRE

    Csapó J.; Albert Cs.; Prokisch J.

    2017-01-01

    Following a presentation of humans’ water-soluble vitamin requirements, the authors will discuss in detail the role these vitamins play in human organism and outline those major biochemical processes that are negatively affected in the body in case of vitamin deficiency. They point out that in the elderly population of developed countries cases of water-soluble vitamin deficiency are extremely rare and they are due to the lack of dietary vitamin, but mostly to the vitamin being released from ...

  18. Effect of fasting on the urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins in humans and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Yoshida, Erina; Takahashi, Kei; Shibata, Katsumi

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies showed that the urinary excretion of the water-soluble vitamins can be useful as a nutritional index. To determine how fasting affects urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins, a human study and an animal experiment were conducted. In the human study, the 24-h urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins in 12 healthy Japanese adults fasting for a day was measured. One-day fasting drastically decreased urinary thiamin content to 30%, and increased urinary riboflavin content by 3-fold. Other water-soluble vitamin contents did not show significant change by fasting. To further investigate the alterations of water-soluble vitamin status by starvation, rats were starved for 3 d, and water-soluble vitamin contents in the liver, blood and urine were measured during starvation. Urinary excretion of thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B(6) metabolite 4-pyridoxic acid, nicotinamide metabolites and folate decreased during starvation, but that of vitamin B(12), pantothenic acid and biotin did not. As for blood vitamin levels, only blood vitamin B(1), plasma PLP and plasma folate levels decreased with starvation. All water-soluble vitamin contents in the liver decreased during starvation, whereas vitamin concentrations in the liver did not decrease. Starvation decreased only concentrations of vitamin B(12) and folate in the skeletal muscle. These results suggest that water-soluble vitamins were released from the liver, and supplied to the peripheral tissues to maintain vitamin nutrition. Our human study also suggested that the effect of fasting should be taken into consideration for subjects showing low urinary thiamin and high urinary riboflavin.

  19. Evaluation of ammonium nitrate phosphate (Suphala) having different water soluble phosphorus levels on black soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deo Dutt; Mutatkar, V.K.; Chapke, V.G.

    1974-01-01

    Efficiency of the laboratory prepared 32 P tagged ammonium nitrate phosphate (Suphala) varying in water soluble P was studied both on calcareous and non-calcareous soils of Maharashtra for bajra and wheat crops under greenhouse conditions. The results revealed a significant increase in dry matter production and uptake of total and fertilizer P with Suphala containing 30-32% water-soluble phosphorus. (author)

  20. Abalone water-soluble matrix for self-healing biomineralization of tooth defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Zhenliang [Institute of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Technology, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Chen, Jingdi, E-mail: ibptcjd@fzu.edu.cn [Institute of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Technology, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Wang, Hailiang [The Affiliated Stomatological Hospital, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Zhong, Shengnan; Hu, Yimin; Wang, Zhili [Institute of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Technology, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Zhang, Qiqing, E-mail: zhangqiq@126.com [Institute of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Technology, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Medical Science & Peking Union Medical College, Tianjin 300192 (China)

    2016-10-01

    Enamel cannot heal by itself if damaged. Hydroxyapatite (HAP) is main component of human enamel. Formation of enamel-like materials for healing enamel defects remains a challenge. In this paper, we successfully isolated the abalone water-soluble matrix (AWSM) with 1.53 wt% the abalone water-soluble protein (AWSPro) and 2.04 wt% the abalone water-soluble polysaccharide (AWSPs) from abandoned abalone shell, and self-healing biomineralization of tooth defects was successfully achieved in vitro. Based on X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), hot field emission scanning electron microscopy (HFESEM) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) analysis, the results showed that the AWSM can efficiently induce remineralization of HAP. The enamel-like HAP was successfully achieved onto etched enamel's surface due to the presence of the AWSM. Moreover, the remineralized effect of eroded enamel was growing with the increase of the AWSM. This study provides a solution to the resource waste and environmental pollution caused by abandoned abalone shell, and we provides a new method for self-healing remineralization of enamel defects by AWSM and develops a novel dental material for potential clinical dentistry application. - Graphical abstract: In this paper, we successfully isolated the abalone water-soluble matrix (AWSM) with 1.53 wt% abalone water-soluble protein (AWSPro) and 2.04 wt% abalone water-soluble polysaccharide (AWSPs) from abandoned abalone shell, and self-healing biomineralization of tooth defects was successfully achieved in vitro by self-organized. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Provides a solution to the resource waste and environmental pollution caused by abandoned abalone shell. • The abalone shell water-soluble matrix contains protein and polysaccharide. • The abalone water-soluble matrix can efficiently induce remineralization of HAP by self-organized. • Achieved self-healing biomineralization of tooth defects in

  1. Water soluble organic aerosols in the Colorado Rocky Mountains, USA: composition, sources and optical properties

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Mingjie; Mladenov, Natalie; Williams, Mark W.; Neff, Jason C.; Wasswa, Joseph; Hannigan, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosols have been shown to be an important input of organic carbon and nutrients to alpine watersheds and influence biogeochemical processes in these remote settings. For many remote, high elevation watersheds, direct evidence of the sources of water soluble organic aerosols and their chemical and optical characteristics is lacking. Here, we show that the concentration of water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in the total suspended particulate (TSP) load at a high elevation site in...

  2. Abalone water-soluble matrix for self-healing biomineralization of tooth defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Zhenliang; Chen, Jingdi; Wang, Hailiang; Zhong, Shengnan; Hu, Yimin; Wang, Zhili; Zhang, Qiqing

    2016-01-01

    Enamel cannot heal by itself if damaged. Hydroxyapatite (HAP) is main component of human enamel. Formation of enamel-like materials for healing enamel defects remains a challenge. In this paper, we successfully isolated the abalone water-soluble matrix (AWSM) with 1.53 wt% the abalone water-soluble protein (AWSPro) and 2.04 wt% the abalone water-soluble polysaccharide (AWSPs) from abandoned abalone shell, and self-healing biomineralization of tooth defects was successfully achieved in vitro. Based on X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), hot field emission scanning electron microscopy (HFESEM) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) analysis, the results showed that the AWSM can efficiently induce remineralization of HAP. The enamel-like HAP was successfully achieved onto etched enamel's surface due to the presence of the AWSM. Moreover, the remineralized effect of eroded enamel was growing with the increase of the AWSM. This study provides a solution to the resource waste and environmental pollution caused by abandoned abalone shell, and we provides a new method for self-healing remineralization of enamel defects by AWSM and develops a novel dental material for potential clinical dentistry application. - Graphical abstract: In this paper, we successfully isolated the abalone water-soluble matrix (AWSM) with 1.53 wt% abalone water-soluble protein (AWSPro) and 2.04 wt% abalone water-soluble polysaccharide (AWSPs) from abandoned abalone shell, and self-healing biomineralization of tooth defects was successfully achieved in vitro by self-organized. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Provides a solution to the resource waste and environmental pollution caused by abandoned abalone shell. • The abalone shell water-soluble matrix contains protein and polysaccharide. • The abalone water-soluble matrix can efficiently induce remineralization of HAP by self-organized. • Achieved self-healing biomineralization of tooth defects in vitro.

  3. Soluble carbohydrate content variation in Sanionia uncinata and Polytrichastrum alpinum, two Antarctic mosses with contrasting desiccation capacities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paz Zúñiga-González

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cryptogamic vegetation dominates the ice-free areas along the Antarctic Peninsula. The two mosses Sanionia uncinata and Polytrichastrum alpinum inhabit soils with contrasting water availability. Sanionia uncinata grows in soil with continuous water supply, while P. alpinum grows in sandy, non-flooded soils. Desiccation and rehydration experiments were carried out to test for differences in the rate of water loss and uptake, with non-structural carbohydrates analysed to test their role in these processes. RESULTS: Individual plants of S. uncinata lost water 60 % faster than P. alpinum; however, clumps of S. uncinata took longer to dry than those of P. alpinum (11 vs. 5 h, respectively. In contrast, rehydration took less than 10 min for both mosses. Total non-structural carbohydrate content was higher in P. alpinum than in S. uncinata, but sugar levels changed more in P. alpinum during desiccation and rehydration (60-50 % when compared to S. uncinata. We report the presence of galactinol (a precursor of the raffinose family for the first time in P. alpinum. Galactinol was present at higher amounts than all other non-structural sugars. CONCLUSIONS: Individual plants of S. uncinata were not able to retain water for long periods but by growing and forming carpets, this species can retain water the longest. In contrast individual P. alpinum plants required more time to lose water than S. uncinata, but as moss cushions they suffered desiccation faster than the later. On the other hand, both species rehydrated very quickly. We found that when both mosses lost 50 % of their water, carbohydrates content remained stable and the plants did not accumulate non-structural carbohydrates during the desiccation prosses as usually occurs in vascular plants. The raffinose family oligosaccarides decreased during desiccation, and increased during rehydration, suggesting they function as osmoprotectors.

  4. Water soluble and metal-containing electron beam resist poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, Arwa Saud; Alqarni, Sondos; Shokouhi, Babak Baradaran; Yavuz, Mustafa; Cui, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Popular electron beam resists such as PMMA, ZEP and HSQ all use solvent or base solutions for processing, which may attack the sub-layers or substrate that are made out of organic semiconducting materials. In this study we show that water soluble poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate), or sodium PSS, can be used as a negative electron beam resist developed in water. Moreover, since PSS contains metal sodium, its dry etching resistance is much higher than PMMA. It is notable that sodium PSS’s sensitivity and contrast is still far inferior to organic resists such as PMMA, thus it is not suitable for patterning dense and high-resolution structures. Nevertheless, feature size down to 40 nm was achieved for sparse patterns. Lastly, using very low energy (here 2 keV) electron beam lithography and liftoff process using water only, patterning of metal layer on an organic conductive material P3HT was achieved. The metallization of an organic conducting material may find applications in organic semiconductor devices such as OLED. (paper)

  5. Impact of bleaching agents on water sorption and solubility of resin luting cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabi Ardakani, Mahshid; Atashkar, Berivan; Bagheri, Rafat; Burrow, Michael F

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of distilled water and home and office bleaching agents on the sorption and solubility of resin luting cements. A total of 18 disc-shaped specimens were prepared from each of four resin cements: G-CEM LinkAce, Panavia F, Rely X Unicem, and seT. Specimens were cured according to the manufacturers' instructions and randomly divided into three groups of six, where they were treated with either an office or home bleaching agent or immersed in distilled water (control). Water sorption and solubility were measured by weighing the specimens before and after immersion and desiccation. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient, two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's test. There was a significant, positive correlation between sorption and solubility. Two-way anova showed significant differences among all resin cements tested for either sorption or solubility. Water sorption and solubility of all cements were affected significantly by office bleaching, and even more by home bleaching agents. Sorption and solubility behavior of the studied cements were highly correlated and significantly affected by applying either office or home bleaching agents; seT showed the highest sorption and solubility, whereas Rely X Unicem revealed the lowest. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  6. Solubility of Stevioside and Rebaudioside A in water, ethanol and their binary mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana S. Celaya

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the solubility of Stevioside and Rebaudioside A in different solvents (ethanol, water, ethanol:water 30:70 and ethanol:water 70:30, supersaturated solutions of pre-crystalized steviol glycosides were maintained at different temperatures (from 5 °C to 50 °C to reach equilibrium. Under these conditions significant differences were found in the extent of solubility. Rebaudioside A was poorly soluble in ethanol and water, and Stevioside was poorly soluble in water. Solvent mixtures more effectively promoted solubilisation, and a significant effect of temperature on solubility was observed. The two steviol glycosides showed higher solubilities and this behavior was promoted by the presence of the other sweetener. The polarity indices of the solvents were determined, and helped to explain the observed behavior. Several solute-solvent and solute-solute interactions can occur, along with the incidence of a strong affinity between solvents. The obtained results are in accordance with technological applications of ethanol, water and their binary mixtures for Stevioside and Rebaudioside A separations.

  7. Buckminsterfullerene's (C60) octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow) and aqueous solubility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafvert, Chad T; Kulkarni, Pradnya P

    2008-08-15

    To assess the risk and fate of fullerene C60 in the environment, its water solubility and partition coefficients in various systems are useful. In this study, the log Kow of C60 was measured to be 6.67, and the toluene-water partition coefficient was measured at log Ktw = 8.44. From these values and the respective solubilities of C60 in water-saturated octanol and water-saturated toluene, C60's aqueous solubility was calculated at 7.96 ng/L(1.11 x 10(-11) M) for the organic solvent-saturated aqueous phase. Additionally, the solubility of C60 was measured in mixtures of ethanol-water and tetrahydrofuran-water and modeled with Wohl's equation to confirm the accuracy of the calculated solubility value. Results of a generator column experiment strongly support the hypothesis that clusters form at aqueous concentrations below or near this calculated solubility. The Kow value is compared to those of other hydrophobic organic compounds, and bioconcentration factors for C60 were estimated on the basis of Kow.

  8. Nootkatone encapsulation by cyclodextrins: Effect on water solubility and photostability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kfoury, Miriana; Landy, David; Ruellan, Steven; Auezova, Lizette; Greige-Gerges, Hélène; Fourmentin, Sophie

    2017-12-01

    Nootkatone (NO) is a sesquiterpenoid volatile flavor, used in foods, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals, possessing also insect repellent activity. Its application is limited because of its low aqueous solubility and stability; this could be resolved by encapsulation in cyclodextrins (CDs). This study evaluated the encapsulation of NO by CDs using phase solubility studies, Isothermal Titration Calorimetry, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy and molecular modeling. Solid CD/NO inclusion complex was prepared and characterized for encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity using UV-Visible. Thermal properties were investigated by thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis and release studies were performed using multiple headspace extraction. Formation constants (K f ) proved the formation of stable inclusion complexes. NO aqueous solubility, photo- and thermal stability were enhanced and the release could be insured from solid complex in aqueous solution. This suggests that CDs are promising carrier to improve NO properties and, consequently, to enlarge its use in foods, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals preparations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. WATER ACTIVITY DATA ASSESSMENT TO BE USED IN HANFORD WASTE SOLUBILITY CALCULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DISSELKAMP RS

    2011-01-06

    The purpose of this report is to present and assess water activity versus ionic strength for six solutes:sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, sodium chloride, sodium carbonate, sodium sulfate, and potassium nitrate. Water activity is given versus molality (e.g., ionic strength) and temperature. Water activity is used to estimate Hanford crystal hydrate solubility present in the waste.

  10. WATER ACTIVITY DATA ASSESSMENT TO BE USED IN HANFORD WASTE SOLUBILITY CALCULATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disselkamp, R.S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present and assess water activity versus ionic strength for six solutes:sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, sodium chloride, sodium carbonate, sodium sulfate, and potassium nitrate. Water activity is given versus molality (e.g., ionic strength) and temperature. Water activity is used to estimate Hanford crystal hydrate solubility present in the waste.

  11. Prediction of solubilities for ginger bioactive compounds in hot water by the COSMO-RS method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaimah Syed Jaapar, Syaripah; Azian Morad, Noor; Iwai, Yoshio

    2013-04-01

    The solubilities in water of four main ginger bioactives, 6-gingerol, 6-shogaol, 8-gingerol and 10-gingerol, were predicted using a conductor-like screening model for real solvent (COSMO-RS) calculations. This study was conducted since no experimental data are available for ginger bioactive solubilities in hot water. The σ-profiles of these selected molecules were calculated using Gaussian software and the solubilities were calculated using the COSMO-RS method. The solubilities of these ginger bioactives were calculated at 50 to 200 °C. In order to validate the accuracy of the COSMO-RS method, the solubilities of five hydrocarbon molecules were calculated using the COSMO-RS method and compared with the experimental data in the literature. The selected hydrocarbon molecules were 3-pentanone, 1-hexanol, benzene, 3-methylphenol and 2-hydroxy-5-methylbenzaldehyde. The calculated results of the hydrocarbon molecules are in good agreement with the data in the literature. These results confirm that the solubilities of ginger bioactives can be predicted using the COSMO-RS method. The solubilities of the ginger bioactives are lower than 0.0001 at temperatures lower than 130 °C. At 130 to 200 °C, the solubilities increase dramatically with the highest being 6-shogaol, which is 0.00037 mole fraction, and the lowest is 10-gingerol, which is 0.000039 mole fraction at 200 °C.

  12. Prediction of solubilities for ginger bioactive compounds in hot water by the COSMO-RS method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaapar, Syaripah Zaimah Syed; Iwai, Yoshio; Morad, Noor Azian

    2013-01-01

    The solubilities in water of four main ginger bioactives, 6-gingerol, 6-shogaol, 8-gingerol and 10-gingerol, were predicted using a conductor-like screening model for real solvent (COSMO-RS) calculations. This study was conducted since no experimental data are available for ginger bioactive solubilities in hot water. The σ-profiles of these selected molecules were calculated using Gaussian software and the solubilities were calculated using the COSMO-RS method. The solubilities of these ginger bioactives were calculated at 50 to 200 °C. In order to validate the accuracy of the COSMO-RS method, the solubilities of five hydrocarbon molecules were calculated using the COSMO-RS method and compared with the experimental data in the literature. The selected hydrocarbon molecules were 3-pentanone, 1-hexanol, benzene, 3-methylphenol and 2-hydroxy-5-methylbenzaldehyde. The calculated results of the hydrocarbon molecules are in good agreement with the data in the literature. These results confirm that the solubilities of ginger bioactives can be predicted using the COSMO-RS method. The solubilities of the ginger bioactives are lower than 0.0001 at temperatures lower than 130 °C. At 130 to 200 °C, the solubilities increase dramatically with the highest being 6-shogaol, which is 0.00037 mole fraction, and the lowest is 10-gingerol, which is 0.000039 mole fraction at 200 °C.

  13. Synthesis, characterization and fluorescent properties of water-soluble glycopolymer bearing curcumin pendant residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haisong; Yu, Meng; Zhang, Hailei; Bai, Libin; Wu, Yonggang; Wang, Sujuan; Ba, Xinwu

    2016-08-01

    Curcumin is a potential natural anticancer drug with low oral bioavailability because of poor water solubility. The aqueous solubility of curcumin is enhanced by means of modification with the carbohydrate units. Polymerization of the curcumin-containing monomer with carbohydrate-containing monomer gives the water-soluble glycopolymer bearing curcumin pendant residues. The obtained copolymers (P1 and P2) having desirable water solubility were well-characterized by infrared spectroscopy (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The copolymer P2 with a molar ratio of 1:6 (curcumin/carbohydrate) calculated from the proton NMR results exhibits a similar anticancer activity compared to original curcumin, which may serve as a potential chemotherapeutic agent in the field of anticancer medicine.

  14. A facile physical approach to make chitosan soluble in acid-free water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yinghao; Xiao, Congming

    2017-10-01

    We changed the situation that chitosan was only dissolved in diluted acid through mild physical treatment. In viewing of the usual methods to modify chitosan are chemical ones, we established the approach by using a water-soluble chitosan derivative as the model polymer. Its water-solubility was modulated via changing the concentration of solution and varying the precipitants. Such a physical method was adopted to treat chitiosan. One gram chitosan was dissolved in a mixture of 100mL 10% acetic acid and 50mL methanol, and then precipitated from a precipitant consisted of 10mL ethanol and 90mL acetate ester. The treated chitosan became soluble in acid-free water completely, and its solubility was 8.02mg/mL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Amelioration of radiation induced oxidative stress using water soluble chitosan produced by Aspergillus niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-Sonbaty, S.M.; Swailam, H.M.; Noaman, E.

    2012-01-01

    Chitosan is a natural polysaccharide synthesized by a great number of living organisms and considered as a source of potential bioactive material and has many biological applications which are greatly affected by its solubility in neutral ph. In this study low molecular weight water soluble chitosan was prepared by chemical degradation of chitosan produced by Aspergillus niger using H 2 O 2 . Chitosan chemical structure was detected before and after treatment using FTIR spectrum, and its molecular weight was determined by its viscosity using viscometer. Its antioxidant activity against gamma radiation was evaluated in vivo using rats. Rats were divided into 4 groups; group 1: control, group 2: exposed to acute dose of gamma radiation (6 Gy), group 3: received water soluble chitosan, group 4: received water soluble chitosan then exposed to gamma radiation as group 2. Gamma radiation significantly increased malonaldehyde, decreased glutathione concentration, activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutatione peroxidase, while significantly increase the activity of alanine transferase, aspartate transferase, urea and creatinine concentration. Administration of water soluble chitosan has ameliorated induced changes caused by gamma radiation. It could be concluded that water soluble chitosan by scavenging free radicals directly or indirectly may act as a potent radioprotector against ionizing irradiation.

  16. Assessing water quality trends in catchments with contrasting hydrological regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherriff, Sophie C.; Shore, Mairead; Mellander, Per-Erik

    2016-04-01

    Environmental resources are under increasing pressure to simultaneously achieve social, economic and ecological aims. Increasing demand for food production, for example, has expanded and intensified agricultural systems globally. In turn, greater risks of diffuse pollutant delivery (suspended sediment (SS) and Phosphorus (P)) from land to water due to higher stocking densities, fertilisation rates and soil erodibility has been attributed to deterioration of chemical and ecological quality of aquatic ecosystems. Development of sustainable and resilient management strategies for agro-ecosystems must detect and consider the impact of land use disturbance on water quality over time. However, assessment of multiple monitoring sites over a region is challenged by hydro-climatic fluctuations and the propagation of events through catchments with contrasting hydrological regimes. Simple water quality metrics, for example, flow-weighted pollutant exports have potential to normalise the impact of catchment hydrology and better identify water quality fluctuations due to land use and short-term climate fluctuations. This paper assesses the utility of flow-weighted water quality metrics to evaluate periods and causes of critical pollutant transfer. Sub-hourly water quality (SS and P) and discharge data were collected from hydrometric monitoring stations at the outlets of five small (~10 km2) agricultural catchments in Ireland. Catchments possess contrasting land uses (predominantly grassland or arable) and soil drainage (poorly, moderately or well drained) characteristics. Flow-weighted water quality metrics were calculated and evaluated according to fluctuations in source pressure and rainfall. Flow-weighted water quality metrics successfully identified fluctuations in pollutant export which could be attributed to land use changes through the agricultural calendar, i.e., groundcover fluctuations. In particular, catchments with predominantly poor or moderate soil drainage

  17. Correlations between water-soluble organic aerosol and water vapor: a synergistic effect from biogenic emissions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennigan, Christopher J; Bergin, Michael H; Weber, Rodney J

    2008-12-15

    Ground-based measurements of meteorological parameters and water-soluble organic carbon in the gas(WSOCg) and particle (WSOCp) phases were carried out in Atlanta, Georgia, from May to September 2007. Fourteen separate events were observed throughout the summer in which WSOCp and water vapor concentrations were highly correlated (average WSOCp-water vapor r = 0.92); however, for the entire summer, no well-defined relationship existed between the two. The correlation events, which lasted on average 19 h, were characterized by a wide range of WSOCp and water vapor concentrations. Several hypotheses for the correlation are explored, including heterogeneous liquid phase SOA formation and the co-emission of biogenic VOCs and water vapor. The data provide supporting evidence for contributions from both and suggest the possibility of a synergistic effect between the co-emission of water vapor and VOCs from biogenic sources on SOA formation. Median WSOCp concentrations were also correlated with elemental carbon (EC), although this correlation extended over the entire summer. Despite the emission of water vapor from anthropogenic mobile sources and the WSOCp-EC correlation, mobile sources were not considered a potential cause for the WSOCp-water vapor correlations because of their low contribution to the water vapor budget. Meteorology could perhaps have influenced the WSOCp-EC correlation, but other factors are implicated as well. Overall, the results suggest that the temperature-dependent co-emission of water vapor through evapotranspiration and SOA precursor-VOCs by vegetation may be an important process contributing to SOA in some environments.

  18. Solubility of hydrogen in water in a broad temperature and pressure range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranenko, V.I.; Kirov, V.S.

    1989-01-01

    In the coolant of water-water reactors, as a result of radiolytic decomposition of water and chemical additives (hydrazine and ammonia) and saturation of the make-up water of the first loop with free hydrogen in order to suppress radiolysis, 30-60 ml/kg of hydrogen is present in normal conditions. On being released from the water, it is free to accumulate in micropores of the metals, resulting in hydrogen embrittlement; gas accumulates in stagnant zones, with deterioration in heat transfer in the first loop and corresponding difficulty in the use of the reactor and the whole reactor loop. To determine the amount of free hydrogen and hydrogen dissolved in water in different elements of the first loop, it is necessary to know the limiting solubility of hydrogen in water at different temperatures and pressures, and also to have the corresponding theoretical dependences. The experimental data on the solubility of hydrogen in water are nonsystematic and do not cover the parameter ranges of modern nuclear power plants (P = 10-30 MPa, T = 260-370C). Therefore, the aim of the present work is to establish a well-founded method of calculating the limiting solubility of hydrogen in water and, on this basis, to compile tables of the limiting solubility of hydrogen in water at pressures 0.1-50 MPa and temperatures 0-370C

  19. Organic compounds in hot-water-soluble fractions from water repellent soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanassova, Irena; Doerr, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    Water repellency (WR) is a soil property providing hydrophobic protection and preventing rapid microbial decomposition of organic matter entering the soil with litter or plant residues. Global warming can cause changes in WR, thus influencing water storage and plant productivity. Here we assess two different approaches for analysis of organic compounds composition in hot water extracts from accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) of water repellent soils. Extracts were lyophilized, fractionated on SiO2 (sand) and SPE cartridge, and measured by GC/MS. Dominant compounds were aromatic acids, short chain dicarboxylic acids (C4-C9), sugars, short chain fatty acids (C8-C18), and esters of stearic and palmitic acids. Polar compounds (mainly sugars) were adsorbed on applying SPE clean-up procedure, while esters were highly abundant. In addition to the removal of polar compounds, hydrophobic esters and hydrocarbons (alkanes and alkenes particle wettability and C dynamics in soils. Key words: soil water repellency, hot water soluble carbon (HWSC), GC/MS, hydrophobic compounds

  20. Selective Organic and Organometallic Reactions in Water-Soluble Host-Guest Supramolecular Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pluth, Michael D.; Raymond, Kenneth N.; Bergman, Robert G.

    2008-02-16

    Inspired by the efficiency and selectivity of enzymes, synthetic chemists have designed and prepared a wide range of host molecules that can bind smaller molecules with their cavities; this area has become known as 'supramolecular' or 'host-guest' chemistry. Pioneered by Lehn, Cram, Pedersen, and Breslow, and followed up by a large number of more recent investigators, it has been found that the chemical environment in each assembly - defined by the size, shape, charge, and functional group availability - greatly influences the guest-binding characteristics of these compounds. In contrast to the large number of binding studies that have been carried out in this area, the exploration of chemistry - especially catalytic chemistry - that can take place inside supramolecular host cavities is still in its infancy. For example, until the work described here was carried out, very few examples of organometallic reactivity inside supramolecular hosts were known, especially in water solution. For that reason, our group and the group directed by Kenneth Raymond decided to take advantage of our complementary expertise and attempt to carry out metal-mediated C-H bond activation reactions in water-soluble supramolecular systems. This article begins by providing background from the Raymond group in supramolecular coordination chemistry and the Bergman group in C-H bond activation. It goes on to report the results of our combined efforts in supramolecular C-H activation reactions, followed by extensions of this work into a wider range of intracavity transformations.

  1. [Determination of equilibrium solubility and n-octanol/water partition coefficient of pulchinenosiden D by HPLC].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Xiao-Yong; Yin, Shan; Zhang, Guo-Song; Luo, Xiao-Jian; Jian, Hui; Feng, Yu-Lin; Yang, Shi-Lin

    2014-05-01

    To determine the equilibrium solubility of pulchinenosiden D in different solvents and its n-octanol/water partition coefficients. Combining shaking flask method and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to detect the n-octanol/water partition coefficients of pulchinenosiden D, the equilibrium solubility of pulchinenosiden D in six organic solvents and different pH buffer solution were determined by HPLC analysis. n-Octanol/water partition coefficients of pulchinenosiden D in different pH were greater than zero, the equilibrium solubility of pulchinenosiden D was increased with increase the pH of the buffer solution. The maximum equilibrium solubility of pulchinenosiden D was 255.89 g x L(-1) in methanol, and minimum equilibrium solubility of pulchinenosiden D was 0.20 g x L(-1) in acetonitrile. Under gastrointestinal physiological conditions, pulchinenosiden D exists in molecular state and it has good absorption but poor water-solubility, so increasing the dissolution rate of pulchinenosiden D may enhance its bioavailability.

  2. Removal of Water-Soluble Extractives Improves the Enzymatic Digestibility of Steam-Pretreated Softwood Barks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankó, Balázs; Carlqvist, Karin; Galbe, Mats; Lidén, Gunnar; Wallberg, Ola

    2018-02-01

    Softwood bark contains a large amounts of extractives-i.e., soluble lipophilic (such as resin acids) and hydrophilic components (phenolic compounds, stilbenes). The effects of the partial removal of water-soluble extractives before acid-catalyzed steam pretreatment on enzymatic digestibility were assessed for two softwood barks-Norway spruce and Scots pine. A simple hot water extraction step removed more than half of the water-soluble extractives from the barks, which improved the enzymatic digestibility of both steam-pretreated materials. This effect was more pronounced for the spruce than the pine bark, as evidenced by the 30 and 11% glucose yield improvement, respectively, in the enzymatic digestibility. Furthermore, analysis of the chemical composition showed that the acid-insoluble lignin content of the pretreated materials decreased when water-soluble extractives were removed prior to steam pretreatment. This can be explained by a decreased formation of water-insoluble "pseudo-lignin" from water-soluble bark phenolics during the acid-catalyzed pretreatment, which otherwise results in distorted lignin analysis and may also contribute to the impaired enzymatic digestibility of the barks. Thus, this study advocates the removal of extractives as the first step in the processing of bark or bark-rich materials in a sugar platform biorefinery.

  3. Tainting by short-term exposure of Atlantic salmon to water soluble petroleum hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackman, R.G.; Heras, H.

    1992-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to examine the extent of tainting of salmon by exposure to the soluble fraction of petroleum hydrocarbons. The experiments were conducted on Atlantic salmon in tanks containing seawater artificially contaminated at three different concentrations with the soluble fraction of a North Sea crude. The salmon flesh was analyzed by gas chromatography and taste tests were conducted on cooked salmon samples to determine the extent of tainting. Salmon in control tanks with uncontaminated seawater had muscle accumulations of total hydrocarbons of ca 1 ppM. The muscle accumulations of total hydrocarbons in the salmon were 13.5 ppM, 25.6 ppM, and 31.3 ppM for water soluble fraction concentrations of 0.45, 0.87, and 1.54 ppM respectively. The threshold for taint was clearly inferred to be less than 0.45 ppM of water soluble fraction. 18 refs., 2 figs

  4. Effect of water soluble carrier on dissolution profiles of diclofenac sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwiertnia, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Pharmaceutical aviailability of diclofenac sodium from solid dispersions of PEG 6000 have been studied in comparison to those of the corresponding physical mixtures and pure diclofenac sodium. The diclofenac sodium is poorly water soluble drug. The properties of diclofenac sodium-PEG 6000 solid dispersions have been determined by the methods of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effect of PEG 6000 on the solubility of selected diclofenac sodium dispersions has been studied. The solubility of diclofenac sodium from its solid dispersion has been found to increase in the presence of PEG 6000.

  5. Enhancement of solubility of poorly water soluble anti hypertensive drug by nanosizing approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divyesh Thakar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research study was to optimize formulation and process variables affecting characteristic of nanosuspension in bead milling process. In this study, the practically water-insoluble telmisartan was nanoground by using top down method i.e. media milling method. Here the media used is ZnO 2 beads. A variety of surface active agents were tested for their stabilizing effects. Formulation factors evaluated were ratio of polymer to drug, whereas process parameters were milling time and concentration of ZnO 2 beads. Different concentration of stabilizers such as poloxamer 188, poloxamer 407, HPMC E 15, PVP K30 and combination of stabilizers were used for preparation of telmisartan nanosuspension. Responses measured in this study include particle size measurement, particle size distribution and zeta potential.

  6. Preparation of water-soluble carbon nanotubes using a pulsed streamer discharge in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imasaka, Kiminobu; Suehiro, Junya; Kanatake, Yusuke; Kato, Yuki; Hara, Masanori

    2006-01-01

    A novel technique for the preparation of water-soluble carbon nanotubes was demonstrated using a pulsed streamer discharge generated in water. The technique involved chemical reactions between radicals generated by the pulsed streamer discharge and carbon nanotubes. The pulsed streamer-treated carbon nanotubes were homogeneously dispersed and well solubilized in water for a month or longer. The mechanism of solubilization of carbon nanotubes by the pulsed streamer discharge is discussed based on FTIR spectroscopy and optical emission spectra measurements. FTIR spectroscopy revealed that -OH groups, which are known to impart a hydrophilic nature to carbon material, were introduced on the carbon nanotube surface. Optical emission spectra from the pulsed streamer plasma showed that highly oxidative O * and H * radicals were generated in water. These results suggest that the functionalization of the carbon nanotube surface by -OH group can be attributed to the O * and H * radicals. An advantage of the proposed method is that there is no need for any chemical agents or additives for solubilization. Chemical agents for solubilization are generated from the water itself by the electrochemical reactions induced by the pulsed streamer discharge

  7. Water solubility of synthetic pyrope at high temperature and pressure up to 12GPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, S.; Chen, J.

    2012-12-01

    Water can be incorporated into normally anhydrous minerals as OH- defects and transported into the mantle. Its existence in the mantle may affect property of minerals, such as elasticity, electrical conductivity and rheological properties. As the secondary mineral in the mantle, garnet has not been extensively studied for its water solubility and there is discrepancies among the existing experiments on the water solubility in the garnet change at pressures and temperatures. Geiger et al., 1991 investigated water content in synthetic pyrope and concluded 0.02wt% to 0.07wt% OH- substitution. Lu et al., 1997 found 198ppm water in the Dora Miara pyrope at 100Kbar and 1000°C. Withers et al., 1998 claimed that water solubility in pyrope reached 1000ppm at 5GPa and then decreased as pressure increasing; above 7GPa, no water was detected. Mookherjee et al., 2009 also explored pyrope-rich garnet, which contains water up to 0.1%wt at 5-9GPa and temperatures 1373K-1473K. Here we report a study of water solubility of synthetic single crystal pyrope at pressures 4-12GPa and temperature 1000°C. Single crystals of pyrope were synthesized using multi-anvil press and water contents in these samples were measured using FTIR. We have observed OH- peak at 3650 cm-1 along this pressure range, although Withers, 1998 reported water contents decrease to undetectable level above 7GPa. Water solubility in pyrope will be reported as a function of pressure up to 12 GPa at 1000°C.

  8. Carbonate compensation depth: relation to carbonate solubility in ocean waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Yaakov, S; Ruth, E; Kaplan, I R

    1974-05-31

    In situ calcium carbonate saturometry measurements suggest that the intermediate water masses of the central Pacific Ocean are close to saturation with resppect to both calcite and local carbonate sediment. The carbonate compensation depth, located at about 3700 meters in this area, appears to represent a depth above which waters are essentially saturated with respect to calcite and below which waters deviate toward undersaturation with respect to calcite.

  9. Comparison of water sorption and solubility of Acropars and Meliodent heat cure acrylic resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golbidi F

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Water sorption and solubility are important properties of acrylic resins. Denture base acrylic resins have low solubility. This solubility results from the leaching out of unreacted monomer and water soluble additives into the oral fluids. The solubility of denture bases can cause oral soft tissue reactions. In addition, water absorbed into this material acts as a plasticizer and decreases the mechanical properties such as hardness, transverse strength, fatigue limit and also can change the color and dimensional stability. The aim of this study was to compare the water sorption and solubility of Acropars and Meliodent heat cure acrylic resins. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was performed on the basis of ADA specification No.12 and ISO No.1567 and standards NO: 2571 of Institute of Standards & Industrial Research of Iran. Six disc form samples of each acrylic resin were prepared, with the dimension of 50×0.5 mm. After desiccating, the samples were kept in an oven for 24 hours and weighed. Then they were immersed in water, kept in oven for 7 days and weighed again. After this phase, the samples were carried to a dessicator, for 24 hours and kept in an oven for drying and were weighed for the third time. Data were analyzed with Mann Whitney and one sample t-test. P<0.05 was considered as the limit of significance. Results: Water sorption mean values were 30.5±0.1 µg/mm3 or 0.76±0.01 mg/cm2 for Meliodent samples and 30.7±0.87 µg/mm3 or 0.77±0.009 mg/cm2 for Acropars samples. No significant difference was observed in water sorption of these two materials (P=0.9. Meliodent acrylic resin showed lower solubility (1.7±0.097 µg/mm3 or 0.042±0.001 mg/cm2 than Acropars acrylic resin (2.5±0.13 µg/mm3 or 0.062±0.001 mg/cm2 (P=0.002. Conclusion: Acropars heat cure acrylic resin matched well with the requirements of the international standards for water sorption, but its solubility was not favorable. This problem

  10. Salinity impacts on water solubility and n-octanol/water partition coefficients of selected pesticides and oil constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saranjampour, Parichehr; Vebrosky, Emily N; Armbrust, Kevin L

    2017-09-01

    Salinity has been reported to influence the water solubility of organic chemicals entering marine ecosystems. However, limited data are available on salinity impacts for chemicals potentially entering seawater. Impacts on water solubility would correspondingly impact chemical sorption as well as overall bioavailability and exposure estimates used in the regulatory assessment. The pesticides atrazine, fipronil, bifenthrin, and cypermethrin, as well as the crude oil constituent dibenzothiophene together with 3 of its alkyl derivatives, all have different polarities and were selected as model compounds to demonstrate the impact of salinity on their solubility and partitioning behavior. The n-octanol/water partition coefficient (K OW ) was measured in both distilled-deionized water and artificial seawater (3.2%). All compounds had diminished solubility and increased K OW values in artificial seawater compared with distilled-deionized water. A linear correlation curve estimated salinity may increase the log K OW value by 2.6%/1 log unit increase in distilled water (R 2  = 0.97). Salinity appears to generally decrease the water solubility and increase the partitioning potential. Environmental fate estimates based on these parameters indicate elevated chemical sorption to sediment, overall bioavailability, and toxicity in artificial seawater. These dramatic differences suggest that salinity should be taken into account when exposure estimates are made for marine organisms. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2274-2280. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  11. Solubility investigation of ether and ester essential oils in water using spectrometry and GC/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Khodabandeloo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Essential oils (volatiles are aromatic oily liquids prepared from different parts of plants and demonstrate various therapeutic and cosmetic properties. The dissolution of essential oils are not desirable in water, therefore the aim of this research was evaluation and selection the best co-solvents for increasing their solubility and bio availability. Methods:The solubility of six  plants essential oils were investigated in presence of propylene glycol (PG, polyethylene glycol 300 (PEG, glycerin and ethanol as solvent and tween 80 or lecithin as co-solvent by observation and spectrophotometric assay. Chemical composition of the essential oils and supersaturated 50% ethanol (SSE and 50% PG or PEG (SSP solutions were analyzed by GC/MS, too. Results: Ester (Lavandula dentata, Heracleum persicum and, Elettaria cardamomum essential oils showed the best solubility in ethanol and PG, respectively. Ether (Foeniculum vulgare, Pimpinella anisum and Petroselinum crispum essential oils had the best solubility in ethanol and PEG, respectively. In ester class, mixture of ethanol/water was the best solvent according to solubility and total amounts of major compounds of the essential oils. In ether class, all samples had better solubility in mixtures of ethanol/water than PEG, but the amounts of total phenols or ethers in SSP of some samples were higher than SSE. Therefore selecting the best solvent for these class need more experiments. Conclusion: Selecting the solvent for essential oils changes their chemical composition; therefore the best solvent was different for various purposes.

  12. Removal of soluble microbial products as the precursors of disinfection by-products in drinking water supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin-Lin; Li, Xiao-Yan

    2015-01-01

    Water pollution worsens the problem of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water supply. Biodegradation of wastewater organics produces soluble microbial products (SMPs), which can be important DBP precursors. In this laboratory study, a number of enhanced water treatment methods for DBP control, including enhanced coagulation, ozonation, and activated carbon adsorption, were evaluated for their effectiveness in treating SMP-containing water for the DBP reduction purpose. The results show that enhanced coagulation with alum could remove SMPs only marginally and decrease the DBP formation potential (DBPFP) of the water by less than 20%. Although ozone could cause destruction of SMPs in water, the overall DBPFP of the water did not decrease but increased after ozonation. In contrast, adsorption by granular activated carbon could remove the SMP organics from water by more than 60% and reduce the DBPFP by more than 70%. It is apparent that enhanced coagulation and ozonation are not suitable for the removal of SMPs as DBP precursors from polluted water, although enhanced coagulation has been commonly used to reduce the DBP formation caused by natural organic matter. In comparison, activated carbon adsorption is shown as a more effective means to remove the SMP content from water and hence to control the wastewater-derived DBP problem in water supply.

  13. Consequences of chirality on the dynamics of a water-soluble supramolecular polymer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baker, M.B.; Albertazzi, L.; Voets, Ilja K.; Leenders, C.M.A.; Palmans, A.R.A.; Pavan, G.M.; Meijer, E. W.

    2015-01-01

    The rational design of supramolecular polymers in water is imperative for their widespread use, but the design principles for these systems are not well understood. Herein, we employ a multi-scale (spatial and temporal) approach to differentiate two analogous water-soluble supramolecular polymers:

  14. Kinetics of Acid Hydrolysis of Water-Soluble Spruce O-Acetyl Galactoglucomannans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, C.; Pranovich, A.; Vahasalo, L.; Hemming, J.; Holmbom, B.; Schols, H.A.; Willfor, S.

    2008-01-01

    Water-soluble O-acetyl galactoglucomannan (GGM) is a softwood-derived polysaccharide, which can be extracted on an industrial scale from wood or mechanical pulping waters and now is available in kilogram scale for research and development of value-added products. To develop applications of GGM,

  15. Wax encapsulation of water-soluble compounds for application in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellema, M; Van Benthum, W A J; Boer, B; Von Harras, J; Visser, A

    2006-11-01

    Water-soluble ingredients have been successfully encapsulated in wax using two preparation techniques. The first technique ('solid preparation') leads to relatively large wax particles. The second technique ('liquid preparation') leads to relatively small wax particles immersed in vegetable oil. On the first technique: stable encapsulation of water-soluble colourants (dissolved at low concentration in water) has been achieved making use of beeswax and PGPR. The leakage from the capsules, for instance of size 2 mm, is about 30% after 16 weeks storage in water at room temperature. To form such capsules a minimum wax mass of 40% relative to the total mass is needed. High amounts of salt or acids at the inside water phase causes more leaking, probably because of the osmotic pressure difference. Osmotic matching of inner and outer phase can lead to a dramatic reduction in leakage. Fat capsules are less suitable to incorporate water soluble colourants. The reason for this could be a difference in crystal structure (fat is less ductile and more brittle). On the second technique: stable encapsulation of water-soluble colourants (encapsulated in solid wax particles) has been achieved making use of carnauba wax. The leakage from the capsules, for instance of size 250 mm, is about 40% after 1 weeks storage in water at room temperature.

  16. Steel corrosion products solubility under conditions simulating various water chemistry parameters in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slobodov, A.A.; Kritskij, V.G.; Zarembo, V.I.; Puchkov, L.V.

    1988-01-01

    To simulate construction material corrosion product mass transfer model in power plant circuits calculation of iron oxide and hydroxide solubility, depending on water chemistry parameters: temperature, pH-value, content of dissolved in water hydrogen and oxygen, is carried out

  17. Structural investigation of water-soluble polysaccharides extracted from the fruit bodies of Coprinus comatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Bo; Dobruchowska, Justyna M.; Gerwig, Gerrit J.; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Kamerling, Johannis P.

    2013-01-01

    Water-soluble polysaccharide material, extracted from the stipes of the fruit bodies of Coprinus comatus by hot water, was fractionated by sequential weak anion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography. The relevant fractions were subjected to structural analysis, including (D/L)

  18. Water-soluble carbon nanotube compositions for drug delivery and medicinal applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tour, James M.; Lucente-Schultz, Rebecca; Leonard, Ashley; Kosynkin, Dmitry V.; Price, Brandi Katherine; Hudson, Jared L.; Conyers, Jr., Jodie L.; Moore, Valerie C.; Casscells, S. Ward; Myers, Jeffrey N.; Milas, Zvonimir L.; Mason, Kathy A.; Milas, Luka

    2014-07-22

    Compositions comprising a plurality of functionalized carbon nanotubes and at least one type of payload molecule are provided herein. The compositions are soluble in water and PBS in some embodiments. In certain embodiments, the payload molecules are insoluble in water. Methods are described for making the compositions and administering the compositions. An extended release formulation for paclitaxel utilizing functionalized carbon nanotubes is also described.

  19. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence of water-soluble quantum dots for a bioprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Tiancai; Huang Zhenli; Wang Haiqiao; Wang Jianhao; Li Xiuqing; Zhao Yuandi; Luo Qingming

    2006-01-01

    The photoluminescence of water-soluble CdSe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots is found to be temperature-dependent: as temperature arising from 280 K to 351 K, the photoluminescence declines with emission peak shifting towards the red at a rate of ∼0.11 nm K -1 . And the studies show that the photoluminescence of water-soluble CdSe/ZnS quantum dots with core capped by a thinner ZnS shell is more sensitive to temperature than that of ones with core capped by a thicker one. That is, with 50% decrement of the quantum yield the temperature of the former need to arise from 280 K to 295 K, while the latter requires much higher temperature (315.6 K), which means that the integrality of shell coverage is a very important factor on temperature-sensitivity to for the photoluminescence of water-soluble CdSe/ZnS quantum dots. Moreover, it is found that the water-soluble CdSe quantum dots with different core sizes, whose cores are capped by thicker ZnS shells, possess almost the same sensitivity to the temperature. All of the studies about photoluminescence temperature-dependence of water-soluble CdSe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots show an indispensable proof for their applications in life science

  20. Water soluble {2-[3-(diethylamino)phenoxy]ethoxy} substituted zinc(II) phthalocyanine photosensitizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Çakır, Dilek [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Göl, Cem [Gebze Institute of Technology, Department of Chemistry, PO Box 141, Gebze, 41400, Kocaeli (Turkey); Çakır, Volkan [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Durmuş, Mahmut [Gebze Institute of Technology, Department of Chemistry, PO Box 141, Gebze, 41400, Kocaeli (Turkey); Bıyıklıoğlu, Zekeriya, E-mail: zekeriya_61@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Kantekin, Halit [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)

    2015-03-15

    The new peripherally and non-peripherally tetra-{2-[3-(diethylamino)phenoxy] ethoxy} substituted zinc phthalocyanines (2a and 3a) were synthesized by cyclotetramerization of phthalonitrile derivatives (2 and 3). 2-[3-(diethylamino)phenoxy] ethoxy group was chosen as substituent because the quaternization of the diethylamino functionality on the structure of this group produced water soluble zinc phthalocyanines (2b and 3b). The water solubility is very important for many different applications such as photosensitizers in the photodynamic therapy of cancer because the water soluble photosensitizers can be injected directly to the body and they can transport to cancer cells through blood stream. The new compounds were characterized by using elemental analysis, UV–vis, IR, {sup 1}H NMR, {sup 13}C NMR and mass spectroscopies. The photophysical and photochemical properties of these novel photosensitizer compounds were examined in DMSO (both non-ionic and ionic complexes) and in PBS (for ionic complexes) solutions. The investigation of these properties is very important for the usage of the compounds as photosensitizers for PDT because determination of these properties is the first stage of potential of the compounds as photosensitizers. The bovine serum albumin (BSA) and DNA binding behaviour of the studied water soluble zinc (II) phthalocyanines were also investigated in PBS solutions for the determination of biological activity of these compounds. - Highlights: • Synthesis of water soluble zinc phthalocyanines. • Photophysical and photochemical properties for phthalocyanines. • Photodynamic therapy studies.

  1. The role of vitamins in the diet of the elderly II. Water-soluble vitamins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csapó J.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Following a presentation of humans’ water-soluble vitamin requirements, the authors will discuss in detail the role these vitamins play in human organism and outline those major biochemical processes that are negatively affected in the body in case of vitamin deficiency. They point out that in the elderly population of developed countries cases of water-soluble vitamin deficiency are extremely rare and they are due to the lack of dietary vitamin, but mostly to the vitamin being released from its bindings, the difficulty of free vitamin absorption, gastrointestinal problems, medication, and often alcoholism. Among water-soluble vitamins, B12 is the only one with a sufficient storage level in the body, capable of preventing deficiency symptoms for a long period of time in cases of vitamin-deficient nutrition. Each type of vitamin is dealt with separately in discussing the beneficial outcomes of their overconsumption regarding health, while the authors of the article also present cases with contradictory results. Daily requirements are set forth for every water-soluble vitamin and information is provided on the types of nutrients that help us to the water-soluble vitamins essential for the organism.

  2. Water Soluble Vitamins Enhance the Growth of Microorganisms in Peripheral Parenteral Nutrition Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omotani, Sachiko; Tani, Katsuji; Nagai, Katsuhito; Hatsuda, Yasutoshi; Mukai, Junji; Myotoku, Michiaki

    2017-01-01

    Peripheral parenteral nutrition (PPN) solutions contain amino acids, glucose, and electrolytes, with or without some water soluble vitamins. Peripheral venous catheters are one of the causes of catheter related blood stream infection (CRBSI), which requires infection control. In Japan, PPN solutions have rarely been prepared under aseptic conditions. However, in recent years, the necessity of adding vitamins to infusions has been reported. Therefore, we investigated the effects of water soluble vitamins on growth of microorganisms in PPN solutions. AMINOFLUID ® (AF), BFLUID ® (BF), PARESAFE ® (PS) and PAREPLUS ® (PP) PPN solutions were used. Water soluble vitamins contained in PP were also used. Causative microorganisms of CRBSI were used. Staphylococcus epidermidis decreased after 24 hours or 48 hours in all solutions. On the other hand, Escherichia coli , Serratia marcescens , Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans increased, especially in PP. When each water soluble vitamin was added to BF and PS, growth of S. aureus was greater in solutions that contained nicotinamide than in solutions that contained other vitamins. As for C. albicans , they grew in all test solutions. C. albicans grew especially well in solutions that contained biotin. When commercial amino acids and glucose solutions with electrolytes are administered, in particular those containing multivitamins or water soluble vitamins, efforts to control infection must be taken to prevent proliferation of microorganisms.

  3. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence of water-soluble quantum dots for a bioprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Tiancai [Key Laboratory of Biomedical Photonics of Ministry of Education - Hubei Bioinformatics and Molecular Imaging Key Laboratory, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Huang Zhenli [Key Laboratory of Biomedical Photonics of Ministry of Education - Hubei Bioinformatics and Molecular Imaging Key Laboratory, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Wang Haiqiao [Key Laboratory of Biomedical Photonics of Ministry of Education - Hubei Bioinformatics and Molecular Imaging Key Laboratory, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Wang Jianhao [Key Laboratory of Biomedical Photonics of Ministry of Education - Hubei Bioinformatics and Molecular Imaging Key Laboratory, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Li Xiuqing [Key Laboratory of Biomedical Photonics of Ministry of Education - Hubei Bioinformatics and Molecular Imaging Key Laboratory, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Zhao Yuandi [Key Laboratory of Biomedical Photonics of Ministry of Education - Hubei Bioinformatics and Molecular Imaging Key Laboratory, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)]. E-mail: zydi@mail.hust.edu.cn; Luo Qingming [Key Laboratory of Biomedical Photonics of Ministry of Education - Hubei Bioinformatics and Molecular Imaging Key Laboratory, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)

    2006-02-10

    The photoluminescence of water-soluble CdSe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots is found to be temperature-dependent: as temperature arising from 280 K to 351 K, the photoluminescence declines with emission peak shifting towards the red at a rate of {approx}0.11 nm K{sup -1}. And the studies show that the photoluminescence of water-soluble CdSe/ZnS quantum dots with core capped by a thinner ZnS shell is more sensitive to temperature than that of ones with core capped by a thicker one. That is, with 50% decrement of the quantum yield the temperature of the former need to arise from 280 K to 295 K, while the latter requires much higher temperature (315.6 K), which means that the integrality of shell coverage is a very important factor on temperature-sensitivity to for the photoluminescence of water-soluble CdSe/ZnS quantum dots. Moreover, it is found that the water-soluble CdSe quantum dots with different core sizes, whose cores are capped by thicker ZnS shells, possess almost the same sensitivity to the temperature. All of the studies about photoluminescence temperature-dependence of water-soluble CdSe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots show an indispensable proof for their applications in life science.

  4. Membrane Proteins Are Dramatically Less Conserved than Water-Soluble Proteins across the Tree of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojo, Victor; Dessimoz, Christophe; Pomiankowski, Andrew; Lane, Nick

    2016-11-01

    Membrane proteins are crucial in transport, signaling, bioenergetics, catalysis, and as drug targets. Here, we show that membrane proteins have dramatically fewer detectable orthologs than water-soluble proteins, less than half in most species analyzed. This sparse distribution could reflect rapid divergence or gene loss. We find that both mechanisms operate. First, membrane proteins evolve faster than water-soluble proteins, particularly in their exterior-facing portions. Second, we demonstrate that predicted ancestral membrane proteins are preferentially lost compared with water-soluble proteins in closely related species of archaea and bacteria. These patterns are consistent across the whole tree of life, and in each of the three domains of archaea, bacteria, and eukaryotes. Our findings point to a fundamental evolutionary principle: membrane proteins evolve faster due to stronger adaptive selection in changing environments, whereas cytosolic proteins are under more stringent purifying selection in the homeostatic interior of the cell. This effect should be strongest in prokaryotes, weaker in unicellular eukaryotes (with intracellular membranes), and weakest in multicellular eukaryotes (with extracellular homeostasis). We demonstrate that this is indeed the case. Similarly, we show that extracellular water-soluble proteins exhibit an even stronger pattern of low homology than membrane proteins. These striking differences in conservation of membrane proteins versus water-soluble proteins have important implications for evolution and medicine. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  5. Water soluble {2-[3-(diethylamino)phenoxy]ethoxy} substituted zinc(II) phthalocyanine photosensitizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Çakır, Dilek; Göl, Cem; Çakır, Volkan; Durmuş, Mahmut; Bıyıklıoğlu, Zekeriya; Kantekin, Halit

    2015-01-01

    The new peripherally and non-peripherally tetra-{2-[3-(diethylamino)phenoxy] ethoxy} substituted zinc phthalocyanines (2a and 3a) were synthesized by cyclotetramerization of phthalonitrile derivatives (2 and 3). 2-[3-(diethylamino)phenoxy] ethoxy group was chosen as substituent because the quaternization of the diethylamino functionality on the structure of this group produced water soluble zinc phthalocyanines (2b and 3b). The water solubility is very important for many different applications such as photosensitizers in the photodynamic therapy of cancer because the water soluble photosensitizers can be injected directly to the body and they can transport to cancer cells through blood stream. The new compounds were characterized by using elemental analysis, UV–vis, IR, 1 H NMR, 13 C NMR and mass spectroscopies. The photophysical and photochemical properties of these novel photosensitizer compounds were examined in DMSO (both non-ionic and ionic complexes) and in PBS (for ionic complexes) solutions. The investigation of these properties is very important for the usage of the compounds as photosensitizers for PDT because determination of these properties is the first stage of potential of the compounds as photosensitizers. The bovine serum albumin (BSA) and DNA binding behaviour of the studied water soluble zinc (II) phthalocyanines were also investigated in PBS solutions for the determination of biological activity of these compounds. - Highlights: • Synthesis of water soluble zinc phthalocyanines. • Photophysical and photochemical properties for phthalocyanines. • Photodynamic therapy studies

  6. Soluble and insoluble pollutants in fog and rime water samples

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fišák, Jaroslav; Stoyanova, V.; Chaloupecký, Pavel; Řezáčová, Daniela; Tsacheva, Ts.; Kupenova, T.; Marinov, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 4, Sp. Iss. 2 (2009), S123-S130 ISSN 1801-5395 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/1918; GA AV ČR 1QS200420562 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : fog water * rime water * pollutant concentration Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  7. Water Solubility of Plutonium and Uranium Compounds and Residues at TA-55

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, Sean Douglas; Smith, Paul Herrick; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Prochnow, David Adrian; Schulte, Louis D.; DeBurgomaster, Paul Christopher; Fife, Keith William; Rubin, Jim; Worl, Laura Ann

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the water solubility of plutonium and uranium compounds and residues at TA-55 is necessary to provide a technical basis for appropriate criticality safety, safety basis and accountability controls. Individual compound solubility was determined using published solubility data and solution thermodynamic modeling. Residue solubility was estimated using a combination of published technical reports and process knowledge of constituent compounds. The scope of materials considered includes all compounds and residues at TA-55 as of March 2016 that contain Pu-239 or U-235 where any single item in the facility has more than 500 g of nuclear material. This analysis indicates that the following materials are not appreciably soluble in water: plutonium dioxide (IDC=C21), plutonium phosphate (IDC=C66), plutonium tetrafluoride (IDC=C80), plutonium filter residue (IDC=R26), plutonium hydroxide precipitate (IDC=R41), plutonium DOR salt (IDC=R42), plutonium incinerator ash (IDC=R47), uranium carbide (IDC=C13), uranium dioxide (IDC=C21), U 3 O 8 (IDC=C88), and uranium filter residue (IDC=R26). This analysis also indicates that the following materials are soluble in water: plutonium chloride (IDC=C19) and uranium nitrate (IDC=C52). Equilibrium calculations suggest that PuOCl is water soluble under certain conditions, but some plutonium processing reports indicate that it is insoluble when present in electrorefining residues (R65). Plutonium molten salt extraction residues (IDC=R83) contain significant quantities of PuCl 3 , and are expected to be soluble in water. The solubility of the following plutonium residues is indeterminate due to conflicting reports, insufficient process knowledge or process-dependent composition: calcium salt (IDC=R09), electrorefining salt (IDC=R65), salt (IDC=R71), silica (IDC=R73) and sweepings/screenings (IDC=R78). Solution thermodynamic modeling also indicates that fire suppression water buffered with a commercially-available phosphate

  8. Water Solubility of Plutonium and Uranium Compounds and Residues at TA-55

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reilly, Sean Douglas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States; Smith, Paul Herrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States; Jarvinen, Gordon D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States; Prochnow, David Adrian [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States; Schulte, Louis D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States; DeBurgomaster, Paul Christopher [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States; Fife, Keith William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States; Rubin, Jim [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States; Worl, Laura Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States

    2016-06-13

    Understanding the water solubility of plutonium and uranium compounds and residues at TA-55 is necessary to provide a technical basis for appropriate criticality safety, safety basis and accountability controls. Individual compound solubility was determined using published solubility data and solution thermodynamic modeling. Residue solubility was estimated using a combination of published technical reports and process knowledge of constituent compounds. The scope of materials considered includes all compounds and residues at TA-55 as of March 2016 that contain Pu-239 or U-235 where any single item in the facility has more than 500 g of nuclear material. This analysis indicates that the following materials are not appreciably soluble in water: plutonium dioxide (IDC=C21), plutonium phosphate (IDC=C66), plutonium tetrafluoride (IDC=C80), plutonium filter residue (IDC=R26), plutonium hydroxide precipitate (IDC=R41), plutonium DOR salt (IDC=R42), plutonium incinerator ash (IDC=R47), uranium carbide (IDC=C13), uranium dioxide (IDC=C21), U3O8 (IDC=C88), and uranium filter residue (IDC=R26). This analysis also indicates that the following materials are soluble in water: plutonium chloride (IDC=C19) and uranium nitrate (IDC=C52). Equilibrium calculations suggest that PuOCl is water soluble under certain conditions, but some plutonium processing reports indicate that it is insoluble when present in electrorefining residues (R65). Plutonium molten salt extraction residues (IDC=R83) contain significant quantities of PuCl3, and are expected to be soluble in water. The solubility of the following plutonium residues is indeterminate due to conflicting reports, insufficient process knowledge or process-dependent composition: calcium salt (IDC=R09), electrorefining salt (IDC=R65), salt (IDC=R71), silica (IDC=R73) and sweepings/screenings (IDC=R78). Solution thermodynamic modeling also indicates that fire suppression water buffered with a

  9. pH-potentiometric determination of solubility of barely soluble organic extracting agents in water and aqueous solutions of neutral salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlovskaya, E.M.; Charykov, A.K.; Tikhomirov, V.I.

    1977-01-01

    A pH-potentiometric method has been used to estimate the solubility of chloroform, benzene and nitrobenzene in water. The desalting effect is studied of alkali metal chlorides on chloroform solubility to establish the following phenomenological series of alkali metal cations by their desalting action: Li + + + + + . The non-conformity of chloroform solubility values in water-isoactive solutions of different salts is indicative of the high specificity of desalting processes with respect to the chemical nature of the desalting cation. Salt effects also essentially depend on the chemical nature of the desalted substance, particularly on its acid-base properties

  10. Solubility of water in fluorocarbons: Experimental and COSMO-RS prediction results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freire, Mara G.; Carvalho, Pedro J.; Santos, Luis M.N.B.F.; Gomes, Ligia R.; Marrucho, Isabel M.; Coutinho, Joao A.P.

    2010-01-01

    This work aims at providing experimental and theoretical information about the water-perfluorocarbon molecular interactions. For that purpose, experimental solubility results for water in cyclic and aromatic perfluorocarbons (PFCs), over the temperature range between (288.15 and 318.15) K, and at atmospheric pressure, were obtained and are presented. From the experimental solubility dependence on temperature, the partial molar solution and solvation thermodynamic functions such as Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy were determined and are discussed. The process of dissolution of water in PFCs is shown to be spontaneous for cyclic and aromatic compounds. It is demonstrated that the interactions between the non-aromatic PFCs and water are negligible while those between aromatic PFCs and water are favourable. The COSMO-RS predictive capability was explored for the description of the water solubility in PFCs and others substituted fluorocompounds. The COSMO-RS is shown to be a useful model to provide reasonable predictions of the solubility values, as well as to describe their temperature and structural modifications dependence. Moreover, the molar Gibbs free energy and molar enthalpy of solution of water are predicted remarkably well by COSMO-RS while the main deviations appear for the prediction of the molar entropy of solution.

  11. Gastrointestinal absorption of soluble uranium from drinking water. Published paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrenn, M.E.; Singh, N.P.; Ruth, H.; Burleigh, D.

    1988-04-01

    This manuscript describes results of an experiment to determine the gastrointestinal absorption of uranium from drinking water in 12 health adults. Most of the uranium ingested was excreted in feces in the first 2 days following ingestion of the water. The absorption was the same for (234)U and (238)U for each subject. Absorption varied among subjects from -0.02% to 2.6%, with a mean of 0.6%. Low absorption may be due to concurrent ingestion of food

  12. Temperature and salt addition effects on the solubility behaviour of some phenolic compounds in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noubigh, Adel [Laboratoire de Physico-chimie des materiaux, IPEST, BP51, 2070 La MARSA (Tunisia)]. E-mail: Adel.anoubigh@ipest.rnu.tn; Abderrabba, Manef [Laboratoire de Physico-chimie des materiaux, IPEST, BP51, 2070 La MARSA (Tunisia); Provost, Elise [Laboratoire Chimie et procedes, ENSTA, 32 Rue de Boulevard Victor, 75739 Paris, Cedex 15 (France)

    2007-02-15

    Solubility-temperature dependence data for six phenolic compounds (PhC), contained in olive mill wastewater (OMWW), in water and in some chloride salts (KCl, NaCl, and LiCl) aqueous solutions have been presented and solution standard molar enthalpies ({delta}{sub sol} H {sup 0}) were determined using Van't Hoff plots. The temperature was varied from 293.15 K to 318.15 K. Solubility data were estimated using a thermostated reactor and HPLC analysis. It has been observed that solubility, in pure water and in aqueous chloride solutions, increases with increasing temperature. The salting-out LiCl > NaCl > KCl order obtained at 298.15 K is confirmed. Results were interpreted in terms of the salt hydration shells and the ability of the solute to form hydrogen-bond with water. The standard molar Gibbs free energies of transfer of PhC ({delta}{sub tr} G {sup 0}) from pure water to aqueous solutions of the chloride salts have been calculated from the solubility data. In order to estimate the contribution of enthalpic and entropic terms, standard molar enthalpies ({delta}{sub tr} H {sup 0}) and entropies ({delta}{sub tr} S {sup 0}) of transfer have also been calculated. The decrease in solubility is correlated to the positive {delta}{sub tr} G {sup 0} value which is mainly of enthalpic origin.

  13. Rapid determination of water- and fat-soluble vitamins with microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Changna; Cao, Yuhua; Ding, Shaodong; Wang, Yun

    2008-06-06

    A rapid, reliable and reproducible method based on microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC) for simultaneous determination of 13 kinds of water- and fat-soluble vitamins has been developed in this work. A novel microemulsion system consisting of 1.2% (w/w) sodium lauryl sulphate (SDS), 21% (v/v) 1-butanol, 18% (v/v) acetonitrile, 0.8% (w/w) n-hexane, 20mM borax buffer (pH 8.7) was applied to improve selectivity and efficiency, as well as shorten analysis time. The composition of microemulsion used as the MEEKC running buffer was investigated thoroughly to obtain stable separation medium, as well as the optimum determination conditions. Acetonitrile as the organic solvent modifier, pH of the running buffer and 1-butanol as the co-surfactant played the most important roles for the separation of the fat-soluble vitamins, water-soluble vitamins and stabilization of system, respectively. The 13 water- and fat-soluble vitamins were baseline separated within 30 min. The system was applied to determine water- and fat-soluble vitamins in commercial multivitamin pharmaceutical formulation, good accuracy and precision were obtained with recoveries between 97% and 105%, relative standard derivations (RSDs) less than 1.8% except vitamin C, and acceptable quantitative results corresponding to label claim.

  14. Temperature and salt addition effects on the solubility behaviour of some phenolic compounds in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noubigh, Adel; Abderrabba, Manef; Provost, Elise

    2007-01-01

    Solubility-temperature dependence data for six phenolic compounds (PhC), contained in olive mill wastewater (OMWW), in water and in some chloride salts (KCl, NaCl, and LiCl) aqueous solutions have been presented and solution standard molar enthalpies (Δ sol H 0 ) were determined using Van't Hoff plots. The temperature was varied from 293.15 K to 318.15 K. Solubility data were estimated using a thermostated reactor and HPLC analysis. It has been observed that solubility, in pure water and in aqueous chloride solutions, increases with increasing temperature. The salting-out LiCl > NaCl > KCl order obtained at 298.15 K is confirmed. Results were interpreted in terms of the salt hydration shells and the ability of the solute to form hydrogen-bond with water. The standard molar Gibbs free energies of transfer of PhC (Δ tr G 0 ) from pure water to aqueous solutions of the chloride salts have been calculated from the solubility data. In order to estimate the contribution of enthalpic and entropic terms, standard molar enthalpies (Δ tr H 0 ) and entropies (Δ tr S 0 ) of transfer have also been calculated. The decrease in solubility is correlated to the positive Δ tr G 0 value which is mainly of enthalpic origin

  15. Separation of three water-soluble vitamins by poly(dimethylsiloxane) microchannel electrophoresis with electrochemical detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang-Yun; Zhang, Qian-Li; Lian, Hong-Zhen; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2007-09-01

    A method for rapid separation and sensitive determination of three water-soluble vitamins, pyridoxine, ascorbic acid (VC), and p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) has been developed by PDMS microchannel electrophoresis integrated with amperometric detection. After treatment of the microchip with oxygen plasma, the peak shapes of the three analytes were essentially improved. Pyridoxine, VC, and PABA were well separated within only 80 s in a running buffer of 20 mM borate solution (pH 8.5). Good linearity was obtained within the concentration range of 2-200 microM for the three water-soluble vitamins. The detection limits were 1.0 microM for pyridoxine and VC, and 1.5 microM for PABA. The proposed method has been successfully applied to real human urine sample, without solid phase extraction, with recoveries of 80-122% for the three water-soluble vitamins.

  16. Effect of supplementation of water-soluble vitamins on oxidative stress and blood pressure in prehypertensives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talikoti, Prashanth; Bobby, Zachariah; Hamide, Abdoul

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of water-soluble vitamins on oxidative stress and blood pressure in prehypertensives. Sixty prehypertensives were recruited and randomized into 2 groups of 30 each. One group received water-soluble vitamins and the other placebo for 4 months. Further increase in blood pressure was not observed in the vitamin group which increased significantly in the placebo group at the end of 4 months. Malonedialdehyde and protein carbonylation were reduced during the course of treatment with vitamins whereas in the placebo group there was an increase in the level of malondialdehyde. In conclusion, supplementation of water-soluble vitamins in prehypertension reduces oxidative stress and its progression to hypertension.

  17. Wintertime water-soluble aerosol composition and particle water content in Fresno, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parworth, Caroline L.; Young, Dominique E.; Kim, Hwajin; Zhang, Xiaolu; Cappa, Christopher D.; Collier, Sonya; Zhang, Qi

    2017-03-01

    The composition and concentrations of water-soluble gases and ionic aerosol components were measured from January to February 2013 in Fresno, CA, with a particle-into-liquid sampler with ion chromatography and annular denuders. The average (±1σ) ionic aerosol mass concentration was 15.0 (±9.4) µg m-3, and dominated by nitrate (61%), followed by ammonium, sulfate, chloride, potassium, nitrite, and sodium. Aerosol-phase organic acids, including formate and glycolate, and amines including methylaminium, triethanolaminium, ethanolaminium, dimethylaminium, and ethylaminium were also detected. Although the dominant species all came from secondary aerosol formation, there were primary sources of ionic aerosols as well, including biomass burning for potassium and glycolate, sea spray for sodium, chloride, and dimethylamine, and vehicles for formate. Particulate methanesulfonic acid was also detected and mainly associated with terrestrial sources. On average, the molar concentration of ammonia was 49 times greater than nitric acid, indicating that ammonium nitrate formation was limited by nitric acid availability. Particle water was calculated based on the Extended Aerosol Inorganics Model (E-AIM) thermodynamic prediction of inorganic particle water and κ-Köhler theory approximation of organic particle water. The average (±1σ) particle water concentration was 19.2 (±18.6) µg m-3, of which 90% was attributed to inorganic species. The fractional contribution of particle water to total fine particle mass averaged at 36% during this study and was greatest during early morning and night and least during the day. Based on aqueous-phase concentrations of ions calculated by using E-AIM, the average (±1σ) pH of particles in Fresno during the winter was estimated to be 4.2 (±0.2).

  18. Studies on dissolution enhancement and mathematical modeling of drug release of a poorly water-soluble drug using water-soluble carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Naveen; Katare, Om Prakash; Singh, Bhupinder

    2007-01-01

    Role of various water-soluble carriers was studied for dissolution enhancement of a poorly soluble model drug, rofecoxib, using solid dispersion approach. Diverse carriers viz. polyethylene glycols (PEG 4000 and 6000), polyglycolized fatty acid ester (Gelucire 44/14), polyvinylpyrollidone K25 (PVP), poloxamers (Lutrol F127 and F68), polyols (mannitol, sorbitol), organic acid (citric acid) and hydrotropes (urea, nicotinamide) were investigated for the purpose. Phase-solubility studies revealed AL type of curves for each carrier, indicating linear increase in drug solubility with carrier concentration. The sign and magnitude of the thermodynamic parameter, Gibbs free energy of transfer, indicated spontaneity of solubilization process. All the solid dispersions showed dissolution improvement vis-à-vis pure drug to varying degrees, with citric acid, PVP and poloxamers as the most promising carriers. Mathematical modeling of in vitro dissolution data indicated the best fitting with Korsemeyer-Peppas model and the drug release kinetics primarily as Fickian diffusion. Solid state characterization of the drug-poloxamer binary system using XRD, FTIR, DSC and SEM techniques revealed distinct loss of drug crystallinity in the formulation, ostensibly accounting for enhancement in dissolution rate.

  19. Water-Soluble Chlorophyll Protein (WSCP) Stably Binds Two or Four Chlorophylls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Daniel M; Agostini, Alessandro; Tenzer, Stefan; Gloeckle, Barbara M; Werwie, Mara; Carbonera, Donatella; Paulsen, Harald

    2017-03-28

    Water-soluble chlorophyll proteins (WSCPs) of class IIa from Brassicaceae form tetrameric complexes containing one chlorophyll (Chl) per apoprotein but no carotenoids. The complexes are remarkably stable toward dissociation and protein denaturation even at 100 °C and extreme pH values, and the Chls are partially protected against photooxidation. There are several hypotheses that explain the biological role of WSCPs, one of them proposing that they function as a scavenger of Chls set free upon plant senescence or pathogen attack. The biochemical properties of WSCP described in this paper are consistent with the protein acting as an efficient and flexible Chl scavenger. At limiting Chl concentrations, the recombinant WSCP apoprotein binds substoichiometric amounts of Chl (two Chls per tetramer) to form complexes that are as stable toward thermal dissociation, denaturation, and photodamage as the fully pigmented ones. If more Chl is added, these two-Chl complexes can bind another two Chls to reach the fully pigmented state. The protection of WSCP Chls against photodamage has been attributed to the apoprotein serving as a diffusion barrier for oxygen, preventing its access to triplet excited Chls and, thus, the formation of singlet oxygen. By contrast, the sequential binding of Chls by WSCP suggests a partially open or at least flexible structure, raising the question of how WSCP photoprotects its Chls without the help of carotenoids.

  20. Distinction of water-soluble constituents between natural and cultured Cordyceps by capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S P; Song, Z H; Dong, T T X; Ji, Z N; Lo, C K; Zhu, S Q; Tsim, K W K

    2004-11-01

    Cordyceps is an expensive traditional Chinese medicine, which has anti-tumor activity and significant effects on the immune system. In Southeast Asia, Cordyceps is commonly sold in capsule form as a health food product. Most of these products are derived from cultured Cordyceps mycelia. Because of the price difference, some manufacturers claim their products are from natural Cordyceps. In order to distinguish among various types of Cordyceps in the market, the profiles of water-soluble constituents derived from different sources of Cordyceps were determined by capillary electrophoresis (CE). Both natural and cultured Cordyceps showed three peak clusters migrated at 5-7, 9-11 and 12-13 min, and the height and resolution of these peak clusters were rather distinct. Peak cluster at 9-11 min was identified as adenosine, guanosine and uridine, and shared a similarity between natural and cultured products. In contrast, the peak cluster at 5-7 min was characteristic of natural Cordyceps, regardless of hosts and sources. By using the peak characteristics of CE profiles of different Cordyceps samples, hierarchical clustering analysis was performed. The result shows that those samples of natural Cordyceps were grouped together distinct from the cultured and commercial products. Thus, the CE profiles could serve as fingerprints for the quality control of Cordyceps.

  1. Urinary excretion levels of water-soluble vitamins in pregnant and lactating women in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Katsumi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Sasaki, Satoshi; Sano, Mitsue; Suzuki, Kahoru; Hiratsuka, Chiaki; Aoki, Asami; Nagai, Chiharu

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the urinary excretion levels of water-soluble vitamins can be used as biomarkers for the nutritional status of these vitamins. To determine changes in the urinary excretion levels of water-soluble vitamins during pregnant and lactating stages, we surveyed and compared levels of nine water-soluble vitamins in control (non-pregnant and non-lactating women), pregnant and lactating women. Control women (n=37), women in the 2nd (16-27 wk, n=24) and 3rd trimester of pregnancy (over 28 wk, n=32), and early- (0-5 mo, n=54) and late-stage lactating (6-11 mo, n=49) women took part in the survey. The mean age of subjects was ~30 y, and mean height was ~160 cm. A single 24-h urine sample was collected 1 d after the completion of a validated, self-administered comprehensive diet history questionnaire to measure water-soluble vitamins or metabolites. The average intake of each water-soluble vitamin was ≍ the estimated average requirement value and adequate intake for the Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes in all life stages, except for vitamin B6 and folate intakes during pregnancy. No change was observed in the urinary excretion levels of vitamin B2, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, biotin or vitamin C among stages. Urine nicotinamide and folate levels were higher in pregnant women than in control women. Urine excretion level of vitamin B1 decreased during lactation and that of pantothenic acid decreased during pregnancy and lactation. These results provide valuable information for setting the Dietary Reference Intakes of water-soluble vitamins for pregnant and lactating women.

  2. Gastrointestinal absorption of soluble uranium from drinking water by man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrenn, M.E.; Singh, N.P.; Ruth, H.; Rallison, M.L.; Burleigh, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    The gastrointestinal absorption of uranium has been measured in ten normal healthy adult volunteers of both sexes by feeding them one litre of water containing 200 to 300 μg of uranium per litre. The water was consumed during normal daytime activities while food was also ingested at its normal rate. Complete collections of urine and faeces were made and compounded on a daily basis over a period of two weeks, one week being prior to the consumption of the uranium-containing water. Uranium was measured by radiochemical separation followed by alpha spectrometry. Both 234 U and 238 U were determined. The results on these people showed that the uptake of uranium under these conditions averaged 0.6%, well below the f 1 of 5% assumed by the ICRP. (author)

  3. Relationship Between Urinary Concentrations of Nine Water-soluble Vitamins and their Vitamin Intakes in Japanese Adult Males

    OpenAIRE

    Shibata, Katsumi; Hirose, Junko; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    Excess water-soluble vitamins are thought to be eliminated in the urine. We have reported a strong relationship between water-soluble vitamin intake and urinary excretion in females. The relationship, however, is not well understood in males. In the present experiment, 10 Japanese male subjects were given a standard Japanese diet for the first week. The subjects remained on the same diet, and a synthesized water-soluble vitamin mixture containing one time the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) ...

  4. Preparation and tribology properties of water-soluble fullerene derivative nanoball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guichang Jiang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Water-soluble fullerene derivatives were synthesized via radical polymerization. They are completely soluble in water, yielding a clear brown solution. The products were characterized by FTIR, UV–Vis, 1H-NMR, 13CNMR, GPC, TGA, and SEM. Four-ball tests show that the addition of a certain concentration of the fullerene derivatives to base stock (2 wt.% triethanolamine aqueous solution can effectively increase both the load-carrying capacity (PB value, and the resistance to wear. SEM observations confirm the additive results in a reduced diameter of the wear scar and decreased wear.

  5. Smart polyelectrolyte microcapsules as carriers for water-soluble small molecular drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Weixing; He, Qiang; Möhwald, Helmuth; Yang, Yang; Li, Junbai

    2009-10-15

    Heat treatment is introduced as a simple method for the encapsulation of low molecular weight water-soluble drugs within layer-by-layer assembled microcapsules. A water-soluble drug, procainamide hydrochloride, could thus be encapsulated in large amount and enriched by more than 2 orders of magnitude in the assembled PDADMAC/PSS capsules. The shrunk capsules could control the unloading rate of drugs, and the drugs could be easily unloaded using ultrasonic treatment. The encapsulated amount could be quantitatively controlled via the drug concentration in the bulk. We also found that smaller capsules possess higher encapsulation capability.

  6. Lipid-based formulations for oral administration of poorly water-soluble drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Holm, René; Müllertz, Anette

    2013-01-01

    Lipid-based drug delivery systems have shown great potentials in oral delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs, primarily for lipophilic drugs, with several successfully marketed products. Pre-dissolving drugs in lipids, surfactants, or mixtures of lipids and surfactants omits the dissolving....../dissolution step, which is a potential rate limiting factor for oral absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs. Lipids not only vary in structures and physiochemical properties, but also in their digestibility and absorption pathway; therefore selection of lipid excipients and dosage form has a pronounced effect...

  7. Bioavailability assessment of the lipophilic benfotiamine as compared to a water-soluble thiamin derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsch, R; Wolf, M; Möller, J; Heuzeroth, L; Grüneklee, D

    1991-01-01

    The bioequivalence of thiamin in 2 therapeutically used preparations was tested in 10 healthy young men. Thiamin was orally administered either as lipophilic benfotiamine or as water-soluble thiamin mononitrate. Biokinetic data, measured as area under the curve and maximal concentration in plasma and hemolysate after ingestion, demonstrated a significantly improved bioavailability from the lipophilic derivative despite an ingested dose of only 40% as compared with the water-soluble salt. A superior cellular efficacy of benfotiamine was also concluded from the short-term stimulation of the thiamin-dependent transketolase activity in erythrocytes.

  8. Studeis on the immobilization of water soluble phosphatic fertilizer in some soils with 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yumei; Li Rensheng; Xu Xinyu

    1985-01-01

    Using superphosphate lablled with 32 P, we studied immobilization of water-soluble phosphatic fertilizer on 12 typies of soil. The experimental result showed that major factors to govern immobilization of water-soluble phosphatic fertilizer are: quickly availible Fe that showed positive correlation with the immobilization when it was 4.64-65.72 ppm; and pH that showed negative correlation with the immobilization when it was between 5.35 and 8.88. CaCO 3 and organic matter showed a great effect on the immobilization though there wasn't obvious correlation among them

  9. Synthesis of gold nanoclusters: a fluorescent marker for water-soluble TiO2 nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratanatawanate, Chalita; Yu Jing; Zhou Chen; Zheng Jie; Balkus, Kenneth J Jr

    2011-01-01

    The first example of a water-soluble wrapped titania nanotube (TNT) decorated with fluorescent gold nanoparticles has been prepared. Gold nanoparticles ∼ 1.6 nm in diameter were grown on the TiO 2 nanotubes using a thiolactic acid linker to control the size. The gold clusters emit at 660 nm in water and were imaged using confocal microscopy. The gold decorated TNTs were suspended in water by wrapping the nanotubes with poly-L-arginine.

  10. A water soluble heteropolyoxotungstate as a selective, efficient and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    In the catalytic system described here product isolation is easy, and the aqueous catalyst solution can be re-used several times with little loss in ... tle loss in the total amount of the heavy metal, which makes the overall process green ..... Chem. Res. 27 387. 12. Waters T, O'Hair R A J and Wedd A G 2003 J. Am. Chem. Soc.

  11. Prediction of the solubility of selected pharmaceuticals in water and alcohols with a group contribution method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelczarska, Aleksandra; Ramjugernath, Deresh; Rarey, Jurgen; Domańska, Urszula

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The prediction of solubility of pharmaceuticals in water and alcohols was presented. ► Improved group contribution method UNIFAC was proposed for 42 binary mixtures. ► Infinite activity coefficients were used in a model. ► A semi-predictive model with one experimental point was proposed. ► This model qualitatively describes the temperature dependency of Pharms. -- Abstract: An improved group contribution approach using activity coefficients at infinite dilution, which has been proposed by our group, was used for the prediction of the solubility of selected pharmaceuticals in water and alcohols [B. Moller, Activity of complex multifunctional organic compounds in common solvents, PhD Thesis, Chemical Engineering, University of KwaZulu-Natal, 2009]. The solubility of 16 different pharmaceuticals in water, ethanol and octan-1-ol was predicted over a fairly wide range of temperature with this group contribution model. The predicted values, along with values computed with the Schroeder-van Laar equation, are compared to experimental results published by us previously for 42 binary mixtures. The predicted solubility values were lower than those from the experiments for most of the mixtures. In order to improve the prediction method, a semi-predictive calculation using one experimental solubility value was implemented. This one point prediction has given acceptable results when comparison is made to experimental values

  12. Effects of contrast agents on the fallopian tube in a rabbit model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    Selection of the optimal contrast agent for hysterosalpingography was the focus of this study. The authors have evaluated the effect of different iodinated contrast agents on the fallopian tube of a rabbit. Ethiodol (oil-soluble contrast agent), methylglucamine iothalomate (water-soluble ionic agent) 30% and 60%, and Ioxilan (water-soluble monionic contrast agent) were compared. The agents were introduced by fallopian tube catheterization. Findings suggested that nonionic water-soluble contrast agents were the least detrimental to the fallopian tube and surrounding tissue. Iothalomate 60% resulted in mild inflammatory changes. Oil-soluble contrast agents caused granulomatous reaction and fibrinous adhesions

  13. Improvement of humidity resistance of water soluble core by precipitation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Long

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Water soluble core has been widely used in manufacturing complex metal components with hollow configurations or internal channels; however, the soluble core can absorb water easily from the air at room temperature. To improve the humidity resistance of the water soluble core and optimize the process parameters applied in manufacturing of the water soluble core, a precipitation method and a two-level-three-full factorial central composite design were used, respectively. The properties of the cores treated by the precipitation method were compared with that without any treatment. Through a systematical study by means of both an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM and an energy dispersive X-ray (EDX analyzer, the results indicate that the hygroscopicity can be reduced by 20% and the obtained optimal process conditions for three critical control factors affecting the hygroscopicity are 0.2 g·mL-1 calcium chloride concentration, 4% water concentration and 0 min ignition time. The porous surface coated by calcium chloride and the high humidity resistance products generated in the precipitation reaction between calcium chloride and potassium carbonate may contribute to the lower hygroscopicity.

  14. Solubility of gallic acid in liquid mixtures of (ethanol + water) from (293.15 to 318.15) K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noubigh, Adel; Jeribi, Chokri; Mgaidi, Arbi; Abderrabba, Manef

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Solubility of gallic acid vs the mole fraction of ethanol (0.0 to 1) on a solute-free basis in ethanol + water at different temperatures/K. □, 293.15; Δ, 298.15; ◊, 303.15; line calculated by equation. Highlights: ► Solubilities of gallic acid in binary mixtures were determined over the temperatures range (293.15 to 318.15) K. ► The gallic acid solubility in mixed solvents presents a maximum-solubility effect. ► Two empirical equations were proposed to correlate the solubility Data. ► The thermodynamic properties were determined. - Abstract: The solubility of gallic acid in (water + ethanol) binary solvents was determined from (293.15 to 318.15) K at atmospheric pressure using a thermostatted reactor and UV/vis spectrophotometer analysis. The effects of binary solvents composition and temperature on the solubility were discussed. It was found that gallic acid solubility in (water + ethanol) mixed solvents presents a maximum-solubility effect. Two empirical equations were proposed to correlate the solubility data. The calculated solubilities show good agreement with the experimental data within the studied temperature range. Using the experimentally measured solubilities, the thermodynamic properties of dissolution of the gallic acid such as Gibbs energy (Δ sol G°), molar enthalpy of dissolution (Δ sol H°), and molar entropy of dissolution (Δ sol S°) were calculated.

  15. Formation of water-soluble soybean polysaccharides from spent flakes by hydrogen peroxide treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierce, Brian; Wichmann, Jesper; Tran, Tam H.

    2016-01-01

    70% of the original insoluble material as high molar mass soluble polysaccharides. A design of experiment was used to quantify the effects of pH, reaction time, and hydrogen peroxide concentration on the reaction yield, average molar mass, and free monosaccharides generated. The resulting product......In this paper we propose a novel chemical process for the generation of water-soluble polysaccharides from soy spent flake, a by-product of the soy food industry. This process entails treatment of spent flake with hydrogen peroxide at an elevated temperature, resulting in the release of more than...... is low in protein, fat, and minerals and contains predominantly water-soluble polysaccharides of high molar mass, including arabinan, type I arabinogalactan, homogalacturonan, xyloglucan, rhamnogalacturonan, and (glucurono)arabinoxylan. This treatment provides a straightforward approach for generation...

  16. Highly Water-Soluble Magnetic Nanoparticles as Novel Draw Solutes in Forward Osmosis for Water Reuse

    KAUST Repository

    Ling, Ming Ming

    2010-06-16

    Highly hydrophilic magnetic nanoparticles have been molecularly designed. For the first time, the application of highly water-soluble magnetic nanoparticles as novel draw solutes in forward osmosis (FO) was systematically investigated. Magnetic nanoparticles functionalized by various groups were synthesized to explore the correlation between the surface chemistry of magnetic nanoparticles and the achieved osmolality. We verified that magnetic nanoparticles capped with polyacrylic acid can yield the highest driving force and subsequently highest water flux among others. The used magnetic nanoparticles can be captured by the magnetic field and recycled back into the stream as draw solutes in the FO process. In addition, magnetic nanoparticles of different diameters were also synthesized to study the effect of particles size on FO performance. We demonstrate that the engineering of surface hydrophilicity and magnetic nanoparticle size is crucial in the application of nanoparticles as draw solutes in FO. It is believed that magnetic nanoparticles will soon be extensively used in this area. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  17. Monoglyceride-based self-assembling copolymers as carriers for poorly water-soluble drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouxhet, L; Dinguizli, M; Latere Dwan'isa, J P; Ould-Ouali, L; Twaddle, P; Nathan, A; Brewster, M E; Rosenblatt, J; Ariën, A; Préat, V

    2009-12-01

    To develop self-assembling polymers forming polymeric micelles and increasing the solubility of poorly soluble drugs, amphiphilic polymers containing a hydrophilic PEG moiety and a hydrophobic moiety derived from monoglycerides and polyethers were designed. The biodegradable copolymers were obtained via a polycondensation reaction of polyethylene glycol (PEG), monooleylglyceride (MOG) and succinic anhydride (SA). Polymers with molecular weight below 10,000 g/mol containing a minimum of 40 mol% PEG and a maximum of 10 mol% MOG self-assembled spontaneously in aqueous media upon gentle mixing. They formed particles with a diameter of 10 nm although some aggregation was evident. The critical micellar concentration varied between 3x10(-4) and 4x10(-3) g/ml, depending on the polymer. The cloud point (> or = 66 degrees C) and flocculation point (> or = 0.89 M) increased with the PEG chain length. At a 1% concentration, the polymers increased the solubility of poorly water-soluble drug candidates up to 500-fold. Drug solubility increased as a function of the polymer concentration. HPMC capsules filled with these polymers disintegrated and released model drugs rapidly. Polymer with long PEG chains had a lower cytotoxicity (MTT test) on Caco-2 cells. All of these data suggest that the object polymers, in particular PEG1000/MOG/SA (45/5/50) might be potential candidates for improving the oral biopharmaceutical performance of poorly soluble drugs.

  18. Radiographic contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golman, K.; Holtz, E.; Almen, T.

    1987-01-01

    Contrast media are used in diagnostic radiology to enhance the X-ray attenuation between a body structure of interest and the surrounding tissue. A detail becomes perceptible on a roentgenogram only when its contrast exceeds a minimum value in relation to the background. Small areas of interest must have higher contrast than the background. The contrast effect depends on concentration of the contrast media with the body. A high contrast media concentration difference thus gives rise to more morphological details in the radiographs. Contrast media can be divided into negative contrast media such as air and gas which attenuate X-rays less than the body tissues, and positive contrast materials which attenuate X-rays more than the body tissues. The positive contrast media all contain either iodine (atomic number 53) or barium (atomic number 56) and can be divided into water-insoluble and water-soluble contrast media

  19. Water sorption and solubility of bulk-fill composites polymerized with a third generation LED LCU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğba MİSİLLİ

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to compare the degree of water sorption and solubility in bulk-fills after curing with a polywave light source. A total of 120 disc-shaped specimens (8 mm diameter; 4 mm depth were prepared from three regular bulk-fill materials (X-tra Fil, Tetric N-Ceram Bulk Fill, SonicFill, and a control material (Filtek Z250, cured in 3 different modes (standard: 1000 mW/cm2-20 s; high power: 1400 mW/cm2-12 s; xtra power: 3200 mW/cm2-6 s using a third generation light-emitting diode light curing unit. Water sorption and solubility levels of the specimens were measured according to the ISO 4049:2009 specification after storing in distilled water for 30 days. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s post-hoc test (p < 0.05. The Z250 sample exposed to high power presented a higher sorption compared to the X-tra Fil and SonicFill samples. In xtra power mode, the values of Z250 and SonicFill were similar to each other and higher compared to those of X-tra Fil. Only SonicFill exhibited significantly different sorption values depending on the curing mode, the highest of which was achieved when using the xtra power mode. The highest solubility values were obtained for SonicFill. No statistically significant differences were found among other groups. No significant correlation was detected between water sorption and solubility. The traditional composite group exhibited a higher water sorption values than the bulk-fills. The reduction in polymerization time significantly increased the sorption of SonicFill. SonicFill showed the highest water solubility value among the composites tested.

  20. The effects of fire temperatures on water soluble heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, P.; Ubeda, X.; Martin, D. A.

    2009-04-01

    Fire ash are majority composed by base cations, however the mineralized organic matter, led also available to transport a higher quantity of heavy metals that potentially could increase a toxicity in soil and water resources. The amount availability of these elements depend on the environment were the fire took place, burning temperature and combusted tree specie. The soil and water contamination from fire ash has been neglected, because the majority of studies are focused on base cations dynamic. Our research, beside contemplate major elements, is focused in to study the behavior of heavy metals released from ash slurries created at several temperatures under laboratory environment, prescribed fires and wildland fires. The results presented in these communication are preliminary and study the presence of Aluminium (Al3+), Manganese (Mn2+), Iron (Fe2+) and Zinc (Zn2+) of ash slurries generated in laboratory environment at several temperatures (150°, 200°, 250°, 300°, 350°, 400°,450°, 500°, 550°C) from Quercus suber, Quercus robur, Pinus pinea and Pinus pinaster and from a low medium temperature prescribed fire in a forest dominated Quercus suber trees. We observed that ash produced at lower and medium temperatures (Pinus ashes. Fe2+ and Zn2+ showed a reduced concentration in test solution in relation to unburned sample at all temperatures of exposition. In the results obtained from prescribed fire, we identify a higher release of Al3+ and a decrease of the remain elements. The solubilization of these elements are related with pH levels and ash calcite content, because their ability to capture ions in solution. Moreover, the amount and the type of ions released in relation to unburned sample vary in each specie. In this study Al3+ release is related with Quercus species and Mn2+ with Pinus species. Fire ashes can be an environmental problem, because at long term can increase soil acidity. After all base cations have being leached, pH values decrease, and

  1. Solubility of fused silica in sub- and supercritical water: Estimation from a thermodynamic model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karásek, Pavel; Šťavíková, Lenka; Planeta, Josef; Hohnová, Barbora; Roth, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 83, NOV (2013), s. 72-77 ISSN 0896-8446 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP106/12/0522 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : amorphous silica * fused silica * supercritical water * aqueous solubility Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.571, year: 2013

  2. Synthesis of phthalocyanines-ALA conjugates: water-soluble compounds with low aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Kleber T; de Assis, Francisco F; Ribeiro, Anderson O; Neri, Claudio R; Fernandes, Adjaci U; Baptista, Mauricio S; Lopes, Norberto P; Serra, Osvaldo A; Iamamoto, Yassuko

    2009-10-16

    Syntheses of two water-soluble phthalocyanines (Pc) containing 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) linked to the core structure are described. These compounds were prepared by using original functionalizations, and they present remarkable structural and photophysical features, indicating that they could be applied to photodynamic therapy (PDT).

  3. Kinetics of radiolysis of irradiated ligno celluloses into soluble products in water and rumen liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tukenmez, I.; Bakioglu, A.T.; Ersen, M.S.

    1997-01-01

    In order to increase the low bio hydrolysis of ligno celluloses in biotechnological and biological processes where these materials are used as raw materials and ruminant feed, the substrates were pretreated with irradiation to induce radiolytic depolymerisation and then kinetics of their radiolysis into soluble products in water and rumen liquid were analyzed. Wheat straw used as a representative lignocellulose substrate was irradiated at 0-2.5 MGy doses at 20''o''C with an optimum equilibrium humidity of 6.6% in Cs-137 gamma irradiator with a dose rate of 1.8 kGy/h, and soluablefractions in water and in situ rumen liquid were determined gravimetrically. Based on these data, a reaction mechanism was proposed for the radiolysis of ligno celluloses into soluble fractions. From the corresponding reaction rate equations with this mechanism a dose dependent kinetics was derived for the radiolysis of ligno celluloses into water/rumen liquid-soluble products. Defined by this kinetics, the threshold doses for the radiolysis of the substrate into water/rumen liquid-soluble products were respectively found 80.6 kGy and 186.0 kGy, and fractional radiolytic decomposition yields 0.193 MGy''-1''.It was emphasized that developed kinetic models may be used for the process design of irradiation pretreatments to improve the bio hydrolysis of ligno celluloses.(2figs. and 17 refs.)

  4. Profiling and relationship of water-soluble sugar and protein compositions in soybean seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaomin; Yuan, Fengjie; Fu, Xujun; Zhu, Danhua

    2016-04-01

    Sugar and protein are important quality traits in soybean seeds for making soy-based food products. However, the investigations on both compositions and their relationship have rarely been reported. In this study, a total of 35 soybean germplasms collected from Zhejiang province of China, were evaluated for both water-soluble sugar and protein. The total water-soluble sugar (TWSS) content of the germplasms studied ranged from 84.70 to 140.91 mg/g and the water-soluble protein (WSP) content varied from 26.5% to 36.0%. The WSP content showed positive correlations with the TWSS and sucrose contents but negative correlations with the fructose and glucose contents. The clustering showed the 35 germplasms could be divided into four groups with specific contents of sugar and protein. The combination of water-soluble sugar and protein profiles provides useful information for future breeding and genetic research. This investigation will facilitate future work for seed quality improvement. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. pKa Determination of water-soluble calix[4]arenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shinkai, Seiji; Araki, Koji; Grootenhuis, P.D.J.; Reinhoudt, David

    1991-01-01

    Neutral, water-soluble 5,11,17,23-tetrakis[bis-(2-hydroxyethyl)aminosulphonyl]calix[4]arene-25,26,27,28-tetraol and 5,11,17,23-tetranitrocalix[4]arene-25,26,27,28-tetraol have been synthesized and the pKa values of the OH groups determined in an aqueous system.

  6. Processes controlling the production of aromatic water-soluble organic matter during litter decomposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klotzbücher, T.; Kaiser, K.; Filley, T.R.; Kalbitz, K.

    2013-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays a fundamental role for many soil processes. For instance, production, transport, and retention of DOM control properties and long-term storage of organic matter in mineral soils. Production of water-soluble compounds during the decomposition of plant litter is a

  7. Case study of water-soluble metal containing organic constituents of biomass burning aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandra L. Chang-Graham; Luisa T. M. Profeta; Timothy J. Johnson; Robert J. Yokelson; Alexander Laskin; Julia Laskin

    2011-01-01

    Natural and prescribed biomass fires are a major source of aerosols that may persist in the atmosphere for several weeks. Biomass burning aerosols (BBA) can be associated with long-range transport of water-soluble N-, S-, P-, and metal-containing species. In this study, BBA samples were collected using a particle-into-liquid sampler (PILS) from laboratory burns of...

  8. Fluorescent Water Soluble Polymers for Isozyme-Selective Interactions with Matrix Metalloproteinase-9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Rinku; Scott, Michael D.; Haldar, Manas K.; Ganguly, Bratati; Srivastava, D. K.; Friesner, Daniel L.; Mallik, Sanku

    2011-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are overexpressed in various pathological conditions, including various cancers. Although these isozymes have similar active sites, the patterns of exposed amino acids on their surfaces are different. Herein, we report the synthesis and molecular interactions of two water-soluble, fluorescent polymers which demonstrate selective interactions with MMP-9 compared to MMP-7 and -10. PMID:21367603

  9. Testing water-soluble carbohydrate QTL effects in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) by marker selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turner, L.B.; Farrell, M.; Humphreys, M.O.; Dolstra, O.

    2010-01-01

    Water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) are an important factor determining the nutritional value of grass forage and development of genetic markers for selection of WSC traits in perennial ryegrass would benefit future breeding programmes. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for WSC have been published for an

  10. Antioxidative activity of water soluble polysaccharide in pumpkin fruits (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nara, Kazuhiro; Yamaguchi, Akira; Maeda, Naomi; Koga, Hidenori

    2009-06-01

    We evaluated the antioxidative activity of a water soluble polysaccharide fraction (WSP) from pumpkin fruits (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne). In the WSP, DPPH radical scavenging and superoxide dismutase-like activity increased depending on the total sugar content. Furthermore, the WSP can serve as an inhibitor of ascorbic acid oxidation. The efficacy was also affected by the total sugar content.

  11. Cross-linking of dermal sheep collagen using a water-soluble carbodiimide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damink, LHHO; Dijkstra, PJ; vanLuyn, MJA; vanWachem, PB; Nieuwenhuis, P; Feijen, J

    A cross-linking method for collagen-based biomaterials was developed using the water-soluble carbodiimide 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC). Cross-linking using EDC involves the activation of carboxylic acid groups to give O-acylisourea groups, which form cross-links

  12. In vitro degradation of dermal sheep collagen cross-linked using a water-soluble carbodiimide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damink, LHHO; Dijkstra, PJ; vanLuyn, MJA; vanWachem, PB; Nieuwenhuis, P; Feijen, J

    Bacterial collagenase was used to study the susceptibility of dermal sheep collagen (DSC) cross-inked with a mixture of the water-soluble carbodiimide 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride and N-hydroxysuccinimide (EIN-DSC) towards enzymatic degradation. Contrary to

  13. Cross-linking of dermal sheep collagen using a water-soluble carbodiimide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olde damink, L.H.H.; Olde Damink, L.H.H.; Dijkstra, Pieter J.; van Luyn, M.J.A.; van Wachem, P.B.; Nieuwenhuis, P.; Feijen, Jan

    1996-01-01

    A cross-linking method for collagen-based biomaterials was developed using the water-soluble carbodiimide 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC). Cross-linking using EDC involves the activation of carboxylic acid groups to give O-acylisourea groups, which form cross-links

  14. 40 CFR 799.6786 - TSCA water solubility: Generator column method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... b, using a linear regression equation of C vs. R in the following form: Equation 4: ER15DE00.062... address in paragraph (e) of this section. (b) Introduction—(1) Purpose. (i) The water solubility of a... peak area to volume injected and, from the regression equation of the calibration line, determine the...

  15. Synthesis of water-soluble scaffolds for peptide cyclization, labeling, and ligation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeenk, L.E.J.; Dailly, N.; Hiemstra, H.; van Maarseveen, J.H.; Timmerman, P.

    2012-01-01

    The synthesis and applications of water-soluble scaffolds that conformationally constrain side chain unprotected linear peptides containing two cysteines are described. These scaffolds contain a functionality with orthogonal reactivity to be used for labeling and ligation. This is illustrated by the

  16. Distribution of various water soluble radioactive metalloporphyrins in tumor bearing mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hambright, P.; Fawwaz, R.; Valk, P.; McRae, J.; Bearden, A.J.

    1975-01-01

    The distribution of a variety of water soluble 109 Pd and 64 Cu porphyrins were studied in mice bearing three types of tumors. While the metalloporphyrins are found to have an affinity for neoplastic tissue, substantial extra-tumor concentrations are also noted. Although this limits their value as specific tumor imaging agents, their use in localized therapy is discussed

  17. Temperature and sodium chloride effects on the solubility of anthracene in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias-Gonzalez, Israel; Reza, Joel; Trejo, Arturo

    2010-01-01

    The solubility of anthracene was measured in pure water and in sodium chloride aqueous solution (salt concentration, m/mol . kg -1 = 0.1006, 0.5056, and 0.6082) at temperatures between (278 and 333) K. Solubility of anthracene in pure water agrees fairly well with values reported in earlier similar studies. Solubility of anthracene in sodium chloride aqueous solutions ranged from (6 . 10 -8 to 143 . 10 -8 ) mol . kg -1 . Sodium chloride had a salting-out effect on the solubility of anthracene. The salting-out coefficients did not vary significantly with temperature over the range studied. The average salting-out coefficient for anthracene was 0.256 kg . mol -1 . The standard molar Gibbs free energies, Δ tr G o , enthalpies, Δ tr H o , and entropies, Δ tr S o , for the transfer of anthracene from pure water to sodium chloride aqueous solutions were also estimated. Most of the estimated Δ tr G o values were positive [(20 to 1230) J . mol -1 ]. The analysis of the thermodynamic parameters shows that the transfer of anthracene from pure water to sodium chloride aqueous solution is thermodynamically unfavorable, and that this unfavorable condition is caused by a decrease in entropy.

  18. Assessment of acute toxicity of water soluble fraction of diesel on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute toxicity of water soluble fraction (WSF) of diesel fuel was assessed by evaluating its effects on growth of two marine microalgae, Isochrysis and Chaetoceros. Pure cultures of each of the two microalgae were exposed to concentrations of 0% (controls), 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of diesel WSF (in triplicates) and allowed ...

  19. Amino acids as co-amorphous stabilizers for poorly water soluble drugs--Part 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löbmann, Korbinian; Grohganz, Holger; Laitinen, Riikka

    2013-01-01

    molecular weight excipients that form specific molecular interactions with the drug resulting in co-amorphous forms. The two poorly water soluble drugs carbamazepine and indomethacin were combined with amino acids from the binding sites of the biological receptors of these drugs. Mixtures of drug...

  20. Mechanisms and Regulation of Intestinal Absorption of Water-soluble Vitamins: Cellular and Molecular Aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nexø, Ebba; Said, Hamid M

    2012-01-01

    The water-soluble vitamins represent a group of structurally and functionally unrelated compounds that share the common feature of being essential for normal cellular functions, growth, and development. With the exception of some endogenous production of niacin, human cells cannot synthesize...

  1. The effect of water solubles on Kelvin effects of the Maritime Polluted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work microphysical properties of Maritime Polluted aerosols wereextracted from Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds (OPAC) after varying the concentrations of water soluble at five different levels. The analytical expressions for the changes in the equilibrium relative humidity (RH), effective radii, effective ...

  2. Biphasic and SAPC Hydroformylation Catalyzed by Rh-phosphines Bound to Water-Soluble Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmstrøm, Torsten; Andersson, Carlaxel; Hjortkjær, Jes

    1999-01-01

    Coupling of the triphenylphosphine moiety to poly-acrylic acid and poly-ethyleneimine respectively afford the macromolecular ligands PAA-PNH and PEI-PNH. Reaction of the ligands with Rh(CO)2(acac) give water-soluble complexes that are active as catalysts in the hydroformylation ofdifferent olefins...

  3. Temperature and sodium chloride effects on the solubility of anthracene in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arias-Gonzalez, Israel [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Direccion de Investigacion y Posgrado, Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Area de Investigacion en Termofisica, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas Norte 152. 07730, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Reza, Joel, E-mail: jreza@imp.m [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Direccion de Investigacion y Posgrado, Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Area de Investigacion en Termofisica, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas Norte 152. 07730, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Trejo, Arturo, E-mail: atrejo@imp.m [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Direccion de Investigacion y Posgrado, Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Area de Investigacion en Termofisica, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas Norte 152. 07730, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-11-15

    The solubility of anthracene was measured in pure water and in sodium chloride aqueous solution (salt concentration, m/mol . kg{sup -1} = 0.1006, 0.5056, and 0.6082) at temperatures between (278 and 333) K. Solubility of anthracene in pure water agrees fairly well with values reported in earlier similar studies. Solubility of anthracene in sodium chloride aqueous solutions ranged from (6 . 10{sup -8} to 143 . 10{sup -8}) mol . kg{sup -1}. Sodium chloride had a salting-out effect on the solubility of anthracene. The salting-out coefficients did not vary significantly with temperature over the range studied. The average salting-out coefficient for anthracene was 0.256 kg . mol{sup -1}. The standard molar Gibbs free energies, {Delta}{sub tr}G{sup o}, enthalpies, {Delta}{sub tr}H{sup o}, and entropies, {Delta}{sub tr}S{sup o}, for the transfer of anthracene from pure water to sodium chloride aqueous solutions were also estimated. Most of the estimated {Delta}{sub tr}G{sup o} values were positive [(20 to 1230) J . mol{sup -1}]. The analysis of the thermodynamic parameters shows that the transfer of anthracene from pure water to sodium chloride aqueous solution is thermodynamically unfavorable, and that this unfavorable condition is caused by a decrease in entropy.

  4. Synthesis and Characterization of Water-soluble Conjugates of Cabazitaxel Hemiesters-Dextran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parhizkar, Elahehnaz; Ahmadi, Fatemeh; Daneshamouz, Saeid; Mohammadi-Samani, Soliman; Sakhteman, Amirhossein; Parhizkar, Golnaz

    2017-11-24

    Cabazitaxel (CTX) is a second- generation taxane derivative, a class of potent anticancer drugs with very low water solubility. CTX is used in patients with resistant prostate cancer unresponsive to the first generation taxane, docetaxel. Currently marketed formulations of CTX contain high concentrations of surfactant and ethanol, which cause severe hypersensitivity reactions in patients. In order to increase its solubility, two hemiester analogs; CTX-succinate and CTX-glutarate were synthesized and characterized. To improve the solubility of hemiesters even more, dextran as a biocompatible polymer was also conjugated to hemiester analogs. MTT assay was performed on MCF-7 cell line to evaluate the cytotoxicity effect of hemiesters and conjugates. Based on the results, hemiester analogs increased water solubility of the drug up to about 3 and 8 fold. Conjugation to dextran enhanced the CTX solubility to more than 1500 fold. These conjugates released the conjugated CTX in less than 24 hours in a pH dependent manner and showed proper hemocompatibility characteristics. The hemiesters had approximately similar cytotoxicity in comparison with CTX and the dextran conjugates showed higher cytotoxicity effect on MCF-7 cell line. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Antimicrobial and Antifungal Effects of Acid and Water-Soluble Chitosan Extracted from Indian Shrimp (Fenneropenaeus indicus Shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Taheri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective : Currently, efforts are underway to seek new and effective antimicrobial agents, and marine resources are potent candidates for this aim. The following study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of water-soluble and acid-soluble chitosan against some pathogenic organisms.   Materials & Method s: Inhibition zone of different concentrations (5, 7.5, and 10 mg/ml of acid- soluble and water-soluble chitosan were examined for in vitro antibacterial activity against 4 kinds of hospital bacteria and penicillium sp. Results were compared with 4 standard antibiotics: streptomycin, gentamicin, tetracycline, and erythromycin. Furthermore, minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum lethal concentration were determined.   Results: Inhibition activity of acid-soluble chitosan (10% showed the best result (p value < 0.05, whereas water-soluble chitosan exhibited the least antibacterial effects (p value < 0.05. Chitosan demonstrated maximum effect on V. cholera cerotype ogava , and the least effect was seen on E. coli (p value < 0.05. Acid-soluble chitosan had a more potent effect than the standard antibiotics. Also, acid-soluble chitosan (10% and water-soluble chitosan showed maximum inhibitory effects on penicillium sp.   Conclusion: Chitosan showed maximum antibacterial effect against S. aureus, V. cholerae cerotype ogava, and water-soluble chitosan demonstrated good antifungal effects, revealing a statistically significant difference with common antibacterial and antifungal medicines.

  6. Consequences of chirality on the dynamics of a water-soluble supramolecular polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Matthew B; Albertazzi, Lorenzo; Voets, Ilja K; Leenders, Christianus M A; Palmans, Anja R A; Pavan, Giovanni M; Meijer, E W

    2015-02-20

    The rational design of supramolecular polymers in water is imperative for their widespread use, but the design principles for these systems are not well understood. Herein, we employ a multi-scale (spatial and temporal) approach to differentiate two analogous water-soluble supramolecular polymers: one with and one without a stereogenic methyl. Initially aiming simply to understand the molecular behaviour of these systems in water, we find that while the fibres may look identical, the introduction of homochirality imparts a higher level of internal order to the supramolecular polymer. Although this increased order does not seem to affect the basic dimensions of the supramolecular fibres, the equilibrium dynamics of the polymers differ by almost an order of magnitude. This report represents the first observation of a structure/property relationship with regard to equilibrium dynamics in water-soluble supramolecular polymers.

  7. Consequences of chirality on the dynamics of a water-soluble supramolecular polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Matthew B.; Albertazzi, Lorenzo; Voets, Ilja K.; Leenders, Christianus M. A.; Palmans, Anja R. A.; Pavan, Giovanni M.; Meijer, E. W.

    2015-02-01

    The rational design of supramolecular polymers in water is imperative for their widespread use, but the design principles for these systems are not well understood. Herein, we employ a multi-scale (spatial and temporal) approach to differentiate two analogous water-soluble supramolecular polymers: one with and one without a stereogenic methyl. Initially aiming simply to understand the molecular behaviour of these systems in water, we find that while the fibres may look identical, the introduction of homochirality imparts a higher level of internal order to the supramolecular polymer. Although this increased order does not seem to affect the basic dimensions of the supramolecular fibres, the equilibrium dynamics of the polymers differ by almost an order of magnitude. This report represents the first observation of a structure/property relationship with regard to equilibrium dynamics in water-soluble supramolecular polymers.

  8. Changes in apparent molar water volume and DKP solubility yield insights on the Hofmeister effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payumo, Alexander Y; Huijon, R Michael; Mansfield, Deauna D; Belk, Laurel M; Bui, Annie K; Knight, Anne E; Eggers, Daryl K

    2011-12-15

    This study examines the properties of a 4 × 2 matrix of aqueous cations and anions at concentrations up to 8.0 M. The apparent molar water volume, as calculated by subtracting the mass and volume of the ions from the corresponding solution density, was found to exceed the molar volume of ice in many concentrated electrolyte solutions, underscoring the nonideal behavior of these systems. The solvent properties of water were also analyzed by measuring the solubility of diketopiperazine (DKP) in 2.000 M salt solutions prepared from the same ion combinations. Solution rankings for DKP solubility were found to parallel the Hofmeister series for both cations and anions, whereas molar water volume concurred with the cation series only. The results are discussed within the framework of a desolvation energy model that attributes solute-specific changes in equilibria to solute-dependent changes in the free energy of bulk water.

  9. Changes in Apparent Molar Water Volume and DKP Solubility Yield Insights on the Hofmeister Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payumo, Alexander Y.; Huijon, R. Michael; Mansfield, Deauna D.; Belk, Laurel M.; Bui, Annie K.; Knight, Anne E.; Eggers, Daryl K.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the properties of a 4 × 2 matrix of aqueous cations and anions at concentrations up to 8.0 M. The apparent molar water volume, as calculated by subtracting the mass and volume of the ions from the corresponding solution density, was found to exceed the molar volume of ice in many concentrated electrolyte solutions, underscoring the non-ideal behavior of these systems. The solvent properties of water were also analyzed by measuring the solubility of diketopiperazine (DKP) in 2.000 M salt solutions prepared from the same ion combinations. Solution rankings for DKP solubility were found to parallel the Hofmeister series for both cations and anions, whereas molar water volume concurred with the cation series only. The results are discussed within the framework of a desolvation energy model that attributes solute-specific changes in equilibria to solute-dependent changes in the free energy of bulk water. PMID:22029390

  10. Water soluble (Ln3+) doped nanoparticle: Retention of strong luminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attar, Tarannum Vahid; Khandpekar, Mahendra M.

    2018-04-01

    This paper deals with the synthesis of hexagonal nanoparticles of LaF3: Nd, Ho (LFNH) in the presence of LaCl3.7H2O and NH4F by precipitation method using deionized water as solvent. The nanoparticles have a nearly hexagonal shape with cell parameters, a = b = 7.0980 AU and c = 7.2300 AU and confirms with the JCPDS standard card (32-0483) of pure LaF3 crystals. The TEM results show that the average sizes of these nanoparticles are 15nm which is consistent with the sizes obtained from XRD measurements. The SEM image shows uniform size distribution of the nanoparticles. Detection of Second harmonic generation (SHG) signal together with the presence of wide transparency window (UV studies) makes LFNH suitable for optoelectronic applications. The Photoluminescence of the nanocrystals has been observed by excitation and emission spectra. The peak at 629nm indicates red up conversion fluorescence useful in applications like bioimaging and biolabelling.

  11. Sub-nanoscale surface ruggedness provides a water-tight seal for exposed regions in soluble protein structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Schulz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Soluble proteins must maintain backbone hydrogen bonds (BHBs water-tight to ensure structural integrity. This protection is often achieved by burying the BHBs or wrapping them through intermolecular associations. On the other hand, water has low coordination resilience, with loss of hydrogen-bonding partnerships carrying significant thermodynamic cost. Thus, a core problem in structural biology is whether natural design actually exploits the water coordination stiffness to seal the backbone in regions that are exposed to the solvent. This work explores the molecular design features that make this type of seal operative, focusing on the side-chain arrangements that shield the protein backbone. We show that an efficient sealing is achieved by adapting the sub-nanoscale surface topography to the stringency of water coordination: an exposed BHB may be kept dry if the local concave curvature is small enough to impede formation of the coordination shell of a penetrating water molecule. Examination of an exhaustive database of uncomplexed proteins reveals that exposed BHBs invariably occur within such sub-nanoscale cavities in native folds, while this level of local ruggedness is absent in other regions. By contrast, BHB exposure in misfolded proteins occurs with larger local curvature promoting backbone hydration and consequently, structure disruption. These findings unravel physical constraints fitting a spatially dependent least-action for water coordination, introduce a molecular design concept, and herald the advent of water-tight peptide-based materials with sufficient backbone exposure to remain flexible.

  12. Experimental density, viscosity, interfacial tension and water solubility of ethyl benzene-α-methyl benzyl alcohol–water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barega, Esayas W.; Zondervan, Edwin; Haan, André B. de

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Properties were measured for MBA (methyl benzyl alcohol)-EB (ethyl benzene)-water. • MBA concentration was found to influence all the properties strongly. • The water solubility, density, and viscosity increased at high MBA concentration. • The interfacial tension decreased sharply at high MBA concentration. • MBA dictates the phase separation and mass transfer of the ternary system. -- Abstract: Density, viscosity, interfacial tension, and water solubility were measured for the (α-methyl benzyl alcohol (MBA) + Ethyl benzene (EB)) system at different concentrations of MBA in contact with water and sodium hydroxide solution (0.01 mol · kg −1 ) as aqueous phases. The properties were measured to identify the component which plays a governing role in changing the physical properties relevant to mass transfer and phase separation of the ternary system. The concentration of MBA was found to be the major factor influencing all the properties. The water solubility, the density, and the viscosity increased notably at higher concentrations of MBA; while, the interfacial tension decreased strongly. The use of 0.01 mol · kg −1 NaOH as an aqueous phase resulted in a decrease of the interfacial tension and a minor decrease in the water solubility. The density data were correlated using a quadratic mixing rule to describe the influence of concentration at any temperature. The viscosity data are correlated using the Nissan and Grunberg and Katti-Chaudhri equations. The Szyzkowski’s equation was used to correlate the interfacial tension data. The water solubility data were described using an exponential relationship. All the correlations described the experimental physical property data adequately

  13. Temperature Dependence of Mineral Solubility in Water. Part 2. Alkaline and Alkaline Earth Bromides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumgalz, B. S.

    2018-03-01

    Databases of alkaline and alkaline earth bromide solubilities in water at various temperatures were created using experimental data from publications over about the last two centuries. Statistical critical evaluation of the created databases was produced since there were enough independent data sources to justify such evaluation. The reliable experimental data were adequately described by polynomial expressions over various temperature ranges. Using the Pitzer approach for ionic activity and osmotic coefficients, the thermodynamic solubility products for the discussed bromide minerals have been calculated at various temperature intervals and also represented by polynomial expressions.

  14. Determination and correlation of solubility and solution thermodynamics of oxiracetam in three (alcohol + water) binary solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Kangli; Du, Shichao; Wu, Songgu; Cai, Dongchen; Wang, Jinxu; Zhang, Dejiang; Zhao, Kaifei; Yang, Peng; Yu, Bo; Guo, Baisong; Li, Daixi; Gong, Junbo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The solubility of racemic oxiracetam in three binary solvents were determined. • The experimental solubility of racemic oxiracetam were correlated by four models. • The dissolution thermodynamic properties of racemic oxiracetam were calculated. - Abstract: In this paper, we proposed a static analysis method to experimentally determine the (solid + liquid) equilibrium of racemic oxiracetam in (methanol + water), (ethanol + water) and (isopropanol + water) binary solvents with alcohol mole fraction ranging from 0.30 to 0.90 at atmosphere pressure (p = 0.1 MPa). For the experiments, the temperatures range from (283.15 to 308.15) K. The results showed that the solubility of oxiracetam increased with the increasing temperature, while decreased with the increasing organic solvent fraction in all three tested binary solvent systems. The modified Apelblat model, the CNIBS/Redlich–Kister model, the combined version of Jouyban–Acree model and the NRTL model were employed to correlate the measured solubility values, respectively. Additionally, some of the thermodynamic properties which can help to evaluate its dissolution behavior were obtained based on the NRTL model.

  15. Hydrodistillation-adsorption method for the isolation of water-soluble, non-soluble and high volatile compounds from plant materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastelić, J; Jerković, I; Blazević, I; Radonić, A; Krstulović, L

    2008-08-15

    Proposed method of hydrodistillation-adsorption (HDA) on activated carbon and hydrodistillation (HD) with solvent trap were compared for the isolation of water-soluble, non-soluble and high volatile compounds, such as acids, monoterpenes, isothiocyanates and others from carob (Certonia siliqua L.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) and rocket (Eruca sativa L.). Isolated volatiles were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The main advantages of HDA method over ubiquitous HD method were higher yields of volatile compounds and their simultaneous separation in three fractions that enabled more detail analyses. This method is particularly suitable for the isolation and analysis of the plant volatiles with high amounts of water-soluble compounds. In distinction from previously published adsorption of remaining volatile compounds from distillation water on activated carbon, this method offers simultaneous hydrodistillation and adsorption in the same apparatus.

  16. Equilibrium solubility of carbon dioxide in the amine solvent system of (triethanolamine + piperazine + water)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, P.-Y.; Soriano, Allan N.; Leron, Rhoda B.; Li, M.-H.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a new set of data for the equilibrium solubility of carbon dioxide in the amine solvent system that consists of triethanolamine (TEA), piperazine (PZ), and water is presented. Equilibrium solubility values were obtained at T = (313.2, 333.2, and 353.2) K and pressures up to 153 kPa using the vapour-recirculation equilibrium cell. The TEA concentrations in the considered ternary (solvent) mixture were (2 and 3) kmol . m -3 and those of PZ's were (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5) kmol . m -3 . The solubility data (CO 2 loading in the amine solution) obtained were correlated as a function of CO 2 partial pressure, system temperature, and amine composition via the modified Kent-Eisenberg model. Results showed that the model applied is generally satisfactory in representing the CO 2 absorption into mixed aqueous solutions of TEA and PZ.

  17. Magnetite solubility studies under simulated PWR primary-side conditions, using lithiated, hydrogenated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewett, John; Morrison, Jonathan; Cooper, Christopher; Ponton, Clive; Connolly, Brian; Dickinson, Shirley; Henshaw, Jim

    2014-01-01

    As software for modelling dissolution, precipitation, and transport of metallic species and subsequent CRUD deposition within nuclear plant becomes more advanced, there is an increasing need for accurate and reliable thermodynamic data. The solubility behaviour of magnetite is an example of such data, and is central to any treatment of CRUD solubility due to the prevalence of magnetite and nickel ferrites in CRUD. Several workers have shown the most consistent solubility data comes from once-through flowing systems. However, despite a strong consensus between the results in acidic to mildly alkaline solutions, there is disagreement between the results at approximately pH 25C 9 and higher. A programme of experimental work is on-going at the University of Birmingham, focusing on solubility of metal oxides (e.g., magnetite) in conditions relevant to PWR primary coolant. One objective of this programme is to calculate thermodynamic constants from the data obtained. Magnetite solubility from 200 to 300°C, in lithiated, hydrogenated water of pH 25C 9–11 is being studied using a once-through rig constructed of 316L stainless steel. The feedwater is pumped at 100 bar pressure through a heated bed of magnetite granules, and the output solution is collected and analysed for iron and several other metals by ICP-MS. This paper presents results from preliminary tests without magnetite granules, in which the corroding surface of the rig itself was used as the sole source of soluble iron and of dissolved hydrogen. Levels of iron were generally within an order of magnitude of literature solubility values. Comparison of results at different flow rates and temperatures, in conjunction with conclusions drawn from the published literature, suggests that this is likely due to the presence of particulate matter in a greatly under-saturated solution, compensating for the low surface area of oxide in contact with the solution. (author)

  18. Solubility of nicotinic acid in water, ethanol, acetone, diethyl ether, acetonitrile, and dimethyl sulfoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonçalves, Elsa M.; Minas da Piedade, Manuel E.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We determined the solubility of nicotinic acid in six solvents by the gravimetric method. ► We found that, regardless of the solvent, the same monoclinic solid phase was in equilibrium with the solution. ► We determined the activity coefficients of nicotinic acid in the six solvents. ► We found that the solubility trends seem to be determined by the polarity and polarizability of the solvent. - Abstract: The mole fraction equilibrium solubility of nicotinic acid in six solvents (water, ethanol, dimethyl sulfoxide, acetone, acetonitrile and diethyl ether) differing in polarity, polarizability, and hydrogen-bonding ability, was determined over the temperature range (283 to 333) K, using the gravimetric method. The results obtained led to the solubility order dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) ≫ ethanol > water > acetone > diethyl ether > acetonitrile. An analysis based on various solvent descriptors, indicated that this trend seems to be mainly determined by the polarity and polarizability of the solvent. The activity coefficients of nicotinic acid in the different solvents, under saturation conditions, were determined as a function of the temperature and it was found that DMSO exhibits enhanced solubility relative to an ideal solution while the opposite is observed for all other solvents. Both the solvent and the fact that nicotinic acid is primarily zwitterionic in aqueous solution and non-zwitterionic in non-aqueous media, did not affect the nature of the solid phases in equilibrium with the different solutions. Indeed, X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry analysis indicated that, despite some differences in particle size and morphology, the starting material and the solid products obtained at the end of the solubility studies in the six solvents used in this work were all crystalline and corresponded to the same monoclinic phase.

  19. An unusual feature of uranium ore from Domiasiat, Meghalaya: presence of water soluble uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, A.K.; Padmanabhan, N.P.H.; Sivaramakrishnan, K.; Krishna Rao, N.

    1993-01-01

    An unusual feature of the recently discovered sandstone-type uranium deposit in Domiasiat is the presence of appreciable amount of water soluble uranium. With normal tap water at its natural pH (7.5-7.8), upto 35% of the uranium in the ore was found to be soluble during agitation in the different samples. Presence of other ions in appreciable quantities particularly SO 4 -2 Cl - and Fe +3 appear to influence the dissolution. Percolation experiments give terminal solubilization of upto 58%, but the instantaneous uranium concentration in the percolating water attains its maximum within the first few minutes of contact. A detailed study on the chemistry of uranium dissolution may throw light on the physico-chemical controls of localization of uranium in the deposit. (author). 7 refs., 3 tabs., 4 tabs

  20. Method of cross-linking polyvinyl alcohol and other water soluble resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipp, W. H.; May, C. E.; Hsu, L. C.; Sheibley, D. W. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A self supporting sheet structure comprising a water soluble, noncrosslinked polymer such as polyvinyl alcohol which is capable of being crosslinked by reaction with hydrogen atom radicals and hydroxyl molecule radicals is contacted with an aqueous solution having a pH of less than 8 and containing a dissolved salt in an amount sufficient to prevent substantial dissolution of the noncrosslinked polymer in the aqueous solution. The aqueous solution is then irradiated with ionizing radiation to form hydrogen atom radicals and hydroxyl molecule radicals and the irradiation is continued for a time sufficient to effect crosslinking of the water soluble polymer to produce a water insoluble polymer sheet structure. The method has particular application in the production of battery separators and electrode envelopes for alkaline batteries.

  1. Solubility of methane in water and in a medium for the cultivation of methanotrophs bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serra, Maria Celeste C.; Pessoa, F.L.P.; Palavra, A.M.F.

    2006-01-01

    Solubility of methane in water and in an aqueous growth medium for the cultivation of methanotrophs bacteria was determined over the temperature range 293.15 to 323.15 K and at atmospheric pressure. The measurements were carried out in a Ben-Naim/Baer type apparatus with a precision of about ±0.3%. The experimental results were determined using accurate thermodynamic relations. The mole fractions of the dissolved gas at the gas partial pressure of 101.325 kPa, the Henry coefficients at the water vapour pressure and the Ostwald coefficients at infinite dilution were obtained. A comparison between the solubility of methane in water and those observed in fermentation medium over the temperature range of 298.15 to 308.15 K has shown that this gas is about ±2.3% more soluble in water. The temperature dependence of the mole fractions of methane was also determined using the Clarke-Glew-Weiss equation and the thermodynamic quantities, Gibbs energy, enthalpy and entropy changes, associated with the dissolution process were calculated. Furthermore, the experimental Henry coefficients for methane in water are compared with those calculated by the scaled particle theory. The estimated Henry coefficients are about ±4% lower than the experimental ones

  2. SYNTHESIS AND PHYSICAL-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF WATER-SOLUBLE 3-BENZYLXANTHINE DERIVATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Аleksandrova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Nowadays, research of novel biological active compounds with low toxicity, are carried out among different classes of organic compounds of natural and synthetic genesis. One of the main ways of these studies is search of water-soluble compounds – convenient objects for pharmacological researches. In recent years researchers paid attention to xanthine derivatives, because of their high variativity of possible chemical modification and ability to form different salts with wide spectrum of biological action. Thus, among water-soluble xanthine derivatives were found compounds with pronounced antioxidant, diuretic and analeptic properties. Primary methods of obtaining water-soluble xanthine derivatives are direct interaction of bases with xanthine molecule or insertion basic or acidic residues in positions 7 or 8 of xanthine bicycle. According from the above, search of biologically active compounds among water-soluble substituted xanthines is prospective and actual. The aim of the study was development of synthetic ways of obtaining novel water-soluble derivatives of 3-benzyl-8-methylxanthine and studying their physical and chemical properties. Material and methods Melting points of obtained compounds were determined by capillary method on PTP (M device. ІR-spectra of synthesized compounds were recorded on the Bruker Alpha device (company «Bruker» – Germany on 4000-400 sm-1 with using console ATR (direct insertion of compound. 1Н NMR-spectra were recorded on the Varian Mercury VX-200 device (company «Varian» – USA solvent – (DMSO-d6, internal standart – ТМС. Elemental analysis was made on Elementar Vario L cube device. Chromatoraphic studies were made on the plates Sorbfil-AFV-UV (company «Sobrpolimer» –Russia. Systhems for chromatography: «acetone-propanol-2» in ratio 2:3, «propanol-2-benzene» in ratio 10:1 and exersized in UV-light in wave 200-300 nm. Results and discussion We developed methodic of synthesis

  3. Intestinal absorption of water-soluble vitamins in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Hamid M

    2011-08-01

    Our knowledge of the mechanisms and regulation of intestinal absorption of water-soluble vitamins under normal physiological conditions, and of the factors/conditions that affect and interfere with theses processes has been significantly expanded in recent years as a result of the availability of a host of valuable molecular/cellular tools. Although structurally and functionally unrelated, the water-soluble vitamins share the feature of being essential for normal cellular functions, growth and development, and that their deficiency leads to a variety of clinical abnormalities that range from anaemia to growth retardation and neurological disorders. Humans cannot synthesize water-soluble vitamins (with the exception of some endogenous synthesis of niacin) and must obtain these micronutrients from exogenous sources. Thus body homoeostasis of these micronutrients depends on their normal absorption in the intestine. Interference with absorption, which occurs in a variety of conditions (e.g. congenital defects in the digestive or absorptive system, intestinal disease/resection, drug interaction and chronic alcohol use), leads to the development of deficiency (and sub-optimal status) and results in clinical abnormalities. It is well established now that intestinal absorption of the water-soluble vitamins ascorbate, biotin, folate, niacin, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, riboflavin and thiamin is via specific carrier-mediated processes. These processes are regulated by a variety of factors and conditions, and the regulation involves transcriptional and/or post-transcriptional mechanisms. Also well recognized now is the fact that the large intestine possesses specific and efficient uptake systems to absorb a number of water-soluble vitamins that are synthesized by the normal microflora. This source may contribute to total body vitamin nutrition, and especially towards the cellular nutrition and health of the local colonocytes. The present review aims to outline our current

  4. Enhancement of quercetin water solubility with steviol glucosides and the studies of biological properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Thanh Hanh Nguyen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Quercetin, a flavonol contained in various vegetables and fruits, has various biological activities including anticancer, antiviral, anti-diabetic, and anti-oxidative. However, it has low oral bioavailability due to insolubility in water. Thus, the bioavailability of quercetin administered to human beings in a capsule form, was reported to be less than 1%, with only a small percentage of ingested quercetin getting absorbed in the blood. This leads to certain difficulties in creating highly effective medicines Methods: Quercetin-rubusoside and quercetin-rebaudioside were prepared. The antioxidant activities of quercetin and Q-rubusoside were evaluated by DPPH radical scavenging method. Inhibition activities of quercetin and Quercetin-rubusoside were determined by measuring the remaining activity of 3CLpro with 200 μM inhibitor. The inhibition activity of quercetin, rubusoside and quercetin-rubusoside were determined by measuring the activity of human maltase which remains at 100 μM rubusoside or quercetin-rubusoside. The mushroom tyrosinase inhibition was assayed with the reaction mixture contained 3.3 mM L-DOPA in 50 mM potassium phosphate buffer (pH 6.8, and 10 U mushroom tyrosinase/ml with or without quercetin or quercetin-rubusoside. Results: With 10% rubusoside treatment, quercetin showed solubility of 7.7 mg/ml in water, and its solubility increased as the concentration of rubusoside increased; the quercetin solubility in water increased to 0.83 mg/mlas rubusoside concentration increased to 1 mg/ml. Quercetin solubilized in rubusoside solution showed DPPH radical-scavenging activity and mushroom tyrosinase inhibition activity, similar to that of quercetin solubilized in dimethyl-sulfoxide. Quercetin-rubusoside also showed 1.2 and 1.9 folds higher inhibition activity against 3CLpro of SARS and human intestinal maltase, respectively, than those of quercetin in DMSO. Conclusions: Quercetin can be solubilized in water with

  5. [HYGIENIC ASSESSMENT OF WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMINS CONTENT IN THE FOOD RATION OF ADOLESCENTS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozubenko, O V; Turchaninov, D V; Boyarskaya, L A; Glagoleva, O N; Pogodin, I S; Luksha, E A

    2015-01-01

    Adequate, balanced nutrition is a precondition for the formation of health of the younger generation. The study of the dietary intake and peculiarities of the chemical composition offood is needed to substantiate measures aimed at the correction of the ration of adolescents. Hygienic evaluation of the content of water soluble vitamins in foods and the ration of teenage population of the Omsk region. TASKS OF THE STUDY: 1. To determine levels of water-soluble vitamins content in foods forming the basis of the ration of the population the Omsk region. 2. On the base of a study of the actual nutrition of adolescents to determine the levels of water-soluble vitamins consumption. 3. To give a hygienic assessment of adolescent nutrition in the Omsk region in terms of provision with water-soluble vitamins, and to identify priority directions of the alimentary correction of the revealed disorders. The analysis of 389 food samples for the content of water-soluble vitamins (B1, B2, B6, PP C, folic acid) was performed with the use of reversed-phase HPLC high pressure on the Shimadzu LC-20 Prominence detector. The hygienic assessment of the actual nutrition of adolescents aged 13-17 years (sample survey; n = 250; 2012-2014) in the Omsk region was performed by the method of the analysis of food consumption frequency. There were noted significantly lower concentrations of vitamin B1 and B2 in the studied samples of cereals, bread and vegetables in comparison with reference data. Consumption levels of vitamins B1, B2, PP folic acid in the diet of adolescents in the Omsk region are lower than recommended values. In the structure of nutrition there is not enough milk dairy products--in 82.4 ± 2.4%, fish and sea products in 90.8 ± 1.8% of adolescents. The actual nutrition of the adolescent population of the Omsk region is irrational, unbalanced in quantitative and qualitative terms, and does not provide the necessary level of consumption of most important water-soluble vitamins

  6. Controlling the photochemical reaction of an azastilbene derivative in water using a water-soluble pillar[6]arene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Danyu; Wang, Pi; Shi, Bingbing

    2017-09-20

    Photochemistry plays an important role in our lives. It has also been a common tool in the laboratory to construct complicated systems from small molecules. Supramolecular chemistry provides an opportunity to solve some of the problems in controlling photochemical reactions via non-covalent interactions. By using confining media and weak interactions between the medium and the reactant molecule, the excited state behavior of molecules has been successfully manipulated. Pillararenes, a new class of macrocyclic hosts, have rarely been used in the field of photochemical investigations, such as the controlling of photo-induced reactions. Herein, we explore a synthetic macrocyclic host, a water-soluble pillar[6]arene, as a controlling tool to manipulate the photo-induced reactions (hydration) in water. A host-guest system in water based on a water-soluble pillar[6]arene and an azastilbene derivative, (E)-4,4'-dimethyl-4,4'-diazoniastilbene diiodide, has been constructed. Then this water-soluble pillar[6]arene was successfully employed to control the photohydration of the azastilbene derivative in water as a "protective agent".

  7. Spray Freeze-drying - The Process of Choice for Low Water Soluble Drugs?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leuenberger, H.

    2002-01-01

    Most of the novel highly potent drugs, developed on the basis of modern molecular medicine, taking into account cell surface recognition techniques, show poor water solubility. A chemical modification of the drug substance enhancing the solubility often decreases the pharmacological activity. Thus, as an alternative an increase of the solubility can be obtained by the reduction of the size of the drug particles. Unfortunately, it is often difficult to obtain micro or nanosized drug particles by classical or more advanced crystallization using supercritical gases or by milling techniques. In addition, nanosized particles are often not physically stable and need to be stabilized in an appropriate matrix. Thus, it may be of interest to manufacture directly nanosized drug particles stabilized in an inert hydrophilic matrix, i.e. nanostructured and nanocomposite systems. Solid solutions and solid dispersions represent nanostructured and nanocomposite systems. In this context, the use of the vacuum-fluidized-bed technique for the spray-drying of a low water soluble drug cosolubilized with a hydrophilic excipient in a polar organic solvent is discussed. In order to avoid the use of organic solvents, a special spray-freeze-drying technique working at atmospheric pressure is presented. This process is very suitable for temperature and otherwise sensitive drugs such as pharmaproteins

  8. Rectal water contrast transvaginal ultrasound versus double-contrast barium enema in the diagnosis of bowel endometriosis

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Jipeng; Liu, Ying; Wang, Kun; Wu, Xixiang; Tang, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The aim of study was to compare the accuracy between rectal water contrast transvaginal ultrasound (RWC-TVS) and double-contrast barium enema (DCBE) in evaluating the bowel endometriosis presence as well as its extent. Design and setting 198 patients at reproductive age with suspicious bowel endometriosis were included. Physicians in two groups specialised at endometriosis performed RWC-TVS as well as DCBE before laparoscopy and both groups were blinded to other groups’ results. Fi...

  9. Determination of water-soluble forms of oxalic and formic acids in soils by ion chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karicheva, E.; Guseva, N.; Kambalina, M.

    2016-03-01

    Carboxylic acids (CA) play an important role in the chemical composition origin of soils and migration of elements. The content of these acids and their salts is one of the important characteristics for agrochemical, ecological, ameliorative and hygienic assessment of soils. The aim of the article is to determine water-soluble forms of same carboxylic acids — (oxalic and formic acids) in soils by ion chromatography with gradient elution. For the separation and determination of water-soluble carboxylic acids we used reagent-free gradient elution ion-exchange chromatography ICS-2000 (Dionex, USA), the model solutions of oxalate and formate ions, and leachates from soils of the Kola Peninsula. The optimal gradient program was established for separation and detection of oxalate and formate ions in water solutions by ion chromatography. A stability indicating method was developed for the simultaneous determination of water-soluble organic acids in soils. The method has shown high detection limits such as 0.03 mg/L for oxalate ion and 0.02 mg/L for formate ion. High signal reproducibility was achieved in wide range of intensities which correspond to the following ion concentrations: from 0.04 mg/g to 10 mg/L (formate), from 0.1 mg/g to 25 mg/L (oxalate). The concentration of formate and oxalate ions in soil samples is from 0.04 to 0.9 mg/L and 0.45 to 17 mg/L respectively.

  10. Synthesis and properties of amino acid functionalized water-soluble perylene diimides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Yongshan; Li, Xuemei; Wei, Xiaofeng; Jiang, Tianyi; Wu, Junsen; Ren, Huixue [Shandong Jianzhu University, Jinan (China)

    2015-07-15

    We prepared amino acid functionalized water-soluble perylene diimides: N,N'-bi(L-glutamic acid)-perylene-3,4;9,10-dicarboxylic diimide (1), N,N'-bi(L-phenylalanine acid)-perylene-3,4;9,10-dicarboxylic diimide (2), N,N'-bi(Lglutamic amine)-perylene-3,4;9,10-dicarboxylic diimide (3) and N,N'-bi(L-phenylalanine amine)-perylene-3,4;9,10-dicarboxylic diimide (4). The structures of 3 and 4 were confirmed by {sup 1}H NMR, FT-IR and MS. The maximal absorption bands of compound 1 and 2 in concentrated sulfuric acid were red-shifted for about 48 and 74 nm, respectively, compared with that of Perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride (PTCDA). Nearly no fluorescence was observed for compounds 1 and 2 in water, while compounds 3 and 4 were significantly water-soluble and had very high fluorescent quantum. The mechanism of the optical properties change was discussed, and the π-π stacking caused by H{sup +} led to the changes of fluorescence spectrum and absorption spectrum. The calculated molecular orbital energies and the frontier molecular orbital maps of compounds 1-2 based on density function theory (DFT) calculations were reported. Owing to the high water-soluble, the perylene derivatives 3 and 4 were successfully applied as high-performance fluorochromes for living hela cells imaging.

  11. Geochemical evidence of water-soluble gas accumulation in the Weiyuan gas field, Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengfei Qin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, there are several different opinions on the formation process of the Weiyuan gas field in the Sichuan Basin and the source of its natural gas. In view of the fact that the methane carbon isotope of the natural gas in the Weiyuan gas field is abnormally heavy, the geologic characteristics of gas reservoirs and the geochemical characteristics of natural gas were first analyzed. In the Weiyuan gas field, the principal gas reservoirs belong to Sinian Dengying Fm. The natural gas is mainly composed of methane, with slight ethane and trace propane. The gas reservoirs are higher in water saturation, with well preserved primary water. Then, it was discriminated from the relationship of H2S content vs. methane carbon isotope that the heavier methane carbon isotope of natural gas in this area is not caused by thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR. Based on the comparison of methane carbon isotope in this area with that in adjacent areas, and combined with the tectonic evolution background, it is regarded that the natural gas in the Weiyuan gas field is mainly derived from water-soluble gas rather than be migrated laterally from adjacent areas. Some conclusions are made. First, since methane released from water is carbon isotopically heavier, the water-soluble gas accumulation after degasification results in the heavy methane carbon isotope of the gas produced from Weiyuan gas field. Second, along with Himalayan movement, great uplift occurred in the Weiyuan area and structural traps were formed. Under high temperature and high pressure, the gas dissolved in water experienced decompression precipitation, and the released natural gas accumulated in traps, consequently leading to the formation of Weiyuan gas field. Third, based on calculation, the amount of natural gas released from water which is entrapped in the Weiyuan gas field after the tectonic uplift is basically equal to the proved reserves of this field, confirming the opinion of water-soluble

  12. Design of Chitosan and Its Water Soluble Derivatives-Based Drug Carriers with Polyelectrolyte Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Xi Wu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan, the cationic polysaccharide derived from the natural polysaccharide chitin, has been studied as a biomaterial for more than two decades. As a polycationic polymer with favorable properties, it has been widely used to form polyelectrolyte complexes with polyanions for various applications in drug delivery fields. In recent years, a growing number of studies have been focused on the preparation of polyelectrolyte complexes based on chitosan and its water soluble derivatives. They have been considered well-suited as biomaterials for a number of vital drug carriers with targeted/controlled release profiles, e.g., films, capsules, microcapsules. In this work, an overview highlights not only the favorable properties of chitosan and its water soluble derivatives but also the good performance of the polyelectrolyte complexes produced based on chitosan. Their various types of applications as drug carriers are reviewed in detail.

  13. Design of chitosan and its water soluble derivatives-based drug carriers with polyelectrolyte complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qing-Xi; Lin, Dong-Qiang; Yao, Shan-Jing

    2014-12-19

    Chitosan, the cationic polysaccharide derived from the natural polysaccharide chitin, has been studied as a biomaterial for more than two decades. As a polycationic polymer with favorable properties, it has been widely used to form polyelectrolyte complexes with polyanions for various applications in drug delivery fields. In recent years, a growing number of studies have been focused on the preparation of polyelectrolyte complexes based on chitosan and its water soluble derivatives. They have been considered well-suited as biomaterials for a number of vital drug carriers with targeted/controlled release profiles, e.g., films, capsules, microcapsules. In this work, an overview highlights not only the favorable properties of chitosan and its water soluble derivatives but also the good performance of the polyelectrolyte complexes produced based on chitosan. Their various types of applications as drug carriers are reviewed in detail.

  14. Solubilities of some hydrous REE phosphates with implications for diagenesis and sea water concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonasson, R.G.; Bancroft, G.M.; Nesbitt, H.W.

    1985-01-01

    Solubility product determinations suggest that the hydrous phosphates of the rare earths, REPO 4 .xH 2 O, are important in controlling the sea water REE concentrations. Two of these solids, rhabdophane, (P6 2 22) and 'hydrous xenotime', (I4 1 /amd), have been synthesized at 100 C via the acid hydrolysis of the respective REE pyrophosphate. The solubility products at infinite dilution were determined to be pK 0 = 24.5, (La at 25 C); 26.0, (Pr at 100 C); 25.7, (Nd at 100 C); and 25.5, (Er at 100 C). On the basis of calculations involving the reaction of Re 3+ with apatite to form the hydrous phosphate, the lanthanum concentration in sea water is predicted to be about 140 pmol/L. Laboratory experiments support the hypothesis that apatite is a substrate for reactions with dissolved REE. (author)

  15. Synthesis and characterization of a hyper-branched water-soluble β-cyclodextrin polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Trotta

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A new hyper-branched water-soluble polymer was synthesized by reacting β-cyclodextrin with pyromellitic dianhydride beyond the critical conditions that allow the phenomenon of gelation to occur. The molar ratio between the monomers is a crucial parameter that rules the gelation process. Nevertheless, the concentration of monomers in the solvent phase plays a key role as well. Hyper-branched β-cyclodextrin-based polymers were obtained performing the syntheses with excess of solvent and cross-linking agent, and the conditions for critical dilution were determined experimentally. A hyper-branched polymer with very high water solubility was obtained and fully characterized both as for its chemical structure and for its capability to encapsulate substances. Fluorescein was used as probe molecule to test the complexation properties of the new material.

  16. Analytical procedures for water-soluble vitamins in foods and dietary supplements: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Christopher J

    2007-09-01

    Water-soluble vitamins include the B-group vitamins and vitamin C. In order to correctly monitor water-soluble vitamin content in fortified foods for compliance monitoring as well as to establish accurate data banks, an accurate and precise analytical method is a prerequisite. For many years microbiological assays have been used for analysis of B vitamins. However they are no longer considered to be the gold standard in vitamins analysis as many studies have shown up their deficiencies. This review describes the current status of analytical methods, including microbiological assays and spectrophotometric, biosensor and chromatographic techniques. In particular it describes the current status of the official methods and highlights some new developments in chromatographic procedures and detection methods. An overview is made of multivitamin extractions and analyses for foods and supplements.

  17. Design of Chitosan and Its Water Soluble Derivatives-Based Drug Carriers with Polyelectrolyte Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qing-Xi; Lin, Dong-Qiang; Yao, Shan-Jing

    2014-01-01

    Chitosan, the cationic polysaccharide derived from the natural polysaccharide chitin, has been studied as a biomaterial for more than two decades. As a polycationic polymer with favorable properties, it has been widely used to form polyelectrolyte complexes with polyanions for various applications in drug delivery fields. In recent years, a growing number of studies have been focused on the preparation of polyelectrolyte complexes based on chitosan and its water soluble derivatives. They have been considered well-suited as biomaterials for a number of vital drug carriers with targeted/controlled release profiles, e.g., films, capsules, microcapsules. In this work, an overview highlights not only the favorable properties of chitosan and its water soluble derivatives but also the good performance of the polyelectrolyte complexes produced based on chitosan. Their various types of applications as drug carriers are reviewed in detail. PMID:25532565

  18. Studies on water soluble polysaccharides from Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagchi, S; Kumar, K Jayaram

    2016-03-15

    In this existing experimental work, water soluble PDP polysaccharides were secluded from Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. seeds. The physicochemical properties were analyzed in terms of swelling power, solubility, pH and water holding capacity. Micromeretic studies proved the polysaccharide may be used a potential pharmaceutical adjuvant. The polysaccharide was characterized by FT-IR, SEM, TGA and NMR techniques. Methylation analysis confirmed that the polysaccharide is composed of Arabinose (Araf) units. The chemical shifts of anomeric proton region were found in the region of 4.4-5.5ppm. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that PDP polysaccharide was thermally stable. The in vitro antioxidant capacities of the polysaccharide were investigated in terms of scavenging of hydroxyl radicals, 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and reducing power assay. The polysaccharide fractions showed activity in a concentration dependent manner which was comparable to the standard, ascorbic acid. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Solubility limit of methyl red and methylene blue in microemulsions and liquid crystals of water, sds and pentanol systems

    OpenAIRE

    Beri, D.; Pratami, A.; Gobah, P. L.; Dwimala, P.; Amran, A.

    2017-01-01

    Solubility of dyes in amphiphilic association structures of water, SDS and penthanol system (i.e. in the phases of microemulsions and liquid crystals) was attracted much interest due to its wide industrial and technological applications. This research was focused on understanding the solubility limitation of methyl red and methylene blue in microemulsion and liquid crystal phases. Experimental results showed that the highest solubility of methyl red was in LLC, followed by w/o microemulsion a...

  20. Application of radiation grafting techniques to prepare the high molecular weight water-soluble polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Hai; Nguyen Quoc Hien; Nguyen Tan Man; Truong Thi Hanh; Le Huu Tu; Tran Thi Tam; Pham Thi Sam; Pham Anh Tuan; Le Dinh Lang

    2003-01-01

    The results of the study on the preparation of the high molecular weight water-soluble polymers by radiation grafting and their properties is presented as follows: 1/ by radiation grafting, the molecular weight of PVA was increased 20 times and PAM was increased only 3 times; 2/ the thermal and medium stability of poly(vinyl alcohol) grafted with acrylamide was obviously improved. (LH)

  1. Design of Chitosan and Its Water Soluble Derivatives-Based Drug Carriers with Polyelectrolyte Complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Qing-Xi; Lin, Dong-Qiang; Yao, Shan-Jing

    2014-01-01

    Chitosan, the cationic polysaccharide derived from the natural polysaccharide chitin, has been studied as a biomaterial for more than two decades. As a polycationic polymer with favorable properties, it has been widely used to form polyelectrolyte complexes with polyanions for various applications in drug delivery fields. In recent years, a growing number of studies have been focused on the preparation of polyelectrolyte complexes based on chitosan and its water soluble derivatives. They have...

  2. Natural polymers: Best carriers for improving bioavailability of poorly water soluble drugs in solid dispersions

    OpenAIRE

    Sandip Sapkal; Mahesh Narkhede; Mukesh Babhulkar; Gautam Mehetre; Ashish Rathi

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACTNatural polymers and its modified forms can be used as best alternative for improving bioavailabilityof poorly water soluble drugs in solid dispersion. Most of the natural polymersare hydrophilic and having high swelling capacity. Recent trend towards the use of naturalpolymer demands the replacement of synthetic additives with natural ones. Many plant derivednatural polymers are studied for use in solid dispersion systems, out of which naturalgums, cyclodextrin and carbohydrate are m...

  3. Biosynthetic Studies on Water-Soluble Derivative 5c (DTX5c

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José J. Fernández

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The dinoflagellate Prorocentrum belizeanum is responsible for the production of several toxins involved in the red tide phenomenon known as Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP. In this paper we report on the biosynthetic origin of an okadaic acid water-soluble ester derivative, DTX5c, on the basis of the spectroscopical analysis of 13C enriched samples obtained by addition of labelled sodium [l-13C], [2-13C] acetate to artificial cultures of this dinoflagellate.

  4. Effect of New Water-Soluble Dendritic Phthalocyanines on Human Colorectal and Liver Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru YABAŞ

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2 cells and colorectal adenocarcinoma (DLD-1 cells were treated with the synthesized water soluble phthalocyanine derivatives to understand the effect of the compounds both on colorectal and liver cancer cells. The compounds inhibited cell proliferation and displayed cytotoxic effect on these cancer cell lines however; the effect of the compounds on healthy control fibroblast cell line was comparatively lower. The compounds can be employed for cancer treatment as anticancer agents.

  5. Preparation and characterization of complexes of RE3+ with furfural modified water-soluble chitosan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Maoyuan; QIU Ligan; MA Guilin

    2008-01-01

    Degraded chitosan, with highly water-solubility, was obtained by the oxidation of chitosan with H2O2, and then reacted with furfural The final product coordinated with the rare earth ions (RE3+ = Sm3+,Eu3+), which led to the formation of the complexes. The prepared complexes were characterized with Inflated Spectroscopy (IR), Ultra Violet (UV), fluorescence, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), and Thermogravimetric-Differential Scanning Calorimetry (TG-DSC) measurements.

  6. Solubility and thermodynamic behavior of vanillin in propane-1,2-diol+water cosolvent mixtures at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeel, Faiyaz; Haq, Nazrul; Siddiqui, Nasir A; Alanazi, Fars K; Alsarra, Ibrahim A

    2015-12-01

    The solubilities of bioactive compound vanillin were measured in various propane-1,2-diol+water cosolvent mixtures at T=(298-318)K and p=0.1 MPa. The experimental solubility of crystalline vanillin was determined and correlated with calculated solubility. The results showed good correlation of experimental solubilities of crystalline vanillin with calculated ones. The mole fraction solubility of crystalline vanillin was recorded highest in pure propane-1,2-diol (7.06×10(-2) at 298 K) and lowest in pure water (1.25×10(-3) at 298 K) over the entire temperature range investigated. Thermodynamic behavior of vanillin in various propane-1,2-diol+water cosolvent mixtures was evaluated by Van't Hoff and Krug analysis. The results showed an endothermic, spontaneous and an entropy-driven dissolution of crystalline vanillin in all propane-1,2-diol+water cosolvent mixtures. Based on solubility data of this work, vanillin has been considered as soluble in water and freely soluble in propane-1,2-diol. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Water-soluble derivatives of 25-OCH3-PPD and their anti-proliferative activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wu-Xi; Sun, Yuan-Yuan; Yuan, Wei-Hui; Zhao, Yu-Qing

    2017-05-01

    (20R)-25-Methoxyl-dammarane-3β,12β,20-triol (25-OCH 3 -PPD, AD-1) is a dammarane-type sapogenin showing anti-tumor potential. In the search for new anti-tumor agents with higher potency than our previously identified compound 25-OCH 3 -PPD, 11 novel sulfamic acid and diacid derivatives that could improve water solubility and contribute to good drug potency and pharmacokinetic profiles were designed and synthesized. Their in vitro anti-tumor activities in MCF-7, A-549, HCT-116, and BGC-823 cell lines and one normal cell line were tested by standard MTT assay. Results showed that compared with compound 25-OCH 3 -PPD, compounds 1, 4, and 5 exhibited higher cytotoxic activity on almost all cell lines, together with lower toxicity in the normal cell. In particular, compound 1 exhibited the best anti-tumor activity in the in vitro assays. The water solubility of 25-OCH 3 -PPD and its derivatives was tested and the results showed that the solubility of 25-OCH 3 -PPD sulfamic acid and diacid derivatives were better than that of 25-OCH 3 -PPD in water, which may provide valuable data for the research and development of new anti-tumor agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Studies on Dissolution Enhancement of Prednisolone, a Poorly Water-Soluble Drug by Solid Dispersion Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Zakeri-Milani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prednisolone is a class II substance according to the Biopharmaceutics Classification System. It is a poorly water soluble agent. The aim of the present study was to improve dissolution rate of a poorly water-soluble drug, prednisolone, by a solid dispersion technique. Methods: Solid dispersion of prednisolone was prepared with PEG 6000 or different carbohydrates such as lactose and dextrin with various ratios of the drug to carrier i.e., 1:10, 1:20 and 1:40. Solid dispersions were prepared by coevaporation method. The evaluation of the properties of the dispersions was performed using dissolution studies, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and x-ray powder diffractometery. Results: The results indicated that lactose is suitable carriers to enhance the in vitro dissolution rate of prednisolone. The data from the x-ray diffraction showed that the drug was still detectable in its solid state in all solid dispersions except solid dispersions prepared by dextrin as carrier. The results from infrared spectroscopy showed no well-defined drug–carrier interactions for coevaporates. Conclusion: Solid dispersion of a poorly water-soluble drug, prednisolone may alleviate the problems of delayed and inconsistent rate of dissolution of the drug.

  9. Synthesis of water-soluble curcumin derivatives and their inhibition on lysozyme amyloid fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sujuan; Peng, Xixi; Cui, Liangliang; Li, Tongtong; Yu, Bei; Ma, Gang; Ba, Xinwu

    2018-02-01

    The potential application of curcumin was heavily limited in biomedicine because of its poor solubility in pure water. To circumvent the detracting feature, two novel water-soluble amino acid modified curcumin derivatives (MLC and DLC) have been synthesized through the condensation reaction between curcumin and Nα-Fmoc-Nε-Boc-L-lysine. Benefiting from the enhanced solubility of 3.32 × 10- 2 g/mL for MLC and 4.66 × 10- 2 g/mL for DLC, the inhibition effects of the as-prepared derivatives on the amyloid fibrillation of lysozyme (HEWL) were investigated detaily in water solution. The obtained results showed that the amyloid fibrillation of HEWL was inhibited to a great extent when the concentrations of MLC and DLC reach to 20.139 mM and 49.622 mM, respectively. The fluorescence quenching upon the addition of curcumin to HEWL provide a support for static and dynamic recombination quenching process. The binding driving force was assigned to classical hydrophobic interaction between curcumin derivatives and HEWL. In addition, UV-Vis absorption and circular dichroism (CD) spectra confirmed the change of the conformation of HEWL.

  10. Water-soluble elements in atmospheric particulate matter over tropical and equatorial Atlantic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buat-Menard, Patrick; Morelli, Jacques; Chesselet, Roger

    1974-01-01

    Samples of water-soluble atmospheric particulate matter collected from R/V ''Jean Charcot'' (May to October 1971) and R/V ''James Gilliss'' (October 1972) over Tropical and Equatorial Atlantic were analyzed for Na, Mg, K and Ca by atomic absorption and for Cl and S as SO 4 by colorimetry. Data shows a strong geographical dependence of K and Ca enrichment relative to their elemental ratio to Na in sea-water. Ca enrichment is related to presence of identified soluble calcium minerals in continental dust originating from African deserts (Sahara-Kalahari). This dust does not influence amounts of K in the water-soluble phase. When observed, strong K enrichment appears tightly associated with high concentrations of surface-active organic material in the microlayer derived from high biological activity (Gulf of Guinea). Observed in same samples, SO 4 enrichment could also be controlled by the same source. This SO 4 enrichment balances the observed Cl loss in aerosols accordingly with gaseous HCl formation processes in marine atmosphere [fr

  11. Synthesis of water soluble glycine capped silver nanoparticles and their surface selective interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agasti, Nityananda; Singh, Vinay K.; Kaushik, N.K.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Synthesis of water soluble silver nanoparticles at ambient reaction conditions. • Glycine as stabilizing agent for silver nanoparticles. • Surface selective interaction of glycine with silver nanoparticles. • Glycine concentration influences crystalinity and optical property of silver nanoparticles. - Abstract: Synthesis of biocompatible metal nanoparticles has been an area of significant interest because of their wide range of applications. In the present study, we have successfully synthesized water soluble silver nanoparticles assisted by small amino acid glycine. The method is primarily based on reduction of AgNO 3 with NaBH 4 in aqueous solution under atmospheric air in the presence of glycine. UV–vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X–ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) techniques used for characterization of resulting silver nanoparticles demonstrated that, glycine is an effective capping agent to stabilize silver nanoparticles. Surface selective interaction of glycine on (1 1 1) face of silver nanoparticles has been investigated. The optical property and crystalline behavior of silver nanoparticles were found to be sensitive to concentration of glycine. X–ray diffraction studies ascertained the phase specific interaction of glycine on silver nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles synthesized were of diameter 60 nm. We thus demonstrated an efficient synthetic method for synthesis of water soluble silver nanoparticles capped by amino acid under mild reaction conditions with excellent reproducibility

  12. Spatial and temporal variability of water soluble carbon for a cropped field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liss, H.J.; Rolston, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    The water soluble carbon from soil extracts was taken from a two-hundred point grid established on a 1.2 ha field. The sampling was in the fall after the harvest of a sorghum crop. The concentrations ranged from 23.8 ppm to 274.2 ppm. Over 90 per cent of the concentrations were grouped around the mean of 40.3 ppm. The higher values caused the distribution to be greatly skewed such that neither normal nor log normal distributions characterized the data very well. The moisture content from the same samples followed normal distribution. Changes in the mean, the variance and the distribution of water soluble carbon were followed on 0.4 ha of the 1.2 ha in a grid of sixty points during a crop of wheat and a subsequent crop of sorghum. The mean increased in the spring, decreased in the summer and increased again in the fall. The spring and summer concentrations are well characterized by log normal distributions. The spatial dependence of water soluble carbon was examined on a fifty-five point transect across the field spaced every 1.37 m. The variogram indicated little or no dependence at this spacing. (author)

  13. Changes in the content of water-soluble vitamins in Actinidia chinensis during cold storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Xian-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the effects of cold storage on nine water-soluble vitamins in 7 cultivars of Actinidia chinensis (kiwifruit using high-performance liquid chromatography. Samples were collected at three time points during cold storage: one day, 30 days, and when edible. We found that vitamin C in most cultivars was raised with cold storage, but there was no consistent increased or decreased trend for other water-soluble vitamins across cultivars in storage. After one day of cold storage, vitamins B1 and B2 were the most prevalent vitamins in Control (wild fruit, while vitamins B5 and B6 were most prevalent in the Hongyang and Qihong cultivars. However, B12 was the most prevalent vitamin in the Qihong cultivar after 30 days of cold storage. Vitamins B3, B7, B9, and C were detected at the edible time point in Huayou, Hongyang, Jinnong-2, and Control fruit. Vitamin contents varied significantly among cultivars of kiwifruit following different durations of cold storage. Out of the three durations tested, a period of 30 days in cold storage was the most suitable for the absorption of water-soluble vitamins by A. chinensis.

  14. Transpiration directly regulates the emissions of water-soluble short-chained OVOCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissanen, K; Hölttä, T; Bäck, J

    2018-04-20

    Most plant-based emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are considered mainly temperature dependent. However, certain oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) have high water solubility; thus, also stomatal conductance could regulate their emissions from shoots. Due to their water solubility and sources in stem and roots, it has also been suggested that their emissions could be affected by transport in xylem sap. Yet, further understanding on the role of transport has been lacking until present. We used shoot-scale long-term dynamic flux data from Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris) to analyse the effects of transpiration and transport in xylem sap flow on emissions of three water soluble OVOC: methanol, acetone and acetaldehyde. We found a direct effect of transpiration on the shoot emissions of the three OVOCs. The emissions were best explained by a regression model that combined linear transpiration and exponential temperature effects. In addition, a structural equation model indicated that stomatal conductance affects emissions mainly indirectly, by regulating transpiration. A part of temperature's effect is also indirect. The tight coupling of shoot emissions to transpiration clearly evidences that these OVOCs are transported in xylem sap from their sources in roots and stem to leaves and to ambient air. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Abalone water-soluble matrix for self-healing biomineralization of tooth defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhenliang; Chen, Jingdi; Wang, Hailiang; Zhong, Shengnan; Hu, Yimin; Wang, Zhili; Zhang, Qiqing

    2016-10-01

    Enamel cannot heal by itself if damaged. Hydroxyapatite (HAP) is main component of human enamel. Formation of enamel-like materials for healing enamel defects remains a challenge. In this paper, we successfully isolated the abalone water-soluble matrix (AWSM) with 1.53wt% the abalone water-soluble protein (AWSPro) and 2.04wt% the abalone water-soluble polysaccharide (AWSPs) from abandoned abalone shell, and self-healing biomineralization of tooth defects was successfully achieved in vitro. Based on X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), hot field emission scanning electron microscopy (HFESEM) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) analysis, the results showed that the AWSM can efficiently induce remineralization of HAP. The enamel-like HAP was successfully achieved onto etched enamel's surface due to the presence of the AWSM. Moreover, the remineralized effect of eroded enamel was growing with the increase of the AWSM. This study provides a solution to the resource waste and environmental pollution caused by abandoned abalone shell, and we provides a new method for self-healing remineralization of enamel defects by AWSM and develops a novel dental material for potential clinical dentistry application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Data representing two separate LC-MS methods for detection and quantification of water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins in tears and blood serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Khaksari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Two separate liquid chromatography (LC-mass spectrometry (MS methods were developed for determination and quantification of water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins in human tear and blood serum samples. The water-soluble vitamin method was originally developed to detect vitamins B1, B2, B3 (nicotinamide, B5, B6 (pyridoxine, B7, B9 and B12 while the fat-soluble vitamin method detected vitamins A, D3, 25(OHD3, E and K1. These methods were then validated with tear and blood serum samples. In this data in brief article, we provide details on the two LC-MS methods development, methods sensitivity, as well as precision and accuracy for determination of vitamins in human tears and blood serum. These methods were then used to determine the vitamin concentrations in infant and parent samples under a clinical study which were reported in "Determination of Water-Soluble and Fat-Soluble Vitamins in Tears and Blood Serum of Infants and Parents by Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry DOI:10.1016/j.exer.2016.12.007 [1]". This article provides more details on comparison of vitamin concentrations in the samples with the ranges reported in the literature along with the medically accepted normal ranges. The details on concentrations below the limits of detection (LOD and limits of quantification (LOQ are also discussed. Vitamin concentrations were also compared and cross-correlated with clinical data and nutritional information. Significant differences and strongly correlated data were reported in [1]. This article provides comprehensive details on the data with slight differences or slight correlations.

  17. Data representing two separate LC-MS methods for detection and quantification of water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins in tears and blood serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaksari, Maryam; Mazzoleni, Lynn R; Ruan, Chunhai; Kennedy, Robert T; Minerick, Adrienne R

    2017-04-01

    Two separate liquid chromatography (LC)-mass spectrometry (MS) methods were developed for determination and quantification of water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins in human tear and blood serum samples. The water-soluble vitamin method was originally developed to detect vitamins B 1 , B 2 , B 3 (nicotinamide), B 5 , B 6 (pyridoxine), B 7 , B 9 and B 12 while the fat-soluble vitamin method detected vitamins A, D 3 , 25(OH)D 3, E and K 1 . These methods were then validated with tear and blood serum samples. In this data in brief article, we provide details on the two LC-MS methods development, methods sensitivity, as well as precision and accuracy for determination of vitamins in human tears and blood serum. These methods were then used to determine the vitamin concentrations in infant and parent samples under a clinical study which were reported in "Determination of Water-Soluble and Fat-Soluble Vitamins in Tears and Blood Serum of Infants and Parents by Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry DOI:10.1016/j.exer.2016.12.007 [1]". This article provides more details on comparison of vitamin concentrations in the samples with the ranges reported in the literature along with the medically accepted normal ranges. The details on concentrations below the limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) are also discussed. Vitamin concentrations were also compared and cross-correlated with clinical data and nutritional information. Significant differences and strongly correlated data were reported in [1]. This article provides comprehensive details on the data with slight differences or slight correlations.

  18. Molecular dynamics study of salt–solution interface: Solubility and surface charge of salt in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Kazuya; Liang, Yunfeng; Matsuoka, Toshifumi; Sakka, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    The NaCl salt–solution interface often serves as an example of an uncharged surface. However, recent laser-Doppler electrophoresis has shown some evidence that the NaCl crystal is positively charged in its saturated solution. Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we have investigated the NaCl salt–solution interface system, and calculated the solubility of the salt using the direct method and free energy calculations, which are kinetic and thermodynamic approaches, respectively. The direct method calculation uses a salt–solution combined system. When the system is equilibrated, the concentration in the solution area is the solubility. In the free energy calculation, we separately calculate the chemical potential of NaCl in two systems, the solid and the solution, using thermodynamic integration with MD simulations. When the chemical potential of NaCl in the solution phase is equal to the chemical potential of the solid phase, the concentration of the solution system is the solubility. The advantage of using two different methods is that the computational methods can be mutually verified. We found that a relatively good estimate of the solubility of the system can be obtained through comparison of the two methods. Furthermore, we found using microsecond time-scale MD simulations that the positively charged NaCl surface was induced by a combination of a sodium-rich surface and the orientation of the interfacial water molecules

  19. Acid-base equilibria and solubility of loratadine and desloratadine in water and micellar media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popović, Gordana; Cakar, Mira; Agbaba, Danica

    2009-01-15

    Acid-base equilibria in homogeneous and heterogeneous systems of two antihistaminics, loratadine and desloratadine were studied spectrophotometrically in Britton-Robinson's buffer at 25 degrees C. Acidity constant of loratadine was found to be pK(a) 5.25 and those of desloratadine pK(a1) 4.41 and pK(a2) 9.97. The values of intrinsic solubilities of loratadine and desloratadine were 8.65x10(-6) M and 3.82x10(-4) M, respectively. Based on the pK(a) values and intrinsic solubilities, solubility curves of these two drugs as a function of pH were calculated. The effects of anionic, cationic and non-ionic surfactants applied in the concentration exceeding critical micelle concentration (cmc) on acid-base properties of loratadine and desloratadine, as well as on intrinsic solubility of loratadine were also examined. The results revealed a shift of pK(a) values in micellar media comparing to the values obtained in water. These shifts (DeltapK(a)) ranged from -2.24 to +1.24.

  20. Radiographic contrast media, function and future reassessed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovak, M.

    1988-01-01

    A brief review is given of the use of radiographic contrast media in cholecysto- and cholangiography, central nervous system imaging, urography and angiography. Other aspects briefly discussed are the use of large i.v. doses of contrast media for CT contrast enhancement and the design theory for improved water soluble contrast media. (U.K.)

  1. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity of a water-soluble polysaccharide from dendrobium denneanum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, A.; Ge, Z.; Fan, Y.; Chun, Z.; Jin, He X.

    2011-01-01

    The water-soluble crude polysaccharide (DDP) obtained from the aqueous extracts of the stem of Dendrobium denneanum through hot water extraction followed by ethanol precipitation, was found to have an average molecular weight (Mw) of about 484.7 kDa. Monosaccharide analysis revealed that DDP was composed of arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose and galactose in a molar ratio of 1.00:2.66:8.92:34.20:10.16. The investigation of antioxidant activity both in vitro and in vivo showed that DDP is a potential antioxidant. ?? 2011.

  2. In Vitro and In Vivo Antioxidant Activity of a Water-Soluble Polysaccharide from Dendrobium denneanum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XingJin He

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The water-soluble crude polysaccharide (DDP obtained from the aqueous extracts of the stem of Dendrobium denneanum through hot water extraction followed by ethanol precipitation, was found to have an average molecular weight (Mw of about  484.7 kDa. Monosaccharide analysis revealed that DDP was composed of arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose and galactose in a molar ratio of 1.00:2.66:8.92:34.20:10.16. The investigation of antioxidant activity both in vitro and in vivo showed that DDP is a potential antioxidant.

  3. Oil-soluble and water-soluble BTPhens and their europium complexes in octanol/water solutions: interface crossing studied by MD and PMF simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benay, G; Wipff, G

    2013-01-31

    Bistriazinyl-phenantroline "BTPhen" ligands L display the remarkable feature to complex trivalent lanthanide and actinide ions, with a marked selectivity for the latter. We report on molecular dynamics studies of tetrasubstituted X(4)BTPhens: L(4+) (X = (+)Et(3)NCH(2)-), L(4-) (X = (-)SO(3)Ph-), and L(0) (X = CyMe(4)) and their complexes with Eu(III) in binary octanol/water solutions. Changes in free energies upon interface crossing are also calculated for typical solutes by potential of mean force PMF simulations. The ligands and their complexes partition, as expected, to either the aqueous or the oil phase, depending on the "solubilizing" group X. Furthermore, most of them are found to be surface active. The water-soluble L(4+) and L(4-) ligands and their (L)Eu(NO(3))(3) complexes adsorb at the aqueous side of the interface, more with L(4-) than with L(4+). The oil soluble ligand L(0) is not surface active in its endo-endo form but adsorbs on the oil side of the interface in its most polar endo-exo form, as well as in its protonated L(0)H(+) and complexed (L(0))Eu(NO(3))(3) states. Furthermore, comparing PMFs of the Eu(III) complexes with and without nitric acid shows that acidifying the aqueous phase has different effects, depending on the ligand charge. In particular, acid promotes the Eu(III) extraction by L(0) via the (L(0))(2)Eu(NO(3))(2+) complex, as observed experimentally. Overall, the results point to the importance of interfacial adsorption for the liquid-liquid extraction of trivalent lanthanide and actinide cations by BTPhens and analogues.

  4. Study to evaluate the impact of heat treatment on water soluble vitamins in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadullah; Khair-un-nisa; Tarar, Omer Mukhtar; Ali, Syed Abdul; Jamil, Khalid; Begum, Askari

    2010-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of domestic boiling practice on the contents of water soluble vitamins of loose milk and quantitative comparison of these vitamins in Ultra High Temperature (UHT) treated packaged milk with that of boiled loose milk. Loose milk samples were collected from various localities of Karachi city (Pakistan). These samples were boiled in simulated household conditions for 5, 10 and 15 minutes. Ultra High Temperature (UHT) treated packaged milk samples of various brands were obtained from the local market. The aliquots were analyzed for water-soluble vitamins using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) technique. The mean values and standard deviations for data were computed and compared as well as level of variations were also determined. Conventional boiling caused destruction of water soluble vitamins in milk i.e. vitamin 81 content in fresh milk decreased from 0.037 mg/100 g to 0.027 mg/100 g after 15 min boiling, whereas vitamin B2 from 0.115 to 0.084 mg/100 g, vitamin B3 0.062 to 0.044 mg/100 g, vitamin B6 0.025 to 0.019 mg/100 g and folic acid 3.38 to 2.40 microg/100 g. This accounted for a post-boiling decrease of about 27, 27, 29, 24 and 36% in vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6 and folic acid respectively. The values for vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6 and folic acid determined in boiled milk were significantly lower than UHT treated packaged milk samples by 25.9, 75.0, 54.5, 63.16 and 38.1% respectively. Conventional boiling caused drastic reduction in vitamin levels of loose milk samples. In comparison to this, UHT milk retained high levels of water soluble B-vitamins. Thus it could be envisaged that UHT treated milk provides better water soluble vitamins' nourishment than conventionally boiled milk (JPMA 60:909; 2010).

  5. Study to evaluate the impact of heat treatment on water soluble vitamins in milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khair-un-Nisa, A.; Tarar, O.M.; Ali, S.A.; Jamil, K.; Begum, A.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effect of domestic boiling practice on the contents of water soluble vitamins of loose milk and quantitative comparison of these vitamins in Ultra High Temperature (UHT) treated packaged milk with that of boiled loose milk. Methods: Loose milk samples were collected from various localities of Karachi city (Pakistan). These samples were boiled in simulated household conditions for 5, 10 and 15 minutes. Ultra High Temperature (UHT) treated packaged milk samples of various brands were obtained from the local market. The aliquots were analyzed for water-soluble vitamins using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) technique. The mean values and standard deviations for data were computed and compared as well as level of variations were also determined. Results: Conventional boiling caused destruction of water soluble vitamins in milk i.e. vitamin B1 content in fresh milk decreased from 0.037 mg/100g to 0.027 mg/100g after 15 min boiling, whereas vitamin B2 from 0.115 to 0.084 mg/100g, vitamin B3 0.062 to 0.044 mg/100g, vitamin B6 0.025 to 0.019 mg/100g and folic acid 3.38 to 2.40 < g/100g. This accounted for a post-boiling decrease of about 27, 27, 29, 24 and 36% in vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6 and folic acid respectively. The values for vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6 and folic acid determined in boiled milk were significantly lower than UHT treated packaged milk samples by 25.9, 75.0, 54.5, 63.16 and 38.1% respectively. Conclusion: Conventional boiling caused drastic reduction in vitamin levels of loose milk samples. In comparison to this, UHT milk retained high levels of water soluble B-vitamins. Thus it could be envisaged that UHT treated milk provides better water soluble vitamins' nourishment than conventionally boiled milk. (author)

  6. Partitioning of semi-soluble organic compounds between the water phase and oil droplets in produced water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faksness, Liv-Guri; Grini, Per Gerhard; Daling, Per S

    2004-04-01

    When selecting produced water treatment technologies, one should focus on reducing the major contributors to the total environmental impact. These are dispersed oil and semi-soluble hydrocarbons, alkylated phenols, and added chemicals. Experiments with produced water have been performed offshore on the Statoil operated platforms Gullfaks C and Statfjord B. These experiments were designed to find how much of the environmentally relevant compounds were dissolved in the water phase and not associated to the dispersed oil in the produced water. Results show that the distribution between the dispersed oil and the water phase varies highly for the different components groups. For example the concentration of PAHs and the C6-C9 alkylated phenols is strongly correlated to the content of dispersed oil. Therefore, the technologies enhancing the removal of dispersed oil have a higher potential for reducing the environmental impact of the produced water than previously considered.

  7. Partitioning of semi-soluble organic compounds between the water phase and oil droplets in produced water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faksness, Liv-Guri; Grini, Per Gerhard; Daling, Per S.

    2004-01-01

    When selecting produced water treatment technologies, one should focus on reducing the major contributors to the total environmental impact. These are dispersed oil and semi-soluble hydrocarbons, alkylated phenols, and added chemicals. Experiments with produced water have been performed offshore on the Statoil operated platforms Gullfaks C and Statfjord B. These experiments were designed to find how much of the environmentally relevant compounds were dissolved in the water phase and not associated to the dispersed oil in the produced water. Results show that the distribution between the dispersed oil and the water phase varies highly for the different components groups. For example the concentration of PAHs and the C6-C9 alkylated phenols is strongly correlated to the content of dispersed oil. Therefore, the technologies enhancing the removal of dispersed oil have a higher potential for reducing the environmental impact of the produced water than previously considered

  8. Water equity – Contrasting tourism water use with that of the local community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Becken

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tourism as an economic activity has grown substantially and is increasingly adding to local and seasonal pressures on water supply systems of tourist destinations around the world. Based on data from the AQUASTAT and EarthCheck tourist accommodation databases, this research analysed tourism-related water use in 21 countries and compared it with other municipal use. Tourists׳ water use on a per guest night basis was found to differ substantially, with water usage being highest (up to 956 l per guest night in China and most diverse in developing countries. The disparity between tourist water use and that of locals is also greatest in low or mid-income countries. Industrialised countries, in contrast, are characterised by high tourism water efficiencies, with no apparent discrepancy in water use between tourism and non-tourism users. Implications of this research for managing potential water conflicts and the need for broader tourist destination stewardship for water resources are discussed.

  9. Solubility of Methane, Ethane, and Propane in Pure Water Using New Binary Interaction Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Behrouz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Solubility of hydrocarbons in water is important due to ecological concerns and new restrictions on the existence of organic pollutants in water streams. Also, the creation of a thermodynamic model has required an advanced study of the phase equilibrium between water (as a basis for the widest spread muds and amines and gas hydrocarbon phases in wide temperature and pressure ranges. Therefore, it is of great interest to develop semi-empirical correlations, charts, or thermodynamic models for estimating the solubility of hydrocarbons in liquid water. In this work, a thermodynamic model based on Mathias modification of Sova-Redlich-Kwong (SRK equation of state is suggested using classical mixing rules with new binary interaction parameters which were used for two-component systems of hydrocarbons and water. Finally, the model results and their deviations in comparison with the experimental data are presented; these deviations were equal to 5.27, 6.06, and 4.1% for methane, ethane, and propane respectively.

  10. Water-soluble chelating polymers for removal of actinides from wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvinen, G.D.

    1997-01-01

    Polymer filtration is a technology under development to selectively recover valuable or regulated metal ions from process or wastewaters. The technology uses water-soluble chelating polymers that are designed to selectively bind with metal ions in aqueous solutions. The polymers have a sufficiently large molecular weight that they can be separated and concentrated using available ultrafiltration (UF) technology. The UF range is generally considered to include molecular weights from about 3000 to several million daltons and particles sizes of about 2 to 1000 nm. Water and smaller unbound components of the solution pass freely through the UF membrane. The polymers can then be reused by changing the solution conditions to release the metal ions that are recovered in concentrated form for recycle or disposal. Some of the advantages of polymer filtration relative to technology now in use are rapid binding kinetics, high selectivity, low energy and capital costs, and a small equipment footprint. Some potential commercial applications include electroplating rinse waters, photographic processing, nuclear power plant cooling water; remediation of contaminated soils and groundwater; removal of mercury contamination; and textile, paint and dye production. The purpose of this project is to evaluate this technology to remove plutonium, americium, and other regulated metal ions from various process and waste streams found in nuclear facilities. The work involves preparation of the water-soluble chelating polymers; small-scale testing of the chelating polymer systems for the required solubility, UF properties, selectivity and binding constants; followed by an engineering assessment at a larger scale to allow comparison to competing separation technologies. This project focuses on metal-ion contaminants in waste streams at the Plutonium Facility and the Waste Treatment Facility at LANL. Potential applications at other DOE facilities are also apparent

  11. Water-soluble chelating polymers for removal of actinides from wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvinen, G.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Polymer filtration is a technology under development to selectively recover valuable or regulated metal ions from process or wastewaters. The technology uses water-soluble chelating polymers that are designed to selectively bind with metal ions in aqueous solutions. The polymers have a sufficiently large molecular weight that they can be separated and concentrated using available ultrafiltration (UF) technology. The UF range is generally considered to include molecular weights from about 3000 to several million daltons and particles sizes of about 2 to 1000 nm. Water and smaller unbound components of the solution pass freely through the UF membrane. The polymers can then be reused by changing the solution conditions to release the metal ions that are recovered in concentrated form for recycle or disposal. Some of the advantages of polymer filtration relative to technology now in use are rapid binding kinetics, high selectivity, low energy and capital costs, and a small equipment footprint. Some potential commercial applications include electroplating rinse waters, photographic processing, nuclear power plant cooling water; remediation of contaminated soils and groundwater; removal of mercury contamination; and textile, paint and dye production. The purpose of this project is to evaluate this technology to remove plutonium, americium, and other regulated metal ions from various process and waste streams found in nuclear facilities. The work involves preparation of the water-soluble chelating polymers; small-scale testing of the chelating polymer systems for the required solubility, UF properties, selectivity and binding constants; followed by an engineering assessment at a larger scale to allow comparison to competing separation technologies. This project focuses on metal-ion contaminants in waste streams at the Plutonium Facility and the Waste Treatment Facility at LANL. Potential applications at other DOE facilities are also apparent.

  12. Solubility of mixed monomers of tetrafluoroethylene and propylene in water and latex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Hiromasa; Okamoto, Jiro

    1978-03-01

    For kinetical analysis of the emulsion copolymerization of tetrafluoroethylene with propylene and selection of the optimum reaction conditions, the monomer concentrations and composition of the polymer particle were measured and the relations with reaction conditions were determined. Solubilities of tetrafluoroethylene and propylene in water increase with pressure. solubility of propylene is larger than that of tetrafluoroethylene. Solubility of the mixed monomers in water and latex increases with pressure and propylene concentration and decreases with temperature. Propylene concentration in the dissolved monomers is dependent on its concentration in the gas phase and independent of pressure and temperature. The monomer concentrations and the composition were estimated from measurements. Under propylene concentration in the gas phase of 0 to 40 wt % at 30 Kg/cm 2 G and 40 0 C, the monomer concentration and propylene fraction of the polymer particle are 17 -- 27% and 0 -- 62% respectively. The amount of propylene in the particle increases with its fraction in the gas phase, but the amount of tetrafluoroethylene is independent of its fraction in the gas phase. Monomer composition of the polymer particle is dependent on monomer composition of the gas phase and independent of temperature and pressure. The concentration in the polymer particle is 17% at propylene concentration 10 mole % in the gas phase. (auth.)

  13. Improved intestinal absorption of a poorly water-soluble oral drug using mannitol microparticles containing a nanosolid drug dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Yukiko; Kubota, Aya; Kanazawa, Takanori; Takashima, Yuuki; Ozeki, Tetsuya; Okada, Hiroaki

    2012-11-01

    A nozzle for a spray dryer that can prepare microparticles of water-soluble carriers containing various nanoparticles in a single step was previously developed in our laboratory. To enhance the solubility and intestinal absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs, we used probucol (PBL) as a poorly water-soluble drug, mannitol (MAN) as a water-soluble carrier for the microparticles, and EUDRAGIT (EUD) as a polymer vehicle for the solid dispersion. PBL-EUD-acetone-methanol and aqueous MAN solutions were simultaneously supplied through different liquid passages of the spray nozzle and dried together. PBL-EUD solid dispersion was nanoprecipitated in the MAN solution using an antisolvent mechanism and rapidly dried by surrounding it with MAN. PBL in the dispersion vehicle was amorphous and had higher physical stability according to powder X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry analysis. The bioavailability of PBL in PBL-EUD S-100-MAN microparticles after oral administration in rats was markedly higher (14- and 6.2-fold, respectively) than that of the original PBL powder and PBL-MAN microparticles. These results demonstrate that the composite microparticles containing a nanosized solid dispersion of a poorly water-soluble drug prepared using the spray nozzle developed by us should be useful to increase the solubility and bioavailability of drugs after oral administration. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Highly water-soluble, porous, and biocompatible boron nitrides for anticancer drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Qunhong; Wang, Binju; Wang, Xuebin; Hanagata, Nobutaka; Li, Xia; Liu, Dequan; Wang, Xi; Jiang, Xiangfen; Bando, Yoshio; Golberg, Dmitri

    2014-06-24

    Developing materials for "Nano-vehicles" with clinically approved drugs encapsulated is envisaged to enhance drug therapeutic effects and reduce the adverse effects. However, design and preparation of the biomaterials that are porous, nontoxic, soluble, and stable in physiological solutions and could be easily functionalized for effective drug deliveries are still challenging. Here, we report an original and simple thermal substitution method to fabricate perfectly water-soluble and porous boron nitride (BN) materials featuring unprecedentedly high hydroxylation degrees. These hydroxylated BNs are biocompatible and can effectively load anticancer drugs (e.g., doxorubicin, DOX) up to contents three times exceeding their own weight. The same or even fewer drugs that are loaded on such BN carriers exhibit much higher potency for reducing the viability of LNCaP cancer cells than free drugs.

  15. Thermodynamic interactions of water-soluble homopolymers and double-hydrophilic diblock copolymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yazici, D. Topaloglu; Askin, A.; Buetuen, V.

    2008-01-01

    Thermodynamic interaction parameters of water-soluble poly[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate] (DMA) and poly[2-(N-morpholino)ethyl methacrylate] (MEMA) homopolymers and their diblock copolymer (DMA-MEMA) were investigated at the temperatures above their glass-transition temperatures (T g ) by inverse gas chromatography (IGC) method. Sorption thermodynamic parameters of some aliphatic, alicyclic and aromatic hydrocarbons, weight fraction activity coefficients, Flory-Huggins interaction parameters, and solubility parameters for hydrocarbons and polymers were calculated. It was observed that sorption thermodynamic parameters on (co)polymers depend on the molecular structures of hydrocarbons. Evaluating both the calculated values of the weight fraction activity coefficients and Flory-Huggins interaction parameters, the solving ability of the hydrocarbons for DMA, MEMA homopolymers, and DMA-MEMA diblock copolymer decreased in the following sequence: Aromatic > alicyclic > aliphatic hydrocarbons

  16. Aryl-derivatized, water-soluble functionalized carbon nanotubes for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karousis, N.; Ali-Boucetta, H.; Kostarelos, K.; Tagmatarchis, N.

    2008-01-01

    The functionalization of very-thin multi-walled carbon nanotubes (VT-MWNTs) with an aniline derivative, via the protocol of in situ generated aryl diazonium salts results, upon acidic deprotection of the terminal BOC group, on the formation of the water-soluble positively charged ammonium functionalized VT-MWNTs-NH 3 + material. The new materials have been structurally and morphologically characterized by infra-red (ATR-IR) spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The quantitative calculation of the grafted aryl units onto the skeleton of VT-MWNTs has been estimated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), while the quantitative Kaiser test showed the amine group loaded onto VT-MWNTs-NH 3 + material. The aqueous solubility of this material has allowed the performance of some initial toxicological in vitro investigations

  17. Synthesis, structure, antioxidant activity, and water solubility of trolox ion conjugates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya V. Yushkova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of trolox with ammonia, alkylamines of different classes, and amino derivatives of heterocyclic compounds, including nitroxyl radicals and alkaloids, led to the production of ammonium salts called ion conjugates (ICs. Five ICs were characterised by X-ray diffraction. This is the first time a wide range of ICs were made from trolox with amines, and ESI-MS data demonstrated they have the potential to generate pseudomolecular [(A−B+ + H]+ ions. For all obtained trolox ICs, a significant increase (1–3 orders of magnitude in water solubility was achieved while retaining high antioxidant activity. ICs synthesised from two biologically active fragments may be used to create polyfunctional agents with varying solubility and bioavailability. Keywords: Trolox, Amines, Ion conjugates, Antioxidants, Mass-spectrometry

  18. Determination of fat- and water-soluble vitamins by supercritical fluid chromatography: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyśkiewicz, Katarzyna; Dębczak, Agnieszka; Gieysztor, Roman; Szymczak, Tomasz; Rój, Edward

    2018-01-01

    Vitamins are compounds that take part in all basic functions of an organism but also are subject of number of studies performed by different researchers. Two groups of vitamins are distinguished taking into consideration their solubility. Chromatography with supercritical CO 2 has found application in the determination, separation, and quantitative analyses of both fat- and water-soluble vitamins. The methods of vitamins separation have developed and improved throughout the years. Both groups of compounds were separated using supercritical fluid chromatography with different detection on different stationary phases. The main aim of this review is to provide an overview of the studies of vitamins separation that have been determined so far. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Characterization of soluble microbial products as precursors of disinfection byproducts in drinking water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin-Lin; Li, Xiao-Yan; Xie, Yue-Feng; Tang, Hao

    2014-02-15

    Water pollution by wastewater discharge can cause the problem of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in drinking water supply. In this study, DBP formation characteristics of soluble microbial products (SMPs) as the main products of wastewater organic biodegradation were investigated. The results show that SMPs can act as DBP precursors in simulated wastewater biodegradation process. Under the experimental conditions, stabilized SMPs had DBPFP (DBP formation potential) yield of around 5.6 μmol mmol(-1)-DOC (dissolved organic carbon) and DBP speciation profile different from that of the conventional precursor, natural organic matter (NOM). SMPs contained polysaccharides, proteins, and humic-like substances, and the latter two groups can act as reactive DBP precursors. SMP fraction with molecular weight of water treatment processes, more efforts are needed to control wastewater-derived DBP problem in water resource management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of Bombay high crude oil and its water-soluble fraction on growth and metabolism of diatom Thalassiosira sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parab, S.R.; Pandit, R.A.; Kadam, A.N.; Indap, M.M.

    Effect of Bombay high crude oil (BHC) and its water-soluble fraction (WSF) on growth and metabolism of the phytoplankton, Thalassiosira sp. was assessed. The study revealed the signs of acute toxicity at higher concentrations of crude oil (0...

  1. Simultaneous quantification of 21 water soluble vitamin circulating forms in human plasma by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisser Redeuil, Karine; Longet, Karin; Bénet, Sylvie; Munari, Caroline; Campos-Giménez, Esther

    2015-11-27

    This manuscript reports a validated analytical approach for the quantification of 21 water soluble vitamins and their main circulating forms in human plasma. Isotope dilution-based sample preparation consisted of protein precipitation using acidic methanol enriched with stable isotope labelled internal standards. Separation was achieved by reversed-phase liquid chromatography and detection performed by tandem mass spectrometry in positive electrospray ionization mode. Instrumental lower limits of detection and quantification reached water soluble vitamins in human plasma single donor samples. The present report provides a sensitive and reliable approach for the quantification of water soluble vitamins and main circulating forms in human plasma. In the future, the application of this analytical approach will give more confidence to provide a comprehensive assessment of water soluble vitamins nutritional status and bioavailability studies in humans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Solubility of root-canal sealers in water and artificial saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, E; Zandbiglari, T

    2003-10-01

    To compare the weight loss of eight different root-canal sealers in water and in artificial saliva with different pH values. For standardized samples (n = 12 per group), ring moulds were filled with epoxy resin (AH 26, AH Plus)-, silicone (RSA RoekoSeal)-, calcium hydroxide (Apexit, Sealapex)-, zinc oxide-eugenol (Aptal-Harz)-, glass-ionomer (Ketac Endo)- and polyketone (Diaket)-based sealers. These samples were immersed in double-distilled water or artificial saliva with different pH values (7.0, 5.7 and 4.5) for 30 s, 1 min, 2 min, 5 min, 10 min, 20 min, 1 h, 2 h, 10 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, 14 days and 28 days. Mean loss of weight was determined and analysed statistically using a one-way anova and Student-Newman-Keuls test for all pairwise comparisons. Most sealers were of low solubility, although Sealapex, Aptal-Harz and Ketac Endo showed a marked weight loss in all liquids. Even after 28 days of storage in water, AH 26, AH Plus, RSA RoekoSeal, and Diaket showed less than 3% weight loss. At exposure times greater than 14 days, Sealapex showed the significantly greatest weight loss of all sealers tested (P < 0.05). Aptal-Harz and Ketac Endo were significantly more soluble in saliva (pH 4.5) than in water (P < 0.05). Under the conditions of the present study, AH Plus showed the least weight loss of all sealers tested, independent of the solubility medium used. Sealapex, Aptal-Harz and Ketac Endo had a marked weight loss in all liquids.

  3. Water-Soluble N-Heterocyclic Carbene-Protected Gold Nanoparticles: Size-Controlled Synthesis, Stability, and Optical Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Salorinne, Kirsi; Man, Renee W.Y.; Li, Chien-Hung; Taki, Masayasu; Nambo, Masakazu; Crudden, Cathleen M.

    2017-01-01

    NHC-Au(I) complexes were used to prepare stable, water-soluble, NHC-protected gold nanoparticles. The water-soluble, charged nature of the nanoparticles permitted analysis by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), which showed that the nanoparticles were highly monodisperse, with tunable core diameters between 2.0 and 3.3 nm depending on the synthesis conditions. Temporal, thermal, and chemical stability of the nanoparticles were determined to be high. Treatment with thiols caused etching...

  4. Preparations and properties of anti-corrosion additives of water-soluble metal working fluids for aluminum alloy materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shoji

    2008-01-01

    This short review describes various types of anti-corrosion additives of water-soluble metal working fluids for aluminum alloy materials. It is concerned with synthetic additives classified according to their functional groups; silicone compounds, carboxylic acids and dibasic acids, esters, Diels-Alder adducts, various polymers, nitrogen compounds, phosphoric esters, phosphonic acids, and others. Testing methods for water-soluble metal working fluids for aluminum alloy materials are described for a practical application in a laboratory.

  5. Lumbar myelography with water-soluble contrast media including comparison with computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langlotz, M.

    1986-01-01

    The heart of this book lies in the bringing together of clinical data, CT, myelography (at full one to one scale), and early follow-up of individual cases. In order to achieve better visual understanding of the examples, as well as an overview of them, line drawings summarizing the most important pathologic and radiologic changes introduce each section. (orig./MG) With 373 figs

  6. Penetration of the brain by nonionic water soluble tri- and hexaiodinated contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castel, J.C.; Corcier, F.; Caille, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    After suboccipital injection of Iotrol and Iopamidol labelled with iodine 125 in rabbits, we measured residual radioactivity in the whole brain and measured optical density on autoradiographs of brain sections obtained 2, 8 and 24 h after injection. Residual radioactivity is higher with Iotrol than with Iopamidol after 8 h and 24 h. At densitometry, while the penetration of the cortex is the same with both media at 2 h (although subcortical passage of Iotrol is greater) by 8 h the concentration of Iopamidol is twice that of Iotrol, and at 24 h it is three times as high. A similar pattern was seen in the subcortical region. These densitometric findings are in agreement with previous electrophysiological studies, in which changes were less severe and more transient with Iotrol than with Iohexol. There is nevertheless an apparent lack of agreement between the studies of radioactivity studies and the electrical findings. The lower neurotoxicity of Iotrol may be explained by: 1. a longer half-life in the subarachnoid space; 2. its larger molecules, which inhibit diffusion in the extracellular fluid, and 3. its more hydrophilic nature, which reduces intracellular penetration. (orig.)

  7. Urinary water-soluble vitamins and their metabolite contents as nutritional markers for evaluating vitamin intakes in young Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Shibata, Katsumi

    2008-06-01

    Little information is available to estimate water-soluble vitamin intakes from urinary vitamins and their metabolite contents as possible nutritional markers. Determination of the relationships between the oral dose and urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins in human subjects contributes to finding valid nutrition markers of water-soluble vitamin intakes. Six female Japanese college students were given a standard Japanese diet in the first week, the same diet with a synthesized water-soluble vitamin mixture as a diet with approximately onefold vitamin mixture based on Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for Japanese in the second week, with a threefold vitamin mixture in the third week, and a sixfold mixture in the fourth week. Water-soluble vitamins and their metabolites were measured in the 24-h urine collected each week. All urinary vitamins and their metabolite levels except vitamin B(12) increased linearly in a dose-dependent manner, and highly correlated with vitamin intake (r=0.959 for vitamin B(1), r=0.927 for vitamin B(2), r=0.965 for vitamin B(6), r=0.957 for niacin, r=0.934 for pantothenic acid, r=0.907 for folic acid, r=0.962 for biotin, and r=0.952 for vitamin C). These results suggest that measuring urinary water-soluble vitamins and their metabolite levels can be used as good nutritional markers for assessing vitamin intakes.

  8. Determination of water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins in tears and blood serum of infants and parents by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaksari, Maryam; Mazzoleni, Lynn R; Ruan, Chunhai; Kennedy, Robert T; Minerick, Adrienne R

    2017-02-01

    Tears serve as a viable diagnostic fluid with advantages including less invasive sample to collect and less complex to prepare for analysis. Several water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins were detected and quantified in human tears and compared with blood serum levels. Samples from 15 family pairs, each pair consisting of a four-month-old infant and one parent were analyzed; vitamin concentrations were compared between tears and blood serum for individual subjects, between infants and parents, and against self-reported dietary intakes. Water-soluble vitamins B 1 , B 2 , B 3 (nicotinamide), B 5 , B 9 and fat-soluble vitamin E (α-tocopherol) were routinely detected in tears and blood serum while fat-soluble vitamin A (retinol) was detected only in blood serum. Water-soluble vitamin concentrations measured in tears and blood serum of single subjects were comparable, while higher concentrations were measured in infants compared to their parents. Fat-soluble vitamin E concentrations were lower in tears than blood serum with no significant difference between infants and parents. Serum vitamin A concentrations were higher in parents than infants. Population trends were compiled and quantified using a cross correlation factor. Strong positive correlations were found between tear and blood serum concentrations of vitamin E from infants and parents and vitamin B 3 concentrations from parents, while slight positive correlations were detected for infants B 3 and parents B 1 and B 2 concentrations. Correlations between infants and parents were found for the concentrations of B 1 , B 2 , B 3 , and E in tears, and the concentrations of B 2, A, and E in blood serum. Stronger vitamin concentration correlations were found between infants and parents for the breast-fed infants, while no significant difference was observed between breast-fed and bottle-fed infants. This work is the first to demonstrate simultaneous vitamin A, B, and E detection and to quantify correlations between

  9. Effects of solvent evaporation on water sorption/solubility and nanoleakage of adhesive systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimeli, Talita Baumgratz Cachapuz; D'Alpino, Paulo Henrique Perlatti; Pereira, Patrícia Nóbrega; Hilgert, Leandro Augusto; Di Hipólito, Vinicius; Garcia, Fernanda Cristina Pimentel

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of solvent evaporation in the kinetics of water diffusion (water sorption-WS, solubility-SL, and net water uptake) and nanoleakage of adhesive systems. Disk-shaped specimens (5.0 mm in diameter x 0.8 mm in thickness) were produced (N=48) using the adhesives: Clearfil S3 Bond (CS3)/Kuraray, Clearfil SE Bond - control group (CSE)/Kuraray, Optibond Solo Plus (OS)/Kerr and Scotchbond Universal Adhesive (SBU)/3M ESPE. The solvents were either evaporated for 30 s or not evaporated (N=24/per group), and then photoactivated for 80 s (550 mW/cm2). After desiccation, the specimens were weighed and stored in distilled water (N=12) or mineral oil (N=12) to evaluate the water diffusion over a 7-day period. Net water uptake (%) was also calculated as the sum of WS and SL. Data were submitted to 3-way ANOVA/Tukey's test (α=5%). The nanoleakage expression in three additional specimens per group was also evaluated after ammoniacal silver impregnation after 7 days of water storage under SEM. Statistical analysis revealed that only the factor "adhesive" was significant (padhesives. CSE (control) presented significantly lower net uptake (5.4%). The nanoleakage was enhanced by the presence of solvent in the adhesives. Although the evaporation has no effect in the kinetics of water diffusion, the nanoleakage expression of the adhesives tested increases when the solvents are not evaporated.

  10. Defensive strategies in Geranium sylvaticum, Part 2: Roles of water-soluble tannins, flavonoids and phenolic acids against natural enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuominen, Anu

    2013-11-01

    Geranium sylvaticum is a common herbaceous plant in Fennoscandia, which has a unique phenolic composition. Ellagitannins, proanthocyanidins, galloylglucoses, gallotannins, galloyl quinic acids and flavonoids possess variable distribution in its different organs. These phenolic compounds are thought to have an important role in plant-herbivore interactions. The aim of this study was to quantify these different water-soluble phenolic compounds and measure the biological activity of the eight organs of G. sylvaticum. Compounds were characterized and quantified using HPLC-DAD/MS, in addition, total proanthocyanidins were determined by BuOH-HCl assay and total phenolics by the Folin-Ciocalteau method. Two in vitro biological activity measurements were used: the prooxidant activity was measured by the browning assay and antioxidant activity by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. Organ extracts were fractionated using column chromatography on Sephadex LH-20 and the activities of fractions was similarly measured to evaluate which polyphenol groups contributed the most to the biological activity of each organ. The data on the activity of fractions were examined by multivariate data analysis. The water-soluble extracts of leaves and pistils, which contained over 30% of the dry weight as ellagitannins, showed the highest pro-oxidant activity among the organ extracts. Fraction analysis revealed that flavonoids and galloyl quinic acids also exhibited high pro-oxidant activity. In contrast, the most antioxidant active organ extracts were those of the main roots and hairy roots that contained high amounts of proanthocyanidins in addition to ellagitannins. Analysis of the fractions showed that especially ellagitannins and galloyl quinic acids have high antioxidant activity. We conclude that G. sylvaticum allocates a significant amount of tannins in those plant parts that are important to the fitness of the plant and susceptible to natural enemies, i

  11. Luminescent, water-soluble silicon quantum dots via micro-plasma surface treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jeslin J; Siva Santosh Kumar Kondeti, Vighneswara; Bruggeman, Peter J; Kortshagen, Uwe R

    2016-01-01

    Silicon quantum dots (SiQDs), with their broad absorption, narrow and size-tunable emission, and potential biocompatibility are highly attractive materials in biological imaging applications. The inherent hydrophobicity and instability of hydrogen-terminated SiQDs are obstacles to their widespread implementation. In this work, we successfully produced highly luminescent, hydrophilic SiQDs with long-term stability in water using non-thermal plasma techniques. Hydrogen-terminated SiQDs were produced in a low-pressure plasma and subsequently treated in water using an atmospheric-pressure plasma jet for surface modification. Preliminary assessments of the chemical mechanism(s) involved in the creation of water-soluble SiQDs were performed using Fenton’s reaction and various plasma chemistries, suggesting both OH and O species play a key role in the oxidation of the SiQDs. (letter)

  12. Chemical constituents: water-soluble vitamins, free amino acids and sugar profile from Ganoderma adspersum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kıvrak, İbrahim

    2015-01-01

    Ganoderma adspersum presents a rigid fruiting body owing to chitin content and having a small quantity of water or moisture. The utility of bioactive constituent of the mushroom can only be available by extraction for human usage. In this study, carbohydrate, water-soluble vitamin compositions and amino acid contents were determined in G. adspersum mushroom. The composition in individual sugars was determined by HPLC-RID, mannitol (13.04 g/100 g) and trehalose (10.27 g/100 g) being the most abundant sugars. The examination of water-soluble vitamins and free amino acid composition was determined by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Essential amino acid constituted 67.79% of total amino acid, which is well worth the attention with regard to researchers and consumers. In addition, G. adspersum, which is also significantly rich in B group vitamins and vitamin C, can provide a wide range of notable applications in the pharmaceutics, cosmetics, food and dietary supplement industries. G. adspersum revealed its value for pharmacy and nutrition fields.

  13. Water-soluble triazabutadienes that release diazonium species upon protonation under physiologically relevant conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimani, Flora W; Jewett, John C

    2015-03-23

    Triazabutadienes are an understudied structural motif that have remarkable reactivity once rendered water-soluble. It is shown that these molecules readily release diazonium species in a pH-dependent manner in a series of buffer solutions with pH ranges similar to those found in cells. Upon further development, we expect that this process will be well suited to cargo-release strategies and organelle-specific bioconjugation reactions. These compounds offer one of the mildest ways of generating diazonium species in aqueous solutions. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Graft copolymerization of water soluble mixed monomers onto polyethylene by the pre-irradiation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long Fu; Tang Liming; Zhao Jin; Gao Zhenyong

    1993-01-01

    Grafting of water soluble mixed monomers of acrylic acid (AA)/acrylamide (Am) and acrylic acid/methacrylic acid (MA) onto polyethylene film by the pre-irradiation grafting method was investigated. The results showed that the grafting proceeded successfully with the adding of ferric salt in the solution. In the case of AA/Am system, a synergistic effect was noticed. In the case of AA/MA system, the graft percent increased with the increase in the concentration of MA in the feed ratio. Furthermore, the effects of monomer concentration, radiation dose and temperature on the grafting were also studied

  15. Encapsulation of Polythiophene by Glycopolymer for Water Soluble Nano-wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T Fukuda; Y Inoue; T Koga; M Matsuoka; Y Miura

    2011-12-31

    A water-soluble polythiophene (PT) was prepared by the self-assembling complex with a glycopolymer. The glycopolymer of poly(N-p-vinylbenzyl-D-lactonamide) (PVLA) formed self-assembling cylindrical structure based on the amphiphilicity even after the complexation with PT. We confirmed the improved optical functionality of PT due to the longer conjugated {pi}-orbital. It suggested that PT behaved like molecular nanowire with the self-assembled structure in the hydrophobic core of PVLA. PVLA-PT also showed specific biorecognition against corresponding lectin. These results suggested that the bioactive nanowire formation of PT with the glycopolymer was developed.

  16. Capacity for absorption of water-soluble secondary metabolites greater in birds than in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasov, William H; Caviedes-Vidal, Enrique; Bakken, Bradley Hartman; Izhaki, Ido; Samuni-Blank, Michal; Arad, Zeev

    2012-01-01

    Plant secondary metabolites (SMs) are pervasive in animal foods and potentially influence feeding behavior, interspecies interactions, and the distribution and abundance of animals. Some of the major classes of naturally occurring SMs in plants include many water-soluble compounds in the molecular size range that could cross the intestinal epithelium via the paracellular space by diffusion or solvent drag. There are differences among species in paracellular permeability. Using Middle Eastern rodent and avian consumers of fruits containing SMs, we tested the hypothesis that avian species would have significantly higher paracellular permeability than rodent species. Permeability in intact animals was assessed using standard pharmacological methodology to measure absorption of two radiolabeled, inert, neutral water-soluble probes that do not interact with intestinal nutrient transporters, L-arabinose (M(r) = 150.1 Da) and lactulose (M(r) = 342.3 Da). We also measured absorption of labeled 3-O-methyl-D-glucose (3OMD-glucose; M(r) = 194.2 Da), which is a nonmetabolized analogue of D-glucose that is passively absorbed through the paracellular space but also transported across the enterocyte membranes. Most glucose was absorbed by all species, but arabinose fractional absorption (f) was nearly three times higher in birds (1.03±0.17, n = 15 in two species) compared to rodents (0.37±0.06, n = 10 in two species) (Pbirds of arabinose exceeded those of 3OMD-glucose. Our findings are in agreement with previous work showing that the paracellular pathway is more prominent in birds relative to nonflying mammals, and suggests that birds may be challenged by greater absorption of water-soluble, dietary SMs. The increased expression of the paracellular pathway in birds hints at a tradeoff: the free energy birds gain by absorbing water-soluble nutrients passively may be offset by the metabolic demands placed on them to eliminate concomitantly absorbed SMs.

  17. Sensory and chromatographic evaluations of water soluble fractions from air-dried sausages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Anders Peter; Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller

    1997-01-01

    Low molecular weight water soluble compounds were extracted from Danish salami, Italian sausage, and Spanish Chorizo. The extracts were fractionated by gel filtration chromatography revealing peptides with a molecular weight less than 4200 Dalton. Fractions consisting of smaller peptides and free...... amino acids had enhanced savory taste impressions described as mainly bouillon, bitter, sour, salty and plastic with odor notes of boiled potato. Determination of amino acids in the fractions before and after hydrolysis revealed the presence of mainly hydrophilic peptides in all fractions. Partial least...

  18. Efficient Route to Highly Water-Soluble Aromatic Cyclic Hydroxamic Acid Ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, Michael; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2008-02-06

    2-Hydroxyisoquinolin-1-one (1,2-HOIQO) is a new member of the important class of aromatic cyclic hydroxamic acid ligands which are widely used in metal sequestering applications and metal chelating therapy. The first general approach for the introduction of substituents at the aromatic ring of the chelating moiety is presented. As a useful derivative, the highly water-soluble sulfonic acid has been synthesized by an efficient route that allows general access to 1,2-HOQIO 3-carboxlic acid amides, which are the most relevant for applications.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of a fluorescent water-soluble paclitaxel prodrug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Jeong-Sun; Choi, Eun-Sun; Jo, Byung-Wook; Hess, Michael; Han, Song-Hee

    2010-05-01

    A fluorescence susceptible water-soluble paclitaxel was synthesized by a condensation reaction between PEGylated paclitaxel (namely, PP7) and 1-pyrene butyric acid (PBA) in order to obtain a better understanding of the mechanism of action of paclitaxel as well as of the environment of the paclitaxel-binding site. The reaction was performed successfully and the resulting paclitaxel was characterized by FT-NMR, analytical-HPLC, UV spectro photometry, and fluorescence spectrometry. The synthesized paclitaxel analogue showed a high susceptibility to fluorescence in both excitation and emission spectra. And we have investigated the time-resolved fluorescence behavior of them in different solvents and at different excitation wavelengths.

  20. [Nutrition and bone health. The bone and the foods containing many water-soluble vitamins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Hiromi

    2009-08-01

    On the Dietary Reference Intakes in Japan, nine kinds of water-soluble vitamins are taken up. Those vitamins are supplied from various food. Food from animal sources and vegetable sources are those vitamins source of supply. Vitamin C participates in generation of collagen. Vitamin C is supplied from vegetables or fruits. Since vitamin C is lost by cooking processing, the content of a raw state is not expectable after cooking. Moreover, the vitamin B group of food origin has combined with protein etc., and free types, such as supplement, differ in the bioavailability.

  1. Sunlight-Induced Photochemical Degradation of Methylene Blue by Water-Soluble Carbon Nanorods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshu Bhati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Water-soluble graphitic hollow carbon nanorods (wsCNRs are exploited for their light-driven photochemical activities under outdoor sunlight. wsCNRs were synthesized by a simple pyrolysis method from castor seed oil, without using any metal catalyst or template. wsCNRs exhibited the light-induced photochemical degradation of methylene blue used as a model pollutant by the generation of singlet oxygen species. Herein, we described a possible degradation mechanism of methylene blue under the irradiation of visible photons via the singlet oxygen-superoxide anion pathway.

  2. Preparation of nanoparticles of poorly water-soluble antioxidant curcumin by antisolvent precipitation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakran, Mitali; Sahoo, Nanda Gopal; Tan, I.-Lin; Li, Lin

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to enhance the solubility and dissolution rate of a poorly water-soluble antioxidant, curcumin, by fabricating its nanoparticles with two methods: antisolvent precipitation with a syringe pump (APSP) and evaporative precipitation of nanosuspension (EPN). For APSP, process parameters like flow rate, stirring speed, solvent to antisolvent (SAS) ratio, and drug concentration were investigated to obtain the smallest particle size. For EPN, factors like drug concentration and the SAS ratio were examined. The effects of these process parameters on the supersaturation, nucleation, and growth rate were studied and optimized to obtain the smallest particle size of curcumin by both the methods. The average particle size of the original drug was about 10-12 μm and it was decreased to a mean diameter of 330 nm for the APSP method and to 150 nm for the EPN method. Overall, decreasing the drug concentration or increasing the flow rate, stirring rate, and antisolvent amount resulted in smaller particle sizes. Differential scanning calorimetry studies suggested lower crystallinity of curcumin particles fabricated. The solubility and dissolution rates of the prepared curcumin particles were significantly higher than those the original curcumin. The antioxidant activity, studied by the DPPH free radical-scavenging assay, was greater for the curcumin nanoparticles than the original curcumin. This study demonstrated that both the methods can successfully prepare curcumin into submicro to nanoparticles. However, drug particles prepared by EPN were smaller than those by APSP and hence, showed the slightly better solubility, dissolution rate, and antioxidant activity than the latter.

  3. Preparation of nanoparticles of poorly water-soluble antioxidant curcumin by antisolvent precipitation methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakran, Mitali; Sahoo, Nanda Gopal; Tan, I-Lin; Li Lin, E-mail: mlli@ntu.edu.sg [Nanyang Technological University, School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering (Singapore)

    2012-03-15

    The objective of this study was to enhance the solubility and dissolution rate of a poorly water-soluble antioxidant, curcumin, by fabricating its nanoparticles with two methods: antisolvent precipitation with a syringe pump (APSP) and evaporative precipitation of nanosuspension (EPN). For APSP, process parameters like flow rate, stirring speed, solvent to antisolvent (SAS) ratio, and drug concentration were investigated to obtain the smallest particle size. For EPN, factors like drug concentration and the SAS ratio were examined. The effects of these process parameters on the supersaturation, nucleation, and growth rate were studied and optimized to obtain the smallest particle size of curcumin by both the methods. The average particle size of the original drug was about 10-12 {mu}m and it was decreased to a mean diameter of 330 nm for the APSP method and to 150 nm for the EPN method. Overall, decreasing the drug concentration or increasing the flow rate, stirring rate, and antisolvent amount resulted in smaller particle sizes. Differential scanning calorimetry studies suggested lower crystallinity of curcumin particles fabricated. The solubility and dissolution rates of the prepared curcumin particles were significantly higher than those the original curcumin. The antioxidant activity, studied by the DPPH free radical-scavenging assay, was greater for the curcumin nanoparticles than the original curcumin. This study demonstrated that both the methods can successfully prepare curcumin into submicro to nanoparticles. However, drug particles prepared by EPN were smaller than those by APSP and hence, showed the slightly better solubility, dissolution rate, and antioxidant activity than the latter.

  4. Preparation of nanoparticles of poorly water-soluble antioxidant curcumin by antisolvent precipitation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakran, Mitali; Sahoo, Nanda Gopal; Tan, I-Lin; Li Lin

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to enhance the solubility and dissolution rate of a poorly water-soluble antioxidant, curcumin, by fabricating its nanoparticles with two methods: antisolvent precipitation with a syringe pump (APSP) and evaporative precipitation of nanosuspension (EPN). For APSP, process parameters like flow rate, stirring speed, solvent to antisolvent (SAS) ratio, and drug concentration were investigated to obtain the smallest particle size. For EPN, factors like drug concentration and the SAS ratio were examined. The effects of these process parameters on the supersaturation, nucleation, and growth rate were studied and optimized to obtain the smallest particle size of curcumin by both the methods. The average particle size of the original drug was about 10–12 μm and it was decreased to a mean diameter of 330 nm for the APSP method and to 150 nm for the EPN method. Overall, decreasing the drug concentration or increasing the flow rate, stirring rate, and antisolvent amount resulted in smaller particle sizes. Differential scanning calorimetry studies suggested lower crystallinity of curcumin particles fabricated. The solubility and dissolution rates of the prepared curcumin particles were significantly higher than those the original curcumin. The antioxidant activity, studied by the DPPH free radical-scavenging assay, was greater for the curcumin nanoparticles than the original curcumin. This study demonstrated that both the methods can successfully prepare curcumin into submicro to nanoparticles. However, drug particles prepared by EPN were smaller than those by APSP and hence, showed the slightly better solubility, dissolution rate, and antioxidant activity than the latter.

  5. Synthesis and evaluation of water-soluble poly(vinyl alcohol)-paclitaxel conjugate as a macromolecular prodrug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakinoki, Atsufumi; Kaneo, Yoshiharu; Tanaka, Tetsuro; Hosokawa, Yoshitsugu

    2008-01-01

    Paclitaxel (PTX) is an antitumor agent for the treatment of various human cancers. Cremophor EL and ethanol are used to formulate PTX in commercial injection solutions, because of its poor solubility in water. However, these agents cause severe allergic reaction upon intravenous administration. The aim of this study is to synthesize water-soluble macromolecular prodrugs of PTX for enhancing the therapeutic efficacy. Poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA, 80 kDa), water-soluble synthetic polymer, was used as a drug carrier which is safe and stable in the body. The 2'-hydroxyl group of PTX was reacted with succinic anhydride and then carboxylic group of the succinyl spacer was coupled to PVA via ethylene diamine spacer, resulting the water-soluble prodrug of poly (vinyl alcohol)-paclitaxel conjugate (PVA-SPTX). The solubility of PTX was greatly enhanced by the conjugation to PVA. The release of PTX from the conjugate was accelerated at the neutral to basic conditions in in vitro release experiment. [ 125 I]-labeled PVA-SPTX was retained in the blood circulation for several days and was gradually distributed into the tumorous tissue after intravenous injection to the tumor-bearing mice. PVA-SPTX inhibited the growth of sarcoma 180 cells subcutaneously inoculated in mice. It was suggested that the water-solubility of PTX was markedly enhanced by the conjugation to PVA, and PVA-SPTX effectively delivered PTX to the tumorous tissue due to the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. (author)

  6. Effect of addition of water-soluble salts on the hydrogen generation of aluminum in reaction with hot water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razavi-Tousi, S.S.; Szpunar, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Aluminum powder was ball milled for different durations of time with different weight percentages of water-soluble salts (NaCl and KCl). The hydrogen generation of each mixture in reaction with hot water was measured. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) as well as energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were used to investigate the morphology, surfaces and cross sections of the produced particles. The results show that the presence of salts in the microstructure of the aluminum considerably increases the hydrogen generation rate. At shorter milling times, the salt covers the aluminum particles and becomes embedded in layers within the aluminum matrix. At higher milling durations, salt and aluminum phases form composite particles. A higher percentage of the second phase significantly decreases the milling time needed for activation of the aluminum particles. Based on the EDS results from cross sections of the milled particles, a mechanism for improvement of the hydrogen generation rate in the presence of salts is suggested. - Highlights: • Milling and water soluble salts have a synergic effect on hydrogen generation. • Salt and aluminum form composite particles by milling. • Salt is dissolved in water leaving aluminum with much fresh surfaces for the reaction. • The chemical effect of salt on the reaction is negligible compared to its structural effect.

  7. Sunlight creates oxygenated species in water-soluble fractions of Deepwater horizon oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, Phoebe Z. [Department of Chemistry, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA 70148 (United States); Chen, Huan [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, 1800 East Paul Dirac Drive, Tallahassee, FL 32310-4005 (United States); Podgorski, David C. [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, 1800 East Paul Dirac Drive, Tallahassee, FL 32310-4005 (United States); Future Fuels Institute, Florida State University, 1800 East Paul Dirac Drive, Tallahassee, FL 32310-4005 (United States); McKenna, Amy M. [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, 1800 East Paul Dirac Drive, Tallahassee, FL 32310-4005 (United States); Tarr, Matthew A., E-mail: mtarr@uno.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA 70148 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Sunlight oxygenates petroleum. - Highlights: • Oxidation seen in water-soluble oil fraction after exposure to simulated sunlight. • Oxygen addition occurred across a wide range of carbon number and DBE. • Oil compounds were susceptible to addition of multiple oxygens to each molecule. • Results provide understanding of fate of oil on water after exposure to sunlight. - Abstract: In order to assess the impact of sunlight on oil fate, Macondo well oil from the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) rig was mixed with pure water and irradiated with simulated sunlight. After irradiation, the water-soluble organics (WSO) from the dark and irradiated samples were extracted and characterized by ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS). Liquid–liquid extraction yielded two fractions from dark and irradiated water/oil mixtures: acidic WSOs (negative-ion electrospray (ESI)), and base/neutral WSOs (positive-ion ESI) coupled to FT-ICR MS to catalog molecular-level transformations that occur to Macondo-derived WSOs after solar irradiation. Such direct measure of oil phototransformation has not been previously reported. The most abundant heteroatom class detected in the irradiated WSO acid fractions correspond to molecules that contain five oxygens (O{sub 5}), while the most abundant acids in the dark samples contain two oxygen atoms per molecule (O{sub 2}). Higher-order oxygen classes (O{sub 5}–O{sub 9}) were abundant in the irradiated samples, but <1.5% relative abundance in the dark sample. The increased abundance of higher-order oxygen classes in the irradiated samples relative to the dark samples indicates that photooxidized components of the Macondo crude oil become water-soluble after irradiation. The base/neutral fraction showed decreased abundance of pyridinic nitrogen (N{sub 1}) concurrent with an increased abundance of N{sub 1}O{sub x} classes after irradiation. The predominance of higher

  8. Synthesis of water-soluble poly [acrylic acid-co-vinyl butyl ether] and its applications in cement admixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negim, S.M.; Mun, G.A.; Nurkeeva, Z.S.; Danveesh, H.H.M.

    2005-01-01

    Three composition ratios of poly[acrylic acid (AA)-co-vinyl butyl ether)] were prepared in alcoholic solution using azo-bis-isobutyro-nitrile as initiator (ABIN). The water-soluble copolymers were characterized through FT-IR, 1 H NMR, Mass spectra, ESEM as well as viscosity. The effect of water-soluble copolymers and their sodium salts on the physico-mechanical properties of Ordaniary Portland Cement (O.P.C) pastes was investigated. The results showed that the addition of aqueous solutions from the prepared copolymers and their sodium salts to the cement improve most of the specific characteristics of (O.P.C). As the concentration of the water-soluble copolymer increases, the setting time increases. The combined water content enhances the addition of copolymer to the mixing water. The compressive strength was she increased at all any hydration. The results of the solution of the prepared sodium salt copolymers are better than its copolymers. (author)

  9. Radiation absorption, water content and contrast medium impregnation of gallstones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, W.G.H.

    1982-01-01

    Gallstones extracted by surgery were examined for CT density, which was compared with the X-ray film, floating performance and chemical analysis of the stones. So far, the water content of the biliary concrements - 14% on the average - has not been given much attention. Drying will considerably reduce the density; examination of the dried gallstones yields a false picture of direct ray absorption. Pure cholesterol stones do not float in water, and they show positive values on Hounsfield's scale (+30 - +60). The article discusses the question whether CT is suitable for effecting a better selection of gallstone patients who can be treated by drug therapy. (orig.) [de

  10. Debinding behaviour of a water soluble PEG/PMMA binder for Ti metal injection moulding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Gang [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Cao, Peng, E-mail: p.cao@auckland.ac.nz [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Wen, Guian [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Edmonds, Neil [School of Chemical Science, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand)

    2013-05-15

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) has been becoming a common component in the design of water soluble binder systems for metal injection moulding. Similar to solvent debinding, PEG can be leached out by water and the mechanism of debinding was proposed in the literature with somehow misleading information about the debinding mechanism, particularly about the formation of PEG gel. This work investigates the debinding behaviours of a PEG-based binder in titanium compacts. Titanium powder is formulated with PEG, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and stearic acid (SA) to formulate titanium feedstock. To determine the debinding kinetics, the PEG removal percentages are measured at three different temperatures and for various specimen thicknesses. A mathematic model based on diffusion-controlled debinding process is established. The evolution of porous microstructure during the water debinding process is observed using scanning electron microscopy. Based on these observations, a water debinding mechanism for titanium alloy compacts formulated with PEG-based binders is proposed. - Highlights: ► The water-debinding behaviours of the PEG binder system were investigated. ► PEG dissolution and transportation, and the pore structure development. ► A water debinding mechanism of PEG-based binders is proposed. ► Incorrect explanation of PEG gelling in the literature is corrected. ► Correction/modification made as per the reviewers' comments and suggestions.

  11. The Solubility of Ozone in Deionized Water and its Cleaning Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, J.H.; Park, J.G. [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kwak, Y.S. [Hanyang Technology Co., Ltd., Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the behavior of ozone in DI water and the reaction with wafers during the semiconductor wet cleaning process. The solubility of ozone in DI water was not only dependent on the temperature but also directly proportional to the input concentration of ozone. The lower the initial ozone concentration and the temperature, the longer the half-life time of ozone. The reaction order of ozone in DI water was calculated to be around 1.5. The redox potential reached a saturation value in 5min and slightly increased as the input ozone concentrations increased. The completely hydrophilic surface was created in 1min when HF etched silicon wafer was cleaned in ozonized DI water containing higher ozone concentrations than 2ppm. Spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements showed that the chemical oxide formed by ozonized DI water was measured to be thicker than that by piranha solution. The wafers contaminated with a non-ionic surfactant were more effectively cleaned in ozonized DI water than in piranha and ozonized piranha solutions. (author). 19 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Reverse micelle-based water-soluble nanoparticles for simultaneous bioimaging and drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Liu, Yong; Yao, Yongchao; Zhang, Shiyong; Gu, Zhongwei

    2017-04-11

    With special confined water pools, reverse micelles (RMs) have shown potential for a wide range of applications. However, the inherent water-insolubility of RMs hinders their further application prospects, especially for applications related to biology. We recently reported the first successful transfer of RMs from organic media to an aqueous phase without changing the smart water pools by the hydrolysis of an arm-cleavable interfacial cross-linked reverse micelles. Herein, we employed another elaborate amphiphile 1 to construct new acrylamide-based cross-linked water-soluble nanoparticles (ACW-NPs) under much gentler conditions. The special property of the water pools of the ACW-NPs was confirmed by both the Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) between 5-((2-aminoethyl)amino)naphthalene-1-sulfonic acid (1,5-EDANS) and benzoic acid, 4-[2-[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl]diazenyl] (DABCYL) and satisfactory colloidal stability in 10% fetal bovine serum. Importantly, featured by the gentle synthetic strategy, confined water pool, and carboxylic acid-functionalized surface, the new ACW-NPs are well suitable for biological applications. As an example, the fluorescent reagent 8-hydroxy-1,3,6-pyrenetrisulfonic acid trisodium salt (HPTS) was encapsulated in the core and simultaneously, the anticancer drug gemcitabine (Gem) was covalently conjugated onto the surface exterior. As expected, the resulting multifunctional ACW-NPs@HPTS@Gem exhibits a high imaging effect and anticancer activity for non-small lung cancer cells.

  13. Use of tritium to predict soluble pollutants transport in Ebro River waters (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol, L; Sanchez-Cabeza, J A

    2000-05-01

    The Ebro River, in Northeast Spain, discharges into the Mediterranean Sea after flowing through several large cities and agricultural, mining and industrial areas. The Ascó nuclear power plant (NPP) is located in its lower section and comprises two pressurised water reactor units, from which low-level liquid radioactive waste is released to river waters under authority control. Tritium routinely released by the NPP was used as a radiotracer to determine the longitudinal dispersion coefficient and velocity of the river waters. Several field experiments, in co-ordination with the NPP, were carried out during 1991 and 1992. During each field experiment, the flow rate was kept constant by dams located upstream from the NPP. After each tritium release, water was sampled downstream at periodic intervals over several hours and tritium was measured with a low-background liquid scintillation counter. Velocity and dispersion coefficient were determined in river waters for several river discharges using an analytical, box-type and numerical approach to solve the one-dimensional advection-diffusion equation. The set of calibrated parameters was used to predict the displacement and dispersion of soluble pollutants in river waters. Velocity was determined as a function of river discharge and river slope, and dispersion coefficient was determined as a function of distance. Finally, sensitivity of the model predictions was studied and uncertainties of the fitted parameters were estimated.

  14. Debinding behaviour of a water soluble PEG/PMMA binder for Ti metal injection moulding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Gang; Cao, Peng; Wen, Guian; Edmonds, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) has been becoming a common component in the design of water soluble binder systems for metal injection moulding. Similar to solvent debinding, PEG can be leached out by water and the mechanism of debinding was proposed in the literature with somehow misleading information about the debinding mechanism, particularly about the formation of PEG gel. This work investigates the debinding behaviours of a PEG-based binder in titanium compacts. Titanium powder is formulated with PEG, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and stearic acid (SA) to formulate titanium feedstock. To determine the debinding kinetics, the PEG removal percentages are measured at three different temperatures and for various specimen thicknesses. A mathematic model based on diffusion-controlled debinding process is established. The evolution of porous microstructure during the water debinding process is observed using scanning electron microscopy. Based on these observations, a water debinding mechanism for titanium alloy compacts formulated with PEG-based binders is proposed. - Highlights: ► The water-debinding behaviours of the PEG binder system were investigated. ► PEG dissolution and transportation, and the pore structure development. ► A water debinding mechanism of PEG-based binders is proposed. ► Incorrect explanation of PEG gelling in the literature is corrected. ► Correction/modification made as per the reviewers' comments and suggestions

  15. Lipid nanoparticles for the delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunjes, Heike

    2010-11-01

    This review discusses important aspects of lipid nanoparticles such as colloidal lipid emulsions and, in particular, solid lipid nanoparticles as carrier systems for poorly water-soluble drugs, with a main focus on the parenteral and peroral use of these carriers. A short historical background of the development of colloidal lipid emulsions and solid lipid nanoparticles is provided and their similarities and differences are highlighted. With regard to drug incorporation, parameters such as the chemical nature of the particle matrix and the physicochemical nature of the drug, effects of drug partition and the role of the particle interface are discussed. Since, because of the crystalline nature of their lipid core, solid lipid nanoparticles display some additional important features compared to emulsions, their specificities are introduced in more detail. This mainly includes their solid state behaviour (crystallinity, polymorphism and thermal behaviour) and the consequences of their usually non-spherical particle shape. Since lipid nanoemulsions and -suspensions are also considered as potential means to alter the pharmacokinetics of incorporated drug substances, some underlying basic considerations, in particular concerning the drug-release behaviour of such lipid nanodispersions on dilution, are addressed as well. Colloidal lipid emulsions and solid lipid nanoparticles are interesting options for the delivery of poorly water-soluble drug substances. Their specific physicochemical properties need, however, to be carefully considered to provide a rational basis for their development into effective carrier systems for a given delivery task. © 2010 The Author. Journal compilation © 2010 Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain.

  16. Laser incising of wood: Impregnation of columns with water-soluble dye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, N.; Ando, K.; Kitayama, S.; Nakamura, Y.

    1994-01-01

    To know whether or not laser incising is a useful pre-treatment technique in impregnating a chemical fluid into lumber, pin holes were made in columns of hinoki (Chamaecyparis obtusa Endl.), sugi (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don), karamatsu (Larix leptolepis Gordon) and douglas-fir (Pseudo-tsuga menziesii Franco) with 1.7 kW CO2 laser, and a water-soluble dye was impregnated into these columns with a local pressure impregnation device. Retentions, and lengths and widths of penetrations from each hole were measured quantitatively. Referring to the results of the preparatory experiment mentioned above, incising patterns for sugi and douglas-fir were designed, and the same water-soluble dye was impregnated into the laser-incised columns as well as into non-incised ones with the vacuum-pressure method to obtain penetrated layers with the target depths completely. As a result, a retention of 200 kg/m3 of dye could be achieved for a column of douglas-fir even if it is a species difficult to impregnate. The penetrated layer also could be formed completely at the depth of the laser incision. Therefore, it is concluded that laser incising can be used for the pre-treatment before impregnation of wood columns. (author)

  17. Synthesis and photophysicochemical studies of a water soluble conjugate between folic acid and zinc tetraaminophthalocyanine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoza, Phindile; Antunes, Edith [Department of Chemistry, Rhodes University, PO Box 94, Grahamstown (South Africa); Chen, Ji-Yao [State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics and Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Nyokong, Tebello, E-mail: t.nyokong@ru.ac.za [Department of Chemistry, Rhodes University, PO Box 94, Grahamstown (South Africa)

    2013-02-15

    This work reports on the synthesis of zinc tetraaminophthalocyanine (ZnTAPc) functionalized with folic acid (FA), forming ZnTAPcFA. The conjugate between FA and ZnTAPc was soluble in water whereas ZnTAPc alone is not. The structure of ZnTAPcFA conjugate was elucidated by {sup 1}H NMR, MALDI-TOF mass and FTIR spectra. Photophysical and photochemical studies of ZnTAPcFA were conducted in DMSO. The increase in fluorescence quantum yield of the conjugate was accompanied by a decrease in the triplet and singlet oxygen quantum yields. The changes in triplet quantum and singlet oxygen quantum yields were marginal when ZnTAPc was simply mixed with FA without a chemical bond. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A conjugate between folic acid and a zinc tetraaminophthalocyanine was formed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The conjugate is water soluble even though the phthalocyanine alone is not. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fluorescence quantum yield of the conjugate was enhanced compared to the phthalocyanine alone. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Triplet quantum yields decreased for the conjugate.

  18. Homogeneous synthesis of Ag nanoparticles-doped water-soluble cellulose acetate for versatile applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jie; Sun, Xunwen; Zhang, Xinxing; Lu, Canhui

    2016-11-01

    We report a facile and efficient approach for synthesis of well-dispersed and stable silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using water-soluble cellulose acetate (CA) as both reductant and stabilizer. Partially substituted CA with highly active hydroxyl groups and excellent water-solubility is able to reduce silver ions in homogeneous aqueous medium effectively. The synthesized Ag NPs were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope analysis. The as-prepared Ag NPs were well-dispersed, showing a surface plasmon resonance peak at 426nm. The resulted Ag NPs@CA nanohybrids exhibit high catalytic activity for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol in the presence of NaBH 4 . Meanwhile, the nanohybrids are also effective in inhibiting the growth of bacterial. This environmentally friendly method promotes the use of renewable natural resources to prepare a variety of inorganic-organic materials for catalysis, antibacterial, sensors and other applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Direct encapsulation of water-soluble drug into silica microcapsules for sustained release applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jiexin; Wang Zhihui; Chen Jianfeng; Yun, Jimmy

    2008-01-01

    Direct encapsulation of water-soluble drug into silica microcapsules was facilely achieved by a sol-gel process of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) in W/O emulsion with hydrochloric acid (HCl) aqueous solution containing Tween 80 and drug as well as cyclohexane solution containing Span 80. Two water-soluble drugs of gentamicin sulphate (GS) and salbutamol sulphate (SS) were chosen as model drugs. The characterization of drug encapsulated silica microcapsules by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), FTIR, thermogravimetry (TG) and N 2 adsorption-desorption analyses indicated that drug was successfully entrapped into silica microcapsules. The as-prepared silica microcapsules were uniform spherical particles with hollow structure, good dispersion and a size of 5-10 μm, and had a specific surface area of about 306 m 2 /g. UV-vis and thermogravimetry (TG) analyses were performed to determine the amount of drug encapsulated in the microcapsules. The BJH pore size distribution (PSD) of silica microcapsules before and after removing drug was examined. In vitro release behavior of drug in simulated body fluid (SBF) revealed that such system exhibited excellent sustained release properties

  20. Improving the water solubility of Monascus pigments under acidic conditions with gum arabic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Wenjie; Sun, Yuanming; Wu, Jian-Yong

    2017-07-01

    Monascus pigments (Mps) are natural food colorants and their stability in acidic solutions is important for application in the food industry. This study aimed to evaluate the use of gum arabic (GA) as a stabilizer for maintaining the solubility of Mps in an acidic aqueous solution exposed to a high temperature, and to analyze the molecular interactions between GA and Mps. Mps dispersed (0.2 g kg -1 ) in deionized water at pH 3.0-4.0 without GA formed precipitates but remained in a stable solution in the presence of GA (1 g kg -1 ). The significant improvement of Mps water solubility under acidic conditions was attributed to the formation of Mps-GA complexes, as indicated by a sharp increase in the fluorescence intensity. The results on particle size, zeta potential, and transmission electron microscopy further suggested that molecular binding of Mps to GA, electrostatic repulsion, and steric hindrance of GA were contributing factors to preventing the aggregation of Mps in acidic solutions. A mechanistic model was presented for GA-Mps interactions and complex structures. GA was proven to be an effective stabilizer of natural food colorants in acidic solutions. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Synthesis and photophysicochemical studies of a water soluble conjugate between folic acid and zinc tetraaminophthalocyanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoza, Phindile; Antunes, Edith; Chen, Ji-Yao; Nyokong, Tebello

    2013-01-01

    This work reports on the synthesis of zinc tetraaminophthalocyanine (ZnTAPc) functionalized with folic acid (FA), forming ZnTAPcFA. The conjugate between FA and ZnTAPc was soluble in water whereas ZnTAPc alone is not. The structure of ZnTAPcFA conjugate was elucidated by 1 H NMR, MALDI-TOF mass and FTIR spectra. Photophysical and photochemical studies of ZnTAPcFA were conducted in DMSO. The increase in fluorescence quantum yield of the conjugate was accompanied by a decrease in the triplet and singlet oxygen quantum yields. The changes in triplet quantum and singlet oxygen quantum yields were marginal when ZnTAPc was simply mixed with FA without a chemical bond. - Highlights: ► A conjugate between folic acid and a zinc tetraaminophthalocyanine was formed. ► The conjugate is water soluble even though the phthalocyanine alone is not. ► The fluorescence quantum yield of the conjugate was enhanced compared to the phthalocyanine alone. ► Triplet quantum yields decreased for the conjugate

  2. Liposomal buccal mucoadhesive film for improved delivery and permeation of water-soluble vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El Azim, Heba; Nafee, Noha; Ramadan, Alyaa; Khalafallah, Nawal

    2015-07-05

    This study aims at improving the buccal delivery of vitamin B6 (VB6) as a model highly water-soluble, low permeable vitamin. Two main strategies were combined; first VB6 was entrapped in liposomes, which were then formulated as mucoadhesive film. Both plain and VB6-loaded liposomes (LPs) containing Lipoid S100 and propylene glycol (∼ 200 nm) were then incorporated into mucoadhesive film composed of SCMC and HPMC. Results showed prolonged release of VB6 (72.65%, T50% diss 105 min) after 6h from LP-film compared to control film containing free VB6 (96.37%, T50% diss 30 min). Mucoadhesion was assessed both ex vivo on chicken pouch and in vivo in human. Mucoadhesive force of 0.2N and residence time of 4.4h were recorded. Ex vivo permeation of VB6, across chicken pouch mucosa indicated increased permeation from LP-systems compared to corresponding controls. Interestingly, incorporation of the vesicles in mucoadhesive film reduced the flux by 36.89% relative to LP-dispersion. Meanwhile, both films provided faster initial permeation than the liquid forms. Correlating the cumulative percent permeated ex vivo with the cumulative percent released in vitro indicated that LPs retarded VB6 release but improved permeation. These promising results represent a step forward in the field of buccal delivery of water-soluble vitamins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Simultaneous detection of water-soluble vitamins using the High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemond Godbless Dadzie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The water-soluble vitamins (WSV: ascorbic acid (vitamin C, thiamine (B1, riboflavin (B2, niacin (B3, panthothenic acid (B5, pyridoxine, and pyridoxal (B6, folic acid (B9, biotin(B8 , and B12 are very essential in the diet of humankind. As a result of ever increasing pressures from both consumers and legal enforcers, to specify accurately nutritive compositions of WSV that are present in food materials, many researchers have attempted to fill this niche through the provision of highly sensitive and rapid high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC procedures. In view of the health benefits of WSV, a replete of HPLC methods have been developed for simultaneous determination of their contents in nature and fortified food samples, nutritional supplements, as well as blood plasmas. The rate of losses of these vitamins during food processing and analysis, in addition to their transient dynamics, presents complexities in developing a highly sensitive HPLC procedure for their simultaneous separations and assays. This review critically assesses the different HPLC procedures developed by researchers and available in the open literature for simultaneous determination of water-soluble vitamins (WSV in dried tropical fruits materials. The study revealed that not a single chromatographic run developed by researchers can simultaneously elute all the WSV at a time. However, the HPLC procedures that are capable of determining all the WSV were coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy (ESI-MS, thus making the set-up expensive.

  4. HILIC separation and quantitation of water-soluble vitamins using diol column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatapanis, Andreas E; Fiamegos, Yiannis C; Stalikas, Constantine D

    2009-04-01

    Hydrophilic interaction liquid-chromatography (HILIC) in conjunction with diode array detection has been applied for the separation of selected-water-soluble vitamins using an end-capped HILIC-diol column. Vitamins with significant biological importance, such as thiamine (B(1)), riboflavin (B(2)), nicotinic acid (B(3)), nicotinamide (B(3)), pyridoxine (B(6)), folic acid (B(9)), cyanocobalamin (B(12)) and ascorbic acid (vitamin C) were simultaneously separated. Chromatographic conditions including type and percentage of organic modifier in the mobile phase, pH, type and concentration of buffer salt and flow rate were investigated. ACN was shown to offer superior separation for the compounds tested as compared to methanol, isopropanol and THF. Isocratic separation and analysis were achieved for six vitamins (B(1), B(2), nicotinic acid/nicotinamide, B(6) and C) at ACN-H(2)O 90:10, containing ammonium acetate 10 mM, triethylamine 20 mM, pH 5.0, using a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min, while a gradient was necessary to resolve a mixture of all eight water-soluble vitamins. The HILIC method was validated and successfully applied to the analysis of a pharmaceutical formulation and an energy drink negating the need for time consuming clean-up steps.

  5. Water soluble bioactives of nacre mediate antioxidant activity and osteoblast differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Chaturvedi

    Full Text Available The water soluble matrix of nacre is a proven osteoinductive material. In spite of the differences in the biomolecular compositions of nacre obtained from multiple species of oysters, the common biochemical properties of those principles substantiate their biological activity. However, the mechanism by which nacre stimulates bone differentiation remains largely unknown. Since the positive impact of antioxidants on bone metabolism is well acknowledged, in this study we investigated the antioxidant potential of a water soluble matrix (WSM obtained from the nacre of the marine oyster Pinctada fucata, which could regulate its osteoblast differentiation activity. Enhanced levels of ALP activity observed in pre-osteoblast cells upon treatment with WSM, suggested the induction of bone differentiation events. Furthermore, bone nodule formation and up-regulation of bone differentiation marker transcripts, i.e. collagen type-1 and osteocalcin by WSM confirmed its ability to induce differentiation of the pre-osteoblasts into mature osteoblasts. Remarkably, same WSM fraction upon pre-treatment lowered the H2O2 and UV-B induced oxidative damages in keratinocytes, thus indicating the antioxidant potential of WSM. This was further confirmed from the in vitro scavenging of ABTS and DPPH free radicals and inhibition of lipid peroxidation by WSM. Together, these results indicate that WSM poses both antioxidant potential and osteoblast differentiation property. Thus, bioactivities associated with nacre holds potential in the development of therapeutics for bone regeneration and against oxidative stress induced damages in cells.

  6. Water-Soluble Dried Blood Spot in Protein Analysis: A Proof-of-Concept Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosting, Cecilie; Gjelstad, Astrid; Halvorsen, Trine Grønhaug

    2015-08-04

    In the present work human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) was used as a model protein in a proof-of-concept study combining water-soluble dried blood spot (DBS) material in liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based protein analysis. A water-soluble material consisting of commercially available carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) was evaluated as sampling material for this purpose. The material dissolved readily at physiological pH. Different sample preparation methods were evaluated, and in the final method, 15 μL of whole blood was deposited and dried on CMC before the whole spot was dissolved prior to cleanup by immunoaffinity extraction, tryptic digest, and preconcentration by solid-phase extraction (SPE). The results indicated complete dissolution of hCG from the spots, acceptable limit of detection (LOD) (0.1 IU/mL), linearity (R(2) = 0.959), accuracy (16%), and precision (≤22%). Long-term stability (45 days) of hCG in dried spots at reduced temperatures (≤8 °C) was also demonstrated. The analyte recovery was comparable to the commercially available nonsolvable cellulose material (FTA DMPK-C card).

  7. The isolation of water-soluble radionuclides from deteriorating spent nuclear fuel in zeolite cartridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, N.M.; Thompson, M.C.

    1996-01-01

    A method of isolating water-soluble radionuclides leaching from deteriorating spent nuclear fuel by ion-exchange in zeolite cartridges has been studied. Design calculations of two zeolite cartridges to be incorporated in typical spent fuel storage bundle have been provided. Equilibrium exchange data obtained at several temperatures have shown that the maximum exchange capacity of total cesium in sodium titanium aluminosilicate was 114 mg/g zeolite and the capacity at 95% exchange for radioactive isotope Cs-137 was calculated as 55.2 mg/g zeolite. The kinetic data suggest that the rate of exchange of Cs + in sodium titanium aluminosilicate zeolite takes place by a fast initial exchange step followed by slow diffusion of cesium cations. Design calculations based on the equilibrium exchange data show that water-soluble radionuclides leaching from Mk 31 slugs can be isolated using two zeolite cartridges, each 3.7 inches in inside diameter and 2.5 inches in length. The cartridges are designed to isolate 95% of the Cs + leaching from the spent fuel storage bundle. The results from the thermal induced convective flow tests indicate that the system will provide necessary cooling to the spent fuel by convective currents while isolating the Cs + leaching from spent fuel storage bundle in the cartridges

  8. Development and characterization of nanoparticulate formulation of a water soluble prodrug of dexamethasone by HIP complexation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudana, Ripal; Parenky, Ashwin; Vaishya, Ravi; Samanta, Swapan K; Mitra, Ashim K

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and characterize a nanoparticulate-based sustained release formulation of a water soluble dipeptide prodrug of dexamethasone, valine-valine-dexamethasone (VVD). Being hydrophilic in nature, it readily leaches out in the external aqueous medium and hence partitions poorly into the polymeric matrix resulting in minimal entrapment in nanoparticles. Hence, hydrophobic ion pairing (HIP) complexation of the prodrug was employed with dextran sulphate as a complexing polymer. A novel, solid in oil in water emulsion method was employed to encapsulate the prodrug in HIP complex form in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) matrix. Nanoparticles were characterized with respect to size, zeta potential, crystallinity of entrapped drug and surface morphology. A significant enhancement in the entrapment of the prodrug in nanoparticles was achieved. Finally, a simple yet novel method was developed which can also be applicable to encapsulate other charged hydrophilic molecules, such as peptides and proteins.

  9. Water-soluble thin film transistors and circuits based on amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sung Hun; Kang, Seung-Kyun; Cho, In-Tak; Han, Sang Youn; Chung, Ha Uk; Lee, Dong Joon; Shin, Jongmin; Baek, Geun Woo; Kim, Tae-il; Lee, Jong-Ho; Rogers, John A

    2015-04-22

    This paper presents device designs, circuit demonstrations, and dissolution kinetics for amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin film transistors (TFTs) comprised completely of water-soluble materials, including SiNx, SiOx, molybdenum, and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). Collections of these types of physically transient a-IGZO TFTs and 5-stage ring oscillators (ROs), constructed with them, show field effect mobilities (∼10 cm2/Vs), on/off ratios (∼2×10(6)), subthreshold slopes (∼220 mV/dec), Ohmic contact properties, and oscillation frequency of 5.67 kHz at supply voltages of 19 V, all comparable to otherwise similar devices constructed in conventional ways with standard, nontransient materials. Studies of dissolution kinetics for a-IGZO films in deionized water, bovine serum, and phosphate buffer saline solution provide data of relevance for the potential use of these materials and this technology in temporary biomedical implants.

  10. Hygroscopic behavior of water-soluble matter in marine aerosols over the East China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yu; Fu, Pingqing; Jing, Bo; Peng, Chao; Boreddy, S K R; Yang, Fan; Wei, Lianfang; Sun, Yele; Wang, Zifa; Ge, Maofa

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we investigated hygroscopic properties of water-soluble matter (WSM) in marine aerosols over the East China Sea, which were collected during a Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) sharing cruise in 2014. Hygroscopic growth factors (g) of WSM were measured by a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (H-TDMA) with an initial dry particle mobility diameter of 100nm. The observed g at 90% relative humidity (RH), g(90%) WSM , defined as the ratio of the particle diameter at 90% RH to that at RHsea water was likely due to the transport of anthropogenic aerosols, chemical aging of dust particles, the contribution of biomass burning products, and the aerosol hygroscopic growth inhibition of organics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Method to produce water-soluble sugars from biomass using solvents containing lactones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumesic, James A.; Luterbacher, Jeremy S.

    2017-08-08

    A process to produce an aqueous solution of carbohydrates that contains C6-sugar-containing oligomers, C6 sugar monomers, C5-sugar-containing oligomers, C5 sugar monomers, or any combination thereof is presented. The process includes the steps of reacting biomass or a biomass-derived reactant with a solvent system including a lactone and water, and an acid catalyst. The reaction yields a product mixture containing water-soluble C6-sugar-containing oligomers, C6-sugar monomers, C5-sugar-containing oligomers, C5-sugar monomers, or any combination thereof. A solute is added to the product mixture to cause partitioning of the product mixture into an aqueous layer containing the carbohydrates and a substantially immiscible organic layer containing the lactone.

  12. Leaching due to hygroscopic water uptake in cemented waste containing soluble salts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, K.

    1992-01-01

    conditions, condensation of water vapour will result in generation of a certain amount of liquid in the form of a strong salt solution. The volume of liquid may well exceed the storage capacity of the pore system in the cemented material and in the release of a limited amount of free contaminated solution......Considerable amounts of easily soluble salts such as sodium nitrate, sulphate, or carbonate are introduced into certain types of cemented waste. When such materials are stored in atmospheres with high relative humidity or disposed or by shallow land burial under unsaturated, but still humid....... A model of the quantitative aspects for the equilibrium situation is presented. Experiments with hygroscopic water uptake support the model and give indications about the rate of the process. The release mechanism is only thought to be important for radionuclides which are not fixed in a low...

  13. Sizes of water-soluble luminescent quantum dots measured by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Pudun; Li Liang; Dong Chaoqing; Qian Huifeng; Ren Jicun

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) was applied to measure the size of water-soluble quantum dots (QDs). The measurements were performed on a home-built FCS system based on the Stokes-Einstein equation. The obtained results showed that for bare CdTe QDs the sizes from FCS were larger than the ones from transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The brightness of QDs was also evaluated using FCS technique. It was found that the stability of the surface chemistry of QDs would be significantly improved by capping it with hard-core shell. Our data demonstrated that FCS is a simple, fast, and effective method for characterizing the fluorescent quantum dots, and is especially suitable for determining the fluorescent nanoparticles less than 10 nm in water solution

  14. First evidence of a water-soluble plutonium(IV) hexanuclear cluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamain, Christelle; Dumas, Thomas; Guillaumont, Dominique; Guilbaud, Philippe [CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, Marcoule, RadioChemistry and Processes Department, Bagnols sur Ceze (France); Hennig, Christoph [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Resource Ecology, Dresden (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    The singular Pu{sup IV} hexanuclear cluster [Pu{sub 6}(OH){sub 4}O{sub 4}]{sup 12+} stabilized by 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) ligands was structurally characterized for the first time both in the solid state and in water solution by using X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption and UV/Vis spectroscopy. The stability of this cluster in water and its high solubility over a large pH range are of upmost importance for plutonium environmental speciation with potential applications in a related migration model. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. In vitro and in vivo studies on the complexes of glipizide with water-soluble β-cyclodextrin-epichlorohydrin polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Shufang; Zhang, Shu; Pan, Weisan; Liu, Yanli

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of a newly modified cyclodextrin derivative, water-soluble β-cyclodextrin-epichlorohydrin polymer (β-CDP), as an effective drug carrier to enhance the dissolution rate and oral bioavailability of glipizide as a poorly water-soluble model drug. Inclusion complexes of glipizide with β-CDP were prepared by the co-evaporation method and characterized by phase solubility, dissolution, and differential scanning calorimetry. The solubility curve was classified as type A(L), which indicated the formation of 1:1 complex between glipizide and β-CDP. β-CDP had better properties of increasing the aqueous solubility of glipizide compared with HP-β-CD. The dissolution rate of drug from the β-CDP complexes was significantly greater than that of the corresponding physical mixtures indicating that the formation of amorphous complex increased the solubility of glipizide. Moreover, the increment in drug dissolution rate from the glipizide/β-CDP systems was higher than that from the corresponding ones with HP-β-CD, which indicated that β-CDP could provide greater capability of solubilization for poorly soluble drugs. Furthermore, in vivo study revealed that the bioavailability of glipizide was significantly improved by glipizide /β-CDP inclusion complex after oral administration to beagle dogs.

  16. A New Approach on Estimation of Solubility and n-Octanol/ Water Partition Coefficient for Organohalogen Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenzhong Cao

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous solubility (logW and n-octanol/water partition coefficient (logPOW are important properties for pharmacology, toxicology and medicinal chemistry. Based on an understanding of the dissolution process, the frontier orbital interaction model was suggested in the present paper to describe the solvent-solute interactions of organohalogen compounds and a general three-parameter model was proposed to predict the aqueous solubility and n-octanol/water partition coefficient for the organohalogen compounds containing nonhydrogen-binding interactions. The model has satisfactory prediction accuracy. Furthermore, every item in the model has a very explicit meaning, which should be helpful to understand the structure-solubility relationship and may be provide a new view on estimation of solubility.

  17. Improved oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble glimepiride by utilizing microemulsion technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li HY

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Haiying Li,1 Tingting Pan,1 Ying Cui,1 Xiaxia Li,1 Jiefang Gao,1 Wenzhi Yang,1 Shigang Shen2 1Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Quality Control of Hebei Province, College of Pharmacy, 2Key Laboratory of Analytical Science and Technology of Hebei Province, College of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Hebei University, Baoding, People’s Republic of China Abstract: The objective of this work was to prepare an oil/water glimepiride (GM microemulsion (ME for oral administration to improve its solubility and enhance its bioavailability. Based on a solubility study, pseudoternary phase diagrams, and Box–Behnken design, the oil/water GMME formulation was optimized and prepared. GMME was characterized by dynamic laser light scattering, zeta potential, transmission electron microscopy, and viscosity. The in vitro drug release, storage stability, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacokinetics of GMME were investigated. The optimized GMME was composed of Capryol 90 (oil, ­Cremophor RH40 (surfactant, and Transcutol (cosurfactant, and increased GM solubility up to 544.6±4.91 µg/mL. The GMME was spherical in shape. The particle size and its polydispersity index were 38.9±17.46 nm and 0.266±0.057, respectively. Meanwhile, the GMME was physicochemically stable at 4°C for at least 3 months. The short-term efficacy in diabetic mice provided the proof that blood glucose had a consistent and significant reduction at a dose of 375 µg/kg whether via IP injection or IG administration of GMME. Compared with the glimepiride suspensions or glimepiride-meglumine complex solution, the pharmacokinetics of GMME in Wistar rats via IG administration exhibited higher plasma drug concentration, larger area under the curve, and more enhanced oral bioavailability. There was a good correlation of GMME between the in vitro release values and the in vivo oral absorption. ME could be an effective oral drug delivery system to improve bioavailability of GM. Keywords: glimepiride

  18. Comparison of Water, Mannitol and Positive Oral Contrast for Evaluation of Bowel By Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padhmanaban Elamparidhi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Small bowel remains a challenging anatomical site. Imaging approaches like CT-enterography helps in diagnosing non specific clinical presentations and imaging aids in appropriate management. Hence, bowel evaluation by CT requires a oral contrast agent for diagnosing the bowel pathology. Thus, quantitative and qualitative analysis of three oral contrast agents i.e., water, mannitol and positive contrast was done for identification of ideal intraluminal contrast agent. Aim: To assess the performance of mannitol as an endoluminal contrast agent as compared to water and positive contrast in the evaluation of bowel, to compare the distention of bowel with different oral contrasts and also to assess the usefulness of bowel distension in assessment of mural enhancement pattern of bowel. Materials and Methods: A comparative observational study was performed which consisted of 75 patients who were divided into three groups of 25 patients each. Patients in each group were given 1500 ml of oral contrast. Group I was given mannitol, Group II was given water and Group III was given positive contrast. Assessments of bowel distention at various levels and mural enhancement of bowel were studied. Chisquare test was used as test of significance for qualitative data. ANOVA (Analysis of Variance was the test of significance for quantitative data. Results: Bowel distention was excellent in mannitol compared to water and positive contrast. Wall enhancement and mural pattern was better appreciated with mannitol compared to other two contrast agents. Conclusion: Adequate bowel evaluation by CT requires an oral contrast agent which can cause maximal bowel distention, uniform intraluminal attenuation, increased contrast between intraluminal content and bowel wall with no artifacts and adverse effects. Mannitol has all the above characteristic and can be used as ideal neutral oral contrast agent.

  19. Two-Stage Crystallizer Design for High Loading of Poorly Water-Soluble Pharmaceuticals in Porous Silica Matrices

    OpenAIRE

    Leia Dwyer; Samir Kulkarni; Luzdary Ruelas; Allan Myerson

    2017-01-01

    While porous silica supports have been previously studied as carriers for nanocrystalline forms of poorly water-soluble active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), increasing the loading of API in these matrices is of great importance if these carriers are to be used in drug formulations. A dual-stage mixed-suspension, mixed-product removal (MSMPR) crystallizer was designed in which the poorly soluble API fenofibrate was loaded into the porous matrices of pore sizes 35 nm-300 nm in the first st...

  20. Characterization of the Water-Soluble Fraction of Woody Biomass Pyrolysis Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stankovikj, Filip; McDonald, Armando G.; Helms, Gregory L.; Olarte, Mariefel V.; Garcia-Perez, Manuel

    2017-01-31

    This paper reports a study of the chemical composition of the water soluble (WS) fraction obtained by cold water precipitation of two commercial wood pyrolysis oils (BTG and Amaron). The fraction studied accounts for between 50.3 and 51.3 wt. % of the oils. With the most common analytical techniques used today for the characterization of this fraction (KF titration, GC/MS, hydrolysable sugars and total carbohydrates), it is possible to quantify only between 45 and 50 wt. % of it. Our results confirm that most of the total carbohydrates (hydrolysable sugars and non-hydrolysable) are soluble in water. The ion chromatography hydrolysis method showed that between 11.6 and 17.3 wt. % of these oils were hydrolysable sugars. A small quantity of phenols detectable by GC/MS (between 2.5 and 3.9 wt. %) were identified. It is postulated that the unknown high molecular weight fraction (30-55 wt. %) is formed by highly dehydrated sugars rich in carbonyl groups and WS phenols. The overall content of carbonyl, carboxyl, hydroxyl and phenolic compounds in the WS fraction were quantified by titration, Folin-Ciocalteu, 31P-NMR and 1H-NMR. The WS fraction contains between 5.5 and 6.2 mmol/g of carbonyl groups, between 0.4 and 1.0 mmol/g of carboxylic acid groups, between 1.2 and 1.8 mmol/g phenolic -OH, and between 6.0 and 7.9 mmol/g of aliphatic alcohol groups. Translation into weight fractions of the WS was done by supposing surrogate structures for the water soluble phenols, carbonyl and carboxyl groups and we estimated the content of WS phenols (21-27 wt. %), carbonyl (5-14 wt.%), and carboxyl (0-4 wt.%). Together with the total carbohydrates (23-27 wt.%), this approach leads to > 90 wt. % of the WS material in the bio-oils being quantified. We speculate the larger portion of the difference between the total carbohydrates and hydrolysable sugars is the missing furanic fraction. Further refinement of the suggested methods and development of separation schemes to obtain and

  1. Investigation of Changes in Solubility Values of Some Non Impregnated Pine Species used in Water Cooling Towers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat ÖZALP

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris L., Austrian black pine (Pinus nigra L. and Cyprus pine (Pinus brutia L. specimens were prepared and settled to water return system on water cooling tower. For every 3 months period’s specimens were tested solubility of hot and could water, 1% NaOH, alcohol-benzene and ethyl alcohol values were determined. For the control specimens significant color change, odour and surface softening was observed. For chemical analysis, all the solubility values were changed significantly.

  2. The elevation effect on water-soluble polysaccharides and DPPH free radical scavenging activity of Ganoderma lucidum K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darsih, C.; Apriyana, W.; Nur Hayati, S.; Taufika Rosyida, V.; Hernawan; Dewi Poeloengasih, C.

    2017-02-01

    Water soluble polysaccharide is one of the important phytochemical in Ganoderma lucidum K. Phytochemicals in the plants, microorganisms, and plants were affected by internal and external factors. The objective of the research was to evaluate the effect of elevation on the water-soluble polysaccharides and its DPPH radical scavenging activity. We found that the water-polysaccharides in mushroom from Godean (elevation Ganoderma lucidum K from Godean (IC50 11.5 ± 0.29 mg/mL) higher than Kaliurang (IC50 14.4 ± 0.27%).

  3. Characterization of the size-segregated water-soluble inorganic ions at eight Canadian rural sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhang

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Size-segregated water-soluble inorganic ions, including particulate sulphate (SO42-, nitrate (NO3-, ammonium (NH4+, chloride (Cl-, and base cations (K+, Na+, Mg2+, Ca2+, were measured using a Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI during fourteen short-term field campaigns at eight locations in both polluted and remote regions of eastern and central Canada. The size distributions of SO42- and NH4+ were unimodal, peaking at 0.3–0.6 µm in diameter, during most of the campaigns, although a bimodal distribution was found during one campaign and a trimodal distribution was found during another campaign made at a coastal site. SO42- peaked at slightly larger sizes in the cold seasons (0.5–0.6 µm compared to the hot seasons (0.3–0.4 µm due to the higher relative humidity in the cold seasons. The size distributions of NO3- were unimodal, peaking at 4.0–7.0 µm during the warm-season campaigns, and bimodal, with one peak at 0.3–0.6 µm and another at 4–7 µm during the cold-season campaigns. A unimodal size distribution, peaking at 4–6 µm, was found for Cl-, Na+, Mg2+, and Ca2+ during approximately half of the campaigns and a bimodal distribution, with one peak at 2 µm and the other at 6 µm, was found during the rest of the campaigns. For K+, a bimodal distribution, with one peak at 0.3 µm and the other at 4 µm, was observed during most of the campaigns. Seasonal contrasts in the size-distribution profiles suggest that emission sources and air mass origins were the major factors controlling the size distributions of the primary aerosols while meteorological conditions were more important for the secondary aerosols.

    The dependence of the particle acidity on

  4. Effects of solvent evaporation on water sorption/solubility and nanoleakage of adhesive systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Baumgratz Cachapuz CHIMELI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the influence of solvent evaporation in the kinetics of water diffusion (water sorption-WS, solubility-SL, and net water uptake and nanoleakage of adhesive systems. Material and Methods: Disk-shaped specimens (5.0 mm in diameter x 0.8 mm in thickness were produced (N=48 using the adhesives: Clearfil S3 Bond (CS3/Kuraray, Clearfil SE Bond - control group (CSE/Kuraray, Optibond Solo Plus (OS/Kerr and Scotchbond Universal Adhesive (SBU/3M ESPE. The solvents were either evaporated for 30 s or not evaporated (N=24/per group, and then photoactivated for 80 s (550 mW/cm2. After desiccation, the specimens were weighed and stored in distilled water (N=12 or mineral oil (N=12 to evaluate the water diffusion over a 7-day period. Net water uptake (% was also calculated as the sum of WS and SL. Data were submitted to 3-way ANOVA/Tukey's test (α=5%. The nanoleakage expression in three additional specimens per group was also evaluated after ammoniacal silver impregnation after 7 days of water storage under SEM. Results: Statistical analysis revealed that only the factor "adhesive" was significant (p<0.05. Solvent evaporation had no influence in the WS and SL of the adhesives. CSE (control presented significantly lower net uptake (5.4%. The nanoleakage was enhanced by the presence of solvent in the adhesives. Conclusions: Although the evaporation has no effect in the kinetics of water diffusion, the nanoleakage expression of the adhesives tested increases when the solvents are not evaporated.

  5. Crosslinked hydrogels?a promising class of insoluble solid molecular dispersion carriers for enhancing the delivery of poorly soluble drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Dajun D.; Lee, Ping I.

    2014-01-01

    Water-insoluble materials containing amorphous solid dispersions (ASD) are an emerging category of drug carriers which can effectively improve dissolution kinetics and kinetic solubility of poorly soluble drugs. ASDs based on water-insoluble crosslinked hydrogels have unique features in contrast to those based on conventional water-soluble and water-insoluble carriers. For example, solid molecular dispersions of poorly soluble drugs in poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) can maintain a ...

  6. Cultivar by environment effects of perennial ryegrass cultivars selected for high water soluble carbohydrates managed under differing precipitation levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Historic results of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) breeding include improved disease resistance, biomass, and nutritional quality. Yet, lack of tolerance to water stress limits its wise use. Recent efforts to increase water soluble carbohydrate (WSC) content in perennial ryegrass may incre...

  7. One-step synthesis and antibacterial property of water-soluble silver nanoparticles by CGJ bio-template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Zichun; Wu Qingsheng; Chen Ping; Yang Xiaohong

    2011-01-01

    In this article, a new synthetic method of nanoparticles with fresh Chinese gooseberry juice (CGJ) as bio-template was developed. One-step synthesis of highly water-soluble silver nanoparticles at room temperature without using any harmful reducing agents and special capping agent was fulfilled with this method. In the process, the products were obtained by adding AgNO 3 to CGJ, which was used as reducing agent, capping agent, and the bio-template. The products of silver nanoparticles with diameter of 10–30 nm have strong water solubility and excellent antibiotic function. With the same concentration 0.047 μg mL −1 , the antibacterial effect of water-soluble silver particles by fresh CGJ was 53%, whereas only 27% for silver nanoparticles synthesized using the template method of fresh onion inner squama coat (OISC). The excellent water solubility of the products would enable them have better applications in the bio-medical field. The synthetic method would also have potential application in preparing other highly water-soluble particles, because of its simple apparatus, high yield, mild conditions, and facile operation.

  8. Relationship Between Urinary Concentrations of Nine Water-soluble Vitamins and their Vitamin Intakes in Japanese Adult Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Katsumi; Hirose, Junko; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    Excess water-soluble vitamins are thought to be eliminated in the urine. We have reported a strong relationship between water-soluble vitamin intake and urinary excretion in females. The relationship, however, is not well understood in males. In the present experiment, 10 Japanese male subjects were given a standard Japanese diet for the first week. The subjects remained on the same diet, and a synthesized water-soluble vitamin mixture containing one time the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for Japanese was given for the second week, three times the DRIs for the third week, and six times the DRIs for the fourth week. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected each week. Urinary excretion levels for seven of the nine water-soluble vitamin levels, excluding vitamin B12 and folate, increased linearly and sharply in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that measuring urinary water-soluble vitamins can be good nutritional markers for assessing vitamin intakes in humans.

  9. Relationship between Urinary Concentrations of Nine Water-soluble Vitamins and their Vitamin Intakes in Japanese Adult Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsumi Shibata

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Excess water-soluble vitamins are thought to be eliminated in the urine. We have reported a strong relationship between water-soluble vitamin intake and urinary excretion in females. The relationship, however, is not well understood in males. In the present experiment, 10 Japanese male subjects were given a standard Japanese diet for the first week. The subjects remained on the same diet, and a synthesized water-soluble vitamin mixture containing one time the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs for Japanese was given for the second week, three times the DRIs for the third week, and six times the DRIs for the fourth week. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected each week. Urinary excretion levels for seven of the nine water-soluble vitamin levels, excluding vitamin B 12 and folate, increased linearly and sharply in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that measuring urinary water-soluble vitamins can be good nutritional markers for assessing vitamin intakes in humans.

  10. Twenty-four-hour urinary water-soluble vitamin levels correlate with their intakes in free-living Japanese schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Tomiko; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Sasaki, Satoshi; Shibata, Katsumi

    2011-02-01

    To examine the association between 24 h urinary water-soluble vitamin levels and their intakes in free-living Japanese schoolchildren. All foods consumed for four consecutive days were recorded accurately by a weighed food record. A single 24 h urine sample was collected on the fourth day, and the urinary levels of water-soluble vitamins were measured. An elementary school in Inazawa City, Japan. A total of 114 healthy, free-living, Japanese elementary-school children aged 10-12 years. The urinary level of each water-soluble vitamin was correlated positively to its mean intake in the past 2-4 d (vitamin B1: r = 0·42, P vitamin B2: r = 0·43, P vitamin B6: r = 0·49, P vitamin C: r = 0·39, P vitamin B12 (r = 0·10, P = NS). Estimated mean intakes of water-soluble vitamins calculated using urinary levels and recovery rates were 97-102 % of their 3 d mean intake, except for vitamin B12 (79 %). The results show that urinary levels of water-soluble vitamins, except for vitamin B12, reflected their recent intakes in free-living Japanese schoolchildren and could be used as a potential biomarker to estimate mean vitamin intake.

  11. Water deficit modifies the carbon isotopic composition of lipids, soluble sugars and leaves of Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Albano da Silva Bertholdi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Water deficit is most frequent in forest physiognomies subjected to climate change. As a consequence, several tree species alter tissue water potential, gas exchange and production of carbon compounds to overcome damage caused by water deficiency. The working hypothesis, that a reduction in gas exchange by plants experiencing water deficit will affect the composition of carbon compounds in soluble sugars, lipids and vegetative structures, was tested on Copaifera langsdorffii. Stomatal conductance, leaf water potential, and CO2 assimilation rate declined after a period of water deficit. After rehydration, leaf water potential and leaf gas exchange did not recover completely. Water deficit resulted in 13C enrichment in leaves, soluble sugars and root lipids. Furthermore, the amount of soluble sugars and root lipids decreased after water deficit. In rehydration, the carbon isotopic composition and amount of root lipids returned to levels similar to the control. Under water deficit, 13C-enriched in root lipids assists in the adjustment of cellular membrane turgidity and avoids damage to the process of water absorption by roots. These physiological adjustments permit a better understanding of the responses of Copaifera langsdorffi to water deficit.

  12. A novel water soluble solvatochromic probe as a micropolarity reporter for homogeneous and microheterogeneous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, Amrita; Kedia, Niraja [Department of Chemical Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Kolkata, Mohanpur Campus, BCKV Main P.O., Mohanpur 741252, Nadia, WB (India); Bagchi, Sanjib, E-mail: bsanjibb@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Presidency University, 86/1 College Street, Kolkata 700073 (India)

    2014-07-01

    A new water soluble donor–acceptor dye, sodium 4-(methyl((1E,3E)-3-(1-oxo-1H-inden-2(3H)-ylidene)prop-1-enyl)amino) benzoate (DN3) has been synthesized. Optical response of the solvatochromic dye (DN3) has been studied in various homogeneous (neat and mixed binary solvents) and heterogeneous (SDS and CTAB homomicelle and β-cyclodextrin nanocavity) media. To get information regarding the change in the solvation interaction of the dye with the alteration in its microenvironment in different media, the photophysical properties of the dye have been monitored in various media using steady state and time resolved spectral analysis. Results obtained for mixed binary solvents containing water indicate that the solute is preferentially solvated by one of the component solvents and solvent–solvent interactions are also important in determining the preference. Effect of variation of pH in aqueous medium on the spectroscopic parameters of the dye has been studied and its pKa has been estimated. Studies in homomicelles (SDS and CTAB) reveal that the dye distributes itself between the aqueous and the micellar phase and the values of distribution coefficient have been estimated from the fluorescence parameters. The dye is encapsulated in β-cyclodextrin nanocavity and a 1:2 dye-β-cyclodextrin host–guest interaction is indicated. Semi-empirical quantum chemical calculations have been carried out to support the experimental results. - Highlights: • A water soluble fluorescent dye has been synthesized and studied in various media. • The dye is sensitive towards changes in micropolarity and pH of the medium. • Study in mixed binary solvent system indicates preferential solvation of the dye. • Stronger interaction of the dye is indicated with CTAB micelles compared to SDS. • Study in aqueous β-CD medium reveals favorable 1:2 binding of the dye with β-CD.

  13. Determination of the design space of the HPLC analysis of water-soluble vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagdy, Hebatallah A; Hanafi, Rasha S; El-Nashar, Rasha M; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y

    2013-06-01

    Analysis of water-soluble vitamins has been tremendously approached through the last decades. A multitude of HPLC methods have been reported with a variety of advantages/shortcomings, yet, the design space of HPLC analysis of these vitamins was not defined in any of these reports. As per the food and drug administration (FDA), implementing the quality by design approach for the analysis of commercially available mixtures is hypothesized to enhance the pharmaceutical industry via facilitating the process of analytical method development and approval. This work illustrates a multifactorial optimization of three measured plus seven calculated influential HPLC parameters on the analysis of a mixture containing seven common water-soluble vitamins (B1, B2, B6, B12, C, PABA, and PP). These three measured parameters are gradient time, temperature, and ternary eluent composition (B1/B2) and the seven calculated parameters are flow rate, column length, column internal diameter, dwell volume, extracolumn volume, %B (start), and %B (end). The design is based on 12 experiments in which, examining of the multifactorial effects of these 3 + 7 parameters on the critical resolution and selectivity, was carried out by systematical variation of all these parameters simultaneously. The 12 basic runs were based on two different gradient time each at two different temperatures, repeated at three different ternary eluent compositions (methanol or acetonitrile or a mixture of both). Multidimensional robust regions of high critical R(s) were defined and graphically verified. The optimum method was selected based on the best resolution separation in the shortest run time for a synthetic mixture, followed by application on two pharmaceutical preparations available in the market. The predicted retention times of all peaks were found to be in good match with the virtual ones. In conclusion, the presented report offers an accurate determination of the design space for critical resolution in the

  14. Solubility behavior of quartz and corundum in supercritical water: A quantitative thermodynamic interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziemniak, S.E.

    1995-05-01

    Dissolution reaction equilibria for α-quartz (SiO 2 ) and corundum (α-Al 2 0 3 ) in pure, supercritical water are quantified using a density-dependent thermodynamic model. The database of existing solubility literature for α-quartz (0.2-10 kb, 200--575 degrees C) is shown to be consistent with the presence of two hydrolyzed SI(IV) ion forms: Si(OH) 4 (aq) and Si 2 O(OH) 6 (aq); the corundum database (1-20 kb, 400--700 degrees C) is consistent with Al(OH) 3 (aq) and Al(OH) 4 - . A third Si(IV) ion hydroxocomplex, Si 2 O 2 (OH) 5 - , is indicated at lower pressures (0.03-0.10 kb). The characteristic sigmoidal nature of the solubility isobars is explained by dimerization of Si(OH) 4 (aq) (at high densities) or the formation of anionic hydrolysis products, Si 2 0 2 (OH) 5 - and Al(OH) 4 - , in the low density region (p 2 O(OH) 6 (aq) and Si 2 O 2 (OH) 5 - are made available for the first time

  15. Toxicity evaluation of boron nitride nanospheres and water-soluble boron nitride in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Wang, Hui; Tang, Chengchun; Lei, Shijun; Shen, Wanqing; Wang, Cong; Wang, Guobin; Wang, Zheng; Wang, Lin

    2017-01-01

    Boron nitride (BN) nanomaterials have been increasingly explored for potential biological applications. However, their toxicity remains poorly understood. Using Caenorhabditis elegans as a whole-animal model for toxicity analysis of two representative types of BN nanomaterials - BN nanospheres (BNNSs) and highly water-soluble BN nanomaterial (named BN-800-2) - we found that BNNSs overall toxicity was less than soluble BN-800-2 with irregular shapes. The concentration thresholds for BNNSs and BN-800-2 were 100 µg·mL -1 and 10 µg·mL -1 , respectively. Above this concentration, both delayed growth, decreased life span, reduced progeny, retarded locomotion behavior, and changed the expression of phenotype-related genes to various extents. BNNSs and BN-800-2 increased oxidative stress levels in C. elegans by promoting reactive oxygen species production. Our results further showed that oxidative stress response and MAPK signaling-related genes, such as GAS1 , SOD2 , SOD3 , MEK1 , and PMK1 , might be key factors for reactive oxygen species production and toxic responses to BNNSs and BN-800-2 exposure. Together, our results suggest that when concentrations are lower than 10 µg·mL -1 , BNNSs are more biocompatible than BN-800-2 and are potentially biocompatible material.

  16. Solubility of jarosite solid solutions precipitated from acid mine waters, Iron Mountain, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpers, Charles N.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Ball, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    Because of the common occurrence of 15 to 25 mole percent hydronium substitution on the alkali site in jarosites, it is necessary to consider the hydronium content of jarosites in any attempt at rigorous evaluation of jarosite solubility or of the saturation state of natural waters with respect to jarosite. A Gibbs free energy of 3293.5±2.1 kJ mol-1 is recommended for a jarosite solid solution of composition K.77Na.03(H3O).20Fe3(SO4)2(OH)6. Solubility determinations for a wider range of natural and synthetic jarosite solid solutions will be necessary to quantify the binary and ternary mixing parameters in the (K-Na-H3O) system. In the absence of such studies, molar volume data for endmember minerals indicate that the K-H3O substitution in jarosite is probably closer to ideal mixing than either the Na-K or Na-H3O substitution.

  17. Renal Cell Toxicity of Water-Soluble Coal Extracts from the Gulf Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, A. S.; Ford, S.; Ihnat, M.; Gallucci, R. M.; Philp, P. R.

    2017-12-01

    In the Gulf Coast, many rural residents rely on private well water for drinking, cooking, and other domestic needs. A large portion of this region contains lignite coal deposits within shallow aquifers that potentially leach organic matter into the water supply. It is proposed that the organic matter leached from low-rank coal deposits contributes to the development of kidney disease, however, little work has been done to investigate the toxicity of coal extracts. In this study, human kidney cells (HK-2) were exposed to water-soluble extracts of Gulf Coast Coals to assess toxicity. Cell viability was measured by direct counts of total and necrotic cells. A dose-response curve was used to generate IC50 values, and the extracts showed significant toxicity that ranged from 0.5% w/v to 3% w/v IC50. The most toxic extract was from Louisiana where coal-derived organic material has been previously linked to high incidents of renal pelvic cancer (RPC). Although the toxic threshold measured in this study is significantly higher than the concentration of organic matter in the groundwater, typically affected areas may consume contaminated water over a lifetime. It is possible that the cumulative toxic effects of coal-derived material contribute to the development of disease.

  18. Water soluble ions in aerosols (TSP) : Characteristics, sources and seasonal variation over the central Himalayas, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathee, Lekhendra; Kang, Shichang; Zhang, Qianggong; Rupakheti, Dipesh

    2016-04-01

    Atmspheric pollutants transported from South Asia could have adverse impact on the Himalayan ecosystems. Investigation of aerosol chemistry in the Himalayan region in Nepal has been limited on a temporal and spatial scale to date. Therefore, the water-soluble ionic composition of aerosol using TSP sampler was investigated for a year period from April 2013 to March 2014 at four sites Bode, Dhunche, Lumbini and Jomsom characterized as an urban, rural, semi-urban and remote sites in Nepal. During the study period, the highest concentration of major cation was Ca2+ with an average concentration of 8.91, 2.17, 7.85 and 6.42 μg m-3 and the highest concentration of major anion was SO42- with an average of 10.96, 4.06, 6.85 and 3.30 μg m-3 at Bode, Dhunche, Lumbini and Jomsom respectively. The soluble ions showed the decrease in concentrations from urban to the rural site. Correlations and PCA analysis suggested that that SO42-, NO3- and NH4+ were derived from the anthropogenic sources where as the Ca2+ and Mg2+ were from crustal sources. Our results also suggest that the largest acid neutralizing agent at our sampling sites in the central Himalayas are Ca2+ followed by NH4+. Seasonal variations of soluble ions in aerosols showed higher concentrations during pre-monsoon and winter (dry-periods) due to limited precipitation amount and lower concentrations during the monsoon which can be explained by the dilution effect, higher the precipitation lower the concentration. K+ which is regarded as the tracer of biomss burning had a significant peaks during pre-monsoon season when the forest fires are active around the regions. In general, the results of this study suggests that the atmospheric chemistry is influenced by natural and anthropogenic sources. Thus, soluble ionic concentrations in aerosols from central Himalayas, Nepal can provide a useful database to assess atmospheric environment and its impacts on human health and ecosystem in the southern side of central

  19. Contrasting extremes in water-related stresses determine species survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomeus, R. P.; Witte, J. P. M.; van Bodegom, P. M.; van Dam, J. C.; Aerts, R.

    2012-04-01

    In temperate climates, soil moisture, in concert with nutrient availability and soil acidity, is the most important environmental filter in determining local plant species composition, as it determines the availability of both oxygen and water to plant roots. These resources are indispensable for meeting the physiological demands of plants. Especially the occurrence of both excessive dry and wet moisture conditions at a particular site has strong implications for the survival of species, because plants need traits that allow them to respond to such counteracting conditions. However, adapting to one stress may go at the cost of the other, i.e. there exists a trade-off in the tolerance for wet conditions and the tolerance for dry conditions. Until now, both large-scale (global) and plot-scale effects of soil moisture conditions on plant species composition have mostly been investigated through indirect environmental measures, which do not include the key soil physical and plant physiological processes in the soil-plant-atmosphere system. Moreover, researchers only determined effects of one of the water-related stresses, i.e. either oxygen or drought stress. In order to quantify both oxygen and drought stress with causal measures, we focused on interacting meteorological, soil physical, microbial, and plant physiological processes in the soil-plant-atmosphere system. We simulated these plant stresses with a novel, process-based approach, incorporating in detail the interacting processes in the soil-plant-atmosphere interface. High variability and extremes in resource availability can be highly detrimental to plant species ('you can only die once'). We show that co-occurrence of oxygen and drought stress reduces the percentage of specialists within a vegetation plot. The percentage of non-specialists within a vegetation plot, however, decreases significantly with increasing stress as long as only one of the stresses prevails, but increases significantly with an

  20. Preparation of amorphous solid dispersions by rotary evaporation and KinetiSol Dispersing: approaches to enhance solubility of a poorly water-soluble gum extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Ryan C; Brough, Chris; Miller, Dave A; O'Donnell, Kevin P; Keen, Justin M; Hughey, Justin R; Williams, Robert O; McGinity, James W

    2015-03-01

    Acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid (AKBA), a gum resin extract, possesses poor water-solubility that limits bioavailability and a high melting point making it difficult to successfully process into solid dispersions by fusion methods. The purpose of this study was to investigate solvent and thermal processing techniques for the preparation of amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) exhibiting enhanced solubility, dissolution rates and bioavailability. Solid dispersions were successfully produced by rotary evaporation (RE) and KinetiSol® Dispersing (KSD). Solid state and chemical characterization revealed that ASD with good potency and purity were produced by both RE and KSD. Results of the RE studies demonstrated that AQOAT®-LF, AQOAT®-MF, Eudragit® L100-55 and Soluplus with the incorporation of dioctyl sulfosuccinate sodium provided substantial solubility enhancement. Non-sink dissolution analysis showed enhanced dissolution properties for KSD-processed solid dispersions in comparison to RE-processed solid dispersions. Variances in release performance were identified when different particle size fractions of KSD samples were analyzed. Selected RE samples varying in particle surface morphologies were placed under storage and exhibited crystalline growth following solid-state stability analysis at 12 months in comparison to stored KSD samples confirming amorphous instability for RE products. In vivo analysis of KSD-processed solid dispersions revealed significantly enhanced AKBA absorption in comparison to the neat, active substance.

  1. Relation of zinc levels and water soluble phosphorus in suphala [fertilizer] on uptake of phosphorus and zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutatkar, V.K.; Chapke, V.G.

    1975-01-01

    Under pot culture, four levels of Zn 0, 2, 4 and 6 ppm, were studied in relation to 30, 50 and 100 % water soluble levels of phosphorus in suphala for the dry matter production and uptake of P and Zn by maize on acidic soil of Goa and black cotton soil of Maharashtra. 32 P and 65 Zn tracers were used for this investigation. The results revealed that application of Zn has increased the dry matter and uptake of phosphorus upto 4 ppm of Zn application and it has decreased at 6 ppm Zn level. This inhibition of P uptake was observed at all water soluble levels of P and in both the soils studied. Zn uptake by maize in both the soils under study was increased with increasing level of Zn, irrespective of water soluble level of P in suphala. (author)

  2. Synthesis of new water-soluble metal-binding polymers: Combinatorial chemistry approach. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurth, M.J.; Miller, R.B.; Sawan, S.; Smith, B.F.

    1998-01-01

    '(1) Develop rapid discovery and optimization approaches to new water-soluble chelating polymers for use in Polymer Filtration (PF) systems, and (2) evaluate the concept of using water and organic soluble polymers as new solid supports for combinatorial synthesis. Polymer Filtration (PF), which uses water-soluble metal-binding polymers to sequester metal ions in dilute solution with ultrafiltration (UF) to separate the polymers, is a new technology to selectively remove or recover hazardous and valuable metal ions. Future directions in PF must include rapid development, testing, and characterization of new metal-binding polymers. Thus, the authors are building upon and adapting the combinatorial chemistry approach developed for rapid molecule generation for the drug industry to the rapid development of new chelating polymers. The authors have focused on four areas including the development of: (1) synthetic procedures, (2) small ultrafiltration equipment compatible with organic- and aqueous-based combinatorial synthesis, (3) rapid assay techniques, and (4) polymer characterization techniques.'

  3. Impact of Conventional and Integrated Management Systems on the Water-Soluble Vitamin Content in Potatoes, Field Beans, and Cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitag, Sabine; Verrall, Susan R; Pont, Simon D A; McRae, Diane; Sungurtas, Julia A; Palau, Raphaëlle; Hawes, Cathy; Alexander, Colin J; Allwood, J William; Foito, Alexandre; Stewart, Derek; Shepherd, Louise V T

    2018-01-31

    The reduction of the environmental footprint of crop production without compromising crop yield and their nutritional value is a key goal for improving the sustainability of agriculture. In 2009, the Balruddery Farm Platform was established at The James Hutton Institute as a long-term experimental platform for cross-disciplinary research of crops using two agricultural ecosystems. Crops representative of UK agriculture were grown under conventional and integrated management systems and analyzed for their water-soluble vitamin content. Integrated management, when compared with the conventional system, had only minor effects on water-soluble vitamin content, where significantly higher differences were seen for the conventional management practice on the levels of thiamine in field beans (p water-soluble vitamin content of the crops analyzed here.

  4. Carbamazepine solubility enhancement in tandem with swellable polymer osmotic pump tablet: A promising approach for extended delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadjira Rabti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Elementary osmotic pump (EOP is a unique extended release (ER drug delivery system based on the principle of osmosis. It has the ability to minimize the amount of the drug, accumulation and fluctuation in drug level during chronic uses. Carbamazepine (CBZ, a poorly water-soluble antiepileptic drug, has serious side effects on overdoses and chronic uses. The aim of the present study was to design a new EOP tablet of CBZ containing a solubility enhancers and swellable polymer to reduce its side effects and enhance the patient compliance. Firstly, a combination of solubilizing carriers was selected to improve the dissolution of the slightly soluble drug. Then, designing the new EOP tablet and investigating the effect of different variables of core and coat formulations on drug release behavior by single parameter optimization and by Taguchi orthogonal design with analysis of variance (ANOVA, respectively. The results showed that CBZ solubility was successfully enhanced by a minimum amount of combined polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP K30 and sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS. The plasticizer amount and molecular weight (MW together with the osmotic agent amount directly affect the release rate whereas the swellable polymer amount and viscosity together with the semi-permeable membrane (SPM thickness inversely influence the release rate. In addition, the tendency of following zero order kinetics was mainly affected by the coat components rather than those of the core. Further, orifice size does not have any significant effect on the release behavior within the range of 0.1 mm to 0.8 mm. In this study we report the successful formulation of CBZ-EOP tablets, which were similar to the marketed product Tegretol CR 200 and able to satisfy the USP criterion limits and to deliver about 80% of CBZ at a rate of approximately zero order for up to 12 h.

  5. ADME-Tox profiling of some low molecular weight water soluble chitosan derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Isvoran

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Within this study we use a few computational tools for predicting absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity (ADME-Tox, pharmacokinetics profiles, toxic/adverse effects, carcinogenicity, cardiotoxicity and endocrine disruption of some of low molecular weight water soluble derivatives of chitosan that are used in wound healing. Investigated compounds do not possess drug-like properties, their pharmacokinetics profiles reveal poor gastrointestinal absorption and low skin penetration. Chitosan derivatives cannot pass the blood-brain barrier and they are not able to inhibit the enzymes of the cytochrome P450 that are involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics. They do not reflect carcinogenicity and cardiotoxicity and reveal only a low probability to be endocrine disruptors. The main side effects in humans of the investigated compounds are: weight loss, acidosis, gastrointestinal toxicity, respiratory failure. This information is especially important for professional exposure and accidental contamination with these compounds.

  6. Modeling the formation of soluble microbial products (SMP in drinking water biofiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Xin

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Both a theoretical and an empirical model were developed for predicting the formation of soluble microbial products (SMP during drinking water biofiltration. Four pilot-scale biofilters with ceramsite as the medium were fed with different acetate loadings for the determination of SMP formation. Using numerically simulated and measured parameters, the theoretical model was developed according to the substrate and biomass balance. The results of this model matched the measured data better for higher SMP formation but did not fit well when SMP formation was lower. In order to better simulate the reality and overcome the difficulties of measuring the kinetic parameters, a simpler empirical model was also developed. In this model, SMP formation was expressed as a function of fed organic loadings and the depth of the medium, and a much better fit was obtained.

  7. Effects of water-soluble humic extract and biofertilizer on development of Callophyllum brasiliense seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jader Galba Busato

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of water-soluble humic extract (EHSA, Hortbio® biofertilizer (HORT and both compounds combination (EHSA+HORT on vegetative growth, nutrient absorption and chlorophyll levels in guanandi (Callophyllum brasiliense seedlings. Isolated and combined additions of EHSA and HORT did not affect seedlings height, number of leaves, leaf and root dry matter and leaf area during early stages of seedling growth. However, HORT and EHSA+HORT treatments increased chlorophyll levels and total N content. Addition of HORT resulted in S, Zn, Mg, Mn and Cu increases in the seedlings leaves, while ESHA application increased K, Mg, S and B. P and Ca levels were not altered by the treatments, however, addition of EHSA and EHSA+HORT reduced significantly the absorption of Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn.

  8. Functionally engineered nanosized particles in pharmaceutics: improved oral delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozeki, Tetsuya; Tagami, Tatsuaki

    2013-01-01

    The development of drug nanoparticles has attracted substantial attention because of their potential to improve the dissolution rate and oral availability of poorly water-soluble drugs. This review summarizes the recent articles that discussed nanoparticle-based oral drug delivery systems. The preparation methods were categorized as top-down and bottom-up methods, which are common methods for preparing drug nanoparticles. In addition, methods of handling drug nanoparticles (e.g., one-step preparation of nanocomposites which are microparticles containing drug nanoparticles) were introduced for the effective preservation of drug nanoparticles. The carrier-based preparation of drug nanoparticles was also introduced as a potentially promising oral drug delivery system.

  9. Radiation crosslinking of starch/water-soluble polymer blends for hydrogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashim, K.; Mohid, N.; Bahari, K.; Dahlan, K.Z.

    2000-01-01

    Water-soluble polymers such as PVP(polyvinyl pyrrolidone) and PVA(polyvinyl alcohol), in aqueous solution can form hydrogel easily upon gamma or electron beam irradiation. The properties of hydrogels, particularly for wound dressing application, can be further improved by adding sago starch to the blend. Results show improved gel strength and elongation properties of the hydrogel with increasing sago concentration. It was found that the PVA/sago hydrogel gives better gel strength and elongation than the PVP/sago hydrogel. The tackiness property of the PVA/sago hydrogel increased with increase amount of sago starch added. In case of PVP/sago hydrogel, the tackiness property shows significant increase with increasing amount of sago except for the 5%PVP composition. The swelling properties of PVP/sago and PVA/sago hydrogel decreased with increasing amount of sago but the crosslink density of the hydrogels also reduced. (author)

  10. Effects of frequency and a radical scavenger on ultrasonic degradation of water-soluble polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koda, Shinobu; Taguchi, Kimihiko; Futamura, Kazunori

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonic degradation of methyl cellulose, pullulan, dextran and poly(ethylene oxide) in aqueous solutions was investigated at the frequencies of 20 and 500 kHz, where the ultrasonic power delivered into solutions was kept constant (22 W). The number average molecular mass and the polydispersity were obtained as a function of sonication time. The degradation under sonication at the 500 kHz frequency proceeded faster in comparison with the 20 kHz sonication for four polymers. The addition of a radical scavenger, t-BuOH, resulted in suppression of degradation of water-soluble polymers. The degradation rate constants were estimated from the plot of molecular weight against sonication time. The degradation rate of methyl cellulose was the largest one among the investigated polymers. The difference in the degradation rates was discussed in terms of the flexibility and the hydrodynamic radius of polymer chains in aqueous solutions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. High sensitive determination of zinc with novel water-soluble small molecular fluorescent sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng Ying; Chen Zilin; Wang Fang; Xue Lin; Jiang Hua

    2009-01-01

    A high sensitive method of quantitative analysis for the determination of zinc in the nutrition supplements has been developed by using a novel water-soluble fluorescent sensor HQ3: (8-pyridylmethyloxy-2-methyl-quinoline). Under the optimized condition of 67 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, and 5% (v/v) DMSO, the zinc concentration showed good linear relationship with fluorescence intensity in the range of 7.5 x 10 -8 to 2.5 x 10 -5 M with the detection limit of 1.5 x 10 -8 M. HQ3 exhibited high selectivity to zinc comparing with other metal ions except for cadmium. The developed analytical method was successfully used for determining the content of zinc in a real sample of zinc gluconate solution of Sanchine.

  12. Controlled synthesis of titania using water-soluble titanium complexes: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Quang Duc; Dien, Luong Xuan; Vo, Dai-Viet N.; Le, Thanh Son

    2017-07-01

    The development of human society has led to the increase in energy and resources consumption as well as the arising problems of environmental damage and the toxicity to the human health. The development of novel synthesis method which tolerates utilization of toxic solvents and chemicals would fulfill the demand of the society for safer, softer, and environmental friendly technologies. For the past decades, a remarkable progress has been attained in the development of new water-soluble titanium complexes (WSTC) and their use for the synthesis of nanocrystalline titanium dioxide materials by aqueous solution-based approaches. The progress of synthesis of nanocrystalline titanium dioxide using such WSTCs is reviewed in this work. The key structural features responsible for the successfully controlled synthesis of TiO2 are discussed to provide guidelines for the morphology-controlled synthesis. Finally, this review ends with a summary and some perspectives on the challenges as well as new directions in this fascinating research.

  13. Biostimulants and Its Potential Utilization in Functional Water-soluble Fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Qiang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Biostimulants are becoming widely applied and extended in the fertilizer industry, because of their effects on soil improvement, anti-stress ability enhancement and root growth promotion, which can increase efficient uptake and utilization of soil nutrients, crop yield and quality.This review introduced the concepts of biostimulants, and summarized the functions and related mechanisms of commonly-applied biostimulants in the market, i.e.humic acid, amino acid, seaweed extracts and plant-growth-promoting bacteria(PGPR. The properties and applied characteristics of different organic wastes containing some biostimulating compounds as the main material of functional water soluble fertilizers (WSFin the industry were presented. The technical keys to compound these organic wastes with some bio-active substances to produce the functional WSF were explored, with the aims to support the value -added utilization of organic wastes, reduce the use of fertilizers, and promote crops忆 quality and quantity.

  14. Utilization of water soluble plastics for radiological control within nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.J.; Deltete, C.P.; Homyk, W.A.; Kasprzak, L.; Robinson, P.J.

    1989-01-01

    The utilization of plastic products for radioactive contamination control within nuclear power facilities currently results in relatively large volumes of waste requiring disposal as low-level radioactive waste. The utilization of a polymer resin product that possesses comparable physical attributes to currently utilized plastic materials, but which is water soluble, has significant potential to reduce the volume of plastic waste requiring disposal as radwaste. Such a volume reduction will reduce overall plant )ampersand M costs, reduce the overall waste volume allocation utilization, and improve the regulatory perception of any plant realizing a volume reduction through plastic source minimization. This potential reduction in waste volume (and associated availability of the Low-level Waste Policy Amendments Act disposal allocation for other purposes), combined with potential economic benefits summarized above, has led to the undertaking of a detailed evaluation, presented in this paper

  15. Anthropogenic Influence on Secondary Aerosol Formation and Total Water-Soluble Carbon on Atmospheric Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioda, Adriana; Mateus, Vinicius; Monteiro, Isabela; Taira, Fabio; Esteves, Veronica; Saint'Pierre, Tatiana

    2013-04-01

    On a global scale, the atmosphere is an important source of nutrients, as well as pollutants, because of its interfaces with soil and water. Important compounds in the gaseous phase are in both organic and inorganic forms, such as organic acids, nitrogen, sulfur and chloride. In spite of the species in gas form, a huge number of process, anthropogenic and natural, are able to form aerosols, which may be transported over long distances. Sulfates e nitrates are responsible for rain acidity; they may also increase the solubility of organic compounds and metals making them more bioavailable, and also can act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Aerosol samples (PM2.5) were collected in a rural and industrial area in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in order to quantify chemical species and evaluate anthropogenic influences in secondary aerosol formation and organic compounds. Samples were collected during 24 h every six days using a high-volume sampler from August 2010 to July 2011. The aerosol mass was determined by Gravimetry. The water-soluble ionic composition (WSIC) was obtained by Ion Chromatography in order to determine the major anions (NO3-, SO4= and Cl-); total water-soluble carbon (TWSC) was determined by a TOC analyzer. The average aerosol (PM2.5) concentrations ranged from 1 to 43 ug/m3 in the industrial site and from 4 to 35 ug/m3 in the rural area. Regarding anions, the highest concentrations were measured for SO42- (10.6 μg/m3-12.6 μg/m3); where the lowest value was found in the rural site and the highest in the industrial. The concentrations for NO3- and Cl- ranged from 4.2 μg/m3 to 9.3 μg/m3 and 3.1 μg/m3 to 6.4 μg /m3, respectively. Sulfate was the major species and, like nitrate, it is related to photooxidation in the atmosphere. Interestingly sulfate concentrations were higher during the dry period and could be related to photochemistry activity. The correlations between nitrate and non-sea-salt sulfate were weak, suggesting different sources for these

  16. New strategies in actinide separation - water-soluble complexing agents for the innovative SANEX process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruff, Christian M.; Muelllich, Udo; Geist, Andreas; Panak, Petra J.

    2012-01-01

    Reduction of the radiotoxicity and thermal output of radioactive wastes prior to their permanent disposal is a topic of extreme interest for the issue of final nuclear waste disposal. One possibility to this end is a process referred to as actinide separation. This process can be optimised by means of a newly developed water-soluble molecule, as has been shown in studies on the molecule's complex chemistry using ultra-modern laser-based spectroscopy methods under process-relevant reaction conditions. Through the use of curium (III) and europium (III), which as members of the trivalent actinides and lanthanides family have excellent spectroscopic properties, it has been possible to generate spectroscopic and thermodynamic data which will facilitate our understanding of the complex chemistry and extraction chemistry of this molecule family.

  17. Microwave-induced facile synthesis of water-soluble fluorogenic alginic acid derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhatbar, Mahesh U; Meena, Ramavatar; Prasad, Kamalesh; Chejara, Dharmesh R; Siddhanta, A K

    2011-04-01

    A facile microwave-induced method was developed for synthesizing water-soluble fluorescent derivatives of alginic acid (ALG) with four different diamines, hydrazine (HY), ethylenediamine (EDA), 1,6-hexanediamine (HDA), and 1,4-cyclohexanediamine (CHDA), followed by a cross-linking reaction with a natural cross linker genipin. The ethylenediamine derivative of alginic acid (ALG-EDA) exhibited good fluorescent activity, which upon cross linking was enhanced threefold. The other amide derivatives, for example, ALG-HY, ALG-HDA, and ALG-CHDA, were not fluorescent, but their respective crosslinked products exhibited excellent fluorescent activity. The fluorescence intensity had an inverse correlation with the number of carbon atoms present in the amine, which in turn was a function of degree of substitution (DS). These fluorescent polysaccharide derivatives are of potential utility in the domain of sensor applications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Automatic Carbon Dioxide-Methane Gas Sensor Based on the Solubility of Gases in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl O. Cadena-Pereda

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Biogas methane content is a relevant variable in anaerobic digestion processing where knowledge of process kinetics or an early indicator of digester failure is needed. The contribution of this work is the development of a novel, simple and low cost automatic carbon dioxide-methane gas sensor based on the solubility of gases in water as the precursor of a sensor for biogas quality monitoring. The device described in this work was used for determining the composition of binary mixtures, such as carbon dioxide-methane, in the range of 0–100%. The design and implementation of a digital signal processor and control system into a low-cost Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA platform has permitted the successful application of data acquisition, data distribution and digital data processing, making the construction of a standalone carbon dioxide-methane gas sensor possible.

  19. Automatic carbon dioxide-methane gas sensor based on the solubility of gases in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadena-Pereda, Raúl O; Rivera-Muñoz, Eric M; Herrera-Ruiz, Gilberto; Gomez-Melendez, Domingo J; Anaya-Rivera, Ely K

    2012-01-01

    Biogas methane content is a relevant variable in anaerobic digestion processing where knowledge of process kinetics or an early indicator of digester failure is needed. The contribution of this work is the development of a novel, simple and low cost automatic carbon dioxide-methane gas sensor based on the solubility of gases in water as the precursor of a sensor for biogas quality monitoring. The device described in this work was used for determining the composition of binary mixtures, such as carbon dioxide-methane, in the range of 0-100%. The design and implementation of a digital signal processor and control system into a low-cost Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) platform has permitted the successful application of data acquisition, data distribution and digital data processing, making the construction of a standalone carbon dioxide-methane gas sensor possible.

  20. Chemical Characteristics and Antioxidant Properties of Crude Water Soluble Polysaccharides from Four Common Edible Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Long Sun

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Four crude water soluble polysaccharides, CABP, CAAP, CFVP and CLDP, were isolated from common edible mushrooms, including Agaricus bisporus, Auricularia auricula, Flammulina velutipes and Lentinus edodes, and their chemical characteristics and antioxidant properties were determined. Fourier Transform-infrared analysis showed that the four crude polysaccharides were all composed of β-glycoside linkages. The major monosaccharide compositions were D-galactose, D-glucose and D-mannose for CABP, CAAP and CLDP, while CFVP was found to consist of L-arabinose, D-galactose, D-glucose and D-mannose. The main molecular weight distributions of CABP and the other three polysaccharides were 66.0 × 104 Da, respectively. Antioxidant properties of the four polysaccharides were evaluated in in vitro systems and CABP showed the best antioxidant properties. The studied mushroom species could potentially be used in part of well-balanced diets and as a source of antioxidant compounds.

  1. Radiation crosslinking of starch/water-soluble polymer blends for hydrogel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashim, K.; Mohid, N.; Bahari, K.; Dahlan, K.Z. [Radiation Processing Technology Division, Malaysian Institute Nuclear Technology Research Malaysia (MINT), Bangi, 43000 Kajang (Malaysia)

    2000-03-01

    Water-soluble polymers such as PVP(polyvinyl pyrrolidone) and PVA(polyvinyl alcohol), in aqueous solution can form hydrogel easily upon gamma or electron beam irradiation. The properties of hydrogels, particularly for wound dressing application, can be further improved by adding sago starch to the blend. Results show improved gel strength and elongation properties of the hydrogel with increasing sago concentration. It was found that the PVA/sago hydrogel gives better gel strength and elongation than the PVP/sago hydrogel. The tackiness property of the PVA/sago hydrogel increased with increase amount of sago starch added. In case of PVP/sago hydrogel, the tackiness property shows significant increase with increasing amount of sago except for the 5%PVP composition. The swelling properties of PVP/sago and PVA/sago hydrogel decreased with increasing amount of sago but the crosslink density of the hydrogels also reduced. (author)

  2. Photoimages and the release characteristics of lipophilic matrix tablets containing highly water-soluble potassium citrate with high drug loadings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qing-Ri; Kim, Tae-Wan; Lee, Beom-Jin

    2007-07-18

    Two types of the carnauba wax-based lipophilic matrix tablet using spray-dried granules (SDT) or directly compressible powdered mixtures (DCT) were prepared for sustained release. The model drug was a highly water-soluble potassium citrate and loaded about 74% of the total tablet weight. The SDT slowly eroded and disintegrated during the release study without showing sustained release when the hydrophilic excipients were added. In contrast, the DCT was more efficient for sustained release. The release rate decreased with increasing carnauba wax concentration. In particular, the sustained release rate was markedly pronounced when the lipophilic stearyl alcohol and stearic acid were combined with the carnauba wax. The surface of the intact DCT appeared to be smooth and rusty. The DCT rose to the surface from the bottom of the vessel during the release test, and numerous pores and cracks with no signs of disintegration were also observed after the release test. The release profile was dependent on the formulation composition and preparation method of the matrix tablet. Diffusion-controlled leaching through the channels of the pores and cracks of the lipophilic matrix tablet (DCT) is a key to the sustained release.

  3. Paraquat induces oxidative stress and neuronal cell death; neuroprotection by water-soluble Coenzyme Q10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, S.; Somayajulu, M.; Sikorska, M.; Borowy-Borowski, H.; Pandey, S.

    2004-01-01

    Neuronal cell death induced by oxidative stress is correlated with numerous neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and stroke. The causes of sporadic forms of age-related neurodegenerative diseases are still unknown. Recently, a correlation between paraquat exposure and neurodegenerative diseases has been observed. Paraquat, a nonselective herbicide, was once widely used in North America and is still routinely used in Taiwan. We have used differentiated Human Neuroblastoma (SHSY-5Y) cells as an in vitro model to study the mechanism of cell death induced by paraquat. We observed that paraquat-induced oxidative stress in differentiated SHSY-5Y cells as indicated by an increase in the production of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, apoptosis was evident as indicated by cellular and nuclear morphology and DNA fragmentation. Interestingly, pretreatment of SHSY-5Y cells with water-soluble Coenzyme Q 10 (CoQ 10 ) before paraquat exposure inhibited ROS generation. Pretreatment with CoQ 10 also significantly reduced the number of apoptotic cells and DNA fragmentation. We also analyzed the effect of paraquat and CoQ 10 on isolated mitochondria. Our results indicated that treatment with paraquat induced the generation of ROS from isolated mitochondria and depolarization of the inner mitochondrial membrane. Pretreatment with CoQ 10 was able to inhibit ROS generation from isolated mitochondria as well as the collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential. Our results indicate that water-soluble CoQ 10 can prevent oxidative stress and neuronal damage induced by paraquat and therefore, can be used for the prevention and therapy of neurodegenerative diseases caused by environmental toxins

  4. Fast dissolution of poorly water soluble drugs from fluidized bed coated nanocomposites: Impact of carrier size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Mohammad; Moreno, Jacqueline; Bilgili, Ecevit; Davé, Rajesh

    2016-11-20

    Formation of core-shell nanocomposites of Fenofibrate and Itraconazole, model poorly water soluble drugs, via fluidized bed (FB) coating of their well-stabilized high drug loaded nanosuspensions is investigated. Specifically, the extent of dissolution enhancement, when fine carrier particles (sub-50μm) as opposed to the traditional large carrier particles (>300μm) are used, is examined. This allows testing the hypothesis that greatly increased carrier surface area and more importantly, thinner shell for finer carriers at the same drug loading can significantly increase the dissolution rate when spray-coated nanosuspensions are well-stabilized. Fine sub-50μm lactose (GranuLac ® 200) carrier particles were made fluidizable via dry coating with nano-silica, enabling decreased cohesion, fluidization and subsequent nanosuspension coating. For both drugs, 30% drug loaded suspensions were prepared via wet-stirred media milling using hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose and sodium dodecyl sulfate as stabilizers. The stabilizer concentrations were varied to affect the milled particle size and prepare a stable nanosuspension. The suspensions were FB coated onto hydrophilic nano-silica (M-5P) dry coated sub-50μm lactose (GranuLac ® 200) carrier particles or larger carrier particles of median size >300μm (PrismaLac ® 40). The resulting finer composite powders (sub-100μm) based on GranuLac ® 200 were freely flowing, had high bulk density, and had much faster, immediate dissolution of the poorly water-soluble drugs, in particular for Itraconazole. This is attributed to a much higher specific surface area of the carrier and corresponding thinner coating layer for fine carriers as opposed to those for large carrier particles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Prediction of non-polar gas solubilities in water, alcohols and aqueous alcohol solutions by the modified ASOG method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tochigi, K.; Kojima, K.

    1982-07-01

    This study evaluated a technique for predicting gas solubilities based on a modified ASOG group-contribution method, considering water, alcohols, and aqueous alcohol solutions as the solvents. The nonpolar gaseous solutes considered were oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, argon, methane, ethane, ethylene, propane, and butane. Gas solubilities were correlated and predicted for a partial gas pressure of 1 atm and a temperature range of 50/sup 0/-100/sup 0/F (10/sup 0/-40/sup 0/C) in pure solvents, and then predicted for the same pressure and temperature range in mixed solvents using only the solubility data for the pure solvents. The deviations between the observed and predicted solubilities averaged 6.0% in pure systems and 10.2% in mixed solvents.

  6. The solubility of iron sulfides and their role in mass transport in Girdler-Sulfide heavy water plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tewari, P.H.; Wallace, G.; Campbell, A.B.

    1978-04-01

    The solubilities of several iron sulfides, mackinawite FeSsub((1-x)), troilite FeS, pyrrhotite Fesub((1-x))S (monoclinic and hexagonal), and pyrite FeS 2 have been determined in aqueous H 2 S solution at 0.1 MPa and 1.8 MPa H 2 S pressures between 25 deg and 125 deg C. The dependence of solubility on the pH of the medium has also been studied. It is concluded that since mackinawite is the most soluble of the iron sulfides, and has the highest dissolution rate and the steepest decline in solubility with temperature, its prolonged formation during plant operation should be avoided to minimize iron transport from lower to higher temperature areas in Girdler-Sulfide (G.S.) heavy water plants. This can be achieved by a preconditioning of carbon steel surfaces to convert mackinawite to pyrrhotite and pyrite

  7. Impact of tree cutting on water-soluble organic compounds in podzolic soils of the European North-East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapteva, Elena; Bondarenko, Natalia; Shamrikova, Elena; Kubik, Olesya; Punegov, Vasili

    2016-04-01

    Water-soluble organic compounds (WOCs) and their single components, i.e. low-molecular organic acids, alcohols, and carbohydrates, attain a great deal of attention among soil scientists. WOCs are an important component of soil organic matter (SOM) and form as a results of different biological and chemical processes in soils. These processes are mainly responsible for formation and development of soils in aboveground ecosystems. The purpose of the work was identifying qualitative and quantitative composition of low-molecular organic substances which form in podzolic loamy soils against natural reforestation after spruce forest cutting. The studies were conducted on the territory of the European North-East of Russia, in the middle taiga subzone (Komi Republic, Ust-Kulom region). The study materials were soil of undisturbed bilberry spruce forest (Sample Plot 1 (SP1)) and soils of different-aged tree stands where cutting activities took place in winter 2001/2002 (SP2) and 1969/1970 (SP3). Description of soils and vegetation cover on the plots is given in [1]. Low-molecular organic compounds in soil water extracts were identified by the method of gas chromatography mass-spectrometry [2, 3]. Finally, reforestationafterspruceforestcutting was found to be accompanied by different changes in soil chemical composition. In contrast with soils under undisturbed spruce forest, organic soil horizons under different-aged cuts decreased in organic carbon reserves and production of low-molecular organic compounds, changed in soil acidity. Within the soil series of SP1→SP2→SP3, the highest content of WOCs was identified for undisturbed spruce forest (738 mg kg-1 soil). In soils of coniferous-deciduous forests on SP1 and SP3, WOC content was 294 and 441 mg kg-1 soil, correspondingly. Soils at cuts decreased in concentration of any water-soluble low-molecular SOM components as low-molecular acids, alcohols, and carbohydrates. Structure of low-molecular WOCs in the study podzolic

  8. Water solubility in monzogranite melts: experimental and calculated water contents at 6 kbar

    OpenAIRE

    García Moreno, Olga; Castro Dorado, Antonio; Corretgé, Luis Guillermo

    2002-01-01

    Several piston-cylinder crystallisation experiments have been performed with a synthetic monzogranitic glass with different initial water contents at 6 kbar. Comparison with calculated water contents shows: 1) some differences of the order of 10% of XH2Q; 2) "non-linear" behaviour in XH2C/T curves; and 3) similar pattern in the XH2JT curves in both measured and calculated data. Resumen Se han realizado varios experimentos de cristalización en aparatos "piston-cylinder" a 6 kbar, u...

  9. Selectivity differences of water-soluble vitamins separated on hydrophilic interaction stationary phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuanzhong; Boysen, Reinhard I; Hearn, Milton T W

    2013-06-01

    In this study, the retention behavior and selectivity differences of water-soluble vitamins were evaluated with three types of polar stationary phases (i.e. an underivatized silica phase, an amide phase, and an amino phase) operated in the hydrophilic interaction chromatographic mode with ESI mass spectrometric detection. The effects of mobile phase composition, including buffer pH and concentration, on the retention and selectivity of the vitamins were investigated. In all stationary phases, the neutral or weakly charged vitamins exhibited very weak retention under each of the pH conditions, while the acidic and more basic vitamins showed diverse retention behaviors. With the underivatized silica phase, increasing the salt concentration of the mobile phase resulted in enhanced retention of the acidic vitamins, but decreased retention of the basic vitamins. These observations thus signify the involvement of secondary mechanisms, such as electrostatic interaction in the retention of these analytes. Under optimized conditions, a baseline separation of all vitamins was achieved with excellent peak efficiency. In addition, the effects of water content in the sample on retention and peak efficiency were examined, with sample stacking effects observed when the injected sample contained a high amount of water. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Defined drug release from 3D-printed composite tablets consisting of drug-loaded polyvinylalcohol and a water-soluble or water-insoluble polymer filler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagami, Tatsuaki; Nagata, Noriko; Hayashi, Naomi; Ogawa, Emi; Fukushige, Kaori; Sakai, Norihito; Ozeki, Tetsuya

    2018-05-30

    3D-printed tablets are a promising new approach for personalized medicine. In this study, we fabricated composite tablets consisting of two components, a drug and a filler, by using a fused deposition modeling-type 3D printer. Polyvinylalcohol (PVA) polymer containing calcein (a model drug) was used as the drug component and PVA or polylactic acid (PLA) polymer without drug was used as the water-soluble or water-insoluble filler, respectively. Various kinds of drug-PVA/PVA and drug-PVA/PLA composite tablets were designed, and the 3D-printed tablets exhibited good formability. The surface area of the exposed drug component is highly correlated with the initial drug release rate. Composite tablets with an exposed top and a bottom covered with a PLA layer were fabricated. These tablets showed zero-order drug release by maintaining the surface area of the exposed drug component during drug dissolution. In contrast, the drug release profile varied for tablets whose exposed surface area changed. Composite tablets with different drug release lag times were prepared by changing the thickness of the PVA filler coating the drug component. These results which used PVA and PLA filler will provide useful information for preparing the tablets with multi-components and tailor-made tablets with defined drug release profiles using 3D printers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterization of water sorption, solubility, and roughness of silorane- and methacrylate-based composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannini, M; Di Francescantonio, M; Pacheco, R R; Cidreira Boaro, L C; Braga, R R

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the surface roughness (SR), water sorption (WS), and solubility (SO) of four composite resins after finishing/polishing and after one year of water storage. Two low-shrinkage composites (Filtek Silorane [3M ESPE] and Aelite LS [Bisco Inc]) and two composites of conventional formulations (Heliomolar and Tetric N-Ceram [Ivoclar Vivadent]) were tested. Their respective finishing and polishing systems (Sof-Lex Discs, 3M ESPE; Finishing Discs Kit, Bisco Inc; and Astropol F, P, HP, Ivoclar Vivadent) were used according to the manufacturers' instructions. Ten disc-shaped specimens of each composite resin were made for each evaluation. Polished surfaces were analyzed using a profilometer after 24 hours and one year. For the WS and SO, the discs were stored in desiccators until constant mass was achieved. Specimens were then stored in water for seven days or one year, at which time the mass of each specimen was measured. The specimens were dried again and dried specimen mass determined. The WS and SO were calculated from these measurements. Data were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance and Tukey post hoc test (α=0.05). Filtek Silorane showed the lowest SR, WS, and SO means. Water storage for one year increased the WS means for all composite resins tested. The silorane-based composite resin results were better than those obtained for methacrylate-based resins. One-year water storage did not change the SR and SO properties in any of the composite resins.

  12. Sprint cycling performance is maintained with short-term contrast water immersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crampton, David; Donne, Bernard; Egaña, Mikel; Egana, Mikel; Warmington, Stuart A

    2011-11-01

    Given the widespread use of water immersion during recovery from exercise, we aimed to investigate the effect of contrast water immersion on recovery of sprint cycling performance, HR and, blood lactate. Two groups completed high-intensity sprint exercise before and after a 30-min randomized recovery. The Wingate group (n = 8) performed 3 × 30-s Wingate tests (4-min rest periods). The repeated intermittent sprint group (n = 8) cycled for alternating 30-s periods at 40% of predetermined maximum power and 120% maximum power, until exhaustion. Both groups completed three trials using a different recovery treatment for each trial (balanced randomized application). Recovery treatments were passive rest, 1:1 contrast water immersion (2.5 min of cold (8°C) to 2.5 min of hot (40°C)), and 1:4 contrast water immersion (1 min of cold to 4 min of hot). Blood lactate and HR were recorded throughout, and peak power and total work for pre- and postrecovery Wingate performance and exercise time and total work for repeated sprinting were recorded. Recovery of Wingate peak power was 8% greater after 1:4 contrast water immersion than after passive rest, whereas both contrast water immersion ratios provided a greater recovery of exercise time (∼ 10%) and total work (∼ 14%) for repeated sprinting than for passive rest. Blood lactate was similar between trials. Compared with passive rest, HR initially declined more slowly during contrast water immersion but increased with each transition to a cold immersion phase. These data support contrast water immersion being effective in maintaining performance during a short-term recovery from sprint exercise. This effect needs further investigation but is likely explained by cardiovascular mechanisms, shown here by an elevation in HR upon each cold immersion.

  13. Solubility of natural gases in water under high pressure; Solubilite des gaz naturels dans l`eau a pression elevee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhima, A

    1998-10-08

    Under high pressure (up to 1200 bar) and high temperature (up to 200 deg C) petroleum reservoir conditions the hydrocarbon-water mutual solubilities may become important. Under such conditions, the prediction of hydrocarbon water solubilities is a challenge for petroleum engineers. Indeed, very few studies have been done ar pressures higher that 700 bars. New solubility data for methane, ethane, n-butane, CO{sub 2} and their mixtures in pure water were obtained at 344.25 K and from 2.5 to 100 MPa. The results agree very well with those of the literature in the case of pure hydrocarbons in water, but differ for the hydrocarbon mixtures. A rigorous thermodynamic analysis allows the elaboration of a model that combines a cubic equation of state (Peng-Robinson with k{sub ij} given in literature) with the Henry`s law approach. The (P,T) functional form of Henry`s constant is given by the Krichevsky-Kasarnovsky equation which involves two important parameters: partial molar volume at infinite dilution and Henry`s constant at the vapour pressure of water. For a given solute both parameters are only functions of temperature. A critical selection of binary solubility data for a large number of solutes has been used as a basis for a new correlation for calculating both this partial molar volume and the corresponding Henry`s constants as a function of temperature. (author) 169 refs.

  14. [Fast separation and analysis of water-soluble vitamins in spinach by capillary electrophoresis with high voltage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoqin; You, Huiyan

    2009-11-01

    In capillary electrophoresis, 0-40 kV (even higher) voltage can be reached by a connecting double-model high voltage power supply. In the article, water-soluble vitamins, VB1, VB2, VB6, VC, calcium D-pantothenate, D-biotin, nicotinic acid and folic acid in vegetable, were separated by using the high voltage power supply under the condition of electrolyte water solution as running buffer. The separation conditions, such as voltage, the concentration of buffer and pH value etc. , were optimized during the experiments. The results showed that eight water-soluble vitamins could be baseline separated in 2.2 min at 40 kV applied voltage, 25 mmol/L sodium tetraborate buffer solution (pH 8.8). The water-soluble vitamins in spinach were quantified and the results were satisfied. The linear correlation coefficients of the water-soluble vitamins ranged from 0.9981 to 0.9999. The detection limits ranged from 0.2 to 0.3 mg/L. The average recoveries ranged from 88.0% to 100.6% with the relative standard deviations (RSD) range of 1.15%-4.13% for the spinach samples.

  15. Water-soluble light-emitting nanoparticles prepared by non-covalent bond self-assembly of a hydroxyl group functionalized oligo(p-phenyleneethynylene) with different water-soluble polymers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Water-soluble light-emitting nanoparticles were prepared from hydroxyl group functionalized oligos(p-phenyleneethynylene) (OHOPEL) and water-soluble polymers(PEG,PAA,and PG) by non-covalent bond self-assembly.Their structure and optoelectronic properties were investigated through dynamic light scattering(DLS) ,UV and PL spectroscopy.The optical properties of OHOPEL-based water-soluble nanoparticles exhibited the same properties as that found in OHOPEL films,indicating the existence of interchain-aggregation of OHOPELs in the nanoparticles.OHOPEL-based nanoparticles prepared from conjugated oligomers show smaller size and lower dispersity than nanoparticles from conjugated polymers,which means that the structures of water-soluble nanoparticles are linked to the conjugated length.Furthermore,the OHOPEL/PG and OHOPEL/PAA systems produced smaller particles and lower polydispersity than the OHOPEL/PEG system,indicating that there may exist influence of the strength of non-covalent bonds on the size and degree of dispersity of the nanoparticles.

  16. Rectal water contrast transvaginal ultrasound versus double-contrast barium enema in the diagnosis of bowel endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jipeng; Liu, Ying; Wang, Kun; Wu, Xixiang; Tang, Ying

    2017-09-07

    The aim of study was to compare the accuracy between rectal water contrast transvaginal ultrasound (RWC-TVS) and double-contrast barium enema (DCBE) in evaluating the bowel endometriosis presence as well as its extent. 198 patients at reproductive age with suspicious bowel endometriosis were included. Physicians in two groups specialised at endometriosis performed RWC-TVS as well as DCBE before laparoscopy and both groups were blinded to other groups' results. Findings from RWC-TVS or DCBE were compared with histological results. The severity of experienced pain severity through RWC-TVS or DCBE was assessed by an analogue scale of 10 cm. In total, 110 in 198 women were confirmed to have endometriosis nodules in the bowel by laparoscopy as well as histopathology. For bowel endometriosis diagnosis, DCBE and RWC-TVS demonstrated sensitivities of 96.4% and 88.2%, specificities of 100% and 97.3%, positive prediction values of 100% and 98.0%, negative prediction values of 98.0% and 88.0%, accuracies of 98.0% and 92.4%, respectively. DCBE was related to more tolerance than RWC-TVS. RWC-TVS and DCBE demonstrated similar accuracies in the bowel endometriosis diagnosis; however, patients showed more tolerance for RWC-TVS than those with DCBE. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Efficiency of nitrophosphates of varying water solubility with respect to their nitrogen (15N) and phosphorus (32P) utilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motsara, M.R.; Leela Bhai, K.S.; Mev Singh; Datta, N.P.

    1975-01-01

    Nitrophosphates of different water soluble P superphosphate and super plus ammonium nitrate were compared by raising wheat as a test crop on alluvial soil of Delhi. Phosphorus was tagged with 32 P and the ammonical and nitrate nitrogen was alternately tagged with 15 N. With increasing the water-soluble P content in nitrophosphate, increasing amount of grain yield and higher uptake of total N and P were recorded. The percent phosphorus derived in the plant from the fertilizer and the percent phosphorus utilization was higher from the nitrophosphates of higher eater soluble P content. It was also higher under the application of superphosphate plus ammonium nitrate than superphosphate alone. A greater amount of ammonical nitrogen was utilized by the crop than nitrate form of nitrogen. (author)

  18. Toxicity evaluation of boron nitride nanospheres and water-soluble boron nitride in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang N

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Ning Wang,1 Hui Wang,2 Chengchun Tang,3 Shijun Lei,1 Wanqing Shen,1 Cong Wang,1 Guobin Wang,4 Zheng Wang,1,4 Lin Wang1,5 1Research Center for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, Union Hospital, 2Department of Medical Genetics, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 3Boron Nitride Research Center, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin, 4Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, 5Department of Clinical Laboratory, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China Abstract: Boron nitride (BN nanomaterials have been increasingly explored for potential biological applications. However, their toxicity remains poorly understood. Using Caenorhabditis elegans as a whole-animal model for toxicity analysis of two representative types of BN nanomaterials – BN nanospheres (BNNSs and highly water-soluble BN nanomaterial (named BN-800-2 – we found that BNNSs overall toxicity was less than soluble BN-800-2 with irregular shapes. The concentration thresholds for BNNSs and BN-800-2 were 100 µg·mL-1 and 10 µg·mL-1, respectively. Above this concentration, both delayed growth, decreased life span, reduced progeny, retarded locomotion behavior, and changed the expression of phenotype-related genes to various extents. BNNSs and BN-800-2 increased oxidative stress levels in C. elegans by promoting reactive oxygen species production. Our results further showed that oxidative stress response and MAPK signaling-related genes, such as GAS1, SOD2, SOD3, MEK1, and PMK1, might be key factors for reactive oxygen species production and toxic responses to BNNSs and BN-800-2 exposure. Together, our results suggest that when concentrations are lower than 10 µg·mL-1, BNNSs are more biocompatible than BN-800-2 and are potentially biocompatible material. Keywords: boron nitride nanomaterials, Caenorhabditis elegans, nanotoxicology

  19. Disproportionation of hydroxylamine by water-soluble iron(III) porphyrinate compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Sara E; Amorebieta, Valentín T; Gutiérrez, María M; Olabe, José A; Doctorovich, Fabio

    2010-01-01

    The reactions of hydroxylamine (HA) with several water-soluble iron(III) porphyrinate compounds, namely iron(III) meso-tetrakis-(N-ethylpyridinium-2yl)-porphyrinate ([Fe(III)(TEPyP)](5+)), iron(III) meso-tetrakis-(4-sulphonatophenyl)-porphyrinate ([Fe(III)(TPPS)](3-)), and microperoxidase 11 ([Fe(III)(MP11)]) were studied for different [Fe(III)(Porph)]/[HA] ratios, under anaerobic conditions at neutral pH. Efficient catalytic processes leading to the disproportionation of HA by these iron(III) porphyrinates were evidenced for the first time. As a common feature, only N(2) and N(2)O were found as gaseous, nitrogen-containing oxidation products, while NH(3) was the unique reduced species detected. Different N(2)/N(2)O ratios obtained with these three porphyrinates strongly suggest distinctive mechanistic scenarios: while [Fe(III)(TEPyP)](5+) and [Fe(III)(MP11)] formed unknown steady-state porphyrinic intermediates in the presence of HA, [Fe(III)(TPPS)](3-) led to the well characterized soluble intermediate, [Fe(II)(TPPS)NO](4-). Free-radical formation was only evidenced for [Fe(III)(TEPyP)](5+), as a consequence of a metal centered reduction. We discuss the catalytic pathways of HA disproportionation on the basis of the distribution of gaseous products, free radicals formation, the nature of porphyrinic intermediates, the Fe(II)/Fe(III) redox potential, the coordinating capabilities of each complex, and the kinetic analysis. The absence of NO(2)(-) revealed either that no HAO-like activity was operative under our reaction conditions, or that NO(2)(-), if formed, was consumed in the reaction milieu.

  20. Biochemical responses in freshwater fish after exposure to water-soluble fraction of gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettim, Franciele Lima; Galvan, Gabrieli Limberger; Cestari, Marta Margarete; Yamamoto, Carlos Itsuo; de Assis, Helena Cristina Silva

    2016-02-01

    The water-soluble fraction of gasoline (WSFG) is a complex mixture of mono-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The study aimed to evaluate the effects of WSFG diluted 1.5% on freshwater fish. Astyanax altiparanae were exposed to the WSFG for 96 h, under a semi-static system, with renewal of 25% of the gasoline test solution every 24 h. In addition, a decay of the contamination (DC) was carried out. During DC, the fish was exposed to the WSFG for 8 d, followed by another 7 d with renewal of 25% of volume aquaria with clean water every 24 h. For depuration, fish were transferred to aquaria with clean water, and in addition, 25% of the water was replaced every 24 h. The liver and kidney biotransformation, antioxidant defenses and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels were evaluated. In the liver, the WSFG 1.5% caused reduction of glutathione S-transferase (GST) after 96 h and DC. In the kidney, only in depuration an increased GST activity was observed, and after DC a higher LPO levels. An increase of the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity occurred at 96 h in both tissues; however, in the liver was also observed during the depuration. In WSFG 96 h, the glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in the kidney increased. As biomarkers of neurotoxicity, the brain and muscle acetylcholinesterase activities were measured, but the WSFG 1.5% did not change them. Therefore, this study brought forth more data about WSFG effects on freshwater fish after lower concentrations exposure and a DC, simulating an environmental contamination. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Linear and nonlinear photophysics and bioimaging of an integrin-targeting water-soluble fluorenyl probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Alma R; Luchita, Gheorghe; Yanez, Ciceron O; Bondar, Mykhailo V; Przhonska, Olga V; Belfield, Kevin D

    2010-06-07

    Linear photophysical characterization and two-photon absorption (2PA) properties of a new water-soluble fluorene derivative, 3-(9-(2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethyl)-2,7-bis{3-[2-(polyethyleneglycol-550-monomethylether-1-yl)]-4-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)styryl}-9H-fluoren-9-yl)propanoic acid (1), were investigated in several organic solvents and water at room temperature. A comprehensive analysis of the steady-state absorption, emission and excitation anisotropy spectra revealed electronic structures of 1, including mutual orientation of the transition dipoles, relatively weak solvatochromic effects, high fluorescence quantum yield (approximately 0.5-1.0), and strong aggregation in water. The 2PA spectra of 1 were obtained in the 600-900 nm spectral range by two-photon induced fluorescence (2PF) and open aperture Z-scan methods using femtosecond laser sources. No discrete 2PA bands were apparent and values of the corresponding 2PA cross sections monotonically increased in the short wavelength range up to 3000 GM in organic solvents and approximately 6000 GM in aqueous solution, reflecting relatively high two-photon absorptivity. The 2PA efficiency of in water increased 2-3 times relative to aprotic solvents and can be explained by cooperative electronic effects of molecular aggregates of 1 produced in aqueous media. The carboxylic acid fluorenyl probe 1 was conjugated with the cyclic peptide RGDfK. Two-photon fluorescence microscopy (2PFM) imaging of U87MG cells (and MCF-7 as control), incubated with fluorene-RGD peptide conjugate 2, demonstrated high alpha(v)beta(3) integrin selectivity, making this probe particularly attractive for integrin imaging.

  2. Anti-cariogenic properties of a water-soluble extract from cacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kyoko; Nakamura, Yuko; Tokunaga, Takahisa; Iijima, Daisuke; Fukushima, Kazuo

    2003-12-01

    The addition of a water-soluble extract from cacao-extracted powder (CEPWS) to a cariogenic model food, a white chocolate-like diet that contains 35% sucrose, significantly reduced caries scores in SPF rats infected with Streptococcus sobrinus 6715, compared to control rats fed a white chocolate-like diet. CEPWS markedly inhibited water-insoluble glucan (WIG) synthesis through crude glucosyltransferases (GTFs) from Streptococcus sobrinus B13N in vitro. GTF-inhibitor(s) in CEPWS was prepared through three-step fractionation, and was termed CEPWS-BT, which is a high molecular weight (>10 kDa) heat-stable matrix of sugar, protein, and polyphenol. When the inhibitory effect of CEPWS-BT on glucan synthesis was examined using the purified GTF-I, GTF-T, and GTF-U enzymes from S. sobrinus B13N, significant reduction in GTF-I and GTF-T activity as a result of adding CEPWS-BT at low concentrations was observed. These results suggest that the addition of CEPWS to cariogenic food could be useful in controlling dental caries.

  3. Ubiquitous water-soluble molecules in aquatic plant exudates determine specific insect attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sérandour, Julien; Reynaud, Stéphane; Willison, John; Patouraux, Joëlle; Gaude, Thierry; Ravanel, Patrick; Lempérière, Guy; Raveton, Muriel

    2008-10-08

    Plants produce semio-chemicals that directly influence insect attraction and/or repulsion. Generally, this attraction is closely associated with herbivory and has been studied mainly under atmospheric conditions. On the other hand, the relationship between aquatic plants and insects has been little studied. To determine whether the roots of aquatic macrophytes release attractive chemical mixtures into the water, we studied the behaviour of mosquito larvae using olfactory experiments with root exudates. After testing the attraction on Culex and Aedes mosquito larvae, we chose to work with Coquillettidia species, which have a complex behaviour in nature and need to be attached to plant roots in order to obtain oxygen. This relationship is non-destructive and can be described as commensal behaviour. Commonly found compounds seemed to be involved in insect attraction since root exudates from different plants were all attractive. Moreover, chemical analysis allowed us to identify a certain number of commonly found, highly water-soluble, low-molecular-weight compounds, several of which (glycerol, uracil, thymine, uridine, thymidine) were able to induce attraction when tested individually but at concentrations substantially higher than those found in nature. However, our principal findings demonstrated that these compounds appeared to act synergistically, since a mixture of these five compounds attracted larvae at natural concentrations (0.7 nM glycerol, insect relationships in aquatic eco-systems.

  4. Water-soluble PEGylated silicon nanoparticles and their assembly into swellable nanoparticle aggregates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Zejing; Li, Yejia; Zhang, Boyu; Purkait, Tapas; Alb, Alina; Mitchell, Brian S.; Grayson, Scott M.; Fink, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    Water-soluble silicon nanoparticles were synthesized by grafting PEG polymers onto functionalized silicon nanoparticles with distal alkyne or azide moieties. The surface-functionalized silicon nanoparticles were produced in one step from the reactive high-energy ball milling (RHEBM) of silicon wafers with a mixture of either 5-chloro-1-pentyne in 1-pentyne or 1,7 octadiyne in 1-hexyne to afford air and water-stable chloroalkyl or alkynyl-terminated nanoparticles, respectively. Nanoparticles with the ω-chloroalkyl substituents were easily converted to ω-azidoalkyl groups through the reaction of the Si nanoparticles with sodium azide in DMF. The azido-terminated nanoparticles were then grafted with mono-alkynyl-PEG polymers using a copper-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction to afford core–shell silicon nanoparticles with a covalently attached PEG shell. Covalently linked Si nanoparticle clusters were synthesized via the CuAAC “click” reaction of functional Si NPs with α,ω-functional PEG polymers of various lengths. Dynamic light scattering studies show that the flexible globular nanoparticle aggregates undergo a solvent-dependent change in volume (ethanol > dichloromethane > toluene) similar in behavior to hydrogel nanocomposites

  5. Contribution to the study of water-soluble ions in aerosols of the city of Antananarivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NASSUR, R.

    2007-01-01

    The urban environment characterized by concentration accumulated activities (industries-heating-transports) polluted emission (chimney, silencer...) concentration in atmosphere and especially people exposed in effects. All this elements make that the urban people are confronted in increasing sanitary risk, especially for the most susceptible subject. Three places in Antananarivo are chosen to value ions soluble in water, in aerosols of the town by human activities especially in road transport. Samples analysis are presented like collected aerosols in filters. In order to value these pollutions, we used ''dichotomous'' samples to collect the particles and analysis method by ionic chromatography to analysis ions. With sampling system, it is possible to carry out collect to be allowed the separation of breathed and inhaled particles in two filters of different diameter. The aerosol are to be deduct in advance to 1,40m of ground. The filters impregnated into water without ions are waged during 30 minutes, to obtain samples representative after filtration. Some ions NH4 + , Na + , Br - are lower in our detection limits. These are Ca 2+ and S0 4 2- that the majority is collected from Antananarivo aerosols. [fr

  6. A novel pH sensitive water soluble fluorescent nanomicellar sensor for potential biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Nikolai I; Bryaskova, Rayna; Tzoneva, Rumiana; Ugrinova, Iva; Detrembleur, Christophe; Miloshev, Stoyan; Asiri, Abdullah M; Qusti, Abdullah H; Bojinov, Vladimir B

    2013-11-01

    Herein we report on the synthesis and sensor activity of a novel pH sensitive probe designed as highly water-soluble fluorescent micelles by grafting of 1,8-naphthalimide-rhodamine bichromophoric FRET system (RNI) to the PMMA block of a well-defined amphiphilic diblock copolymer-poly(methyl methacrylate)-b-poly(methacrylic acid) (PMMA48-b-PMAA27). The RNI-PMMA48-b-PMAA27 adduct is capable of self-assembling into micelles with a hydrophobic PMMA core, containing the anchored fluorescent probe, and a hydrophilic shell composed of PMAA block. Novel fluorescent micelles are able to serve as a highly sensitive pH probe in water and to internalize successfully HeLa and HEK cells. Furthermore, they showed cell specificity and significantly higher photostability than that of a pure organic dye label such as BODIPY. The valuable properties of the newly prepared fluorescent micelles indicate the high potential of the probe for future biological and biomedical applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Investigation of water-soluble elastin as a multifunctional cosmetic material: Moisturizing and whitening effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Asako; Hikima, Tomohiro; Taniguchi, Suguru; Nose, Takeru; Maeda, Iori

    Elastin and collagen are extracellular matrix proteins that are widely distributed in the body. Although elastin essentially functions as a skin moisturizer, there have been few reports on its other fundamental chemical and biological functions. In this study, we investigated the moisturizing and whitening (tyrosinase inhibition) effects of elastin to examine its usefulness as a cosmetic material. Water-soluble hot alkali pig aorta (HAPA)-elastin was prepared from pig aorta using the hot alkali method. HAPA-elastin showed a widely distributed molecular weight and had a coacervation property that mediated reversible self-assembly of its molecules with increasing temperature. Amino acid analysis of HAPA-elastin showed a high content (81.5%) of hydrophobic amino acids such as Gly, Ala, Val, and Pro. Des (desmosine) and Ide (isodesmosine), which are characteristic amino acids of elastin, accounted for more than 0.4% of the total amino acid content. HAPA-elastin showed a moisture-retaining property. The water content of skin samples treated with and without HAPA-elastin was 77.2% ± 7.8% and 49.4% ± 10.1%, respectively. HAPA-elastin also inhibited tyrosinase activity by 11.3% ± 3.9%. The results obtained indicate that elastin has a useful function as a cosmetic material.

  8. Linear solvation energy relationships: 36. Molecular properties governing solubilities of organic nonelectrolytes in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamlet, M J; Doherty, R M; Abboud, J L; Abraham, M H; Taft, R W

    1986-04-01

    Molar solubilities of non-hydrogen bond donor and weak hydrogen bond donor liquid aliphatic solutes in water, or the nearly equivalent quantities, Sg/Kgw, where Kgw is the gas-water partition coefficient and Sg is the solute concentration in the solute saturated vapor (Sg = Patm/24.5) are well correlated by the equation: log Sw congruent to log (Sg/Kgw) = 0.54 - 3.32V/100 + 0.46 pi* + 5.17 (beta or beta m) (at 25 degrees C) n = 105, r = 0.9954, SD = 0.137 V is the solute molar volume (the molecular weight divided by the liquid density at 20 degrees C), and pi* and beta are the solvatochromic parameters that are measures of solute dipolarity-polarizability and hydrogen bond acceptor basicity. The equation, which applies to liquid monofunctional aliphatic solutes is used to calculate additional new beta and beta m values. The beta m values, which are intended to apply to self-associated compounds when acting as "monomer" solutes, are: methanol, 0.42; all primary alkanols, 0.45; all secondary alkanols, 0.51; and all tertiary alkanols, 0.57.

  9. Effect of extraction methods on property and bioactivity of water-soluble polysaccharides from Amomum villosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yajuan; Li, Xia; Wan, Mianjie; Chen, Jingping; Li, Shijie; Cao, Man; Zhang, Danyan

    2015-03-06

    In the present study, effect of different extraction methods on property and bioactivity of water-soluble polysaccharides (WSP) from the seeds of Amomum villosum were investigated. Firstly, four different extraction methods were used to extract WSP, which include hot water extraction (HWE), ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and enzyme-assisted extraction (EAE). As a result, four WSP samples, WSP(H), WSP(U), WSP(M) and WSP(E) were acquired. Then, the difference of four WSP samples in yield, characterization and antioxidant activities in vitro were further compared. Experimental results showed that the four WSP samples had the same monosaccharide composition, but mere difference in the content; they all had typical IR spectra characteristic of polysaccharides. WSP(U) contained the highest contents of uronic acid and sulfate. The yield of WSP(U) was the highest and its antioxidant activity was the best. These results suggested that ultrasonic-assisted extraction was the best extraction method for WSP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Water-soluble graphene grafted by poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) for enhancement of electric capacitance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Feipeng; Wang Jingjing; Tang, Chak-Yin; Tsui, Chi-Pong; Zhou Xingping; Xie Xiaolin; Liao Yonggui

    2012-01-01

    Water-soluble poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) modified graphene (PSSS-GR) was successfully synthesized via covalently grafting poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSSS) on the surfaces of graphene (GR) nanosheets. The structure of PSSS-GR was investigated with Fourier transform infrared, x-ray photoelectron and Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, transmission and scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The PSSS chains made the GR nanosheets fully exfoliate into a single-layer structure, and the PSSS layer on GR reached 90 wt%. PSSS chains displayed mutually repulsive effects on promoting GR sheets that were more stable in water. The performances of supercapacitors made of PSSS-GR and unmodified GR electrodes were compared using cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge techniques. The results showed that PSSS is an effective binder for graphene sheets and can increase the specific capacitance of PSSS-GR based supercapacitors and improve their rate capability. The maximum specific capacitance of the PSSS-GR based supercapacitor was 210 F g −1 at 5 A g −1 , which was 166% higher than for one made of unmodified graphene electrodes. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy demonstrated fast ion diffusion in the PSSS-GR electrode structure. PSSS-GR based supercapacitors can fulfil one of the essential requirements for potential electric energy storage applications. (paper)

  11. Rapid planar chromatographic analysis of 25 water-soluble dyes used as food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morlock, Gertrud E; Oellig, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    A rapid planar chromatographic method for identification and quantification of 25 water-soluble dyes in food was developed. In a horizontal developing chamber, the chromatographic separation on silica gel 60F254 high-performance thin-layer chromatography plates took 12 min for 40 runs in parallel, using 8 mL ethyl acetate-methanol-water-acetic acid (65 + 23 + 11 + 1, v/v/v/v) mobile phase up to a migration distance of 50 mm. However, the total analysis time, inclusive of application and evaluation, took 60 min for 40 runs. Thus, the overall time/run can be calculated as 1.5 min with a solvent consumption of 200 microL. A sample throughput of 1000 runs/8 h day can be reached by switching between the working stations (application, development, and evaluation) in a 20 min interval, which triples the analysis throughput. Densitometry was performed by absorption measurement using the multiwavelength scan mode in the UV and visible ranges. Repeatabilities [relative standard deviation (RSD), 4 determinations] at the first or second calibration level showed precisions of mostly or = 0.9987) and RSD values ( or = 0.9996). If necessary for confirmation, online mass spectra were recorded within a minute.

  12. Natural products phytotoxicity A bioassay suitable for small quantities of slightly water-soluble compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornbos, D L; Spencer, G F

    1990-02-01

    A large variety of secondary metabolites that can inhibit germination and/or seedling growth are produced by plants in low quantities. The objective of this study was to develop a bioassay capable of reliably assessing reductions in germination percentage and seedling length of small-seeded plant species caused by exposure to minute quantities of these compounds. The germination and growth of alfalfa (Medicago saliva), annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), and velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti) were evaluated against six known phytotoxins from five chemical classes; cinmethylin (a herbicidal cineole derivative) was selected as a comparison standard. Each phytotoxin, dissolved in a suitable organic solvent, was placed on water-agar in small tissue culture wells. After the solvent evaporated, imbibed seeds were placed on the agar; after three days, germination percentages and seedling lengths were measured. Compared to a commonly used filter paper procedure, this modified agar bioassay required smaller quantities of compound per seed for comparable bioassay results. This bioassay also readily permitted the measurement of seedling length, a more sensitive indicator of phytotoxicity than germination. Seedling length decreased sigmoidally as the toxin concentration increased logarithmically. Phytotoxicity was a function of both compound and plant species. Cinmethylin, a grass herbicide, reduced the length of annual ryegrass seedlings by 90-100%, whereas that of alfalfa and velvetleaf was inhibited slightly. The agar bioassay facilitated the rapid and reliable testing of slightly water-soluble compounds, requiring only minute quantities of each compound to give reproducible results.

  13. Radiation synthesis of the water-soluble, temperature sensitive polymer, copolymer and study on their properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai Maolin; Yin Min; Ha Hongfei

    1994-01-01

    In order to obtain the water-soluble, temperature sensitive polymer and activated copolymer, the radiation polymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm), radiation copolymerization of NIPAAm and N-acryloxysuccide (NASI) in aqueous solution or in buffer solution (PBS pH = 7.4) have been carried out by γ-rays from 60 Co source at room temperature. The optimum dose range (1-7 kGy), dose rate (>40 Gy/min) and monomer concentration (1%) were chosen through determining the monomer conversion yield and molecular weight (M w = 6.8 x 10 5 ) of product. Synthesis of the reversible linear polymer was performed in tetrahydrofuran (THF) as well. In this way a white powder product could be obtained which possesses of thermally reversible property too, when it was dissolved in water or PBS. The only disadvantages of this method is that the molecular weight of the polymer produced in THF was much lower than that in aqueous solution

  14. Improved Extraction and Quality Characterization of Water-Soluble Polysaccharide from Gamma-Irradiated Lentinus edodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Kashif; Shahbaz, Hafiz Muhammad; Kim, Gui-Ran; Farooq, Umar; Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2017-02-01

    Gamma irradiation was applied to the improved extraction of water-soluble polysaccharides (WSPs) from dried Lentinus edodes. Irradiation provided a dose-dependent increase in extraction yield (0 kGy, 2.01%; 7.5 kGy, 4.03%; 15 kGy, 7.17%) and purity (0 kGy, 78.8%; 7.5 kGy, 83.1%; 15 kGy, 85.6%) of the WSPs from hot-water extraction. The effect of irradiation was evident in the degraded microstructures and reduced molecular weights of the WSPs. However, nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier-transform infrared, and X-ray diffraction spectroscopic analyses provided comparable structures of WSPs from nonirradiated and irradiated samples. UV-visible spectra showed a dose-dependent decline in intensity, but an improvement in thermal properties of the WSPs from the irradiated mushroom samples was observed. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  15. Chemical properties and antioxidant activity of a water-soluble polysaccharide from Dendrobium officinale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qiu-Lian; Tang, Zhuan-Hui; Zhang, Xue-Feng; Zhong, Yong-Hong; Yao, Su-Zhi; Wang, Li-Sheng; Lin, Cui-Wu; Luo, Xuan

    2016-08-01

    In this report, a water-soluble polysaccharide was obtained from the dried stems of Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo by hot-water (70-75°C) extraction and 85% ethanol precipitation, and successively purification by DEAE-cellulose anion-exchange chromatography and gel-permeation chromatography. The D. officinale polysaccharide (DOP) has a molecular weight of 8500Da. Monosaccharide composition analysis reveals that DOP is composed of mannose, glucose, and arabinose with a trace of galacturonic acid in a molar ratio of 6.2:2.3:2.1:0.1. Periodate oxidation-smith degradation and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy analysis suggest the predominance of mannose and glucose, and it contains a 2-O-acetylglucomannan and (1→4)-linked-β-d-mannopyranosyl and (1→4)-linked-β-d-glucopyranosyl residues. Atomic force microscope shows that DOP mainly exists as rod-shaped chains, supporting high degrees of polymerization. The antioxidant activities of the polysaccharide in vitro assay indicate that DOP has good scavenging activity of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, higher scavenging activity of hydroxyl radical, and metal chelating activities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Microbial oxidation of soluble sulfide in produced water from the Bakkeen Sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gevertz, D.; Zimmerman, S. [Agouron Institute, La Jolla, CA (United States); Jenneman, G.E. [Phillips Petroleum Company, Bartlesville, OK (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The presence of soluble sulfide in produced water results in problems for the petroleum industry due to its toxicity, odor, corrosive nature, and potential for wellbore plugging. Sulfide oxidation by indigenous nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB) present in brine collected from wells at the Coleville Unit (CVU) in Saskatchewan, Canada, was investigated. Sulfide oxidation took place readily when nitrate and phosphate were added to brine enrichment cultures, resulting in a decrease in sulfide levels of 99-165 ppm to nondetectable levels (< 3.3 ppm). Produced water collected from a number of producing wells was screened to determine the time required for complete sulfide oxidation, in order to select candidate wells for treatment. Three wells were chosen, based on sulfide removal in 48 hours or less. These wells were treated down the backside of the annulus with a solution containing 10 mM KNO{sub 3} and 100 {mu}M NaH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}. Following a 24- to 72-hour shut-in, reductions in pretreatment sulfide levels of greater than 90% were observed for two of the wells, as well as sustained sulfide reductions of 50% for at least two days following startup. NRB populations in the produced brine were observed to increase significantly following treatment, but no significant increases in sulfate-reducing bacteria were observed. These results demonstrate the technical feasibility of stimulating indigenous populations of NRB to remediate and control sulfide in produced brine.

  17. Solubility of 1:1 Alkali Nitrates and Chlorides in Near-Critical and Supercritical Water : 1 Alkali Nitrates and Chlorides in Near-Critical and Supercritical Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leusbrock, Ingo; Metz, Sybrand J.; Rexwinkel, Glenn; Versteeg, Geert F.

    2009-01-01

    To increase the available data oil systems containing supercritical water and inorganic compounds, all experimental setup was designed to investigate the solubilities of inorganic compounds Ill supercritical water, In this work, three alkali chloride salts (LiCl, NaCl, KCl) and three alkali nitrate

  18. Improved prediction of octanol-water partition coefficients from liquid-solute water solubilities and molar volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, C.T.; Schmedding, D.W.; Manes, M.

    2005-01-01

    A volume-fraction-based solvent-water partition model for dilute solutes, in which the partition coefficient shows a dependence on solute molar volume (V??), is adapted to predict the octanol-water partition coefficient (K ow) from the liquid or supercooled-liquid solute water solubility (Sw), or vice versa. The established correlation is tested for a wide range of industrial compounds and pesticides (e.g., halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons, alkylbenzenes, halogenated benzenes, ethers, esters, PAHs, PCBs, organochlorines, organophosphates, carbamates, and amidesureas-triazines), which comprise a total of 215 test compounds spanning about 10 orders of magnitude in Sw and 8.5 orders of magnitude in Kow. Except for phenols and alcohols, which require special considerations of the Kow data, the correlation predicts the Kow within 0.1 log units for most compounds, much independent of the compound type or the magnitude in K ow. With reliable Sw and V data for compounds of interest, the correlation provides an effective means for either predicting the unavailable log Kow values or verifying the reliability of the reported log Kow data. ?? 2005 American Chemical Society.

  19. Synthesis of new water-soluble metal-binding polymers: Combinatorial chemistry approach. 1997 mid-year progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, B.F.

    1997-01-01

    'The first objective of this research is to develop rapid discovery and optimization approaches to new water-soluble chelating polymers. A byproduct of the development approach will be the new, selective, and efficient metal-binding agents. The second objective is to evaluate the concept of using water and organic soluble polymers as new solid supports for combinatorial synthesis. The technology under development, Polymer Filtration (PF), is a technique to selectively remove or recover hazardous and valuable metal ions and radionuclides from various dilute aqueous streams. Not only can this technology be used to remediate contaminated soils and solid surfaces and treat aqueous wastes, it can also be incorporated into facilities as a pollution prevention and waste minimization technology. Polymer Filtration uses water-soluble metal-binding polymers to sequester metal ions in dilute solution. The water-soluble polymers have a sufficiently large molecular size that they can be separated and concentrated using commercial ultrafiltration technology. Water, small organic molecules, and unbound metals pass freely through the ultrafiltration membrane while concentrating the metal-binding polymer. The polymers can then be reused by changing the solution conditions to release the metal ions. The metal-ions are recovered in concentrated form for recycle or disposal using a diafiltration process. The water-soluble polymer can be recycled for further aqueous-stream processing. To advance Polymer Filtration technology to the selectivity levels required for DOE needs. fixture directions in Polymer Filtration must include rapid development, testing, and characterization of new metal-binding polymers. The development of new chelating molecules can be equated to the process of new drugs or new materials discovery. Thus, the authors want to build upon and adapt the combinatorial chemistry approaches developed for rapid molecule generation for the drug industry to the rapid

  20. Different hydrodynamic processes regulated on water quality (nutrients, dissolved oxygen, and phytoplankton biomass) in three contrasting waters of Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Weihua; Yuan, Xiangcheng; Long, Aimin; Huang, Hui; Yue, Weizhong

    2014-03-01

    The subtropical Hong Kong (HK) waters are located at the eastern side of the Pearl River Estuary. Monthly changes of water quality, including nutrients, dissolved oxygen (DO), and phytoplankton biomass (Chl-a) were routinely investigated in 2003 by the Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department in three contrasting waters of HK with different prevailing hydrodynamic processes. The western, eastern, and southern waters were mainly dominated by nutrient-replete Pearl River discharge, the nutrient-poor coastal/shelf oceanic waters, and mixtures of estuarine and coastal seawater and sewage effluent of Hong Kong, respectively. Acting in response, the water quality in these three contrasting areas showed apparently spatial–temporal variation pattern. Nutrients usually decreased along western waters to eastern waters. In the dry season, the water column was strongly mixed by monsoon winds and tidal currents, which resulted in relatively low Chl-a (4 mg l(−1)), suggesting that mixing enhanced the buffering capacity of eutrophication in HK waters. However, in the wet season, surface Chl-a was generally >10 μg l(−1) in southern waters in summer due to halocline and thermohaline stratification, adequate nutrients, and light availability. Although summer hypoxia (DO waters induced by vertical stratification, the eutrophication impacts in HK waters were not as severe as expected owing to P limitation and short water residence time in the wet season.