WorldWideScience

Sample records for water softening

  1. Water Softeners: How Much Sodium Do They Add?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... softened water, you may want to consider a water-purification system that uses potassium chloride instead. Another option is to soften only the hot water and use unsoftened cold water for drinking and ...

  2. Enzyme catalyzed electricity-driven water softening system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arugula, Mary A; Brastad, Kristen S; Minteer, Shelley D; He, Zhen

    2012-12-10

    Hardness in water, which is caused by divalent cations such as calcium and magnesium ions, presents a major water quality problem. Because hard water must be softened before use in residential applications, there is great interest in the saltless water softening process because, unlike ion exchange softeners, it does not introduce additional ions into water. In this study, a saltless hardness removal driven by bioelectrochemical energy produced through enzymatic oxidation of glucose was proposed and investigated. Glucose dehydrogenase was coated on a carbon electrode to catalyze glucose oxidation in the presence of NAD⁺ as a cofactor/mediator and methylene green as an electrocatalyst. The results showed that electricity generation stimulated hardness removal compared with non-electricity conditions. The enzymatic water softener worked upon a 6h batch operation per day for eight days, and achieved an average hardness removal of 46% at a high initial concentration of 800 mg/L as CaCO₃. More hardness was removed at a lower initial concentration. For instance, at 200mg/L as CaCO₃ the enzymatic water softener removed 76.4±4.6% of total hardness. The presence of magnesium ions decreased hardness removal because of its larger hydrated radius than calcium ions. The enzymatic water softener removed 70-80% of total hardness from three actual hard water samples. These results demonstrated a proof-of-concept that enzyme catalyzed electricity generation can be used to soften hard water.

  3. REMOVAL OF BERYLLIUM FROM DRINKING WATER BY CHEMICAL COAGULATION AND LIME SOFTENING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effectiveness of conventional drinking water treatment and lime softening was evaluated for beryllium removal from two drinking water sources. ar test studies were conducted to determine how common coagulants (aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride and lime softening performed ...

  4. Life cycle assessment of central softening of very hard drinking water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godskesen, Berit; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Rygaard, Martin;

    2012-01-01

    Many consumers prefer softened water due to convenience issues such as avoidance of removing limescale deposits from household appliances and surfaces, and to reduce consumption of cleaning agents and laundry detergents leading to lower household expenses. Even though central softening of drinking...... water from the initial hardness of the region of study (Copenhagen, Denmark) which is 362 mg/L as CaCO(3) to a final hardness as CaCO(3) of 254 (a softening depth of 108) mg/L or 145 (a softening depth of 217) mg/L. Our study showed that the consumer preference can be met together with reducing...... Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to quantify the environmental impacts of central softening of drinking water considering both the negative effects at the waterworks and the positive effects imposed by the changed water quality in the households. The LCA modeling considered central softening of drinking...

  5. Cost-benefit analysis of central softening for production of drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Bruggen, B; Goossens, H; Everard, P A; Stemgée, K; Rogge, W

    2009-01-01

    Softening drinking water before distribution yields advantages with environmental impact, such as lower household products consumption, less scaling in piping and machines, and the avoidance of decentralized, domestic softeners. Central softening is under consideration in Flanders by the largest water supplier, VMW (Dutch acronym for "Flemish Company for Water Supply"), to deliver soft (15 degrees F) water to their customers. A case study is presented for a region with hard water (47 degrees F). The chosen technique is the pellet reactor, based on precipitation of CaCO(3) by NaOH addition. This softening operation has possibly large impact on the environment and the water consumption pattern. A cost-benefit analysis has been made to estimate the added value of central softening, by investigating the impact on the drinking water company, on their customers, on employment, on environment, on health, etc. The analysis for the region of study revealed benefits for customers which were higher than the costs for the drinking water company. However, pricing of drinking water remains an important problem. A sensitivity analysis of these results has also been made, to evaluate the impact of important hypothesis, and to be able to expand this study to other regions. The conclusions for this part show that softening is beneficial if water hardness is to be decreased by at least 5 degrees F.

  6. Life cycle assessment of central softening of very hard drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godskesen, B; Hauschild, M; Rygaard, M; Zambrano, K; Albrechtsen, H-J

    2012-08-30

    Many consumers prefer softened water due to convenience issues such as avoidance of removing limescale deposits from household appliances and surfaces, and to reduce consumption of cleaning agents and laundry detergents leading to lower household expenses. Even though central softening of drinking water entailed an increased use of energy, sand and chemicals at the waterworks, the distributed and softened drinking water supported a decrease in consumption of energy and chemical agents in the households along with a prolonged service life of household appliances which heat water. This study used Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to quantify the environmental impacts of central softening of drinking water considering both the negative effects at the waterworks and the positive effects imposed by the changed water quality in the households. The LCA modeling considered central softening of drinking water from the initial hardness of the region of study (Copenhagen, Denmark) which is 362 mg/L as CaCO(3) to a final hardness as CaCO(3) of 254 (a softening depth of 108) mg/L or 145 (a softening depth of 217) mg/L. Our study showed that the consumer preference can be met together with reducing the impact on the environment and the resource consumption. Environmental impacts decreased by up to 3 mPET (milli Personal Equivalent Targeted) and the break-even point from where central softening becomes environmentally beneficial was reached at a softening depth of only 22 mg/L as CaCO(3). Both energy-related and chemically related environmental impacts were reduced as well as the consumption of resources. Based on scarcity criteria, nickel was identified as the most problematic non-renewable resource in the system, and savings of up to 8 mPR (milli Person Reserve) were found.

  7. The Softening of Hard Water and Complexometric Titrations. An Undergraduate Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceretti, Helena; Hughes, Enrique A.; Zalts, Anita

    1999-10-01

    A 2-hour experiment for undergraduates is presented in which (i) water hardness is explained and demonstrated; (ii) ion-exchange resin properties are visually demonstrated and then used for softening water; (iii) complexometric titrations are used for evaluating water hardness before and after softening; and (iv) acid-base titration can be used to show that the Ca/Mg ions removed by the ion exchanger are replaced by H ions.

  8. A novel eco-friendly technique for efficient control of lime water softening process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostovar, Mohamad; Amiri, Mohamad

    2013-12-01

    Lime softening is an established type of water treatment used for water softening. The performance of this process is highly dependent on lime dosage. Currently, lime dosage is adjusted manually based on chemical tests, aimed at maintaining the phenolphthalein (P) and total (M) alkalinities within a certain range (2 P - M > or = 5). In this paper, a critical study of the softening process has been presented. It has been shown that the current method is frequently incorrect. Furthermore, electrical conductivity (EC) has been introduced as a novel indicator for effectively characterizing the lime softening process.This novel technique has several advantages over the current alkalinities method. Because no chemical reagents are needed for titration, which is a simple test, there is a considerable reduction in test costs. Additionally, there is a reduction in the treated water hardness and generated sludge during the lime softening process. Therefore, it is highly eco-friendly, and is a very cost effective alternative technique for efficient control of the lime softening process.

  9. Heterotrophic plate count and consumer's health under special consideration of water softeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambsch, Beate; Sacré, Clara; Wagner, Ivo

    2004-05-01

    The phenomenon of bacterial growth in water softeners is well known since years. To upgrade the hygienic safety of water softeners, the German DIN Standard 19636 was developed, to assure that the distribution system could not be contaminated by these devices and that the drinking water to be used in the household still meets the microbiological standards according to the German drinking water guidelines, i.e. among others heterotrophic plate count (HPC) below 100 CFU/ml. Moreover, the standard for the water softeners includes a test for contamination with Pseudomonas aeruginosa which has to be disinfected during the regeneration phase. This is possible by sanitizing the resin bed during regeneration by producing chlorine. The results of the last 10 years of tests of water softeners according to DIN 19636 showed that it is possible to produce water softeners that comply with that standard. Approximately 60% of the tested models were accepted. P. aeruginosa is used as an indicator for potentially pathogenic bacteria being able to grow also in low nutrient conditions which normally prevail in drinking water. Like other heterotrophs, the numbers of P. aeruginosa increase rapidly as stagnation occurs. Normally P. aeruginosa is not present in the distributed drinking water. However, under certain conditions, P. aeruginosa can be introduced into the drinking water distribution system, for instance, during construction work. The occurrence of P. aeruginosa is shown in different cases in treatment plants, public drinking water systems and in-house installations. The compliance with DIN 19636 provides assurance that a water softener will not be a constant source of contamination, even if it is once inoculated with a potentially pathogenic bacterium like P. aeruginosa.

  10. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY COAGULATION/FILTRATION AND LIME SOFTENING PLANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents a long term performance (one year) study of 3 water treatment plants to remove arsenic from drinking water sources. The 3 plants consisted of 2 conventional coagulation/filtration plants and 1 lime softening plant. The study involved the collecting of weekly...

  11. Bacterial Colonization of Pellet Softening Reactors Used during Drinking Water Treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammes, F.; Boon, N.; Vital, M.; Ross, P.; Magic-Knezev, A.; Dignum, M.

    2010-01-01

    Pellet softening reactors are used in centralized and decentralized drinking water treatment plants for the removal of calcium (hardness) through chemically induced precipitation of calcite. This is accomplished in fluidized pellet reactors, where a strong base is added to the influent to increase t

  12. Effects of water re-saturation conditions and associated extractives leaching on thermal softening of wet wood

    OpenAIRE

    BREMAUD, Iris; Bardet, Sandrine; Gril, Joseph; Perré, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Thermal softening, or thermo-activated viscoelasticity, is involved in several industrial and/or traditional craftsmanship techniques processing of wood. More fundamentally, it represents a very useful probe of chemical differences and/or of physical histories of wood samples [1,2,3,4,5]. Thermal softening of wet (= water-saturated) wood occurs at much lower temperature than that of completely (anhydrous) dried wood [6,7]. Softening of oven-dry wood happens at temperat...

  13. Hard water softening effect of a baby cleanser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walters RM

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Russel M Walters, Emmanuel Anim-Danso, Stephanie M Amato, Kimberly A Capone, M Catherine Mack, Lorena S Telofski, David A Mays Skin Care Research & Development, Johnson & Johnson Consumer Inc., Skillman, NJ, USA Background: Hard water is associated with atopic dermatitis (eczema. We wanted to determine if a baby cleanser and its individual components altered free ionized calcium (Ca2+ in a simulated hard water baby bath. For these studies, an in vitro determination of free Ca2+ in a simulated hard water baby bath, and an in vivo exploratory study of free Ca2+ absorption into skin from hard water were performed.Methods: Free Ca2+ was measured with an ion-sensitive electrode in vitro in hard water (100–500 ppm, Ca2+ before and after addition of the cleanser and/or its components. In an exploratory study, absorption of Ca2+ into skin from hard water was determined in three female participants (aged 21–29 years.Results: At an in-use dilution of 1%, the test cleanser reduced free Ca2+ from ~500 ppm to <200 ppm; a 10% in-use dilution bound virtually all free Ca2+. The anionic surfactant component contributed the most to this effect. In the exploratory in vivo study, we measured a reduction of ~15% in free Ca2+ from simulated hard water over 10 minutes.Conclusion: Baby cleansers can bind free Ca2+ and reduce the effective water hardness of bath water. Reducing the amount of free Ca2+ in the water will reduce the availability of the ion for binding to the skin. Altering or reducing free Ca2+ concentrations in bath water may be an important parameter in creating the ideal baby bath. Keywords: bath, cleanser, hard water, infant, neonate, surfactant

  14. USE OF NATURAL ZEOLITES (KLINOPTILOLIT IN WATER SOFTENING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurdanur SABAH

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the potential for the elimination of hardness of the water by using zeolitic tuff (klinoptilolit obtained from the upper layer tuff of Balıkesir-Bigadiç, where the richest deposits are located in our country, has been investigated; as a means of water supply, daily usage water of campus, Selçuk University, was utilized to wich none of the pre-refining process was applied apart from chloring. At first, zeolite samples of -0.85+0.60 mm were regenerated by NaOH and the change in the hardness of water passing through zeolitic bad in ion exchange column at a constant rate was abserved. After optimizing the regeneration conditions in this way, the effect of the velocity of water fed into zeolitic bad and the water left in the column on the elimination of water hardness were also searched. As a result, the lowest value of water hardness was obtained by taking the water feeding rates at 10 ml/sec. and using zeolite regenerated with 0.75 M NaOH. Additionally, it was seen that the highest working capacity will be reached under these circumstances.

  15. Hard water softening effect of a baby cleanser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Russel M; Anim-Danso, Emmanuel; Amato, Stephanie M; Capone, Kimberly A; Mack, M Catherine; Telofski, Lorena S; Mays, David A

    2016-01-01

    Background Hard water is associated with atopic dermatitis (eczema). We wanted to determine if a baby cleanser and its individual components altered free ionized calcium (Ca2+) in a simulated hard water baby bath. For these studies, an in vitro determination of free Ca2+ in a simulated hard water baby bath, and an in vivo exploratory study of free Ca2+ absorption into skin from hard water were performed. Methods Free Ca2+ was measured with an ion-sensitive electrode in vitro in hard water (100–500 ppm, Ca2+) before and after addition of the cleanser and/or its components. In an exploratory study, absorption of Ca2+ into skin from hard water was determined in three female participants (aged 21–29 years). Results At an in-use dilution of 1%, the test cleanser reduced free Ca2+ from ~500 ppm to <200 ppm; a 10% in-use dilution bound virtually all free Ca2+. The anionic surfactant component contributed the most to this effect. In the exploratory in vivo study, we measured a reduction of ~15% in free Ca2+ from simulated hard water over 10 minutes. Conclusion Baby cleansers can bind free Ca2+ and reduce the effective water hardness of bath water. Reducing the amount of free Ca2+ in the water will reduce the availability of the ion for binding to the skin. Altering or reducing free Ca2+ concentrations in bath water may be an important parameter in creating the ideal baby bath. PMID:27789967

  16. Water softening by induced crystallization in fluidized bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuefang; Fan, Rong; An, Danfeng; Cheng, Yujie; Tan, Hazel

    2016-12-01

    Fluidized bed and induced crystallization technology were combined to design a new type of induced crystallization fluidized bed reactor. The added particulate matter served as crystal nucleus to induce crystallization so that the insoluble material, which was in a saturated state, could precipitate on its surface. In this study, by filling the fluidized bed with quartz sand and by adjusting water pH, precipitation of calcium carbonate was induced on the surface of quartz sand, and the removal of water hardness was achieved. With a reactor influent flow of 60L/hr, a fixed-bed height of 0.5m, pH value of 9.5, quartz sand nuclear diameter of 0.2-0.4mm, and a reflux ratio of 60%, the effluent concentration of calcium hardness was reduced to 60mg/L and 86.6% removal efficiency was achieved. The resulting effluent reached the quality standard set for circulating cooling water. Majority of the material on the surface of quartz sand was calculated to be calcium carbonate based on energy spectrum analysis and moisture content was around 15.994%. With the low moisture content, dewatering treatment is no longer required and this results to cost savings on total water treatment process.

  17. Electrochemical Ion-Exchange Regeneration and Fluidized Bed Crystallization for Zero-Liquid-Discharge Water Softening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yingying; Davis, Jake R; Nguyen, Chi H; Baygents, James C; Farrell, James

    2016-06-01

    This research investigated the use of an electrochemical system for regenerating ion-exchange media and for promoting the crystallization of hardness minerals in a fluidized bed crystallization reactor (FBCR). The closed-loop process eliminates the creation of waste brine solutions that are normally produced when regenerating ion-exchange media. A bipolar membrane electrodialysis stack was used to generate acids and bases from 100 mM salt solutions. The acid was used to regenerate weak acid cation (WAC) ion-exchange media used for water softening. The base solutions were used to absorb CO2 gas and to provide a source of alkalinity for removing noncarbonate hardness by WAC media operated in H(+) form. The base solutions were also used to promote the crystallization of CaCO3 and Mg(OH)2 in a FBCR. The overall process removes hardness ions from the water being softened and replaces them with H(+) ions, slightly decreasing the pH value of the softened water. The current utilization efficiency for acid and base production was ∼75% over the operational range of interest, and the energy costs for producing acids and bases were an order of magnitude lower than the costs for purchasing acid and base in bulk quantities. Ion balances indicate that the closed-loop system will accumulate SO4(2-), Cl(-), and alkali metal ions. Acid and base balances indicate that for a typical water, small amounts of base will be accumulated.

  18. Synthetic Musk Fragrances in a Conventional Drinking Water Treatment Plant with Lime Softening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wombacher, William D; Hornbuckle, Keri C

    2009-11-01

    Synthetic musk fragrances are common personal care product additives and wastewater contaminants that are routinely detected in the environment. This study examines the presence eight synthetic musk fragrances (AHTN, HHCB, ATII, ADBI, AHMI, musk xylene, and musk ketone) in source water and the removal of these compounds as they flow through a Midwestern conventional drinking water plant with lime softening. The compounds were measured in water, waste sludge, and air throughout the plant. HHCB and AHTN were detected in 100% of the samples and at the highest concentrations. A mass balance on HHCB and AHTN was performed under warm and cold weather conditions. The total removal efficiency for HHCB and AHTN, which averaged between 67% to 89%, is dominated by adsorption to water softener sludge and its consequent removal by sludge wasting and media filtration. Volatilization, chlorine disinfection, and the disposal of backwash water play a minor role in the removal of both compounds. As a result of inefficient overall removal, HHCB and AHTN are a constant presence at low levels in finished drinking water.

  19. Natural clinoptilolite composite membranes on tubular stainless steel supports for water softening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamaref, Solmaz; An, Weizhu; Jarligo, Maria Ophelia; Kuznicki, Tetyana; Kuznicki, Steven M

    2014-01-01

    Disk membranes generated from high-purity natural clinoptilolite mineral rock have shown promising water desalination and de-oiling performance. In order to scale up production of these types of membranes for industrial wastewater treatment applications, a coating strategy was devised. A composite mixture of natural clinoptilolite from St. Cloud (Winston, NM, USA) and aluminum phosphate was deposited on the inner surface of porous stainless steel tubes by the slip casting technique. The commercial porous stainless steel tubes were pre-coated with a TiO2 layer of about 10 μm. Phase composition and morphology of the coating materials were investigated using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Water softening performance of the fabricated membranes was evaluated using Edmonton (Alberta, Canada) municipal tap water as feed source. Preliminary experimental results show a high water flux of 7.7 kg/(m(2) h) and 75% reduction of hardness and conductivity in a once-through membrane process at 95 °C and feed pressure of 780 kPa. These results show that natural zeolite coated, stainless steel tubular membranes have high potential for large-scale purification of oil sands steam-assisted gravity drainage water at high temperature and pressure requirements.

  20. Biocompatible water softening system using cationic protein from moringa oleifera extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisha, R. R.; Jegathambal, P.; Parameswari, K.; Kirupa, K.

    2017-07-01

    In developing countries like India, the deciding factors for the selection of the specific water purification system are the flow rate, cost of implementation and maintenance, availability of materials for fabrication or assembling, technical manpower, energy requirement and reliability. But most of them are energy and cost intensive which necessitate the development of cost-effective water purification system. In this study, the feasibility of development of an efficient and cost-effective water purifier using Moringa oleifera cationic protein coated sand column to treat drinking water is presented. Moringa oleifera seeds contain cationic antimicrobial protein which acts as biocoagulant in the removal of turbidity and also aids in water softening. The main disadvantage of using Moringa seeds in water purification is that the dissolved organic matter (DOM) which is left over in the water contributes to growth of any pathogens that come into contact with the stored water. To overcome this limitation, the Moringa oleifera cationic protein coated sand (MOCP c-sand) is prepared in which the flocculant and antimicrobial properties of the MOCP are maintained and the DOM to be rinsed away. The efficiency of MOCP c-sand in removing suspended particles and reducing total hardness (TH), chloride, total dissolved solids (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC) was also studied. Also, it is shown that the functionalized sand showed the same treatment efficiency even after being stored dry and in dehydrated condition for 3 months. This confirms MOCP c-sand's potential as a locally sustainable water treatment option for developing countries since other chemicals used in water purification are expensive.

  1. Model-based prediction of fluid bed state in full-scale drinking water pellet softening reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, O.; Jobse, M.A.; Baars, E.T.; van der Helm, A.W.C.; Colin, M.G.; Kors, L...J...; van Vugt, W.H.

    2015-01-01

    Softening at drinking water treatment plants is often realised by fluidised bed pellet reactors. Generally, sand is used as seeding material and pellets are produced as a by-product. To improve to sustainability, research has been carried out to replace the seeding material by re-using grained and s

  2. Development of cellulose-polypyrrole microfiber membranes and assessment of their capability on water softening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, C.; Arrieta, A.; Escobar, N.; Gañan, P.; Castro, C.

    2013-11-01

    The application of conducting polymer composite for water softening is based on the use of pyrrole's electrochemical properties joined with the flexibility and relatively high surface areas associated with cellulose fibers, to develop a new hybrid material that exhibits the inherent proprieties of both components. This hybrid would allow to promote an ion exchange reaction between the composite membrane and the hard water. The cellulose membranes obtained from banana plant agricultural waste (raquis), were uniform with individual and well separated fibers. The fibers were encapsulated by a continuous coating of polypyrrole by an in situ oxidative chemical polymerization. The amount of polypyrrole deposited on the fiber increased by increasing the monomer concentration, behavior that was identified through the observation of differences on the intensity of the light to dark color shift that coated the fibers after the polymerization. The ion removal capability of the membrane coted with the conducting polymer was tested using an experimental device, finding reductions on the conductivity for hard water within 23 to 66 μs/cm after 6 hours of the assay.

  3. Positively charged and bipolar layered poly(ether imide) nanofiltration membranes for water softening applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassara, S.; Abdelkafi, A.; Quémener, D.; Amar, R. Ben; Deratani, A.

    2015-07-01

    Poly(ether imide) (PEI) ultrafiltration membranes were chemically modified with branched poly(ethyleneimine) to obtain nanofiltration (NF) membrane Cat PEI with a positive charge in the pH range below 9. An oppositely charged polyelectrolyte layer was deposited on the resulting membrane surface by using sodium polystyrene sulfonate (PSSNa) and sodium polyvinyl sulfonate (PVSNa) to prepare a bipolar layered membrane NF Cat PEI_PSS and Cat PEI_PVS having a negatively charged surface and positively charged pores. Cat PEI exhibited good performance to remove multivalent cations (more than 90% of Ca2+) from single salt solutions except in presence of sulfate ions. Adding an anionic polyelectrolyte layer onto the positively charged surface resulted in a significant enhancement of rejection performance even in presence of sulfate anions. Application of the prepared membranes in water softening of natural complex mixtures was successful for the different studied membranes and a large decrease of hardness was obtained. Moreover, Cat PEI_PSS showed a good selectivity for nitrate removal. Fouling experiments were carried out with bovine serum albumin, as model protein foulant. Cat PEI_PSS showed much better fouling resistance than Cat PEI with a quantitative flux recovery ratio.

  4. A randomised controlled trial of ion-exchange water softeners for the treatment of eczema in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim S Thomas

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies and anecdotal reports suggest a possible link between household use of hard water and atopic eczema. We sought to test whether installation of an ion-exchange water softener in the home can improve eczema in children.This was an observer-blind randomised trial involving 336 children (aged 6 months to 16 years with moderate/severe atopic eczema. All lived in hard water areas (≥200 mg/l calcium carbonate. Participants were randomised to either installation of an ion-exchange water softener plus usual eczema care, or usual eczema care alone. The primary outcome was change in eczema severity (Six Area Six Sign Atopic Dermatitis Score, SASSAD at 12 weeks, measured by research nurses who were blinded to treatment allocation. Analysis was based on the intent-to-treat population. Eczema severity improved for both groups during the trial. The mean change in SASSAD at 12 weeks was -5.0 (20% improvement for the water softener group and -5.7 (22% improvement for the usual care group (mean difference 0.66, 95% confidence interval -1.37 to 2.69, p = 0.53. No between-group differences were noted in the use of topical corticosteroids or calcineurin inhibitors.Water softeners provided no additional benefit to usual care in this study population. Small but statistically significant differences were found in some secondary outcomes as reported by parents, but it is likely that such improvements were the result of response bias, since participants were aware of their treatment allocation. A detailed report for this trial is also available at http://www.hta.ac.uk.Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN71423189 Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  5. Circular economy in drinking water treatment: reuse of ground pellets as seeding material in the pellet softening process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schetters, M J A; van der Hoek, J P; Kramer, O J I; Kors, L J; Palmen, L J; Hofs, B; Koppers, H

    2015-01-01

    Calcium carbonate pellets are produced as a by-product in the pellet softening process. In the Netherlands, these pellets are applied as a raw material in several industrial and agricultural processes. The sand grain inside the pellet hinders the application in some high-potential market segments such as paper and glass. Substitution of the sand grain with a calcite grain (100% calcium carbonate) is in principle possible, and could significantly improve the pellet quality. In this study, the grinding and sieving of pellets, and the subsequent reuse as seeding material in pellet softening were tested with two pilot reactors in parallel. In one reactor, garnet sand was used as seeding material, in the other ground calcite. Garnet sand and ground calcite performed equally well. An economic comparison and a life-cycle assessment were made as well. The results show that the reuse of ground calcite as seeding material in pellet softening is technologically possible, reduces the operational costs by €38,000 (1%) and reduces the environmental impact by 5%. Therefore, at the drinking water facility, Weesperkarspel of Waternet, the transition from garnet sand to ground calcite will be made at full scale, based on this pilot plant research.

  6. [Adsorption of calcium ion from aqueous solution using Na(+)-conditioned clinoptilolite for hot-water softening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuo; Wang, Dong; Chen, Yuan-Chao; Zhang, Xing-Wen; Chen, Gui-Jun

    2015-02-01

    This work investigated adsorptive removal of calcium ion (Ca2+) by virtue of Na(+) -conditioned clinoptilolite simulating the process of softening for industrial hot-water system. Influential factors such as the activation/regeneration of sorbent and solution pH were tested. The kinetics/thermodynamics for adsorption of Ca2+ were analyzed and discussed. Results showed that: (1) The adsorption rate was in good agreement with the pseudo-second order kinetic models, and the process of adsorption better followed the Langmuir model; (2) Higher solution temperature allowed an enhanced efficiency on Ca2+ removal, albeit the maximum adsorption capacity of Na(+)-conditioned clinoptilolite was hardly affected; (3) The process of adsorption was dominated by chemisorption, and also characterized by entropy increase with spontaneous/endothermic nature; (4) Solution temperature was suggested to be controlled within the range of 6 to 10, and more than 9 times of sorbent regeneration could be ensured for an effective adsorption towards Ca2+ with initial concentration less than 20 mg x L(-1). It was demonstrated that the activated clinoptilolite should be a promising alternative adsorbent for industrial hot-water softening.

  7. Effect of water treatment additives on lime softening residual trace chemical composition--implications for disposal and reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Weizhi; Roessler, Justin; Blaisi, Nawaf I; Townsend, Timothy G

    2014-12-01

    Drinking water treatment residues (WTR) offer potential benefits when recycled through land application. The current guidance in Florida, US allows for unrestricted land application of lime softening WTR; alum and ferric WTR require additional evaluation of total and leachable concentrations of select trace metals prior to land application. In some cases a mixed WTR is produced when lime softening is accompanied by the addition of a coagulant or other treatment chemical; applicability of the current guidance is unclear. The objective of this research was to characterize the total and leachable chemical content of WTR from Florida facilities that utilize multiple treatment chemicals. Lime and mixed lime WTR samples were collected from 18 water treatment facilities in Florida. Total and leachable concentrations of the WTR were measured. To assess the potential for disposal of mixed WTR as clean fill below the water table, leaching tests were conducted at multiple liquid to solid ratios and under reducing conditions. The results were compared to risk-based soil and groundwater contamination thresholds. Total metal concentrations of WTR were found to be below Florida soil contaminant thresholds with Fe found in the highest abundance at a concentration of 3600 mg/kg-dry. Aluminum was the only element that exceeded the Florida groundwater contaminant thresholds using SPLP (95% UCL = 0.23 mg/L; risk threshold = 0.2 mg/L). Tests under reducing conditions showed elevated concentrations of Fe and Mn, ranging from 1 to 3 orders of magnitude higher than SPLP leachates. Mixed lime WTR concentrations (total and leachable) were lower than the ferric and alum WTR concentrations, supporting that mixed WTR are appropriately represented as lime WTR. Testing of WTR under reducing conditions demonstrated the potential for release of certain trace metals (Fe, Al, Mn) above applicable regulatory thresholds; additional evaluation is needed to assess management options where

  8. A clinoptilolite-PDMS mixed-matrix membrane for high temperature water softening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanbakhsh, Farzad; Alizadehgiashi, Moien; Sawada, James A; Kuznicki, Steven M

    2016-01-01

    A mixed-matrix membrane composed of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) as the continuous phase and clinoptilolite, a naturally occurring zeolite, as the active phase has been used to decrease the conductivity of water by more than 80% across the membrane. Testing was carried out using a cross-flow configuration at temperatures as high as 160 °C using a constant transmembrane pressure of 8 bar. The simple fabrication method for the membrane, the durability of the system under the test conditions, and a suitable flux rate make such membranes promising candidates for industrial wastewater treatment.

  9. Removal of Strontium from Drinking Water by Conventional Treatment and Lime Softening in Bench-Scale Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency Contaminant Candidate List 3 lists strontium as a contaminant for potential regulatory consideration in drinking water. There is very little data available on strontium removal from drinking water. As a result, there is an immedia...

  10. Characterizing and Exploring the Formation Mechanism of Salt Deposition by Reusing Advanced-softened, Silica-rich, Oilfield-produced Water (ASOW) in Superheated Steam Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Bin; Xu, Ying; Lin, Senmin; Dai, Xiaohu

    2015-11-01

    To dispose of large volumes of oilfield-produced water, an environmentally friendly method that reuses advanced-softened, silica-rich, oilfield-produced water (ASOW) as feedwater was implemented via a 10-month pilot-scale test in oilfield. However, salt deposition detrimental to the efficiency and security of steam injection system was generated in superheated steam pipeline. To evaluate the method, the characteristics and formation mechanism of the deposition were explored. The silicon content and total hardness of the ASOW were 272.20 mg/L and 0.018 mg/L, respectively. Morphology and composition of the deposition were determined by scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS), inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), laser Raman spectroscopy (LRS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Na2Si2O5, Na2CO3 and trace silanes were identified in the deposition. In addition, the solubility of the deposition was about 99%, suggesting that it is very different from traditional scaling. The results of a simulation experiment and thermal analysis system (TGA and TG-FTIR) proved that Na2CO3 and Si(OH)4 (gas) are involved in the formation of Na2Si2O5, which is ascribed mainly to the temperature difference between the superheated steam and the pipe wall. These findings provide an important reference for improving the reuse of ASOW and reducing its deposition.

  11. Formation of Aluminum Containing Solids in Drinking Water: Influence on Pb/Cu Corrosion, Al Solubility and Enhanced Softening

    OpenAIRE

    Kvech, Steven Joseph

    2001-01-01

    Aluminum salts are used as the primary coagulants in the majority of United States drinking water treatment plants. Despite decades of practical experience, there are important knowledge gaps regarding the effects of residual Al on distribution system materials as well as specific types of solids formed. The first phase of this work examined the formation of aluminosilicate deposits in copper and lead pipes using water from Denver, Colorado. It was anticipated was that these de...

  12. Arsenic removal by lime softening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaosol, T.; Suksaroj, C.; Bregnhøj, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    This paper focuses on the study of arsenic removal for drinking water by lime softening. The initial arsenic (V) concentration was 500 and 1,000 ug/L in synthetic groundwater. The experiments were performed as batch tests with varying lime dosages and mixing time. For the synthetic groundwater......, arsenic (V) removal increased with increasing lime dosage and mixing time, as well as with the resulting pH. The residual arsenic (V) in all cases was lower than the WHO guideline of 10 ug/L at pH higher than 11.5. Kinetic of arsenic (V) removal can be described by a first-order equation as C1 = C0*e......^-k*t. The relation between the constant (k value) and increasing lime dosage was found to be linear, described by k = 0.0034 (Dlime). The results support a theory from the literature that the arsenic (V) was removed by precipitation af Ca3(AsO4)2. The results obtained in the present study suggest that lime...

  13. On softened water reverse osmosis centralized control scheme and common defect analysis%软化水反渗透系统集控方案及常见故障分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琦

    2015-01-01

    介绍了软化水反渗透系统的主要包含部分及功能,着重对该系统常见的故障进行了原因分析,主要有RO增压泵不工作、计量泵不工作、反渗透产水量下降等问题,以制定出有效的解决措施,保证系统的正常运行。%The paper introduces the main parts and functions of the softened water reverse osmosis system,analyzes reasons for common defects of the system,including the insufficiency in the RO booster pump and metering pump,and lower water yield of the reverse osmosis,so as to make the effective solutions and ensure the common operation of the system.

  14. Alloy softening in binary iron solid solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, J. R.; Witzke, W. R.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine softening and hardening behavior in 19 binary iron-alloy systems. Microhardness tests were conducted at four temperatures in the range 77 to 411 K. Alloy softening was exhibited by 17 of the 19 alloy systems. Alloy softening observed in 15 of the alloy systems was attributed to an intrinsic mechanism, believed to be lowering of the Peierls (lattice friction) stress. Softening and hardening rates could be correlated with the atomic radius ratio of solute to iron. Softening observed in two other systems was attributed to an extrinsic mechanism, believed to be associated with scavenging of interstitial impurities.

  15. Softening property of poly (acrylic acid-co-acrylamide)superabsorbent resin to hard water%聚丙烯酸-丙烯酰胺高吸水树脂对硬水的软化性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈曙; 余响林

    2013-01-01

    针对水中含有过多二价阳离子如钙离子等而使水质硬度较高的问题,使用丙烯酸、丙烯酰胺单体为主要原料,采用水溶液聚合法合成了具有三维网络结构和较高吸附能力的丙烯酸-丙烯酰胺高吸水树脂,然后用其做为硬水软化剂,对人工配置的浓度为3 mmol/L的人工硬水进行吸附处理,研究了丙烯酸-丙烯酰胺高吸水树脂对人工硬水中所含钙离子的吸附能力.实验结果表明:所合成的丙烯酸-丙烯酰胺高吸水树脂对钙离子的最大吸附量为108 mg/g,随着树脂用量的逐渐增加,树脂对钙离子的吸附率不断增大,最大吸附率可达76.2%以上.该方法原料来源广泛,生产过程中不产生污染,可给硬水软化提供一个新的技术参考思路.%Divalent cations such as calcium ions in water can cause a certain hardness. A novel super-absorbent polymer with three-dimensional network and strong adsorption capacity was prepared by water solution copolymerization of acrylic acid (AA) and acrylic amide (AM). The resin was chosen as the adsorbent to remove hardness from hard water samples as 3 mmol/L as calcium ion. The removal property was assessed by investigating treatment of hard water with different amount of poly (acrylic acid) resin. The results show that the maximum adsorption amount of the resin is 108 mg/g, the adsorption rate of the resin increases with the increase of the amount of resin. The resin generally removes more than 76. 2% of the calcium ion from the tested water samples. This method provides water softening with a new techuplogy reference due to its widely resource and environment-friendly property.

  16. Pregnancy Constipation: Are Stool Softeners Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Pregnancy week by week Is it safe to take stool softeners to treat pregnancy constipation? Answers from Roger ... 2014 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/pregnancy-week-by-week/expert-answers/pregnancy-constipation/faq- ...

  17. Viscosity anomaly in core-softened liquids

    OpenAIRE

    Fomin, Yu. D.; Ryzhov, V. N.

    2013-01-01

    The present article presents a molecular dynamics study of several anomalies of core-softened systems. It is well known that many core-softened liquids demonstrate diffusion anomaly. Usual intuition relates the diffusion coefficient to shear viscosity via Stockes-Einstein relation. However, it can break down at low temperature. In this respect it is important to see if viscosity also demonstrates anomalous behavior.

  18. Precipitation softening: a pretreatment process for seawater desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoub, George M; Zayyat, Ramez M; Al-Hindi, Mahmoud

    2014-02-01

    Reduction of membrane fouling in reverse osmosis systems and elimination of scaling of heat transfer surfaces in thermal plants are a major challenge in the desalination of seawater. Precipitation softening has the potential of eliminating the major fouling and scaling species in seawater desalination plants, thus allowing thermal plants to operate at higher top brine temperatures and membrane plants to operate at a reduced risk of fouling, leading to lower desalinated water costs. This work evaluated the use of precipitation softening as a pretreatment step for seawater desalination. The effectiveness of the process in removing several scale-inducing materials such as calcium, magnesium, silica, and boron was investigated under variable conditions of temperature and pH. The treatment process was also applied to seawater spiked with other known fouling species such as iron and bacteria to determine the efficiency of removal. The results of this work show that precipitation softening at a pH of 11 leads to complete elimination of calcium, silica, and bacteria; to very high removal efficiencies of magnesium and iron (99.6 and 99.2 %, respectively); and to a reasonably good removal efficiency of boron (61 %).

  19. Softening and elution of monomers in ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Asmussen, Erik; Munksgaard, E Christian;

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of light-curing protocol on softening and elution of monomers in ethanol as measured on a model polymer. It was a further aim to correlate the measured values with previously reported data on degree of conversion and glass transition tempera...

  20. Multi-scale modeling of softening materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lloberas Valls, O.; Simone, A.; Sluys, L.J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of a two-scale framework for the study of softening materials. The procedure is based on a hierarchical Finite Element (FE) scheme in which computations are performed both at macro and mesoscopic scale levels. The methodology is chosen specifically to remain valid

  1. Fracture Mechanics of an Elastic Softening Material like Concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhardt, H.W.

    1984-01-01

    Concrete is modelled as a linear elastic softening material and introduced into fracture mechanics. A discrete crack is considered with softening zones at the crack tips. Following the approach of Dugdale/Barenblatt, closing stresses are applied to the crack faces in the softening zone. The stresses

  2. Effect of potential remineralizing agents on acid softened enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turssi, Cecilia P; Maeda, Fernando A; Messias, Danielle C F; Neto, Francisco C Rehder; Serra, Mônica C; Galafassi, Daniel

    2011-06-01

    To assess whether pastes containing casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) and calcium sodium phosphosilicate (CSP) protect acid softened enamel against further erosive episodes. Enamel slabs of bovine teeth with preformed erosion-like lesions were randomly assigned to five treatment groups (n = 15): A) CPP-ACP (MI Paste, GC America); B) CPP-ACP+Fluoride (CPP-ACP+F, MI Plus Paste, GC America); C) CSP (Tooth Revitalizing Paste, Oravive); D) fluoridated dentifrice (FD, Sensodyne Cool Gel, GSK); E) control (CO, unexposed to any product). Paste treatments (1:3 slurry in deionized water or undiluted product in the case of the CPP-ACP formulae) were performed between five cycles of alternating erosive challenge (0.3% citric acid, pH = 3.2) and remineralization in artificial saliva. Specimens were analyzed by Knoop surface microhardness (SMH). ANOVA indicated a significant (P< 0.0001) difference among the SMH values attained by acid softened enamel following the exposure to the pastes interspersed with erosion-remineralization cycles. Tukey's test ascertained that SMH values observed for the CPP-ACP+F and CSP groups did not differ from that of FD group, which were significantly higher than that found for the CO group. Specimens treated with CPP-ACP did not differ from any of the other groups.

  3. Evaluation of the impact of lime softening waste disposal in natural environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking water treatment residues (WTR), generated from the lime softening processes, are commonly reused or disposed of in a number of applications; these include use as a soil amendment or a subsurface fill. Recently questions were posed by the Florida regulatory community on w...

  4. Searching for Terrain Softening near Mercury's North Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobian, P. S.; Vilas, F.; Lederer, S. M.; Barlow, N. G.

    2004-01-01

    In 1999, following the initial discovery of radar bright craters near both poles of Mercury measured the depth-todiameter (d/D) ratios of 170 impact craters in Mariner 10 images covering four different regions on Mercury s surface. Rapid softening of crater structure, indicated by lower d/D ratios, could indicate the possibility of subsurface water ice in Mercury's terrain originating from an internal source in the planet. Their study included 3 specific radar bright craters suggested to contain ice. They concluded that no terrain softening was apparent, and a rapidly emplaced exogenic water source was the most likely source for the proposed ice in these craters. Recent radar observations of the Mercurian North pole have pinpointed many additional radar bright areas with a resolution 10x better than previous radar measurements, and which correlate with craters imaged by Mariner 10. These craters are correlated with regions that are permanently shaded from direct sunlight, and are consistent with observations of clean water ice. We have expanded the initial study by Barlow et al. to include d/D measurements of 12 craters newly identified as radar bright at latitudes poleward of +80o. The radar reflectivity resemblances to Mars south polar cap and echoes from three icy Galilean satellites suggest that these craters too may have polar ice on Mercury. The effect of subsurface H20 on impact craters is a decrease in its d/D ratio, and softening of crater rims over a period of time. The study of Barlow et al., focused on determining the d/D ratios of 170 impact craters in the Borealis (north polar), Tolstoj (equatorial), Kuiper (equatorial), and Bach (south polar) quadrangles. This work focuses on the newly discovered radar bright craters, investigating their d/D ratios as an expansion of the earlier work..We compare our results to the statistical results from Barlow et al. here. With the upcoming Messenger spacecraft mission to Mercury, this is an especially timely study

  5. Medium-induced color flow softens hadronization

    CERN Document Server

    Beraudo, A; Wiedemann, U A

    2012-01-01

    Medium-induced parton energy loss, resulting from gluon exchanges between the QCD matter and partonic projectiles, is expected to underly the strong suppression of jets and high-$p_T$ hadron spectra observed in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. Here, we present the first color-differential calculation of parton energy loss. We find that color exchange between medium and projectile enhances the invariant mass of energetic color singlet clusters in the parton shower by a parametrically large factor proportional to the square root of the projectile energy. This effect is seen in more than half of the most energetic color-singlet fragments of medium-modified parton branchings. Applying a standard cluster hadronization model, we find that it leads to a characteristic additional softening of hadronic spectra. A fair description of the nuclear modification factor measured at the LHC may then be obtained for relatively low momentum transfers from the medium.

  6. Controlled toothbrush abrasion of softened human enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronets, J; Jaeggi, T; Buergin, W; Lussi, A

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to compare toothbrush abrasion of softened enamel after brushing with two (soft and hard) toothbrushes. One hundred and fifty-six human enamel specimens were indented with a Knoop diamond. Salivary pellicle was formed in vitro over a period of 3 h. Erosive lesions were produced by means of 1% citric acid. A force-measuring device allowed a controlled toothbrushing force of 1.5 N. The specimens were brushed either in toothpaste slurry or with toothpaste in artificial saliva for 15 s. Enamel loss was calculated from the change in indentation depth of the same indent before and after abrasion. Mean surface losses (95% CI) were recorded in ten treatment groups: (1) soft toothbrush only [28 (17-39) nm]; (2) hard toothbrush only [25 (16-34) nm]; (3) soft toothbrush in Sensodyne MultiCare slurry [46 (27-65) nm]; (4) hard toothbrush in Sensodyne MultiCare slurry [45 (24-66) nm]; (5) soft toothbrush in Colgate sensation white slurry [71 (55-87) nm]; (6) hard toothbrush in Colgate sensation white slurry [85 (60-110) nm]; (7) soft toothbrush with Sensodyne MultiCare [48 (39-57) nm]; (8) hard toothbrush with Sensodyne MultiCare [40 (29-51) nm]; (9) soft toothbrush with Colgate sensation white [51 (37-65) nm]; (10) hard toothbrush with Colgate sensation white [52 (36-68) nm]. Neither soft nor hard toothbrushes produced significantly different toothbrush abrasion of softened human enamel in this model (p > 0.05). Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Influence of Amino-Ffunctional Macro and Micro Silicone Softeners on the Properties of Cotton Fabric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Wahab Jatoi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Amino-functional silicone softeners are most widely used type of soft finishes owing to their outstanding permanent softness, smoothness and handle characteristics. These soft finishes are prepared in different emulsion droplet sizes such as macro and micro emulsions providing varying characteristics on the textile on which they are applied. The macroemulsions due to their larger droplet sizes lubricate fabric and yarn surfaces, while the micro-emulsion, thanks to their smaller sizes penetrate inside fiber pores. In this research amino-functional macro and micro emulsions have been applied on dyed cotton fabric in 1:1 combination and compared against their influence on physical properties such as bending length, abrasion resistance, tensile strength, crease resistance and water repellency. These emulsions have also been compared for their influence on colorimetric properties; color difference and color strength (K/S values. The results reveal that the softener`s application in combination improves the properties deteriorated by each softener when applied separately

  8. Nanotwinned fcc metals: Strengthening versus softening mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stukowski, A.; Albe, K.; Farkas, D.

    2010-12-01

    The strengthening effect of twins in nanocrystalline metals has been reported both in experiment and simulation. While twins are mostly considered as effective barriers to dislocation slip transfer, they can also provide nucleation sites for dislocations or migrate during the deformation process, thereby contributing to plasticity. By comparing twinned and nontwinned samples, we study the effect of twins on the deformation behavior of nanocrystalline Cu and Pd using atomistic simulations. While Cu shows hardening due to the presence of twins, Pd shows the opposite effect. A quantitative dislocation analysis method is applied, which allows to analyze dislocation interactions with twin planes and grain boundaries and to measure dislocation, stacking fault, and twin-boundary densities as functions of strain. A statistical analysis of the occurring dislocation types provides direct evidence for the role of twin boundaries as effective sources for twinning dislocations, which are the reason for the observed softening in some fcc materials. In addition, we discuss how the orientation of the loading direction with respect to the twin planes affects the response of nanotwinned Cu and Pd.

  9. Light color, low softening point hydrocarbon resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, M.L.; Hentges, S.G.

    1990-06-12

    This patent describes a hydrocarbon resin having a softening point of from 0{degrees} C to about 40{degrees} C, a Gardner color of about 7 or less, a number average molecular weight (Mn) of from about 100 to about 600, and a M{sub {ital w}}/M{sub {ital n}} ratio of from about 1.1 to about 2.7, prepared by Friedel Crafts polymerization of a hydrocarbon feed. It comprises: from about 5% to about 75% by weight of a C{sub 8} to C{sub 10} vinyl aromatic hydrocarbon stream; up to about 35% by weight of a piperylene stream; and from about 25% to about 70% by weight of a stream containing C{sub 4} to C{sub 8} monoolefin chain transfer agent of the formula RR{prime}C {double bond} CR{double prime}R triple{prime} where R and R{prime} are C{sub 1} to C{sub 5} alkyl, R{double prime} and R triple{prime} are independently selected from H and a C{sub 1} to C{sub 4} alkyl group.

  10. Softening phenomenon during compression test in nanograined aluminum alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, S.H.; Jang, J.M.; Lee, W. [Korea Inst. of Industrial Technology, ChonAn (Korea)

    2005-07-01

    Al-Mg and Al-Mg-Cu alloys are known well to reveal superplasticity in tension at high temperatures. In this study, deformation behaviors of those alloys nanograined were investigated under compression test at room temperature. During plastic deformation softening phenomena occurred obviously in nanograined Al-1.5wt%Mg and Al-0.7wt%Mg-1.0wt%Cu alloys while slight strain hardening appeared in nanograined pure Al. These results suggest that the softening strongly depends on composition of alloys. The softening takes place over strain rate range from 10{sup -4} up to 10{sup -1}. (orig.)

  11. Genetic improvement of tomato by targeted control of fruit softening

    KAUST Repository

    Uluisik, Selman

    2016-07-25

    Controlling the rate of softening to extend shelf life was a key target for researchers engineering genetically modified (GM) tomatoes in the 1990s, but only modest improvements were achieved. Hybrids grown nowadays contain \\'non-ripening mutations\\' that slow ripening and improve shelf life, but adversely affect flavor and color. We report substantial, targeted control of tomato softening, without affecting other aspects of ripening, by silencing a gene encoding a pectate lyase. © 2016 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Viscosity and Softening Behavior of Alkali Zinc Sulfophosphate Glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Da, Ning; Krolikowski, Sebastian; Nielsen, Karsten Hansgaard;

    2010-01-01

    We report on the softening properties and viscosity of glasses from the system ZnO-Na2O-SO3-P2O5 for low-temperature sealing applications. Up to a ratio of network-forming ions PO(4)3-:SO(4)2- of about 2:1, a gradual substitution of P2O5 by SO3 results in decreasing glass transition and softening...

  13. Specific Changes of Exocarp and Mesocarp Occurring during Softening Differently Affect Firmness in Melting (MF) and Non Melting Flesh (NMF) Fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Onelli, E.; Ghiani, A.; Gentili, R; S Serra; Musacchi, S.; Citterio, S.

    2015-01-01

    Melting (MF) and non melting flesh (NMF) peaches differ in their final texture and firmness. Their specific characteristics are achieved by softening process and directly dictate fruit shelf life and quality. Softening is influenced by various mechanisms including cell wall reorganization and water loss. In this work, the biomechanical properties of MF Spring Crest's and NMF Oro A's exocarp and mesocarp along with the amount and localization of hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids were invest...

  14. INVESTIGATION OF SOFTENING AGENT PREPARATION AND PERFORMANCE OF HANDMADE ECOCOMPOSITES WITH CONIFEROUS WOOD AND BASALT FIBERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GuangjianWang; DekuShang; KailiangZhang; LinnaHu; ZhenhuaGuo

    2004-01-01

    In this investigation, basalt mineral fiber softening agent was prepared in order to obtain desirable flexible performance. Stability and physical chemistry natures of softening agent were evaluated by particle size distribution, dilution, storage and folding endurance etc. Constitutes of basalt and wood fibers were determined by energy dispersion analysis X-ray which served as an accessory of scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDAX). Naturally degradable ecocomposite was prepared by basalt and wood fibers. The results of SEM observation illustrated that the wood and basalt fibers were blended uniformly. The impact factors of beating degree, content of wood fibers and adhesive etc. were discussed. The structure of the naturally degradable ecocomposite was contrasted with that of pure wood fibers and the cause of excellent filtration performance was analyzed. Compared with traditional methods, it was of saving wood resource, a large amount of water and reducing second pollution. As a consequence, the ecocomposite harmonized with environment and accorded with requirement of benignly friendly environment.

  15. Pectin modifications and the role of pectin-degrading enzymes during postharvest softening of Jonagold apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwanpua, Sunny George; Van Buggenhout, Sandy; Verlinden, Bert E; Christiaens, Stefanie; Shpigelman, Avi; Vicent, Victor; Kermani, Zahra Jamsazzadeh; Nicolai, Bart M; Hendrickx, Marc; Geeraerd, Annemie

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed at understanding softening in Jonagold apple (Malus×domestica Borkh.) fruits, by investigating pectin modifications and the evolution of pectin-modifying enzymes during postharvest storage and ripening. Jonagold apples were harvested at commercial maturity and stored at different temperatures and controlled atmosphere conditions for 6 months, followed by exposure to ambient shelf life conditions (20 °C under air) for 2 weeks. The composition of the pectic material was analysed. Furthermore, the firmness and the ethylene production of the apples were assessed. Generally, the main changes in pectin composition associated with the loss of firmness during ripening in Jonagold apples were a loss of side chains neutral sugars, increased water solubility and decreased molar mass. Also, the activities of four important enzymes possibly involved in apple softening, β-galactosidase, α-arabinofuranosidase, polygalacturonase and pectin methylesterase, were measured. Pectin-related enzyme activities highly correlated with ethylene production, but not always with pectin modifications.

  16. Remineralizing agents: effects on acid-softened enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcelli, H Bp; Maeda, F A; Silva, B R; Miranda, W G; Cardoso, P Ec

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate whether remineralizing toothpastes can protect acid-softened enamel against further erosive episodes. Fifty enamel slabs of bovine teeth with preformed erosion-like lesions were randomly assigned to 1 control and 4 experimental groups (n = 10): group 1, nanohydroxyapatite (nanoHAp) dentifrice; group 2, arginine and calcium carbonate (CaCO3) dentifrice; group 3, potassium nitrate (KNO3) and high-fluoride (F) availability dentifrice; group 4, ordinary fluoridated dentifrice (OFD); and group 5, control (deionized water). Initial hardness measurements were taken after the different treatments were applied. Statistically significant mineral gains of 8.0% and 10.0% were exhibited in groups 1 and 4, respectively. Groups 2 and 3 showed mineral gains of 4.5% and 2.1%, respectively; these were not statistically significant. Group 5 showed mineral loss (-11.8%). A 1-way analysis of variance showed no statistically significant differences in the mean microhardness values among groups. However, there are indications that the nanoHAp and OFD toothpastes may decrease erosive lesions after treatment, while the arginine + CaCO3 and KNO3 + F pastes may prevent the progression of erosive lesions.

  17. Rigid proteins and softening of biological membranes—with application to HIV-induced cell membrane softening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Himani; Zelisko, Matthew; Liu, Liping; Sharma, Pradeep

    2016-05-01

    A key step in the HIV-infection process is the fusion of the virion membrane with the target cell membrane and the concomitant transfer of the viral RNA. Experimental evidence suggests that the fusion is preceded by considerable elastic softening of the cell membranes due to the insertion of fusion peptide in the membrane. What are the mechanisms underpinning the elastic softening of the membrane upon peptide insertion? A broader question may be posed: insertion of rigid proteins in soft membranes ought to stiffen the membranes not soften them. However, experimental observations perplexingly appear to show that rigid proteins may either soften or harden membranes even though conventional wisdom only suggests stiffening. In this work, we argue that regarding proteins as merely non-specific rigid inclusions is flawed, and each protein has a unique mechanical signature dictated by its specific interfacial coupling to the surrounding membrane. Predicated on this hypothesis, we have carried out atomistic simulations to investigate peptide-membrane interactions. Together with a continuum model, we reconcile contrasting experimental data in the literature including the case of HIV-fusion peptide induced softening. We conclude that the structural rearrangements of the lipids around the inclusions cause the softening or stiffening of the biological membranes.

  18. Rigid proteins and softening of biological membranes-with application to HIV-induced cell membrane softening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Himani; Zelisko, Matthew; Liu, Liping; Sharma, Pradeep

    2016-05-06

    A key step in the HIV-infection process is the fusion of the virion membrane with the target cell membrane and the concomitant transfer of the viral RNA. Experimental evidence suggests that the fusion is preceded by considerable elastic softening of the cell membranes due to the insertion of fusion peptide in the membrane. What are the mechanisms underpinning the elastic softening of the membrane upon peptide insertion? A broader question may be posed: insertion of rigid proteins in soft membranes ought to stiffen the membranes not soften them. However, experimental observations perplexingly appear to show that rigid proteins may either soften or harden membranes even though conventional wisdom only suggests stiffening. In this work, we argue that regarding proteins as merely non-specific rigid inclusions is flawed, and each protein has a unique mechanical signature dictated by its specific interfacial coupling to the surrounding membrane. Predicated on this hypothesis, we have carried out atomistic simulations to investigate peptide-membrane interactions. Together with a continuum model, we reconcile contrasting experimental data in the literature including the case of HIV-fusion peptide induced softening. We conclude that the structural rearrangements of the lipids around the inclusions cause the softening or stiffening of the biological membranes.

  19. Rock softening due to ultrasonic acoustical energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, F. T.; Freund, M. M.; Hedberg, C. M.; Haller, K. C.; Dahlgren, R.; Williams, C.; Agrawal, P.

    2011-12-01

    When igneous or high-grade metamorphic rocks are subjected to deviatoric stresses, dormant defects existing in the matrix of common rock-forming minerals become activated releasing mobile positive hole charge carriers. These defects consist of pairs of oxygen anions in the 1- valence state, e.g. peroxy links such as O3Si-OO-SiO3. When the peroxy bond breaks, O3Si-O:O-SiO3, an electron is transferred from a neighboring O2- creating a trapped electron defect, O3Si-O.O-SiO3, while the donor oxygen, now O-, turns into a defect electron or hole that can propagate as a highly mobile positive charge traveling along the upper edge of the valence band. There is evidence that the wave function associated with these positive hole charge carriers is highly delocalized. The delocalization lowers the electron density at the surrounding O2-, hence the bond energy, thereby affecting fundamental properties including the mechanical strength. To demonstrate the rock softening effect we mounted a rectangular bar of fine-grained gabbro about 30 cm long in a horizontal position clamping it at one end. A piezoelectric transducer (PZT) was epoxied to the fixed end of the rock bar to send ultrasonic energy at 57 KHz toward the cantilevered end. The downward deflection of the free end of the beam was measured with an interferometer to a high degree of precision. With ultrasonic energy present, the free end of the beam sagged near-instantaneously by about 0.2 μm and continued to sag slowly by about 0.4 μm over 120 sec. Upon turning off the PZT the rock bar returned slowly to the baseline deflection value. The ultrasound waves generated by the PZT activate positive holes, changing the apparent stiffness of the beam and causing its cantilevered end to bend downward. We also conducted experiments using an Instron 5569 Dual Column Testing System to subject rectangular plates (15.2 x 3.8 x 0.5 cm) of the same gabbro to dynamic three-point flexural tests. Using electrostatic fields of different

  20. Salivary a-amylase protects enamel surface against acid induced softening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazovic, Maja Bruvo; Moe, Dennis; Kirkeby, Svend

    Objectives: Recently we have demonstrated individual differences in protection against acid-induced enamel softening offered by experimentally developed saliva pellicles. Although ethnicity seemed to be related to protection level, the saliva proteins responsible for the differences were not iden......Objectives: Recently we have demonstrated individual differences in protection against acid-induced enamel softening offered by experimentally developed saliva pellicles. Although ethnicity seemed to be related to protection level, the saliva proteins responsible for the differences were......, and one Chinese. After collection, saliva was dialysed and lyophilised and re-dissolved at 0.5% in Type I water. Next, four polished bovine enamel specimens were immersed into each sample under gentle and constant shaking for 12 hours. Last, specimens were exposed to an erosive challenge of pH 2.3 for 4......-TOF mass fingerprinting following trypsin digestion. Each persistent peak in the HPLC chromatograms was related to the protective effect against acid-induced enamel softening obtained by the corresponding saliva sample by multiple regression analysis. Results: One peak identified as a-amylase had...

  1. Thermodynamic behaviour of gliadins mixture and the glass-softening transition of its dried state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, C; Johari, G P

    1997-10-01

    The glass-softening transition of a mixture of gliadins extracted from wheat flour has been studied in its dry state by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Further, the rate of removal of its water vapours on its evaporation from a gliadins mixture containing different amounts of water has been investigated, and through this the presence of any exothermic effect that could be attributed to polymerization of gliadins has been examined. The heat absorbed in this evaporation is comparable with the heat of evaporation of pure water measured in a separate experiment in identical conditions. This showed that the gliadins mixture did not polymerize on heating up to 473 K in the presence of moisture. In this respect the behaviour of the gliadins mixture differs remarkably from that of gluten studied before (J Phys Chem 1996:100:19692). The effects of purge gas, helium and argon, on the calorimetric effects during the evaporation of water have been studied. A restudy of gluten shows that helium decreases substantially the endothermic signal in the DSC measurements, and thereby reveals the exothermic effects of polymerization in gluten, but argon does not do so. The structural relaxation time, t, of dry gliadins mixtures at different temperatures has been calculated from an analysis of its glass-softening endotherm. The temperature at which t = 1 ks is 452 K, and the Tg, obtained by the usual method of intersection of the straight lines drawn, is 443 K, 7 K higher than for the polymerized dry gluten, the distribution of relaxation time parameter is 0.25, and increase in the heat capacity in this range is 0.21 J/g K. Physical ageing effects are considerable in the gliadins mixture, which alters the glass-softening endotherm but not the structural relaxation time or its distribution.

  2. Vibrational Softening of a Protein on Ligand Binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balog, Erica [Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary; Perahia, David [Ecole Normale Superieure de Cachan, Cachan, France; Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL; Merzel, Franci [National Institute of Chemistry, Solvenia

    2011-01-01

    Neutron scattering experiments have demonstrated that binding of the cancer drug methotrexate softens the low-frequency vibrations of its target protein, dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). Here, this softening is fully reproduced using atomic detail normal-mode analysis. Decomposition of the vibrational density of states demonstrates that the largest contributions arise from structural elements of DHFR critical to stability and function. Mode-projection analysis reveals an increase of the breathing-like character of the affected vibrational modes consistent with the experimentally observed increased adiabatic compressibility of the protein on complexation.

  3. Low-temperature softening in body-centered cubic alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pink, E.; Arsenault, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    In the low-temperature range, bcc alloys exhibit a lower stress-temperature dependence than the pure base metals. This effect often leads to a phenomenon that is called 'alloy softening': at low temperatures, the yield stress of an alloy may be lower than that of the base metal. Various theories are reviewed; the most promising are based either on extrinsic or intrinsic models of low-temperature deformation. Some other aspects of alloy softening are discussed, among them the effects on the ductile-brittle transition temperature.

  4. E-plastic limit equilibrium analysis on water-bearing rock in deep tunnel based on strain-softening%基于应变软化深埋巷道含水围岩的弹塑性极限平衡分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘树新; 刘长武; 张飞; 曹磊

    2011-01-01

    After excavating tunnel in rock mass, secondary stress presents in the wall rock with water-bearing,because the in-situ rock stress distribution and the infiltrative hydraulic pressure action is disturbed. The unbalanced stress is the major reason of rock mass deformation, displacement and even destroy. Based on Mohr-Coulomb and elastic-plasticity theory and rock damage caused by rock strain-softening, taking circular section of underground deep tunnel as example, the paper calculates and analyses the relationship between plastic range and supporting force in the case of limit equilibrium. The study establishes theoretical foundation for actual underground project construction and support engineering.%在岩体内开挖巷道后,由于干扰了原岩应力分布和渗透水压力的作用,巷道含水围岩中呈现次生应力,这种新出现的不平衡应力是引起岩体产生变形、位移,甚至破坏的主要根源.以圆形截面巷道为例,结合莫尔-库仑理论从围岩弹塑性变形的角度出发,在考虑了围岩应变软化所引起围岩损伤的基础上,计算和分析了地下巷道含水围岩达到极限平衡时围岩塑性区范围与相应支护抗力之间的关系,为实际地下工程施工和支护提供了理论基础.

  5. Influence of the dye transfer inhibitors for the washing of softened cotton fabric

    OpenAIRE

    Carrión Fité, Francisco Javier

    2014-01-01

    In this, work the performance of several dye transfer inhibitors (DTI) copolymers (PVP, PVNO and PVNO with PVP) was tested for use as DTIs in washing softened undyed cotton fabric, in the presence of a direct dye in the washing bath, with and without water hardness. Three direct dyes were tested: red, blue and yellow. The detergent used was composed of an LAS anionic surfactant and a non-ionic fatty alcohol ethoxylate surfactant with 7¿m. OE, both separately and in the different molar proport...

  6. Comparing Extended System Interactions with Motions in Softened Potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, Eric I

    2015-01-01

    Using an $N$-body evolution code that does not rely on softened potentials, I have created a suite of interacting binary cluster simulations. The motions of the centers-of-mass of the clusters have been tracked and compared to the trajectories of point masses interacting via one of four different softened potential prescriptions. There is a robust, nearly linear relationship between the impact parameter of the cluster interaction and the point-mass softening length that best approximates the cluster centers-of-mass motion. In an $N$-body simulation that adopts a fixed softening length, such a relationship leads to regimes where two-body effects, like dynamical friction, can be either larger or smaller than the corresponding cluster situation. Further consideration of more specific $N$-body simulations leads to an estimate that roughly 10 per cent of point-mass interactions in an $N$-body simulation will experience two-body effects larger than those for equivalent clusters.

  7. Stress-Softening and Residual Strain Effects in Suture Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Elías-Zúñiga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the experimental characterization of suture material samples of MonoPlus, Monosyn, polyglycolic acid, polydioxanone 2–0, polydioxanone 4–0, poly(glycolide-co-epsilon-caprolactone, nylon, and polypropylene when subjected to cyclic loading and unloading conditions. It is found that all tested suture materials exhibit stress-softening and residual strain effects related to the microstructural material damage upon deformation from the natural, undistorted state of the virgin suture material. To predict experimental observations, a new constitutive material model that takes into account stress-softening and residual strain effects is developed. The basis of this model is the inclusion of a phenomenological nonmonotonous softening function that depends on the strain intensity between loading and unloading cycles. The theory is illustrated by modifying the non-Gaussian average-stretch, full-network model to capture stress-softening and residual strains by using pseudoelasticity concepts. It is shown that results obtained from theoretical simulations compare well with suture material experimental data.

  8. Cyclic softening and thermally activated deformation of titanium and zirconium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickson, J.I.; Handfield, L.; L' Esperance, G. (Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Dept. de Genie Metallurgique)

    1983-08-01

    Cyclic softening in commercial purity zirconium and titanium corresponds principally to a decrease in effective stress and to an increase in screw dislocation mobility. This result indicates that the thermally activated deformation of these metals is not controlled by the overcoming of individual interstitial solute atoms by dislocations as usually proposed.

  9. Use of sonication for in-well softening of semivolatile organic compounds. 1997 annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, R.W.; Manning, J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (US); Hoffman, M.R. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (US); Gorelick, S. [Stanford Univ., CA (US)

    1997-01-01

    'This project investigates the in-situ degradation of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using in-well sonication, in-well vapor stripping, and bioremediation. Pretreating groundwaters with sonication techniques in-situ would form VOCs that can be effectively removed by in-well vapor stripping and bioremediation. The mechanistic studies focus on the coupling of megasonics and ultrasonics to soften (i.e., partially degrade) the SVOCs; oxidative reaction mechanism studies; surface corrosion studies (on the reactor walls/well); enhancement due to addition of oxidants, quantification of the hydroxyl radical formation; identification/quantification of degradation products; volatility/degradability of the treated waters; development of a computer simulation model to describe combined in-well sonication/in-well vapor stripping/bioremediation; systems analysis/economic analysis; large laboratory-scale experiment verification; and field demonstration of the integrated technology. Benefits of this approach include: (1) Remediation is performed in-situ; (2) The treatment systems complement each other; their combination can drastically reduce or remove SVOCs and VOCs; (3) Ability to convert hard-to-degrade organics into more volatile organic compounds; (4) Ability to remove residual VOCs and softened SVOCs through the combined action of in-well vapor stripping and biodegradation; (5) Does not require handling or disposing of water at the ground surface; and (6) Cost-effective and improved efficiency, resulting in shortened clean-up times to remediate a site.'

  10. Mechanism of Annealing Softening of Rolled or Forged Tool Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    In order to reduce hardness of rolled or forged steels after annealing and improve processability, the diameter and dispersity of carbides were measured by SEM and quantitative metallography. The microstructure of annealed steel was analyzed by TEM. The effects of the factors such as solute atoms, carbides, grain boundary and interphase boundary were studied. The mechanism of annealing softening of steels was analyzed on the examples of steels H13, S5, S7, X45CrNiMo4, which are treated with new technology. The results showed that the softening of H13, S7, S5 is easier obtained by isothermal or slow cooling annealing from slightly below A1, but hardness of X45CrNiMo4 after annealing is reduced effectively by obtaining coarse lamellar pearlite. Economic results can be obtained from good processability.

  11. Electric field-induced softening of alkali silicate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, C.; Heffner, W.; Jain, H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015 (United States); Tessarollo, R.; Raj, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)

    2015-11-02

    Motivated by the advantages of two-electrode flash sintering over normal sintering, we have investigated the effect of an external electric field on the viscosity of glass. The results show remarkable electric field-induced softening (EFIS), as application of DC field significantly lowers the softening temperature of glass. To establish the origin of EFIS, the effect is compared for single vs. mixed-alkali silicate glasses with fixed mole percentage of the alkali ions such that the mobility of alkali ions is greatly reduced while the basic network structure does not change much. The sodium silicate and lithium-sodium mixed alkali silicate glasses were tested mechanically in situ under compression in external electric field ranging from 0 to 250 V/cm in specially designed equipment. A comparison of data for different compositions indicates a complex mechanical response, which is observed as field-induced viscous flow due to a combination of Joule heating, electrolysis and dielectric breakdown.

  12. Exploiting material softening in hard PZTs for resonant bandwidth enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadenham, S.; Moura, A.; Erturk, A.

    2016-04-01

    Intentionally designed nonlinearities have been employed by several research groups to enhance the frequency bandwidth of vibration energy harvesters. Another type of nonlinear resonance behavior emerges from the piezoelectric constitutive behavior for high excitation levels and is manifested in the form of softening stiffness. This material nonlinearity does not result in the jump phenomenon in soft piezoelectric ceramics, e.g. PZT-5A and PZT-5H, due to their large internal dissipation. This paper explores the potential for wideband energy harvesting using a hard (relatively high quality factor) PZT-8 bimorph by exploiting its material softening. A wide range of base excitation experiments conducted for a set of resistive electrical loads confirms the frequency bandwidth enhancement.

  13. Modification of Textile Materials' Surface Properties Using Chemical Softener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgita KOŽENIAUSKIENĖ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the effect of technological treatment involving the processes of washing or washing and softening with chemical cationic softener "Surcase" produced in Great Britain on the surface properties of cellulosic textile materials manufactured from cotton, bamboo and viscose spun yarns was investigated. The changes in textile materials surface properties were evaluated using KTU-Griff-Tester device and FEI Quanta 200 FEG scanning electron microscope (SEM. It was observed that the worst hand properties and the higher surface roughness are observed of cotton materials if compared with those of bamboo and viscose materials. Also, it was shown that depending on the material structure the handle parameters of knitted materials are the better than the ones of woven fabrics.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.1.249

  14. Solving the standard model problems in softened gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvio, Alberto

    2016-11-01

    The Higgs naturalness problem is solved if the growth of Einstein's gravitational interaction is softened at an energy ≲1 011 GeV (softened gravity). We work here within an explicit realization where the Einstein-Hilbert Lagrangian is extended to include terms quadratic in the curvature and a nonminimal coupling with the Higgs. We show that this solution is preserved by adding three right-handed neutrinos with masses below the electroweak scale, accounting for neutrino oscillations, dark matter and the baryon asymmetry. The smallness of the right-handed neutrino masses (compared to the Planck scale) and the QCD θ -term are also shown to be natural. We prove that a possible gravitational source of C P violation cannot spoil the model, thanks to the presence of right-handed neutrinos. Inflation is approximately described by the Starobinsky model in this context and can occur even if we live in a metastable vacuum.

  15. Electric field-induced softening of alkali silicate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, C.; Heffner, W.; Tessarollo, R.; Raj, R.; Jain, H.

    2015-11-01

    Motivated by the advantages of two-electrode flash sintering over normal sintering, we have investigated the effect of an external electric field on the viscosity of glass. The results show remarkable electric field-induced softening (EFIS), as application of DC field significantly lowers the softening temperature of glass. To establish the origin of EFIS, the effect is compared for single vs. mixed-alkali silicate glasses with fixed mole percentage of the alkali ions such that the mobility of alkali ions is greatly reduced while the basic network structure does not change much. The sodium silicate and lithium-sodium mixed alkali silicate glasses were tested mechanically in situ under compression in external electric field ranging from 0 to 250 V/cm in specially designed equipment. A comparison of data for different compositions indicates a complex mechanical response, which is observed as field-induced viscous flow due to a combination of Joule heating, electrolysis and dielectric breakdown.

  16. Nonlinear softening as a predictive precursor to climate tipping

    CERN Document Server

    Sieber, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Approaching a dangerous bifurcation, from which a dynamical system such as the Earth's climate will jump (tip) to a different state, the current stable state lies within a shrinking basin of attraction. Persistence of the state becomes increasingly precarious in the presence of noisy disturbances. We consider an underlying potential, as defined theoretically for a saddle-node fold and (via averaging) for a Hopf bifurcation. Close to a stable state, this potential has a parabolic form; but approaching a jump it becomes increasingly dominated by softening nonlinearities. If we have already detected a decrease in the linear decay rate, nonlinear information allows us to estimate the propensity for early tipping due to noise. If there is no discernable trend in the linear analysis, nonlinear softening is even more important in showing the proximity to tipping. After extensive normal form calibration studies, we apply our technique to two geological time series from paleo-climate tipping events. For the ending of ...

  17. Solving the Standard Model Problems in Softened Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Salvio, Alberto

    2016-11-16

    The Higgs naturalness problem is solved if the growth of Einstein's gravitational interaction is softened at an energy $ \\lesssim 10^{11}\\,$GeV (softened gravity). We work here within an explicit realization where the Einstein-Hilbert Lagrangian is extended to include terms quadratic in the curvature and a non-minimal coupling with the Higgs. We show that this solution is preserved by adding three right-handed neutrinos with masses below the electroweak scale, accounting for neutrino oscillations, dark matter and the baryon asymmetry. The smallness of the right-handed neutrino masses (compared to the Planck scale) and the QCD $\\theta$-term are also shown to be natural. We prove that a possible gravitational source of CP violation cannot spoil the model, thanks to the presence of right-handed neutrinos. Starobinsky inflation can occur in this context, even if we live in a metastable vacuum.

  18. Potassium softens vascular endothelium and increases nitric oxide release

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    In the presence of aldosterone, plasma sodium in the high physiological range stiffens endothelial cells and reduces the release of nitric oxide. We now demonstrate effects of extracellular potassium on stiffness of individual cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells by using the tip of an atomic force microscope as a mechanical nanosensor. An acute increase of potassium in the physiological range swells and softens the endothelial cell and increases the release of nitric oxide. A high physio...

  19. Phonon softening and dispersion in EuTiO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, David S.; Uchiyama, Hiroshi; Tsutsui, Satoshi; Sugimoto, Kunihisa; Kato, Kenichi; Ishikawa, Daisuke; Baron, Alfred Q. R.

    2012-12-01

    We measured phonon dispersion in single-crystal EuTiO3 using inelastic x-ray scattering. A structural transition to an antiferrodistortive phase was found at a critical temperature T0=287±1 K using powder and single-crystal x-ray diffraction. Clear softening of the zone boundary R-point q=(0.50.50.5) acoustic phonon shows this to be a displacive transition. The mode energy plotted against reduced temperature could be seen to nearly overlap that of SrTiO3, suggesting a universal scaling relation. Phonon dispersion was measured along Γ-X (000)→(0.500). Mode eigenvectors were obtained from a shell model consistent with the q dependence of intensity and energy, which also showed that the dispersion is nominally the same as in SrTiO3 at room temperature, but corrected for mass. The lowest-energy optical mode, determined to be of Slater character, softens approximately linearly with temperature until the 70-100 K range where the softening stops, and at low temperature, the mode disperses linearly near the zone center.

  20. Pemanfaatan ter sebagai softener dalam pembuatan karet riklim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arum Yuniari

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research was to study the effect of Coal Tar as softener for reclaim rubber production from waste of rubber of tyre rethreading as input materials was scrap rubber. Coal Tar as softener was used with variation; 2,5; 5; 7,5; 10; 12,5 and 15% respectively from total scrap rubber. Reclaimed rubber was made at temperature 1200C for 1 hour in autoclave and than it was subsequently ground with two rolls mills. The characteristics of the reclaimed rubber was tested for the vulcanization and physical properties. The results showed that Coal Tar could be utilized as softener for reclaimed rubber. Reclaimed rubber production containing Coal Tar 15% would give good vulcanization and physical properties. The vulcanization 1062 seconds, maximum torque 39,08 kgf-cm, minimum torque 4,71 kgf-cm. Good physical properties : tensile strength 80,74 kg/cm2 elongation at break 444,62%, hardness 49 shore A, tear strength 40,39 kg/cm, density 1,15 g/cm3, abrasion resistance 1,87 mm3/kgm, and no crack detected on the flex cracking test of 150 kcs

  1. INVESTIGATION OF SOFTENING AGENT PREPARATION AND PERFORMANCE OF HANDMADE ECOCOMPOSITES WITH CONIFEROUS WOOD AND BASALT FIBERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangjian Wang; Deku Shang; Kailiang Zhang; Linna Hu; Zhenhua Guo

    2004-01-01

    In this investigation, basalt mineral fiber softening agent was prepared in order to obtain desirable flexible performance. Stability and physical chemistry natures of softening agent were evaluated by particle size distribution, dilution, storage and folding endurance etc. Constitutes of basalt and wood fibers were determined by energy dispersion analysis X-ray which served as an accessory of scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDAX). Naturally degradable ecocomposite was prepared by basalt and wood fibers. The results of SEM observation illustrated that the wood and basalt fibers were blended uniformly. The impact factors of beating degree, content of wood fibers and adhesive etc. were discussed. The structure of the naturally degradable ecocomposite was contrasted with that of pure wood fibers and the cause of excellent filtration performance was analyzed. Compared with traditional methods, it was of saving wood resource,a large amount of water and reducing second pollution. As a consequence, the ecocomposite harmonized with environment and accorded with requirement of benignly friendly environment.

  2. Effect of temperature on thermal softening of black sweet-bamboo culms (Dendrocalamus asper Backer in linseed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banyat Cherdchim

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to study the effect of temperature on thermal softening behavior of black sweet-bamboo culms in linseed oil. Pressing test rig with a length scale and a pointer indicating specimen height was constructed. This apparatus was used to apply a compressive force to bamboo specimen immersed in hot linseed oil in a boiler. Half circular cross-section specimens with thickness of 3 mm and length of 150 mm were dipped into water at room temperature to attain water saturated condition prior to immersing into linseed oil at various temperatures under the load of 20 N. Specimen height, used to calculate the degree of flatness, was measured as a function of time. The values of the final degree of flatness and the rate of degree of flatness were used for the analysis of thermal softening behavior of bamboo in linseed oil. It was found that thermal softening behavior of bamboo culms in linseed oil was divided into two temperature regimes with the glass transition temperature at 115ºC. At low temperature regime, deformation occurred slowly and showed only a single stage of deformation, corresponding to deformation in the glassy state. At high temperature regime, specimens deformed slowly in the first stage followed by a rapid deformation in the second stage, corresponding to deformations in the glassy and rubbery states, respectively. Effect of temperature on the rate of softening was well described by means of the Arrhenius equation with the activation energy ranging from 18 kJ/mole to 32 kJ/mole.

  3. Effect of softening function on the cohesive crack fracture parameters of concrete CT specimen

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shailendra Kumar; S V Barai

    2009-12-01

    The paper presents numerical study on the fracture parameters of concrete compact tension test specimens of different sizes using cohesive crack model. As softening function is the main ingredient of the cohesive crack model, seven numbers of widely used softening functions are incorporated in the model based on enhanced algorithm. It is found that the difference between the highest and the lowest peak loads obtained using various softening functions (except linear) is less than about 9%. The peak load predicted by the linear softening curve is about 16% larger than that of mean peak load predicted by other softening functions. The cohesive crack model with linear softening yields the fracture process zones lower by approximately 30–50% than those obtained by using the other softening relations for specimen size range 200–600 mm. The numerical results are further compared with a reference test result available in the literature. It is observed that some of softening relations (except linear) predict the experimentally obtained peak load up to 6% of accuracy whereas the linear softening curve overestimates it by about 30%. The numerically gained softening branch of load-displacement curves compare well with the experimental observation.

  4. Softening the Complexity of Entropic Motion on Curved Statistical Manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Cafaro, Carlo; Lupo, Cosmo; Mancini, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    We study the information geometry and the entropic dynamics of a 3D Gaussian statistical model. We then compare our analysis to that of a 2D Gaussian statistical model obtained from the higher-dimensional model via introduction of an additional information constraint that resembles the quantum mechanical canonical minimum uncertainty relation. We show that the chaoticity (temporal complexity) of the 2D Gaussian statistical model, quantified by means of the Information Geometric Entropy (IGE) and the Jacobi vector field intensity, is softened with respect to the chaoticity of the 3D Gaussian statistical model.

  5. Development of Tensile Softening Model for Plain Concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.K.; Song, Y.C. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2002-07-01

    Large-scale direct tensile softenng tests using plate concrete specimens(4000, 5000psi) with notch were performed under uniaxial stress. There were presented the basic physical properties and the complete load-CMOD(Crack Mouth Opening Displacement) curves for them And them the fracture energy was evaluated using the complete load-CMOD curves respectively, and there was presents optimal tensile softening model which is modified by a little revision of an existing one. Therefore, here provided the real verification data through the tests for developing other nonlinear concrete finite element models. (author). 32 refs., 38 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Phonon Softening and Dispersion in EuTiO3

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, David S.; UCHIYAMA, Hiroshi; Tsutsui, Satoshi; Sugimoto, Kunihisa; Kato, Kenichi; Ishikawa, Daisuke; Baron, Alfred Q. R.

    2012-01-01

    We measured phonon dispersion in single crystal EuTiO$_3$ using inelastic x-ray scattering. A structural transition to an antiferrodistortive phase was found at a critical temperature $T_0$=287$\\pm$1 K using powder and single-crystal x-ray diffraction. Clear softening of the zone boundary \\emph{R}-point \\textbf{q}=(0.5 0.5 0.5) acoustic phonon shows this to be a displacive transition. The mode energy plotted against reduced temperature could be seen to nearly overlap that of $\\rm SrTiO_3$, su...

  7. PHONON SOFTENING IN INTERMEDIATE VALENT SmB6

    OpenAIRE

    Mörke, I.; Wachter, P.

    1981-01-01

    We have measured the Raman spectrum of a SmB6 single crystal and compared it to LaB6 and EuB6. Beside the three high energy Raman active phonons we found additional excitations in these compounds. Most prominent is a peak at 172 cm-1 for SmB6, 214 cm-1 for LaB6 and 220 cm-1 for EuB6. The spectra are analysed in terms of defect induced phonon scattering. The softening of the line in intermediate valent (IV) SmB6 is explained in analogy with the phonon anomalies found in other IV compounds.

  8. Softening and Mineral Content of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz Leaves During the Fermentation to Produce Ntoba mbodi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mokemiabeka

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study is to investigate the softening of cassava leaves during the fermentation of Ntoba mbodi and the mineral content of cassava leaves fermented and unfermented. The softening of cassava leaves is a characteristic of fermentation to produce Ntoba mbodi. It is due to an enzymatic process. The activity of cellulase and polygalacturonase enzymes, very weak at the beginning of fermentation, increases sharply in 24 h and decreases thereafter. The pectinesterase and pectin lyase activity, already present at the beginning of fermentation, reaches the maximum after 24 h of fermentation for pectinesterase and 48 h for pectin lyase. The cellulase is mainly of microbial origin. The cassava leaves softening is gradual and becomes maximum at the end of fermentation. It is accompanied by a loss of water leading to a decrease in protein and magnesium content. The Ntoba mbodi is richer in ash than fresh cassava leaves. Although Ntoba mbodi is a vegetable rich in minerals, its sodium content is low. Thus, Ntoba mbodi can be recommended for a meal without peril.

  9. Improvement of 3D Polyester Fabric Surface with Nano Beta-Cyclodextrin and Hydrophilic Silicone and Microemulsion Softeners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Jolaei

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Modifying of polyester spacer fabric by β-Cyclodextrin may create new characteristics in the product. Using different siloxane including amino ethyl amino propyl polydimethylsiloxane and polyether amino functional siloxane can produce appropriate softness and lead to relative stability of β-CD on polyester fabric. In this research different concentration of siloxane compounds as a softener, and β- CD as a modifier are applied and some of the properties of the fabric including weight change, regain, water drop absorption time on fabric surface, chrome ion absorption and reactive dye absorption are studied. Also morphology of fabric surface has been examined by SEM images and chemical structure by FT-IR. We have also studied washing durability of the modified product after 10 times of washing. The results show that increasing of concentration of softener and β-CD leads to obtain a higher gain modification. In comparison of two different based softeners the amino ethyl amino propyl polydimethylsiloxane (AEAP- Silicon indicates a better durability than the polyether amino functional siloxane (PEA-Silicon.

  10. Normal and Fibrotic Rat Livers Demonstrate Shear Strain Softening and Compression Stiffening: A Model for Soft Tissue Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perepelyuk, Maryna; Chin, LiKang; Cao, Xuan; van Oosten, Anne; Shenoy, Vivek B; Janmey, Paul A; Wells, Rebecca G

    2016-01-01

    Tissues including liver stiffen and acquire more extracellular matrix with fibrosis. The relationship between matrix content and stiffness, however, is non-linear, and stiffness is only one component of tissue mechanics. The mechanical response of tissues such as liver to physiological stresses is not well described, and models of tissue mechanics are limited. To better understand the mechanics of the normal and fibrotic rat liver, we carried out a series of studies using parallel plate rheometry, measuring the response to compressive, extensional, and shear strains. We found that the shear storage and loss moduli G' and G" and the apparent Young's moduli measured by uniaxial strain orthogonal to the shear direction increased markedly with both progressive fibrosis and increasing compression, that livers shear strain softened, and that significant increases in shear modulus with compressional stress occurred within a range consistent with increased sinusoidal pressures in liver disease. Proteoglycan content and integrin-matrix interactions were significant determinants of liver mechanics, particularly in compression. We propose a new non-linear constitutive model of the liver. A key feature of this model is that, while it assumes overall liver incompressibility, it takes into account water flow and solid phase compressibility. In sum, we report a detailed study of non-linear liver mechanics under physiological strains in the normal state, early fibrosis, and late fibrosis. We propose a constitutive model that captures compression stiffening, tension softening, and shear softening, and can be understood in terms of the cellular and matrix components of the liver.

  11. Large-Strain Softening of Aluminum in Shear at Elevated Temperature: Influence of Dislocation Climb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassner, M. E.; Campbell, C. S.; Ermagan, R.

    2017-09-01

    This communication complements an earlier publication in this journal by the authors describing the basis for large-strain softening in aluminum under pure shear at elevated temperatures. Earlier work by the authors and the materials community only considered changes in the dislocation glide stress with the evolving texture as an explanation for the softening. New analysis finds that changes in the dislocation climb stress with texture development can explain the softening trends.

  12. A nonlocal constitutive model for trabecular bone softening in compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlebois, Mathieu; Jirásek, Milan; Zysset, Philippe K

    2010-10-01

    Using the three-dimensional morphological data provided by computed tomography, finite element (FE) models can be generated and used to compute the stiffness and strength of whole bones. Three-dimensional constitutive laws capturing the main features of bone mechanical behavior can be developed and implemented into FE software to enable simulations on complex bone structures. For this purpose, a constitutive law is proposed, which captures the compressive behavior of trabecular bone as a porous material with accumulation of irreversible strain and loss of stiffness beyond its yield point and softening beyond its ultimate point. To account for these features, a constitutive law based on damage coupled with hardening anisotropic elastoplasticity is formulated using density and fabric-based tensors. To prevent mesh dependence of the solution, a nonlocal averaging technique is adopted. The law has been implemented into a FE software and some simple simulations are first presented to illustrate its behavior. Finally, examples dealing with compression of vertebral bodies clearly show the impact of softening on the localization of the inelastic process.

  13. Internal friction and elastic softening in polycrystalline Nb3Sn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussière, J. F.; Faucher, B.; Snead, C. L., Jr.; Welch, D. O.

    1981-10-01

    The vibrating-reed technique was used to measure internal friction and Young's modulus of polycrystalline Nb3Sn in the form of composite Nb-Nb3Sn tapes from 6 to 300 K. In tapes with only small residual strain in the A 15 layers, a dramatic increase in internal friction with decreasing temperature is observed with an abrupt onset at ~48 K. The internal friction Q-1 between 6 and 48 K is believed to be associated with stress-induced motion of martensitic-domain walls. In this temperature range, Q-1 is approximately proportional to the square of the tetragonal strain of the martensitic phase; Q-1~(ca-1)2. With residual compressive strains of ~0.2%, the internal friction associated with domain-wall motion is considerably reduced. This is attributed to a biasing of domain-wall orientation with residual stress, which reduces wall motion induced by the (much smaller) applied stress. The transformation temperature, however, is unchanged (within +/- 1 K) by residual strains of up to 0.2%. Young's modulus exhibits substantial softening on cooling from 300 to 6 K. This softening is substantially reduced in the presence of small residual compressive strains, indicating a highly nonlinear stress-strain relationship as previously reported for V 3Si.

  14. Alloy hardening and softening in binary molybdenum alloys as related to electron concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, J. R.; Witzke, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the effects of alloy additions of hafnium, tantalum, tungsten, rhenium, osmium, iridium, and platinum on hardness of molybdenum. Special emphasis was placed on alloy softening in these binary molybdenum alloys. Results showed that alloy softening was produced by those elements having an excess of s+d electrons compared to molybdenum, while those elements having an equal number or fewer s+d electrons that molybdenum failed to produce alloy softening. Alloy softening and alloy hardening can be correlated with the difference in number of s+d electrons of the solute element and molybdenum.

  15. One- and Two-Dimensional Maximum Softening Indicators for Reinforced Concrete Structures under Seismic Excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Köyüoglu, H. U.; Cakmak, A. S.

    The maximum softening concept is based on the variation of the vibrational periods of a structure during a seismic event. Maximum softening damage indicators, which measure the maximum relative stiffness reduction caused by stiffness and strength deterioration of the actual structure, are calcula......The maximum softening concept is based on the variation of the vibrational periods of a structure during a seismic event. Maximum softening damage indicators, which measure the maximum relative stiffness reduction caused by stiffness and strength deterioration of the actual structure...

  16. Softening in random networks of non-identical beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Ehsan; Barocas, Victor H.; Shephard, Mark S.; Picu, R. Catalin

    2016-02-01

    Random fiber networks are assemblies of elastic elements connected in random configurations. They are used as models for a broad range of fibrous materials including biopolymer gels and synthetic nonwovens. Although the mechanics of networks made from the same type of fibers has been studied extensively, the behavior of composite systems of fibers with different properties has received less attention. In this work we numerically and theoretically study random networks of beams and springs of different mechanical properties. We observe that the overall network stiffness decreases on average as the variability of fiber stiffness increases, at constant mean fiber stiffness. Numerical results and analytical arguments show that for small variabilities in fiber stiffness the amount of network softening scales linearly with the variance of the fiber stiffness distribution. This result holds for any beam structure and is expected to apply to a broad range of materials including cellular solids.

  17. Direct Cytoskeleton Forces Cause Membrane Softening in Red Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-García, Ruddi; López-Montero, Iván; Mell, Michael; Egea, Gustavo; Gov, Nir S.; Monroy, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Erythrocytes are flexible cells specialized in the systemic transport of oxygen in vertebrates. This physiological function is connected to their outstanding ability to deform in passing through narrow capillaries. In recent years, there has been an influx of experimental evidence of enhanced cell-shape fluctuations related to metabolically driven activity of the erythroid membrane skeleton. However, no direct observation of the active cytoskeleton forces has yet been reported to our knowledge. Here, we show experimental evidence of the presence of temporally correlated forces superposed over the thermal fluctuations of the erythrocyte membrane. These forces are ATP-dependent and drive enhanced flickering motions in human erythrocytes. Theoretical analyses provide support for a direct force exerted on the membrane by the cytoskeleton nodes as pulses of well-defined average duration. In addition, such metabolically regulated active forces cause global membrane softening, a mechanical attribute related to the functional erythroid deformability. PMID:26083919

  18. Cellulase Activity and Fruit Softening in Avocado 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesis, Edna; Fuchs, Yoram; Zauberman, Giora

    1978-01-01

    Cellulase activity in detached avocado (Persea americana Mill.) fruits was found to be directly correlated with ripening processes such as climacteric rise of respiration, ethylene evolutin, and softening. This activity in the pericarp could be induced by ethylene treatment, and the more mature the fruit—the faster and the greater was the response. Only a very low cellulase activity could be detected in hard avocado fruit right after harvest. Cellulase activity was highest at the distal end of the fruit, lower in the midsection, and lowest at the proximal end. The enzyme is heat-labile and appeared to have activity of an endocellulase nature mainly. Electron micrographs of cell walls from hard and soft fruits are presented. ImagesFig. 4 PMID:16660305

  19. Hardening by annealing and softening by deformation in nanostructured metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, X.; Hansen, N.; Tsuji, N.

    2006-01-01

    -dislocation and dislocation-interface reactions, such that heat treatment reduces the generation and interaction of dislocations, leading to an increase in strength and a reduction in ductility. A subsequent deformation step may restore the dislocation structure and facilitate the yielding process when the metal is stressed......We observe that a nanostructured metal can be hardened by annealing and softened when subsequently deformed, which is in contrast to the typical behavior of a metal. Microstructural investigation points to an effect of the structural scale on fundamental mechanisms of dislocation....... As a consequence, the strength decreases and the ductility increases. These observations suggest that for materials such as the nanostructured aluminum studied here, deformation should be used as an optimizing procedure instead of annealing....

  20. A truly Newtonian softening length for disc simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Huré, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    The softened point mass model is commonly used in simulations of gaseous discs including self-gravity while the value of associated length \\lambda remains, to some degree, controversial. This ``parameter'' is however fully constrained when, in a discretized disc, all fluid cells are demanded to obey Newton's law. We examine the topology of solutions in this context, focusing on cylindrical cells more or less vertically elongated. We find that not only the nominal length depends critically on the cell's shape (curvature, radial extension, height), but it is either a real or an imaginary number. Setting \\lambda as a fraction of the local disc thickness -- as usually done -- is indeed not the optimal choice. We then propose a novel prescription valid irrespective of the disc properties and grid spacings. The benefit, which amounts to 2-3 more digits typically, is illustrated in a few concrete cases. A detailed mathematical analysis is in progress.

  1. Ion transport and softening in a polymerized ionic liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajeev; Bocharova, Vera; Strelcov, Evgheni; Tselev, Alexander; Kravchenko, Ivan I.; Berdzinski, Stefan; Strehmel, Veronika; Ovchinnikova, Olga S.; Minutolo, Joseph A.; Sangoro, Joshua R.; Agapov, Alexander L.; Sokolov, Alexei P.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Sumpter, Bobby G.

    2014-12-01

    Polymerized ionic liquids (PolyILs) are promising materials for various solid state electronic applications such as dye-sensitized solar cells, lithium batteries, actuators, field-effect transistors, light emitting electrochemical cells, and electrochromic devices. However, fundamental understanding of interconnection between ionic transport and mechanical properties in PolyILs is far from complete. In this work, local charge transport and structural changes in films of a PolyIL are studied using an integrated experiment-theory based approach. Experimental data for the kinetics of charging and steady state current-voltage relations can be explained by taking into account the dissociation of ions under an applied electric field (known as the Wien effect). Onsager's theory of the Wien effect coupled with the Poisson-Nernst-Planck formalism for the charge transport is found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental results. The agreement between the theory and experiments allows us to predict structural properties of the PolyIL films. We have observed significant softening of the PolyIL films beyond certain threshold voltages and formation of holes under a scanning probe microscopy (SPM) tip, through which an electric field was applied. The observed softening is explained by the theory of depression in glass transition temperature resulting from enhanced dissociation of ions with an increase in applied electric field.Polymerized ionic liquids (PolyILs) are promising materials for various solid state electronic applications such as dye-sensitized solar cells, lithium batteries, actuators, field-effect transistors, light emitting electrochemical cells, and electrochromic devices. However, fundamental understanding of interconnection between ionic transport and mechanical properties in PolyILs is far from complete. In this work, local charge transport and structural changes in films of a PolyIL are studied using an integrated experiment-theory based approach

  2. Study of Flow Softening Mechanisms of a Nickel-Based Superalloy With Δ Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Y.C.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The flow softening behaviors of a nickel-based superalloy with δ phase are investigated by hot compression tests over wide ranges of deformation temperature and strain rate. Electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD, optical microscopy (OM, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM are employed to study the flow softening mechanisms of the studied superalloy. It is found that the flow softening behaviors of the studied superalloy are sensitive to deformation temperature and strain rate. At high strain rate and low deformation temperature, the obvious flow softening behaviors occur. With the increase of deformation temperature or decrease of strain rate, the flow softening degree becomes weaken. At high strain rate (1s−1, the flow softening is mostly induced by the plastic deformation heating and flow localization. However, at low strain rate domains (0.001-0.01s−1, the effects of deformation heating on flow softening are slight. Moreover, the flow softening at low strain rates is mainly induced by the discontinuous dynamic recrystallization and the dissolution of δ phase (Ni3Nb.

  3. The softening effect of heat-treated strengthened Al-Zn-Mg alloy in welding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohong; Chen, Jingqing; Zhang, Kang; Chen, Hui

    2017-07-01

    Weld joint softening occurs during the welding process of heat-treatable aluminum alloys and strongly influences the mechanical properties. In this work, the softening of heat-treated Al-Zn-Mg alloy was studied in the multipass welding process. By Gleeble-3500 thermal-mechanical simulator, the heat treatment and tensile test with welding thermal cycles were carried out to simulate the microstructure evolution and mechanical softening during multipass welding. After that, the softening mechanism of the HAZ was analyzed by microstructure analysis. The results indicate that the heat-treated Al-Zn-Mg alloy exhibited obvious softening after several thermal cycles with peak temperature higher than 200∘C, and this phenomenon is worse with increasing peak temperature. Based on the microstructure analysis, it was found that the reinforcement phase changes according to the applied thermal cycles, which strongly affects the strength of Al-Zn-Mg alloys.

  4. Deformation, warming and softening of Greenland’s ice by refreezing meltwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Robin E.; Tinto, Kirsteen; Das, Indrani; Wolovick, Michael; Chu, Winnie; Creyts, Timothy T.; Frearson, Nicholas; Abdi, Abdulhakim; Paden, John D.

    2014-07-01

    Meltwater beneath the large ice sheets can influence ice flow by lubrication at the base or by softening when meltwater refreezes to form relatively warm ice. Refreezing has produced large basal ice units in East Antarctica. Bubble-free basal ice units also outcrop at the edge of the Greenland ice sheet, but the extent of refreezing and its influence on Greenland’s ice flow dynamics are unknown. Here we demonstrate that refreezing of meltwater produces distinct basal ice units throughout northern Greenland with thicknesses of up to 1,100 m. We compare airborne gravity data with modelled gravity anomalies to show that these basal units are ice. Using radar data we determine the extent of the units, which significantly disrupt the overlying ice sheet stratigraphy. The units consist of refrozen basal water commonly surrounded by heavily deformed meteoric ice derived from snowfall. We map these units along the ice sheet margins where surface melt is the largest source of water, as well as in the interior where basal melting is the only source of water. Beneath Petermann Glacier, basal units coincide with the onset of fast flow and channels in the floating ice tongue. We suggest that refreezing of meltwater and the resulting deformation of the surrounding basal ice warms the Greenland ice sheet, modifying the temperature structure of the ice column and influencing ice flow and grounding line melting.

  5. Alloy hardening and softening in binary molybdenum alloys as related to electron concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, J. R.; Witzke, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    Determination of the effects of alloy additions of Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, and Pt on the hardness of Mo. Special emphasis was placed on alloy softening in these binary Mo alloys. A modified microhardness test unit permitted hardness determinations at homologous temperatures ranging from 0.02 to 0.15, where alloy softening normally occurs in bcc alloys. Results showed that alloy softening was produced by those elements having an excess of s + d electrons compared to Mo while those elements having an equal number or fewer s + d electrons than Mo failed to produce alloy softening. The magnitude of the softening and the amount of solute element at the hardness minimum diminished rapidly with increasing test temperature. At solute concentrations where alloy softening was observed, the temperature sensitivity of hardness was lowered. For solute elements having an excess of s + d electrons or fewer s + d electrons than Mo, alloy softening and alloy hardening can be correlated with the difference in number of s + d electrons of the solute element and Mo.

  6. Synthesis and Performance Properties of Cationic Fabric Softeners Derived from Free Fatty Acid of Tallow Fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Mithun G; Pratap, Amit Prabhakar

    2016-08-01

    Esterquat cationic softener is basically the class of surface active quaternary ammonium compounds. Esterquat compounds were synthesized and their surface behavior, antibacterial activity and Textile softening properties were investigated. Easily found cheap material was used to synthesize cationic fabric softeners. This fabric softener will be a good for commercially and industrially important because their emulsify activity, rewettability dispersing power and softness. Free fatty acids were derived from tallow oil and were treated with triethanolamine and mono-ethanolamine at 140°C. This diester was quaternaries with dimethyl sulphate and benzyl chloride. The synthesized esterquat compounds were characterized by its cationic content, 1H NMR and FT-IR analysis. In addition to the cationic content, surface tension, CMC (critical micelle concentration), rewettability, fabric softening, emulsification and dispersing power were determined as their surface-active properties. The fabric softening activity of esterquat and esteramide prepared from DMS was better softening activity of fabrics compared to untreated cotton and polyester fabrics cloth. The presented result shows that the esterquat made from BCl exhibit the best dispersing power. The esterquat made from DMS both in TEA and MEA shows good rewettability was determined.

  7. Elastic and mechanical softening in boron-doped diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaobing; Chang, Yun-Yuan; Tkachev, Sergey N.; Bina, Craig R.; Jacobsen, Steven D.

    2017-01-01

    Alternative approaches to evaluating the hardness and elastic properties of materials exhibiting physical properties comparable to pure diamond have recently become necessary. The classic linear relationship between shear modulus (G) and Vickers hardness (HV), along with more recent non-linear formulations based on Pugh’s modulus extending into the superhard region (HV > 40 GPa) have guided synthesis and identification of novel superabrasives. These schemes rely on accurately quantifying HV of diamond-like materials approaching or potentially exceeding the hardness of the diamond indenter, leading to debate about methodology and the very definition of hardness. Elasticity measurements on such materials are equally challenging. Here we used a high-precision, GHz-ultrasonic interferometer in conjunction with a newly developed optical contact micrometer and 3D optical microscopy of indentations to evaluate elasticity-hardness relations in the ultrahard range (HV > 80 GPa) by examining single-crystal boron-doped diamond (BDD) with boron contents ranging from 50–3000 ppm. We observe a drastic elastic-mechanical softening in highly doped BDD relative to the trends observed for superhard materials, providing insight into elasticity-hardness relations for ultrahard materials. PMID:28233808

  8. Elastic and mechanical softening in boron-doped diamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaobing; Chang, Yun-Yuan; Tkachev, Sergey N; Bina, Craig R; Jacobsen, Steven D

    2017-02-24

    Alternative approaches to evaluating the hardness and elastic properties of materials exhibiting physical properties comparable to pure diamond have recently become necessary. The classic linear relationship between shear modulus (G) and Vickers hardness (HV), along with more recent non-linear formulations based on Pugh's modulus extending into the superhard region (HV > 40 GPa) have guided synthesis and identification of novel superabrasives. These schemes rely on accurately quantifying HV of diamond-like materials approaching or potentially exceeding the hardness of the diamond indenter, leading to debate about methodology and the very definition of hardness. Elasticity measurements on such materials are equally challenging. Here we used a high-precision, GHz-ultrasonic interferometer in conjunction with a newly developed optical contact micrometer and 3D optical microscopy of indentations to evaluate elasticity-hardness relations in the ultrahard range (HV > 80 GPa) by examining single-crystal boron-doped diamond (BDD) with boron contents ranging from 50-3000 ppm. We observe a drastic elastic-mechanical softening in highly doped BDD relative to the trends observed for superhard materials, providing insight into elasticity-hardness relations for ultrahard materials.

  9. Elastic and mechanical softening in boron-doped diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaobing; Chang, Yun-Yuan; Tkachev, Sergey N.; Bina, Craig R.; Jacobsen, Steven D.

    2017-02-01

    Alternative approaches to evaluating the hardness and elastic properties of materials exhibiting physical properties comparable to pure diamond have recently become necessary. The classic linear relationship between shear modulus (G) and Vickers hardness (HV), along with more recent non-linear formulations based on Pugh’s modulus extending into the superhard region (HV > 40 GPa) have guided synthesis and identification of novel superabrasives. These schemes rely on accurately quantifying HV of diamond-like materials approaching or potentially exceeding the hardness of the diamond indenter, leading to debate about methodology and the very definition of hardness. Elasticity measurements on such materials are equally challenging. Here we used a high-precision, GHz-ultrasonic interferometer in conjunction with a newly developed optical contact micrometer and 3D optical microscopy of indentations to evaluate elasticity-hardness relations in the ultrahard range (HV > 80 GPa) by examining single-crystal boron-doped diamond (BDD) with boron contents ranging from 50–3000 ppm. We observe a drastic elastic-mechanical softening in highly doped BDD relative to the trends observed for superhard materials, providing insight into elasticity-hardness relations for ultrahard materials.

  10. Experimental evidence of zone-center optical phonon softening by accumulating holes in thin Ge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabuyanagi, Shoichi; Nishimura, Tomonori; Yajima, Takeaki; Toriumi, Akira [Department of Materials Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2016-01-15

    We discuss the impact of free carriers on the zone-center optical phonon frequency in germanium (Ge). By taking advantage of the Ge-on-insulator structure, we measured the Raman spectroscopy by applying back-gate bias. Phonon softening by accumulating holes in Ge film was clearly observed. This fact strongly suggests that the phonon softening in heavily-doped Ge is mainly attributed to the free carrier effect rather than the dopant atom counterpart. Furthermore, we propose that the free carrier effect on phonon softening is simply understandable from the viewpoint of covalent bonding modification by free carriers.

  11. Surface grain coarsening and surface softening during machining of ultra-fine grained titanium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Symonova A.A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments are run to show that different machining conditions applied to ultra-fine grained pure titanium lead to different levels of grain coarsening and softening near the machined surface. Under “hard” machining conditions the upper 40 microns of the machined surface are altered with a decreased microhardness. The experimental results are reasonably reproduced by model calculations. Expanding the parameter field of the model calculations, the surface coarsening diagram and the surface softening diagram due to machining are presented, showing the region of technological parameters, under which neither grain coarsening nor softening takes place along the machined surface.

  12. Flash sintering of dielectric nanoparticles as a percolation phenomenon through a softened film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaim, Rachman; Chevallier, Geoffroy; Weibel, Alicia; Estournès, Claude

    2017-04-01

    Recent work [Biesuz et al., J. Appl. Phys. 120, 145107 (2016)] showed analogies between the flash sintering and dielectric breakdown in α-aluminas pre-sintered to different densities. Here, we show that flash sintering of dielectric nanoparticles can be described as a universal behavior by the percolation model. The electrical system is composed of particles and their contact point resistances, the latter softened first due to preferred local Joule heating and thermal runaway during the flash. Local softening has a hierarchical and invasive nature and propagates between the electrodes. The flash event signals the percolation threshold by invasive nature of the softened layer at the particle surfaces. Rapid densification is associated with local particle rearrangements due to attractive capillary forces induced by the softened film at the particle contacts. Flash sintering is a critical phenomenon with a self-organizing character. The experimental electric conductivity results from flash sintering are in full agreement with those calculated from the percolation model.

  13. Comparison of shear banding in BMGs due to thermal-softening and free volume creation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports a comparative study of shear banding in BMGs resulting from thermal softening and free volume creation. Firstly,the effects of thermal softening and free volume creation on shear instability are discussed. It is known that ther-mal softening governs thermal shear banding,hence it is essentially energy related. However,compound free volume creation is the key factor to the other instability,though void-induced softening seems to be the counterpart of thermal softening. So,the driving force for shear instability owing to free volume creation is very dif-ferent from the thermally assisted one. In particular,long wave perturbations are always unstable owing to compound free volume creation. Therefore,the shear instability resulting from coupled compound free volume creation and thermal softening may start more like that due to free volume creation. Also,the compound free volume creation implies a specific and intrinsic characteristic growth time of shear instability. Finally,the mature shear band width is governed by the corre-sponding diffusions (thermal or void diffusion) within the band. As a rough guide,the dimensionless numbers: Thermal softening related number B,Deborah number (denoting the relation of instability growth rate owing to compound free volume and loading time) and Lewis number (denoting the competition of different diffusions) show us their relative importance of thermal softening and free volume creation in shear banding. All these results are of particular significance in understanding the mechanism of shear banding in bulk metallic glasses (BMGs).

  14. Specific Changes of Exocarp and Mesocarp Occurring during Softening Differently Affect Firmness in Melting (MF) and Non Melting Flesh (NMF) Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onelli, E; Ghiani, A; Gentili, R; Serra, S; Musacchi, S; Citterio, S

    2015-01-01

    Melting (MF) and non melting flesh (NMF) peaches differ in their final texture and firmness. Their specific characteristics are achieved by softening process and directly dictate fruit shelf life and quality. Softening is influenced by various mechanisms including cell wall reorganization and water loss. In this work, the biomechanical properties of MF Spring Crest's and NMF Oro A's exocarp and mesocarp along with the amount and localization of hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids were investigated during fruit ripening and post-harvest. The objective was to better understand the role played by water loss and cell wall reorganization in peach softening. Results showed that in ripe Spring Crest, where both cell turgor loss and cell wall dismantling occurred, mesocarp had a little role in the fruit reaction to compression and probe penetration response was almost exclusively ascribed to the epidermis which functioned as a mechanical support to the pulp. In ripe Oro A's fruit, where cell wall disassembly did not occur and the loss of cell turgor was observed only in mesocarp, the contribution of exocarp to fruit firmness was consistent but relatively lower than that of mesocarp, suggesting that in addition to cell turgor, the integrity of cell wall played a key role in maintaining NMF fruit firmness. The analysis of phenols suggested that permeability and firmness of epidermis were associated with the presence of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids.

  15. Specific Changes of Exocarp and Mesocarp Occurring during Softening Differently Affect Firmness in Melting (MF and Non Melting Flesh (NMF Fruits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Onelli

    Full Text Available Melting (MF and non melting flesh (NMF peaches differ in their final texture and firmness. Their specific characteristics are achieved by softening process and directly dictate fruit shelf life and quality. Softening is influenced by various mechanisms including cell wall reorganization and water loss. In this work, the biomechanical properties of MF Spring Crest's and NMF Oro A's exocarp and mesocarp along with the amount and localization of hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids were investigated during fruit ripening and post-harvest. The objective was to better understand the role played by water loss and cell wall reorganization in peach softening. Results showed that in ripe Spring Crest, where both cell turgor loss and cell wall dismantling occurred, mesocarp had a little role in the fruit reaction to compression and probe penetration response was almost exclusively ascribed to the epidermis which functioned as a mechanical support to the pulp. In ripe Oro A's fruit, where cell wall disassembly did not occur and the loss of cell turgor was observed only in mesocarp, the contribution of exocarp to fruit firmness was consistent but relatively lower than that of mesocarp, suggesting that in addition to cell turgor, the integrity of cell wall played a key role in maintaining NMF fruit firmness. The analysis of phenols suggested that permeability and firmness of epidermis were associated with the presence of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids.

  16. Magnetic resonance colonography without bowel cleansing using oral and rectal stool softeners (fecal cracking) - a feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajaj, Waleed; Lauenstein, Thomas C.; Kuehle, Christiane; Herborn, Christoph U.; Goehde, Susanne C. [University Hospital of Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); Schneemann, Hubert [University Hospital of Essen, Institute of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Essen (Germany); Ruehm, Stefan G. [David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Goyen, Mathias [University Hospital of Hamburg-Eppendorf, Medical Center, Hamburg (Germany)

    2005-10-01

    The aim of our study was to assess the effect of oral and rectal stool softeners on dark-lumen magnetic resonance (MR) colonography without bowel cleansing. Ten volunteers underwent MR colonography without colonic cleansing. A baseline examination was performed without oral or rectal administration of stool softeners. In a second set, volunteers ingested 60 ml of lactulose 24 h prior to MR examination. In a third examination, water as a rectal enema was replaced by a solution of 0.5%-docusate sodium (DS). A fourth MR examination was performed, in conjunction with both oral administration of lactulose and rectal application of DS. A T1-weighted data set was acquired at scanning times of 0, 5 and 10 min after colonic filling. A fourth data set was acquired 75 s after i.v. injection of contrast agent. Signal intensity of stool was calculated for all colonic segments. Without oral ingestion of lactulose or rectal enema with DS stool signal intensity was high and did not decrease over time. However, lactulose and DS caused a decrease in stool signal intensity. Both substances together led to a decreasing signal intensity of feces. Combination of lactulose and DS provided the lowest signal intensity of stool. Thus, feces could hardly be distinguished from dark rectal enema allowing for the assessment of the colonic wall. (orig.)

  17. Evaluation of the impact of lime softening waste disposal in natural environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaisi, Nawaf I.; Roessler, Justin; Cheng, Weizhi [Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences, University of Florida, PO Box 116450, Gainesville, FL 32611-6450 (United States); Townsend, Timothy, E-mail: ttown@ufl.edu [Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences, University of Florida, PO Box 116450, Gainesville, FL 32611-6450 (United States); Al-Abed, Souhail R. [National Risk Management Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 26 West Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Leaching tests conducted on WTR to assess potential for trace element release. • Aluminum leaching found to be elevated with respect to risk threshold. • Release in anaerobic conditions evaluated with column test run in nitrogen chamber. • Increased release of certain elements seen from residues under anaerobic conditions. • Different leaching tests produced results on two sides of regulatory threshold. - Abstract: Drinking water treatment residues (WTR), generated from the lime softening processes, are commonly reused or disposed of in a number of applications; these include use as a soil amendment or a subsurface fill. Recently questions were posed by the Florida regulatory community on whether lime WTR that contained a small percentage of other treatment additives could appropriately be characterized as lime WTR, in terms of total element content and leachability. A study was done using a broad range of leaching tests, including a framework of tests recently adopted by the United States-Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and tests that were modified to account for scenario specific conditions, such as the presence of natural organic matter (NOM). The results of these additional leaching tests demonstrated that certain applications, including disposal in a water body with NOM or in placement anaerobic environment, did result in increased leaching of elements such as Fe, and that a site specific assessment should be conducted prior to using WTR in these types of applications. This study illustrates the importance of leaching test selection when attempting to provide an estimation of release in practice. Although leaching tests are just one component in a beneficial use assessment and other factors including aquifer and soil properties play a significant role in the outcome, leaching tests should be tailored to most appropriately represent the scenario or reuse application being evaluated.

  18. Expansion of spherical cavity of strain-softening materials with different elastic moduli of tension and compression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    An expansion theory of spherical cavities in strain-softening materials with different moduli of tension and compression was presented. For geomaterials, two controlling parameters were introduced to take into account the different moduli and strain-softening properties. By means of elastic theory with different moduli and stress-softening models, g. eneral solutions calculating Tresca and Mohr-Coulomb materials' stress and displacement fields of expansion of spherical cavity were derived. The effects caused by different elastic moduli in tensile and compression and strain-softening rates on stress and displacement fields and development of plastic zone of expansion of cavity were analyzed. The results show that the ultimate expansion pressure,stress and displacement fields and development of plastic zone vary with the different elastic moduli and strain-softening properties. If classical elastic theory is adopted and strain-softening properties are neglected, rather large errors may be the result.

  19. Development of a design methodology for high temperature cyclic applications of materials which experience cyclic softening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marriott, D.L.; Stubbins, J.F. (Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (USA). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering)

    1988-12-01

    The project has as its original focus the high temperature behavior of 2.25 Cr-1 Mo steel, heat treated to produce a predominantly bainitic microstructure and the load carrying response of components made of this material. Experiments were carried out on uniform and notched specimens under both steady and cyclic loading using specially acquired electromechanical test machines. It emerged that a very important feature of mechanical behavior under the conditions of interest was the strong tendency of this material to cyclically soften, particularly at high temperature in the creep range, giving the illusion of a severe creep-fatigue interaction under certain conditions. This finding led to a significant component of the project being devoted to investigation of the effects of local, as opposed to generalized, cyclic softening, and the implications this phenomenon might have on the setting of allowable design stress limits. The format of this report is as follows: The second chapter is a review of the work carried out in approximately chronological order under the headings of work was carried out under the following: (1) 2.25 Cr 1 Mo Steel -- Elevated Temperature Fatigue and Environmental Effects; (2) Preliminary Studies of Advanced Austenitics; (3) A Uniaxial Constitutive Model for Cyclic Softening; (4) The Iso-Cyclic Stress-Strain Approach to Evaluation of Components in Cyclic Softening Materials; (5) Testing of High Temperature Austenitic Alloys; and (6) Design Methodology for Aging Materials -- Application to Cyclic Softening. 65 refs., 39 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. Characterization and occurence of eairly softening disorder in 'golden' papaya fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Pedro Jacomino

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of green skin and soft pulp in 'Golden' papaya fruit during certain seasons has been reported by farmers in the northern of the state of Espirito Santo, Brazil. The objective of this study was to characterize and determine the occurrence of this disorder, which was referred as "early softening disorder". Fruits were harvested weekly for 11 months (from September to July. The fruits were stored at 10°C, and then fruit flesh firmness and skin color were analyzed. The results of the firmness test were submitted to regression analysis assuming a linear trendline. The slope of the curve was called the 'softening index' (SI. Fruits with early softening are characterized by a loss of firmness in less than 10 days, even when stored under refrigeration. Although softened, the skin of the fruit remains partially green. Fruits with the disorder occurred more frequently from mid-summer to mid-autumn (February to May. It is not possible to distinguish early softening disorder fruits from those without the disorder by skin color and flesh firmness analysis at the time of the harvest.

  1. Progressive failure analysis of slope with strain-softening behaviour based on strength reduction method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ke ZHANG; Ping CAO; Rui BAO

    2013-01-01

    Based on the strength reduction method and strain-softening model,a method for progressive failure analysis of strain-softening slopes was presented in this paper.The mutation is more pronounced in strain-softening analysis,and the mutation of displacement at slope crest was taken as critical failure criterion.An engineering example was provided to demonstrate the validity of the present method.This method was applied to a cut slope in an industry site.The results are as follows: (1) The factor of safety and the critical slip surface obtained by the present method are between those by peak and residual strength.The analysis with peak strength would lead to non-conservative results,but that with residual strength tends to be overly conservative.(2) The thickness of the shear zone considering strain-softening behaviour is narrower than that with non-softening analysis.(3) The failure of slope is the process of the initiation,propagation and connection of potential failure surface.The strength parameters are mobilized to a non-uniform degree while progressive failure occurs in the slope.(4) The factor of safety increases with the increase of residual shear strain threshold and elastic modulus.The failure mode of slope changes from shallow slip to deep slip.Poisson's ratio and dilation angle have little effect on the results.

  2. Molds in Brined Cucumbers: Cause of Softening During Air-Purging of Fermentations †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costilow, Ralph N.; Gates, Karen; Lacy, Melvyn L.

    1980-01-01

    Softening of cucumbers in fermentations purged at high air-flow rates was caused by molds growing in the brined cucumbers, not in the brine. This conclusion is based on the following results: (i) no microorganisms were isolated in significant numbers from brines that caused softening of pasteurized brined cucumbers, (ii) no pectinolytic enzyme activities were produced in cucumber brines in the absence of cucumbers, (iii) the pickles in some air-purged fermentations became very soft without the appearance of any pectinolytic enzyme activity in the brine, (iv) mold hyphae were consistently observed in tissues of soft pickles, (v) molds consistently developed in cultures of slices of surface sterilized cucumbers taken from fermentations in which soft pickles were subsequently found, and (vi) molds belonging to the genera Alternaria, Fusarium, and Mucor isolated from slices all softened pasteurized brined cucumbers. Images PMID:16345619

  3. STUDY ON SOFTENING AND DROPPING PROPERTIES OF METALIZED BURDEN INSIDE BLAST FURNACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bi-yang Tuo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The inferences of burden metallization rate on softening-melting dropping properties were investigated through softening-melting dropping test of three kinds of metalized burden pressure drop. The results indicated that the softeningmelting temperature interval of pre-reduction mixed burden is bigger than primeval mixed burden, the melting interval narrow with the rise of metallization rate of ferric burden as well as dropping temperature interval. The average pressure drop, maximum pressure drop and softening-melting dropping properties eigenvalue decrease with the rise of metallization rate of ferric burden. Besides, the dropping temperature of burden reduces with the rise of carbon content of molten iron. The combination high metalized burden and higher carbon content of molten iron is benefit to decreasing thickness of cohesive zone and improve permeability of cohesive zone.

  4. Lattice softening in body-centered-cubic lithium-magnesium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, I. S.; Tsuru, T.; Chrzan, D. C.

    2017-08-01

    A first-principles investigation of the influence of lattice softening on lithium-magnesium alloys near the body-centered-cubic (bcc)/hexagonal close-packed (hcp) transition composition is presented. Results show that lithium-magnesium alloys display a softening of the shear modulus C11-C12 , and an acoustic phonon branch between the Γ and N high symmetry points, as the composition approaches the stability limit for the bcc phase. This softening is accompanied by an increase in the size of the dislocation core region. Ideal tensile strength calculations predict that ordered phases of lithium-magnesium alloys are intrinsically brittle. Methods to make the alloys more ductile are discussed, and the propensity for these alloys to display gum-metal-like behavior is assessed.

  5. Correlation between tension softening relation and crack extension resistance in concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiufang ZHANG; Shilang XU

    2009-01-01

    Changes of the material fracture toughness with crack propagation can be described by a crack extension resistance curve, one of the fundamental fracture criteria in crack mechanics. Recently, experimental observation of the fracture behavior in concrete was used to develop a new fracture criterion, the crack extension GR resistance curve, to analyze crack propagation during the entire concrete fracture process. The variation of the crack extension resistance is mainly associated with the energy consumption in the fracture process zone ahead of the stress-free crack tip. The crack extension resistance is then a function of the softening curve, which is a basic mechanical property in the fracture process zone. The relationship between the softening curve and the crack extension GR resistance curve is then analyzed based on results of three-point bending beams tests. The results indicate that the characteristic points of the crack extension resistance GR curve is closely related to the characteristic point on used tension softening curve.

  6. Communication: Surface-facilitated softening of ordinary and vapor-deposited glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubeta, Ulyana; Bhattacharya, Deepanjan; Sadtchenko, Vlad

    2017-08-01

    A common distinction between the ordinary glasses formed by melt cooling and the stable amorphous films formed by vapor deposition is the apparent mechanism of their devitrification. Using quasi-adiabatic, fast scanning calorimetry that is capable of heating rates in excess of 105 K s-1, we have investigated the softening kinetics of micrometer-scale, ordinary glass films of methylbenzene and 2-propanol. At the limit of high heating rates, the transformation mechanism of ordinary glasses is identical to that of their stable vapor-deposited counterparts. In both cases, softening is likely to begin at the sample surface and progress into its bulk via a transformation front. Furthermore, such a surface-facilitated mechanism complies with zero-order, Arrhenius rate law. The activation energy barriers for the softening transformation imply that the kinetics must be defined, at least in part, by the initial thermodynamic and structural state of the samples.

  7. Constitutive Model for Multiaxial Ratcheting Predictions of Cyclic Softening Weld Metal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Hong; CHEN Xu; JIAO Rong

    2005-01-01

    A series of fully reversed axial, torsional strain-controlled cyclic tests and two multiaxial ratcheting tests were conducted on weld metal specimens using an Instron8521 tension-torsional servo-controlled testing machine. The weld metal showed clear cyclic softening under axial, torsional and multiaxial loading. A modified kinematic hardening rule was proposed in which a multiaxial-loading-dependent parameter incorporated the radial evanescence term of the Burlet-Cailletaud mode with the Ohno-Wang kinematic hardening rule to predict the multiaxial ratcheting effects. The introduction of yield stress evolved with accumulated plasticity strain enables the model to predict cyclic plasticity behavior of cyclic softening or cyclic hardening materials. Thus modified model considers the isotropic hardening as well as kinematic hardening of yield surface, and it can present description of plasticity behavior and ratcheting of cyclic softening and cyclic hardening materials well under multiaxial loading.

  8. [Non-edematous spontaneously resolving cerebellar softening. Diagnostic possibilities and value (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, M; Parain, D; Mihout, B

    1980-01-01

    Non edematous cerebellar softenings are usually unrecognized even though their relatively high frequency of occurrence is proved by systematic anatomical studies. They should be suspected when an acute late-onset vestibular syndrome is noted, in which there is a particular type of homolateral disequilibrium and nystagmus, good vestibular reactivity, and possible association with a cerebellar syndrome. Softening can usually be confirmed after several days by the complementary examinations presently available: computer tomography of the posterior fossa and scintigraphy with labelled bleomycin. Non-edematous forms are spontaneously resolving disorders but surveillance during the first few days is necessary together with anti-edematous therapy as early signs are common to those of edematous softening, responsible for rapid involvement of the brain stem and blocking of fluid pathways.

  9. The Etiology and Treatment of the Softened Phallus after the Radial Forearm Osteocutaneous Free Flap Phalloplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Kwun Kim

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe radial forearm osteocutaneous free flap is considered to be the standard technique for penile construction. One year after their operation, most patients experience a softened phallus, so that they suffer from difficulties in sexual intercourse. In this report, we present our experience with phalloplasty by radial forearm osteocutaneous free flap, as well as an evaluation of the etiology and treatment of the softened phallus.MethodsBetween March 2005 and February 2010, 58 patients underwent phalloplasty by radial forearm osteocutaneous free flap. Most of their neophallus had been softened subjectively and among them, 12 patients who wanted correction were investigated. We performed repetitive fat injection, artificial dermis grafting, silicone rod insertion, and rib bone with cartilaginous tip graft. Physical examination, plain radiograph, computed tomography, bone scintigraphy, and satisfaction scores were investigated.ResultsMost of the participants' penises have been softened after phalloplasty, and the skin elasticity had been also decreased. On plain radiograph, the distal end of the bone was self-rounded; however, the bone shape of the neophallus had no significant interval changes or resorption. Computed tomography showed equivocal density of cortical bone. On bone scintigraphy, the bone metabolism was active at 3 months postoperatively, and remained active 9 years postoperatively.ConclusionsThe use of a rib bone with cartilaginous tip graft could be an option for improvement of the softened phallus. Silicon rod insertion is also worth considering for rigidity of the softened phallus. Decreased rigidity due to soft tissue atrophy could be alleviated with repeated fat injection and artificial dermis grafting.

  10. Seed softening patterns of forage legumes in a temperate/subtropical environment in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Do Canto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have been conducted in annual and perennial forage legumes to investigate the development of hardseededness and the subsequent pattern of seed softening in temperate and subtropical regions of South America. Experiments were conducted during 2007 and 2008 in central Uruguay to follow the pattern of seed softening in 35 annual and perennial forage legumes, including three native species of Uruguay and five commercial cultivars. Newly ripened seeds of each plant material were placed in mesh packets on the soil surface in mid-summer. Samples were recovered monthly for germination tests and the proportion of residual hard seeds determined. The native species Adesmia bicolor (Poir. DC., Adesmia securigerifolia Herter, and Ornithopus micranthus (Benth. Arechav., together with Ornithopus pinnatus (Mill. Druce cv. INIA Molles behaved similarly. They showed high levels of initial hard seed from 78% in A. bicolor to 99% in A. securigerifolia and O. pinnatus cv. INIA Molles in 2007; displayed pulses of seed softening, particularly in autumn, and retained moderate levels of residual hard seed for the development of a soil seed bank ranging from 15% in A. bicolor to 49% in O. micranthus. These appear to be desirable characteristics for persistence of forage legumes in subtropical grasslands, both for annual and perennial species. Trifolium repens L. and Lotus corniculatus L. produced few hard seeds, only 2% and 13% respectively were hard after 1-mo in the field and were completely soft by July placing extra reliance on their vegetative propagation for persistence. Materials of L. arenarius Brot. showed pronounced late autumn softening, while materials of L. ornithopodioides L. showed extremely high levels of hardseededness (between 96% and 100% and no softening during the evaluation period, apart from two materials that were completely soft seeded. Mediterranean forage legumes should be properly evaluated in temperate and subtropical regions as

  11. Dehydration softening of serpentine as a trigger of intermediate-depth earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, I.; Watanabe, Y.; Michibayashi, K.; Uehara, S.; Takahashi, M.; Katsuta, N.

    2011-12-01

    slip was obtained in the SEM-EBSD analysis. Significant volume loss in the samples suggests compaction and escape of water during deformation experiments. Mechanical behaviors and microstructural features of the pre-heated samples both indicated that the dominant deformation mechanism was cataclastic flow and compaction of reaction products. The reacted samples showed "dehydration softening" rather than "embrittlement". In contrast, the same antigorite-serpentinite deformed in a gas-medium apparatus at a low confining pressure (200 MPa) exhibited a semi-brittle behavior. This fact suggests that dehydration embrittlement is only effective at the shallow to middle crustal levels. In the subducting slabs, strain localization at the serpentinized mantle due to dehydration softening and high fluid pressure caused by pore collapse possibly trigger earthquakes in surrounding peridotite mantle.

  12. Optimization of Structure and Material Properties for Solids Composed of Softening Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendsøe, Martin P.; Guedes, J.M.; J.M., Plaxton;

    1996-01-01

    Recent results on the design of material properties in the context of global structural optimization provide, in analytical form, a prediction of the optimal material tensor distributions for two or three dimensional continuum structures. The model developed for that purpose is extended here...... to cover the design of a structure and associated material properties for a system composed of a generic form of nonlinear softening material. As was established in the earlier study on design with linear materials, the formulation for combined 'material and structure' design with softening materials can...

  13. A FRACTURE-ENERGY-BASED ELASTO-SOFTENING-PLASTIC CONSTITUTIVE MODEL FOR JOINTS OF GEOMATERIALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈新普; 沈国晓

    2002-01-01

    On the basis of plasticity and fracture mechanics for quasi- brittle materials, this article presented a constitutive model for gradual softening behavior of joints of geomaterials. Corresponding numerical tests are carried out at the local level. Characteristics of the model proposed are 1 ) plastic softening and dilatancy behavior are directly related to the fracture process of joint, and much less material and model parameters are required compared with those proposed by references; 2) the process of decohesion coupled with friction al sliding at both micro-scale and macro-scale is described.

  14. Optimization of hardening/softening behavior of plane frame structures using nonlinear normal modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dou, Suguang; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    2016-01-01

    /softening behavior of nonlinear mechanical systems. The iterative optimization procedure consists of calculation of nonlinear normal modes, solving an adjoint equation system for sensitivity analysis and an update of design variables using a mathematical programming tool. We demonstrate the method with examples......Devices that exploit essential nonlinear behavior such as hardening/softening and inter-modal coupling effects are increasingly used in engineering and fundamental studies. Based on nonlinear normal modes, we present a gradient-based structural optimization method for tailoring the hardening...

  15. Studies on the role of polygalacturonase isoenzymes in tomato fruit softening and ripening

    OpenAIRE

    Harman, Jane Elizabeth

    1984-01-01

    Changes in the activity of polygalacturonase during the development and/or ripening of tomato fruit of a wide range of genotypes have been followed. Normal commercial cultivars have three forms of the enzyme; the isoenzyme having the highest molecular weight, PG1, appeared as fruit began to change colour, and its rate of accumulation was reflected in the rate of fruit softening.This early rate of softening was closely related to the eventual degree of softness shown by the fully ripe fruit.PG...

  16. Pressure induced elastic softening in framework aluminosilicate- albite (NaAlSi3O8)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mookherjee, Mainak; Mainprice, David; Maheshwari, Ketan; Heinonen, Olle; Patel, Dhenu; Hariharan, Anant

    2016-10-01

    Albite (NaAlSi3O8) is an aluminosilicate mineral. Its crystal structure consists of 3-D framework of Al and Si tetrahedral units. We have used Density Functional Theory to investigate the high-pressure behavior of the crystal structure and how it affects the elasticity of albite. Our results indicate elastic softening between 6-8 GPa. This is observed in all the individual elastic stiffness components. Our analysis indicates that the softening is due to the response of the three-dimensional tetrahedral framework, in particular by the pressure dependent changes in the tetrahedral tilts. At pressure Mohorovicic discontinuity in thickened continental crustal regions.

  17. Large elastic strain and elastocaloric effect caused by lattice softening in an iron-palladium alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakeshita, Tomoyuki; Xiao, Fei; Fukuda, Takashi

    2016-08-13

    A Fe-31.2Pd (at.%) alloy exhibits a weak first-order martensitic transformation from a cubic structure to a tetragonal structure near 230 K. This transformation is associated with significant softening of elastic constant C'. Because of the softening, the alloy shows a large elastic strain of more than 6% in the [001] direction. In addition, the alloy has a critical point and shows a high elastocaloric effect in a wide temperature range for both the parent and the martensite phases.This article is part of the themed issue 'Taking the temperature of phase transitions in cool materials'.

  18. Softening temperature of lyophilized bovine serum albumin and gamma-globulin as measured by spin-spin relaxation time of protein protons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, S; Aso, Y; Kojima, S

    1997-04-01

    We investigated the usefulness of the spin-spin relaxation time (T2) of protein protons as a probe for evaluating the molecular flexibility of freeze-dried protein formulations. It is proposed that the microscopic softening temperature determined from changes in the T2 of protein protons (Ts(T2)) is an important characteristic of freeze-dried protein formulations, the glass transition temperature (Tg) of which is generally difficult to determine by differential scanning calorimetry. We determined the molecular flexibility of lyophilized bovine serum albumin (BSA) and bovine gamma-globulin (BGG) by measuring the T2 of protein and water protons as well as the spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) of the latter as a function of temperature. The flexibility of freeze-dried BSA and BGG cakes markedly varied at temperatures above and below the Ts(T2), affecting the stability of the proteins. The denaturation and subsequent aggregation of lyophilized BSA and BGG cakes with a relatively high water content was enhanced in the softened state at temperatures above the Ts(T2). Lyophilized cakes with an extremely low water content were significantly denatured, even in the unsoftened state at temperatures below the Ts(T2), probably due to the thermodynamically unstable structures of protein molecules generated by a loss of structural water.

  19. 40 CFR 141.553 - My system practices lime softening-is there any special provision regarding my combined filter...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false My system practices lime softening-is... Filter Effluent Requirements § 141.553 My system practices lime softening—is there any special provision regarding my combined filter effluent? If your system practices lime softening, you may...

  20. Two types of softening detected in X-ray afterglows of Swift bursts: internal and external shock origins?

    CERN Document Server

    Qin, Y -P; Fan, J H; Lu, R -J

    2008-01-01

    The softening process observed in the steep decay phase of early X-ray afterglows of Swift bursts has remained a puzzle since its discovery. The softening process can also be observed in the later phase of the bursts and its cause has also been unknown. Recently, it was suggested that, influenced by the curvature effect, emission from high latitudes would shift the Band function spectrum from higher energy band to lower band, and this would give rise to the observed softening process accompanied by a steep decay of the flux density. The curvature effect scenario predicts that the terminating time of the softening process would be correlated with the duration of the process. In this paper, based on the data from the UNLV GRB group web-site, we found an obvious correlation between the two quantities. In addition, we found that the softening process can be divided into two classes: the early type softening ($t_{s,max}\\leq "4000"s$) and the late type softening ($t_{s,max} > "4000"s$). The two types of softening s...

  1. The Myth of Softening behavior of the Cohesive Zone Model Exact derivation of yield drop behavior of wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Put, T.A.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that the postulate of strain softening of the fracture stress is based on the error to regard the nominal stress to be the actual, ultimate stress, at the actual area of the fracture plan. Strain sof-tening called yield drop is elastic unloading of the actual elastic stress at the

  2. Curvature Effect and the Spectral Softening Phenomenon Detected in GRB Afterglows

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Y.-P. Qin

    2011-03-01

    Detection of radiation from a relativistic fireball would be affected by the so-called curvature effect. I illustrate the expected temporal and spectral behaviours of this effect and show that it can well explain the observed spectral softening in the early GRB afterglows.

  3. Relation between occupation in the first coordination shells and Widom line in core-softened potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo, Evy; Barraz, Ney M; Barbosa, Marcia C

    2013-04-28

    Three core-softened families of potentials are checked for the presence of density and diffusion anomalies. These potentials exhibit a repulsive core with a softening region and at larger distances an attractive well. We found that the region in the pressure-temperature phase diagram in which the anomalies are present increases if the slope between the core-softened scale and the attractive part of the potential decreases. The anomalous region also increases if the range of the core-softened or of the attractive part of the potential decreases. We also show that the presence of the density anomaly is consistent with the non-monotonic changes of the radial distribution function at each one of the two scales when temperature and density are varied. Then, using this anomalous behavior of the structure we show that the pressure and the temperature at which the radial distribution function of one of the two length scales equals the radial distribution function of the other length scales identify the Widom line.

  4. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes Associated with Apple Fruit Ripening and Softening by Suppression Subtractive Hybridization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongying Zhang

    Full Text Available Apple is one of the most economically important horticultural fruit crops worldwide. It is critical to gain insights into fruit ripening and softening to improve apple fruit quality and extend shelf life. In this study, forward and reverse suppression subtractive hybridization libraries were generated from 'Taishanzaoxia' apple fruits sampled around the ethylene climacteric to isolate ripening- and softening-related genes. A set of 648 unigenes were derived from sequence alignment and cluster assembly of 918 expressed sequence tags. According to gene ontology functional classification, 390 out of 443 unigenes (88% were assigned to the biological process category, 356 unigenes (80% were classified in the molecular function category, and 381 unigenes (86% were allocated to the cellular component category. A total of 26 unigenes differentially expressed during fruit development period were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. These genes were involved in cell wall modification, anthocyanin biosynthesis, aroma production, stress response, metabolism, transcription, or were non-annotated. Some genes associated with cell wall modification, anthocyanin biosynthesis and aroma production were up-regulated and significantly correlated with ethylene production, suggesting that fruit texture, coloration and aroma may be regulated by ethylene in 'Taishanzaoxia'. Some of the identified unigenes associated with fruit ripening and softening have not been characterized in public databases. The results contribute to an improved characterization of changes in gene expression during apple fruit ripening and softening.

  5. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes Associated with Apple Fruit Ripening and Softening by Suppression Subtractive Hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zongying; Jiang, Shenghui; Wang, Nan; Li, Min; Ji, Xiaohao; Sun, Shasha; Liu, Jingxuan; Wang, Deyun; Xu, Haifeng; Qi, Sumin; Wu, Shujing; Fei, Zhangjun; Feng, Shouqian; Chen, Xuesen

    2015-01-01

    Apple is one of the most economically important horticultural fruit crops worldwide. It is critical to gain insights into fruit ripening and softening to improve apple fruit quality and extend shelf life. In this study, forward and reverse suppression subtractive hybridization libraries were generated from 'Taishanzaoxia' apple fruits sampled around the ethylene climacteric to isolate ripening- and softening-related genes. A set of 648 unigenes were derived from sequence alignment and cluster assembly of 918 expressed sequence tags. According to gene ontology functional classification, 390 out of 443 unigenes (88%) were assigned to the biological process category, 356 unigenes (80%) were classified in the molecular function category, and 381 unigenes (86%) were allocated to the cellular component category. A total of 26 unigenes differentially expressed during fruit development period were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. These genes were involved in cell wall modification, anthocyanin biosynthesis, aroma production, stress response, metabolism, transcription, or were non-annotated. Some genes associated with cell wall modification, anthocyanin biosynthesis and aroma production were up-regulated and significantly correlated with ethylene production, suggesting that fruit texture, coloration and aroma may be regulated by ethylene in 'Taishanzaoxia'. Some of the identified unigenes associated with fruit ripening and softening have not been characterized in public databases. The results contribute to an improved characterization of changes in gene expression during apple fruit ripening and softening.

  6. The Value of Fighting Irreversible Demise by Softening the Irreversible Cost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magis, P.; Sbuelz, A.

    2005-01-01

    We study a novel issue in the real-options-based technology innovation literature by means of double barrier contingent claims analysis.We show how much a ¯rm with the monopoly over a project is willing to spend in investment technology innovation that softens the irreversible cost of accessing the

  7. Effects of preoxidation on the swelling and softening of bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maloney, D. J.; Jenkins, R. G.; Walker, Jr., P. L.

    1980-04-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the applicability of a DuPont 942-TMA (Thermomechanical Analyzer) dilatometer system for the characterization of the swelling and softening properties of caking coals. The results of this investigation demonstrate the utility of this dilatometer system. Several parameters clearly defined with this unit are characteristic of the plastic transitions occurring upon carbonization. These include softening, dilation and resolidification temperature and volume contraction, expansion and total dilation values. The transition parameters measured with the 942-TMA unit are influenced significantly by coal particle size, dilatometer load, and heating rate. All transition temperatures exhibit marked increases with increasing heating rate. Softening temperatures decrease with increasing load and particle size. Dilation temperatures are essentially independent of dilatometer load effects and resolidification temperatures are independent of load and particle size over the range of conditions used in this study. Volume contraction and expansion values show an increase with decreasing coal particle size. Volume expansion values also exhibit strong heating rate and load dependencies. The results point up the great difficulty involved in obtaining truly fresh unoxidized coal samples. Storage of fine coal particles for extended periods of time in atmospheres with even slight oxygen concentrations show signs of weathering. Exposure of an HVA coal to dry air at ambient temperature has much less effect on subsequent swelling and softening properties than does exposure to moist air.

  8. Advanced Chemical Precipitation Softening. Training Module 2.217.4.77.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, L. D.

    This document is an instructional module package prepared in objective form for use by an instructor familiar with the operation and maintenance of a chemical precipitation softening system. Included are objectives, instructor guides, student handouts and transparency masters. This is the third level of a three module series. This module considers…

  9. Basic Chemical Precipitation Softening. Training Module 2.215.2.77.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, L. D.

    This document is an instructional module package prepared in objective form for use by an instructor familiar with chemical precipitation softening. Included are objectives, an instructor guide, student handouts and transparency masters. This is the first level of a three module series and is designed for students with little or no operating…

  10. Reversible stress softening in layered rat esophagus in vitro after potassium chloride activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hongbo; Liao, Donghua; Zhao, Jingbo; Wang, Guixue; Gregersen, Hans

    2017-01-23

    Significant stress softening recovery after potassium chloride (KCl) administration was previously demonstrated in the intact rat esophageal wall. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of KCl activation on stress softening recovery in the separated mucosa-submucosa layer and muscle layer of rat esophagus. Three series of loading-unloading distensions were carried out on 10 rat esophagi where the two separated layers were distended at luminal pressure levels 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 kPa. Numerous distension cycles were done in [Formula: see text]-free Krebs solution before and after activation with KCl (110 mmol) for 3 min in calcium-containing media. The diameter and luminal pressure were recorded for stress and strain calculation. During KCl activation, the muscle layer responded with a high-amplitude contraction, and the mucosa-submucosa layer responded with a longer-lasting low-amplitude contraction. The hysteresis loop areas from the muscle layer were significantly bigger than those from the mucosa-submucosa layer at distension pressures 1.0 and 2.0 kPa ([Formula: see text]). The calculated stiffness in the mucosa-submucosa layer was significantly higher than that in the muscle layer ([Formula: see text]). After activation with KCl, the stored energy and the stiffness after the stress and viscoelasticity softening increased in both layers, indicating that the reversible stress softening in esophagus after KCl activation is existed in both layers.

  11. Climate change on Mars and the formation of gullies, lobate debris aprons, and softened craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Reid Allen

    Recent data acquired from spacecraft missions has bettered our understanding of the nature and distribution of ice- and water-related features formed during recent periods of climate change on Mars. Numerical modeling of physical processes constrained by these newly acquired observations is an important tool with which hypotheses relating to the Martian climate can be tested. This work describes the development and implementation of a set of these models focused on the formation of a few young, ice- and water-related features. The subjects of this research are gullies, lobate debris aprons (LDAs), and craters with subdued topography known as "softened" craters. Flow of liquid water and ice over and/or within the Martian surface has been invoked in the formation of these features. Quantifying processes such as fluvial erosion and ice deformation using laboratory experiments is a Rosetta stone with which we can read into the climate history of Mars that is written on its surface. We test the hypothesis that sediment transport on gully slopes occurs via fluvial transport processes by developing a numerical sediment transport model based on steep flume experiments performed by Smart [1984]. At 20° slopes, channels 1 m deep by 8m wide and 0.1 m deep by 3 m wide transport a sediment volume equal to the alcove volume of 6 x 105 m3 in 10 hours and 40 days, respectively, under constant flow conditions. Snowpack melting cannot produce the water discharge rates necessary for fluvial sediment transport, unless long-term (kyr) storage of the resulting meltwater occurs. If these volumes of water are discharged as groundwater, the required aquifer thicknesses and aquifer drawdown lengths would be unrealistically large for a single discharge event. More plausibly, the water volume required by the fluvial transport model could be discharged in ˜ 10 episodes for an aquifer 30 m thick, with a recurrence interval similar to that of Martian obliquity cycles (˜0.1 My). Radar

  12. Dehydration softening of serpentine and its roles in the intermediate-depth earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, I.; Watanabe, Y.; Michibayashi, K.

    2010-12-01

    to pink, possibly due to highly oxidized atmosphere caused by free water release. Reaction products of olivine (forsterite) exhibited host-controlled weak lattice preferred orientation (LPO) but there was no evidence for intracrystalline slip. Mechanical behaviors and microstructural features both indicated that the dominant deformation mechanism of pre-heated samples was cataclastic flow of reaction products. Significant volume loss in these samples suggests compaction and escape of water during deformation experiments. Strain localization in the serpentinized parts of mantle due to dehydration softening and high fluid pressure caused by pore collapse would trigger earthquakes in surrounding peridotite mantle.

  13. Analysis of pile load-transfer under pile-side softening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘杰; 张可能

    2003-01-01

    A set of analytical equations for the variation of the axial force along depth and the pile-top load-settle-ment curve were established, using tri-linear softening model to pile-side soil and bilinear hardening model to pile-end soil . Influences of the pile-side and pile-end soil behavior on the load-settlement curve were discussed, indica-ting that the lowering reason for the variation step degree of the axial force along depth is the softening of the pile-side soil to result in the side friction lowering when the pile-top load is increased. To verify the reliability of thismethod, the parameters used in calculation are obtained from the test in Zhuzhou area. The obtained results are thencompared with the tested results. Contrast shows that the calculated results and the tested values are very close,which illustrates that the proposed method is reliable.

  14. Shear softening of Earth's inner core indicated by its high Poisson's ratio and elastic anisotropy

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Zhongqing

    2016-01-01

    Earth's inner core exhibits an unusually high Poisson's ratio and noticeable elastic anisotropy. The mechanisms responsible for these features are critical for understanding the evolution of the Earth but remain unclear. This study indicates that once the correct formula for the shear modulus is used, shear softening can simultaneously explain the high Poisson's ratio and strong anisotropy of the inner core. Body-centred-cubic (bcc) iron shows shear instability at the pressures found in the inner-core and can be dynamically stabilized by temperature and light elements. It is very likely that some combinations of light elements stabilize the bcc iron alloy under inner-core conditions. Such a bcc phase would exhibit significant shear softening and match the geophysical constraints of the inner core. Identifying which light elements and what concentrations of these elements stabilize the bcc phase will provide critical information on the light elements of the inner core.

  15. Acoustic softening in metals during ultrasonic assisted deformation via CP-FEM

    KAUST Repository

    Siddiq, Amir

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a phenomenological crystal plasticity model is modified to account for acoustic (ultrasonic) softening effects based on the level of ultrasonic intensity supplied to single and polycrystalline metals. The material parameters are identified using the inverse modeling approach by interfacing the crystal plasticity model with an optimization tool. The proposed model is validated and verified by comparing the microstructure evolution with experimental EBSD results reported in the literature. The model is able to capture the ultrasonic softening effect and the results show that as the ultrasonic intensity increases, the plastic deformation also increases. Differences in the stress-strain response are explained based on the slip system orientation tensor (Schmidt factors) which depends upon the crystal orientation. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The importance of structural softening for the evolution and architecture of passive margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duretz, T.; Petri, B.; Mohn, G.; Schmalholz, S. M.; Schenker, F. L.; Müntener, O.

    2016-12-01

    Lithospheric extension can generate passive margins that bound oceans worldwide. Detailed geological and geophysical studies in present and fossil passive margins have highlighted the complexity of their architecture and their multi-stage deformation history. Previous modeling studies have shown the significant impact of coarse mechanical layering of the lithosphere (2 to 4 layer crust and mantle) on passive margin formation. We built upon these studies and design high-resolution (~100–300 m) thermo-mechanical numerical models that incorporate finer mechanical layering (kilometer scale) mimicking tectonically inherited heterogeneities. During lithospheric extension a variety of extensional structures arises naturally due to (1) structural softening caused by necking of mechanically strong layers and (2) the establishment of a network of weak layers across the deforming multi-layered lithosphere. We argue that structural softening in a multi-layered lithosphere is the main cause for the observed multi-stage evolution and architecture of magma-poor passive margins.

  17. Early stiffening and softening of collagen: interplay of deformation mechanisms in biopolymer networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawan, Nicholas A; Wong, Long Hui; Rajagopalan, Raj

    2012-03-12

    Collagen networks, the main structural/mechanical elements in biological tissues, increasingly serve as biomimetic scaffolds for cell behavioral studies, assays, and tissue engineering, and yet their full spectrum of nonlinear behavior remains unclear. Here, with self-assembled type-I collagen as model, we use metrics beyond those in standard single-harmonic analysis of rheological measurements to reveal strain-softening and strain-stiffening of collagen networks both in instantaneous responses and at steady state. The results show how different deformation mechanisms, such as deformation-induced increase in the elastically active fibrils, nonlinear extension of individual fibrils, and slips in the physical cross-links in the network, can lead to the observed complex nonlinearity. We demonstrate how comprehensive rheological analyses can uncover the rich mechanical properties of biopolymer networks, including the above-mentioned softening as well as an early strain-stiffening, which are important for understanding physiological response of biological materials to mechanical loading.

  18. Influence of curing rate on softening in ethanol, degree of conversion, and wear of resin composite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Peutzfeldt, Anne; Asmussen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of curing rate on softening in ethanol, degree of conversion, and wear of resin composites. METHOD: With a given energy density and for each of two different light-curing units (QTH or LED), the curing rate was reduced by modulating the curing mode. Thus......, the irradiation of resin composite specimens (Filtek Z250, Tetric Ceram, Esthet-X) was performed in a continuous curing mode and in a pulse-delay curing mode. Wallace hardness was used to determine the softening of resin composite after storage in ethanol. Degree of conversion was determined by infrared...... spectroscopy (FTIR). Wear was assessed by a three-body test. Data were submitted to Levene's test, one and three-way ANOVA, and Tukey HSD test (alpha = 0.05). Results: Immersion in ethanol, curing mode, and material all had significant effects on Wallace hardness. After ethanol storage, resin composites...

  19. Particle Surface Softening as Universal Behaviour during Flash Sintering of Oxide Nano-Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachman Chaim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The dissipated electric power in oxide powder compacts, subjected to flash sintering, is several hundreds of W·cm−3. This power is analyzed considering local softening/melting and transient plasma/liquid formation at the particle contacts due to thermal runaway. The sudden increase in compact electric conductivity and dissipated power referred to current percolation through the softening/liquid formed at the particle contacts, at the percolation threshold. The energy-balance and heat transfer considerations during the transient flash event are consistent with the local heating of the nanoparticle contacts to the ceramic melting temperature, or above it. The formation of the plasma by field emission of electrons is also considered.

  20. Ratcheting induced cyclic softening behaviour of 42CrMo4 steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreethi, R.; Mondal, A. K.; Dutta, K.

    2015-02-01

    Ratcheting is an important field of fatigue deformation which happens under stress controlled cyclic loading of materials. The aim of this investigation is to study the uniaxial ratcheting behavior of 42CrMo4 steel in annealed condition, under various applied stresses. In view of this, stress controlled fatigue tests were carried out at room temperature up to 200 cycles using a servo-hydraulic universal testing machine. The results indicate that accumulation of ratcheting strain increases monotonically with increasing maximum applied stress however; the rate of strain accumulation attains a saturation plateau after few cycles. The investigated steel shows cyclic softening behaviour under the applied stress conditions. The nature of strain accumulation and cyclic softening has been discussed in terms of dislocation distribution and plastic damage incurred in the material.

  1. Unusual phonon softening in the Kondo lattice CeCu 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenhaupt, Michael; Witte, Ulrike; Kramp, Sirko; Braden, Markus; Svoboda, Pavel

    2002-03-01

    CeCu2 is a Kondo lattice with antiferromagnetic order below 3.5 K and a Kondo temperature of about 6 K. Earlier neutron scattering experiments lead to the assumption of a coupling between a crystal field transition and some phonons with energies around 14 meV. With the results from our newly performed inelastic neutron measurements on a single crystal we found these assumptions confirmed. We observed an unusual softening of certain phonons with increasing temperature. This softening of up to 15% is much stronger than the normal thermal behavior of phonons. Additionally, the line width of these phonons is increasing. At the same time the magnetic response is strongly broadened by the coupling to the phonons. The findings for CeCu2 are discussed in relation with similar observation of a coupling between electronic and lattice degrees of freedom in CeAl2 and YbPO4.

  2. Softening of monthly cigarette use in youth and the need to harden measures in surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn T. Kozlowski

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Additional measures of frequency and intensity of use of cigarettes and other tobacco/nicotine products need to be more regularly reported. These results indicate softening rather than hardening of “current smoking” and have important implications for tobacco surveillance and for tobacco research because of a increased likelihood of quitting smoking, b health effects of cigarette smoking, and c similar and interacting issues related to measuring the use of all tobacco/nicotine products.

  3. Technological Process and Equipment for Electric-local Softening Soil of Different Strength and Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizun, A.R.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Electric-discharge technology for soil local softening is developed; the pre-production model of mobile high-energy electric-discharge generator with the controlled energy release is produced. Application of the proposed equipment and technology will allow essentially reduce construction materials and cost of the installation and construction works, in particular, capital investments in alternative energy, industrial, residential construction, and hydraulic engineering in general.

  4. Application of fractal dimensions to study the structure of flocs formed in lime softening process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahedi, Arman; Gorczyca, Beata

    2011-01-01

    The use of fractal dimensions to study the internal structure and settling of flocs formed in lime softening process was investigated. Fractal dimensions of flocs were measured directly on floc images and indirectly from their settling velocity. An optical microscope with a motorized stage was used to measure the fractal dimensions of lime softening flocs directly on their images in 2 and 3D space. The directly determined fractal dimensions of the lime softening flocs were 1.11-1.25 for floc boundary, 1.82-1.99 for cross-sectional area and 2.6-2.99 for floc volume. The fractal dimension determined indirectly from the flocs settling rates was 1.87 that was different from the 3D fractal dimension determined directly on floc images. This discrepancy is due to the following incorrect assumptions used for fractal dimensions determined from floc settling rates: linear relationship between square settling velocity and floc size (Stokes' Law), Euclidean relationship between floc size and volume, constant fractal dimensions and one primary particle size describing entire population of flocs. Floc settling model incorporating variable floc fractal dimensions as well as variable primary particle size was found to describe the settling velocity of large (>50 μm) lime softening flocs better than Stokes' Law. Settling velocities of smaller flocs (lime floc size in this study indicated that two mechanisms are involved in the formation of these flocs: cluster-cluster aggregation for small flocs (50 μm). Therefore, the relationship between the floc fractal dimension and floc size appears to be determined by floc formation mechanisms.

  5. Proteomic analysis of peach fruit mesocarp softening and chilling injury using difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campos-Vargas Reinaldo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peach fruit undergoes a rapid softening process that involves a number of metabolic changes. Storing fruit at low temperatures has been widely used to extend its postharvest life. However, this leads to undesired changes, such as mealiness and browning, which affect the quality of the fruit. In this study, a 2-D DIGE approach was designed to screen for differentially accumulated proteins in peach fruit during normal softening as well as under conditions that led to fruit chilling injury. Results The analysis allowed us to identify 43 spots -representing about 18% of the total number analyzed- that show statistically significant changes. Thirty-nine of the proteins could be identified by mass spectrometry. Some of the proteins that changed during postharvest had been related to peach fruit ripening and cold stress in the past. However, we identified other proteins that had not been linked to these processes. A graphical display of the relationship between the differentially accumulated proteins was obtained using pairwise average-linkage cluster analysis and principal component analysis. Proteins such as endopolygalacturonase, catalase, NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase, pectin methylesterase and dehydrins were found to be very important for distinguishing between healthy and chill injured fruit. A categorization of the differentially accumulated proteins was performed using Gene Ontology annotation. The results showed that the 'response to stress', 'cellular homeostasis', 'metabolism of carbohydrates' and 'amino acid metabolism' biological processes were affected the most during the postharvest. Conclusions Using a comparative proteomic approach with 2-D DIGE allowed us to identify proteins that showed stage-specific changes in their accumulation pattern. Several proteins that are related to response to stress, cellular homeostasis, cellular component organization and carbohydrate metabolism were detected as being

  6. Flash sintering of dielectric nanoparticles as a percolation phenomenon through a softened film

    OpenAIRE

    Chaim, Rachman; Chevallier, Geoffroy; Weibel, Alicia; Estournès, Claude

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Recent work [Biesuz et al., J. Appl. Phys. 120, 145107 (2016)] showed analogies between the flash sintering and dielectric breakdown in α-aluminas pre-sintered to different densities. Here, we show that flash sintering of dielectric nanoparticles can be described as a universal behavior by the percolation model. The electrical system is composed of particles and their contact point resistances, the latter softened first due to preferred local Joule heating and thermal ...

  7. Identification of Strain-Softening Properties and Computational Predictions of Localized Fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    OFFICE SYMBOL I de .4 a Code) LAWRENCE D. HOKANSON, Lt. Col. USAF (202) 767-4935 AFOSR/NA DO FORM 1473, 83 APR EDITION OF I JAN 73 IS OBSOLETE...crack band approach of Bazant and co-wor- kers [9] who interpreted the fictitious crack model of Hillerborg et al [10] within a crack band of finite...shear bands within linear bifurcation studies [13], [14]. In fact, Bazant offered some elementary strain-softening interpretation of concrete in

  8. Determination of the strain rate dependent thermal softening behavior of thermoplastic materials for crash simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopmann, Christian; Klein, Jan; Schöngart, Maximilian

    2016-03-01

    Thermoplastic materials are increasingly used as a light weight replacement for metal, especially in automotive applications. Typical examples are frontends and bumpers. The loads on these structures are very often impulsive, for example in a crash situation. A high rate of loading causes a high strain rate in the material which has a major impact on the mechanical behavior of thermoplastic materials. The stiffness as well as the rigidity of polymers increases to higher strain rates. The increase of the mechanical properties is superimposed at higher rates of loading by another effect which works reducing on stiffness and rigidity, the increase of temperature caused by plastic deformation. The mechanical behavior of thermoplastic materials is influenced by temperature opposing to strain rate. The stiffness and rigidity are decreased to higher values of temperature. The effect of thermal softening on thermoplastic materials is investigated at IKV. For this purpose high-speed tensile tests are performed on a blend, consisting of Polybutylenterephthalate (PBT) and Polycarbonate (PC). In preliminary investigations the effects of strain rate on the thermomechanical behavior of thermoplastic materials was studied by different authors. Tensile impact as well as split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) tests were conducted in combination with high-speed temperature measurement, though, the authors struggled especially with temperature measurement. This paper presents an approach which uses high-speed strain measurement to transpire the link between strain, strain rate and thermal softening as well as the interdependency between strain hardening and thermal softening. The results show a superimposition of strain hardening and thermal softening, which is consistent to preliminary investigations. The advantage of the presented research is that the results can be used to calibrate damage and material models to perform mechanical simulations using Finite Element Analysis.

  9. Proteomic analysis of peach fruit mesocarp softening and chilling injury using difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilo, Ricardo; Saffie, Carlos; Lilley, Kathryn; Baeza-Yates, Ricardo; Cambiazo, Verónica; Campos-Vargas, Reinaldo; González, Mauricio; Meisel, Lee A; Retamales, Julio; Silva, Herman; Orellana, Ariel

    2010-01-18

    Peach fruit undergoes a rapid softening process that involves a number of metabolic changes. Storing fruit at low temperatures has been widely used to extend its postharvest life. However, this leads to undesired changes, such as mealiness and browning, which affect the quality of the fruit. In this study, a 2-D DIGE approach was designed to screen for differentially accumulated proteins in peach fruit during normal softening as well as under conditions that led to fruit chilling injury. The analysis allowed us to identify 43 spots -representing about 18% of the total number analyzed- that show statistically significant changes. Thirty-nine of the proteins could be identified by mass spectrometry. Some of the proteins that changed during postharvest had been related to peach fruit ripening and cold stress in the past. However, we identified other proteins that had not been linked to these processes. A graphical display of the relationship between the differentially accumulated proteins was obtained using pairwise average-linkage cluster analysis and principal component analysis. Proteins such as endopolygalacturonase, catalase, NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase, pectin methylesterase and dehydrins were found to be very important for distinguishing between healthy and chill injured fruit. A categorization of the differentially accumulated proteins was performed using Gene Ontology annotation. The results showed that the 'response to stress', 'cellular homeostasis', 'metabolism of carbohydrates' and 'amino acid metabolism' biological processes were affected the most during the postharvest. Using a comparative proteomic approach with 2-D DIGE allowed us to identify proteins that showed stage-specific changes in their accumulation pattern. Several proteins that are related to response to stress, cellular homeostasis, cellular component organization and carbohydrate metabolism were detected as being differentially accumulated. Finally, a significant proportion of

  10. Induced mutations in tomato SlExp1 alter cell wall metabolism and delay fruit softening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minoia, Silvia; Boualem, Adnane; Marcel, Fabien; Troadec, Christelle; Quemener, Bernard; Cellini, Francesco; Petrozza, Angelo; Vigouroux, Jacqueline; Lahaye, Marc; Carriero, Filomena; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid

    2016-01-01

    Fruit ripening and softening are key traits for many fleshy fruit. Since cell walls play a key role in the softening process, expansins have been investigated to control fruit over ripening and deterioration. In tomato, expression of Expansin 1 gene, SlExp1, during fruit ripening was associated with fruit softening. To engineer tomato plants with long shelf life, we screened for mutant plants impaired in SlExp1 function. Characterization of two induced mutations, Slexp1-6_W211S, and Slexp1-7_Q213Stop, showed that SlExp1 loss of function leads to enhanced fruit firmness and delayed fruit ripening. Analysis of cell wall polysaccharide composition of Slexp1-7_Q213Stop mutant pointed out significant differences for uronic acid, neutral sugar and total sugar contents. Hemicelluloses chemistry analysis by endo-β-1,4-d-glucanase hydrolysis and MALDI-TOF spectrometry revealed that xyloglucan structures were affected in the fruit pericarp of Slexp1-7_Q213Stop mutant. Altogether, these results demonstrated that SlExp1 loss of function mutants yield firmer and late ripening fruits through modification of hemicellulose structure. These SlExp1 mutants represent good tools for breeding long shelf life tomato lines with contrasted fruit texture as well as for the understanding of the cell wall polysaccharide assembly dynamics in fleshy fruits.

  11. Softening and Hardening of a Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) Oscillator in a Nonlinear Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sarah; Edmonds, Terrence

    Micro-electro-mechanical systems or MEMS are used in a variety of today's technology and can be modeled using equations for nonlinear damped harmonic oscillators. Mathematical expressions have been formulated to determine resonance frequency shifts as a result of hardening and softening effects in MEMS devices. In this work we experimentally test the previous theoretical analysis of MEMS resonance frequency shifts in the nonlinear regime. Devices were put under low pressure at room temperature and swept through a range of frequencies with varying AC and DC excitation voltages to detect shifts in the resonant frequency. The MEMS device studied in this work exhibits a dominating spring softening effect due to the device's physical make-up. The softening effect becomes very dominant as the AC excitation is increased and the frequency shift of the resonance peak becomes quite significant at these larger excitations. Hardening effects are heavily dependent on mechanical factors that make up the MEMS devices. But they are not present in these MEMS devices. I will present our results along with the theoretical analysis of the Duffing oscillator model. This work was supported by NSF grant DMR-1461019 (REU) and DMR-1205891 (YL).

  12. Using fabric softeners, drying and ironing in Germany. A non-representative census of consumer behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, Verena; Stamminger, Rainer [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Household and Appliance Technology Section

    2011-05-15

    During the annually arranged Action Day Sustainable Washing on May 10{sup th}, 5284 questionnaires about laundry treatment were collected from private people in Germany with the aim of obtaining information about consumer behaviour and attitudes towards sustainability. This is a non-representative census as only 15% of all respondents were male. Nevertheless, relative distribution and correlation provide a relevant insight into consumers' behaviour towards washing, drying and ironing. The most important results of the analysis can be summed up as follows: - Nearly 50% of the respondents own a laundry-dryer. - Nearly one third of all respondents never use fabric softeners. The prevention of ecological damage was the reason for not using fabric softeners for 30% of the respondents. - About one fourth of all respondents always use fabric softeners, with younger people having a significantly higher attitude towards using them. - Under good weather conditions, about 90% of the respondents choose energy-saving alternatives to dry their laundry. - The average weekly time spent on ironing is about two hours on average of all respondents who gave information. The analysis shows that laundry treatment beyond the pure washing process is a multi-faceted process with several starting points of improvement in favour of sustainable handling. (orig.)

  13. BASIC STUDY ON TENSION SOFTENING AND CYCLIC DEFORMATION BEHAVIOR OF SOLIDIFIED BODY FOR THE COHESIVE SOIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urano, Kazuhiko; Adachi, Yuji; Mihara, Masaya; Yamada, Atsuo; Kawamura, Makoto

    So far, authors have proposed a method to improve earthquake resistance of pile foundations by partially solidifying an underground part of the pile foundations, and the effect of reinforcement has been confirmed by shaking table tests and the lateral loading tests of a full scale model. Though the solidified body is usually designed as an elastic body, it is possible to design the body considering the damage by the tensile stress when a seismic ground motion is assumed to be level 2. Therefore, material tests of the solidified body for the cohesive soil were executed, and the characteristics of the tension softening and the cyclic deformation behavior of the solidified bod y were clarified. Moreover, loading tests that used wall models of the solidified body were executed, and the effects of the shape on the tension softening and the cyclic deformation behavior of the solidified body were clarified. In addition, a numerical simulation by elastoplastic FEM analysis that considers the damage of the solidified body was executed, and the tension softening and the cyclic deformation behavior of the solidified body were reproduced.

  14. Effect of nitric oxide on ethylene synthesis and softening of banana fruit slice during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Guiping; Yang, En; Lu, Wangjin; Jia, Yongxia; Jiang, Yueming; Duan, Xuewu

    2009-07-08

    The effects of nitric oxide (NO) on ethylene synthesis and softening of ripening-initiated banana slice were investigated. Fruit firmness, color, and contents of starch and acid-soluble pectin (ASP) were measured. In addition, ethylene production, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) content, expression and activities of ACC synthase (ACS) and ACC oxidase (ACO), and activities of cell-wall-modifying enzymes, polygalacturonase (PG), pectin methylesterase (PME), and endo-beta-1,4-glucanase, were analyzed. Application of NO reduced ethylene production, inhibited degreening of the peel and delayed softening of the pulp. The decrease of ethylene production was associated with the reduction in the activity of ACO and the expression of the MA-ACO1 gene. Moreover, the NO-treated fruit showed a lower expression of the MA-ACS1 gene but higher ACS activity and ACC content. In addition, NO treatment decreased the activities of PG, PME, and endo-beta-1,4-glucanase and maintained higher contents of ASP and starch, which may account for the delay of softening. We proposed that the inhibition of ACO activity and transcription of gene MA-ACO1 by NO resulted in decreased ethylene synthesis and the delay of ripening of banana slice.

  15. Analysis of Papaya Cell Wall-Related Genes during Fruit Ripening Indicates a Central Role of Polygalacturonases during Pulp Softening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabi, João Paulo; Broetto, Sabrina Garcia; da Silva, Sarah Lígia Garcia Leme; Zhong, Silin; Lajolo, Franco Maria; do Nascimento, João Roberto Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a climacteric fleshy fruit that undergoes dramatic changes during ripening, most noticeably a severe pulp softening. However, little is known regarding the genetics of the cell wall metabolism in papayas. The present work describes the identification and characterization of genes related to pulp softening. We used gene expression profiling to analyze the correlations and co-expression networks of cell wall-related genes, and the results suggest that papaya pulp softening is accomplished by the interactions of multiple glycoside hydrolases. The polygalacturonase cpPG1 appeared to play a central role in the network and was further studied. The transient expression of cpPG1 in papaya results in pulp softening and leaf necrosis in the absence of ethylene action and confirms its role in papaya fruit ripening. PMID:25162506

  16. Softening and Mineral Content of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Leaves During the Fermentation to Produce Ntoba mbodi

    OpenAIRE

    S. Mokemiabeka; J. Dhellot; S.C. Kobawila; P. Diakabana; R.N. Ntietie Loukombo; A.G. Nyanga-Koumou; D. Louembe

    2011-01-01

    The aim of study is to investigate the softening of cassava leaves during the fermentation of Ntoba mbodi and the mineral content of cassava leaves fermented and unfermented. The softening of cassava leaves is a characteristic of fermentation to produce Ntoba mbodi. It is due to an enzymatic process. The activity of cellulase and polygalacturonase enzymes, very weak at the beginning of fermentation, increases sharply in 24 h and decreases thereafter. The pectinesterase and pectin lyase activi...

  17. Numerical simulation of friction stir welding (FSW): Prediction of the heat affect zone using a softening model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulo, R. M. F.; Carlone, P.; Valente, R. A. F.; Teixeira-Dias, F.; Palazzo, G. S.

    2016-10-01

    In this work a numerical model is proposed to simulate Friction Stir Welding (FSW) process in AA2024-T3 plates. This model included a softening model that account for the temperature history and the hardness distribution on a welded plate can thus be predicted. The validation of the model was performed using experimental measurements of the hardness in the plate cross-section. There is an acceptable prediction of the material softening in the Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) using the adopted model.

  18. ZEOLITES: EFFECTIVE WATER PURIFIERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeolites are known for their adsorption, ion exchange and catalytic properties. Various natural zeolites are used as odor and moisture adsorbents and water softeners. Due to their acidic nature, synthetic zeolites are commonly employed as solid acid catalysts in petrochemical ind...

  19. Elastic Softening of Surface Acoustic Wave Caused by Vacancy Orbital in Silicon Wafer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsumoto, Keisuke; Akatsu, Mitsuhiro; Baba, Shotaro; Takasu, Rie; Nemoto, Yuichi; Goto, Terutaka; Yamada-Kaneta, Hiroshi; Furumura, Yuji; Saito, Hiroyuki; Kashima, Kazuhiko; Saito, Yoshihiko

    2014-03-01

    We have performed surface acoustic wave (SAW) measurements to examine vacancies in a surface layer of a boron-doped silicon wafer currently used in semiconductor industry. A SAW with a frequency of fs = 517 MHz was optimally generated by an interdigital transducer with a comb gap of w=2.5 µm on a piezoelectric ZnO film deposited on the (001) silicon surface. The SAW propagating along the [100] axis with a velocity of vs=4.967 km/s is in agreement with the Rayleigh wave, which shows an ellipsoidal trajectory motion in the displacement components ux and uz within a penetration depth of λp = 3.5 µm. The elastic constant Cs of the SAW revealed the softening of ΔCs/Cs = 1.9 × 10-4 below 2 K down to 23 mK. Applied magnetic fields of up to 2 T completely suppress the softening. The quadrupole susceptibilities based on the coupling between the electric quadrupoles Ou, Ov, and Ozx of the vacancy orbital consisting of Γ8-Γ7 states and the symmetry strains ɛu, ɛv, and ɛzx associated with the SAW account for the softening and its field dependence on Cs. We deduced a low vacancy concentration N = 3.1 × 1012/cm3 in the surface layer within λp = 3.5 µm of the silicon wafer. This result promises an innovative technology for vacancy evaluation in the fabrication of high-density semiconductor devices in industry.

  20. On eco-efficient technologies to minimize industrial water consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Mohammad C.; Mohammadifard, Hossein; Ghaffari, Ghasem

    2016-07-01

    Purpose - Water scarcity will further stress on available water systems and decrease the security of water in many areas. Therefore, innovative methods to minimize industrial water usage and waste production are of paramount importance in the process of extending fresh water resources and happen to be the main life support systems in many arid regions of the world. This paper demonstrates that there are good opportunities for many industries to save water and decrease waste water in softening process by substituting traditional with echo-friendly methods. The patented puffing method is an eco-efficient and viable technology for water saving and waste reduction in lime softening process. Design/methodology/approach - Lime softening process (LSP) is a very sensitive process to chemical reactions. In addition, optimal monitoring not only results in minimizing sludge that must be disposed of but also it reduces the operating costs of water conditioning. Weakness of the current (regular) control of LSP based on chemical analysis has been demonstrated experimentally and compared with the eco-efficient puffing method. Findings - This paper demonstrates that there is a good opportunity for many industries to save water and decrease waste water in softening process by substituting traditional method with puffing method, a patented eco-efficient technology. Originality/value - Details of the required innovative works to minimize industrial water usage and waste production are outlined in this paper. Employing the novel puffing method for monitoring of lime softening process results in saving a considerable amount of water while reducing chemical sludge.

  1. Partonic energy loss in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions jet suppression versus jet fragmentation softening

    CERN Document Server

    Lokhtin, Igor P

    2003-01-01

    We discuss the modification of a jet fragmentation function due to medium-induced partonic energy loss in context of leading particle observables in ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus interactions. We also analyze the relation between in-medium softening jet fragmentation function and suppression of the jet rates due to energy loss outside the jet cone. The predicted anti-correlation between two effects allows to probe a fraction of partonic energy loss carried out of the jet cone and truly lost to the jet.

  2. Insights into the softening of chaotic statistical models by quantum considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafaro, C.; Giffin, A.; Lupo, C.; Mancini, S.

    2012-05-01

    We analyze the information geometry and the entropic dynamics of a 3D Gaussian statistical model and compare our analysis to that of a 2D Gaussian statistical model obtained from the higher-dimensional model via introduction of an additional information constraint that resembles the quantum mechanical canonical minimum uncertainty relation. We uncover that the chaoticity of the 2D Gaussian statistical model, quantified by means of the Information Geometric Entropy (IGE), is softened with respect to the chaoticity of the 3D Gaussian statistical model.

  3. Role of electron concentration in softening and hardening of ternary molybdenum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, J. R.; Witzke, W. R.

    1975-01-01

    Effects of various combinations of hafnium, tantalum, rhenium, osmium, iridium, and platinum in ternary molybdenum alloys on alloy softening and hardening were determined. Hardness tests were conducted at four test temperatures over the temperature range 77 to 411 K. Results showed that hardness data for ternary molybdenum alloys could be correlated with anticipated results from binary data based upon expressions involving the number of s and d electrons contributed by the solute elements. The correlation indicated that electron concentration plays a dominant role in controlling the hardness of ternary molybdenum alloys.

  4. Gurzadyan's Problem 5 and improvement of softenings for cosmological simulations using the PP method

    CERN Document Server

    Eingorn, Maxim

    2014-01-01

    This Letter is devoted to different modifications of two standard softenings of the gravitational attraction, which are commonly used in cosmological simulations based on the particle-particle (PP) method, and their comparison. It is demonstrated that some of the proposed alternatives lead to almost the same accuracy as in the case of the pure Newtonian interaction, even despite the fact that the force resolution is allowed to equal half the minimum interparticle distance. The revealed way of precision improvement gives an opportunity to succeed in solving Gurzadyan's Problem 5 and bring modern computer codes up to a higher standard.

  5. Effects Of Various Parameters On The Thickening Of Softening Plant Sludges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Günther H.J.; Baumann, E. R.; Larson, M. A.

    1989-01-01

    photomicrographs indicated that only the calcium carbonate precipitate has a well-defined crystal structure. The shift of the crystal size distribution (CSD) to greater sizes, observed by comparing the different sludges, may be due to bigger calcite crystals rather than to crystal size changes caused......Spectroscopic and thermal data for sludges from full-scale softening plants showed calcium and magnesium precipitated as calcite and an amorphous hydrated hydroxide, respectively. Magnesium ions were not incorporated into the calcium lattice to form a magnesian calcite. Scanning electron...

  6. Ab initio investigation of the anomalous phonon softening in FeSi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Robin; Madsen, Georg K. H.

    2016-10-01

    The anomalous softening of the acoustic phonon peak in FeSi has recently received considerable experimental attention. In our work, we investigate the effect of thermal disorder on the lattice dynamics and the filling of the narrow band gap of FeSi using density functional theory. We show, by comparing the phonon density of states from temperature-independent and temperature-dependent force constants, that thermal structural disorder together with thermal expansion explains the anomalously strong renormalization of the acoustic phonons. Furthermore, we find an intricate interplay between thermal disorder and volume in gap closure.

  7. The Effect of Hydrogen on the Solid Solution Strengthening and Softening of Nickel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    Afl-A108 654e ILLINOIS UNIV AT URBANA DEPT OF METALLURGY AND MININS--ETC F/6 11/6 THE EFFECT OF HYDROGEN ON THE SOLID SOLUTION STRFNSTNFNING ANfl...RESOLUTION TEST CHART NATIONAL HUR[AU OF STANDARDS 1963 A, " , ..... . .... .. i ....... .. .. . t , LEVEL THE EFFECT OF HYDROGEN ON THE SOLID SOLUTION STRENGTHENING...Availability Codes IIAvail and/or Dist Special THE EFFECT OF HYDROGEN ON THE SOLID SOLUTION STRENGTHENING AND SOFTENING OF NICKEL J. Eastman, F. Heuhaum, T

  8. Structural transition and softening in Al–Fe intermetallic compounds induced by high energy ball milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basariya, M. Raviathul, E-mail: ravia80@gmail.com [CSIR-National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur 831007 (India); Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (BHU), Varanasi 221005 (India); Roy, Rajat K.; Pramanick, A.K.; Srivastava, V.C. [CSIR-National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur 831007 (India); Mukhopadhyay, N.K. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (BHU), Varanasi 221005 (India)

    2015-06-25

    In the present investigation, powders of as-cast ingots of Al–25 at%Fe and Al–34.5 at%Fe alloys close to Al{sub 3}Fe and Al{sub 2}Fe intermetallic phases are subjected to high energy ball milling to understand the possibility of formation of amorphous and/or nanocrystalline phases or any other metastable phases. The development of microstructure, evolution of various metastable phases and their stability are investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. Mechanical milling of the alloys, up to 50 h, was carried out in high energy planetary ball mill. It resulted in phase transformation from monoclinic and triclinic structures of Al{sub 3}Fe and Al{sub 2}Fe, respectively, to orthorhombic structure pertaining to Al{sub 5}Fe{sub 2} phase and structural transformation from crystalline to amorphous phase. Hardness measurements revealed a transition from hardening to softening behavior in these mechanically milled alloys undergoing prolonged milling. The softening effect in the milled powders, having a composite structure involving nanocrystalline and amorphous phases, is attributed to the competing phenomenon of grain size reduction and amorphous phase formation with increasing milling time.

  9. Phonon softening induced cubic-to-tetragonal phase transition in ReO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaming; Zhang, Niu; Jia, Yu; Sun, Qiang; Chao, Mingju

    2015-10-01

    Within density functional theory, the structural, electronic and lattice dynamical properties of ReO3 in cubic Pm-3m and tetragonal P4/mbm phases are studied by using quasiharmonic approximation. The enthalpy-pressure curves show that a phase transition may take place at 5.0 kbar and the nonexistence of imaginary frequency in phonon dispersions demonstrates the two phases are dynamically stable under proper conditions. With the increase of pressure, an obvious softening of M3 mode at M point appears in cubic phase, and a cubic-to-tetragonal phase transition is accompanied with the presence of negative frequency in M3 mode at 5.0 kbar. In detail, one type of O atoms displaced from x = 0.2500 to x = 0.2401, which corresponds to the softening of M3 mode, are responsible for the phase transition. Our theoretical results show that ReO3 can exist in the tetragonal P4/mbm phase, and a cubic-to-tetragonal phase transition will appear at around 5.0 kbar.

  10. Influence of ethanol concentration on softening tests for cross-link density evaluation of dental composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Ratto de Moraes

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of ethanol concentration on softening tests for cross-link density evaluation (microhardness of dental composites. Specimens of Filtek Z100 (3M ESPE were light-activated by standard or pulse-delay methods. After initial Knoop hardness readings (KHN1, half of specimens (n = 10 for each irradiation method was stored in 100% ethanol, and half in 75% ethanol, during 24 hours, and hardness was determined anew. Hardness deterioration (DKHN was recorded as the difference between pre and post-storage values. KHN1 data were submitted to one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (alpha = 0.05, and hardness deterioration was analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (alpha= 0.05. For KHN1, no significant differences were detected between the activation modes (p = 0.697. Samples light-activated by the pulse-delay method presented significantly higher softening compared to the standard mode when samples were immersed in 100% ethanol. Conversely, no significant differences between curing modes were detected for samples stored in 75% ethanol.

  11. Ground reaction curves for circular excavations in non-homogeneous, axisymmetric strain-softening rock masses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. González-Cao; F. Varas; F.G. Bastante; L.R. Alejano

    2013-01-01

    Fast methods to solve the unloading problem of a cylindrical cavity or tunnel excavated in elasto-perfectly plastic, elasto-brittle or strain-softening materials under a hydrostatic stress field can be derived based on the self-similarity of the solution. As a consequence, they only apply when the rock mass is homoge-neous and so exclude many cases of practical interest. We describe a robust and fast numerical technique that solves the tunnel unloading problem and estimates the ground reaction curve for a cylindrical cavity excavated in a rock mass with properties depending on the radial coordinate, where the solution is no longer self-similar. The solution is based on a continuation-like approach (associated with the unloading and with the incremental formulation of the elasto-plastic behavior), finite element spatial discretization and a combination of explicit sub-stepping schemes and implicit techniques to integrate the constitutive law, so as to tackle the difficulties associated with both strong strain-softening and elasto-brittle behav-iors. The developed algorithm is used for two practical ground reaction curve computation applications. The first application refers to a tunnel surrounded by an aureole of material damaged by blasting and the second to a tunnel surrounded by a ring-like zone of reinforced (rock-bolted) material.

  12. Damage constitutive model for strain-softening rock based on normal distribution and its parameter determination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Firstly, using the damage model for rock based on Lemaitre hypothesis about strain equivalence, a new technique for measuring strength of rock micro-cells by adopting the Mohr-Coulomb criterion was developed, and a statistical damage evolution equation was established based on the property that strength of micro-cells is consistent with normal distribution function, through discussing the characteristics of random distributions for strength of micro-cells, then a statistical damage constitutive model that can simulate the full process of rock strain softening under specific confining pressure was set up. Secondly, a new method to determine the model parameters which can be applied to the situations under different confining pressures was proposed, by deeply studying the relations between the model parameters and characteristic parameters of the full stress-strain curve under different confining pressures. Therefore, a unified statistical damage constitutive model for rock softening which can reflect the effect of different confining pressures was set up. This model makes the physical property of model parameters explicit, contains only conventional mechanical parameters, and leads its application more convenient. Finally, the rationality of this model and its parameters-determining method were identified via comparative analyses between theoretical and experimental curves.

  13. Reversible stress softening of collagen based networks from the jumbo squid mantle (Dosidicus gigas)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, F.G., E-mail: fgtorres@pucp.edu.pe [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Catholic University of Peru, Lima 32 (Peru); Troncoso, O.P.; Rivas, E.R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Catholic University of Peru, Lima 32 (Peru); Gomez, C.G. [Departament de Química Física and Institut de Ciencia dels Materials, Universitat de València, Dr. Moliner 50, Burjassot, E-46100 Valencia (Spain); Lopez, D. [Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología de Polímeros, C.S.I.C., Calle Juan de la Cierva 3, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-04-01

    Dosidicus gigas is the largest and one of the most abundant jumbo squids in the eastern Pacific Ocean. In this paper we have studied the muscle of the mantle of D. gigas (DGM). Morphological, thermal and rheological properties were assessed by means of atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetry and oscillatory rheometry. This study allowed us to assess the morphological and rheological properties of a collagen based network occurring in nature. The results showed that the DGM network displays a nonlinear effect called reversible stress softening (RSS) that has been previously described for other types of biological structures such as naturally occurring cellulose networks and actin networks. We propose that the RSS could play a key role on the way jumbo squids withstand hydrostatic pressure. The results presented here confirm that this phenomenon occurs in a wider number of materials than previously thought, all of them exhibiting different size scales as well as physical conformation. - Highlights: • We studied the structure property relationships of the jumbo squid mantle. • Rheological tests showed that such a mantle exhibits reversible stress softening (RSS). • RSS could also play a role on the way jumbo squids withstand hydrostatic pressure.

  14. TO SELECTION OF TECHNOLOGICAL SCHEME OF SOFTENING HEAT TREATMENT FOR HIGH CHROMIUM CAST IRON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Efremenko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. High chromium cast irons with austenitic matrix have low machinability. The aim of work is search of new energy-saving modes of preliminary softening heat treatment enhancing the machinability of castings by forming an optimum microstructure. Methodology. Metallographic analysis, hardness testing and machinability testing are applied. Findings. It was found out that high temperature annealing with continuous cooling yields to martensite-austenite matrix in cast iron 270Х15Г2Н1MPhT, which abruptly affects the machinability of cast iron. Significant improvement of machinability is achieved by forming of structure "ferrite + granular carbides" and by decline of hardness to 37-39 HRC in the case of two-stage isothermal annealing in the subcritical temperature range or by the use of quenching and tempering (two-step or cyclic. Originality. It was found that the formation of the optimal structure of the matrix and achievement of desired hardness level needed for improving machinability of high chromium cast iron containing 3 % austenite-forming elements, can be obtained: 1 due to pearlite original austenite followed by spherodization eutectoid carbides, and 2 by getting predominantly martensite structure followed by the decay of martensite and carbides coagulation at high-temperature tempering. Practical value. The new energy-saving schemes of softening heat treatment to ensure the growth of machinability of high chromium cast iron, alloyed by higher quantity of austenite forming elements, are proposed.

  15. A local prescription for the softening length in self-gravitating gaseous discs

    CERN Document Server

    Huré, Jean-Marc

    2009-01-01

    In 2D-simulations of self-gravitating gaseous discs, the potential is often computed in the framework of "softened gravity" initially designed for N-body codes. In this special context, the role of the softening length LAMBDA is twofold: i) to avoid numerical singularities in the integral representation of the potential (i.e., arising when the relative separation vanishes), and ii) to acount for stratification of matter in the direction perpendicular to the disc mid-plane. So far, most studies have considered LAMBDA as a free parameter and various values or formulae have been proposed without much mathematical justification. In this paper, we demonstrate by means of a rigorous calculus that it is possible to define LAMBDA such that the gravitational potential of a flat disc coincides at order zero with that of a geometically thin disc of the same surface density. Our prescription for LAMBDA, valid in the local, axisymmetric limit, has the required properties i) and ii). It is mainly an analytical function of ...

  16. Metallization and softening of B{sub 6}O at high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yuehui [Institute of Physics and Chemistry, HNUST, Qinhuangdao, Hebei 066600 (China); Wang, Yachun; Yao, Tiankai; Li, Hui; Wu, Lailei; Yang, Meng [Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, College of Material Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Zhang, Jingwu, E-mail: ziw@ysu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, College of Material Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Gou, Huiyang, E-mail: huiyang.gou@gmail.com [Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, College of Material Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2014-07-05

    Highlights: • Structural searching identified a high-pressure phase for B{sub 6}O with monoclinic Cc structure. • Cc structure B{sub 6}O is mechanically and dynamically stable. • Cc phase characterizes in pentagonal pyramids and zig-zag O–B1–O chains. • Cc phase shows metallization and softened hardness as compared to zero-pressure structure. - Abstract: Structural stability, elastic and electronic properties of boron suboxide, B{sub 6}O, up to 300 GPa were investigated by first-principles calculations. Structural searching and enthalpy differences calculations identify a high-pressure phase for B{sub 6}O with monoclinic Cc structure (denoted as β-B{sub 6}O), which is energetically preferable to the known R-3 m-type phase above 245 GPa. β-B{sub 6}O phase forms a three-dimensional covalent network mainly composed of pentagonal pyramids and zig-zag O–B1–O chains extended along c-direction. β-B{sub 6}O phase is found to be stable examined by the calculated elastic constants and phonon dispersion and exhibits metallic behavior and greater elastic and hardness anisotropy, totally different from the semiconducting character and relative isotropy of ground state structure. Moreover, β-B{sub 6}O is predicted to soften significantly with a Vicker’s hardness of about 20.7 GPa.

  17. Softening of the elastic shear mode C{sub 66} in iron-based superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehmer, Anna; Burger, Philipp [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Fakultaet fuer Physik, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Hardy, Frederic; Schweiss, Peter; Fromknecht, Rainer; Wolf, Thomas; Meingast, Christoph [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Reinecker, Marius; Schranz, Wilfried [Universitaet Wien, Fakultaet fuer Physik, A-1090 Wien, Vienna (Austria)

    2013-07-01

    The structural phase transition of underdoped iron-based superconductors is accompanied by a large softening of the elastic shear mode C{sub 66}, which has attracted considerable attention. This softening has been discussed both in terms of orbital and spin-nematic fluctuations which would be responsible for the structural phase transition and, possibly, superconductivity. However, sample requirements have so far restricted experimental investigations of C{sub 66} (via measurements of the ultrasound velocity) to the Ba(Fe,Co){sub 2}As{sub 2} system. Here, we report on a new technique, based on a three-point bending setup, to probe the Young's modulus of a sample with a capacitance dilatometer. For certain orientations, the Young's modulus is related to the elastic constant C{sub 66} whose effective temperature dependence can be obtained. Platelet-like samples, as frequently encountered for iron-based systems, are easily studied with our setup. Data on several systems are presented and discussed.

  18. Study on softening Tilapia backbone by high pressure steam cooking%高压蒸煮软化罗非鱼鱼骨的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴克刚; 张文祥; 柴向华; 何文龙

    2013-01-01

    To study softening Tilapia backbone by high pressure steam cooking,with pH,cooking pressure,steaming time and material/water ratio for study factors,the hardness of Tilapia backbone was evaluated with its maximum bearable pressure on universal testing machine.Results of single-factor experiments and orthogonal experiments showed that the softening effect of backbone was the best with the treatment condition of pH6.5,pressure of 0.13MPa,steaming time of 75min and material/water ratio of 1∶1.Under this condition,the hardness of Tilapia backbone was 33.0N.%以罗非鱼鱼骨为实验对象,以pH、蒸煮压力、蒸煮时间以及料液比为研究因素,采用万能试验机测量鱼骨最大承受压力来评价其硬度,研究高压蒸煮软化工艺.通过单因素实验及正交实验表明:当pH为6.5、蒸煮压力为0.13MPa、时间为75min、料液比为1∶1时,对鱼骨的软化效果最好,此工艺下所得鱼骨硬度为33.0N.

  19. A COMBINED PARAMETRIC QUADRATIC PROGRAMMING AND PRECISE INTEGRATION METHOD BASED DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF ELASTIC-PLASTIC HARDENING/SOFTENING PROBLEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洪武; 张新伟

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to develop a new algorithm for numericalsolution of dynamic elastic-plastic strain hardening/softening problems. The gradientdependent model is adopted in the numerical model to overcome the result mesh-sensitivity problem in the dynamic strain softening or strain localization analysis.The equations for the dynamic elastic-plastic problems are derived in terms of theparametric variational principle, which is valid for associated, non-associated andstrain softening plastic constitutive models in the finite element analysis. The preciseintegration method, which has been widely used for discretization in time domain ofthe linear problems, is introduced for the solution of dynamic nonlinear equations.The new algorithm proposed is based on the combination of the parametric quadraticprogramming method and the precise integration method and has all the advantagesin both of the algorithms. Results of numerical examples demonstrate not only thevalidity, but also the advantages of the algorithm proposed for the numerical solutionof nonlinear dynamic problems.

  20. Phonon softening in the CDW Systems NbSe{sub 2} and TiSe{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hott, Roland; Heid, Rolf; Bohnen, Klaus-Peter [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Solid State Physics, Karlsruhe (Germany); Weber, Frank [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Solid State Physics, Karlsruhe (Germany); Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois (United States); Rosenkranz, Stephan; Castellan, John-Paul; Osborn, Raymond [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois (United States); Egami, Takeshi [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee (United States); Said, Ayman [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois (United States); Reznik, Dmitry [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Solid State Physics, Karlsruhe (Germany); Department of Physics, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, Colorado (United States)

    2011-07-01

    We investigated the soft-mode behaviour of phonons in the charge density wave (CDW) systems NbSe{sub 2} and TiSe{sub 2} both theoretically in Density Functional Theory (DFT) based on ab-initio phonon calculations and experimentally by means of high resolution Inelastic X-ray Scattering (IXS). For both materials, the theoretical predictions for the phonon softening using the experimental lattice parameters coincide with the experimentally observed CDW instability behaviour. While TiSe{sub 2} shows a rather sharp phonon anomaly at T=190 K, the anomaly in NbSe{sub 2} at T=33 K is much broader than expected for a Fermi surface nesting driven CDW instability. For NbSe{sub 2}, we exclude Fermi surface nesting as main origin of the phonon softening. For TiSe{sub 2}, there is no need to go beyond DFT in order to describe the phonon softening.

  1. Stress Softening Behavior in the Mucosa-Submucosa and Muscle Layers in Normal and Diabetic Rat Esophagus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Hongbo; Liao, Donghua; Zhao, Jingbo

    2015-01-01

    Background & aims: Stress softening is a feature of mechanical preconditioning in soft tissue. Previously, we demonstrated that esophageal stress softening is reversible by muscle activation with KCl. Since the esophagus consists of muscle and mucosa-submucosa layers, the aim was to study......M KCl was added for maximum contraction for 3min. KCl was washed out to permit relaxation and contractions were eliminated by immersion into Ca2+-free solution. After 1h rest, the tubes were exposed to five repeated ramp distensions conformed to the aforesaid two series. Stress-strain curves were used...... losses due to stress softening were recovered by KCl-induced contraction. Such losses could not be recovered by KCl in the diabetic esophageal muscle layer. The normal esophageal mucosa-submucosa layer obtained extra energy gain by KCl activation whereas the diabetic mucosa-submucosa layer became softer...

  2. Process optimisation of lime milk leaching and control of cold lime softening at the power plant STEAG Fenne; Optimierung des Kalkansatzes und Regelung der Kalkmilchdosierung in der KZA des STEAG-Kraftwerks Fenne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Christian [Steag Kraftwerk Fenne, Voelklingen (Germany). Anlagentechnik; Arenz, Helmut [Steag Kraftwerk Fenne, Voelklingen (Germany). Technischer Service; Wysk, Ralf [NALCO Deutschland GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). National Account Managing Kraftwerke

    2013-06-01

    An increase in turbidity in the cleaned water of the cold lime softener higher than the raw water input of the river Saar was observed at the Fenne site at some days in 2009. Also the post-installed sand filter could not restrain the fine particles. Under these circumstances the demineralisation water production had serious problems because of heavily fouled membranes in the reverse osmosis system. Only the immense personal actions of the operating staff could enable the reliability of the water preparation system on site. Together with Nalco the power plant service department implemented a plant audit on site. The purpose of the plant audit was to find the reason for the bottleneck in water preparation and to optimise and automate the water treatment system under the aspects of economical reliability and control efficiency. (orig.)

  3. The effect of hardening laws and thermal softening on modeling residual stresses in FSW of aluminum alloy 2024-T3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Mads Rostgaard; Tutum, Cem Celal; Hattel, Jesper Henri;

    2013-01-01

    or kinematic hardening together with the metallurgical softening model were applied in order to give a first impression of the tendencies in residual stresses in friction stir welds when choosing different hardening and softening behaviors. Secondly, real friction stir butt welding of aluminum alloy 2024-T3...... were simulated and compared with experimentally obtained results for both temperatures and residual stresses (using the slitting method). The comparisons showed good agreement regarding temperatures whereas the residual stress comparisons indicated different sensitivities for the cold and hot welding...

  4. Fracture propagation in Indiana Limestone interpreted via linear softening cohesive fracture model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, Alex J.; Bishop, Joseph E.; Dewers, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    We examine the use of a linear softening cohesive fracture model (LCFM) to predict single-trace fracture growth in short-rod (SR) and notched 3-point-bend (N3PB) test configurations in Indiana Limestone. The broad goal of this work is to (a) understand the underlying assumptions of LCFM and (b) use experimental similarities and deviations from the LCFM to understand the role of loading paths of tensile fracture propagation. Cohesive fracture models are being applied in prediction of structural and subsurface fracture propagation in geomaterials. They lump the inelastic processes occurring during fracture propagation into a thin zone between elastic subdomains. LCFM assumes that the cohesive zone initially deforms elastically to a maximum tensile stress (σmax) and then softens linearly from the crack opening width at σmax to zero stress at a critical crack opening width w1. Using commercial finite element software, we developed LCFMs for the SR and N3PB configurations. After fixing σmax with results from cylinder splitting tests and finding an initial Young's modulus (E) with unconfined compressive strength tests, we manually calibrate E and w1 in the SR model against an envelope of experimental data. We apply the calibrated LCFM parameters in the N3PB geometry and compare the model against an envelope of N3PB experiments. For accurate simulation of fracture propagation, simulated off-crack stresses are high enough to require inclusion of damage. Different elastic moduli are needed in tension and compression. We hypothesize that the timing and location of shear versus extensional micromechanical failures control the qualitative macroscopic force-versus-displacement response in different tests. For accurate prediction, the LCFM requires a constant style of failure, which the SR configuration maintains until very late in deformation. The N3PB configuration does not maintain this constancy. To be broadly applicable between geometries and failure styles, the LCFM

  5. Use prospect of the of athermic technologies of metal softening for rolling stock elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.N. Grischenko

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of work is the possibility estimation of аthermic technologies use of cold-deformed metal softening for elements of railway car body and wheel. Methodology. The material for research is the carbon steel of the wheel rim fragment containing 0.55%С, 0.74%Mn, 0.33%Si, and the steel 20. The wheel steel is studied after heat strengthening and cold work after operation. Steel 20 is studied after plastic cold work by rolling. Electric pulse treatment (ET is carried out on the special equipment. As the property of metal strength the Vickers hardness number is used. The microstructure research is carried out using the light and electronic microscope. Findings. During operation of the rolling stock elements with different strength level origin of damages on metallic surfaces is caused by a simultaneous load action. Taking into account that forming of breakdown sites is largely determined by the state of metal volumes nearby the places of maximal active voltages, the technology development of defect accumulation slowdown or the level of active voltages development allow one to prolong the operating term of rolling stock elements. After electric pulse treatment of the wheel rim fragment the regular changes of metal internal structure corresponded to the hardness changes. The hardness of low carbon steel increases proportional to the increase of the level of cold work by rolling. Alternating bending of the cold-deformed flat is accompanied by strength decrease, which is caused by the metal substructure changes. Originality. The softening process of the cold-worked steel is accompanied by substructure changes, which to a greater extent correspond to the hardening development from the plastic cold-work: dispersion of the dislocation cellular structure, formation of the new sub boundaries and displacement of the formed sub boundaries. Practical value. Introduction of electric pulse treatment in the conditions of railway depots repair base

  6. Evaluation of a dentifrice containing 8% arginine, calcium carbonate, and sodium monofluorophosphate to repair acid-softened enamel using an intra-oral remineralization model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, R; Rege, A; Corby, P; Klaczany, G; Allen, K; Hershkowitz, D; Goldder, B; Wolff, M

    2014-01-01

    An intra-oral remineralization study was conducted to compare the ability of a dentifrice containing 8% arginine and calcium carbonate (Pro-Argin Technology), and 1450 ppm fluoride as sodium monofluorophosphate (MFP) to remineralize acid-softened bovine enamel specimens compared to a silica-based dentifrice with 1450 ppm fluoride as MFP. The intra-oral clinical study employed a double blind, two-treatment, crossover design, and used an upper palatal retainer to expose the enamel specimens to the oral environment during product use and periods of remineralization. The retainer was designed to house three partially demineralized bovine enamel samples. The study population was comprised of 30 adults, ages 18 to 70 years. The study consisted of two treatment phases with a washout period lasting seven (+/- three) days preceding each treatment phase. A silica-based dentifrice without fluoride was used during the washout period. The Test Dentifrice used in this study contained 8% arginine, calcium carbonate, and 1450 ppm fluoride as sodium monofluorophosphate (MFP). The Control Dentifrice was silica-based and contained 1450 ppm fluoride as MFP. The treatment period consisted of a three-day lead-in period with the assigned product. The panelists brushed two times per day during the three-day lead-in period with the assigned product. On the fourth day, the panelists began brushing with the assigned product with the retainer in their mouth. The panelists brushed for one minute, followed by a one-minute swish with the slurry and a rinse with 15 ml of water in the morning, in the afternoon, and night with the retainer in the mouth. The panelists brushed only their teeth and not the specimens directly. Changes in mineral content before and after treatment were measured using a Knoop microhardness tester. The results of the study showed that percent remineralization values for the Test Dentifrice and Control Dentifrice were 14.99% and 8.66%, respectively. A statistical analysis

  7. Fatigue performance and cyclic softening of F82H, a ferritic martensic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stubbins, J.F. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Gelles, D.S. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    The room temperature fatigue performance of F82H has been examined. The fatigue life was determined in a series of strain-controlled tests where the stress level was monitored as a function of the number of accrued cycles. Fatigue lives in the range of 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 6} cycles to failure were examined. The fatigue performance was found to be controlled primarily by the elastic strain range over most of the range of fatigue lives examined. Only at low fatigue lives did the plastic strain range contribute to the response. However, when the significant plastic strain did contribute, the material showed a tendency to cyclically soften. That is the load carrying capability of the material degrades with accumulated fatigue cycles. The overall fatigue performance of the F82H alloy was found to be similiar to other advanced martensitic steels, but lower than more common low alloy steels which possess lower yield strengths.

  8. Pseudo-periodic surrogate test to sample time series in stochastic softening Duffing oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan Chunbiao [Department of Mechanics, CMEE, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)]. E-mail: cb_gan@zju.edu.cn

    2006-09-11

    Identification of typical noise-contaminated sample response is a hard task in a nonlinear system under stochastic background since irregularity of the sample response may come from measure noise, dynamical noise, or nonlinear effect, etc., and conventional dynamical methods are generally not useful. Here, the pseudo-periodic surrogate algorithm by Small is employed to test the sample time series in the softening Duffing oscillator under the Gaussian white noise excitation. The correlation dimensions of the noisy periodic and the noise-induced chaotic time series of the system are compared with those of their corresponding surrogate data respectively, the leading Lyapunov exponents by Rosenstein's algorithm are also presented for comparison.

  9. A work softening joint element used in dynamic analysis of soil-structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toki, Kenzo; Yongen, Cai; Zhendong, Zhao

    1989-11-01

    This paper introduces an elasto-plastic joint element characterised by strain hardening and softening in the analysis of dynamic soil-structure interaction. The phenomena of separation and sliding on the contact surface between soil and structure can be better simulated and the process can also be described. The interaction problems in a typical soil-structure system are analyzed in terms of elasto-plastic joint element as well as elastic ones. The results show that the elasto-plastic joint element is much better than the elastic one in modelling, especially in that the relative displacements accross the joint element can be much greater than that of the elastic case. Separation and sliding are not only related to the coefficient of friction and cohesion but also to their changes with plastic volumetric strain.

  10. A work-hardening and softening constitutive model for sand: modified plastic strain energy approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fangle Peng; M.S.A. Siddiquee; Shaoming Liao

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes an energy-based constitutive model for sand, which is modified based on the modified plastic strain energy approach, represented by a unique relationship between the modified plastic strain energy and a stress parameter, independent of stress history. The modified plastic strain energy approach was developed based on results from a series of drained plastic strain compression tests along various stress paths on saturated dense Toyoura sand with accurate stress and strain measurements. The proposed model is coupled with an isotropically work-hardening and softening, non-associtated, elasto-plastic material description. The constitutive model concerns the inherent and stress systeminduced cross-anisotropic elastic deformation properties of sand. It is capable of simulating the deformation characteristics of stress history and stress path, the effects of pressure level, anisotropic strength and void ratio, and the strain localization.

  11. Unified solution of limit loads of thick wall cylinder subject to external pressure considering strain softening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Changfu; XIAO Shujun; YANG Yu

    2007-01-01

    Based on the unified strength theory [1],a unified strength criterion for strain softening materials,such as concrete or rock,was derived,and the elastic and plastic limit loads of a thick-walled cylinder made of these materials subject to external pressure were also given.In addition,the influence of some factors on the limit loads of such cylinders as the ratio of the external radius to intemal radius,rb/ra,the coefficient b,which reflects the effect of medium principal stress and the normal stress of the relevant surface on the material destroy degree,the ratio of tensile strength to compressed strength of the material,α,and the damage variable β were discussed in detail.Some examples were given and some meaningful results were obtained.

  12. Improved actuation strain of PDMS-based DEA materials chemically modified with softening agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedermann, Miriam; Blümke, Martin; Wegener, Michael; Krüger, Hartmut

    2015-04-01

    Dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) are smart materials that gained much in interest particularly in recent years. One active field of research is the improvement of their properties by modification of their structural framework. The object of this work is to improve the actuation properties of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based DEAs by covalent incorporation of mono-vinyl-terminated low-molecular PDMS chains into the PDMS network. These low-molecular units act as a kind of softener within the PDMS network. The loose chain ends interfere with the network formation and lower the network's density. PDMS films with up to 50wt% of low-molecular PDMS additives were manufactured and the chemical, mechanical, electrical, and electromechanical properties of these novel materials were investigated.

  13. Analysis on cohesive crack opening displacement considering the strain softening effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Limin; XU; Shilang; ZHAO; Xiqiang

    2006-01-01

    In order to investigate the crack propagation in quasi-brittle materials like rock, ceramic and concrete, Hillerborg and his co-researchers abstracted the fracture process zone in front of a stress free crack in terms of a "fictitious crack zone". On the fictitious crack zone, cohesive stresses distribute following a given softening relationship of stress vs. crack opening. Based on the polynomial or power series expression of cohesive crack opening displacement, the relationship of the cohesive stress vs. the crack opening displacement is established using elastic theory and integral equation, and some unknown physics variables are obtained using variation approach. The calculation results gained in this paper are close to the experimentally test ones.

  14. Intrinsic stress mitigation via elastic softening during two-step electrochemical lithiation of amorphous silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zheng; Li, Teng

    2016-06-01

    Recent experiments and first-principles calculations show the two-step lithiation of amorphous silicon (a-Si). In the first step, the lithiation progresses by the movement of a sharp phase boundary between a pristine a-Si phase and an intermediate L iη Si phase until the a-Si phase is fully consumed. Then the second step sets in without a visible interface, with the L iη Si phase continuously lithiating to a L i3.75 Si phase. This unique feature of lithiation is believed to have important consequences for mechanical durability of a-Si anodes in lithium ion batteries, however the mechanistic understanding of such consequences is still elusive so far. Here, we reveal an intrinsic stress mitigation mechanism due to elastic softening during two-step lithiation of a-Si, via chemo-mechanical modeling. We find that lithiation-induced elastic softening of a-Si leads to effective stress mitigation in the second step of lithiation. These mechanistic findings allow for the first time to quantitatively predict the critical size of an a-Si anode below which the anode becomes immune to lithiation-induced fracture, which is in good agreement with experimental observations. Further studies on lithiation kinetics suggest that the two-step lithiation also results in a lower stress-induced energy barrier for lithiation. The present study reveals the physical underpinnings of previously unexplained favorable lithiation kinetics and fracture behavior of a-Si anodes, and thus sheds light on quantitative design guidelines toward high-performance anodes for lithium ion batteries.

  15. A local prescription for the softening length in self-gravitating gaseous discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huré, J.-M.; Pierens, A.

    2009-11-01

    In 2D-simulations of self-gravitating gaseous discs, the potential is often computed in the framework of “softened gravity” initially designed for N-body codes. In this special context, the role of the softening length λ is twofold: i) to avoid numerical singularities in the integral representation of the potential (i.e., arising when the separation |r -r'| → 0); and ii) to account for stratification of matter in the direction perpendicular to the disc mid-plane. So far, most studies have considered λ as a free parameter and various values or formulae have been proposed without much mathematical justification. In this paper, we demonstrate by means of a rigorous calculus that it is possible to define λ such that the gravitational potential of a flat disc coincides at order zero with that of a geometrically thin disc of the same surface density. Our prescription for λ, valid in the local, axisymmetric limit, has the required properties i) and ii). It is mainly an analytical function of the radius and disc thickness, and is sensitive to the vertical stratification. For mass density profiles considered (namely, profiles expandable over even powers of the altitude), we find that λ: i) is independant of the numerical mesh, ii) is always a fraction of the local thickness H; iii) goes through a minimum at the singularity (i.e., at null separation); and iv) is such that 0.13 ⪉ λ/H ⪉ 0.29 typically (depending on the separation and on density profile). These results should help us to improve the quality of 2D- and 3D-simulations of gaseous discs in several respects (physical realism, accuracy, and computing time).

  16. Influence Mechanism of Endogenous Abscisic Acid on Storage Softening Process of Hardy Kiwifruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Shuqian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the relation of Abscisic Acid (ABA with other biochemistry factors during hardy kiwifruit softening process. The changing trend of ABA under the fruits storage conditions of 20 and 0C was analyzed. A conclusion is drawn as below: During storage under 20C, it shows the highest content of ABA in 4 days to 222.19 &mu g/L, which reaches the almost same content in 3 and 5 days. The value keeps inclining since 5 days and decline rate is lower in 7 and 8 days. The lowest value is reached to 20.88 &mug/L in 10 days. During storage under 0C, ABA content is at a relatively high level but shows the slow down trend. ABA content falls greatly from 9 to 11 days. After this period, ABA content still follows up-trend and declining then. The peak appears in 15 days to 90.49 &mug/L, but it is lower than that in the first nine days. Moreover, peak during storage in environment under 0C is lower than that during the storage in environment at normal temperature, accordingly delaying fruit softening. As the ABA content rises to the highest level, the fruit hardness drops drastically. When ABA content slightly changes, the hardness decreases gently. ABA content is featured that same changing trend of ethylene content, respiratory intensity, pectase content and amylase content. Moreover, ABA has the same peak appearance time as amylase but it is later than appearance of both pectase and ethylene, they basically match each other. The rule of peak appearance time is not obvious for ABA and amylase. Mutual inhibition exists between peak appearance time of ABA and respiratory intensity. Quick ABA rise is accompanied with slow amylase rise and vice versa.

  17. 榛子木质化花柱软化方法的改进%Improvement of Lignified Style Softening Method in Hazelnut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程云清; 张会弟; 刘剑锋

    2015-01-01

    以野生平榛( C。heterophylla Fisch。)雌花序为供试材料,研究榛子木质化花柱软化的方法。结果表明:(1)1。0 mol/L NaOH溶液浸泡并煮沸比相同处理下蒸馏水的软化效果好;(2)1。0 mol/L NaOH溶液浸泡材料并立即水煮软化20 min后的软化效果优于其他处理时间;(3)苯胺蓝染色环境的缓冲液最佳pH范围为5。7至7。1。此改进方法可以在一天内即可完成榛子花粉管形态的观察,较传统软化方法简单、快捷。%Pistilate flower of wild hazelnut ( C.heterophylla Fisch.) was used as study materials to improve style softening method.The results showed that:(1) 1.0 mol/L boiling NaOH solution soaking was more beneficial for softening of style compared with boiling distilled water;(2) the optimal treatment time was 20 min in 1.0 mol/L boiling NaOH solution;(3) The suitable buffer pH of aniline blue solution ranged from 5.7 to 7.1.After improvement,morphology of pollen tubes of hazelnut could be observed clearly within one day .Thus,this method is more simple and efficient than the traditional one .

  18. Altered cell wall disassembly during ripening of Cnr tomato fruit : implications for cell wall adhesion and fruit softening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orfila, C.; Huisman, M.M.H.; Willats, W.G.T.; Alebeek, van G.J.W.M.; Schols, H.A.; Seymour, G.B.; Knox, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    The Cnr (Colourless non-ripening) tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) mutant has an aberrant fruit-ripening phenotype in which fruit do not soften and have reduced cell adhesion between pericarp cells. Cell walls from Cnr fruit were analysed in order to assess the possible contribution of pectic

  19. 40 CFR 141.564 - My system practices lime softening-is there any special provision regarding my individual filter...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false My system practices lime softening-is... People Individual Filter Turbidity Requirements § 141.564 My system practices lime softening—is there any special provision regarding my individual filter turbidity monitoring? If your system utilizes...

  20. Lowering the sensory threshold and enhancing the responsivity of biomimetic hair flow sensors by electrostatic spring softening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droogendijk, H.; Bruinink, C.M.; Sanders, Remco G.P.; Siebelder, Ortwin G.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.

    2011-01-01

    We report improvements in detection limit and responsivity of biomimetic hair flow sensors by electrostatic spring-softening (ESS). Applying a DC voltage to our capacitive flow sensors results in a reduced sensory threshold, which gives an improvement for the flow detection limit of more than 30%.

  1. QTL dynamics for fruit firmness and softening around an ethyle-dependent polygalacturonase gene in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, F.; Peace, C.P.; Stella, S.; Serra, S.; Musacchi, S.; Bazzani, M.; Sansavini, S.; Weg, van de W.E.

    2010-01-01

    Apple fruit are well known for their storage life, although a wide range of flesh softening occurs among cultivars. Loss of firmness is genetically coordinated by the action of several cell wall enzymes, including polygalacturonase (PG) which depolymerizes cell wall pectin. By the analysis of ‘Fuji’

  2. Effects of Nitrogen Content on the HAZ Softening of Ti-Containing High Strength Steels Manufactured by Accelerated Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Kook-soo; Jung, Ho-shin; Park, Chan [Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    The effects of nitrogen content on the HAZ softening of Ti-containing high strength steels manufactured by accelerating cooling were investigated and interpreted in terms of the microstructures in the softening zone. Regardless of their content, all of the steels investigated showed a softened zone 9-10 mm wide. The minimum hardness in the zone, however, was different, with lower hardness in the higher nitrogen content steel. Microstructural observations of the steel showed that the amount of soft ferrite was increased in the zone with an increase of nitrogen content of the steel, suggesting that microstructural evolution in the HAZ is influenced by the nitrogen content. Measurements of TiN particles showed that the degree of particles coarsening in the HAZ was lower in the higher nitrogen content steel. Therefore, it is believed that finer TiN particles in the HAZ inhibit austenite grain growth more effectively, and lead to an accelerated ferrite transformation in higher nitrogen content steel, resulting in a higher amount of soft ferrite microstructure in the softened zone.

  3. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Nutrition Nutrition basics Water Water Did you know that water makes up more ... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ...

  4. Evaluation of HAZ liquation cracking susceptibility and HAZ softening behavior in modified 800H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundin, C.D.; Qiao, C.Y.P. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1992-11-20

    A modified 800H alloy, developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), is one of the candidate materials designed for high temperature applications. Extensive mechanical and corrosion investigations have been completed and it has been proven that modified 800 has excellent high temperature mechanical and metallurgical behavior. Weldability studies of modified 800H are being carried out at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville. A series of modified 800H alloys and two similar commercial high temperature materials (310Ta and HR3C) were used to conduct this investigation. A preliminary weldability evaluation has been accomplished and the major part of the results (HAZ liquation cracking resistance and HAZ softening behavior in modified 800H) is addressed in this report. The basic conclusion of this investigation is that modified 800H material possesses good resistance to HAZ liquation cracking especially with a grain size control (thermo-mechanical treatment). The information from this study is important to the further modification of the material in order to extend its applications.

  5. Noise-induced chaos and basin erosion in softening Duffing oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan Chunbiao [Department of Mechanics, CMEE, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)] e-mail: cb_gan@zju.edu.cn

    2005-09-01

    It is common for many dynamical systems to have two or more attractors coexist and in such cases the basin boundary is fractal. The purpose of this paper is to study the noise-induced chaos and discuss the effect of noises on erosion of safe basin in the softening Duffing oscillator. The Melnikov approach is used to obtain the necessary condition for the rising of chaos, and the largest Lyapunov exponent is computed to identify the chaotic nature of the sample time series from the system. According to the Melnikov condition, the safe basins are simulated for both the deterministic and the stochastic cases of the system. It is shown that the external Gaussian white noise excitation is robust for inducing the chaos, while the external bounded noise is weak. Moreover, the erosion of the safe basin can be aggravated by both the Gaussian white and the bounded noise excitations, and fractal boundary can appear when the system is only excited by the random processes, which means noise-induced chaotic response is induced.

  6. Effect of acoustic softening on the thermal-mechanical process of ultrasonic welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kunkun; Zhang, Yansong; Wang, Hongze

    2017-03-01

    Application of ultrasonic energy can reduce the static stress necessary for plastic deformation of metallic materials to reduce forming load and energy, namely acoustic softening effect (ASE). Ultrasonic welding (USW) is a rapid joining process utilizing ultrasonic energy to form a solid state joint between two or more pieces of metals. Quantitative characterization of ASE and its influence on specimen deformation and heat generation is essential to clarify the thermal-mechanical process of ultrasonic welding. In the present work, experiments were set up to found out mechanical behavior of copper and aluminum under combined effect of compression force and ultrasonic energy. Constitutive model was proposed and numerical implemented in finite element model of ultrasonic welding. Thermal-mechanical analysis was put forward to explore the effect of ultrasonic energy on the welding process quantitatively. Conclusions can be drawn that ASE increases structural deformation significantly, which is beneficial for joint formation. Meanwhile, heat generation from both frictional work and plastic deformation is slightly influenced by ASE. Based on the proposed model, relationship between ultrasonic energy and thermal-mechanical behavior of structure during ultrasonic welding was constructed.

  7. Nonlinear dynamics of spring softening and hardening in folded-mems comb drive resonators

    KAUST Repository

    Elshurafa, Amro M.

    2011-08-01

    This paper studies analytically and numerically the spring softening and hardening phenomena that occur in electrostatically actuated microelectromechanical systems comb drive resonators utilizing folded suspension beams. An analytical expression for the electrostatic force generated between the combs of the rotor and the stator is derived and takes into account both the transverse and longitudinal capacitances present. After formulating the problem, the resulting stiff differential equations are solved analytically using the method of multiple scales, and a closed-form solution is obtained. Furthermore, the nonlinear boundary value problem that describes the dynamics of inextensional spring beams is solved using straightforward perturbation to obtain the linear and nonlinear spring constants of the beam. The analytical solution is verified numerically using a Matlab/Simulink environment, and the results from both analyses exhibit excellent agreement. Stability analysis based on phase plane trajectory is also presented and fully explains previously reported empirical results that lacked sufficient theoretical description. Finally, the proposed solutions are, once again, verified with previously published measurement results. The closed-form solutions provided are easy to apply and enable predicting the actual behavior of resonators and gyroscopes with similar structures. © 2011 IEEE.

  8. X-ray softening during the 2008 outburst of XTE J1810-189

    CERN Document Server

    Weng, Shan-Shan; Yi, Shu-Xu; Rong, Yu; Gao, Xu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    XTE J1810-189 underwent an outburst in 2008, and was observed over $\\sim 100$ d by RXTE. Performing a time-resolved spectral analysis on the photospheric radius expansion burst detected on 2008 May 4, we obtain the source distance in the range of 3.5--8.7 kpc for the first time. During its outburst, XTE J1810-189 did not enter into the high/soft state, and both the soft and hard colours decreased with decreasing flux. The fractional rms remained at high values ($\\sim 30$ per cent). The RXTE/PCA spectra for 3-25 keV can be described by an absorbed power-law component with an additional Gaussian component, and the derived photon index $\\Gamma$ increased from $1.84\\pm0.01$ to $2.25\\pm0.04$ when the unabsorbed X-ray luminosity in 3-25 keV dropped from $4\\times10^{36}$ ergs s$^{-1}$ to $6\\times10^{35}$ ergs s$^{-1}$. The relatively high flux, dense observations and broadband spectra allow us to provide strong evidence that the softening behaviour detected in the outburst of XTE J1810-189 originates from the evolut...

  9. Reversible stress softening of collagen based networks from the jumbo squid mantle (Dosidicus gigas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, F G; Troncoso, O P; Rivas, E R; Gomez, C G; Lopez, D

    2014-04-01

    Dosidicus gigas is the largest and one of the most abundant jumbo squids in the eastern Pacific Ocean. In this paper we have studied the muscle of the mantle of D. gigas (DGM). Morphological, thermal and rheological properties were assessed by means of atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetry and oscillatory rheometry. This study allowed us to assess the morphological and rheological properties of a collagen based network occurring in nature. The results showed that the DGM network displays a nonlinear effect called reversible stress softening (RSS) that has been previously described for other types of biological structures such as naturally occurring cellulose networks and actin networks. We propose that the RSS could play a key role on the way jumbo squids withstand hydrostatic pressure. The results presented here confirm that this phenomenon occurs in a wider number of materials than previously thought, all of them exhibiting different size scales as well as physical conformation.

  10. Experimental Study on the Softening Characteristics of Sandstone and Mudstone in Relation to Moisture Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui-chen Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of fluid-solid coupling during immersion is an important topic of investigation in rock engineering. Two rock types, sandstone and mudstone, are selected in this work to study the correlation between the softening characteristics of the rocks and moisture content. This is achieved through detailed studies using scanning electron microscopy, shear tests, and evaluation of rock index properties during exposure to different moisture contents. An underground roadway excavation is simulated by dynamic finite element modeling to analyze the effect of moisture content on the stability of the roadway. The results show that moisture content has a significant effect on shear properties reduction of both sandstone and mudstone, which must thus be considered in mining or excavation processes. Specifically, it is found that the number, area, and diameter of micropores, as well as surface porosity, increase with increasing moisture content. Additionally, stress concentration is negatively correlated with moisture content, while the influenced area and vertical displacement are positively correlated with moisture content. These findings may provide useful input for the design of underground roadways.

  11. Incomplete restoration of immobilization induced softening of young beagle knee articular cartilage after 50-week remobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapala, J; Arokoski, J; Pirttimäki, J; Lyyra, T; Jurvelin, J; Tammi, M; Helminen, H J; Kiviranta, I

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the biomechanical and structural changes in canine knee cartilage after an initial 11-week immobilization and subsequent remobilization period of 50 weeks. Cartilage from the immobilized and remobilized knee was compared with the tissue from age-matched control animals. Compressive stiffness, in the form of instant shear modulus (ISM) and equilibrium shear modulus (ESM) of articular cartilage, was investigated using an in situ indentation creep technique. The local variations in cartilage of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) concentration were measured with a microspectrophotometer after safranin O staining of histological sections. Using a computer-based quantitative polarized light microscopy method, collagen-related optical retardation, gamma, of cartilage zones were performed to investigate the collagen network of cartilage. Macroscopically, cartilage surfaces of the knee joint remained intact both after immobilization and remobilization periods. Immobilization caused significant softening of the lateral femoral and tibial cartilages, as expressed by ESM (up to 30%, p test points. The changes of ESM were positively correlated with the alterations in GAG content of the superficial and deep zones after immobilization and remobilization. This confirms the key role of protoglycans in the regulation of the equilibrium stiffness of articular cartilage. As a conclusion, immobilization of the joint of a young individual may cause long-term, if not permanent, alterations of cartilage biomechanical properties. This may predispose joint to degenerative changes later in life.

  12. An active head-neck model in whole-body vibration: vibration magnitude and softening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmatalla, Salam; Liu, Ye

    2012-04-05

    An active head-neck model is introduced in this work to predict human-dynamic response to different vibration magnitudes during fore-aft whole-body vibration. The proposed model is a rigid-link dynamic system augmented with passive spring-damper tissue-like elements and additional active dampers that resemble the active part of the muscles. The additional active dampers are functions of the input displacement, velocity, and acceleration and are based on active control theories and a kd-tree data-searching scheme. Five human subjects exposed to random fore-aft vibration with frequency content of 0.5-10 Hz were tested under different vibration with magnitudes of 0.46 m/s(2), 1.32 m/s(2), and 1.66 m/s(2) rms. The results showed that the proposed model was able to reasonably capture the softening characteristics of the human head-neck response during fore-aft whole-body vibration of different magnitudes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Hysteretic Behavior of Ligaments and Tendons: Microstructural Analysis of Damage, Softening and Non-Recoverable Stra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarletta, P.; Amar, M. Ben

    A microstructural analysis of the hysteretic behavior of ligaments and tendons is proposed from the interaction of their extra-cellular matrix (ECM) components. The tensile response of the tissues during cyclic loading is modeled through a viscoelastic strain energy function. A transition-state theory is used to define the cooperative behavior of the temporary fibrillar network. The viscoelastic model incorporates four internal variables, describing the kinetics of two kinds of adaptive junctions in the ECM microstructure. Two softening variables ξ m , ξ f account for the number density of active matter that is actively connected in the rearranging network of temporary junctions. Conversely, two damage variables η m , η f provide the number density of matter that have been damaged and cannot be rearranged. A dissipation energy functionΦ(t) is linked to the internal variables by thermodynamically consistent evolution equations, describing the irreversible energy dissipation in the tensile cycle of loading and unloading. The model demonstrates the fundamental role of the ECM interactions in determining the time-dependent storage and release of elastic strain energy in ligaments and tendons.

  14. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Fruit Softening Related Gene Mannanase from Banana Fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUANG Jun-ping; SU Jing; CHEN Wei-xin

    2006-01-01

    A 1 250 bp cDNA fragment encoding β-mannanase, named MaMAN, was cloned from banana (Musa spp cv. Baxi) fruit using degenerate primers designed with reference to the conserved nucleic acid sequences of known β-mannanase genes by RT-PCR. Sequence analysis showed that MaMAN cDNA encompassed a 1 085 bp open-reading frame (ORF), encoding a predicted polypeptide of 395 amino acids. Alignment of the deduced amino acid sequence of MaMAN and other putative β-mannanases showed that MaMAN has an identity of 86, 70, 69, 54, and 57%, respectively, to β-mannanases from tomato, lettuce, arabidopsis, carrot and oryza sativa. The catalytic residues: Asn203, Glu204, Glu318 and the active site residues: Arg86, His277, Tyr279, and Trp360, which were strictly conserved in the glycoside hydrolase family 5 to which all 3-mannanases belonged, were found in MaMAN. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed that the level of MaMAN transcript in the pulp increased during banana fruit ripening, suggesting that MaMAN was likely to be involved highly in banana fruit softening.

  15. Pressure sensitive adhesive using light color, low softening point petroleum hydrocarbon resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahner, M.E.

    1987-07-28

    This patent describes an adhesive composition comprising from about 20% to about 80% by weight of a copolymer and, correspondingly, from about 80% to about 20% by weight of a tackifying petroleum hydrocarbon resin having a softening point of from 0/sup 0/C to about 40/sup 0/C. It has a number average molecular weight of from about 100 to about 600, and a Gardner color less than about 7 prepared by the aluminum chloride catalyzed Friedel Crafts polymerization of a hydrocarbon feed comprising: (a) from about 5% to about 75% by weight of C/sub 8/ to C/sub 10/ vinyl aromatic hydrocarbon stream; (b) from about 10% to about 35% by weight of a piperylene concentrate; and (c) from about 25% to about 70% by weight of a C/sub 4/ to C/sub 8/ monoolefin chain transfer agent of the formula RR'C=CHR'' where R and R' are C/sub 1/ to C/sub 5/ alkyl, and R'' is H or C/sub 1/ to C/sub 4/ alkyl group.

  16. Effect of sample preservation on stress softening and permanent set of porcine skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro-Bretelle, A S; Gountsop, P N; Ienny, P; Leger, R; Corn, S; Bazin, I; Bretelle, F

    2015-09-18

    Skin is a composite material with a complex structure which exhibits a wide range of behaviours such as anisotropy, viscoelasticity, hyperelasticity, plasticity etc. Indeed it remains a great challenge to understand its behaviour as it is involved in many consumer and medical applications. In most studies, experiments are performed in situ or in vitro on fresh tissues but most of the time samples are preserved before testing (fridge, freezer, saline solution etc.). In this paper, the impact of samples conservation on the softening behaviour and on the permanent set is studied in order to select the appropriate conservation protocol. Samples are extracted from several pigs' abdomens (direction parallel to spine) and the mechanical testing consists in loading-unloading uniaxial tension tests instrumented with digital image correlation inducing thus reliable strain measurements in a chosen region of interest. The results of this study revealed that preservation conditions must be carefully chosen; conservation in a saline solution and freezing without any caution alter the irreversible part of the global mechanical behaviour of the tissues.

  17. Nonlinear acoustic propagation in bubbly liquids: Multiple scattering, softening and hardening phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doc, Jean-Baptiste; Conoir, Jean-Marc; Marchiano, Régis; Fuster, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    The weakly nonlinear propagation of acoustic waves in monodisperse bubbly liquids is investigated numerically. A hydrodynamic model based on the averaged two-phase fluid equations is coupled with the Rayleigh-Plesset equation to model the dynamics of bubbles at the local scale. The present model is validated in the linear regime by comparing with the Foldy approximation. The analysis of the pressure signals in the linear regime highlights two resonance frequencies: the Minnaert frequency and a multiple scattering resonance that strongly depends on the bubble concentration. For weakly nonlinear regimes, the generation of higher harmonics is observed only for the Minnaert frequency. Linear combinations between the Minnaert harmonics and the multiple scattering resonance are also observed. However, the most significant effect observed is the appearance of softening-hardening effects that share some similarities with those observed for sandstones or cracked materials. These effects are related to the multiple scattering resonance. Downward or upward resonance frequency shifts can be observed depending on the characteristic of the incident wave when increasing the excitation amplitude. It is shown that the frequency shift can be explained assuming that the acoustic wave velocity depends on a law different from those usually encountered for sandstones or cracked materials.

  18. A Combined Softening and Hardening Mechanism for Low Frequency Human Motion Energy Harvesting Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalis Suhaimi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns the mechanism for harvesting energy from human body motion. The vibration signal from human body motion during walking and jogging was first measured using 3-axes vibration recorder placed at various places on the human body. The measured signal was then processed using Fourier series to investigate its frequency content. A mechanism was proposed to harvest the energy from the low frequency-low amplitude human motion. This mechanism consists of the combined nonlinear hardening and softening mechanism which was aimed at widening the bandwidth as well as amplifying the low human motion frequency. This was realized by using a translation-to-rotary mechanism which converts the translation motion of the human motion into the rotational motion. The nonlinearity in the system was realized by introducing a winding spring stiffness and the magnetic stiffness. Quasi-static and dynamic measurement were conducted to investigate the performance of the mechanism. The results show that, with the right degree of nonlinearity, the two modes can be combined together to produce a wide flat response. For the frequency amplification, the mechanism manages to increase the frequency by around 8 times in terms of rotational speed.

  19. Observation of Low-Temperature Softening of Transverse Elastic Modulus Due to Cobalt Impurities in Mercury Selenide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhevstovskikh, Irina V.; Okulov, Vsevolod I.; Gudkov, Vladimir V.; Sarychev, Maksim N.; Medvedev, Kirill A.; Andriichuk, Myroslav D.; Paranchich, Lidiya D.

    2016-12-01

    Influence on elastic moduli of donor electron d-states of cobalt impurities has been investigated in mercury selenide crystals. Experiments have been carried out at the frequency of 53 MHz in the temperature interval of 1.3-100 K. Softening of the (C_{11} - C_{12})/2 modulus below 10 K has been observed in the impurity crystals in contrast with the (C_{11} + C_{12} + 2C_{44})/2 and C_{44} moduli those have exhibited hardening at cooling typical for dielectric and semiconductor crystals. The softening of the elastic modulus has been interpreted as manifestation of hybridization of the impurity d-states in the conduction band of the crystal. Comparison of theoretical calculations with experimental data has been proved to be in good agreement and has made it possible to determine the parameters characterizing the hybridized electron states.

  20. Phonon softening in the CDW systems NbSe{sub 2} and TiSe{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hott, Roland; Heid, Rolf; Bohnen, Klaus-Peter [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Solid State Physics, Karlsruhe (Germany); Weber, Frank; Castellan, John-Paul [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Solid State Physics, Karlsruhe (Germany); Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States); Rosenkranz, Stephan; Osborn, Raymond [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States); Egami, Takeshi [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Said, Ayman [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States); Reznik, Dmitry [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Solid State Physics, Karlsruhe (Germany); Department of Physics, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2013-07-01

    We present new results on the soft-mode behaviour of phonons in the Charge Density Wave (CDW) systems NbSe{sub 2} and TiSe{sub 2}. Our theoretical predictions from Density Functional Theory (DFT) based on ab-initio phonon calculations coincide with the CDW instability behaviour that we observed experimentally by means of high resolution Inelastic X-ray Scattering (IXS). While TiSe{sub 2} shows a rather sharp phonon anomaly at T=190 K, the anomaly in NbSe{sub 2} at T=33 K is much broader than expected for a Fermi surface nesting driven CDW instability. For NbSe{sub 2}, we exclude Fermi surface nesting as main origin of the phonon softening. For TiSe{sub 2}, the phonon softening seems to be well described within the framework of DFT.

  1. Altered cell wall disassembly during ripening of Cnr tomato fruit: implications for cell adhesion and fruit softening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orfila, C.; Huisman, M.M.H.; Willats, William George Tycho

    2002-01-01

    polysaccharides to the non-softening and altered cell adhesion phenotype. Cell wall material (CWM) and solubilised fractions of mature green and red ripe fruit were analysed by chemical, enzymatic and immunochemical techniques. No major differences in CWM sugar composition were detected although differences were...... that was chelator-soluble was 50% less in Cnr cell walls at both the mature green and red ripe stages. Chelator-soluble material from ripe-stage Cnr was more susceptible to endo-polygalacturonase degradation than the corresponding material from wild-type fruit. In addition, cell walls from Cnr fruit contained......The Cnr (Colourless non-ripening) tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) mutant has an aberrant fruit-ripening phenotype in which fruit do not soften and have reduced cell adhesion between pericarp cells. Cell walls from Cnr fruit were analysed in order to assess the possible contribution of pectic...

  2. Mechanical behavior of concrete and related porous materials under partial saturation: The effective stress and the viscous softening due to movement of nanometer-scale pore fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahinic, Ivan

    It has been said that porous materials are like music: the gaps are as important as the filled-in bits. In other words, in addition to the solid structure, pore characteristics such as size and morphology play a crucial role in defining the overall physical properties of the porous materials. This work goes a step further and examines the behaviors of some porous media that arise when the pore network is occupied by two fluids, principally air and water, as a result of drying or wetting. Such a state gives rise to fluid capillarity which can generate significant negative fluid pressures. In the first part, a constitutive model for drying of an elastic porous medium is proposed and then extended to derive a novel expression for effective stress in partially saturated media. The model is motivated by the fact that in a system that is saturated by two different fluids, two different pressure inherently act on the surfaces of the pore network. This causes a non-uniform strain field in the solid structure, something that is not explicitly accounted for in the classic formulations of this problem. We use some standard micromechanical homogenization techniques to estimate the extent of the 'non-uniformity' and on this basis, evaluate the validity of the classic Bishop effective stress expression for partially saturated materials. In the second part, we examine a diverse class of porous materials which behave in an unexpected (and even counterintuitive) way under the internal moisture fluctuations. In particular, during wetting and drying alike, the solid viscosity of these materials appears to soften, sometimes by an order of magnitude or more. Under load, this can lead to significantly increased rates of deformations. On account of the recent experimental and theoretical findings on the nature of water flow in nanometer-size hydrophillic spaces, we provide a physical explanation for the viscous softening and propose a constitutive law on this basis. To this end, it also

  3. Industrial Water Treatment Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    2040) Gallic Acid Powder (item 2063) METHOD: It is necessary to follow the instructions furnished with the conductivity meter that is being used . The...reduces CO. Caustic soda raises pH to desired level. (Courtesy of Power: McGraw-Hill Publications) (2) A hydrogen zeolite softener (Figure 9) uses acid ...a) The acid used in the regeneration process makes the effluent water more corrosive (lower pH on effluent). (b) The hazards that exist in handling

  4. QTL dynamics for fruit firmness and softening around an ethylene-dependent polygalacturonase gene in apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Fabrizio; Peace, Cameron P; Stella, Sara; Serra, Sara; Musacchi, Stefano; Bazzani, Micaela; Sansavini, Silviero; Van de Weg, W Eric

    2010-06-01

    Apple fruit are well known for their storage life, although a wide range of flesh softening occurs among cultivars. Loss of firmness is genetically coordinated by the action of several cell wall enzymes, including polygalacturonase (PG) which depolymerizes cell wall pectin. By the analysis of 'Fuji' (Fj) and 'Mondial Gala' (MG), two apple cultivars characterized by a distinctive ripening behaviour, the involvement of Md-PG1 in the fruit softening process was confirmed to be ethylene dependent by its transcript being down-regulated by 1-methylcyclopropene treatment in MG and in the low ethylene-producing cultivar Fj. Comparing the PG sequence of MG and Fj, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was discovered. Segregation of the Md-PG1(SNP) marker within a full-sib population, obtained by crossing Fj and MG, positioned Md-PG1 in the linkage group 10 of MG, co-located with a quantitative trait locus (QTL) identified for fruit firmness in post-harvest ripening. Fruit firmness and softening analysed in different stages, from harvest to post-storage, determined a shift of the QTL from the top of this linkage group to the bottom, where Md-ACO1, a gene involved in ethylene biosynthesis in apple, is mapped. This PG-ethylene-related gene has beeen positioned in the apple genome on chromosome 10, which contains several QTLs controlling fruit firmness and softening, and the interplay among the allelotypes of the linked loci should be considered in the design of a marker-assisted selection breeding scheme for apple texture.

  5. On the Rule of Mixtures for Predicting Stress-Softening and Residual Strain Effects in Biological Tissues and Biocompatible Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Elías-Zúñiga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we use the rule of mixtures to develop an equivalent material model in which the total strain energy density is split into the isotropic part related to the matrix component and the anisotropic energy contribution related to the fiber effects. For the isotropic energy part, we select the amended non-Gaussian strain energy density model, while the energy fiber effects are added by considering the equivalent anisotropic volumetric fraction contribution, as well as the isotropized representation form of the eight-chain energy model that accounts for the material anisotropic effects. Furthermore, our proposed material model uses a phenomenological non-monotonous softening function that predicts stress softening effects and has an energy term, derived from the pseudo-elasticity theory, that accounts for residual strain deformations. The model’s theoretical predictions are compared with experimental data collected from human vaginal tissues, mice skin, poly(glycolide-co-caprolactone (PGC25 3-0 and polypropylene suture materials and tracheal and brain human tissues. In all cases examined here, our equivalent material model closely follows stress-softening and residual strain effects exhibited by experimental data.

  6. On the Rule of Mixtures for Predicting Stress-Softening and Residual Strain Effects in Biological Tissues and Biocompatible Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elías-Zúñiga, Alex; Baylón, Karen; Ferrer, Inés; Serenó, Lídia; Garcia-Romeu, Maria Luisa; Bagudanch, Isabel; Grabalosa, Jordi; Pérez-Recio, Tania; Martínez-Romero, Oscar; Ortega-Lara, Wendy; Elizalde, Luis Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we use the rule of mixtures to develop an equivalent material model in which the total strain energy density is split into the isotropic part related to the matrix component and the anisotropic energy contribution related to the fiber effects. For the isotropic energy part, we select the amended non-Gaussian strain energy density model, while the energy fiber effects are added by considering the equivalent anisotropic volumetric fraction contribution, as well as the isotropized representation form of the eight-chain energy model that accounts for the material anisotropic effects. Furthermore, our proposed material model uses a phenomenological non-monotonous softening function that predicts stress softening effects and has an energy term, derived from the pseudo-elasticity theory, that accounts for residual strain deformations. The model’s theoretical predictions are compared with experimental data collected from human vaginal tissues, mice skin, poly(glycolide-co-caprolactone) (PGC25 3-0) and polypropylene suture materials and tracheal and brain human tissues. In all cases examined here, our equivalent material model closely follows stress-softening and residual strain effects exhibited by experimental data. PMID:28788466

  7. Investigation into a new softening agent for use on formalin-fixed, paraffin wax-embedded tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchard, G E; Torres, J; Poirier, A; Sounthararajah, R; Webster, J; Notini, L; Hacker, L; Ismail, F; Nwokie, T; Humphrey, P; Spigler, E; Missaghian-Cully, S; Brewer, C; Meredith-Jones, A

    2009-01-01

    The use of tissue softening agents to improve microtomy of keratotic tissues is employed widely. Many of these softeners contain hazardous constituents such as phenol. In this study, the use of non-ionic surfactants or non-toxic ingredients are investigated with the aim of creating a new softening agent. The new agent should be more effective in facilitating the sectioning of hardened tissue while reducing toxicity and complications associated with sectioning hard tissue compared to a commercially available phenol-based formulation. Four formulations are compared against the commercial product for their capability to section routinely processed paraffin-embedded tissue under standard operating procedure parameters. The trial formulations were shown to be fast acting and enabled improved serial sectioning of hard keratotic tissue in nearly all the cases tested. There was no evidence of adverse staining using either tinctorial or immunohistochemical methods. The new formulations had advantages over the commercially available solutions, improving on the number and quality of sections attainable from the tissue blocks, as well as offering a composition less toxic than phenol-based products.

  8. Microstructural Evolution and Dynamic Softening Mechanisms of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Alloy during Hot Compressive Deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cangji Shi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The hot deformation behavior and microstructural evolution of an Al-Zn-Mg-Cu (7150 alloy was studied during hot compression at various temperatures (300 to 450 °C and strain rates (0.001 to 10 s−1. A decline ratio map of flow stresses was proposed and divided into five deformation domains, in which the flow stress behavior was correlated with different microstructures and dynamic softening mechanisms. The results reveal that the dynamic recovery is the sole softening mechanism at temperatures of 300 to 400 °C with various strain rates and at temperatures of 400 to 450 °C with strain rates between 1 and 10 s−1. The level of dynamic recovery increases with increasing temperature and with decreasing strain rate. At the high deformation temperature of 450 °C with strain rates of 0.001 to 0.1 s−1, a partially recrystallized microstructure was observed, and the dynamic recrystallization (DRX provided an alternative softening mechanism. Two kinds of DRX might operate at the high temperature, in which discontinuous dynamic recrystallization was involved at higher strain rates and continuous dynamic recrystallization was implied at lower strain rates.

  9. Cyclic softening as a parameter for prediction of remnant creep rupture life of a Indian reduced activation ferritic–martensitic (IN-RAFM) steel subjected to fatigue exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, Aritra, E-mail: aritra@igcar.gov.in [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102, Tamil Nadu (India); Vijayanand, V.D.; Shankar, Vani; Parameswaran, P.; Sandhya, R.; Laha, K.; Mathew, M.D.; Jayakumar, T. [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102, Tamil Nadu (India); Rajendrakumar, E. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India)

    2014-12-15

    Sequential fatigue-creep tests were conducted on Indian reduced activation ferritic–martensitic steel at 823 K leading to sharp decrease in residual creep life with increase in prior fatigue exposures. Extensive recovery of martensitic-lath structure taking place during fatigue deformation, manifested as cyclic softening in the cyclic stress response, shortens the residual creep life. Based on the experimental results, cyclic softening occurring during fatigue stage can be correlated with residual creep life, evolving in an empirical model which predicts residual creep life as a function of cyclic softening. Predicted creep lives for specimens pre-cycled at various strain amplitudes are explained on the basis of mechanism of cyclic softening.

  10. Characterization of major ripening events during softening in grape: turgor, sugar accumulation, abscisic acid metabolism, colour development, and their relationship with growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellarin, Simone D; Gambetta, Gregory A; Wada, Hiroshi; Krasnow, Mark N; Cramer, Grant R; Peterlunger, Enrico; Shackel, Kenneth A; Matthews, Mark A

    2016-02-01

    Along with sugar accumulation and colour development, softening is an important physiological change during the onset of ripening in fruits. In this work, we investigated the relationships among major events during softening in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) by quantifying elasticity in individual berries. In addition, we delayed softening and inhibited sugar accumulation using a mechanical growth-preventing treatment in order to identify processes that are sugar and/or growth dependent. Ripening processes commenced on various days after anthesis, but always at similarly low elasticity and turgor. Much of the softening occurred in the absence of other changes in berry physiology investigated here. Several genes encoding key cell wall-modifying enzymes were not up-regulated until softening was largely completed, suggesting softening may result primarily from decreases in turgor. Similarly, there was no decrease in solute potential, increase in sugar concentration, or colour development until elasticity and turgor were near minimum values, and these processes were inhibited when berry growth was prevented. Increases in abscisic acid occurred early during softening and in the absence of significant expression of the V. vinifera 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenases. However, these increases were coincident with decreases in the abscisic acid catabolite diphasic acid, indicating that initial increases in abscisic acid may result from decreases in catabolism and/or exogenous import. These data suggest that softening, decreases in turgor, and increases in abscisic acid represent some of the earliest events during the onset of ripening. Later, physical growth, further increases in abscisic acid, and the accumulation of sugar are integral for colour development.

  11. Application of the specular and diffuse reflection analysis for in vitro diagnostics of dental erosion: correlation with enamel softening, roughness, and calcium release

    OpenAIRE

    Rakhmatullina, Ekaterina; Bossen, Anke; Höschele, Christoph; Wang, Xiaojie; Beyeler, Barbara; Meier, Christoph; Lussi, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    We present assembly and application of an optical reflectometer for the analysis of dental erosion. The erosive procedure involved acid-induced softening and initial substance loss phases, which are considered to be difficult for visual diagnosis in a clinic. Change of the specular reflection signal showed the highest sensitivity for the detection of the early softening phase of erosion among tested methods. The exponential decrease of the specular reflection intensity with erosive duration w...

  12. Application of the specular and diffuse reflection analysis for in vitro diagnostics of dental erosion: correlation with enamel softening, roughness, and calcium release

    OpenAIRE

    Rakhmatullina, Ekaterina; Bossen, Anke; Höschele, Christoph; Wang, Xiaojie; Beyeler, Barbara; Meier, Christoph; Lussi, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    We present assembly and application of an optical reflectometer for the analysis of dental erosion. The erosive procedure involved acid-induced softening and initial substance loss phases, which are considered to be difficult for visual diagnosis in a clinic. Change of the specular reflection signal showed the highest sensitivity for the detection of the early softening phase of erosion among tested methods. The exponential decrease of the specular reflection intensity with erosive duration w...

  13. Potable Water Quality Management Guidance Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    of lime-softened waters (increasing turbidity) may also be noticed. o For systems utilizing alum as their coagulant, aluminum carryover should be...unlike MF/UF), the reject stream could potentially have salts , metals and soluble organic compounds, resulting in more difficult and costly disposal

  14. Individual and combined effects of relaxin, estrogen, and progesterone in ovariectomized gilts. I. Effects on the growth, softening, and histological properties of the cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, R J; Baker, M D; Sherwood, O D

    1994-09-01

    Marked growth and softening of the uterine portion of the cervix occur during the last third of the 115-day gestation period in the gilt. These changes in the cervix are temporally correlated with elevated blood levels of relaxin, estrogen, and progesterone. We recently demonstrated that relaxin plays a major role in promoting both the growth and softening of the cervix that occur in pregnant gilts. The roles of estrogen and progesterone in these cervical changes remain poorly understood. Accordingly, this study determined the influence of relaxin, estrogen, and progesterone, individually and in combination, on cervical growth and softening in gilts. Fifteen days after ovariectomy, six to nine nonpregnant, sexually mature gilts were assigned to one of the following eight treatment groups: ovariectomized controls, relaxin treated, estrogen treated, progesterone treated, estrogen plus relaxin treated, progesterone plus relaxin treated, estrogen plus progesterone treated, and progesterone plus estrogen plus relaxin treated. Treatment was given for 10 days, with doses of relaxin (0.5 mg, four times daily), estradiol benzoate (1 mg, twice daily), and progesterone (50 mg, twice daily) selected to provide blood levels resembling those between days 100-110 of gestation. The growth, softening, and histological characteristics of the cervices were determined. Treatment with relaxin significantly increased the growth and softening and altered the histological characteristics of the uterine portion of the cervix in the absence of steroid treatment. Estrogen treatment alone increased cervical growth, but when given in combination with relaxin, estrogen did not augment relaxin's ability to increase either cervical growth or softening. Progesterone alone had little or no effect on the growth or softening of the uterine portion of the cervix. Unexpectedly, when given in combination with relaxin, progesterone augmented markedly relaxin's effects on softening and alteration of the

  15. Sculpting the maturation, softening and ethylene pathway: The influences of microRNAs on tomato fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuo Jinhua

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs, a ubiquitous class of short RNAs, play vital roles in physiological and biochemical processes in plants by mediating gene silencing at post-transcriptional (PTGS level. Tomato is a model system to study molecular basis of fleshy fruit ripening and senescence, ethylene biosynthesis and signal transduction owing to its genetic and molecular tractability. To study the functions of miRNAs in tomato fruit ripening and senescence, and their possible roles in ethylene response, the next generation sequencing method was employed to identify miRNAs in tomato fruit. Bioinformatics and molecular biology approaches were combined to profile the miRNAs expression patterns at three different fruit ripening stages and by exogenous ethylene treatment. Results In addition to 7 novel miRNA families, 103 conserved miRNAs belonging to 24 families and 10 non-conserved miRNAs matching 9 families were identified in our libraries. The targets of many these miRNAs were predicted to be transcriptional factors. Other targets are known to play roles in the regulation of metabolic processes. Interestingly, some targets were predicted to be involved in fruit ripening and softening, such as Pectate Lyase, beta-galactosidase, while a few others were predicted to be involved in ethylene biosynthesis and signaling pathway, such as ACS, EIN2 and CTR1. The expression patterns of a number of such miRNAs at three ripening stages were confirmed by stem-loop RT-PCR, which showed a strong negative correlation with that of their targets. The regulation of exogenous ethylene on miRNAs expression profiles were analyzed simultaneously, and 3 down-regulated, 5 up-regulated miRNAs were found in this study. Conclusions A combination of high throughput sequencing and molecular biology approaches was used to explore the involvement of miRNAs during fruit ripening. Several miRNAs showed differential expression profiles during fruit ripening, and a number of

  16. Indirect economic impacts in water supplies augmented with desalinated water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygaard, Martin; Arvin, Erik; Binning, Philip John

    2010-01-01

    softeners. This paper describes potential economic consequences of diluting Copenhagen's drinking water with desalinated water. With a mineral content at 50% of current levels, dental caries and cardiovascular diseases are expected to increase by 51 and 23% respectively. Meanwhile, the number of dish...... going from fresh water based to desalinated water supply. Large uncertainties prevent the current results from being used for or against desalination as an option for Copenhagen's water supply. In the future, more impacts and an uncertainty analysis will be added to the assessment....

  17. Softening Behavior of Hardness and Surface Fatigue of Rolling-Sliding Contact in the Case of Developed Alloy Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redda, Daniel Tilahun; Nakanishi, Tsutomu; Deng, Gang

    To get high performance, downsizing and weight saving of the power transmission systems, the improvement of machine elements has been required. In this study, case-carburized gear materials for a high load-carrying capacity were developed. Low-alloyed steels with 1%Cr-0.2%Mo, 1%Cr-0.2%Mo-1%Si and 1%Cr-0.2%Mo-2%Ni (Cr-Mo steel, Cr-Mo-Si steel and Cr-Mo-Ni steel) were melted in a hypoxia vacuum. Test rollers were made of the developed steels, and they were carburized (Type A and Type B), hardened and tempered. Heating retention tests were carried out to investigate the softening behavior of hardness at high heating temperatures in the case of the developed steels. Roller tests were conducted under the rolling-sliding contact and high-load conditions to study the surface fatigue of the developed steels. From the obtained test results, it was found that the softening behavior of surface hardness at high temperatures in the cases of Cr-Mo-Si steel (Type A) and Cr-Mo-Ni steel (Type B) is lower than that in the cases of Cr-Mo steel (Type A) and Cr-Mo steel (Type B). In the cases of Cr-Mo-Si steel (A) and Cr-Mo-Ni steel (B), micro- and small-pitting area ratios are smaller and large-pitting life is longer than those in the cases of Cr-Mo steel(A) and Cr-Mo steel(B) under the same carburizing treatment method and high-load conditions. Furthermore, the relationship between the softening behavior of surface hardness on the heating pattern and the surface fatigue on the rolling-sliding contact of the developed alloy steels was clarified.

  18. Analysis of xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolase (XTH genes and diverse roles of isoenzymes during persimmon fruit development and postharvest softening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Han

    Full Text Available Xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolase (XTH enzymes have played a role in the remodeling of cell wall hemicelluloses. To investigate the function of XTHs in persimmon (Diospyros kaki L. fruit development and postharvest softening, five cDNAs (DkXTH1 to DkXTH5, whose putative proteins contained the conserved DEIDFEFLG motif of XTH, were cloned. Real time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that DkXTH1, DkXTH4, and DkXTH5 peaked in immature expanding fruit, and their higher expression was observed along with higher fruit firmness in cold-treated fruit or firmer cultivar fruit during storage. The opposite gene expression patterns were observed in DkXTH2 and DkXTH3, which reached maxima concomitance with pronounced fruit softening. Meanwhile, the xyloglucan endotransglycosylase (XET enzymes play important roles in both the rapid growth and ripening of persimmon fruit. Furthermore, the recombined DkXTH1 and DkXTH2 proteins showed significant XET activity without any detected XEH activity. However, the XET activity of recombined DkXTH2 protein had a higher affinity for small acceptor molecules than that of recombined DkXTH1 protein. The former might prefer to participate in cell wall restructuring, and the latter is more inclined to participate in cell wall assembly. Besides, DKXTH proteins could function by targeting to the cell wall under regulation of a signal peptide. The data suggested that individual DKXTHs could exhibit different patterns of expression, and the encoded products possessed specific enzymatic properties conferring on their respective functions in growth and postharvest softening of persimmon fruit.

  19. Fracture simulation of elastomer blended polypropylene based on elastoviscoplastic constitutive equation with craze and tensile softening law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mae, H.

    2006-08-01

    The strong strain-rate dependence, neck propagation and craze evolution characterize the large plastic deformation and fracture behavior of polymer. In the latest study, Kobayashi, Tomii and Shizawa suggested the elastoviscoplastic constitutive equation based on craze evolution and annihilation and then applied it to the plane strain issue of polymer. In the previous study, the author applied their suggested elastoviscoplastic constitutive equation with craze effect to the three dimensional shell and then showed that the load displacement history was in good agreement with the experimental result including only microscopic crack such as crazes. For the future industrial applications, the macroscopic crack has to be taken into account. Thus, the main objective of this study is to propose the tensile softening equation and then add it to the elastoviscoplastic constitutive equation with craze effect so that the load displacement history can be roughly simulated during the macroscopic crack propagation. The tested material in this study is the elastomer blended polypropylene used in the interior and exterior of automobiles. First, the material properties are obtained based on the tensile test results at wide range of strain rates: 10 - 4-102 (1/sec). Next, the compact tension test is conducted and then the tensile softening parameters are fixed. Then, the dart impact test is carried out in order to obtain the load displacement history and also observe the macroscopic crack propagation at high strain rate. Finally, the fracture behavior is simulated and then compared with the experimental results. It is shown that the predictions of the constitutive equation with the proposed tensile softening equation are in good agreement with the experimental results for the future industrial applications.

  20. Effect of loading condition, specimen geometry, size-effect and softening function on double- fracture parameters of concrete

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shailendra Kumar; S V Barai

    2012-02-01

    This paper presents numerical investigation of the influence of the specimen geometry, loading condition, size-effect and softening function of concrete on double- fracture parameters. The input data needed for computation of the double- fracture parameters are obtained from the well-known version of Fictitious Crack Model (FCM). FCM is developed for three standard specimens: three-point bend test, compact tension specimen and four-point bend test of size range 100–600 mm at relative size of initial crack length 0.3. The analysis of numerical results shows some interesting behaviour of double- fracture parameters.

  1. EFFECT OF INITIAL GRAIN SIZE ON STATIC RECRYSTALLIZA-TION SOFTENING IN Cr STEEL USING STRESS RELAXATION TECHNIQUE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.R. Morgridge

    2002-01-01

    Effect of initial grain size (I.G.S.) on static recrystallization softening in Cr steel(0.77wt.% CR) has been investigated through the use of interrupted hot compressiontests and stress relaxation curves from Gleeble 1500. Initial grain sizes were variedbetween 20 and 93 microns. Stress strains curves for Cr steel for different initialgrain sizes and recrystallization times have been highlighted. Similar observation wasmade for metadynamic recrystallization with shorter retardation times. Staticallyrecrystallized grain size also increased as initial grain size increases. It is found thatthe values of initial grain size have significant effects on the mean flow stress andstatic recrystallization kinetics as well as the peak strain values to initiate dynamicrecrystallization.

  2. Transcriptome Analysis and Ultrastructure Observation Reveal that Hawthorn Fruit Softening Is due to Cellulose/Hemicellulose Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiayu; Zhao, Yuhui; Zhang, Xiao; Zhang, Lijie; Hou, Yali; Dong, Wenxuan

    2016-01-01

    Softening, a common phenomenon in many fruits, is a well coordinated and genetically determined process. However, the process of flesh softening during ripening has rarely been described in hawthorn. In this study, we found that ‘Ruanrou Shanlihong 3 Hao’ fruits became softer during ripening, whereas ‘Qiu JinXing’ fruits remained hard. At late developmental stages, the firmness of ‘Ruanrou Shanlihong 3 Hao’ fruits rapidly declined, and that of ‘Qiu JinXing’ fruits remained essentially unchanged. According to transmission electron microscopy, the middle lamella of ‘Qiu JinXing’ and ‘Ruanrou Shanlihong 3 Hao’ fruit flesh was largely degraded as the fruits matured. Microfilaments in ‘Qiu JinXing’ flesh were arranged close together and were deep in color, whereas those in ‘Ruanrou Shanlihong 3 Hao’ fruit flesh were arranged loosely, partially degraded and light in color. RNA-Seq analysis yielded approximately 46.72 Gb of clean data and 72,837 unigenes. Galactose metabolism and pentose and glucuronate interconversions are involved in cell wall metabolism, play an important role in hawthorn texture. We identified 85 unigenes related to the cell wall between hard- and soft-fleshed hawthorn fruits. Based on data analysis and real-time PCR, we suggest that β-GAL and PE4 have important functions in early fruit softening. The genes Ffase, Gns,α-GAL, PE63, XTH, and CWP, which are involved in cell wall degradation, are responsible for the different textures of hawthorn fruits. Thus, we hypothesize that the different textures of ‘Qiu JinXing’ and ‘Ruanrou Shanlihong 3 Hao’ fruits at maturity mainly result from cellulose/hemicelluloses degradation rather than from lamella degradation. Overall, we propose that different types of hydrolytic enzymes in cells interact to degrade the cell wall, resulting in ultramicroscopic Structure changes in the cell wall and, consequently, fruit softening. These results provide fundamental insight

  3. Transcriptome analysis and ultrastructure observation reveal that hawthorn fruit softening is due to cellulose/hemicellulose degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiayu Xu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Softening, a common phenomenon in many fruits, is a well coordinated and genetically determined process. However, the process of flesh softening during ripening has rarely been described in hawthorn. In this study, we found that ‘Ruanrou Shanlihong 3 Hao’ fruits became softer during ripening, whereas ‘Qiu JinXing’ fruits remained hard. At late developmental stages, the firmness of ‘Ruanrou Shanlihong 3 Hao’ fruits rapidly declined, and that of ‘Qiu JinXing’ fruits remained essentially unchanged. According to transmission electron microscopy (TEM, the middle lamella of ‘Qiu JinXing’ and ‘Ruanrou Shanlihong 3 Hao’ fruit flesh was largely degraded as the fruits matured. Microfilaments in ‘Qiu JinXing’ flesh were arranged close together and were deep in color, whereas those in ‘Ruanrou Shanlihong 3 Hao’ fruit flesh were arranged loosely, partially degraded and light in color. RNA-Seq analysis yielded approximately 46.72 Gb of clean data and 72,837 unigenes. Galactose metabolism and pentose and glucuronate interconversions are involved in cell wall metabolism, play an important role in hawthorn texture. We identified 85 unigenes related to the cell wall between hard- and soft-fleshed hawthorn fruits. Based on data analysis and real-time PCR, we suggest that β-GAL and PE4 have important functions in early fruit softening. The genes Ffase, Gns, α-GAL, PE63, XTH and CWP, which are involved in cell wall degradation, are responsible for the different textures of hawthorn fruits. Thus, we hypothesize that the different textures of ‘Qiu JinXing’ and ‘Ruanrou Shanlihong 3 Hao’ fruits at maturity mainly result from cellulose/hemicelluloses degradation rather than from lamella degradation. Overall, we propose that different types of hydrolytic enzymes in cells interact to degrade the cell wall, resulting in ultramicroscopic Structure changes in the cell wall and, consequently, fruit softening. These results provide

  4. Development of two-step softening heat-treatment in ODS ferritic steel claddings with recrystallized grain structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narita, Takeshi; Ukai, Shigeharu; Kaito, Takeji; Ohtsuka, Satoshi [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center; Kobayashi, Toshimi [Sumitomo Metal Technology, Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    Oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) ferritic steels have been developed as prospective cladding materials for attaining higher burnup and higher coolant outlet temperature in advanced fast reactors. In the cladding manufacturing process, two-step softening heat-treatment was developed as an effective method for application to the recrystalizing heat-treatment, which made possible the improvement of formability, ductility and the disappearance of strength anisotropy in the ODS ferritic steel claddings. A mass production process is predicted and cost reduction is concomitantly expected for manufacturing ODS ferritic steel claddings with an adequate strength level at 700degC for commercialized fast reactors. (author)

  5. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Luna Bergere; Baldwin, Helene L.

    1962-01-01

    What do you use water for?If someone asked you this question you would probably think right away of water for drinking. Then you would think of water for bathing, brushing teeth, flushing the toilet. Your list would get longer as you thought of water for cooking, washing the dishes, running the garbage grinder. Water for lawn watering, for play pools, for swimming pools, for washing the car and the dog. Water for washing machines and for air conditioning. You can hardly do without water for fun and pleasure—water for swimming, boating, fishing, water-skiing, and skin diving. In school or the public library, you need water to wash your hands, or to have a drink. If your home or school bursts into flames, quantities of water are needed to put it out.In fact, life to Americans is unthinkable without large supplies of fresh, clean water. If you give the matter a little thought, you will realize that people in many countries, even in our own, may suffer from disease and dirt simply because their homes are not equipped with running water. Imagine your own town if for some reason - an explosion, perhaps - water service were cut off for a week or several weeks. You would have to drive or walk to a neighboring town and bring water back in pails. Certainly if people had to carry water themselves they might not be inclined to bathe very often; washing clothes would be a real chore.Nothing can live without water. The earth is covered by water over three-fourths of its surface - water as a liquid in rivers, lakes and oceans, and water as ice and snow on the tops of high mountains and in the polar regions. Only one-quarter of our bodies is bone and muscle; the other three-fourths is made of water. We need water to live, and so do plants and animals. People and animals can live a long time without food, but without water they die in a few days. Without water, everything would die, and the world would turn into a huge desert.

  6. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lead Poisoning Prevention Training Center (HHLPPTC) Training Tracks Water Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir For information about lead in water in Flint, MI, please visit http://www.phe. ...

  7. Repeated Short-term Spectral Softening in the Low/Hard State of the Galactic Black-Hole Candidate Swift J1753.5-0127

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshikawa, Akifumi; Nakahira, Satoshi; Matsuoka, Masaru; Negoro, Hitoshi; Mihara, Tatehiro; Tamagawa, Toru

    2015-01-01

    We report MAXI and Swift observations of short-term spectral softenings of the galactic black-hole X-ray binary Swift J1753.5-0127 in the low/hard state. These softening events are characterized by a simultaneous increase of soft X-rays (2-4 keV) and a decrease of hard X-rays (15-50 keV) lasting for a few tens of days. The X-ray energy spectra during the softening periods can be reproduced with a model consisting of a multi-color disk blackbody and its Comptonized component. The fraction of the Comptonized component decreased from 0.30 to 0.15 when the spectrum became softer; meanwhile the inner disk temperature (Tin) increased from 0.2 to 0.45 keV. These results imply that the softening events are triggered by a short-term increase of the mass accretion rate. During the observed spectral softening events, the disk flux (F) and Tin did not obey the relation: F is proportional to Tin^4, suggesting that the inner disk radius does not reach the innermost stable circular orbit.

  8. Mesoscopic analysis of the utilization of hardening model for a description of softening behavior based on disturbed state concept theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-ye ZHENG; An-li WU

    2008-01-01

    Mesoscopic characteristics of a clayey soil specimen subjected to macroscoptc loading are examined usmg a medical-use computerized tomography(CT)instrument.Disturbed state concept(DSC)theory is based on the utilization of the hardening model.DSC indirectly describes rnaterial behavior by claiming that the actual response of the material is expressed in terms of the relative intact(RI)response and the fully adjusted(FA) response.The occurrence of mesoscopic structural changes of material has similarities with the occurrence of a macroscopic response of the material under loadings.In general,the relative changing value of a softening material iS three to five times more than that of a hardening material.Whether special zones exist or not in a specimen cross section does not affect the following conclusion:hardening material and softening material show mechanical dififerences with CT statistical indices values prominently changing,and the change is related to the superposmg of a disturbance factor.A new disturbance factor evolution function is proposed.Thus,mesoscopic statistical indices are introduced to describe macroscopic behavior through the new evolution function.An application of the new evolution function proves the effectiveness of the amalgamation of a macroscopic and a mesoscopic experimental phenomenon measurement methods.

  9. A Critical Assessment of Cyclic Softening and Hardening Behavior in a Near- α Titanium Alloy During Thermomechanical Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Kartik; Sarkar, Rajdeep; Rao, K. Bhanu Sankara; Sundararaman, M.

    2016-10-01

    Thermomechanical fatigue behavior of Ti-alloy Timetal 834 has been studied at two temperature intervals viz. 573 K to 723 K (300 °C to 450 °C) and 723 K to 873 K (450 °C to 600 °C) under mechanical strain-controlled cycling. Among the temperatures studied, the alloy exhibited initial cyclic softening followed by cyclic hardening at 723 K (450 °C) in the temperature interval of 573 K to 723 K (300 °C to 450 °C). However, continuous cyclic hardening was observed at 723 K (450 °C) in 723 K to 873 K (450 °C to 600 °C). At 573 K (300 °C) and 873 K (600 °C), cyclic softening was observed in the cyclic stress response curves in both the temperature intervals. The dislocation substructure was observed to be planar in both the modes of TMF loading. Based on TEM microstructures and few unconventional fatigue tests, the observed cyclic hardening is attributed to dynamic strain aging. The reduced fatigue life at 723 K to 873 K (450 °C to 600 °C) under OP-TMF loading was attributed to the combined effect of cyclic hardening (leading to early strain localization and crack initiation), oxidation, and development of tensile mean stresses.

  10. Material characterization of the encapsulation of an ultrasound contrast microbubble and its subharmonic response: strain-softening interfacial elasticity model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Shirshendu; Katiyar, Amit; Sarkar, Kausik; Chatterjee, Dhiman; Shi, William T; Forsberg, Flemming

    2010-06-01

    Two nonlinear interfacial elasticity models--interfacial elasticity decreasing linearly and exponentially with area fraction--are developed for the encapsulation of contrast microbubbles. The strain softening (decreasing elasticity) results from the decreasing association between the constitutive molecules of the encapsulation. The models are used to find the characteristic properties (surface tension, interfacial elasticity, interfacial viscosity and nonlinear elasticity parameters) for a commercial contrast agent. Properties are found using the ultrasound attenuation measured through a suspension of contrast agent. Dynamics of the resulting models are simulated, compared with other existing models and discussed. Imposing non-negativity on the effective surface tension (the encapsulation experiences no net compressive stress) shows "compression-only" behavior. The exponential and the quadratic (linearly varying elasticity) models result in similar behaviors. The validity of the models is investigated by comparing their predictions of the scattered nonlinear response for the contrast agent at higher excitations against experimental measurement. All models predict well the scattered fundamental response. The nonlinear strain softening included in the proposed elastic models of the encapsulation improves their ability to predict subharmonic response. They predict the threshold excitation for the initiation of subharmonic response and its subsequent saturation.

  11. Structural and thermodynamical properties of charged hard spheres in a mixture with core-softened model solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukšič, Miha; Hribar-Lee, Barbara; Vlachy, Vojko; Pizio, O

    2012-12-28

    The canonical Monte Carlo computer simulations and integral equation theory were applied to examine the structural and thermodynamic properties of a mixture of ions and a core-softened fluid molecules. The positive and negative ions forming a +1:-1 salt were modeled as charged hard spheres, immersed in the dielectric medium. It was shown previously that the core-softened fluid under study is characterized by a set of structural, thermodynamic, and dynamic anomalies. The principal objective of this work was to elucidate how the presence of ions alters this behavior. The structural properties of the mixtures are discussed in terms of the pair distribution functions; in addition, the pair contribution to the excess entropy was calculated. Thermodynamic properties are investigated by using the dependencies of energy and compressibility factor on density, composition of the mixture, and reduced temperature. The heat capacity was also evaluated. Our principal findings concern the description of structural anomalies in the mixture, the dependence of the temperature of maximum density on the ionic concentration, and establishing the regions delimiting the structural and thermodynamic anomalies of the model mixture.

  12. Research on and Application of Undrained Strength Softening Model of Tianjin Soft Clay Under Cyclic Loading%循环荷载下天津软黏土不排水强度弱化模型研究及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王元战; 焉振

    2015-01-01

    波浪等循环荷载作用下,饱和软黏土产生超孔隙水压力,土体强度弱化,导致地基承载力和防波堤等近海结构稳定性降低。基于土体强度弱化的原理,建立一种表示土体不排水强度在不同动应力水平下随循环荷载作用次数变化的强度弱化模型。模型通过建立软黏土不排水强度与孔隙水压力增长规律的关系,表示出软黏土不排水强度弱化的具体过程。在有限元软件 ABAQUS 上进行二次开发,对天津港防波堤地基软黏土的动、静三轴试验进行数值模拟运算,并与试验数据对比。结果表明,文中建立的强度弱化模型简单准确,能够较好地表示土体不排水强度弱化过程。将模型应用到波浪荷载作用下部分回填换砂处理的软土地基上沉箱结构进行沉降变形分析,并与未考虑土体强度弱化的静力、拟静力有限元分析结果进行对比,研究了强度弱化对结构沉降变形的影响。%Strength softening happens to the saturated soft soil under wave cyclic loading such as wave loads for the excess pore pressure produced,resulting in the significant loss of bearing capacity of soil foundation and stability of breakwater and other offshore structures. Based on the mechanism of strength softening effects,a strength softening model which could express the change rules of soil strength with the changing cyclic number under different dynamic stress levels was established. The process of soil strength softening was represented by means of building relationships between undrained shear strength and the development of the pore water pressure. Secondary development of the model was conducted on finite element software ABAQUS and used to simulate dynamic and static triaxial tests.A comparison between numerical results and experimental data shows that the proposed model is simple and accurate, which can express the process of strength softening. The undrained

  13. Effect of strain hardening and strain softening on welding distortion and residual stress of A7N01-T4 aluminum alloy by simulation analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN De-jun; LIU Xue-song; LI Jun; YANG Jian-guo; FANG Hong-yuan

    2010-01-01

    The effect of strain hardening and strain softening behavior of flow stress changing with temperature on welding residual stress,plastic strain and welding distortion of A7N01-T4 aluminum alloy was studied by finite simulation method.The simulation results show that the weld seam undergoes strain hardening in the temperature range of 180-250℃,however,it exhibits strain softening at temperature above 250℃ during welding heating and cooling process.As a result,the strain hardening and strain softening effects counteract each other,introducing slightly influence on the welding residual stress,residual plastic strain and distortion.The welding longitudinal residual stress was determined by ultrasonic stress measurement method for the flat plates of A7N01-T4 aluminum alloy.The simulation results are well accordant with test ones.

  14. Water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity is without a doubt on of the greatest threats to the human species and has all the potential to destabilise world peace. Falling water tables are a new phenomenon. Up until the development of steam and electric motors, deep groudwater...

  15. Static Softening in a Ni-30Fe Austenitic Model Alloy After Hot Deformation: Microstructure and Texture Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beladi, Hossein; Cizek, Pavel; Taylor, Adam S.; Rohrer, Gregory S.; Hodgson, Peter D.

    2017-02-01

    In the current study, the microstructure and texture characteristics of a model Ni-30Fe austenitic alloy were investigated during hot deformation and subsequent isothermal holding. The deformation led to the formation of self-screening arrays of microbands within a majority of grains. The microbands characteristics underwent rather modest changes during the post-deformation annealing, which suggests that limited dislocation annihilation occurs within the corresponding dislocation walls. The fraction of statically recrystallized (SRX) grains progressively increased with the holding time and closely matched the softening fraction measured from the offset flow stress approach. The corresponding texture was weak and preserved its character with the holding time. There was no pronounced temperature effect on the grain boundary character distribution after the completion of SRX. The Σ3 and Σ9 coincidence site lattice boundaries were characterized as (111) pure twist and (1-14) symmetric tilt types, respectively. Nonetheless, the recrystallization temperature slightly affected the grain boundary network.

  16. 半水石膏-矿渣胶凝材料力学性能及软化系数研究%Research on Mechanical Properties and Softening Coefficient of Hemihydrate-slag Cement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李书琴; 艾永平; 刘利军; 黄晓明

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, mechanical properties and softening coefficient of hemihydrate-slag cement with different additives and curing system are studied. The results show that the change in the amount of cement clinker has no obvious effect on its strength; retardant slurry could control the types of minerals in the formation mechanism and change the quantity, scale of the hydration product in half water gypsum condensation, hardening, and impact the structure of the hardening; the strength of sample has little difference from maintenance system 1 (standard curing) and maintenance system 2( natural maintenance ),but the softening coefficient is high in maintenance system 2; besides dihydrate gypsum.%本文研究了外加剂(水泥熟料和柠檬酸盐缓凝剂)和养护制度对石膏-矿渣胶凝材料力学性能和软化系数的影响.结果表明:水泥熟料量的变化对其强度影响不明显;缓凝剂可以控制浆体中各类矿物的生成机制,改变水化产物在半水石膏凝结、硬化前的数量、比例及影响硬化体的结构组成;养护制度1(标准养护)和养护制度2(自然养护)养护后的试样强度相差不大,但养护制度2条件下养护后所得制品软化系数较高.

  17. Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sanmuga Priya

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation through aquatic macrophytes treatment system (AMATS for the removal of pollutants and contaminants from various natural sources is a well established environmental protection technique. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes, a worst invasive aquatic weed has been utilised for various research activities over the last few decades. The biosorption capacity of the water hyacinth in minimising various contaminants present in the industrial wastewater is well studied. The present review quotes the literatures related to the biosorption capacity of the water hyacinth in reducing the concentration of dyestuffs, heavy metals and minimising certain other physiochemical parameters like TSS (total suspended solids, TDS (total dissolved solids, COD (chemical oxygen demand and BOD (biological oxygen demand in textile wastewater. Sorption kinetics through various models, factors influencing the biosorption capacity, and role of physical and chemical modifications in the water hyacinth are also discussed.

  18. 有机硅多元共聚柔软剂的合成%Synthesis of multi-copolymer silicone softener

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖春艳; 贺江平; 崔妍蕾

    2016-01-01

    采用逐步聚合法合成有机硅多元共聚柔软剂,探究投料比、反应时间和温度以及后续溶剂的选择对柔软剂性能的影响,得出最佳的合成工艺。同时与市售柔软剂进行对比,并对整理后的织物进行耐洗性和电镜检测。结果表明,所合成的柔软剂性能优良,具有一定的市场前景。%The synthesis of multi- copolymer silicone softener was carried out by stepwise polymeriza⁃tion. The effects of feed ratio, reaction time and temperature, and solvent on softener performance were stud⁃ied to find out the optimal synthesized process. The comparison with the on- sale softener as wel as the test of washing fastness and SEM results showed the excel ent performance of self- made softener, which had market prospect.

  19. Softening the “Crystal Scaffold” for Life’s Emergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gargi Mitra-Delmotte

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Del Giudice’s group studies how water can organize on hydrophilic surfaces forming coherent domains (loaning energy from the quantum vacuum, plus quasifree electrons, whose excitations produce cold vortices, aligning to ambient fields. Their electric and magnetic dipolar modes can couple to oscillatory (electric-organic dipoles and/or rotary (magnetic-mineral dipoles, besides responding to magnetic potentials. Thus, imprinted electromagnetic patterns of catalytic colloids—compared with Cairns-Smith’s “crystal scaffold”—on their structured water partners could have equipped the latter with a selection basis for “choosing” their context-based “soft-matter” (de Gennes replacements. We consider the potential of the scenario of an external control on magnetic colloids forming in the Hadean hydrothermal setting (of Russell and coworkers—via a magnetic rock field—conceptually enabling self-assembly, induction of asymmetries, response effects towards close-to-equilibrium dynamics, and associative networks, besides providing a coherent environment for stabilizing associated symmetry-broken quanta and their feedback interactions with those of coherent water domains, to address the emergence of metabolism and replication.

  20. Comparison of heat-transfer coefficient for seawater with softening pretreatment and seawater%脱硬海水与海水传热系数的对比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨雁鸣; 马敬环; 刘莹

    2013-01-01

    分别用经过脱硬预处理的海水和传统预处理的海水(以下称海水)进行水平管降膜蒸发实验.研究结果表明,在沸点低于70℃时,随着沸点的升高,两者的传热系数都逐渐增大,但脱硬后海水的传热系数略高于海水;在沸点高于70℃时,脱硬后海水的传热系数远远大于海水.也就是说,脱硬后海水可以在高温时也达到很高的传热系数,从而为脱硬预处理与多效蒸发系统相结合提供实验与设计基础.%In this paper,seawater with simple pretreatment and seawater with softening pretreatment were used to horizontal tube falling film evaporation experiments respectively.Experimentalresults showed that these two heat-transfer coefficients gradually increased with boiling point rising,and the heat-transfer seawater s when the boiling coefficient of seawater with softening pretreatment was slightly higher than seawater'point was below 70 ℃.The heat-transfer coefficient of seawater with softening pretreatment was much higher than the seawater' s when the boiling point was above 70 ℃.In an other word,seawater with softening pretreatment could achieve high heat-transfer coefficient at high temperatures.The experiment provided the experimental and designed base for the combination of softening pretreatment and multiple effect evaporation system.

  1. Effects of confinement on anomalies and phase transitions of core-softened fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krott, Leandro B., E-mail: leandro.krott@ufrgs.br; Barbosa, Marcia C., E-mail: marciabarbosa@ufrgs.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Caixa Postal 15051, CEP 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Bordin, José Rafael, E-mail: josebordin@unipampa.edu.br [Campus Caçapava do Sul, Universidade Federal do Pampa, Av. Pedro Anunciação, s/n, CEP 96570-000, Caçapava do Sul, RS (Brazil); Barraz, Ney M., E-mail: ney.barraz@uffs.edu.br [Campus Cerro Largo, Universidade Federal da Fronteira Sul, Av. Jacob Reinaldo Haupenthal, 1580. CEP 97900-000, Cerro Largo, RS (Brazil)

    2015-04-07

    We use molecular dynamics simulations to study how the confinement affects the dynamic, thermodynamic, and structural properties of a confined anomalous fluid. The fluid is modeled using an effective pair potential derived from the ST4 atomistic model for water. This system exhibits density, structural, and dynamical anomalies, and the vapor-liquid and liquid-liquid critical points similar to the quantities observed in bulk water. The confinement is modeled both by smooth and structured walls. The temperatures of extreme density and diffusion for the confined fluid show a shift to lower values while the pressures move to higher amounts for both smooth and structured confinements. In the case of smooth walls, the critical points and the limit between fluid and amorphous phases show a non-monotonic change in the temperatures and pressures when the nanopore size is increase. In the case of structured walls, the pressures and temperatures of the critical points varies monotonically with the pore size. Our results are explained on basis of the competition between the different length scales of the fluid and the wall-fluid interaction.

  2. Lower Greenschist Facies Oscillations Across the Brittle-Ductile Transition Induced by Alternating Reaction Softening and Hardening Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintsch, R. P.; Yeh, M.

    2011-12-01

    Reaction textures associated with multiple fabrics in the Red River shear zone show evidence for both brittle and ductile deformation. Rocks on the eastern flank of the shear zone in the Diancang Shan block near Dali, Yunnan Province, China are dominated by porphyritic granodiorites and form the protoliths of the Red River fault rocks. The earliest fault-rocks are cataclasites in which fracture processes broke matrix feldspar grains. Grain-scale brittle fractures and crushed grains are well preserved in the >cm size relic K-feldspar phenocrysts, where multiple fractures are filled with newly precipitated quartz. Progressive deformation has displaced broken K-feldspar fragments into the evolving matrix establishing a cataclastic texture with abundant feldspar porphyroclasts. Ductile deformation is manifest in multiple generations of fabrics that wrap around these broken phenocrysts. The fabrics are defined primarily by muscovite and chlorite that form folia that may exceed the length of a thin section (several cm). Truncations and embayments of these minerals show that earlier magmatic feldspars and biotites have been dissolved and muscovite + chlorite + quartz have crystallized as reaction products. Reaction softening is clearly manifest by the replacement of K-feldspar and the crystallization of quartz as ribbons and muscovite in well aligned folia that define the mylonitic foliation. In some microstructural sites K-feldspar porphyroclasts themselves are truncated and engulfed by muscovite alone. These relationships suggest the simultaneous operation of the locally metasomatic ionic replacement reactions: K-feldspar + Na+ = Albite + K+ , and ΔV = -10% 3K-feldspar + 2H+ = muscovite + 6 quartz + 2K+ and ΔV = -16% 3Albite + K+ + 2H+ = muscovite + 6 quartz + 3Na+. ΔV = - 8% The latter two reactions produce muscovite and quartz, both much weaker than the reactant K-feldspar; these reactions constitute reaction softening. Moreover, the muscovite tends to align in

  3. Salivary a-amylase protects enamel surface against acid induced softening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazovic, Maja Bruvo; Moe, Dennis; Kirkeby, Svend;

    , and one Chinese. After collection, saliva was dialysed and lyophilised and re-dissolved at 0.5% in Type I water. Next, four polished bovine enamel specimens were immersed into each sample under gentle and constant shaking for 12 hours. Last, specimens were exposed to an erosive challenge of pH 2.3 for 4...... min along with measurements of surface microhardness (SMH). Changes in SMH from before to after exposure were used to calculate the protective effect of each saliva sample. Quantification and identification of salivary proteins was performed by dual wavelength HPLC at various conditions and MALDI......% (psalivary pellicles can be related to their protein composition, although, not all proteins could be identified in this study....

  4. 石灰软化法处理地下水源水硬度试验研究%Study on the lime softening process for groundwater hardness treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄明珠; 董燕珊; 苏锡波; 叶挺进

    2012-01-01

    采用石灰软化法处理某地下水源水硬度,结果表明,当石灰投加量为220mg/L,pH为8.7~8.9时,可使原水硬度和碱度分别由300mg/L和250mg/L降至115mg/L和80mg/L以下,去除率分别为61.7%和68%,沉淀和过滤对硬度去除效果影响不大;投加石灰后出水浊度明显升高,投加PAC(聚氯化铝)40mg/L,并与常规工艺联用,可使出水浊度稳定降低至0.15~0.65NTU;试验证明“石灰+PAC+常规工艺”能有效去除水中硬度和浊度,出水煮沸后不再生成沉淀和悬浮物,符合现行《生活饮用水卫生标准》(GB5749-2006)和用户使用要求,石灰软化法药耗成本估算为0.246元/m3.%The study of lime softening process for groundwater hardness treatment was carried out. The results showed that under the conditions of the lime dosage of 220 mg/L and pH 8. 7-8. 9, the groundwater hardness and alkalinity could be reduced to 115 mg/L and 80 mg/L, with the removal rate of 61. 7% and 68% respectively, and the sedimentation and filter had no great influences on removal effects. The effluent turbidity increased rapidly after lime dosing, and it could be stabilized between 0. 15-0. 65 NTU using the combination of PAC (40 mg/L) and conventional process. The experiment proved that lime+PAC+conventional process could remove the hardness and turbidity in water effectively and no sedimentation and suspending solids would form in boiled water, which met the "drinking water sanitary standard (GB 5749-2006)" and the users' requirements. The cost of lime softening dosage was estimated to be 0. 246 Yuan/m3.

  5. 原状黄土遇水及饱和后软化特征研究%A study of soften characteristics of wet and saturated loess

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董林; 王兰民; 夏坤; 王峻

    2016-01-01

    黄土由于特殊的结构性导致其水敏性,以往相关研究多采用室内试验的方法.文章以动三轴弯曲元试验系统对原状黄土和饱和黄土在各级围压下的剪切波速与轴向变形进行了测试,并对兰州市西固区某饱和黄土场地进行了现场钻孔及原位试验.室内及现场试验结果表明,黄土遇水模量软化,饱和黄土更具有触变性.进一步对比饱和粉土与砂土的剪切波速与标贯击数统计关系,发现饱和粉土由于触变性导致标贯击数较小,而剪切波速为小应变无损测试,最终表现为剪切波速相同的饱和粉土与砂土,粉土标贯击数显著小于砂土.%Structural loess is water sensitivity,and previous studies are almost made by laboratory tests.Using cyclic triaxial apparatus along with the bender element system,shear-wave velocity and axial deformation of undisturbed loess and saturated loess were tested under different confining pressures.Furthermore,a borehole and in-situ tests were carried out at a saturated loess site in the Xigu district near Lanzhou.The laboratory and in-situ test results show that loess will soften during wetting,and saturated loess presents thixotropy.By comparing the statistical relationship between the shear-wave velocity and SPT blow count of saturated silts with that of sands,it is found that SPT blow count for saturated silts are small due to thixotropy,and the shear-wave velocity is a small strain and non-destructive test.For the saturated silt and sand with an identical shear-wave velocity,the SPT blow count of the saturated silt is significantly less than that of sand.

  6. Development of a design methodology for high-temperature cyclic application of materials which experience cyclic softening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leckie, F.A.; Marriott, D.L.; Stubbins, J.F.; Handrock, J.L.; Kschinka, B.

    1987-08-01

    The project described in this report has, as its beginning, two investigations, the first a study of the effect of material softening on the overall structural stability of complex components, and the second an evaluation of damage induced through cyclic loads combined with high temperature environmental effects. The initial work was carried out on one grade of 2.25Cr 1Mo steel, with the intention of extending the investigation to other grades once the investigative techniques had been settled. However, considerable interest has grown in the application of modified forms of austenitic steel to very high temperature use in superheaters and reheaters. The ability to utilize these materials can mean an increase of 100{degree}C in the top temperature in a power plant, which converts into a significant improvement in thermal efficiency for a very small investment in material. Therefore, the direction of this project has been modified to continue on this class rather than the ferritic alloys originally under consideration. The basic problem to be investigated in the austenitics is the concern for possible strength variations, either positive or negative, induced in the very complex microstructures by service conditions of cyclic load and high temperature. 23 refs., 31 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Investigation of work softening mechanisms and texture in a hot deformed 6061 aluminum alloy at high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezatpour, H.R., E-mail: H.R.Ezatpour@gmail.com [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, Engineering Faculty, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Haddad Sabzevar, M.; Sajjadi, S.A. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, Engineering Faculty, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Huang, Yz., E-mail: yzhuang@ntu.edu.sg [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2014-06-01

    Hot deformation behavior of 6061 aluminum alloy was investigated by performing compression test in the temperature range of 350–500 °C. Equivalent strain rates were selected in the range of 0.0005–0.5 s{sup −1} in order to obtain processing and stability maps of the studied material using a Dynamic Material Model. Microstructure of the samples after deformation was analyzed by light and electron microscopy and the differences were compared together. The stresses obtained from the flow curves were related to strain rate (ε) and temperature (T) by a constitutive equation in hyperbolic sine function with hot deformation activation energy of 274 kJ/mol, and were described by the Zener–Hollomon equation. Microstructure results showed that with decreasing Z value, the elongated grains coarsened and the tendency of dynamic recrystallization enhanced. Correspondingly, the subgrain size increased and the dislocation density decreased. Moreover, the main softening mechanism of the alloy transformed from dynamic recovery to dynamic recrystallization. XRD results showed that the (200) texture has an important role in development of dynamic recystallization at high temperature.

  8. The Influence of Processing Conditions on Microchemistry and the Softening Behavior of Cold Rolled Al-Mn-Fe-Si Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Using different homogenization treatments, different initial microchemistry conditions in terms of solid solution levels of Mn, and number densities and sizes of constituents and dispersoids were achieved in an Al-Mn-Fe-Si model alloy. For each homogenized condition, the microchemistry and microstructure, which further change both during deformation and subsequent annealing, were quantitatively characterized. The influence of the different microchemistries, with special focus on different particle structures (constituents and dispersoids, on the softening behavior during annealing after cold rolling and the final grain structure has been systematically studied. Time-Temperature-Transformation diagrams with respect to precipitation and recrystallization as a basis for analysis of the degree of concurrent precipitation during back-annealing have been established. Densely distributed fine pre-existing dispersoids and/or conditions of significant concurrent precipitation strongly slows down recrystallization kinetics and lead to a grain structure of coarse and strongly elongated grains. At the lowest annealing temperatures, recrystallization may even be completely suppressed. In conditions of low number density and coarse pre-existing dispersoids, and limited additional concurrent precipitation, recrystallization generally results in an even, fine and equi-axed grain structure. Rough calculations of recrystallized grain size, assuming particle stimulated nucleation as the main nucleation mechanism, compare well with experimentally measured grain sizes.

  9. Instability criterion for the system composed of elastic beam and strain-softening pillar based on gradient-dependent plasticity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuebin Wang

    2005-01-01

    A mechanical model is proposed for the system of elastic beam and strain-softening pillar where strain localization is initiated at peak shear stress. To obtain the plastic deformation of the pillar due to the shear slips of multiple shear bands, the pillar is divided into several narrow slices where compressive deformation is treated as uniformity. In the light of the compatibility condition of deformation, the total compressive displacement of the pillar is equal to the displacement of the beam in the middle span. An insta bility criterion is derived analytically based on the energy principle using a known size of localization band according to gradientdependent plasticity. The main advantage of the present model is that the effects of the constitutive parameters of rock and the geometrical size of structure are reflected in the criterion. The condition that the derivative of distributed load with respect to the deflection of the beam in the middle span is less than zero is not only equivalent to, but also even more concise in form than the instability criterion. To study the influences of constitutive parameters and geometrical size on stability, some examples are presented.

  10. EFFECT OF MICROSTRUCTURE ON THE HARDENING AND SOFTENING BEHAVIORS OF POLYCRYSTALLINE SHAPE MEMORY ALLOYS PART I: MICROMECHANICS CONSTITUTIVE MODELING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Guquan; Sun Qingping; Hwang Kehchih

    2000-01-01

    The effects of microstructure and its evolution on the macroscopic superelastic stress-strain response of polycrystalline Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) are studied by a microstructure-based constitutive model developed in this paper. The model is established on the following basis: (1) the transformation conditions of the unconstrained single crystal SMA microdomaln (to be distinguished from the bulk single crystal), which serve as the local criterion for the derivation of overall transformation yield conditions of the polycrystal; (2) the micro-to macro-transition scheme by which the connection between the polycrystal aggregates and the single crystal microdomain is established and the macroscopic transformation conditions of the polycrystal SMA are derived;(3) the quantitative incorporation of three microstructure factors ( i.e., nucleation, growth and orientation distribution of martensite) into the modeling. These microstructural factors are intrinsic of specific polycrystal SMA systems and the role of each factor in the macroscopic constitutive response is quantitatively modeled. It is demonstrated that the interplay of these factors will result in different macroscopic transformation kinematics and kinetics which are responsible for the observed macroscopic stress-strain hardening or softening response, the latter will lead to the localization and propagation of transformation bands in TiNi SMA.

  11. ELASTO-PLASTIC CONSTITUTIVE MODEL OF SOIL-STRUCTURE INTERFACE IN CONSIDERATION OF STRAIN SOFTENING AND DILATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aizhao Zhou; Tinghao Lu

    2009-01-01

    The behavior of soil-structure interface plays a major role in the definition of soil-structure interaction. In this paper a bi-potential surface elasto-plastic model for soil-structure interface is proposed in order to describe the interface deformation behavior, including strain softening and normal dilatancy. The model is formulated in the framework of generalized potential theory, in which the soil-structure interface problem is regard as a two-dimensional mathematical problem in stress field, and plastic state equations are used to replace the traditional field surface. The relation curves of shear stress and tangential strain are fitted by a piecewise function composed by hyperbolic functions and hyperbolic secant functions, while the relation curves of normal strain and tangential strain are fitted by another piecewise function composed by quadratic functions and hyperbolic secant functions. The approach proposed has the advantage of deriving an elasto-plastic constitutive matrix without postulating the plastic potential functions and yield surface. Moreover, the mathematical principle is clear, and the entire model parameters can be identified by experimental tests. Finally, the predictions of the model have been compared with experimental results obtained from simple shear tests under normal stresses, and results show the model is reasonable and practical.

  12. Unconventional emergence of elastic softening induced by magnetic fields in the unusual heavy-fermion compound PrFe{sub 4}P{sub 12}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi, Y [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Iwate University, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Yoshizawa, M [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Iwate University, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Yamaguchi, T [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Hazama, H [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Nemoto, Y [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Goto, T [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Matsuda, T D [Department of Physics, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji 192-0397 (Japan); Sugawara, H [Department of Physics, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji 192-0397 (Japan); Sato, H [Department of Physics, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji 192-0397 (Japan)

    2002-11-18

    Ultrasonic measurement on the filled skutterudite compound PrFe{sub 4}P{sub 12} exhibits a mysterious temperature dependence of the elastic constant (C{sub 11} - C{sub 12})/2. Pronounced elastic softening at low temperatures is revived by applying a magnetic field. This fact strongly suggests the 4f-multiplet ground state of the Pr ion split by the crystalline electric field (CEF) to be a {gamma}{sub 3} non-Kramers doublet. The expectation value of a quadrupole moment with {gamma}{sub 3} symmetry in the CEF ground state, which leads to elastic softening at low temperature, was evaluated by theoretical fitting to the present results. This may imply that suppression of the electric quadrupole Kondo effect occurs in PrFe{sub 4}P{sub 12} and the quadrupole moment becomes steady due to the application of a magnetic field. (letter to the editor)

  13. Unconventional emergence of elastic softening induced by magnetic fields in the unusual heavy-fermion compound PrFe sub 4 P sub 1 sub 2

    CERN Document Server

    Nakanishi, Y; Yamaguchi, T; Hazama, H; Nemoto, Y; Goto, T; Matsuda, T D; Sugawara, H; Sato, H

    2002-01-01

    Ultrasonic measurement on the filled skutterudite compound PrFe sub 4 P sub 1 sub 2 exhibits a mysterious temperature dependence of the elastic constant (C sub 1 sub 1 - C sub 1 sub 2)/2. Pronounced elastic softening at low temperatures is revived by applying a magnetic field. This fact strongly suggests the 4f-multiplet ground state of the Pr ion split by the crystalline electric field (CEF) to be a GAMMA sub 3 non-Kramers doublet. The expectation value of a quadrupole moment with GAMMA sub 3 symmetry in the CEF ground state, which leads to elastic softening at low temperature, was evaluated by theoretical fitting to the present results. This may imply that suppression of the electric quadrupole Kondo effect occurs in PrFe sub 4 P sub 1 sub 2 and the quadrupole moment becomes steady due to the application of a magnetic field. (letter to the editor)

  14. Mössbauer spectroscopy research on magnetic softening of Fe84B10C6 amorphous alloy during low-temperature annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, C. C.; Wang, Y. G.; Xia, G. T.; Zhu, L.; Meng, Y.; Zhai, X. B.

    2017-06-01

    The mechanism of magnetic softening in Fe84B10C6 amorphous alloys annealed at a temperature below the crystallization temperature has been investigated by Mössbauer spectroscopy. With the prolongation of annealing time, saturation flux density (B\\text{S}) increases gradually but coercivity (H\\text{C}) firstly declines to a minimum and then increases drastically. All the modulations of local structure strengthen the magnetic exchange between Fe neighbor atoms during low-temperature annealing. The structural relaxation at the early stage of annealing including annihilation of excess free volume and residual stress rotates the easy axis to the ribbon plane and weakens magnetic anisotropy, while the subsequent structural relaxation contributing to chemical inhomogeneity results in the inverse situation. Thus, appropriate annealing can magnetically soften amorphous alloys. For the Fe84B10C6 amorphous alloy, soft magnetic properties are optimized when annealed at 493 K for 100 s.

  15. Elastic softening mode change in Y{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x}TiO{sub 3} by Ca-doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Takashi [Department of Quantum Matter, ADSM, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8530 (Japan)]. E-mail: tsuzuki@hiroshima-u.ac.jp; Morita, Shinya [Department of Quantum Matter, ADSM, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8530 (Japan); Higaki, Haruhiro [Department of Quantum Matter, ADSM, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8530 (Japan); Ishii, Isao [Department of Quantum Matter, ADSM, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8530 (Japan); Takemura, Masaki [Department of Quantum Matter, ADSM, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8530 (Japan); Iga, Fumitoshi [Department of Quantum Matter, ADSM, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8530 (Japan); Takabatake, Toshiro [Department of Quantum Matter, ADSM, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8530 (Japan); Tsubota, Masami [JAERI/SPring-8, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)

    2006-05-01

    We measured various elastic moduli of single-crystalline Y{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x}TiO{sub 3} (x=0, and 0.2) as a function of temperature by means of an ultrasonic technique. Remarkable elastic softening has been found in transverse C{sub 44} for the sample with x=0 around 60K, indicating structural symmetry lowering corresponding to the e{sub yz} strain. In contrast, the sample with x=0.2 shows large softening in C{sub 55} in response to e{sub zx} around 130K. These results reveal that Y{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x}TiO{sub 3} (x=0, and 0.2) undergo a structural transition and the crystal symmetry of the low temperature phase is changed by Ca-doping.

  16. Perfect softening of the ferroelectric mode in the isotope-exchanged strontium titanate of SrTi18O3 studied by light scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takesada, M; Itoh, M; Yagi, T

    2006-06-09

    The mode of the isotope-induced ferroelectric strontium titanate shows a perfect softening at the ferroelectric phase transition temperature , where the frequency of the underdamped mode approaches completely to zero within the instrumental resolution. The spectra of the Raman inactive soft mode have been successfully observed owing to local symmetry breaking and by long-term accumulation of the spectral intensity with a high resolution technique. The mechanism of the phase transition is concluded to be an ideal displacive-type accompanied with perfect softening of the Slater-type polar mode. The difference between the soft mode behavior of and indicates that the origin of the quantum paraelectric state of lies in the quantum fluctuation of the oxide octahedron in the perovskite structure.

  17. Suppression of the structural phase transition and lattice softening in slightly underdoped Ba1-xKxFe2As2 with electronic phase separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inosov, D.S.; Leineweber, A.; Yang, X.P.;

    2009-01-01

    We present x-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and neutron-diffraction measurements on the slightly underdoped iron-pnictide superconductor Ba1−xKxFe2As2, Tc=32 K. Below the magnetic-transition temperature Tm=70 K, both techniques show an additional broadening of the nuclear Bragg peaks, suggesting a...... the lattice softening, showing that it can account for a major part of the observed increase in the microstrain....

  18. RESEARCH ON THE WARM FORGING OF ALUMINUM ALLOYS:DEVELOPMENT OF A FORMULA TO DESCRIBE THE SOFTENING BEHAVIOR OF A2011 IN FORGING PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X.H. Zhang, K. Osakada; X. Y. Ruan

    2003-01-01

    To understand the forming behaviour of aluminum alloys, the upsetting test of alu-minum alloys at evaluated temperature is conducted. Because in warm forging theflow stress decreases with increasing straining, which is so-called work softening, noappropriate material formulation is available. For the evaluation of flow stress ofaluminum alloys in warm forging processes, in this paper, a formula is derived byanalyzing the stress data measured at various temperatures. It is demonstrated thatthe formula fits the flow stress obtained from experiment.

  19. Influence of non-metallic inclusions on the strength properties of screws made of 35B2+Cr steel after softening

    OpenAIRE

    Krawczyk, J.; Pawłowski, B

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper presents the results of the research on the influence of non-metallic inclusions on strength properties of 35B2+Cr steel screws.Design/methodology/approach: The investigations were carried out on screws after softening. The investigated steels with different fraction of non-metallic inclusions were delivered by three different suppliers.Findings: It was proved, that in spite of the level of fraction of non-metallic inclusions compatible with the corresponding standards, th...

  20. Application of the specular and diffuse reflection analysis for in vitro diagnostics of dental erosion: correlation with enamel softening, roughness, and calcium release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhmatullina, Ekaterina; Bossen, Anke; Höschele, Christoph; Wang, Xiaojie; Beyeler, Barbara; Meier, Christoph; Lussi, Adrian

    2011-10-01

    We present assembly and application of an optical reflectometer for the analysis of dental erosion. The erosive procedure involved acid-induced softening and initial substance loss phases, which are considered to be difficult for visual diagnosis in a clinic. Change of the specular reflection signal showed the highest sensitivity for the detection of the early softening phase of erosion among tested methods. The exponential decrease of the specular reflection intensity with erosive duration was compared to the increase of enamel roughness. Surface roughness was measured by optical analysis, and the observed tendency was correlated with scanning electron microscopy images of eroded enamel. A high correlation between specular reflection intensity and measurement of enamel softening (r2 >= -0.86) as well as calcium release (r2 >= -0.86) was found during erosion progression. Measurement of diffuse reflection revealed higher tooth-to-tooth deviation in contrast to the analysis of specular reflection intensity and lower correlation with other applied methods (r2 = 0.42-0.48). The proposed optical method allows simple and fast surface analysis and could be used for further optimization and construction of the first noncontact and cost-effective diagnostic tool for early erosion assessment in vivo.

  1. Firmness at Harvest Impacts Postharvest Fruit Softening and Internal Browning Development in Mechanically Damaged and Non-damaged Highbush Blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moggia, Claudia; Graell, Jordi; Lara, Isabel; González, Guillermina; Lobos, Gustavo A

    2017-01-01

    Fresh blueberries are very susceptible to mechanical damage, which limits postharvest life and firmness. Softening and susceptibility of cultivars "Duke" and "Brigitta" to developing internal browning (IB) after mechanical impact and subsequent storage was evaluated during a 2-year study (2011/2012, 2012/2013). On each season fruit were carefully hand-picked, segregated into soft (cultivar or season, high variability in fruit firmness was observed within each commercial harvest, and significant differences in IB and softening rates were found. "Duke" exhibited high softening rates, as well as high and significant r(2) between firmness and IB, but little differences for dropped vs. non-dropped fruit. "Brigitta," having lesser firmness rates, exhibited almost no relationships between firmness and IB (especially for non-dropped fruit), but marked differences between dropping treatments. Firmness loss and IB development were related to firmness at harvest, soft and firm fruit being the most and least damaged, respectively. Soft fruit were characterized by greater IB development during storage along with high soluble solids/acid ratio, which could be used together with firmness to estimate harvest date and storage potential of fruit. Results of this work suggest that the differences in fruit quality traits at harvest could be related to the time that fruit stay on the plant after turning blue, soft fruit being more advanced in maturity. Finally, the observed differences between segregated categories reinforce the importance of analyzing fruit condition for each sorted group separately.

  2. Ethylene regulates Apple (Malus x domestica) fruit softening through a dose x time-dependent mechanism and through differential sensitivities and dependencies of cell wall-modifying genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Hilary S; Gunaseelan, Kularajathevan; Muddumage, Ratnasiri; Tacken, Emma J; Putterill, Jo; Johnston, Jason W; Schaffer, Robert J

    2014-05-01

    In fleshy fruit species that have a strong requirement for ethylene to ripen, ethylene is synthesized autocatalytically, producing increasing concentrations as the fruits ripen. Apple fruit with the ACC OXIDASE 1 (ACO1) gene suppressed cannot produce ethylene autocatalytically at ripening. Using these apple lines, an ethylene sensitivity dependency model was previously proposed, with traits such as softening showing a high dependency for ethylene as well as low sensitivity. In this study, it is shown that the molecular control of fruit softening is a complex process, with different cell wall-related genes being independently regulated and exhibiting differential sensitivities to and dependencies on ethylene at the transcriptional level. This regulation is controlled through a dose × time mechanism, which results in a temporal transcriptional response that would allow for progressive cell wall disassembly and thus softening. This research builds on the sensitivity dependency model and shows that ethylene-dependent traits can progress over time to the same degree with lower levels of ethylene. This suggests that a developmental clock measuring cumulative ethylene controls the fruit ripening process.

  3. Physical properties of root crops treated with novel softening technology capable of retaining the shape, color, and nutritional value of foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umene, Shingo; Hayashi, Masahiro; Kato, Kumiko; Masunaga, Hiroaki

    2015-04-01

    Hard, difficult-to-eat root crops (carrots and burdock roots) were homogeneously softened by an enzyme permeation method so that they could be mashed easily by the tongue while retaining appearance, flavor, and nutrients. The appearance, color, and nutritional value of these foods were equivalent to those of normally cooked root crops of the same type. The firmness of the softened root crops was at least 100 times as low as normally cooked root crops and lower than some care food products for patients with swallowing disorders. Compared with control root crops, which were treated with a freeze-thaw infusion method, the treated foods were 10 to 25 times as soft, with significantly lower rates of foodstuff syneresis and better preservation of color and nutritional value. Furthermore, the cell walls of the treated burdock roots resembled those of normally cooked ones, while the cells of freeze-thaw infusion burdock roots were destroyed and few cell walls remained. It was expected that these root crops softened by the enzymatic processing could be one of the best model foods for patients with masticatory disturbance or swallowing disorders or both.

  4. Application of the specular and diffuse reflection analysis for in vitro diagnostics of dental erosion: correlation with enamel softening, roughness, and calcium release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhmatullina, Ekaterina; Bossen, Anke; Höschele, Christoph; Wang, Xiaojie; Beyeler, Barbara; Meier, Christoph; Lussi, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    We present assembly and application of an optical reflectometer for the analysis of dental erosion. The erosive procedure involved acid-induced softening and initial substance loss phases, which are considered to be difficult for visual diagnosis in a clinic. Change of the specular reflection signal showed the highest sensitivity for the detection of the early softening phase of erosion among tested methods. The exponential decrease of the specular reflection intensity with erosive duration was compared to the increase of enamel roughness. Surface roughness was measured by optical analysis, and the observed tendency was correlated with scanning electron microscopy images of eroded enamel. A high correlation between specular reflection intensity and measurement of enamel softening (r2 ≥ −0.86) as well as calcium release (r2 ≥ −0.86) was found during erosion progression. Measurement of diffuse reflection revealed higher tooth-to-tooth deviation in contrast to the analysis of specular reflection intensity and lower correlation with other applied methods (r2 = 0.42–0.48). The proposed optical method allows simple and fast surface analysis and could be used for further optimization and construction of the first noncontact and cost-effective diagnostic tool for early erosion assessment in vivo. PMID:22029364

  5. Application of the specular and diffuse reflection analysis for in vitro diagnostics of dental erosion: correlation with enamel softening, roughness, and calcium release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhmatullina, Ekaterina; Bossen, Anke; Höschele, Christoph; Wang, Xiaojie; Beyeler, Barbara; Meier, Christoph; Lussi, Adrian

    2011-10-01

    We present assembly and application of an optical reflectometer for the analysis of dental erosion. The erosive procedure involved acid-induced softening and initial substance loss phases, which are considered to be difficult for visual diagnosis in a clinic. Change of the specular reflection signal showed the highest sensitivity for the detection of the early softening phase of erosion among tested methods. The exponential decrease of the specular reflection intensity with erosive duration was compared to the increase of enamel roughness. Surface roughness was measured by optical analysis, and the observed tendency was correlated with scanning electron microscopy images of eroded enamel. A high correlation between specular reflection intensity and measurement of enamel softening (r(2) ≥ -0.86) as well as calcium release (r(2) ≥ -0.86) was found during erosion progression. Measurement of diffuse reflection revealed higher tooth-to-tooth deviation in contrast to the analysis of specular reflection intensity and lower correlation with other applied methods (r(2) = 0.42-0.48). The proposed optical method allows simple and fast surface analysis and could be used for further optimization and construction of the first noncontact and cost-effective diagnostic tool for early erosion assessment in vivo.

  6. Determination of alkyltrimethylammonium surfactants in hair conditioners and fabric softeners by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with electron-impact and chemical ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Pei-Chuan; Ding, Wang-Hsien

    2004-02-20

    The commercial hair conditioners and fabric softeners were analyzed for the content of alkyltrimethylammonium compounds (ATMACs) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with electron impact (EI) and low-pressure positive-ion chemical ionization (PICI) modes. The method involves mixed diluted samples (adjust pH to 10.0) with potassium iodide to enhance the extraction of iodide-ATMA+ ion pairs by direct liquid-liquid extraction. The iodide-ATMA+ pairs were then demethylated to their corresponding nonionic alkyldimethylamines (ADMAs) by thermal decomposition in a GC injection-port. A high abundance of ADMAs was detected at the temperature above 300 degrees C in the GC injection-port. The enhanced selectivity of quasi-molecular ion chromatograms of C12-C18-ADMA, obtained using methanol PICI-MS enables ADMAs to be identified. The accuracy and precision of the method was validated and was successfully applied to determine contents of ATMAC in commercial hair conditioners and fabric softeners. The contents of total measured ATMAC ranged from 0.4 to 6.9% for hair conditioners, and from 3.3 to 4.6% for fabric softeners.

  7. Defect Recovery in Severely Deformed Ferrite Lamellae During Annealing and Its Impact on the Softening of Cold-Drawn Pearlitic Steel Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. Z.; Csiszár, G.; Cizek, J.; Shi, X. H.; Borchers, C.; Li, Y. J.; Liu, F.; Kirchheim, R.

    2016-02-01

    Cold-drawn pearlitic steel wires with a drawing true strain of 3 were annealed at temperatures ( T ann) ranging from 423 K to 723 K (150 °C to 450 °C) with an interval of 50 K. Recovery of the lattice defects in the severely deformed ferrite lamellae were characterized by means of high-energy X-ray diffraction and positron annihilation techniques (including positron annihilation spectroscopy and coincidence Doppler broadening spectroscopy). Accordingly, the impact of defect recovery on the softening of the annealed wires was investigated. It is found that at low temperatures [ T ann ≤ 523 K (250 °C)], the recovery of the lattice defects in ferrite lamellae is dominated by the agglomeration and annihilation of vacancy clusters, while at T ann > 523 K (250 °C), the recovery process is controlled by the annihilation of dislocations. Further analyses on the softening of the annealed wires indicate that the evolutions of dislocation density and concentration of vacancy clusters, and the strain age hardening in ferrite lamellae play important roles in changing the strength of the wires. The strain aging hardening leads to a maximum strength at 473 K (150 °C). Above 523 K (250 °C), the annihilations of vacancy clusters and dislocations in ferrite lamellae cause a continuous softening of the wires, where the decrease in dislocation density plays a major role.

  8. Cloning and Expression Analysis of an XET cDNA in the Peel and Pulp of Banana Fruit Ripening and Softening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUWang-Jin; RyoheiNAKANO; YasutakaKUBO; AkitsuguINABAt; JIANGYue-Ming

    2004-01-01

    Xyloglucan endotransglycosylase (XET) is thought to be involved in fruit softening throughdisassembly of xyloglucan, which is the predominant hemicellulose of cell wall. To study the relationshipbetween fruit softening and XET during banana (Musa acuminata Colla cv. Grand Nain) fruit ripening, a fulllength cDNA (1 095 bp) encoding an XET, MA-XET1, was isolated from ripening banana fruit using RT-PCRand RACE-PCR (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) methods. Sequence analysis showed that the cDNAcontains 5' untranslated region of 66 bp, 3' untranslated region of 189 bp and ORF of 840 bp, encoding apredicted polypeptide of 280 amino acids, including DE|DFEFL motif, which is a presumptive catalyticdomain conserved in XETs. DNA gel blot analysis demonstrated that MA-XET1 is encoded by a multi-copyfamily in the banana genome. RNA gel blot analysis revealed that the level of MA-XET1 transcript in thepulp was undetectable, increased and decreased slightly at the preclimacteric, climacteric and postclimactericstages, respectively. In the peel, accumulation of MA-XET1 transcript was low, increased dramatically andthen decreased rapidly, at preclimacteric, climacteric and postclimacteric stages, respectively. Treatmentof fruit with propylene, an analog of ethylene, decreased the firmness and enhanced the accumulation ofMA-XET1 transcript in the peel and pulp. These results suggest that MA-XET1 is involved in softening ofthe peel and pulp during banana fruit ripening and its expression is regulated by ethylene at transcriptionallevel.

  9. 石灰软化-絮凝法处理地下水硬度动态中试试验研究%A dynamic pilot-scale test on treatment of hardness of groundwater by lime softening-flocculation process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫文婷; 陈涛; 唐友尧

    2013-01-01

    Lime softening-flocculation process was used to treat hardness of groundwater of a water supply plant in southern China,a dynamic pilot-scale test equipped with integrated device on the treatment of the said kind of water was carried out with the aim of investigating the operation effect of lime-softening process and exploring the influence of lime and PAC dosage on water treatment effect.The results of the test showed that,when the dosage of Ca(OH)2 and PAC were 299.1-361.3 and 43.6-48.7mg/L respectively,a satisfying treatment effect could be obtained.The total hardness (calculated by CaCO3) and total alkalinity decreased to 110 and 80 mg/L respectively,which met the requirement of GB 5749-2006 Standards for drinking water quality.According to the analysis from aspects of infrastructure,equipment investment and running cost,it could be found that,the water producing cost of lime softening process was 0.457 yuan/t lower than that of the ion exchange process.%采用石灰软化-絮凝法处理华南地区某水厂地下水硬度.动态中试试验采用一体化处理装置,考察石灰软化工艺运行效果,并进一步探索石灰投加量和PAC投加量对试验效果的影响.试验结果表明,Ca(OH)2投加量为299.1 ~ 361.3 mg/L、PAC投加量为43.6~48.7 mg/L,处理效果较佳.处理后总硬度(以CaCO3计)降到110mg/L,总碱度(非碳酸盐碱度)降到80 mg/L,符合GB 5749-2006《生活饮用水卫生标准》要求.基于基础设施、设备投资和运行成本的分析表明,石灰软化工艺较离子交换工艺的制水成本减少0.457元/t.

  10. A Technique for Mapping Characteristic Lengths to Preserve Energy Dissipated via Strain Softening in a Multiscale Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Evan J.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    It is often advantageous to account for the microstructure of the material directly using multiscale modeling. For computational tractability, an idealized repeating unit cell (RUC) is used to capture all of the pertinent features of the microstructure. Typically, the RUC is dimensionless and depends only on the relative volume fractions of the different phases in the material. This works well for non-linear and inelastic behavior exhibiting a positive-definite constitutive response. Although, once the material exhibits strain softening, or localization, a mesh objective failure theories, such as smeared fracture theories, nodal and element enrichment theories (XFEM), cohesive elements or virtual crack closure technique (VCCT), can be utilized at the microscale, but the dimensions of the RUC must then be defined. One major challenge in multiscale progressive damage modeling is relating the characteristic lengths across the scales in order to preserve the energy that is dissipated via localization at the microscale. If there is no effort to relate the size of the macroscale element to the microscale RUC, then the energy that is dissipated will remain mesh dependent at the macroscale, even if it is regularized at the microscale. Here, a technique for mapping characteristic lengths across the scales is proposed. The RUC will be modeled using the generalized method of cells (GMC) micromechanics theory, and local failure in the matrix constituent subcells will be modeled using the crack band theory. The subcell characteristic lengths used in the crack band calculations will be mapped to the macroscale finite element in order to regularize the local energy in a manner consistent with the global length scale. Examples will be provided with and without the regularization, and they will be compared to a baseline case where the size and shape of the element and RUC are coincident (ensuring energy is preserved across the scales).

  11. Effect of artesian water on the mine floor water inrush and significance of similitude simulation to it

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wen-quan; REN Yang-hui; ZHANG Hong-ri; ZHU Zhi-qiang

    2007-01-01

    According to the in situ statistics data, indoor rock hydraulic fracturing experiments and numerical simulation results, the role of artesian water quantity was analyzed,emphasis was put on the analysis of the damage mechanics of artesian water to rocks under the floor and the softening, solution and scouring action of artesian water were also researched. At the end of the paper, practical significance of similar material simulation to the influence of artesian water on water inrush under the floor was discussed and hoped to provide references to the artesian water hydraulics simulation experiment devices design and test based on the indoor similar material simulation platform.

  12. Integrated approach to industrial sewage water treatment - a way of water resources rational use and protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alekseyev Evgeny

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ion-exchange softening plants wash water treatment studies are provided in order to bring them back to the process. Poorly soluble Ca and Mg compounds formation conditions have been studied during the course of such water caustic treatment using the potentiometric titration method. Information has been provided about the Ca and Mg hydroxide sludge sorption properties with regard to the characteristic contaminants of the sewage water generated by the textile industry enterprise. Suitability of the hydroxide sludge has been established for use in the sewage water treatment technology in order to remove the persisting organic compounds, such as the synthetic dyes.

  13. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to beta-palmitate and contribution to softening of stools pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Following an application from Specialised Nutrition Europe (formerly IDACE, submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of France, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to beta-palmitate and contribution to softening of stools. The food constituent, beta-palmitate, that is the subject of the health claim, is sufficiently characterised. Contribution to softening of stools is a beneficial physiological effect for infants. In weighing the evidence the Panel took into account that, out of two human intervention studies with important methodological limitations, one suggested a stool-softening effect of beta-palmitate whereas the second did not, that one animal study did not support a stool-softening effect of beta-palmitate, and that the evidence provided for a mechanism by which beta-palmitate could contribute to the softening of stools is weak. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of beta-palmitate and softening of stools.

  14. Water treatment technologies for CBM water, including cavitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makysmentz, B.; Lyon, F.L. [Newpark Resources Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada). Newpark Environmental Water Solutions

    2006-07-01

    The reasons for treating CBM water, end uses, reverse osmosis, pretreatment for reverse osmosis, and Newpark case studies are described. CBM water can be treated to make it suitable for injection, re-use, irrigation, or surface discharge. Usually the total dissolved solids (TDS) must be reduced by ion exchange or reverse osmosis with pretreatment. The concept of reverse osmosis and three types of applicable membrane processes are described: microfiltration and ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, and electrodialysis. The technologies used for pretreatment depend on the water quality and treatment goals, e.g. coagulation, flocculation and sand media filtration, softening, ion exchange, and nanofiltration. A Newpark case study is described for a water treatment plant at Boulder, Wyoming where evaporation was replaced by cavitation technology. The suitability of various treatment methods for Alberta CBM water is discussed. 21 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Higgs ultraviolet softening

    CERN Document Server

    Brivio, I; Gavela, M B; Gonzalez-Garcia, M C; Merlo, L; Rigolin, S

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the leading effective operators which induce a quartic momentum dependence in the Higgs propagator, for a linear and for a non-linear realization of electroweak symmetry breaking. Their specific study is relevant for the understanding of the ultraviolet sensitivity to new physics. Two methods of analysis are applied, trading the Lagrangian coupling by: i) a "ghost" scalar, after the Lee-Wick procedure; ii) other effective operators via the equations of motion. The two paths are shown to lead to the same effective Lagrangian at first order in the operator coefficients. It follows a modification of the Higgs potential and of the fermionic couplings in the linear realization, while in the non-linear one anomalous quartic gauge couplings, Higgs-gauge couplings and gauge-fermion interactions are induced in addition. Finally, all LHC Higgs and other data presently available are used to constrain the operator coefficients; the future impact of $pp\\rightarrow\\text{4 leptons}$ data via off-shell Higgs excha...

  16. Higgs ultraviolet softening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brivio, I.; Éboli, O. J. P.; Gavela, M. B.; Gonzalez-García, M. C.; Merlo, L.; Rigolin, S.

    2014-12-01

    We analyze the leading effective operators which induce a quartic momentum dependence in the Higgs propagator, for a linear and for a non-linear realization of electroweak symmetry breaking. Their specific study is relevant for the understanding of the ultraviolet sensitivity to new physics. Two methods of analysis are applied, trading the Lagrangian coupling by: i) a "ghost" scalar, after the Lee-Wick procedure; ii) other effective operators via the equations of motion. The two paths are shown to lead to the same effective Lagrangian at first order in the operator coefficients. It follows a modification of the Higgs potential and of the fermionic couplings in the linear realization, while in the non-linear one anomalous quartic gauge couplings, Higgs-gauge couplings and gauge-fermion interactions are induced in addition. Finally, all LHC Higgs and other data presently available are used to constrain the operator coefficients; the future impact of pp → 4 leptons data via off-shell Higgs exchange and of vector boson fusion data is considered as well. For completeness, a summary of pure-gauge and gauge-Higgs signals exclusive to non-linear dynamics at leading-order is included.

  17. Urey prize lecture - Water on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squyres, Steven W.

    1989-01-01

    Taking the heat-transport physics of ice-covered lakes in the Dry Valleys of Antarctica as a model, it is presently suggested that liquid water lakes could have persisted for significant periods under protective ice covers in the Valles Marineris depressions of Mars. Calculations of ground ice thermodynamic stability in a Martian setting indicate that they may exist close to the surface at high latitudes, but are able to persist near the equator only at substantial depths. Such Martian landforms as terrain-softening are attributable to the creep of the Martian regolith under the influence of ground-ice deformation; FEM modeling of the flow process implies terrain-softening to be a near-surface phenomenon.

  18. Urey prize lecture - Water on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squyres, Steven W.

    1989-01-01

    Taking the heat-transport physics of ice-covered lakes in the Dry Valleys of Antarctica as a model, it is presently suggested that liquid water lakes could have persisted for significant periods under protective ice covers in the Valles Marineris depressions of Mars. Calculations of ground ice thermodynamic stability in a Martian setting indicate that they may exist close to the surface at high latitudes, but are able to persist near the equator only at substantial depths. Such Martian landforms as terrain-softening are attributable to the creep of the Martian regolith under the influence of ground-ice deformation; FEM modeling of the flow process implies terrain-softening to be a near-surface phenomenon.

  19. 考虑应变软化的单桩桩周土固结解%Analytical Solution for Soil Consolidation Around Single-Pile after Pile Driving Considering Strain Softening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹权; 陈鸿; 施建勇; 雷国辉; 艾英钵

    2012-01-01

    The solution of soil consolidation around piles in saturated soft clay was deducted in this paper via methods of mathematical physics based on Terzaghi's one-dimensional consolidation theory. The pile wall was assumed as impermeable boundary, and the analytical solution of excess pore water pressure in which the effects of strain softening and pile diameter are considered was taken as the initial condition. In addition, the effect of excess pore water pressure in elastic region on the consolidation of soils around piles was also taken into account. The calculated results agree well with the in-situ pore pressure measurements. The solution in this paper is of practical value for the prediction of excess pore water pressure dissipation in saturated soft soils around the driven piles.%基于一维固结理论,假定桩壁为不透水边界,引入了考虑应变软化和桩径大小影响的超静孔隙水压力的解析解作为初始条件,并考虑了弹性区超静孔隙水压力对桩周土固结的影响,采用数学物理方法推导出桩周土的固结解.理论计算值和现场孔压监测成果吻合较好,表明该解析解对预测沉桩后桩周土中孔压消散过程具有一定实用价值.

  20. Firmness at Harvest Impacts Postharvest Fruit Softening and Internal Browning Development in Mechanically Damaged and Non-damaged Highbush Blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moggia, Claudia; Graell, Jordi; Lara, Isabel; González, Guillermina; Lobos, Gustavo A.

    2017-01-01

    Fresh blueberries are very susceptible to mechanical damage, which limits postharvest life and firmness. Softening and susceptibility of cultivars “Duke” and “Brigitta” to developing internal browning (IB) after mechanical impact and subsequent storage was evaluated during a 2-year study (2011/2012, 2012/2013). On each season fruit were carefully hand-picked, segregated into soft (<1.60 N), medium (1.61–1.80 N), and firm (1.81–2.00 N) categories, and then either were dropped (32 cm) onto a hard plastic surface or remained non-dropped. All fruit were kept under refrigerated storage (0°C and 85–88% relative humidity) to assess firmness loss and IB after 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 days. In general, regardless of cultivar or season, high variability in fruit firmness was observed within each commercial harvest, and significant differences in IB and softening rates were found. “Duke” exhibited high softening rates, as well as high and significant r2 between firmness and IB, but little differences for dropped vs. non-dropped fruit. “Brigitta,” having lesser firmness rates, exhibited almost no relationships between firmness and IB (especially for non-dropped fruit), but marked differences between dropping treatments. Firmness loss and IB development were related to firmness at harvest, soft and firm fruit being the most and least damaged, respectively. Soft fruit were characterized by greater IB development during storage along with high soluble solids/acid ratio, which could be used together with firmness to estimate harvest date and storage potential of fruit. Results of this work suggest that the differences in fruit quality traits at harvest could be related to the time that fruit stay on the plant after turning blue, soft fruit being more advanced in maturity. Finally, the observed differences between segregated categories reinforce the importance of analyzing fruit condition for each sorted group separately. PMID:28443123

  1. 黏弹性阻尼器温度软化效应补偿控制%Compensation Control of Thermal Softening Effect for Viscoelastic Dampers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文斌; 涂建维

    2016-01-01

    A strategy for compensation and control of thermal softening effect for a new kind of viscoelastic dampers is proposed. By inputting proper control current to the damper according to the real-time temperature, the softening effect of the damper at high temperature can be compensated. Therefore, intelligent control devices are the core of the damper compensation control. In this paper, a thermal compensation intelligent control device based on pulse width modulation technique is developed. The results show that this intelligent control device is of high accuracy and the thermal softening effect can be compensated well by this control strategy. The control accuracy and the compensation effect can meet the actual engineering needs of the dampers.%提出新型黏弹性阻尼器温度软化效应的补偿与控制策略,通过控制试验检验智能控制器精度及温度软化效应补偿控制效果。据此研制出基于脉宽调制技术的温度补偿智能控制器,结果表明,智能控制器精度较高,所提出的温度补偿控制策略可以很好地补偿黏弹性阻尼器温度软化效应,控制器精度与补偿效果均能满足阻尼器实际工作要求。

  2. Fluffy and softening finishes of hemp/cotton mixture fabrics%大麻/彩棉交织物蓬松柔软整理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    奚杨; 姜凤琴

    2011-01-01

    To improve the flexibility and the feeling of hemp/cotton mixture fabrics, weak cationic softener and fluffy agents were used to process the mixture fabrics. Flexural rigidity was used as main evaluation index. Regression equation was made through quadratic regression orthogonal and the best ratio of softener and fluffy agents was calculated. The result demonstrated that the mass concentration of softener is 7. 656 g/L and the mass concentration of fluffy agents is 6. 862%. After treatment, the stiffness decreased significantly and the flexibility is increased significantly but the loss of strength is very small.%为了提高大麻/彩棉交织物的柔软度,分别选用弱阳离子型柔软剂和阳离子型蓬松片对织物进行处理,以抗弯刚度为主要评价指标.考虑到柔软剂与蓬松片的交互作用,通过二次回归正交试验建立回归方程,确定交互作用下试剂的最佳浓度.通过对处理前后交织物的断裂强力、断裂伸长及手感进行对比分析最后得出最佳整理工艺:柔软剂的质量浓度为7.656 g/L,蓬松片的质量分数为6.862%.经蓬松柔软处理的大麻/彩棉交织物,硬挺度明显下降,手感丰满、滑糯,柔软度明显增加且强力损失较小.

  3. Low-Temperature Softening Due to Vacancy Orbital with Γ8 Quartet Ground State in Boron-Doped Floating Zone Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Shotaro; Akatsu, Mitsuhiro; Mitsumoto, Keisuke; Komatsu, Satoru; Horie, Kunihiko; Nemoto, Yuichi; Yamada-Kaneta, Hiroshi; Goto, Terutaka

    2013-08-01

    We have carried out low-temperature ultrasonic measurements using shear-mode ultrasound to clarify the quantum state of a vacancy orbital in boron-doped silicon grown by the floating zone (FZ) method. The elastic constants (C11-C12)/2 and C44 of the transverse mode exhibit considerable softening below 2 and 5 K down to the base temperature of 30 mK, respectively. The elastic constant C44 measured by the three ultrasonic modes (kx,uy), (kz,ux), and (kx,uz) shows the different magnetic field dependences among the configurations under applied magnetic fields along the z-axis. The elastic softening and the magnetic field dependence of the elastic constants are accounted for by the quadrupole susceptibility based on the energy level scheme of the vacancy orbital with a Γ8 quartet ground state and Γ7 doublet excited state located at an energy of 1 K. The difference in C44 between the two ultrasonic modes (kz,ux) and (kx,uz) at fields along the z-axis indicates that the Γ8 quartet ground state is slightly split by local strain in the silicon sample. The quantum state of the vacancy orbital is expected to be sensitive to strain because of the extremely large quadrupole-strain coupling energy of gΓ≈ 105 K due to the extensively spreading orbital radius of r≈ 1 nm. The differences in variation of the low-temperature softening and magnetic field dependence among eight samples cut out from different locations of the present boron-doped FZ silicon ingot evidence the inhomogeneous distribution of the vacancy concentration.

  4. Phonon softening and lattice melting at the ferroelastic phase transition in Na2CO3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harris, M.J.; McMorrow, D.F.; Godfrey, K.W.

    1997-01-01

    We present the results of a detailed inelastic neutron scattering study of the dynamics of the ferroelastic phase transition in Na2Co3. The driving instability is a transverse acoustic mode that softens over a plane of wave vectors, resulting in a continuous loss of long-range order, in accord...... with theoretical predictions, At T-c a wide distribution of excitations is observed in the plane of critical wave vectors, similar to the dynamics of a liquid. Perpendicular to this plane the system possesses one-dimensional order....

  5. The transition from stress softening to stress hardening under cyclic loading induced by magnetic field for magneto-sensitive polymer gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yangguang; Liao, Guojiang; Zhang, Canyang; Wan, Qiang; Liu, Taixiang

    2016-04-01

    Magneto-sensitive polymer gel (MSPG) is a kind of ferromagnetic particle filled smart polymer composite, whose magneto-mechanical coupling mechanism has attracted increasing attention in recent years. In this work, the magneto-induced rheological response of MSPG under cyclic shear loading was investigated. It was found that magnetic field is the critical reason for the transition from stress softening to stress hardening under cyclic loading. Besides, the particle concentration and temperature are the controlling factors in the structure optimization of MSPG in the presence of magnetic field. The magneto-induced hardening mechanism was further proposed based on the related experimental results.

  6. Determination of Softening Traction-Separation Laws after Exposure to High Temperature%高温后混凝土软化本构曲线的确定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞可权; 陆洲导

    2013-01-01

    Wedge-splitting tests of the concrete specimens after exposure to high temperature were conducted.Adopting three bilinear softening curves at room temperature and taking account of the quantitative relationship among unstable fracture toughness KIC T,initial fracture toughness KIC,ini.T and cohesive fracture toughness KIC,c,T from the double-K fracture model,the relationship of these three parameters for the concrete after exposure to high temperature was investigated.There are two cases of calculation of cohesive fracture toughness KIC,.T,and the similar values of KIC,c,T are obtained from the calculation using different softening curves.The calculated unstable fracture toughness KIC Tbased on the three softening curves has a good coincidence with the experimental value,which shows that the softening curves could well reflect the real fracture feature of the concrete after exposure to high temperature and the adaptability of application of double-K fracture model to the concrete after exposure to high temperature is proved.%结合高温后混凝土楔入劈拉法试验,采用3种常温下混凝土双线性软化本构曲线,借鉴常温下双K断裂模型中失稳韧度KIC,un,T与黏聚韧度KIC,c,T,起裂韧度KIC,ini,T间的定量关系,对高温后混凝土断裂韧度间的关系进行研究.结果表明:高温后黏聚韧度KIC,c,T的计算分为2种情况,用不同软化曲线计算得到的黏聚韧度值相近;由3种常温下的软化曲线计算得到的失稳断裂韧度值与实测失稳断裂韧度值能够较好吻合,现有软化曲线能较好地反映高温后混凝土断裂性能;同时验证了双K断裂模型对高温后混凝土的适用性.

  7. 优化软化-酶法高黄酮山楂汁制备工艺研究%Study on the Preparation Technology of High-flavone Hawthorn Juice by Optimum Softening-Enzyme Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔聚林; 陈倩; 朱传合

    2011-01-01

    以山楂汁制取过程中黄酮提取率为主要评价指标,还原糖提取率为次要评价指标,采用单因素试验、析固试验设计、响应面设计法优化山楂汁制取工艺,并建立山楂汁制取数学模型.结果表明:将山楂去核,90℃软化4 min后打浆,冷却,以水用量3 mL/g、酶用量1.1 mL/L加入水和果胶酶,54 ℃下浸提148 min.所得山楂汁营养保存最佳.山楂中黄酮提取率为92.36%,还原糖提取率为96.40%.%In this paper, the hawthorn juice extraction technology was optimized by single factor experiment fraction experimental design and response surface method, using flavonoids extraction rate as main index and reducing sugar extraction rate as secondary index, and the mathematical model of hawthorn juice preparation was established. Results showed that the optimum technology of hawthorn juice preparation were: stoning hawthorn was softened in 90 ℃ hot water for 4 min first, then mashing it, added water and pectinase to cold-mashed hawthorn for 3 mL/g and 1.1 mL/L, and extracted under 54 ℃ for 148 min. Using this extraction technology, hawthorn juice with optimum nutritive retention was obtained, its flavonoids extraction rate was 93.26%, reducing sugar extraction rate reached to 96.40%

  8. Mechano-freezing of the ambient water

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xi; Zou, Bo; Sun, Chang Q

    2013-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy examination of the 25 deg-C water freezing under compression revealed transition from 1.35 GPa to 0.86 GPa upon ice being formed at continued volume change. The transition is associated with a slight blue shift of the high-frequency phonon (omiga_H ~ 3120 cm-1) and creation of the low-frequency phonons (Omiga_L ~ 200 cm-1). In the liquid and in the solid phase, the increased pressure softens the Omiga_H and stiffens the Omida_L, which indicates the presence of the inter-electron-pair repulsion in both liquid and solid water.

  9. Enhancement of the superconducting transition temperature of MgB2 by a strain-induced bond-stretching mode softening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogrebnyakov, A V; Redwing, J M; Raghavan, S; Vaithyanathan, V; Schlom, D G; Xu, S Y; Li, Qi; Tenne, D A; Soukiassian, A; Xi, X X; Johannes, M D; Kasinathan, D; Pickett, W E; Wu, J S; Spence, J C H

    2004-10-01

    We report a systematic increase of the superconducting transition temperature T(c) with a biaxial tensile strain in MgB2 films to well beyond the bulk value. The tensile strain increases with the MgB2 film thickness, caused primarily by the coalescence of initially nucleated discrete islands (the Volmer-Weber growth mode.) The T(c) increase was observed in epitaxial films on SiC and sapphire substrates, although the T(c) values were different for the two substrates due to different lattice parameters and thermal expansion coefficients. We identified, by first-principles calculations, the underlying mechanism for the T(c) increase to be the softening of the bond-stretching E(2g) phonon mode, and we confirmed this conclusion by Raman scattering measurements. The result suggests that the E(2g) phonon softening is a possible avenue to achieve even higher T(c) in MgB2-related material systems.

  10. CoF2: a model system for magnetoelastic coupling and elastic softening mechanisms associated with paramagnetic ↔ antiferromagnetic phase transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, R I; Chatterji, T; Carpenter, M A

    2014-04-01

    Resonant ultrasound spectroscopy has been used to monitor variations in the elastic and anelastic behaviour of polycrystalline CoF2 through the temperature interval 10-290 K and in the frequency range ∼0.4-2 MHz. Marked softening, particularly of the shear modulus, and a peak in attenuation occur as the Néel point (TN=39 K) is approached from both high and low temperatures. Although the effective thermodynamic behaviour can be represented semiquantitatively with a Bragg-Williams model for a system with spin 1/2, the magnetoelastic coupling follows a pattern which is closely analogous to that of a Landau tricritical transition which is co-elastic in character. Analysis of lattice parameter data from the literature confirms that linear spontaneous strains scale with the square of the magnetic order parameter and combine to give effective shear and volume strains on the order of 1‰. Softening of the shear modulus at T>TN is attributed to coupling of acoustic modes with dynamical local ordering of spins and can be represented by a Vogel-Fulcher expression. At Tmechanism is attributed to spin-lattice relaxations under the influence of externally applied dynamic shear stress. CoF2 provides a reference or end-member behaviour against which the likely antiferromagnetic component of magnetoelastic behaviour in more complex multiferroic materials, with additional displacive instabilities, Jahn-Teller effects and ferroelastic microstructures, can be compared.

  11. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) Plays a Critical Role in the Softening of Common Carp Muscle during Chilled Storage by Degradation of Type I and V Collagens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chao; Wang, Cheng; Cai, Qiu-Feng; Zhang, Qian; Weng, Ling; Liu, Guang-Ming; Su, Wen-Jin; Cao, Min-Jie

    2015-12-30

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are proposed to play important roles in the degradation of collagens, thus causing the post-mortem softening of fish muscle, although the specific mechanism remains largely unresolved. Previously, we reported the existence of gelatinase-like proteinases in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) muscle. The primary structures of these proteinases, however, have never been investigated. In the present study, two MMPs with molecular masses of 66 and 65 kDa were purified to homogeneity from common carp muscle by ammonium sulfate fractionation and a series of column chromatographies. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS/MS) analysis indicated that they are completely identical to MMP-2 from common carp. During chilled storage of common carp at 4 °C, the enzymatic activity of MMP-2 increased to 212% in 12 h while the texture profile increased over the first 2 h and gradually decreased. On the other hand, type V collagen was purified to homogeneity and a specific polyclonal antibody against this protein was prepared. Both type I and V collagens were effectively hydrolyzed by MMP-2 at 30 °C and even at 4 °C. Furthermore, injection of metalloproteinase proteinase inhibitor EDTA into the blood vessel of live common carp suppressed post-mortem tenderization significantly. All of these results confirmed that MMP-2 is a major proteinase responsible for the degradation of collagens, resulting in the softening of fish muscle during chilled storage.

  12. Surfactant softening of plant leaf cuticle model wax--a Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation (QCM-D) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerström, Anton; Kocherbitov, Vitaly; Westbye, Peter; Bergström, Karin; Arnebrant, Thomas; Engblom, Johan

    2014-07-15

    The aim was to quantify the softening effect that two surfactants (C10EO7 and C8G1.6) have on a plant leaf cuticle model wax. Effects on the thermotropic phase behavior and fluidity of the wax (C22H45OH/C32H66/H2O) were determined. The model wax is crystalline at ambient conditions, yet it is clearly softened by the surfactants. Both surfactants decreased the transition temperatures in the wax and the G″/G' ratio of the wax film increased in irreversible steps following surfactant exposure. C10EO7 has a stronger fluidizing effect than C8G1.6 due to stronger interaction with the hydrophobic waxes. Intracuticular waxes (IW) comprise both crystalline and amorphous domains and it has previously been proposed that the fluidizing effects of surfactants are due to interactions with the amorphous parts. New data suggests that this may be a simplification. Surfactants may also absorb in crevices between crystalline domains. This causes an irreversible effect and a softer cuticle wax.

  13. Suppression of the Structural Phase Transition and Lattice Softening in Slightly Underdoped Ba1−xKxFe2As2 with Electronic Phase Separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inosov, D.; Leineweber, A; Yang, X; Park, J; Christensen, N; Dinnebier, R; Sun, G; Niedermayer, C; Haug, H; et. al.

    2009-01-01

    We present x-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and neutron-diffraction measurements on the slightly underdoped iron-pnictide superconductor Ba1-xKxFe2As2, Tc=32 K. Below the magnetic-transition temperature Tm=70 K, both techniques show an additional broadening of the nuclear Bragg peaks, suggesting a weak structural phase transition. However, macroscopically the system does not break its tetragonal symmetry down to 15 K. Instead, XRPD patterns at low temperature reveal an increase in the anisotropic microstrain proportionally in all directions. We associate this effect with the electronic phase separation previously observed in the same material and with the effect of lattice softening below the magnetic phase transition. We employ density-functional theory to evaluate the distribution of atomic positions in the presence of dopant atoms both in the normal and magnetic states and to quantify the lattice softening, showing that it can account for a major part of the observed increase in the microstrain.

  14. Alkali modification and softening finish of hemp yarn%大麻纱线的碱改性柔软整理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鞠金星; 王宝权; 吕站逵; 季英超

    2012-01-01

    针对大麻纱在针织机上生产时存在编织成圈困难的问题,提出了对大麻纱线进行柔软处理以提高其可编织性的方法.用氢氧化钠对大麻纱线进行改性,结合柔软剂进行柔软处理的方法降低大麻纱线的刚性,并采用正交试验的方法,确定了碱改性的最佳工艺:碱液质量浓度l00g/L,温度20℃,浸渍时间15min,浴比1:20.结合柔软剂整理可明显降低大麻纱线刚性,提高纯大麻纱线的上机编织效果.%The soft hemp yarn processing was studies to enhance their weave performance. Alkali modification together with treatment of caustic soda and softener was used for reducing the stiffness of hemp yarn. The result indicates that the best technological conditions were: alkali concentration 100 g/L, temperature 20 ℃ , soaking time is 15 min, liquor ratio 1 : 20. The treatment with softening agent can obviously reduce the stiffness of hemp yarn and improve its knitting performance.

  15. Functional polyketones for the removal of calcium and magnesium from water (part I) : synthesis and chemical characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Figaroa, Patrick; Miedema, Henk; Euverink, Gerrit; Picchioni, Francesco

    The aim of the present study was to design and synthesize a new class of compounds for the softening of hard water, i.e. for the removal of the divalent cations Ca2+ and Mg2+. To that end, a class of alternating aliphatic polyketones (copolymers of ethylene and propylene with carbon monoxide, PK30)

  16. Phonon Softening in PrFeAsO1-y (y˜0.2) by Inelastic X-Ray Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Alfred Q. R.; Fukuda, Tatsuo; Shamoto, Shin-Ichi; Uchiyama, Hiroshi; Mizuki, Jun-Ichiro; Nakamura, Hiroki; Machida, Masahiko; Ishikado, Motoyuki; Arai, Masatoshi; Kito, Hijiri; Eisaki, Hiroshi

    2009-03-01

    We present phonon dispersion measurements from single crystals of PrFeAsO1-y with Tc (onset) of 42 to 45 K made using inelastic x-ray scattering with 1.5 meV resolution at BL35XU of SPring-8. In agreement with our previous results on powders and crystals [1] we see pronounced softening of the in-plane Fe-As modes compared to phonon calculations using pseudopotential methods in the tetragonal (non-magnetic) structure. C-axis modes are somewhat harder. No strong changes in phonon spectra across Tc were observed at the momentum transfers investigated. We also compare our results against calculations of phonons in the magnetic parent material. [1] Fukuda, et al, J. Phys. Soc. Japan, 77 (2008), 103715.

  17. Effects of Al2O3 and MgO on Softening, Melting, and Permeation Properties of CaO-FeO-SiO2 on a Coke Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Shigeru; Kon, Tatsuya; Miki, Takahiro; Kim, Sun-Joong; Nogami, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    In ironmaking, maintaining gas permeability in blast furnace with low coke rate operation is essential to reduce carbon emissions. The high pressure loss in the cohesive zone decreases the gas permeability and affects the productivity of blast furnace. In order to increase the gas permeability in the cohesive zone, the thickness of the cohesive layer should be decreased. For this purpose, increasing softening temperature and decreasing dripping temperature of the iron ore are desired. In this study, softening, melting, and permeation of SiO2-FeO-CaO-Al2O3-MgO on a coke bed were investigated. The oxide sample in a tablet form was heated under CO/CO2 atmosphere, and the shape of the tablet was observed. The softening and melting temperatures of the SiO2-FeO-CaO system changed with the addition of Al2O3 and MgO. Oxide tablets with and without Al2O3 softened below and above the solidus temperature, respectively. The melting temperatures varied with the ratio of CO/CO2 in the gas. The permeation temperature was independent of the melting temperature, but dependent on the wettability.

  18. Map position and functional allelic diversity of Md-Exp7, a new putative expansin gene associated with fruit softening in apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) and pear (Pyrus communis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, F.; Weg, van de W.E.; Stella, S.; Dondini, L.; Pratesi, D.; Musacchi, S.; Sansavini, S.

    2008-01-01

    Fruit ripening can be considered as a complex set of biochemical and physiological changes occurring at the end of the developmental stage. Ripe fruit texture notably affects overall quality and consumer appreciation. Excessive softening limits shelf-life and storability, thereby increasing disease

  19. The Research of Softening Ground Water by Using Modified Clinoptilolites%活化斜发沸石降低地下水硬度的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李辉; 赵瑞琪; 王佳琴; 马淑璇; 马慧延

    2016-01-01

    硬度是衡量饮用水水质的重要指标之一,对采用地下水作为供水水源的地区来说,地下水硬度过高严重影响居民的生活水平以及工业生产效率.文章以天然斜发沸石[1-3]为研究对象,针对地下水水源,通过静态试验进行了斜发沸石的筛选;根据吸附动力学方程计算吸附速率;绘制吸附等温线;通过动态固定床试验确定不同再生剂效果、再生液浓度以及再生次数等工艺参数.实验结果表明,筛选出的活化斜发沸石以及试验得出的工艺参数对降低水的硬度有很好的效果.

  20. 络合超滤-软化水过程的模型分析%Model Analysis of Complex Ultrafiltration-Softening Water Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安娜; 姬朝青; 许振良

    2009-01-01

    采用吸附-两性模型探讨了聚电解质-离子配位体的组成,指出了阴、阳离子因吸附到聚电解质上形成聚电解质-离子配位体,其在膜表面的吸附,导致膜表面的荷电,得出了络合超滤对离子截留的截留机理除了络合效应外,可能还与膜表面的静电相互作用有关.分析了络合超滤软化工艺取代反渗透阻垢工艺的可行性.

  1. Mapping water uptake in organic coatings using AFM-IR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsch, S; Lyon, S; Greensmith, P; Smith, S D; Gibbon, S R

    2015-01-01

    The long-term failure of seemingly intact corrosion resistant organic coatings is thought to occur via the development of ionic transport channels, which spontaneously evolve from hydrophilic regions on immersion, i.e., as a result of localized water uptake. To this end, we investigate water uptake characteristics for industrial epoxy-phenolic can coatings after immersion in deionized water and drying. Moisture sorption and the changing nature of polymer-water interactions are assessed using FTIR for dry and pre-soaked films. More water is found to be absorbed by the pre-soaked coatings on exposure to a humid environment, with a greater degree of hydrogen-bonding between the polymer and water. Furthermore, morphological changes are then correlated to localized water uptake using the AFM-IR technique. Nanoscale softened regions develop on soaking, and these are found to absorb a greater proportion of water from a humid environment.

  2. Prediction on the softening point of bitumen in producing by using SVR%沥青生产过程中软化点的SVR预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡从中; 王桂莲; 裴军芳; 朱星键

    2011-01-01

    According to an experimental dataset on the softening points of 30 bitumen samples under different resistances and temperatures,the support vector regression(SVR) approach combined with particle swarm optimization(PSO) for its parameter optimization is proposed to conduct leave-one-out cross validation(LOOCV) for modeling and predicting the softening point of bitumen,and its prediction result is compared with that of multivariate linear regression(MLR).The maximum error 2.1 ℃ predicted by SVR is much less than 7.9 ℃ which is calculated by MLR modeling.The statistical results reveal that the root mean square error(RMSE=0.75 ℃),mean absolute error(MAE=0.32 ℃) and mean absolute percentage error(MAPE=0.28%) achieved by SVR-LOOCV are all less than those(RMSE=3.3 ℃,MAE=2.6 ℃ and MAPE=2.34%) calculated via MLR model.This study suggests that the softening point of bitumen can be forecasted timely by SVR to provide an accurate guidance for producing of high-quality bitumen.%根据30组不同电阻和温度下的沥青软化点的实测数据集,应用基于粒子群算法(PSO)寻优的支持向量回归(SVR)方法,并结合留一交叉验证(LOOCV)法对沥青软化点进行了建模和预测研究,将其预测结果与多元线性回归(MLR)模型的计算结果进行了比较。SVR-LOOCV预测的最大误差为2.1℃,远比MLR模型计算的最大误差7.9℃要小得多。统计结果表明:基于SVR-LOOCV预测结果的均方根误差(RMSE=0.75℃)、平均绝对误差(MAE=0.32℃)和平均绝对百分误差(MAPE=0.28%)相应也比MLR回归模型的预测结果(RMSE=3.3℃,MAE=2.6℃和MAPE=2.34%)要小。因此,应用SVR实时预测沥青产品的软化点,可为生产优质沥青提供准确的科学指导。

  3. Research on Softening Model of Soft Clay under Wave Load%波浪荷载作用下软黏土软化模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付培帅; 唐小微; 韩小凯; 刘功勋

    2015-01-01

    波浪荷载能引起海床土体的主应力轴连续旋转。不同于地震、交通等循环荷载,在周期性波浪荷载作用的土体应力路径方式下,软黏土的软化效用更为明显。本文分别对天然和扰动的海床土体在波浪荷载作用下的应力响应进行模拟,并分析应力路径的特点;为描述软化后的应力-应变关系,将软化效用和累积塑性应变的参数引入到能够反应土体动力非线性的 Hardin-Drnevich 模型中,建立修正模型,使之能够反应软黏土体软化与塑性应变累计特性;通过与模拟波浪荷载下土体应力特征的循环耦合试验结果进行对比分析,验证该修正模型的可靠性。%Wave load causes continuous rotation of the principal stress axes of seabed soil.Unlike seismic load and traffic load,under the action of cyclical wave load,stiffness softening of soft clay is much more obvious.Numerical simulation is applied to obtain the stress response of undis-turbed and disturbed seabed soil,and to analyze the characteristics of the stress path.Under wave loads,the main feature of the seabed soil is the continuous rotation of its maximum principal stress axis;the maximum principal stress’cycle is similar to the wave load cycles.Under the in-fluence of the structure in the seabed disturbance,the soil’s stress path changed under the wave load,and the factors that affect the stress path can be generalized using the initial principal stress orientation,the initial stress ratio,the angle of the major principal stress direction,and other fac-tors.To describe the relation of a soil’s stress and strain after stiffness softening,two parameters were introduced to the Haridin-Drnevich model to reflect the stiffness softening and cumulative plastic strain phenomenon,and these two parameters are a function of the soil’s initial status, which influences its stress path under wave load.The cyclic coupling shear tests can probably sim-ulate the

  4. Removal of antibiotics from surface and distilled water in conventional water treatment processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, C.; Wang, Y.; Loftin, K.; Meyer, M.

    2002-01-01

    Conventional drinking water treatment processes were evaluated under typical water treatment plant conditions to determine their effectiveness in the removal of seven common antibiotics: carbadox, sulfachlorpyridazine, sulfadimethoxine, sulfamerazine, sulfamethazine, sulfathiazole, and trimethoprim. Experiments were conducted using synthetic solutions prepared by spiking both distilled/ deionized water and Missouri River water with the studied compounds. Sorption on Calgon WPH powdered activated carbon, reverse osmosis, and oxidation with chlorine and ozone under typical plant conditions were all shown to be effective in removing the studied antibiotics. Conversely, coagulation/flocculation/sedimentation with alum and iron salts, excess lime/soda ash softening, ultraviolet irradiation at disinfection dosages, and ion exchange were all relatively ineffective methods of antibiotic removal. This study shows that the studied antibiotics could be effectively removed using processes already in use many water treatment plants. Additional work is needed on by-product formation and the removal of other classes of antibiotics.

  5. Effect of MgO content in sinter on the softening-melting behavior of mixed burden made from chromium-bearing vanadium-titanium magnetite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang-xin Xue

    2016-01-01

    The effect of sinter with different MgO contents on the softening–melting behavior of mixed burden made from chro-mium-bearing vanadium–titanium magnetite was investigated. The results show that with increasing MgO content in the sinter, the softening interval and melting interval increased and the location of the cohesive zone shifted downward slightly and became moderately thicker. The softening–melting characteristic value was less pronounced when the MgO content in the sinter was 2.98wt%–3.40wt%. Increasing MgO content in the sinter reduced the content and recovery of V and Cr in the dripped iron. In addition, greater MgO contents in the sinter resulted in the generation of greater amounts of high-melting-point components, which adversely affected the permeability of the mixed burden. When the softening–melting behavior of the mixed burden and the recovery of valuable elements were taken into account, proper MgO con-tents in the sinter and slag ranged from 2.98wt% to 3.40wt% and from 11.46wt% to 12.72wt%, respectively, for the smelting of burden made from chromium-bearing vanadium–titanium magnetite in a blast furnace.

  6. Solution of Strain-Softening Surrounding Rock in Deep Tunnel Incorporating 3D Hoek-Brown Failure Criterion and Flow Rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-feng Zou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the influence of the intermediate principal stress on the stress and displacement of surrounding rock, a novel approach based on 3D Hoek-Brown (H-B failure criterion was proposed. Taking the strain-softening characteristic of rock mass into account, the potential plastic zone is subdivided into a finite number of concentric annulus and a numerical procedure for calculating the stress and displacement of each annulus was presented. Strains were obtained based on the nonassociated and associated flow rule and 3D plastic potential function. Stresses were achieved by the stress equilibrium equation and generalized Hoek-Brown failure criterion. Using the proposed approach, we can get the solutions of the stress and displacement of the surrounding rock considering the intermediate principal stress. Moreover, the proposed approach was validated with the published results. Compared with the results based on generalized Hoek-Brown failure criterion, it is shown that the plastic radius calculated by 3D Hoek-Brown failure criterion is smaller than those solved by generalized H-B failure criterion, and the influences of dilatancy effect on the results based on the generalized H-B failure criterion are greater than those based on 3D H-B failure criterion. The displacements considering the nonassociated flow rule are smaller than those considering associated flow rules.

  7. Softening of infrared-active mode of perovskite BaZrO{sub 3} proved by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helal, M. A.; Mori, T.; Kojima, S. [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan)

    2015-05-04

    The low-frequency infrared-active optical modes were studied in a barium zirconate, BaZrO{sub 3}, single crystal with the perovskite structure using terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy (TDS). The real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constants were accurately determined in the frequency range between 0.2 and 2.7 THz. Upon cooling from room temperature to 8 K, the lowest-frequency TO1 mode at 2.32 THz showed a pronounced softening to 1.94 THz. The real part of the dielectric constant at 0.5 THz determined by THz-TDS obeys Barrett's relation, and the existence of a plateau confirms that the quantum effects lead to saturation of the soft mode frequencies of the TO1 and TO2 modes below ≈20 K. This is reminiscent of incipient ferroelectrics with the perovskite structure such as CaTiO{sub 3}.

  8. Density anomaly of charged hard spheres of different diameters in a mixture with core-softened model solvent. Monte Carlo simulation results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Hribar-Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Very recently the effect of equisized charged hard sphere solutes in a mixture with core-softened fluid model on the structural and thermodynamic anomalies of the system has been explored in detail by using Monte Carlo simulations and integral equations theory (J. Chem. Phys., Vol. 137, 244502 (2012. Our objective of the present short work is to complement this study by considering univalent ions of unequal diameters in a mixture with the same soft-core fluid model. Specifically, we are interested in the analysis of changes of the temperature of maximum density (TMD lines with ion concentration for three model salt solutes, namely sodium chloride, potassium chloride and rubidium chloride models. We resort to Monte Carlo simulations for this purpose. Our discussion also involves the dependences of the pair contribution to excess entropy and of constant volume heat capacity on the temperature of maximum density line. Some examples of the microscopic structure of mixtures in question in terms of pair distributions functions are given in addition.

  9. Reaction dynamics. Extremely short-lived reaction resonances in Cl + HD (v = 1) → DCl + H due to chemical bond softening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tiangang; Chen, Jun; Huang, Long; Wang, Tao; Xiao, Chunlei; Sun, Zhigang; Dai, Dongxu; Yang, Xueming; Zhang, Dong H

    2015-01-02

    The Cl + H2 reaction is an important benchmark system in the study of chemical reaction dynamics that has always appeared to proceed via a direct abstraction mechanism, with no clear signature of reaction resonances. Here we report a high-resolution crossed-molecular beam study on the Cl + HD (v = 1, j = 0) → DCl + H reaction (where v is the vibrational quantum number and j is the rotational quantum number). Very few forward scattered products were observed. However, two distinctive peaks at collision energies of 2.4 and 4.3 kilocalories per mole for the DCl (v' = 1) product were detected in the backward scattering direction. Detailed quantum dynamics calculations on a highly accurate potential energy surface suggested that these features originate from two very short-lived dynamical resonances trapped in the peculiar H-DCl (v' = 2) vibrational adiabatic potential wells that result from chemical bond softening. We anticipate that dynamical resonances trapped in such wells exist in many reactions involving vibrationally excited molecules.

  10. Pressure-induced low-lying phonon modes softening and enhanced thermal resistance in β -M g2A l4S i5O18

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiran; Tian, Zhilin; Luo, Yixiu; Wang, Jiemin; Sun, Luchao; Zheng, Liya; Wang, Jingyang

    2017-02-01

    Lattice thermal conductivities of β -M g2A l4S i5O18 were predicted at various hydrostatic pressures based on some theoretical models. An abnormal decrement on lattice thermal conductivity is observed for compressed crystal structure. A rigorous analysis of structural stability, bonding characteristics, vibration modes, group velocities, and mode Grüneisen parameters helps us to recognize the origin of this anomalous behavior. We attribute the negative dependent trend to the softening of low frequency phonons and strengthening of anharmonicity at elevated pressure, both of which arise from the specific corner-linked tetrahedral framework in the crystal structure. To validate theoretical calculations, we synthesized pure and dense β -M g2A l4S i5O18 ceramic by using a two-step processing method and determined its intrinsic lattice thermal conductivity by successfully eliminating the phonon scattering from defects and high-temperature thermal radiation. The experimental intrinsic values agreed quite well with the theoretical predictions. This paper reports an anomalous pressure-induced reduction of lattice thermal conductivity and also provides a key insight into the interesting phonon modification mechanism through tailoring the crystal structure of complex compounds.

  11. X-ray softening in the new X-ray transient XTE J1719-291 during its 2008 outburst decay

    CERN Document Server

    Padilla, M Armas; Patruno, A; Russell, D M; Linares, M; Maccarone, T J; Homan, J; Wijnands, R

    2011-01-01

    The X-ray transient XTE J1719-291 was discovered with RXTE/PCA during its outburst in 2008 March, which lasted at least 46 days. Its 2-10 keV peak luminosity is 7E35 erg/s assuming a distance of 8 kpc, which classifies the system as a very faint X-ray transient. The outburst was monitored with Swift, RXTE, Chandra and XMM-Newton. We analysed the X-ray spectral evolution during the outburst. We fitted the overall data with a simple power-law model corrected for absorption and found that the spectral index increased with decreasing luminosity. However, the XMM-Newton spectrum can not be fitted with a simple one-component model, but it can be fitted with a thermal component (black body or disc black body) plus power-law model affected by absorption. Therefore, the softening of the X-ray spectrum with decreasing X-ray luminosity might be due to a change in photon index or alternatively it might be due to a change in the properties of the soft component. Assuming that the system is an X-ray binary, we estimated a ...

  12. Metropolitan Spokane Region Water Resources Study. Appendix H. Volume 1. Plan Formulation and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    guidance was providedbte epo ,,n Rive -s!n~wt gre guidance frm ’the studyV c~ies o~ni e.’Maj or cooperg.ting agendcies inclukle’ Spol anie Ct’and Ciounty...Separate and recycle spe-t cooling water. Culligan Soft Water Service Water use: Regeneration of water softeners Treatment: p1l adjustment Problems: High...sites, both with solids handling and with carbon regeneration increase the odor potential over one site plan. 701.2- 152 11. CONCERNS FOR ENERGY AND

  13. A New Concept of Ultrafiltration Fouling Control: Backwashing with Low Ionic Strength Water

    OpenAIRE

    Li, S.

    2011-01-01

    Ultrafiltration (UF) is a proven technology in water treatment nowadays. However, fouling remains a major challenge in the operation of UF, especially in regard to colloidal NOM fouling. In general, a number of colloidal NOM fouling mechanisms may occur, such as adsorption, gel formation. Colloidal NOM fouling is influenced by multivalent cations, ionic strength and pH. In order to control membrane fouling, different pretreatments such as powder activated carbon adsorption, lime softening, io...

  14. A New Concept of Ultrafiltration Fouling Control: Backwashing with Low Ionic Strength Water

    OpenAIRE

    Li, S.

    2011-01-01

    Ultrafiltration (UF) is a proven technology in water treatment nowadays. However, fouling remains a major challenge in the operation of UF, especially in regard to colloidal NOM fouling. In general, a number of colloidal NOM fouling mechanisms may occur, such as adsorption, gel formation. Colloidal NOM fouling is influenced by multivalent cations, ionic strength and pH. In order to control membrane fouling, different pretreatments such as powder activated carbon adsorption, lime softening, io...

  15. Beneficial Reuse of San Ardo Produced Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert A. Liske

    2006-07-31

    This DOE funded study was performed to evaluate the potential for treatment and beneficial reuse of produced water from the San Ardo oilfield in Monterey County, CA. The potential benefits of a successful full-scale implementation of this project include improvements in oil production efficiency and additional recoverable oil reserves as well as the addition of a new reclaimed water resource. The overall project was conducted in two Phases. Phase I identified and evaluated potential end uses for the treated produced water, established treated water quality objectives, reviewed regulations related to treatment, transport, storage and use of the treated produced water, and investigated various water treatment technology options. Phase II involved the construction and operation of a small-scale water treatment pilot facility to evaluate the process's performance on produced water from the San Ardo oilfield. Cost estimates for a potential full-scale facility were also developed. Potential end uses identified for the treated water include (1) agricultural use near the oilfield, (2) use by Monterey County Water Resources Agency (MCWRA) for the Salinas Valley Water Project or Castroville Seawater Intrusion Project, (3) industrial or power plant use in King City, and (4) use for wetlands creation in the Salinas Basin. All of these uses were found to have major obstacles that prevent full-scale implementation. An additional option for potential reuse of the treated produced water was subsequently identified. That option involves using the treated produced water to recharge groundwater in the vicinity of the oil field. The recharge option may avoid the limitations that the other reuse options face. The water treatment pilot process utilized: (1) warm precipitation softening to remove hardness and silica, (2) evaporative cooling to meet downstream temperature limitations and facilitate removal of ammonia, and (3) reverse osmosis (RO) for removal of dissolved salts, boron

  16. Structural modifications and phonon softening in Bi sub 2 Sr sub 2 Ca sub 1 sub - sub x R sub x Cu sub 2 O sub 8 sub + subdelta (R = Pr and Gd) single crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, S J; Han, Q; Ma, J; Shi, L; Sun, X F; Zuo, J; Li, X G

    2003-01-01

    The phonon Raman spectra of Bi sub 2 Sr sub 2 Ca sub 1 sub - sub x R sub x Cu sub 2 O sub 8 sub + subdelta (R = Pr and Gd) single crystals are systematically investigated. The experimental results show that the O(2) sub S sub r A sub 1 sub g mode softens with Pr and Gd doping, while the O(1) sub C sub u B sub 1 sub g mode softens with Pr doping but hardens with Gd doping. The changes of average ionic radius on the Ca site in Bi-based cuprates can account well for the Raman frequency shifts of the O(1) sub C sub u mode, but have little influence on the O(2) sub S sub r mode. The frequency softening of the O(2) sub S sub r mode in Pr-and Gd-doped Bi2212 crystals mainly results from contraction of the BiO bilayers with doping content. The correlation between the O(2) sub S sub r mode frequency and the c-axis parameter as well as the incommensurate modulation wavelength is discussed.

  17. Soil-water interaction in unsaturated expansive soil slopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN Liangtong

    2007-01-01

    The intensive soil-water interaction in unsatura- ted expansive soil is one of the major reasons for slope fail- ures. In this paper, the soil-water interaction is investigated with the full-scale field inspection of rainwater infiltration and comprehensive experiments, including wetting-induced softening tests, swelling, and shrinkage tests. It is demonstrat- ed that the soil-water interaction induced by seasonal wetting- drying cycles is very complex, and it involves coupled effects among the changes in water content, suction, stress, deforma- tion and shear strength. In addition, the abundant cracks in the expansive soil play an important role in the soil-water interaction. The cracks disintegrate the soil mass, and more importantly, provide easy pathways for rainfall infiltration. Infiltration of rainwater not only results in wetting-induced softening of the shallow unsaturated soil layers, but also leads to the increase of horizontal stress. The increase of horizontal stress may lead to a local passive failure. The seasonal wetting-drying cycles tend to result in a down-slope creeping of the shallow soil layer, which leads to progressive slope failure.

  18. Insights into transcriptional regulation of β-D-N-acetylhexosaminidase, an N-glycan-processing enzyme involved in ripening-associated fruit softening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irfan, Mohammad; Ghosh, Sumit; Kumar, Vinay; Chakraborty, Niranjan; Chakraborty, Subhra; Datta, Asis

    2014-11-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit ripening-specific N-glycan processing enzyme, β-D-N-acetylhexosaminidase (β-Hex), plays an important role in the ripening-associated fruit-softening process. However, the regulation of fruit ripening-specific expression of β-Hex is not well understood. We have identified and functionally characterized the fruit ripening-specific promoter of β-Hex and provided insights into its transcriptional regulation during fruit ripening. Our results demonstrate that RIPENING INHIBITOR (RIN), a global fruit ripening regulator, and ABSCISIC ACID STRESS RIPENING 1 (SlASR1), a poorly characterized ripening-related protein, are the transcriptional regulators of β-Hex. Both RIN and SlASR1 directly bound to the β-Hex promoter fragments containing CArG and C₂₋₃(C/G)A cis-acting elements, the binding sites for RIN and SlASR1, respectively. Moreover, β-Hex expression/promoter activity in tomato fruits was downregulated once expression of either RIN or SlASR1 was suppressed; indicating that RIN and SlASR1 positively regulate the transcription of β-Hex during fruit ripening. Interestingly, RIN could also bind to the SlASR1 promoter, which contains several CArG cis-acting elements, and SlASR1 expression was suppressed in rin mutant fruits, indicating that RIN also acts as a positive regulator of SlASR1 expression during fruit ripening. Taken together, these results suggest that RIN, both directly and indirectly, through SlASR1, regulates the transcription of β-Hex during fruit ripening. The fruit ripening-specific promoter of β-Hex could be a useful tool in regulating gene expression during fruit ripening.

  19. Structural and magnetic properties of Ni78Fe22 thin films sandwiched between low-softening-point glasses and application in spin devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misawa, Takahiro; Mori, Sumito; Komine, Takashi; Fujioka, Masaya; Nishii, Junji; Kaiju, Hideo

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the structural and magnetic properties of Ni78Fe22 thin films sandwiched between low-softening-point (LSP) glasses, which can be used in spin quantum cross (SQC) devices utilizing stray magnetic fields generated from magnetic thin-film edges. We also calculate the stray magnetic field generated between the two edges of Ni78Fe22 thin-film electrodes in SQC devices and discuss the applicability to spin-filter devices. Using the established fabrication technique, we successfully demonstrate the formation of LSP-glass/Ni78Fe22/LSP-glass structures with smooth and clear interfaces. The coercivity of the Ni78Fe22 thin films is enhanced from 0.9 to 103 Oe by increasing the applied pressure from 0 to 1.0 MPa in the thermal pressing process. According to the random anisotropy model, the enhancement of the coercivity is attributed to the increase in the crystal grain size. The stray magnetic field is also uniformly generated from the Ni78Fe22 thin-film edge in the direction perpendicular to the cross section of the LSP-glass/Ni78Fe22/LSP-glass structures. Theoretical calculation reveals that a high stray field of approximately 5 kOe is generated when the distance between two edges of the Ni78Fe22 thin-film electrodes is less than 5 nm and the thickness of Ni78Fe22 is greater than 20 nm. These experimental and calculation results indicate that Ni78Fe22 thin films sandwiched between LSP glasses are useful as electrodes for SQC devices, serving as spin-filter devices.

  20. Foliation development and reaction softening by dissolution and precipitation in the transformation of granodiorite to orthogneiss, Glastonbury Complex, Connecticut, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintsch, R.P.; Aleinikoff, J.N.; Yi, K.

    2005-01-01

    Textures, microstructures, and patterns of chemical zoning in minerals in a granodioritic orthogneiss in the Glastonbury Complex, Connecticut, lead to the interpretation that foliation development was facilitated by retrograde hydration reactions in the presence of an aqueous fluid. Incomplete replacement of the metastable magmatic minerals K-feldspar + hastingsite + magnetite produced foliation-defining biotite + epidote + quartz. These reaction products did not replace K-feldspar - hastingsite interfaces; rather, either biotite or epidote replaced the amphibole, and plagioclase replaced K-feldspar. Biotite and epidote precipitated syntectonically in discrete layers that define the foliation in the orthogneiss, whereas quartz precipitated primarily in ribbons, further enhancing the fabric. Metastable REE-rich igneous titanite also dissolved, and was incompletely replaced by REE-poor, Al-bearing metamorphic titanite. The similar concentrations of the REE in epidote and titanite show that the REE released by titanite dissolution were precipitated locally as the allanite component in adjacent grains of epidote. The entire process was syntectonic, with most grains showing multiple overgrowths in the direction of extension as defined by stretched xenoliths. Sufficient U was present in the titanite overgrowths to allow SHRIMP dating of cores, mantles, and rims. These results suggest at least three retrograde Alleghanian events of growth in a span of ???30 m.y. Thus the dissolution - transportation - precipitation process not only describes the reaction mechanism but also leads to the redistribution of reaction products into nearly monomineralic layers, thus contributing to metamorphic differentiation and to the development of the foliation. The resulting orthogneiss was much weaker that the granodiorite protolith, owing to this reaction and textural softening.

  1. Expression and location of endo-beta-mannanase during the ripening of tomato fruit, and the relationship between its activity and softening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aoxue; Li, Jingfu; Zhang, Bingxiu; Xu, Xiangyang; Bewley, J Derek

    2009-10-15

    Endo-beta-mannanase is thought to play a role in tomato fruit ripening by participating in the degradation of cell walls. Its spatial and temporal expression during ripening was examined, as was the relationship between its activity and softening of the fruit using a large number of tomato lines, and by suppression of transcription of the endo-beta-mannanase (LeMan4a) gene. Immunolocalization studies showed that the enzyme is expressed in the fruit cell wall at all ripening stages, but it is not active during the initial green stage; this is not due to the presence of inhibitors of its activity, nor due to changes in its mRNA sequence. Transient expression in onion epidermal cells of endo-beta-mannanase transcripts fused to green fluorescent protein resulted in the expressed enzyme being localized to the cell walls. Transgenic tomato plants expressing a GUS gene attached to the LeMan4a promoter showed that this occurs initially during ripening in the skin and outer pericarp of the fruit, and later in the skin and throughout the pericarp. Fruit firmness and activity of endo-beta-mannanase were not strongly correlated during ripening of many lines of tomato. Several plants of cv. Micro-Tom were transformed using RNA interference (mRNAi) and antisense RNA strategies to suppress transcription of the LeMan4a gene. When endo-beta-mannanase activity was much reduced in the transgenic fruits, their firmness was higher compared to those of control fruits at the turning and orange-color stages, but at the red-ripe stage firmness was similar between the two fruit types. We suggest that while the enzyme does participate in fruit ripening it alone is not sufficient to cause hydrolysis of the cell walls which results in their weakening; it likely plays a cooperative role with other known wall-modifying enzymes, and/or is involved in cell wall rearrangement.

  2. ANALISIS PENGOLAHAN AIR TERPRODUKSI DI WATER TREATING PLANT PERUSAHAAN EKSPLOITASI MINYAK BUMI (STUDI KASUS: PT XYZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pertiwi Andaran

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The exploration and production process of oil and its supporting operations always generates waste as by-product. If they are uncontrolled, it might decrease the environmental quality. Thus, it is necessary to manage and treat the waste in order to meet the regulation standard of quality and quantity. PT XYZ is an energy company, particularly oil and gas production, which its production activity generate a large amount of waste as well as produced water. Thus, PT XYZ must have facilities or produced water handling plant which could minimize pollution caused by produced water. PT XYZ already has a system of produced water handling with recycling principle. After oil and water separation including water treating at Water Treating Plant (WTP, produced water will be used for steam injection. This is the part of enhanced oil recovery by steam flooding in Duri Field. Besides, produced water could be used as backwash water at WTP, that is Oil Removal Filter (ORF and Water Softener, which is called brine water. If the produced water and brine water is over load the capacity of oil enhanced recovery injection, it might be disposed through injection to Disposal Well and there are certain condition that produced water should be discharged into canal. The objective f this study is to analyze the performance of a water treating plant in PT XYZ. Water Treating Plant is a facility for treating produced water. Basically, WTP is on good condition and each unit has high efficiency for separating oil and water (60-99%. Horizontal velocity at pit #A of API Separator was larger than the design criteria. In addition, Water Softeners have efficiency until 99% for the hardness.

  3. Single particle ICP-MS characterization of titanium dioxide, silver, and gold nanoparticles during drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Ariel R; Adams, Craig D; Ma, Yinfa; Stephan, Chady; Eichholz, Todd; Shi, Honglan

    2016-02-01

    One of the most direct means for human exposure to nanoparticles (NPs) released into the environment is drinking water. Therefore, it is critical to understand the occurrence and fate of NPs in drinking water systems. The objectives of this study were to develop rapid and reliable analytical methods and apply them to investigate the fate and transportation of NPs during drinking water treatments. Rapid single particle ICP-MS (SP-ICP-MS) methods were developed to characterize and quantify titanium-containing, titanium dioxide, silver, and gold NP concentration, size, size distribution, and dissolved metal element concentration in surface water and treated drinking water. The effectiveness of conventional drinking water treatments (including lime softening, alum coagulation, filtration, and disinfection) to remove NPs from surface water was evaluated using six-gang stirrer jar test simulations. The selected NPs were nearly completely (97 ± 3%) removed after lime softening and alum coagulation/activated carbon adsorption treatments. Additionally, source and drinking waters from three large drinking water treatment facilities utilizing similar treatments with the simulation test were collected and analyzed by the SP-ICP-MS methods. Ti-containing particles and dissolved Ti were present in the river water samples, but Ag and Au were not present. Treatments used at each drinking water treatment facility effectively removed over 93% of the Ti-containing particles and dissolved Ti from the source water. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Detection of zinc oxide and cerium dioxide nanoparticles during drinking water treatment by rapid single particle ICP-MS methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Ariel R; Adams, Craig D; Ma, Yinfa; Stephan, Chady; Eichholz, Todd; Shi, Honglan

    2016-07-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) entering water systems are an emerging concern as NPs are more frequently manufactured and used. Single particle inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (SP-ICP-MS) methods were validated to detect Zn- and Ce-containing NPs in surface and drinking water using a short dwell time of 0.1 ms or lower, ensuring precision in single particle detection while eliminating the need for sample preparation. Using this technique, information regarding NP size, size distribution, particle concentration, and dissolved ion concentrations was obtained simultaneously. The fates of Zn- and Ce-NPs, including those found in river water and added engineered NPs, were evaluated by simulating a typical drinking water treatment process. Lime softening, alum coagulation, powdered activated carbon sorption, and disinfection by free chlorine were simulated sequentially using river water. Lime softening removed 38-53 % of Zn-containing and ZnO NPs and >99 % of Ce-containing and CeO2 NPs. Zn-containing and ZnO NP removal increased to 61-74 % and 77-79 % after alum coagulation and disinfection, respectively. Source and drinking water samples were collected from three large drinking water treatment facilities and analyzed for Zn- and Ce-containing NPs. Each facility had these types of NPs present. In all cases, particle concentrations were reduced by a minimum of 60 % and most were reduced by >95 % from source water to finished drinking water. This study concludes that uncoated ZnO and CeO2 NPs may be effectively removed by conventional drinking water treatments including lime softening and alum coagulation.

  5. The Effects of Preservation Methods and Temperature of Softening Specimens on DNA Extraction from Apis mellifera%保存方式和回软温度对蜜蜂标本 DNA 提取的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红利; 贾鑫磊; 刘建霞; 张永芳

    2016-01-01

    旨在探寻保存方式及制作干标本前回软温度对蜜蜂不同部位 DNA 的影响。采用酚-氯仿法对不同方式保存的蜜蜂以及不同温度回软后的蜜蜂干标本的总 DNA 进行提取,通过琼脂糖凝胶电泳和 PCR 扩增对 DNA 的提取结果进行鉴定。电泳结果显示,从新鲜标本、无水乙醇泡制或自然干燥保存半年的标本中均可提取到较高质量的总 DNA,尤以头部与足部提取效果最佳。经不同水浴温度回软后保存半年的蜜蜂干标本总 DNA 提取结果显示,回软温度为65℃时对蜜蜂 DNA 的破坏性最小,DNA 提取的最佳部位为蜜蜂足部。正交试验结果显示,55℃回软后的足部为蜜蜂干标本 DNA 提取的最优组合。PCR 扩增结果显示,本实验提取的总 DNA 能成功地应用于蜜蜂线粒体基因16S rRNA 和 CO I 的扩增。从保存方式、提取部位和回软操作3个因素对蜜蜂标本DNA 的提取进行了研究,提供了较好的选择方案。%This work aims to explore the effects of preservation methods and temperature while softening specimens before drying the specimen on DNA from different parts of bees. The phenol - chloroform method was used to extract the total DNA from bee specimens preserved in different methods and from those dried bee specimens softened at different temperatures. The extracted DNA was analyzed and identified using agarose gel electrophoresis and the PCR amplification. The electrophoresis images showed that fine-quality DNA was extracted from all specimens,including specimens collected freshly,specimens soaked with alcohol,and specimens dried under natural conditions,and the quality of genomic DNA from the head and the leg of these specimens was better than that from other parts. The total extracted DNA results from dried bees softened under different bath temperatures and preserved half year showed that 65℃ was the optimal softening temperature,and the damages to bee’s DNA

  6. 钛合金片层组织两相区变形时的流动软化机理分析%FLOW SOFTENING MECHANSIM OF A Ti ALLOY WITH LAMELLAR STRUCTURE DURING SUBTRANSUS DEFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋鸿武; 张士宏; 程明; 李臻熙; 曹春晓; 包春玲

    2011-01-01

    钛合金片层组织在两相区变形时流动应力随应变的增加普遍表现为快速硬化和持续软化的特征.为了研究该流动软化的机理,采用等温热压缩实验研究了TC11合金片层组织在温度890-995℃和应变速率0.01-10 s-1范围内的热变形行为.理论计算表明α/β片层界面(α片层内孪晶界)产生的Hall-Petch强化效应远大于片层束集边界.TC11合金片层组织高温变形的流动软化机理可归结为硬滑移模式向软滑移模式转变导致Hall-Petch强化效应的减弱.%The flow stress has a considerable flow softening after a peak strain hardening at very low strains for Ti alloys with lamellar structure during subtransus deformation. In order to study the mechanism of such flow softening behavior, the deformation behavior of TC11 Ti alloy with a lamellar structure was studied using isothermal hot compression tests under a temperature range of 890-995 ℃ and a strain rate range of 0.01-10 s-1. Theoretical calculation shows the Hall-Petch strengthening effects induced by α/β interface as well as the twin boundary in α lamellar are far more significant than that of the colony boundary. The flow softening can be related to reduction of Hall-Petch strengthening effects due to transfer from the hard slip mode to the soft one.

  7. Effects of 1-methylcyclopropene and hot water quarantine treatment on quality of "Keitt" mangos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngamchuachit, Panita; Barrett, Diane M; Mitcham, Elizabeth J

    2014-04-01

    The optimal 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment to slow ripening of whole "Keitt" mangos, either alone or in combination with hot water treatment (HWT) (prior to or post 1-MCP) was identified. USDA-APHIS mandates that HWT can be used for control of fruit flies, but this may affect fruit response to 1-MCP. Mangos were evaluated by repeated measurement of nondestructive firmness, peel color, and ethylene production on the same mango fruits during 2 wk of ripening at 20 °C after treatment. The magnitude of ethylene production increased as a result of both 1-MCP and HWT. With softer mangos (65 N), treatment with 1-MCP alone delayed fruit softening and extended the number of days to full-ripeness (25 N) from 5 d in untreated fruit to 11 d. For these riper fruit, application of 1-MCP prior to HWT extended the days to full-ripeness to 9 d compared with 7 d when 1-MCP was applied after HWT. With firmer mangos (80 N), 1-MCP treatments alone prolonged the days to full-ripeness to 13 d as compared to 11 d for the untreated fruit. There was no significant concentration effect on firmness retention among 1-MCP treatments (0.5, 1.0, or 10.0 μL/L). HWT resulted in a faster rate of fruit softening, taking only 7 d to reach full-ripeness. Combining 1-MCP with HWT reduced the rate of softening compared to HWT alone, resulting in 9 to 11 d to full-ripeness. Application of 1-MCP before HWT showed a greater ability to reduce the rate of fruit softening compared with 1-MCP treatment after HWT.

  8. Effects of a new modifier on the water-resistance of magnesite cement tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kejing; Xi, Jintao; Guo, Yanqing; Dong, Shuhua

    2012-01-01

    The magnesium oxychloride composite is an inorganic cementitious material with high bending and compression strength in air characteristics. However its strength decreases significantly after immersion in water. The preparing process of a new magnesite cement tile using nano rice husk ashes and a complex water-resistance agent as modifiers was described in the paper. The effects of low-temperature rice husk ashes (RHAs) and the complex water-resistance agent constituted with phosphoric acid, calcium superphosphate, wooden calcium and styrene-acrylic emulsion on the water-resistance of magnesite materials were mainly studied. The samples properties were characterized by XRD, SEM, BET, a laser particle size analyzer and bending test. The experiments show that the proportional addition of nano RHAs markedly increases the water-resistance of magnesite materials without reducing the bending strength and promotes the softening coefficient from 0.29 to 0.78, while the softening coefficient reaches up to 0.97 combined with the use of complex water-resistance agent. The new magnesite cement tiles prepared were not scumming, not warping, and not contracting at room temperature for 360 d.

  9. Occurrence of neonicotinoid insecticides in finished drinking water and fate during drinking water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarich, Kathryn L.; Pflug, Nicholas C.; DeWald, Eden M.; Hladik, Michelle; Kolpin, Dana W.; Cwiertny, David M.; LeFevre, Gergory H.

    2017-01-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides are widespread in surface waters across the agriculturally-intensive Midwestern US. We report for the first time the presence of three neonicotinoids in finished drinking water and demonstrate their general persistence during conventional water treatment. Periodic tap water grab samples were collected at the University of Iowa over seven weeks in 2016 (May-July) after maize/soy planting. Clothianidin, imidacloprid, and thiamethoxam were ubiquitously detected in finished water samples and ranged from 0.24-57.3 ng/L. Samples collected along the University of Iowa treatment train indicate no apparent removal of clothianidin and imidacloprid, with modest thiamethoxam removal (~50%). In contrast, the concentrations of all neonicotinoids were substantially lower in the Iowa City treatment facility finished water using granular activated carbon (GAC) filtration. Batch experiments investigated potential losses. Thiamethoxam losses are due to base-catalyzed hydrolysis at high pH conditions during lime softening. GAC rapidly and nearly completely removed all three neonicotinoids. Clothianidin is susceptible to reaction with free chlorine and may undergo at least partial transformation during chlorination. Our work provides new insights into the persistence of neonicotinoids and their potential for transformation during water treatment and distribution, while also identifying GAC as an effective management tool to lower neonicotinoid concentrations in finished drinking water.

  10. Water, Water Everywhere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeler, Rusty

    2009-01-01

    Everybody knows that children love water and how great water play is for children. The author discusses ways to add water to one's playscape that fully comply with health and safety regulations and are still fun for children. He stresses the importance of creating water play that provides children with the opportunity to interact with water.

  11. Water, Water Everywhere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeler, Rusty

    2009-01-01

    Everybody knows that children love water and how great water play is for children. The author discusses ways to add water to one's playscape that fully comply with health and safety regulations and are still fun for children. He stresses the importance of creating water play that provides children with the opportunity to interact with water.

  12. The effect of treatment parameters and detergent additions on the softening of radioactively contaminated process wastewater at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roe, M.M.; Kent, T.E.

    1993-05-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a research facility owned by the Department of Energy and operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems. At ORNL, research is performed in a wide range of areas including nuclear energy research, environmental sciences, materials research, health and safety research, and production of radioisotopes. These activities generate 70 million gallons per year of process wastewater which is basically tap water and ground water containing trace amounts of radioactive compounds. This water is treated for removal of contaminants at the Process Waste Treatment Plant (PWTP) before discharge to the environment.

  13. Water-resistant gypsum binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panchenko Alexander I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors developed a multi-component gypsum binder (MGB with an improved (by 1.8 to 2.2 times water resistance value in comparison with the initial gypsum and a softening factor value within the range of 0.85 to 0.91 through the introduction of a complex additive containing carbide mud and bio-silica. The use of a complex additive provides for the formation of a denser structure due to the formation of low-base calcium hydrated silicates at early stages of the hardening process under wet or dry air conditions. The developed binding agent has a lower (by 2.5 to 3 times open porosity, a greater compressive strength (by 1.4 to 1.6 times for a dry state and by 2.6 times in a water-saturated state and does not require any special curing conditions in contrast to the other multi-component gypsum binders. The authors show the influence of mud-and-silica additive on the properties of hardened MGB and suggest a method of computation of the optimum MGB composition for given components.

  14. Lipídios estruturados obtidos a partir da mistura de gordura de frango, sua estearina e triacilgliceróis de cadeia média: II- pontos de amolecimento e fusão Structured lipids from chicken fat, its stearin, and medium chain triacyglycerol blends: II- softening and melting points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Chih Chiu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work is to investigate the effects of blending and chemical interesterification reactions on the softening and melting behavior of chicken fat, its stearin and medium chain triacylglycerols, and blends thereof in various ratios. Chemical interesterification is a promising alternative to the current processes of modifying the physical properties of fats. In the experimental design 7 samples corresponding to 7 different blend proportions were used. The results were represented in triangular diagrams. The addition of stearin influenced the softening and melting points. The mixture response surface methodology proved to be an extremely useful tool for the optimization of the fat mixtures.

  15. Preparation of two ester-containing Gemini quaternary ammonium softener and its properties%双酯基Gemini季铵盐柔软剂的制备及性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    娄平均; 朱红军; 丁徽; 牛华

    2011-01-01

    A di-ester Gemini quaternary ammonium softener( DEGOS) is prepared with dimethyl stearic acid ethyl tertiary amine and 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol as raw materials. The optimum synthesis conditions ara determined via orthogonal experiments as follows∶reaction at 80 ℃ for 12 hours with n( 1 , 3-dichloro-2-propanol) ∶ n ( dimethyl stearic acid ethyl tertiary amine) = 1 ∶ 2.1and ethanol of 40% , and the yield reaches 89.3%. The product is characterized by FTIR, elemental analysis and 1H-NMR, and its application properties are studied. The results show that the product features good surface activity with surface tension of 35.9 mN/m, critical micelle concentration of 0.039 mmol/L and Krafft point of - 3.41 ℃, good softening property similar to that of commercial softener D1821, and good rewetting property and biodegradability, as well as low influence on whiteness of the fabric.%以二甲基硬脂酸乙酯基叔胺和l,3-二氯-2-丙醇为原料,合成了一种双酯基Gemini季铵盐织物柔软剂(DEGQS).通过正交试验考察了反应的影响因素,确定优化工艺条件为:n(1,3-二氯-2-丙醇):n(二甲基硬脂酸乙酯基叔胺)=1:2.1,反应温度80℃,W(乙醇)=40%(占反应物总量的质量分数),反应时间12 h,在该条件下目标产物的收率达到89.3%.通过FTIR、元素分析和1H-NMR对DEGQS进行表征,并研究其应用性能,结果表明,该柔软剂的表面张力35.9 mN/m,临界胶束浓度0.039 mmol/L,Krafft点为-3.41℃,表面活性较好,柔软性能与D1821基本相当,具有优良的再润湿性和生物降解性能,对织物的白度影响较小.

  16. Bond Stretching Phonon Softening And Kinks in the Angle-Resolved Photoemission Spectra of Optimally Doped Bi(2)Sr(1.6)La(0.4)Cu(2)O(6)+-Delta Superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graf, J.; d' Astuto, M.; Jozwiak, C.; Garcia, D.R.; Saini, N.L.; Krisch, M.; Ikeuchi, K.; Baron, A.Q.R.; Eisaki, H.; Lanzara, A.

    2009-05-19

    We report the first measurement of the Cu-O bond stretching phonon dispersion in optimally doped Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 1.6}La{sub 0.4}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 6+{delta}} using inelastic x-ray scattering. We found a softening of this phonon at q = ({approx} 0.25, 0, 0) from 76 to 60 meV, similar to the one reported in other cuprates. A comparison with angle-resolved photoemission data on the same sample revealed an excellent agreement in terms of energy and momentum between the angle-resolved photoemission nodal kink and the soft part of the bond stretching phonon. Indeed, we find that the momentum space where a 63 {+-} 5 meV kink is observed can be connected with a vector q = ({zeta}, 0, 0) with {zeta} {ge} 0.22, corresponding exactly to the soft part of the bond stretching phonon.

  17. Bond stretching phonon softening and angle-resolved photoemission kinks in optimally doped Bi2Sr1:6La0:4Cu2O6+sigma superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graf, Jeff; d& #39; Astuto, M.; Jozwiak, C.; Garcia, D.R.; Saini, N.L.; Krisch, M.; Ikeuchi, K.; Baron, A.Q.R.; Eisaki, H.; Lanzara, Alessandra

    2008-05-08

    We report the first measurement of the Cu-O bond stretching phonon dispersion in optimally doped Bi2Sr1.6La0.4Cu2O6+delta using inelastic x-ray scattering. We found a softening of this phonon at q=(0.25,0,0) from 76 to 60 meV, similar to the one reported in other cuprates. A comparison with angle-resolved photoemission data on the same sample revealed an excellent agreement in terms of energy and momentum between the angle-resolved photoemission nodal kink and the soft part of the bond stretching phonon. Indeed, we find that the momentum space where a 63+-5 meV kink is observed can be connected with a vector q=(xi,0,0) with xi>= 0.22, corresponding exactly to the soft part of the bond stretching phonon.

  18. Monte Carlo and theoretical calculations of the first four perturbation coefficients in the high temperature series expansion of the free energy for discrete and core-softened potential models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shiqi; Solana, J. R.

    2013-06-01

    The first four perturbation coefficients in the expansion of the Helmholtz free energy in power series of the inverse of the reduced temperature for a number of potential models with hard-sphere cores plus core-softened and discontinuous tails are obtained from Monte Carlo simulations. The potential models considered include square-well, double square-well, and square-shoulder plus square-well, with different potential parameters. These simulation data are used to evaluate the performance of a traditional macroscopic compressibility approximation (MCA) for the second order coefficient and a recent coupling parameter series expansion (CPSE) for the first four coefficients. Comprehensive comparison indicates the incapability of the MCA for the second order coefficient in most non-stringent situations, and significance of the CPSE in accurately calculating these four coefficients.

  19. D_3合成氨基硅油在织物柔软整理中的应用%Application of D3 Synthesized Amino- Silicone Oil in Fabric Softening and Finishing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜高敏; 单巨川; 郑庆康; 冯西宁

    2012-01-01

    采用六甲基环三硅氧烷(D3)合成不同氨值的羟基、甲基和甲氧基封端氨基硅油乳液并将其用于纯棉、涤/棉织物进行柔软整理,通过分析氨值、封端剂对整理后织物的手感、白度、强力、平均弯曲长度等指标的影响,得出D3合成氨基硅油对纺织品柔软整理的可行性。试验结果表明,通常情况下,随着氨值增加,整理后织物的手感变好、平均弯曲长度变小、强力下降、白度稍有降低;具有活性封端剂的氨基硅油整理织物的柔软性要优于非活性封端剂氨基硅油。%Hydroxyl, methyl and methoxyl terminal amino - silicone emulsion with different amine values synthesized by using D3 (hexamethylcyclotrisioxane) was applied to the softening and finishing of pure cotton of softening and finishing of D3 synthesized amino - silicone oil for fabric was concluded. The experiment showed that with the increase of amine value, the handle of fabric was better, average bending length was shortened and whiteness was decreased after finishing, the softness of fabric finished by amino - silicone oil with active end - capping reagent was better than the one with non - active end - capping reagent.

  20. Water Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Statistics Training & Education Policy & Recommendations Fast Facts Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Drinking Water Healthy Swimming Global ... type=”submit” value=”Submit” /> Healthy Water Home Water Contamination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ...

  1. Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the safest water supplies in the world, but drinking water quality can vary from place to place. It ... water supplier must give you annual reports on drinking water. The reports include where your water came from ...

  2. Water resources of the Flint area, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiitala, Sulo Werner; Vanlier, K.E.; Krieger, Robert A.

    1964-01-01

    . The April 1947 flood, the largest on record, caused nearly $4 million flood damage in Flint. A proposed flood-control plan for Flint calls for channel, floodwall, and levee improvements and the removal or modification of some bridges.Analyses of water samples taken from selected streams and lakes in the Flint area indicate that the waters are of the calcium bicarbonate type and generally hard to very hard. Flint River water is relatively uniform in quality although a progressive increase in iron, sodium, and chloride concentrations was noted between Otisville and Montrose. Downstream from Flint, the dissolved oxygencontent may be low during low flows. At times, concentrations of iron, manganese, phenols, color, and turbidity in Flint River water exceed the limits recommended in drinking water standards. Water temperatures ranged from freezing to 86°F in a 4-year period. The finished water supplied by the Flint water-treatment plant is fairly uniform in quality, moderately soft, alkaline, and low in color and turbidity. The pH is nearly always above 10. Further softening and removal of iron and related minerals would be desirable for certain industrial uses.The quality of the water sampled in the Flint River tributaries was generally similar to that of the Flint River. However, no phenols or oils and waxes were found. Softening and other treatment dependent upon use would be required if these streams were developed for water supply.Waters sampled in the Shiawassee River and selected lakes were generally less mineralized than Flint River water. Water from the lakes showed the lowest concentrations of dissolved solids. Softening would be required for nearly all uses. Additional treatment would depend upon contemplated use.Shallow deposits of sand and gravel deposited as outwash along glacial meltwater streams and as deltas in the glacial lakes that covered the northwestern part of the county are sources of water to moderate- and large-capacity wells. Thick deposits of

  3. 季节冻土区刚柔混合衬砌梯形渠道冻胀机理试验%Test for frost heaving damage mechanism of rigid-soften composite trapezoidal canal in seasonally frozen ground region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜海波; 田艳

    2015-01-01

    输水渠道冻胀破坏是寒冷地区渠道破坏的主要表现。为了探明刚柔混合衬砌渠道的冻胀机理,分析复合衬砌渠道的冻胀变形规律和冻胀过程中的水分变化规律,以及柔性复合土工膜的变形特征,该研究借助季节冻融条件下刚柔混合衬砌梯形渠道的原型观测成果,分析了刚柔混合衬砌渠道的最低地温变化规律、冻深变化规律和冻胀量与冻胀力的变化规律,重点研究了冻融条件下渠基土壤的水分迁移规律,以及复合土工膜的变形特征和强度变化。结果显示:刚柔混合衬砌渠道的冻胀变形最大值位于渠底和阴坡1/3处,最大冻胀量为11.2和13.1 cm,衬砌结构向上隆起。冻结期,渠基土壤0~60 cm深度范围内含水率随深度增加而增大,>60~120 cm深度范围内的含水率随深度增大而逐渐减小。水分迁移最大值发生在渠道底部,迁移率为13.2%。经过一个冻融周期的循环,复合土工膜的强度和变形量仍然保持在90%以上,强度和变形损失值较小,可充分发挥复合土工膜防渗抗冻胀和适应变形的特性。该研究为刚柔混合衬砌渠道的设计、推广应用提供了理论依据。%In the area of seasonal frozen soil in North China and Northwest, there exists massive and serious frost-heave damage of concrete lining canal. Frost-heave damage is the main reason for the channels. In this paper, the prototype experiments were conducted in order to explore the frost-heave mechanism of rigid-soften composite canal in the irrigation area of high-cold region. The frost deformation the soil moisture variation of the trapezoidal canal lined with concrete and composite geo-membrane, and especially the rules of frost-heave deformation and the deformation features of composite geo-membrane were further systematically studied. The experiment followed the leading thought of suiting and reducing the frost-heave destruction

  4. Softening and hardening by. gamma. yields. epsilon. martensitic transformation during deformation in high Mn steels. Ko Mn tetsu gokin ni okeru. gamma. yields. epsilon. martensite hentai ni yoru nanka to koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomota, Y.; Ryufuku, S.; Piao, M. (Ibaraki University, Ibaraki (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1991-01-15

    In high Mn steel, martensitic transformation of gamma to epsilon occurs under the ordinary pressure. Its application comprises utilization of its configuration memory properties and high work hardening characteristics. The present report studied, by using Fe-Mn type alloy, added with Si or Co, the influence of martensitic transformation of gamma to epsilon on the deformation behavior. Tensile test, 2mm/min in speed, being made on molten/cast alloy ingot, thermally treated as specified, epsilon was quantitatively analyzed by X-ray diffraction. The above test/analysis pointed out many notes in result and knowledge, as follows among others: The addition with Si or Co, lowering the Neel temperature, quantitatively increases the epsilon martensite, produced by the processing. The produced quantity of epsilon martensite in case of addition with Si is small, as compared with that in case of two-element Fe-Mn type alloy without addition and in case of addition with Co. All the tested alloys give the softening phenomenon by the martensitic transformation of gamma to epsilon. The pre-existing epsilon plate is a strong barrier for the further plastic flow, which accordingly accelerates the work hardening. 20 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Study on mudstone softening process in drying-watering cycles by using CT scan%利用CT扫描研究干湿循环泥岩软化过程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚远

    2014-01-01

    对岩石遇水后力学性质的变化规律的研究,是水岩相互作用研究中一个重要的方向.通过对四组泥岩试样的干湿循环试验设计、力学性质测试和CT扫描裂缝统计试验,重点讨论了泥岩强度损伤的机制.研究发现:随着干湿循环次数的增加泥岩试样的强度损伤依次递增,而在第Ⅰ循环阶段后损伤最为明显;利用CT扫描统计样品干湿循环裂缝,发现样品中裂缝面积呈现上升趋势,其中第Ⅰ循环阶段裂缝面积占总裂缝面积的50%;最后深入讨论试验结果,得到了泥岩样品在干湿循环后强度损伤的主要原因是由于样品中裂缝的大面积产生,而首次遇水导致裂缝快速发育也是第Ⅰ干湿循环阶段后强度损失的主要原因.

  6. 适合海上油田配聚水软化的弱酸型树脂性能研究%Research on the characteristics of weak-acid type resin suitable for offshore oilfield polymer preparing water softening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈士佳; 吴晓燕; 朱洪庆; 陈斌; 田津杰; 易飞

    2014-01-01

    针对渤海绥中36-1油田配聚水硬度高、黏度损失大的问题,通过静态与动态试验研究了弱酸薄壳型离子交换树脂BHS-1的软化性能.结果表明:该树脂耐温可达75℃,最高耐矿化度可达20 000 mg/L,耐铁可以达到5mg/L.在油藏条件下,树脂的泄漏点能保证在7h以上,具有良好的除钙能力;BHS-1树脂的耐铁性试验结果表明:随着原水中铁离子浓度的增大,泄漏点将会提前.在铁离子达到5mg/L时,树脂在5h内产水基本不发生泄漏,且容易再生,不会产生铁污染问题.

  7. Study on Capability of Softening Hard-water of Oxidation Product of Mechanical Activated Cassava Starch%机械活化木薯淀粉氧化产物软化硬水能力的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭义秋; 陈渊; 胡华宇; 黄祖强; 农克良

    2009-01-01

    采用搅拌球磨机对木薯淀粉进行机械活化,以不同活化时间的木薯淀粉为原料,CuSO4为催化剂,H2O2为氧化剂干法制备氧化淀粉,并以钙离子配位能力为评价指标,分别考察羧基含量、PH值、温度、钙矗子浓度、配合时间等因素对木薯氧化淀粉软化硬水能力的影响.实验结果表明,机械活化对木薯氧化淀粉软化硬水的能力有显著的影响.由活化60 min的木薯淀粉制得的氧化淀粉当羧基含量为0.49%及0.84%时,在体系pH 10、温度30℃、钙离子浓度4 mmol/L、配合时间20 min的条件下钙离子的配合量分别为106.7 mg/g及136.70 mg/g,而在相同条件下,由原木薯淀粉制得的氧化淀粉当羧基含量为0.49%时,钙离子的配合量仅为48.0 mg/g.

  8. COMSORS: A light water reactor chemical core catcher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Parker, G.W.; Rudolph, J.C.; Osborne-Lee, I.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical Technology Div.; Kenton, M.A. [Creare Inc., Hanover, NH (United States)

    1997-02-24

    The Core-Melt Source Reduction System (COMSORS) is a new approach to terminate lightwater reactor (LWR) core-melt accidents and ensure containment integrity. A special dissolution glass made of lead oxide (PbO) and boron oxide (B{sub 2}O{sub 3}) is placed under the reactor vessel. If molten core debris is released onto the glass, the following sequence happens: (1) the glass absorbs decay heat as its temperature increases and the glass softens; (2) the core debris dissolves into the molten glass; (3) molten glass convective currents create a homogeneous high-level waste (HLW) glass; (4) the molten glass spreads into a wider pool, distributing the heat for removal by radiation to the reactor cavity above or transfer to water on top of the molten glass; and (5) the glass solidifies as increased surface cooling area and decreasing radioactive decay heat generation allows heat removal to exceed heat generation.

  9. Hidden force stiffening molecular clusters, surface skins, and ultrathin films of water

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Chang Q

    2013-01-01

    A slight, molecular-undercoordination-induced contraction of the stiffer O-H real-bond and a significant, inter-electron-pair repulsion driven, elongation of the softer H:O non-bond, and the associated stiffness relaxation, of the segmented O-H:O bond, are recognized as the key to stiffening molecular clusters, surface skins, and ultrathin films of water. Agreement between calculations and measurements verified our expectations that the shortened-and-stiffened real-bond stiffens the stiffer phonons (>3000 cm-1), densifies bonding electrons, entraps binding energy, and elevates the melting point and hence the viscosity, surface tension, and elasticity, and that the lengthened-and-softened non-bond softens the softer phonons (<300 cm-1), expands the volume, and polarizes the electron pairs of the undercoordinated molecules in freestanding and encapsuled clusters, water surfaces, and ultrathin films that exhibit ice- or glue-like and hydrophobic nature at the ambient. This effect becomes more significant as N...

  10. ABLANDAMIENTO DE FRUTOS DE PITAYA AMARILLA (ACANTHOCEREUS PITAJAYA A TEMPERATURA AMBIENTE Y EN REFRIGERACIÓN: ACTIVIDAD DE POLIGALACTURONASA, CELULASA Y XILANASA Yellow Pitaya (Acanthocereus pitajaya Fruit Softening During its Storage at Room Temperature and on Refrigerated Conditions: Polygalacturonase, Celualase and Xilanase Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YENNY MARITZA DUEÑAS GÓMEZ

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Una de las mayores causas de pérdidas poscosecha de frutos de pitaya amarilla es su ablandamiento excesivo, el cual ha sido documentado previamente cuando la fruta es almacenada a temperaturas de cosecha o después de refrigeración. Además, tratamientos de choque térmico antes del almacenamiento refrigerado ofrecen control en el ablandamiento de estos frutos. Diferentes experimentos fueron llevados a cabo para evaluar el papel de algunas enzimas degradadoras de pared celular en el ablandamiento de frutos de pitaya amarilla: almacenamiento a 18 °C (TA y refrigeración con choque térmico previo (ChT-R. Se incluyó también un tratamiento refrigerado control, sin choque térmico (control-R. Si midió el color de la corteza, la firmeza y las actividades de poligalacturonasa (PG, celulasa (CEL y xilanasa (XIL. La evaluación del color indicó que los frutos almacenados a TA alcanzaron su madurez comercial luego de seis días. Luego de 12 días de almacenamiento a TA el pardeamiento y ablandamiento excesivo afectaron negativamente la calidad de los frutos. El pardeamiento y ablandamiento excesivo fueron detectados también en los frutos control-R cuando se movieron de 2 a 18 °C. Un ligero pardeamieno fue observado en los frutos ChT-R. Estos frutos alcanzaron su madurez comercial luego de 24 días de almacenamiento (nueve días luego de terminado el almacenamiento refrigerado. La actividad de XIL se asoció al ablandamiento en los frutos almacenados a TA y ChT-R. No se observó una clara correlación entre las actividades de PG y el ablandamiento, como tampoco entre CEL y el ablandamiento.One of the major causes of yellow pitaya fruit loss during its marketing is its excessive softening, which has been previously documented when the fruit is stored at harvest temperature or after refrigeration. Furthermore, its excessive softening has been controlled by the application of heat shock treatments before refrigeration. Different experiments were

  11. Molecular dynamics simulation of water in and around carbon nanotubes: A coarse-grained description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantawane, Sanwardhini; Choudhury, Niharendu

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, we intend to investigate behaviour of water in and around hydrophobic open ended carbon nanotubes (CNTs) using a coarse-grained, core-softened model potential for water. The model potential considered here for water has recently been shown to successfully reproduce dynamic, thermodynamic and structural anomalies of water. The epitome of the study is to understand the incarceration of this coarse-grained water in a single-file carbon nanotube. In order to examine the effect of fluid-water van der Waals interaction on the structure of fluid in and around the nanotube, we have simulated three different CNT-water systems with varying degree of solute-water dispersion interaction. The analyses of the radial one-particle density profiles reveal varying degree of permeation and wetting of the CNT interior depending on the degree of fluid-solute attractive van der Waals interaction. A peak in the radial density profile slightly off the nanotube axis signifies a zigzag chain of water molecule around the CNT axis. The average numbers of water molecules inside the CNT have been shown to increase with the increase in fluid-water attractive dispersion interaction.

  12. Molecular dynamics simulation of water in and around carbon nanotubes: A coarse-grained description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pantawane, Sanwardhini [Department of Physics, UM-DAE Centre for Excellence in Basic Sciences, University of Mumbai, Kalina Campus, Mumbai 400098 (India); Choudhury, Niharendu, E-mail: nihcho@barc.gov.in [Theoretical Chemistry Section, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2016-05-23

    In the present study, we intend to investigate behaviour of water in and around hydrophobic open ended carbon nanotubes (CNTs) using a coarse-grained, core-softened model potential for water. The model potential considered here for water has recently been shown to successfully reproduce dynamic, thermodynamic and structural anomalies of water. The epitome of the study is to understand the incarceration of this coarse-grained water in a single-file carbon nanotube. In order to examine the effect of fluid-water van der Waals interaction on the structure of fluid in and around the nanotube, we have simulated three different CNT-water systems with varying degree of solute-water dispersion interaction. The analyses of the radial one-particle density profiles reveal varying degree of permeation and wetting of the CNT interior depending on the degree of fluid-solute attractive van der Waals interaction. A peak in the radial density profile slightly off the nanotube axis signifies a zigzag chain of water molecule around the CNT axis. The average numbers of water molecules inside the CNT have been shown to increase with the increase in fluid-water attractive dispersion interaction.

  13. Assessing Ion-Water Interactions in the AMOEBA Force Field Using Energy Decomposition Analysis of Electronic Structure Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yuezhi; Demerdash, Omar; Head-Gordon, Martin; Head-Gordon, Teresa

    2016-11-08

    AMOEBA is a molecular mechanics force field that addresses some of the shortcomings of a fixed partial charge model, by including permanent atomic point multipoles through quadrupoles, as well as many-body polarization through the use of point inducible dipoles. In this work, we investigate how well AMOEBA formulates its non-bonded interactions, and how it implicitly incorporates quantum mechanical effects such as charge penetration (CP) and charge transfer (CT), for water-water and water-ion interactions. We find that AMOEBA's total interaction energies, as a function of distance and over angular scans for the water dimer and for a range of water-monovalent cations, agree well with an advanced density functional theory (DFT) model, whereas the water-halides and water-divalent cations show significant disagreement with the DFT result, especially in the compressed region when the two fragments overlap. We use a second-generation energy decomposition analysis (EDA) scheme based on absolutely localized molecular orbitals (ALMOs) to show that in the best cases AMOEBA relies on cancellation of errors by softening of the van der Waals (vdW) wall to balance permanent electrostatics that are too unfavorable, thereby compensating for the missing CP effect. CT, as another important stabilizing effect not explicitly taken into account in AMOEBA, is also found to be incorporated by the softened vdW interaction. For the water-halides and water-divalent cations, this compensatory approach is not as well executed by AMOEBA over all distances and angles, wherein permanent electrostatics remains too unfavorable and polarization is overdamped in the former while overestimated in the latter. We conclude that the DFT-based EDA approach can help refine a next-generation AMOEBA model that either realizes a better cancellation of errors for problematic cases like those illustrated here, or serves to guide the parametrization of explicit functional forms for short-range contributions from

  14. Down-regulation of POLYGALACTURONASE1 alters firmness, tensile strength and water loss in apple (Malus x domestica fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atkinson Ross G

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While there is now a significant body of research correlating apple (Malus x domestica fruit softening with the cell wall hydrolase ENDO-POLYGALACTURONASE1 (PG1, there is currently little knowledge of its physiological effects in planta. This study examined the effect of down regulation of PG1 expression in ‘Royal Gala’ apples, a cultivar that typically has high levels of PG1, and softens during fruit ripening. Results PG1-suppressed ‘Royal Gala’ apples harvested from multiple seasons were firmer than controls after ripening, and intercellular adhesion was higher. Cell wall analyses indicated changes in yield and composition of pectin, and a higher molecular weight distribution of CDTA-soluble pectin. Structural analyses revealed more ruptured cells and free juice in pulled apart sections, suggesting improved integrity of intercellular connections and consequent cell rupture due to failure of the primary cell walls under stress. PG1-suppressed lines also had reduced expansion of cells in the hypodermis of ripe apples, resulting in more densely packed cells in this layer. This change in morphology appears to be linked with reduced transpirational water loss in the fruit. Conclusions These findings confirm PG1’s role in apple fruit softening and suggests that this is achieved in part by reducing cellular adhesion. This is consistent with previous studies carried out in strawberry but not with those performed in tomato. In apple PG1 also appears to influence other fruit texture characters such as juiciness and water loss.

  15. EXTRACCIÓN Y MEDIDA DE ACTIVIDAD DE PECTIN METIL ESTEARASA EN PITAYA AMARILLA (Acanthocereus pitajaya, ENZIMA RELACIONADA CON EL ABLANDAMIENTO Extraction And Assay Of Pectinmethyl Esterase From Pitaya Amarilla (Acanthocereus pitajaya, Enzyme Vinculated To Softening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    INGRID LILIANA CARABALÍ MIRANDA

    Full Text Available En diversas técnicas aplicadas para la conservación en fresco de la pitaya amarilla (Acanthocereus pitajaya se ha encontrado que el ablandamiento excesivo de su corteza contribuye al deterioro de su calidad. Puesto que pectinmetilestearasa (PME se ha vinculado con el ablandamiento de frutos este estudio se desarrolló con el objeto de determinar el efecto de la incorporación de los aditivos tritón X-100, NaCl y cisteína en buffer fosfatos 20 mM pH 7,0 sobre la cantidad de proteína extraída y sobre la actividad de PME. También se evaluó la necesidad de recurrir al proceso de diálisis en buffer fosfatos 20 mM pH 7,0. En la medida de actividad se pusieron a punto el tiempo de incubación, la concentración del cofactor NaCl, pH, temperatura y concentración de sustrato (pectina cítrica. Se encontró que el mejor sistema de extracción fue el compuesto por buffer fosfato 20 mM, pH 7,0 con concentraciones de NaCl que pueden estar entre 0,0 a 1,0 M. La medida de actividad se puede realizar empleando pectina cítrica entre 0,40 a 0,75%, a valores de pH entre 5,0 a 8,0, con incubación a una temperatura entre 40 a 45 °C, durante 2,5 min.Using diverse techniques applied to keep the freshness of yellow pitaya (Acanthocereus pitajaya fruit it has been found that excessive softening of its crust leads to quality deterioration. Since pectinmethyl esterase (PME has been related to fruit softening in this study we evaluated the protein levels and the PME activity after the addition of Triton X-100 1% and NaCl in concentrations from 0 to 2 M in buffer 20 mM phosphate pH 7.0. Effects of cysteine addition and dialysis were also evaluated for the extraction processes. Factors that can affect the activity of PME such as incubation time, different NaCl concentration, as value level of pH during the incubation, temperature and pectin (citric pectin concentration were evaluated. The best system found in this study for PME extraction was buffer phosphate

  16. Coagulation chemistries for silica removal from cooling tower water.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyman, May Devan; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Stewart, Tom

    2010-02-01

    The formation of silica scale is a problem for thermoelectric power generating facilities, and this study investigated the potential for removal of silica by means of chemical coagulation from source water before it is subjected to mineral concentration in cooling towers. In Phase I, a screening of many typical as well as novel coagulants was carried out using concentrated cooling tower water, with and without flocculation aids, at concentrations typical for water purification with limited results. In Phase II, it was decided that treatment of source or make up water was more appropriate, and that higher dosing with coagulants delivered promising results. In fact, the less exotic coagulants proved to be more efficacious for reasons not yet fully determined. Some analysis was made of the molecular nature of the precipitated floc, which may aid in process improvements. In Phase III, more detailed study of process conditions for aluminum chloride coagulation was undertaken. Lime-soda water softening and the precipitation of magnesium hydroxide were shown to be too limited in terms of effectiveness, speed, and energy consumption to be considered further for the present application. In Phase IV, sodium aluminate emerged as an effective coagulant for silica, and the most attractive of those tested to date because of its availability, ease of use, and low requirement for additional chemicals. Some process optimization was performed for coagulant concentration and operational pH. It is concluded that silica coagulation with simple aluminum-based agents is effective, simple, and compatible with other industrial processes.

  17. Nanofiltration technology in water treatment and reuse: applications and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahmansouri, Arash; Bellona, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Nanofiltration (NF) is a relatively recent development in membrane technology with characteristics that fall between ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis (RO). While RO membranes dominate the seawater desalination industry, NF is employed in a variety of water and wastewater treatment and industrial applications for the selective removal of ions and organic substances, as well as certain niche seawater desalination applications. The purpose of this study was to review the application of NF membranes in the water and wastewater industry including water softening and color removal, industrial wastewater treatment, water reuse, and desalination. Basic economic analyses were also performed to compare the profitability of using NF membranes over alternative processes. Although any detailed cost estimation is hampered by some uncertainty (e.g. applicability of estimation methods to large-scale systems, labor costs in different areas of the world), NF was found to be a cost-effective technology for certain investigated applications. The selection of NF over other treatment technologies, however, is dependent on several factors including pretreatment requirements, influent water quality, treatment facility capacity, and treatment goals.

  18. Water citizenship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paerregaard, Karsten; Stensrud, Astrid Bredholt; Andersen, Astrid Oberborbeck

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the implementation of Peru’s new water law and discusses how it produces new forms of water citizenship. Inspired by the global paradigm of “integrated water resources management,” the law aims to include all citizens in the management of the country’s water resources...... by embracing a “new water culture.” We ask what forms of water citizenship emerge from the new water law and how they engage with local water practices and affect existing relations of inequality. We answer these questions ethnographically by comparing previous water legislation and how the new law currently...... is negotiated and contested in three localities in Peru’s southern highlands. We argue that the law creates a new water culture that views water as a substance that is measurable, quantifiable, and taxable, but that it neglects other ways of valuing water. We conclude that water citizenship emerges from...

  19. 基于软化地基和弹性地基假定的坚硬顶板力学特性分析%MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF HARD ROOF BASED ON ASSUMPTIONS OF SOFTEN FOUNDATION AND ELASTIC FOUNDATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘岳; 顾士坦

    2015-01-01

    ,supporting action of soft rock under hard roof was often simplified as the Winkler elastic foundation. To accurately analyze the mechanical characteristics and activity of overlying strata,this simplification cannot be contented with the actual requirements. In view of peak of abutment pressure in front of the coal wall,mechanics properties of hard roof model that was thought as soften foundation between coal wall and the peak of abutment pressure and elastic foundation ahead of the peak of abutment pressure were analyzed before the periodic weighting. Methods for determinating peak value of the abutment force were presented. Examples were given to illustrate how to calculate the peak value of the abutment and verify the accuracy using the development approaches. Analysis results were compared with mechanics properties of roof based on full elastic foundation. The research results are shown as follows:Reaction force near the coal wall to the roof obtained by full elastic foundation is 4 times as big as that of the roof calculated by the soften foundation in the depths of 200-300 m. Bending degree of roof,scope of the bend,the distance between peak of bending moment and the coal wall,storage area of strain energy and storage capacity become small near the coal wall, which result from the powerful reaction near coal wall. Reaction near the coal wall to the roof,which is caused by the soften foundation is a fourth as big as that of the former. Owning to the small reaction near coal wall,bending degree of roof and scope of the bend become increase for resisting on overly roof,which lead to the peak of bending moment and the distance between peak of bending moment and the coal wall increase remarkably. Meanwhile,storage area of strain energy and storage capacity outstanding aggrandize in front of coal wall. Then the roof′s deflection increase overall and remarkably when compared with the roof supported by full elastic foundation. Position of peak of bending moment in front of coal

  20. Water, Water Everywhere, But...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Cliff

    Materials for teaching a unit on water pollution are provided in this teaching package. These materials include: (1) a student reading booklet; (2) a reference booklet listing a variety of popular chemical, biological, and physical tests which can be performed on a local waterway and providing information about the environmental effects and toxic…

  1. Water, Water Everywhere, But...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Cliff

    Materials for teaching a unit on water pollution are provided in this teaching package. These materials include: (1) a student reading booklet; (2) a reference booklet listing a variety of popular chemical, biological, and physical tests which can be performed on a local waterway and providing information about the environmental effects and toxic…

  2. Studying the processes of sulphates and chlorides extraction from water at low-waste water demineralization technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna M. Тrus

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To solve the disposal problem of high-salinity liquid wastes resulting from the water demineralization, researched are the processes of chlorides’ and sulphates’ ion-exchange separation with further sulphates (in the form of calcium sulphate removal from the technological cycle. It is shown that the desulphatized water can be effectively desalinated by reverse osmosis filters, including low-pressure membranes Filmtec TW30-1812-50. The liquid waste obtained in form of concentrates, does contain chlorides, sodium ions and hardness ions. Established is that at these concentrates processing by lime and sodium carbonate or alkali and sodium carbonate they are softened with hardness decrease up to 0,25…0,95 mg-eq/dm3, which allows these solutions’ further electrolysis to obtain alkali and hydrochloric acid. Through direct electrolysis of concentrates, obtained by reverse osmosis water desalination at anionic membrane two-chamber electrolysers, we obtained a disinfectant solution containing chlorine oxigenates (active chlorine, hypochlorite, chlorite and sodium chlorate and duly effective in water sterilization. The resulting solution well keeps its properties and is promising for disinfection of natural and waste waters.

  3. Chemical characteristics of water in the surficial aquifer system, Broward County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howie, Barbara

    1987-01-01

    Water quality data was collected in 1981 and 1982 during the drilling of test holes at 27 sites throughout Broward County, Florida. Determinations were made for the following physical properties and chemical constituents: pH, alkalinity, specific conductance, major ions, selected nutrients and dissolved iron, aluminum, and manganese. Determinations for the trace elements-arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, lead, zinc, selenium, and mercury-were made at 14 wells. Water in the surficial aquifer system between the coastal ridge and the conservation areas is potable and usually is a calcium bicarbonate type for the first 140 ft or more below land surface. Between depths of 140 and 230 ft, groundwater generally grades into a mixed-ion water type. In some areas, diluted seawater occurs beneath the mixed water zone. Dissolved iron concentrations between the coastal ridge and the conservation areas are variable but generally exceed 1,000 micrograms/L. Beneath the conservation areas and the western edge of Broward County, groundwater in the first 100 ft below land surface generally is either a calcium bicarbonate type or a mixed-ion type. At depths between 100 and 200 ft, diluted residual seawater occurs, except along the far western edge of the county. Residual seawater is least diluted in the north. Dissolved iron concentrations generally are between 300 and 1 ,000 micrograms/L but increase to the east of the conservation areas. Other findings of the investigation include: (1) groundwater in some areas west of the coastal ridge probably would be suitable for most domestic, agricultural, and industrial uses if it were treated for carbonate hardness; (2) groundwater in much of Broward County is chemically altered by natural softening and magnesium enrichment (natural softening increases to the west and is very pronounced beneath the far western edge of the county); and (3) there is evidence of mineralized water from the conservation areas mixing with groundwater east of the

  4. Healthy Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topics Newsroom, Features, & Announcements CDC at Work: Healthy Water Fast Facts WASH-related Observances Top Causes of Drinking ... Features, & Announcements Training & Education CDC at Work: Healthy Water Policy & Recommendations Fast Facts Index of Water-Related Topics By A- ...

  5. Parasites: Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Diseases Laboratory Diagnostic Assistance [DPDx] Parasites Home Water Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Parasites can live in natural water sources. When outdoors, treat your water before drinking ...

  6. Water Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Water Safety KidsHealth > For Parents > Water Safety Print A ... best measure of protection. previous continue Making Kids Water Wise It's important to teach your kids proper ...

  7. Water pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine

    2013-01-01

    Students will learn about what causes water pollution and how to be environmentally aware. *Note: Students should understand the concept of the water cycle before moving onto water pollution (see Lesson Plan “Oceans all Around Us”).

  8. Water conservation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gibberd, Jeremy T

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available of their water needs from rainwater harvesting. • Water quality: The quality of water is matched with use. For instance, the best quality water may be used for drinking and cooking and poorer quality water, such as grey water, used for flushing toilets... and irrigation. • Onsite retention: In natural environments vegetation and soil absorb and retain a large proportion of rain water that falls on to it. Green buildings aim to emulate this by ensuring that buildings and sites absorb and retain rain water...

  9. Drug induced `softening' in phospholipid monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Uttam Kumar; Datta, Alokmay; Bhattacharya, Dhananjay

    2015-06-01

    Compressibility measurements on Langmuir monolayers of the phospholipid Dimystoryl Phospatidylcholine (DMPC) in pristine form and in the presence of the Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug (NSAID) Piroxicam at 0.025 drug/lipid (D/L) molecular ratio at different temperatures, show that the monolayer exhibits large increase (and subsequent decrease) in compressibility due to the drug in the vicinity of the Liquid Expanded - Liquid Condensed (LE-LC) phase transition. Molecular dynamics simulations of the lipid monolayer in presence of drug molecules show a disordering of the tail tilt, which is consistent with the above result.

  10. Shopping spree softens test-band sorrows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collina, T.Z. [Institute for Science and International Security, Washington, DC (United States); Kidder, R.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-07-01

    The Department of Energy, over the past year, has proposed a $2 billion wish list of new facilities to help conduct non-nuclear tests on nuclear weapons by their weapons laboratories. Surprisingly, some comprehensive nuclear test ban (CTB) partisans seem to support this approach. When a CTB treaty is finally submitted to the Senate for ratification, convervative senators will want assurances that the United States is not letting its nuclear stockpile fall apart. However, letting the laboratories proceed on the new hardware and facilities issue could be of concern to other nations and stall CTB negotiations. The new stockpile stewardship program was designed to help the laboratories maintain the nuclear arsenal, and the necessary expertise, without nuclear tests. The weapons laboratories are already equipped to conduct sophisticated tests. We can have a CTB and still maintain high confidence in the nuclear arsenal without spending billions on new facilities.

  11. Cell Membrane Softening in Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Sebastian; Händel, Chris; Käs, Josef

    Biomechanical properties are useful characteristics and regulators of the cell's state. Current research connects mechanical properties of the cytoskeleton to many cellular processes but does not investigate the biomechanics of the plasma membrane. We evaluated thermal fluctuations of giant plasma membrane vesicles, directly derived from the plasma membranes of primary breast and cervical cells and observed a lowered rigidity in the plasma membrane of malignant cells compared to non-malignant cells. To investigate the specific role of membrane rigidity changes, we treated two cell lines with the Acetyl-CoA carboxylase inhibitor Soraphen A. It changed the lipidome of cells and drastically increased membrane stiffness by up regulating short chained membrane lipids. These altered cells had a decreased motility in Boyden chamber assays. Our results indicate that the thermal fluctuations of the membrane, which are much smaller than the fluctuations driven by the cytoskeleton, can be modulated by the cell and have an impact on adhesion and motility.

  12. Water uptake and water supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, C.; Voogt, W.

    2009-01-01

    The water uptake and the water supply do not directly affect the mineral absorption of plants. However, many connections exist between the management of minerals and water. The most evident of those connections are following

  13. Experimental investigation of space--energy distributions of slow neutrons in water near plane absorber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussein, A.; El-Konsol, S.; Novikov, A.; Zakharkin, I.; Hamouda, I.

    1973-12-31

    A mechanical neutron time-of-flight spectrometer was used to measure neutron space-energy distributions near a cadmium plate, of 1 mm thickness, immersed in a water-filled tank. The ET-RR-1 reactor served as a neutron source. Measurements of thermal and resonance neutron distributions, using activation technique, were performed in the tank with and without the cadmium plate. Measurements were made of the neutron spectra emerging normally from the plate ( mu = +1). The spectra were measured at the distances 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.5, 3.0, and 5.0 cm from the plate surface. An exit tube was used to extract the neutron beam from the region of measurement. The required corrections were introduced to the measured spectra. The measurements are discussed and analyzed in the framework of the neutron temperature approximation. An appreciable softening effect is observed for the measured neutron spectra of mu = +1. The temperature for the spectrum at a distance of 0.25 cm from the plate was 41 deg lower than that of the asymptotic spectrum, and the softening effect relaxed and vanished at a distance of 5 cm. (18 figures) (auth)

  14. Effects of water nanodroplets on skin moisture and viscoelasticity during air-conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Hideo; Nishimura, Naoki; Yamada, Kuniyuki; Shimizu, Yuuki; Iwase, Satoshi; Sugenoya, Junichi; Sato, Motohiko

    2013-11-01

    In air-conditioned rooms, dry air exacerbates some skin diseases, for example, senile xerosis, atopic dermatitis, and surface roughness. Humidifiers are used to improve air dryness, which often induces excess humidity and thermal discomfort. To address this issue, we investigated the effects of water nanodroplets (mist) on skin hydration, which may increase skin hydration by penetrating into the interstitial spaces between corneocytes of the stratum corneum (SC) without increasing air humidity. We examined biophysical parameters, including skin conductance and transepidermal water loss (TEWL), and biomechanical parameters of skin distension/retraction before and after suction at the forehead, lateral canthus, and cheek, with or without mist, in a testing environment (24°C, 35% relative humidity) for 120 min. In the group without mist, TEWL values significantly decreased at all the sites after 1 h compared with the initial values. However, in the presence of mist, TEWL values were maintained at the initial values through the test, yielding significant differences vs. the group without mist. There were no significant differences between mist and mist-free groups in terms of skin conductance. Skin distension was significantly increased in the group with mist compared with that in the group without mist at the forehead and cheek, suggesting a softening effect of mist. Skin deformation of the face was improved by mist, suggesting hydration of the SC by mist. The change in TEWL was influenced by mist, suggesting supply of water to the skin, particularly the SC, by mist. These data indicated that a mist of water nanodroplets played an important role in softening skin in an air-conditioned room without increasing excess humidity. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Water, mineral waters and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petraccia, Luisa; Liberati, Giovanna; Masciullo, Stefano Giuseppe; Grassi, Marcello; Fraioli, Antonio

    2006-06-01

    The authors focus on water resources and the use of mineral waters in human nutrition, especially in the different stages of life, in physical activity and in the presence of some morbid conditions. Mineral water is characterized by its purity at source, its content in minerals, trace elements and other constituents, its conservation and its healing properties recognized by the Ministry of Health after clinical and pharmacological trials. Based on total salt content in grams after evaporation of 1l mineral water dried at 180 degrees C (dry residues), mineral waters can be classified as: waters with a very low mineral content, waters low in mineral content, waters with a medium mineral content, and strongly mineralized waters. Based on ion composition mineral waters can be classified as: bicarbonate waters, sulfate waters, sodium chloride or saltwater, sulfuric waters. Based on biological activity mineral waters can be classified as: diuretic waters, cathartic waters, waters with antiphlogistic properties. Instructions for use, doses, and current regulations are included.

  16. Water Reuse: Using Reclaimed Water For Irrigation

    OpenAIRE

    Haering, Kathryn C.; Evanylo, Gregory K.; Benham, Brian Leslie, 1960-; Goatley, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Describes water reuse and reclaimed water, explains how reclaimed water is produced, options for water reuse, water reuse regulations, and agronomic concerns with water reuse, and provides several case studies of water reuse.

  17. Redução do amaciamento de banana 'Maçã' minimamente processada pelo uso de tratamentos químicos Softening reduction of fresh-cut 'apple' banana by using of chemical treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Adriano Martins Melo

    2007-06-01

    (AA, calcium chloride (CC, L-cysteine hydrochloride (Cis and Na2EDTA, employed in association with modified atmosphere, on prevention of the softening of minimally processed 'Apple' banana. The following combinations were used: 1 (AA 1% + CC 1% + Cis 0,5%; 2 (AA 1% + CC 1% + Cis 1%; 3 (AA 1% + CC 1% + Cis 1,5%; 4 (Na2EDTA 1%; forming the 4 treatments of a completely randomly design. The bananas, in maturity stage 6, were treated with a sodium hypochlorite solution 500 ppm, peeled and manually sliced, submitted to the chemical treatments by dipping and wrapped with PVC 30µm films. Later, the slices were stored during 5 days at 5 ± 1ºC e 85 ± 3% UR. The mass loss was linear during the storage period and higher in Na2EDTA 1% treated slices. The firmness loss was lesser in the slices under the treatment 3, which presented lower polygalacturonase activity values until the 3rd day of storage. After the second day of storage, the slices under the treatment 4 showed the highest pectinmethylesterase activity, and those under treatments 2 and 3, the lowest. Higher content of soluble pectin and total soluble solids were observed in EDTA treated slices, mainly beginning from the 3rd day of storage. The increase in total soluble sugars was higher in the treatments 1 and 2 until the 3rd day of storage. The chemical mixture 3 (AA 1% + CC 1% + Cis 1,5% was the most effective in avoiding the softening of minimally processed 'Apple' bananas.

  18. EXTRACCIÓN DE ENZIMAS PÉCTICAS DEL EPICARPIO DE LULO (Solanum quitoense Lam INVOLUCRADAS EN EL PROCESO DE ABLANDAMIENTO Exytraction of Pectic Enzymes from of Lulo(Solanum quitoense Lam Involved in Softening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JEIMMY MARCELA RODRÍGUEZ NIETO

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Durante el periodo de poscosecha el principal problema de deterioro del lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam es el ablandamiento que es generado principalmente por actividad de enzimas pécticas que atacan la red estructural de la pared celular. Esta investigación se basó en la búsqueda de las mejores condiciones de extracción y medida de actividad de las enzimas pectinesterasa, poligalacturonasa y pectato liasa; herramientas necesarias para estudiar posteriormente el rol de estas enzimas en el deterioro por ablandamiento sufrido por el fruto debido a diversos cambios metabólicos. Se encontró que las dos primeras enzimas pueden ser extraídas simultáneamente con buffer fosfatos 20 mM pH 7,0 + NaCl 0,06 M y 60 min de extracción, relación 1:2 (material vegetal: buffer de extracción, a su vez, pectato liasa se extrajo con buffer fosfatos 20 mM pH 7,0 + cisteína 20 mM y 30 min de extracción, relación 1:3. Para la cuantificación de la actividad pectinesterasa es necesario incubar 15 min a 42 °C 2.500 µL de extracto enzimático crudo (EE en buffer fosfatos 20 mM pH 7,0 + NaCl 0,15 M y 1,6% de pectina cítrica como sustrato, con valores de Km aparente de 3,78% de PC y Vmax 17,95 µmolH+/min*mg prot. Para la cuantificación de la actividad poligalacturonasa es necesario incubar 15 min a 37 °C 30 µL (EE en buffer acetatos 200 mM pH 4,5 + NaCl 0,25 M y 1,0% de APG como sustrato, con valores de Km aparente 0,141% de APG y Vmax 28,46 nKat/s*mg prot. Para la cuantificación de la actividad pectato liasa es necesario incubar 2 min a 17 °C 100 µL (EE en buffer TRIS:HCl 50 Mm pH 8,5 + CaCl2 4 mM y 0,1% de APG como sustrato, con valores de Km aparente 0,0865% de APG y Vmax 82,75 µg/s*mg prot.The main problem of post-harvest deterioration of lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam is the softening is the main problem of post-harvest deteriorarion of Lulo, that is generated mainly by the activity of pectic enzymes, which attack the structural network of the cell

  19. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to beta-palmitate and contribution to softening of stools pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from Specialised Nutrition Europe (formerly IDACE), submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of France, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked...... physiological effect for infants. In weighing the evidence the Panel took into account that, out of two human intervention studies with important methodological limitations, one suggested a stool-softening effect of beta-palmitate whereas the second did not, that one animal study did not support a stool...

  20. Wasted waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemczynowicz, J

    1996-11-01

    This article presents the increasing mismanagement of water as a result of increasing delivery of water volume, water pollution, and water wasting. One example of water mismanagement is irrigation, through which 67% of water is withdrawn from the hydrological cycle. In addition, reports from European communities reveal that pesticides from agriculture worsen the existing underground pollution. Furthermore, a 25% drop in land productivity was observed in Africa due to erosion, salinization, water logging, and desertification. Also, 23% of withdrawn water goes to industries, which are the major polluters. Since 1900 about 250,000 tons of cadmium have been produced worldwide, which eventually enter and harm the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Moreover, high mercury levels were observed in Malaysia's Kelang River in the late 1980s, and river pollution in Thailand and Malaysia is recorded to be 30-100 times higher than accepted levels. Aside from that, the human race must also understand that there is a connection between water scarcity and water quality. When there is water pollution, it is expected that many people will suffer diarrheal diseases and intestinal parasite infections, which will further increase the mortality rate to 3.3 million per year. Realizing the severity of the problem, it is suggested that the human race must learn to recycle water like stormwater to prevent scarcity with drinking water.

  1. Branding water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolnicar, Sara; Hurlimann, Anna; Grün, Bettina

    2014-06-15

    Branding is a key strategy widely used in commercial marketing to make products more attractive to consumers. With the exception of bottled water, branding has largely not been adopted in the water context although public acceptance is critical to the implementation of water augmentation projects. Based on responses from 6247 study participants collected between 2009 and 2012, this study shows that (1) different kinds of water - specifically recycled water, desalinated water, tap water and rainwater from personal rainwater tanks - are each perceived very differently by the public, (2) external events out of the control of water managers, such as serious droughts or floods, had a minimal effect on people's perceptions of water, (3) perceptions of water were stable over time, and (4) certain water attributes are anticipated to be more effective to use in public communication campaigns aiming at increasing public acceptance for drinking purposes. The results from this study can be used by a diverse range of water stakeholders to increase public acceptance and adoption of water from alternative sources. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, H. J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Deals with water pollution in the following categories: a global view, self purification, local pollution, difficulties in chemical analysis, and remedies for water pollution. Emphasizes the extent to which man's activities have modified the cycles of certain elements. (GS)

  3. Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, H. J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Deals with water pollution in the following categories: a global view, self purification, local pollution, difficulties in chemical analysis, and remedies for water pollution. Emphasizes the extent to which man's activities have modified the cycles of certain elements. (GS)

  4. Water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquatic animals are healthiest and grow best when environmental conditions are within certain ranges that define, for a particular species, “good” water quality. From the outset, successful aquaculture requires a high-quality water supply. Water quality in aquaculture systems also deteriorates as an...

  5. Water Ways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahrling, Peter

    2007-01-01

    In many communities, schools are among the largest facilities and house the highest concentrations of daytime population. They create a huge demand for water. Even in regions with abundant water supplies, an increase in demand stresses local capacity, and water becomes more expensive. However, with the help of innovative products that reduce water…

  6. Water SA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Vol 43, No 2 (2017) ... WaterSA publishes refereed, original work in all branches of water science, technology and engineering. ... Water SA is the WRC's accredited scientific journal which contains original research articles ... via linearized calibration method in the upstream of Huaihe River Basin, China ...

  7. Effect of plasma activated water on the postharvest quality of button mushrooms, Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yingyin; Tian, Ying; Ma, Ruonan; Liu, Qinghong; Zhang, Jue

    2016-04-15

    Non-thermal plasma is a new approach to improving microbiological safety while maintaining the sensory attributes of the treated foods. Recent research has reported that plasma activated water (PAW) can also efficiently inactivate a wide variety of microorganisms. This study invested the effects of plasma-activated water soaking on the postharvest preservation of button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) over seven days of storage at 20°C. Plasma activated water reduced the microbial counts by 1.5 log and 0.5 log for bacteria and fungi during storage, respectively. Furthermore, the corresponding physicochemical and biological properties were assessed between plasma activated water soaking groups and control groups. The results for firmness, respiration rate and relative electrical conductivity suggested that plasma activated water soaking can delay mushroom softening. Meanwhile, no significant change was observed in the color, pH, or antioxidant properties of A. bisporus treated with plasma activated water. Thus, plasma activated water soaking is a promising method for postharvest fresh-keeping of A. bisporus.

  8. 桩-筏-土体系的地震软化行为及ABAQUS模拟研究%STUDY OF SEISMIC SOFTENING BEHAVIOR AND ABAQUS SIMULATION OF PILE-RAFT-CLAY SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马亢; 许强

    2012-01-01

    通过开展离心机动力试验,充分揭示在地震荷载的持续作用下,土体将发生一定程度的软化,表现为周期的持续增大;然而基础(筏板)周期和桩身弯矩包络图几乎不发生改变,说明整个桩-筏结构在地震作用下的行为不会类似于土体发生软化(恶化的现象),而是能持续保持稳定,其动力行为主要取决于自身特性如桩身刚度和上部结构传递给筏板的荷载水平(惯性)等,同时土体的动力软化效应对桩-筏结构的影响很小.为了验证试验结果的正确性和合理性,采用ABAQUS 6.9程序对试验结果进行计算分析,土体模型包括软件内嵌的Hypoelastic非线性模型和所开发的考虑动力降强效应的HyperMas用户子程序模型(UMAT).计算结果符合试验实测结果,尤其能准确地捕捉桩身最大弯矩值和周期等重要的工程设计参数.且有侧重于基础单元的地震响应分析,非降强模型和降强模型的计算差异很小,再次说明土体软化对既有桩-筏结构影响很小,但采用非降强模型计算更为快捷、高效.%By conducting dynamic centrifuge tests on the pile-raft-clay system, that soil softening will be taken place in both near field and far field clay in a great degree is investigated, which are manifested as an increase in the resonance periods of clay layers with the level of shaking and successive earthquakes, while this is not the case for the pile-raft foundation since resonance periods of raft and bending moment envelopes of the pile are hardly affected by earthquake loadings. Furthermore, pile-raft dynamic behavior is hardly affected by the stiffness degradation of surrounding clay and could keep stable in successive earthquakes process. Then centrifuge tests are back-analyzed by using ABAQUS 6.9. The results show that, which are conducted using Hypoelastic model embedded in ABAQUS and a developed constitutive relationship, gave reasonably good agreement with the

  9. Efeito do tipo de corte e sanificantes no amaciamento de pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. minimamente processado Effect of the cut type and sanitizers on the softening of fresh cut pequi fruit (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz José Rodrigues

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Frutos e hortaliças minimamente processados devem apresentar atributos de conveniência e qualidade do produto fresco. Com o presente trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar a influência dos sanificantes hipoclorito de sódio (NaClO 50 ppm e 100 ppm e peróxido de hidrogênio (H2O2 4% e 6%, sobre os processos envolvidos no amaciamento de pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. minimamente processado submetido a dois tipos de processamento: "caroço fatiado" e "caroço inteiro" e armazenado a 6 ± 1ºC e 90% a 95% UR, durante 15 dias. A cada três dias foram avaliados: perda de massa, firmeza, pectina total, pectina solúvel, atividade de pectinametilesterase (PME e atividade de poligalacturonase (PG. O pequi minimamente processado apresentou perda de massa e decréscimo de firmeza ao longo do período de armazenamento, concomitante ao aumento da atividade da enzima poligalacturonase, bem como solubilização de substâncias pécticas. Não foi verificada atividade de PME no pequi minimamente processado avaliado. Os caroços fatiados apresentaram maior teor de pectina solúvel, do 3° ao 6° dia e atividade da enzima poligalacturonase, do 3° ao 12° dia de armazenamento, em relação aos caroços inteiros. A sanificação com NaClO 50 ppm e 100 ppm, H2O2 4% e 6% determinou maior solubilização péctica em pequis minimamente processados, ao longo do armazenamento, não sendo observada influência dos sanificantes sobre as variáveis firmeza, perda de massa e atividade de poligalacturonase.Fresh cut fruits and vegetables should present convenience and quality features of the fresh produce. The present work aimed to evaluate the influence of the sanitizers 50ppm and 100ppm sodium hypochloride (NaClO and 4% and 6% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 on the involved processes in the softening of fresh cut pequi fruit (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. submitted to two types of processing: "sliced stone" and "whole stone" stored at 6 ± 1°C and 90% to 95% of RH during 15 days

  10. Magnetic Transitions in the Spin-5/2 Frustrated Magnet BiMn2PO6 and Strong Lattice Softening in BiMn2PO6 and BiZn2PO6 Below 200 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nath, R [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research; Ranjith, K M [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research; Roy, B [Ames Laboratory; Johnston, D C [Ames Laboratory; Furukawa, Y [Ames Laboratory; Tsirlin, A A [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics

    2014-07-01

    The crystallographic, magnetic, and thermal properties of polycrystalline BiMn2PO6 and its nonmagnetic analog BiZn2PO6 are investigated by x-ray diffraction, magnetization M, magnetic susceptibility χ, heat capacity Cp, and P31 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements versus applied magnetic field H and temperature T as well as by density-functional band theory and molecular-field calculations. Both compounds show a strong monotonic lattice softening on cooling, where the Debye temperature decreases by a factor of two from ΘD~650 K at T=300 K to ΘD~300 K at T=2 K. The χ(T) data for BiMn2PO6 above 150 K follow a Curie-Weiss law with a Curie constant consistent with a Mn+2 spin S=5/2 with g factor g=2 and an antiferromagnetic (AFM) Weiss temperature θCW≃-78 K. The χ data indicate long-range AFM ordering below TN≃30 K, confirmed by a sharp λ-shaped peak in Cp(T) at 28.8 K. The magnetic entropy at 100 K extracted from the Cp(T) data is consistent with spin S=5/2 for the Mn+2 cations. The band-theory calculations indicate that BiMn2PO6 is an AFM compound with dominant interactions J1/kB≃6.7 K and J3/kB≃5.6 K along the legs and rungs of a Mn two-leg spin-ladder, respectively. However, sizable and partially frustrating interladder couplings lead to an anisotropic three-dimensional magnetic behavior with long-range AFM ordering at TN≃30 K observed in the χ, Cp, and NMR measurements. A second magnetic transition at ≈10 K is observed from the χ and NMR measurements but is not evident in the Cp data. The Cp data at low T suggest a significant contribution from AFM spin waves moving in three dimensions and the absence of a spin-wave gap. A detailed analysis of the NMR spectra indicates commensurate magnetic order between 10 and 30 K, while below 10 K additional features appear that may arise from an incommensurate modulation and/or spin canting. The commensurate order is consistent with microscopic density functional calculations that yield a

  11. Mudanças relacionadas ao amaciamento da graviola durante a maturação pós-colheita Changes related to softening of soursop during postharvest maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Auxiliadora Coêlho de Lima

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar mudanças físicas, químicas e bioquímicas relacionadas ao amaciamento de graviola (Annona muricata L. Crioula durante a maturação. Os frutos foram colhidos no estádio de maturidade fisiológica, em plantas cultivadas na Estação Experimental da Embrapa Agroindústria Tropical, em Pacajus, Ceará, armazenados a 26,3±0,6 ºC e 88±12% de umidade relativa, durante 1, 2, 3, 4 e 5 dias. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. As variáveis analisadas foram: perda de massa, amido, pectina total e solúvel, e atividades das enzimas amilase, pectinametilesterase, poligalacturonase, alfa-galactosidases e beta-galactosidases. Não houve variação significativa no conteúdo de pectina solúvel. Após cinco dias, a perda de massa atingiu 5%, mas não promoveu murcha dos frutos. As reduções nos conteúdos de amido e de pectina total coincidiram com período de expressiva atividade, respectivamente, das enzimas amilase e da poligalacturonase e beta-galactosidase de parede celular. As modificações mais acentuadas no conteúdo de amido, de pectina total, na solubilização de pectinas e na atividade das enzimas amilase, pectinametilesterase, poligalacturonase e beta-galactosidase de parede celular ocorreram no período do segundo ao quarto dia após a colheita.This work aimed to evaluate the physical, chemical and biochemical changes related to softening during maturation of Crioula soursop fruit (Annona muricata L.. Fruits were harvested at the physiological maturity stage from plants grown at Embrapa Agroindústria Tropical Experimental Station, in Pacajus, CE, Brazil, and were stored at 26.3±0.6 ºC and 88±12% relative humidity, during 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 days. A completely randomized design was used with four replicates. The following variables were evaluated: weight loss; starch content; total and soluble pectin content and enzymatic activity of amylase

  12. 基于SMP准则的破裂岩统计损伤软化模型及其应用研究%STATISTICAL DAMAGE SOFTENING MODEL OF FRACTURED ROCK BASED ON SMP FAILURE CRITERION AND ITS APPLICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱建明; 程海峰; 姚仰平

    2013-01-01

    岩石材料是一种非均质材料,而破裂岩是指岩体内部含有大量的裂隙、空洞、界面等缺陷,在荷载作用下其微元体破坏更具有随机性。在损伤理论的基础上,从微元体的强度随机分布的角度出发,在微元体强度度量方法上考虑损伤阈值的影响,假设破裂岩的微元体强度服从Weibull分布,结合考虑中主应力的SMP准则,建立破裂岩统计损伤软化本构模型,运用多种计算方法对模型参数m和F0进行确定。通过对小官庄铁矿2种破裂岩闪长玢岩以及矽卡岩的验证表明:在不同围压下,全应力-应变试验曲线与预测曲线吻合良好,能够反映损伤阈值的影响,且在较低围压下更为理想。同时,此模型能够反映随着围压的增加岩石的峰值强度增加而延性增大的性质,进一步验证模型的适用性及较强的应用价值。%The rock material is a kind of non-homogeneous material and there are a large number of defects such as fissures,voids,interfaces in the broken rock. Its micro units damage more randomness under the loads. Starting from micro units strength are random distribution on the basis of damage theory,a method for measuring microcosmic element strength of rock is presented with consideration of damage threshold. Assuming the micro units strength of broken rock obey Weibull distribution,combined with the SMP criterion,which considers the intermediate principal stress,the statistical damage softening constitutive model is built. And the model parameters m and F0 are computed using some methods. Through the calculation results of two kinds of broken rock in Xiaoguanzhuang indicate that:the predicted stress-strain curves under different confining pressures agree well with the test data,and it can reflect not only the influence of damage threshold but also more desirable in the lower confining pressures. At the same time,this model can reflect the characteristic that the

  13. Water-Quality Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Water Quality? [1.7MB PDF] Past featured science... Water Quality Data Today's Water Conditions Get continuous real- ... list of USGS water-quality data resources . USGS Water Science Areas Water Resources Groundwater Surface Water Water ...

  14. Effect of reversion treatment on strength and ductility of low C, Cr-Ni martensitic stainless steel with high resistance to weld softening. Yosetsu nanka teiko no takai teitanso Cr-Ni maruten saito kei stainless ko no kyodo, ensei ni oyobosu gyaku hentai shori no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igawa, T.; Takemoto, T.; Uematsu, Y. (Nisshin Steel Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan). Steel R and D Lab.); Hoshino, K. (Nisshin Steel Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-08-01

    Like the stainless steel and the stainless steel belt used in the rolling stock, materials treated by process and weld has a high strength and a good ductility, moreover, was expected that weld softening would not occurred. In this study, formation of the ultra-fine crystal grains based on the M to [gamma] reversion transformation of low C, Cr-Ni martensitic stainless steel and effect of Si on change of mechanical properties were investigated. A high-strength stainless steel with a good ductility and without weld softening was developed. Main results obtained are as follows: After a steel was cold-rolled, the reversion treatment at the region between As and Af temperatures (600 to 640[degree]C) was carried out, a duplex structure with diameter of the ultra-fine grains of about 0.5 micron meter that is composed of [gamma] phase concentrated Ni and sintered M phase was formatted, and excellent mechanical properties with a high strength and a good ductility could be obtained, diameter of reversion [gamma] grains was dependent on reversion temperature. Diameter of [gamma] grains became large, and more homogeneous and uniform at higher reversion temperature. 20 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Effect of water on nanomechanics of bone is different between tension and compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Jitin; Park, Jun-Sang; Almer, Jonathan; Wang, Xiaodu

    2016-04-01

    Water, an important constituent in bone, resides in different compartments in bone matrix and may impose significant effects on its bulk mechanical properties. However, a clear understanding of the mechanistic role of water in toughening bone is yet to emerge. To address this issue, this study used a progressive loading protocol, coupled with measurements of in situ mineral and collagen fibril deformations using synchrotron X-ray diffraction techniques. Using this unique approach, the contribution of water to the ultrastructural behavior of bone was examined by testing bone specimens in different loading modes (tension and compression) and hydration states (wet and dehydrated). The results indicated that the effect of water on the mechanical behavior of mineral and collagen phases at the ultrastructural level was loading-mode dependent and correlated with the bulk behavior of bone. Tensile loading elicited a transitional drop followed by an increase in load bearing by the mineral phase at the ultrastructural level, which was correlated with a strain hardening behavior of bone at the bulk level. Compression loading caused a continuous loss of load bearing by the mineral phase, which was reflected at the bulk level as a strain softening behavior. In addition, viscous strain relaxation and pre-strain reduction were observed in the mineral phase in the presence of water. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that water dictates the bulk behavior of bone by altering the interaction between mineral crystals and their surrounding matrix.

  16. Effect of water on nanomechanics of bone is different between tension and compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuel, Jitin; Park, Jun-Sang; Almer, Jonathan; Wang, Xiaodu

    2016-04-01

    Water, an important constituent in bone, resides in different compartments in bone matrix and may impose significant effects on its bulk mechanical properties. However, a clear understanding of the mechanistic role of water in toughening bone is yet to emerge. To address this issue, this study used a progressive loading protocol, coupled with measurements of in situ mineral and collagen fibril deformations using synchrotron X-ray diffraction techniques. Using this unique approach, the contribution of water to the ultrastructural behavior of bone was examined by testing bone specimens in different loading modes (tension and compression) and hydration states (wet and dehydrated). The results indicated that the effect of water on the mechanical behavior of mineral and collagen phases at the ultrastructural level was loading mode dependent and correlated with the bulk behavior of bone. Tensile loading elicited a transitional drop followed by an increase in load bearing by the mineral phase at the ultrastructural level, which was correlated with a strain hardening behavior of bone at the bulk level. Compression loading caused a continuous loss of load bearing by the mineral phase, which was reflected at the bulk level as a strain softening behavior. In addition, viscous strain relaxation and pre-strain reduction were observed in the mineral phase in the presence of water. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that water dictates the bulk behavior of bone by altering the interaction between mineral crystals and their surrounding matrix.

  17. Design and application of water-in-oil emulsions for use in lipstick formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Révérend, B J D; Taylor, M S; Norton, I T

    2011-06-01

    The addition of water to lipsticks in the form of a water-in-oil emulsion is an attractive opportunity for cosmetics manufacturers to deliver hydrophilic molecules to the consumers, as well as improving the moisturizing properties. In this work, the effect of the emulsifier type and water content on the structural properties of the designed products was investigated. It has been shown that PGPR leads to smaller droplets than the other emulsifiers tested. This was attributed to the ability of PGPR to form elastic interfaces that slow the coalescence between droplets during the process. It was also observed that crystals of wax tend to form structures at the interface upon cooling that prevent coalescence during storage. These structures also prevent leakage of water into the continuous phase. No effect of the water content on the melting properties of the emulsions was observed. Upon addition of more than 10% water, softening of the material was measured, due to the overall decrease in solid content. Addition of crystalline material (hard paraffin) was successfully used to reinstate the material properties. © 2011 The Authors. ICS © 2011 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  18. Application of pressure assisted forward osmosis for water purification and reuse of reverse osmosis concentrate from a water reclamation plant

    KAUST Repository

    Jamil, Shazad

    2016-07-26

    The use of forward osmosis (FO) is growing among the researchers for water desalination and wastewater treatment due to use of natural osmotic pressure of draw solute. In this study pressure assisted forward osmosis (PAFO) was used instead of FO to increase the water production rate. In this study a low concentration of draw solution (0.25 M KCl) was applied so that diluted KCl after PAFO operation can directly be used for fertigation. The performance of PAFO was investigated for the treatment of reverse osmosis concentrate (ROC) from a water reclamation plant. The water production in PAFO was increased by 9% and 29% at applied pressure of 2 and 4 bars, respectively, to feed side based on 90 h of experiments. Granular activated carbon (GAC) pretreatment and HCl softening were used to reduce organic fouling and scaling prior to application of PAFO. It reduced total organic carbon (TOC) and total inorganic carbon (TIC) by around 90% and 85%, respectively from untreated ROC. Subsequently, this led to an increase in permeate flux. In addition, GAC pretreatment adsorbed 12 out of 14 organic micropollutants tested from ROC to below detection limit. This application enabled to minimise the ROC volume with a sustainable operation and produced high quality and safe water for discharge or reuse. The draw solution (0.25 M KCl) used in this study was diluted to 0.14 M KCl, which is a suitable concentration (10 kg/m3) for fertigation, due to water transport from feed solution. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

  19. Electromembrane recycling of highly mineralized alkaline blowdown water from evaporative water treatment plants at thermal power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichirova, N. D.; Chichirov, A. A.; Lyapin, A. I.; Minibaev, A. I.; Silov, I. Yu.; Tolmachev, L. I.

    2016-12-01

    Thermal power stations (TPS) are the main source of highly mineralized effluents affecting the environment. An analysis of their water systems demonstrates that alkaline effluents prevail at TPSs. Extraction of an alkali from highly mineralized effluents can make the recycling of effluents economically feasible. A method is proposed of electromembrane recycling of liquid alkaline highly mineralized wastes from TPSs. The process includes electromembrane apparatuses of two types, namely, a diffusion dialysis extractor (DDE) intended for extraction of the alkali from a highly mineralized solution having a complex composition and an electrodialysis concentrator for increasing the concentration of the extracted solution to a value suitable for use in water treatment plants at TPSs. For implementation of the first process (i.e. the extraction of alkali from alkaline-salt solution) various membranes from various manufacturers were studied: CM-PAD and AM-PAD (Ralex, Czechia), MK-40, MA-40, MA-41, MA-414, and MB-2 (OOO OKhK "Shchekinoazot", Russia), AR103-QDF and CR61-CMP (Ionies Inc., USA). The experiments demonstrate that the acceptable degree of separation of the alkali and the salt is achieved in a pair of cation-exchange membranes with the efficiency of separation being higher without an electric field. The highest efficiency was attained with Russian-made membranes (MK-40, OOO OKhK "Shchekinoazot"). A full scale experiment on recycling of highly-mineralized blowdown water from the evaporating water treatment system at the Kazan cogeneration power station No. 3 (TETs-3) was performed in a pilot unit consisting of two electromembrane apparatuses made by UAB "Membraninės Technologijos LT". In the experiments every ton of blowdown water yielded 0.1 t of concentrated alkaline solution with an alkali content of up to 4 wt % and 0.9 t of the softened salt solution suitable for the reuse in the TPS cycle. The power rate is 6 kWh / ton of blowdown water.

  20. Influence of localized plasticity on oxidation behaviour of austenitic stainless steels under primary water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cissé, Sarata [CEA Saclay, DEN/DANS/DMN/SEMI, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Laffont, Lydia, E-mail: lydia.laffont@ensiacet.fr [Institut CARNOT, CIRIMAT-ENSIACET, 4 allée Emile Monso, 31030 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Lafont, Marie-Christine [Institut CARNOT, CIRIMAT-ENSIACET, 4 allée Emile Monso, 31030 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Tanguy, Benoit [CEA Saclay, DEN/DANS/DMN/SEMI, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Andrieu, Eric [Institut CARNOT, CIRIMAT-ENSIACET, 4 allée Emile Monso, 31030 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France)

    2013-02-15

    The sensitivity of precipitation-strengthened A286 austenitic stainless steel to stress corrosion cracking was studied by means of slow-strain-rate tests. First, alloy cold working by low cycle fatigue (LCF) was investigated. Fatigue tests under plastic strain control were performed at different strain levels (Δε{sub p}/2 = 0.2%, 0.5%, 0.8% and 2%) to establish correlations between stress softening and the deformation microstructure resulting from the LCF tests. Deformed microstructures were identified through TEM investigations. The interaction between oxidation and localized deformation bands was also studied and it resulted that localized deformation bands are not preferential oxide growth channels. The pre-cycling of the alloy did not modify its oxidation behaviour. However, intergranular oxidation in the subsurface under the oxide layer formed after exposure to PWR primary water was shown.

  1. Water-vapor effects on friction of magnetic tape in contact with nickel-zinc ferrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of humidity of moist nitrogen on the friction and deformation behavior of magnetic tape in contact with a nickel-zinc ferrite spherical pin were studied. The results indicate that the coefficient of friction is markedly dependent on the ambient relative humidity. Although the coefficient of friction remains low below 40-percent relative humidity, it increases rapidly with increasing relative humidity above 40 percent. The general ambient environment of the tape does not have any effect on the friction behavior if the area where the tape is in sliding contact with the ferrite pin is flooded with controlled nitrogen. The response time for the friction of the tape to humidity changes is about 10 sec. The effect of friction as a function of relative humidity on dehumidifying is very similar to that on humidifying. A surface softening of the tape due to water vapor increases the friction of the tape.

  2. Detection of coalescing agents in water-borne latex emulsions using an environment sensitive fluorescent probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Tanzeela Nazir; Brouwer, Albert M; Biemans, Koen; Nabuurs, Tijs; Tennebroek, Ronald

    2010-07-30

    In this paper we report the determination of partitioning of coalescing agents (organic co-solvents) in water-borne latex emulsions by means of a fluorescence method. An environment-sensitive fluorescent probe was copolymerized via emulsion polymerization. The presence of organic co-solvents inside the polymer particles is revealed by the photophysical properties of the probe. In particular, the position of the fluorescence emission maximum of co-polymerized can be used to measure the amount of coalescing agent present in the polymer particles. The spectral shifts are shown to be due to the softening of the matrix, rather than to solvation of the probe by the added co-solvent.

  3. Fast Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Beijing’s Water Cube tailor made for swimming success The water in the Water Cube pool is tranquil now. The predatory power of American Michael Phelps churning his way to an unprecedented eighth gold medal in the men’s 4x100 meters medley relay, took swimming to new heights. And there is no doubt that Beijing’s bubbleshaped aquatics center helped in the process of the 21 new world swimming records.

  4. Supercritical water

    CERN Document Server

    Marcus, Yizhak

    2012-01-01

    Discover the many new and emerging applications of supercritical water as a green solvent Drawing from thousands of original research articles, this book reviews and summarizes what is currently known about the properties and uses of supercritical water. In particular, it focuses on new and emerging applications of supercritical water as a green solvent, including the catalytic conversion of biomass into fuels and the oxidation of hazardous materials. Supercritical Water begins with an introduction that defines supercritical fluids in general. It then defines supercritical wa

  5. Composition Dependence of Dynamic Heterogeneity Time- and Length Scales in [Omim][BF4]/Water Binary Mixtures: Molecular Dynamics Simulation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Tamisra; Biswas, Ranjit

    2015-12-24

    Composition dependence of four-point dynamic susceptibilities, overlap functions, and other dynamic heterogeneity (DH) parameters have been investigated by using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations for aqueous solutions of the ionic liquid (IL), 1-octyl-3-methyl imidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([Omim][BF4]) covering the pure-to-pure range. Upon addition of water in the IL, the DH time scales become faster and the four-point dynamic susceptibility time scale softens. Evidences for jump motions for both water and ions have been found from the simulated single particle displacements that show strong deviation from Gaussian distribution. Estimated dynamic correlation length for water reflects effects of IL, whereas those for ions remain largely insensitive to the mixture composition. Simulated structural aspects and DH time scales provide microscopic explanations to the existing experimental observations from time-resolved fluorescence and Kerr spectroscopic measurements.

  6. Water tower

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    The water tower, being built on the highest point of the site, 460.5 m above the sea level. The tank will hold 750 m3 of water, and the tower will be topped by a knob which can serve as a geological survey reference mark.

  7. Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    We all need clean water. People need it to grow crops and to operate factories, and for drinking and recreation. Fish and wildlife depend on ... and phosphorus make algae grow and can turn water green. Bacteria, often from sewage spills, can pollute ...

  8. WATER WARNINGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    As the country's water supply goes down the drain, conservation and wastewater recycling have become urgent tasks for China At a news briefing ahead of the World Water Congress and Exhibition in Beijing, scheduled to begin September 10, Acting Chairman of the Organizing Committee and Vice Minister of Construction Qiu Baoxing delivered a statement that cut to the heart of the problem:

  9. Water futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mattias Borg

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the potential construction of a water reservoir in Peru’s Cordillera Blanca. Proposed by a peasant group, it would have served important productive purposes but have its intake within the perimeter of a national park. Thus, different notions about water and landscape emerge...... in the encounters between place-based practices and state-sponsored conservation efforts. Empirically tracing the efforts to construct the reservoir, the analytical focus of the article is on how different ways of knowing water within a particular landscape conjure and collide in the process. It is argued...... that the movement of water extends itself beyond the physical properties of the reservoir and irrigation channels as these are produced in encounters between different notions of the role of water in the landscape....

  10. Groundwater Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Llamas

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available The groundwaters released through springs constituted a basic element for the survival and progressive development of human beings. Man came to learn how to take better advantage of these waters by digging wells, irrigation channels, and galleries. Nevertheless, these activities do not require cooperation nor the collective agreement of relatively large groups of people, as in the case of creating the necessary structures to take advantage of the resources of surfacewaters. The construction and operation of these structures was a powerful factor in the birth of an urban or civil society – the designated water civilizations. The difference between people taking advantage of groundwater, quasi-individually, and those of surface water, where people work in a group, has continued to the present day. Whereas earlier, this difference did not bring about any special problems, the technological advances of this century, especially theturbine pump, have led to a spectacular increase in the use of roundwater. This advance has significantly contributed to reducing hunger in the world and has provided potable water in developing countries. However, the almost generalized lack of planning and control in the exploitation of these groundwaters reflects that they are little or badly understood by the managers of water policy in almost every country. As such, problems have occurred which have often become exaggerated, giving rise to water-myths. These problems, though, should be addressed if the aim is the sustainable usage of surface water as well as groundwater. To counter any misconceptions and to seek solutions to the problems, distinct plans of action can be highlighted: educating the public; fomenting a system of participative management and decisive support for the communities of users of subterranean waters; integrating a sufficient number of experts in hydrology in the various water management organizations;and assuring transparency of the data on

  11. Study on the creep damage constitutive model of soft rocks considering rheological softening and intelligent identification of the parameters%考虑流变参数弱化综合影响的软岩蠕变损伤本构模型及其参数智能辨识

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高文华; 陈秋南; 黄自永; 刘栋

    2012-01-01

    According to the definition of damage and the characteristics expression of the creep damage variables is proposed to reflect the synthetic stress level and time. Based on these, the creep damage evolution of soft damage variables is discussed. Based on the Burgers model, creep of creep damage of soft rocks, a general influence on the elastic modulus softening by rocks is deduced, and the variation of the damage constitutive model considering the synthetic softening of parameters is established. The modified Burgers model can reflect softening phenomenon of parameters with the increases of time and stress level. Taking advantage of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), the method and steps of using creep test of soft rocks.%根据损伤的定义和软岩的蠕变破坏特点,提出反映应力水平和时间因素对弹性模量弱化综合影响的软岩蠕变损伤变量的一般表达式,推导并建立软岩蠕变损伤演化方程,探讨损伤变量随应力水平和时间的变化规律。以Burgers模型为基础,建立可考虑参数综合弱化的软岩蠕变损伤本构方程。修正后的Burgers蠕变损伤本构模型体现了参数随时问增长和应力水平增大的弱化现象,反映了岩石材料的损伤劣化过程。基于粒子群优化算法(PSO)具有迭代过程简单、能有效地收敛到全局最优解等优良特性,提出基于PSO的蠕变损伤本构模型参数智能辨识的方法和步骤。采用MATLAB软件,编制基于粒子群优化算法的参数辨识程序。以某深部软岩试样蠕变试验为例进行验证分析,结果表明采用考虑参数综合弱化的蠕变损伤本构模型具有较好的实用性。

  12. Performance of point-of-use devices to remove manganese from drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrière, Annie; Brouillon, Manon; Sauvé, Sébastien; Bouchard, Maryse F; Barbeau, Benoit

    2011-01-01

    A recent epidemiological study reported significant cognitive deficits among children in relation with consumption of water with manganese concentrations in the order of 50-100 ug/L. Concerns for neurotoxic effects of manganese raises the need for evaluating the efficiency of domestic water treatment systems for removal of this metal. The objective of the present study was to determine whether POU devices are efficient at reducing dissolved manganese concentration in drinking water. Various devices were tested according to the NSF 53 protocol for general metals for high pH test water. Based on these assays, the pour-through filters were identified as the most promising POU devices, with dissolved manganese removal greater than 60% at 100% rated capacity, and greater than 45% at 200% rated capacity (influent Mn ≈1,000 μg/L). Under-the-sink filters using cationic exchange resins (i.e., water softeners) were also efficient at removing dissolved manganese but over a shorter operating life. Manganese leaching was also observed beyond their rated capacity, making them less robust treatments. The activated carbon block filters and other proprietary technologies were found to be inappropriate for dissolved manganese removal. Further evaluation of POU devices performance should evaluate the impact of hardness on process performance. The impact of particulate Mn should also be evaluated.

  13. Water Pressure. Water in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Carly Sporer

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning units were created for K-12 students. This unit, "Water Pressure,"…

  14. Visualizing water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baart, F.; van Gils, A.; Hagenaars, G.; Donchyts, G.; Eisemann, E.; van Velzen, J. W.

    2016-12-01

    A compelling visualization is captivating, beautiful and narrative. Here we show how melding the skills of computer graphics, art, statistics, and environmental modeling can be used to generate innovative, attractive and very informative visualizations. We focus on the topic of visualizing forecasts and measurements of water (water level, waves, currents, density, and salinity). For the field of computer graphics and arts, water is an important topic because it occurs in many natural scenes. For environmental modeling and statistics, water is an important topic because the water is essential for transport, a healthy environment, fruitful agriculture, and a safe environment.The different disciplines take different approaches to visualizing water. In computer graphics, one focusses on creating water as realistic looking as possible. The focus on realistic perception (versus the focus on the physical balance pursued by environmental scientists) resulted in fascinating renderings, as seen in recent games and movies. Visualization techniques for statistical results have benefited from the advancement in design and journalism, resulting in enthralling infographics. The field of environmental modeling has absorbed advances in contemporary cartography as seen in the latest interactive data-driven maps. We systematically review the design emerging types of water visualizations. The examples that we analyze range from dynamically animated forecasts, interactive paintings, infographics, modern cartography to web-based photorealistic rendering. By characterizing the intended audience, the design choices, the scales (e.g. time, space), and the explorability we provide a set of guidelines and genres. The unique contributions of the different fields show how the innovations in the current state of the art of water visualization have benefited from inter-disciplinary collaborations.

  15. Water Pots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋保平

    2005-01-01

    A water bearer in India had two large pots, each hung on each end of a pole which he carried across his neck. One of the pots had a crack in it, while the other pot was perfect and always delivered a full portion of water at the end of the long walk from the stream to the master's house, and the cracked pot was only half full when the water bearer arrived. For two years this went on daily. Of course, the perfect pot was proud of its perfection to which it was brought. But the poor cracked pot was ashamed of...

  16. Water Purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The Vision Catalyst Purifier employs the basic technology developed by NASA to purify water aboard the Apollo spacecraft. However, it also uses an "erosion" technique. The purifier kills bacteria, viruses, and algae by "catalytic corrosion." A cartridge contains a silver-impregnated alumina bed with a large surface area. The catalyst bed converts oxygen in a pool of water to its most oxidative state, killing over 99 percent of the bacteria within five seconds. The cartridge also releases into the pool low levels of ionic silver and copper through a controlled process of erosion. Because the water becomes electrochemically active, no electricity is required.

  17. Water Pot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小平

    2003-01-01

    一只有裂缝的水罐为自己的缺陷而深感内疚,但它忽略了由它浇灌出的美丽花朵。人人都有属于自己的不足,只要正视它们,那么……A water bearer in India had two large pots, each hung on each end of a pole, which he carried across his neck. One of the pots had a crack(裂缝) in it, and while the other pot was perfect and always delivered a full portion of water at the end of the long walk from the stream to the master蒺s house, the cracked pot arrived only half full.For two years this went on daily, with the water bearer delivering one and one鄄half pots full of water to his master...

  18. Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Page Brochures & Fact Sheets Environmental Health Topics Science Education Kids Environment | Kids Health Research Home Page At NIEHS ... Agents Water Pollution Environmental Science Basics Population Research Science Education Kids Environment | Kids Health Research Home Research At NIEHS ...

  19. Water Fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Douvidzon, Mark L; Martin, Leopoldo L; Carmon, Tal

    2016-01-01

    Fibers constitute the backbone of modern communication and are used in laser surgeries; fibers also genarate coherent X-ray, guided-sound and supercontinuum. In contrast, fibers for capillary oscillations, which are unique to liquids, were rarely considered in optofluidics. Here we fabricate fibers by water bridging an optical tapered-coupler to a microlensed coupler. Our water fibers are held in air and their length can be longer than a millimeter. These hybrid fibers co-confine two important oscillations in nature: capillary- and electromagnetic-. We optically record vibrations in the water fiber, including an audio-rate fundamental and its 3 overtones in a harmonic series, that one can hear in soundtracks attached. Transforming Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems [MEMS] to Micro-Electro-Capillary-Systems [MECS], boosts the device softness by a million to accordingly improve its response to minute forces. Furthermore, MECS are compatible with water, which is a most important liquid in our world.

  20. Water Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development ( ... diaper. Wash hands after using the bathroom or changing diapers. Avoid swallowing or getting water in your ...

  1. Total Water Management - slides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Total Water Management (TWM) examines urban water systems in an interconnected manner. It encompasses reducing water demands, increasing water recycling and reuse, creating water supply assets from stormwater management, matching water quality to end-use needs, and achieving envi...

  2. Viscoelastic properties of wood across the grain measured under water-saturated conditions up to 135\\degree C: evidence of thermal degradation

    CERN Document Server

    Placet, Vincent; Perré, Patrick; 10.1007/s10853-008-2546-9

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the viscoelastic properties of wood under water-saturated conditions are investigated from 10\\degree C to 135\\degree C using the WAVET* apparatus. Experiments were performed via harmonic tests at two frequencies (0.1 Hz and 1 Hz) for several hours. Four species of wood were tested in the radial and tangential material directions: oak (Quercus sessiliflora), beech (Fagus sylvatica), spruce (Picea abies) and fir (Abies pectinata). When the treatment is applied for several hours, a reduction of the wood rigidity is significant from temperature values as low as 80-90\\degree C, and increases rapidly with the temperature level. The storage modulus of oak wood is divided by a factor two after three hours of exposure at 135\\degree C. This marked reduction in rigidity is attributed to the hydrolysis of hemicelluloses. The softening temperature of wood is also noticeably affected by hygrothermal treatment. After three short successive treatments up to 135\\degree C, the softening temperature of oak shifte...

  3. Water availability, water quality water governance: the future ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tundisi, J. G.; Matsumura-Tundisi, T.; Ciminelli, V. S.; Barbosa, F. A.

    2015-04-01

    The major challenge for achieving a sustainable future for water resources and water security is the integration of water availability, water quality and water governance. Water is unevenly distributed on Planet Earth and these disparities are cause of several economic, ecological and social differences in the societies of many countries and regions. As a consequence of human misuse, growth of urbanization and soil degradation, water quality is deteriorating continuously. Key components for the maintenance of water quantity and water quality are the vegetation cover of watersheds, reduction of the demand and new water governance that includes integrated management, predictive evaluation of impacts, and ecosystem services. Future research needs are discussed.

  4. Hydrogen-bond memory and water-skin supersolidity resolving the Mpemba paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi; Huang, Yongli; Ma, Zengsheng; Zhou, Yichun; Zhou, Ji; Zheng, Weitao; Jiang, Qing; Sun, Chang Q

    2014-11-14

    The Mpemba paradox, that is, hotter water freezes faster than colder water, has baffled thinkers like Francis Bacon, René Descartes, and Aristotle since B.C. 350. However, a commonly accepted understanding or theoretical reproduction of this effect remains challenging. Numerical reproduction of observations, shown herewith, confirms that water skin supersolidity [Zhang et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., DOI: ] enhances the local thermal diffusivity favoring heat flowing outwardly in the liquid path. Analysis of experimental database reveals that the hydrogen bond (O:H-O) possesses memory to emit energy at a rate depending on its initial storage. Unlike other usual materials that lengthen and soften all bonds when they absorb thermal energy, water performs abnormally under heating to lengthen the O:H nonbond and shorten the H-O covalent bond through inter-oxygen Coulomb coupling [Sun et al., J. Phys. Chem. Lett., 2013, 4, 3238]. Cooling does the opposite to release energy, like releasing a coupled pair of bungees, at a rate of history dependence. Being sensitive to the source volume, skin radiation, and the drain temperature, the Mpemba effect proceeds only in the strictly non-adiabatic 'source-path-drain' cycling system for the heat "emission-conduction-dissipation" dynamics with a relaxation time that drops exponentially with the rise of the initial temperature of the liquid source.

  5. Effects of Water Intrusion on Mechanical Properties of and Crack Propagation in Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Qiangling; Chen, Tian; Ju, Minghe; Liang, Shun; Liu, Yapeng; Li, Xuehua

    2016-12-01

    Studying the mechanical properties of and crack propagation in coal after water intrusion is necessary to tackle a number of geological engineering problems such as those associated with underground water storage in collieries and support for underground roadways in coal mines. To study the mechanical properties and crack development, 12 coal samples with moisture contents of 0, 2.37, 3.78 and 5.29 % were prepared for acoustic emission tests under uniaxial compression. Over about 6 days, the coal samples absorbed moisture from a humidifier in three different phases. In this period, uniaxial tests show that the peak stress, elastic modulus, strain softening modulus and post-peak modulus decreased with rising moisture content in the samples while the peak strain increased. It was further found that, by analysing the relationship between the stiffness and stress and the accumulated acoustic emission counts, all the phases of crack development can be evaluated. This is useful for studying the effect of water intrusion on crack propagation and for calculating the mechanical properties of the coal such as the elastic modulus. This investigation also quantifies the percentage of the stress thresholds for crack closure, crack initiation, and crack damage that constitutes the peak stress. These stress thresholds do not change with moisture content. Our results are of great significance for water storage in coal mines, for determination of pillar dimensions in coal mines, and for expanding the knowledge base of the mechanical properties of coal and the characteristics of crack propagation.

  6. Water Conservation and Water Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2014-12-01

    Water storage can be a viable part of the solution to water conservation. This means that we should include reservoirs. Regardless, one should evaluate all aspects of water conservation principles. Recent drought in California indicates that there is an urgent need to re-visit the techniques used to maintain the water supply-chain mechanism in the entire state. We all recognize the fact that fish and wildlife depend on the streams, rivers and wetlands for survival. It is a well-known fact that there is an immediate need to provide solid protection to all these resources. Laws and regulations should help meet the needs of natural systems. Farmers may be forced to drilling wells deeper than ever. But, they will be eventually depleting groundwater reserves. Needless to say that birds, fish and wildlife cannot access these groundwater table. California is talking a lot about conservation. Unfortunately, the conservation efforts have not established a strong visible hold. The Environmental Protection Agency has a plan called E2PLAN (Narayanan, 2012). It is EPA's plan for achieving energy and environmental performance, leadership, accountability, and carbon neutrality. In June 2011, the EPA published a comprehensive, multi-year planning document called Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan. The author has previously reported these in detail at the 2012 AGU fall meeting. References: Ziegler, Jay (15 JUNE 2014). The Conversation: Water conservation efforts aren't taking hold, but there are encouraging signs. THE SACRAMENTO BEE. California. Narayanan, Mysore. (2012). The Importance of Water Conservation in the 21st Century. 72nd AGU International Conference. Eos Transactions: American Geophysical Union, Vol. 92, No. 56, Fall Meeting Supplement, 2012. H31I - 1255.http://www.sacbee.com/2014/06/15/6479862/jay-ziegler-water-conservation.html#storylink=cpy

  7. Water Condensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kasper Risgaard; Fojan, Peter; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2014-01-01

    The condensation of water is a phenomenon occurring in multiple situations in everyday life, e.g., when fog is formed or when dew forms on the grass or on windows. This means that this phenomenon plays an important role within the different fields of science including meteorology, building physics......, and chemistry. In this review we address condensation models and simulations with the main focus on heterogeneous condensation of water. The condensation process is, at first, described from a thermodynamic viewpoint where the nucleation step is described by the classical nucleation theory. Further, we address...

  8. Production of demineralized water for use in thermal power stations by advanced treatment of secondary wastewater effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsoyiannis, Ioannis A; Gkotsis, Petros; Castellana, Massimo; Cartechini, Fabricio; Zouboulis, Anastasios I

    2017-04-01

    The operation and efficiency of a modern, high-tech industrial full-scale water treatment plant was investigated in the present study. The treated water was used for the supply of the boilers, producing steam to feed the steam turbine of the power station. The inlet water was the effluent of municipal wastewater treatment plant of the city of Bari (Italy). The treatment stages comprised (1) coagulation, using ferric chloride, (2) lime softening, (3) powdered activated carbon, all dosed in a sedimentation tank. The treated water was thereafter subjected to dual-media filtration, followed by ultra-filtration (UF). The outlet of UF was subsequently treated by reverse osmosis (RO) and finally by ion exchange (IX). The inlet water had total organic carbon (TOC) concentration 10-12 mg/L, turbidity 10-15 NTU and conductivity 3500-4500 μS/cm. The final demineralized water had TOC less than 0.2 mg/L, turbidity less than 0.1 NTU and conductivity 0.055-0.070 μS/cm. Organic matter fractionation showed that most of the final DOC concentration consisted of low molecular weight neutral compounds, while other compounds such as humic acids or building blocks were completely removed. It is notable that this plant was operating under "Zero Liquid Discharge" conditions, implementing treatment of any generated liquid waste.

  9. Critical points, phase transitions and water-like anomalies for an isotropic two length scale potential with increasing attractive well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, L.; Furlan, A. P.; Krott, L. B.; Diehl, A.; Barbosa, M. C.

    2017-02-01

    Molecular Dynamic and Monte Carlo studies are performed in a system of particles interacting through core-softened (CS) potential, composed by two length scales: a repulsive shoulder at short distances and the another a variable scale, that can be repulsive or strongly attractive depending on the parameters used. The system show water-like anomalous behavior. The density, diffusion and structural anomalous regions in the pressure versus temperature phase diagram shrink in pressure as the system becomes more attractive. The transition appears with the increase of the attraction well. We found that the liquid-gas phase transition is Ising-like for all the CS potentials and its critical temperature increases with the increase of the attraction. No Ising-like behavior for the liquid-liquid phase transition was detected in the Monte Carlo simulations what might be due to the presence of stable amorphous phases.

  10. Water Spout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    During the AAPT summer meeting at Creighton University in 2011, Vacek Miglus and I took pictures of early apparatus at the Creighton physics department. The apparatus in the left-hand picture, shown with the spigot closed, appeared to be a liquid-level device: the water level was the same in both the narrow tube and the flaring glass vase.…

  11. Water Spout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    During the AAPT summer meeting at Creighton University in 2011, Vacek Miglus and I took pictures of early apparatus at the Creighton physics department. The apparatus in the left-hand picture, shown with the spigot closed, appeared to be a liquid-level device: the water level was the same in both the narrow tube and the flaring glass vase.…

  12. WATER USES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adimasu Woldesenbet Worako

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lake Hawassa is one of the Major Ethiopian Rift Valley Lakes which is situated in southernregional state, which has a closed basin system and receives water from only Tikurwuha Riverand runoff from the catchment. Quality of the lake water is vital for the surrounding communityfor proper and safe use of the lake. The present study was designed to examine thephysicochemical and biological water quality suitability for multiple purposes and to determinetrophic state index of the lake for a period of three months from December to February,2011/12. Water samples were collected from the lake on monthly basis and analyzed for allwater quality parameters by using standard methods. Data analysis was performed bydescriptive, multivariate analysis (MANOVA and Tukey-Kramer test. The overall waterquality parameters analytical results have been observed as pH (7.5, TDS (450.1, temp.(21.23°C, DO (17.85, turbidity (8.44 NTU, COD (48.73, BOD5 (117, Fˉ (12.8, NO3ˉ (5.27,PO43- (1.12, NO2ˉ (0.04, TN (5.42, TP (0.37, Clˉ (30.84, Mn (0.09, Zn(0.19, Na+(331,Chlorophyll-a(25.45μg/L, TC(11,883MPN/100ml and FC (99.67MPN/100ml and units forothers in mg/L. On the other hand, the value of indices for irrigation water quality was SAR(12.2-16, SSP (83.77-84.34%, MAR (93.83-95.37% and KR (5.71-7.18. The values of thewhole analyzed parameters have shown significant variation in site (P<0.05. As irrigation waterquality mainly focuses on the indices of SAR and EC/TDS, the lake water is in good conditionfor the purpose. The values of trace heavy metals were under permissible limits for multipleaspects. On average, the trophic state index of the Lake Hawassa was hypereutrophic(TSI = 72.6, as Carlson value category. In general, the lake water is not suitable for drinking,recreational and irrigation of some raw consuming crops but it is suitable for aquatic life.

  13. Light & Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Natividad Puig

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The proposal explores the Caos Theories, specifically, how applicable they are on local architectural interventions. It compiles a short study about possible variations of a same piece, in order to create difeerent ruled surfaces. Those pieces are distributed around a fractal attractor. The cores of these attractors are the ones responsible of collecting all the water flowing through the system. Once built, the project will enclose an open but covered space. Within this space, many different activities can be embraced, which allows its adaptability to each community where it?s placed. An open market will be the most common use though. It will allow selling agricultural products developed among the same community. Products irrigated with the extra water source collected by the cores of the fractal attractors.

  14. Troubled Waters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG CHONG

    2010-01-01

    @@ The diplomatic row between China and Japan over the latter's illegal detention of a Chinese fishing boat was initially resolved on September 24 when Japanese authorities released the boat's captain.But its repercussions have yet to be fully addressed. The Chinese Government and public protested strongly after Japanese coast guards captured the boat in waters off the Diaoyu Islands on September 7.Six days later,Japan freed all other crew members while keeping the captain in custody.

  15. Impact of drinking water treatment and distribution on the microbiome continuum: an ecological disturbance's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya; Oh, Seungdae; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2017-08-01

    While microbes are known to be present at different stages of a drinking water system, their potential functions and ability to grow in such systems are poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrated that treatment and distribution processes could be viewed as ecological disturbances exhibited over space on the microbiome continuum in a groundwater-derived system. Results from 16S rRNA gene amplicon analysis and metagenomics suggested that disturbances in the system were intense as the community diversity was substantially reduced during the treatment steps. Specifically, syntrophs and methanogens dominant in raw water (RW) disappeared after water abstraction, accompanied by a substantial decrease in both the abundance and number of functional genes related to methanogenesis. The softening effluent was dominated by an Exiguobacterium-related population, likely due to its ability to use the phosphotransferase system (PTS) as regulatory machinery to control the energy conditions of the cell. After disinfection and entering the distribution system, community-level functionality remained relatively stable, whereas the community structure differed from those taken in the treatment steps. The diversity and high abundance of some eukaryotic groups in the system suggested that predation could be a disturbance to the bacterial microbiome, which could further drive the diversification of the bacterial community. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Seasonal assessment, treatment and removal of heavy metal concentrations in a tropical drinking water reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapha Moshood Keke

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are present in low concentrations in reservoirs, but seasonal anthropogenic activities usually elevate the concentrations to a level that could become a health hazard. The dry season concentrations of cadmium, copper, iron, lead, mercury, nickel and zinc were assessed from three sites for 12 weeks in Oyun reservoir, Offa, Nigeria. Triplicate surface water samples were collected and analysed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The trend in the level of concentrations in the three sites is site C > B > A, while the trend in the levels of the concentrations in the reservoir is Ni > Fe > Zn > Pb > Cd > Cu > Hg. Ni, Cd, Pb and Hg were found to be higher than the WHO guidelines for the metals in drinking water. The high concentration of these metals was from anthropogenic watershed run-off of industrial effluents, domestic sewages and agricultural materials into the reservoir coming from several human activities such as washing, bathing, fish smoking, especially in site C. The health effects of high concentration of these metals in the reservoir were highlighted. Methods for the treatment and removal of the heavy metals from the reservoir during water purification such as active carbon adsorption, coagulation-flocculation, oxidation-filtration, softening treatment and reverse osmosis process were highlighted. Other methods that could be used include phytoremediation, rhizofiltration, bisorption and bioremediation. Watershed best management practices (BMP remains the best solution to reduce the intrusion of the heavy metals from the watershed into the reservoir.

  17. Water markets between Mexican water user associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloezen, W.H.

    1998-01-01

    Internationally, introducing water markets is regarded as a strong alternative institutional arrangement for managing irrigation water more effectively. Also in Mexico, the National Water Law of 1992 allows individual farmers as well as water user associations (WUA) to trade water. Although farmer

  18. Water markets between Mexican water user associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloezen, W.H.

    1998-01-01

    Internationally, introducing water markets is regarded as a strong alternative institutional arrangement for managing irrigation water more effectively. Also in Mexico, the National Water Law of 1992 allows individual farmers as well as water user associations (WUA) to trade water. Although farmer t

  19. FEM modeling of softened base metal in narrow-gap joint by CMT+P MIX welding procedure%冷金属过渡复合脉冲焊接(CMT+P)窄间隙焊接头基体软化现象的有限元模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒凤远; 吕耀辉; 刘玉欣; 徐富家; 孙哲; 何鹏; 徐滨士

    2014-01-01

    A required finite element method (FEM) model applicable for narrow gap CMT and CMT+P MIX welding was established based on the interactions between arc, base metal and filler metal. A novel method of simplifying wire feeding pulses and heat input pulses was supposed under the conduction of equivalent input. The method together with composed double-ellipse heat sources was included in the model. The model was employed in the investigation of thermal cycling and the identification of the softened zone of AA7A52 base plates. Low-frequency behavior emerged in the form of low-cooling rate sects, which were not expected under experimental conditions. The softened zone including the quenched zone and averaging zone of the base plate was much wider internal the base plate than that close to the surfaces. The reliability of the predictions in thermal cycling was supported by infrared imaging test results of the thermal cycle process.%根据电弧对基体材料及填充材料的作用过程建立了 CMT 和 CMT+P 过程的有限元模型,其中基于等效热输入原则简化了 CMT 焊接过程中焊丝进退和热输入之间的相互作用过程。对热源的处理中,采用复合双椭球热源模型。基于该有限元模型研究了热循环规律,由此划分出AA7A52母材的焊接热影响区。模拟计算结果与实验结果的不同之处是,冷却过程中出现低频效应,这种低频效应的表现方式为低冷却速率。软化区包括淬火区和过时效区,基板内部的软化范围明显大于基板近表层区域。通过红外测温实验验证了计算模拟结果的准确性。

  20. Reuse & Recirculation of Filter Backwash Water of Water Treatment Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangesh L. Jibhakate

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Most of the water treatment plant, filtration is done by means of sand filtration process. Due to continuous filtration process, sand pores get clogged and decreases the efficiency. For mitigating such problem, reverse flow of water & air i.e. backwashing process is carried out. To carry out backwashing operation, 4% of treated water has been utilized and will result in muddy water known as backwash water. This backwash water is then discharged into a natural stream or storage tank near the plant for recirculation. The present study includes a trial for the reuse & recirculation of backwash water.

  1. Improved water does not mean safe water

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, L. H.; Guo, Y.; Schwab, K. J.

    2012-12-01

    This work presents a model for estimating global access to drinking water that meets World Health Organization (WHO) water quality guidelines. The currently accepted international estimate of global access to safe water, the WHO and United Nations Children's Fund's (UNICEF) Joint Monitoring Program (JMP) report, estimates the population with access to water service infrastructure that is classified as improved and unimproved. The JMP report uses access to improved water sources as a proxy for access to safe water, but improved water sources do not always meet drinking water quality guidelines. Therefore, this report likely overestimates the number of people with access to safe water. Based on the JMP estimate, the United Nations has recently announced that the world has reached the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target for access to safe water. Our new framework employs a statistical model that incorporates source water quality, water supply interruptions, water storage practices, and point of use water treatment to estimate access to safe water, resulting in a figure that is lower than the JMP estimate of global access to safe water. We estimate that at least 28% of the world does not have access to safe water today, as compared to the JMP estimate of 12%. These findings indicate that much more work is needed on the international scale to meet the MDG target for access to safe water.

  2. The Role of Water in the Stability of Cratonic Keels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peslier, Anne H.; Woodland, Alan B.; Bell, David R.; Lazarov, Marina

    2011-01-01

    Cratons are typically underlain by large, deep, and old lithospheric keels (to greater than 200 km depth, greater than 2.5 Ga old) projecting into the asthenosphere (e.g., Jordan, 1978; Richardson et al., 1984). This has mystified Earth scientists as the dynamic and relatively hot asthenosphere should have eroded away these keels over time (e.g., Sleep, 2003; O'Neill et al., 2008; Karato, 2010). Three key factors have been invoked to explain cratonic root survival: 1) Low density makes the cratonic mantle buoyant (e.g., Poudjom Djomani et al., 2001). 2) Low temperatures (e.g., Pollack, 1986; Boyd, 1987), and 3) low water contents (e.g., Pollack, 1986), would make cratonic roots mechanically strong. Here we address the mechanism of the longevity of continental mantle lithosphere by focusing on the water parameter. Although nominally anhydrous , olivine, pyroxene and garnet can accommodate trace amounts of water in the form of H bonded to structural O in mineral defects (e.g., Bell and Rossman, 1992). Olivine softens by orders of magnitude if water (1-1000 ppm H2O) is added to its structure (e.g., Mackwell et al., 1985). Our recent work has placed constraints on the distribution of water measured in peridotite minerals in the cratonic root beneath the Kaapvaal in southern Africa (Peslier et al., 2010). At P greater than 5 GPa, the water contents of pyroxene remain relatively constant while those of olivine systematically decrease from 50 to less than 10 ppm H2O at 6.4 GPa. We hypothesized that at P greater than 6.4 GPa, i.e. at the bottom of the cratonic lithosphere, olivines are essentially dry (greater than 10 ppm H2O). As olivine likely controls the rheology of the mantle, we calculated that the dry olivines could be responsible for a contrast in viscosity between cratonic lithosphere and surrounding asthenosphere large enough to explain the resistance of cratonic root to asthenospheric delamination.

  3. Healing Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cátedra Tomás, María

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on fieldwork in four different spas —two in Spain and two in Portugal— this paper shows the mutiple social mediations operating in water therapies in different contexts: from the local use inscribed in popular knowledge, including playful elements inserted in therapeutic practices under the illusion of a return to nature when nature itself has stopped being «natural», to others in which leisure time is an expression of an exclusive life style including a reevaluation of landscape as part of a time-bound aesthetics and as a refuge from urban stress. These different uses of water allow us to understand spas both as nature sanatoriums as well as a form of business where medical power bends to the interests of turistic enterpreneurs transformed into health advisors, linked to different conceptions not only of water but also of society itself.

    Focalizando la reflexión en cuatro balnearios diferentes —dos en España y dos en Portugal—, el artículo muestra las múltiples mediaciones sociales que operan en la terapéutica del agua en diferentes contextos: desde el uso local inserto en saberes populares, incluyendo lo lúdico en lo terapéutico que puede conectarse con la ilusión de un regreso a la naturaleza cuando ésta ya ha dejado de ser “natural”, a otros en los que el ocio es expresión de un estilo de vida exclusivo que incluye un acercamiento al paisaje como parte de la estética de una época y como refugio ante el stress urbano. Se observa así cómo estos usos del agua, que permiten concebir los balnearios bien como sanatorios de la naturaleza bien como negocios en los que el poder médico se pliega al de promotores turísticos convertidos en asesores de salud, se vinculan a concepciones diferentes no sólo del agua, sino de la sociedad misma y sus diferentes grupos.

  4. 磷高强石膏-粉煤灰-石灰的耐水性研究%Study on Water Resistance of Phosphogypsum Based on High Strength Gypsum-Fly Ash-Lime Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    茹晓红; 汤琦; 马保国; 邹开波

    2015-01-01

    将粉煤灰及其激发剂石灰加入到磷石膏制备的高强石膏中制备出水硬性的磷石膏粉煤灰石灰( PGFL)复合胶凝材料。通过对比试验研究了石灰、粉煤灰、磷高强石膏(PGHH)掺量对产品软化系数、抗压强度性能的影响,结果表明:加入适量的粉煤灰、石灰可以显著提高PGFL的后期绝干抗压强度和软化系数,提高材料的耐水性,掺量过多则会带来不利影响。%Phosphogypsum-fly ash-lime cementitous materials ( PGFL) was prepared by phosphogypsum based high strength hemihydrate gypsum ( PGHH) mixed with fly ash and lime. Effects of lime, fly ash and PGHH additions to PGFL properties of compressive strength and softening coefficient were investigated through comparison testing. The results showed that water resistance of PGFL material was improved by long-term dry compressive strength and softening coefficient increased significantly with proper fly ash and lime contents. However, adverse impacts may caused by too much fly ash and lime additions.

  5. Simulation of integrated pollutant removal (IPR) water-treatment system using ASPEN Plus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harendra, Sivaram; Oryshcyhn, Danylo [U.S. DOE/NETL; Ochs, Thomas [U.S. DOE/NETL; Gerdemann, Stephen; Clark, John

    2013-01-01

    Capturing CO2 from fossil fuel combustion provides an opportunity for tapping a significant water source which can be used as service water for a capture-ready power plant and its peripherals. Researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) have patented a process—Integrated Pollutant Removal (IPR®)—that uses off-the-shelf technology to produce a sequestration ready CO2 stream from an oxy-combustion power plant. Water condensed from oxy-combustion flue gas via the IPR system has been analyzed for composition and an approach for its treatment—for in-process reuse and for release—has been outlined. A computer simulation model in ASPEN Plus has been developed to simulate water treatment of flue gas derived wastewater from IPR systems. At the field installation, water condensed in the IPR process contains fly ash particles, sodium (largely from spray-tower buffering) and sulfur species as well as heavy metals, cations, and anions. An IPR wastewater treatment system was modeled using unit operations such as equalization, coagulation and flocculation, reverse osmosis, lime softening, crystallization, and pH correction. According to the model results, 70% (by mass) of the inlet stream can be treated as pure water, the other 20% yields as saleable products such as gypsum (CaSO4) and salt (NaCl) and the remaining portion is the waste. More than 99% of fly ash particles are removed in the coagulation and flocculation unit and these solids can be used as filler materials in various applications with further treatment. Results discussed relate to a slipstream IPR installation and are verified experimentally in the coagulation/flocculation step.

  6. Arsenic contamination and speciation in surrounding waters of three old cinnabar mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larios, Raquel; Fernández-Martínez, Rodolfo; Silva, Verónica; Loredo, Jorge; Rucandio, Isabel

    2012-02-01

    The impact of arsenic pollution in waters from the surroundings of three abandoned Hg mines in Northern Spain, as well as reaching the Caudal River, was evaluated. For assessing the factors controlling arsenic release, an extensive study based on the physicochemical characterization and multivariate statistical analysis of waters upstream and downstream each mine site was performed. Waters downstream of the La Soterraña mine present the highest arsenic concentrations, up to 38.8 mg L(-1), coming mainly from the solubilisation of calcium, magnesium and strontium arsenates at a pH close to neutral. Although arsenic concentrations downstream of La Peña are markedly lower, these values remain too high, indicating that the encapsulation carried out in this spoil heap is insufficient. In addition, the high water flow in this point involves an extremely high input of arsenic to the surroundings (0.3 g s(-1)). Waters close to tailings from Los Rueldos suffer from acid mine drainage, provoking an important solubilisation of arsenic and heavy metals, a situation which is rapidly softened with distance. The study of arsenic speciation reveals the omnipresence of As(v) in waters from the three mines, whereas in La Peña low amounts of As(iii) were also detected. Different preservation methods for As speciation were compared, such as the addition of HCl, EDTA and the storage of samples without any additive, and no alteration of samples in any case up to nine months after the collection was observed. A study of seasonal variations of As and the main parameters affecting its concentration and speciation was completed throughout a year, showing no remarkable dependency with rainfall for any studied variable.

  7. Ethylene-induced gene expression, enzyme activities, and water soaking in immature and ripe watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakurt, Yasar; Huber, Donald J

    2004-04-01

    Watermelon fruit exhibit acute softening and placental-tissue water soaking following short exposure to exogenous ethylene. Experiments were performed to address transcript abundance and activities of cell wall and membrane hydrolases in placental tissue in response to treatment of watermelon fruit with ethylene. Watermelon fruit were harvested at immature and full-ripe stages and exposed to 50 microL L(-1) ethylene for 6 days at 20 degrees C. Ethylene affected the abundance of transcripts for PME (EC 3.2.1.11), and alpha-(EC 3.2.1.22) and beta-GAL (EC 3.2.1.23) but these effects were dependent on fruit maturity and appeared not to be associated with the water-soaking syndrome. PG (EC 3.2.1.15) and EXP mRNAs accumulated significantly in response to ethylene exposure. Additionally, the levels of mRNA and activities of LOX (EC 1.13.11.12), PLC (EC 3.1.4.3) and PLD (EC 3.1.4.4) were elevated in fruit of both maturity classes exposed to ethylene and were temporally associated with the visible symptoms of water soaking. The activity trends and transcript abundance in ethylene- compared with air-treated fruit indicate that PG, EXP, LOX, PLC and PLD levels increase with the onset and development of the water-soaking disorder and support the view that catabolic reactions targeting the membranes and cell-walls contribute to the disorder.

  8. Bottled Water and Fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bottled water and fluoride. Does bottled water contain fluoride? Bottled water products may contain fluoride, depending on ... How can I find out the level of fluoride in bottled water? The FDA does not require ...

  9. Why Do Eyes Water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lifesaver Kids Talk About: Coaches Why Do Eyes Water? KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Do Eyes Water? Print ... out of your nose. continue Why Do Eyes Water? Eyes water for lots of different reasons besides ...

  10. Lead and tap water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water contaminated with lead ... The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) monitors drinking water in the United States. It requires water suppliers to produce annual water quality reports. These reports include information about lead amounts, and they ...

  11. Why Do Eyes Water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Happens in the Operating Room? Why Do Eyes Water? KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Do Eyes Water? A ... out of your nose. continue Why Do Eyes Water? Eyes water for lots of different reasons besides ...

  12. 利用原状脱硫石膏制备高强耐水新型建材%Preparation of High-strength and Water-resistant New Buiding Materials by FGD Gypsum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林海燕; 阳勇福; 郭献军; 王晓峰

    2013-01-01

    以原状脱硫石膏、拜尔法赤泥、矿渣等为主要原料,水泥熟料作为激发剂,制备高强耐水建筑试块,研究自然养护和75℃高温养护条件下试块的抗压强度及耐水性.结果表明,水泥熟料的加入促进了石膏胶凝材料的水化速度,自然养护和蒸汽养护下,试块都具有较高强度,14d抗压强度均大于20 MPa; 75℃高温养护明显促进了胶凝材料体系的水化进程.石膏胶凝试块软化系数高,耐水性良好;自然养护条件下,随着水泥熟料用量的增加,二次钙矾石生成量增大,软化系数降低,耐水性变差;高温养护早期水化充分,强度较高,且二次钙矾石生成较少,试块软化系数稳定且保持较高水平.%The high strength and water resistant blocks were produced from FGD gypsum,Bayer red mud,slag and cement clinker,and compressive strength and water resistance under the natural conservation and 75 ℃C steam curing condition were studied.The results showed that the gypsum cementitious material hydration speed was promoted when cement clinker was added.Whether natural or steam maintenance,blocks have higher strength,compressive strength of 14 d is above 20 MPa.The cementitious material hydration process is promoted evidently on steam curing condition.The softening coefficient of gypsum cementitious block is high,and water resistance is very good.On natural curing condition,delayed ettringite formation is increasing with the increase of the content of cement clinker,but softening coefficient and water resistance decreases.On steam curing condition,early hydration is very sufficient,and compressive strength is high,the delayed ettringite formation is less,the softening coefficient is high and stable.

  13. Present situation of the research on water hardness removal%国内外除硬技术现状研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华; 崔柳华; 吴百春

    2011-01-01

    硬度离子容易在管道、锅炉中形成沉淀而引起生活及工业用水及水处理过程中的许多问题,如膜脱盐过程(反渗透)就因结垢和堵塞问题在使用上受到了限制.目前,除了石灰软化和阳离子交换法外,还出现了不少新的去除水中硬度的方法,为此对各种除硬技术进行了总结,并对其效果进行了评价,以期解决用水及水处理过程中由于硬度导致的一系列问题.%The precipitation formed by hard ions in pipelines and boilers has caused many problems for domestic and industrial water and water treatment. For example, the process of membrane desalination (reverse osmosis) has been restricted Just because of scaling and clogging. Nowadays, in addition to lime water softening method and cation exchange method,some new methods have been developed for removing the hard ions from water. With regards to this, various hardness removing techniques are summarized, and their effectiveness is evaluated, hoping they will be of help to solve the problems associated with the hardness in the process of water usages and water treatment.

  14. PLC在水处理控制系统中的应用%Application of PLC in the Water Treatment Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兴源; 孟海涛

    2013-01-01

      根据软化水质的工艺要求,利用PLC系统的特性,从过滤和反渗透角度阐述了自动控制系统的设计和实现,指出自动控制是集数据处理、控制功能和管理功能于一体的系统。%According to the requirements of the water softening, using the characteristics of PLC system, this thesis describes the design and implemetation of automatic control system from the view of filter and reverse osmosis, points out that automatic control is a system which involves set of automatic data processing, control and management functions.

  15. Water chemistry and poultry processing water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined the influences of water chemistry on the quality of process water used in immersion chillers. During commercial poultry processing the bird carcasses come in direct contact with process water during washing and chilling operations. Contamination of the process water with bacteria...

  16. Virtual water trade and world water resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, T; Kanae, S

    2004-01-01

    Global virtual water trade was quantitatively estimated and evaluated. The basic idea of how to estimate unit requirement of water resources to produce each commodity is introduced and values for major agricultural and stock products are presented. The concept of virtual water and the quantitative estimates can help in assessing a more realistic water scarcity index in each country, projecting future water demand for food supply, increasing public awareness on water, and identifying the processes wasting water in the production. Really required water in exporting countries is generally smaller than virtually required water in importing countries, reflecting the comparative advantage of water use efficiency, and it is estimated to be 680 km3/y for 2000. On the contrary the virtually required water for the same year is estimated to be 1,130 km3/y, and the difference of 450 km3/y is virtually saved by global trade. However, solely virtual water should not be used for any decision making since the idea of virtual water implies only the usage and influence of water and no concerns on social, cultural, and environmental implications. Virtual water trade also does not consider other limiting factors than water.

  17. Everyone into the Water!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Christina L.

    2007-01-01

    As the days grow longer and warmer with the approach of summer, everyone's thoughts turn to the outdoors and the clear blue of water sports. While recreational choices range from in-the-water activities like water polo to under-the-water sports like free diving, and on-the-water diversions like water skiing, this article focuses on print, video,…

  18. Testing the Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finks, Mason

    1993-01-01

    Provides information about home drinking water treatment systems to address concerns about the safety and quality of drinking water. Discusses water testing, filtration, product options and selection, water testing resources, water treatment device guidelines, water analysis terminology, and laboratory selection. (MCO)

  19. Water resources data, Indiana, water year 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, James A.; Keeton, Charles R.; Benedict, Brian L.; Hammil, Lowell E.

    1994-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1993 water year for Indiana consist of records of discharge, stage, and water quality of streams and wells; reservoir stage and contents; and water levels in lakes and wells. This report contains records of discharge for 175 stream-gaging station, stage for 5 stream station, 1 sediment station, stage and contents for 1 reservoir, water quality for 3 streams, and water levels for 80 lakes and 94 observation wells. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey in Indiana in cooperation with State and Federal agencies.

  20. Water resources data, Indiana, water year 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, James A.; Keeton, Charles R.; Benedict, Brian L.; Hammil, Lowell E.

    1993-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1992 water year for Indiana consist of records of discharge, stage, and water quality of streams and wells; reservoir stage and contents; and water levels in lakes and wells. This report contains records of discharge for 175 stream-gaging stations, stage for 7 stream stations, 1 sediment station, stage and contents for 1 reservoir, water quality for 3 streams, and water levels for 80 lakes and 94 observation wells. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey in Indiana in cooperation with State and Federal agencies.