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Sample records for water slurries quarterly

  1. Rheology of coal-water slurries prepared by the HP roll mill grinding of coal. Quarterly technical progress report number 11, March 1--May 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuerstenau, D.W.

    1995-06-01

    The objective of this research is the development of improved technology for the preparation of coal-water slurries that have potential for replacing fuel oil in direct combustion. Detailed investigations of the effect of solids content and chemical additives on the rheology of coal-water slurries, prepared with fines produced by the ball milling of Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, were conducted during the first phase of the research program. These experiments were to provide a baseline against which the rheological behavior of slurries prepared with fines produced by high-pressure roll milling or hybrid high-pressure, roll mill/ball mill grinding could be compared. The viscosity of slurries with high solids content is strongly influenced by the packing density of the feed material. The packing density can be significantly altered by mixing distributions of different median sizes, and to an extent by modifying the grinding environment. The research during this quarter was, therefore, directed towards: (1) establishing the relationship between the packing characteristic of fines and the viscosity of slurries prepared with the fines; (2) investigation of the effect of mixing distribution on the rheology; and (3) study of the effect of grinding environment in the ball mill on the rheology of coal-water slurries.

  2. Slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: Cobalt plus a water-gas shift catalyst. [Quarterly] report, July 1, 1990--September 30, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chanenchuk, C.A.; Yates, I.C.; Satterfield, C.N.

    1990-12-31

    A Co/MgO/SiO{sub 2} Fischer-Tropsch catalyst was operated simultaneously with a Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} water-gas-shift catalyst in a slurry reactor for over 400 hours. The process conditions were held constant at a temperature of 240{degrees}C, a pressure of 0.79 MPa, and a 1.1 H{sub 2}/CO feed of 0.065 Nl/min-g.cat. The Fischer-Tropsch activity remained constant at the level predicted by the operation of the Co/MgO/SiO{sub 2} catalyst alone. The water-gas-shift reaction was near equilibrium. The hydrocarbon product distribution of the combined catalyst system was stable and matched that of the CO/MgO/SiO{sub 2} operating alone under similar conditions. The combined catalyst system exhibited a high selectivity to n-alkanes. Neither catalysts`s operation appeared to have a detrimental effect on that of the other, showing promise for future option.

  3. Blended coals for improved coal water slurries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Tian-ye; WU Guo-guang; LI Qi-hui; SUN Zhi-qiang; ZENG Fang; WANG Guang-you; MENG Xian-liang

    2008-01-01

    Three coal samples of different ranks were used to study the effect of coal blending on the preparation of Coal Water Slurry (CWS). The results show that by taking advantage of two kinds of coal, the coal concentration in slurry made from hard-to-pulp coal can be effectively improved and increased by 3%-5% generally. DLT coal (DaLiuTa coal mine) is very poor in slurryability and the stability and rheology of the resulting slurry are not very good. When the amount of easily slurried coal is more than 30%, all properties of the CWS improve and the CWS meets the requirements for use as fuel. Coalification, porosity, surface oxygenic functional groups, zeta potential and grindability have a great effect on the performance of blended coal CWS. This leads to some differences in performance between the slurry made from a single coal and slurry made from blended coal.

  4. Slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: Cobalt plus a water-gas shift catalyst. [Quarterly] report, October 1, 1989--December 31, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yates, I.C.; Satterfield, C.N.

    1989-12-31

    The rate of synthesis gas consumption over a cobalt FischerTropsch catalyst was measured in a well-mixed, continuous-flow, slurry reactor at 220 to 240{degrees}C, 0.5 to 1.5 MPa, H{sub 2}/CO feed ratios of 1.5 to 3.5 and conversions of 7 to 68% of hydrogen and 11 to 73% of carbon monoxide. The inhibiting effect of carbon monoxide was determined quantitatively and a Langmuir-Hinshelwood-type equation of the following form was found to best represent the results: -R{sub H{sub 2+Co}} = (a P{sub CO}P{sub H{sub 2}})/(1 + b P{sub CO}){sup 2}. The apparent activation energy was 93 to 95 kJ/mol. Data from previous studies on cobalt-based Fischer-Tropsch catalysts are also well correlated with this rate expression.

  5. Secondary breakup of coal water slurry drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Liu, Hai-Feng; Xu, Jian-Liang; Li, Wei-Feng

    2011-11-01

    To investigate secondary atomization of coal water slurry (CWS), deformation and breakup of eight kinds of CWS drops are presented using high speed digital camera. Based on morphology, deformation and breakup regimes of CWS drops can be termed some different modes: deformation, multimode breakup (including two sub-modes: hole breakup and tensile breakup), and shear breakup. Correlations on the ranges of breakup modes are also obtained. The conventional Weber number and Ohnesorge number are found to be insufficient to classify all breakup modes of CWS drops, so two other non-dimensional numbers based on rheology of CWS are suggested to use in the deformation and breakup regime map. Finally, total breakup time is studied and correlated, which increases with Ohnesorge number.

  6. Slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ting; Lei, Hong

    2014-11-01

    With magnetic heads operating closer to hard disks, the hard disks must be ultra-smooth. The abrasive-free polishing (AFP) performance of cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) as the initiator in H2O2-based slurry for hard disk substrate was investigated in our work, and the results showed that the slurry including CHP could improve the material removal rate (MRR) and also reduce surface roughness. Electron spin-resonance spectroscopy (EPR), electrochemical measurement and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) were conducted to investigate the acting mechanism with CHP during the polishing process. Compared with the H2O2 slurry, the EPR analysis shows that the CHP-H2O2 slurry provides a higher concentration of the HOO free radical. In addition, the AES analysis shows the oxidization reaction occurs in the external layer of the substrate surface. Furthermore, electrochemical measurements reveal that CHP can promote the electrochemical effect in AFP and lead to the increase of MRR.

  7. Packing and viscosity of concentrated polydisperse coal-water slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veytsman, B.; Morrison, J.; Scaroni, A.; Painter, P. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States). Energy Inst.

    1998-09-01

    The viscosity of polydisperse slurries close to the packing limit is discussed. It is shown that the divergence of the viscosity at the close packing limit causes the dependence of the slurry viscosity on loading to be universal. Ways of increasing the maximal loading of polydisperse slurries are described. A new theory of packing of powders based on a generalization of the Furnas telescopic tube method is proposed. Unlike the original Furnas model, this theory allows the calculation of the maximal packing for powders with an arbitrary size distribution of particles. The application of the theory to the problem of reducing the viscosity of coal-water slurries is discussed. 15 refs., 8 figs.

  8. Centrifugal slurry pump wear and hydraulic studies. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1987--March 31, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonney, G.E. [Ingersoll-Rand Co., Phillipsburg, NJ (United States)

    1987-01-01

    The following report marks the third quarter of the third phase of the centrifugal slurry pump improvement program. The program was begun in 1982 for the purpose of improving the operating life of centrifugal slurry pumps for coal liquefaction service. This phase of work will verify the design of a pump at higher speed operation. Eventual scale-up of the prototype slurry pumps to full-scale synthetic fuel generation plants could require ten times the flow. The higher speed will allow pumps to be smaller with respectable efficiencies. Conversely, without increasing the specific speed of the pump design, the eventual size would be more than triple that of the prototype slurry pump. The prototype slurry pump during this phase of the program incorporated all the features proven in the earlier phases of the program. This new, higher specific speed pump will be tested for the ability of the hydraulic design to inhibit wear. It will be tested and compared to the previous optimum prototype slurry pump of this program.

  9. THE RESEARCH OF RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF STOWING SLURRY WITH HIGH-WATER MATERIAL SOLIDIFYING TAILINGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨本生; 刘文永

    1996-01-01

    High-water material, tailings from goldmine and water are mixed into a new slurry.Testing of rheological properties of stowing slurries A and B is made to determine type and rheo-logical parameters of the slurry. The main factors influencing rheological properties of the slurryare analyzed and the rational concentration and empirical resistance calculating formula of pipeline transportation are presented.

  10. Effects of different treatments of cattle slurry manure on water-extractable phosphorus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapuis-Lardy, L.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Goede, de R.G.M.

    2003-01-01

    Cattle slurry manure applied to land increases the risk of phosphorus (P) movement to surface waters, which may lead to eutrophication. The water-extractable fraction of P in slurry manure is correlated with P concentration in runoff from soils amended with slurry smanure, and thus is an effective i

  11. Combustion of Coal/Oil/Water Slurries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushida, R. O.

    1982-01-01

    Proposed test setup would measure combustion performance of new fuels by rapidly heating a droplet of coal/oil/water mixture and recording resulting explosion. Such mixtures are being considered as petroleum substitutes in oil-fired furnaces.

  12. Combustion tests of coal-water slurry. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farthing, G.A. Jr.; Johnson, S.A.; Vecci, S.J.

    1982-03-01

    The results of an experimental test program to determine the combustion characteristics of coal-water slurry (CWS) fuels (65 to 75 percent dry coal by weight and exhibiting room temperature viscosities of about 1000 cp) are presented. The slurry tested contained 66 percent solids by weight and was produced from a beneficiated high volatile eastern bituminous coal. The CWS and its parent coal were each fired in B and W's 4.0 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/hr Basic Combustion Test Unit. Each fuel was also subjected to extensive laboratory analysis work. No burner or atomizer development work was done - the primary objective of the study being to demonstrate that the CWS could be fired with existing fuel oil handling equipment.

  13. Characterization of coal water slurry prepared for PRB coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Yi; Akshay Gopan; Richard L. Axelbaum

    2014-01-01

    Powder River Basin (PRB) coal, which accounts for over 40% of the coal consumed for power generation in the United States, was investigated for preparation of coal water slurry ( CWS). The static stability and rheology of the CWS were characterized as a function of loading. The coal loading was varied from 30% to 50% and both ionic ( sodium polystyrene sulphonate (PSS)) and nonionic (Triton X-100) surfactants were employed as additives. The addition of PSS to PRB slurries was found to yield poor static stability. On the other hand, Triton X-100 was found to be an effective surfactant, reducing the sedimentation by more than 50% compared to the one without surfactant in 45% CWS. Adding Triton X-100 reduces the viscosity of the CWS for coal loadings of 30% and 40% . Although the viscosities for coal loading of 42. 5% and 45% are higher when Triton X-100 is added, the static stability is significantly better than for samples without surfactant. The highest coal loading for PRB slurry with acceptable viscosity for pumping is 42. 5% .

  14. Geochemistry of a reclaimed coal slurry impoundment. [Quarterly] technical report, September 1, 1993--November 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreher, G.B.; Roy, W.R.; Steele, J.D.; Heidari, M.

    1993-12-31

    The highly alkaline residue from the fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) of coal may be an environmentally acceptable material for use in neutralizing acid produced by the oxidation of pyrite in coal slurry solids (CSS). Previous research indicated that FBC residues in mixtures with pyrite-rich CSS neutralized the acid produced by or attenuated the oxidation of pyrite in CSS. In the present research we intend to collect cores of unconsolidated material and sample pore gases from a reclaimed coal slurry impoundment. The data gathered will provide background information necessary for the development of a predictive computer model of the generation and migration of acid in a reclaimed coal slurry impoundment. A conceptual model for the oxidation of pyrite at near-neutral conditions is being developed. This report includes our first approximation of the model. The model is subject to change.

  15. Design of slurry reactor for indirect liquefaction applications. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1991--March 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakash, A.; Bendale, P.G.

    1991-04-08

    The objective of this project is to design a conceptual slurry reactor for two indirect liquefaction applications; production of methanol and production of hydrogen fuels via Fischer-Tropsch route. The work will be accomplished by the formulation of reactor models for both the processes and use computer simulation. Process data, kinetic and thermodynamic data, heat and mass transfer data and hydrodynamic data will be used in the mathematical models to describe the slurry reactor for each of the two processes. The cost of current vapor phase reactor systems will be compared with cost estimated for the slurry reactor systems. For the vapor phase systems, upstream and downstream processing equipments may have to be included during cost analysis for a meaningful cost comparison.

  16. Integral Characteristics of Stability of Coal-Water Slurries and Coal-Water Slurries Containing Petrochemicals By Evaluation of Separation Into Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitrienko Margarita A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For wide use of coal and oil processing wastes in heat power industry we investigated the structural stability of coal-water slurries (CWS and coal-water slurries containing petrochemicals (CWSP. Three methods of evaluating slurry stability were considered. The method of evaluation of separation (into layers of the slurry was chosen to determine the stability of fuel compositions based on bituminous and brown coal, filter cakes of bituminous coals, waste motor, turbine, transformer, compressor oils, oil, oiled mixture and mazut. The experiments shown, that the addition of waste oils (with mass fraction of 10 % to investigated fuel compositions leads to increase of slurry segmental stability is almost by 2 times.

  17. 30 CFR 77.216-3 - Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; inspection requirements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... structures; inspection requirements; correction of hazards; program requirements. (a) All water, sediment, or... water, sediment, or slurry impoundment which meets the requirements of § 77.216(a) shall adopt a program... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments...

  18. The effect on slurry water as a fresh water replacement in concrete properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Shahidan, Shahiron; Hai Yee, Lau; Ikhmal Haqeem Hassan, Mohd; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al

    2016-06-01

    Concrete is the most widely used engineering material in the world and one of the largest water consuming industries. Consequently, the concrete manufacturer, ready mixed concrete plant is increased dramatically due to high demand from urban development project. At the same time, slurry water was generated and leading to environmental problems. Thus, this paper is to investigate the effect of using slurry water on concrete properties in term of mechanical properties. The basic wastewater characterization was investigated according to USEPA (Method 150.1 & 300.0) while the mechanical property of concrete with slurry water was compared according to ASTM C1602 and BS EN 1008 standards. In this research, the compressive strength, modulus of elasticity and tensile strength were studied. The percentage of wastewater replaced in concrete mixing was ranging from 0% up to 50%. In addition, the resulted also suggested that the concrete with 20% replacement of slurry water was achieved the highest compressive strength and modulus of elasticity compared to other percentages. Moreover, the results also recommended that concrete with slurry water mix have better compressive strength compared to control mix concrete.

  19. Slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.; Viani, Brian

    2013-01-29

    A slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures includes the steps of dissolving the gas mixture and carbon dioxide in water providing a gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture; adding a porous solid media to the gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture forming a slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media; heating the slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media producing steam; and cooling the steam to produce purified water and carbon dioxide.

  20. Slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.; Viani, Brian

    2013-01-29

    A slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures includes the steps of dissolving the gas mixture and carbon dioxide in water providing a gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture; adding a porous solid media to the gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture forming a slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media; heating the slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media producing steam; and cooling the steam to produce purified water and carbon dioxide.

  1. 30 CFR 77.216-4 - Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; reporting requirements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....216-4 Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; reporting requirements... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; reporting requirements; certification. 77.216-4 Section 77.216-4 Mineral...

  2. A novel method of atomizing coal-water slurry fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sojka, P.E.; Lefebvre, A.H.

    1990-05-01

    Despite the body of work describing the performance of effervescent atomizers, its potential for use with coal water slurries (CWS) had not been evaluated prior to this study. This program was therefore undertaken: to demonstrate that effervescent atomization can produce CWS sprays with mean drop sizes below 50{mu}m; to determine a lower size limit for effervescent atomizer produced CWS sprays; to determine the mechanism(s) responsible for the formation of effervescent atomizer produced sprays. An analysis of the effects of slurry rheological properties (as indicated by the consistency index and the flow behavior index) and formulation (in terms of loading and coal particle top size) on the spray formation process was performed. The experimental data reported were then analyzed to explain the physical processes responsible for spray formation. The analysis began by considering an energy balance across a control volume that extended from the nozzle exit plant to the line of spray measurement. The inlet conditions were calculated using two-phase flow techniques and the outlet conditions were calculated by using conservation of momentum and assuming that the final velocities of the air and liquid were equal. Entrainment was considered negligible and losses were accounted for by realizing that only a small fraction of the atomizing air participated in the spray formation process with the remainder passing through the control volume unperturbed. Results are discussed. 41 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Coal water slurry in 0.25 MW furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, F.; Cao, X.; Zhou, Z. (and others) [CUMT, Beijing (China). School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering

    2004-07-01

    Thermal state comparative test between the normal coal water slurry (CWS)and black liquor CWS from Xinwen was performed in 0.25 MW furnace for the purpose of investigating the industrial application feasibility of black liquor CWS. Performances of flow, atomization, kindling, burning, fouling, slagging, and pollutant emission were studied. The fouling and slagging tendency for two CWSs were analyzed using a self-made heat flux meter. The results show that the black liquor CWS is a fuel with good flowability and atomization, easy firing, stable burning, low pollutant emission, low ash fusion point, and strong slagging tendency, in contrast with the normal CWS. So it is feasible for the black liquor CWS to be used in industrial boilers. 7 refs., 8 figs.

  4. Results For The Third Quarter 2013 Tank 50 WAC Slurry Sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, Christopher J.

    2013-11-26

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the 2013 Third Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) in effect at that time. Information from this characterization will be used by DWPF & Saltstone Facility Engineering (DSFE) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System.

  5. Results For The Fourth Quarter 2014 Tank 50 WAC Slurry Sample: Chemical And Radionuclide Contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-09-30

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the Calendar Year (CY) 2014 Fourth Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) in effect at that time. Information from this characterization will be used by DWPF & Saltstone Facility Engineering (DSFE) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System.

  6. Results for the second quarter 2014 tank 50 WAC slurry sample chemical and radionuclide contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC (United States)

    2014-09-04

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the 2014 Second Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) in effect at that time. Information from this characterization will be used by DWPF & Saltstone Facility Engineering (DSFE) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System.

  7. Results For The Second Quarter 2013 Tank 50 WAC Slurry Sample: Chemical And Radionuclide Contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, Christopher J.

    2013-07-31

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the 2013 Second Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) in effect at that time. Information from this characterization will be used by Saltstone Facility Engineering (SFE) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System.

  8. Results for the Third Quarter 2014 Tank 50 WAC slurry sample: Chemical and radionuclide contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, Charles L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-01-08

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the 2014 Third Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) in effect at that time.1 Information from this characterization will be used by DWPF & Saltstone Facility Engineering (DSFE) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System.

  9. RESULTS FOR THE FOURTH QUARTER 2010 TANK 50 WAC SLURRY SAMPLE: CHEMICAL AND RADIONUCLIDE CONTAMINANT RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reigel, M

    2011-02-22

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the 2010 Fourth Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). Information from this characterization will be used by Liquid Waste Operations (LWO) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System. The following conclusions are drawn from the analytical results provided in this report: (1) The concentrations of the reported chemical and radioactive contaminants were less than their respective WAC targets or limits unless noted in this section. (2) The reported detection limits for {sup 94}Nb, {sup 247}Cm and {sup 249}Cf are above the requested limits from Reference 2. However, they are below the limits established in Reference 3. (3) There is an estimated concentration of trimethylbenzene (2.25 mg/L). This is not a WAC analyte, but it is the first time this organic compound has been detected in a quarterly WAC sample from Tank 50. (4) The reported detection limit for Norpar 13 is greater than the limit from Table 4 and Attachment 8.2 of the WAC. (5) The reported detection limit for Isopar L is greater than the limit from Table 3 of the WAC. (6) Isopar L and Norpar 13 have limited solubility in aqueous solutions making it difficult to obtain consistent and reliable sub-samples. The values reported in this memo are the concentrations in the sub-sample as detected by the GC/MS; however, the results may not accurately represent the concentrations of the analytes in Tank 50.

  10. RESULTS FOR THE FOURTH QUARTER 2013 TANK 50 WAC SLURRY SAMPLE CHEMICAL AND RADIONUCLIDE CONTAMINANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C.

    2014-04-01

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the 2013 Fourth Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) in effect at that time. Information from this characterization will be used by DWPF & Saltstone Facility Engineering (DSFE) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System. The following conclusions are drawn from the analytical results provided in this report: SRR WAC targets or limits were met for all analyzed chemical and radioactive contaminants unless noted in this section. {sup 59}Ni, {sup 94}Nb, {sup 247}Cm, {sup 249}Cf, and {sup 251}Cf are above the requested SRR target concentrations. However, they are below the detection limits established by SRNL. Norpar 13 and Isopar L have higher detection limits compared with the Saltstone WAC. The data provided in this report is based upon the concentrations in the sub-sample, and due to the limited solubility of these materials in aqueous solution, may not represent the concentrations of the analytes in Tank 50. The low insoluble solids content increases the measurement uncertainty for insoluble species. The semivolatile organic analysis (SVOA) method employed in the measurement of Norpar 13 and tributyl phosphate (TBP) has resulted in the erroneous reporting of a variety of small chain alcohols, including 4-methyl-3-hexanol and 5-methyl-3-hexanol, in previous quarterly sample reports. It has now been determined that these alcohols are an artifact of the sample preparation. Further work is being conducted in SRNL to delineate the conditions that produce these alcohols, and these findings will be reported separately.

  11. Hydrophobic aggregation of fine particles in high muddied coal slurry water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Min, Fanfei; Liu, Lingyun; Peng, Chenliang; Lu, Fangqin

    2016-01-01

    The hydrophobic aggregation of fine particles in high muddied coal slurry water in the presence of four quaternary ammonium salts of 1231(dodecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride), 1431(tetradecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride), 1631(cetyl trimethyl ammonium chloride) and 1831(octadecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride) was investigated through the measurement of contact angles, zeta potentials, aggregation observation, adsorption and sedimentation. The results show that quaternary ammonium salts can enhance the hydrophobicity and reduce the electronegativity of particle surface, and thus induce a strong hydrophobic aggregation of slurry fine particles which promotes the settlement of coal slurry water. The adsorption of quaternary ammonium salts on slurry particles increases with the increase of alkyl chain length and reagent dosage, and will reach equilibrium when the dosage reaches a certain value. Weak alkaline conditions also can promote quaternary ammonium salts to be adsorbed on the coal slurry fine particles. In addition, reasonable energy input and a chemical environment of weak alkaline solution are conducive to hydrophobic aggregation settlement of high muddied coal slurry water with quaternary ammonium salts. The main mechanism of hydrophobic aggregation of coal slurry particles with quaternary ammonium salts is 'adsorption charge neutralization' and hydrophobic interaction.

  12. California community water systems quarterly indicators dataset, 1999-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Environmental Health Tracking Program — This data set contains quarterly measures of arsenic and nitrates in public drinking water supplies. Data are derived from California Office of Drinking Water (ODW)...

  13. Results for the Third Quarter 2013 Tank 50 WAC Slurry Sample: Chemical and Radionuclide Contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, Christopher J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-09-30

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the 2013 Third Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) in effect at that time.1 Information from this characterization will be used by DWPF & Saltstone Facility Engineering (DSFE) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System. The following conclusions are drawn from the analytical results provided in this report: SRR WAC targets or limits were met for all analyzed chemical and radioactive contaminates unless noted in this section. 59Ni, 94Nb, 247Cm, 249Cf, and 251Cf are above the requested SRR target concentrations.2 However, they are below the detection limits established by SRNL.3 Norpar 13 and Isopar L have higher detection limits4 compared with the Saltstone WAC.1 The data provided in this report is based upon the concentrations in the sub-sample, and due to the limited solubility in aqueous solution, may not represent the concentrations of the analytes in Tank 50. Finally, the low insoluble solids content increases the measurement uncertainty for insoluble species.

  14. Results for the Fourth Quarter 2012 Tank 50 WAC Slurry Sample: Chemical and Radionuclide Contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, Christopher J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-09-30

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the 2012 Fourth Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC).1 Information from this characterization will be used by Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System. The following conclusions are drawn from the analytical results provided in this report: The concentration of the reported chemical and radioactive contaminants were less than their respective WAC Limits and Targets, unless noted in this section. Norpar 13 and Isopar L have higher detection limits5 compared with the Saltstone WAC1. The data provided in this report is based upon the concentrations in the sub-sample, and due to the limited solubility in aqueous solution, may not represent the concentrations of the analytes in Tank 50. Diisooctyl adipate (or diisooctyl hexanedioate) was measured at 1.30E+00 mg/L in one of two replicate measurements conducted on an at-depth sample.a The organic analysis of the at-depth sample was conducted at the request of SRR.4 This analyte was below the detection limit in the surface sample. The low insoluble solids content increases the measurement uncertainty for insoluble species.

  15. Effects of pH on rheological characteristics and stability of petroleum coke water slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Yan Gao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, the effects of pH on slurrying properties of petroleum coke water slurry (PCWS were investigated. The slurrying concentration, rheological characteristics and stability of PCWS were studied with four different types of additives at pH varying from 5 to 11. The results showed that the slurrying concentration, rheological characteristics and stability of PCWS all increased at first and then decreased with increasing pH from 5 to 11, and a pH of around 9 was found to be the most favorable acid–alkali environment to all these three slurrying properties. It was also indicated that only in a moderate alkaline environment can the additives be active enough to react with particle surfaces sufficiently to obtain good slurrying concentration and form a stable three-dimensional network structure, which can support strong pseudoplastic characteristics and good stability. An acid environment was a very unfavorable factor to the slurrying properties of PCWS.

  16. Flow resistance reduction of coal water slurry through gas phase addition

    OpenAIRE

    Robak Jolanta; Ignasiak Karina

    2016-01-01

    One of the main advantages of coal water slurry fuel (CWS) is a physical form that allows, among others, their transfer by pipelines over long distances. For this form of transport actions towards reducing the flow resistance of the transmitted medium are important. One of the treatments leading to reduction in the flow resistance of suspensions is to introduce gas into the stream of flowing slurry. The goal of that action is to either loosen the structure of densely packed grains or increase...

  17. Modeling of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis in a Slurry Reactor with Water Permeable Membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fabiano A. N. Fernandes

    2007-01-01

    Fischer-Tropsch synthesis is an important chemical process for the production of liquid fuels and olefins. In recent years, the abundant availability of natural gas and the increasing demand of olefins, diesel, and waxes have led to a high interest to further develop this process. A mathematical model of a slurry membrane reactor used for syngas polymerization was developed to simulate and compare the maximum yields and operating conditions in the reactor with that in a conventional slurry reactor.The carbon polymerization was studied from a modeling point of view in a slurry reactor with a water permeable membrane and a conventional slurry reactor. Simulation results show that different parameters affect syngas conversion and carbon product distribution, such as the hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratio,and the membrane parameters such as membrane permeance.

  18. Improvement in water-slurry circulation at the Chumakovskaya coal preparation plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabokov, A.K.; Fedotov, B.P.; Mitlash, V.V.

    1988-02-01

    The Chumakovskaya coal preparation plant (Donetskugleobogashchenie association) was put into operation in 1935. It processes 570 t/h of coal slurry with an ash content of 38.6% and produces grade T coal for coking and power generation. Coal preparation technology used is described. Shortcomings of the system cause 130 kg of high ash slurries to be recirculated per m/sup 3/ of hydrocyclone drain. Mathematical analysis of the present process and of two improved variants is presented. The analysis permits variants for clarification of the recirculated water to be developed and evaluated and the best one to be selected. The optimum variant permits the amount of thin recirculated slurry to be reduced to 48% and the amount of granular slurry to 13%. Implementation of this variant at the Chumakovskaya coal preparation plant will ensure annual savings of 20,000 rubles.

  19. Preliminary Toxicological Analysis of the Effect of Coal Slurry Impoundment Water on Human Liver Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunnell, Joseph E.

    2008-01-01

    Coal is usually 'washed' with water and a variety of chemicals to reduce its content of sulfur and mineral matter. The 'washings' or 'coal slurry' derived from this process is a viscous black liquid containing fine particles of coal, mineral matter, and other dissolved and particulate substances. Coal slurry may be stored in impoundments or in abandoned underground mines. Human health and environmental effects potentially resulting from leakage of chemical substances from coal slurry into drinking water supplies or aquatic ecosystems have not been systematically examined. Impoundments are semipermeable, presenting the possibility that inorganic and organic substances, some of which may be toxic, may contaminate ground or surface water. The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, has concluded that well water in Mingo County, West Virginia, constitutes a public health hazard.

  20. Effects of Game Location, Quality of Opposition, and Starting Quarter Score in the Outcome of Elite Water Polo Quarters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruano, Miguel Á; Serna, Ana D; Lupo, Corrado; Sampaio, Jaime E

    2016-04-01

    The notational analysis is used to investigate teams' performance in water polo, especially focused on the determinants of success. Recently, a new topic has emerged "the situational variables," which includes the game conditions that may influence the performance at a behavioral level. The aim of this study was to identify the interactive effects of starting quarter score (SQS) (i.e., score difference at the beginning of each quarter and at the final score) and game location (GL) (i.e., home and away teams) in relation to quality of opposition (i.e., positions of difference between opposing teams at the end-of-season rankings) in elite men's water polo games. Data comprised 528 games (n = 2,112 quarters) from the first Spanish water polo division. A linear regression analysis was applied to show the impact of SQS and GL in relation to quality of opposition (unbalanced and balanced) for quarter (all quarters, and second, third, and fourth quarters). Results showed that SQS has an important effect for all quarters (0.16) and for the second (0.14) and third (0.14) quarters in balanced games (whereas the fourth quarter has an unpredictable outcome), and for each quarter (all quarters: 0.33; second quarter: 0.55; third quarter: 0.44; fourth quarter: 0.26) in unbalanced games. In addition, GL effects emerged for balanced (0.31) and unbalanced (0.45) games for all quarters and specifically for the second quarter of the unbalanced games. Therefore, this study showed that the elite water polo game dynamics, indirectly providing a reference for coaches (i.e., effective tactical approach) and physical trainers (i.e., high performance intensities), plans to improve their players' performance.

  1. Effects of fractal surface on rheological behavior and combustion kinetics of modified brown coal water slurries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhifang Gao; Shuquan Zhu; Mingdong Zheng; Zhaojin Wu; Huihong Lu; Weiming Liu

    2015-01-01

    The paper reports the effects of surface fractal structures on the rheological behavior and combustion kinetics of raw brown coal and three modified coal water slurries (CWSs). The results show that the fractal structures and physicochemical properties of samples are dependent on various modification processes. The apparent viscosities of the coal water slurries increase with increasing surface fractal dimensions (D), especially with decreasing shear rates. Fur-thermore, it has been proved that the ignition temperatures and apparent activation energies of modified CWSs are lower than that of raw coal water slurry. Compared with the traditional qualitative analysis of the effect of pore structures on CWSs properties, D can more efficiently indicate the quantificational effect of pore structures on the rheological behavior and combustion kinetics of CWSs.

  2. 30 CFR 77.216-2 - Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; minimum plan requirements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; minimum plan requirements; changes or modifications; certification. 77.216-2 Section... COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.216-2 Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and...

  3. Preparation of semi-solid aluminum alloy slurry poured through a water-cooled serpentine channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zheng-Zhou; Mao, Wei-Min; Wu, Zong-Chuang

    2012-01-01

    A water-cooled serpentine channel pouring process was invented to produce semi-solid A356 aluminum alloy slurry for rheocasting, and the effects of pouring temperature and circulating cooling water flux on the microstructure of the slurry were investigated. The results show that at the pouring temperature of 640-680°C and the circulating cooling water flux of 0.9 m3/h, the semi-solid A356 aluminum alloy slurry with spherical primary α(Al) grains can be obtained, whose shape factors are between 0.78 and 0.86 and the grain diameter can reach 48-68 μm. When the pouring temperatures are at 660-680°C, only a very thin solidified shell remains inside the serpentine channel and can be removed easily. When the serpentine channel is cooled with circulating water, the microstructure of the semi-solid slurry can be improved, and the serpentine channel is quickly cooled to room temperature after the completion of one pouring. In terms of the productivity of the special equipment, the water-cooled serpentine channel is economical and efficient.

  4. Comparative assessment of water use and environmental implications of coal slurry pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Richard N.; James II, I. C.; Hirsch, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    With other studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey of water use in the conversion and transportation of the West 's coal, an analysis of water use and environmental implications of coal-slurry pipeline transport is presented. Simulations of a hypothetical slurry pipeline of 1000-mile length transporting 12.5 million tons per year indicate that pipeline costs and energy requirements are quite sensitive to the coal-to-water ratio. For realistic water prices, the optimal ratio will not vary far from the 50/50 ratio by weight. In comparison to other methods of energy conversion and transport, coal-slurry pipeline utilize about 1/3 the amount of water required for coal gasification, and about 1/5 the amount required for on-site electrical generation. An analysis of net energy output from operating alternative energy transportation systems for the assumed conditions indicates that both slurry pipeline and rail shipment require approximately 4.5 percent of the potential electrical energy output of the coal transported, and high-voltage, direct-current transportation requires approximately 6.5 percent. The environmental impacts of the different transports options are so substantially different that a common basis for comparison does not exist. (Woodard-USGS)

  5. Coal-water-slurry evaluation. Volume 2. Laboratory and combustion test results. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daley, R.D.; Farthing, G.A.; Vecci, S.J.

    1984-02-01

    This is the second of three volumes describing a multi-phase coal-water slurry (CWS) test program. This volume presents the results of laboratory, atomization, and combustion tests which were performed on six slurries and their parent coals. The objectives of these tests was to establish laboratory test procedures for evaluating CWS fuels, to investigate relationships between laboratory properties and CWS combustion and handling characteristics and to develop preliminary guidelines for CWS specifications. These tests showed that the preparation processes and chemical additives used by the slurry manufacturers had a significant effect on viscosity and atomization properties. The most important factor for good combustion performance was droplet size, but droplet size did not correlate with viscosity measured at low shear rates in the laboratory tests. It was also found that some slurries had greater fouling potential than their parent coals due to the use of sodium-containing additives. Tests were also conducted to determine whether the slurries could be transported and stored without coal settling. These tests showed that little settling occurred during either transportation or storage for at least three weeks. 98 figures, 27 tables.

  6. Studying flame combustion of coal-water slurries in the furnaces of power-generating boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osintsev, K. V.

    2012-06-01

    Matters concerned with organizing combustion of different types of coal-water slurries in coalfired boilers at thermal power stations are considered. Recommendations for improving the economic and environmental indicators and for achieving more reliable operation of furnace devices and boiler as a whole are given.

  7. Flow resistance reduction of coal water slurry through gas phase addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robak Jolanta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main advantages of coal water slurry fuel (CWS is a physical form that allows, among others, their transfer by pipelines over long distances. For this form of transport actions towards reducing the flow resistance of the transmitted medium are important. One of the treatments leading to reduction in the flow resistance of suspensions is to introduce gas into the stream of flowing slurry. The goal of that action is to either loosen the structure of densely packed grains or increase the velocity of the suspension. The paper presents the flow resistance of CWS in a horizontal pipeline and the effect of addition of the gas phase on the resistance level. The investigation was carried out with the use of a research stand enabling to measure the flow resistance of the multiphase/multicomponent systems. The measured diameter and length of sections were respectively: 0.03 and 2 m. The coal-water slurries (based on steam coals with concentration of dry coal in the range of 51 do 60% obtained by wet milling in a drum mill were used. During the tests, the following parameters were measured: slurry flow rate, air flow rate, temperature and pressure difference in inlet and outlet of the measured section. The volume flow rate of slurry fuel was in the range of 30 to 110 dm3/min while the volume flow rate of air was from 0.15 to 4 m3/h. Based on the obtained results, the slurry flow resistance as a function of the flow rate and share of introduced air was evaluated. The performed research allowed for assessment of flow resistance reduction condition and to determine the pipe flow curves for different temperatures. It was found that the effect of reducing the flow resistance of the coal slurry by introducing gas into the flow tube depended on the volumetric flow rate, and thus the linear velocity of the slurry. Under the experimental condition, this effect only occurred at low flow rates (30 - 50 dm3/min and low temperature of the suspension. The

  8. Development of gas diffusion layer using water based carbon slurry for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, J.F.; Liu, X.; Adame, A.; Villacorta, R. [Fuel Cell Research Laboratory, Engineering Technology Department, Arizona State University, Mesa, AZ 85212 (United States); Wertz, J. [Hollingsworth and Vose Co., A.K. Nicholson Research Lab, 219 Townsend Road, West Groton, MA 01472 (United States); Ahmad, R.; Thommes, M. [Quantachrome Instruments, 1900 Corporate Drive, Boynton Beach, FL 33426 (United States); Kannan, A.M., E-mail: amk@asu.ed [Fuel Cell Research Laboratory, Engineering Technology Department, Arizona State University, Mesa, AZ 85212 (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The micro-porous layer of gas diffusion layers (GDLs) was fabricated with the carbon slurry dispersed in water containing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), by wire rod coating process. The aqueous carbon slurry with micelle-encapsulation was highly consistent and stable without losing any homogeneity even after adding polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) binder for hundreds of hours. The surface morphology, contact angle and pore size distribution of the GDLs were examined using SEM, Goniometer and Hg Porosimeter, respectively. GDLs fabricated with various SDS concentrations were assembled into MEAs and evaluated in a single cell PEMFC under diverse operating relative humidity (RH) conditions using H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}/air as reactants. The peak power density of the single cell using the GDLs with optimum SDS concentration was 1400 and 500 mW cm{sup -2} with H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}/air at 90% RH, respectively. GDLs were also fabricated with isopropyl alcohol (IPA) based carbon slurry for fuel cell performance comparison. It was found that the composition of the carbon slurry, specifically SDS concentration played a critical role in controlling the pore diameter as well as the corresponding pore volumes of the GDLs.

  9. Development of a video-based slurry sensor for on-line ash analysis. Quarterly report, April 1, 1996--June 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adel, G.T.; Luttrell, G.H.

    1996-07-22

    Automatic control of fine coal cleaning circuits has traditionally been limited by the lack of sensors for on-line ash analysis. Although several nuclear-based analyzers are available, none have seen widespread acceptance. This is largely due to the fact that nuclear sensors are expensive and tend to be influenced by changes in seam type and pyrite content. Recently, researchers at VPI&SU have developed an optical sensor for phosphate analysis. The sensor uses image processing technology to analyze video images of phosphate ore. It is currently being used by PCS Phosphate for off-line analysis of dry flotation concentrate. The primary advantages of optical sensors over nuclear sensors are that they are significantly cheaper, are not subject to measurement variations due to changes in high atomic number minerals, are inherently safer and require no special radiation permitting. The purpose of this work is to apply the knowledge gained in the development of an optical phosphate analyzer to the development of an on-line ash analyzer for fine coal slurries. During the past quarter, an industrially-hardened version of the video-based ash analyzer was designed and constructed. All components are now in place at the Middle Fork plant site awaiting the installation of a sample line from the flotation columns to the analyzer. The sensor now appears ready for long-term, in-plant testing during the final quarter of this project. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  10. Synthesis, characterization and application of a dispersant based on rosin for coal-water slurry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Junguo; Zhang Guanghua; Shang Ting; Zhu Junfeng

    2014-01-01

    A rosin derivative and maleopimaric acid diethanolamide (MAD), was synthesized, characterized by FTIR and 1H NMR, and applied as dispersant for the coal-water slurry (CWS) prepared from Chinese Shenfu coal. The CWS application performance investigation shows that the MAD dispersant has better abilities in reducing CWS viscosity and stabilizing the slurry than a commercial dispersant-sulfonated naphtha-lene-formaldehyde condensate (SNF). The physicochemical property investigation of the two tested dispersants shows that the adsorption amount of the MAD at coal-water interface is much larger than that of SNF, and the MAD has better wetting property than the SNF on the coal surface. It indicated that the excellent capabilities of MAD are related to the adsorption mode of standing upright on the coal surface. Based on the above, the mechanism of dispersion and stabilization of the CWS prepared from MAD dispersant is presented.

  11. The Case of Coal Water Slurry Fuel for Industrial Use in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Irfan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This research presents the case for design and development of Coal Water Slurry (CWS Plant for industrial use in Pakistan. After exclusive comparison between coal quality quantification for CWS it was found that Darra mines at Pakistan provide best coal for CWS. Highly volatile, A and B Bituminous coal and Sub-Bituminous coal is selected for making CWS because of its low Sulfur contents, Ash contents and high heating value through experimentation. The purpose of this research was to present a complete blue print for the production of coal water slurry fuel in Pakistan. The measured viscosity and heat contents of the tested CWS are of the order 490 mPa-sec and 23.8 KJ/kg, respectively.

  12. Rheology of coal-water slurries prepared by the high-pressure roll mill grinding of coal. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuerstenau, D.W.; De, A.

    1996-08-01

    The preparation of coal water slurries to replace fuel oil for direct combustion has become an important field in modem coal technology. The U.S. Department of Energy has planned or has underway several demonstration projects to burn coal-water slurries to replace fuel oil is attractive not only because there is an assured domestic supply of coal, but also on various technoeconomic grounds. Coal-water slurries combine the handling flexibility of fuel oil in power plants and various other industrial applications. This report discusses the rheology of coal-water slurries and the correlation to the coal preparation by grinding with a choke-fed high pressure roll mill. Performance of the roll mills and energy consumption are described.

  13. Effect of coal beneficiation process on rheology/atomization of coal water slurries. Final report, October 1, 1992--July 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohene, F.

    1997-05-01

    To examine the factors that govern fine spray production during atomization of coal water slurries, an experimental study of the effect of coal beneficiation and their rheological properties on atomization of clean slurries was proposed. The objective of this study was to understand the effect of low shear, high shear rheology, and viscoelastic behavior on the atomization of beneficiated slurries.

  14. Experimental study on ultrasonic propagation in water-based bentonite slurry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN Kai; YAN Taining

    2009-01-01

    Drilling fluid is a common flushing medium used in pile foundation, geological drilling and petroleum drilling. Study on ultrasonic propagation properties in drilling fluid is of vital importance, not only for developing equipments to non-contact measuring concrete casting level for bored pile, but also for developing equipments considering drilling fluid as signal channel. The existence of clay particles makes the ultrasonic propagation and attenuation in drilling fluid much different from pure water. In order to know the relation among ultrasound frequency, slurry density and depth, a series of laboratory experiments about ultrasound propagation in water-based bentonite slurry were finished. Wavelet method was adopted to process the gained original waves of ultrasonic propagation in slurry, so we knew the velocity and attenuation coefficient of ultrasound propagated in different drilling fluids with different density. The first group experiments shows that with density of drilling fluid increase, ultrasonic velocity will decrease but attenuation coefficient will increase if ultrasonic frequency keep constant. The second group experiments shows that the power of ultrasound will intensify in small bore hole, the attenuation coefficient is much smaller than theoretical value.

  15. Dispersion, agglomeration, and gelation of LiFePO4 in water-based slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Feng-Yen; Jhang, Jia-Hao; Hsieh, Han-Wei; Li, Chia-Chen

    2016-04-01

    The gelation of commercially available lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) in water-based slurry and its corresponding mechanism are studied. Based on surface chemistry analyses using zeta potential measurements and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, it is found that the key factor that causes LiFePO4 gelation in the aqueous slurry is the quality of the surface carbon coating on powder. When the surface carbon exhibits functional derivatives, such as carboxyl, hydroxyl, and carbonyl polar functional groups, LiFePO4 tends to form a three-dimensional, gel-like structure via hydrogen bonding. Moreover, the presence of the derivatives reduces the amount of conduction-favorable sp2-bonded carbon to LiFePO4, resulting in an electric resistance increase of the as-prepared electrode and the deterioration of the specific capacity of the as-constructed cell.

  16. COAL MICRONIZATION STUDIES IN VIBRATING MILL IN TERMS OF COAL WATER SLURRY (CWS FUEL PREPARATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Rejdak

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of coal milling tests in aspect of slurry fuel preparation. The tests were carried out with the use of vibrating mill with working chamber of 47.5 dm3. The influence of milling time, amount and composition of grinding aids on degree of fineness and particle size distribution has been investigated. It has been found that the efficiency of the grinding process (in this type of milling device depends primarily on the milling time and the share of grinding aids and - to a lesser extent - on their polydispersity. The study allows to conclude that the grinding time, composition and share of used grinding aids enable to control the final grain size of coal which has an impact on apparent viscosity of coal water slurry.

  17. Engineering Development of Slurry Bubble Column Reactor (SBCR) Technology: Final quarterly technical progress no. 2, 1 July - 30 September 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toseland, B.A.; Tischer, R.E.

    1997-12-31

    The major technical objectives of this program are threefold: (1) to develop the design tools and a fundamental understanding of the fluid dynamics of a slurry bubble column reactor to maximize reactor productivity, (2) to develop the mathematical reactor design models and gain an understanding of the hydrodynamic fundamentals under industrially relevant process conditions, and (3) to develop an understanding of the hydrodynamics and their interaction with the chemistries occurring in the bubble column reactor. Successful completion of these objectives will permit more efficient usage of the reactor column and tighter design criteria, increase overall reactor efficiency, and ensure a design that leads to stable reactor behavior when scaling up to large diameter reactors.

  18. Ignition of the Soaring Droplet Sets of Waste-Derived Coal-Water Slurry With Petrochemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valiullin Timur R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have analyzed the ignition of droplet sets of waste-derived coal-water slurry with petrochemicals for the case of their soaring inside special combustion chamber. The fuel composition consists of filter cake of bituminous coal type G, waste turbine oil, water and plasticizer. Features of the ignition process were emphasized for groups of three soaring droplets in comparison with single droplet ignition. The ignition delay times were registered for particles that were deformed or segregated due to the interaction of initial fuel droplets with walls of the combustion chamber.

  19. Local treatment of coal-water slurries from thermal power plants with the use of coagulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarapulova, G. I.; Logunova, N. I.

    2015-04-01

    The coagulation of coal particles in a coal-water slurry from the Novo-Irkutsk thermal power plant was studied. The advisability of the application of highly basic aluminum hydroxochloride of grade B for the treatment of contaminated water with a concentration of suspended particles of 30 g/dm3 was shown. The granulometric analysis of coal particles was performed. The application of the reagent was revealed to be efficient for the coagulation of both coarse particles and a finely dispersed fraction. Carbonate hardness values of up to 1.5 mmol-equiv/dm3 and pH ≤ 7.8 were shown to be typical for the contaminated water from the fuel supply shop. They were the most optimal parameters for hydrolysis and efficient flocculation and did not require the addition of sodium bicarbonate and flocculants. The process flowsheet of the separate purification of a coal-water slurry was developed for the fuel supply shop. Among the advantages of this purification method are the return of rather highly purified water for thermal power plant needs, and also the production of additional fuel in the form of recovered coal particles. The product was characterized by improved engineering parameters in comparison with the initial fuel, i.e., had a higher calorific value and a lower sulfur content. The purified water corresponded to the normative requirements to the content of residual aluminum. This technology of purification was resource-saving, environmental-friendly, and economically profitable.

  20. Characterization of coal-water slurry fuel sprays from diesel engine injectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caton, J.A.; Kihm, K.D.

    1993-06-01

    Experiments were conducted to characterize coal-water slurry fuel sprays from diesel engine injectors. Since the combustion event is a strong function of the fuel spray, full characterization of the spray is a necessity for successful engine design and for modeling of the combustion process. Two experimental facilities were used at TAMU to study the injection of coal slurry fuels. The first experimental facility incorporates General Electric locomotive engine components (injection pump, fuel line, and nozzle) and a specially designed diaphragm to separate the abrasive coal slurry fuel from the moving parts of the pump. The second experimental facility is based on an accumulator injector from General Electric. Instrumentation includes instantaneous needle lift and fuel line pressure. A pressurized visualization chamber was used to provide a spray environment which simulated the engine gas density and permitted the use of spray diagnostic techniques. The study was divided into two phases: (1) overall characterization of the spray, and (2) detailed droplet size and size distribution characterization. In addition to this overall characterization of the spray, the second phase of this study characterized the details of the atomization quality.

  1. A computerized coal-water slurry transportation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljubicic, B.R.; Trostad, B. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Bukurov, Z.; Cvijanovic, P. [Univ. of Novi Sad (Yugoslavia)

    1995-12-01

    Coal-water fuel (CWF) technology has been developed to the point where full-scale commercialization is just a matter of gaining sufficient market confidence in the price stability of alternate fossil fuels. In order to generalize alternative fuel cost estimates for the desired combinations of processing and/or transportation, a great deal of flexibility is required owing to the understood lack of precision in many of the newly emerging coal technologies. Previously, decisions regarding the sequential and spatial arrangement of the various process steps were made strictly on the basis of experience, simplified analysis, and intuition. Over the last decade, computer modeling has progressed from empirically based correlation to that of intricate mechanistic analysis. Nomograms, charts, tables, and many simple rules of thumb have been made obsolete by the availability of complex computer models. Given the ability to view results graphically in real or near real time, the engineer can immediately verify, from a practical standpoint, whether the initial assumptions and inputs were indeed valid. If the feasibility of a project is being determined in the context of a lack of specific data, the ability to provide a dynamic software-based solution is crucial. Furthermore, the resulting model can be used to establish preliminary operating procedures, test control logic, and train plant/process operators. Presented in this paper is a computerized model capable of estimating the delivered cost of CWF. The model uses coal-specific values, process and transport requirements, terrain factors, and input costs to determine the final operating configuration, bill of materials, and, ultimately, the capital, operating, and unit costs.

  2. Thermodynamic analysis of the gasification of coal water slurry fuels for a circulating fluidized bed gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsui, H.; Yavuzkurt, S.; Scaroni, A. [National Taiwan University, Taipei (Taiwan)

    2002-07-01

    To validate the concept of coal gasification in the integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC), a novel laboratory gasifier consisting of a circulating fluidized bed and a cyclone combustor has been constructed. This paper reports a thermodynamic analysis conducted to predict the maximum capacity and the condition for best operation of this circulating fluidized bed gasifier, which has an inside diameter of 0.3048 m and a height of 2.5 m. The equilibrium feed rates of materials and the quality of the product gas are described as a function of the reactor temperature, the thermal capacity of the gasifier, and the water concentration in coal water slurry fuel. The results of parametric analysis show that the thermal efficiency decreases, but the efficiency of desulfurization increases as the reactor temperature increases. The thermal capacity of the gasifier has no influence on the quality of the product gas. The thermal efficiency and the efficiency of desulfurization decrease as the water concentration in the coal water slurry increases. The desulfurization in the gasifier at equilibrium conditions is very efficient and meets the EPA regulations of the USA.

  3. Life Cycle Assessment of Ultra-clean Micronized Coal Oil Water Slurry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Ming; Xu Jing

    2009-01-01

    Life cycle assessment is applied to assess the ultra-clean micronized coal oil water slurry (UCMCOWS) with Si-maPro and the environmental impact of UCMCOWS on its whole life cycle is also analyzed. The result shows that the consumption of energy and products are increasing along with the deepening of UCMCOWS processing, UCMCOWS making and combustion arc the two periods which have a bigger impact on eco-system and hu-man health. As a new substitute of fuel, UCMCOWS merits to be utilized more efficiently and reasonably.

  4. Energy-Saving Vibration Impulse Coal Degradation at Finely Dispersed Coal-Water Slurry Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moiseev V.A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical and experimental research results of processes of finely dispersed coal-water slurry preparation for further generation of energetic gas in direct flow and vortex gas generator plants have been presented. It has been stated that frequency parameters of parabolic vibration impulse mill influence degradation degree. Pressure influence on coal parameters in grinding cavity has been proven. Experimental researches have proven efficiency of vibration impulse mill with unbalanced mass vibrator generator development. Conditions of development on intergranular walls of coal cracks have been defined.

  5. Theoretical Models of Light Scattering Applied in Sizing Particles in Coal Water Slurry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王仁哲; 张荣曾; 徐志强

    2004-01-01

    Advantges and disadvantage of Mie scattering model and Fraunhofer diffraction model are discussed. The result shows that 1) the Fraunhofer diffraction model is simple in design and fast in operation, which is quite suitable for on-line control and 2) the intensity and energy distribution of diffracted light of both the Mie scattering model and the Fraunhofer theoretical model are compared and researched. Feasibility of using the Fraunhofer diffraction model to replace the Mie scattering model in measuring particles in coal water slurry is demonstrated.

  6. Blocking of Snow/Water Slurry Flow in Pipeline Caused by Compression-Strengthening of Snow Column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masataka Shirakashi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In earlier works by the present authors, two systems for sustainable energy were proposed: (i a system for urban snow removal in winter and storage for air conditioning in summer, applied to Nagaoka City, which suffers heavy snow fall every winter, and (ii a district cooling system utilizing latent heat of ice to reduce the size of storage reservoir and transportation pipeline system. In these systems, the hydraulic conveying of snow or ice through pump-and-pipeline is the key technique to be developed, since characteristics of snow (ice/ water slurry is largely different from those of conventional non-cohesive solid particle slurries. In this study, the blocking of pipeline of snow/water slurry is investigated experimentally. While the blocking of conventional slurry occurs due to deposition of heavy particles at low flow velocity or arching of large rigid particles, that of snow/water slurry is caused by a compressed plug of snow formed due to cohesive nature of snow particles. This is because the strength of snow plug formed at a high resistance piping element, such as an orifice, becomes higher when the compression velocity is lower, resulting in a solid-like plug filling the whole channel upstream the element.

  7. Development of a video-based slurry sensor for on-line ash analysis. Eighth quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1996--September 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adel, G.T.; Luttrell, G.H.

    1996-10-22

    Automatic control of fine coal cleaning circuits has traditionally been limited by the lack of sensors for on-line ash analysis. Although several nuclear-based analyzers are available, none have seen widespread acceptance. This is largely due to the fact that nuclear sensors are expensive and tend to be influenced by changes in seam type and pyrite content. Recently, researchers at VPI&SU have developed an optical sensor for phosphate analysis. The sensor uses image processing technology to analyze video images of phosphate ore. It is currently being used by PCS Phosphate for off-fine analysis of dry flotation concentrate. The primary advantages of optical sensors over nuclear sensors are that they are significantly cheaper, are not subject to measurement variations due to changes in high atomic number minerals, are inherently safer and require no special radiation permitting. The purpose of this work is to apply the knowledge gained in the development of an optical phosphate analyzer to the development of an on-fine ash analyzer for fine coal slurries. During the past quarter, installation of the video-based ash analyzer at the Middle Fork plant site was completed. A method of measuring and automatically adjusting for small variations in the sensor illumination scheme was developed and implemented. Initial on-line testing of the ash analyzer has yielded adequate calibration information, and the sensor is currently operating on-line. The on-line performance of the sensor is under review and the information from this review will be included in the final report.

  8. Development of a video-based slurry sensor for on-line ash analysis. Sixth quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1996--March 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adel, G.T.; Luttrell, G.H.

    1996-04-28

    Automatic control of fine coal cleaning circuits has traditionally been limited by the lack of sensors for on-line ash analysis. Although several nuclear-based analyzers are available, none have seen widespread acceptance. This is largely due to the fact that nuclear sensors are expensive and tend to be influenced by changes in seam type and pyrite content. Recently, researchers at VPI&SU have developed an optical sensor for phosphate analysis. The sensor uses image processing technology to analyze video images of phosphate ore. It is currently being used by PCS Phosphate for off-line analysis of dry flotation concentrate. The primary advantages of optical sensors over nuclear sensors are that they are significantly cheaper, are not subject to measurement variations due to changes in high atomic number minerals, are inherently safer and require no special radiation permitting. The purpose of this work is to apply the knowledge gained in the development of an optical phosphate analyzer to the development of an on-line ash analyzer for fine coal slurries. During the past quarter, calibration tests were conducted on-site at the Middle Fork coal preparation plant owned and operated by Pittston Coal Company. After several plant visits, a consistent sensor calibration was obtained with approximately 95% of all samples analyzed falling within {plus_minus}2% ash of the best fit calibration line. The resolution of the optical analyzer was found to be approximately 0.5% ash per gray level increment. A linear neural network learning algorithm was found to be the most appropriate method for calibrating the sensor. The sensor now appears to be ready for installation and long-term testing at the Middle Fork test site.

  9. Evaluation of the effects of coal grinding in terms of coal water slurry preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robak Jolanta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal Water Slurry (CWS is a specific form of solid fuel. It occurs in the form of finely ground coal particles and water. Depending on the use, the content of combustible matter is from 40 to 70% by weight. The attractiveness of the fuel is primarily its properties, i.e. liquid form, high energy efficiency (for water evaporation 4% energy is used – for CSW with 70% concentration of coal, decreased environmental impurities (lower NOx emission and reduced risk of explosion. The advantages of CWS fuels, the possibility of independence from petrochemical fuels, wide availability of coal and emphasis on the use of cleaner technologies are the driving force for development of slurry fuel technologies. The major parameters characterizing the fuel suspension are: solid phase concentration (share of coal in the slurry expressed as either weight or volume fraction of dry coal, time stability (resistance to delamination and separation of the dispersed phase from the continuous phase and viscosity, determining the flow of suspension. The mentioned parameters are dependent on the susceptibility of coal for production of aqueous suspensions (slurrability, conditioned by natural properties of coal, such as: coalification degree, petrographic composition and surface properties. They are also dependent on the slurry fuel preparation process: particle size, solid phase concentration, used additives (stabilizing and dispersion agents and modification of primary coal properties (ash removal, change of surface properties. Preparation of sustainable, high concentrated CWS fuel coal is promoted by the hydrophobic nature of the coal surface, characteristic for coals of higher coalification. A great technological problem is to obtain a highly concentrated coal slurry fuel from less coalified hydrophilic steam coals. The paper presents the results of lab scale research on the CWS prepared from Polish steam coal by wet grinding in mill drum and vibrating. The milling

  10. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant full-scale feed preparation testing with water and process simulant slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaskill, J.R.; Larson, D.E.; Abrigo, G.P. [and others

    1996-03-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant was intended to convert selected, pretreated defense high-level waste and transuranic waste from the Hanford Site into a borosilicate glass. A full-scale testing program was conducted with nonradioactive waste simulants to develop information for process and equipment design of the feed-preparation system. The equipment systems tested included the Slurry Receipt and Adjustment Tank, Slurry Mix Evaporator, and Melter-Feed Tank. The areas of data generation included heat transfer (boiling, heating, and cooling), slurry mixing, slurry pumping and transport, slurry sampling, and process chemistry. 13 refs., 129 figs., 68 tabs.

  11. Analysis of ice slurry production by direct contact heat transfer of air and water solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-jun ZHANG; Ke-qing ZHENG; Ling-shi WANG; Wei WANG; Min JIANG; Sheng-ying ZHAO

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,a novel system using direct contact heat transfer between air and water solution was proposed to generate ice slurry.The heat transfer process and the system performance were studied;energy efficiency coefficients of 0.038,0.053,and 0.064 were obtained using different solutions.An empirical relationship between the volumetric heat transfer coefficient Uv and the main parameters was obtained by fitting the experimental data.The Uv calculated from the empirical formula agreed with the experimental Uv quite well with a relative error of less than 15%.Based on the empirical formula,a laboratory-scale direct contact ice slurry generator was then constructed,with practical application in mind.If the air flow rate is fixed at 200 m3/h,the ice production rate will be 0.091 kg/min.The experimental results also showed that the cold energy consumption of the air compressor accounted for more than half of the total amount.To improve the system energy efficiency coefficient,it is necessary to increase the air pipes insulation and the solution's thermal capacity,and also it is appropriate to utilize the free cold energy of liquefied natural gas(LNG).

  12. Research on Synthesizing Disperser with Fraction of Anthracene Oil for Coal Water Slurry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Guo-guang; GUO Zhao-bing; WU Jian-jun; XIE Qiang; WANG Xiao-chun

    2003-01-01

    Experiment of synthesizing a disperser for coal water slurry (CWS) by using fractions of anthracene oil from high-temperature coal tar was performed. The orthogonal test was used to investigate the influence of temperature, time, quantity of sulfonation agent and condensation agent and the interaction of these factors on properties of the disperser. The result shows that the influence of temperature, time, quantity of sulfonation agent and condensation agent, and the interaction of sulfonation time and sulfonation agent has a significant influence on the properties of disperser. The optimal condition of synthesis is that in 150g of the fractions of anthracene oil, 40 mL of sulfonation agent is added and sulfonated for 3 h at 130℃, then, 10 mL of condensing agent is added and condensated for 1.5 h at 115 ℃.

  13. Coal-water-slurry evaluation. Volume 1. Laboratory tests. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daley, R.D.; Farthing, G.A.; Vecci, S.J.

    1984-02-01

    This is the first of three volumes describing the multi-phase coal-water slurry (CWS) test program. This volume contains the guideline CWS specifications and suggested test procedures for CWS characterization. The guideline specifications are generic and are not boiler or site specific. The specifications address CWS solids content, viscosity, amount of material less than 200-mesh (75 microns), amount of material greater than 50-mesh (300 microns), volatile matter content, and sodium content of the ash. The suggested analytical test methods are summarized including special test modifications or comments as specifically related to CWSs. The detailed analytical test procedures for CWSs are also presented in appendix A. For completeness, detailed analytical test procedures for coal characterization are also provided in appendix B. This volume also includes an Executive Summary and description of the overall test program. 5 figures, 2 tables.

  14. Improvement in properties of coal water slurry by combined use of new additive and ultrasonic irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhaobing; Feng, Ruo; Zheng, Youfei; Fu, Xiaoru

    2007-07-01

    Coal water slurry (CWS) was prepared with a newly developed additive from naphthalene oil. The effects of ultrasonic irradiation on coal particle size distribution (PSD), adsorption behavior of additive in coal particles and the characteristics of CWS were investigated. Results showed that ultrasonic irradiation led to a higher proportion of fine coal in CWS and increased the saturated adsorption amount of additive in coal particles. In addition, the rheological behavior and static stability of CWS irradiated by ultrasonic wave were remarkably improved. The changes on viscosity of CWS containing 1% and 2% additive are qualitatively different with the increasing sonication time studied. The reason for the different effect of sonication time on CWS viscosity is presented in this study.

  15. Application of coal-water slurry on the rotary calcining kiln of pedgion magnesium reduction process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hua-qing; XIE Shui-sheng; LIU Jin-ping; WU Peng-yue; HUANG Guo-jie

    2006-01-01

    Energy saving has been an important concept in modern industry especially to the countries and regions with energy shortage such as China and Japan. Utilization of Coal-Water Slurry (CWS) can improve the burning efficiency of coal and reduce the pollutions of soot, sulfide and the nitride by burning lump coal directly. The CWS is a promising energy saving technique and the effectual substitute of oil. The study on the preparation and application of the CWS has made progresses in many aspects. The present paper studied the basal problems for applying the CWS on the rotary kilns during the calcining-dolomite process in the magnesium factory, summarized the key points for the application process of the CWS and gave the corresponding solutions.

  16. Study on Characteristics of Different Types of Nozzles for Coal-Water Slurry Atomization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun Yuan; Lifang Chen; Chengkang Wu

    2001-01-01

    Three types of nozzles: a low-pressure multistage nozzle, an effervescent nozzle and a newly developed internal mixing air-blast nozzle, for atomization of Coal-Water Slurry (CWS) were investigated. Influence of CWS properties including surface tension and apparent viscosity on atomization was studied. Comparisons among the nozzles were carried out in terms of spray droplet mean diameter and fuel output. Versatility of each nozzle was investigated and atomization mechanism of each nozzle was analyzed as well. The results showed that the newly developed internal-mixing air-blast nozzle has high fuel output and small mean droplet size in the spray, but the multistage nozzle has high versatility for handling of low quality CWS.

  17. Evaluation of leached metals in recovered aluminum coagulants from water treatment slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Mahmoud M; El-Gendy, Ahmed S; Razek, Taha M A

    2017-02-01

    The water treatment industry consumes large quantities of coagulant and produces huge amounts of slurry. The cost of alum used in water treatment, stringent regulations and negative impacts of sludge disposal are the motive to do integrated research studies on the technical feasibility of aluminum coagulant recovery from sludge using acidification. This work studied the leaching of iron, manganese, and chromium as the most extracted metals with aluminum during sludge acidification; furthermore, these metals have a great impact on the recovered coagulants' efficiency and treated water quality. The sludge used was collected from El-Sheikh Zayd water treatment plant in Egypt, then dried and ground; afterward, the effect of acid concentration, sludge mass, temperature, mixing speed and mixing time was studied. In addition, it was noticeable that the efficiency of sulfuric acid in leaching iron, manganese and chromium is higher than that of hydrochloric acid. Also, higher leaching for the three metals was obtained in all the experiments using higher acid concentration, elevated temperature, and rotational speed. Finally, the leached metals in recovered aluminum coagulants will not limit its application to water and wastewater treatment, as their concentrations are still very low if compared with aluminum, even with the highest leaching efficiency.

  18. Water Reactor Safety Research Division. Quarterly progress report, April 1-June 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abuaf, N.; Levine, M.M.; Saha, P.; van Rooyen, D.

    1980-08-01

    The Water Reactor Safety Research Programs quarterly report describes current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the USNRC Division of Reactor Safety Research. The projects reported each quarter are the following: LWR Thermal Hydraulic Development, Advanced Code Evlauation, TRAC Code Assessment, and Stress Corrosion Cracking of PWR Steam Generator Tubing.

  19. ICE SLURRY APPLICATIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffeld, M; Wang, M J; Goldstein, V; Kasza, K E

    2010-12-01

    The role of secondary refrigerants is expected to grow as the focus on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions increases. The effectiveness of secondary refrigerants can be improved when phase changing media are introduced in place of single phase media. Operating at temperatures below the freezing point of water, ice slurry facilitates several efficiency improvements such as reductions in pumping energy consumption as well as lowering the required temperature difference in heat exchangers due to the beneficial thermo-physical properties of ice slurry. Research has shown that ice slurry can be engineered to have ideal ice particle characteristics so that it can be easily stored in tanks without agglomeration and then be extractable for pumping at very high ice fraction without plugging. In addition ice slurry can be used in many direct contact food and medical protective cooling applications. This paper provides an overview of the latest developments in ice slurry technology.

  20. Slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: Cobalt plus a water-gas shift catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chanenchuk, C.A.; Yates, I.C.; Satterfield, C.N.

    1990-01-01

    A Co/MgO/SiO[sub 2] Fischer-Tropsch catalyst was operated simultaneously with a Cu/ZnO/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] water-gas-shift catalyst in a slurry reactor for over 400 hours. The process conditions were held constant at a temperature of 240[degrees]C, a pressure of 0.79 MPa, and a 1.1 H[sub 2]/CO feed of 0.065 Nl/min-g.cat. The Fischer-Tropsch activity remained constant at the level predicted by the operation of the Co/MgO/SiO[sub 2] catalyst alone. The water-gas-shift reaction was near equilibrium. The hydrocarbon product distribution of the combined catalyst system was stable and matched that of the CO/MgO/SiO[sub 2] operating alone under similar conditions. The combined catalyst system exhibited a high selectivity to n-alkanes. Neither catalysts's operation appeared to have a detrimental effect on that of the other, showing promise for future option.

  1. Coal-water slurry fuel production: Its evolution and current status in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, J.L.; Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Interest in the US in utilizing bituminous coal in a slurry form has evolved substantially over the last two decades. In the mid-1970`s, technologies to utilize coal-oil mixtures (COMs) as potential fuel oil replacements for utility and industrial boilers were developed as a consequence of escalating world oil prices. To further reduce dependency on imported oil, interest shifted away from COMs to coal-water slurry fuels (CWSFs) because higher solids loadings were obtainable while eliminating the use of oil. Research which focused on the use of CWSF as a potential fuel oil replacement peaked in the mid to late-1980`s as a result of a decline in world oil prices. During the late 1980`s and early 1990`s, coal suppliers and coal-fired utilities began to evaluate the production of CWSF using bituminous coal fines from fine coal cleaning circuits in an effort to reduce dewatering/drying costs. This marked a philosophical change in the driving force behind the utilization of CWSF in the US. In an effort to broaden the supply of coal fines, The Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) and the Pennsylvania Electric Company (Penelec) surveyed a series of fine coal impoundments in western Pennsylvania to determine the quality, cleanability, and slurryability of the coal fines contained therein. The development and commercialization of recovery technologies, cleaning techniques, and CWSF reentrainment circuits, coupled with an interest by utilities to utilize low-cost fuels, has fostered the recovery of impounded coal fines. In addition to the fine coal impoundments, fine coal cleaning circuits which actively dispose of process water having suspended coal fines (e.g. centrifuge effluent) are being examined to determine if the fines can be recovered and thickened into a low solids CWSF. The paper describes required physical and chemical properties of a CWSF for boiler applications. There is a growing awareness that CWSF is a fuel form that can be cofired with coal. The

  2. Quarterly Water Quality Surveys - Salton Sea [ds429

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — In the spring of 2003, California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG) personnel began quarterly sampling of Salton Sea fish at fourteen stations around the sea, as...

  3. Optimal operation for 3 control parameters of Texaco coal-water slurry gasifier with MO-3LM-CDE algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Cuiwen; Zhang, Yakun; Gu, Xingsheng [Ministry of Education, East China Univ. of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China). Key Lab. of Advanced Control and Optimization for Chemical Processes

    2013-07-01

    Optimizing operation parameters for Texaco coal-water slurry gasifier with the consideration of multiple objectives is a complicated nonlinear constrained problem concerning 3 BP neural networks. In this paper, multi-objective 3-layer mixed cultural differential evolution (MO-3LM-CDE) algorithms which comprise of 4 multi-objective strategies and a 3LM-CDE algorithm are firstly presented. Then they are tested in 6 benchmark functions. Finally, the MO-3LM-CDE algorithms are applied to optimize 3 control parameters of the Texaco coal-water slurry gasifier in methanol production of a real-world chemical plant. The simulation results show that multi-objective optimal results are better than the respective single-objective optimal operations.

  4. Utilizing Slurry and Carwash Wastewater as Fresh Water Replacement in Concrete Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahidan Shahiron

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The high demand for concrete production generates wastewater which causes environmental problems. However, if wastewater is able to be recycled as part of engineering construction materials, many benefits can be reaped. Unfortunately, the use of wastewater in manufacturing concrete is not common. Therefore, this research aims to identify the influence of using slurry water and car wash wastewater on concrete properties, focusing particularly on its mechanical properties. The basic characteristics of wastewater were studied according to USEPA method while the properties of concrete with wastewater were compared according to ASTM C1602 and BS EN 1008 standards. In this paper, the compressive strength, modulus of elasticity and tensile strength were examined in order to determine the mechanical properties of concrete. The wastewater was replaced in the concrete mix from 0% up to 40%. The results indicated that the characteristics of wastewater complied with the BS and ASTM standards. In addition, the results also recommended that the concrete mixture with 20% of wastewater has given the highest compressive strength and modulus of elasticity.

  5. Environmental indicators of the combustion of prospective coal water slurry containing petrochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrienko, Margarita A; Nyashina, Galina S; Strizhak, Pavel A

    2017-09-15

    Negative environmental impact of coal combustion has been known to humankind for a fairly long time. Sulfur and nitrogen oxides are considered the most dangerous anthropogenic emissions. A possible solution to this problem is replacing coal dust combustion with that of coal water slurry containing petrochemicals (CWSP). Coal processing wastes and used combustible liquids (oils, sludge, resins) are promising in terms of their economic and energy yield characteristics. However, no research has yet been conducted on the environmental indicators of fuels based on CWSP. The present work contains the findings of the research of CO, CO2, NOx, SOx emissions from the combustion of coals and CWSPs produced from coal processing waste (filter cakes). It is demonstrated for the first time that the concentrations of dangerous emissions from the combustion of CWSPs (carbon oxide and dioxide), even when combustible heavy liquid fractions are added, are not worse than those of coal. As for the concentration of sulfur and nitrogen oxides, it is significantly lower for CWSPs combustion as compared to coals. The presented research findings illustrate the prospects of the wide use of CWSPs as a fuel that is cheap and beneficial, in terms of both energy output and ecology, as compared to coal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Cofiring coal-water slurry fuel with pulverized coal as a NOx reduction strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Miller, S.F.; Morrison, J.L.; Scaroni, A.W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A low solids, low viscosity coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) was formulated and produced from impounded bituminous coal fines and burned in a utility-scale boiler to investigate NOx emissions reduction during the cofiring of CWSF with pulverized coal. Tests were conducted at the Pennsylvania Electric Company (Penelec) Seward Station, located near Seward, Pennsylvania in a Babcock and Wilcox (B and W), front-wall fired, pulverized coal boiler (34 MWe). Two B and W pulverizers feed coal to six burners (two burner levels each containing three low-NOx burners). Approximately 20% of the thermal input was provided by CWSF, the balance by pulverized coal. There was a significant reduction of NOx emissions when cofiring CWSF and pulverized coal as compared to firing 100% pulverized coal. The level of reduction was dependent upon the cofiring configuration (i.e., cofiring in the upper three, lower three, or all six burners), with NOx emissions being reduced by as much as 26.5%. The reduction in NOx emissions was not due to the tempering effect of the water in the CWSF, because a greater reduction in NOx occurred when cofiring CWSF than when injecting the same quantity of water at the same boiler firing rate. This paper discusses the tests in detail and the proposed reburn mechanism for the NOx reduction. In addition, combustion test results from the front-wall fired unit at the Seward Station will be compared to CWSF cofire tests that have been conducted at cyclone-fired units at Tennessee Valley Authority`s (TVA) Paradise Station (704 MWe), Drakesboro, Kentucky and Southern Illinois Power Cooperative`s (SIPC) Marion, Illinois Station (33 MWe).

  7. Slurry Injection Schemes on the Extent of Slurry Mixing and Availability during Chemical Mechanical Planarization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Bahr

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, slurry availability and the extent of the slurry mixing (i.e., among fresh slurry, spent slurry, and residual rinse-water were varied via three different injection schemes. An ultraviolet enhanced fluorescence technique was employed to qualitatively indicate slurry availability and its flow on the pad during polishing. This study investigated standard pad center area slurry application and a slurry injection system (SIS that covered only the outer half of the wafer track. Results indicated that the radial position of slurry injection and the alteration of fluid mechanics by the SIS played important roles in slurry mixing characteristics and availability atop the pad. Removal rates were found to decrease with slurry availability, while a higher degree of slurry mixing decreased the fraction of fresh slurry and consequently lowered the removal rate. By using a hybrid system (i.e., a combination of slurry injection via SIS and standard pad center slurry application, the polishing process benefited from higher slurry availability and higher fraction of fresh slurry than the conventional pad center slurry application and the shorter SIS, individually. This work underscores the importance of optimum slurry injection geometry and flow for obtaining a more cost-effective and environmentally benign chemical mechanical planarization process.

  8. What should be the apparent viscosity target of a coal-water slurry fuel for combustion?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisupati, S.V.; Morrison, J.L.; Scaroni, A.W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The rheological properties of a coal water slurry fuel (CWSF) affect its handling, atomization, and combustion behavior. The flow behavior and apparent viscosity are two rheological properties that are often specified by the end user. A pseudoplastic (shear thinning) flow behavior is preferred since there is a decrease in the apparent viscosity as the fuel is pumped to, and then atomized into the boiler. Specifying an apparent viscosity target for the CWSF is more problematic since there are often competing forces to maximize the solids loading of the fuel while minimizing the apparent viscosity. The apparent viscosity is a function of the particle size distribution of the coal, the solids loading of the CWSF, the physical and chemical properties of the coal, and the additive package used to prepare the CWSF. Targeting an apparent viscosity is necessary during the formulation and production of a CWSF. The trade off between maximizing the solids loading in order to increase the BTU content and maintaining an acceptable apparent viscosity to ensure good atomization behavior is not well established. In order to better define this trade-off, an investigation was carried out to examine the interrelationship between solids loading, apparent viscosity, atomization behavior, and the combustion performance of a CWSF. The CWSF was prepared in a continuous ball mill and isolated in a storage tank. Small batches of CWSF were taken from the storage tank and then diluted to determine how the changes in the CWSF`s rheology and solids loading affected it`s atomization and combustion behavior.

  9. A comparative investigation of the properties of coal-water slurries prepared from Australia and Shenhua coals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun Zengjie; Wu Guoguang; Meng Xianliang; Zhang Yuliang; Shi Frank; He Yaqun; Luo Xiaoqiang

    2011-01-01

    Two coal samples of similar rank were chosen from Australia and China to investigate the differences in Coal-Water Slurry (CWS) made from them.The effect of ash content and particle size gradation on these properties was also studied.Different grinding times were used when grinding the two coals and particle size analysis of these ground coals was used to select samples with a "double-peak" particle size distribution.All the "double-peak" samples were used to prepare a CWS.The concentration,viscosity,fluidity,and stability of each CWS were measured.The results show that the properties ofa CWS prepared from a coal sample with a "double-peak" size distribution are better than those CWS prepared from samples with a mono-modal particle distribution.The ash content of Australian coal is 21.72% higher than the ash content of Shenhua coal.The highest coal concentration in slurry from the Australia coal is 11.01%higher than in CWS from the Shenhua coal.The fluidity and stability of the CWS prepared from the Australian coal are both better than the fluidity and stability of slurry prepared from Shenhua coal.High ash content in the Australian coal improves the pulping results of a CWS made from it.

  10. Evaluation of solar photocatalysis using TiO2 slurry in the inactivation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeledo-Lameiro, María Jesús; Ares-Mazás, Elvira; Gómez-Couso, Hipólito

    2016-10-01

    Cryptosporidium is a genus of enteric protozoan parasites of medical and veterinary importance, whose oocysts have been reported to occur in different types of water worldwide, offering a great resistant to the water treatment processes. Heterogeneous solar photocatalysis using titanium dioxide (TiO2) slurry was evaluated on inactivation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in water. Suspensions of TiO2 (0, 63, 100 and 200mg/L) in distilled water (DW) or simulated municipal wastewater treatment plant (MWTP) effluent spiked with C. parvum oocysts were exposed to simulated solar radiation. The use of TiO2 slurry at concentrations of 100 and 200mg/L in DW yielded a high level of oocyst inactivation after 5h of exposure (4.16±2.35% and 15.03±4.54%, respectively, vs 99.33±0.58%, initial value), representing a good improvement relative to the results obtained in the samples exposed without TiO2 (51.06±9.35%). However, in the assays carried out using simulated MWTP effluent, addition of the photocatalyst did not offer better results. Examination of the samples under bright field and epifluorescence microscopy revealed the existence of aggregates comprising TiO2 particles and parasitic forms, which size increased as the concentration of catalyst and the exposure time increased, while the intensity of fluorescence of the oocyst walls decreased. After photocatalytic disinfection process, the recovery of TiO2 slurry by sedimentation provided a substantial reduction in the parasitic load in treated water samples (57.81±1.10% and 82.10±2.64% for 200mg/L of TiO2 in DW and in simulated MWTP effluent, respectively). Although further studies are need to optimize TiO2 photocatalytic disinfection against Cryptosporidium, the results obtained in the present study show the effectiveness of solar photocatalysis using TiO2 slurry in the inactivation of C. parvum oocysts in distilled water.

  11. Progression towards optimization of viscosity of highly concentrated carbonaceous solid-water slurries by incorporating and modifying surface chemistry parameters with and without additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Amrita

    Carbonaceous solid-water slurries (CSWS) are concentrated suspensions of coal, petcoke bitumen, pitch etc. in water which are used as feedstock for gasifiers. The high solid loading (60-75 wt.%) in the slurry increases CSWS viscosity. For easier handling and pumping of these highly loaded mixtures, low viscosities are desirable. Depending on the nature of the carbonaceous solid, solids loading in the slurry and the particle size distribution, viscosity of a slurry can vary significantly. Ability to accurately predict the viscosity of a slurry will provide a better control over the design of slurry transport system and for viscosity optimization. The existing viscosity prediction models were originally developed for hard-sphere suspensions and therefore do not take into account surface chemistry. As a result, the viscosity predictions using these models for CSWS are not very accurate. Additives are commonly added to decrease viscosity of the CSWS by altering the surface chemistry. Since additives are specific to CSWS, selection of appropriate additives is crucial. The goal of this research was to aid in optimization of CSWS viscosity through improved prediction and selection of appropriate additive. To incorporate effect of surface chemistry in the models predicting suspension viscosity, the effect of the different interfacial interactions caused by different surface chemistries has to be accounted for. Slurries of five carbonaceous solids with varying O/C ratio (to represent different surface chemistry parameters) were used for the study. To determine the interparticle interactions of the carbonaceous solids in water, interfacial energies were calculated on the basis of surface chemistries, characterized by contact angles and zeta potential measurements. The carbonaceous solid particles in the slurries were assumed to be spherical. Polar interaction energy (hydrophobic/hydrophilic interaction energy), which was observed to be 5-6 orders of magnitude higher than the

  12. Thinning of kaolin slurry

    OpenAIRE

    Vlasák, Pavel

    2002-01-01

    After mixing kaolin with water attractive and repulsive forces between kaolin particles initiate process of coagulation and peptisation, respectively. The coagulation process in the kaolin slurry gives rise to voluminous aggregates of kaolin particles, where a great deal of water is fixed.

  13. Preparing Coal-water Slurry by Using Concentrated Waste Water%高浓度废水配制水煤浆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱志英; 李明; 孙慈忠

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes five kinds of waste water in my company replacing industrial water,and they are used to prepare coal water slurry for TEXACO gasifier,in order to reduce the drain of waste water and the environmental burden.%叙述了利用我公司内的五股废水取代工业用水配制水煤浆,供德士古燃烧,从而减少污水的排放,减轻对环保的负担。

  14. Loss of Propiconazole and Its Four Stereoisomers from the Water Phase of Two Soil-Water Slurries as Measured by Capillary Electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca D. Miller

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Propiconazole is a chiral fungicide used in agriculture for control of many fungal diseases on a variety of crops. This use provides opportunities for pollution of soil and, subsequently, groundwater. The rate of loss of propiconazole from the water phase of two different soil-water slurries spiked with the fungicide at 50 mg/L was followed under aerobic conditions over five months; the t1/2 was 45 and 51 days for the two soil slurries. To accurately assess environmental and human risk, it is necessary to analyze the separate stereoisomers of chiral pollutants, because it is known that for most such pollutants, both biotransformation and toxicity are likely to be stereoselective. Micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC, the mode of capillary electrophoresis used for analysis of neutral chemicals, was used for analysis of the four propiconazole stereoisomers with time in the water phase of the slurries. MEKC resulted in baseline separation of all stereoisomers, while GC-MS using a chiral column gave only partial separation. The four stereoisomers of propiconazole were lost from the aqueous phase of the slurries at experimentally equivalent rates, i.e., there was very little, if any, stereoselectivity. No loss of propiconazole was observed from the autoclaved controls of either soil, indicating that the loss from active samples was most likely caused by aerobic biotansformation, with a possible contribution by sorption to the non-autoclaved active soils. MEKC is a powerful tool for separation of stereoisomers and can be used to study the fate and transformation kinetics of chiral pesticides in water and soil.

  15. Synchronized droplet size measurements for Coal-Water-Slurry (CWS) diesel sprays of an electronically-controlled fuel injection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihm, K. D.; Terracina, D. P.; Payne, S. E.; Caton, J. A.

    Experiments were completed to study intermittent coal-water slurry (CWS) fuel sprays injected from an electronically-controlled accumulator injector system. A laser diffraction particle analyzing (LDPA) technique was used to measure the spray diameters (Sauter mean diameter, SMD) assuming the Rosin-Rammler two parameter model. In order to ensure an accurate synchronization of the measurement with the intermittent sprays, a new synchronization technique was developed using the light extinction signal as a triggering source for the data taking initiation. This technique allowed measurement of SMD's near the spray tip where the light extinction was low and the data were free from the multiscattering bias. Coal-water slurry fuel with 50% coal loading in mass containing 5 (mu)m mass median diameter coal particulates was considered. Injection pressures ranging from 28 to 110 MPa, two different nozzle orifice diameters, 0.2 ad 0.4 mm, and four axial measurement locations from 60 to 120 mm from the nozzle orifice were studied. Measurements were made for pressurized (2.0 MPa in gauge) and for ambient chamber conditions. The spray SMD showed an increase with the distance of the axial measurement location and with the ambient gas density, and showed a decrease with increasing injection pressure. A correlation of the Sauter mean diameter with the injection conditions was determined. The results were also compared with previous SMD correlations that were available only for diesel fuel sprays.

  16. Development of a use for Illinois coal concentrates for slurry fed gasifiers. [Quarterly] technical report, December 1, 1993--February 28, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, L.A.; Lytle, J.M.; Khan, S.; At-Taras, M. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Ehrlinger, H.P. III [Consultant (United States)

    1994-06-01

    The purpose of this project is to test concentrates made from preparation plant fines as to their amenability as feed for slurry fed, slagging, entrained-flow gasifiers. During the current reporting period, waste slurry samples were obtained from the washing plants associated with surface mining, underground mining from which the fines are not treated, underground mining from which a flotation concentrate is made from the washer plant waste fines, and from a tailing pile associated with one of the washing plants which had been deposited for over five years. Column flotation testing was conducted on representative samples of several of these. Using a typical flotation reagent requirement of kerosene and MIBC several tests showed outstanding results when the feed rate was kept at the nominal rate of 10 pounds per hour as suggested by the Deister Concentrator Company. The most encouraging test was conducted on waste fines from the surface plant. While the ash content in the clean coal concentrate was higher than expected, the calorific content in the tailing was 422 BTU/pound, which was at least twice as low as any tailings produced either in the laboratory or in plants during the last ten years of coal flotation research. In this same test 96.9% of the BTU`s were concentrated in the flotation product and 80.3% of the ash reported in the flotation tailing. Flotation results of the material which had been impounded for an extended period were encouraging as 67.7% of the BTU`s were concentrated in a product which contained 12,762 BTU/pound.

  17. Hydrogeology and water quality in the Graces Quarters area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenbus, Frederick J.; Blomquist, Joel D.

    1995-01-01

    Graces Quarters was used for open-air testing of chemical-warfare agents from the late 1940's until 1971. Testing and disposal activities have resulted in the contamination of ground water and surface water. The hydrogeology and water quality were examined at three test areas, four disposal sites, a bunker, and a service area on Graces Quarters. Methods of investigation included surface and borehole geophysics, water-quality sampling, water- level measurement, and hydrologic testing. The hydrogeologic framework is complex and consists of a discontinuous surficial aquifer, one or more upper confining units, and a confined aquifer system. Directions of ground-water flow vary spatially and temporally, and results of site investigations show that ground-water flow is controlled by the geology of the area. The ground water and surface water at Graces Quarters generally are unmineralized; the ground water is mildly acidic (median pH is 5.38) and poorly buffered. Inorganic constituents in excess of certain Federal drinking-water regulations and ambient water-quality criteria were detected at some sites, but they probably were present naturally. Volatile and semivolatile organic com- pounds were detected in the ground water and surface water at seven of the nine sites that were investi- gated. Concentrations of organic compounds at two of the nine sites exceeded Federal drinking-water regulations. Volatile compounds in concentrations as high as 6,000 m/L (micrograms per liter) were detected in the ground water at the site known as the primary test area. Concentrations of volatile compounds detected in the other areas ranged from 0.57 to 17 m/L.

  18. Melting Heat Transfer Characteristics of Latent Heat Microcapsule-Water Mixed Slurry Flowing in a Pipe with Constant Wall Heat Flux (Experimental Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Hideo; Kim, Myoung-Jun; Horibe, Akihiko

    The present experiments have been performed for obtaining the melting heat transfer characteristics of micro-encapsulated solid-liquid phase change material and water mixed slurry flow in a circular tube heated with constant wall heat flux. The phase change material having a low melting point was selected for a domestic cooling system in the present study. The governing parameters were found to be latent heat material concentration,heat,flux,and the slurry velocity. The experimental results revealed that the mean heat transfer coefficient of latent microcapsule slurry was about l.3~l.8 times greater than that of the single phase of water. Moreover the effectiveness of heat transfer coefficient to friction factor had a maximum at latent heat material concentration of 25%.

  19. Slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: Cobalt plus a water-gas shift catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yates, I.C.; Satterfield, C.N.

    1989-01-01

    The rate of synthesis gas consumption over a cobalt FischerTropsch catalyst was measured in a well-mixed, continuous-flow, slurry reactor at 220 to 240[degrees]C, 0.5 to 1.5 MPa, H[sub 2]/CO feed ratios of 1.5 to 3.5 and conversions of 7 to 68% of hydrogen and 11 to 73% of carbon monoxide. The inhibiting effect of carbon monoxide was determined quantitatively and a Langmuir-Hinshelwood-type equation of the following form was found to best represent the results: -R[sub H[sub 2+Co

  20. Experimental Determination of Heat Transfer Coefficient in Stirred Vessel for Coal-Water Slurry Based on the Taguchi Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Raguraman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat transfer in stirred vessels is important because process fluid temperature in the vessel is one of the most significant factors for controlling the outcome of process. In this study, the effects of some important design parameters for coal-water slurry in agitated vessel used in coal gasification such as stirrer speed, location of stirrer, D/d ratio, and coal-water ratio were investigated and optimized using the Taguchi method. The experiments were planned based on Taguchi’s orthogonal array with each trial performed under different levels of design parameter. Signal-to-noise (S/N analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA were carried out in order to determine the effects of process parameter and optimal factor’s level settings. Finally, confirmation tests verified that the Taguchi method achieved optimization of heat transfer coefficient in agitated vessel.

  1. Ice slurry accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, K.G.; Kauffeld, M.

    1998-06-01

    More and more refrigeration systems are designed with secondary loops, thus reducing the refrigerant charge of the primary refrigeration plant. In order not to increase energy consumption by introducing a secondary refrigerant, alternatives to the well established single phase coolants (brines) and different concepts of the cooling plant have to be evaluated. Combining the use of ice-slurry - mixture of water, a freezing point depressing agent (antifreeze) and ice particles - as melting secondary refrigerant and the use of a cool storage makes it possible to build plants with secondary loops without increasing the energy consumption and investment. At the same time the operating costs can be kept at a lower level. The accumulation of ice-slurry is compared with other and more traditional storage systems. The method is evaluated and the potential in different applications is estimated. Aspects of practically use of ice-slurry has been examined in the laboratory at the Danish Technological Institute (DTI). This paper will include the final conclusions from this work concerning tank construction, agitator system, inlet, outlet and control. The work at DTI indicates that in some applications systems with ice-slurry and accumulation tanks have a great future. These applications are described by a varying load profile and a process temperature suiting the temperature of ice-slurry (-3 - -8/deg. C). (au)

  2. Pressurized Vessel Slurry Pumping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pound, C.R.

    2001-09-17

    This report summarizes testing of an alternate ''pressurized vessel slurry pumping'' apparatus. The principle is similar to rural domestic water systems and ''acid eggs'' used in chemical laboratories in that material is extruded by displacement with compressed air.

  3. THE USE OF DI WATER TO MITIGATE DUSTING FOR ADDITION OF DWPF FRIT TO THE SLURRY MIX EVAPORATOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, E.

    2010-07-21

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DPWF) presently is in the process to determine means to reduce water utilization in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) process, thus reducing effluent and processing times. The frit slurry addition system mixes the dry frit with water, yielding approximately a 50 weight percent slurry containing frit and the other fraction water. This slurry is discharged into the SME and excess water is removed via boiling. To reduce this water load to the SME, DWPF has proposed using a pneumatic system in conveying the frit to the SME, in essence a dry delivery system. The problem associated with utilizing a dry delivery system with the existing frit is the generation of dust when discharged into the SME. The use of water has been shown to be effective in the mining industry as well in the DOE complex to mitigate dusting. The method employed by SRNL to determine the quantity of water to mitigate dusting in dry powders was effective, between a lab and bench scale tests. In those tests, it was shown that as high as five weight percent (wt%) of water addition was required to mitigate dust from batches of glass forming minerals used by the Waste Treatment Plant at Hanford, Washington. The same method used to determine the quantity of water to mitigate dusting was used in this task to determine the quantity of water to mitigate this dusting using as-received frit. The ability for water to mitigate dusting is due to its adhesive properties as shown in Figure 1-1. Wetting the frit particles allows for the smaller frit particles (including dust) to adhere to the larger frit particles or to agglomerate into large particles. Fluids other than water can also be used, but their adhesive properties are different than water and the quantity required to mitigate dusting is different, as was observed in reference 1. Excessive water, a few weight percentages greater than that required to mitigate dusting can cause the resulting material not to flow. The primary

  4. Partitioning behavior of trace elements during pilot-scale combustion of pulverized coal and coal-water slurry fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nodelman; Pisupati; Miller; Scaroni

    2000-05-29

    Release pathways for inorganic hazardous air pollutants (IHAPs) from a pilot-scale, down-fired combustor (DFC) when firing pulverized coal (PC) and coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) were identified and quantified to demonstrate the effect of fuel form on IHAP partitioning, enrichment and emissions. The baghouse capturing efficiency for each element was calculated to determine the effectiveness of IHAP emission control. Most of the IHAPs were enriched in the fly ash and depleted in the bottom ash. Mercury was found to be enriched in the flue gas, and preferentially emitted in the vapor phase. When firing CWSF, more IHAPs were partitioned in the bottom ash than when firing PC. Significant reduction of Hg emissions during CWSF combustion was also observed.

  5. Results for the First, Second, and Third Quarter Calendar Year 2015 Tank 50H WAC slurry samples chemical and radionuclide contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-02-18

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the Calendar Year (CY) 2015 First, Second, and Third Quarter sampling of Tank 50H for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) in effect at that time. Information from this characterization will be used by Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) & Saltstone Facility Engineering (D&S-FE) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50H to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50H Waste Characterization System. Previous memoranda documenting the WAC analyses results have been issued for these three samples.

  6. An innovative catalyst system for slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: Cobalt plus a water-gas-shift catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satterfield, C.N.; Yates, I.C.; Chanenchuk, C.

    1991-07-01

    The feasibility of using a mechanical mixture of a Co/MgO/SiO{sub 2} Fischer-Tropsch catalyst and a Cu-ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} water-gas-shift (WGS) catalyst for hydrocarbon synthesis in a slurry reactor has been established. Such a mixture can combine the superior product distribution from cobalt with the high activity for the WGS reaction characteristic of iron. Weight ratios of Co/MgO/SiO{sub 2} to Cu-ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} of 0.27 and 0.51 for the two catalysts were studied at 240{degrees}C, 0.79 MPa, and in situ H{sub 2}/CO ratios between 0.8 and 3.0. Each catalyst mixture showed stable Fischer-Tropsch activity for about 400 hours-on-stream at a level comparable to the cobalt catalyst operating alone. The Cu-ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst exhibited a very slow loss of activity under these conditions, but when operated alone it was stable in a slurry reactor at 200--220{degrees}C, 0.79--1.48 MPa, and H{sub 2}/CO in situ ratios between 1.0 and 2.0. The presence of the water-gas-shift catalyst did not affect the long-term stability of the primary Fischer-Tropsch selectivity, but did increase the extent of secondary reactions, such as l-alkene hydrogenation and isomerization.

  7. The influence of atomizer internal design and liquid physical properties on effervescent atomizing of coal-water slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Meng; Duan, Yufeng [Southeast Univ., Nanjing (China). Inst. of Thermal Engineering

    2013-07-01

    This study investigated the dependence of effervescent atomizing of coal-water slurry (CWS) on atomizer internal design and fluid properties. Results demonstrate that internal design of atomizer and fluid properties directly affect the two-phase flow pattern inside the atomizer which consequently affects the spray quality. The influence of mixing chamber length on spray quality is not significant at the ALR of 0.15 except for spray 0.75 glycerol/0.248 water/0.002 xanthan mixture. The same trend also found in the effect of angle of aeration holes at ALR of 0.15. Large diameter of the inclined aeration holes shows small SMD for water. The consistency index of fluids has no effect on the spray quality and Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) increases when polymer additions were added to the glycerin-water mixture. The radial profile of SMD for spray water are almost flat, however, the largest SMD can be obtained at the edge of spray for three other fluids.

  8. Slurry transport medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, W.; Schiffman, L.

    1980-06-03

    This invention provides for an improvement in slurry transport systems, especially coal slurry lines. Instead of the usual use of fresh water resources which, in some geographic areas, are scarce for slurry transport, concentrated brine is used which is prepared from abundant salt water resources. Because of the higher density of this concentrated brine, it is a superior carrier of pulverized material. It diminishes the separation and settling tendency of slurry components during transport and particularly during shutdown. Other advantages in the use of concentrated brine include: freezing point depression which permits ease of transport during winter and at lower temperatures; dust suppression of stored coal; avoidance of spontaneous combustion of stored coal; inhibit freeze packing of dewatered pipeline coal; and diminished extent of corrosion in ferrous metal pipelines as compared to that which might occur with lower concentration brines. Important in the economy of the process is that the concentrated brine can be recycled. An inexpensive method for producing the concentrated brine is given.

  9. ICE SLURRY APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Kauffeld, M.; Wang, M. J.; Goldstein, V.; Kasza, K. E.

    2010-01-01

    The role of secondary refrigerants is expected to grow as the focus on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions increases. The effectiveness of secondary refrigerants can be improved when phase changing media are introduced in place of single phase media. Operating at temperatures below the freezing point of water, ice slurry facilitates several efficiency improvements such as reductions in pumping energy consumption as well as lowering the required temperature difference in heat exchangers ...

  10. 大豆黄浆水回收利用研究进展%Research and Progress on Recycling of Soybean Yellow Slurry Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑玉玺

    2015-01-01

    Soybean yellow slurry water is a kind of waste water that is produced in the process of bean products. Its recycling can both reduce environmental pollution and realize the recycling of resources. After summarizing characteristics of soybean yellow slurry water and its ways of recycling,this paper analyzes the possible problems and predicts the prospects of soybean yellow slurry water,so as to provide some theoretical reference to its recycling in the future.%大豆黄浆水是豆制品加工过程中所产生的废水,将其回收利用既减轻环境污染又能实现资源的循环利用。本文通过对大豆黄浆水的特点、回收利用途径研究现状进行了综述,分析了可能存在的问题,并预测其发展前景,以期为黄浆水的回收利用明确方向提供理论参考。

  11. 煤气化黑水作为石油焦浆稳定剂的实验研究%Experimental study on black water of coal gasification as stabilizer of petroleum coke-water slurry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾嘉; 展秀丽; 周志杰; 王辅臣

    2011-01-01

    Petroleum coke has higher calorific value and lower price compared with coal. It has great advantages that petroleum coke-water slurry is used to prepare syngas. The first step of gasification with petroleum coke-water slurry is to prepare the coke-water slurry. With chilling black water of coal gasification as stabilizer of petroleum coke-water slurry, it can not only save the cost of stabilizer, but also resolve the problems of treating black water and environmental pollution. The way of producing petroleum coke-water slurry is dry grinding and humid mixing; the adding ratio of black water to deionized water is gradually increased; and the viscosity of the slurry was determined when the shear rate was 100 s-1. The liquidity and stable time of the slurry were observed. The effect of black water as stabilizer on the slurry properties of petroleum coke-water was investigated. The results show that black water can effectively improve the stability and yield stress of petroleum coke-water slurry. Petroleum coke added with black water can produce the coke-water slurry with solid mass fraction as high as 73% , and its stability, viscosity and liquidity can satisfy the demand of slurry for gasification in industry.%石油焦比煤具有更高的热值,同时价格低廉,利用石油焦浆气化制备合成气具有很大的优势.石油焦浆气化的第1步是制备水焦浆,采用煤气化黑水作为石油焦浆的稳定剂,不仅节约了稳定剂的成本,还解决了黑水的处理和对环境的污染问题.文中通过逐步提高石油焦浆制备过程中黑水与去离子水的添加比例,采用干磨湿混的方式制浆,测定了石油焦浆在剪切应力为100 s-1时的黏度,并观察其流动性及稳定时间等各项指标,考察了黑水对石油焦浆稳定性的影响.结果表明:黑水能够有效提高石油焦浆的稳定性,提高屈服应力.石油焦添加黑水最高可制备出固体颗粒质量分数为73%的水焦浆,其稳定性和

  12. Pretreatment methods to obtain pumpable high solid loading wood–water slurries for continuous hydrothermal liquefaction systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dãrãbana, Iulia-Maria; Rosendahl, Lasse Aistrup; Pedersen, Thomas Helmer

    2015-01-01

    Feedstock pretreatment is a prerequisite step for continuous processing of lignocellulosic biomass through HTL, in order to facilitate the pumpability of biomass aqueous slurries. Until now, HTL feedstock pumpability could only be achieved at solid mass content below 15%. In this work, two...... pretreatment methods to obtain wood-based slurries with more than 20% solid mass content, for continuous processing in HTL systems, are proposed. The effect of biomass particle size and pretreatment method on the feedstock pumpability is analyzed. The experimental results show that pumpable wood-based slurries...... containing 20% solids can be prepared using recycle HTL biocrude as carrier fluid, if particles smaller than 0.125 mm are used. The recycle biocrude concentration used for slurry make-up is strongly affected by the sawdust size distribution. A second pretreatment option is feedstock thermal treatment...

  13. Spread of Hepatitis E virus from pig slurry to the water environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog, Jesper Schak; Forslund, Anita; Breum, Solvej Østergaard

    is known to be excreted in faeces from pigs, will be transported through the soil and into the drainage system of a field due to precipitation or will be retained in the soil matrix. Water from the drainage system is not treated before it is discharged into larger water reservoirs (lake, fjords, streams...... a Danish pig farm was spread on a tile-drained field of loamy soil. Water that arrived at the drainage system located 1 m below surface was collected over a time period of 4 month. Samples were collected on a weekly basis and when water flow in the drainage system exceeded a certain threshold (an event......). In addition, samples of water collected from wells located along the field and groundwater. Archived mussels from different regions in Denmark were included in the study. Virus was concentrated from water using Poly Ethylene Glycol precipitation and virus from the digestive tissue of the mussels was extracted...

  14. Co-firing of oil sludge with coal-water slurry in an industrial internal circulating fluidized bed boiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianguo; Jiang, Xiumin; Zhou, Lingsheng; Wang, Hui; Han, Xiangxin

    2009-08-15

    Incineration has been proven to be an alternative for disposal of sludge with its unique characteristics to minimize the volume and recover energy. In this paper, a new fluidized bed (FB) incineration system for treating oil sludge is presented. Co-firing of oil sludge with coal-water slurry (CWS) was investigated in the new incineration system to study combustion characteristics, gaseous pollutant emissions and ash management. The study results show the co-firing of oil sludge with CWS in FB has good operating characteristic. CWS as an auxiliary fuel can flexibly control the dense bed temperatures by adjusting its feeding rate. All emissions met the local environmental requirements. The CO emission was less than 1 ppm or essentially zero; the emissions of SO(2) and NO(x) were 120-220 and 120-160 mg/Nm(3), respectively. The heavy metal analyses of the bottom ash and the fly ash by ICP/AES show that the combustion ashes could be recycled as soil for farming.

  15. Influence of the shape of soaring particle based on coal-water slurry containing petrochemicals on ignition characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valiullin Timur R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the laws of stable ignition of organic coal-water slurry containing petrochemicals (CWSP. The CWSP is based on the filter cake of coal and scavenge oil. The experiments are performed for individual CWSP particles soaring in a special set-up. The temperature and velocity of an oxidizer flow are varied between 500-1200 K, and 0.5-3 m/s. The dimensions (longitudinal and transverse of particles range are from 0.5 mm to 5 mm. The study indicates how the shape of a fuel particle (sphere, ellipsoid, and polyhedron influences its ignition characteristics (delay time, minimum temperature, modes, stages. Based on the experimental results, the paper explains why the surface configuration of particles influences the conditions of heat transfer with an oxidizer. The results obtained for soaring particles are compared with the results for fixed CWSP particles having different surface configurations (sphere, ellipsoid, and polyhedron. In general, the study may contribute to the expansion of the fuel resource base. The experimental data may be used for the development of the technologies of burning CWSP prepared by recycling traditional fuels. As a result of this study, several recommendations for the practical application of research results are made.

  16. Preparation of fluidized catalytic cracking slurry oil-in-water emulsion as anti-collapse agent for drilling fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengqiang Xiong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fluidized catalytic cracking slurry oil-in-water emulsion (FCCSE was prepared by using interfacial complexes generation method that was simple and versatile. The critical factors influencing the sample preparation process were optimized, for instance, the optimum value of the mixed hydrophile-lipophile balance of compound emulsifier was 11.36, the content of compound emulsifier was 4 wt%, the emulsification temperature was 75 °C, the agitation speed was 200 rpm, and the emulsification time was 30–45 min. The performance as a drilling fluid additive was also investigated with respect to rheological properties, filtration loss and inhibition of FCCSE. Experimental results showed that FCCSE was favorable to inhibiting clay expansion and dispersion and reducing fluid loss. Furthermore, it had good compatibility with other additives and did not affect the rheological properties of drilling fluids. FCCSE exhibited better performance than the available emulsified asphalt. It has a promising application as anti-collapse agent in petroleum and natural gas drilling.

  17. Mechanism analysis on finishing of reaction-sintered silicon carbide by combination of water vapor plasma oxidation and ceria slurry polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xinmin; Tu, Qunzhang; Deng, Hui; Jiang, Guoliang; Yamamura, Kazuya

    2015-05-01

    Reaction-sintered silicon carbide (RS-SiC), which is considered as a promising mirror material for space telescope systems, requires a high surface property. An ultrasmooth surface with a Ra surface roughness of 0.480 nm was obtained after water vapor plasma oxidation for 90 min followed by ceria slurry polishing for 40 min. The oxidation process of RS-SiC by water vapor plasma was analyzed based on the Deal-Grove model, and the theoretical calculation results are consistent with the measured data obtained by scanning white light interferometer (SWLI), scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive x-ray, and atomic force microscope. The polishing process of oxidized RS-SiC by ceria slurry was investigated according to the Preston equation, which would theoretically forecast the evolutions of RS-SiC surfaces along with the increasing of polishing time, and it was experimentally verified by comparing the surface roughnesses obtained by SWLI and the surface morphologies obtained by SEM. The mechanism analysis on the finishing of RS-SiC would be effective for the optimization of water vapor plasma oxidation parameters and ceria slurry polishing parameters, which will promote the application of RS-SiC substrates by improving the surface property obtained by the oxidation-assisted polishing method.

  18. Preparation of coal slurry with organic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yu-Jen; Shen, Yun-Hwei

    2007-06-01

    In this study, various organic solvents were used to prepare coal slurries and the rheological and thermal properties of coal-organic solvent slurries were examined. Solvents with molecules containing unpaired electrons (high basicity) show high extraction power and cause swelling of coal. Therefore, coal-organic solvent slurries usually showed higher viscosities compared to coal-water slurry. In addition, coal slurries prepared by alcohols and cyclohexanone demonstrated lower settling rates but a high specific sedimentation volume presumably because these solvents swelled coal particles well and led to the formation of weak gel structures in the bulk. In addition, ethanol and cyclohexanone are capable of breaking a considerable amount of hydrogen bonds in coal and subsequently opening up the structures. Thus, more surface area is available for combustion and the combustion rate of coal slurries was increased.

  19. Results of Study of Sulfur Oxide Reduction During Combustion of Coal-Water Slurry Fuel Through use of Sulfur Capturing Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murko Vasiliy I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that an effective way of burning high sulfur coal is to burn coal-water slurry fuel (CWF prepared on its basis containing a sulfur capture agent (SCA entered in the slurry at the stage of preparation. The technique of thermodynamic analysis of chemical reactions during CWF burning has been developed including burning in the presence of SCA. Using the developed calculation program, the optimal temperature conditions have been determined as required for the effective reduction of sulfur oxides in flue gases when using different types of SCA. According to the results of calculating the composition of CWF combustion products when entering various substances in the burner space as SCA it has been determined that magnesite, calcite, and dolomite are the most effective natural minerals. The analysis of calculated and experimental data proves the efficiency of SCA addition as well as validity of the obtained results.

  20. BOILING SLURRY REACTOR AND METHOD FO CONTROL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrick, M.; Marchaterre, J.F.

    1963-05-01

    The control of a boiling slurry nuclear reactor is described. The reactor consists of a vertical tube having an enlarged portion, a steam drum at the top of the vertical tube, and at least one downcomer connecting the steam drum and the bottom of the vertical tube, the reactor being filled with a slurry of fissionabie material in water of such concentration that the enlarged portion of the vertical tube contains a critical mass. The slurry boils in the vertical tube and circulates upwardly therein and downwardly in the downcomer. To control the reactor by controlling the circulation of the slurry, a gas is introduced into the downcomer. (AEC)

  1. Utilization of Drinking Water Treatment Slurry to Produce Aluminum Sulfate Coagulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Mahmoud M; Razek, Taha M A; Elgendy, Ahmed S

    2017-02-01

      In Egypt, water treatment consumes about 365 000 tons of aluminum sulfate and produces more than 100 million tons of sludge per year. The common disposal system of sludge in Egypt is to discharge it into natural waterways. Toxicity of aluminum, environmental regulations and costs of chemicals used in water treatment and sludge treatment processes led to an evaluation of coagulant recovery and subsequent reuse. The present work aimed at aluminum recovery from sludge of El-Shiekh Zayd water treatment plant (WTP) to produce aluminum sulfate coagulant. Sludge was characterized and the effect of five variables was tested and the process efficiency was evaluated at different operating conditions. Maximum recovery is 94.2% at acid concentration 1.5 N, sludge weight 5 g, mixing speed 60 rpm, temperature 60 °C and leaching time 40 min. Then optimum conditions were applied to get maximum recovery for aluminum sulfate and compared to commercial coagulant on raw water of El-Shiekh Zayd (WTP).

  2. STUDY ON PREPARATION OF COAL WATER SLURRY WITH INDUSTRIAL WASTE WATER FROM COKING PLANT%焦化厂工业废水制备水煤浆的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闵凡飞; 张明旭; 李寒旭

    2001-01-01

    This paper has studied on preparation of coal water slurry with three kinds of industrial waste water from coking plant and compared those with tap water.The results showed that the industrial waste water from coking plant can prepare coal water slurry with good features,especially the stability better than tap water.%研究了用焦化厂三种工业废水制备水煤浆并与自来水制备的水煤浆的性能进行了比较,结果表明,用三种工业废水可以制备出性能较好的水煤浆,而且,某些废水制出的水煤浆在性能上,特别是稳定性上好于用自来水制出的水煤浆。

  3. Conditions and Characteristics of Coal Water Slurry Containing Petrochemicals Ignition by Hot Particle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gal’chenko Nina K.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of CWS containing petrochemicals ignition by single hot particle in disk shape established experimentally. The main components of fuel composition are coal 45 %, water 45 %, used engine oil 10 %. The main parameters of local heat sources are: material – steel, diameter 10–12 mm, high 4–8 mm. As a result of experimental study is established limit (minimum conditions for ignition of CWS containing petrochemicals by hot particle and the impact of local heat source parameters on the main process characteristic – ignition delay time.

  4. A novel slurry sampling analysis of lead in different water samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry after coprecipitated with cobalt/pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baysal, A. [Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Science and Letters, Department of Chemistry, 34469 Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey); Akman, S. [Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Science and Letters, Department of Chemistry, 34469 Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey)], E-mail: akmans@itu.edu.tr; Calisir, F. [Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Science and Letters, Department of Chemistry, 34469 Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2008-10-30

    A preconcentration/separation technique based on the coprecipitation of lead with cobalt/pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate complex (Co(PDC){sub 2}) and subsequently its direct slurry sampling determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) was described. For this purpose, at first, lead was coprecipitated with cobalt/pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate complex formed using ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC) as a chelating agent and cobalt as a carrier element. The supernatant was then separated and the slurry of the precipitate prepared in Triton X-100 was directly analyzed by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry with respect to lead concentration. The effects of experimental conditions on coprecipitation of lead with gathering precipitate as well as homogeneity and stability of the slurry were investigated. After the optimization of experimental parameters, a 100-fold enrichment of the analyte with quantitative recovery (>90%) and high precision (<10% R.S.D.) were obtained. By using the proposed technique, the lead concentrations in heavy matrices of Certified Sea-water and wastewater samples could be practically and rapidly determined in the range of 95% confidence level. The detection limit of the described method for lead using sample-matching blanks was 1.5 ng/L (3{sigma}, N = 10)

  5. Development of a phenomenological model for coal slurry atomization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooher, J.P. [Adelphi Univ., Garden City, NY (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Highly concentrated suspensions of coal particles in water or alternate fluids appear to have a wide range of applications for energy production. For enhanced implementation of coal slurry fuel technology, an understanding of coal slurry atomization as a function coal and slurry properties for specific mechanical configurations of nozzle atomizers should be developed.

  6. Pulsating flows of solid/liquid suspensions. 2. Coal/water slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Round, G.F.; El-Sayed, E.

    1987-02-01

    Results are presented on the pulsed flow of coal/water suspensions of weight concentration, Cw = 0-53.7%. The laboratory pipeline used was 35 m long with an I.D. of 5 cm. The coal used was a bituminous coal from Butler County, Pennsylvania. Its size ranged from 45 to 880 micrometer with a mean of 260 micrometer. The ranges of pulsing parameters studied were: velocity: 0-27 m/s; pulse amplitude: 0-80 mm; pulse frequency: 0-1.25 Hz. It was found that over most of the concentration range investigated there was a substantial energy saving measured in terms of an energy ratio Jp/Js, the ratio of total energy input in the pulsed state to that at steady state at the same volumetric flow rate. Minima over the entire velocity range occurred at a frequency of 0.3 Hz, with very little variation at different amplitudes. The weight concentration at which these occurred was Cw = 20% with a corresponding energy saving which could be as much as 20%. 12 figs., 15 refs., 3 tabs.

  7. 电解水煤浆制氢技术研究进展%Review on electrochemical splitting of coal water slurry for hydrogen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱凌岳; 王宝辉; 吴红军

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen generation from coal water slurry,which has a better efficiency in hydrogen production from coal water slurry than water splitting as well as purification of fossil fuels,is a worth promoting technology of hydrogen production. The basic principle of coal water slurry electrolysis based on its characteristics and current situations was discussed in this paper. The effects of the temperature,electrolyte and pretreatment of the sample were summarized according to the reaction mechanism of the electrolysis. The progress of the research on electrode materials in the electrolysis of coal water slurry was reviewed,and the present situation of electrolysis of water coal slurry technology and the existing problems were analyzed and prospected. The key direction of technology development was pointed out:①The energy consumption in the process of electrolysis of coal water slurry was reduced and the renewable energy was maximize used;②The mechanisms and kinetics of the reaction have been studied deeply with the purpose of improving the efficiency of hydrogen production, chemical energy and electricity;③Improve the stability and corrosion resistance of the electrode to implement the durable and the low-cost of electrode;and④The efficiency of the reaction was improved by studying the new catalytic electrode and catalyst.%电解水煤浆制氢在能源消耗与产氢效率上都更优于电解水过程,并且在电解过程中可以同时达到对矿石能源净化的目的,是一种十分值得推广与发展的产氢新技术。本文在综述电解水煤浆技术现状及特点的基础上,阐述了电解水煤浆制氢技术的原理,并以此为理论基础概述了反应温度、电解质种类、样品预处理对电解水煤浆制氢的影响,综述了国内外电解水煤浆电极材料的研究进展,并对电解水煤浆技术的发展现状和存在的不足进行了分析与展望。指出电解水煤浆技术发展的重点方向为:

  8. A new cement slurry modified with chitosan/alginate interpenetrating networks and hydroxyapatite: structural characteristics after long-term contact with hyper-saline produced water from oil well operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Ivory Marcos Gomes dos; Santos, Danilo Oliveira; Cestari, Antonio Reinaldo, E-mail: ivorymarcos@hotmail.com, E-mail: danilo.quimico@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: rcestari@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencia dos Materiais; Ribeiro, Joenesson Filip Santos, E-mail: joenesson.joe@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Lab, Materiais e Calorimetria; Alves, Jose do Patrocinio Hora; Ferreira, Angelica Baganha, E-mail: jphalves@uol.com.br, E-mail: angelica.bferreira@itps.se.gov.br [Instituto Tecnologico e de Pesquisas do Estado de Sergipe (ITPS), Aracaju, SE (Brazil)

    2017-01-15

    Oil is an important source of energy, mainly in developing countries. Important research has been conducted to find cementing procedures that guarantee safe and cost-effective oil exploration below pre-salt layers. This work aimed to make a new cement paste with cement, seawater, silica, biopolymers (chitosan and sodium alginate) and hydroxyapatite (HA), found in nature. For comparison purposes, slurry without additives was prepared and characterized. The HA used was extracted from fish scales (Cynoscion acoupa) in optimized condition NaOH concentration, temperature and reaction time. Both slurry were prepared with ratios water/cement (w/c) and silica/cement (s/c) equal to 0.50 and 0.35, respectively. The new cement slurry was obtained with proportions of 5% of each biopolymer and HA with respect to the total weight of the cement. In the immersion tests, specimens were immersed in samples of hyper production of saline water by 35°C for 15 days. Thereafter, they were washed, dried and its surface layers were scraped. Before, the resulting materials were characterized. The values of the ratios Ca/Si of new cement slurry (3.38 ± 0.06) were superior compared to standard (2.58 ± 0.05). The new slurry had high thermal stability and low amounts of small crystallite-type portlandite (35.70 nm). Conversely, a slurry standard formed larger crystals of about 50.3 nm. Significantly, after continuous long-term contact of both slurries with hyper-saline produced water from oil well fields operations, in comparison with standard slurry structural characteristics, the new slurry has practically maintained its pristine chemical structure, as well as has shown crystallite-type particles of NaCl and Friedel’s/Kuzel’s salts with lower proportion. The presence of the biopolymers and HA has driven the improved the self-healing properties observed in the new cement slurry. In this first study, the new slurry has shown adequate characteristics to contribute to cost effective and

  9. Comparison of the adsorption capacities of an activated-charcoal--yogurt mixture versus activated-charcoal--water slurry in vivo and in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Christophersen, Anne-Bolette; Christensen, Hanne Rolighed

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An activated charcoal--yogurt mixture was evaluated in vivo to determine the effect on the gastrointestinal absorption of paracetamol, as compared to activated-charcoal--water slurry. The potential advantage of the activated-charcoal--yogurt mixture is a better palatability and general......, ability to swallow, and overall impression of the mixtures. The time spent to consume the activated charcoal was also registered. In vitro: Activated charcoal, simulated gastric (pH 1.2) or intestinal (pH 7.2) fluid, and paracetamol were mixed with yogurt followed by 1 h incubation. The maximum adsorption...

  10. 工业废水水煤浆燃烧特性的热分析综合研究%Thermal Analysis on Combustibility of Coal Water Slurry with Industrial Waste Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明旭; 闵凡飞

    2001-01-01

    Preparation of CWS with industrial waste water is a clean coal technology beneficial to environment protection. The combustibility of CWS with industrial waste water from the coking plant was studied. The TG-DTA-DTG thermal analysis technology was applied to study the combustibility of coal industrial waste water slurry, the effect of coal quality on the combustibility of coal water slurry, and the difference in combustibility between fine coal and CWS . The result shows that the ignition temperature of CWS is lower than that of fine coal. The temperature at which burning velocity reaches the highest is a little higher than that of fine coal. The ratio of volatile to the heat value of fixed carbon in coal water slurry is the same as or a little higher than that in fine coal. The result also indicates that to produce coal water slurry using industrial waste water is feasible.%用TG-DTG-DTA(热重-微分热重-差热)热分析技术研究了工业废水水煤浆的燃烧特性并与煤粉燃烧特性进行了比较,结果表明:工业废水水煤浆在着火温度,燃尽温度方面比煤粉低;水煤浆燃烧速度最大时的温度略高于煤粉燃烧速度最大时的温度;水煤浆中挥发物与固定碳发热量之比与煤粉基本一致或略高;说明用工业废水生产水煤浆是可行的.

  11. Retreatment of silicon slurry by membrane processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Testa, F. [Universite Paul Cezanne Aix Marseille, Laboratoire de Mecanique, Modelisation et Procedes Propres (M2P2 - UMR-CNRS 6181), Europole de l' Arbois, BP. 80, Batiment Laennec, Hall C, 13545 Aix en Provence Cedex 04 (France); KEMESYS, 125 ZA Verdalai, 13790 Peynier (France); Coetsier, C.; Carretier, E. [Universite Paul Cezanne Aix Marseille, Laboratoire de Mecanique, Modelisation et Procedes Propres (M2P2 - UMR-CNRS 6181), Europole de l' Arbois, BP. 80, Batiment Laennec, Hall C, 13545 Aix en Provence Cedex 04 (France); Ennahali, M.; Laborie, B. [KEMESYS, 125 ZA Verdalai, 13790 Peynier (France); Serafino, C.; Bulgarelli, F. [Rockwood Wafer reclaim France, ZI des Pradeaux, 13850 Greasque (France); Moulin, P., E-mail: philippe.moulin@univ-cezanne.fr [Universite Paul Cezanne Aix Marseille, Laboratoire de Mecanique, Modelisation et Procedes Propres (M2P2 - UMR-CNRS 6181), Europole de l' Arbois, BP. 80, Batiment Laennec, Hall C, 13545 Aix en Provence Cedex 04 (France)

    2011-08-30

    Highlights: {yields} Membrane processes were used to regenerate Silicon CMP slurry effluent {yields} A two-step ultrafiltration process was performed at laboratory and industrial scales {yields} A new hybrid process (membrane ultrafiltration and chemical addition) is developed {yields} A ratio of 0.65 of dissolved chemicals allows RR and TTV to be within specifications {yields} At industrial scale, the hybrid process enables the reuse of electronic effluents. - Abstract: The purpose of the present study is to develop a process to regenerate the polish liquid used in Chemical and Mechanical Polishing (CMP), called 'slurry', and more specifically Silicon CMP slurry. Physico-chemical analyses show a considerable dilution of slurry through washing waters used in polishing. Thus, this effluent has been characterised for a better identification of the deviations from the slurry of reference (Point Of Use). Hence, the principle is to regenerate this effluent by membrane processes. The ultrafiltration results obtained at laboratory scale have led to the development of an industrial prototype. An optimal utilisation of this treatment allows completing a two-step process: the reconcentration by ultrafiltration and a chemical adjustment by addition of concentrated slurry. A stable behaviour of the slurry at the different steps of the process has been observed. Polishing results are similar with retreated and POU slurries. Furthermore, the functioning at industrial scale permits to maintain the performances obtained on the laboratory pilot.

  12. Performance of a Centrifugal Slurry Pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawas Yahya Bajawi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to experimentally investigate the effect of speed, concentration and size of slurry on the performance of a centrifugal pump. For this purpose a facility was built where the performance of a centrifugal slurry pump was examined using aggregate slurry. Three sizes of slurry with three concentrations and at three impeller speeds were used for the performance investigations of a centrifugal slurry pump. As a reference performance the performance of centrifugal slurry pump was also tested with clean water. The performance of pump has been reported as variations of head, power and efficiency at various flow rates along with the system characteristics of the pump. The results reveal that the pump performance is grossly affected by the type of slurry, its concentration and size. Besides this the variation in speed also affects the performance as is observed in pumps with water. The maximum decrease in the head, with respect to clear water, at the operating point was found to be 47% for aggregate for size 20 mm, 15% concentration and 2600 rpm. The maximum decrement in efficiency at operating point for aggregate was found to be 47% for 4 mm size, 15% concentration and at 2200 rpm. The power increment requirement for aggregate was 9% for 4 mm size, 15% concentration and 2600 rpm.

  13. 矸石电厂改烧水煤浆工程设计%Design of using coal-water slurry in gangue power plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯立新; 景国勋

    2011-01-01

    Take Scheduling Coordinator Workspace Manager(SCWM) produced by Coal Preparation Plant of Zhong Ping Energy and Chemical Group as an object of study,and the feasibility analysis of new energy sources of using coal-water slurry in gangue power plants,including the boiler.The results showed that using coal-water slurry as waste rock energy is an economic,efficient and environmental engineering for power plants.%以中平能化集团田庄选煤厂煤泥水煤浆利用技术为研究对象,对利用水煤浆作为矸石电厂新型能源的可行性进行分析,着重对矸石电厂改烧水煤浆工程进行了详细描述,其中包括锅炉改造,结果表明:利用水煤浆为矸石电厂提供能源是一项经济、高效的环保工程。

  14. Investigation of the effect of coal particle sizes on the interfacial and rheological properties of coal-water slurry fuels: Final report, July 1, 1994-June 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kihm, K.D.

    1996-10-01

    The scope of the project is two fold: (1) examining particle size effect on interfacial properties of CWS fuels by measuring static and dynamic surface tension properties of specially prepared CWS samples containing different ranges of coal particle sizes, and (2) studying the effect of particle size on CWS atomization characteristics by measuring mean diameters of several different CWS sprays generated by sonic air blasting. The results show that both static and dynamic surface tensions decrease with increasing coal particle size and mean droplet diameter of CW-S sprays also decreases with increasing coal particle size. Based on the experimental evidence we conjecture that three different energies are competing in slurry atomization: (1) the internal capillary holding between particles and water, (2) the interfacial surface tensile energy at the slurry surface contacting air, and (3) the external air blast shear energy acting against the former two energies. The internal capillary holding force decreases with increasing particle size. This force is believed to play a major role in determining the effect of particle size on CWS atomization.

  15. Comparison of the adsorption capacities of an activated-charcoal--yogurt mixture versus activated-charcoal--water slurry in vivo and in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Christophersen, Anne-Bolette; Christensen, Hanne Rolighed

    2005-01-01

    , ability to swallow, and overall impression of the mixtures. The time spent to consume the activated charcoal was also registered. In vitro: Activated charcoal, simulated gastric (pH 1.2) or intestinal (pH 7.2) fluid, and paracetamol were mixed with yogurt followed by 1 h incubation. The maximum adsorption...... paracetamol 50 mg/kg as a simulated overdose. Each study day volunteers were given a standard meal 1 h before paracetamol, then 50 g activated charcoal 1 h later in either of two preparations: standard water slurry or mixed with 400 mL yogurt. Paracetamol serum concentrations were measured using HPLC....... The areas under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of the two preparations were compared and used to estimate the efficacy of each preparation. The palatability of both preparations was evaluated using a visual-analogue scale where the volunteers were asked to evaluate the appearance, smell, flavor, texture...

  16. Investigation of the efect of the coal particle sizes on the interfacial and rheological properties of coal-water slurry fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kihm, K.D.; Deignan, P. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of particle size on coal-water slurry (CWS) surface tension properties. Two different coal powder samples of different size ranges were obtained through sieving of coal from the Upper Elkhorn Seam. The surfactant (anionic DDBS-soft, dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid) concentration varied from 0 to 1.0% in weight while the coal loading remained at 40% in weight for all the cases. A du Nouy ring tensiometer and a maximum bubble pressure tensiometer measured the static and dynamic surface tensions, respectively, The results show that both static and dynamic surface tensions tend to increase with decreasing coal particle sizes suspended in CWS fuels. Examination of the peak pressure, minimum pressure, surfactant diffusion time, and dead time were also made to correlate these microscopic pressure behavior with the macroscopic dynamic surface tension and to examine the accuracy of the experiment.

  17. An effect of Blade geometry on heat transfer performance in stirred vessel – coal water slurry system using coal gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M.Raguraman,

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the geometrical parameter of blades on heat transfer co-efficient were experimentally studied for agitated vessels using coal slurry in coal gasification. The intensity of hear transfer during mixing of fluids depends on the type of the stirrer, the design of the vessel and conditions of the process. The type and size of the stirrer, as well as its location in the vessel, also affect the rate of hear transfer. In this study, the effect of some importantdesign parameter such as the type of stirrer, angle and shape of blades, number of blades and location of stirrer, etc., were investigated and optimized. Besides, the Taguchi method can successfully be applied to heat transfer investigation to save energy, time and material in experimentation.

  18. 黄浆水液态深层发酵制醋工艺的研究%Vinegar production from yellow slurry water by submerged fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 洪厚胜; 张庆文; 段许佳

    2011-01-01

    以白酒生产中间产物黄浆水为原料,结合液态深层发酵酿醋工艺,成功开发出风味独特的食醋.试验使用15L自吸式发酵罐补料分批培养,实验结果表明:在分割量35%时,周期24h以内,酸度高达7.6g/100mL,醋酸产率90%以上;成品醋不挥发酸比例25%.处理后各项指标均达到优级老陈醋标准,实现了黄浆水的综合利用,具有良好的实用价值和现实意义.%Using yellow slurry water (a by-product of Chinese liquor) as material, the vinegar with unique flavor was developed successfully by liquid submerged fermentation. In this study, the vinegar was fermented in a 15L self-aspirated acetator by semi-continuous fed-batch fermentation. The results showed that when the withdrawal rate was 35% and the withdrawal period was lower than 24h, the acidity reached 7.6g/100ml, the vinegar yield was over 90%, and the non-volatile acid content of finished vinegar was 25%. All indexes were up to the standards of top-grade aged vinegar after treatment. The utilization of yellow slurry water was realized, which was practical and meaningful.

  19. 污泥水煤浆燃烧和污染排放特性研究%Combustion of sludge coal water slurry and emission property of contaminants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱建航; 胡勤海; 陈菊芬; 张辉; 刘建忠; 岑可法

    2012-01-01

    Combustion tests of a sludge coal water slurry ( S-CWS) and Datong bituminous coal water slurry (Datong bituminous CWS) were performed in a 3. 2 MW horizontal furnace to investigate the industrial application feasibility of S-CWS. The properties of ignition, combustion, slagging and pollutant emission were analyzed respectively. The results indicate that S-CWS with sludge mass ratio of 10% can be easily fired and combusted stably. With better burning and slagging properties than Datong bituminous CWS, S-CWS produces ample flame in uniform distribution. The addition of sludge results in high concentrations of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides in flue gas, which can be relieved by adding desulfurizing agents in practice. Generally, it is satisfactory to burn S-CWS in the 3.2 MW furnace, offering a new feasible method of sludge disposal.%在3.2MW卧式炉中对污泥水煤浆和大同烟煤水煤浆进行了对比燃烧实验,分别研究了煤浆的着火、燃烧、结渣及污染物排放特性.结果表明,掺混10%污泥的水煤浆着火容易,燃烧稳定,炉膛火焰分布均匀,燃烧和结渣特性均优于大同烟煤水煤浆.污泥的添加使水煤浆燃烧烟气中SO2和NOx的浓度偏高,实际应用中可通过加入固硫剂等方式缓解.污泥水煤浆在卧式炉中的燃烧状况较理想,为城市污泥资源化利用提供了一条可行的新途径.

  20. An innovative catalyst system for slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: Cobalt plus a water-gas-shift catalyst. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satterfield, C.N.; Yates, I.C.; Chanenchuk, C.

    1991-07-01

    The feasibility of using a mechanical mixture of a Co/MgO/SiO{sub 2} Fischer-Tropsch catalyst and a Cu-ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} water-gas-shift (WGS) catalyst for hydrocarbon synthesis in a slurry reactor has been established. Such a mixture can combine the superior product distribution from cobalt with the high activity for the WGS reaction characteristic of iron. Weight ratios of Co/MgO/SiO{sub 2} to Cu-ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} of 0.27 and 0.51 for the two catalysts were studied at 240{degrees}C, 0.79 MPa, and in situ H{sub 2}/CO ratios between 0.8 and 3.0. Each catalyst mixture showed stable Fischer-Tropsch activity for about 400 hours-on-stream at a level comparable to the cobalt catalyst operating alone. The Cu-ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst exhibited a very slow loss of activity under these conditions, but when operated alone it was stable in a slurry reactor at 200--220{degrees}C, 0.79--1.48 MPa, and H{sub 2}/CO in situ ratios between 1.0 and 2.0. The presence of the water-gas-shift catalyst did not affect the long-term stability of the primary Fischer-Tropsch selectivity, but did increase the extent of secondary reactions, such as l-alkene hydrogenation and isomerization.

  1. Properties and application of industrial waste slurry and waste water in ready - mixed concrete station%混凝土搅拌站废水废浆性能分析与利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨欣华; 纪宪坤; 王明远; 韦庆东

    2015-01-01

    The properties of industrial waste slurry and waste water of 6 ready - mixed concrete stations from 5 provinces were ana-lyzed.2 kinds of industrial waste slurry were chosen to produce mortar and concrete.The results showed that the solid content of industri-al waste slurry are different which varies between 0.3% to 3.0%.The total ion content of some waste water has exceeded the require-ments of national standard“Standard of water for concrete”.There is little influence on the compressive strength of mortar and concrete while waste slurry and waste water were used.The dosage of waste slurry and waste water while using should be ascertained by experi-ment.%检测并分析了5个地区6家混凝土搅拌站的废水废浆性能,选择其中2家废水废浆进行砂浆和混凝土试验。试验结果表明:各家的废水废浆含固量差异较大,部分废水废浆的离子总量超过 JGJ 63—2006《混凝土用水标准》要求;掺加废水废浆后的砂浆和混凝土抗压强度变化不大;废水废浆掺量应通过试验确定。

  2. Experimental measurements of turbulent slurry jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, N. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    An experimental study was conducted in which a fibre optic probe system was used to measure turbulent slurry jets. This presentation outlined the experimental setup and included an illustration of a probe schematic and measurements as well as calibrations. The probe schematic had a large range, high sensitivity and minimal flow disturbance. Probe calibration had the advantage of even concentration distribution, but it had the disadvantage of having a different reflective index from water. Slurry jet results were discussed with particular reference to parameters; concentration profile; velocity profile; spreading; and momentum flux. It was concluded that the probe is effective for a wide range of measurements in high concentration slurry jets. Future studies will focus on slurry jets impinging onto a non-Newtonian fluid (laponite). tabs., figs.

  3. Fluidized bed ice slurry generator for enhanced secondary cooling systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meewisse, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Ice slurries are liquid solutions of a freezing point depressant in water, in which small ice crystals are present. Ice slurries are efficient secondary cooling fluids because they utilize the latent heat effect involved with the ice/water phase change. A high heat capacity is available at relativel

  4. Fluidized bed ice slurry generator for enhanced secondary cooling systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meewisse, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Ice slurries are liquid solutions of a freezing point depressant in water, in which small ice crystals are present. Ice slurries are efficient secondary cooling fluids because they utilize the latent heat effect involved with the ice/water phase change. A high heat capacity is available at

  5. Fluidized bed ice slurry generator for enhanced secondary cooling systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meewisse, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Ice slurries are liquid solutions of a freezing point depressant in water, in which small ice crystals are present. Ice slurries are efficient secondary cooling fluids because they utilize the latent heat effect involved with the ice/water phase change. A high heat capacity is available at relativel

  6. Study on the new process for preparing the additives with black liquor and the slurry ability for coal water slurry%造纸黑液制水煤浆添加剂新技术和制浆性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李寒旭; 徐江华; 纪明俊; 张宏伟; 白成志

    2001-01-01

    By using the lignin,organic acid and polyose in pulping waste liquid(bl ack liquor),a new process for additive preparation and the cheaper and good qual ities additives for coal water slurry,of which the properties are similar with t he products prepared in 500ml reactor,are developed in 20L reactor by a series o f process sulphonated,condensed and modified and combined.The additives from pul ping waste liquid and other two additives were investigated in the preparation o f coal water slurry.The features of coal water slurry prepared by them are simil ar with or better than the additives which is used in industrial plant.%充分利用造纸黑液中的木质素、有机酸和聚糖类化合物,在20L反应釜中,进行磺化 、缩合、改性复配制取水煤浆添加剂小试放大试验的研究。对义马煤可以制出浓度在63%~6 4% ,流动性好,性能稳定的水煤浆,性能达到或超过目前国内工业TEAXCO气化装置所用的添加 剂。

  7. Recovery bituminous coal fines: a discussion on the production of coal-water slurry fuels and its relationship to fine coal cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, J.L.; Scaroni, A.W.; Battista, J.J. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The recovery of bituminous coal fines from slurry impoundments and fine coal cleaning circuits has received considerable attention over the last decade from both coal suppliers and coal-fired utilities. Several coal-fired utilities are presently determining whether a low-solids, low viscosity coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) produced from fine coal can be co-fired with their normal coal feedstock in order to lower their fuel cost and reduce their NO{sub x} emissions. One of the most visible CWSF demonstration programs in the United States is being conducted by GPU Generating, Inc. (GPU Genco). GPU Genco has conducted intermittent demonstration co-fire testing at their 218 MWe-Seward Station since 1993. These tests successfully demonstrate that a low-solids CWSF can be co-fired with pulverized coal in wall-and tangentially-fired boilers. The majority of the CWSF tested at Seward has been prepared from impounded coal fines cleaned via froth flotation and, on a more limited basis, a CWSF prepared from coal fines concentrated from a screen-bowl centrifuge effluent. The production of alow-solids CWSF from wet, fine coal provides an alternative to dewatering. This paper summarizes several fine coal recovery and utilization programs conducted by Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) and GPU Genco during the last five years. These programs range from performing bench-to-pilot-scale cleanability and pilot-scale combustion testing to full-scale utility demonstration tests. All of these successful programs have a common thread of integrating and addressing the issues of fine coal characterization, cleaning handling, and the combustion performance of the CWSF. 8 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  8. CEMENT SLURRIES FOR GEOTHERMAL WELLS CEMENTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available During a well cementing special place belongs to the cement slurry design. To ensure the best quality of cementing, a thorough understanding of well parameters is essential, as well as behaviour of cement slurry (especially at high temperatures and application of proven cementing techniques. Many cement jobs fail because of bad job planning. Well cementing without regarding what should be accomplished, can lead to well problems (channels in the cement, unwanted water, gas or fluid production, pipe corrosion and expensive well repairs. Cementing temperature conditions are important because bot-tomhole circulating temperatures affect slurry thickening time, arheology, set time and compressive strength development. Knowing the actual temperature which cement encounters during placement allows the selection of proper cementing materials for a specific application. Slurry design is affected by well depth, bottom hole circulating temperature and static temperature, type or drilling fluid, slurry density, pumping time, quality of mix water, fluid loss control, flow regime, settling and free water, quality of cement, dry or liquid additives, strength development, and quality of the lab cement testing and equipment. Most Portland cements and Class J cement have shown suitable performances in geot-hermal wells. Cement system designs for geothermal wells differ from those for conventional high temperature oil and gas wells in the exclusive use of silica flour instead of silica sand, and the avoidance of fly ash as an extender. In this paper, Portland cement behaviour at high temperatures is described. Cement slurry and set cement properties are also described. Published in literature, the composition of cement slurries which were tested in geothermal conditions and which obtained required compressive strength and water permeability are listed. As a case of our practice geothermal wells Velika Ciglena-1 and Velika Ciglena-la are described.

  9. Quarterly report on the use of the purge water management system at Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, E.

    2000-02-09

    The purpose of this quarterly report is to compare groundwater chemical analysis data collected at four test wells using the PWMS against historical data collected using the standard monitoring well sampling methodology and to determine if the PWMS provides representative monitoring samples.

  10. 超支化水煤浆分散剂的合成与性能研究%Synthesis of hyperbranched dispersant from coal water slurry and its chemical properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张光华; 韩文静; 强轶; 刘龙; 尚婷; 赵方

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we have introduced a new type of disper-sant we have gained from the high-concentrated coal water slurry (CWS). To be exact, we have synthesized lower-generation hyper-branched molecular skeletons from the methanol solvent out of raw materials of dehydroabietylamine, methyl acrylate, and ethylenedi-amine through the divergent analysis. The actual products we have developed can be stated as follows: firstly, we have synthesized 0.5 generation hyperbranched organic molecules via Michael addition reaction with dehydroabietylamine as the principal acrylate raw material . Secondly, we have synthesized the 1.0 generation hyperbranched organic molecules through amidation condensation reaction by taking 0.5 generation hyperbranched molecule and ethylenediamine as the o- riginal materials. And, finally, the lower generation hyperbranched molecular skeleton can further be found to result in 1.0 generation hyperbranched organic molecules. The new-type dispersant of rosin hyperbranched from the coal water slurry has been synthetically made by using skeleton as initiator by making it react with the chloroactic acid. And, after that, we have applied infrared spectroscope and hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscope to characterization of the 0.5 generation and 1.0 generation organic molecules and rosin hyperbranched dispersants. Moreover, we have done the slurry performance test with Shenfu coal for their viscosity, Zeta potential and static stability of the slurry. The results of our investigation indicate that the rosin hyperbranched dispersant has ability in reducing the viscosity of the coal slurry for this purpose at lower dosages. When the slurry concentration is lowered to 67% , and the dosage of the rosin hyperbranched dispersant was 0.4% ( quantity fraction) of the slurry, its viscosity tends to be only at 980 mPa · s. This shows that the rosin hyperbranched dispersant helps to improve the behavior of coal water slurry, enhance the static

  11. Rotary cup slurry atomization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, H. T.; Marnicio, R. J.

    1983-06-01

    The theory of a two-phase flow in a rotating cup atomizer is described. The analysis considers the separation of the solid and liquid media thus realistically modeling the flow of two layers along the inner cup wall: a slurry of increasing solids concentration and a supernatent liquid layer. The analysis is based on the earlier work of Hinze and Milborn (1950) which addressed the flow within a rotary cup for a homogeneous liquid. The superimposition of a settling velocity under conditions of high centrifugal acceleration permits the extended analysis of the separation of the two phases. Appropriate boundary conditions have been applied to the film's free surface and the cup wall and to match the flow characteristics at the liquid-slurry interface. The changing slurry viscosity, increasing nonlinearly with growing solid loading, was also considered. A parameter study illustrates the potential for a cup design to provide optimal slurry and liquid film thicknesses for effective atomization.

  12. Slurry pipeline design approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betinol, Roy; Navarro R, Luis [Brass Chile S.A., Santiago (Chile)

    2009-12-19

    Compared to other engineering technologies, the design of a commercial long distance Slurry Pipeline design is a relatively new engineering concept which gained more recognition in the mid 1960 's. Slurry pipeline was first introduced to reduce cost in transporting coal to power generating units. Since then this technology has caught-up worldwide to transport other minerals such as limestone, copper, zinc and iron. In South America, the use of pipeline is commonly practiced in the transport of Copper (Chile, Peru and Argentina), Iron (Chile and Brazil), Zinc (Peru) and Bauxite (Brazil). As more mining operations expand and new mine facilities are opened, the design of the long distance slurry pipeline will continuously present a commercially viable option. The intent of this paper is to present the design process and discuss any new techniques and approach used today to ensure a better, safer and economical slurry pipeline. (author)

  13. Calculating of Water Hammer Pressure of Closing Valve in Long-distance Slurry Pipeline Transportation%长距离浆体管道关阀水击压力计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王铁力

    2015-01-01

    长距离浆体管道输送操作过程中会发生水击现象,严重影响系统运行的安全性和可靠性。关阀水击在管道操作过程中普遍存在。为通过模型计算,有效预测关阀水击压力,文中综合考虑了浆体特性对水击波速的影响,采用弹性水击理论,应用水击连锁方程得到浆体管道关阀水击压强模型。通过实验室实测数据与模型对比,验证了该模型数据与实测数据误差较小。%Water hammer happened in long-distance slurry pipeline transportation and it will severely influence safety and reliability of the system. The water hammer of closing valve occurs frequently. In order to forecast water hammer pressure of clos-ing valve by formula,the influence of the characters of slurry on wave speed was considered in this article. According to elasticity theory and interlocking equation of water hammer,water hammer model of slurry was deduced. The result shows that there is little difference between the modeling data and the measured data.

  14. Slurry pumping techniques for feeding high-pressure coal gasification reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bair, W. G.; Tarman, P. B.

    1977-01-01

    Operating experience in pumping coal and coal char slurries at pressures up to 1500 psig is discussed. The design specifications for the mixing tanks, pumps, piping, and slurry heaters are given along with pressure drop and minimum flow velocity data on water-lignite slurries.

  15. A comparative overview of coal-water slurry fuels produced from waste coal fines for utility-scale co-firing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, J.L.; Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)] [and others

    1997-07-01

    The recovery and utilization of coal fines, both impounded and in cleaning plant effluent streams, have received close attention from both coal producers and coal-fixed utilities during the last few years. Many coal producers view impounded fines as an environmental liability and the discarded fines in plant effluent streams as contributing to a loss in Btu recovery. In addition, the rejected coal fines increase the quantity and cost of refuse disposal. The handleability of fine coal has always been a problem. Dewatering cleaned fine coal is costly. Excessive fugitive dust emissions are commonly associated with handling dry fine coal. Wet fine coal sticks to conveyor belts, blocks fuel chutes, and may limit pulverizer capacity. The preparation of coal water slurry fuel (CWSF) from wet coal fines alleviates the necessity of drying while at the same time eliminates the flow problems that wet fine coal poses to the end user. Furthermore, the utilization of CWSF as an opportunity fuel converts coal fines into a revenue source rather than a liability. Several utilities are evaluating the co-firing of low solids, low viscosity CWSF with their normal coal feedstock in an effort to lower fuel cost and/or as a NO{sub x} reduction technique. The utilization of this opportunity fuel is being driven by a changing electric industry in which utilities continually strive to reduce plant emissions while simultaneously reducing their operating costs to become more competitive as the generation side of the industry prepares for deregulation.

  16. Effects of calcium magnesium acetate on the combustion of coal-water slurries. Final project report, 1 September 1989--28 February 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levendis, Y.A.; Wise, D.; Metghalchi, H.; Cumper, J.; Atal, A.; Estrada, K.R.; Murphy, B.; Steciak, J.; Hottel, H.C.; Simons, G.

    1993-07-01

    To conduct studies on the combustion of coal water fuels (CWFs) an appropriate facility was designed and constructed. The main components were (1) a high-temperature isothermal laminar flow furnace that facilitates observation of combustion events in its interior. The design of this system and its characterization are described in Chapter 1. (2) Apparatus for slurry droplet/agglomerate particle generation and introduction in the furnace. These devices are described in Chapters 1 and 3 and other attached publications. (3) An electronic optical pyrometer whose design, construction theory of operation, calibration and performance are presented in Chapter 2. (4) A multitude of other accessories, such as particle fluidization devices, a suction thermometer, a velocimeter, high speed photographic equipment, calibration devices for the pyrometer, etc., are described throughout this report. Results on the combustion of CWF droplets and CWF agglomerates made from micronized coal are described in Chapter 3. In the same chapter the combustion of CWF containing dissolved calcium magnesium acetate (CMA) axe described. The combustion behavior of pre-dried CWF agglomerates of pulverized grain coal is contrasted to that of agglomerates of micronized coal in Chapter 4. In the same chapter the combustion of agglomerates of carbon black and diesel soot is discussed as well. The effect of CMA on the combustion of the above materials is also discussed. Finally, the sulfur capture capability of CMA impregnated micronized and pulverized bituminous coals is examined in Chapter 5.

  17. Separation of flue-gas scrubber sludge into marketable products. Third year, second quarterly technical progress report, December 1, 1995--February 29, 1996 (Quarter {number_sign}10)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawatra, S.K.; Eisele, T.C.

    1996-03-01

    To reduce their sulfur emissions, many coal-fired electric power plants use wet flue-gas scrubbers. These scrubbers convert sulfur oxides into solid sulfate and sulfite sludge, which must then be disposed of. Knowledge of scrubber sludge characteristics is necessary for the development of purification technologies which will make it possible to directly utilize scrubber sludges rather than landfilling them. This project is studying the use of minimal-reagent froth flotation as the purification process, using the surface properties of the particles of unreacted limestone to remove them and their associated impurities from the material, leaving a purified calcium sulfite/gypsum product. In the current quarter, research was focused on two different areas. The first part of this quarter the optimization of the feed slurry percent solids for the two inch water-only cyclone was completed. The optimization of the vortex finder, spigot diameter and inlet feed pressure was completed in the previous quarter. The second part of this quarter began the investigation of why water-only cycloning helps froth flotation performance. The hypothesis is that water-only cycloning scrubs the surface of the unreacted limestone. This scrubbing effect provides a clean calcium carbonate surface, which results in better flotation reagent adsorption. This study used the scanning electron microscope to investigate the surface of the unreacted limestone particles.

  18. Heavy cement slurries; Pastas pesadas de cimento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Francisco Avelar da; Conceicao, Antonio C. Farias [PETROBRAS, XX (Brazil). Distrito de Perfuracao do Nordeste. Div. de Tecnicas de Perfuracao; Marins, Carlos Cesar Silva [PETROBRAS, XX (Brazil). Dept. de Perfuracao. Div. de Revestimento e Cimentacao

    1989-12-31

    When going deeper in a high pressure well, the only way to successfully cement your casing or linear is through the use of heavy cement slurry. In 1987 PETROBRAS geologists presented to the Drilling Department a series of deep, hot and high pressure wells to be drilled. The Casing and Cement Division of this department then started a program to face this new challenge. This paper introduces the first part of this program and shows how PETROBRAS is dealing with heavy weight slurries. We present the slurry formulations tested in laboratory, the difficulties found in mixing them in the field, rheology measurements, API free water and API fluid loss from both laboratory and field samples. (author) 3 tabs.

  19. Slurry bubble column hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rados, Novica

    Slurry bubble column reactors are presently used for a wide range of reactions in both chemical and biochemical industry. The successful design and scale up of slurry bubble column reactors require a complete understanding of multiphase fluid dynamics, i.e. phase mixing, heat and mass transport characteristics. The primary objective of this thesis is to improve presently limited understanding of the gas-liquid-solid slurry bubble column hydrodynamics. The effect of superficial gas velocity (8 to 45 cm/s), pressure (0.1 to 1.0 MPa) and solids loading (20 and 35 wt.%) on the time-averaged solids velocity and turbulent parameter profiles has been studied using Computer Automated Radioactive Particle Tracking (CARPT). To accomplish this, CARPT technique has been significantly improved for the measurements in highly attenuating systems, such as high pressure, high solids loading stainless steel slurry bubble column. At a similar set of operational conditions time-averaged gas and solids holdup profiles have been evaluated using the developed Computed Tomography (CT)/Overall gas holdup procedure. This procedure is based on the combination of the CT scans and the overall gas holdup measurements. The procedure assumes constant solids loading in the radial direction and axially invariant cross-sectionally averaged gas holdup. The obtained experimental holdup, velocity and turbulent parameters data are correlated and compared with the existing low superficial gas velocities and atmospheric pressure CARPT/CT gas-liquid and gas-liquid-solid slurry data. The obtained solids axial velocity radial profiles are compared with the predictions of the one dimensional (1-D) liquid/slurry recirculation phenomenological model. The obtained solids loading axial profiles are compared with the predictions of the Sedimentation and Dispersion Model (SDM). The overall gas holdup values, gas holdup radial profiles, solids loading axial profiles, solids axial velocity radial profiles and solids

  20. Simulation of ground-water flow and transport of chlorinated hydrocarbons at Graces Quarters, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenbus, Frederick J.; Fleck, William B.

    2001-01-01

    Military activity at Graces Quarters, a former open-air chemical-agent facility at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, has resulted in ground-water contamination by chlorinated hydrocarbons. As part of a ground-water remediation feasibility study, a three-dimensional model was constructed to simulate transport of four chlorinated hydrocarbons (1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, trichloroethene, carbon tetrachloride, and chloroform) that are components of a contaminant plume in the surficial and middle aquifers underlying the east-central part of Graces Quarters. The model was calibrated to steady-state hydraulic head at 58 observation wells and to the concentration of 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane in 58 observation wells and 101direct-push probe samples from the mid-1990s. Simulations using the same basic model with minor adjustments were then run for each of the other plume constituents. The error statistics between the simulated and measured concentrations of each of the constituents compared favorably to the error statisticst,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane calibration. Model simulations were used in conjunction with contaminant concentration data to examine the sources and degradation of the plume constituents. It was determined from this that mixed contaminant sources with no ambient degradation was the best approach for simulating multi-species solute transport at the site. Forward simulations were run to show potential solute transport 30 years and 100 years into the future with and without source removal. Although forward simulations are subject to uncertainty, they can be useful for illustrating various aspects of the conceptual model and its implementation. The forward simulation with no source removal indicates that contaminants would spread throughout various parts of the surficial and middle aquifers, with the100-year simulation showing potential discharge areas in either the marshes at the end of the Graces Quarters peninsula or just offshore in the estuaries. The

  1. Modeling of water droplet in super-cooling water evaporative system for ice slurry production%蒸发式过冷水制冰液滴蒸发结晶的模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马善军; 李鹏辉; 孔令健; 李少华; 韩吉田

    2016-01-01

    Ice storage technology is considered as one of the most promising options to achieve the so-called “peak load leveling of power system” and to relieve the contradiction between the supply and demand of peak power currently encountered in China. Among the ice-producing methods being developed around the world, the evaporative supercooling water ice-making one is a new and efficient way for ice slurry production of large scale without ice blockage. Therefore, it is of significant importance to investigate the heat and mass transfer characteristics during the cooling and crystallization process of water droplets in the evaporative supercooling water ice-making chamber to the development of practical ice-making system. In order to analyze the heat and mass transfer characteristics of water droplets in an evaporative super-cooling water system for ice slurry production, we proposed a mathematical model for the cooling and crystallization process of a single water droplet falling in the evaporation chamber with large space, which comprehensively took into account the three different zones of entire liquid phase, solid-liquid interphase and entire solid phase during the cooling and crystallization process of a water droplet. The developed mathematical model was then validated by use of the theoretical and experimental results presented in the available literature and satisfactory agreement was achieved in between the model simulation results and the research ones reported in the literature, indicating the correctness of the mathematical model. The parameter variations of the water droplet with changes in some of the key system operating variables, such as the inlet size and temperature of water droplet, the flow rate and relative humidity of the cold air, were numerically determined by solving the developed mathematical model. Effects of the inlet size and temperature of water droplet, inlet temperature, flow rate and relative humidity of the cold air in the

  2. Flashing Slurry Releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, Bruce E.; Young, Jonathan

    2007-03-14

    The Hanford K Basin Closure Project involves the retrieval, transfer and processing of radioactive contaminated slurries containing partially corroded spent nuclear fuel from the K Basin spent fuel pools. The spent fuel is primarily metallic fuel from the operation of the Hanford reactors. The Sludge Treatment Project is being designed to treat and package this material in preparation for ultimate disposal. The processing of the contaminated slurries includes further corrosion of the remaining uncorroded uranium metal in a large heated vessel to form a more stable metal oxide for packaging and storage.

  3. Pelletizing/reslurrying as a means of distributing and firing clean coal. Final quarterly technical progress report No. 7, January 1, 1992-- March 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conkle, H.N.

    1992-06-09

    Work in this quarter focused on completing (1) the final batch of pilot-scale disk pellets, (2) storage, handling, and transportation evaluation, (3) pellet reslurrying and atomization studies, and (4) cost estimation for pellet and slurry production. Disk pelletization of Elkhorn coal was completed this quarter. Pellets were approximately 1/2- to 3/4-in. in diameter. Pellets, after thermal curing were strong and durable and exceeded the pellet acceptance criteria. Storage and handling tests indicate a strong, durable pellet can be prepared from all coals, and these pellets (with the appropriate binder) can withstand outdoor, exposed storage for at least 4 weeks. Pellets in unexposed storage show no deterioration in pellet properties. Real and simulated transportation tests indicate truck transportation should generate less than 5 percent fines during transport. Continuous reslurrying testing and subsequent atomization evaluation were performed this quarter in association with University of Alabama and Jim Walter Resources. Four different slurries of approximately 55-percent-solids with viscosities below 500 cP (at 100 sec{sup {minus}1}) were prepared. Both continuous pellet-to-slurry production and atomization testing was successfully demonstrated. Finally, an in depth evaluation of the cost to prepare pellets, transport, handle, store, and convert the pellet into Coal Water Fuel (CWF) slurries was completed. Cost of the pellet-CWF option are compared with the cost to directly convert clean coal filter cake into slurry and transport, handle and store it at the user site. Findings indicate that in many circumstances, the pellet-CWF option would be the preferred choice. The decision depends on the plant size and transportation distance, and to a lesser degree on the pelletization technique and the coal selected.

  4. Slurry reactor design studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, J.M.; Degen, B.D.; Cady, G.; Deslate, F.D.; Summers, R.L. (Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, CA (USA)); Akgerman, A. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (USA)); Smith, J.M. (California Univ., Davis, CA (USA))

    1990-06-01

    The objective of these studies was to perform a realistic evaluation of the relative costs of tublar-fixed-bed and slurry reactors for methanol, mixed alcohols and Fischer-Tropsch syntheses under conditions where they would realistically be expected to operate. The slurry Fischer-Tropsch reactor was, therefore, operated at low H{sub 2}/CO ratio on gas directly from a Shell gasifier. The fixed-bed reactor was operated on 2.0 H{sub 2}/CO ratio gas after adjustment by shift and CO{sub 2} removal. Every attempt was made to give each reactor the benefit of its optimum design condition and correlations were developed to extend the models beyond the range of the experimental pilot plant data. For the methanol design, comparisons were made for a recycle plant with high methanol yield, this being the standard design condition. It is recognized that this is not necessarily the optimum application for the slurry reactor, which is being proposed for a once-through operation, coproducing methanol and power. Consideration is also given to the applicability of the slurry reactor to mixed alcohols, based on conditions provided by Lurgi for an Octamix{trademark} plant using their standard tubular-fixed reactor technology. 7 figs., 26 tabs.

  5. Preliminary investigation of the effects of coal-water slurry fuels on the combustion in GE coal fueled diesel engine (Task 1. 1. 2. 2. 1, Fuels)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-06-01

    In prior work with the coal fired diesel research engine, a necessity to determine the sensitivity of the engine to a wider range of fuels was resolved and included in the R and D Test Plan submitted on 2/9/89. In general, the economic viability and universal acceptance of the commercial engine will be a factor of its ability to tolerate the widest range of source fuels with minimal fuel beneficiation. As detailed in the R and D Test Plan, a preliminary investigation on the effects of coal-water slurry (CWS) fuels on the combustion in a GE single cylinder test engine was conducted. The following conclusions are obtained from this investigation. All the test CWS fuels were successfully burned in the GE engine combustion system. They include: 3 to 15 microns mean particle size; 0.7 to 2.8% ash level; KY Blue Gem and PA Mariana bituminous coal, WY Kemmer and Spring Creek Sub-Bituminous coal; coal beneficiated with physical and chemical processes; two kinds of additives for OTISCA CWS; and burnout is not effected by ash or particle size within the test range. For each kind of CWS fuel, the detail design parameters of the fuel injection system has to be compatible. With sufficiently high fuel injection pressure, the 3 micron mean particle size OTISCA fuel burns faster than the 5 micron ones. For OTISCA fuel, the burn rate using Ammonium Lignosulfonate as additive is faster than using Ammonium Condensed Naphthalene Sulfonate. Appendices contain data on heat release, fuel characterization reports from two laboratories, general engine test data, and particulate size distribution. 3 refs.

  6. Microstructural evaluation of oil well cementing slurries using alternative materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paiva, Maria D.M.; Melo, Dulce M.A.; Martinelli, Antonio E. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    n this work, cementing slurries were prepared with densities between 12.2 and 13.8 lb/gal with addition of clay materials (vermiculite and paligorskite) and pozzolans (metakaolin), comparing with neat reference slurries, from 15.6 to 15.8 lb/gal. The cements employed were the Portland G and ordinary Portland. These mixes were evaluated microstructurally through microhardness testing and acquisition of electronic images by ESEM and X-ray maps by EDS. A semi-quantitative analysis software was developed to identify phase distributions from the X-ray maps. It was found that the addition of metakaolin generated slurries with microhardness comparable to or superior to neat slurries, although a new phase was introduced in the hardened material. On the other hand, clay materials generated slurries with lower microhardness. It was observed in these cases a lower hydration degree, possibly due to water absorption by the clays' grains. One exception was the light slurry with paligorskite, which has an excess of water compared to the others. However, the higher water-cement ratio produced a lower microhardness due to the presence of voids, visible by ESEM. Clay inclusions also decreased the microhardness of the slurries. Based on these results, we can recommend metakaolin as the best performing addition to be further evaluated in the field. (author)

  7. Slurry atomizer for a coal-feeder and dryer used to provide coal at gasifier pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loth, John L.; Smith, William C.; Friggens, Gary R.

    1982-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a coal-water slurry atomizer for use a high-pressure dryer employed in a pumping system utilized to feed coal into a pressurized coal gasifier. The slurry atomizer is provided with a venturi, constant area slurry injection conduit, and a plurality of tangentially disposed steam injection ports. Superheated steam is injected into the atomizer through these ports to provide a vortical flow of the steam, which, in turn, shears slurry emerging from the slurry injection conduit. The droplets of slurry are rapidly dispersed in the dryer through the venturi where the water is vaporized from the slurry by the steam prior to deleterious heating of the coal.

  8. Ground-water flow and the potential effects of remediation at Graces Quarters, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenbus, F.J.; Fleck, W.B.

    1996-01-01

    Ground water in the east-central part of Graces Quarters, a former open-air chemical-agent test facility at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, is contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds. The U.S. Geological Survey's finite- difference model was used to help understand ground-water flow and simulate the effects of alternative remedial actions to clean up the ground water. Scenarios to simulate unstressed conditions and three extraction well con- figurations were used to compare alternative remedial actions on the contaminant plume. The scenarios indicate that contaminants could migrate from their present location to wetland areas within 10 years under unstressed conditions. Pumping 7 gal/min (gallons per minute) from one well upgradient of the plume will not result in containment or removal of the highest contaminant concentrations. Pumping 7 gal/min from three wells along the central axis of the plume should result in containment and removal of dissolved contami- nants, as should pumping 7 gal/min from three wells at the leading edge of the plume while injecting 7 gal/min back into an upgradient well.

  9. Attack of carbonic anhydride and hydrogen sulfide on API class H cement slurries exposed to saline formation waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márquez, G.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the attack of the major ions (sulfate, chloride, and magnesium and sour gases, present in natural gas (CO2 y SH2, on API class H cement, the type used in gas wells under high pressure and temperature. The effects of these chemical agents on this cement was simulated to study the physicochemical changes due to the action of sour gases and formation water. Cement specimens were immersed in neutral solutions containing fixed concentrations of the major ions inside Parr reactors. These solutions were analysed and XRD analyses were conducted for over two months to identify mineralogical variations from 14 to 60 days. The objective of this research was to determine the effects of the joint attack of major ions and sour gases on cement pastes. The main effects of both gases, jointly or separately, on cement durability were, respectively, the carbonation process and the leaching of some components.

    Se simuló la acción agresiva de los denominados iones fundamentales (sulfato, cloruro y magnesio y los gases agrios presentes en el gas natural (CO2 y H2S sobre un cemento API clase H utilizado en pozos gasíferos a presión y temperatura elevadas, al objeto de observar sus alteraciones fisicoquímicas por la acción combinada de tales gases y las aguas de formación. Se prepararon varias probetas del material cementante para su inmersión en disoluciones neutras, conteniendo los iones fundamentales en concentraciones fijas, dentro de reactores tipo Parr. Se analizaron durante más de dos meses una serie de disoluciones en contacto con el cemento utilizado; así como, mediante DRX, la evolución de la mineralogía de dicho material entre los 14 y los 60 días. Los principales efectos de ambos gases, en conjunto o por separado, sobre la durabilidad del cemento fueron, respectivamente, la formación de carbonato cálcico y la lixiviación de algunos componentes.

  10. Uptake of Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn by the water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (mart.) solms from pulverised fuel ash (PFA) leachates and slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordes, K.B.; Mehra, A.; Farago, M.E.; Banerjee, D.K. [University of Derby, Derby (United Kingdom). School of Environmental and Applied Science

    2000-12-01

    The main solid waste product from coal-fired power stations is pulverised fuel ash (PFA). This study investigates the uptake of Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn by the aquatic plant E-crassipes grown in leachates and slurries prepared from two different PFA samples. PFA samples were obtained from Indraprastha Power Station (IPP stn.) in New Delhi, India and the Ratcliffe-on-Soar Power Station in the UK. Results show that E. crassipes has a high accumulation capacity for Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn from leachates and slurries generated from two different PFAs and uptake of these metals is stronger in the roots than in the tops of the plant. As the metal concentrations in the growth medium increase in the 1:5 PFA:DIW ratio as compared to the 1:50 ratio, metal accumulation (as indicated by accumulation factor (AF) values) from both leachates and slurries is higher for plants grown in the 1:50 (PFA:DIW) ratios than in the 1:5 ratios. Lower metal accumulation in the plants grown in slurries than in leachates is related to the high turbidity of growth medium in slurries resulting in ash particles adhering to the root surfaces thus reducing the surface area of metal absorption. In terms of neutralisation capacity of the pH of the growth medium, Eichhornia is seen to be able to reduce the pH of all leachates. Accumulation of Cd and Zn by the plant is higher from the lower pH IPP leachates than the Ratcliffe leachates, indicating that these metals are more soluble and bioavailable in the acidic medium. Accumulation of Cu and Ni is independent of the pH of the leachates; indicating that there may be other contributory factors. 78 refs., 7 tabs.

  11. Combustion and economics of coal slurry fuels: a look at coal-fuel oil slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murayama, T.; Matsuoka, H.

    1984-01-01

    With the aim of reducing dependence on petroleum, research has been going ahead into the development of various alternative fuels. Of these, coal slurry fuels are regarded as being first in line for commercialization. The authors discuss the combustion of coal-oil fuels. The combustion of fuel oil, pulverized coal and coal-water slurry is also examined. In each case, combustion properties and associated problems are discussed. Finally, the economics of these fuels are examined and trends in research and development surveyed. 23 references.

  12. Oxygen suppression in boiling water reactors. Quarterly report 2, January 1--March 31, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burley, E.L.

    1978-10-01

    Boiling water reactors (BWR's) generally use high purity, no-additive feedwater. Primary recirculating coolant is neutral pH, and contains 100 to 300 ppB oxygen and stoichiometrically related dissolved hydrogen. However, oxygenated water increases austenitic stainless steel susceptibility to intergranular stress-corrosion cracking (IGSCC) when other requisite factors such as stress and sensitization are present. Thus, reduction or elimination of the oxygen in BWR water may preclude cracking incidents. One approach to reduction of the BWR coolant oxygen concentration is to adopt alternate water chemistry (AWC) conditions using an additive(s) to suppress or reverse radiolytic oxygen formation. Several additives are available to do this but they have seen only limited and specialized application in BWR's. The objective of this program is to perform an in-depth engineering evaluation of the potential suppression additives supported by critical experiments where required to resolve substantive uncertainties.

  13. Friction losses across pipe elements for coal-water slurries with wall-slip behavior%具有壁面滑移特性的水煤浆流经局部管件的阻力特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈良勇; 段钰锋; 刘猛; 赵长遂

    2009-01-01

    Experimental investigations were carried out on a pilot scale slurry transport apparatus to evaluate the friction losses across 90° bends, sudden contraction and sudden expansion for coal-water slurries with the presence of wall-slip behavior. The flow behavior (wall-slip behavior and rheological properties) of these slurries flowing in a straight pipe was determined to use as the baseline. Local resistance coefficients versus generalized Reynolds number correlations were established, in which the generalized Reynolds number (Re_g) well accounted for the wall-slip behavior and rheological properties of these slurries. Local energy losses in a series of bends were investigated as a function of ratio of bend to diameter, pipe diameter and generalized Reynolds number. For sudden expansion and sudden contraction, the effects of the flow behavior of the test slurries on local energy losses were determined. When Re_g was used as a parameter to represent the flow status, a high degree of overlap in local resistance coefficients of various slurries was observed for all test fittings except for sudden contraction. The trends of change in local resistance coefficients with Re_g showed obvious similarity for different bends. The measurements established that dynamic similarity could not be achieved in bends. With increasing Re_g, the resistance coefficients for sudden expansion decreased rapidly when Re_g350. At a high generalized Reynolds number, the resistance coefficient for sudden contraction became closely related to the flow behavior of the test slurries and increased with increasing solid concentration.%以水煤浆的流动特性(壁面滑移特性和流变特性)研究为基础,在中试规模的浆体输送装置上研究水煤浆流经90°弯管、突缩管和突扩管的阻力损失.以表征浆体流动特性的广义Reynolds数(Re_g)作为参数,建立了局部阻力系数关联式;考察了弯径比、管径和Re_g对弯管阻力损失的影响,分析了浆

  14. Oxygen suppression in boiling water reactors. Quarterly report 3, April 1-June 30, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burley, E.L.

    1978-12-01

    Boiling water reactors (BWR's) generally use high purity, no-additive feedwater. The primary recirculating coolant is neutral pH and contains 100 to 300 ppB oxygen and stoichiometrically related dissolved hydrogen. However, oxygenated water increases austenitic stainless steel susceptibility to intergranular stress-corrosion cracking (IGSCC) when other requisite factors such as stress and sensitization are present. Thus, reduction or elimination of the oxygen in BWR water may preclude cracking incidents. This program is to perform an in-depth engineering evaluation of the potential suppression additives supported by critical experiments where required to resolve substantive uncertainties. On the basis of the engineering evaluation, the optimum oxygen suppression technique will be selected and a specific BWR plant recommended for an extended (3-year) plant demonstration experiment.

  15. Modification and Application of Synthetic Technique for Polyacrylic Acid Dispersant of Coal Water Slurry%聚丙烯酸系水煤浆分散剂合成工艺改进及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨纯; 朱书全; 张华文; 潘晓懿; 贺兰鸿; 郭美玲

    2011-01-01

    According to the low monomer polymerized density of the polyacrylic acid and the high polymerized temperature disadvantages,the polyacrylic acid dispersant of the coal water slurry was prepared with the acrylic acid glycol ester, acrylic acid, styrene sulphonic acid sodium, methyl acrylic acid, styrene as copolymerization monomer, under the temperature of 60 ℃, when the initiator n ( NaHSO3 ) :n ( K2S208 ) = 5: 6, the dosage of potassium persulfate was 8% of the monomer quality, the dosage of different propyl alcohol of the chain transfer agent was 55% of the monomer quality.Meanwhile the paper investigated the temperature, the dosage of the potassium persuffate, n ( NaHSO3 ) : n ( K2S2O8 ) ratio, the dosage of different propyl alcohol affected to the performances of the dispersant.The modified compound technique could improve the monomer polymerized density with 16.3% and could reduce the polymerized temperature with 40 ℃.The slurry preparation tests of three kind coal were conducted with the synthetic dispersant.When the dosage of the dispersant was 0.4% ( quantity fraction) of the dry coal and the prepared slurry density was 72%, the min apparent viscosity value of the coal water slurry made from Jixi bituminous coal and Matou cleaned coal would be 850 and 670 mPa ~ s individually.As for the Baori lignite, when the prepared slurry density was 53%, the min apparent viscosity value of the coal water slurry would be 550 mPa · s.%针对聚丙烯酸系单体聚合浓度低、聚合温度高的缺点,以丙烯酸聚乙二醇酯、丙烯酸、苯乙烯磺酸钠、甲基丙烯酸、苯乙烯等为共聚单体,60℃时,在引发剂n(NaHSO3):n(K2S2O8)=5∶6,过硫酸钾用量为单体质量的8%(质量分数),链转移剂异丙醇用量为单体质量的55%(质量分数)时,制备了聚丙烯酸系水煤浆分散剂.同时考察了温度、过硫酸钾用量、亚硫酸氢钠与过硫酸钾物质的量比、异丙醇用量对分散剂性能的影响.

  16. Chemical Hydride Slurry for Hydrogen Production and Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClaine, Andrew W

    2008-09-30

    The purpose of this project was to investigate and evaluate the attractiveness of using a magnesium chemical hydride slurry as a hydrogen storage, delivery, and production medium for automobiles. To fully evaluate the potential for magnesium hydride slurry to act as a carrier of hydrogen, potential slurry compositions, potential hydrogen release techniques, and the processes (and their costs) that will be used to recycle the byproducts back to a high hydrogen content slurry were evaluated. A 75% MgH2 slurry was demonstrated, which was just short of the 76% goal. This slurry is pumpable and storable for months at a time at room temperature and pressure conditions and it has the consistency of paint. Two techniques were demonstrated for reacting the slurry with water to release hydrogen. The first technique was a continuous mixing process that was tested for several hours at a time and demonstrated operation without external heat addition. Further work will be required to reduce this design to a reliable, robust system. The second technique was a semi-continuous process. It was demonstrated on a 2 kWh scale. This system operated continuously and reliably for hours at a time, including starts and stops. This process could be readily reduced to practice for commercial applications. The processes and costs associated with recycling the byproducts of the water/slurry reaction were also evaluated. This included recovering and recycling the oils of the slurry, reforming the magnesium hydroxide and magnesium oxide byproduct to magnesium metal, hydriding the magnesium metal with hydrogen to form magnesium hydride, and preparing the slurry. We found that the SOM process, under development by Boston University, offers the lowest cost alternative for producing and recycling the slurry. Using the H2A framework, a total cost of production, delivery, and distribution of $4.50/kg of hydrogen delivered or $4.50/gge was determined. Experiments performed at Boston

  17. Oxygen suppression in boiling water reactors. Quarterly report 4, July 1-September 30, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burley, E.L.

    1979-03-01

    Boiling water reactors (BWR's) generally use high purity, no-additive feedwater. The primary recirculating coolant is neutral pH, and contains 100 to 300 ppB oxygen with stoichiometrically related dissolved hydrogen. However, this oxygen concentration increases the susceptibility of austenitic stainless steel to intergranular stress-corrosion cracking (IGSCC) when the other requisite factors, stress and sensitization, are present. Thus, reduction or elimination of the oxygen in BWR water may preclude cracking incidents. The objective of this program is to perform an in-depth engineering evaluation of the potential suppression additives supported by critical experiments where required to resolve substantive uncertainties. On the basis of the engineering evaluation, the optimum oxygen suppression approach will be selected and a specific BWR plant recommended for an extended plant demonstration experiment.

  18. Critical parameters for coarse coal underground slurry haulage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maynard, D.P.

    1981-02-15

    This report describes the basic parameters which directly influence the behavior of a coal slurry pipeline transportation system and determine the limitations of the system performance. The purpose of this technology assessment is to provide an identification and understanding of the critical factors which must be given consideration in the design and evaluation of such a slurry haulage system intended for use in an underground coal mine. The slurry haulage system will be utilized to satisfy the transportation requirements of conveying, in a pipeline, the coal mined by a continuous mining machine to a storage location near the mine entrance or to a coal preparation plant located on the surface. Coal-water slurries, particularly those consisting of homogeneous suspensions of small particles, frequently behave as non-Newtonian, Bingham-plastic fluids. For successful operation, slurry transport systems should be designed to operate in the turbulent flow regime and at a flow rate at least 30% greater than the deposition velocity. The deposition velocity is defined as the slurry flow rate at which the solid particles tend to settle in the pipe. Due to the importance of accurately determining the deposition velocity and the uncertainties of current methods for predicting the deposition velocity of coarse particle slurries, it is recommended that experimental efforts be performed as a part of the system design. The capacity of the haulage system should be compatible with the mine's projected coal output in order to avoid operational delays and the necessity for in-mine coal storage. The slurry pumps must generate sufficient discharge pressure to overcome the resultant friction losses in horizontal and vertical pipe sections and to satisfy the slurry hoisting requirements.

  19. 沼液对水培生菜生长、养分及水分利用效率的影响%Effects of Biogas Slurry on Yield,Water and Nutrient Utilization Efficiency of Hydroponic Lettuce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨鑫; 王文娥; 胡笑涛; 李兴杰; 苏苑君

    2016-01-01

    采用深液流水培法,对生菜在不同沼液替换比例配制有机无机复合营养液条件下的生理生长、产量及其对营养液养分和水分利用效率进行了研究。结果表明沼液对生菜叶面积、产量,养分及水分利用效率的提高有显著的作用,在沼液替换比例为10%、20%、40%的条件下,生菜的叶面积、产量、养分及水分利用效率均随着沼液替换比例的提高而增加。在60%和80%的沼液替换比例条件下,生菜的产量和植株对养分、水分的吸收利用率都有所下降,过高沼液替换营养液比例不利于生菜的生长。在这种复合营养液条件下,生菜对于氮、磷及镁元素的吸收利用率较高,对于钾和钙的需求量较低。%The experiment was studied the effect of different biogas slurry replacement ratio of nutrient by Deep Flow Technique (DFT)on growth,water and nutrient utilization efficiency of hydroponic lettuce.The result showed that the biogas slurry could bring out a obvious promotion of the leaf area,yield,nutrient and water use efficiency of lettuce,which increased significantly with in-creasing of biogas slurry replacement ratio among 10%,20% and 40% dosage.However those decreased to some extent among 60%and 80% replacement ratio,the excessive biogas slurry replacement ratio was not conducive to the growth of lettuce.The hydroponic lettuce had a higher absorption and utilization of N,P and Mg under the condition of the composite nutrient solution.While the de-mand of K and Ca for lettuce was relatively low.

  20. Separation of phosphorus from pig slurry using chemical additives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estevez Rodriguez, M.D.; Gomez del Puerto, A.M.; Montealegre Meléndez, M.L.;

    2005-01-01

    of water and therefore transport costs can be reduced by separating the P from a high volume of slurry into a small dry-matter- and P-rich solid fraction. This study tested different combinations of coagulants (ferric salts) and flocculants (polyacrylamide polymers) that can contribute to an efficient...... retention of P in a solid fraction. The laboratory studies showed that 98% of the P in slurry was retained in the solid fraction retained on the filter net (12% to 28% retained W:W) after the addition of coagulants and flocculants. Linear cationic polyacrylamide polymers proved to be more efficient at lower...... irrespective of the amounts added (12% to 18%). The cost of an efficient separation of slurry using coagulants and flocculants and including the cost of screw press separation was estimated to be $2.4 m(-3) slurry....

  1. 污泥增强水焦浆稳定性的机制及理论分析%Mechanism and Theoretical Analysis on Stability of Petroleum Coke-Water Slurry Enhanced by Sewage Sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄冰冰; 刘猛; 段钰锋; 陈高森; 马贵林; 王素美

    2014-01-01

    选取城市污泥与石油焦共成浆,采用扫描电子显微镜(scanning electron microscope,SEM)和X射线能谱仪(energy dispersive X-ray detector,EDX)考察污泥与石油焦共成浆的作用机制。借助旋转黏度计和转矩流变仪,建立污泥增强水焦浆稳定性的理论模型,定量计算泥焦浆三维空间结构强度,考察污泥改性对泥焦浆流变性和稳定性的影响。结果表明,污泥与石油焦共成浆过程中,污泥絮体包裹石油焦颗粒形成具有一定强度的空间网状结构,从而增强泥焦浆的稳定性;随着污泥添加量增加,泥焦浆触变环面积增大,稳定性增强,但是污泥改性后,泥焦浆的稳定性增强趋势减缓。模型预测结果表明,剪切泥焦浆的单位质量能耗约为剪切水焦浆时的2~3倍,因此,污泥的加入增强了水焦浆的稳定性,污泥在与石油焦共成浆过程中起到了稳定剂的作用。%The sewage sludge and petroleum coke were mixed to make slurry. The co-slurry ability mechanism of the petroleum coke sludge slurry (PCSS) was investigated by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray detector (EDX). A theoretical model was deduced of how the sludge can improve the petroleum coke water slurry (PCWS) with the help of rotational viscometer and torque rheometer. The three-dimensional spatial structure strength of the PCSS was predicted quantitatively. The effects of sludge on rheological property and stability of the PCSS was investigated. The outcome shows that petroleum coke particles are wrapped by the sludge flocs during their co-slurry process to form a spatial network structure with some intensity, thus improving the stability of the PCSS. With increase of sludge addition, thixotropic loop area grows up and stability of the PCSS is enhanced. While the ascending trend of the PCSS stability reduces gradually after sludge modification. The results of model prediction show

  2. Loss of Propiconazole and its Four Stereoisomers from the Water Phase of Two Soil-Water Slurries as Measured by Capillary Electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Propiconazole is a chiral fungicide used in agriculture for control of many fungal diseases on a variety of crops. This use provides opportunities for pollution of soil and, subsequently, groundwater. The rate of loss of propiconazole from the water phase of two different soil-wa...

  3. Microencapsulated paraffin in phase-change-slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gschwander, S.; Schossig, P.; Henning, H.M. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme, Freiburg (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Phase-Change-Slurries (PCS) are mixtures of a Phase-Change-Material (PCM) and a carrier-.uid. Such PCS of microencapsulated paraf.n as PCM and water as carrier-.uid are investigated at Fraunhofer ISE. The shell of the microcapsule prevents an interaction between the paraf.n and the water. At ISE a test-facility was built to study the stability of the capsules while pumped with conventional pumps through common used heating components like pipes, heat exchangers, volume-.ow measurement instruments, pressure relief valves etc. To analyze the stability of the capsules SEM-pictures are taken after pumping them several weeks to control the optical state of the capsules. The speci.c heat of fusion is checked by DSC-Measurements. Thermal measurements are carried out to investigate the thermal behavior of the Slurry while pumped through heat exchangers. The results show that the PC-Material can be melted and frozen while.owing through the heat exchangers. The presented results illustrate that microencapsulated PC-Slurries can enhance the heatcapacity of a heat-carrier-.uid and they are also stable enough to be used with common heating or cooling devices. (orig.)

  4. 78 FR 72109 - Quarterly Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water-Related Contract Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... form of news releases, legal notices, official letters, memorandums, or other forms of written material... parties who requested the contract in response to the initial public notice. Definitions of Abbreviations... contract to provide for a long term-water supply. 57. Nelson Dikes, Milk River Project: Consideration of...

  5. 78 FR 72111 - Quarterly Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water-Related Contract Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... in the form of news releases, legal notices, official letters, memorandums, or other forms of written... parties who requested the contract in response to the initial public notice. Definitions of Abbreviations... contract to provide for a long term-water supply. 57. Nelson Dikes, Milk River Project: Consideration of...

  6. 水煤浆气化炉锁渣阀的使用分析与选型%Analysis and Model Selection of Cinder Lock-Up Valve for Coal-Water Slurry Gasifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志强

    2011-01-01

    The key piece of equipment, cinder lock-up valve, in the coal-water slurry gasification technology has always depended on import; it is not only high in price but also inconvenient to repair.The domestic engineers and technicians in the course of repairing the imported valves have incorporated the strong points of various manufactures to produce a valve meeting the working conditions for coalwater slurry gasification, capable of fully replacing the imported product.%水煤浆气化技术的关键设备锁渣阀一直依赖进口,不仅价格昂贵,而且维修不便.国内工程技术人员在对进口锁渣阀进行修复的过程中,集众家所长,制造出了能满足水煤浆气化使用工况的锁渣阀,完全可以替代进口产品.

  7. Comparison of quarter-hourly on-line dynamic headspace analysis to purge-and-trap analysis of varying volatile organic compounds in drinking water sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnable, J G; Dussert, B; Suffet, I H; Hertz, C D

    1990-07-27

    On-line dynamic headspace analysis was refined for the quarter-hourly monitoring of select volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in ground and surface waters, for extended periods of time. Hourly comparisons were made to on-line purge-and-trap analysis, and to purge-and-trap analysis after sample preservation and storage. Variations in VOC concentrations of 6047% biweekly, 222% daily, 97% hourly, and 35% quarter-hourly were observable, with the 15-min cycle of the dynamic headspace analysis. The headspace analyzer had superior retention time stability, required less maintenance, and had 1/4 the analysis time as a typical purge-and-trap-gas chromatograph system used for hourly comparisons.

  8. Comparative testing of slurry monitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hylton, T.D.; Bayne, C.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Anderson, M.S. [Ames Lab., IA (United States); Van Essen, D.C. [Advanced Integrated Management Services, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has millions of gallons of radioactive liquid and sludge wastes stored in underground tanks. These wastes must be retrieved, transferred to treatment facilities, and processed for disposal. Before removal from the storage tanks, the sludge and liquid wastes will typically be combined to create a mixture of suspended solids, generally referred to as a slurry; the slurry is then pumped from the tank to the treatment facilities by pipelines. Since the wastes are radioactive, it is critically important that the slurries are transported safely and successfully. The consequences of pipeline plugging are unacceptable from the perspectives of schedule, cost, and safety. The baseline method of ensuring that the transport properties of the slurries are correct is to sample the slurry in the tank and analyze the sample in the laboratory. This method has some problems. First, there is a delay between the time that the sample is taken and the time that the analytical results are reported. For some types of analysis, this delay could be from 24 to 48 hours. Second, although the tank is being mixed to keep tile solids in suspension during this period, there is no way to determine whether the contents of the tank are homogenous unless multiple samples are collected at various depths and locations. Therefore, an on-line system that monitors slurry transport properties in real time is needed to evaluate the slurry prior to and during transfer.

  9. Slurry flow principles and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Shook, C A; Brenner, Howard

    2015-01-01

    Slurry Flow: Principles and Practice describes the basic concepts and methods for understanding and designing slurry flow systems, in-plan installations, and long-distance transportation systems. The goal of this book is to enable the design or plant engineer to derive the maximum benefit from a limited amount of test data and to generalize operating experience to new situations. Design procedures are described in detail and are accompanied by illustrative examples needed by engineers with little or no previous experience in slurry transport.The technical literature in this field is extensive:

  10. Slurry pipeline technology: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Jay P. [Pipeline Systems Incorporated (PSI), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Lima, Rafael; Pinto, Daniel; Vidal, Alisson [Ausenco do Brasil Engenharia Ltda., Nova Lima, MG (Brazil). PSI Div.

    2009-12-19

    Slurry pipelines represent an economical and environmentally friendly transportation means for many solid materials. This paper provides an over-view of the technology, its evolution and current Brazilian activity. Mineral resources are increasingly moving farther away from ports, processing plants and end use points, and slurry pipelines are an important mode of solids transport. Application guidelines are discussed. State-of-the-Art technical solutions such as pipeline system simulation, pipe materials, pumps, valves, automation, telecommunications, and construction techniques that have made the technology successful are presented. A discussion of where long distant slurry pipelines fit in a picture that also includes thickened and paste materials pipe lining is included. (author)

  11. 动水大高程地面双液注浆堵水关键技术浆液凝固性能试验研究%Study for the Test of Slurry Coagulability About Double Liquid Grouting Water Shutoff Key Technology on the Dynamic Water High Elevation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雷

    2014-01-01

    水泥-水玻璃在灌浆、堵水等工程中具有广泛的应用,而浆液的凝胶时间对灌浆、堵水等工程的顺利进行起着直接的影响,本文通过对不同水灰比、不同水玻璃用量的水泥水玻璃浆液的凝固性能进行试验分析,选取适当的配合比浆液对安徽省淮南市某矿进行从地面向地下注浆堵水工程。%The cement - sodium silicate slurry is widely used in grouting and water stopping, and the solidification char-acter-istics of slurry have the direct effect on such engineering. According to the analysis of the coagulability test result of the ce-ment-sodium silicate slurry with different ratio of water and dif-ferent dosage of sodium silicate, determining the mix proportion for blocking Water grouting at a mine of Huainan Coal.

  12. Chemical Hydride Slurry for Hydrogen Production and Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClaine, Andrew W

    2008-09-30

    The purpose of this project was to investigate and evaluate the attractiveness of using a magnesium chemical hydride slurry as a hydrogen storage, delivery, and production medium for automobiles. To fully evaluate the potential for magnesium hydride slurry to act as a carrier of hydrogen, potential slurry compositions, potential hydrogen release techniques, and the processes (and their costs) that will be used to recycle the byproducts back to a high hydrogen content slurry were evaluated. A 75% MgH2 slurry was demonstrated, which was just short of the 76% goal. This slurry is pumpable and storable for months at a time at room temperature and pressure conditions and it has the consistency of paint. Two techniques were demonstrated for reacting the slurry with water to release hydrogen. The first technique was a continuous mixing process that was tested for several hours at a time and demonstrated operation without external heat addition. Further work will be required to reduce this design to a reliable, robust system. The second technique was a semi-continuous process. It was demonstrated on a 2 kWh scale. This system operated continuously and reliably for hours at a time, including starts and stops. This process could be readily reduced to practice for commercial applications. The processes and costs associated with recycling the byproducts of the water/slurry reaction were also evaluated. This included recovering and recycling the oils of the slurry, reforming the magnesium hydroxide and magnesium oxide byproduct to magnesium metal, hydriding the magnesium metal with hydrogen to form magnesium hydride, and preparing the slurry. We found that the SOM process, under development by Boston University, offers the lowest cost alternative for producing and recycling the slurry. Using the H2A framework, a total cost of production, delivery, and distribution of $4.50/kg of hydrogen delivered or $4.50/gge was determined. Experiments performed at Boston

  13. Deep conversion of black oils with Eni Slurry technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panariti, Nicoletta; Rispoli, Giacomo

    2010-09-15

    Eni Slurry Technology represents a significant technological innovation in residue conversion and unconventional oils upgrading. EST allows the almost total conversion of heavy feedstocks into useful products, mainly transportation fuels, with a great major impact on the economic and environmental valorization of hydrocarbon resources. The peculiar characteristics of EST in terms of yields, products quality, absence of undesired by-products and feedstock flexibility constitute its superior economic and environmental attractiveness. The first full scale industrial plant based on this new technology will be realized in Eni's Sannazzaro refinery (23,000 bpd). Oil in is scheduled by 4th quarter 2012.

  14. 水煤浆加压气化烧嘴在线运行周期的影响因素及分析%Effecting Factor and Analysis of Water Coal Slurry Pressurizing Gasification Burner on Running Period in Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘乐利

    2014-01-01

    分析了影响水煤浆加压气化烧嘴长周期运行的原因,分别从烧嘴的设计选型、材料选用及加工制造、运行维护与检修等方面提出了应对措施,对水煤浆气化生产企业选用相应的气化烧嘴给出了建议。%Author has analyzed the reason influencing long-term operation of burner for water coal slurry pressurizing gasification , has presented the countermeasures separately from aspects of design and type selection of burner,material selection and processing/manufacturing, operation/maintainance and inspection.

  15. Fluidization mechanisms in slurry flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Charles S.

    1988-08-01

    A transducer is developed to measure particle pressures independently from fluid pressure. Initially it was thought that particle pressure was the only path by which the fluidization mechanism could be determined. The particle pressure transducer has been described in previous reports. A secondary project was developed to test these transducers and use them to measure the particle pressures generated against the side walls of gas-fluidized beds. This was a way to gain experience with the particle pressure transducer while awaiting the delivery of the pump and other components for the slurry pipe loop. Earlier this year, there was great difficulty in gaining repeatable results from the experiments. The culprit turned out to be static charge buildup in the granular mass. Hence, steam was injected into the air stream to help dissipate the charge buildup. This produced a further source of error that was eventually traced to the fiberoptic displacement transducer inside the probe. It developed that the transducer was sensitive to humidity. It has been suggested that this reaction might be a byproduct of the absorption of water onto the sensing surface changes its optical properties and hence its output signal.

  16. Comparative testing of slurry monitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hylton, T.D.; Bayne, C.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Anderson, M.S. [Ames Lab., IA (United States); Van Essen, D.C. [Advanced Integrated Management Services, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1998-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has millions of gallons of radioactive liquid and sludge wastes that must be retrieved from underground storage tanks, transferred to treatment facilities, and processed to a final waste form. The wastes will be removed from the current storage tanks by mobilizing the sludge wastes and mixing them with the liquid wastes to create slurries. Each slurry would then be transferred by pipeline to the desired destination. To reduce the risk of plugging a pipeline, the transport properties (e.g., density, suspended solids concentration, viscosity, particle size range) of the slurry should be determined to be within acceptable limits prior to transfer. These properties should also be monitored and controlled within specified limits while the slurry transfer is in progress. The DOE issued a call for proposals for developing on-line instrumentation to measure the transport properties of slurries. In response to the call for proposals, several researchers submitted proposals and were funded to develop slurry monitoring instruments. These newly developed DOE instruments are currently in the prototype stage. Before the instruments were installed in a radioactive application, the DOE wanted to evaluate them under nonradioactive conditions to determine if they were accurate, reliable, and dependable. The goal of this project was to test the performance of the newly developed DOE instruments along with several commercially available instruments. The baseline method for comparison utilized the results from grab-sample analyses.

  17. Medical ice slurry production device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasza, Kenneth E.; Oras, John; Son, HyunJin

    2008-06-24

    The present invention relates to an apparatus for producing sterile ice slurries for medical cooling applications. The apparatus is capable of producing highly loaded slurries suitable for delivery to targeted internal organs of a patient, such as the brain, heart, lungs, stomach, kidneys, pancreas, and others, through medical size diameter tubing. The ice slurry production apparatus includes a slurry production reservoir adapted to contain a volume of a saline solution. A flexible membrane crystallization surface is provided within the slurry production reservoir. The crystallization surface is chilled to a temperature below a freezing point of the saline solution within the reservoir such that ice particles form on the crystallization surface. A deflector in the form of a reciprocating member is provided for periodically distorting the crystallization surface and dislodging the ice particles which form on the crystallization surface. Using reservoir mixing the slurry is conditioned for easy pumping directly out of the production reservoir via medical tubing or delivery through other means such as squeeze bottles, squeeze bags, hypodermic syringes, manual hand delivery, and the like.

  18. 改性胍胶水煤浆分散剂的制备与性能表征%Synthesis and Propertis of Modified Guar Gum Dispersant for Coal-water Slurry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Modified guar gum dispersant was synthesized with guar gum as based agent, acrylic aid, AMPS and AM as modifying agents.The structure of the dispersant was characterized by means of Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), thermal gravimetric analysis (TG).The properties of the coal-water slurry with the dispersant were measured by rheometer and zetasizer. The results show that modified guar gum dispersant starts to decompose at 280 ℃;the viscosity of the system is 760 mPa·s when the dispersant dosage is 0.4% and the pulp concentration is 64%;the condensate rate of the coal-water slurry is less, and the system is stable.%以胍胶为主剂,经过氧化还原反应后在分子链上引入含有羧基的丙烯酸、含有磺酸基的2-丙烯酰胺-2-甲基丙磺酸(AMPS)和丙烯酰胺分子单体,通过自由基缩合反应合成出改性胍胶聚合物分散剂,通过红外光谱、热分析仪、流变仪及激光粒度仪对合成产物及水煤浆体系进行测试,改性胍胶聚合物分散剂在280℃开始逐级分解,热稳定性较好;在分散剂加量为0.4%,制浆浓度为64%时,水煤浆体系的表观粘度为760 mPa·s,水煤浆析水量较少、体系稳定。

  19. Coal slurry fuel supply and purge system

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Robert E.; Basic, Steven L.; Smith, Russel M.

    1994-01-01

    A coal slurry fuel supply and purge system for a locomotive engines is disclosed which includes a slurry recirculation path, a stand-by path for circulating slurry during idle or states of the engine when slurry fuel in not required by the engine, and an engine header fluid path connected to the stand-by path, for supplying and purging slurry fuel to and from fuel injectors. A controller controls the actuation of valves to facilitate supply and purge of slurry to and from the fuel injectors. A method for supplying and purging coal slurry in a compression ignition engine is disclosed which includes controlling fluid flow devices and valves in a plurality of fluid paths to facilitate continuous slurry recirculation and supply and purge of or slurry based on the operating state of the engine.

  20. Effect of Water-saving Models and Feed Type to Biogas Slurry Nutrient Characteristics%水处理方式和饲料种类对发酵沼液养分特征的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨怀; 唐山荣; 周卫卫; 余雪标; 王旭; 李宝琦

    2011-01-01

    In order to find the optimal water-saving model of pig feces, and further to make up a low-cost and efficient fluid organic compound fertilizer. Used average fermented liquid which discharged normally from anaerobic fermentation by use of amount of water each day -the sink in the Luoniu Mountain pig bar in the Meilan District, Haikou as a control, various water-saving treatment pig feces were collected to anaerobic fermentation, and then N, P and K content was measured. The results showed that N, P and K content with each water-saving treatment pig feces anaerobic fermentation was much more than that of the control. The less the amount of water in pool, the higher the concentrations of N, P and K content for biogas slurry; The longer the storage, the higher the concentrations of N, P and K content for biogas slurry; Because feed was various, nutrition content of the fermented liquid from pig using the brand of Qing Muyuan 303 was higher than that of pig using the brand of Qing Muyuan 313 under the same condition. The best water-saving collected model was that 133 kg water stored for three days, then pig used feed(the brand of Qing Muyuan 303)was collected. The results suggested that little amount of water in the biogas slurry pigsty pool, longer storage time be chosen.%为找出猪场最优节水处理模式,进而以其沼液低成本配制高效有机液体复合肥,以海南省海口市美兰区罗牛山农场猪栏每天用水量-水池厌氧发酵正常排出的普通沼液为对照,分别收集各节水处理猪粪尿进行厌氧发酵,而后测定沼液中养分N、P、K含量.结果表明:在节水处理条件下猪粪尿厌氧发酵后其沼液养分N、P、K含量远高于对照,池中用水量越少,其沼液养分N、P、K含量越高;留存时间越长,其沼液养分N、P、K含量越高;因饲料不同,同等条件下猪食用303青牧原饲料废水沼液养分含量高于猪食用313青牧原饲料.最优的节水收集模式为133 kg

  1. Development of ultra-lightweight slurries with high compressive strength for use in oil wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzart, J. Walter P. [Halliburton Company, Houston, TX (United States); Farias, A.C. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ribeiro, Danilo; Fernandes, Thiago; Santos, Reened [Halliburton Energy Services Aberdeen, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-01

    Formations with low fracture gradients or depleted reservoirs often lead to difficult oil well cementing operations. Commonly employed cement slurries (14.0 to 15.8 lb/gal), generate an equivalent circulating density (ECD) higher than the fracture gradient and ultimately lead to formation damage, lost circulation and a decreased top of cement. Given the high price of oil, companies are investing in those and other wells that are difficult to explore. Naturally, lightweight cement slurries are used to reduce the ECD (10.0 to 14.0 lb/gal), using additives to trap water and stabilize the slurry. However, when the density reaches 11.0 lb/gal, the increase in water content may cause a change in characteristics. The focus of this study is extreme cases where it is necessary to employ ultra-lightweight cement slurries (5.5 to 10.0 lb/gal). Foamed slurries have been widely used, and the objective is to set an alternative by developing cement slurries containing uncompressible microspheres, aiming for a density of 7.5 lb/gal as well as high compressive strength. Another benefit in contrast to preparing foamed cement slurries is that there is no requirement for special equipment in the field. Routine laboratory tests such as fluid-loss control, sedimentation, thickening time, free water, compressive strength, and rheology (at room and high temperatures) were performed. Thus, it was concluded that the proposed cement slurries can be used in oil wells. (author)

  2. Concentration of pig slurry by evaporation: anaerobic digestion as the key process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonmatí, A; Campos, E; Flotats, X

    2003-01-01

    Nutrient redistribution between areas with a structural pig slurry surplus and those with a shortage, is limited by the high cost of transportation and spreading, due to the high water content in slurry (more than 90%) and its relative low nutrient concentration. Water can be removed from slurry by evaporation, through the application of waste heat from a power plant or from other processes. Apart from obtaining a concentrate with an obviously higher nutrient concentration than the original slurry, another objective is to obtain clean water as condensate. The objective of this work was to study the batch vacuum evaporation of pig slurry liquid fraction, to evaluate the economic feasibility and to evaluate condensate quality as a function of both pH (4, 5 and 6) and pig slurry type (fresh slurry and anaerobically digested slurry). Results showed that condensate characteristics (ammonia nitrogen, VFA, COD) were strongly dependent on these variables. Previous anaerobic digestion presented clear advantages: it provided a fraction of the required energy and it removed organic matter, preventing its volatilisation in the evaporation process and providing higher quality condensates. These advantages make the combined treatment strategy economically more feasible than the evaporation process alone.

  3. Bovine serum albumin-Cu(II) hybrid nanoflowers: An effective adsorbent for solid phase extraction and slurry sampling flame atomic absorption spectrometric analysis of cadmium and lead in water, hair, food and cigarette samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, Erkan [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Erciyes University, Kayseri 38039 (Turkey); Ocsoy, Ismail [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Erciyes University, Kayseri 38039 (Turkey); Nanotechnology Research Center (ERNAM), Erciyes University, Kayseri 38039 (Turkey); Ozdemir, Nalan [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Erciyes University, Kayseri 38039 (Turkey); Soylak, Mustafa, E-mail: soylak@erciyes.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Erciyes University, Kayseri 38039 (Turkey)

    2016-02-04

    Herein, the synthesis of bovine serum albumin-Cu(II) hybrid nanoflowers (BSA-NFs) through the building blocks of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and copper(II) ions in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and their use as adsorbent for cadmium and lead ions are reported. The BSA-NFs, for the first time, were efficiently utilized as novel adsorbent for solid phase extraction (SPE) of cadmium and lead ions in water, food, cigarette and hair samples. The method is based on the separation and pre-concentration of Cd(II) and Pb(II) by BSA-NFs prior to determination by slurry analysis via flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The analytes were adsorbed on BSA-NFs under the vortex mixing and then the ion-loaded slurry was separated and directly introduced into the flame AAS nebulizer by using a hand-made micro sample introduction system to eliminate a number of drawbacks. The effects of analytical key parameters, such as pH, amount of BSA-NFs, vortexing time, sample volume, and matrix effect of foreign ions on adsorbing of Cd(II) and Pb(II) were systematically investigated and optimized. The limits of detection (LODs) for Cd(II) and Pb(II) were calculated as 0.37 μg L{sup −1} and 8.8 μg L{sup −1}, respectively. The relative standard deviation percentages (RSDs) (N = 5) for Cd(II) and Pb(II) were 7.2%, and 5.0%, respectively. The accuracy of the developed procedure was validated by the analysis of certified reference materials (TMDA-53.3 Fortified Water, TMDA-70 Fortified Water, SPS-WW2 Waste Water, NCSDC-73349 Bush Branches and Leaves) and by addition/recovery analysis. The quantitative recoveries were obtained for the analysis of certified reference materials and addition/recovery tests. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of cadmium and lead in water, food, cigarette and hair samples. - Highlights: • The synthesis of bovine serum albumin-Cu(II) hybrid nanoflowers is reported. • The nanoflowers were utilized for solid phase microextraction of

  4. How effective are slurry storage, cover or catch crops, woodland creation, controlled trafficking or break-up of compacted layers, and buffer strips as on-farm mitigation measures for delivering an improved water environment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall Nicola P

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Agriculture has intensified over the last 50 years resulting in increased usage of fertilizers and agrochemicals, changes in cropping practices, land drainage and increased stocking rates. In Europe, this has resulted in declines in the quality of soils and waters due to increased run off and water pollution. Fifty percent of nitrates in European rivers are derived from agricultural sources in the UK this value is as high as 70%, where agriculture also contributes to approximately 28% of phosphates and 76% of sediments recorded in rivers. Catchments dominated by agricultural land use have increased levels of pesticides and bacterial pathogens. European member states have a policy commitment to tackle water pollution through the Water Framework Directive. An analysis of the effectiveness of water pollution mitigation measures should enable decision makers and delivery agencies to better facilitate catchment planning. The aim of this systematic review is to assess the effectiveness of slurry storage, cover/catch crops, woodland creation, controlled trafficking/break-up of compacted layers and buffer strips, as on farm mitigation measures, for delivering an improved water environment. Methods The systematic review will consist of a searchable systematic map database for all the named interventions. Where possible, quantitative analysis will be used to assess the effectiveness of interventions. Electronic databases, the internet, and organisational websites will be searched, and stakeholders will be contacted for studies that investigate the impact of the on-farm mitigation measures on water quality. All studies found will be assessed for suitability for inclusion in the next stage. Inclusion criteria will be based on subject, intervention, comparator and outcome. The details of included studies will be incorporated into the systematic map database, and studies scored for effectiveness of intervention and study design. Where

  5. Improvements of marine clay slurries using chemicalephysical combined method (CPCM)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongqing Wu; Wenyu Xu; Romy Tjuar

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the effectiveness, applicability and validity of chemicalephysical combined methods (CPCMs) for treatment of marine clay (MC) slurries were evaluated. The method CPCM1 combines chemical stabilization and vacuum preloading (VP), while CPCM2 is similar to CPCM1 but includes both the application of surcharge and use of geo-bags to provide confinement during surcharge preloading. The key advantage of CPCM2 using geo-bags is that the surcharge can be immediately applied on the chemically stabilized slurries. Two types of geo-bags were investigated under simulated land filling and dyke conditions, respectively. The test results show that the shear strength (cu) of treated slurry by CPCM2 is generally much higher than that by CPCM1. Besides, the use of CPCM2 can significantly reduce the treatment time due to the short drainage paths created by geo-bags. Overall, CPCM2 allows faster consolidation and higher preloading that help to achieve higher mechanical properties of the stabilized slurry. There are consistent relationships between cU and water content of slurries treated by CPCM2. Several important observations were also made based on comparisons of experimental data.

  6. Slurry Coating System Statement of Work and Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, S. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-02-06

    The Slurry Coating System will be used to coat crystals with a polymer to support Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (LLNS) research and development at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The crystals will be suspended in water in a kettle. A polymer solution is added, temperature of the kettle is raised and aggregates of the crystals and polymer form. The slurry is heated under vacuum to drive off the solvents and slowly cooled while mixing to room temperature. The resulting aggregates are then filtered and dried. The performance characteristics and fielding constraints define a unique set of requirements for a new system. This document presents the specifications and requirements for the system.

  7. Erosion Characteristics of Aluminum-based Metal Matrix Composites in Slurry Environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tu Jiangping

    2000-01-01

    The erosion resistance of the Al18B4O33 whisker reinforced AC4C Al composites in water and saline slurry were investigated using a jet-in-slit rig. Erosion tests were performed at slurry velocities between 6.4 m/s to 15.2 m/s and at normal impact angle. The detachment of flake and dislodgement of whisker were identified as the major mechanisms of material removal in slurry environments. The composites showed better erosion resistance due to the protection of the matrix by the whisker at low slurry velocities. Because of reduced fracture strain, the erosion rates of the composites were generally greater than that of the unreinforced alloy at high slurry velocities. Owing to interfacial reaction which resulted in decrease in hardness and fracture strain,the T6 treatment for the composites had a deleterious influence on the erosion resistance. By considering the material removal processes in the water slurry, a simple rationalization of the inverse dependence of slurry erosion rate on Hεf was obtained. In the saline slurry, there exists a strong synergistic effect between erosion and corrosion. The volume loss of the composites was enhanced through cracking of flakes and detaching of whisker induced by stress and corrosion.

  8. Influence of soil structure on contaminant leaching from injected slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amin, M. G. Mostofa; Pedersen, Christina Østerballe; Forslund, Anita;

    2016-01-01

    macropore flow paths. The slurry constituents that ended up in or near the macropore flow paths of the intact soil were presumably washed out relatively quickly in the first event. For the last three events the intact soil leached fewer microorganisms than the disturbed soil due to the bypassing effect...... and persistence of nitrogen, microorganisms (bacteriophage, E. coli, and Enterococcus) and a group of steroid hormone (estrogens) were investigated after injection of swine slurry into either intact (structured) or disturbed (homogeneous repacked) soil. The slurry was injected into hexaplicate soil columns...... of water through the macropore flow path in the intact soil. Estrogen leached from the intact soil in the first event only, but for the disturbed soil it was detected in the leachates of last two events also. Leaching from the later events was attributed to higher colloid transport from the disturbed soils...

  9. 腐殖酸基水煤浆分散剂的制备及性能研究%Synthesis and evaluation of a humic acid-based dispersant for coal-water slurry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊国; 张光华; 朱军峰; 卫颖菲; 任朝华

    2014-01-01

    A new type of humic acid graft copolymer (HAS) was synthesized by means of wa-ter solution free radical copolymerization ,and characterized by FT-IR and XRD .HAS was applied as a dispersant for the coal-water slurry (CWS) prepared from Chinese Shenmu coal . The application performance investigations show that ,compared with a commercial disper-sant-sulfonated naphthalene-formaldehyde condensate (SNF) ,HAS has better ability in low-ering viscosity and strengthening stability for CWS ,and the slurry (coal content=63 w t%and dispersant concentration=0 .6 wt% ) exhibits 392 mPa · s of apparent viscosity ,while the syneresis ratio remains 4 .74 within 168 hours .The physicochemical property investiga-tions show that ,HAS exhibits the multilayer adsorption model on coal surface ,its adsorp-tion amount is much larger than that of SNF ,Which is proved by XPS examination .Com-pared with SNF ,HAS can more effectively decrease the contact angle of the water on coal surface ,which suggests a better ability in wetting the coal .However ,in the case of HAS , the zeta potential absolute value of coal surface is slight low .%采用水溶液自由基共聚法制备了腐殖酸-烯丙基磺酸钠接枝共聚物(HAS),并通过FT-IR和XRD对其进行了结构表征.将HAS和传统的萘磺酸甲醛缩合物(SNF)分散剂应用于神木煤的制浆,考察了浆体的表观黏度和静态稳定性.研究表明,HAS的应用性能优于SNF,在HAS用量为0.6wt%时,水煤浆(成浆浓度为63wt%)黏度为392mPa·s,168h的析水率为4.47;测定了HAS和SNF在煤表面的物理化学性质,结果表明,HAS在煤表面呈现明显多层吸附特征,吸附量比SNF大,XPS分析也说明了这一点.HAS能更有效地降低水在煤表面的接触角,这表明HAS对煤具有良好的润湿作用.此外,HAS在煤表面的zeta电位绝对值也比SNF略小.

  10. Load directly from railcar to slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, J.M. [General Chemical Corp., Claymont, DE (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Many process plants must unload soluble, granular chemicals from railcars and trucks and then dissolve or slurry them before use. Material handling problems such as agglomeration, plugging, spillage, dusting and noise can make these efforts inefficient and drive up capital, maintenance and labor costs. Pneumatic and gravity flow technologies are beset with these problems. To solve them, General Chemical Corp. has developed a device called the GCH Hydrator that unloads directly into water. The apparatus and associated process is adaptable to many chemicals. The Hydrator has been successfully used in paper making, chemical processing, petroleum refining, metals recovery and water treatment. Specific sites include: white liquor makeup in paper making; sulfur dioxide scrubbing in chemical processing and refining; acid neutralization in metals recovery, paper making, and sulfuric acid manufacture; and pH and alkalinity control in water treatment facilities.

  11. Experimental investigation of ice slurry heat transfer in horizontal tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grozdek, Marino; Khodabandeh, Rahmatollah; Lundqvist, Per; Palm, Bjoern; Melinder, Aake [Department of Energy Technology, Division of Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration, Royal Institute of Technology, Brinellvaegen 68, 10044 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-09-15

    Heat transfer of ice slurry flow based on ethanol-water mixture in a circular horizontal tube has been experimentally investigated. The secondary fluid was prepared by mixing ethanol and water to obtain initial alcohol concentration of 10.3% (initial freezing temperature -4.4 C). The heat transfer tests were conducted to cover laminar and slightly turbulent flow with ice mass fraction varying from 0% to 22% depending on test performed. Measured heat transfer coefficients of ice slurry are found to be higher than those for single phase fluid, especially for laminar flow conditions and high ice mass fractions where the heat transfer is increased with a factor 2 in comparison to the single phase flow. In addition, experimentally determined heat transfer coefficients of ice slurry flow were compared to the analytical results, based on the correlation by Sieder and Tate for laminar single phase regime, by Dittus-Boelter for turbulent single phase regime and empirical correlation by Christensen and Kauffeld derived for laminar/turbulent ice slurry flow in circular horizontal tubes. It was found that the classical correlation proposed by Sieder and Tate for laminar forced convection in smooth straight circular ducts cannot be used for heat transfer prediction of ice slurry flow since it strongly underestimates measured values, while, for the turbulent flow regime the simple Dittus-Boelter relation predicts the heat transfer coefficient of ice slurry flow with high accuracy but only up to an ice mass fraction of 10% and Re{sub cf} > 2300 regardless of imposed heat flux. For higher ice mass fractions and regardless of the flow regime, the correlation proposed by Christensen and Kauffeld gives good agreement with experimental results. (author)

  12. Quarterly environmental data summary for first quarter 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    In support of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project Federal Facilities Agreement, a copy of the Quarterly Environmental Data Summary (QEDS) for the first quarter of 1998 is enclosed. The data presented in this letter and attachment constitute the QEDS. The data were received from the contract laboratories, verified by the Weldon Spring Site verification group and, except for air monitoring data and site KPA generated data (uranium analyses), merged into the data base during the first quarter of 1998. Air monitoring data presented are the most recent complete sets of quarterly data. Air data are not stored in the data base, and KPA data are not merged into the regular data base. Significant data, defined as data values that have exceeded defined {open_quotes}above normal{close_quotes} Level 2 values, are discussed in this letter for Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) generated data only. Above normal Level 2 values are based, in ES&H procedures, on historical high values, DOE Derived Concentration Guides (DCGs), NPDES limits and other guidelines. The procedures also establish actions to be taken in the event that {open_quotes}above normal{close_quotes} data occur. All data received and verified during the first quarter were within a permissible range of variability except for those detailed below. Above normal occurrences are cited for groundwater, air, and NPDES data. There were none for springs or surface water. The following discussion offers a brief summary of the data merged during the first quarter that exceeded the above normal criteria and updates on past reported above normal data. The attached tables present the most recent data for air and the data merged into the data base during the first quarter 1998 for groundwater, NPDES, surface water, and springs. Graphs showing concentrations of selected contaminants of concern at some of the critical locations have also been included in this QEDS. The graphs are discussed in the separate sections.

  13. 水煤浆添加剂磺化三聚氰胺-尿素-甲醛树脂的合成%The synthesis of a certain additive for coal water slurry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李广学; 周丽华; 王震

    2001-01-01

    This paper gives the procedure of preparing an additive for coal water slurry--sulfnated melamine-urea-formaldehyde resins and the factors affecting it.A four-step procedure is developed which results in reproducible water-soluble stable resins.The reactions that take place in the four steps are hydro xymethylation,sulfonation of the methy lolmelamine intermediate,low pH condensation and high pH rearrangement.The reaction and the produced resins are found to be very sensitive to pH value,temperature,sulfite/amino and formaldehyde/amino molar ratios.The selected sample IR wave spectrum of hydroxymethylate,sulfonate and resin was determined.%给出了用于水煤浆添加剂复配的水溶性的磺化三聚氰胺-尿素-甲醛树脂的合成过程及影响因素。反应分四步进行:羟甲基化、磺化、低pH缩合、高pH重排,反应及树脂产物受pH、温度、时间、料比(氨基/甲醛,氨基/磺化剂)的影响。测定了选择样品羟甲基化物、磺化物和树脂产物的红外波谱。

  14. Ammonia abatement by slurry acidification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O.; Hutchings, Nicholas John; Hafner, Sasha

    2016-01-01

    Livestock production systems can be major sources of trace gases including ammonia (NH3), the greenhouse gases methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), and odorous compounds such as hydrogen sulphide (H2S). Short-term campaigns have indicated that acidification of livestock slurry during in......-house storage can reduce NH3 emissions, and also may influence other emissions. In this study, emissions of NH3 were quantified by measuring continuously during three complete finishing pig production periods of about 10 weeks each, and emissions of CH4 and H2S less frequently. Emissions were determined from...... sections with 30-32 pigs with or without daily adjustment of slurry pH to below 6. Ammonia losses from reference sections with untreated slurry were between 9.5 and 12.4% of N excreted, and from sections with acidified slurry between 3.1 and 6.2%. Acidification reduced total emissions of NH3 by 66 and 71...

  15. Measurement of the Critical Deposition Velocity in Slurry Transport through a Horizontal Pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erian, Fadel F.; Furfari, Daniel J.; Kellogg, Michael I.; Park, Walter R.

    2001-03-01

    Critical Deposition Velocity (CDV) is an important design and operational parameter in slurry transport. Almost all existing correlations that are used to predict this parameter have been obtained experimentally from slurry transport tests featuring single solid species in the slurry mixture. No correlations have been obtained to describe this parameter when the slurry mixture contains more than one solid species having a wide range of specific gravities, particle size distributions, and volume concentrations within the overall slurry mixture. There are no physical or empirical bases that can justify the extrapolation or modification of the existing single species correlations to include all these effects. New experiments must be carried out to obtain new correlations that would be suited for these types of slurries, and that would clarify the mechanics of solids deposition as a function of the properties of the various solid species. Our goal in this paper is to describe a robust experimental technique for the accurate determination of the critical deposition velocity associated with the transport of slurries in horizontal or slightly inclined pipes. Because of the relative difficulty encountered during the precise determination of this useful operational parameter, it has been the practice to connect it with some transitional behavior of more easily measurable flow parameters such as the pressure drop along the slurry pipeline. In doing so, the critical deposition velocity loses its unique and precise definition due to the multitude of factors that influence such transitional behaviors. Here, data has been obtained for single species slurries made up of washed garnet and water and flowing through a 1- inch clear pipe. The selected garnet had a narrow particle size distribution with a mean diameter of 100 mm, approximately. The critical deposition velocity was measured for garnet/water slurries of 10, 20, and 30 percent solids concentration by volume.

  16. Pig slurry concentration by vacuum evaporation: influence of previous mesophilic anaerobic digestion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonmatí, August; Flotats, Xavier

    2003-01-01

    Water can be removed from pig slurry by evaporation, through the application of wasted heat from a power plant or from other processes. Apart from obtaining a concentrate with an obviously higher nutrient concentration than the original slurry, another objective of water removal is to obtain water as condensate, which could be reused. The objective of this work was to study the vacuum evaporation of pig slurry liquid fraction and to evaluate condensate composition as a function of both pH (4, 5, and 6) and pig slurry type (fresh slurry and anaerobically digested slurry). Batch experiments showed that condensate characteristics, total ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), volatile fatty acids (VFA), and chemical oxygen demand were strongly dependent on initial slurry pH. In addition to producing part of the required thermal energy, previous anaerobic digestion presented several other clear advantages. The consumption of VFA and other volatile organic compounds during anaerobic digestion reduced the volatilization of organic matter in the evaporation treatment and, consequently, provided a higher quality condensate.

  17. Numerical simulation of slurry jets using mixture model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-xin HUAI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Slurry jets in a static uniform environment were simulated with a two-phase mixture model in which flow-particle interactions were considered. A standard k-ε turbulence model was chosen to close the governing equations. The computational results were in agreement with previous laboratory measurements. The characteristics of the two-phase flow field and the influences of hydraulic and geometric parameters on the distribution of the slurry jets were analyzed on the basis of the computational results. The calculated results reveal that if the initial velocity of the slurry jet is high, the jet spreads less in the radial direction. When the slurry jet is less influenced by the ambient fluid (when the Stokes number St is relatively large, the turbulent kinetic energy k and turbulent dissipation rate ε, which are relatively concentrated around the jet axis, decrease more rapidly after the slurry jet passes through the nozzle. For different values of St, the radial distributions of streamwise velocity and particle volume fraction are both self-similar and fit a Gaussian profile after the slurry jet fully develops. The decay rate of the particle velocity is lower than that of water velocity along the jet axis, and the axial distributions of the centerline particle streamwise velocity are self-similar along the jet axis. The pattern of particle dispersion depends on the Stokes number St. When St = 0.39, the particle dispersion along the radial direction is considerable, and the relative velocity is very low due to the low dynamic response time. When St = 3.08, the dispersion of particles along the radial direction is very little, and most of the particles have high relative velocities along the streamwise direction.

  18. Applications of advanced petroleum production technology and water alternating gas injection for enhanced oil recovery: Mattoon Oil Field, Illinois. Fourth quarterly report, [October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baroni, M.

    1994-01-25

    The objectives of this project are to continue reservoir characterization of the Cypress Sandstone; to identify and map fades-defined waterflood units (FDWS); and to design and Implement water-alternating-gas (WAG) oil recovery utilizing carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). The producibility problems are permeability variation and poor sweep efficiency. Phase 1 of the project focuses on the development of computer-generated geological and reservoir simulation models that will be used to select sites for the demonstration and implementation of CO{sub 2} displacement programs in Phase 2. Included in Phase 1 is the site selection and drilling of an infill well, coring of the Cypress interval, and injectivity testing to gather information used to update the reservoir simulation model. Phase 2 involves field implementation of WAG. Technology Transfer includes outreach activity such as seminars, workshops, and field trips. Technical progress for this quarter is described.

  19. Applications of advanced petroleum production technology and water alternating gas injection for enhanced oil recovery: Mattoon Oil Field, Illinois. [Quarterly report], January--March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baroni, M.R.

    1994-04-30

    The objectives of this project are to continue reservoir characterization of the Cypress Sandstone; to identify and map facies-defined waterflood units (FDWS); and to design and implement water-alternating-gas (WAG) oil recovery utilizing carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). The producibility problems are permeability variation and poor sweep efficiency. Phase 1 of the project focuses on the development of computer-generated geological and reservoir simulation models that will be used to select sites for the demonstration and implementation of CO{sub 2} displacement programs in Phase 2. Included in Phase 1 is the site selection and drilling of an infill well, coring of the Cypress internal and injectivity testing to gather information used to update the reservoir simulation model. Phase 2 involves field implementation of WAG. Technology Transfer includes outreach activity such as seminars, workshops, and field trips. Accomplishments for the past quarter are described.

  20. Effect of Adding Biogas Slurry in Drinking Water on Production Performance in chicken%饮水添加沼液对肉鸡生产性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏青娟

    2012-01-01

    沼气池的建设是农村新能源综合开发利用推广项目之一,极大地提高了农民生活质量。沼液、沼渣的再开发利用是进一步推进该项目所面临的问题。饮水中添加50%的沼液饲喂4周龄AA肉仔鸡进行35d生长试验,效果明显。平均每只鸡增重0.0666±0.0166Kg,比对照组提高7.5%,总耗料量降低2.7%,料重比降低0.34,均差异显著(P〈0.05)说明饲料转化率明显提高。成活率试验组比对照组提高2个百分点。屠宰率提高0.85个百分点,差异不显著(P〉0.05),但胸肌率比对照组提高4个百分点,差异显著(P〈0.05)。%Tbe construction of biogas pond is a new energy development and promotion project in countryside. Development of Biongas slurry and Biogas residue is very important in countryside. The AA chicken aged 4 weeks were fed with drinking water with adding 50% of Biogas slurry for 35d growth. The result showed that body weight of each chicken on verage increases 0.066 +0. 0166kg,7.5% higher than contmling group. Total consumption feed decrease by 2.7%. The ratio of feed and body weight decrease 0.34. There is a significant difference between them. ( P 〈0.05 ). The feed conversion rate increased significantly. The survial rate increased by 2%. the slaughter rate increased by 0.85%. There is no significant difference between then ( P 〉 0.05 ) , but rate of chest muscle increased by 4% than control group. There is a significant difference between them (P 〈 0.05).

  1. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report 12, July--September 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moro, N.; Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1995-10-31

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by design, and construction and operation of a 2-t/hr process development unit. The project began in October, 1992, and is scheduled for completion by June, 1997. During Quarter 12 (July--September 1995), work continued on the Subtask 3.2 in-plant testing of the Microcel{trademark} flotation column at Lady Dunn. Under Subtask 4.4, additional toxic trace element analysis of column flotation samples finalized the data set. Data analysis indicates that reasonably good mass balances were achieved for most elements. The final Subtask 6.3 Selective Agglomeration Process Optimization topical report was issued this quarter. Preliminary Subtask 6.4 work investigating coal-water-fuel slurry formulation indicated that selective agglomeration products formulate slurries with lower viscosities than advanced flotation products. Work continued on Subtask 6.5 agglomeration bench-scale testing. Results indicate that a 2 lb ash/MBtu product could be produced at a 100-mesh topsize with the Elkhorn No. 3 coal. The detailed design of the 2 t/hr selective agglomeration module neared completion this quarter with the completion of additional revisions of both the process flow, and the process piping and instrument diagrams. Construction of the 2 t/hr PDU and advanced flotation module was completed this quarter and startup and shakedown testing began.

  2. 高浓度泥浆法(HDS)-铁盐处理工业污酸废水半工业试验%Pilot-plant Test of Acid Waste Water Treatment by High Density Slurry(HDS) Ferrous Salt Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋文涛

    2011-01-01

    对高浓度泥浆(HDS)-铁盐法处理冶炼企业污酸工业废水进行半工业试验.结果表明,在pH=10条件下,HDS出水的Pb、Zn均可达到国家排放标准,As出水控制在10 mg/L以下,再经后续铁盐除砷工序,As排放也可达到国家排放标准.HDS产生底泥固含可达27%左右,显著高于石灰法的水平(2%以下).%The semi-industrial experiment for acid waste water treatment in nonferrous smelter was conducted via High Density Slurry (HDS)-ferrous salt process. The results indicate that, both Pb and Zn could meet the requirement of the national emission standards through the HDS-ferrous salt process at pHIO as concentration in HDS system effluent could be controlled to less than 10 mg/L. The solid content in HDS sludge is up to 27%, which is significantly higher than that in LDS sludge(<2%).

  3. Settlement prediction model of slurry suspension based on sedimentation rate attenuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai-jie GUO

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a slurry suspension settlement prediction model for cohesive sediment in a still water environment. With no sediment input and a still water environment condition, control forces between settling particles are significantly different in the process of sedimentation rate attenuation, and the settlement process includes the free sedimentation stage, the log-linear attenuation stage, and the stable consolidation stage according to sedimentation rate attenuation. Settlement equations for sedimentation height and time were established based on sedimentation rate attenuation properties of different sedimentation stages. Finally, a slurry suspension settlement prediction model based on slurry parameters was set up with a foundation being that the model parameters were determined by the basic parameters of slurry. The results of the settlement prediction model show good agreement with those of the settlement column experiment and reflect the main characteristics of cohesive sediment. The model can be applied to the prediction of cohesive soil settlement in still water environments.

  4. Evaluating slurry broadcasting and injection to ley for phosphorus losses and fecal microorganisms in surface runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uusi-Kämppä, Jaana; Heinonen-Tanski, Helvi

    2008-01-01

    The recent growth in the size of dairy cattle farms and the concentration of farms into smaller areas in Finland may increase local water pollution due to increased manure production and slurry application to grass. Therefore, a field study was conducted to monitor losses of total phosphorus (TP), dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP), and fecal microorganisms in surface runoff from a perennial ley. Cattle slurry was added once a year in June 1996-1997 (Study I) and biannually in June and October 1998-2000 (Study II). The slurry was surface broadcast or injected into the clay soil. The field had a slope of 0.9 to 1.7%. Mineral fertilizer was applied on control plots. Biannual slurry broadcasting increased DRP (p broadcasting slurry to wet soil followed by rainfall in fall 1998. Injection reduced the TP and DRP losses in surface runoff by 79 and 86%, respectively, compared with broadcasting (17 Oct. 1998-27 Oct. 1999). Corresponding numbers for fecal coliforms were 350 CFU (100 mL)(-1) and for somatic coliphages were 110 PFU (100 mL)(-1) in surface runoff after injection in October 1998. Slurry injection should be favored when spreading slurry amendments to grassland to avoid losses of P and fecal microorganisms in runoff to surface waters.

  5. Coal slurry - a problem of the brown coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, H.; Hielscher, R.; Mohry, J.

    1983-01-01

    Technological and economic aspects are examined for processing coal-containing waste water from brown coal preparation plants in the German Democratic Republic. In 1979, 106.8 Mm/sup 3/ of coal slurry were produced by the GDR brown coal industry, with a coal fine content ranging between 7.8 g/l and 20.4 g/l. This amounts to 2.6 Mt/y of coal which is 1% of the annual brown coal production. Technological variants of processing and utilizing coal slurry are discussed. At a number of major coal preparation plants, coal slurry is flushed into sedimentation lakes. After a 2 to 3 year drying period, a 6 to 10 m thick layer of coal is recovered. Technologies of coal slurry processing with the aim of recovering coal fines are enumerated. Equipment for these processes include, filters, centrifuges, dryers, etc. Recovered coal can be used as fuel or processed into fertilizer in combination with fly ash and other waste products. 12 references.

  6. A new procedure for treatment of oily slurry using geotextile filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, M B; Cammarota, M C; Freire, D D C; Ehrlich, M

    2004-07-05

    A new procedure to mitigate the environmental impacts and reduce the cost of disposal of oil slurry is present in this paper. Waste from the petroleum industry has a high environmental impact. Systems for oil-water separation have been used to mitigate the contamination potential of these types of effluents. At the outlet of these systems, the oil is skimmed-off the surface, while the slurry is removed from the base. Due to the high concentration of contaminants, the disposal of this slurry is an environmentally hazardous practice. Usually this type of waste is disposed of in tanks or landfills after removal from the industrial plant. Basically, the proposed procedure utilizes drying beds with geotextile filters to both reduce the water content in the slurry and obtain a less contaminated effluent. Laboratory tests were carried out to simulate the drying system. Four types of filters were analyzed: two non-woven geotextiles, one woven geotextile, and a sand filter.

  7. Life Cycle Assessment of Slurry Management Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wesnæs, Marianne; Wenzel, Henrik; Petersen, Bjørn Molt

    This report contains the results of Life Cycle Assessments of two slurry management technologies - acidification and decentred incineration. The LCA foundation can be used by the contributing companies for evaluating the environmental sustainability of a specific technology from a holistic Life...... Cycle perspective. Through this the companies can evaluate the environmental benefits and disadvantages of introducing a specific technology for slurry management. From a societal perspective the results can contribute to a clarification of which slurry management technologies (or combination...

  8. ANAEROBIC DIGESTION IN SANITIZATION OF PIG SLURRY AND BIOMASS IN AGRICULTURAL BIOGAS PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Grudziński

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pig slurry is one of the production manure, which should be managed properly because of environmental threats it can cause. Pig slurry contains a wide range of microorganisms, most of which are opportunistic or obligatory pathogens for people and animals. Spreading it on fields without control can cause microbial contaminations of water and soil. Use of pig slurry as substrate in anaerobic digestion can be an effective way of sanitization. In this work role of methanogenic fermentation in pig slurry sanitization was laboratory examined. Study materials were biological samples: 1 sample of raw slurry and 3 samples of fermented biomass from different stages of fermentation. Total number of coliforms was determined by MPN (most probable number method, and presence of enterococci was verified in each sample. Study have shown that anaerobic digestion reduced total number of coliforms from initial amount of 7.0 x 106 [MPN/ml] in raw slurry to 3.7 x 104 [MPN/ml]. Total reduction was 99.47%. Moreover, after first fermentation, enterococci in the sample were undetectable. Results of this study proved anaerobic fermentation to be an affective way to neutralize microbial threat, that is pig slurry.

  9. Microchannel Heat Sink with Micro Encapsulated Phase Change Material (MEPCM) Slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-31

    beds or fluidized beds , depending on the concentration of the slurry. The authors assumed local thermal equilibrium for both liquid and solid...simulating MEPCM slurry flows assumed homogeneous distribution of particles. The model proposed by Tao et al. [16] use fluidized bed correlations to solve...directly fabricated in a silicon substrate and had direct circulation of water. It is so compact that heat is efficiently carried from the substrate

  10. 多喷嘴对置式水煤浆气化技术应用总结%Sum-Up of Use of Technology of Multi-Nozzle Opposed Coal-Water Slurry Gasification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李福文; 孙化祥; 丰中田

    2012-01-01

    The multi -nozzle opposed coal-water slurry gasifier has been in operation for nearly 3 years since its startup, and a sum-up is made. By tightening the management of feed coal and optimizing the operating conditions of the gasifier, a foundation is laid for the long-period stable operation of the gasifier. After the operation of the gasifier for 200 days, no scale is found in the main equipment internals like gas washing equipment ( water scrubber) and black water treatment equipment (evaporative hot water column) , but only light scale has formed on the packing surface, without hindering continued production. In the course of operation of the gasifier, wear and tear in found in the pipeline after the flash angle valve, and problems are in the equipment in operation. The causes are analyzed, and relevant revamp measures are adopted, with satisfactory results.%总结了多喷嘴对置式水煤浆气化炉从开车至今近3年的运行情况.通过加强对原料煤的管理、优化气化炉操作条件,为气化炉的长周期稳定运行奠定了基础.气化装置运行200 d后,气体洗涤设备(水洗塔)、黑水处理设备(蒸发热水塔)等主要设备内件无结垢现象,仅在填料表面有轻微结垢,不影响继续生产.介绍了气化装置在运行过程中出现的闪蒸角阀后管线磨损以及运转设备中存在的问题,分析其原因并采取相应的技改措施,取得了满意的效果.

  11. The potential for solubilizing agents to enhance the remediation of hydrophobic organic solutes in soil-water suspensions. [Quarterly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laha, S.; Liu, Z.; Edwards, D.; Luthy, R.G.

    1991-02-01

    This paper discusses the feasibility for use of surfactant solubilizing agents to enhance the solubility and the rate of microbial degradation of hydrophobic organic solutes in soil-water suspensions. Hydrophobic organic contaminants are strongly sorbed to soil or sediment material, and as a consequence the rate of microbial degradation may depend greatly on the desorption of the sorbed-phase contaminant and the accessibility of the contaminant to soil microorganisms. Chemical solubilizing agents may enhance the rate of hydrophobic organic solute degradation by increasing the rate of solute desorption from soil and the extent of solute partitioning to the aqueous phase. The presentation will review on-going research on: surfactant solubilization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds in clean water, and in soil-water suspensions; and experiments to assess if the addition of surfactant to soil-water suspension results in faster rate of mineralization of PAH compounds in soil.

  12. Fresh water vertebrate and invertebrate ecology studies of Amchitka Island: Progress report, 2nd quarter, 1967-1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the results of a fresh water collection made on Amchitka Island from both stream and lake sources to obtain information on physical conditions...

  13. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report 14, January--March 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moro, N.; Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1996-04-30

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2-t/hr process development unit (PDU). The project began in October, 1992, and is scheduled for completion by June 1997. During Quarter 14 (January--March 1996), parametric testing of the 30-inch Microcel{trademark} flotation column at the Lady Dunn Plant continued under Subtask 3.2. Subtask 3. 3 testing, investigating a novel Hydrophobic Dewatering process (HD), continued this quarter with parametric testing of the batch dewatering unit. Coal product moistures of 3 to 12 percent were achieved, with higher percent solids slurry feeds resulting in lower product moistures. For a given percent solids feed, the product moisture decreased with increasing butane to dry coal ratios. Stirring time, stirring rate, and settling time were all found to have little effect on the final moisture content. Continuing Subtask 6.4 work, investigating coal-water-fuel slurry formulation for coals cleaned by selective agglomeration, indicated that pH adjustment to 10 resulted in marginally better (lower viscosity) slurries for one of the two coals tested. Subtask 6.5 agglomeration bench-scale testing results indicate that the new Taggart coal requires a grind with a d{sub 80} of approximately 33 microns to achieve the 1 lb ash/MBtu product quality specification. Also under Subtask 6.5, reductions in the various trace element concentrations accomplished during selective agglomeration were determined. Work was essentially completed on the detailed design of the PDU selective agglomeration module under Task 7 with the issuing of a draft report.

  14. 高浓度沼液淹灌土水系统中氮、磷和有机物的动态变化%Dynamic Changes of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Organic Matter in Soil-Water System in the Process of Biogas Slurry Flooding Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李松林; 吕军; 张峰; 孙嗣旸; 邓欧平

    2011-01-01

    Through indoor-static-culture simulation experiment, we studied the dynamics of nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter in the overlying water and the paddy soil during the flooding of high concentration biogas slurry from livestock wastewater. Results showed that the concentrations of TP and NH4+ -N in overlying water for the total biogas slurry irrigation treatment were decreased to below the allowable discharge standards in 30 days and 50 days, respectively. With the reducing of the concentration of biogas slurry irrigation, the time to meet the standards for the overlying water would be shortened. However, the concentrations of NO3--N in overlying water increased significantly after a complex process of denitrification and nitrification, and the concentration of NO3--N in the treatment of total biogas slurry irrigation increased by 44.9% after 100 days of slurry flooding. The decontamination in overlying water is mainly resulted from pollutant degradation and volatilization, and it is with only a small part remaining in the soil. Thus, in fallow period, biogas slurry irrigation in paddy field would not only digest and purify the high concentration of nitrogen, phosphorus and organic mater in the slurry, but also improve the soil nutrients properties without the risks for excessive accumulation of nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter in paddy soil.%通过室内静置培养模拟试验,研究了高浓度沼液淹灌稻田土壤后上覆水和土壤中氮、磷和有机物的动态变化特征.结果表明,全沼液淹灌处理的上覆水中总磷和NH+4-N浓度分别在30 d和50 d内降低到允许排放标准以下;降低灌溉沼液的浓度,可缩短排放达标所需时间;但硝态氮浓度经过迅速下降后又会显著升高,全沼液灌溉处理100 d后,上覆水中NP-3-N的浓度比灌溉初期提高了44.9%.灌溉沼液中污染物浓度的降低,主要是降解和挥发作用的结果,只有少部分留在土壤中.因此,在水田休闲期进

  15. Nitrogen and water recovery from animal slurries by a new integrated ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis and cold stripping process: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledda, C; Schievano, A; Salati, S; Adani, F

    2013-10-15

    The correct management of livestock manure represents one of the major challenge for the agricultural sector development, as it may ensure environmental and economic sustainability of livestock farming. In this work, a new treatment process called N-Free(®), was monitored on two plants treating digested cattle manure (DCM) and digested swine manure (DSM). The process is characterized by sequential integration of solid/liquid separations, ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis and cold ammonia stripping. Solid and liquid streams were characterized regarding TS, TKN, N-NH4(+), P and K content allowing to draw a complete mass balance. The main results were a substantial reduction of initial digestate volume (38 and 51% in DCM and DSM respectively) as clean water and a high N-NH4(+) removal percentage (47 and 71% in DCM and DSM respectively), through cold ammonia stripping, allowing the production of up to 1.8 m(3) concentrated ammonium sulfate, every 100 m(3) of treated digestate. The concentrated streams, rich in either organic or mineral N, P and K, can be efficiently used for land application. The N-Free(®) technology demonstrated to be a valuable candidate for the path toward nutrient and water recycle, in a new sustainable agriculture and farming concept.

  16. Effects of pig slurry application on soils and soil humic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, César; Senesi, Nicola; García-Gil, Juan C; Brunetti, Gennaro; D'Orazio, Valeria; Polo, Alfredo

    2002-08-14

    The effect of three annually consecutive additions of pig slurry at two rates (90 and 150 m3 x ha(-1) x year(-1) on soils and soil humic acids (HAs) was investigated in a field experiment under semiarid conditions. Soils and pig slurries were analyzed by standard methods. The HAs were isolated from soils and pig slurry by a conventional procedure based on alkaline extraction, acidic precipitation to pH 1, purification by repeated alkaline dissolutions and acidic precipitations, water washing, dialysis, and final freeze-drying. The HAs obtained were analyzed for elemental (C, H, N, S, and O) and acidic functional group (carboxylic and phenolic) composition, and by UV-vis, FT-IR, fluorescence, and ESR spectroscopies. With respect to the control soil, the pig slurry amended soils had greater pH and electrical conductivity, slightly larger total N content, and smaller values of C/N ratio. A decrease of total organic C was observed only in soils amended for 2 and 3 years at the higher slurry rate. With respect to control soil HA, pig slurry HA was characterized by larger contents of S- and N-containing groups, smaller acidic functional group and organic free radical contents, a prevalent aliphatic character, extended molecular heterogeneity, and smaller aromatic polycondensation and humification degrees. Amendment with pig slurry HA determines a number of modifications in soil HAs, including increase of C, S, and COOH contents, C/N ratios, and aliphaticity and decrease of extraction yields and N, O, phenolic OH, and organic free radical contents. These effects are generally more evident after the first year of slurry application and tend to disappear with increasing number of treatments. Most probably, over the years the slightly humified slurry HA is mineralized through extended microbial oxidation, whereas only the most recalcitrant components, such as S-containing, phenolic, and aliphatic structures, are partially accumulated by incorporation into soil HA.

  17. Water permeabilities of pulverized fuel ash; Bifuntan sekitanbai no tosui tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichikawa, T. [Center for Coal Utilization, Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Nagataki, S. [Niigata University, Niigata (Japan); Hosoda, N. [Kumagai Gumi Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Utsuki, T. [The Coal Mining Research Center, Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Kubo, H. [Obayashi Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-09-01

    It is intended to establish a technology to utilize coal ash in bulk to deal with its increasing production. In order to expand its use into earth engineering materials, two kinds of combustion ashes produced from dust coal burning power plants were used for studies using different kinds of tests. The tests were carried out on strength properties, water permeability, and characteristics of dissolving trace amounts of chemical constituents, with regard to addition effects of cement into compacted and slurry-state dust coal burned ashes. The derived findings may be summarized as follows: as the strength properties, the strength for both of the compacted and slurry-state ashes increases as the cement addition ratio is increased; growth of the strength due to the cement addition ratio and material age varies depending on the kinds of dust coal burned ash; comparison of strengths of the compacted and the slurry-state ashes indicates the strength of the latter ash is about one-third to quarter of that of the former ash; water permeability of the ashes decreases both in the compacted and slurry- state ashes as the cement addition ratio is increased; and the cement addition ratio gives greater impact to the water permeability than the density of the ashes. 28 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Feasibility Study of Supercritical Light Water Cooled Fast Reactors for Actinide Burning and Electric Power Production, 3rd Quarterly Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth

    2002-06-01

    The use of light water at supercritical pressures as the coolant in a nuclear reactor offers the potential for considerable plant simplification and consequent capital and O&M cost reduction compared with current light water reactor (LWR) designs. Also, given the thermodynamic conditions of the coolant at the core outlet (i.e. temperature and pressure beyond the water critical point), very high thermal efficiencies of the power conversion cycle are possible (i.e. up to about 45%). Because no change of phase occurs in the core, the need for steam separators and dryers as well as for BWR-type re-circulation pumps is eliminated, which, for a given reactor power, results in a substantially shorter reactor vessel and smaller containment building than the current BWRs. Furthermore, in a direct cycle the steam generators are not needed.

  19. Slurry Chemical Corrosion and Galvanic Corrosion during Copper Chemical Mechanical Polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Seiichi; Sakuma, Noriyuki; Homma, Yoshio; Ohashi, Naofumi

    2000-11-01

    Copper (Cu) corrosion during chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) was controlled in order to improve the Cu damascene interconnect process. Slurry chemical corrosion was found to be enhanced when the slurry was diluted by deionized (DI) water during rinsing just after CMP@. Since the corrosion inhibitor, benzotriazole (BTA), reduces the Cu removal rate, adding it to the rinse solution prevents chemical corrosion more effectively than adding it to the slurry. On the other hand, galvanic corrosion occurs at the interface between Cu and the barrier metal, and it can be prevented by selecting appropriate barrier metals. Because the difference between the electrochemical potentials of Cu and the barrier metal is small in the slurry, refractory metals such as Ta, TaN, and TiN were found to be appropriate barrier metals. On the other hand, W, WN, and Ti have large potential differences, so galvanic corrosion was clearly observed when Cu/W damascene interconnects were fabricated.

  20. A novel slurry concept for the fabrication of lithium-ion battery electrodes with beneficial properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsch, Boris; Dittmann, Jens; Schmitt, Marcel; Scharfer, Philip; Schabel, Wilhelm; Willenbacher, Norbert

    2014-11-01

    A novel slurry concept for the fabrication of Li-ion battery electrodes focusing on water based formulations is presented. Taking advantage of capillary forces inferred by adding a small fraction of a second fluid immiscible with the bulk continuous phase the low shear viscosity can be varied in a wide range without conventional polymeric rheology control agents disturbing the electric properties of the dry electrode. The new slurries provide superior storage stability and excellent shape accuracy of the final dry film. This reduces waste cut-off at the edges and increases the density of active ingredients, thus improving cost-efficiency. The viscosity at high shear rates remains unaffected, thus the slurries can be processed and coated using established equipment and process parameters. Adhesion to the conductor foil and electrochemical properties of the electrode layers and corresponding cells are similar to those made from conventional slurries.

  1. Feasibility Studies on Pipeline Disposal of Concentrated Copper Tailings Slurry for Waste Minimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senapati, Pradipta Kumar; Mishra, Barada Kanta

    2017-06-01

    The conventional lean phase copper tailings slurry disposal systems create pollution all around the disposal area through seepage and flooding of waste slurry water. In order to reduce water consumption and minimize pollution, the pipeline disposal of these waste slurries at high solids concentrations may be considered as a viable option. The paper presents the rheological and pipeline flow characteristics of copper tailings samples in the solids concentration range of 65-72 % by weight. The tailings slurry indicated non-Newtonian behaviour at these solids concentrations and the rheological data were best fitted by Bingham plastic model. The influence of solids concentration on yield stress and plastic viscosity for the copper tailings samples were discussed. Using a high concentration test loop, pipeline experiments were conducted in a 50 mm nominal bore (NB) pipe by varying the pipe flow velocity from 1.5 to 3.5 m/s. A non-Newtonian Bingham plastic pressure drop model predicted the experimental data reasonably well for the concentrated tailings slurry. The pressure drop model was used for higher size pipes and the operating conditions for pipeline disposal of concentrated copper tailings slurry in a 200 mm NB pipe with respect to specific power consumption were discussed.

  2. Feasibility Studies on Pipeline Disposal of Concentrated Copper Tailings Slurry for Waste Minimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senapati, Pradipta Kumar; Mishra, Barada Kanta

    2016-06-01

    The conventional lean phase copper tailings slurry disposal systems create pollution all around the disposal area through seepage and flooding of waste slurry water. In order to reduce water consumption and minimize pollution, the pipeline disposal of these waste slurries at high solids concentrations may be considered as a viable option. The paper presents the rheological and pipeline flow characteristics of copper tailings samples in the solids concentration range of 65-72 % by weight. The tailings slurry indicated non-Newtonian behaviour at these solids concentrations and the rheological data were best fitted by Bingham plastic model. The influence of solids concentration on yield stress and plastic viscosity for the copper tailings samples were discussed. Using a high concentration test loop, pipeline experiments were conducted in a 50 mm nominal bore (NB) pipe by varying the pipe flow velocity from 1.5 to 3.5 m/s. A non-Newtonian Bingham plastic pressure drop model predicted the experimental data reasonably well for the concentrated tailings slurry. The pressure drop model was used for higher size pipes and the operating conditions for pipeline disposal of concentrated copper tailings slurry in a 200 mm NB pipe with respect to specific power consumption were discussed.

  3. Performance of Fiber Cement Slurry in the Oil and Gas Well Cementation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BuYuhuan; WangRuihe; ChengRongchao; LiYuhai

    2005-01-01

    Based on a carbon fiber cement slurry system developed in the previous work, the relationship between the carbon fiber and the performance of the cement slurry was experimentally investigated. Results show that the use of fiber has no effect on the slurry theological mode, but influences its rheological behavior. When the fiber proportion ranges from 0.12% to 0.19% and the fiber length from 400 to 1,400 μm the slurry rheological behavior can be improved. Under the normalpressure, the use of fiber can shorten the thickening time of the cement slurry. When the proportion of the constant-length fiber increases, the water loss of the cement slurry decreases first and then increases, and when the fiber length increases (the fiber proportion being kept constant), the water loss shows the same trend. This indicates that there are optimal values for the fiber length and proportion, which vary under the experimental conditions in the following respective ranges: 0.12%-0.37% and 700-1,400 μm.

  4. Efficient filtration system for paraffin-catalyst slurry separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khodagholi Mohammad Ali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The filtration efficiency for separating liquid paraffin (or water from a slurry consisting of 25 weight% spherical alumina in a Slurry Bubble Column Reactor (SBCR comprised of a cylindrical tube of 10 cm diameter and 150 cm length was studied. Various differential pressures (ΔP were applied to two separate tubular sintered metal stainless steel filter elements with nominal pore size of 4 and 16μm. The experimental results disclosed that the rate of filtrations increased on applying higher differential pressure to the filter element. Albeit this phenomenon is limited to moderate ΔPs and for ΔP more than 1 bar is neither harmful nor helpful. The highest filtration rates at ΔPs higher than 1 bar were 170 and 248 ml/minute for 4 and 16μm respectively. Using water as the liquid in slurry the rate of filtration enhanced to 4 folds, and this issue reveals impact of viscosity on filtration efficiency clearly. In all situations, the total amount of particles present in the filtrate part never exceeded a few parts per million (ppm. The statistical analysis of the SEM image of the filtrate indicated that by applying higher pressure difference to the filter element the frequency percent of larger particle size increases. The operation of filter cake removing was performed with back flashing of 300 ml of clean liquid with pressures of 3-5 bar of N2 gas.

  5. New cement additive improves slurry properties and saves cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollard, R.; Hibbeler, J.; DiLullo, G.; Shotton, E.A.

    1994-12-31

    A new cement additive has been developed which improves slurry performance and reduces cost. The additive is a vitrified aggregate of calcium-magnesium aluminosilicates with potential cementitious reactivity, hereafter abbreviated CMAS. CMAS has been used successfully on oil and gas wells throughout Indonesia. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the technical enhancements and cost effectiveness of slurries incorporating CMAS. Laboratory data is presented and working mechanisms are defined to highlight CMAS`s positive effect on; compressive strength, fluid loss control, free water control, gas migration control, resistance to strength retrogression and aggressive fluids. Finally, case studies and an economic analysis are presented to show the cost savings for actual well applications.

  6. Analysis of Slurry Drying in a Spray Dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wittaya Julklang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spray drying has recently been exploited to prepare a large variety of high-value particles. The aim of the present paper is to analyze the drying mechanism of slurry droplets consist of nanosized particles in an industrial-scale spray dryer. For this purpose, a mathematical model is developed comprising a comprehensive model for the heat and mass transfer for a single droplet and a model for the flow of droplets and gas, and the heat and mass transfer in the dryer. Using the developed model, the drying behaviour of slurry droplets in the spray dryer is investigated in the initial heating-up, constant rate and falling rate periods by analyzing the profiles of air temperature and humidity, and the droplet velocity, average temperature and moisture content in the dryer axial direction as well as the distributions of temperature and water vapor concentration in the droplet.

  7. Separation of flue-gas scrubber sludge into marketable products. Third quarterly technical progress report, March 1, 1994--May 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawatra, S.K.; Eisele, T.C.; Shoop, K.

    1994-06-01

    Column flotation represents a significant improvement over conventional flotation for many applications. This improvement consists of increased selectivity between hydrophobic and hydrophilic particles, which allows the column to produce higher-purity products. A schematic of the column used is given in Figure 1. The basic procedure for the flotation column experiments was as follows: 500 grams of the sludge from Plant A (prepared as described in the Second Quarterly Report) was suspended at 40% solids in distilled water, to produce 1600 ml of slurry. Reagents were added, and the slurry was agitated vigorously for 1 minute. Frother was added to all of the water to be added to the column, at a rate of 0.03 grams/liter (approximately 0.4 kilograms per metric ton, Kg/mt). The frother used was Dowfroth 200 (a mixture of polypropylene glycol methyl ethers, with a mean molecular weight of 200). The column was started, all of the water flowrates were set as desired, and the drain valve was closed. As soon as the water level had reached the base of the feed inlet tube (approximately 1 minute after closing the drain valve), the 1600 ml feed slurry was added over a 15 second interval. This allowed the feed to be added to the column with a minimum of disturbance to the froth layer, and without causing either surging of the pulp level or large losses to the sinks product. Flotation was carried out for 9 minutes after closing the drain valve. Froth and sinks products were collected, filtered, dried at 45{degrees}C, weighed, and analyzed by thermogravimetic analysis. It is readily seen that, when no collector is added, the column produces a product that is markedly higher purity than that produced by conventional flotation. The addition of oleic acid collector to the column feed is not able to produce any further improvement in product quality, and only results in a loss of product recovery.

  8. Clay slurry and engineered soils as containment technologies for remediation of contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, J.R. [Reclamation Technology, Inc., Athens, GA (United States); Dudka, S.; Miller, W.P. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); Johnson, D.O. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Clay Slurry and Engineered Soils are containment technologies for remediation of waste disposal sites where leaching, groundwater plumes and surface runoff of contaminants are serious ecological hazards to adjacent environments. This technology is a patent-pending process which involves the use of conditioned clay materials mixed with sand and water to form a readily pourable suspension, a clay slurry, which is either placed into a trench barrier system or allowed to de-water to create Engineered Soils. The Engineered Soil forms a layer impervious to water and air, therefore by inhibiting both water and oxygen from penetrating through the soil the material. This material can be installed in layers and as a vertical barrier to create a surface barrier containment system. The clay percentage in the clay slurry and Engineered Soils varies depending on site characteristics and desired performance standards. For example Engineered Soils with 1-2% of clay (dry wt.) had a hydraulic conductivity (K) of 10{sup -8} to 10{sup -1} cm/sec. Tests of tailing materials from a kyanite and pyrite mine showed that the clay slurry was effective not only in reducing the permeability of the treated tailings, but also in decreasing their acidity due to the inherent alkalinity of the clay. The untreated tailings had pH values in the range of 2.4 - 3.1; whereas, the effluent from clay and tailings mixtures had pH values in a slightly alkaline range (7.7-7.9). Pug-mills and high volume slurry pumps can be readily adapted for use in constructing and placing caps and creating Engineered Soils. Moreover, material on site or from a local sand supply can be used to create clay slurries and engineered soils. Clay materials used in cap construction are likewise readily available commercially. As a result, the clay slurry system is very cost effective compared to other capping systems, including the commonly used High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) liner systems.

  9. Seasonal persistence of faecal indicator organisms in soil following dairy slurry application to land by surface broadcasting and shallow injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Christopher J; Oliver, David M; Fish, Robert D; Bulmer, Nicholas M; Heathwaite, A Louise; Winter, Michael; Chadwick, David R

    2016-12-01

    Dairy farming generates large volumes of liquid manure (slurry), which is ultimately recycled to agricultural land as a valuable source of plant nutrients. Different methods of slurry application to land exist; some spread the slurry to the sward surface whereas others deliver the slurry under the sward and into the soil, thus helping to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of two slurry application methods (surface broadcast versus shallow injection) on the survival of faecal indicator organisms (FIOs) delivered via dairy slurry to replicated grassland plots across contrasting seasons. A significant increase in FIO persistence (measured by the half-life of E. coli and intestinal enterococci) was observed when slurry was applied to grassland via shallow injection, and FIO decay rates were significantly higher for FIOs applied to grassland in spring relative to summer and autumn. Significant differences in the behaviour of E. coli and intestinal enterococci over time were also observed, with E. coli half-lives influenced more strongly by season of application relative to the intestinal enterococci population. While shallow injection of slurry can reduce agricultural GHG emissions to air it can also prolong the persistence of FIOs in soil, potentially increasing the risk of their subsequent transfer to water. Awareness of (and evidence for) the potential for 'pollution-swapping' is critical in order to guard against unintended environmental impacts of agricultural management decisions.

  10. The Comprehensive Utilization Technology of Treating High-Concentration Wastewater with Coal-Water Slurry Technology%利用水煤浆技术处置高浓度废水资源化利用技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何先标; 徐永萍; 唐量华; 李亚平; 徐皆

    2015-01-01

    For different kinds of high-concentration wastewaters (hazardous wastes),different analysis methods,standards and treatment processes have been drawn up;in connection with different kinds of hazardous wastes,experiments and studies are carried out to determine standard operating process of slurrying;based on different kinds of hazardous wastes,gasification process operation parameters are studied and adjusted,effectively made comprehensive recovery and utilization of organic matters in wastes,along with saving coal and water,the products of hydrogen,liquid carbon dioxide, liquid ammonia and ammonium bicarbonate are produced;in order to prevent secondary pollution, closed and tunable mill feeding device,multichannel gasification nozzle,gas quench unit and corresponding gasifier are adopted.Breakthrough progress is realized in standardized and systematic operation and management of wastes treatment,resource conservation and comprehensive utilization, technology research and development,pilot and promotion and application.%对不同的高浓度废水(危险废物)制订不同的分析方法、标准和处理工艺;对不同种类的危险废物进行制浆工艺的试验和研究,确定标准化的制浆操作工艺;根据不同种类的危险废物,研究并合理调整气化工艺操作参数,有效地综合回收利用了废物中的有机物,在节煤、节水的同时,生产氢气、液体二氧化碳、液氨、碳酸氢铵产品。为防止二次污染,采用了密闭可调式磨机喂料装置、多通道气化喷嘴、气体激冷装置和与之相适应的气化炉。在废物处置规范化和制度化运行管理、资源节约和综合利用、技术研发、中试和推广应用等方面取得了突破性的进展。

  11. Development and evaluation of highly-loaded coal slurries. Phase I summary report, October 15, 1977-December 31, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheffee, R.S.

    1979-05-01

    Slurry fuels comprised of either bituminous, subbituminous, or lignite coal, and either aqeuous media or emulsions of No. 6 oil in water as the carrier were developed and evaluated at solids loadings up to 70% by weight. Emphasis was placed on aqueous slurries of bituminous coal. These slurries were developed for use in place of No. 6 oil in oil-fired burners. High solids loadings were attained by use of bimodal particle size distributions, which are blends of coarse-grind coal (approx. 50 to 85% -50 mesh) and fine-grind coal (generally 90% -200 mesh). The effect of the blends on slurry viscosity was determined to find the blends that minimize viscosity. The effect of mill conditions on particle size distribution was determined for each coal, using a hammermill pulverizer. A large number of water-soluble resins were evaluated for effect on slurry stability and viscosity. The best of these was found to be hydroxypropylated corn starch. Slurries based on the use of 3% solutions of the starch in water were prepared with up to 70% by weight bituminous coal and up to 65% subbituminous coal. The slurries are pourable pseudo-plastic fluids having room-temperature viscosities in the range of 550 to 1100 cp at a shear rate of 3000 sec/sup -1/, depending on the type of coal, solids loading, and particle size distribution. None of the slurries exhibited hard pack settling, even after room-temperature storage up to 74 days. Oil-in-water emulsions made with polyethylene glycol (23) lauryl ether as an emulsifier were found to be stable with respect to phase separation when stored at 160/sup 0/F. Slurries made with these emulsions do not exhibit hard pack settling after one week storage at 160/sup 0/F.

  12. Kinetic modeling of cement slurry synthesized with Henna extract in oil well acidizing treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Aghajafari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Acidizing treatment in petroleum reservoirs is a short-term and viable strategy to preserve the productivity of a well. There is a major concern for the degradation of cement sheath integrity, leading to poor zonal isolation and environmental issues. Therefore, it is essential to understand how the cement behaves when attacked by hydrochloric acid. In this study, a cement slurry by incorporation of the Henna extract, as an environmentally friendly cement additive, was synthesized as a potential solution to solve this problem. The characteristics of the treated cement slurry were compared with a reference slurry (w/c = 0.44 which is composed of only cement and water. A kinetic study was carried out to evaluate the adsorption behavior of the cement slurries exposed to an acid solution with 0.1 M HCl in a range of 25 to 55 °C conditions. The features of the cement slurries were evaluated by multiple analytical techniques such as XRD, FTIR, TG, and DSC analysis. From the experimental data, it is concluded that the second-order Lagergren kinetic model revealed to be the best in describing kinetic isotherms taken, because the margin between experimental and calculated values was minor for this model. The results of the characterization and HCl interaction kinetic studies underlined the prominent protective role of Henna extract-modified cement slurry in the enhancement of the cement resistance against acid attack and utilization in environmentally favorable oil well acidizing treatments.

  13. Nitrogen losses from grass ley after slurry application surface broadcasting vs. injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. UUSI-KÄMPPÄ

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available As the livestock numbers on Finnish dairy farms have increased and most fields on dairy farms are under grass, it has become common to spread cattle slurry over grasslands. To estimate environmental effects of recurrent slurry applications, a 5-year field study was performed to compare nitrogen (N losses to water and ammonia losses to air by volatilization, when cattle slurry was either surface broadcast or injected into clay soil after grass cuttings. Slurry was spread on the grass in summer (1996–1997 or both in summer and autumn (1998–2000. Biomass N uptake before grass harvesting and amount of soil mineral N in spring and autumn were measured and field N balances were calculated. Despite cool weather, up to one third of the ammonium N of broadcast slurries was lost through ammonia volatilization after application in autumn, but injection effectively prevented losses. The mean surface runoff losses of total N were negligible (0.3–4.6 kg ha-1 yr-1 with the highest loss of 13 kg ha-1 yr-1 measured after slurry broadcasting to wet soil in autumn and followed with heavy rains. A substantial part (24–55% of the applied mineral N was not recovered by the foregoing measurements.;

  14. Flow and segregation in sheared granular slurries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barentin, C.; Azanza, E.; Pouligny, B.

    2004-04-01

    We study the behaviour of a granular slurry, i.e., a very concentrated suspension of heavy (denser than the fluid) and polydisperse particles sheared between two parallel-plane circular disks. For small gaps, the slurry behaves as a 2d system with a characteristic radial size segregation of particles. For large gaps, the slurry responds as a 3d system, with considerable vertical segregation and a concomitant 2-phase (fluid, solid) flow structure. The thickness ζ of the fluid phase is the 2d-3d gap crossover. Surprisingly, ζ is found to be nearly unaffected by very large changes in the particle size distribution.

  15. Hydrodynamic Behavior of Three-Phase Airlift Loop Slurry Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任飞; 王金福; 王铁峰; 金涌

    2002-01-01

    A novel fiber optic probe system and a set of commercial ultrasonic Doppler velocimeters have been used to study the hydrodynamic behavior of a three-phase airlift loop (TPAL) slurry reactor. Experiments have been carried out in a loop reactor with 100 mm inner diameter and 2.5 m height, in which air, tap water and silica gel particles are used as the gas, liquid and solid phase, respectively. The radial profile of gas holdup, bubble size, bubble rising velocity, liquid circulating velocity, and the influence of the main operating conditions such as superficial gas velocity and solids concentration have been studied experimentally in the TPAL slurry reactor. The experimental results show that the bubble characteristics are different in various flow regimes and the radial profiles of some hydrodynamic parameters in the TPAL slurry reactor are more uniform than those in traditional three-phase reactors. The distribution of the bubble size and bubble rising velocity can be described by a lognormal function. The influence of superficial gas velocity on the hydrodynamic parameters is more remarkable than that of the solids concentration.

  16. Rheology of slurries and environmental impacts in the mining industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boger, David V

    2013-01-01

    The world's resource industries are the largest producers of waste. Much of this waste is produced as a fine particle slurry, which is pumped to a storage area, generally at a low concentration, where it behaves like a Newtonian fluid. Simply removing, reusing, and recycling water from the slurry represents a step toward a more sustainable practice in this industry. As the concentration of such a slurry is increased as a result of dewatering, the materials exhibit non-Newtonian behavior, which is characterized by shear thinning, a yield stress, and in some instances thixotropic behavior. Such high-concentration, nonideal (dirty) suspensions in the resource industries have meant that new rheological methods and techniques have been needed to measure and interpret the basic flow properties. Also, some older empirical techniques have needed to be modified and interpreted in a more fundamental way so that the results could be used in design. This article reviews these techniques and illustrates how the industry itself has motivated their development. Understanding and exploiting this rheology has resulted in dramatic improvement in the waste-disposal strategy for some industries, but many have failed to embrace the available technology. The reasons for this are discussed. The article concludes that a greater positive change in waste-management practice will occur in the future, motivated by several factors, including public perception, tighter regulation, and perhaps even commonsense life cycle accounting.

  17. Slurry Erosion Behavior of Destabilized and Deep Cryogenically Treated Cr-Mn-Cu White Cast Irons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gupta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of destabilization treatment and destabilization followed by cryogenic treatment have been evaluated on the microstructural evolution and sand-water slurry erosion behavior of Cr-Mn-Cu white cast irons. The phase transformations after the destabilization and cryotreatment have been characterized by bulk hardness measurement, optical and scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction analysis. The static corrosion rate has been measured in tap water (with pH=7 and the erosion-corrosion behavior has been studied by slurry pot tester using sand-water slurry. The test results indicate that the cryogenic treatment has a significant effect in minimizing the as-cast retained austenite content and transforming into martensitic and bainitic matrix embedded with ultra-fine M7C3 alloy carbides. In contrast, by conventional destabilization treatment retained austenite in the matrix are not fully eliminated. The slurry erosive wear resistance has been compared with reference to destabilized and cryotreated high chromium iron samples which are commonly employed for such applications. The cryotreated Cr-Mn-Cu irons have exhibited a comparable erosive wear performance to those of high chromium irons. Higher hardness combined with improved corrosion resistance result in better slurry erosion resistance.

  18. Reducing Pumping Power in Hydronic Heating and Cooling Systems with Microencapsulated Phase Change Material Slurries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karas, Kristoffer Jason

    Phase change materials (PCMs) are being used increasingly in a variety of thermal transfer and thermal storage applications. This thesis presents the results of a laboratory study into the feasibility of improving the performance of hydronic heating and cooling systems by adding microcapsules filled with a PCM to the water used as heat transport media in these systems. Microencapsulated PCMs (MPCMs) increase the heat carrying capacity of heat transport liquids by absorbing or releasing heat at a constant temperature through a change of phase. Three sequences of tests and their results are presented: 1) Thermal cycling tests conducted to determine the melting temperatures and extent of supercooling associated with the MPCMs tested. 2) Hydronic performance tests in which MPCM slurries were pumped through a fin-and-tube, air-to-liquid heat exchanger and their thermal transfer performance compared against that of ordinary water. 3) Mechanical stability tests in which MPCM slurries were pumped in a continuous loop in order to gauge the extent of rupture due to pumping. It is shown that slurries consisting of water and MPCMs ˜ 14-24 mum in diameter improve thermal performance and offer the potential for power savings in the form of reduced pumping requirements. In addition, it is shown that while slurries of MPCMs 2-5 mum in diameter appear to exhibit better mechanical stability than slurries of larger diameter MPCMs, the smaller MPCMs appear to reduce the thermal performance of air-to-liquid heat exchangers.

  19. Combustion Behavior of Free Boron Slurry Droplets,

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    weak disruptive behavior while pure JP-1t burn quiescently, except for a flash extinction which occurs at the termination of combustion. The...I AD-R158 628 COMBUSTION BEHAVIOR OF FREE BORON SLURRY DROPLETS(U) i/i I PRINCETON UNIV NJ DEPT OF MECHANICAL AND AEROSPACE ENINEERIN., F TAKAHASHI...COMBUSTION BEHAVIOR OF FREE BORON SLURRY DROPLETS TAM by F. Takahashi, F.L. Dryer, and F.A. Williams Department of M~echanical and keyosase Engineering

  20. Slurry and processing technique of CLBO crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Sheng-li; LIU Yu-ling; NIU Xin-huan; TAN Bai-mei

    2006-01-01

    CsLiB6O10(CLBO) is a new-type nonlinear optical crystal material. CLBO has many good performances,especially the frequency multiplication performance in deep ultraviolet band. CLBO has important application prospect on solid-state UV laser,broad band tunable laser and laser nucleus flame igniter. Though,CLBO will be air slaking and cracking when the ambient humidity is more than 40%,which brings more difficult on CLBO surface finishing. According to the performance and structure characteristic of CLBO crystal,a new water-free slurry applying for CLBO crystal chemical mechanical polishing(CMP) was investigated. The abrasive is SiO2. The influence of polishing processing parameter on polishing process for CLBO crystal was discussed,and the parameter optimal value of polishing plate speed,pressure,pH value and abrasive concentration were determined. Through such parameters,high efficiency and precision plane polishing was gotten. The CLBO CMP process was studied,the results show that low pressure and high speed can improve the CLBO crystal surface removal rate and flatness.

  1. Slurry combustion. Volume 1, Text: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essenhigh, R. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1993-06-21

    The project described in this Report was to investigate the possibility of using sorbent added to coal-water fuel (CWF) mixtures as a means of reducing SOX emissions when burning Ohio coal. The results are significantly encouraging, with SOX concentrations reduced by amounts ranging from 25% to 65%, depending on the sorbent type and the firing conditions, where one major condition identified was the residence time in the flame gases. With the sorbent-loaded slurrys, the trend generally showed increasing SO{sub 2} capture with increasing sorbent loading. There were significant differences between the two different mixture formulations, however: The calcite/No. 8-seam mixture showed significantly higher SO{sub 2} capture at all times (ranging from 45% to 65%) than did the dolomite/No. 5 seam mixture (ranging from 25% to 45%). If the successes so far achieved are not to be wasted, advantage should be taken of these encouraging results by extending the work at both the present scale to determine the other unknown factors controlling sorption efficiency, and at larger scale to start implementation in commercial systems.

  2. Perda de água, solo e fósforo com aplicação de dejeto líquido bovino em latossolo sob plantio direto e com chuva simulada Water, soil and phosphorus loss after cattle slurry application to oxisol under no-tillage and simulated rainfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Fumiaki Mori

    2009-02-01

    á (Brazil is an important region of milk production and consequently of cattle slurry. The purposes of this study were: (a to evaluate losses of water, soil, total P, soluble P and particulate P under simulated rainfall performed immediately after the application of 0, 30, 60 and 90 m³ ha-1 cattle slurry on a Red-Yellow Latossol (Ferralsol under no-tillage system, and (b to discuss the possible impacts on water quality. Slurry application increased the surface runoff rate by more than 10 times in all 15 min intervals of the 2 h rainfall. The increase of total runoff was highest between 0 and 30 m³ ha-1, and tended to stabilize at over 60 m³ ha-1. The soil loss rate in the first 15 min of rainfall also increased with slurry application, and this tendency continued until the end of the 2 h rainfall, although not significantly. The highest increase of total soil loss was also observed between 0 and 30 m³ ha-1, tending to stabilization at the highest slurry dose. Part of the solid runoff was derived from the applied slurry. The application, even at only 30 m³ ha-1 slurry, increased the total, soluble and particulate P concentration in the runoff to over the limit values regarding eutrophication, especially in the first 15 min of rainfall. Besides the increased runoff rate and P concentration, the slurry application also caused higher absolute losses of the three P forms, which tended to stabilize from 60 m³ ha-1 onwards. The increase in runoff and soil and P loss rates were possibly due to soil surface sealing caused by slurry particles and is possibly related to the fact that rainfall was simulated immediately after slurry application.

  3. Mixed Waste Management Facility groundwater monitoring report. Second quarter 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.A.

    1994-09-01

    Currently, 125 wells monitor groundwater quality in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) at the Savannah River Site. Samples from the wells are analyzed for selected heavy metals, indicator parameters, radionuclides, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. During second quarter 1994, chloroethene (vinyl chloride), 1,1-dichloroethylene, gross alpha, lead, tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene, or tritium exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in approximately half of the downgradient wells at the MWMF. Consistent with historical trends, elevated constituent levels were found primarily in Aquifer Zone. As in previous quarters, tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread elevated constituents during second quarter 1994. Sixty-two of the 125 monitoring wells contained elevated tritium activities. Trichloroethylene concentrations exceeded the final PDWS in 23 wells. Chloroethene, 1,1-dichloroethylene, lead, and tetrachloroethylene, elevated in one or more wells during second quarter 1994, also occurred in elevated levels during first quarter 1994. These constituents generally were elevated in the same wells during both quarters. Gross alpha, which was not elevated in any well during first quarter 1994, was elevated in one well during second quarter. Copper, mercury, and nonvolatile beta were elevated during first quarter 1994 but not during second quarter.

  4. Studies of coal slurries property; Slurry no seijo ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawabata, M.; Aihara, Y.; Imada, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Nogami, Y.; Inokuchi, K. [Mitsui SRC Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Sakaki, T.; Shibata, M.; Hirosue, H. [Kyushu National Industrial Research Institute, Saga (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    It was previously found that the increase of slurry temperature provides a significant effect of slurry viscosity reduction for the coal slurry with high concentration of 50 wt%. To investigate the detailed influence of slurry temperature for the coal slurry with concentration of 50 wt%, influence of temperature on the successive change of apparent viscosity was observed at the constant shear rate. When the concentration of coal was increased from 45 wt% to 50 wt%, viscosity of the slurry was rapidly increased. When heated above 70{degree}C, the apparent viscosity decreased during heating to the given temperature, but it increased successively after reaching to the given temperature. The apparent viscosity showed higher value than that of the initial viscosity. The coal slurry with concentration of 50 wt% showed the fluidity of Newtonian fluid at the lower shear rate region, but showed the fluidity of pseudo-plastic fluid at the higher shear rate region. The slurry having high apparent viscosity by the successive change showed higher apparent viscosity with increasing the higher even by changing the shear rate. 1 ref., 4 figs.

  5. The effects of a spray slurry nozzle on copper CMP for reduction in slurry consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Da Sol; Jeong, Hae Do [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyun Seop [Tongmyong University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    The environmental impact of semiconductor manufacturing has been a big social problem, like greenhouse gas emission. Chemical mechanical planarization (CMP), a wet process which consumes chemical slurries, seriously impacts environmental sustain ability and cost-effectiveness. This paper demonstrates the superiority of a full-cone spray slurry nozzle to the conventional tube-type slurry nozzle in Cu CMP. It was observed that the spray nozzle made a weak slurry wave at the retaining ring unlike a conventional nozzle, because the slurry was supplied uniformly in broader areas. Experiments were implemented with different slurry flow rates and spray nozzle heights. Spray nozzle performance is controlled by the spray angle and spray height. The process temperature was obtained with an infrared (IR) sensor and an IR thermal imaging camera to investigate the cooling effect of the spray. The results show that the spray nozzle provides a higher Material removal rate (MRR), lower non-uniformity (NU), and lower temperature than the conventional nozzle. Computational fluid dynamics techniques show that the turbulence kinetic energy and slurry velocity of the spray nozzle are much higher than those of the conventional nozzle. Finally, it can be summarized that the spray nozzle plays a significant role in slurry efficiency by theory of Minimum quantity lubrication (MQL).

  6. Discussion on the Popularization and Application of Intermediate Water Reuse in Residential Quarter%中水回用在城镇住宅小区的推广应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦玮; 杨青; 陆夏铭; 李晓征

    2013-01-01

    Reclaimed water resource, quality, quantity status, main forms of recycling, processing technique in urban residential quarters were analyzed, as well as reclaimed water application way. Finally, the extension benefits of reclaimed water reuse in urban residential quarter was discussed with examples, it was pointed out that reclaimed water reuse has broad prospects.%对城镇住宅小区中水水源水质水量状况、中水回用系统的主要形式、中水处理技术的选择,以及分析中水在小区中的应用途径等进行了分析,最后通过实例对中水回用在城镇住宅小区的推广应用效益进行了初步探讨,指出中水回用在城镇住宅小区中的推广具有广阔前景.

  7. Solvent refined coal (SRC) process. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1980-March 1980. [In process streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) project at the SRC Pilot Plant in Fort Lewis, Wahsington, and the Process Development Unit (P-99) in Harmarville, Pennsylvania. After the remaining runs of the slurry preheater survey test program were completed January 14, the Fort Lewis Pilot Plant was shut down to inspect Slurry Preheater B and to insulate the coil for future testing at higher rates of heat flux. Radiographic inspection of the coil showed that the welds at the pressure taps and the immersion thermowells did not meet design specifications. Slurry Preheater A was used during the first 12 days of February while weld repairs and modifications to Slurry Preheater B were completed. Two attempts to complete a material balance run on Powhatan No. 6 Mine coal were attempted but neither was successful. Slurry Preheater B was in service the remainder of the quarter. The start of a series of runs at higher heat flux was delayed because of plugging in both the slurry and the hydrogen flow metering systems. Three baseline runs and three slurry runs of the high heat flux program were completed before the plant was shut down March 12 for repair of the Inert Gas Unit. Attempts to complete a fourth slurry run at high heat flux were unsuccessful because of problems with the coal feed handling and the vortex mix systems. Process Development Unit (P-99) completed three of the four runs designed to study the effect of dissolver L/D ratio. The fourth was under way at the end of the period. SRC yield correlations have been developed that include coal properties as independent variables. A preliminary ranking of coals according to their reactivity in PDU P-99 has been made. Techniques for studying coking phenomenona are now in place.

  8. Applications of advanced petroleum production technology and water alternating gas injection for enhanced oil recovery -- Mattoon Oil Field, Illinois. First quarterly technical progress report, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baroni, M.R.

    1993-05-24

    For work during the first quarter of 1993, American Oil Recovery, Inc. targeted completion of the following specific objectives: Convene meetings of Mattoon Project subcontractors in order to plan and coordinate Project activities. Confirm organizational arrangements and plans for implementation of Mattoon Project. Complete most work on detailed analysis of reservoir geology of productive leases in the Mattoon Project. Identify first Facies Defined Subunit for initial injectivity testing to be commenced near the beginning of the second quarter. Identify additional Facies Defined Subunits for injectivity testing and characterization during the second and third quarters. Award subcontract to the Illinois State Geological Survey and commence work on preparation of a geostatistical model (STRATAMODEL) of more than 100 wells on 1,000 acres within the Mattoon Project Area. Obtain oil samples from wells in the identified Facies Subunit for reservoir rock, fluid, and CO{sub 2} compatibility testing by the Illinois State Geological Survey. Design CO{sub 2} injection pumps and injection monitoring equipment configuration. Obtain bids for required pumps and diesel motor. Accomplishments for this quarter are reported.

  9. Effects of total solids concentrations of poultry, cattle, and piggery waste slurries on biogas yield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itodo, I.N.; Awulu, J.O.

    1999-12-01

    The effects of total solids concentrations of poultry, cattle and piggery waste slurries on biogas yield was investigated. Twelve laboratory-size anaerobic batch digesters with 25 L volume were constructed and used for the experiments. Three replicates of 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% TS concentrations of poultry, cattle, and piggery waste slurries were anaerobically digested for a 30-day detention period and gas yield was measured by the method of water displacement. Temperature variation within the digesters was measured with a maximum and minimum thermometer. Anaerobic digestion of the slurries was undertaken in the mesophilic temperature range (20--40 C). The carbon:nitrogen ratio of each of the slurries digested was determined. The carbon content was determined using the wackley-Black method, and nitrogen content was determined by the regular kjeldhal method. The pH was measured weekly during the period of digestion from a digital pH meter. Gas quality (% methane fraction) was also measured weekly from an analyzer. Coefficient of variation was computed to ascertain the status of the digestion process. Analysis of variance was used to determine the significant difference in gas yield at p < 0.05. Duncan's New Multiple Range Test at p < 0.05 was used to analyze the difference in gas yield among the various TS concentrations of the slurries investigated. The results indicate that biogas yield is of the order: 5% TS > 10% TS > 15% TS > 20% TS. This result shows that gas yield increases with decreasing TS concentration of the slurries. The ANOVA showed that the gas yield from the various TS % was significantly different (p < 0.05). DNMRT showed that there was significant difference in gas yield from the slurries and wastetypes investigated. Poultry waste slurries had the greatest gas yield (L CH4/kg TS) as the gas yield from the waste types was of the order: Poultry > Piggery > Cattle. The pH of the slurries was of the range 5.5 to 6.8 (weakly acidic). The C:N of the

  10. 水煤浆提浓技术在新能能源有限公司的应用%Application of coal water slurry mass fraction improvement technology in Xinneng Energy Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张胜局; 何国锋; 段清兵

    2015-01-01

    To improve mass fraction of gasification coal water slurry ( CWS) and reduce production cost,an advanced process which adopted low-rank coal to prepare high mass fraction CWS was introduced by Xinneng Energy Company.The quality of CWS and each gasification index before and after transformation were analyzed.The influence of CWS mass fraction on specific coal and oxygen utilization, volume fraction of effective synthesis gas and methanol yield was studied.After transformation,the mass fraction of CWS increased from 59.11%to 61.36%.The handing capacity of each rod mill increased from 65 t/h to 78 t/h,specific coal and oxygen utilization decreased to 595.2 g/m3 and 384.0 dm3/m3 from 602.5 g/m3 and 392.0 dm3/m3 respectively.The effective synthesis gas was raised from 81.78% to 82.86%.The crude methanol production increased by 47.3 m3 every day.%为提高气化水煤浆浓度,降低生产成本,新能能源有限公司于2012年引进低阶煤制备高浓度水煤浆工艺及设备对现有水煤浆制备系统进行改造,通过对比分析改造前后的气化水煤浆质量和气化各项性能指标,阐述了水煤浆浓度对比煤耗、比氧耗、有效合成气体积分数及甲醇产量的影响。结果表明,水煤浆制备系统进行提浓改造后,水煤浆质量与气化效果显著改善。水煤浆浓度由改造前的59.11%提高至61.36%,提高了2.25%,单台棒磨机原煤处理量由65 t/h提高至78 t/h,比煤耗由602.5 g/m3降至595.2 g/m3,比氧耗从392.0 dm3/m3降至384.0 dm3/m3,气化有效合成气体积分数也由81.78%提高至82.86%,最终每天增产粗甲醇47.3 m3。

  11. Slurry pipelines: economic and political issues. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W. F.

    1977-11-30

    In the controversy surrounding the proposal to grant Federal eminent domain to coal-slurry pipelines, the fundamental issue is whether, on balance, such a grant is in the national interest. The principal subissues (peripheral issues) of economics, water supply and disposal, energy consumption and conservation, employment, safety, and environmental impact are analyzed. It is found that, as compared with unit trains, which are the only immediate alternative for movement of large quantities of Western coal, the pipelines are not against the national interest, except in the case of employment. It is concluded that, on balance, the pipelines are in the national interest and should be granted the power of Federal eminent domain.

  12. The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands. Quarterly report, July--September, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1993-11-01

    This report cites task number followed by a brief statement of each task and the action taken this quarter. The tasks are: NEPA environmental information statement; coupled fluidized-bed bitumen recovery and coked sand combustion; water-based recovery of bitumen; rotary kiln process for recovery of bitumen and combustion of coke sand; recovery of bitumen from oil sands using fluidized bed reactors and combustion of spent sands in transport reactors; recovery of bitumen from oil sand and upgrading of bitumen by solvent extraction; catalytic and thermal upgrading of bitumens and bitumen-derived liquids; evaluation of Utah`s major oil sand deposits for the production of asphalt, high energy jet fuels, and other specialty products; development of mathematical models for bitumen recovery and processing; completion of the cost estimation study of the pilot plant restoration; development studies of equipment for three-product gravity separation of bitumen and sand; development studies of disposal of sand by conveying or pumping of high solids concentration sand-water slurries; and environmental studies of the North Salt Lake pilot plant rehabilitation and eventual operation and those environmental problems associated with eventual commercial products.

  13. Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility groundwater monitoring report. First quarter 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    During first quarter 1995, samples from AMB groundwater monitoring wells at the Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility (Met Lab HWMF) were analyzed for selected heavy metals, field measurements, radionuclides, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Six parameters exceeded standards during the quarter. As in previous quarters, tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS). Total organic halogens exceeded its Savannah River Site (SRS) Flag 2 criterion during first quarter 1995 as in fourth quarter 1994. Aluminum, iron, and manganese, which were not analyzed for during fourth quarter 1994, exceeded the Flag 2 criteria in at least two wells each during first quarter 1995. Groundwater flow direction and rate in the M-Area Aquifer Zone were similar to previous quarters. Conditions affecting the determination of groundwater flow directions and rates in the Upper Lost Lake Aquifer Zone, Lower Lost Lake Aquifer Zone, and the Middle Sand Aquifer Zone of the Crouch Branch Confining Unit were also similar to previous quarters.

  14. Metals attenuation in minerally-enhanced slurry walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.C.; Prince, M.J. [Bucknell Univ., Lewisburg, PA (United States); Adams, T.L. [Woodward-Clyde Consultants, Blue Bell, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    In current practice, a soil-bentonite slurry trench cutoff wall is a mixture of water, soil, and bentonite that is designed to serve as a passive barrier to ground water and contaminant transport. This study evaluated the transformation of a passive slurry trench cutoff wall barrier to an active barrier system. Conventional soil-bentonite vertical barriers presently serve as passive barriers to contaminated ground water. An active barrier will not only fulfill the functions of the present passive barrier system, but also retard contaminant transport by adsorptive processes. Attapulgite, Na-chabazite, and Ca-chabazite were added to {open_quotes}activate{close_quotes} the conventional soil-bentonite backfill. Batch extraction tests were performed to determine the partitioning coefficients of cadmium and zinc between the liquid and solid phase when in contact with the backfill mixes. Batch extraction and mathematical modeling results demonstrate the ability of an active barrier to retard the transport of cadmium and zinc. The reactivity of the soil-bentonite vertical barrier depends heavily on the inorganic being adsorbed. The reactivity of the barrier also depends on the adsorptive capabilities of the clay minerals added to the conventional soil-bentonite vertical barrier. The results of laboratory studies suggest that passive barrier systems can be transformed to active systems. Further, the data suggests that although conventional soil-bentonite vertical barriers are presently designed as passive barriers, they already have adsorptive capacity associated with active barriers.

  15. YIELD STRESS REDUCTION OF DWPF MELTER FEED SLURRIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, M; Michael02 Smith, M

    2006-12-28

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site vitrifies High Level Waste for repository internment. The process consists of three major steps: waste pretreatment, vitrification, and canister decontamination/sealing. The HLW consists of insoluble metal hydroxides (primarily iron, aluminum, magnesium, manganese, and uranium) and soluble sodium salts (carbonate, hydroxide, nitrite, nitrate, sulfate). The pretreatment process acidifies the sludge with nitric and formic acids, adds the glass formers as glass frit, then concentrates the resulting slurry to approximately 50 weight percent (wt%) total solids. This slurry is fed to the joule-heated melter where the remaining water is evaporated followed by calcination of the solids and conversion to glass. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is currently assisting DWPF efforts to increase throughput of the melter. As part of this effort, SRNL has investigated methods to increase the solids content of the melter feed to reduce the heat load required to complete the evaporation of water and allow more of the energy available to calcine and vitrify the waste. The process equipment in the facility is fixed and cannot process materials with high yield stresses, therefore increasing the solids content will require that the yield stress of the melter feed slurries be reduced. Changing the glass former added during pretreatment from an irregularly shaped glass frit to nearly spherical beads was evaluated. The evaluation required a systems approach which included evaluations of the effectiveness of beads in reducing the melter feed yield stress as well as evaluations of the processing impacts of changing the frit morphology. Processing impacts of beads include changing the settling rate of the glass former (which effects mixing and sampling of the melter feed slurry and the frit addition equipment) as well as impacts on the melt behavior due to decreased surface area of the beads versus frit

  16. Quarterly report for the electricity market. 2. quarter of 2012; Kvartalsrapport for kraftmarknaden. 2. kvartal 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliston, Anton Jaynand; Holmqvist, Erik; Lund, Per Tore Jensen; Magnussen, Ingrid; Viggen, Kjerstin Dahl; Willumsen, Mats Oeivind; Guren, Ingrid; Ulriksen, Margit Iren

    2012-07-01

    Fourth quarter of 2011 was unusually mild and wet, resulting in high energy inflow to the Norwegian reservoirs. Total inflow for the year was 149.2 TWh, 26.7 TWh more than normal. This ensured record-high 80.3 percent load factor at the end of the quarter.The stored energy amount in the reservoirs was thus 29.5 TWh greater than at the end of 2010/2011. Norway had a power consumption of 34.1 TWh in the fourth quarter. Compared with the same quarter of 2010, a decrease of 4.2 TWh, which can be connected to the mild weather development. The total Norwegian electricity consumption in 2011 was 125.1 TWh, or 6.9 TWh less than in 2010. Electricity production in the fourth quarter of 2011 was 38.3 GWh, an increase of 3.7 TWh from the same quarter the year before. The production increase were a result of the large volume of water in the system. Power production for the year 2011 was 128.1 TWh, an increase of 3.7 TWh from 2010. Kraft surplus was therefore large, and it was Norwegian net export of 4.2 TWh in the fourth quarter, and 3.0 TWh total for the year. In comparison, in the fourth quarter of 2010 Norwegian net import of 0.8 TWh and 7.5 TWh annually. The good resource combined with the low consumption gave a unusually low price levels in the wholesale market for electricity. On average for fourth quarter, the price of power in the East and South-East Norway Nok 264 / MWh, in western Norway Nok 260 / MWh, in Central Norway Nok 270 / MWh (eb)

  17. Evaporative supercooling characteristics of single water droplet in ice-slurry production system with evaporative supercooled water%蒸发式过冷水制冰中单个水滴的蒸发过冷特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫俊海; 张小松

    2012-01-01

    To analyze the evaporation characteristics of single water droplet in low temperature and low humidity ratio air in ice production system with evaporative supercooled water, a mathematical model of evaporative supercooling process of single water droplet was proposed. The evaporation process of droplet in supercooling stage was simulated with theoretical model and the results are basically consistent with the experiment on suspended single water droplet, so it is feasible to predict the evaporative supercooling characteristics of small water droplet by the mathematical model. The influence of initial diameter and temperature of water droplet, air temperature, humidity ratio of air, and air velocity on the temperature of water droplet during its evaporative supercooling process was analyzed. The numerical results show that smaller diameter and lower temperature of water droplet and larger air velocity can increase the cooling rate of water droplet and shorten the supercooling time reaching steady state evaporation stage. Additionally, lowering the temperature or humidity ratio of air can not only improve the cooling rate of water droplet, but also increase the supercooling degree of water droplet reaching steady state evaporation stage. The investigation of evaporative supercooling process of water droplet can provide a foundation for improving the efficiency of ice production and optimal design for ice-making system with evaporative supercooled water.%为分析蒸发式过冷水制冰中单个水滴在此低温低湿空气环境中的蒸发特性,建立了水滴蒸发过冷过程的数理模型.通过悬挂水滴实验与模拟结果的对比,验证了模型的有效性.因此利用该数学模型预测微小直径水滴的蒸发特性是可行的.通过模拟计算获得了水滴初始直径、初始水温、空气温度、空气含湿量和空气流速对水滴蒸发过冷过程的影响.结果表明,水滴初始直径越小、温度越低或空气流速越大,

  18. Simulation and characterization of a Hanford high-level waste slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, R.L.; Smith, H.D.

    1996-09-01

    The baseline waste used for this simulant is a blend of wastes from tanks 101-AZ, 102-AZ, 106-C, and 102-AY that have been through water washing. However, the simulant used in this study represents a combination of tank waste slurries and should be viewed as an example of the slurries that might be produced by blending waste from various tanks. It does not imply that this is representative of the actual waste that will be delivered to the privatization contractor(s). This blended waste sludge simulant was analyzed for grain size distribution, theological properties both as a function of concentration and aging, and calcining characteristics. The grain size distribution allows a comparison with actual waste with respect to theological properties. Slurries with similar grain size distributions of the same phases are expected to exhibit similar theological properties. Rheological properties may also change because of changes in the slurry`s particulate supernate chemistry due to aging. Low temperature calcination allows the potential for hazardous gas generation to be investigated.

  19. Improvements of marine clay slurries using chemical–physical combined method (CPCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongqing Wu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effectiveness, applicability and validity of chemical–physical combined methods (CPCMs for treatment of marine clay (MC slurries were evaluated. The method CPCM1 combines chemical stabilization and vacuum preloading (VP, while CPCM2 is similar to CPCM1 but includes both the application of surcharge and use of geo-bags to provide confinement during surcharge preloading. The key advantage of CPCM2 using geo-bags is that the surcharge can be immediately applied on the chemically stabilized slurries. Two types of geo-bags were investigated under simulated land filling and dyke conditions, respectively. The test results show that the shear strength (cu of treated slurry by CPCM2 is generally much higher than that by CPCM1. Besides, the use of CPCM2 can significantly reduce the treatment time due to the short drainage paths created by geo-bags. Overall, CPCM2 allows faster consolidation and higher preloading that help to achieve higher mechanical properties of the stabilized slurry. There are consistent relationships between cU and water content of slurries treated by CPCM2. Several important observations were also made based on comparisons of experimental data.

  20. Combined slurry and cavitation erosion resistance of HVOF spray coated SS 410 steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarendra, H. J.; Prathap, M. S.; Karthik, S.; Abhishek, A. M.; Madhu surya, K. C.; Gujjar gowda, S.; Anilkumar, T.

    2016-09-01

    The hydro turbine materials surface is degraded due to the slurry erosion and cavitation. The solid particles carried by water impacting the material results in slurry erosion. The damage occurred due to slurry erosion is the concern, when considered individually. The erosion damage is observed to be severe when slurry erosion and cavitation are combined. The hydro turbine material, martensitic stainless (SS 410) is surface modified with 80Ni-Cr by High Velocity Oxy Fuel spray process. The coated material subjected to post thermal treatment at a temperature of 950 ° C, soaked at 1 h, 2 h and 3 h are subjected to combined slurry and cavitation erosion test. The cavitation is created by using Cavitation Inducers. The tests are conducted by using silica sand as the erodent with three different sizes of 150, 200 and 300 μm. The results are compared with the as-received specimen. The results confirmed the effect of heat treatment on the end results, as the coated thermal treated specimens showed better erosion resistance against the as-received specimen. The eroded specimens are characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope. The thermal treated HVOF coated specimens shown the better erosion resistance.

  1. Rheologicai properties of tailing paste slurry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新民; 李建雄; 肖智政; 肖卫国

    2004-01-01

    The initial shear stress (τ) and plastic cohesion (η) are the most important parameters reflecting the rheological properties of the paste slurry. The rheological parameters as well as the quantitative relationship among the consumption of different fill materials were obtained through the experiment and research on these parameters.They can be used to predict the scope of the values of τ and η in production for a given ratio, which can reduce the conveying resistance of fill slurry along the pipelines and avoid the blockage of the pipelines. It is found that the rheological model of the total tailing slurry belongs to the Bingham type, which has a feature of strong internal structure and large initial shear stress. The calculation formula for the resistance loss of pipelines conforms nicely to the field test and the actual production in Jinchuan Nickel Mine.

  2. Integrated system for coal-methanol liquefaction and slurry pipeline transportation. Final report. [In slurry transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W.F.; Davidson, J.K.; Horton, J.H.; Summers, C.W.

    1980-03-31

    The engineering economics of an integrated coal-to-methanol conversion system and coal-in-methanol transportation system are examined, under the circumstances of the western coalfields, i.e., long distances from major markets and scarcity of water in the vicinity of the mines. The transportation economics are attractive, indicating tariffs of approximately 40 cents per million Btu per thousand miles for the coal-methanol pipeline vs 60 cents via coal-water pipelines and upwards of a dollar via rail. Energy consumption is also less in the coal-methanol pipeline than in the coal-water pipeline, and about equal to rail. It is also concluded that, by a proper marriage of the synthetic fuel (methanolization) plant to the slurrification plant, most, and in some cases all, of the water required by the synthetic fuel process can be supplied by the natural moisture of the coal itself. Thus, the only technology which presently exists and by which synthetic fuel from western coal can displace petroleum in the automotive fuel market is the integrated methanol conversion and tranportation system. The key element is the ability of the methanol slurry pipeline to accept and to deliver dry (1 to 5% moisture) coal, allowing the natural coal moisture to be used as synthesis feedstock in satisfaction of the large water requirement of any synthetic fuel plant. By virtue of these unique properties, this integrated system is seen as the only means in the foreseeable future whereby western coal can be converted to synthetic fuel and moved to distant markets.

  3. Interactions between Soil Texture and Placement of Dairy Slurry Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glæsner, Nadia; Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Rubæk, Gitte Holton

    2011-01-01

    Land application of manure can exacerbate nutrient and contaminant transfers to the aquatic environment. This study examined the effect of injecting a dairy cattle (Bos taurus L.) manure slurry on mobilization and leaching of dissolved, nonreactive slurry components across a range of agricultural...... texture as an important factor influencing leaching of dissolved, nonreactive slurry components in soils amended with manure slurry.......Land application of manure can exacerbate nutrient and contaminant transfers to the aquatic environment. This study examined the effect of injecting a dairy cattle (Bos taurus L.) manure slurry on mobilization and leaching of dissolved, nonreactive slurry components across a range of agricultural...... soils. We compared leaching of slurry-applied bromide through intact soil columns (20 cm diam., 20 cm high) of differing textures following surface application or injection of slurry. The volumetric fraction of soil pores >30 μm ranged from 43% in a loamy sand to 28% in a sandy loam and 15% in a loam...

  4. Lance for injecting highly-loaded coal slurries into the blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illuminati, D.

    1991-10-29

    A lance is used to inject fuel oil into a blast furnace. This simple design permits conversion of coal water and coal tar slurries to a fine mist at very low flow rates. This design prevents the build-up of deposits which increases service life and steadies the flow rate.

  5. TWO-PHASE FLOW OF HIGHLY CONCENTRATED SLURRY IN A PIPELINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NI Fu-sheng; ZHAO Li-juan; MATOUSEK V.; VLASBLOM W. J.; ZWARTBOL A.

    2004-01-01

    Hydraulic transport of sand is one of the key processes in river, lake, harbor and waterway dredging engineering. Understanding the flow resistance, solid distribution, flow stratification, transport economy, etc., in the two-phase flow of sand-water mixture through a pipeline is crucial to the design and operation of power drives of a dredger, and to the construction of a dredging project. This paper presents the intensive laboratory experimental data and physical and numerical analyses on the highly concentrated slurry flow under an extended large range of slurry mean velocities for three narrow-graded sands of different sizes. The investigation indicates that the solids concentration and particle size strongly affect the slurry flow characteristics.

  6. Liquid CO{sub 2}/Coal Slurry for Feeding Low Rank Coal to Gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marasigan, Jose; Goldstein, Harvey; Dooher, John

    2013-09-30

    This study investigates the practicality of using a liquid CO{sub 2}/coal slurry preparation and feed system for the E-Gas™ gasifier in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) electric power generation plant configuration. Liquid CO{sub 2} has several property differences from water that make it attractive for the coal slurries used in coal gasification-based power plants. First, the viscosity of liquid CO{sub 2} is much lower than water. This means it should take less energy to pump liquid CO{sub 2} through a pipe compared to water. This also means that a higher solids concentration can be fed to the gasifier, which should decrease the heat requirement needed to vaporize the slurry. Second, the heat of vaporization of liquid CO{sub 2} is about 80% lower than water. This means that less heat from the gasification reactions is needed to vaporize the slurry. This should result in less oxygen needed to achieve a given gasifier temperature. And third, the surface tension of liquid CO{sub 2} is about 2 orders of magnitude lower than water, which should result in finer atomization of the liquid CO{sub 2} slurry, faster reaction times between the oxygen and coal particles, and better carbon conversion at the same gasifier temperature. EPRI and others have recognized the potential that liquid CO{sub 2} has in improving the performance of an IGCC plant and have previously conducted systemslevel analyses to evaluate this concept. These past studies have shown that a significant increase in IGCC performance can be achieved with liquid CO{sub 2} over water with certain gasifiers. Although these previous analyses had produced some positive results, they were still based on various assumptions for liquid CO{sub 2}/coal slurry properties. This low-rank coal study extends the existing knowledge base to evaluate the liquid CO{sub 2}/coal slurry concept on an E-Gas™-based IGCC plant with full 90% CO{sub 2} capture. The overall objective is to determine if this

  7. Influence of soil structure on contaminant leaching from injected slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, M G Mostofa; Pedersen, Christina Østerballe; Forslund, Anita; Veith, Tamie L; Laegdsmand, Mette

    2016-12-15

    Animal manure application to agricultural land provides beneficial organic matter and nutrients but can spread harmful contaminants to the environment. Contamination of fresh produce, surface water and shallow groundwater with the manure-borne pollutants can be a critical concern. Leaching and persistence of nitrogen, microorganisms (bacteriophage, E. coli, and Enterococcus) and a group of steroid hormone (estrogens) were investigated after injection of swine slurry into either intact (structured) or disturbed (homogeneous repacked) soil. The slurry was injected into hexaplicate soil columns at a rate of 50 t ha(-1) and followed with four irrigation events: 3.5-h period at 10 mm h(-1) after 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks. The disturbed columns delayed the leaching of a conservative tracer and microorganisms in the first irrigation event compared to the intact columns due to the effect of disturbed macropore flow paths. The slurry constituents that ended up in or near the macropore flow paths of the intact soil were presumably washed out relatively quickly in the first event. For the last three events the intact soil leached fewer microorganisms than the disturbed soil due to the bypassing effect of water through the macropore flow path in the intact soil. Estrogen leached from the intact soil in the first event only, but for the disturbed soil it was detected in the leachates of last two events also. Leaching from the later events was attributed to higher colloid transport from the disturbed soils. In contrast, NO3-N leaching from the intact soil was higher for all events except the first event, probably due to a lower nitrification rate in the disturbed soil. A week after the last irrigation event, the redistribution of all slurry constituents except NO3-N in most of the sections of the soil column was higher for the disturbed soil. Total recovery of E. coli was significantly higher from the disturbed soil and total leaching of mineral nitrogen was significantly lower

  8. Observations on microbial activity in acidified pig slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lars Ditlev Mørck; Poulsen, Henrik Vestergaard; Nielsen, Daniel Aagren;

    2009-01-01

    Acidification of pig slurry to pH 5.5 is used as a measure to reduce ammonia emission from pits and storages. The slurry is acidified with sulphuric acid in a process tank and pumped back to the slurry pits or to a storage tank. We investigated the effect of acidification on microbial activity...

  9. Denitrification in nitric-acid-treated cattle slurry during storage.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oenema, O.; Velthof, G.L.

    1993-01-01

    Lowering the pH of cattle slurry with HNO3 was used to reduce NH3 volatilization during storage and after application. Incubation studies were carried out to examine possible NO3 losses and N2O emission from HNO3 treated slurry during storage. Batches of cattle slurry were treated with various

  10. SEPARATING LIQUID MODERATOR FROM A SLURRY TYPE REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, H.C.

    1961-07-01

    A system for evaporating moderator such as D/sub 2/O from an irradiated slurry or sloution characterized by two successive evaproators is described. In the first of these the most troublesome radioactivity dissipates before the slurry becomes too thick to be pumped out; in the second the slurry, now easier to handle, can be safely reduced to a sludge.

  11. Biovailability of copper and zinc in pig and cattle slurries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakubus, M.; Dach, J.; Starmans, D.A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Slurry is an important source of macronutrients, micro-nutrients and organic matter. Despite the considerable fertilizer value of slurry, it may be abundant in amounts of copper and zinc originating from dietary. The study presents quantitative changes in copper and zinc in individual slurries (pig

  12. EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report: 1st Quarter, Fiscal Year 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Showalter, Mary Ann; Kathmann, Loel E.; Manke, Kristin L.

    2009-02-02

    The EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report covers the science, staff and user recognition, and publication activities that occurred during the 1st quarter (October 2008 - December 2008) of Fiscal Year 2009.

  13. EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report: 1st Quarter, FY08

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Showalter, Mary Ann

    2008-01-28

    The EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report covers the science, staff and user recognition, and publication activities that occurred during the 1st quarter (October 2007 - December 2007) of Fiscal Year 2008.

  14. EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report: FY 2008, 3rd Quarter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Showalter, Mary Ann

    2008-09-16

    The EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report covers the science, staff and user recognition, and publication activities that occurred during the 1st quarter (October 2007 - December 2007) of Fiscal Year 2008.

  15. Soil slurry reactors for the assessment of contaminant biodegradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, G.; Colarieti, M. L.; Greco, G.

    2012-04-01

    Slurry reactors are frequently used in the assessment of feasibility of biodegradation in natural soil systems. The rate of contaminant removal is usually quantified by zero- or first-order kinetics decay constants. The significance of such constants for the evaluation of removal rate in the field could be questioned because the slurry reactor is a water-saturated, well-stirred system without resemblance with an unsaturated fixed bed of soil. Nevertheless, a kinetic study with soil slurry reactors can still be useful by means of only slightly more sophisticated kinetic models than zero-/first-order decay. The use of kinetic models taking into account the role of degrading biomass, even in the absence of reliable experimental methods for its quantification, provides further insight into the effect of nutrient additions. A real acceleration of biodegradation processes is obtained only when the degrading biomass is in the growth condition. The apparent change in contaminant removal course can be useful to diagnose biomass growth without direct biomass measurement. Even though molecular biology techniques are effective to assess the presence of potentially degrading microorganism in a "viable-but-nonculturable" state, the attainment of conditions for growth is still important to the development of enhanced remediation techniques. The methodology is illustrated with reference to data gathered for two test sites, Oslo airport Gardermoen in Norway (continuous contamination by aircraft deicing fluids) and the Trecate site in Italy (aged contamination by crude oil spill). This research is part of SoilCAM project (Soil Contamination, Advanced integrated characterisation and time-lapse Monitoring 2008-2012, EU-FP7).

  16. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Quarterly, ADCP

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has quarterly Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) water currents data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA...

  17. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Quarterly, Dynamic Height

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has quarterly Dynamic Height data (a measure of the elevation of the sea level, calculated by integrating the specific volume anomaly of the sea water...

  18. Potassium sorbate as an inhibitor in copper chemical mechanical planarization slurry. Part I. Elucidating slurry chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagar, Magi; Starosvetsky, David [Department of Materials Engineering, Technion Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Vaes, Jan [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Ein-Eli, Yair, E-mail: eineli@tx.technion.ac.i [Department of Materials Engineering, Technion Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2010-04-01

    The integration of an advanced inhibitor, potassium sorbate (K[CH{sub 3}(CH){sub 4}CO{sub 2}]), in a copper CMP slurry based on hydrogen peroxide and glycine is reported. The first part of the study discusses the slurry chemistry by qualitatively describing the processes involved and proposes a mechanism for a hydrogen peroxide-glycine based slurry having sorbate anion as an inhibitor. For this purpose, the specific role of each chemical constituent in the slurry was elucidated at a fundamental level by electrochemical studies, X-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurements, all linked to the CMP performance on blanket wafers. Once the polishing mechanism was resolved the influence of the inhibitor was evaluated by CMP processing of patterned wafers.

  19. Transport and survival of Cryptosporidium Parvum Oocysts in Soil Columns Following Applications of Raw and Separated Liquid Slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, H.H.; Enemark, Heidi L.; Olsen, A.;

    The widespread waterborne pathogen Cryptosporidium parvum is primarily transmitted to humans via contaminated drinking and recreational water. Nearly all drinking water in Denmark is groundwater, but this can be contaminated with oocysts from application of contaminated manure to the field. Oocysts...... transport to groundwater requires that the oocysts are transported through soil and bedrock to the water table. The purpose of this study was to determine the potential transport of the protozoan pathogen C. parvum through soil to land drains and, subsequently water courses in a laboratory setup using...... simulated rainfall and six 20 cm long replicate intact soil columns. Two types of contaminated slurry, namely raw slurry and the separated liquid fraction of the slurry were applied ten cm into the soil, following irrigation once a week over a four week period. C. parvum oocysts were detected...

  20. A simplified approach to calculate slurry production of growing pigs at farm level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Tagliapietra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A simplified approach to predict the amount of slurry produced by growing pigs at farm level is proposed. The inputs are initial (LWi and final (LWf live weights, production (t and empty (empty periods, feed consumption (FC, dry matter (DMD, N digestibilities and farm water consumption per pig (FWC. Estimates of the amount of water required (or arisen per kg of feed for the various physiological functions were estimated by running a published mathematical model using data representing the ordinary conditions of rearing. Water excretion was estimated in two ways depending on: 1 free access (ad lib to water; 2 restricted access (forced. In the first case, the proportion of water consumed (wiad lib and those excreted with the urine (wuad lib and the faeces (wfec were quantified to be 2.9, 1.72 and 0.33 kg per kg of feed, respectively. From the urinary excretions of N and minerals, obtained as the difference between the digestible nutrient intakes and the retentions, the model predicted a urinary DM content of 2.1% (by weight. In the second case, for pigs receiving drinking water in forced ratio with the feed (wiforced, the urinary production was calculated as wuforced=(wiforced+wf+wo-(wd+ws+wg+wfec+we, where wf=water content in feed (0.12 kg/kg, wo=water arising from nutrient oxidation (0.25 kg/kg, wd=water required for digestion (0.08 kg/kg, ws=water demand for protein and lipid synthesis (0.06 kg/kg, wg=water retained in body tissues (0.14 kg/kg and we=water lost through evaporation (0.96 kg/kg. Estimates of fresh slurry production (faeces+urine were regressed against the values resulting from empirical literature equations and referred to pigs fed water:feed ratios of 2.5:1, 2.9:1 and 4:1. The resulting regression (R2=0.97, with a slope close to unity (1.05, indicated that the approach can be extended to predict the farm fresh slurry production with pigs having free access to water or kept on different water:feed ratios. In agreement with

  1. Coal slurry combustion and technology. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    Volume II contains papers presented at the following sessions of the Coal Slurry Combustion and Technology Symposium: (1) bench-scale testing; (2) pilot testing; (3) combustion; and (4) rheology and characterization. Thirty-three papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (ATT)

  2. Removal of Suspended Solids in Anaerobically Digested Slurries of Livestock and Poultry Manure by Coagulation Using Different Dosages of Polyaluminum Chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P.; Zhang, C. J.; Zhao, T. K.; Zhong, H.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, anaerobically digested slurries of livestock and poultry manure were pretreated by coagulation-sedimentation using an inorganic polymer coagulant, polyaluminum chloride (PAC). The effect of different PAC dosages on suspended solids (SS) removal and pH in the biogas slurries was assessed to provide reference values for reducing the organic load of biogas slurry in the coagulation-sedimentation process and explore the feasibility of reducing the difficulty in subsequent utilization or processing of biogas slurry. The results showed that for the pig slurry containing approximately 5000 mg/L SS, the removal rate of SS reached up to 81.6% with the coagulant dosage of 0.28 g/L PAC. For the chicken slurry containing approximately 2600 mg/L SS, the removal rate of SS was 30.2% with the coagulant dosage of 0.33 g/L PAC. The removal rate of SS in both slurries of livestock and poultry manure exhibited a downward trend with high PAC dosage. Therefore, there is a need to control the PAC dosage in practical use. The pH changed little in the two types of biogas slurries after treatment with different PAC dosages and both were in line with the standard values specified in the “Standards for Irrigation Water Quality”.

  3. Quarterly environmental data summary for first quarter 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    In support of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project Federal Facilities Agreement, a copy of the Quarterly Environmental Data Summary (QEDS) for the first quarter of 1999 is enclosed. The data presented in this constitute the QEDS. The data, except for air monitoring data and site KPA generated data (uranium analyses), were received from the contract laboratories, verified by the Weldon Spring Site verification group and merged into the database during the first quarter of 1999. KPA results for on-site total uranium analyses performed during first quarter 1999 are included. Air monitoring data presented are the most recent complete sets of quarterly data.

  4. Effects of pig slurry application on soil physical and chemical properties and glyphosate mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Aparecida de Oliveira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Pig slurry applied to soil at different rates may affect soil properties and the mobility of chemical compounds within the soil. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of rates of pig slurry application in agricultural areas on soil physical and chemical properties and on the mobility of glyphosate through the soil profile. The study was carried out in the 12th year of an experiment with pig slurry applied at rates of 0 (control, 50, 100 and 200 m³ ha-1 yr-1 on a Latossolo Vermelho distrófico (Hapludox soil. In the control, the quantities of P and K removed by harvested grains were replaced in the next crop cycle. Soil physical properties (bulk density, porosity, texture, and saturated hydraulic conductivity and chemical properties (organic matter, pH, extractable P, and exchangeable K were measured. Soil solution samples were collected at depths of 20, 40 and 80 cm using suction lysimeters, and glyphosate concentrations were measured over a 60-day period after slurry application. Soil physical and chemical properties were little affected by the pig slurry applications, but soil pH was reduced and P levels increased in the surface layers. In turn, K levels were increased in sub-surface layers. Glyphosate concentrations tended to decrease over time but were not affected by pig slurry application. The concentrations of glyphosate found in different depths show that the pratice of this application in agricultural soils has the potential for contamination of groundwater, especially when the water table is the surface and heavy rains occur immediately after application.

  5. Quarterly fiscal policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kendrick, D.A.; Amman, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Monetary policy is altered once a month. Fiscal policy is altered once a year. As a potential improvement this article examines the use of feedback control rules for fiscal policy that is altered quarterly. Following the work of Blinder and Orszag, modifications are discussed in Congressional

  6. Quarterly Technical Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayman I. Hawari

    2002-12-30

    This report presents the progress made during the first quarter of phase 2 for the project entitled ''Development and Validation of Thermal Neutron Scattering Laws from Applications and Safety Implications in Generation IV Reactor Designs.'' (B204) THIS IS NOT A FINAL REPORT

  7. Liquid CO{sub 2}/Coal Slurry for Feeding Low Rank Coal to Gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marasigan, Jose; Goldstein, Harvey; Dooher, John

    2013-09-30

    This study investigates the practicality of using a liquid CO{sub 2}/coal slurry preparation and feed system for the E-Gas™ gasifier in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) electric power generation plant configuration. Liquid CO{sub 2} has several property differences from water that make it attractive for the coal slurries used in coal gasification-based power plants. First, the viscosity of liquid CO{sub 2} is much lower than water. This means it should take less energy to pump liquid CO{sub 2} through a pipe compared to water. This also means that a higher solids concentration can be fed to the gasifier, which should decrease the heat requirement needed to vaporize the slurry. Second, the heat of vaporization of liquid CO{sub 2} is about 80% lower than water. This means that less heat from the gasification reactions is needed to vaporize the slurry. This should result in less oxygen needed to achieve a given gasifier temperature. And third, the surface tension of liquid CO{sub 2} is about 2 orders of magnitude lower than water, which should result in finer atomization of the liquid CO{sub 2} slurry, faster reaction times between the oxygen and coal particles, and better carbon conversion at the same gasifier temperature. EPRI and others have recognized the potential that liquid CO{sub 2} has in improving the performance of an IGCC plant and have previously conducted systemslevel analyses to evaluate this concept. These past studies have shown that a significant increase in IGCC performance can be achieved with liquid CO{sub 2} over water with certain gasifiers. Although these previous analyses had produced some positive results, they were still based on various assumptions for liquid CO{sub 2}/coal slurry properties. This low-rank coal study extends the existing knowledge base to evaluate the liquid CO{sub 2}/coal slurry concept on an E-Gas™-based IGCC plant with full 90% CO{sub 2} capture. The overall objective is to determine if this

  8. Phenanthrene Contaminated Soil Biotreatment Using Slurry Phase Bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arbabi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs are suspected toxins that accumulate in soils and sediments due to their insolubility in water and lack of volatility. Slurry-phase biological treatment is one of the innovative technologies that involve the controlled treatment of excavated soil in a bioreactor. Due to highly soil contamination from petroleum compounds in crude oil extraction and also oil refinery sites in Iran, this research was designed based on slurry phase biotreatment to find out a solution to decontamination of oil compounds polluted sites. Approach: Soil samples were collected from Tehran oil refinery site and Bushehr oil zones. Two compositions of soils (clay and silt were selected for slurry biotreatment experiment. Soil samples were contaminated with three rates of phenanthrene (a 3 ring PAH, 100, 500 and 1000 mg kg-1 and mixed with distilled water in solid concentration of 30% by weight after washing out with strong solvent (hexane and putting in to the oven. Bacterial consortium was revived in culture medium which consisted of Mineral Salt Medium (MSM based on phenanthrene concentrations and ratio of C/N/P in the range of 100/10/2. Prepared soil samples were mixed with distilled water, nutrient and bacterial consortium together in the 250 mL glass Erlenmeyer and putted in the shaker incubator with 200 rpm revolutions and 25°C for 7 weeks (45 days. Samples were analyzed for residual phenanthrene, bacterial population every week. For statistical analysis, general linear model with repeated measures (type III analysis was applied. Results: The concentration of 100 mg Ll of phenanthrene in clayey and silty soils reached to non detectable limit after 5 and 6 weeks, respectively. While concentration of 500 mg L-1 of phenanthrene both in clayey and silty soils reached to non detectable limit after 6 weeks. But concentration of 1000 mg L-1both in clayey and silty soil samples has not met this limitation after 7

  9. KINETICS OF SLURRY PHASE FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dragomir B. Bukur

    2004-09-29

    This report covers the second year of this three-year research grant under the University Coal Research program. The overall objective of this project is to develop a comprehensive kinetic model for slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis on iron catalysts. This model will be validated with experimental data obtained in a stirred tank slurry reactor (STSR) over a wide range of process conditions. The model will be able to predict concentrations of all reactants and major product species (H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, linear 1- and 2-olefins, and linear paraffins) as a function of reaction conditions in the STSR. During the second year of the project we completed the STSR test SB-26203 (275-343 h on stream), which was initiated during the first year of the project, and another STSR test (SB-28603 lasting 341 h). Since the inception of the project we completed 3 STSR tests, and evaluated catalyst under 25 different sets of process conditions. A precipitated iron catalyst obtained from Ruhrchemie AG (Oberhausen-Holten, Germany) was used in all tests. This catalyst was used initially in commercial fixed bed reactors at Sasol in South Africa. Also, during the second year we performed a qualitative analysis of experimental data from all three STSR tests. Effects of process conditions (reaction temperature, pressure, feed composition and gas space velocity) on water-gas-shift (WGS) activity and hydrocarbon product distribution have been determined.

  10. Continuous production of CO2 hydrate slurry added antifreeze proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokunaga, Y.; Ota, M.; Murakami, K. [Tokyo Metropolitan Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Ferdows, M. [Dhaka Univ., Dhaka (Bangladesh). Dept. of Mathematics; Endou, H. [Technova Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Ocean storage of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) hydrate is possible in deep seas where low temperature and high pressure conditions exist. However, when hydrates are produced in large quantities, they can plug pipelines. The addition of antifreeze proteins (AFPs) can prevent hydrate crystals from forming. The hydrate may then behave like a slurry which can be transported from a production place to a place of storage with minimal pressure loss. This study developed a production method for a CO{sub 2} hydrate slurry and presented the prospect of the inhibition effect for CO{sub 2} hydrate formation by adding AFPs. It revealed the shift in induction time, the formation rate and the torque of the agitator under conditions of AFPs at 0.01 mg/ml. It was concluded that compared to pure water, the induction time for hydrate production increased 244 per cent, the formation rate decreased 76 per cent and the ratio of the torque decreased 48 per cent by adding AFPs. The AFPs rendered the hydrate particles small and well dispersed. It was concluded that type 3 AFPs can effectively inhibit the production of structure s1 type hydrates. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  11. MECHANICAL BEHAVIOUR OF ALUMINA-ZIRCONIA COMPOSITE BY SLURRY METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JYOTI PRAKASH

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Alumina has got some excellent properties like chemical inertness, thermal and mechanical strength against hazardous environment. Alumina is a good ceramic material which is being used for structuralapplications. To enhance the toughness and strength of the body some Zirconia is also used with it. The use of Zirconia in alumina is known as toughening of alumina. One difficulty arises, when alumina and alumina toughened composite are sintered , because the low sinterability of Alumina-Zirconia forced the compact to give very low density body. To overcome this problem alumina and alumina composites are made from slurry method which gives nearly theoretical density. The combined effect of alumina and Zirconia on the phase transformation and microstructure development of heat-treated Alumina-Zirconia composites has been studied. Slurry is prepared by adding water, dispersant, binder and anti-foaming agent. In the present study, Sintering schedule is optimized and kept constant for all samples. After sintering, mechanical behaviour of the composite has been studied.

  12. Effect of chemical additives on flow characteristics of coal slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.S. Mosa; A.-H. M. Saleh; T.A. Taha; A.M. El-Molla [Al-Azhar University, Cairo (Egypt). Mining & Petroleum Engineering Department

    2008-07-01

    In the present paper, the effect of chemical additives or reagents on rheological characteristics of coal water slurry (CWS) was investigated. The power-law model was applied to determine the non-Newtonian properties of coal slurries. Three types of dispersants namely, sulphonic acid, sodium tripolyphosphate and sodium carbonate were studied and tested at different concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 1.5% by weight from total solids. Sodium salt of carboxymethyl cellulose (Na-CMC) and xanthan gum were tested as stabilizers at concentrations in the range of 0.05 to 0.25% by weight from total solids. It was found that apparent viscosity and flow properties of CWS are sensitive to the use of chemical additives (dispersants and stabilizers). Among studied dispersing agents, sulphonic acid recorded the best performance in modification and reducing CWS viscosity. The best dosage of all tested dispersants was found to be 0.75% by wt of solids. With regard to studied stabilizers, Na-CMC recorded better performance than xanthan gum. The best dosage of investigated stabilizers was found to be as 0.1 % by wt. from total solids. 13 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Slurry wear characteristics of zinc-based alloys: Effects of sand content of slurry, silicon addition to alloy system and traversal distance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B.K. PRASAD; O.P. MODI

    2009-01-01

    This investigation deals with the observations pertaining to the effects of specimen and slurry compositions as well as traversal distance on the slurry wear response of a zinc-based alloy. The composition of the alloy was altered by adding 4% silicon to it. The slurry composition was varied through changing the concentration of the sand particles in the range of 0-60% that were suspended in the (liquid) electrolyte. The electrolyte contained 4 g sodium chloride and 5 mL concentrated sulphuric acid dissolved in 10 L of water. The slurry wear tests were conducted at a speed of 7.02 m/s over the traversal distance range of 15-500 km. The wear rate increased initially with traversal distance, attained a maximum and decreased thereafter irrespective of the specimen and test environment. However, the wear rate peaks were less prominent in the liquid plus sand environments than the liquid-only medium. Further, the wear rate peak in the liquid-only medium appeared at a shorter traversal distance than the one in the sand containing slurries. Addition of sand particles to the electrolyte reduced the wear rate of the samples to 5%-15% depending on the sand concentration of the slurry. Moreover, intermediate (40%) sand content led to a maximum wear rate when compared with in the liquid plus sand media. However, this maximum was still less than in the liquid-only medium. The silicon containing alloy suffered from higher wear rates than the silicon free alloy samples when tested in the liquid-only medium. On the contrary, the trend reversed in liquid plus 20% and 40% sand environments whereas a mixed response was noted in the slurry containing 60% sand. In the latter case, the presence of silicon proved deleterious initially while an opposite trend was observed at longer traversal distances. The wear response of the samples was discussed in terms of specific features of their microconstituents like silicon and the predominant material removal mechanism in a given set of

  14. Effects of digestate from anaerobically digested cattle slurry and plant materials on soil microbial community and emission of CO2 and N2O

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Anders; Carter, Mette Sustmann; Jensen, Erik S.

    2013-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of animal manure and crop residues may be employed to produce biogas as a climate-neutral source of energy and to recycle plant nutrients as fertilizers. However, especially organic farmers are concerned that fertilizing with the digestates may impact the soil microbiota...... and fertility because they contain more mineral nitrogen (N) and less organic carbon (C) than the non-digested input materials (e.g. raw animal slurry or fresh plant residues). Hence, an incubation study was performed where (1) water, (2) raw cattle slurry, (3) anaerobically digested cattle slurry/maize, (4...... of the other treatments during the 9 days. Regarding microbial community composition, grass-clover induced the largest changes in microbial diversity measures compared to the controls, where raw cattle slurry and the two anaerobically digested materials (cattle slurry/maize, cattle slurry/grass-clover) only...

  15. EVALUATION OF BIOMSS AND COAL SLURRIES AS FUEL-LEAN REBURN FUELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijay K. Sethi

    2006-11-06

    Breen Energy Solutions (BES) and Western Research Institute (WRI) tested biomass and coal slurries and other carbonaceous substances such as fuel oil/water emulsions as NO{sub x} reburn fuel in the combustion test facility (CTF). The overall goal of the project was to determine the NO{sub x} reduction potential of various biomass and coal reburn fuels, and to identify the optimum conditions for NO{sub x} control. Specific objectives were to inject biomass, biosolids, coal, biomass/coal, and biosolids/coal slurries into the upper furnace of CTF and determine the resulting NO{sub x} reductions and CO emissions, to identify optimum injection rates and injection locations for these reburn fuels, and to install a reaction zone stabilizer device in CTF and determine its effectiveness in reducing CO and further reducing NO{sub x}. Combustion tests achieved 40% to 60% NO{sub x} reductions with 10% to 20% reburn fuel heat input. The project has demonstrated the technical feasibility of in-situ gasification of slurries including pulverized coal and 75% pulverized coal/25% biosolids by weight, and the ability to utilize the gasification products as NO{sub x} reburn fuel. This work also demonstrated that pulverized coal/water slurries can be successfully gasified and used as reburn fuels, and there is no need for use of micronized coal. Very good burnout of the pulverized coal slurry was demonstrated in this work. Similarly, the project has demonstrated the technical feasibility of in-situ gasification of oil/water emulsion and the ability to utilize the associated gasification products as NO{sub x} reburn fuel.

  16. Low frequency aeration of pig slurry affects slurry characteristics and emissions of greenhouse gases and ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvet, Salvador; Hunt, John; Misselbrook, Tom H

    2017-07-01

    Low frequency aeration of slurries may reduce ammonia (NH3) and methane (CH4) emissions without increasing nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. The aim of this study was to quantify this potential reduction and to establish the underlying mechanisms. A batch experiment was designed with 6 tanks with 1 m(3) of pig slurry each. After an initial phase of 7 days when none of the tanks were aerated, a second phase of 4 weeks subjected three of the tanks to aeration (2 min every 6 h, airflow 10 m(3) h(-1)), whereas the other three tanks remained as a control. A final phase of 9 days was established with no aeration in any tank. Emissions of NH3, CH4, carbon dioxide (CO2) and N2O were measured. In the initial phase no differences in emissions were detected, but during the second phase aeration increased NH3 emissions by 20% with respect to the controls (8.48 vs. 7.07 g m(-3) [slurry] d(-1), P effect was detected for CO2, and no relevant N2O emissions were detected during the experiment. Our results demonstrate that low frequency aeration of stored pig slurry increases slurry pH and increases NH3 emissions.

  17. Turbulent slurry flow measurement using ultrasonic Doppler method in rectangular pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bareš, V.; Krupička, J.; Picek, T.; Brabec, J.; Matoušek, V.

    2014-03-01

    Distribution of velocity and Reynolds stress was measured using ultrasonic velocimetry in flows of water and Newtonian water-ballotini slurries in a pressurized Plexiglas pipe. Profiles of the measured parameters were sensed in the vertical plane at the centreline of a rectangular cross section of the pipe. Reference measurements in clear water produced expected symmetrical velocity profiles the shape of which was affected by secondary currents developed in the rectangular pipe. Slurry-flow experiments provided information on an effect of the concentration of solid grains on the internal structure of the flow. Strong attenuation of velocity fluctuations caused by a presence of grains was identified. The attenuation increased with the increasing local concentration of the grains.

  18. Formas de perdas de cobre e fósforo em água de escoamento superficial e percolação em solo sob aplicações sucessivas de dejeto líquido de suínos Forms of losses of copper and phosphorus in water of runoff and percolation in soil with successive pig slurry application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Girotto

    2010-09-01

    system. The experiment was installed in 2000, at Typic Hapludalf soil. The treatments consisted of successive applications of 0, 40 and 80m³ ha-1 of pig slurry applied on soil surface in no tillage system. Samples of surface runoff and percolated solutions were collected during the life cycle of oat (Avena strigosa in the 2006 winter, when the soil had a history of 16 pig slurry applications. The following parameters have been evaluated: Cu, P, cation, anion and pH, dissolved organic carbon and electric conductivity. The Visual MINTEQ program version 2.15 was utilized to estimate the copper and phosphorus ionic speciation. The surface runoff is the most important form of copper and phosphorus loss of the soil. In addition, copper was found in the organic form (CuCOD and phosphorus in the free forms (HPO4(2- e H2PO4- in the surface runoff solution. Thus, these elements could be an important source of water contamination in places where pig farming is widespread.

  19. Fischer-Tropsch Slurry Reactor modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soong, Y.; Gamwo, I.K.; Harke, F.W. [Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    This paper reports experimental and theoretical results on hydrodynamic studies. The experiments were conducted in a hot-pressurized Slurry-Bubble Column Reactor (SBCR). It includes experimental results of Drakeol-10 oil/nitrogen/glass beads hydrodynamic study and the development of an ultrasonic technique for measuring solids concentration. A model to describe the flow behavior in reactors was developed. The hydrodynamic properties in a 10.16 cm diameter bubble column with a perforated-plate gas distributor were studied at pressures ranging from 0.1 to 1.36 MPa, and at temperatures from 20 to 200{degrees}C, using a dual hot-wire probe with nitrogen, glass beads, and Drakeol-10 oil as the gas, solid, and liquid phase, respectively. It was found that the addition of 20 oil wt% glass beads in the system has a slight effect on the average gas holdup and bubble size. A well-posed three-dimensional model for bed dynamics was developed from an ill-posed model. The new model has computed solid holdup distributions consistent with experimental observations with no artificial {open_quotes}fountain{close_quotes} as predicted by the earlier model. The model can be applied to a variety of multiphase flows of practical interest. An ultrasonic technique is being developed to measure solids concentration in a three-phase slurry reactor. Preliminary measurements have been made on slurries consisting of molten paraffin wax, glass beads, and nitrogen bubbles at 180 {degrees}C and 0.1 MPa. The data show that both the sound speed and attenuation are well-defined functions of both the solid and gas concentrations in the slurries. The results suggest possibilities to directly measure solids concentration during the operation of an autoclave reactor containing molten wax.

  20. Transportation of the MOAB Uranium Mill Tailings to White Mesa Mill by Slurry Pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochstein, R. F.; Warner, R.; Wetz, T. V.

    2003-02-26

    The Moab uranium mill tailings pile, located at the former Atlas Minerals Corporation site approximately three miles north of Moab, Utah, is now under the control of the US Department of Energy (''DOE''). The location of the tailings pile adjacent to the Colorado River, and the ongoing contamination of groundwater and seepage of pollutants into the river, have lead to the investigation, as part of the final site remediation program, of alternatives to relocate the tailings to a qualified permanent disposal site. This paper will describe the approach being taken by the team formed between International Uranium (USA) Corporation (''IUC'') and Washington Group International (''WGINT'') to develop an innovative technical proposal to relocate the Moab tailings to IUC's White Mesa Mill south of Blanding, Utah. The proposed approach for relocating the tailings involves using a slurry pipeline to transport the tailings to the White Mesa Mill. The White Mesa Mill is a fully licensed, active uranium mill site that is uniquely suited for permanent disposal of the Moab tailings. The tailings slurry would be dewatered at the White Mesa Mill, the slurry water would be recycled to the Moab site for reuse in slurry makeup, and the ''dry'' tailings would be permanently disposed of in an approved below grade cell at the mill site.

  1. Development and process evaluation of improved Fischer-Tropsch slurry catalysts. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bukur, D.B.; Mukesh, D.; Patel, S.A.; Zimmerman, W.H.; Rosynek, M.P. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Kellogg, L.J. [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

    1990-04-01

    This report describes results of a study aimed at developing and evaluating improved catalysts for a slurry Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process for converting synthesis gas to high quality transportation fuels (gasoline and distillate). The improvements in catalyst performance were sought by studying effects of pretreatment conditions, promoters and binders/supports. A total of 20 different, iron based, catalysts were evaluated in 58 fixed bed reactor tests and 10 slurry reactor tests. The major accomplishments and conclusions are summarized below. The pretreatment conditions (temperature, duration and the nature of reducing gas) have significant effect on catalyst performance (activity, selectivity and stability) during Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. One of precipitated unsupported catalysts had hydrocarbon selectivity similar to Mobil`s I-B catalyst in high wax mode operation, and had not experienced any loss in activity during 460 hours of testing under variable process conditions in a slurry reactor. The effect of promoters (copper and potassium) on catalyst performance during FT synthesis has been studied in a systematic way. It was found that potassium promotion increases activities of the FT and water-gas-shift (WGS) reactions, the average molecular weight of hydrocarbon products, and suppresses the olefin hydrogenation and isomerization reactions. The addition of binders/supports (silica or alumina) to precipitated Fe/Cu/K catalysts, decreased their activity but improved their stability and hydrocarbon selectivity. The performance of catalysts of this type was very promising and additional studies are recommended to evaluate their potential for use in commercial slurry reactors.

  2. Rheology measurements of a biomass slurry: an inter-laboratory study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stickel, Jonathan J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, National Bioenergy Center, Golden, CO (United States); Knutsen, Jeffrey S.; Liberatore, Matthew W. [Colorado School of Mines, Department of Chemical Engineering, Golden, CO (United States); Luu, Wing; Bousfield, Douglas W. [University of Maine, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Orono, ME (United States); Klingenberg, Daniel J.; Root, Thatcher W.; Ehrhardt, Max R.; Monz, Thomas O. [University of Wisconsin, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Rheology Research Center, Madison, WI (United States); Scott, C. Tim [U.S. Forest Service Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, WI (United States)

    2009-12-15

    The conversion of biomass, specifically lignocellulosic biomass, into fuels and chemicals has recently gained national attention as an alternative to the use of fossil fuels. Increasing the concentration of the biomass solids during biochemical conversion has a large potential to reduce production costs. These concentrated biomass slurries have highly viscous, non-Newtonian behavior that poses several technical challenges to the conversion process. A collaborative effort to measure the rheology of a biomass slurry at four separate laboratories has been undertaken. A comprehensive set of rheological properties were measured using several different rheometers, flow geometries, and experimental methods. The tendency for settling, water evaporation, and wall slip required special care when performing the experiments. The rheological properties were measured at different concentrations up to 30% insoluble solids by mass. The slurry was found to be strongly shear-thinning, to be viscoelastic, and to have a significant concentration-dependent yield stress. The elastic modulus was found to be almost an order of magnitude larger than the loss modulus and weakly dependent on frequency. The techniques and results of this work will be useful to characterize other biomass slurries and in the design of biochemical conversion processing steps that operate at high solids concentrations. (orig.)

  3. Evaluation of Computational Method of High Reynolds Number Slurry Flow for Caverns Backfilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettin, Giorgia [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-05-01

    The abandonment of salt caverns used for brining or product storage poses a significant environmental and economic risk. Risk mitigation can in part be address ed by the process of backfilling which can improve the cavern geomechanical stability and reduce the risk o f fluid loss to the environment. This study evaluate s a currently available computational tool , Barracuda, to simulate such process es as slurry flow at high Reynolds number with high particle loading . Using Barracuda software, a parametric sequence of simu lations evaluated slurry flow at Re ynolds number up to 15000 and loading up to 25%. Li mitations come into the long time required to run these simulation s due in particular to the mesh size requirement at the jet nozzle. This study has found that slurry - jet width and centerline velocities are functions of Re ynold s number and volume fractio n The solid phase was found to spread less than the water - phase with a spreading rate smaller than 1 , dependent on the volume fraction. Particle size distribution does seem to have a large influence on the jet flow development. This study constitutes a first step to understand the behavior of highly loaded slurries and their ultimate application to cavern backfilling.

  4. Rheology measurements of a biomass slurry: an inter-laboratory study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stickel, Jonathan J.; Knutsen, Jeffrey S.; Liberatore, Matthew W.; Luu, Wing; Bousfield, Douglas W.; Klingenberg, Daniel J.; Scott, C. Tim; Root, Thatcher W.; Ehrhardt, Max R.; Monz, Thomas O.

    2009-09-02

    The conversion of biomass, specifically lignocellulosic biomass, into fuels and chemicals has recently gained national attention as an alternative to the use of fossil fuels. Increasing the concentration of the biomass solids during biochemical conversion has a large potential to reduce production costs. These concentrated biomass slurries have highly viscous, non-Newtonian behavior that poses several technical challenges to the conversion process. A collaborative effort to measure the rheology of a biomass slurry at four separate laboratories has been undertaken. A comprehensive set of rheological properties were measured using several different rheometers, flow geometries, and experimental methods. The tendency for settling, water evaporation, and wall slip required special care when performing the experiments. The rheological properties were measured at different concentrations up to 30% insoluble solids by mass. The slurry was found to be strongly shear-thinning, to be viscoelastic, and to have a significant concentration-dependent yield stress. The elastic modulus was found to be almost an order of magnitude larger than the loss modulus and weakly dependent on frequency. The techniques and results of this work will be useful to characterize other biomass slurries and in the design of biochemical conversion processing steps that operate at high solids concentrations.

  5. RHEOLOGICAL AND ELEMENTAL ANALYSES OF SIMULANT SB5 SLURRY MIX EVAPORATOR-MELTER FEED TANK SLURRIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, A.

    2010-02-08

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will complete Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) processing in fiscal year 2010. DWPF has experienced multiple feed stoppages for the SB5 Melter Feed Tank (MFT) due to clogs. Melter throughput is decreased not only due to the feed stoppage, but also because dilution of the feed by addition of prime water (about 60 gallons), which is required to restart the MFT pump. SB5 conditions are different from previous batches in one respect: pH of the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product (9 for SB5 vs. 7 for SB4). Since a higher pH could cause gel formation, due in part to greater leaching from the glass frit into the supernate, SRNL studies were undertaken to check this hypothesis. The clogging issue is addressed by this simulant work, requested via a technical task request from DWPF. The experiments were conducted at Aiken County Technology Laboratory (ACTL) wherein a non-radioactive simulant consisting of SB5 Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) product simulant and frit was subjected to a 30 hour SME cycle at two different pH levels, 7.5 and 10; the boiling was completed over a period of six days. Rheology and supernate elemental composition measurements were conducted. The caustic run exhibited foaming once, after 30 minutes of boiling. It was expected that caustic boiling would exhibit a greater leaching rate, which could cause formation of sodium aluminosilicate and would allow gel formation to increase the thickness of the simulant. Xray Diffraction (XRD) measurements of the simulant did not detect crystalline sodium aluminosilicate, a possible gel formation species. Instead, it was observed that caustic conditions, but not necessarily boiling time, induced greater thickness, but lowered the leach rate. Leaching consists of the formation of metal hydroxides from the oxides, formation of boric acid from the boron oxide, and dissolution of SiO{sub 2}, the major frit component. It is likely that the observed precipitation of Mg

  6. Hydrodynamic Characteristics in an External Loop Airlift Slurry Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bian Qing; Tang Xiaojin; Hu Lifeng; Wang Shaobing; Zhang Zhanzhu

    2016-01-01

    Three different types of gas distributors were used in an external loop airlift slurry reactor to investigate the hydrodynamic characteristics. To predict the important hydrodynamic parameters, such as the total gas holdup, the slurry circulating velocity, the bubble size distribution, and the slip velocity between the gas phase and the slurry phase, the cor-relations are developed. The calculated results fit the experimental data very well. According to the influence of the solid holdup on the bubble size, the fluid flow in the reactor can be divided into two regimes, while a 10% value is regarded as the critical solid holdup value. Whenεs is≤10%, the bubble size is determined by both the gas phase and the slurry phase. Whenεs is ≥10%, the bubble size is determined mainly by the slurry phase. By analyzing the relationship between the slip velocity and the gas holdup, the bubble coalescence plays a key role in the slurry reactor.

  7. Microstructure Formation and Degradation Mechanism of Cementitious Plugging Agent Slurries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Peiyu; ZHOU Yongxiang; YANG Zhenjie; QIN Jian

    2007-01-01

    The hydration products and microstructure of class G oil well cement and a newly developed plugging agent (YLD) slurries cured in the simulated temperature and pressure environment, which was of similar temperature and pressure with those at the bottom of oil well in a normal depth, were investigated using XRD, TG and SEM. Severe leakage is confirmed at the interface between hardened slurries and steel tube during the dynamically curing process, which induces the quick loss of cementing property of slurries. This should be the dominating cause of degradation of class G oil well cement slurry. A secondary hydration process can take place at the eroded interface of hardened YLD plugging agent slurry. Newly formed C-S-H gel has a self-healing effect to repair the damaged interface, which unceasingly maintains the cementing property of the YLD plugging agent slurry. Therefore, the effective using period of YLD plugging agent can be prolonged.

  8. Injection of Aqueous Slurry for Making Zirconia Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Shun'ai; LI Maoqiang

    2009-01-01

    Zirconia aqueous slurry was prepared with fine zirconia powder.Injection process for making zirconia fiber was demonstrated,including preparation of aqueous slurry,injection of slurry,fiber setting in acetone,and fiber firing.The principle of the process was discussed.The effects of solid loading in the zirconia slurry,addition of dispersant in the slurry,and ball milling time on the rheological properties of the slurry,especially yield stress,were illustrated.The role of acetone as curing agent was discussed.Zirconia poly-crystalline fber with at 1 530 ℃ for 5 h.Microstructure of the sintered zirconia fiber was investigated.

  9. Experimental analysis on pressure drop and heat transfer of a terminal fan-coil unit with ice slurry as cooling medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Seara, Jose; Diz, Ruben; Uhia, Francisco J.; Dopazo, J. Alberto [Area de Maquinas y Motores Termicos, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, University of Vigo, Campus Lagoas-Marcosende No 9, 36310 Vigo (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    This paper is concerned with the experimental analysis of a standard terminal fan-coil unit with ice slurry as coolant. The ice slurry was produced from an ethylene glycol 10 wt% aqueous solution. The pressure drop measurements are presented as a function of volumetric flow rate, ice concentration and Reynolds number. The experimental friction factors are obtained and discussed. The fan-coil capacity was experimentally determined for chilled water and melting ice slurry with inlet ice fractions around 5, 10, 15 and 20 wt%, considering in each case three different fan rotation velocities. The fan-coil capacity is higher with melting ice slurry than with chilled water by factors between 3.7 and 4.9. The heat transfer analysis realizes that the air side thermal resistance controls the heat transfer process. Experimental results for the melt off rate of ice in the fan coil and the superheating at the fan-coil outlet are shown and discussed. (author)

  10. Thermal Performance of Microencapsulated Phase Change Material Slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    ER D C TR -0 8 -4 Basic Research/Military Construction Thermal Performance of Microencapsulated Phase Change Material Slurry Jorge L...distribution is unlimited. Basic Research/Military Construction ERDC TR-08-4 March 2008 Thermal Performance of Microencapsulated Phase Change... microencapsulated PCM (MPCM) slurries is enhanced significantly, even when using low volume fractions. MPCM slurries have potential to decrease costs and improve

  11. Sulfur turnover and emissions during storage of cattle slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jørgen; Andersen, Astrid J; Poulsen, Henrik Vestergaard

    2012-01-01

    with acidification, on sulfur transformations in slurry and emissions of volatile sulfur compounds (VSC) during storage of fresh and aged cattle slurry. When pH was lowered to 5.5 it resulted in an almost complete inhibition of sulfate reduction. There was a huge emission of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) with addition...... of sulfate and methionine (P production in the sulfate-amended slurries resulted in little accumulation of MT and dimethyl sulfide (DMS) under neutral...

  12. Continuous concentration and constant volume washing of tetraphenylborate slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siler, J.L.

    1999-12-08

    SRTC has completed filtration testing of tetraphenylborate (TPB) slurries with and without sludge. These tests were slightly different from previous SRS tests in that they used continuous mode concentration and constant volume washing evolutions. The extent of TPB recovery during washing was measured. The resulting washed precipitate slurry, with sludge, was stored at ambient temperature and under a nitrogen-inerted atmosphere to study TPB stability. Samples of both unwashed and washed slurries were submitted for rheology measurements.

  13. Continuous in-house acidification affecting animal slurry composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Maibritt; Cocolo, Giorgia; Jonassen, Kristoffer

    2015-01-01

    . A full-scale study was therefore performed, comparing pig slurry from normal in-house slurry management with pig slurry from housing with daily in-house acidification to pH 5.5. The effect on organic, inorganic and particles was evaluated. Increasing dissolved P, Mg and Ca contents indicated mineral...... dissolution in acidified slurry. Acceleration of carbohydrate hydrolysis was indicated, while deceleration of microbial acidogenesis, acetogenesis, methanogenesis and sulphate reduction was indicated. The particles were larger following acidification treatment causing a lower viscosity, likely due...

  14. A METHOD FOR MEASUREMENT OF GAS CONTENT IN SLURRY PIPELINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Most commercial slurries in hydrotransport pipelines usually contain some gas which can considerably degrade the pump performance, but this small amount of gas content can not be measured accurately online or continually using conventional methods. Based on analysis of effects of gas on pressure wave speed in slurries, an investigation was carried out to validate the feasibility of the method to determine gas content in slurries using sound speed. Moreover, its practical measuring methods were also discussed. It was found that the non-invasive measurement of the sound level noise spectrum across the pipeline should be a promising online measuring method of the slurry gas content.

  15. Combinatorial study of ceramic tape-casting slurries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhifu; Wang, Yiling; Li, Yongxiang

    2012-03-12

    Ceramic tape-casting slurries are complex systems composed of ceramic powder, solvent, and a number of organic components. Conventionally, the development of ceramic tape-casting slurries is time-consuming and of low efficiency. In this work, combinatorial approaches were applied to screen the ethanol and ethyl-acetate binary solvent based slurry for ceramic green tape-casting. The combinatorial libraries were designed considering the variation of the amount of PVB (Poly vinyl-butyral) binder, polyethylene-400, and butyl-benzyl-phthalate plasticizers, and glyceryl triacetate dispersant. A parallel magnetic stirring process was used to make the combinatorial slurry library. The properties mapping of the slurry library was obtained by investigating the sedimentation and rheological characteristics of the slurries. The slurry composition was refined by scaling up the experiments and comparing the microstructure, mechanical property, and sintering behavior of green tapes made from the selected slurries. Finally, a kind of ethanol-ethyl acetate binary solvent based slurry system suitable for making X7R dielectric ceramic green tapes was achieved.

  16. Ice slurry cooling research: Storage tank ice agglomeration and extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasza, K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Hayashi, Kanetoshi [NKK Corp., Kawasaki (Japan)

    1999-08-01

    A new facility has been built to conduct research and development on important issues related to implementing ice slurry cooling technology. Ongoing studies are generating important information on the factors that influence ice particle agglomeration in ice slurry storage tanks. The studies are also addressing the development of methods to minimize and monitor agglomeration and improve the efficiency and controllability of tank extraction of slurry for distribution to cooling loads. These engineering issues impede the utilization of the ice slurry cooling concept that has been under development by various groups.

  17. System and method for continuous solids slurry depressurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leininger, Thomas Frederick; Steele, Raymond Douglas; Cordes, Stephen Michael

    2017-07-11

    A system includes a first pump having a first outlet and a first inlet, and a controller. The first pump is configured to continuously receive a flow of a slurry into the first outlet at a first pressure and to continuously discharge the flow of the slurry from the first inlet at a second pressure less than the first pressure. The controller is configured to control a first speed of the first pump against the flow of the slurry based at least in part on the first pressure, wherein the first speed of the first pump is configured to resist a backflow of the slurry from the first outlet to the first inlet.

  18. Salts slurries using in 'offshore' recent cementation in Campos Basin; Pastas salinas utilizadas em cimentacoes recentes 'offshore' na Bacia de Santos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garzon, Ricardo [BJ Services, Macae, RJ (Brazil); Simao, Cristina Aiex; Sledz, Marcelo [PETROBRAS S.A., RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    PETROBRAS has recently begun active drilling on locations where the interest zone is below salt formations, which can be as thick as 2000 meters, formation that may contain mobile salts as taquihydryte. This paper refers to the slurries used on the first well drilled under those conditions and to slurry designs used in other similar wells. The challenge is to avoid the open hole closure by the taquihydryte before the next phase is drilled and cased. In order to do so, it was programmed to use a heavy spacer to maintain the wells stability for at least 30 days, due to hydrostatic pressure. This spacer and the heavy salt slurry (18,5 lb/gal) were used for the first time in Brazil. To cement the production casings, similar formulations were used, although with 15,8 lb/gal density slurries and a minimum of 10% bwow salt (NaCl). On the surface cementing operations, light slurries with sea water, salt, and, silicate and aluminate based additives, were designed and used, followed by the 15,8 lb/gal with 18% bwow salt slurry. Information about the different slurries are presented. (author)

  19. Nitrogen fertiliser value of digested dairy cow slurry, its liquid and solid fractions, and of dairy cow slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Cavalli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of crop availability of livestock slurry nitrogen (N is necessary to maximise crop N use efficiency and to minimise environmental losses. Results from field and laboratory incubation experiments suggest that first-year crop availability of slurry N comes mainly from its ammonium fraction because net mineralisation of organic N is often negligible in the short term. A two-year field experiment during 2011 and 2012 in northern Italy was undertaken with several aims: to estimate the N fertiliser value of raw dairy cow slurry, digested dairy cow slurry, and the liquid and solid fractions of the digested slurry, and to verify if applied ammonium recovery was similar both among slurries and between slurries and inorganic N fertiliser (ammonium sulphate. Different fertilisers were applied before silage maize cultivation followed by an unfertilised Italian ryegrass crop. The results showed that ammonium recovery was significantly higher in mineral-fertilised (75% versus slurry-fertilised (30% treatments, except in digested slurry (65%. This indicates that ammonium applied with organic materials is less efficient than when applied with mineral fertiliser. For the digested slurry and its liquid fraction, most of the applied ammonium was available to the maize during its application year (55% due to a low carbon (C/organic N ratio. The apparent N recovery of the raw slurry and digested slurry solid fraction increased substantially between the first (-1.4% and second (20% years, as these materials had high C/organic N ratios; they likely immobilised N for several months post application, producing residual effects during the Italian ryegrass and next maize crops.

  20. [Culture medium based on biogas slurry and breeding of oil Chlorella].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Feng-Min; Mei, Shuai; Cao, You-Fu; Ding, Jin-Feng; Xu, Jia-Jie; Li, Shu-Jun

    2014-06-01

    The oil chlorella cultivation and biogas slurry treatment were combined. The biogas slurry provided water and nutrient for growing chlorella, at the same time, harmless treatment of biogas slurry was realized. This paper cultivated 4 species of oil chlorella in the mixed medium of biogas slurry and green algae medium (the volume ratios were 1 : 9, 1 : 3, 1 : 1 and 3 : 1, respectively), and compared their oil productivity to select the best oil chlorella species and the optimal culture medium. The results showed that, the combination of medium and chlorella species to reach the highest oil productivity was a volume ratio of 1 : 3 and the chlorella species BJ05, and the oil productivity of chlorella BJ05 was 9.20 mg x (L x d)(-1), higher than that in green algae medium [8.66 mg x (L x d)(-1)]. In mixed medium with a volume ratio of 1:3, the effect of adding different nutrients into the green algae medium on the oil productivity was examined, and the results showed that, sodium carbonate and citric acid had no negative effect on the oil productivity of chlorella BJ05. in the absence of sodium carbonate and citric acid, the oil productivity of chlorella BJ05 was 9.36 mg x (L x d)(-1), and the removal of COD (chemical oxygen demand), total nitrogen, total phosphorus and ammonia nitrogen rates were 59%, 75%, 61% and 100%, respectively. Deficiency in other nutrients had negative effect on the oil productivity. Therefore, the culture medium was further optimized to the mixed medium of biogas slurry and green algae medium with a volume ratio of 1 : 3 and without addition of sodium carbonate and citric acid.

  1. CFD simulation and experimental analysis of erosion in a slurry tank test rig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Hans-Jörg

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Erosion occurring in equipment dealing with liquid-solid mixtures such as pipeline parts, slurry pumps, liquid-solid stirred reactors and slurry mixers in various industrial applications results in operational failure and economic costs. A slurry erosion tank test rig is designed and was built to investigate the erosion rates of materials and the influencing parameters such as flow velocity and turbulence, flow angle, solid particle concentration, particles size distribution, hardness and target material properties on the material loss and erosion profiles. In the present study, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD tool is used to simulate the erosion rate of sample plates in the liquid-solid slurry mixture in a cylindrical tank. The predictions were made in a steady state and also transient manner, applying the flow at the room temperature and using water and sand as liquid and solid phases, respectively. The multiple reference frame method (MRF is applied to simulate the flow behavior and liquid-solid interactions in the slurry tank test rig. The MRF method is used since it is less demanding than sliding mesh method (SM and gives satisfactory results. The computational domain is divided into three regions: a rotational or MRF zone containing the mixer, a rotational zone (MRF containing the erosion plates and a static zone (outer liquid zone. It is observed that changing the MRF zone diameter and height causes a very low impact on the results. The simulated results were obtained for two kinds of hard metals namely stainless steel and ST-50 under some various operating conditions and are found in good agreement with the experimental results.

  2. Microbiological activity and N transformations in a soil subjected to aggregate extraction amended with pig slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelaine Quiroz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pig slurry as a fertilizer source has been extensively used in agriculture; however, in order to reduce the risks of contaminating the water supplies given its high level of N sources, it is important to understand the N transformations occurring in the soil where it is applied. In this study, incubations were performed at 25 °C for a period of 63 to 73 d to evaluate the effect of different doses of pig slurry on the global microbiological activity and the N dynamics in time, with an emphasis on N mineralization and nitrification in a soil subject to aggregate extraction. The slurry was applied in doses equivalent to: 0, 162, 244, and 325 m³ ha-1, constituting four treatments: T0, T50, T75, and T100, respectively. The microbiological activity and the contents of NH4+-N and NO3-- N were measured. Increasing doses of slurry produced an increase in the evolution of the accumulated CO2, with 63.5, 115.0, 112.7, and 125.7 mg 100 g-1 soil for T0, T50, T75, and T100 respectively. A similar situation was observed in the initial contents of NH4+-N, which were 22.4, 30.3, 44.3, and 60.7 mg kg-1 in each treatment, respectively. On the other hand, the increase in NO3-- N contents were only noticed by the end of the incubation period and corresponded to 28.6, 69.0, 95.3, and 109.8 mg kg-1. In addition, the net N mineralization was predominant in all treatments with slurry during the measurement period, being 9.1, 45.4, 58.1, and 52.7 mg kg-1 for T0, T50, T75 and T100, respectively, at the end of the trial. The mineralization rate of the organic C decreased when increasing the dose of slurry and the mineralization rate of the organic N resulted to be low, which would indicate a high contribution of material resistant to degradation by the slurry, which could have a long term effect in the soil.

  3. 20 CFR 404.146 - When a calendar quarter cannot be a quarter of coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When a calendar quarter cannot be a quarter...-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Insured Status and Quarters of Coverage Quarters of Coverage § 404.146 When a calendar quarter cannot be a quarter of coverage. This section applies when...

  4. Comparison of three distinct management strategies for pig slurry applied to three groups of farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauden, A.; Teresa, M.; Siegler, C.; Bescos, B.; Burton, C.

    2009-07-01

    Poor management of pig slurry can lead to the contamination of the soil, water and air, which is mostly of the result of sur-plus nutrients. Such environmental impact from pig farming are common in areas with intensive livestock farming. The projects primary objectives is to demonstrate at farm scale the application of the three main manure management technologies deployed within structured local schemes to minimize the environmental impact. (Author)

  5. Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility groundwater monitoring report: Third quarter 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    During third quarter 1993, samples from AMB groundwater monitoring wells at the Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility were analyzed for certain heavy metals, indicator parameters, radionuclides, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Eight parameters exceeded standards during the quarter. As in previous quarters, tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards; and aluminum, iron, lead, manganese, pH, and total organic halogens exceeded the Savannah River Site Flag 2 criteria in one or more of the wells. Groundwater flow direction and rate in the water-table unit were similar to previous quarters.

  6. Synthesis of Coal-water Slurry Dispersant Based on Maleopimaric Acid Diethanolamine and Its Dispersive Action on Shenhua Coal%马来海松酸醇酰胺的合成及其对神华煤的分散作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张光华; 尚婷; 韩文静; 石丽丽; 李俊国

    2012-01-01

    以松香为原料,与顺丁烯二酸酐加成,经二乙醇胺改性得到马来海松酸醇酰胺分散剂.考察了神华煤水煤浆的不同质量分数、分散剂添加量、转速、温度,pH等条件下的流变行为和Zeta电位,以及接触角和储存72 h过程中的析水率.得出煤质量分数64%,分散剂质量分数0.2%的水煤浆在100 s-1下的表观黏度为896.5 mPa·s,析水率3.2%,Zeta电位- 23.5 mV,并且高温和碱性环境有利于水煤浆的成浆性.初步探讨了分散剂的结构与煤粒的作用方式,认为分散剂通过多元碳环与煤表面相连,醇酰胺链段与水形成氢键,并提供了一定的空间位阻,阻隔了煤粒间的聚集,使煤粒得到均匀分散,起到了降低黏度,提高稳定性的作用.%This paper focuses on the preparation of a new type of dispereant. As raw material, rosin went through the addition reaction with maleic anhydride and was then modified by diethanolarneine to obtain the maleopimaric acid diethanolamine dispersant that was used in coal water slurry(CWS). The effects of this dispersant on slurry forming ability in Shenhua coals were discussed. Studies on the rheological behaviour of CWS with different mass fractions, pH values, shearing rates, Zeta potentials for different concentrations as well as contact angle and syneresis rates during 72 h storing were carried out to analyze the interaction between the dispersants and the surface of coal particles. The studies show that the CWS had an apparent viscosity of 896. 5 mPa · s, a syneresis rate of 3. 2% and a Zeta potential of - 23. 5 mV at the shearing rate of 100 s‐1 and when the mass fractions of coals and dispersants were 64% and 0. 2% respectively. The environment of high temperature and alkalescency was also found to be conducive to slurry forming. The dispersants can lower the viscosity of CWS because of the homogeneous moistening of coal particles through the dispersants' hydrophobic groups connecting to the

  7. 季调节水电站枯水期调度研究%Research on Optimal Hydropower Scheduling Principle of Quarterly and below Regulating Hydropower Station during Dry Water Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红岭; 蔡建章; 蔡华祥

    2015-01-01

    During dry water period, contradiction between the utilization of water quality and control of water level is concerned for the uncertainty of reservoir inflow, which is more significant for the limited regulation ability of quarterly and below regulating hydro ̄power stations. In this paper, to utilize inflow energy and storage energy comprehensively, the loss of water level is represented with the loss of inflow energy and the objective of high efficient utilization is constructed, and a new optimal operation mode of hydropow ̄er station during dry water period is proposed. Through the comparison between loss of inflow energy and utilization of storage ener ̄gy, loss of water level is represented with the loss of inflow energy and the objective of high efficient utilization is constructed, and a new optimal operation mode of hydropower station during dry water period is proposed. Through the comparison between loss of in ̄flow energy and utilization of storage energy, optimal water level reduction plan is determined, and can provide decision reference for the coordination control on the utilization of water quality and water level.%水库入流的不确定性使得水电站在枯水期调度运行时面临着水量利用与水头控制间的协调矛盾,而季调节及以下调节能力的水电站由于调节能力的限制使得这种矛盾更加突出。本文从综合利用来流能与水库蓄能的角度出发,提出以来流能损失表示水头的损失,以水库蓄能的高效利用为目标确定水电站枯水期最佳调度运行方式。通过来流能损失与一定水库蓄能利用效率下的动用蓄能的比较分析,优化确定枯水期水位控制方案,为实现枯水期水量与水头利用的协调控制提供调度决策依据。

  8. Quarterly technical progress report for the period ending June 30, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-10-01

    The Magnetohydrodynamics Program (Component Development and Integration Facility) in Butte, Montana, continued its site preparation for the TRW first-stage combustor installation. In the area of flue gas cleanup, our in-house research program is continuing its investigation into the causes of sorbent attrition in PETC's fluidized-bed copper oxide process for simultaneous SO/sub 2//NO/sub x/ removal. Interwoven with these tests is a series of spray dryer/electrostatic precipitator tests that are being conducted with the cooperation of Wheelabrator-Frye, Inc. This test series was completed this quarter, and the data show that when using a Kentucky coal, Wheelabrator-Frye's electrostatic precipitator provides excellent particulate control efficiency while using a spray dryer for sulfur dioxide removal. A unique project at Carnegie-Mellon University is looking at the concept of integrated environmental control for coal-fired power plants making use of precombustion, combustion, and postcombustion control, including systems for the simultaneous removal of more than one pollutant. The objective of this research is to develop a computer model and assessment for integrated environmental control systems that utilize conventional or advanced systems. The Liquid Phase Methanol Project Development Unit in LaPorte, Texas, was restarted after a successful shakedown run was completed. PETC has recently begun an in-house research project aimed at exploring the basic chemistry of liquefying coal in the presence of water under supercritical conditions. In the Alternative Fuels Technology Program, the Gulf Research and Development Company has completed the preliminary testing phase of its erosion test loop. Their results indicate that when pumping a coal-water slurry fuel through a flow loop, the erosion rate increases as velocity increases, suggesting a well-defined relationship between these two parameters.

  9. Quarterly technical progress report for the period ending June 30, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-10-01

    The Magnetohydrodynamics Program (Component Development and Integration Facility) in Butte, Montana, continued its site preparation for the TRW first-stage combustor installation. In the area of flue gas cleanup, our in-house research program is continuing its investigation into the causes of sorbent attrition in PETC's fluidized-bed copper oxide process for simultaneous SO/sub 2//NO/sub x/ removal. Interwoven with these tests is a series of spray dryer/electrostatic precipitator tests that are being conducted with the cooperation of Wheelabrator-Frye, Inc. This test series was completed this quarter, and the data show that when using a Kentucky coal, Wheelabrator-Frye's electrostatic precipitator provides excellent particulate control efficiency while using a spray dryer for sulfur dioxide removal. A unique project at Carnegie-Mellon University is looking at the concept of integrated environmental control for coal-fired power plants making use of precombustion, combustion, and postcombustion control, including systems for the simultaneous removal of more than one pollutant. The objective of this research is to develop a computer model and assessment for integrated environmental control systems that utilize conventional or advanced systems. The Liquid Phase Methanol Project Development Unit in LaPorte, Texas, was restarted after a successful shakedown run was completed. PETC has recently begun an in-house research project aimed at exploring the basic chemistry of liquefying coal in the presence of water under supercritical conditions. In the Alternative Fuels Technology Program, the Gulf Research and Development Company has completed the preliminary testing phase of its erosion test loop. Their results indicate that when pumping a coal-water slurry fuel through a flow loop, the erosion rate increases as velocity increases, suggesting a well-defined relationship between these two parameters.

  10. Rheology of sludge-slurry grouts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, E. W.

    1980-10-01

    A series of rheograms was developed that relates the critical velocity (velocity where flow changes from laminar to turbulent) of a cementitious grout that incorporates a suspended sludge-slurry to the critical velocity of a reference grout made with a simulated waste solution. The sludge that is now in the Gunite waste tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) will be suspended and pumped to the new waste storage tanks in Melton Valley. The sludge will then be blended with a cement mix base to form a grout which will be injected underground by the shale fracturing process. This report describes the materials, equipment, and techniques used in the laboratory studies to suspend sludges and mix sludge-slurry grouts that have flow properties similar to those of current shale fracturing grouts. Bentonite clay is an effective suspender in dilute NaNO/sub 3/ solutions; 15 wt % solids can be suspended with 2.0 wt % bentonite in a 0.1 M NaNO/sub 3/ solution. Other suspending materials were evaluated, but bentonite gave the best results. If a slurry grout becomes too viscous to pump, methods must be available to thin the mixture. A number of thinners, friction reducers, and plasticizers were examined. Q-Broxin, a thinner supplied by Baroid, reduced the velocity of a grout required for turbulent flow in a 5.0-cm (2-in.)-diam tube from 1.76 to 1.20 m/s (5.79 to 3.95 ft/s); FX-32C, a plasticizer supplied by Fox Industries, Inc., reduced the velocity from 1.76 to 0.75 m/s (5.6 to 2.45 ft/s).

  11. Survival of Salmonella spp. and fecal indicator bacteria in Vietnamese biogas digesters receiving pig slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Luu Quynh; Forslund, Anita; Madsen, Henry; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2014-09-01

    Small-scale biogas digesters are widely promoted worldwide as a sustainable technology to manage livestock manure. In Vietnam, pig slurry is commonly applied to biogas digesters for production of gas for electricity and cooking with the effluent being used to fertilize field crops, vegetables and fish ponds. Slurry may contain a variety of zoonotic pathogens, e.g. Salmonella spp., which are able to cause disease in humans either through direct contact with slurry or by fecal contamination of water and foods. The objective of this study was to evaluate the survival of Salmonella spp. and the fecal indicator bacteria, enterococci, E. coli, and spores of Clostridium perfringens in biogas digesters operated by small-scale Vietnamese pig farmers. The serovar and antimicrobial susceptibility of the Salmonella spp. isolated were also established. The study was conducted in 12 farms (6 farms with and 6 farms without toilet connected) located in Hanam province, Vietnam. Sampling of pig slurry and biogas effluent was done during two seasons. Results showed that the concentration of enterococci, E. coli, and Clostridium perfringens spores was overall reduced by only 1-2 log10-units in the biogas digesters when comparing raw slurry and biogas effluent. Salmonella spp. was found in both raw slurry and biogas effluent. A total of 19 Salmonella serovars were identified, with the main serovars being Salmonella Typhimurium (55/138), Salmonella enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:- (19/138), Salmonella Weltevreden (9/138) and Salmonella Rissen (9/138). The Salmonella serovars showed similar antimicrobial resistance patterns to those previously reported from Vietnam. When promoting biogas, farmers should be made aware that effluent should only be used as fertilizer for crops not consumed raw and that indiscriminate discharge of effluent are likely to contaminate water recipients, e.g. drinking water sources, with pathogens. Relevant authorities should promote safe animal manure management

  12. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR (SBCR) TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard A. Toseland

    2000-12-31

    The major technical objectives of this program are threefold: (1) to develop the design tools and a fundamental understanding of the fluid dynamics of a slurry bubble column reactor to maximize reactor productivity, (2) to develop the mathematical reactor design models and gain an understanding of the hydrodynamic fundamentals under industrially relevant process conditions, and (3) to develop an understanding of the hydrodynamics and their interaction with the chemistries occurring in the bubble column reactor. Successful completion of these objectives will permit more efficient usage of the reactor column and tighter design criteria, increase overall reactor efficiency, and ensure a design that leads to stable reactor behavior when scaling up to large-diameter reactors. Washington University's work during the reporting period involved the implementation of the automated calibration device, which will provide an advanced method of determining liquid and slurry velocities at high pressures. This new calibration device is intended to replace the original calibration setup, which depended on fishing lines and hooks to position the radioactive particle. The report submitted by Washington University contains a complete description of the new calibration device and its operation. Improvements to the calibration program are also discussed. Iowa State University utilized air-water bubble column simulations in an effort to determine the domain size needed to represent all of the flow scales in a gas-liquid column at a high superficial velocity. Ohio State's report summarizes conclusions drawn from the completion of gas injection phenomena studies, specifically with respect to the characteristics of bubbling-jetting at submerged single orifices in liquid-solid suspensions.

  13. Replacement of mineral fertilizers with anaerobically digested pig slurry in paddy fields: assessment of plant growth and grain quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Wang, Minyan; Cao, Yucheng; Liang, Peng; Wu, Shengchun; Leung, Anna Oi Wah; Christie, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Rice cultivation requires large quantities of irrigation water and mineral fertilizers. This provides an opportunity for the recycling of the plant nutrients in anaerobically digested pig slurry, large amounts of which are generated in Chinese pig farms. Hence, to promote the sustainable development of livestock and poultry breeding and rice production, a micro-plot field experiment was carried out to assess whether or not slurry can replace mineral fertilizers in rice paddy production in terms of plant tillering, grain quality, and yields. The results indicate that the total N content of the slurry can serve as an alternative source of N when compared to the control (450 kg ha(-1) commercial compound fertilizer (N/P2O5/K2O = 15:15:15) as basal fertilizer, 300 kg ha(-1) urea (N% = 46), and 150 kg ha(-1) commercial compound fertilizer as top-dressed fertilizer). No negative effects on plant growth or grain yield were observed, although there may be a potential risk due to an increase in grain Cu concentration. The amylose content and gel consistency of the rice grains were enhanced significantly by the use of slurry as a basal fertilizer, but the grain protein and total amino acid contents decreased. The results suggest that anaerobically digested pig slurry can replace mineral fertilizers in rice production when applied as a basal dressing together with urea and commercial compound fertilizer as top-dressed fertilizers.

  14. The cumulative methane production from dairy cattle slurry can be explained by its volatile solid, temperature and length of storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawamoto, Takuji; Nakamura, Megumi; Nekomoto, Kenji; Hoshiba, Shinji; Minato, Keiko; Nakayama, Motoo; Osada, Takashi

    2016-06-01

    In order to refine the national estimate of methane emission from stored cattle slurry, it is important to comprehend the basic characteristics of methane production. Two dairy cattle slurries were obtained from livestock farms located in Hokkaido (a northern island) and Kyushu (a southern island). The slurries were diluted with water into three levels: undiluted, three times diluted, and 10 times diluted. Three hundred mL of the slurries were put into a bottle with a headspace volume of 2.0 L, which was filled with nitrogen gas and then sealed by butyl rubber. Four levels of temperature were used for incubation: 35, 25, 15 and 5 °C. The time course of the cumulative methane production per volatile solid (VS) was satisfactorily expressed by an asymptotic regression model. The effect of dilution on the methane production per VS was not distinctive, but that of temperature was of primary importance. In particular, higher temperature yields a higher potential production and a shorter time when the cumulative production reaches half of the potential production. The inclusive and simple models obtained in this study indicate that the cumulative methane production from stored cattle slurry can be explained by VS, temperature and length of storage.

  15. Rheological behavior of oil well cements slurries containing polyurethane and silica flour; Estudo reologico de pastas de cimento com adicao de poliuretana e silica flour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, M.R.P.; Silva, P.D.; Martinelli, A.E.; Melo, D.M.A.; Silva, B.N. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Araujo, R.G.S. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    contents of polyurethane beyond 10% BWOC significantly increased the plastic viscosity, yield strength and gel strength of the slurry. Such behavior was not observed in the slurries containing 5% BWOC of polyurethane due to its reaction with C3A. At that concentration, only small volumes of the polymer are arrested by the reaction of cement alkalis, whereas the remainder floats by electrostatic repulsion. The yield strength of all slurries were within the limits established, i.e., between 30 and 70 lbf/100 ft{sup 2}. The plastic viscosity of the slurries containing more than 10% of polyurethane were high, however, such behavior can be easily adjusted by commonly encountered dispersants. The gel strength increased with increasing the contents of polyurethane, but remained within the established limits. The behavior exponent (n) of the rheological model varied from 0 to 1 for all slurries, characterizing them as pseudoplastic fluids. The values of R{sup 2} (correlation index) of the Ostwald de Waale (power law) model was nearly one, and taken as the best fit of the data. Finally, the presence of polyurethane decreased the filter loss volume of the slurries due to the formation of a polymeric film between the cement grains which hinder the flow of water from the slurry to permeable formations. (author)

  16. MASS-TRANSFER IN GAS-LIQUID SLURRY REACTORS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BEENACKERS, AACM; VANSWAAIJ, WPM

    1993-01-01

    A critical review is presented on the mass transfer characteristics of gas-liquid slurry reactors. The recent findings on the influence of the presence of solid particles on the following mass transfer parameters in slurry reactors are discussed: volumetric gas-liquid mass transfer coefficients (k(L

  17. MASS-TRANSFER IN GAS-LIQUID SLURRY REACTORS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BEENACKERS, AACM; VANSWAAIJ, WPM

    A critical review is presented on the mass transfer characteristics of gas-liquid slurry reactors. The recent findings on the influence of the presence of solid particles on the following mass transfer parameters in slurry reactors are discussed: volumetric gas-liquid mass transfer coefficients

  18. Mass transfer in gas-liquid slurry reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beenackers, A.A.C.M.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1993-01-01

    A critical review is presented on the mass transfer characteristics of gas¿liquid slurry reactors. The recent findings on the influence of the presence of solid particles on the following mass transfer parameters in slurry reactors are discussed: volumetric gas¿liquid mass transfer coefficients

  19. Mass transfer in gas-liquid slurry reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beenackers, A.A.C.M.; Swaaij, van W.P.M.

    1993-01-01

    A critical review is presented on the mass transfer characteristics of gas¿liquid slurry reactors. The recent findings on the influence of the presence of solid particles on the following mass transfer parameters in slurry reactors are discussed: volumetric gas¿liquid mass transfer coefficients (kLa

  20. Why is acidification of slurry a success only in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.

    . Several technologies have been used in the buildings, in the storage and when applying manure. One technology now used widely in Denmark (20% of all slurry) is acidification of slurry where the application of sulphuric acid reduces the ammonia emission. However, the technology has hardly been used...

  1. The Settling and Compaction of Nuclear Waste Slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MACLEAN, G.T.

    1999-11-15

    The settling and compaction of simulated and real nuclear waste slurries were extensively studied. Experiments were carried out with simulated wastes at laboratory and large-scale sizes, and the results compared. A model of settling was derived and a method developed to correlate and scale-up settling data for different slurries and vessel sizes.

  2. Mass transfer in gas-liquid slurry reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beenackers, A.A.C.M.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1993-01-01

    A critical review is presented on the mass transfer characteristics of gas¿liquid slurry reactors. The recent findings on the influence of the presence of solid particles on the following mass transfer parameters in slurry reactors are discussed: volumetric gas¿liquid mass transfer coefficients (kLa

  3. MASS-TRANSFER IN GAS-LIQUID SLURRY REACTORS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BEENACKERS, AACM; VANSWAAIJ, WPM

    1993-01-01

    A critical review is presented on the mass transfer characteristics of gas-liquid slurry reactors. The recent findings on the influence of the presence of solid particles on the following mass transfer parameters in slurry reactors are discussed: volumetric gas-liquid mass transfer coefficients (k(L

  4. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Luna Bergere; Baldwin, Helene L.

    1962-01-01

    What do you use water for?If someone asked you this question you would probably think right away of water for drinking. Then you would think of water for bathing, brushing teeth, flushing the toilet. Your list would get longer as you thought of water for cooking, washing the dishes, running the garbage grinder. Water for lawn watering, for play pools, for swimming pools, for washing the car and the dog. Water for washing machines and for air conditioning. You can hardly do without water for fun and pleasure—water for swimming, boating, fishing, water-skiing, and skin diving. In school or the public library, you need water to wash your hands, or to have a drink. If your home or school bursts into flames, quantities of water are needed to put it out.In fact, life to Americans is unthinkable without large supplies of fresh, clean water. If you give the matter a little thought, you will realize that people in many countries, even in our own, may suffer from disease and dirt simply because their homes are not equipped with running water. Imagine your own town if for some reason - an explosion, perhaps - water service were cut off for a week or several weeks. You would have to drive or walk to a neighboring town and bring water back in pails. Certainly if people had to carry water themselves they might not be inclined to bathe very often; washing clothes would be a real chore.Nothing can live without water. The earth is covered by water over three-fourths of its surface - water as a liquid in rivers, lakes and oceans, and water as ice and snow on the tops of high mountains and in the polar regions. Only one-quarter of our bodies is bone and muscle; the other three-fourths is made of water. We need water to live, and so do plants and animals. People and animals can live a long time without food, but without water they die in a few days. Without water, everything would die, and the world would turn into a huge desert.

  5. Latent Heat storage characteristics of solid-liquid phase change Heat Storage Microcapsule Slurry by Boiling Heat Transfer under a Vacuum Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Hideo; Horibe, Akihiko; Haruki, Naoto; Katayama, Masatoshi; Manabe, Ken

    Recently, the new heat transfer medium, which fulfills both functions of heat storage and heat transportation, has been developed in ah eat storage field. Solid-liquid latent heat microcapsule slurry would correspond to the topical medium, so-called functionally thermal fluid. The preset study has clarified the latent heat storage characteristics of microcapsule slurry by making heat transfer enlargement with the help of slurry water pool boiling phenomenon. The paraffin wax at a melting point of 62°C was used as a phase change material which was packed into the microcapsule. The heating surface temperature and concentration of paraffin in the microcapsule slurry was selected as experimental parameters. As a result, the non-dimensional correlation equations of heat storage completion time and heat transfer were derived in terms of non-dimensional parameters.

  6. Numerical simulation of turbulent slurry flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghgoo, Mohammad Reza; Spiteri, Reymond J.; Bergstrom, Donlad J.

    2016-11-01

    Slurry flows, i.e., the flow of an agglomeration of liquid and particles, are widely employed in many industrial applications, such as hydro-transport systems, pharmaceutical batch crystallizers, and wastewater disposal. Although there are numerous studies available in the literature on turbulent gas-particle flows, the hydrodynamics of turbulent liquid-particle flows has received much less attention. In particular, the fluid-phase turbulence modulation due to the particle fluctuating motion is not yet well understood and remains challenging to model. This study reports the results of a numerical simulation of a vertically oriented slurry pipe flow using a two-fluid model based on the kinetic theory of granular flows. The particle stress model also includes the effects of frictional contact. Different turbulence modulation models are considered, and their capability to capture the characteristic features of the turbulent flow is assessed. The model predictions are validated against published experimental data and demonstrate the significant effect of the particles on the fluid-phase turbulence.

  7. Bauxite slurry pipeline: start up operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othon, Otilio; Babosa, Eder; Edvan, Francisco; Brittes, Geraldo; Melo, Gerson; Janir, Joao; Favacho, Orlando; Leao, Marcos; Farias, Obadias [Vale, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Goncalves, Nilton [Anglo Ferrous Brazil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The mine of Miltonia is located in Paragominas-PA, in the north of Brazil. Bauxite slurry pipeline starts at the Mine of Miltonia and finishes in the draining installation of Alunorte refinery at the port of Barcarena-PA, located approximately 244km away from the mine. The pipeline runs over seven cities and passes below four great rivers stream beds. The system was designed for an underground 24 inches OD steel pipe to carry 9.9 million dry metric tonnes per annum (dMTAs) of 50.5% solid concentration bauxite slurry, using only one pumping station. The system is composed by four storage tanks and six piston diaphragm pumps, supplying a flow of 1680 m3/h. There is a cathodic protection system along the pipeline extension to prevent external corrosion and five pressure monitoring stations to control hydraulic conditions, there is also a fiber optic cable interconnection between pump station and terminal station. Pipeline Systems Incorporated (PSI) was the designer and followed the commissioning program of the start up operations. This paper will describe the beginning of the pipeline operations, technical aspects of the project, the operational experiences acquired in these two years, the faced problems and also the future planning. (author)

  8. Solids flow rate measurement in dense slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porges, K.G.; Doss, E.D.

    1993-09-01

    Accurate and rapid flow rate measurement of solids in dense slurries remains an unsolved technical problem, with important industrial applications in chemical processing plants and long-distance solids conveyance. In a hostile two-phase medium, such a measurement calls for two independent parameter determinations, both by non-intrusive means. Typically, dense slurries tend to flow in laminar, non-Newtonian mode, eliminating most conventional means that usually rely on calibration (which becomes more difficult and costly for high pressure and temperature media). These issues are reviewed, and specific solutions are recommended in this report. Detailed calculations that lead to improved measuring device designs are presented for both bulk density and average velocity measurements. Cross-correlation, chosen here for the latter task, has long been too inaccurate for practical applications. The cause and the cure of this deficiency are discussed using theory-supported modeling. Fluid Mechanics are used to develop the velocity profiles of laminar non-Newtonian flow in a rectangular duct. This geometry uniquely allows the design of highly accurate `capacitive` devices and also lends itself to gamma transmission densitometry on an absolute basis. An absolute readout, though of less accuracy, is also available from a capacitive densitometer and a pair of capacitive sensors yields signals suitable for cross-correlation velocity measurement.

  9. Three-dimensional numerical study of laminar confined slot jet impingement cooling using slurry of nano-encapsulated phase change material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohib Ur Rehman, M.; Qu, Z. G.; Fu, R. P.

    2016-10-01

    This Article presents a three dimensional numerical model investigating thermal performance and hydrodynamics features of the confined slot jet impingement using slurry of Nano Encapsulated Phase Change Material (NEPCM) as a coolant. The slurry is composed of water as a base fluid and n-octadecane NEPCM particles with mean diameter of 100nm suspended in it. A single phase fluid approach is employed to model the NEPCM slurry.The thermo physical properties of the NEPCM slurry are computed using modern approaches being proposed recently and governing equations are solved with a commercial Finite Volume based code. The effects of jet Reynolds number varying from 100 to 600 and particle volume fraction ranging from 0% to 28% are considered. The computed results are validated by comparing Nusselt number values at stagnation point with the previously published results with water as working fluid. It was found that adding NEPCM to the base fluid results with considerable amount of heat transfer enhancement.The highest values of heat transfer coefficients are observed at H/W=4 and Cm=0.28. However, due to the higher viscosity of slurry compared with the base fluid, the slurry can produce drastic increase in pressure drop of the system that increases with NEPCM particle loading and jet Reynolds number.

  10. Performance of Fiber Cement Slurry in the Oil and Gas Well Cementation%油气固井纤维水泥浆性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    步玉环; 王瑞和; 程荣超; 李玉海

    2005-01-01

    Based on a carbon fiber cement slurry system developed in the previous work, the relationship between the carbon fiber and the performance of the cement slurry was experimentally investigated. Results show that the use of fiber has no effect on the slurry rheological mode, but influences its rheological behavior. When the fiber proportion ranges from 0.12% to 0.19% and the fiber length from 400 to 1,400 μm, the slurry rheological behavior can be improved. Under the normal pressure, the use of fiber can shorten the thickening time of the cement slurry. When the proportion of the constant-length fiber increases, the water loss of the cement slurry decreases first and then increases, and when the fiber length increases (the fiber proportion being kept constant), the water loss shows the same trend. This indicates that there are optimal values for the fiber length and proportion, which vary under the experimental conditions in the following respective ranges: 0.12%-0.37% and 700-1,400 μm.

  11. Physical properties, fuel characteristics and P-fertilizer production related to animal slurry and products from separation of animal slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Ole; Johnsen, Tina; Triolo, Jin Mi

    The purpose of this study was twofold: firstly to examine the relationship between dry matter content (DM) and specific gravity (SG) and viscosity in slurry and the liquid fraction from slurry separation, and secondly to investigate the potential of energy production from combustion of manure fibre...

  12. Sorption of 17b-Estradiol to Pig Slurry Separates and Soil in the Soil-Slurry Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amin, Mostofa; Petersen, Søren O; Lægdsmand, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Contamination of freshwater by estrogens from manure applied to agricultural land is of grave concern because of the potentially harmful effects on aquatic life and human health. Recent developments in liquid manure (slurry) management include partial removal of particulate slurry dry matter (PSDM...

  13. Effect of fermentation temperature on hydrogen production from cow waste slurry by using anaerobic microflora within the slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Waki, Miyoko; Moriya, Naoko; Yasuda, Tomoko; Tanaka, Yasuo; Haga, Kiyonori

    2007-02-01

    We examined hydrogen production from a dairy cow waste slurry (13.4 g of volatile solids per liter) by batch cultures in a temperature range from 37 to 85 degrees C, using microflora naturally present within the slurry. Without the addition of seed bacteria, hydrogen was produced by simply incubating the slurry, using the microflora within the slurry. Interestingly, two peaks of fermentation temperatures for hydrogen production from the slurry were observed at 60 and 75 degrees C (392 and 248 ml H2 per liter of slurry, respectively). After the termination of the hydrogen evolution, the microflora cultured at 60 degrees C displayed hydrogen-consuming activity, but hydrogen-consuming activity of the microflora cultured at 75 degrees C was not detected, at least for 24 days. At both 60 and 75 degrees C, the main by-product was acetate, and the optimum pH of the slurry for hydrogen production was around neutral. Bacteria related to hydrogen-producing moderate and extreme thermophiles, Clostridium thermocellum and Caldanaerobacter subterraneus, were detected in the slurries cultured at 60 and 75 degrees C, respectively, by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analyses, using the V3 region of 16S rDNA.

  14. Geochemistry of a reclaimed coal slurry impoundment. Final technical report, September 1, 1993--November 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreher, G.B.; Roy, W.R.; Steele, J.D.; Heidari, M.

    1994-12-31

    The highly alkaline residue from the fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) of coal may be an environmentally acceptable material for use in neutralizing acid produced by the oxidation of pyrite in coal. slurry solids (CSS). Previous research indicated that FBC residues in mixtures with pyrite-rich CSS neutralized the acid produced by or attenuated the oxidation of pyrite in CSS. In the present research project we retrieved five drill cores from a reclaimed coal slurry impoundment, and installed three samplers in one of the core holes. The solids were chemically and mineralogically analyzed. Display of the mineralogical data on a cross section showed that pyrite was randomly distributed through much of the length of the coal slurry impoundment. Trace concentrations of heavy metals were correlated with pyrite in the core solids. Water samples were collected and analyzed. The water analyses showed that nutrients are insufficient to support plant growth without supplemental fertilization. The analytical data will provide background information necessary for the development of a predictive computer model of the kinetics of pyrite oxidation at near-neutral pH conditions. Programming of a computerized model to simulate pyrite oxidation under near-neutral pH conditions was begun. The program includes ideas from Morel and Hering (1993) and species are calculated in terms of 7 components of known concentrations. The ionic strength of the solution, the species activity coefficients, and the activities are calculated iteratively.

  15. Extractability of slurry and fertilizer phosphorus in soil after repeated freezing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. SOINNE

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The potential effects of freezing on phosphorus (P chemistry in Finnish soils are not well known. We studied the effects of multiple freeze-thaw cycles on soil P chemistry in a laboratory incubation experiment with one organic and one mineral surface soil. The soils were incubated at +5°C or at alternating +5/–20°C temperatures for 24 weeks, either without amendment or amended with pig slurry or with commercial compound fertilizer (NPK 20–3–9. After incubation, the soils were analyzed for water-soluble reactive and unreactive P, and acid ammonium acetate soluble P (PAAA. Freezing and thawing of soils during the incubation had no significant effect on any of the water-soluble P fractions or PAAA. The outcome was most likely a consequence of the good P status of the soils, which masked the gentle effects of freezing. According to these results, the time of soil sampling (fall vs. spring has no effect on P test results on soils with a good P status. Concentrations of soluble P after incubation were roughly twice as high in the slurry treatments than in the fertilizer treatments, demonstrating potentially better long-term availability of slurry P.;

  16. Slurry wall containment performance: monitoring and modeling of unsaturated and saturated flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedretti, Daniele; Masetti, Marco; Marangoni, Tomaso; Beretta, Giovanni Pietro

    2012-01-01

    A specific 2-year program to monitor and test both the vadose zone and the saturated zone, coupled with a numerical analysis, was performed to evaluate the overall performance of slurry wall systems for containment of contaminated areas. Despite local physical confinement (slurry walls keyed into an average 2-m-thick aquitard), for at least two decades, high concentrations of chlorinated solvents (up to 110 mg l(-1)) have been observed in aquifers that supply drinking water close to the city of Milan (Italy). Results of monitoring and in situ tests have been used to perform an unsaturated-saturated numerical model. These results yielded the necessary quantitative information to be used both for the determination of the hydraulic properties of the different media in the area and for the calibration and validation of the numerical model. Backfill material in the shallower part of the investigated aquifer dramatically affects the natural recharge of the encapsulated area. A transient simulation from wet to drought periods highlights a change in the ratio between leakages from lateral barriers that support a specific scenario of water loss through the containment system. The combination of monitoring and modelling allows a reliable estimate of the overall performance of the physical confinement to be made without using any invasive techniques on slurry wall.

  17. Physical properties, fuel characteristics and P-fertilizer production related to animal slurry and products from separation of animal slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Ole; Johnsen, Tina; Triolo, Jin Mi

    of cattle slurry, contained too little P to be suitable for fertilizer production, as did pig slurry, to which sulphuric acid had been added prior to separation. Low solubility of P means the ashes should be treated before being used as a fertilizer. The acid consumption in a simple fertilizer production......The purpose of this study was twofold: firstly to examine the relationship between dry matter content (DM) and specific gravity (SG) and viscosity in slurry and the liquid fraction from slurry separation, and secondly to investigate the potential of energy production from combustion of manure fibre...... from slurry separation and phosphorus (P) fertilizer production from recycling of the ash. Manure fibre has a positive calorific value and may be used as a CO2-neutral fuel for combustion. The ashes from combustion are rich in P, an essential fertilizer compound. The study is based on samples of animal...

  18. Transport and survival of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in soil columns following applications of raw and separated liquid slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Heidi H.; Enemark, Heidi; Olsen, Annette;

    The widespread waterborne pathogen Cryptosporidium parvum is frequently transmitted to humans via contaminated drinking and recreational water. Nearly all drinking water in Denmark is groundwater, which can be contaminated with oocysts e.g. from application of contaminated manure to the field....... Oocysts transport to groundwater requires that the oocysts are transported through soil and bedrock to the water table. The purpose of this study was to determine the potential transport of the protozoan pathogen C. parvum through soil to land drains and, subsequently water sources in a laboratory setup...... using simulated rainfall and six 20 cm long replicate intact soil columns. Two types of contaminated slurry: raw slurry and the separated liquid fraction of the slurry were applied ten cm into the soil, which was subsequently irrigated once a week over a four-week period. C. parvum oocysts were detected...

  19. Comparative evaluation of effects of ozonated and chlorinated thermal discharges on estuarine and fresh water organisms. First quarterly progress report, April 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra, C.R.; DelMonaco, J.L.; Singletary, J.H.; Sugam, R.J.; Meldrim, J.W.; Holmstrom, E.R.; Balog, G.F.

    1979-01-01

    The biological evaluation program incorporates three types of experimental tests: acute (96 hour) toxicity studies; behavioral (avoidance) response studies; and physiological (cough) response studies. In addition, specimens used in testing are examined for physical damage resulting from exposure to chlorine or ozoen. The objective of the acute (96 hour) toxicity study is to determine the respective lethal levels (LC/sub 50/) of chlorinated and ozonated waters. The objective of the behavioral (avoidance) response study is to determine what (if any) concentrations of ozone and of chlorine will be avoided. The objective of physiological (cough) response study is to determine what concentrations of ozone and of chlorine are physiologically detected. Ozonated and chlorinated waters were evaluated in all studies for both the addition of increased temperature and without it. Results indicate that ozone is less toxic than chlorine under the test conditions used. The lethal levels vary according to species of water quality measurements at Bergen Generating Station, New York are tabulated. (JBG)

  20. 基于蓝牙技术的小区供水设备远程监控系统%Remote monitoring system over the residential quarter water supply equipment based on bluetooth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱洁; 茅忠明

    2011-01-01

    This thesis introduces a method of remotely monitoring and controlling water supply systems in residential quarters.With the help of PLC simulation, the measure of the pipeline, pressure and flow rate are simulated. PLC digital module is employed to monitor water supply system, and collect signals of failure and remote switching. Bluetooth technology is utilized to exchange remote data signals, enabling real-estate staff to remotely monitor water supply system from their offices. Computer configuration software is applied to undertake the analysis and treatment of the data collected on the spot, and at the same time, the result will be shown on the screen with graphs. In addition, the past records of data can be reviewed and printed.%介绍了一种远程控制和监视生活供水设备的方法.通过PLC模拟量模块实现管路、压力和流量的测量;PLC数字量模块实现供水设备状态监视、故障和远程启停信号采集.借助蓝牙通信技术实现远程数据信号的交换,使小区物业可在办公室对供水设备远程监控.应用计算机组态软件对现场采集的数据进行分析、处理,同时在显示屏上显示窗口和棒状图形,以及对历史数据查询和打印.

  1. Improved Fischer-Tropsch Slurry Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew Lucero

    2009-03-20

    The conversion of synthesis gas to hydrocarbons or alcohols involves highly exothermic reactions. Temperature control is a critical issue in these reactors for a number of reasons. Runaway reactions can be a serious safety issue, even raising the possibility of an explosion. Catalyst deactivation rates tend to increase with temperature, particularly of there are hot spots in the reactor. For alcohol synthesis, temperature control is essential because it has a large effect on the selectivity of the catalysts toward desired products. For example, for molybdenum disulfide catalysts unwanted side products such as methane, ethane, and propane are produced in much greater quantities if the temperature increases outside an ideal range. Slurry reactors are widely regarded as an efficient design for these reactions. In a slurry reactor a solid catalyst is suspended in an inert hydrocarbon liquid, synthesis gas is sparged into the bottom of the reactor, un-reacted synthesis gas and light boiling range products are removed as a gas stream, and heavy boiling range products are removed as a liquid stream. This configuration has several positive effects for synthesis gas reactions including: essentially isothermal operation, small catalyst particles to reduce heat and mass transfer effects, capability to remove heat rapidly through liquid vaporization, and improved flexibility on catalyst design through physical mixtures in addition to use of compositions that cannot be pelletized. Disadvantages include additional mass transfer resistance, potential for significant back-mixing on both the liquid and gas phases, and bubble coalescence. In 2001 a multiyear project was proposed to develop improved FT slurry reactors. The planned focus of the work was to improve the reactors by improving mass transfer while considering heat transfer issues. During the first year of the project the work was started and several concepts were developed to prepare for bench-scale testing. Power

  2. Synthesis and characterization of cement slurries additives with epoxy resins - kinetics, thermodynamic and calorimetric analysis; Sintese e caracterizacao de pastas de cimento aditivadas com resinas epoxi - analises cineticas, termodinamicas e calorimetricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, A.M.G.; Andrade Junior, M.A.S.; Cestari, A.R.; Vieira, E.F.S., E-mail: macleybiane@gmail.co [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Cement has been used in the world, presenting a wide versatility. However, due to its chemical nature, it is subject to several types of chemical damages, especially for agents of acidic nature. With the purpose of increase its life-time, new cement slurries have been modified with the addition of specific additives. The objective of this work is to modify cement slurries with epoxy resins, which promote higher resistance of those materials in relation to acid attacks. Three cement slurries were synthesized with epoxy resins and a standard slurries, which was composed by cement and water. After 30 days of hydration, the samples were characterized by XDR, FTIR and thermal analysis (TG and DSC). The hydration processes of the cement slurries were studied by heat-conduction microcalorimetry. A kinetic study of HCl interaction with the new slurries were performed by the batch methodology at 25, 35, 45 e 55 deg C. It was verified that the addition of the polymers delayed the processes of hydration of the slurries, decreasing the flow of heat released as a function of the amount of added resin and, increased the resistance of those slurries to the acid attack. (author)

  3. Testing of In-Line Slurry Monitors and Pulsair Mixers with Radioactive Slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hylton, T.D.; Bayne, C.K.

    1999-08-01

    Three in-line slurry monitoring instruments were demonstrated, tested, and evaluated for their capability to determine the transport properties of radioactive slurries. The instruments included the Endress + Hauser Promass 63M Coriolis meter for measuring density, the Lasentec M600P for measuring particle size distribution, and a prototype ultrasonic monitor that was developed by Argonne National Laboratory for measuring suspended solids concentration. In addition, the power consumption of the recirculation pump was monitored to determine whether this parameter could be used as a tool for in-line slurry monitoring. The Promass 63M and the M600P were also evaluated as potential indicators of suspended solids concentration. In order to use the Promass 63M as a suspended solids monitor, the densities of the fluid phase and the dry solid particle phase must be known. In addition, the fluid phase density and the dry solids density must remain constant, as any change will affect the correlation between the slurry density and the suspended solids concentration. For the M600P, the particle size distribution would need to remain relatively constant. These instruments were demonstrated and tested at the Gunite and Associated Tanks Remediation Project at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The testing of the instruments was conducted in parallel with the testing of a Pulsair mixing system, which was used to mix the contents of the selected tank. A total of six tests were performed. A submersible pump was positioned at two depths, while the Pulsair system was operated at three mixing rates.

  4. ORGANIC NITROGEN IN A TYPIC HAPLUDOX FERTILIZED WITH PIG SLURRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco André Grohskopf

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The application of pig slurry may have a different effect on nitrogen dynamics in soil compared to mineral fertilization. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the different forms of organic N in a Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico (Typic Hapludox and their relationship to N uptake by crops in response to 10 years of annual application of pig slurry and mineral fertilizer. The treatments were application rates of 0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 m3 ha-1 of pig slurry, in addition to mineral fertilizer, organized in a randomized block design with four replications. The N contents were determined in the plant tissue and in the forms of total N and acid hydrolyzed fractions: ammonium-N, hexosamine-N, α-amino-N, amide-N, and unidentified-N. Annual application of pig slurry or mineral fertilizer increased the total-N content in the 0-10 cm depth layer. The main fractions of organic N in the soil were α-amino-N when pig slurry was applied and unidentified-N in the case of mineral fertilizers. Pig slurry increased the N fractions considered as labile: α-amino-N, ammonium-N, and amide-N. The increase in these labile organic N fractions in the soil through pig slurry application allows greater N uptake by the maize and oat crops in a no-tillage system.

  5. Toxicity Evaluation of Pig Slurry Using Luminescent Bacteria and Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyan Chen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Biogas slurry has become a serious pollution problem and anaerobic digestion is widely applied to pig manure treatment for environmental protection and energy recovery. To evaluate environmental risk of the emission of biogas slurry, luminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri, larvae and embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio were used to detect the acute and development toxicity of digested and post-treated slurry. Then the ability of treatment process was evaluated. The results showed that digested slurry displayed strong toxicity to both zebrafish and luminescent bacteria, while the EC50 for luminescent bacteria and the LC50 for larvae were only 6.81% (v/v and 1.95% (v/v respectively, and embryonic development was inhibited at just 1% (v/v. Slurry still maintained a high level of toxicity although it had been treated by membrane bioreactor (MBR, while the LC50 of larvae was 75.23% (v/v and there was a little effect on the development of embryos and V. fischeri; the results also revealed that the zebrafish larvae are more sensitive than embryos and luminescent bacteria to pig slurry. Finally, we also found the toxicity removal rate was higher than 90% after the treatment of MBR according to toxicity tests. In conclusion, further treatment should be used in pig slurry disposal or reused of final effluent.

  6. Latex migration in battery slurries during drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sanghyuk; Ahn, Kyung Hyun; Yamamura, Masato

    2013-07-02

    We used real-time fluorescence microscopy to investigate the migration of latex particles in drying battery slurries. The time evolution of the fluorescence signals revealed that the migration of the latex particles was suppressed above the entanglement concentration of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), while it was significantly enhanced when CMC fully covered the surfaces of the graphite particles. In particular, a two-step migration was observed when the graphite particles flocculated by depletion attraction at high CMC/graphite mass ratios. The transient states of the nonadsorbing CMC and graphite particles in a medium were discussed, and the uses of this novel measurement technique to monitor the complex drying processes of films were demonstrated.

  7. Ice slurry cooling development and field testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasza, K.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Hietala, J. [Northern States Power Co., Minneapolis, MN (United States); Wendland, R.D. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Collins, F. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    1992-07-01

    A new advanced cooling technology collaborative program is underway involving Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Northern States Power (NSP) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The program will conduct field tests of an ice slurry distributed load network cooling concept at a Northern States Power utility service center to further develop and prove the technology and to facilitate technology transfer to the private sector. The program will further develop at Argonne National Laboratory through laboratory research key components of hardware needed in the field testing and develop an engineering data base needed to support the implementation of the technology. This program will sharply focus and culminate research and development funded by both the US Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute on advanced cooling and load management technology over the last several years.

  8. Ice slurry cooling development and field testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasza, K.E. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Hietala, J. (Northern States Power Co., Minneapolis, MN (United States)); Wendland, R.D. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)); Collins, F. (USDOE, Washington, DC (United States))

    1992-01-01

    A new advanced cooling technology collaborative program is underway involving Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Northern States Power (NSP) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The program will conduct field tests of an ice slurry distributed load network cooling concept at a Northern States Power utility service center to further develop and prove the technology and to facilitate technology transfer to the private sector. The program will further develop at Argonne National Laboratory through laboratory research key components of hardware needed in the field testing and develop an engineering data base needed to support the implementation of the technology. This program will sharply focus and culminate research and development funded by both the US Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute on advanced cooling and load management technology over the last several years.

  9. Hydrodynamic models for slurry bubble column reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gidaspow, D. [IIT Center, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this investigation is to convert a {open_quotes}learning gas-solid-liquid{close_quotes} fluidization model into a predictive design model. This model is capable of predicting local gas, liquid and solids hold-ups and the basic flow regimes: the uniform bubbling, the industrially practical churn-turbulent (bubble coalescence) and the slugging regimes. Current reactor models incorrectly assume that the gas and the particle hold-ups (volume fractions) are uniform in the reactor. They must be given in terms of empirical correlations determined under conditions that radically differ from reactor operation. In the proposed hydrodynamic approach these hold-ups are computed from separate phase momentum balances. Furthermore, the kinetic theory approach computes the high slurry viscosities from collisions of the catalyst particles. Thus particle rheology is not an input into the model.

  10. Environmental Consequences of Pig Slurry Treatment Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ten Hoeve, Marieke

    occur during manure storage and after field application. The main emissions are ammonia, nitrous oxide, methane, carbon dioxide, nitrate, phosphorus and odour. Slurry treatment technologies have been and are being developed in order to reduce the environmental impacts of manure. However, it is important...... with a reference scenario. The treatment scenarios were field acidification, in-house acidification, screw press separation with and without composting of the solid fraction, decanter centrifuge separation with and without ammonia stripping of the liquid fraction, and four anaerobic digestion scenarios...... and excluding biogenic carbon, marine and freshwater eutrophication potential, terrestrial acidification and eutrophication potential, and fossil resource depletion potential. The different types of treatment technologies showed varying environmental profiles, meaning that one type of technology was beneficial...

  11. Microbial Community Dynamics During Biogas Slurry and Cow Manure Compost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hong-yan; LI Jie; LIU Jing-jing; L Yu-cai; WANG Xiao-fen; CUI Zong-jun

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the microbial community dynamics and maturation time of two compost systems: biogas slurry compost and cow manure compost, with the aim of evaluating the potential utility of a biogas slurry compost system. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), gene clone library, temperature, C/N ratio, and the germination index were employed for the investigation, cow manure compost was used as the control. Results showed that the basic strip and dominant strips of the DGGE bands for biogas slurry compost were similar to those of cow manure compost, but the brightness of the respective strips for each system were different. Shannon-Weaver indices of the two compost systems differed, possessing only 22%similarity in the primary and maturity stages of the compost process. Using bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis, 88 bacterial clones were detected. Further, 18 and 13 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were present in biogas slurry and cow manure compost, respectively. The 18 OTUs of the biogas slurry compost belonged to nine bacterial genera, of which the dominant strains were Bacillus sp. and Carnobacterium sp.;the 13 OTUs of the cow manure compost belonged to eight bacterial genera, of which the dominant strains were Psychrobacter sp., Pseudomonas sp., and Clostridium sp. Results demonstrated that the duration of the thermophilic phase (more than 50°C) for biogas slurry compost was 8 d less than the according duration for cow manure compost, and the maturation times for biogas slurry and cow manure compost were 45 and 60 d, respectively. It is an effective biogas slurry assimilate technology by application of biogas slurry as nitrogen additives in the manufacture of organic fertilizer.

  12. Feasibility Study of Supercritical Light Water Cooled Reactors for Electric Power Production, Progress Report for Work Through September 2003, 2nd Annual/8th Quarterly Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philip E. MacDonald

    2003-09-01

    The supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR) is one of the six reactor technologies selected for research and development under the Generation-IV program. SCWRs are promising advanced nuclear systems because of their high thermal efficiency (i.e., about 45% vs. about 33% efficiency for current Light Water Reactors, LWRs) and considerable plant simplification. SCWRs are basically LWRs operating at higher pressure and temperatures with a direct once-through cycle. Operation above the critical pressure eliminates coolant boiling, so the coolant remains single-phase throughout the system. Thus the need for recirculation and jet pumps, a pressurizer, steam generators, steam separators and dryers is eliminated. The main mission of the SCWR is generation of low-cost electricity. It is built upon two proven technologies, LWRs, which are the most commonly deployed power generating reactors in the world, and supercritical fossil-fired boilers, a large number of which is also in use around the world.

  13. Possible Applications of Hardening Slurries with Fly Ash from Thermal Treatment of Municipal Sewage Sludge in Environmental Protection Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falacinski, Paweł; Szarek, Łukasz

    2016-06-01

    In Poland, in recent years, there has been a rapid accumulation of sewage sludge - a by-product in the treatment of urban wastewater. This has come about as a result of infrastructure renewal, specifically, the construction of modern sewage treatment plants. The more stringent regulations and strategic goals adopted for modern sewage management have necessitated the application of modern engineering methodology for the disposal of sewage sludge. One approach is incineration. As a consequence, the amount of fly ash resulting from the thermal treatment of municipal sewage sludge has grown significantly. Hence, intensive work is in progress for environmentally safe management of this type of waste. The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the possibility of using the fly ash that results from municipal sewage sludge thermal treatment (SSTT) as an additive to hardening slurries. This type of hardening slurry with various types of additives, e.g. coal combustion products, is used in the construction of cut-off walls in hydraulic structures. The article presents the technological and functional parameters of hardening slurries with an addition of fly ash obtained by SSTT. Moreover, the usefulness of these slurries is analysed on the basis of their basic properties, i.e. density, contractual viscosity, water separation, structural strength, volumetric density, hydraulic conductivity, compressive and tensile strength. The mandated requirements for slurries employed in the construction of cut-off walls in flood embankments are listed as a usefulness criteria. The article presents the potential uses of fly ash from SSTT in hardening slurry technology. It also suggests directions for further research to fully identify other potential uses of this by-product in this field.

  14. Feasibility Study of Supercritical Light Water Cooled Fast Reactors for Actinide Burning and Electric Power Production, Progress Report for Work Through September 2002, 4th Quarterly Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth

    2002-09-01

    The use of light water at supercritical pressures as the coolant in a nuclear reactor offers the potential for considerable plant simplification and consequent capital and O&M cost reduction compared with current light water reactor (LWR) designs. Also, given the thermodynamic conditions of the coolant at the core outlet (i.e. temperature and pressure beyond the water critical point), very high thermal efficiencies of the power conversion cycle are possible (i.e. up to about 45%). Because no change of phase occurs in the core, the need for steam separators and dryers as well as for BWR-type re-circulation pumps is eliminated, which, for a given reactor power, results in a substantially shorter reactor vessel and smaller containment building than the current BWRs. Furthermore, in a direct cycle the steam generators are not needed. If no additional moderator is added to the fuel rod lattice, it is possible to attain fast neutron energy spectrum conditions in a supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR). This type of core can make use of either fertile or fertile-free fuel and retain a hard spectrum to effectively burn plutonium and minor actinides from LWR spent fuel while efficiently generating electricity. One can also add moderation and design a thermal spectrum SCWR. The Generation IV Roadmap effort has identified the thermal spectrum SCWR (followed by the fast spectrum SCWR) as one of the advanced concepts that should be developed for future use. Therefore, the work in this NERI project is addressing both types of SCWRs.

  15. ANALYSIS OF VENTING OF A RESIN SLURRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurinat, J.; Hensel, S.

    2012-03-27

    A resin slurry venting analysis was conducted to address safety issues associated with overpressurization of ion exchange columns used in the Purex process at the Savannah River Site (SRS). If flow to these columns were inadvertently interrupted, an exothermic runaway reaction could occur between the ion exchange resin and the nitric acid used in the feed stream. The nitric acid-resin reaction generates significant quantities of noncondensable gases, which would pressurize the column. To prevent the column from rupturing during such events, rupture disks are installed on the column vent lines. The venting analysis models accelerating rate calorimeter (ARC) tests and data from tests that were performed in a vented test vessel with a rupture disk. The tests showed that the pressure inside the test vessel continued to increase after the rupture disk opened, though at a slower rate than prior to the rupture. Calculated maximum discharge rates for the resin venting tests exceeded the measured rates of gas generation, so the vent size was sufficient to relieve the pressure in the test vessel if the vent flow rate was constant. The increase in the vessel pressure is modeled as a transient phenomenon associated with expansion of the resin slurry/gas mixture upon rupture of the disk. It is postulated that the maximum pressure at the end of this expansion is limited by energy minimization to approximately 1.5 times the rupture disk burst pressure. The magnitude of this pressure increase is consistent with the measured pressure transients. The results of this analysis demonstrate the need to allow for a margin between the design pressure and the rupture disk burst pressure in similar applications.

  16. ANALYSIS OF VENTING OF A RESIN SLURRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurinat, J.; Hensel, S.

    2012-03-27

    A resin slurry venting analysis was conducted to address safety issues associated with overpressurization of ion exchange columns used in the Purex process at the Savannah River Site (SRS). If flow to these columns were inadvertently interrupted, an exothermic runaway reaction could occur between the ion exchange resin and the nitric acid used in the feed stream. The nitric acid-resin reaction generates significant quantities of noncondensable gases, which would pressurize the column. To prevent the column from rupturing during such events, rupture disks are installed on the column vent lines. The venting analysis models accelerating rate calorimeter (ARC) tests and data from tests that were performed in a vented test vessel with a rupture disk. The tests showed that the pressure inside the test vessel continued to increase after the rupture disk opened, though at a slower rate than prior to the rupture. Calculated maximum discharge rates for the resin venting tests exceeded the measured rates of gas generation, so the vent size was sufficient to relieve the pressure in the test vessel if the vent flow rate was constant. The increase in the vessel pressure is modeled as a transient phenomenon associated with expansion of the resin slurry/gas mixture upon rupture of the disk. It is postulated that the maximum pressure at the end of this expansion is limited by energy minimization to approximately 1.5 times the rupture disk burst pressure. The magnitude of this pressure increase is consistent with the measured pressure transients. The results of this analysis demonstrate the need to allow for a margin between the design pressure and the rupture disk burst pressure in similar applications.

  17. Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility groundwater monitoring report. Second quarter 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    During second quarter 1994, samples from AMB groundwater monitoring wells at the Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility were analyzed for selected heavy metals, indicator parameters, radionuclides, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Three parameters exceeded standards during the quarter. As in previous quarters, tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards. Total organic halogens exceeded the Savannah River Site (SRS) Flag 2 criteria in two of the wells. Groundwater flow direction and rate in the M-Area Aquifer Zone were similar to previous quarters. Conditions affecting determination of groundwater flow directions and rates in the Upper Lost Lake Aquifer Zone, Lower Lost Lake Aquifer Zone, and the Middle Sand Aquifer Zone of the Crouch Branch Confining Unit were also similar to previous quarters. During second quarter 1994, SRS received SCDHEC approval for five point-of-compliance wells and two plume definition wells near the Met Lab HWMF. Field work has begun on this project.

  18. KINETICS OF SLURRY PHASE FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dragomir B. Bukur; Gilbert F. Froment; Tomasz Olewski

    2006-09-29

    This report covers the fourth year of a research project conducted under the University Coal Research Program. The overall objective of this project is to develop a comprehensive kinetic model for slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) employing iron-based catalysts. This model will be validated with experimental data obtained in a stirred-tank slurry reactor (STSR) over a wide range of process conditions. The model will be able to predict molar flow rates and concentrations of all reactants and major product species (water, carbon dioxide, linear 1- and 2-olefins, and linear paraffins) as a function of reaction conditions in the STSR. During the fourth year of the project, an analysis of experimental data collected during the second year of this project was performed. Kinetic parameters were estimated utilizing product distributions from 27 mass balances. During the reporting period two kinetic models were employed: a comprehensive kinetic model of Dr. Li and co-workers (Yang et al., 2003) and a hydrocarbon selectivity model of Van der Laan and Beenackers (1998, 1999) The kinetic model of Yang et al. (2003) has 24 parameters (20 parameters for hydrocarbon formation, and 4 parameters for the water-gas-shift (WGS) reaction). Kinetic parameters for the WGS reaction and FTS synthesis were estimated first separately, and then simultaneously. The estimation of these kinetic parameters employed the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) method and the trust-region reflective Newton large-scale (LS) method. A genetic algorithm (GA) was incorporated into estimation of parameters for FTS reaction to provide initial estimates of model parameters. All reaction rate constants and activation energies were found to be positive, but at the 95% confidence level the intervals were large. Agreement between predicted and experimental reaction rates has been fair to good. Light hydrocarbons are predicted fairly accurately, whereas the model underpredicts values of higher molecular weight

  19. Electronic Service Statistics - Quarterly Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This is a quarterly report that compares electronic data vs non-electronic data for electronic services. Report contains six main sections namely, electronic access,...

  20. Mixed Waste Management Facility groundwater monitoring report, First quarter 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    During first quarter 1994, nine constituents exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards in groundwater samples from downgradient monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility, the Old Burial Ground, the E-Area Vaults, the proposed Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Vaults, and the F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site. As in previous quarters, tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread elevated constituents. Chloroethene (vinyl chloride), copper, 1,1-dichloroethylene, lead, mercury, nonvolatile beta, or tetrachloroethylene also exceeded standards in one or more wells. Elevated constituents were found in numerous Aquifer Zone IIB{sub 2} (Water Table) and Aquifer Zone IIB{sub 1}, (Barnwell/McBean) wells and in one Aquifer Unit IIA (Congaree) well. The groundwater flow directions and rates in the three hydrostratigraphic units were similar to those of previous quarters.

  1. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants. Quarterly report, 2nd quarter 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tossavainen, K. [ed.

    1999-12-01

    Quarterly reports on the operation of Finnish NPPs describe events and observations relating to nuclear and radiation safety that the Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) considers safety significant. Safety improvements at the plants are also described. The report includes a summary of the radiation safety of plant personnel and the environment and tabulated data on the plants' production and load factors. All Finnish NPP units were in power operation for the whole second quarter of 1999, with the exception of the annual maintenance outages of the Olkiluoto plant units. The load factor average of the plant units in this quarter was 93.1%. Two events in this quarter were classified Level 1 on the INKS Scale. At Olkiluoto 1, a valve of the containment gas treatment system had been in an incorrect position for almost a month, owing to which the system would not have been available as planned in an accident. At Olkiluoto 2, main circulation pump work was done during the annual maintenance outage and a containment personnel air lock was briefly open in violation of the Technical Specifications. Water leaking out of the reactor in an accident could not have been directed to the emergency cooling system because it would have leaked out from the containment via the open personnel air lock. Other events in this quarter had no bearing on the nuclear or radiation safety of the plant units. The individual doses of NPP personnel and also radioactive releases off-site were well below authorised limits. Radioactive substances were measurable in samples collected around the plants in such quantities only as have no bearing on the radiation exposure of the population. (orig.)

  2. Quarterly coal report, July--September 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks. Coke production consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for July through September 1997 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1991 through the second quarter of 1997. Appendix A displays, from 1991 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. 72 tabs.

  3. Development of slurry erosion resistant materials by laser-based direct metal deposition process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarrapareddy, Eswar

    -shaped probe and a linear scale with a digital readout. The damaged surfaces are characterized by scanning electron microscopy to investigate the possible application of a material failure model, called damage initiation and damage propagation, to the case of the impingement of a mixture of solid and liquid particles on the Ni-Tung FGMs, Ni-Tung 40, and 4140 steels. Potentiodynamic polarization curves are generated for the three tested materials to illustrate the susceptibility of the materials for an erosive environment. Further, a nano-based material system resistant to the impingement of solid and liquid particles on solid surfaces was developed by the LBDMD process. The nano-based materials system contains five percent tungsten carbide (WC) nano-particles that are agglomerated with nickel-tungsten carbide 60 (Ni-Tung 60) by a ball mill operation for slurry erosion resistance applications. Slurry erosion tests are performed on the LBDMD processed depositions with a ceramic proppant delivered at different impingement angles using an abrasive water jet machine. From these tests, the amount of material removed, depth of penetration, and profile of the formed crater are computed as a function of the abrasive water jet impingement angles. The nano-based materials system exhibited better performance for slurry erosion resistance than the monolithic Ni-Tung 60 depositions and 4140 steels. In order to understand the role of the WC-nano particles influence on slurry erosion resistance and to understand the characteristic features of erosion surfaces, subsurfaces, and the erosion mechanism, different advanced characterization tools are used. This nano-based materials system was applied for the restoration of damaged oil drilling crossover tools. A material failure model (MFM) called progressive damage initiation and propagation for the impingement of solid and liquid particles on the solid surfaces has been used to numerically simulate the slurry erosion process by using the

  4. Slurry analysis after lead collection on a sorbent and its determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baysal, Asli; Tokman, Nilgun [Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Science and Letters, Department of Chemistry, 34469 Maslak-Istanbul (Turkey); Akman, Suleyman [Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Science and Letters, Department of Chemistry, 34469 Maslak-Istanbul (Turkey)], E-mail: akmans@itu.edu.tr; Ozeroglu, Cemal [Istanbul University, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, 34320 Avcilar-Istanbul (Turkey)

    2008-02-11

    In this study, in order to eliminate the drawbacks of elution step and to reach higher enrichment factors, a novel preconcentration/separation technique for the slurry analysis of sorbent loaded with lead prior to its determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry was described. For this purpose, at first, lead was collected on ethylene glycol dimethacrylate methacrylic acid copolymer (EGDMA-MA) treated with ammonium pyrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC) by conventional batch technique. After separation of liquid phase, slurry of the sorbent was prepared and directly pipetted into graphite furnace of atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Optimum conditions for quantitative sorption and preparation of the slurry were investigated. A 100-fold enrichment factor could be easily reached. The analyte element in certified sea-water and Bovine-liver samples was determined in the range of 95% confidence level. The proposed technique was fast and simple and the risks of contamination and analyte loss were low. Detection limit (3{delta}) for Pb was 1.67 {mu}g l{sup -1}.

  5. Egyptian diatomite as high fluid loss squeeze slurry in sealing fractures and

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Al-Sabagh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Lost circulation is the most costly mud related drilling problem, and induced fracture. Water slurry of diatomite is used as the high fluid loss squeeze slurry in the treatment of lost circulation and in decreasing fluid loss. Egypt has diatomite deposits, especially in El-Fayuom Depression. Fourteen samples were collected from Qasr El-Sagha at the northern shore of Birket Qarun. Samples were examined to identify the diatom species then subjected to X-ray fluorescence, XRD and grain size distribution tests. A total of 38 species related to 13 diatom genera were identified. Cocconeis, Epithemia and Rhopalodia were the predominant genera. The diatomaceous earth which acts as a filter aid material was tested with different additives; bentonite, lime, finely divided paper, polymer, barite and different concentrations with different types of lost circulation materials (LCM to form a high fluid loss squeeze slurry. As a result the required time for collecting the filtrate was decreased to be in the range of 50 s to 1 min and 49 s comparing with the international standard which recommended the filtrate should be collected maximum within 2–3 min.

  6. Applications of advanced petroleum production technology and water alternating gas injection for enhanced oil recovery: Mattoon Oil Field, Illinois. Third quarterly report, [July--September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baroni, M.R.

    1993-12-21

    The objectives of this project are to continue reservoir characterization of the Cypress Sandstone; to identify and map facies-defined waterflood units (FDWS); and to design and implement water-alternating-gas (WAG) oil recovery utilizing carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) The producibility problems are permeability variation and poor sweep efficiency. Part 1 of the project focuses on the development of computer-generated geological and reservoir simulation models that will be used to select sites for the demonstration and implementation of CO{sub 2} displacement programs in Part 2. Included in Part 1 is the site selection and drilling of an infill well, coring of the Cypress interval, and injectivity testing to gather information used to update the reservoir simulation model. Part 2 involves field implementation of WAG. Technology Transfer includes outreach activity such as seminars, workshops, and field trips.

  7. Dilute acid pretreatment of lignocellulose for whole slurry ethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Young Hoon; Kim, In Jung; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2013-03-01

    Dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) followed by the whole slurry fermentation of the pretreated EFB slurry was investigated. The optimized pretreatment conditions were at 1% (w/v) sulfuric acid with 3 min ramping to 190 °C in a microwave digester. Pretreated and washed EFB exhibited enzymatic digestibility of 88.5% of theoretical glucose yield after 48 h of hydrolysis. When the whole slurry of pretreated and neutralized EFB was used in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using cellulase and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, sulfuric acid-pretreated EFB resulted in 52.5% of theoretical ethanol yield based on total glucan in the untreated initial EFB after 72 h of SSF. When pretreated EFB slurry was treated with activated carbon before subjecting to SSF, the SSF furnished 87.5% ethanol yield based on the initial glucan content in untreated EFB (after 48 h of SSF). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Environmental Consequences of Future Biogas Technologies based on Separated Slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamelin, Lorie; Wesnæs, Marianne; Wenzel, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    the volatile solids in the solid fraction. The biogas scenario involving the most efficient separation technology resulted in a dry matter separation efficiency of 87% and allowed a net reduction of the global warming potential of 40%, compared to the reference slurry management. This figure comprises......This consequential life cycle assessment study highlights the key environmental aspects of producing biogas from separated pig and cow slurry, a relatively new but probable scenario for future biogas production, as it avoids the reliance on constrained carbon cosubstrates. Three scenarios involving...... different slurry separation technologies have been assessed and compared to a business-as-usual reference slurry management scenario. The results show that the environmental benefits of such biogas production are highly dependent upon the efficiency of the separation technology used to concentrate...

  9. New-Generation Sealing Slurries For Borehole Injection Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryczek, Stanisław; Gonet, Andrzej; Wiśniowski, Rafał; Złotkowski, Albert

    2015-12-01

    The development of techniques and technologies thanks to which parameters of the ground medium can be modified makes specialists look for new recipes of geopolymers - binders for the reinforcing and sealing of unstable and permeable grounds. The sealing slurries are expected to meet a number of strict requirements, therefore it is important to find new admixtures and additives which could modify the fresh and hardened slurry. Special attention has been recently paid to the fluid ash - a by-product of the combustion of hard coals. However, the use of this additive is associated with the application of appropriate superplastifier. Laboratory analyses of rheological parameters of fresh sealing slurries and the ways of improving their liquidity by a properly selected third-generation superplastifier are presented in the paper. The slurries were based on Portland cement CEM I, milled granulated large-furnace slag and fly ash from fluidized-bed combustion of hard coal.

  10. Advanced Proliferation Resistant, Lower Cost, Uranium-Thorium Dioxide Fuels for Light Water Reactors (Progress report for work through June 2002, 12th quarterly report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth

    2002-09-01

    The overall objective of this NERI project is to evaluate the potential advantages and disadvantages of an optimized thorium-uranium dioxide (ThO2/UO2) fuel design for light water reactors (LWRs). The project is led by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), with the collaboration of three universities, the University of Florida, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), and Purdue University; Argonne National Laboratory; and all of the Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) fuel vendors in the United States (Framatome, Siemens, and Westinghouse). In addition, a number of researchers at the Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute and Professor Kwangheon Park at Kyunghee University are active collaborators with Korean Ministry of Science and Technology funding. The project has been organized into five tasks: · Task 1 consists of fuel cycle neutronics and economics analysis to determine the economic viability of various ThO2/UO2 fuel designs in PWRs, · Task 2 will determine whether or not ThO2/UO2 fuel can be manufactured economically, · Task 3 will evaluate the behavior of ThO2/UO2 fuel during normal, off-normal, and accident conditions and compare the results with the results of previous UO2 fuel evaluations and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensing standards, · Task 4 will determine the long-term stability of ThO2/UO2 high-level waste, and · Task 5 consists of the Korean work on core design, fuel performance analysis, and xenon diffusivity measurements.

  11. Clinoptilolite as an ammonia binder in pig slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, G P; Debal, V; Hesta, M; Millet, S; De Wilde, R O

    2001-01-01

    Six gilts and six barrows are used in a 2 x 2 experiment with two phase feeding versus multiphase feeding and celite addition versus clinoptilolite addition. Nitrogen and ammonia concentration in the slurry on dry matter basis was reduced by 30% and 35% respectively by multiphase feeding, together with a decreased ratio of ammonia over nitrogen. Ammonia fixation in pig slurry by clinoptilolite increased from 21% after 14 days of supplementation upto 35% at 8 weeks after the supplementation period.

  12. Resistance coefficient during ice slurry flow through pipe sudden constriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ł. Mika

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the adverse environmental effects of some commonly-used refrigerants, efforts are still underway to find new cooling mediumsthat would be safer to the ozone layer and would not increase the greenhouse effect. Ice slurry as a new ecological coolant suits theprocesses requiring the preservation of constant and equal temperature in the cooling process of the full section of the cooled solid. Thanks to that, ice slurry can find a wide potential application in such branches of industry, as heat treatment, materials engineering, or foundry. In this paper, flow systems which are commonly used in fittings elements such as diameter’s reductions in ice slurry pipelines, are experimentally investigated. In the study reported in this paper, the consideration was given to the specific features of the slurry flow in which the flow qualities depend mainly on the volume fraction of solid particles. The results of the experimental studies on the flow resistance, presented herein, enabled to determine the resistance coefficient during the ice slurry flow through the pipe sudden constriction. The volume fraction of solid particles in the slurry ranged from 5 to 30%. The recommended and non-recommended range of the Reynolds number for the ice slurry flow through the pipe sudden constriction were presented in this paper. The experimental studies were conducted on a few variants of the most common reductions of copper pipes. Further studies on the determination of the resistance coefficient in the remaining fittings elements of the pipeline were recommended in the paper as well as the further theoretical studies intended to determine the theoretical relations to calculate the resistance coefficient in all the fittings elements in the pipeline (on the basis of the experimental studies and to elaborate the calculation pattern of the entire ice slurry system.

  13. Short-term energy outlook: Quarterly projections, fourth quarter 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-14

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for printed publication in January, April, July, and October in the Short-Term Energy Outlook. The details of these projections, as well as monthly updates on or about the 6th of each interim month, are available on the internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the fourth quarter of 1997 through the fourth quarter of 1998. Values for the fourth quarter of 1997, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the fourth quarter 1997 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. 19 tabs.

  14. Quarterly environmental data summary for fourth quarter 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The Quarterly Environmental Data Summary (QEDS) for the fourth quarter of 1997 is prepared in support of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project Federal Facilities Agreement. The data presented constitute the QEDS. The data were received from the contract laboratories, verified by the Weldon Spring Site verification group and, except for air monitoring data and site KPA generated data (uranium analyses), merged into the data base during the fourth quarter of 1997. Air monitoring data presented are the most recent complete sets of quarterly data. Air data are not stored in the data base and KPA data are not merged into the regular data base. Significant data, defined as data values that have exceeded defined ``above normal`` level 2 values, are discussed in this letter for Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) generated data only. Above normal level 2 values are based, in ES and H procedures, on historical high values, DOE Derived Concentration Guides (DCGs), NPDES limits and other guidelines. The procedures also establish actions to be taken in response to such data. Data received and verified during the fourth quarter were within a permissible range of variability except for those which are detailed.

  15. Chemical amendment of pig slurry: control of runoff related risks due to episodic rainfall events up to 48 h after application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O' Flynn, Cornelius J; Healy, Mark G; Wilson, Paul; Hoekstra, Nyncke J; Troy, Shane M; Fenton, Owen

    2013-09-01

    Losses of phosphorus (P) from soil and slurry during episodic rainfall events can contribute to eutrophication of surface water. However, chemical amendments have the potential to decrease P and suspended solids (SS) losses from land application of slurry. Current legislation attempts to avoid losses to a water body by prohibiting slurry spreading when heavy rainfall is forecast within 48 h. Therefore, in some climatic regions, slurry spreading opportunities may be limited. The current study examined the impact of three time intervals (TIs; 12, 24 and 48 h) between pig slurry application and simulated rainfall with an intensity of 11.0 ± 0.59 mm h(-1). Intact grassed soil samples, 1 m long, 0.225 m wide and 0.05 m deep, were placed in runoff boxes and pig slurry or amended pig slurry was applied to the soil surface. The amendments examined were: (1) commercial-grade liquid alum (8 % Al2O3) applied at a rate of 0.88:1 [Al/ total phosphorus (TP)], (2) commercial-grade liquid ferric chloride (38 % FeCl3) applied at a rate of 0.89:1 [Fe/TP] and (3) commercial-grade liquid poly-aluminium chloride (10 % Al2O3) applied at a rate of 0.72:1 [Al/TP]. Results showed that an increased TI between slurry application and rainfall led to decreased P and SS losses in runoff, confirming that the prohibition of land-spreading slurry if heavy rain is forecast in the next 48 h is justified. Averaged over the three TIs, the addition of amendment reduced all types of P losses to concentrations significantly different (p runoff than current TI-based legislation. Due to the high cost of amendments, their incorporation into existing management practices can only be justified on a targeted basis where inherent soil characteristics deem their usage suitable to receive amended slurry.

  16. COMPUTATIONAL AND EXPERIMENTAL MODELING OF SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul C.K. Lam; Isaac K. Gamwo; Dimitri Gidaspow

    2002-05-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a predictive experimentally verified computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for gas-liquid-solid flow. A three dimensional transient computer code for the coupled Navier-Stokes equations for each phase was developed and is appended in this report. The principal input into the model is the viscosity of the particulate phase which was determined from a measurement of the random kinetic energy of the 800 micron glass beads and a Brookfield viscometer. The details are presented in the attached paper titled ''CFD Simulation of Flow and Turbulence in a Slurry Bubble Column''. This phase of the work is in press in a referred journal (AIChE Journal, 2002) and was presented at the Fourth International Conference on Multiphase Flow (ICMF 2001) in New Orleans, May 27-June 1, 2001 (Paper No. 909). The computed time averaged particle velocities and concentrations agree with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements of velocities and concentrations, obtained using a combination of gamma-ray and X-ray densitometers, in a slurry bubble column, operated in the bubbly-coalesced fluidization regime with continuous flow of water. Both the experiment and the simulation show a down-flow of particles in the center of the column and up-flow near the walls and nearly uniform particle concentration. Normal and shear Reynolds stresses were constructed from the computed instantaneous particle velocities. The PIV measurement and the simulation produced instantaneous particle velocities. The PIV measurement and the simulation produced similar nearly flat horizontal profiles of turbulent kinetic energy of particles. To better understand turbulence we studied fluidization in a liquid-solid bed. This work was also presented at the Fourth International Conference on Multiphase Flow (ICMF 2001, Paper No. 910). To understand turbulence in risers, measurements were done in the IIT riser with 530 micron glass beads using a PIV

  17. High temperature oxidation of slurry coated interconnect alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Åsa Helen

    2012-01-01

    and resistance in this oxide scale. Slurry coated ferritic alloy samples were oxidized long term in air containing 1% water at 900˚C to measure the oxidation rate of the coated samples. The ferritic alloys included in the study were Crofer 22APU and Sandvik 1C44Mo20. Some complementary experiments were also.......85Sr0.15)CoO3 + 10% Co3O4, LSC, coatings were found to be relatively successful in decreasing the oxidation rate, the chromium content in the outermost part of ii the dense scale, and the electrical resistance in the growing oxide scales when applied onto Crofer 22APU. But, the positive effects...... on Crofer 22APU alloy samples and their failure on Sandvik 1C44Mo20 samples are believed to depend on the manganese access in the coating/alloy system. It appeared that a certain amount of manganese was acquired to stabilize the oxide growth on the alloy samples coated with cobalt rich coatings...

  18. Coal slurry combustion optimization on single cylinder engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    Under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, GE Transportation System has been conducting a proof of concept program to use coal water slurry (CWS) fuel to power a diesel engine locomotive since 1988. As reported earlier [1], a high pressure electronically controlled accumulator injector using a diamond compact insert nozzle was developed for this project. The improved reliability and durability of this new FIE allowed for an improved and more thorough study of combustion of CWS fuel in a diesel engine. It was decided to include a diesel pilot fuel injector in the combustion system mainly due to engine start and low load operation needs. BKM, Inc. of San Diego, CA was contracted to develop the electronic diesel fuel pilot/starting FIE for the research engine. As a result, the experimental combustion study was very much facilitated due to the ability of changing pilot/CWS injection timings and quantities without having to stop the engine. Other parameters studied included combustion chamber configuration (by changing CWS fuel injector nozzle hole number/shape/angle), as well as injection pressure. The initial phase of this combustion study is now complete. The results have been adopted into the design of a 12 cylinder engine FIE, to be tested in 1992. This paper summarizes the main findings of this study.

  19. Tank 29 salt removal method using slurry pump agitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parish, W.R.

    1993-11-30

    This report outlines a plan for removing salt from Tank 29. The plan is based, in part, upon the experience gained in the removal of salt from Tank 19 and sludge from Tank 16. Tank 19 was the first tank in which slurry pumps were used during salt dissolution. Salt in Tank 29 will be dissolved to form a nearly saturated salt solution. The goal of Waste Removal is to remove the salt from the tank and deliver it to In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) at a concentration greater than 6.7 molar Na{sup +} (including dilution from transfer steam) to meet ITP requirements. (The amount of wash water used in ITP will be enough to dilute 6.7 molar Na{sup +} salt solution to 5 molar Na{sup +} required for the precipitation step). The solution will be sent to (ITP) for precipitation of soluble cesium and strontium (radioactive elements). The precipitate will be transferred to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for final disposal. A USQD (Unreviewed Safety Question Determination) for criticality safety issue resolution will be completed prior to salt removal.

  20. Experimental study on the rheological behaviour of coal ash slurries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assefa K.M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Extensive experimental investigations were carried out to evaluate the rheological behaviour of fly ash (FA slurry without and with the addition of bottom ash (BA and BA slurry without and with the addition of FA. The FA slurries exhibited Bingham behaviour at solid mass concentrations ranging from 60–65% and mixing proportions from 10– 40%. A substantial reduction in yield stress was observed except for mixing proportion of 40% on which the yield stress and viscosity were increased drastically for all solid concentrations. Hence, it can be concluded that the yield stress and viscosity of FA slurry were very much influenced by adding BA up to the mixing proportion of 30%. The rheological behaviour of BA slurries with and without the addition of FA in proportions of 10–50% was investigated and exhibited Newtonian behaviours for solid mass concentrations ranging from 30–50% without and with the addition of FA. The viscosity increases with increasing the solid concentrations and proportion of FA. Based on these experimental data, a correlation was developed to predict the relative viscosity of BA slurries as a function of solid volume fraction and FA mass proportion of 0–50% and the RMSE and R2 values showed good agreement between the experimental and the predicted data.

  1. Contamination effects of drilling fluid additives on cement slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youzhi Zheng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available During the cementation of deep wells, contamination at the contact surface between cement slurry and drilling fluid will present a technical challenge, which may threaten operation safety. To deal with the problem, lab tests and analysis were performed specifically on the compatibility of fluids during cementation in Sichuan and Chongqing gas fields. Impacts of commonly used additives for drilling fluids were determined on fluidity and thickening time of conventional cement slurry. Through the infrared spectrum analysis, SEM and XRD, infrared spectrum data of kalium polyacrylamide (KPAM and bio-viscosifier were obtained, together with infrared spectrum, SEM and XRD data of cement slurry with additives. Contamination mechanisms of the cement slurry by conventional additives for drilling fluid were reviewed. Test results show that both KPAM and bio-viscosifier are such high-molecular materials that the long chains in these materials may easily absorb cement particles in the slurry to form mixed network structures; as a result, cement particles were prone to agglomeration and eventually lost their pumpability. Finally, assessment of and testing methods for the contamination effects of drilling fluid additives on cement slurry were further improved to form standards and codes that may help solve the said problems. This study will provide technological supports for the preparation of drilling fluids with desirable properties prior to cementation, the selection of optimal drilling fluids additives, and the development of innovative drilling fluids additives.

  2. Geothermal space/water heating for Mammoth Lakes Village, California. Quarterly technical progress report, 13 December 1976-12 March 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sims, A.V.; Racine, W.C.

    1977-01-01

    During the second three months of this feasibility study to determine the technical, economic and environmental feasibility of heating Mammoth Lakes Village, California using geothermal energy, the following work was accomplished. A saturation survey of the number and types of space and water heaters currently in use in the Village was completed. Electric energy and ambient temperature metering equipment was installed. Peak heating demand for Mammoth Lakes was estimated for the years 1985, 1990 and 2000. Buildings were selected which are considered typical of Mammoth Lakes in terms of their heating systems to be used in estimating the cost of installing hydronic heating systems in Mammoth. Block diagrams and an order of magnitude cost comparison were prepared for high-temperature and low-temperature geothermal district heating systems. Models depicting a geothermal district heating system and a geothermal-electric power plant were designed, built and delivered to ERDA in Washington. Local input to the feasibility study was obtained from representatives of the State of California Departments of Transportation and Fish and Game, US Forest Service, and Mono County Planning Department.

  3. Optimization of environmental parameters for biodegradation of alpha and beta endosulfan in soil slurry by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, M; Hussain, S; Saleem, M

    2008-02-01

    To determine optimal environmental conditions for achieving biodegradation of alpha- and beta-endosulfan in soil slurries following inoculation with an endosulfan degrading strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Parameters that were investigated included soil texture, soil slurry: water ratios, initial inoculum size, pH, incubation temperature, aeration, and the use of exogenous sources of organic and amino acids. The results showed that endosulfan degradation was most effectively achieved at an initial inoculum size of 600 microl (OD = 0 x 86), incubation temperature of 30 degrees C, in aerated slurries at pH 8, in loam soil. Under these conditions, the bacterium removed more than 85% of spiked alpha- and beta-endosulfan (100 mg l(-1)) after 16 days. Abiotic degradation in noninoculated control medium within same incubation period was about 16%. Biodegradation of endosulfan varied in different textured soils, being more rapid in course textured soil than in fine textured soil. Increasing the soil contents in the slurry above 15% resulted in less biodegradation of endosulfan. Exogenous application of organic acids (citric acid and acetic acid) and amino acids (L-methionine and L-cystein) had stimulatory and inhibitory effects, respectively, on biodegradation of endosulfan. The results of this study demonstrated that biodegradation of endosulfan by Ps. aeruginosa in soil sediments enhanced significantly under optimized environmental conditions. Endosulfan is a commonly used pesticide that can contaminate soil, wetlands and groundwater. Our study demonstrates that bioaugmentation of contaminated soils with an endosulfan degrading bacterium under optimized conditions provides an effective bioremediation strategy.

  4. Trace element determination in different milk slurries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, E M; Lorenzo, M L; Cabrera, C; López, M C; Sánchez, J

    1999-11-01

    We have studied the contents of trace elements of nutritional or toxicological interest in 90 samples of whole, low-fat, skim, condensed, evaporated and powdered milks. Slurries of the samples were prepared with Triton X-100 and analysed using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The temperature-time programme of the graphite oven was optimized for each element, and the accuracy, precision, selectivity and sensitivity of the method were verified. Concentrations of the trace elements we investigated were: Pb 0-0.211 microgram/g, Cd 0-28.985 ng/g, Al 0.528-4.025 micrograms/g, Cu 0.041-0.370 microgram/g, Cr 0-0.177 microgram/g, Mn 0.024-0.145 microgram/g, Se 0-23.333 ng/g, Zn 0.297-0.827 microgram/g and Ni 0.058-1.750 micrograms/g. (A value of zero indicates that the element was undetectable by our methods.) Concentrations of the pairs of elements Cu-Cd, Mn-Cd, Mn-Cu, Zn-Mn, Ni-Cu, Ni-Mn and Ni-Zn were significantly correlated (P milk analyzed.

  5. Mixed Waste Management Facility Groundwater Monitoring Report, Fourth Quarter 1998 and 1998 Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    1999-04-29

    During fourth quarter 1998, ten constituents exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in groundwater samples from downgradient monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility. No constituents exceeded final PDWS in samples from the upgradient monitoring wells.

  6. Carbon dynamics in an almond orchard soil amended with raw and treated pig slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Sara G.; Zornoza, Raúl; Faz, Ángel

    2010-05-01

    In SE Spain, intensive farming is very common which supposes the generation of great amounts of pig slurries. These residues cause many storage problems due to their pollution capacity. A good management of them is necessary to avoid damages to the environment. The use of this effluent as fertilizer is a usual practice that in the correct dose is a good amend and important for sustainable development, but in excess can be a risk of polluting and damaging soil, water and crop conditions. Pig slurry is a source of many nutrients and specially rich in organic matter. The main objective of this study is to determine changes in soil organic carbon dynamics resulting from raw and treated slurry amendments applied in different doses. The experimental area is an almond orchard located in Cartagena (SE Spain). The climate of the area is semiarid Mediterranean with mean annual temperature of 18°C and mean annual rainfall of 275 mm. A total of 10 plots (12 m x 30 m) were designed, one of them being the control without fertilizer. Surface soil samples (0-25 cm) were collected in September 2009. Three different treatments were applied, raw slurry, the effluent obtained after solid-liquid separation and solid manure, all of them in three doses being the first one of 170 kg N/ha, (maximum permitted in nitrates directive 91/676/CEE), and the others two and three times the first one. Soil biochemical parameters are rapid indicators of changes in soil quality. According to this, total organic carbon, soil microbial biomass carbon, soluble carbon, and β-glucosidase, β-galactosidase and arylesterase activities were measured in order to assess some soil biochemical conditions and carbon dynamics in terms of the different treatments. As we expected, the use of these organic fertilizers rich in organic matter, had an effect on soil carbon and soil microbial activity resulting in an increase in most of the parameters; total organic carbon and β-galactosidase activity showed the

  7. Short-term energy outlook, quarterly projections, first quarter 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the first quarter of 1998 through the fourth quarter of 1999. Values for the fourth quarter of 1997, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the first quarter 1998 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the STIFS model. 24 figs., 19 tabs.

  8. Short-Term Energy Outlook: Quarterly projections. Fourth quarter 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-05

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202.) The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the fourth quarter of 1993 through the fourth quarter of 1994. Values for the third quarter of 1993, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data are EIA data published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications.

  9. Quarterly coal report, July--September 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for July through September 1998 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1992 through the second quarter of 1998. 58 tabs.

  10. Novel techniques for slurry bubble column hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudukovic, M.P.

    1999-05-14

    The objective of this cooperative research effort between Washington University, Ohio State University and Exxon Research Engineering Company was to improve the knowledge base for scale-up and operation of slurry bubble column reactors for syngas conversion and other coal conversion processes by increased reliance on experimentally verified hydrodynamic models. During the first year (July 1, 1995--June 30, 1996) of this three year program novel experimental tools (computer aided radioactive particle tracking (CARPT), particle image velocimetry (PIV), heat probe, optical fiber probe and gamma ray tomography) were developed and tuned for measurement of pertinent hydrodynamic quantities, such as velocity field, holdup distribution, heat transfer and bubble size. The accomplishments were delineated in the First Technical Annual Report. The second year (July, 1996--June 30, 1997) was spent on further development and tuning of the novel experimental tools (e.g., development of Monte Carlo calibration for CARPT, optical probe development), building up the hydrodynamic data base using these tools and comparison of the two techniques (PIV and CARPT) for determination of liquid velocities. A phenomenological model for gas and liquid backmixing was also developed. All accomplishments were summarized in the Second Annual Technical Report. During the third and final year of the program (July 1, 1997--June 30, 1998) and during the nine months no cost extension, the high pressure facility was completed and a set of data was taken at high pressure conditions. Both PIV, CT and CARPT were used. More fundamental hydrodynamic modeling was also undertaken and model predictions were compared to data. The accomplishments for this period are summarized in this report.

  11. Impact of pig slurry amendments on phosphorus, suspended sediment and metal losses in laboratory runoff boxes under simulated rainfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Flynn, C J; Fenton, O; Wilson, P; Healy, M G

    2012-12-30

    Losses of phosphorus (P) when pig slurry applications to land are followed by a rainfall event or losses from soils with high P contents can contribute to eutrophication of receiving waters. The addition of amendments to pig slurry spread on high P Index soils may reduce P and suspended sediment (SS) losses. This hypothesis was tested at laboratory-scale using runoff boxes under simulated rainfall conditions. Intact grassed soil samples, 100 cm-long, 22.5 cm-wide and 5 cm-deep, were placed in runoff boxes and pig slurry or amended pig slurry was applied to the soil surface. The amendments examined were: (1) commercial grade liquid alum (8% Al(2)O(3)) applied at a rate of 0.88:1 [Al:total phosphorus (TP)] (2) commercial-grade liquid ferric chloride (38% FeCl(3)) applied at a rate of 0.89:1 [Fe:TP] and (3) commercial-grade liquid poly-aluminium chloride (PAC) (10% Al(2)O(3)) applied at a rate of 0.72:1 [Al:TP]. The grassed soil was then subjected to three rainfall events (10.3 ± 0.15 mm h(-1)) at time intervals of 48, 72, and 96 h following slurry application. Each sod received rainfall on 3 occasions. Results across three rainfall events showed that for the control treatment, the average flow weighted mean concentration (FWMC) of TP was 0.61 mg L(-1), of which 31% was particulate phosphorus (PP), and the average FWMC of SS was 38.1 mg L(-1). For the slurry treatment, there was an average FWMC of 2.2 mg TP L(-1), 47% of which was PP, and the average FWMC of SS was 71.5 mg L(-1). Ranked in order of effectiveness from best to worst, PAC reduced the average FWMC of TP to 0.64 mg L(-1) (42% PP), FeCl(3) reduced TP to 0.91 mg L(-1) (52% PP) and alum reduced TP to 1.08 mg L(-1) (56% PP). The amendments were in the same order when ranked for effectiveness at reducing SS: PAC (74%), FeCl(3) (66%) and alum (39%). Total phosphorus levels in runoff plots receiving amended slurry remained above those from soil only, indicating that, although incidental losses could be mitigated

  12. Gas migration through cement slurries analysis: A comparative laboratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arian Velayati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cementing is an essential part of every drilling operation. Protection of the wellbore from formation fluid invasion is one of the primary tasks of a cement job. Failure in this task results in catastrophic events, such as blow outs. Hence, in order to save the well and avoid risky and operationally difficult remedial cementing, slurry must be optimized to be resistant against gas migration phenomenon. In this paper, performances of the conventional slurries facing gas invasion were reviewed and compared with modified slurry containing special gas migration additive by using fluid migration analyzer device. The results of this study reveal the importance of proper additive utilization in slurry formulations. The rate of gas flow through the slurry in neat cement is very high; by using different types of additives, we observe obvious changes in the performance of the cement system. The rate of gas flow in neat class H cement was reported as 36000 ml/hr while the optimized cement formulation with anti-gas migration and thixotropic agents showed a gas flow rate of 13.8 ml/hr.

  13. Soft-sediment deformation structures in cores from lacustrine slurry deposits of the Late Triassic Yanchang Fm. (central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Renchao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The fine-grained autochthonous sedimentation in the deep part of a Late Triassic lake was frequently interrupted by gravity-induced mass flows. Some of these mass flows were so rich in water that they must have represented slurries. This can be deduced from the soft-sediment deformation structures that abound in cores from these lacustrine deposits which constitute the Yanchang Fm., which is present in the Ordos Basin (central China.

  14. 10 CFR 34.29 - Quarterly inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Quarterly inventory. 34.29 Section 34.29 Energy NUCLEAR... RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Equipment § 34.29 Quarterly inventory. (a) Each licensee shall conduct a quarterly physical inventory to account for all sealed sources and for devices containing depleted uranium...

  15. Selenium speciation in ground water. Quarterly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atalay, A.

    1990-07-10

    Selenium toxicity diseases in animals may occur when the intake exceeds 4 mg/kg and selenium deficiency symptoms may occur when dietary intake is less than 0.04 mg/kg. Since the selenium dietary requirement is very close to toxic concentration, it is important to understand the distribution of selenium in the environment. Selenium occurs in four oxidation states (-II, 0, +IV, and +VI) as selenide, elemental selenium, selenite and selenate. Selenate is reported as more soluble and less adsorbed than selenite. Selenate is more easily leached from soils and is the most available form for plants. Increased mobility of Se into the environment via anthropogenic activities, and the potential oxidation-reduction behavior of the element have made it imperative to study the aquatic chemistry of Se. For this purpose, Se species are divided into two different categories: dissolved Se (in material that passes through filters with 0.45 u openings) and particulate Se (in material of particle size > 0.45 mm) typically suspended sediment and other suspended solids. Element and colloidal phase, not truly dissolved, but passing through the filter is deemed to consist of selenium (-2,0). In dissolved state selenium may exist in three of its four oxidation states; Se(-II), Se(+IV), and Se(+VI). Particulate Se may exist in the same oxidation states as dissolved Se and can be found in different phases of the particulate matter. In sediments, Se may be within the organic material, iron and manganese oxides, carbonates or other mineral phases. The actual chemical forms of Se may be adsorbed to or coprecipitated with these phases (primarily selenite, SeO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}}) and selenate, SeO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}. Selenide, Se(-II), can be covalently bound in the organic portion of a sediment. In addition, Se may be found in anoxic sediments as insoluble metal selenide precipitates, an insoluble elemental Se or as ferroselite (FeSe{sub 2}) and Se containing pyrite.

  16. Apprentices & Trainees: September Quarter, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2013

    2013-01-01

    This publication presents estimates of apprentice and trainee activity in Australia for the September quarter 2012. The figures in this publication are derived from the National Apprentice and Trainee Collection no.74 (December 2012 estimates). The most recent figures in this publication are estimated (those for training activity from the March…

  17. South African Crime Quarterly 59

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SA Crime QuArterly No. 59 • mArCh ... Section 77 of the Criminal Procedure Act 51 of 1977 deals with the treatment of persons who are unable to ..... resource considerations alone.36 .... membership of groups; as demonstrated in. President of ...

  18. Pig slurry and mineral fertilization strategies' effects on soil quality: macroaggregate stability and organic matter fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagüe, María R; Bosch-Serra, Àngela D; Antúnez, Montserrat; Boixadera, Jaume

    2012-11-01

    Applying pig slurry to the land as fertilizer at appropriate agronomic rates is important to close nutrient cycles and optimize the value of organic matter. However a long-term discussion has taken place about its effects on soil quality. In the north-east of Spain, eight fertilization strategies were evaluated on the soil quality parameters' aggregate stability, soil organic matter (SOM) physical fractions and soil microbial biomass (SMB). Six strategies used different pig slurries (PS) which provided organic matter from 1.7 to 2.6 t ha(-1)yr(-1), the rest (mineral N fertilization and a control) did not. Pig slurries were applied at sowing and/or at cereal tillering, as sidedressing. Field experiments were maintained for an 8-year period, in a silty loam soil devoted to a rainfed winter cereal. Soil samples were taken once, before the last sidedressing in 2011. Aggregate stability was quantified using the standard water-stable aggregate method but including a modification which meant that pre-wetting was avoided (WSA(MOD)). When using the WSA(MOD) method, we found a tendency for the percentage of water-stable aggregates to increase due to PS application (differences of up to 74% in the increment) and it was more marked the nearer they were measured to the application time (3 months vs. 12 months). The strategies which include PS show a positive effect on the SOM amount, mainly in the 0.05-0.2 mm light fraction, which increased by up to 34% with every 10 t ha(-1) organic C applied, and on SMB (up to 53% increment). There is a positive and significant linear relationship (p fertilization strategies improves soil quality parameters. However, the soil quality benefits need to be balanced with any other potential environmental impact.

  19. Carbon dynamics in different soil types amended with pig slurry, pig manure and its biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanardag, Ibrahim H.; Zornoza, Raúl; Faz, Ángel; Büyükkiliç-Yanardaǧ, Asuman; Mermut, Ahmet R.

    2014-05-01

    Determining the structure and components of soil and soil organic matter is very important in terms of sustainable agriculture and forestry and greenhouse gases emissions. Organic management can increase labile C and N in the short-term, and total soil C and N in the long-term, but less is known about how management practices may affect soil organic C (SOC)quality and stability. Methods to improve the management of livestock slurries to reduce the environmental impact and carbon losses are gaining importance. There is a need to find the best wastes treatment which enhances soil fertility but also carbon sequestration, to mitigate the effects of global warming. The objective of this study was to assess the short-term changes in SOC pools, using raw pig slurry, the solid phase of pig slurry, and its biochar as amendment in different soil types (Regosol, Luvisol and Kastanozem). The three different amendments were applied at 5 g C kg-1 soil. An unamended soil for each type was used as control. Soils were incubated in triplicate for 60 days at 25ºC and at 55% of their water holding capacity. Samples were sampled to monitor the evolution of soil organic and inorganic carbon, recalcitrant carbon, soluble carbon, carbon mineralization, SOC thermal distribution (thermogravimetric analysis - differential scanning calorimetry - quadrupole mass spectrometry), and characterization of functional groups (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)). Results showed that soils amended with raw pig slurry and the solid phase of the slurry showed higher values of soluble carbon, and higher carbon mineralization rates compared to biochar application, which showed values similar to controls. SOC increased at the end of incubation with biochar and the solid phase of the slurry applications in Kastanozem and Regosol. Thermogravimetric results showed an increased weight loss of the Regosol compared to Luvisol and Kastanozem, owing to the higher content of soil carbonates. Luvisol and

  20. Gaseous emissions and modification of slurry composition during storage and after field application: Effect of slurry additives and mechanical separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Twum, Maxwell Yeboah; Polastre, Adele; Subedi, Raghunath; Santos, Ana Sofia; Mendes Ferreira, Luis Miguel; Coutinho, João; Trindade, Henrique

    2017-09-15

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of slurry treatment by additives (EU200(®) (EU200), Bio-buster(®) (BB), JASS(®) and sulphuric acid (H2SO4)) and mechanical separation on the physical-chemical characteristics, gaseous emissions (NH3, CH4, CO2 and N2O) during anaerobic storage at ∼20 °C (experiment 1) and NH3 losses after field application (experiment 2). The treatments studied in experiment 1 were: whole slurry (WS), WS+H2SO4 to a pH of 6.0, WS+EU200 and WS+BB. Treatments for experiment 2 were: WS, slurry liquid fraction (LF), composted solid fraction (CSF), LFs treated with BB (LFB), JASS(®) (LFJ), H2SO4 to a pH of 5.5 (LFA) and soil only (control). The results showed an inhibition of the degradation of organic materials (cellulose, hemicellulose, dry matter organic matter and total carbon) in the WS+H2SO4 relative to the WS. When compared to the WS, the WS+H2SO4 increased electrical conductivity, ammonium (NH4(+)) and sulphur (S) concentrations whilst reducing slurry pH after storage. The WS+H2SO4 reduced NH3 volatilization by 69% relative to the WS but had no effect on emissions of CH4, CO2 and N2O during storage. Biological additive treatments (WS+EU200 and WS+BB) had no impact on slurry characteristics and gaseous emissions relative to the WS during storage. After field application, the cumulative NH3 lost in the LF was almost 50% lower than the WS. The losses in the LFA were reduced by 92% relative to the LF. The LFB and LFJ had no impact on NH3 losses relative to the LF. A significant effect of treatment on NH4(+) concentration was found at the top soil layer (0-5 cm) after NH3 measurements with higher concentrations in the LF treatments relative to the WS. Overall, the use of the above biological additives to decrease pollutant gases and to modify slurry characteristics are questionable. Reducing slurry dry matter through mechanical separation can mitigate NH3 losses after field application. Slurry acidification can increase the

  1. Potential use of neem leaf slurry as a sustainable dry season management strategy to control the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) in west African villages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, Kyphuong; Dunkel, Florence V; Coulibaly, Keriba; Beckage, Nancy E

    2012-11-01

    Larval management of the malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae Giles s.s., has been successful in reducing disease transmission. However, pesticides are not affordable to farmers in remote villages in Mali, and in other material resource poor countries. Insect resistance to insecticides and nontarget toxicity pose additional problems. Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) is a tree with many beneficial, insect bioactive compounds, such as azadirachtin. We tested the hypothesis that neem leaf slurry is a sustainable, natural product, anopheline larvicide. A field study conducted in Sanambele (Mali) in 2010 demonstrated neem leaf slurry can work with only the available tools and resources in the village. Laboratory bioassays were conducted with third instar An. gambiae and village methods were used to prepare the leaf slurry. Experimental concentration ranges were 1,061-21,224 mg/L pulverized neem leaves in distilled water. The 50 and 90% lethal concentrations at 72 h were 8,825 mg/L and 15,212 mg/L, respectively. LC concentrations were higher than for other parts of the neem tree when compared with previous published studies because leaf slurry preparation was simplified by omitting removal of fibrous plant tissue. Using storytelling as a medium of knowledge transfer, villagers combined available resources to manage anopheline larvae. Preparation of neem leaf slurries is a sustainable approach which allows villagers to proactively reduce mosquito larval density within their community as part of an integrated management system.

  2. Application of cattle slurry containing Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) to grassland soil and its effect on the relationship between MAP and free-living amoeba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, M; Alfaro, M; Salazar, F; Badilla, X; Troncoso, E; Zambrano, A; González, M; Mitchell, R M; Collins, M T

    2015-01-30

    Slurry from dairy farms is commonly used to fertilize crops and pastures. This mixture of manure, urine and water can harbor multiple microbial pathogens among which Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is a major concern. Persistence of MAP in soil and infection of soil Acanthamoeba was evaluated by culture, real-time IS900 PCR, and by staining of amoeba with acid-fast and vital stains comparing soils irrigated with MAP-spiked or control dairy farm slurry. MAP DNA was detected in soil for the 8 month study duration. MAP was detected by PCR from more soil samples for plots receiving MAP-spiked slurry (n=61/66) than from soils receiving control slurry (n=10/66 samples). Vital stains verified that intracellular MAP in amoeba was viable. More MAP was found in amoeba at the end of the study than immediately after slurry application. There was no relationship between MAP presence in soil and in amoeba over time. Infection of amoeba by MAP provides a protected niche for the persistence and even possibly the replication of MAP in soils. As others have suggested, MAP-infected amoeba may act like a "Trojan horse" providing a means for persistence in soils and potentially a source of infection for grazing animals.

  3. Rheological behavior of molten Al-SiC slurries and comparison of their behavior with metallic slurries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidary, D. Sohrabi Baba; Akhlagh, F.

    2013-07-01

    In this study a new precise rotational viscometer was developed and used to measure the viscosity of molten A356 alloy containing 5, 15, and 25vol.% of 90-106 μm SiC particles at 650 and 690 °C. Three types of typical curves viscosity (η) versus volume fraction of SiC particles, shear time (t), and shear rate (γ) were derived advantage from the results of viscosity measurements. It would present the viscosity got lowered by decreasing particle volume fraction and by increasing the amounts of shear time and shear rate. In the next step, the influence of the number of aggregates on apparent viscosity was studied by the special tests, developed in this research. Also the formation of aggregates in Al-SiC composite slurries was explained and compared with metallic slurries. It concluded that the origin of aggregation in Al-SiC slurries was long range electrical forces while in metallic slurries it was micro welds between particles. it would show the rheological behavior of Al-SiC slurries could be justified according to the nature and the numbers of their aggregates. At the end, the implications of findings in order to predict the gradient of particles in functionally graded Al-SiC composites, produced by casting, were discussed.

  4. Microalgal cultivation with biogas slurry for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liandong; Yan, Cheng; Li, Zhaohua

    2016-11-01

    Microalgal growth requires a substantial amount of chemical fertilizers. An alternative to the utilization of fertilizer is to apply biogas slurry produced through anaerobic digestion to cultivate microalgae for the production of biofuels. Plenty of studies have suggested that anaerobic digestate containing high nutrient contents is a potentially feasible nutrient source to culture microalgae. However, current literature indicates a lack of review available regarding microalgal cultivation with biogas slurry for the production of biofuels. To help fill this gap, this review highlights the integration of digestate nutrient management with microalgal production. It first unveils the current status of microalgal production, providing basic background to the topic. Subsequently, microalgal cultivation technologies using biogas slurry are discussed in detail. A scale-up scheme for simultaneous biogas upgrade and digestate application through microalgal cultivation is then proposed. Afterwards, several uncertainties that might affect this practice are explored. Finally, concluding remarks are put forward.

  5. Semisolid Slurry Preparation of Die Steel with High Chromium Content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Wei-min; ZHAO Ai-min; ZHANG Li-juan; ZHONG Xue-you

    2004-01-01

    The semisolid slurry preparation of die steels Cr12 and Cr12MoV with high chromium content was studied. The results show that the semisolid slurry of both steels with solid of 40 %-60 % can be made by electromagnetic stirring method and is easy to be discharged from the bottom little hole of the stirring chamber. The sizes of the spherical primary austenite in the slurry of die steels Cr12 and Cr12MoV are 50-100 μm and 80-150 μm, respectively. The homogeneous temperature field and solute field for both steel melts are obtained. The strong temperature fluctuation in the melt with many fine primary austenite grains occurs and the remelting of the secondary arm roots at the same time is accelerated because of the electromagnetic stirring. These are the most important reasons for deposition of spherical primary austenite grains.

  6. Tape casting of cobalt ferrite from nonaqueous slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Gang; Zhou, Dongxiang; Yang, Junyou; Fu, Qiuyun

    2012-12-01

    This paper describes the fabrication of CoFe2O4 thick films using the tape casting method from nonaqueous slurry. CoFe2O4 particles with average size of ˜800 nm were prepared by the solid-state reaction method. Sediment volumes and viscosity were tested to study the effects of dispersant in reducing aggregations in slurry. Slurry with 0.25 wt% dispersant amounts and 41.3 wt% solid content showed the optimal stability and rheological properties. A tape velocity of 8 cm/s was used in this study considering the non-Newtonian flow behavior at low shear rate. CoFe2O4 ceramic films sintered at 1150 °C for 2 h have dense structure (relative density of 94%) and exhibited ferromagnetic properties with in-plane saturation magnetization of ˜324 emu/cm3.

  7. Study on combustion characteristics of petroleum coke residual oil slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shou Weiyi; Xu Xiaoming; Cao Xinyu [and others

    1997-07-01

    Petroleum coke residual oil slurry (POS) is one of prospect substitute of oil burned in many industrial boilers and utilities in China. It is a mixture of pulverized petroleum coke, residual oil and slurry oil. We carried out a series of experiments to study its ignition and combustion mechanism. Experimental results show that the ignition temperature of petroleum coke is higher than normal anthracite and meager coal, and it is difficult to be burned in oil-fired furnace directly. The petroleum coke`s combustion property is improved greatly after mixing with residual oil and slurry oil. The combustion process of POS can be divided into three phases: preheating, kindling and homogenous combustion, burning of the petroleum coke residue. The combustion condition of POS is close to bituminous and coal-oil-mixture (COM).

  8. A Fast and Efficient Dehydration Process for Waste Drilling Slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Guo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, slurry system was converted to colloid from fluid with the colloidization of high polymer coagulants with high viscosity. The solid-liquid separation of the waste slurry was realized by the process of chemical colloidal gel breaking, coagulation function, acidification gelout. In addition, the surface morphology of slurry cake was investigated by using Field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM. The results indicate that mud separation effect is decides on the type of flocculants, gel breaker. The solid content of mud cake increases from 40.5% to 77.5% when A-PA and H20 are employed as the flocculants, gelout, with the dosage of zero point four grams and zero point five grams.

  9. Reflotation of Coal Slurries from OKD company, Mine Lazy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Èernotová L.

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the work is a verification of selective flotation on the black coal slurries sampled from slurry ponds of Mine Lazy, OKD company. Reflotation was realized with 6 collectors: Flotakol NX, Flotalex Ekofol 440, Montanol, MP 125 and AF 2. The technology of main flotation was applied. The variance analysis was used for the selectivity evaluation of particular collectors, whereby both the yield and flotation concentrate quality were tested. The goal of the flotation experiments was to achieve the flotation concentrate quality under 10% of ash. From the results follows that by using basic flotation it is possible (with the slurry samples to reach the marketable coal concentrates with the ash content under 10% by Flotalex collector application.

  10. Gas distribution effects on waste properties: Viscosities of bubbly slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauglitz, P.A.; Shah, R.R.; Davis, R.L.

    1994-09-01

    The retention and episodic release of flammable gases are critical safety concerns for double-shell tanks that contain waste slurries. The rheological behavior of the waste, particularly of the settled sludge, is critical to characterizing the tendency of the waste to retain gas bubbles. The presence of gas bubbles is expected to affect the rheology of the sludge, but essentially no literature data are available to assess the effect of bubbles. Accordingly, the objectives of this study are to develop models for the effect of gas bubbles on the viscosity of a particulate slurry, develop an experimental method (capillary rheometer), collect data on the viscosity of a bubbly slurry, and develop a theoretical basis for interpreting the experimental data from the capillary rheometer.

  11. Concentrated biogas slurry enhanced soil fertility and tomato quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang-Bo Yu; Xi-Ping Luo; Fang-Bo Yu; Xi-Ping Luo; Cheng-Fang Song; Miao-Xian Zhang; Sheng-Dao Shan (Dept. of Environmental Sciences, Inst. of Environmental Technology, Zhejiang Forestry University, Linan (China))

    2010-05-15

    Biogas slurry is a cheap source of plant nutrients and can offer extra benefits to soil fertility and fruit quality. However, its current utilization mode and low content of active ingredients limit its further development. In this paper, a one-growing-season field study was conducted to assess the effects of concentrated biogas slurry on soil property, tomato fruit quality, and composition of microflora in both nonrhizosphere and rhizosphere soils. The results showed that application of concentrated slurry could bring significant changes to tomato cultivation, including increases in organic matter, available N, P, and K, total N and P, electrical conductivity, and fruit contents of amino acids, protein, soluble sugar, beta-carotene, tannins, and vitamin C, together with the R/S ratios and the culturable counts of bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi in soils. It was concluded that the application is a practicable means in tomato production and will better service the area of sustainable agriculture

  12. Method and apparatus for in-situ drying investigation and optimization of slurry drying methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Beth L.; Daniel, Claus; Howe, Jane Y.; Kiggans, Jr, James O.; Sabau, Adrian S.; Wood, III, David L.; Kalnaus, Sergiy

    2016-05-10

    A method of drying casted slurries that includes calculating drying conditions from an experimental model for a cast slurry and forming a cast film. An infrared heating probe is positioned on one side of the casted slurry and a thermal probe is positioned on an opposing side of the casted slurry. The infrared heating probe may control the temperature of the casted slurry during drying. The casted slurry may be observed with an optical microscope, while applying the drying conditions from the experimental model. Observing the casted slurry includes detecting the incidence of micro-structural changes in the casted slurry during drying to determine if the drying conditions from the experimental model are optimal.

  13. An advanced alkaline slurry for barrier chemical mechanical planarization on patterned wafers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Chenwei; Liu Yuling; Niu Xinhuan; Tian Jianying; Gao Baohong; Zhang Xiaoqiang

    2012-01-01

    We have developed an alkaline barrier slurry (named FA/O slurry) for barrier removal and evaluated its chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) performance through comparison with a commercially developed barrier slurry.The FA/O slurry consists of colloidal silica,which is a complexing and an oxidizing agent,and does not have any inhibitors.It was found that the surface roughness of copper blanket wafers polished by the FA/O slurry was lower than the commercial barrier slurry,demonstrating that it leads to a better surface quality.In addition,the dishing and electrical tests also showed that the patterned wafers have a lower dishing value and sheet resistance as compared to the commercial barrier slurry.By comparison,the FA/O slurry demonstrates good planarization performance and can be used for barrier CMP.

  14. COMPUTATIONAL AND EXPERIMENTAL MODELING OF SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Lam; Dimitri Gidaspow

    2000-09-01

    The objective if this study was to develop a predictive experimentally verified computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for gas-liquid-solid flow. A three dimensional transient computer code for the coupled Navier-Stokes equations for each phase was developed. The principal input into the model is the viscosity of the particulate phase which was determined from a measurement of the random kinetic energy of the 800 micron glass beads and a Brookfield viscometer. The computed time averaged particle velocities and concentrations agree with PIV measurements of velocities and concentrations, obtained using a combination of gamma-ray and X-ray densitometers, in a slurry bubble column, operated in the bubbly-coalesced fluidization regime with continuous flow of water. Both the experiment and the simulation show a down-flow of particles in the center of the column and up-flow near the walls and nearly uniform particle concentration. Normal and shear Reynolds stresses were constructed from the computed instantaneous particle velocities. The PIV measurement and the simulation produced instantaneous particle velocities. The PIV measurement and the simulation produced similar nearly flat horizontal profiles of turbulent kinetic energy of particles. This phase of the work was presented at the Chemical Reaction Engineering VIII: Computational Fluid Dynamics, August 6-11, 2000 in Quebec City, Canada. To understand turbulence in risers, measurements were done in the IIT riser with 530 micron glass beads using a PIV technique. The results together with simulations will be presented at the annual meeting of AIChE in November 2000.

  15. Quarterly coal report, October--December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1996 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1990 through the third quarter of 1996. Appendix A displays, from 1988 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the US, historical information has been integrated in this report. 8 figs., 72 tabs.

  16. Quarterly coal report, October--December 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1998 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1992 through the third quarter of 1998. Appendix A displays, from 1992 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. 58 tabs.

  17. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, P.

    1998-08-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for January through March 1998 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1992 through the fourth quarter of 1997. Appendix A displays, from 1992 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the United States, historical information has been integrated in this report. 58 tabs.

  18. Quarterly coal report, April--June, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for April through June 1998 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1992 through the first quarter of 1998. Appendix A displays, from 1992 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. 58 tabs.

  19. Steam Explosions in Slurry-fed Ceramic Melters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, J.T.

    2001-03-28

    This report assesses the potential and consequences of a steam explosion in Slurry Feed Ceramic Melters (SFCM). The principles that determine if an interaction is realistically probable within a SFCM are established. Also considered are the mitigating effects due to dissolved, non-condensable gas(es) and suspended solids within the slurry feed, radiation, high glass viscosity, and the existence of a cold cap. The report finds that, even if any explosion were to occur, however, it would not be large enough to compromise vessel integrity.

  20. Technical report on treatment of radioactive slurry liquid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Gyeong Hwan; Jo, Eun Sung; Park, Seung Kook; Jung, Ki Jung

    1999-06-01

    By literature survey, this report deals with the technology on typical pre-treatment and filtration of radioactive slurry liquid waste, produced during the operation of TRIGA Mark-II, III research reactor, and produced during the decommission/decontamination of TRIGA Mark-II, III research reactor. It is reviewed pre-treatment procedure, both physical and chemical that optimise the dewatering characteristics, and also surveyed types of dewatering devices based on centrifuges, vacuum and pressure filters with particular reference to various combined field approaches using two or more complementary driving forces to achieve better performance. Dewatering operations and devises on filtration of radioactive slurry liquid waste are also analysed. (author)

  1. Interactions between Soil Texture and Placement of Dairy Slurry Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glæsner, Nadia; Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Rubæk, Gitte Holton

    2011-01-01

    Managing phosphorus (P) losses in soil leachate following land application of manure is key to curbing eutrophication in many regions. We compared P leaching from columns of variably textured, intact soils (20 cm diam., 20 cm high) subjected to surface application or injection of dairy cattle (Bos...... retention of particulate P and dissolved organic P, caused by placing slurry away from active flow paths in the fine-textured soil columns, as well as to chemical retention of dissolved inorganic P, caused by better contact between slurry P and soil adsorption sites. Dissolved organic P was less retained...

  2. Electrochemical behaviors of silicon wafers in silica slurry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaolan Song; Haiping Yang; Xunda Shi; Xi He; Guanzhou Qiu

    2008-01-01

    The electrochemical behaviors of n-type silicon wafers in silica-based slurry were investigated, and the influences of the pH value and solid content of the slurry on the corrosion of silicon wafers were studied by using electrochemical DC polarization and AC impedance techniques. The results revealed that these factors affected the corrosion behaviors of silicon wafers to different degrees and had their suitable parameters that made the maximum corrosion rate of the wafers. The corrosion potential of (100) surface was lower than that of (111), whereas the current density of (100) was much higher than that of (111).

  3. PREPARATION OF STARCH SUCCINATE WITH INTERMEDIATE DS BY AQUEOUS SLURRY REACTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The succinylation of cornstarch by slurry reaction has been studied using sodium hydroxide as catalyst. Several reaction parameters afJecting the succinylation were investigated including the concentration of starch in water, the ratio of succinic anhydride to starch, the reaction time and the reaction temperature. The favorable conditions for an intermediate degree of substitution (DS) and reasonably high reaction efficiency (RE) are pH 8.5~9.0, 50% starch by weight to water, succinic anhydride to starch I/I (w/w), reaction time 4h, reaction temperature 30 ℃Under these conditions, the DS of 0.45 and RE of 28% were achieved. The addition of an adequate amount of crosslinking agent imparted starch succinate water absorbency.

  4. PREPARATION OF STARCH SUCCINATE WITH INTERMEDIATE DS BY AQUEOUS SLURRY REACTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUChangying; WANGBin; 等

    2001-01-01

    The succinylation of cornstarch by slurry reaction has been studied using sodium hydroxide as catalyst.Several reaction parameters affecting the succinylation were investigated including the concentration of starch in water,the ratio of succinic anhydride to starch,the reaction time and the reaction temperature,The favorable conditions for an intermediate degree of substitution(DS) and reasonably high reaction efficiency(RE) are pH 8.5-9.0,50% starch by weight to water.succinic anhydride to starch 1/1(w/w),reaction time 4h,reaction temperature 30℃ .Under these conditions,the DS of 0.45 and RE of 28% were achieved.The addition of an adequate amount of crosslinking agent imparted starch succinate water absorbency.

  5. Slurry photocatalytic membrane reactor technology for removal of pharmaceutical compounds from wastewater: Towards cytostatic drug elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Raphael; Mandal, Mrinal Kanti; Dubey, Kashyap Kumar; Luis, Patricia

    2017-12-01

    The potential of photocatalytic membrane reactors (PMR) to degrade cytostatic drugs is presented in this work as an emerging technology for wastewater treatment. Cytostatic drugs are pharmaceutical compounds (PhCs) commonly used in cancer treatment. Such compounds and their metabolites, as well as their degraded by-products have genotoxic and mutagenic effects. A major challenge of cytostatic removal stands in the fact that most drugs are delivered to ambulant patients leading to diluted concentration in the municipal waste. Therefore safe strategies should be developed in order to collect and degrade the micro-pollutants using appropriate treatment technologies. Degradation of cytostatic compounds can be achieved with different conventional processes such as chemical oxidation, photolysis or photocatalysis but the treatment performances obtained are lower than the ones observed with slurry PMRs. Therefore the reasons why slurry PMRs may be considered as the next generation technology will be discussed in this work together with the limitations related to the mechanical abrasion of polymeric and ceramic membranes, catalyst suspension and interferences with the water matrix. Furthermore key recommendations are presented in order to develop a renewable energy powered water treatment based on long lifetime materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Measurement of ion speciation in animal slurries using the Donnan Membrane Technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stelt, van der B.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    2005-01-01

    The availability of nutrients in animal slurry for plant uptake depends on the total content as well as on the forms in which these nutrients are present in slurry manure. A DMT-manure cell was developed which can help to determine the speciation of nutrients in animal slurries. The cell consists of

  7. Measurement of ion speciation in animal slurries using the Donnan Membrane Technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stelt, van der B.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    2005-01-01

    The availability of nutrients in animal slurry for plant uptake depends on the total content as well as on the forms in which these nutrients are present in slurry manure. A DMT-manure cell was developed which can help to determine the speciation of nutrients in animal slurries. The cell consists of

  8. Effects of dairy slurry on the nutritive value and fermentation characteristics of alfalfa silages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dairy producers frequently ask questions about the risks associated with applying dairy slurry onto growing alfalfa. Our objectives were to determine the effects of dairy-slurry application on the subsequent nutritive value and fermentation characteristics of alfalfa silages. Dairy slurry was applie...

  9. Anaerobic digestion of pig manure fibres from commercial pig slurry separation units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Ole; Triolo, Jin M.; Sommer, Sven G.

    2014-01-01

    The composition of manure fibres (MF) from 17 commercially separated pig slurries and seven raw pig slurries were characterised in terms of dry matter (DM), volatile solids (VS), protein, hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin. The average lignocellulose concentration in manure fibres and pig slurries...

  10. Hepatitis E Virus (Genotype 3) in Slurry Samples from Swine Farming Activities in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Rosa, G; Della Libera, S; Brambilla, M; Bisaglia, C; Pisani, G; Ciccaglione, A R; Bruni, R; Taffon, S; Equestre, M; Iaconelli, M

    2017-06-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emergent causative agent of acute hepatitis, transmitted by fecal-oral route. Infection with HEV is a global cause for morbidity and mortality throughout the world: it mainly causes large outbreaks in endemic areas and sporadic autochthonous cases in industrialized countries where HEV infections seem to be an emergent zoonotic disease. Infection of porcine livestock and its relationship with the human cases have been demonstrated. The present study describes an investigation on the prevalence and diversity of HEV in pig slurry in Italy. Slurry samples (24) were collected from ten farms located in North Italy during 2015 and analyzed for HEV, using four broad-range nested PCR assays targeting ORF1 (MTase), ORF2 (capsid) genes, and ORF2/3 regions. Overall, 18 samples (75%) were positive for HEV RNA, and characterized as genotype 3. Nine samples could be subtyped by ORF2 sequencing: Eight belonged to subtype 3f, while one sequence could not be characterized by blast analysis and phylogenetic analysis and may actually represent a new subtype. Furthermore, similarity of 99% was found between 3f Italian HEV sequences of human and swine origins. Real-Time PCR assay was also performed, in order to obtain quantitative data on positive samples. Two swine slurry samples were positive, containing 600 and 1000 UI per mL of sewage. The results of this study show that HEV strains belonging to zoonotic genotype 3 are widely present in swine excreta, and have high degree of identity with strains detected in autochthonous HEV cases. Improving swine farming operations safety and increasing operators' awareness of the zoonotic potential connected with the handling of swine effluents turn out to be key points in order to reduce the environmental and sanitary problem represented by the possible dissemination of HEV to water bodies.

  11. Development of a use for Illinois coal concentrates for slurry fed gasifiers; Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, L.A.; Lytle, J.M.; Khan, S.; At-Taras, M.; Ehrlinger, H.P. [Illinois Dept. of Energy and Natural Resources, Springfield, IL (United States). Geological Survey

    1993-12-31

    The primary purpose of this project is to identify and test concentrates made from preparation plant fines as to their amenability as fee for slurry-fed, slagging, entrained-flow gasifiers. The high sulfur content and high BTU value of Illinois coals are particularly advantageous in such a gasifier. Elemental sulfur is recovered as a revenue-producing product in gasifier technologies, and the higher BTU Illinois coal concentrate requires less water to produce a pumpable slurry than western coal (30--35% vs 45%) thereby reducing the amount of heat lost in vaporization of entrained water. This means that 66 tons of Illinois coal concentrate, containing 13,000 BTU per pound, at 70% solids would provide as much net heat as 100 tons of 9500 BTU coal pumped at 54% solids. During the current reporting period twelve 55-gallon drums of preparation plant fines were obtained from a mine in Illinois. Part of the slurry was screened on 60 mesh to remove coarse material (about 9.57%) and the fines were used for preliminary flotation tests in a subaeration cell. Fifteen batch tests were conducted to establish flotation conditions for operation of the continuous flow column flotation unit. Varying the type and quantities of reagents, grades were recorded over 12,000 BTU and the recovery of combustible matter or BTU varied from 41.6% to 88.2%.

  12. On-farm measurement of electrical conductivity for the estimation of ammonium nitrogen concentration in pig slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagüe, M R; Quílez, D

    2012-01-01

    Pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) slurry (PS) is commonly applied as fertilizer to agricultural fields. Knowledge of PS nitrogen content is essential for good management, but PS nitrogen content is highly variable, not only between farms but also within a farm. Laboratory analysis of animal slurries is often expensive and impractical for routine farmer use. Therefore, when slurry is spread on land, its fertilizer value is generally unknown, resulting in the risk of pollution. In this work, two rapid and suitable for field use methods for determining PS ammonium N (NH(4)+-N) concentration (Quantofix and conductimetry) are evaluated. The electrical conductivity of a dilution 1 PS:9 distilled water had better results than Quantofix, did not need reagents, and gave a direct value of NH(4)+-N concentrations (range, 1.0-7.6 kg NH(4)+-N m(-3)). The conductimetry method allows the use of alternative waters with EC method is being introduced to farmers in northeast Spain to improve PS management and has been well received due to its low cost and ease of use.

  13. Soft-sediment deformation structures in cores from lacustrine slurry deposits of the Late Triassic Yanchang Fm. (central China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Renchao; Loon, A. J. (Tom) van; Yin, Wei; Fan, Aiping; Han, Zuozhen

    2016-09-01

    The fine-grained autochthonous sedimentation in the deep part of a Late Triassic lake was frequently interrupted by gravity-induced mass flows. Some of these mass flows were so rich in water that they must have represented slurries. This can be deduced from the soft-sediment deformation structures that abound in cores from these lacustrine deposits which constitute the Yanchang Fm., which is present in the Ordos Basin (central China). The flows and the resulting SSDS were probably triggered by earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, shear stress of gravity flows, and/or the sudden release of overburden-induced excess pore-fluid pressure. The tectonically active setting, the depositional slope and the high sedimentation rate facilitated the development of soft-sediment deformations, which consist mainly of load casts and associated structures such as pseudonodules and flame structures. Sediments with such deformations were occasionally eroded by slurries and became embedded in their deposits.

  14. Slurry Erosion Studies on Surface Modified 13Cr-4Ni Steels: Effect of Angle of Impingement and Particle Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manisekaran, T.; Kamaraj, M.; Sharrif, S. M.; Joshi, S. V.

    2007-10-01

    Hydroturbine steels, such as 13Cr-4Ni martensitic steels, are generally subjected to heavy-erosive wear and loss of efficiency due to solid particulate entrainment in the water. Surface-modified steels have proven to give better performance in terms of erosive wear resistance. In the present study, an attempt is made to investigate the effect of angle of impingement and particle size on slurry-jet erosion behavior of pulsed plasma nitrided and laser hardened 13Cr-4Ni steels. Laser hardening process has shown good performance at all angles of impingement due to martensitic transformation of retained austenite. Plastic deformation mode of material removal was also an evident feature of all laser-hardened surface damage locations. However, pulsed-plasma nitrided steels have exhibited chip formation and micro-cutting mode of erosive wear. Erosion with 150-300 μm size was twice compared to 150 μm size slurry particulates.

  15. Strategic Studies Quarterly- Spring 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, bordering Afghanistan. A number of analysts agree that if conflict breaks out with India, Pakistan would immediately rede - ploy...the military should not risk its capacity to fight just to become an instrument of social progress but at the same rook pride in ending the...the " social experiments" conducted during his tenure are not yet known. The former Secretary STRATEGIC STUDIES QuARTERLY + SPRING 2016 [ 149] Book

  16. DEMONSTRATION OF MIXING AND TRANSFERRING SETTLING COHESIVE SLURRY SIMULANTS IN THE AY-102 TANK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, D.

    2011-08-04

    In support of Hanford's waste certification and delivery of tank waste to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked by the Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to evaluate the effectiveness of mixing and transferring tank waste in a Double Shell Tank (DST) to the WTP Receipt Tank. The work discussed in this report (Phase III) address the impacts cohesive simulants have on mixing and batch transfer performance. The objective of the demonstrations performed in Phase III was to determine the impact that cohesive particle interactions in the simulants have on tank mixing using 1/22{sup nd} scale mixing system and batch transfer of seed particles. This testing is intended to provide supporting evidence to the assumption that Hanford Small Scale Mixing Demonstration (SSMD) testing in water is conservative. The batch transfers were made by pumping the simulants from the Mixing Demonstration Tank (MDT) to six Receipt Tanks (RTs), and the consistency in the amount of seed particles in each batch was compared. Tests were conducted with non-Newtonian cohesive simulants with Bingham yield stress ranging from 0.3 Pa to 7 Pa. Kaolin clay and 100 {mu}m stainless steel seed particles were used for all the non-Newtonian simulants. To specifically determine the role of the yield stress on mixing and batch transfer, tests were conducted with a Newtonian mixture of glycerol and water with at viscosity of 6.2 cP that was selected to match the Bingham consistency (high shear rate viscosity) of the higher yield stress kaolin slurries. The water/glycerol mixtures used the same 100 {mu}m stainless steel seed particles. For the transfer demonstrations in Phase III, the mixer jet pumps were operated either at 10.0 gpm (28 ft/s nozzle velocity, U{sub o}D=0.63 ft{sup 2}/s) or 8.0 gpm (22.4 ft/s nozzle velocity, U{sub o}D=0.504 ft{sup 2}/s). All batch transfers from the MDT to the RTs were made at 0.58 gpm (MDT suction

  17. Chemical aspects of coal liquefaction by oxygen in alkaline slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreozzi, R.; Caprio, V.; Insola, A.

    1988-03-01

    Coal liquefaction by oxygen in alkaline slurries is reviewed from the chemical point of view. Available information is considered in the light of questions relating to coal liquefaction. A lack of chemical knowledge in this area is noted, especially on model compounds. 72 refs.

  18. Particle sedimentation monitoring in high-concentration slurries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, Yoshihiro; Kato, Zenji; Tanaka, Satoshi

    2016-11-01

    In this study, the sedimentation states of particles in high-concentration slurries were elucidated by monitoring their internal states. We prepared transparent high-concentration silica slurries by adjusting the refractive index of the aqueous glycerol liquid in which the particles were dispersed to match that of the silica particles. In addition, a fluorescent dye was dissolved in the liquid. Then, we directly observed the individual and flocculated particles in the slurries during sedimentation by confocal laser scanning fluorescent microscopy. The particles were found to sediment very slowly while exhibiting fluctuating motion. The particle sedimentation rate in the high-concentration slurry with the aqueous glycerol solution (η =0.068 Pa. s ) and a particle volume fraction on the order of 0.3 was determined to be 1.58 ± 0.66 μ m. min-1 on the basis of the obtained image sequences for 24.9 h. In-situ observation provides a large amount of information about the sedimentation behavior of particles in condensed matter.

  19. NOVEL SLURRY PHASE DIESEL CATALYSTS FOR COAL-DERIVED SYNGAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Dragomir B. Bukur; Dr. Ketil Hanssen; Alec Klinghoffer; Dr. Lech Nowicki; Patricia O' Dowd; Dr. Hien Pham; Jian Xu

    2001-01-07

    This report describes research conducted to support the DOE program in novel slurry phase catalysts for converting coal-derived synthesis gas to diesel fuels. The primary objective of this research program is to develop attrition resistant catalysts that exhibit high activities for conversion of coal-derived syngas.

  20. Effects of cattle slurry manure management on grass yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schils, R.L.M.; Kok, I.P.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of application method, cattle slurry manure type and use of additives on grassland performance were studied in a 3-year field experiment on two farms on sandy soils in the northern part of the Netherlands. The objectives were to determine the effects on (1) nitrogen (N) utilization, (2)

  1. Rheokinetic Analysis of Hydroxy Terminated Polybutadiene Based Solid Propellant Slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhay K Mahanta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The cure kinetics of propellant slurry based on hydroxy-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB and toluene diisocyanate (TDI polyurethane reaction has been studied by viscosity build up method. The viscosity (ɳ–time (t plots conform to the exponential function ɳ = aebt, where a & b are empirical constants. The rate constants (k for viscosity build up at various shear rate (rpm, evaluated from the slope of dɳ/dt versus ɳ plots at different temperatures, were found to vary from 0.0032 to 0.0052 min-1. It was observed that the increasing shear rate did not have significant effect on the reaction rate constants for viscosity build up of the propellant slurry. The activation energy (Eɳ, calculated from the Arrhenius plots, was found to be 13.17±1.78 kJ mole-1, whereas the activation enthalpy (∆Hɳ* and entropy (∆Sɳ* of the propellant slurry, calculated from Eyring relationship, were found to be 10.48±1.78 kJ mole-1 and –258.51± 5.38 J mole-1K-1, respectively. The reaction quenching temperature of the propellant slurry was found to be -9 ° C, based upon the experimental data. This opens up an avenue for a “freeze-and-store”, then “warm-up and cast”, mode of manufacturing of very large solid rocket propellant grains.

  2. Overview of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis in Slurry Reactors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A brief review of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis specially in slurry reactors ispresented, covering reaction kinetics, activity and selectivity of catalysts, productdistribution, effects of process parameters, mass transfer and solubility of gas. Someimportant aspects of further research are proposed for improving both theories andproduction.

  3. Overview of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis in Slurry Reactors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁百全; 李涛; A.A.C.M.Beenackers; G.P.vanderLaan

    2000-01-01

    A brief review of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis specially in slurry reactors is presented, covering reaction kinetics, activity and selectivity of catalysts, product distribution, effects of process parameters, mass transfer and solubility of gas. Some important aspects of further research axe proposed for improving both theories and production.

  4. A novel kind of TSV slurry with guanidine hydrochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Hong; Yuling, Liu; Baoguo, Zhang; Xinhuan, Niu; Liying, Han

    2015-10-01

    The effect of a novel alkaline TSV (through-silicon-via) slurry with guanidine hydrochloride (GH) on CMP (chemical mechanical polishing) was investigated. The novel alkaline TSV slurry was free of any inhibitors. During the polishing process, the guanidine hydrochloride serves as an effective surface-complexing agent for TSV CMP applications, the removal rate of barrier (Ti) can be chemically controlled through tuned selectivity with respect to the removal rate of copper and dielectric, which is helpful to modifying the dishing and gaining an excellent topography performance in TSV manufacturing. In this paper, we mainly studied the working mechanism of the components of slurry and the skillful application guanidine hydrochloride in the TSV slurry. Project supported by the Major National Science and Technology Special Projects (No. 2009ZX02308), the Fund Project of Hebei Provincial Department of Education, China (No. QN2014208), the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province, China (No. E2013202247), and Colleges and Universities Scientific research project of Hebei Province, China (No. Z2014088).

  5. Environmental Consequences of Future Biogas Technologies based on Separated Slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamelin, Lorie; Wesnæs, Marianne; Wenzel, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    This consequential life cycle assessment study highlights the key environmental aspects of producing biogas from separated pig and cow slurry, a relatively new but probable scenario for future biogas production, as it avoids the reliance on constrained carbon cosubstrates. Three scenarios involvi...

  6. Design of slurry reactor for indirect liquefaction applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakash, A.; Bendale, P.G.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this project is to design and model a conceptual slurry reactor for two indirect liquefaction applications; (1) production of methanol and (2) production of hydrocarbon fuels via Fischer-Tropsch route. A slurry reactor is defined here as a three-phase bubble column reactor using a fine catalyst particle suspension in a high molecular weight liquid. The feed gas is introduced through spargers. It then bubbles through the column providing the agitation necessary for catalyst suspension and mass transfer. The reactor models for the two processes have been formulated using computer simulation. Process data, kinetic and thermodynamic data, heat and mass transfer data and hydrodynamic data have been used in the mathematical models to describe the slurry reactor for each of the two processes. Available data from process development units and demonstration units were used to test and validate the models. Commercial size slurry reactors for methanol and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis were sized using reactor models developed in this report.

  7. Design of slurry reactor for indirect liquefaction applications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakash, A.; Bendale, P.G.

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this project is to design and model a conceptual slurry reactor for two indirect liquefaction applications; (1) production of methanol and (2) production of hydrocarbon fuels via Fischer-Tropsch route. A slurry reactor is defined here as a three-phase bubble column reactor using a fine catalyst particle suspension in a high molecular weight liquid. The feed gas is introduced through spargers. It then bubbles through the column providing the agitation necessary for catalyst suspension and mass transfer. The reactor models for the two processes have been formulated using computer simulation. Process data, kinetic and thermodynamic data, heat and mass transfer data and hydrodynamic data have been used in the mathematical models to describe the slurry reactor for each of the two processes. Available data from process development units and demonstration units were used to test and validate the models. Commercial size slurry reactors for methanol and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis were sized using reactor models developed in this report.

  8. Life cycle assessment of biogas from separated slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamelin, L.; Wesnaes, M.; Wenzel, H. (Univ. of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark)); Molt Petersen, B. (Aarhus Univ.. Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Aarhus (Denmark))

    2010-07-01

    The environmental aspects of biogas production based on pre-treated slurry from fattening pigs and dairy cows have been investigated in a life cycle perspective. The pre-treatment consists of concentrating the slurry using a separation technology. Significant environmental benefits, compared to the status quo slurry management, can be obtained for both pig and cow slurry, especially regarding reductions of the contributions to global warming, but the results depend to a large extent on the efficiency of the separation technology. Adding separation after the biogas plant can contribute to a more efficient management of the phosphorus, and this has also been investigated. Based on the results of the study it can be concluded that: 1) The environmental benefits of biogas from separated slurry are very dependent upon the separation efficiency (for carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous). This particularly applies for carbon, as the separation efficiency defines the extent to which the degradable carbon contained in the slurry is transferred to the biogas plant. Efficient separation can be obtained by using polymer, but also by using a suitable separation technology. It could be mentioned that the decanter centrifuge used has a rather high efficiency of transferring volatile solids (VS) to the fibre fraction also without the use of polymer. 2) Biogas production from separated slurry can lead to significant reductions in the contributions to global warming, provided that the 'best available technologies' described in the report are used. That includes, among others: - a covered and short time storage of the fibre fraction before entering the biogas plant, - a 2-step biogas production where the post-digestion tank is covered with air-tight cover, - a covered storage of the degassed fibre fraction The benefits are also highly dependent upon the source of energy substituted by the biogas. 3) Based on evidences from reviewed studies, the cationic polyacrylamide polymer

  9. An experimental technique for studying the dynamic stability of slurry fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesavan, S.K.; Chu, M.L.; Reddy, N.P.; Yazdani, S.

    1987-01-01

    In coal slurry transportation, repeated vertical accelerations larger than the gravitational acceleration are encountered. The sedimentation behavior of the slurry fuels under these conditions is an area of concern in fuel transportation. A laboratory-scale technique has been developed that can be used to study the sedimentation behavior of coal slurry fuels under conditions of repeated vertical accelerations. A coal slurry sample contained in a settling column is subjected to repeated vertical movement using a mechanical shaker. The coal concentration profile along the height of the settling column can be used to quantify the sedimentation behavior of the slurry.

  10. Viability of Ascaris suum eggs in stored raw and separated liquid slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katakam, Kiran Kumar; Roepstorff, Allan Knud; Popovic, Olga

    2013-01-01

    indicator of fecal pollution, and its association with ammonia was investigated in separated liquid slurry in comparison with raw slurry. For this purpose nylon bags with 6000 eggs each were placed in 1 litre bottles containing one of the two fractions for 308 days at 5 °C or 25 °C. Initial analysis...... have a higher viability in separated liquid slurry as compared to raw slurry. The hygiene aspect of this needs to be further investigated when separated liquid slurry is used to fertilize pastures or crops....

  11. Effects of Cattle Slurry Acidification on Ammonia and Methane Evolution during Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O; Andersen, Astrid; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    experiments, the pH of acidified cattle slurry increased gradually to between 6.5 and 7. Acidification of slurry reduced the evolution of CH4 by 67 to 87%. The greatest reduction was observed with aged cattle slurry, which had a much higher potential for CH4 production than fresh slurry. Sulfate...... and methionine amendment to cattle slurry without pH adjustment also significantly inhibited methanogenesis, probably as a result of sulfide production. The study suggests that complex microbial interactions involving sulfur transformations and pH determine the potential for CH4 emission during storage of cattle...

  12. Rheological Characterization of Unusual DWPF Slurry Samples (U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, D. C.

    2005-09-01

    A study was undertaken to identify and clarify examples of unusual rheological behavior in Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) simulant slurry samples. Identification was accomplished by reviewing sludge, Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) product, and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product simulant rheological results from the prior year. Clarification of unusual rheological behavior was achieved by developing and implementing new measurement techniques. Development of these new methods is covered in a separate report, WSRC-TR-2004-00334. This report includes a review of recent literature on unusual rheological behavior, followed by a summary of the rheological measurement results obtained on a set of unusual simulant samples. Shifts in rheological behavior of slurries as the wt. % total solids changed have been observed in numerous systems. The main finding of the experimental work was that the various unusual DWPF simulant slurry samples exhibit some degree of time dependent behavior. When a given shear rate is applied to a sample, the apparent viscosity of the slurry changes with time rather than remaining constant. These unusual simulant samples are more rheologically complex than Newtonian liquids or more simple slurries, neither of which shows significant time dependence. The study concludes that the unusual rheological behavior that has been observed is being caused by time dependent rheological properties in the slurries being measured. Most of the changes are due to the effect of time under shear, but SB3 SME products were also changing properties while stored in sample bottles. The most likely source of this shear-related time dependence for sludge is in the simulant preparation. More than a single source of time dependence was inferred for the simulant SME product slurries based on the range of phenomena observed. Rheological property changes were observed on the time-scale of a single measurement (minutes) as well as on a time scale of hours

  13. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report. Second Quarter 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.A.

    1995-08-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during second quarter 1995 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (Appendix A), the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead (Appendix A), or the SRS flagging criteria (Appendix B).

  14. Sanitary Landfill groundwater monitoring report. First quarter 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during first quarter 1993 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standards for lead or the SRS flagging criteria.

  15. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report, Third Quarter 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    1999-12-08

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during Third Quarter 1999 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit. The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

  16. 沼气工程沼液高值的利用研究%Research of the High Value Use of Biogas Slurry from Biogas Projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁康强; 阎中; 魏泉源; 朱民; 林秀军

    2012-01-01

    In order to solve problems in biogas slurry of biogas project, such as its large amount, difficulties in disposal, storage, transport and low nutrients, high resistant contaminated reverse osmosis used to concentrate biogas slurry were put forward accordingly so as to achieve the high-value use of the biogas slurry. The feasibility of concentrating biogas slurry technology by membrane was analyzed, then the water quality of biogas slurry concentrated by membrane was introduced in brief. At the same time, by planting cabbage test used concentrated slurry as fertilizer, yield and quality of cabbage was studied. The results showed that the reverse osmosis technology concentrating the biogas slurry was feasible according to the analysis of the membrane flux and its influencing factors, the best operating pressure range was 4-5.5 MPa, reverse osmosis technology requirements were met by input water conductivity and temperature of the biogas slurry. The permeate water of RO system could met the standard of slurry mixing. Besides, the concentrated water could be widely used for agriculture due to its richer nutriments. Concentrating sully could met the Chinese cabbage's demand of N nutriment, and the best fertilized concentrating biogas slurry whose N' s content was 1100 kg/ hm2, at this case it not only could harmonized the high yield of cabbage of the season but also the environmental effect, moreover, using biogas slurry planting could improved the quality of cabbage, its content of nitrate of cabbage could be controlled below 600 mg/kg.%为了解决沼气工程中沼液产量大、处理成本高、储存运输困难和营养物质含量偏低等问题,提出采用高耐污反渗透技术对沼液进行浓缩,以实现沼液高值利用.实验分析了沼液膜浓缩技术的可行性,并对浓缩后水质做了简单介绍;同时通过浓缩液种植大白菜实验,对浓缩液作为追肥对大白菜的产量、品质的影响做了分析.结果表明:通过对膜

  17. Mixed Waste Management Facility FSS Well Data Groundwater Monitoring Report. Fourth Quarter 1994 and 1994 summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.A.

    1995-03-01

    During fourth quarter 1994, ten constituents exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in groundwater samples from downgradient monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility, the Old Burial Ground, the E-Area Vaults, the proposed Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Vaults, and the F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site. No constituent exceeded final PDWS in samples from the upgradient monitoring wells. The groundwater flow directions and rates in the three hydrostratigraphic units were similar to those of previous quarters.

  18. The reductive degradation of 1,1,1-trichloroethane by Fe(0) in a soil slurry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoliang; Lu, Shuguang; Qiu, Zhaofu; Sui, Qian; Lin, Kuangfei; Du, Xiaoming; Luo, Qishi

    2014-01-01

    Most studies on the treatment of chlorinated contaminants by Fe(0) focus on aqueous system tests. However, few is known about the effectiveness of these tests for degrading chlorinated contaminants such as 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA) in soil. In this work, the reductive degradation performance of 1,1,1-TCA by Fe(0) was thoroughly investigated in a soil slurry system. The effects of various factors including acid-washed iron, the initial 1,1,1-TCA concentration, Fe(0) dosage, slurry pH, and common constituents in groundwater and soil such as Cl(-), HCO3 (-), SO4 (2-), and NO3 (-) anions and humic acid (HA) were evaluated. The experimental results showed that 1,1,1-TCA could be effectively degraded in 12 h for an initial Fe(0) dosage of 10 g L(-1) and a soil/water mass ratio of 1:5. The soil slurry experiments showed two-stage degradation kinetics: a slow reaction in the first stage and a fast reductive degradation of 1,1,1-TCA in the second stage. The reductive degradation of 1,1,1-TCA was expedited as the mass concentration of Fe(0) increased. In addition, high pHs adversely affected the degradation of 1,1,1-TCA over a pH range of 5.4-8.0 and the reductive degradation efficiency decreased with increasing slurry pH. The initial 1,1,1-TCA concentration and the presence of Cl(-) and SO4(2-) anions had negligible effects. HCO3(-) anions had a accelerative effect on 1,1,1-TCA removal, and both NO3(-) and HA had inhibitory effects. A Cl(-) mass balance showed that the amount of Cl(-) ions released into the soil slurry system during the 1,1,1-TCA degradation increased with increasing reaction time, suggesting that the main degradation mechanism of 1,1,1-TCA by Fe(0) in a soil slurry system was reductive dechlorination with 1,1-DCA as the main intermediate. In conclusion, this study provides a theoretical basis for the practical application of the remediation of contaminated sites containing chlorinated solvent.

  19. Effect of Corrosion Inhibitor, Benzotriazole, in Cu Slurry on Cu Polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In-Kwon; Kang, Young-Jae; Kim, Tae-Gon; Park, Jin-Goo

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the effect of benzotriazole (BTA) in Cu slurry on Cu polishing behavior was investigated as functions of H2O2 and slurry pH. The addition of BTA to slurry effectively prevented Cu from being etched by forming a passivation layer of Cu-BTA regardless of pH and H2O2 concentration in the slurry. The passivation layer on the Cu wafer exhibited a contact angle of 50° in solution with BTA and H2O2. The dynamic etching rate, i.e., the Cu polishing rate using abrasive-free slurry, also decreased when BTA was added to the slurry at pH 2, 4, and 6. The removal rate of Cu in slurry without BTA was strongly dependent on H2O2 concentration and pH. In slurry with BTA, Cu-BTA on the Cu surface prevented the etching of Cu. At pH 2 and 4, the removal rates were lower in slurry with BTA than in slurry without BTA. However, slurries of pH 6 or higher with BTA showed higher removal rates at higher concentrations of H2O2 than 10%, which was explained by the thick passivating oxide layer formed at higher pH and H2O2 concentrations.

  20. Nitrous-Oxide Flux from Nitric-Acid-Treated Cattle Slurry Applied to Grassland under Semi-Controlled Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthof, G.L.; Oenema, O.

    1993-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes from cattle slurry after surface application to grassland were measured under semi-controlled environmental conditions during three periods in 1991. Three types of cattle slurry were examined; untreated slurry and slurries treated with nitric acid (HNO3) to pH 6.0 and 4.5.