WorldWideScience

Sample records for water savings impact

  1. Save water, save money

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; Fairfax County, VA

    1977-01-01

    The United States uses huge quantities of water. In 1976, for example, it was estimated that for each person in the U.S., about 2,000 gallons of water were used daily in homes, offices, farms, and factories. This means that roughly 420 billion gallons of water were pumped, piped, or diverted each day—about 15 percent more than in 1970. By the year 2000, our daily water needs will probably exceed 800 billion gallons.

  2. Water Saving for Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharias, Ierotheos

    2013-04-01

    permanent cooperation among Public Bodies and Institutions, with the creation of a transferable model of best practices. WaS4D will carry out initiatives and advisory services aimed to encourage a behavior change, influencing citizens' demand and support consumers who wish to take action to reduce drinking water use: for the civil use, from literature, it's possible to reduce drinkable water consumption up to 50% using simple and economic tools, with a large environmental positive impact. WaS4D mainly focuses on the needs to define a participatory approach to enhance water-saving culture at urban level, encouraging a shift from supply-driven policies to management policies and from a sectorial to an integrated approach. The innovative character of the project is referred to the integrated approach as well as to the creation of new web services & tools.

  3. Fong's: Saving Water in Dyeing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ In an effort to save the precious water resource and reduce the environmental impact, Fong's Industries Group along with its member companies, namely "Fong's National", "THEN", "Goller" and "Fong's Water Technology" provide an ecological dyeing solution to reduce the water consumption drastically through their innovative technologies covering the processes from yarn dyeing to piece dyeing and recycling of discharge after dyeing and finishing.

  4. Saving Water Means Saving Life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩文盛

    2005-01-01

    On the""""""""World Water Day"""""""" (March 22, 2005) the United Nations began an """"""""International Decade for Action: Water for Life"""""""" to focus the world's attention on water resources. """"""""Water is essential for life"""""""", said the UN Secretary-General, Kofi Annanin, in an address prepared for the ceremony. """"""""This is an urgent matter of human development and human dignity."""""""" Is this matter so important to the Chinese people? What can be done to help solve the water resources problem in China? Please write down your views in a composition in no less than 200 words.

  5. Saving water through global trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapagain, A.K.; Hoekstra, A.Y.; Savenije, H.H.G.

    2005-01-01

    Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water product

  6. Saving water through global trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapagain, Ashok; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Savenije, H.H.G.

    2005-01-01

    Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water

  7. Saving energy from waste water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Pearce

    1999-03-01

    This paper gives details of energy savings from wastewater in the laundry industry by recycling the water from the last rinse to the first wash, and recovering heat from hot water that is too dirty to recycle. The cost savings achieved at the laundry operated by the Royal London Hospital, and improvements in the steam supply system with water from steam traps collected and returned to the boiler house are reported. Case studies are presented involving energy savings in the textile industry where effluent from the washing stage is recycled to the scouring stage, and in the distillery industry involving recovery of heat from hot water for process preheating. (uk)

  8. Energy Savings from Industrial Water Reductions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Prakash; McKane, Aimee; de Fontaine, Andre

    2015-08-03

    Although it is widely recognized that reducing freshwater consumption is of critical importance, generating interest in industrial water reduction programs can be hindered for a variety of reasons. These include the low cost of water, greater focus on water use in other sectors such as the agriculture and residential sectors, high levels of unbilled and/or unregulated self-supplied water use in industry, and lack of water metering and tracking capabilities at industrial facilities. However, there are many additional components to the resource savings associated with reducing site water use beyond the water savings alone, such as reductions in energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, treatment chemicals, and impact on the local watershed. Understanding and quantifying these additional resource savings can expand the community of businesses, NGOs, government agencies, and researchers with a vested interest in water reduction. This paper will develop a methodology for evaluating the embedded energy consumption associated with water use at an industrial facility. The methodology developed will use available data and references to evaluate the energy consumption associated with water supply and wastewater treatment outside of a facility’s fence line for various water sources. It will also include a framework for evaluating the energy consumption associated with water use within a facility’s fence line. The methodology will develop a more complete picture of the total resource savings associated with water reduction efforts and allow industrial water reduction programs to assess the energy and CO2 savings associated with their efforts.

  9. Fong’s: Saving Water in Dyeing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to save the precious water resource and reduce the environmental impact, Fong’s Industries Group along with its member companies, namely "Fong’s National", "THEN", "Goller" and "Fong’s Water Technology" provide an ecological dyeing solution to reduce the water consumption drastically through their innovative technologies covering the processes from yarn dyeing to piece dyeing and recycling of discharge after dyeing and finishing.

  10. Water Saving Strategies & Ecological Modernisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Birgitte; Jensen, Jesper Ole; Elle, Morten

    2005-01-01

    -tainable water management. The paper focuses on the experiences from different water saving initiatives carried out since the mid 80s relating them to some central aspects of Ecological Modernisation theories: · Demands for tools and targets · New tasks and roles for suppliers, consumers and stakeholders...... as a frame for understanding resource manage-ment. The water management in Copenhagen has in recent years undergone a rather radi-cal transition. Along with strong drivers for resource management in the region the mu-nicipal water supplier has tested and implemented a number of initiatives to promote sus...... to 125 l/capita/day in 2002. A series of different strategies, targets and tools have been implemented: Emphasizing demand side instead of supply side, using and communicating indicators, formulating goals for reducing water consumption and developing learning processes in water management. A main...

  11. Water Saving Strategies & Ecological Modernisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Birgitte; Jensen, Jesper Ole; Elle, Morten

    2005-01-01

    as a frame for understanding resource manage-ment. The water management in Copenhagen has in recent years undergone a rather radi-cal transition. Along with strong drivers for resource management in the region the mu-nicipal water supplier has tested and implemented a number of initiatives to promote sus......-tainable water management. The paper focuses on the experiences from different water saving initiatives carried out since the mid 80s relating them to some central aspects of Ecological Modernisation theories: · Demands for tools and targets · New tasks and roles for suppliers, consumers and stakeholders...... and the emergence of a new group of intermediary actors · The changing logics of sustainability and the development of storylines The ecological modernist discourse implies a participatory approach, by which citizens are made co-responsible and included in efforts towards a sustainable development; however...

  12. User behaviour impact on energy savings potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    corresponding to different levels of energy consumption. The purpose of the analysis is to identify the importance of each of the four primary user-related parameters in terms of their relative and combined impact on the overall energy needs before/after upgrading; 1) Indoor temperature, 2) Internal heat gain......, 3) Domestic hot water consumption and 4) Air change rate. Based on the analysis, a methodology is established that can be used to make more realistic and accurate predictions of expected energy savings associated with energy upgrading taking into account user behaviour....

  13. Water saving through international trade of agricultural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Chapagain

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water productivity. The paper analyses the consequences of international virtual water flows on the global and national water budgets. The assessment shows that the total amount of water that would have been required in the importing countries if all imported agricultural products would have been produced domestically is 1605 Gm3/yr. These products are however being produced with only 1253 Gm3/yr in the exporting countries, saving global water resources by 352 Gm3/yr. This saving is 28 per cent of the international virtual water flows related to the trade of agricultural products and 6 per cent of the global water use in agriculture. National policy makers are however not interested in global water savings but in the status of national water resources. Egypt imports wheat and in doing so saves 3.6 Gm3/yr of its national water resources. Water use for producing export commodities can be beneficial, as for instance in Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana and Brazil, where the use of green water resources (mainly through rain-fed agriculture for the production of stimulant crops for export has a positive economic impact on the national economy. However, export of 28 Gm3/yr of national water from Thailand related to rice export is at the cost of additional pressure on its blue water resources. Importing a product which has a relatively high ratio of green to blue virtual water content saves global blue water resources that generally have a higher opportunity cost than green water.

  14. Water saving through international trade of agricultural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Chapagain

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water productivity. The paper analyses the consequences of international virtual water flows on the global and national water budgets. The assessment shows that the total amount of water that would have been required in the importing countries if all imported agricultural products would have been produced domestically is 1605 Gm3/yr. These products are however being produced with only 1253 Gm3/yr in the exporting countries, saving global water resources by 352 Gm3/yr. This saving is 28% of the international virtual water flows related to the trade of agricultural products and 6% of the global water use in agriculture. National policy makers are however not interested in global water savings but in the status of national water resources. Egypt imports wheat and in doing so saves 3.6 Gm3/yr of its national water resources. Water use for producing export commodities can be beneficial, as for instance in Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana and Brazil, where the use of green water resources (mainly through rain-fed agriculture for the production of stimulant crops for export has a positive economic impact on the national economy. However, export of 28 Gm3/yr of national water from Thailand related to rice export is at the cost of additional pressure on its blue water resources. Importing a product which has a relatively high ratio of green to blue virtual water content saves global blue water resources that generally have a higher opportunity cost than green water.

  15. Low cost drip irrigation: Impact on sugarcane yield, water and energy saving in semiarid tropical agro ecosystem in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendran, U; Jayakumar, M; Marimuthu, S

    2016-12-15

    Low cost drip irrigation (LCDI) has been a recent introduction to India and it may be an inexpensive means of expanding irrigation into uncultivated areas, thereby increasing land productivity. This paper is structured into two phases. The first phase, presents an assessment of different irrigation methods (LCDI, conventional drip irrigation (CDI) with single row and paired row, siphon and flood irrigation) on sugarcane production. The results showed that cane yield and water productivity was significantly increased in both plant and ratoon crop of sugarcane owing to the methods of irrigation. Among the methods, LCDI recorded 118.6tha(-1) of cane yield and it was on par with the single row CDI, which recorded the highest mean yield of 120.4tha(-1) and both are found to be significantly superior to the rest of the treatments. The lowest yield was recorded in the treatment of flood irrigation (94.40tha(-1)). Benefit Cost Ratio analysis confirmed that LCDI performed better compared to other irrigation methods. The second phase deals with the farmer participatory research demonstrations at multi location on evaluation of LCDI with flood irrigation. LCDI out performed flood irrigation under all the locations in terms of sugarcane yield, soil moisture content, postharvest soil fertility, reduction in nutrient transport to surface and ground water, water and energy saving. These results suggest that LCDI is a feasible option to increase the sugarcane production in water scarcity areas of semiarid agro ecosystems, and have long-term sustained economic benefits than flood irrigation in terms of water productivity, energy saving and environmental sustainability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Household water saving: Evidence from Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisa, Rosa; Larramona, Gemma

    2012-12-01

    This article focuses on household water use in Spain by analyzing the influence of a detailed set of factors. We find that, although the presence of both water-saving equipment and water-conservation habits leads to water savings, the factors that influence each are not the same. In particular, our results show that those individuals most committed to the adoption of water-saving equipment and, at the same time, less committed to water-conservation habits tend to have higher incomes.

  17. Shared savings gets realtor new water heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullin, R.

    1983-08-08

    The Grenadier Realty Co. of New York is financing four energy-efficient water heaters for apartment buildings with a shared savings arrangement. The arrangement allows Grenadier to avoid front-end costs, which were paid by Independent Water Heaters Inc. in exchange for a decreasing share of the savings. Grenadier will own the heaters when the five-year contract expires. By allowing a shutdown of boilers during the summer months, the heaters will further increase energy savings. (DCK)

  18. Creation of Carbon Credits by Water Saving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasutoshi Shimizu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Until now, as a way of reducing greenhouse gas emissions from Japanese homes, the emphasis has been on reduction of energy consumption for air-conditioning and lighting. In recent years, there has been progress in CO2 emission reduction through research into the water-saving performance of bathroom fixtures such as toilets and showers. Simulations have shown that CO2 emissions associated with water consumption in Japanese homes can be reduced by 25% (1% of Japan’s total CO2 emissions by 2020 through the adoption of the use of water-saving fixtures. In response to this finding, a program to promote the replacement of current fixtures with water-saving toilet bowls and thermally insulated bathtubs has been added to the Government of Japan’s energy-saving policy. Furthermore, CO2 emission reduction through widespread use of water-saving fixtures has been adopted by the domestic credit system promoted by the Government of Japan as a way of achieving CO2 emission-reduction targets; application of this credit system has also begun. As part of a bilateral offset credit mechanism promoted by the Government of Japan, research to evaluate the CO2 reduction potential of the adoption of water-saving fixtures has been done in the city of Dalian, in China.

  19. Stomatal Density and Bio-water Saving

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Bio-water saving is to increase water use efficiency of crops or crop yield per unit of water input. Plant water use efficiency is determined by photosynthesis and transpiration, for both of which stomata are crucial. Stomata are pores on leaf epidermis for both water and carbon dioxide fluxes that are controlled by two major factors: stomatal behavior and density. Stomatal behavior has been the focus of intensive research, while less attention has been paid to stomatal density. Recently, a number of genes controlling stomatal development have been identified. This review summarizes the recent progress on the genes regulating stomatal density, and discusses the role of stomatal density in plant water use efficiency and the possibility to increase plant water use efficiency, hence bio-water saving by genetically manipulating stomatal density.

  20. Water saving through international trade of agricultural products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapagain, A.K.; Hoekstra, A.Y.; Savenije, H.H.G.

    2006-01-01

    Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water product

  1. SWEEP - Save Water & Energy Education Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Gregory P.; Elliott, Douglas B.; Hillman, Tim C.; Hadley, Adam; Ledbetter, Marc R.; Payson, David R.

    2001-05-03

    The objective of this study was to develop, monitor, analyze, and report on an integrated resource-conservation program highlighting efficient residential appliances and fixtures. The sites of study were 50 homes in two water-constrained communities located in Oregon. The program was designed to maximize water savings to these communities and to serve as a model for other communities seeking an integrated approach to energy and water resource efficiency. The program included the installation and in-place evaluation of energy- and water-efficient devices including the following: horizontal axis clothes washers (and the matching clothes dryers), resource-efficient dishwashers, an innovative dual flush low-flow toilet, low-flow showerheads, and faucet aerators. The significance of this activity lies in its integrated approach and unique metering evaluation of individual end-use, aggregated residential total use, and system-wide energy and water benefits.

  2. Virtual water trade flows and savings under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konar, Megan; Hussein, Zekarias; Hanasaki, Naota; Mauzerall, Denise; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2014-05-01

    The international trade of food commodities links water and food systems, with important implications for both water and food security. The embodied water resources associated with food trade are referred to as `virtual water trade'. We present the first study of the impact of climate change on global virtual water trade flows and associated savings for the year 2030. In order to project virtual water trade and savings under climate change, it is essential to obtain projections of both bilateral crop trade and the virtual water content of crops in each country of production. We use the Global Trade Analysis Project model to estimate bilateral crop trade under changes in agricultural productivity for rice, soy, and wheat. We use the H08 global hydrologic model to determine the impact of climatic changes to crop evapotranspiration for rice, soy, and wheat in each country of production. Then, we combine projections of bilateral crop trade with estimates of virtual water content to obtain virtual water trade flows under climate change. We find that the total volume of virtual water trade is likely to go down under climate change, due to decreased crop trade from higher crop prices under scenarios of declining crop yields and due to decreased virtual water content under high agricultural productivity scenarios. However, the staple food trade is projected to save more water across most climate change scenarios, largely because the wheat trade re-organizes into a structure where large volumes of wheat are traded from relatively water-efficient exporters to less efficient importers.

  3. Resources for National Water Savings for Outdoor Water Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melody, Moya [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stratton, Hannah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Williams, Alison [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dunham, Camilla [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-05-01

    In support of efforts by the U.S. Environmental Agency's (EPA's) WaterSense program to develop a spreadsheet model for calculating the national water and financial savings attributable to WaterSense certification and labeling of weather-based irrigation controllers, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory reviewed reports, technical data, and other information related to outdoor water use and irrigation controllers. In this document we categorize and describe the reviewed references, highlighting pertinent data. We relied on these references when developing model parameters and calculating controller savings. We grouped resources into three major categories: landscapes (section 1); irrigation devices (section 2); and analytical and modeling efforts (section 3). Each category is subdivided further as described in its section. References are listed in order of date of publication, most recent first.

  4. Saving and Utilizing on Water Resources from Steel Making

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuLiguang

    2005-01-01

    In this espy, the author gives some presentation of the water saving practices in Baosteel for years. Relying on water saving research program and by means of water utilization analysis, water consumption distribution balance test water from every sequence of production activities, Baosteel promotes the waste saving projects including waster water comprehensive utilization and water loss reduction.At the same time, the water utilization technology analysis work and management work have considerably strengthened and operation of saving on fresh water sources and waster water utilization has been put into practice with the purpose to decrease water loss per ton of steel making, while the quality of water is placed under guarantee, a number of new records of water consumption ratio comes into being constantly.

  5. Motimo:Save the Water,Save the World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Do you think that textile industry is something related only with fashion and shiny models?You are wrong. Textile industry has much deeper connection with your lives than you can imagine.For example,those fibers made from specific items with special technologies can be so soft that we can make our under wears out of it,and it can also be so hard that we dress our satellites and rockets with it. There is no need to discuss the importance of water.And there is no need to describe what a water crisis we are in either.Yes,this blue planet is hunger for water,and one of

  6. Advances in Biological Water-saving Research: Challenge and Perspectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lun Shan; Xiping Deng; Suiqi Zhang

    2006-01-01

    Increasing the efficiency of water use by crops continues to escalate as a topic of concern because drought is a restrictive environmental factor for crop productivity worldwide. Greater yield per unit rainfall is one of the most important challenges in water-saving agriculture. Besides water-saving by irrigation engineering and conservation tillage, a good understanding of factors limiting and/or regulating yield now provides us with an opportunity to identify and then precisely select for physiological and breeding traits that increase the efficiency of water use and drought tolerance under water-limited conditions, biological water-saving is one means of achieving this goat. A definition of biological water-saving measures is proposed which embraces improvements in water-use efficiency (WUE) and drought tolerance, by genetic improvement and physiological regulation. The preponderance of biological water-saving measures is discussed and strategies identified for working within natural resource constraints. The technology and future perspectives of biological water saving could provide not only new water-saving techniques but also a scientific base for application of water-saving irrigation and conservation tillage.

  7. A sub-tank water-saving drinking water station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting

    2017-05-01

    amount of water consumption, the drinking water station is different from the ordinary drinking water station repeatedly boil, greatly saving energy, embodies the idea of energy saving.

  8. Systems assessment of water savings impact of controlled environment agriculture (CEA) utilizing wirelessly networked Sense•Decide•Act•Communicate (SDAC) systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Jonathan T.; Baynes, Edward E., Jr.; Aguirre,Carlos (University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX); Jordan, Jon (University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ); Giacomelli, Gene (University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ); Waggoner, Justin (New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM); Loest, Clint (New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM); Szumel, Leo; Nakaoka, Tyler; Pate, Ronald C.; Berry, Nina M.; Pohl, Phillip Isabio; Aguirre, Francisco Luis (Invernaderos y Maquinaria Aguirre, Cd., Aldama, Chihuahua, Mexico); Aguilar, Jose (University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX); Gupta, Vipin P.; Ochoa, Juan (University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX); Davis, Jesse Zehring; Ramos, Damian (University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX)

    2005-02-01

    Reducing agricultural water use in arid regions while maintaining or improving economic productivity of the agriculture sector is a major challenge. Controlled environment agriculture (CEA, or, greenhouse agriculture) affords advantages in direct resource use (less land and water required) and productivity (i.e., much higher product yield and quality per unit of resources used) relative to conventional open-field practices. These advantages come at the price of higher operating complexity and costs per acre. The challenge is to implement and apply CEA such that the productivity and resource use advantages will sufficiently outweigh the higher operating costs to provide for overall benefit and viability. This project undertook an investigation of CEA for livestock forage production as a water-saving alternative to open-field forage production in arid regions. Forage production is a large consumer of fresh water in many arid regions of the world, including the southwestern U.S. and northern Mexico. With increasing competition among uses (agriculture, municipalities, industry, recreation, ecosystems, etc.) for limited fresh water supplies, agricultural practice alternatives that can potentially maintain or enhance productivity while reducing water use warrant consideration. The project established a pilot forage production greenhouse facility in southern New Mexico based on a relatively modest and passive (no active heating or cooling) system design pioneered in Chihuahua, Mexico. Experimental operations were initiated in August 2004 and carried over into early-FY05 to collect data and make initial assessments of operational and technical system performance, assess forage nutrition content and suitability for livestock, identify areas needing improvement, and make initial assessment of overall feasibility. The effort was supported through the joint leveraging of late-start FY04 LDRD funds and bundled CY2004 project funding from the New Mexico Small Business Technical

  9. Water savings of redistributing global crop production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kyle; Seveso, Antonio; Rulli, Maria Cristina; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Human demand for crop production is expected to increase substantially in the coming decades as a result of population growth, richer diets and biofuel use. For food production to keep pace, unprecedented amounts of resources - water, fertilizers, energy - will be required. This has led to calls for 'sustainable intensification' in which yields are increased on existing croplands while seeking to minimize impacts on water and other agricultural resources. Recent studies have quantified aspects of this, showing that there is a large potential to improve crop yields and increase harvest frequencies to better meet human demand. Though promising, both solutions would necessitate large additional inputs of water and fertilizer in order to be achieved under current technologies. However, the question of whether the current distribution of crops is, in fact, the best for realizing maximized production has not been considered to date. To this end, we ask: Is it possible to minimize water demand by simply growing crops where soil and climate conditions are best suited? Here we use maps of agro-ecological suitability - a measure of physical and chemical soil fertility - for 15 major food crops to identify differences between current crop distributions and where they can most suitably be planted. By redistributing crops across currently cultivated lands, we determine what distribution of crops would maintain current calorie production and agricultural value while minimizing the water demand of crop production. In doing this, our study provides a novel tool for policy makers and managers to integrate food security, environmental sustainability, and rural livelihoods by improving the use of freshwater resources without compromising crop calorie production or rural livelihoods.

  10. Impact of savings groups on the lives of the poor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlan, Dean; Savonitto, Beniamino; Thuysbaert, Bram; Udry, Christopher

    2017-03-21

    Savings-led microfinance programs operate in poor rural communities in developing countries to establish groups that save and then lend out the accumulated savings to each other. Nonprofit organizations train villagers to create and lead these groups. In a clustered randomized evaluation spanning three African countries (Ghana, Malawi, and Uganda), we find that the promotion of these community-based microfinance groups leads to an improvement in household business outcomes and women's empowerment. However, we do not find evidence of impacts on average consumption or other livelihoods.

  11. Water-saving interventions assessment framework: an application for the Urmia Lake Restoration Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadkam, Somayeh; Oel, Pieter; Kabat, Pavel; Ludwig, Fulco

    2017-04-01

    Increasing water demand often results in unsustainable water use leaving insufficient amounts of water for sustaining natural environments. Therefore, to save natural resources water-saving interventions have been introduced to the environmental policy agenda in many (semi)-arid regions. Many policies, however, have failed reaching their objectives to increase water availability for the environment. This calls for a comprehensive tool to assess water-saving policies. Therefore, this study introduces a constructive framework to assess the policies by estimating five components: 1) Total water demand under socio-economic scenarios, 2) Water supply under climate change scenarios, 3) Water withdrawal for different sectors, 4) Water depletion and 5) Environmental flow. The framework, was applied to assess Urmia Lake Restoration Program (ULRP), which aims to restore the drying Urmia Lake in north-western Iran by increasing the lake inflow by 3.1×106m3yr-1. Results suggest that although the ULRP helps to increase inflow by up to 57% it is unlikely to fully reach its target. The analysis shows that there are three main reasons for the potential poor performance. The first reason is decreasing return flows due to increasing irrigation efficiency. This means that the expected increase in lake inflow volume is smaller than the volume saved by increasing irrigation efficiency. The second reason is increased depletion which is due to neglecting the fact that agricultural water demand is currently higher than available water for agriculture. As a result, increasing water use efficiency may result in increased water depletion. The third reason is ignoring the potential impact of climate change, which might decrease future water availability by 3% to 15%. Our analysis suggests that to reach the intervention target, measures need to focus on reducing Water demand and Water depletion rather than on reducing Water withdrawals. The assessment framework can be used to comprehensively

  12. Water Savings of Crop Redistribution in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Frankel Davis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Demographic growth, changes in diet, and reliance on first-generation biofuels are increasing the human demand for agricultural products, thereby enhancing the human pressure on global freshwater resources. Recent research on the food-water nexus has highlighted how some major agricultural regions of the world lack the water resources required to sustain current growth trends in crop production. To meet the increasing need for agricultural commodities with limited water resources, the water use efficiency of the agricultural sector must be improved. In this regard, recent work indicates that the often overlooked strategy of changing the crop distribution within presently cultivated areas offers promise. Here we investigate the extent to which water in the United States could be saved while improving yields simply by replacing the existing crops with more suitable ones. We propose crop replacement criteria that achieve this goal while preserving crop diversity, economic value, nitrogen fixation, and food protein production. We find that in the United States, these criteria would greatly improve calorie (+46% and protein (+34% production and economic value (+208%, with 5% water savings with respect to the present crop distribution. Interestingly, greater water savings could be achieved in water-stressed agricultural regions of the US such as California (56% water savings, and other western states.

  13. Economic evaluation of water loss saving due to the biological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economic evaluation of water loss saving due to the biological control of water hyacinth at New ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... The benefit/cost ratio at the low evapotranspiration rate was less than one, implying that ...

  14. IS A DROP OF WATER WORTH SAVING??

    OpenAIRE

    Anantha Krishna; Lakshman; Ajitha

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In this era of progressive draught, a conscious effort needs to be made to conserve water. Routine scrubbing with soap and water prior to surgery is a standard for surgical disinfection. Recently waterless dry scrubbing technique using nonaqueous disinfectant, otherwise called Hand rub technique has been proposed to be an equally effective alternative. This study has attempted to find out if any differences exist between the two methods of surgical scrubbing with refer...

  15. Water-saving Agriculture: An Urgent Issue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The twentieth century has witnessed the great effort of mankind to strive for more food production, which has led to an unprecedented increase in grain production known as the First Green Revolution. As mankind entered the 21st century, the Blue Revolution - the struggle in agriculture for better use of water resources - has just begun. Norman E. Borlaug, 1970 Nobel Peace Prize Laureate,said in 2000, "how can we continue to expand food production for a growing world population within the parameters of likely water availability? The inevitable conclusion is that humankind in the 21stCentury will need to bring about a 'Blue Revolution - more crop for every drop' to complement the ‘Green Revolution' of the 20th Century. Water use productivity must be wedded to land use productivity. Science and technology will be called upon to show the way".

  16. Energy Savings and Breakeven Cost for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, J.; Burch, J.; Merrigan, T.; Ong, S.

    2013-07-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently reemerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, simulations were performed of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern US. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern US, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

  17. Energy Savings and Breakeven Costs for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burch, Jay [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Merrigan, Tim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ong, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently re-emerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, NREL performed simulations of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern United States. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern United States, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

  18. IS A DROP OF WATER WORTH SAVING??

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anantha Krishna

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In this era of progressive draught, a conscious effort needs to be made to conserve water. Routine scrubbing with soap and water prior to surgery is a standard for surgical disinfection. Recently waterless dry scrubbing technique using nonaqueous disinfectant, otherwise called Hand rub technique has been proposed to be an equally effective alternative. This study has attempted to find out if any differences exist between the two methods of surgical scrubbing with reference to surface flora on the surgeons hand and the rates of wound infection for the patient. METHODS: A prospective randomised study was done using a non-inferiority hypothesis comparing the efficacy of the two scrub methods. Post procedure glove Juice was cultured to look for bacterial growth. Patients were also followed up to look for wound infection. RESULTS: A total of 150 cases were included in the study conducted from October 2013 to February 2014. Ten cases were excluded as they satisfied the exclusion criteria. Among the cases studied, culture was positive in 1 of the 71 cases in the waterless dry scrub arm. No cultures were positive in the routine scrub arm. There were 3 cases of wound infection in the hand rub group and 5 cases of wound infection in the routine scrub group. CONCLUSION: No statistically significant differences exist between routine scrub and the hand rub technique with regard to flora on surgeons hand and the wound infection rates. Hence hand rub can be recommended as an effective alternative to routine scrub and conserve water.

  19. Energy Savings Potential for Pumping Water in District Heating Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Sarbu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In district heating stations, the heat carrier is circulated between the energy source and consumers by a pumping system. Fluid handling systems, such as pumping systems, are responsible for a significant portion of the total electrical energy use. Significant opportunities exist to reduce pumping energy through smart design, retrofitting, and operating practices. Most existing systems requiring flow control make use of bypass lines, throttling valves or pump speed adjustments. The most efficient of these options is pump speed control. One of the issues in using variable-speed pumping systems, however, is the total efficiency of the electric motor/pump arrangement under a given operating condition. This paper provides a comprehensive discussion about pump control in heating stations and analyzes the energy efficiency of flow control methods. Specific attention is also given to the selection of motor types, sizing and pump duty cycle. A comparative energy analysis is performed on the hot water discharge adjustment using throttling control valves and variable-speed drives in a district heating station constructed in Romania. To correlate the pumped flow rate with the heat demand and to ensure the necessary pressure using minimum energy, an automatic system has been designed. The performances of these control methods are evaluated in two practical applications. The results show that approximately 20%–50% of total pumping energy could be saved by using the optimal control method with variable-speed pumps. Additionally, some modernization solutions to reduce the environmental impact of heating stations are described.

  20. Irrigation with desalinated water: A step toward increasing water saving and crop yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silber, Avner; Israeli, Yair; Elingold, Idan; Levi, Menashe; Levkovitch, Irit; Russo, David; Assouline, Shmuel

    2015-01-01

    We examined the impact of two different approaches to managing irrigation water salinity: salt leaching from the field ("conventional" management) and water desalination before field application ("alternative" management). Freshwater commonly used for irrigation (FW) and desalinated water (DS) were applied to the high-water-demanding crop banana at four different rates. Both irrigation rate and water salinity significantly affected yield. DS application consistently produced higher yields than FW, independently of irrigation rate. The highest yield for FW-irrigation was achieved with the highest irrigation rate, whereas the same yield was obtained in the case of DS-irrigation with practically half the amount of water. Yield decreased with FW-irrigation, even when the water salinity, ECi, was lower than the limit considered safe for soil and crops. Irrigating with FW provided a massive amount of salt which accumulated in the rhizosphere, inducing increased osmotic potential of the soil solution and impairing plant water uptake. Furthermore, applying the "conventional" management, a significant amount of salt is leached from the rhizosphere, accumulating in deeper soil layers, and eventually reaching groundwater reservoirs, thus contributing to the deterioration of both soil and water quality. Removal of salt excess from the water before it reaches the field by means of DS-irrigation may save significant amounts of irrigation water by reducing the salt leaching requirements while increasing yield and improving fruit quality, and decreasing salt load in the groundwater.

  1. Institutional and structural barriers for implementing on-farm water saving irrigation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Boesen, Mads Vejlby; Ørum, Jens Erik

    2013-01-01

    Population growth and increased global water demand has intensified the need to apply water more efficiently. As the main global water user the agricultural sector needs special attention. In this study, the water saving potential of new drip irrigation systems has been investigated in five...... to new water saving technologies are low in many of these regions due to low profitability of water savings and various institutional and structural barriers. On Crete, however, attempts have been made with regulation and volumetric water levies, resulting in the adoption of water saving technology...... are suggested to improve incentives to save water among farmers....

  2. Holistic impact assessment and cost savings of rainwater harvesting at the watershed scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh R. Ghimire

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the impacts of domestic and agricultural rainwater harvesting (RWH systems in three watersheds within the Albemarle-Pamlico river basin (southeastern U.S. using life cycle assessment (LCA and life cycle cost assessment. Life cycle impact assessment (LCIA categories included energy demand, fossil fuel, metals, ozone depletion, global warming, acidification, smog, blue and green water use, ecotoxicity, eutrophication, and human health effects. Building upon previous LCAs of near-optimal domestic and agricultural RWH systems in the region, we scaled functional unit LCIA scores for adoption rates of 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% and compared these to conventional municipal water and well water systems. In addition to investigating watershed-scale impacts of RWH adoption, which few studies have addressed, potential life cycle cost savings due to reduced cumulative energy demand were scaled in each watershed for a more comprehensive analysis. The importance of managing the holistic water balance, including blue water (surface/ground water, green water (rainwater use, and annual precipitation and their relationship to RWH are also addressed. RWH contributes to water resource sustainability by offsetting surface and ground water consumption and by reducing environmental and human health impacts compared to conventional sources. A watershed-wide RWH adoption rate of 25% has a number of ecological and human health benefits including blue water use reduction ranging from 2–39 Mm3, cumulative energy savings of 12–210 TJ, and reduced global warming potential of 600–10,100 Mg CO2 eq. Potential maximum lifetime energy cost savings were estimated at $5M and $24M corresponding to domestic RWH in Greens Mill and agricultural RWH in Back Creek watersheds.

  3. Analysis on the Water-saving Irrigation Technique Based on the Perspective of Food Safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinpeng; HUANG; Benfu; WANG; Bende; ZHOU

    2014-01-01

    The paper analyzed the important role of water saving in protecting the food safety,introduced the present development of agricultural water-saving technique,pointed out the potential risks of water resources,and proposed the future development of water-saving irrigation.

  4. Performance evaluation of conventional and water saving taps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidar, A M; Memon, F A; Butler, D

    2016-01-15

    The rapid pace of urbanisation comes with considerable environmental implications including pressures on already stressed limited water resources. In urban areas, most of the water use is associated with water consumption in buildings. The second largest use of water is via taps. It is often assumed that water taps with low flow rates can contribute to reduced per capita water consumption. However, this is based on very little evidence. This paper presents the synthesis of a 13,000 high resolution observations made to investigate the actual water consumption of innovative (water saving) electronic taps and conventional mixer taps. High resolution flow-meters and data loggers were fitted into two washrooms in two different buildings of a higher education institution to record the water use through the basin taps. The recorded data provided information on duration, frequency of use and volume of water consumption per use. The data was helpful in identifying trends in hot and cold water use and therefore can be useful in estimating energy for producing hot water and associated greenhouse gas emissions. Analysis of the observed data suggests that the low flow taps have greater mean water consumption per event than the conventional taps and water consumption is more influenced by user behaviour rather than the technology.

  5. Amount of water needed to save 1 m3 of water: life cycle assessment of a flow regulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Markus; Söchtig, Michael; Weis, Christoph; Finkbeiner, Matthias

    2017-06-01

    Water saving devices in the sanitary equipment, such as flow regulators, are assumed to be environmentally advantageous even though their environmental benefit has never been compared to the environmental burden caused during their production und disposal. Therefore, a life cycle assessment according to ISO 14044 has been conducted to identify and quantify the environmental effects throughout the lifespan of a flow regulator. The analysis comprises the production of materials, manufacturing of components at suppliers, the assembly at NEOPERL®, all transports, savings of water and thermal energy during use as well as waste incineration including energy recovery in the end-of-life stage. Results show that the production of one flow regulator causes 0.12 MJ primary energy demand, a global warming potential of 5.9 g CO2-equivalent, and a water consumption of 30.3 ml. On the other hand, during a use of 10 years, it saves 19,231 MJ primary energy, 1223 kg CO2-equivalent, and avoids a water consumption of 790 l (166,200 l water use). Since local impacts of water consumption are more relevant than volumes, consequences of water consumption have been analyzed using recently developed impact assessment models. Accordingly, the production of a flow regulator causes 8.5 ml freshwater depletion, 1.4 × 10-13 disability adjusted life years, and 4.8 × 10-6 potentially disappeared fractions of species m2 a. Even though avoided environmental impacts resulting from water savings highly depend on the region where the flow regulator is used, the analysis has shown that environmental benefits are at least 15,000 times higher than impacts caused during the production.

  6. Managing water pressure for water savings in developing countries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-03-03

    Mar 3, 2014 ... ment of water distribution systems based on the water balance and performance .... The first comprehensive concept of real loss components and influenc- ...... residual pressure as design criterion for South African water distri-.

  7. Methodology for Outdoor Water Savings Model and Spreadsheet Tool for U.S. and Selected States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Alison A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chen, Yuting [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dunham, Camilla [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fuchs, Heidi [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Sarah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stratton, Hannah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-07-31

    Green lawns and landscaping are archetypical of the populated American landscape, and typically require irrigation, which corresponds to a significant fraction of residential, commercial, and institutional water use. In North American cities, the estimated portion of residential water used for outdoor purposes ranges from 22-38% in cooler climates up to 59-67% in dry and hot environments, while turfgrass coverage within the United States spans 11.1-20.2 million hectares (Milesi et al. 2009). One national estimate uses satellite and aerial photography data to develop a relationship between impervious surface and lawn surface area, yielding a conservative estimate of 16.4 (± 3.6) million hectares of lawn surface area in the United States—an area three times larger than that devoted to any irrigated crop (Milesi et al. 2005). One approach that holds promise for cutting unnecessary outdoor water use is the increased deployment of “smart” irrigation controllers to increase the water efficiency of irrigation systems. This report describes the methodology and inputs employed in a mathematical model that quantifies the effects of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s WaterSense labeling program for one such type of controller, weather-based irrigation controllers (WBIC). This model builds off that described in “Methodology for National Water Savings Model and Spreadsheet Tool–Outdoor Water Use” and uses a two-tiered approach to quantify outdoor water savings attributable to the WaterSense program for WBIC, as well as net present value (NPV) of that savings. While the first iteration of the model assessed national impacts using averaged national values, this version begins by evaluating impacts in three key large states that make up a sizable portion of the irrigation market: California, Florida, and Texas. These states are considered to be the principal market of “smart” irrigation controllers that may result in the bulk of national savings. Modeled

  8. "Water Is Life"--Farmer Rationales and Water Saving in Khorezm, Uzbekistan: A Lifeworld Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberkircher, Lisa; Hornidge, Anna-Katharina

    2011-01-01

    Khorezm Province is located in the Amu Darya lowlands of Uzbekistan, where unsustainable use of irrigation water has led to the Aral Sea crisis. This study deals with the question of how farmers in Khorezm perceive water and its management and how this facilitates or prevents water conservation, or "water saving," in irrigated…

  9. "Water Is Life"--Farmer Rationales and Water Saving in Khorezm, Uzbekistan: A Lifeworld Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberkircher, Lisa; Hornidge, Anna-Katharina

    2011-01-01

    Khorezm Province is located in the Amu Darya lowlands of Uzbekistan, where unsustainable use of irrigation water has led to the Aral Sea crisis. This study deals with the question of how farmers in Khorezm perceive water and its management and how this facilitates or prevents water conservation, or "water saving," in irrigated…

  10. "Water Is Life"--Farmer Rationales and Water Saving in Khorezm, Uzbekistan: A Lifeworld Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberkircher, Lisa; Hornidge, Anna-Katharina

    2011-01-01

    Khorezm Province is located in the Amu Darya lowlands of Uzbekistan, where unsustainable use of irrigation water has led to the Aral Sea crisis. This study deals with the question of how farmers in Khorezm perceive water and its management and how this facilitates or prevents water conservation, or "water saving," in irrigated agriculture. To…

  11. Self-supporting power plant. Capturing evaporated water and save energy a new source of water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daal, Ludwin; Vos, Frank de [KEMA Netherlands BV, Arnhem (Netherlands). Process and Cooling Water; KEMA Energy Consulting Co.Ltd, Beijing (China); Wageningen Univ. (Netherlands). Environmental Systems Analysis; Heijboer, Rob [KEMA Netherlands BV, Arnhem (Netherlands). Process and Cooling Water; Bekker, Bert [KEMA Energy Consulting Co.Ltd, Beijing (China); Gao, Xiu Xiu [Wageningen Univ. (Netherlands). Environmental Systems Analysis

    2013-07-01

    One of the major challenges of this century is the provision of water for a growing population and industry. The shortage in water resources in arid areas requires the availability of more efficient and cheaper water production processes. In some arid regions water is even more important than electricity. A large source of water is found in the form of evaporated water emitted from different industrial processes. If for example 20% of the evaporated water from the flue gas stream of a coal fired power plant would be captured, the plant would be self-supporting from a process water point of view. This is about 30m{sup 3} of water per hour. The results of the proof of principle project (2001-2008) show that >40% recovery can be achieved. Also an overall energy efficiency improvement can be achieved for industrial plants that reheat their flue gases. Calculations show that this can be about 1% overall efficiency for a coal fired power plant utilizing flue gas reheating. With an installed capacity of more than 600GWe in China, this energy saving results in a very large economic and fuel (coal) impact. This energy efficiency will most likely be the driving force to implement the technology in both water rich and water poor regions. For the capture of evaporated water no chemicals are used, there is no waste water formed and corrosion attack in stacks is mitigated. These results have led to the set up of a large international project named CapWa which aims to produce a membrane modular system suitable for industrial applications within 2-3years. The produced demin water from this system should be competitive with existing demin water technologies. The starting point will be the water vapour selective composite membranes that are developed in the proof of principle project. The CapWa project started in 2010 and consists of 14 partners of which 9 from the EU, 3 from the African continent and 2 from the Middle East.

  12. The Impact of Process Scaling on Scratchpad Memory Energy Savings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennion Redd

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Scratchpad memories have been shown to reduce power consumption, but the different characteristics of nanometer scale processes, such as increased leakage power, motivate an examination of how the benefits of these memories change with process scaling. Process and application characteristics affect the amount of energy saved by a scratchpad memory. Increases in leakage as a percentage of total power particularly impact applications that rarely access memory. This study examines how the benefits of scratchpad memories have changed in newer processes, based on the measured performance of the WIMS (Wireless Integrated MicroSystems microcontroller implemented in 180- and 65-nm processes and upon simulations of this microcontroller implemented in a 32-nm process. The results demonstrate that scratchpad memories will continue to improve the power dissipation of many applications, given the leakage anticipated in the foreseeable future.

  13. Water saving in lowland rice production: an experimental and modeling study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belder, P.

    2005-01-01

    Increasing demand for rice and decreasing water diversions to agriculture, urge for higher water productivity in rice production systems. One way to deal with this challenge is using water-saving regimes on field scale. The main objective of this study was to quantify the effects of water-saving

  14. The Life Cycle CO2 (LCCO2 Evaluation of Retrofits for Water-Saving Fittings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasutoshi Shimizu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available As part of measures being taken against global warming, the reduction of CO2 emissions by retrofitting for water-saving fittings in homes is spreading throughout the world. However, although this retrofitting reduces the environmental impact at the use stage, it generates new impacts at the production and disposal stages. In addition, there has been little research that discusses the reduction in environmental impact obtained by retrofitting from the viewpoint of the overall life cycle of such fittings. In this paper, an evaluation of the environmental impact of retrofitting in terms of the entire life cycle was carried out for toilet bowls and showerheads. The findings show that even for a toilet bowl that generates a large environmental load at the production stage, there is no overall increase in the environmental impact by retrofitting for the average usable life of 20 years.

  15. Water savings potentials of irrigation systems: dynamic global simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jägermeyr, J.; Gerten, D.; Heinke, J.; Schaphoff, S.; Kummu, M.; Lucht, W.

    2015-04-01

    Global agricultural production is heavily sustained by irrigation, but irrigation system efficiencies are often surprisingly low. However, our knowledge of irrigation efficiencies is mostly confined to rough indicative estimates for countries or regions that do not account for spatio-temporal heterogeneity due to climate and other biophysical dependencies. To allow for refined estimates of global agricultural water use, and of water saving and water productivity potentials constrained by biophysical processes and also non-trivial downstream effects, we incorporated a dynamic representation of the three major irrigation systems (surface, sprinkler, and drip) into a process-based bio- and agrosphere model, LPJmL. Based on this enhanced model we provide a gridded worldmap of dynamically retrieved irrigation efficiencies reflecting differences in system types, crop types, climatic and hydrologic conditions, and overall crop management. We find pronounced regional patterns in beneficial irrigation efficiency (a refined irrigation efficiency indicator accounting for crop-productive water consumption only), due to differences in these features, with lowest values (values (> 60%) in Europe and North America. We arrive at an estimate of global irrigation water withdrawal of 2396 km3 (2004-2009 average); irrigation water consumption is calculated to be 1212 km3, of which 511 km3 are non-beneficially consumed, i.e. lost through evaporation, interception, and conveyance. Replacing surface systems by sprinkler or drip systems could, on average across the world's river basins, reduce the non-beneficial consumption at river basin level by 54 and 76%, respectively, while maintaining the current level of crop yields. Accordingly, crop water productivity would increase by 9 and 15%, respectively, and by much more in specific regions such as in the Indus basin. This study significantly advances the global quantification of irrigation systems while providing a framework for assessing

  16. Health Belief Model and Reasoned Action Theory in Predicting Water Saving Behaviors in Yazd, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Ghaneian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: People's behaviors and intentions about healthy behaviors depend on their beliefs, values, and knowledge about the issue. Various models of health education are used in deter-mining predictors of different healthy behaviors but their efficacy in cultural behaviors, such as water saving behaviors, are not studied. The study was conducted to explain water saving beha-viors in Yazd, Iran on the basis of Health Belief Model and Reasoned Action Theory. Methods: The cross-sectional study used random cluster sampling to recruit 200 heads of households to collect the data. The survey questionnaire was tested for its content validity and reliability. Analysis of data included descriptive statistics, simple correlation, hierarchical multiple regression. Results: Simple correlations between water saving behaviors and Reasoned Action Theory and Health Belief Model constructs were statistically significant. Health Belief Model and Reasoned Action Theory constructs explained 20.80% and 8.40% of the variances in water saving beha-viors, respectively. Perceived barriers were the strongest Predictor. Additionally, there was a sta-tistically positive correlation between water saving behaviors and intention. Conclusion: In designing interventions aimed at water waste prevention, barriers of water saving behaviors should be addressed first, followed by people's attitude towards water saving. Health Belief Model constructs, with the exception of perceived severity and benefits, is more powerful than is Reasoned Action Theory in predicting water saving behavior and may be used as a framework for educational interventions aimed at improving water saving behaviors.

  17. Saving water? : analysis of options for rice-based farms in Tamil Nadu, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Senthilkumar, K.

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: Modified rice cultivation, Water-saving, Farm typology, Technology adoption, Policy interventions, Farmers livelihoods, Resource use efficiency and Linear programming. The looming water crisis and water-intensive nature of rice cultivation are driving the search for alternative management

  18. Development Potentials and Benefit Analysis of Efficient Water-saving Irrigation in Lixin County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng; CAO

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of analyzing water resources,crop planning structure,and irrigation mode in Lixin County,potentials and benefits of developing efficient water-saving irrigation in the county were explored to provide references for its future water-saving irrigation.

  19. Do Wealthier Households Save More? – The Impact of the Demographic Factor

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between wealth, ageing and saving behaviour of private households by using pooled cross sections of German consumption survey data. Different components of wealth are distinguished, as their impact on the savings rate is not homogeneous. On average, the effect attributed to real estate dominates the other components of wealth. In addition, the savings rate strongly responds to demographic trends. Besides the direct impact of the age structure, an indir...

  20. Saving Futures, Saving Dollars: The Impact of Education on Crime Reduction and Earnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBaun, Bill; Roc, Martens

    2013-01-01

    The nation could save as much as $18.5 billion in annual crime costs if the high school male graduation rate increased by only 5 percentage points, a new report from the Alliance for Excellent Education finds. This report examines and builds upon research that links lower levels of educational attainment with higher rates of arrests and…

  1. BEST Winery Guidebook: Benchmarking and Energy and Water SavingsTool for the Wine Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst; Radspieler, Anthony; Healy,Patrick; Zechiel, Susanne

    2005-10-15

    Not all industrial facilities have the staff or the opportunity to perform a detailed audit of their operations. The lack of knowledge of energy efficiency opportunities provides an important barrier to improving efficiency. Benchmarking has demonstrated to help energy users understand energy use and the potential for energy efficiency improvement, reducing the information barrier. In California, the wine making industry is not only one of the economic pillars of the economy; it is also a large energy consumer, with a considerable potential for energy-efficiency improvement. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Fetzer Vineyards developed an integrated benchmarking and self-assessment tool for the California wine industry called ''BEST''(Benchmarking and Energy and water Savings Tool) Winery. BEST Winery enables a winery to compare its energy efficiency to a best practice winery, accounting for differences in product mix and other characteristics of the winery. The tool enables the user to evaluate the impact of implementing energy and water efficiency measures. The tool facilitates strategic planning of efficiency measures, based on the estimated impact of the measures, their costs and savings. BEST Winery is available as a software tool in an Excel environment. This report serves as background material, documenting assumptions and information on the included energy and water efficiency measures. It also serves as a user guide for the software package.

  2. Water consumption and water-saving characteristics of a ground cover rice production system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xinxin; Zuo, Qiang; Ma, Wenwen; Li, Sen; Shi, Jianchu; Tao, Yueyue; Zhang, Yanan; Liu, Yang; Liu, Xiaofei; Lin, Shan; Ben-Gal, Alon

    2016-09-01

    The ground cover rice production system (GCRPS) offers a potentially water-saving alternative to the traditional paddy rice production system (TPRPS) by furrow irrigating mulched soil beds and maintaining soils under predominately unsaturated conditions. The guiding hypothesis of this study was that a GCRPS would decrease both physiological and non-physiological water consumption of rice compared to a TPRPS while either maintaining or enhancing production. This was tested in a two-year field experiment with three treatments (TPRPS, GCRPSsat keeping root zone average soil water content near saturated, and GCRPS80% keeping root zone average soil water content as 80-100% of field water capacity) and a greenhouse experiment with four treatments (TPRPS, GCRPSsat, GCRPSfwc keeping root zone average soil water content close to field water capacity, and GCRPS80%). The water-saving characteristics of GCRPS were analyzed as a function of the measured soil water conditions, plant parameters regarding growth and production, and water input and consumption. In the field experiment, significant reduction in both physiological and non-physiological water consumption under GCRPS lead to savings in irrigation water of ∼61-84% and reduction in total input water of ∼35-47%. Compared to TPRPS, deep drainage was reduced ∼72-88%, evaporation was lessened ∼83-89% and transpiration was limited ∼6-10% under GCRPS. In addition to saving water, plant growth and grain yield were enhanced under GCRPS due to increased soil temperature in the root zone. Therefore, water use efficiencies (WUEs), based on transpiration, irrigation and total input water, were respectively improved as much as 27%, 609% and 110% under GCRPS. Increased yield attributed to up to ∼19%, decreased deep drainage accounted for ∼75%, decreased evaporation accounted for ∼14% and reduced transpiration for ∼5% of the enhancement in WUE of input water under GCRPS, while increased runoff and water storage had

  3. Options for Water, Energy and Chemical Savings for Finitex, Cape Town

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Zsig; Wenzel, Henrik

    An analysis of the options identified for saving of water, energy and chemicals was conducted at Finitex, Cape Town on the 18th October 2002. Cost savings were calculated from an estimation of the reduction in cost of water, energy and chemical usage associated with various interventions. Capital...

  4. Adoption of farm-based irrigation water-saving techniques in the Guanzhong Plain, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Jianjun; Folmer, Henk; Xue, Jianhong

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses adoption of farm-based irrigation water saving techniques, based on a cross-sectional data set of 357 farmers in the Guanzhong Plain, China. Approximately 83% of the farmers use at least one farm-based water-saving technique. However, the traditional, inefficient techniques bor

  5. Determinants of agricultural water saving technology adoption: an empirical study of 10 provinces of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In recent years,China has been faced by an increasingly severe water shortage due to the continua growth of demand on water resources.Although the Chinese government has been actively promoting the agricultural water-saving technology adoption,it is ill-informed of the adoption degree of the current agricultural water saving technologies as well as the function of the governmental policies.Therefore,this paper analyzes the aforesaid problems based on investigative data of 10 provinces in China.The results demonstrate that although there is a rapid increase of adopted agricultural water-saving technologies,the actual adoption area is rather limited.Moreover,the governmental policies and scarcity of water resources are the determinants of agricultural water-saving technology adoption.Ultimately,the paper proposes some policy suggestions.

  6. Water-Saving and High-Yielding Irrigation for Lowland Rice by Controlling Limiting Values of Soil Water Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigated whether an irrigation system could be established to save water and increase grain yield to enhance water productivity by proper water management at the field level in irrigated lowland rice (Oryza sativa L.). Using two field-grown rice cultivars, two irrigation systems; conventional irrigation and water-saving irrigation, were conducted.In the water-saving irrigation system, limiting values of soil water potential related to specific growth stages were proposed as irrigation indices. Compared with conventional irrigation where drainage was in mid-season and flooded at other times,the water-saving irrigation increased grain yield by 7.4% to 11.3%, reduced irrigation water by 24.5% to 29.2%, and increased water productivity (grain yield per cubic meter of irrigation water) by 43.1% to 50.3%. The water-saving irrigation significantly increased harvest index, improved milling and appearance qualities, elevated zeatin +zeatin riboside concentrations in root bleedings and enhanced activities of sucrose synthase, adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase, starch synthase and starch branching enzyme in grains. Our results indicate that water-saving irrigation by controlling limiting values of soil water potential related to specific growth stages can enhance physiological activities of roots and grains,reduce water input, and increase grain yield.

  7. Agricultural water-saving potential and feasibility of developing semi-dryland farming in Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Xiuqiao; Wang Jinglei

    2013-01-01

    Based on the collected data in the current status of developing and utilizing water resources and imple-menting water-saving agriculture in Henan Province,and taking into account the influence of engineering,agro-nomic and management measures,the water-saving potential in past years and the feasibility of implementing semi-dryland farming were analyzed in Henan Province. Finally,specific technical measures of developing semi-dryland farming in different areas of Henan Province were proposed.

  8. Impact of Extended Daylight Saving Time on National Energy Consumption Report to Congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belzer, D. B.; Hadley, S. W.; Chin, S-M.

    2008-10-01

    The Energy Policy Act of 2005 (Pub. L. No. 109-58; EPAct 2005) amended the Uniform Time Act of 1966 (Pub. L. No. 89-387) to increase the portion of the year that is subject to Daylight Saving Time. (15 U.S.C. 260a note) EPAct 2005 extended the duration of Daylight Saving Time in the spring by changing its start date from the first Sunday in April to the second Sunday in March, and in the fall by changing its end date from the last Sunday in October to the first Sunday in November. (15 U.S.C. 260a note) EPAct 2005 also called for the Department of Energy to evaluate the impact of Extended Daylight Saving Time on energy consumption in the United States and to submit a report to Congress. (15 U.S.C. 260a note) This report presents the results of impacts of Extended Daylight Saving Time on the national energy consumption in the United States. The key findings are: (1) The total electricity savings of Extended Daylight Saving Time were about 1.3 Tera Watt-hour (TWh). This corresponds to 0.5 percent per each day of Extended Daylight Saving Time, or 0.03 percent of electricity consumption over the year. In reference, the total 2007 electricity consumption in the United States was 3,900 TWh. (2) In terms of national primary energy consumption, the electricity savings translate to a reduction of 17 Trillion Btu (TBtu) over the spring and fall Extended Daylight Saving Time periods, or roughly 0.02 percent of total U.S. energy consumption during 2007 of 101,000 TBtu. (3) During Extended Daylight Saving Time, electricity savings generally occurred over a three- to five-hour period in the evening with small increases in usage during the early-morning hours. On a daily percentage basis, electricity savings were slightly greater during the March (spring) extension of Extended Daylight Saving Time than the November (fall) extension. On a regional basis, some southern portions of the United States exhibited slightly smaller impacts of Extended Daylight Saving Time on energy savings

  9. Impact of Medicare Shared Savings Program Accountable Care Organizations at Screening Mammography: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Anand K; Harvey, Susan C; Durand, Daniel J

    2017-02-01

    Purpose To evaluate the impact of accountable care organizations (ACOs) on use of screening mammography in the Medicare Shared Savings Program (MSSP), the largest value-based reimbursement program in U.S.

  10. Bank Savings and Bank Credits in Nigeria: Determinants and Impact on Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orji Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the determinants of bank savings in Nigeria as well as examined the impact of bank savings and bank credits on Nigeria’s economic growth from 1970-2006. We adopted two impact models; Distributed Lag-Error Correction Model (DL-ECM and Distributed Model. The empirical results showed a positive influence of values of GDP per capita (PCY, Financial Deepening (FSD, Interest Rate Spread (IRS and negative influence of Real Interest Rate (RIR and Inflation Rate (INFR on the size of private domestic savings. Also a positive relationship exists between the lagged values of total private savings, private sector credit, public sector credit, interest rate spread, exchange rates and economic growth. We therefore recommend, among others, that government’s effort should be geared towards improving per capita income by reducing the unemployment rate in the country in a bid to accelerate growth through enhanced savings.

  11. Discussion about the standard system on urban domestic water saving technology in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Shujun; REN Xiaoli; GAO Benhu

    2007-01-01

    Standard is the technical foundation of national economic and social development, and it is the basic rule of establishing social regulation.Researching and constituting the standard system of urban domestic water saving technology is to offer important science basis for revising standard plan and standardize research plan. This paper introduces the present situation of our urban domestic water saving technical standard system, problem and the development direction in the future, as well as project planning of constructing urban domestic water saving technical standard system.

  12. The Conservation Nexus: Valuing Interdependent Water and Energy Savings in Phoenix, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, M.; Bartos, M.

    2013-12-01

    Energy and water resources are intrinsically linked, yet they are managed separately--even in the water-scarce American southwest. This study develops a spatially-explicit model of water-energy interdependencies in Arizona, and assesses the potential for co-beneficial conservation programs. Arizona consumes 2.8% of its water demand for thermoelectric power and 8% of its electricity demand for water infrastructure--roughly twice the national average. The interdependent benefits of investments in 7 conservation strategies are assessed. Deployment of irrigation retrofits and new reclaimed water facilities dominate potential water savings, while residential and commercial HVAC improvements dominate energy savings. Water conservation policies have the potential to reduce statewide electricity demand by 1.0-2.9%, satisfying 5-14% of mandated energy-efficiency goals. Likewise, adoption of energy-efficiency measures and renewable generation portfolios can reduce non-agricultural water demand by 2.0-2.6%. These co-benefits of conservation investments are typically not included in conservation plans or benefit-cost analyses. Residential water conservation measures produce significant water and energy savings, but are generally not cost-effective at current water prices. An evaluation of the true cost of water in Arizona would allow future water and energy savings to be compared objectively, and would help policymakers allocate scarce resources to the highest-value conservation measures. Water Transfers between Water Cycle Components in Arizona in 2008 Cumulative embedded energy in water cycle components in Arizona in 2008

  13. The impact of fiscal policy and inflation on national saving: the Italian case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. MODIGLIANI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Apart from income there are two other main influences on national savings: fiscal policy and inflation. The authors construct a model of the Italian economy to analyse the impact of these two related variables. It is concluded that past government deficits have produced a proportional reduction in national saving. Since the early 1960s national savings have declined by nearly 9 percentage points, of which 3.6 percentage points can be accounted for by a 4 per cent increase in the government's deficit. The results regarding the impact of inflation are not definite, and no conclusion is drawn.

  14. Health Belief Model and Reasoned Action Theory in Predicting Water Saving Behaviors in Yazd, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Taghi Ghaneian; Mahdieh Momayyezi; Mohammad Ali Morowatisharifabad

    2012-01-01

    Background: People's behaviors and intentions about healthy behaviors depend on their beliefs, values, and knowledge about the issue. Various models of health education are used in deter-mining predictors of different healthy behaviors but their efficacy in cultural behaviors, such as water saving behaviors, are not studied. The study was conducted to explain water saving beha-viors in Yazd, Iran on the basis of Health Belief Model and Reasoned Action Theory. Methods: The cross-sectional stud...

  15. Costs and Savings Associated With Community Water Fluoridation Programs in Colorado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan M. O’Connell, PhD

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Local, state, and national health policy makers require information on the economic burden of oral disease and the cost-effectiveness of oral health programs to set policies and allocate resources. In this study, we estimate the cost savings associated with community water fluoridation programs (CWFPs in Colorado and potential cost savings if Colorado communities without fluoridation programs or naturally high fluoride levels were to implement CWFPs. Methods We developed an economic model to compare the costs associated with CWFPs with treatment savings achieved through averted tooth decay. Treatment savings included those associated with direct medical costs and indirect nonmedical costs (i.e., patient time spent on dental visit. We estimated program costs and treatment savings for each water system in Colorado in 2003 dollars. We obtained parameter estimates from published studies, national surveys, and other sources. We calculated net costs for Colorado water systems with existing CWFPs and potential net costs for systems without CWFPs. The analysis includes data for 172 public water systems in Colorado that serve populations of 1000 individuals or more. We used second-order Monte Carlo simulations to evaluate the inherent uncertainty of the model assumptions on the results and report the 95% credible range from the simulation model. Results We estimated that Colorado CWFPs were associated with annual savings of $148.9 million (credible range, $115.1 million to $187.2 million in 2003, or an average of $60.78 per person (credible range, $46.97 to $76.41. We estimated that Colorado would save an additional $46.6 million (credible range, $36.0 to $58.6 million annually if CWFPs were implemented in the 52 water systems without such programs and for which fluoridation is recommended. Conclusion Colorado realizes significant annual savings from CWFPs; additional savings and reductions in morbidity could be achieved if fluoridation

  16. Subsidizing the Adoption of Energy-Saving Technologies: Analyzing the Impact of Uncertainty, Learning and Maturation

    OpenAIRE

    Groot, Henri de; van Soest, Daan; Mulder, Peter

    2004-01-01

    textabstractAs part of the Kyoto Protocol, many countries have committed themselves to substantially reduce the emission of greenhouse gases within a politically imposed time constraint. Investment subsidies can be an important instrument to stimulate the adoption of energy-saving technologies to achieve emission reduction targets. This paper addresses the impact of adoption subsidies on the amount of energy savings, taking into account both the endogenous and uncertain nature of technologica...

  17. Potential fresh water saving using greywater in toilet flushing in Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, Khaldoon A; Berndtsson, Justyna C; Berndtsson, Ronny

    2011-10-01

    Greywater reuse is becoming an increasingly important factor for potable water saving in many countries. Syria is one of the most water scarce countries in the Middle East. However, greywater reuse is still not common in the country. Regulations and standards for greywater reuse are not available. Recently, however, several stakeholders have started to plan for greywater reuse. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the potential for potable water saving by using greywater for toilet flushing in a typical Syrian city. The Sweida city in the southern part of Syria was chosen for this purpose. Interviews were made in order to reflect the social acceptance, water consumption, and the percentage of different indoor water uses. An artificial wetland (AW) and a commercial bio filter (CBF) were proposed to treat the greywater, and an economic analysis was performed for the treatment system. Results show that using treated greywater for toilet flushing would save about 35% of the drinking water. The economic analyses of the two proposed systems showed that, in the current water tariff, the payback period for AW and CBF in block systems is 7 and 52 years, respectively. However, this period will reduce to 3 and 21 years, respectively, if full water costs are paid by beneficiaries. Hence, introducing artificial wetlands in order to make greywater use efficient appears to be a viable alternative to save potable water.

  18. Relevance of hydrological variables in water-saving efficiency of domestic rainwater tanks: Multivariate statistical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Leonardo Rosa; Maia, Adelena Gonçalves; Lucio, Paulo Sérgio

    2017-02-01

    This research investigated the relevance of four hydrological variables in the performance of a domestic rainwater harvesting (DRWH) system. The hydrological variables investigated are average annual rainfall (P), precipitation concentration degree (PCD), antecedent dry weather period (ADWP), and ratio of dry days to rainy days (nD/nR). Principal component analyses are used to group the water-saving efficiency into a select set of variables, and the relevance of the hydrological variables in a water-saving efficiency system was studied using canonical correlation analysis. The P associated with PCD, ADWP, or nD/nR attained a better correlation with water-saving efficiency than single P. We conclude that empirical models that represent a large combinations of roof-surface areas, rainwater-tank sizes, water demands, and rainfall regimes should also consider a variable for precipitation temporal variability, and treat it as an independent variable.

  19. Methodology for the National Water Savings Model and Spreadsheet Tool Commercial/Institutional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Long, Tim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Williams, Alison [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Melody, Moya [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has developed a mathematical model to quantify the water and monetary savings attributable to the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) WaterSense labeling program for commercial and institutional products. The National Water Savings–Commercial/Institutional (NWS-CI) model is a spreadsheet tool with which the EPA can evaluate the success of its program for encouraging buyers in the commercial and institutional (CI) sectors to purchase more water-efficient products. WaterSense has begun by focusing on three water-using products commonly used in the CI sectors: flushometer valve toilets, urinals, and pre-rinse spray valves. To estimate the savings attributable to WaterSense for each of the three products, LBNL applies an accounting method to national product shipments and lifetimes to estimate the shipments of each product.

  20. Water and energy saving bioprocess for bioethanol production from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UP

    2013-10-02

    Oct 2, 2013 ... ISSN 1684-5315 ©2013 Academic Journals ... of distillery stillage liquid part instead of process water. The efficiency of ... Stillage contains residual oligosaccharides, ... utilization or reusing this byproduct (Cibis et al., 2006b;.

  1. Economic assessment of different mulches in conventional and water-saving rice production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabran, Khawar; Hussain, Mubshar; Fahad, Shah; Farooq, Muhammad; Bajwa, Ali Ahsan; Alharrby, Hesham; Nasim, Wajid

    2016-05-01

    Water-saving rice production systems including alternate wetting and drying (AWD) and aerobic rice (AR) are being increasingly adopted by growers due to global water crises. Application of natural and artificial mulches may further improve water economy of water-saving rice production systems. Conventionally flooded rice (CFR) system has been rarely compared with AWD and AR in terms of economic returns. In this 2-year field study, we compared CFR with AWD and AR (with and without straw and plastic mulches) for the cost of production and economic benefits. Results indicated that CFR had a higher production cost than AWD and AR. However, application of mulches increased the cost of production of AWD and AR production systems where plastic mulch was expensive than straw mulch. Although the mulching increased the cost of production for AWD and AR, the gross income of these systems was also improved significantly. The gross income from mulched plots of AWD and AR was higher than non-mulched plots of the same systems. In conclusion, AWD and AR effectively reduce cost of production by economizing the water use. However, the use of natural and artificial mulches in such water-saving environments further increased the economic returns. The maximized economic returns by using straw mulch in water-saving rice production systems definitely have pragmatic implications for sustainable agriculture.

  2. Reliability assessment and measures for resources-saving on water lifting engine systems in Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhtier Ergashev

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper observes the current state of water pumping stations in Uzbekistan. More than 50% of irrigated land is provided with machine water lifting systems in the country. However, more than 50% of pumping aggregates and constructions have used up their capacities that leads to high operational expenses of energy. The authors suggest develop energy- and resource saving technologies. As they suggest the resource saving model assumes first and foremost the increase in stability and efficiency of operation of all elements of hydraulic engineering.

  3. The Application of PPE Model Based on RAGA in Benefit Evaluating of Rice Water Saving

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Qiang; YANG Guang-lin; FU Hong

    2003-01-01

    Through applying PPE model based on RAGA to evaluate the benefit of rice water saving,the author turns multi-dimension data into low dimension space.So the optimum projection direction can stand for the best influence on the collectivity.Thus,the value of projection function can evaluate each item good or not.The PPE model can avoid jamming of weight matrix in the method of fuzzy synthesize judgement,and obtain better result.The author wants to provide a new method and thought for readers who are engaged in investment decision-making of water saving irrigation and other relative study.

  4. Potential water saving through changes in European diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanham, D.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Bidoglio, G.

    2013-01-01

    This study quantifies the water footprint of consumption (WFcons) regarding agricultural products for three diets – the current diet (REF), a healthy diet (HEALTHY) and a vegetarian diet (VEG) – for the four EU zones WEST, NORTH, SOUTH and EAST. The WFcons related to the consumption of agricultural

  5. Yield advantage and water saving in maize/pea intercrop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mao, L.; Zhang, L.; Li, W.; Werf, van der W.; Sun, J.; Spiertz, J.H.J.; Li, L.

    2012-01-01

    Intercropping is a well-established strategy for maximization of yield from limited land, but mixed results have been obtained as to its performance in terms of water use efficiency. Here, two maize/pea intercrop layouts were studied in comparison to sole maize and sole pea with and without plastic

  6. Potential water saving through changes in European diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanham, D.; Hoekstra, A.Y.; Bidoglio, G.

    2013-01-01

    This study quantifies the water footprint of consumption (WFcons) regarding agricultural products for three diets – the current diet (REF), a healthy diet (HEALTHY) and a vegetarian diet (VEG) – for the four EU zones WEST, NORTH, SOUTH and EAST. The WFcons related to the consumption of agricultural

  7. Physics-based model for a water-saving greenhouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speetjens, S.L.; Stigter, J.D.; Straten, van G.

    2010-01-01

    A new greenhouse type has been designed to study ways of decreasing water use by horticulture in semi-arid regions. To control the greenhouse a model-based control design is required. To this end a model is needed to predict the systems behaviour (1 day ahead), without much computational effort. A

  8. Identifying Energy Savings in Water and Wastewater Plants - Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-03-01

    Since 1976, Industrial Assessment Centers (IACs) administered by the U.S. Department of Energy have supported small and medium-sized American manufacturers to reduce their energy use and improve their productivity and competitiveness. DOE is now offering up to 50 assessments per year at no cost to industrial or municipal water and wastewater plants.

  9. Identifying Energy Savings in Water and Wastewater Plants - Wisconsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-03-01

    Since 1976, Industrial Assessment Centers (IACs) administered by the U.S. Department of Energy have supported small and medium-sized American manufacturers to reduce their energy use and improve their productivity and competitiveness. DOE is now offering up to 50 assessments per year at no cost to industrial or municipal water and wastewater plants.

  10. Identifying Energy Savings in Water and Wastewater Plants - West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-03-01

    Since 1976, Industrial Assessment Centers (IACs) administered by the U.S. Department of Energy have supported small and medium-sized American manufacturers to reduce their energy use and improve their productivity and competitiveness. DOE is now offering up to 50 assessments per year at no cost to industrial or municipal water and wastewater plants.

  11. Identifying Energy Savings in Water and Wastewater Plants - Iowa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-03-01

    Since 1976, Industrial Assessment Centers (IACs) administered by the U.S. Department of Energy have supported small and medium-sized American manufacturers to reduce their energy use and improve their productivity and competitiveness. DOE is now offering up to 50 assessments per year at no cost to industrial or municipal water and wastewater plants.

  12. Identifying Energy Savings in Water and Wastewater Plants - Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-03-01

    Since 1976, Industrial Assessment Centers (IACs) administered by the U.S. Department of Energy have supported small and medium-sized American manufacturers to reduce their energy use and improve their productivity and competitiveness. DOE is now offering up to 50 assessments per year at no cost to industrial or municipal water and wastewater plants.

  13. Analysis of Energy Saving Impacts of New Residential Energy Codes for the Gulf Coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, Robert G.

    2007-01-01

    At the request of the Government Accountability Office (GAO), DOE’s Building Energy Codes Program performed an analysis of the energy savings and cost impacts associated with the use of newer and more efficient residential building energy codes in the states of Louisiana and Mississippi.

  14. When water saving limits recycling: Modelling economy-wide linkages of wastewater use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckmann, Jonas; Grethe, Harald; McDonald, Scott

    2016-01-01

    The reclamation of wastewater is an increasingly important water source in parts of the world. It is claimed that wastewater recycling is a cheap and reliable form of water supply, which preserves water resources and is economically efficient. However, the quantity of reclaimed wastewater depends on water consumption by economic agents connected to a sewage system. This study uses a Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model to analyse such a cascading water system. A case study of Israel shows that failing to include this linkage can lead to an overestimation of the potential of wastewater recycling, especially when economic agents engage in water saving.

  15. Marginal costs of water savings from cooling system retrofits: a case study for Texas power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loew, Aviva; Jaramillo, Paulina; Zhai, Haibo

    2016-10-01

    The water demands of power plant cooling systems may strain water supply and make power generation vulnerable to water scarcity. Cooling systems range in their rates of water use, capital investment, and annual costs. Using Texas as a case study, we examined the cost of retrofitting existing coal and natural gas combined-cycle (NGCC) power plants with alternative cooling systems, either wet recirculating towers or air-cooled condensers for dry cooling. We applied a power plant assessment tool to model existing power plants in terms of their key plant attributes and site-specific meteorological conditions and then estimated operation characteristics of retrofitted plants and retrofit costs. We determined the anticipated annual reductions in water withdrawals and the cost-per-gallon of water saved by retrofits in both deterministic and probabilistic forms. The results demonstrate that replacing once-through cooling at coal-fired power plants with wet recirculating towers has the lowest cost per reduced water withdrawals, on average. The average marginal cost of water withdrawal savings for dry-cooling retrofits at coal-fired plants is approximately 0.68 cents per gallon, while the marginal recirculating retrofit cost is 0.008 cents per gallon. For NGCC plants, the average marginal costs of water withdrawal savings for dry-cooling and recirculating towers are 1.78 and 0.037 cents per gallon, respectively.

  16. Water saving techniques in the spanish tile industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique, J. E.

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted on the use of water in the ceramic tile manufacturing process, focussing on water requirements in body and glaze preparation and in washing production equipment and facilities. Water consumption and wastewater reuse systems in ceramic tile manufacture were reviewed. An in-depth, industrial scale study was performed of wastewater reuse in the manufacturing process, examining how wastewater reuse affected pollutant contents in gas emissions and solid waste.

    Se ha estudiado el uso del agua en el proceso de fabricación de baldosas cerámicas y en particular, en las etapas de preparación de la pasta de los esmaltes y limpieza del equipo industrial y de la propia planta.Se ha realizado una revisión del consumo de agua y de los sistemas de reutilización de la misma en el proceso de fabricación de baldosas cerámicas y se ha estudiado con profundidad, a escala industrial, la reutilización del agua residual en el proceso y en particular el efecto de su reutilización sobre la emisión de contaminantes en las emisiones gaseosas y en los residuos sólidos.

  17. Modelling of root ABA synthesis, stomatal conductance, transpiration and potato production under water saving irrigation regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plauborg, Finn; Abrahamsen, Per; Gjettermann, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    a central role in reducing crop transpiration. This paper presented a mechanistic model (Daisy) developed based on data obtained in the SAFIR project on measured leaf gas exchange and soil water dynamics in irrigated potato crops grown in a semi-field environment subjected to different irrigation regimes...... Daisy model is capable of simulating the mechanisms underlying the water saving effects of the partial root-zone drying (PRD) irrigation as compared with the conventional full irrigation (FI). However the simulated effect on both crop yield and water use in this particular experiment was negligible......Application of water saving irrigation strategies in agriculture has become increasingly important. Both modelling and experimental work are needed to gain more insights into the biological and physical mechanisms in the soil-plant system, which regulates water flow in the system and plays...

  18. The conservation nexus: valuing interdependent water and energy savings in Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartos, Matthew D; Chester, Mikhail V

    2014-02-18

    Water and energy resources are intrinsically linked, yet they are managed separately--even in the water-scarce American southwest. This study develops a spatially explicit model of water-energy interdependencies in Arizona and assesses the potential for cobeneficial conservation programs. The interdependent benefits of investments in eight conservation strategies are assessed within the context of legislated renewable energy portfolio and energy efficiency standards. The cobenefits of conservation are found to be significant. Water conservation policies have the potential to reduce statewide electricity demand by 0.82-3.1%, satisfying 4.1-16% of the state's mandated energy-efficiency standard. Adoption of energy-efficiency measures and renewable generation portfolios can reduce nonagricultural water demand by 1.9-15%. These conservation cobenefits are typically not included in conservation plans or benefit-cost analyses. Many cobenefits offer negative costs of saved water and energy, indicating that these measures provide water and energy savings at no net cost. Because ranges of costs and savings for water-energy conservation measures are somewhat uncertain, future studies should investigate the cobenefits of individual conservation strategies in detail. Although this study focuses on Arizona, the analysis can be extended elsewhere as renewable portfolio and energy efficiency standards become more common nationally and internationally.

  19. Factors Affecting Chinese Farmers' Decisions to Adopt a Water-Saving Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herzfeld, T.; Glauben, T.; Zhang, Y.; Hu, B.

    2008-01-01

    Chinese farm households (N = 240) were interviewed to understand some of the factors affecting their adoption of a water-saving technology called the Ground Cover Rice Production System (GCRPS). A logit model was established on the basis of a survey to estimate the determinants of adoption and to si

  20. Factors Affecting Chinese Farmers' Decisions to Adopt a Water-Saving Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herzfeld, T.; Glauben, T.; Zhang, Y.; Hu, B.

    2008-01-01

    Chinese farm households (N = 240) were interviewed to understand some of the factors affecting their adoption of a water-saving technology called the Ground Cover Rice Production System (GCRPS). A logit model was established on the basis of a survey to estimate the determinants of adoption and to

  1. Energy Saving and Water Cooling Facility in an Industry Using Prgrammable Logic Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhananda Paul

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This project gives the idea about how to reduce the power loss in an industry, which are being wasted by the fans and pumps in operating condition as well as to get water as per the necessity by an industry with proper quality. This can be done by proper switching and speed control of motors used in fans and pumps. As the power consumed is directly proportional to the cube of speed so by reducing the speed energy can be saved. An attempt is also made to connect the power factor improving capacitor for energy saving. By using this concept the industry can save huge amount of energy and can be able to reduce the electricity bill

  2. The impact of daylight saving time on electricity consumption: Evidence from southern Norway and Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirza, Faisal Mehmood, E-mail: faisal.mirza@umb.no [Department of Economics and Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (UMB), P.O. Box 5003, 1432 As (Norway); Bergland, Olvar, E-mail: olvar.bergland@umb.no [Department of Economics and Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (UMB), P.O. Box 5003, 1432 As (Norway)

    2011-06-15

    This paper examines the impact of daylight saving time (DST) on electricity consumption in southern Norway and Sweden. As DST was implemented in both the countries in 1980, we do not have a clear counterfactual in the form of a control period to identify the impact of DST directly with before and after or with and without analysis. This problem in the study is resolved by using 'equivalent day normalization technique' to identify the impact of DST. The difference-in-difference (DID) average treatment effects model suggests an annual reduction of at least 1.0 percent in electricity consumption for both Norway and Sweden due to DST. The average annual electricity consumption reduction corresponding to DST effects equals 519 and 882 GWh for southern Norway and Sweden, resulting in an annual financial saving of 16.1 million Euros and 30.1 million Euros, respectively. The distribution of treatment effects across different hours of the day indicates a small but significant reduction in electricity consumption during the morning and a steep decline during the evening hours in both countries. - Highlights: > We assess the impact of DST on electricity consumption in southern Norway and Sweden. > DST reduces electricity consumption by 1.3 percent in both countries. > The impact is smaller during the morning hours but larger during evening hours. > Respective annual financial savings equal Euro 16.1 and 30.1 million for Norway and Sweden. > Average annual electricity savings equal 519 and 882 GWh for two countries, respectively.

  3. Contribution of Water Saving to a Stable Power Supply in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Otani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In Vietnam, the rapid expansion of cities is exceeding the supply capacity for water and electricity, and restrictions on water supply and blackouts occur on a daily basis. In this study, the authors examined whether water-saving equipment could solve these problems. This paper focused on toilet bowls that consumed a large amount of water, and on showers for which heat consumption was high. In Vietnam, the main heat source for showers is the electric water heater, typically having a power consumption of 2500–4500 W. Although the current diffusion rate of such water heaters is just 13%, their use will spread widely in the future. These heaters have already placed a peak load on electricity consumption in winter when a large amount of energy is consumed for heating water, and they will become a significant factor in blackout risks as their use becomes commonplace nationwide. It is clear that the introduction of water-saving showers will allow not only a more efficient use of water resources, but will also mitigate against the risk of blackouts.

  4. Impact on sand and water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmann, R.P.H.M.

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis we investigate the impact of a body on sand and water. When a body impacts a free surface in the inertial regime the series of events is the following: On impact material is blown away in all directions and an impact cavity forms. Due to the hydrostatic pressure from the sides the cav

  5. Groundwater Dynamics under Water Saving Irrigation and Implications for Sustainable Water Management in an Oasis: Tarim River Basin of Western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z.; Hu, H.; Tian, F.; Yao, X.; Sivapalan, M.

    2014-02-01

    Water is essential for life. Specifically in the oases of inland arid basins, water is a critically limited resource, essential for the development of socio-economy and sustainability of eco-environmental systems. Due to the unique hydrological regime present in arid oases, a moderate groundwater table is the goal of sustainable water management. A shallow water table induces serious secondary salinization and collapse of agriculture, while a deep water table causes deterioration of natural vegetation. From the hydrological perspective, the exchange flux between unsaturated vadose zone and groundwater reservoir is a critical link to understand regional water table dynamics. This flux is substantially influenced by anthropogenic activities. In Tarim River Basin of western China, where agriculture consumes over 90% of available water resources, the exchange flux is influenced strongly by irrigation. Recently, mulched drip irrigation, a very advanced water-saving irrigation method, has been widely applied in the Tarim River Basin, which greatly impacted the exchange flux and thus the regional groundwater dynamics. Capitalizing on recent progress in evaporation measurement techniques, we can now close the water balance and directly quantify the exchange flux at the field scale, thus gain a better understanding of regional groundwater dynamics. In this study, comprehensive observations of water balance components in an irrigated cropland were implemented in 2011 and 2012 in a typical oasis within Tarim River Basin. The water balance analysis showed that the exchange flux and groundwater dynamics were significantly altered by the application of water-saving irrigation. The exchange flux is mostly downward (310.5 mm yr-1), especially during drip irrigation period and spring flush period, while the upward flux is trivial (-16.1 mm yr-1) due to the moderate groundwater table depth (annual average depth 2.9 m). Traditional secondary salinization caused by intense phreatic

  6. Groundwater dynamics under water-saving irrigation and implications for sustainable water management in an oasis: Tarim River basin of western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z.; Hu, H.; Tian, F.; Yao, X.; Sivapalan, M.

    2014-10-01

    Water is essential for life. Specifically in the oases of inland arid basins, water is a critically limited resource, essential for the development of the socio-economy and the sustainability of eco-environmental systems. Due to the unique hydrological regime present in arid oases, a moderate groundwater table is the goal of sustainable water management. A shallow water table induces serious secondary salinization and collapse of agriculture, while a deep water table causes deterioration of natural vegetation. From the hydrological perspective, the exchange flux between the unsaturated vadose zone and groundwater reservoir is a critical link to understanding regional water table dynamics. This flux is substantially influenced by anthropogenic activities. In the Tarim River basin of western China, where agriculture consumes over 90% of available water resources, the exchange flux between the unsaturated vadose zone and groundwater reservoir is influenced strongly by irrigation. Recently, mulched drip irrigation, a sophisticated water-saving irrigation method, was widely applied in the Tarim River basin, which greatly impacted the exchange flux and thus the regional groundwater dynamics. Capitalizing on recent progress in evaporation measurement techniques, we can now close the water balance and directly quantify the exchange flux at the field scale, thus gaining a better understanding of regional groundwater dynamics. In this study, comprehensive observations of water balance components in an irrigated cropland were implemented in 2012 and 2013 in a typical oasis within the Tarim River basin. The water balance analysis showed that the exchange flux and groundwater dynamics were significantly altered by the application of water-saving irrigation. The exchange flux at the groundwater table is mostly downward (310.5 mm year-1), especially during drip irrigation period and spring flush period, while the upward flux is trivial (16.1 mm year-1) due to the moderate

  7. Cotton’s Water Demand and Water-Saving Benefits under Drip Irrigation with Plastic Film Mulch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingyu YAN; Juyan LI

    2016-01-01

    The primary purpose of this research was to give suitable irrigation program according to the growth period and water requirement.A cotton field experiment with mulched drip irrigation was conducted at the National Field Observation and Research Station for Oasis Farmland Ecosystem in Aksu of Xinjiang in 2008.Water balance method was adopted to study the water requirement and water consumption law of cotton under mulched drip irrigation in Tarim Irrigated Area.Statistical analysis of experimental data of irrigation indicates that the relationship between yield of cotton and irrigation presents a quadratic parabola.We fit the model of cotton water production on the basis of field experimental data of cotton.And the analysis on water saving benefit of cotton under mulched drip irrigation was done.Results indicate that water requirements for the irrigated cotton are 543 mm in Tarim Irrigated Area.The water requirements of seedling stage is 252 mm,budding stage is 186 mm,bolling stage is 316 mm and wadding stage is 139 mm.the irrigation amount determines the spatial distribution of soil moisture and water consumption during cotton life cycle.However,water consumption at different growth stages was inconsistent with irrigation.Quantitatively,the water consumed by cotton decreases upon the increase of irrigation amount.From the perspective of water saving,the maximal water use efficiency can reach 3 091 m3/ha.But the highest cotton yield needs 3464 m3/ha irrigation water.In summary,compared to the conventional drip irrigation,a number of benefits in water saving and yield increase were observed when using plastic mulch.At the same amount of irrigation,the cotton yield with plastic mulch was 30.2% higher than conventional approaches,and the efficiency of water utilization increased by30.2%.While at the same yield level,29.3% water was saved by using plastic mulch,and the efficiency increased by 41.5%.

  8. Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation for Decision Making of Water Saving Irrigation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LuoJin-yao; QiuYuan-feng

    2003-01-01

    A model of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation for water saving irrigation system (WSIS) decision making is proposed based on establishing an index system affected by six kinds of basic factors including qualitative and quantitative indexes. The object function of WSIS is set up by using the concept of fuzzy membership degree, it is to transform characteristic vector matrix into unify membership matrix and extending the least square method to the least of weighted distance square. The optimum weighted membership degree and the inferior weighted membership degree are used to solve the object function. This method effective solves the problem of classify for fuzzy attributive indexes and the problem of optimum for the set of different attributive indexes. A case study shows that the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model is reasonable and effective in decision making for water saving irrigation system planning.

  9. Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation for Decision Making of Water Saving Irrigation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Jin-yao; Qiu Yuan-feng

    2003-01-01

    A model of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation for water saving irrigation system (WSIS) decision making is proposed based on establishing an index system affected by six kinds of basic factors including qualitative and quantitative indexes. The object function of WSIS is set up by using the concept of fuzzy membership degree, it is to transform characteristic vector matrix into unify membership matrix and extending the least square method to the least of weighted dis tance square. The optimum weighted membership degree and the inferior weighted membership degree are used to solve the object function. This method effective solves the problem of classify for fuzzy attributive indexes and the problem of optimum for the set of different attributive indexes. A case study shows that the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model is reasonable and effective in decision making for water saving irrigation system planning.

  10. Research of the path optimization in agricultural water-saving irrigation and canal system water distribution in Ant colony algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Lei Lei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To realize the management and control of the water-saving irrigation of the path pipeline distribution in field plots, get the terrain information through remote sensing technology and analyze the path and the amount of the water in the field plots by the ant colony algorithm according to the matter of the low generality in most parts in China. The result shows that the rules were put forward with shorter path, smaller cost and the most utilization of water eventually. It can be widely used in most areas which is lack of water and scientific technology.

  11. The Potential Contribution of Subsurface Drip Irrigation to Water-Saving Agriculture in the Western USA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T L Thompson; PANG Huan-cheng; LI Yu-yi

    2009-01-01

    Water shortages within the western USA are resulting in the adoption of water-saving agricultural practices within this region. Among the many possible methods for saving water in agriculture, the adoption of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) provides a potential solution to the problem of low water use efficiency. Other advantages of SDI include reduced NO3 leaching compared to surface irrigation, higher yields, a dry soil surface for improved weed control, better crop health, and harvest flexibility for many specialty crops. The use of SDI also allows the virtual elimination of crop water stress, the ability to apply water and nutrients to the most active part of the root zone, protection of drip lines from damage due to cultivation and tillage, and the ability to irrigate with wastewater while preventing human contact. Yet, SDI is used only on a minority of cropland in the arid western USA. Reasons for the limited adoption of SDI include the high initial capital investment required, the need for intensive management, and the urbanization that is rapidly consuming farmland in parts of the western USA. The contributions of SDI to increasing yield, quality, and water use efficiency have been demonstrated. The two major barriers to SDI sustainability in arid regions are economics (i.e., paying for the SDI system), including the high cost of installation; and salt accumulation, which requires periodic leaching, specialized tillage methods, or transplanting of seedlings rather than direct-seeding. We will review advances in irrigation management with SDI.

  12. The unexpected energy saving of cooling water conditioning; Koelwaterconditionering spaart meer energie dan u denkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijkgraaf, A. [ed.

    1996-09-01

    On the basis of the example of the dosage of chlorinated bleaching lye in cooling water it is calculated that much more energy can be saved than expected. The use of the lye improves the energy efficiency of heat exchangers. The calculation method is developed by L. Paping and is based on the idea to express the advantages (e.g. energy conservation) and the disadvantages (e.g. environmental burden) as a dimensionless indicator.

  13. THE IMPACT OF LIBERALIZED FINANCIAL SYSTEM ON SAVINGS, INVESTMENT AND GROWTH IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATTHEW, A. Oluwatoyin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available For the past twenty years, an enhanced financial sectoral deregulation has been a major economic tool in the agenda of most less developed economies and Nigeria is no exception. The discouraging level of growth with reference to the savings and investment culture of the people and government involvement in these economies has call to question whether financial sector liberalization have an impact on savings and investment in the economy and by extension on the level of growth and development of such economies. This study attempted to take a cursory look at the issue by examining the impact of financial system liberalization on savings and investment and by extension growth and development in Nigeria between 1997 and 2008. Some of the policy recommendations centred on the government creating an enabling environment for private investment to thrive. This will go a long way in helping to promote private investment with significant benefits in the long run for growth and development to the advantage of the citizenry and the economy at large.

  14. Experimental Study of Energy-Saving Air-Conditioner with Hot Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jian-bo; CHEN Dan; LU Ying

    2009-01-01

    Energy-saving air-conditioner with hot water is an air source heat pump air-conditioner,which can also supply hot water.The hot water is heated by a double pipe condenser connected with an air-cooled condenser in series in the system.This experiment of the energy-saving air-conditioner was carried out in the enthalpy-dif-ference air-conditioner laboratory.The hot water temperature and the compressor'S discharge and suction pres.sure were recorded in the working condition,where the ambient temperature was at 43℃,35℃,21℃,7℃,and 2℃separately.The results showed that the system operated stably and reliably. This system can supply 240 L hot water at 50℃in the whole year,and its coefficience of performance(COP)is much higher than the conventional air source heat pump system.Its energy conservation WaS proved by comparing the thermal effi.ciency with other sourece water heaters.

  15. The Effect of Water Saving and Production Increment by Drip Irrigation Schedules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Yuan-feng; LUO Jin-yao; MENG Ge

    2004-01-01

    Drip irrigation system can achieve high uniformity. When the system is designed for uniformity coefficient equal or more than 70%, the water application in the field can be expressed as a normal distribution and further simplified to a linear distribution. This paper will describe the irrigation scheduling parameters, percent of deficit, application efficiency and coefficient of variation by simple mathematical model. Using this effective model and the irrigation application, the total yield affected by the total water application for different uniformity of irrigation application can be determined. More over, this paper uses the cost of water, price of yield, uniformity of the drip irrigation system, crop response to water application and environmental concerns of pollution and contamination to determine the optimal irrigation schedule. A case study shows that the optimal irrigation schedule can achieve the effect of water saving and production increment compared with the conventional irrigation schedule in which the whole field is fully irrigated.

  16. Potential for Potable Water Savings in Buildings by Using Stormwater Harvested from Porous Pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Niehuns Antunes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing concern about the scarcity of water resources due to population growth and increased demand for potable water. Thus, the rational use of water has become necessary for the conservation of such resources. The objective of this study is to estimate the potential for potable water savings in buildings of different sectors—residential, public and commercial—in the city of Florianópolis, southern Brazil, by using stormwater harvested from porous pavements. Models were constructed to assess infiltration and rainwater quality; samples of stormwater from a local road were collected to evaluate its quality; and computer simulation was performed to assess the potential for potable water savings and rainwater tank sizing. Draining asphalt concrete slabs with two types of modifiers were used, i.e., tire rubber and SBS polymer—styrene-butadiene-styrene. The Netuno computer programme was used to simulate the potential for potable water savings considering the use of rainwater for non-potable uses such as flushing toilets and urinals, cleaning external areas, and garden watering. Average stormwater infiltration was 85.4%. It was observed that stormwater is not completely pure. From the models, the pH was 5.4 and the concentrations of ammonia, phosphorus, nitrite, and dissolved oxygen were 0.41, 0.14, 0.002, and 9.0 mg/L, respectively. The results for the stormwater runoff of a paved road were 0.23, 0.11, 0.12, 0.08, 1.41, 2.11, 0.02, and 9.0 mg/L for the parameters aluminium, ammonia, copper, chromium, iron, phosphorus, nitrite, and dissolved oxygen, respectively; and the pH was 6.7. In the city of Florianópolis, which has a surface area of paved roads of approximately 11,044,216 m², the potential for potable water savings ranged from 1.2% to 19.4% in the residential sector, 2.1% to 75.7% in the public sector and 6.5% to 70.0% in the commercial sector.

  17. Replacement of chemical intensive water treatment processes with energy saving membrane. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickley, M.C.; Goering, S.W.

    1983-11-01

    The project investigated the use of charged ultrafiltration membranes to treat hard water. More specifically, the work was undertaken to (1) make charged ultrafiltration membranes to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the chemical grafting approach; (2) evaluate the market potential for charged ultrafiltration membranes; and (3) evaluate the cost and energy savings for using charged ultrafiltration as compared to lime-based clarification and other treatment methods. The results suggest that chemical grafting is a relatively simple, reproducible and low-cost way to modify existing substrate materials to give them enhanced transport performance. Process studies lead to the identification of good market potential for membrane processes using charged ultrafiltration membranes. Capital and operating costs relative to lime-based clarification are favorable for low- and medium-sized treatment plants. Finally, substantial energy savings are apparent as compared to lime-based precipitation systems which incur substantial energy consumption in the lime production and transportation steps.

  18. Water Impact Prediction Tool for Recoverable Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooker, William; Glaese, John; Clayton, Joe

    2011-01-01

    Reusing components from a rocket launch can be cost saving. NASA's space shuttle system has reusable components that return to the Earth and impact the ocean. A primary example is the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) that descends on parachutes to the Earth after separation and impacts the ocean. Water impact generates significant structural loads that can damage the booster, so it is important to study this event in detail in the design of the recovery system. Some recent examples of damage due to water impact include the Ares I-X First Stage deformation as seen in Figure 1 and the loss of the SpaceX Falcon 9 First Stage.To ensure that a component can be recovered or that the design of the recovery system is adequate, an adequate set of structural loads is necessary for use in failure assessments. However, this task is difficult since there are many conditions that affect how a component impacts the water and the resulting structural loading that a component sees. These conditions include the angle of impact with respect to the water, the horizontal and vertical velocities, the rotation rate, the wave height and speed, and many others. There have been attempts to simulate water impact. One approach is to analyze water impact using explicit finite element techniques such as those employed by the LS-Dyna tool [1]. Though very detailed, this approach is time consuming and would not be suitable for running Monte Carlo or optimization analyses. The purpose of this paper is to describe a multi-body simulation tool that runs quickly and that captures the environments a component might see. The simulation incorporates the air and water interaction with the component, the component dynamics (i.e. modes and mode shapes), any applicable parachutes and lines, the interaction of winds and gusts, and the wave height and speed. It is capable of quickly conducting Monte Carlo studies to better capture the environments and genetic algorithm optimizations to reproduce a

  19. Residential energy use in Mexico: Structure, evolution, environmental impacts, and savings potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masera, O.; Friedmann, R.; deBuen, O.

    1993-05-01

    This article examines the characteristics of residential energy use in Mexico, its environmental impacts, and the savings potential of the major end-uses. The main options and barriers to increase the efficiency of energy use are discussed. The energy analysis is based on a disaggregation of residential energy use by end-uses. The dynamics of the evolution of the residential energy sector during the past 20 years are also addressed when the information is available. Major areas for research and for innovative decision-making are identified and prioritized.

  20. Analysis of impact of daylight time savings on energy use of buildings in Kuwait

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krarti, Moncef, E-mail: moncef.krarti@colorado.ed [CEAE Department, CB 428, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Hajiah, Ali [Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Safat (Kuwait)

    2011-05-15

    In this paper, a detailed simulation-based analysis is conducted to assess the impact of adopting Daylight Saving Time (DST) on the electrical energy use and peak demand in Kuwait. The analysis focused on the impact of DST in the building sector since it represents 90% of electrical energy usage of Kuwait. The simulation results indicate that the adoption of DST has mixed impacts for Kuwait. While the commercial and the governmental sectors may benefit from the DST, the private residences and apartment buildings can see both their annual energy use and peak demand increase slightly by adopting DST. The overall impact of the DST implementation is rather minimal with a slight increase energy use of about 0.07% and a slight reduction in peak demand of 0.14% or about 12 MW based on 2005 electrical peak demand for Kuwait. - Research highlights: {yields} A detailed simulation-based analysis is conducted to assess the impact of adopting Daylight Saving Time (DST) on the electrical energy use and peak demand in Kuwait. {yields} The analysis focused on the impact of DST in the building sector since it represents 90% of electrical energy usage of Kuwait. {yields} It is found that while the commercial and the governmental building sectors may benefit from DST, the private residences and apartment buildings can see both their annual energy use and peak demand increase slightly by adopting DST. {yields} Since the residential sector represents the majority of the electrical load in Kuwait, DST adoption was found to cause slight increase in annual electrical energy use by about 0.07% and a slight reduction in electrical peak electrical demand by about 0.14%.

  1. An improved ET control method to determine the water-saving potential for farmland in Baiyangdian Watershed, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aiping PANG; Chuihui LI; Tao SUN; Zhifeng YANG

    2013-01-01

    Resource-based water-saving potential has been recognized as the reduction of evapotranspiration and water loss of inefficient irrigation systems.In this paper,an improved evapotranspiration control model is applied to calculate resource-based water-saving potential,considering the influences of effective rainfall (uncontrolled evapotranspiration) and irrigated water (controlled evapotranspiration).Farmland in Baiyangdian Watershed,a highly productive area in northern China,is analyzed to determine the water-saving potential of irrigation processes.The water-saving potential was zero,163.90× 106m3,and 318.24 × 106m3 in wet,normal,and dry years,respectively,and was greater in years with less rainfall.Under the combined effect of rainfall,crop water consumption,and crop water requirements,the watersaving potential showed obvious temporal and spatial variations.July and August comprised almost 98.6% of the annual potential.In the northeast and southwest comer of the study area,potential approached zero.The potential was 1.53 times greater in the north-central than in the south-central area.The model can furnish the appropriate timing and region to water managers for implementing water-saving strategies.

  2. Review of Literature for Inputs to the National Water Savings Model and Spreadsheet Tool-Commercial/Institutional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Melody, Moya; Lutz, James

    2009-05-29

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) is developing a computer model and spreadsheet tool for the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to help estimate the water savings attributable to their WaterSense program. WaterSense has developed a labeling program for three types of plumbing fixtures commonly used in commercial and institutional settings: flushometer valve toilets, urinals, and pre-rinse spray valves. This National Water Savings-Commercial/Institutional (NWS-CI) model is patterned after the National Water Savings-Residential model, which was completed in 2008. Calculating the quantity of water and money saved through the WaterSense labeling program requires three primary inputs: (1) the quantity of a given product in use; (2) the frequency with which units of the product are replaced or are installed in new construction; and (3) the number of times or the duration the product is used in various settings. To obtain the information required for developing the NWS-CI model, LBNL reviewed various resources pertaining to the three WaterSense-labeled commercial/institutional products. The data gathered ranged from the number of commercial buildings in the United States to numbers of employees in various sectors of the economy and plumbing codes for commercial buildings. This document summarizes information obtained about the three products' attributes, quantities, and use in commercial and institutional settings that is needed to estimate how much water EPA's WaterSense program saves.

  3. Water impacting on superhydrophobic macrotextures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gauthier, Anaïs; Symon, Sean; Clanet, Christophe; Quéré, David

    2015-01-01

    It has been recently shown that the presence of macrotextures on superhydrophobic materials can markedly modify the dynamics of water impacting them, and in particular significantly reduce the contact...

  4. Analysis of the Design of Energy-saving and Water-saving in Building Water Supply System%探析建筑给水系统中节能节水的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴建波

    2014-01-01

    建筑给水系统利用市政给水管压力直接供水,选用节能型供水设备,给水系统合理分区,降低管道水头损失,选用节水型产品,水表计量及漏水监控,防止用水点水压过高等可达到节水、节能的目的。%Building water supply system is directly supplied by municipal water pipe with pressure. If energy-saving water supply equipment is used, the loss of water head in the pipe can be reduced. If water-saving product is selected, water consumption is measured by water meter and water leakage is monitored, which can prevent exorbitant water pressure at peak of water so as to achieve the goal of water-saving and energy-saving.

  5. Water saving strategies assessment on processing tomato cultivated in Mediterranean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella M. Giuliani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Processing tomato grown in Mediterranean region required high irrigation volume throughout growing season. A two-year study was carried out in order to investigate the effects of deficit irrigation (DI and regulated deficit irrigation (RDI on processing tomato cultivated under sub-arid conditions. A comparison between the irrigation management linked to common practice adopted by farmer and the irrigation management based on crop evapotranspiration (ETc demand was also done. The tomato cv. Genius F1 was cultivated under five water regimes: minimal irrigation (I0, as irrigation only at transplanting and during fertilising; DI, to restore 60% ETc; RDI, to restore 60%-80%- 60% ETc across the three main tomato phenological stages; full irrigation (FI, to restore 100% ETc; and farmer irrigation (FaI, as irrigation following the subjective farmer method. Compared to FI, under the FaI regime, the seasonal irrigation volume was 31% and 26% higher in the 2009 and 2010, respectively, with not significant yield increase between the two water regimes. Among the irrigation regimes, only the RDI showed similar yield values over the two years, although 2010 was climatically less favourable. For the water use efficiency related to the marketable yield (WUEy, among the irrigation regimes, RDI showed the higher value together with FI. Finally, the Ky was 0.91, which indicates moderate water stress tolerance for processing tomato cultivated in Mediterranean regions. In conclusion, the data obtained in the present study demonstrate that in Southern Italy the irrigation planning followed by the farmer does not follow the principles of sustainable irrigation. Moreover, with the adoption of the RDI strategy, it is possible to save about 27% of water maintaining high WUEy value with an increase of fruit quality. The adoption of this regime could be suggested in processing tomato cultivated under Mediterranean climate saving water in both the vegetative and ripening

  6. Water Conservation with Water Saving Devices, Proceedings of a Conference. Extension Bulletin 421.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Theodore B., Ed.

    Presented are six papers on water conservation which were presented at a conference in New Jersey. The first two papers present recommendations of the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection on water conservation and a master plan for New Jersey's water supply needs. The following four papers discuss water conservation with water-saving…

  7. Water-requirement Characteristics and Water-saving Irrigation Indices of Dry-raised Rice Seedlings in Paddy Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jian-chang; WANG Wei; WANG Zhi-qin; LIU Li-jun; DING Zhi-jia; ZHU Qing-sen

    2001-01-01

    The dry-raised seedlings (D-RS)of rice had obvious superiority in tillering and growth after transplanting. Especially under the condition of water-saving irrigation or low soil moisture, D-RS had more productive tillers, higher dry matter accumulation, larger grain-filling rate, slower senescence of leaves and stronger root activity during ripening, and higher grain yield, compared with the moist-raised seedlings (MRS). D-RS had smaller yield reduction than M-RS when subject to heavy water stress. The results suggested that D-RS had the ability to adapt to lower soil moisture in paddy field. Basedon the response of D-RS to soil moisture at each growth stage, the water-saving and high-yielding irrigation indices through controlling lowlimit soil water potential were proposed, i.e. soil water potential was - 15 - - 20 kPa from the recovery to the criticalleaf-age of productive tillering, - 20 - - 40 kPa from the critical leaf-age of productive tillering to secondary branch-differentiating stage, - 15 - - 25 kPa from secondary branch-differentiating stage to 20 days after heading and - 25 - - 35 kPa from 21 to 45 days after heading.

  8. Publicly funded medical savings accounts: expenditure and distributional impacts in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Jeremiah; Guindon, G Emmanuel; Rynard, Vicki; Morgan, Steve

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents the findings from simulations of the introduction of publicly funded medical savings accounts (MSAs) in the province of Ontario, Canada. The analysis exploits a unique data set linking population-based health survey information with individual-level information on all physician services and hospital services utilization over a four-year period. The analysis provides greater detail along three dimensions than have previous analyses: (1) the distributional impacts of publicly funded MSAs across individuals of differing health statuses, incomes, ages, and current expenditures; (2) the impact of differing degrees of risk adjustment for MSA contributions; and (3) the impact of MSA funding over multiple years, incorporating year-to-year variation in spending at the individual level. In addition, it analyses more plausible designs for publicly funded MSAs than the existing studies. Government uses information available from year t - 1 to allocate its budget for year t in a manner that is ex ante fiscally neutral for the public sector: the government first withholds funds equal to expected catastrophic insurance payments under the MSA plan, and then allocates only the balance to individual MSA accounts. The government captures the savings associated with reduced health-care utilization under MSAs and we examine deductibles that vary by income rather than by current health-care expenditures. The impacts on public expenditures under these designs are more modest than in the previous studies and under plausible assumptions MSAs are predicted to decrease public expenditures. MSAs, however, are also predicted to have unavoidable negative distributional consequences with respect to both public expenditures and out-of-pocket spending.

  9. 流域水权市场中的节水激励%Water-saving Incentive in Water Markets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏朋; 倪晋仁

    2009-01-01

    Whether water right system has internal water-saving incentive is very important for relaxing water crisis of a country or area. Water market is one way of water reallocation mechanism, which is an important component of water right system. This article discusses the influences of several factors on two classes of water users separately depending on a NPV (Net Profit Value) model. A case of the Yellow River was analyzed using the NPV model. The results show that an effective water market can provide encouragement for water users in water-saving investment. Water-saving investors can get profit from water market and water crisis can be relaxed. Inter-district and industry water transaction can only be carried out by macro stakeholders for its high level of initial investment and transaction cost. Micro stakeholders can only invest in local water market for their shortage of capital and lower credit rating. Therefore, some options are proposed to support two kinds of water market separately, including water saving installation lease for macro stakeholders and provision of small-amount credit loans for micro stakeholders, to approximate the optimal allocation of water both among and within districts and industries.%流域水权制度是否具有内在的节水激励是能否纾缓一个国家或地区水资源危机的关键.水权再分配机制是水权制度的重要组成部分,而水权市场则是水权再分配机制的方式之一.该文通过构建节水投资收益净现值(NPV)模型,分析水权市场对节水激励的作用,讨论各因素对不同层次用水户进行节水投资决策的不同影响,并且应用节水投资收益净现值模型对黄河流域进行了案例分析.分析表明:有效的流域水权市场能够激励用水者进行节水投资,获得水权交易收益,同时缓解水资源供需矛盾,实现流域水资源的优化配置;跨地区跨行业的水权交易由于规模大,需要的投资金额多,交易成本较高,只

  10. Agroecosystem Impacts on Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reedy, R. C.; Scanlon, B. R.

    2010-12-01

    Agroecosystems can have large scale impacts on soil water and groundwater quality by mobilizing salts into underlying aquifers through enhanced recharge and increasing chemical loading to systems through fertilizer applications and irrigation water. Crop evapotranspiration is similar to desalinization in that root-water uptake excludes most salts, and soil-water salinity levels may build up when water drainage or percolation through the root zone is insufficient to flush accumulated salts. The objective of this study was to evaluate impacts of agroecosystems on soil water and groundwater quality using data from the US High Plains and California Central Valley. Natural ecosystems accumulated large reservoirs of salts in unsaturated soils in the southern High Plains and southern part of the Central Valley. Increased recharge under rainfed and irrigated agriculture mobilized these salt reservoirs into the underlying aquifer in the southern High Plains, increasing groundwater salinity, particularly chloride and sulfate. Deficit irrigation in the southern High Plains has created large salt bulges in the unsaturated zone because of insufficient irrigation to flush these salts into the underlying aquifer. Irrigation in both the High Plains and Central Valley regions has markedly increased groundwater nitrate levels, particularly in irrigated areas because of higher fertilizer applications. Agroecosystem impacts on water quality reflect a delicate balance between water and salt cycles and crop production should be managed to minimize negative environmental impacts.

  11. Analysis of Water-saving Measures of Building Water Supply and Drainage Design%建筑给排水设计节水措施的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨沁

    2014-01-01

    The water-saving design of drainage system is an important measure to save energy. This paper analyzes the present situation of water consumption of water drainage de- sign, clarifying the necessity of water saving design, and pu- ting forward some measures for water saving in design of water supply and drainage.%建筑给排水系统的节水设计是一项重要的节能措施。本文分析了建筑给排水设计的用水现状,明确了了节水设计的必要性,并提出了一些给排水设计中的节水措施。

  12. Impacts of irrigation network sectoring as an energy saving measure on olive grove production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro Navajas, J M; Montesinos, P; Poyato, E Camacho; Rodríguez Díaz, J A

    2012-11-30

    In recent years, improving water use efficiency has been one of the most important challenges for the agricultural sector. However, such improvements have led to the installation of pressurized irrigation systems which generally require more energy to operate, especially in plantations on sloping and mountainous lands. Thus, the reduction of energy use in these systems has also become a major issue. Irrigation network sectoring has been proposed as one of the most effective energy saving measures. Typically, however, the potential benefits of this management strategy have been evaluated by means of theoretical approaches in networks that were originally designed to supply water on demand and not after water application in real irrigation districts designed following sectoring strategies. In this work, this measure is applied to an irrigation district devoted to olive grove production in a mountainous area that was designed according to this management strategy. With this aim, the WEBSO (Water and Energy Based Sectoring Operation) algorithm, which was developed in a previous work, has been modified in order to take into account the specific characteristics of the irrigation district and its actual management, as well as to analyze sensitivity to several irrigation water depths in terms of both energy demand and yields. An economic analysis of the potential benefits of this management strategy is also carried out. The results show that this measure has lead to a nearly 30% reduction in energy consumption, while increasing farmers' profits by 13% compared to traditional on-demand operations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact of a University-Based Outpatient Telemedicine Program on Time Savings, Travel Costs, and Environmental Pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dullet, Navjit W; Geraghty, Estella M; Kaufman, Taylor; Kissee, Jamie L; King, Jesse; Dharmar, Madan; Smith, Anthony C; Marcin, James P

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate travel-related and environmental savings resulting from the use of telemedicine for outpatient specialty consultations with a university telemedicine program. The study was designed to retrospectively analyze the telemedicine consultation database at the University of California Davis Health System (UCDHS) between July 1996 and December 2013. Travel distances and travel times were calculated between the patient home, the telemedicine clinic, and the UCDHS in-person clinic. Travel cost savings and environmental impact were calculated by determining differences in mileage reimbursement rate and emissions between those incurred in attending telemedicine appointments and those that would have been incurred if a visit to the hub site had been necessary. There were 19,246 consultations identified among 11,281 unique patients. Telemedicine visits resulted in a total travel distance savings of 5,345,602 miles, a total travel time savings of 4,708,891 minutes or 8.96 years, and a total direct travel cost savings of $2,882,056. The mean per-consultation round-trip distance savings were 278 miles, average travel time savings were 245 minutes, and average cost savings were $156. Telemedicine consultations resulted in a total emissions savings of 1969 metric tons of CO2, 50 metric tons of CO, 3.7 metric tons of NOx, and 5.5 metric tons of volatile organic compounds. This study demonstrates the positive impact of a health system's outpatient telemedicine program on patient travel time, patient travel costs, and environmental pollutants. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Deficit Irrigation as a Strategy to Save Water: Physiology and Potential Application to Horticulture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Water is an increasingly scarce resource worldwide and irrigated agriculture remains one of the largest and most inefficient users of this resource. Low water use efficiency (WUE) together with an increased competition for water resources with other sectors (e.g. tourism or industry) are forcing growers to adopt new irrigation and cultivation practices that use water more judiciously. In areas with dry and hot climates, drip irrigation and protected cultivation have improved WUE mainly by reducing runoff and evapotranspiration losses. However, complementary approaches are still needed to increase WUE in irrigated agriculture. Deficit irrigation strategies like regulated deficit irrigation or partial root drying have emerged as potential ways to increase water savings in agriculture by allowing crops to withstand mild water stress with no or only marginal decreases of yield and quality. Grapevine and several fruit tree crops seem to be well adapted to deficit irrigation,but other crops like vegetables tend not to cope so well due to losses in yield and quality. This paper aims at providing an overview of the physiological basis of deficit irrigation strategies and their potential for horticulture by describing the major consequences of their use to vegetative growth, yield and quality of different crops (fruits, vegetables and ornamentals).

  15. Interaction of ions in water system containing copper-zinc alloy for boiler energy saving

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MING Xing; LIANG Jinsheng; OU Xiuqin; TANG Qingguo; DING Yan

    2006-01-01

    Copper-zinc alloy element for boiler energy saving was put in the intake of simulated boiler system to investigate the interaction and transfer of ions in water system both theoretically and experimentally. The fouling was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray detector (EDX). The results show that the transfer of calcium and magnesium ions in heat-transfer-surface-water system is affected by zinc ions dissolved from the alloy because of primary battery reaction. Some calcium ions of calcium carbonate crystal are replaced by zinc ions, the growth of aragonite crystal nucleus is retarded, and the transition of calcium carbonate from aragonite to calcite is hampered.

  16. The Impact of Guarantees on the Performance of Pension Saving Schemes: Insights from the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Bohnert

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Guarantees are often seen as the key characteristics of pension saving products, but securing them can become costly and is of central relevance especially in the course of the current low interest rate environment. In this article, we deal with the question of how costly the typical types of guarantees are, in the sense that they reduce a pension saving scheme’s financial performance over time. In this context, we aim to provide a presentation of insights from selected literature studying the impact of point-to-point guarantees and cliquet-style interest rate guarantees on the performance of pension contracts. The comparative analysis emphasizes that, in most cases, guarantee costs are not negligible with regard to a contract’s financial performance, especially compared to benchmarks, and that customers knowingly opt for such guarantees (or not is, thus, indispensable. To further investigate the willingness-to-pay for guarantees in life insurance is an area for future research, in particular for innovative contract design.

  17. THE BALANCE BETWEEN SUPPLY AND DEMAND OF WATER RESOURCES AND THE WATER-SAVING POTENTIAL FOR AGRICULTURE IN THE HEXI CORRIDOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The Hexi Corridor is an important base of agriculture development in Northwest China. According to re-cent statistics, there are 65.94 × 108m3 of water resources available in the Hexi Corridor. At present, net consumption indevelopment and utilization is 43.33 x 108m3. Water supply and demand reach a balance on the recent level of produc-tion, but loss of evaporation and evapotranspiration is as much as 25.69 × 108m3. So net use efficiency of water resourcesis 59%. Based on analyzing balance between water and land considering ecological environment at present, there existsthe serious water shortage in the Shiyang River system where irrigation lands have overloaded. There is a comparative bal-ance between supply and demand of water resource in the Heihe River system; and the Sule River system has some sur-plus water to extend irrigation land. Use of agriculture water accounts for 83.3% and ecological forest and grass for6. 9%. The Hexi Corridor still has a great potential for water saving in agriculture production. Water-saving efficiency ofirrigation is about 10% by using such traditional technologies as furrow and border-dike irrigation and small check irriga-tion, and water-saving with plastic film cover and techniques of advanced sprinkler and drip/micro irrigation etc. cansave more than 60% of irrigated water. Incremental irrigation area for water-saving potential in the Hexi Corridor hasbeen estimated as 56% - 197% to original irrigation area. So the second water sources can be developed from water sav-ing agriculture in the Hexi Corridor under Development of the Western Part of China in large scale. This potential can berealized step by step through developing the water-saving measures, improving the ecological condition of oasis agricul-ture, and optimizing allocation of water resources in three river systems.

  18. Shared Urban Greywater Recycling Systems: Water Resource Savings and Economic Investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dexter V.L. Hunt

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The water industry is becoming increasingly aware of the risks associated with urban supplies not meeting demands by 2050. Greywater (GW recycling for non-potable uses (e.g., urinal and toilet flushing provides an urban water management strategy to help alleviate this risk by reducing main water demands. This paper proposes an innovative cross connected system that collects GW from residential buildings and recycles it for toilet/urinal flushing in both residential and office buildings. The capital cost (CAPEX, operational cost (OPEX and water saving potential are calculated for individual and shared residential and office buildings in an urban mixed-use regeneration area in the UK, assuming two different treatment processes; a membrane bioreactor (MBR and a vertical flow constructed wetland (VFCW. The Net Present Value (NPV method was used to compare the financial performance of each considered scenario, from where it was found that a shared GW recycling system (MBR was the most economically viable option. The sensitivity of this financial model was assessed, considering four parameters (i.e., water supply and sewerage charges, discount rate(s, service life and improved technological efficiency, e.g., low flush toilets, low shower heads, etc., from where it was found that shared GW systems performed best in the long-term.

  19. The potential for energy savings when reducing the water consumption in a kraft pulp mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wising, Ulrika; Berntsson, Thore [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Science; Stuart, Paul [Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2004-05-01

    In this paper an existing pulp and paper mill has been studied in a systematic way regarding the reduction of water consumption, and the resulting increased potential for energy integration. It has been found that when the mill's hot water consumption is decreased, the live steam demand for the mill also decreases. Also when decreasing the hot water consumption, the quantity and temperature of available excess heat increases. This excess heat can be used for evaporation, thereby reducing the live steam demand further by up to 1.5 GJ/t. A pinch analysis was performed at an existing mill and it was found that if pinch violations are removed, the hot water consumption is not an important factor any more. Removing all the pinch violations and using the remaining excess heat for evaporation yields a significantly larger energy savings for the mill (4.0 GJ/t). From an economic optimum perspective it is probably most profitable to do a combination of reducing water consumption, removing pinch violations, and use the remaining excess heat for evaporation.

  20. Review of the Fuel Saving, Life Cycle GHG Emission, and Ownership Cost Impacts of Lightweighting Vehicles with Different Powertrains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Jason M; Kim, Hyung Chul; De Kleine, Robert; Wallington, Timothy J; MacLean, Heather L

    2017-08-01

    The literature analyzing the fuel saving, life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, and ownership cost impacts of lightweighting vehicles with different powertrains is reviewed. Vehicles with lower powertrain efficiencies have higher fuel consumption. Thus, fuel savings from lightweighting internal combustion engine vehicles can be higher than those of hybrid electric and battery electric vehicles. However, the impact of fuel savings on life cycle costs and GHG emissions depends on fuel prices, fuel carbon intensities and fuel storage requirements. Battery electric vehicle fuel savings enable reduction of battery size without sacrificing driving range. This reduces the battery production cost and mass, the latter results in further fuel savings. The carbon intensity of electricity varies widely and is a major source of uncertainty when evaluating the benefits of fuel savings. Hybrid electric vehicles use gasoline more efficiently than internal combustion engine vehicles and do not require large plug-in batteries. Therefore, the benefits of lightweighting depend on the vehicle powertrain. We discuss the value proposition of the use of lightweight materials and alternative powertrains. Future assessments of the benefits of vehicle lightweighting should capture the unique characteristics of emerging vehicle powertrains.

  1. Effects of Operating Pressure on Energy-saving of Water Recycling Utilization with MVR system in Oil Extraction Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Liansheng; Zhao, Yuanyang; Wang, Le; Xiao, Jun; Yang, Qichao; Liu, Guangbin; Tang, Bin

    2015-01-01

    One of the most effective methods for the extraction of crude oil with high viscosity is injecting high temperature water vapor to the oil well. To save water consumption and achieve zero discharge, it is needed to separate and purify the water, which is mixed with oil, mud and other impurities. In this paper, the mechanical vapor recompression (MVR) system is analyzed and the parameters for analysis are based on a demonstration project on water recycling utilization in the Karamay crude oil ...

  2. Biofuel impacts on water.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien

    2011-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and General Motors Global Energy Systems team conducted a joint biofuels systems analysis project from March to November 2008. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility, implications, limitations, and enablers of large-scale production of biofuels. 90 billion gallons of ethanol (the energy equivalent of approximately 60 billion gallons of gasoline) per year by 2030 was chosen as the book-end target to understand an aggressive deployment. Since previous studies have addressed the potential of biomass but not the supply chain rollout needed to achieve large production targets, the focus of this study was on a comprehensive systems understanding the evolution of the full supply chain and key interdependencies over time. The supply chain components examined in this study included agricultural land use changes, production of biomass feedstocks, storage and transportation of these feedstocks, construction of conversion plants, conversion of feedstocks to ethanol at these plants, transportation of ethanol and blending with gasoline, and distribution to retail outlets. To support this analysis, we developed a 'Seed to Station' system dynamics model (Biofuels Deployment Model - BDM) to explore the feasibility of meeting specified ethanol production targets. The focus of this report is water and its linkage to broad scale biofuel deployment.

  3. Water Impact of Syntactic Foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Shams

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Syntactic foams are particulate composite materials that are extensively integrated in naval and aerospace structures as core materials for sandwich panels. While several studies have demonstrated the potential of syntactic foams as energy absorbing materials in impact tests, our understanding of their response to water impact remains elusive. In this work, we attempt a first characterization of the behavior of a vinyl ester/glass syntactic subject to slamming. High-speed imaging is leveraged to elucidate the physics of water impact of syntactic foam wedges in a free-fall drop tower. From the images, we simultaneously measure the deformation of the wedge and the hydrodynamic loading, thereby clarifying the central role of fluid–structure interaction during water impact. We study two different impact heights and microballoon density to assess the role of impact energy and syntactic foam composition on the slamming response. Our results demonstrate that both these factors have a critical role on the slamming response of syntactic foams. Reducing the density of microballoons might help to reduce the severity of the hydrodynamic loading experienced by the wedge, but this comes at the expense of a larger deformation. Such a larger deformation could ultimately lead to failure for large drop heights. These experimental results offer compelling evidence for the role of hydroelastic coupling in the slamming response of syntactic foams.

  4. Fossil fuel saving through a direct solar energy water heating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michels, Ademar; Dias Mayer, Flavio; Gallon, Roger; Hoffmann, Ronaldo; Tiago Serafini, Seimur [Federal University of Santa Maria, Santa Maria-RS (Brazil)

    2008-09-15

    The global warming and energy crisis is motivating the search for sustainable power sources. The objective of this work is to analyze the economic return and quantify the reduction in the emission of pollutants, when low-cost solar collectors are used as a partial substitute for a boiler that uses fuel oil as the energy source, in order to heat water for the swimming pools of the Physical Education Center, Federal University of Santa Maria. The collectors are made from PVC and other easily acquired materials. The estimations for energy saving are based on a collecting area of 182 m{sup 2}. From knowledge of the collectors' efficiency, the mathematical demonstration shows a fuel oil saving of 13,174 kg, representing 24% of the total amount consumed per annum. The investment required for the construction and installation of the collectors is US$ 6,445 and the estimated useful live is five years. The internal rate of return is 30%. The emission of pollutants is reduced by a considerable amount of 41,213 kg CO{sub 2}equivalent/year. The use of direct sun energy as an alternative power source represents a significant economic interest as well as contributing to the mitigation of greenhouse gases. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  5. Harnessing Potential Evaporation as a Renewable Energy Resource With Water-Saving Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavusoglu, A. H.; Chen, X.; Gentine, P.; Sahin, O.

    2015-12-01

    Water's large latent heat of vaporization makes evaporation a critical component of the energy balance at the Earth's surface. An immense amount of energy drives the hydrological cycle and is an important component of various weather and climate patterns. However, the potential of harnessing evaporation has received little attention as a renewable energy resource compared to wind and solar energy. Here, we investigate the potential of harvesting energy from naturally evaporating water. Using weather data across the contiguous United States and a modified model of potential evaporation, we estimate the power availability, intermittency, and the changes in evaporation rates imposed by energy conversion. Our results indicate that natural evaporation can deliver power densities similar to existing renewable energy platforms and require little to no energy storage to match the varying power demands of urban areas. This model also predicts additional, and substantial, water savings by reducing evaporative losses. These findings suggest that evaporative energy harvesting can address significant challenges with water/energy interactions that could be of interest to the hydrology community.

  6. Environmental Impact Assessment in Sustainable Water Resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental Impact Assessment in Sustainable Water Resources Development: ... the current level of understanding of environmental impact assessment of water ... In the arena of Integrated Water Resources Management, the environment ...

  7. Water Saving Technology in Thermal Power Plant%火力发电厂节水技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王斌; 刘政修

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of thermal power plant, the typical water drainage systems and water quality, water quantity, introduces the traditional and new water-saving technology implementation, mainly introduces the circulating sewage, chemical water treatment system for water recycling utilization and desulfurization wastewater advanced treatment process, has the reference value of saving water in thermal power plan.%本文分析了火力发电厂典型用水、排水系统及其水质、水量,介绍了传统及新兴的节水技术实施要点,重点介绍了循环排污水、化学水处理系统自用水回收利用及脱硫废水处理深度处理工艺,对火力发电厂节水工作具有参考价值。

  8. Identifying the Physical Properties of Showers That Influence User Satisfaction to Aid in Developing Water-Saving Showers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minami Okamoto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted with the goal of clarifying the required conditions of water-saving showerheads. In order to this, the research analyzes the mutual relationship between water usage flow, the level of satisfaction and the physical properties of spray of showerheads. The physical properties of spray were measured using physical properties test apparatus of standard or scheme for water-saving showerheads issued in several water-saving countries, and satisfaction evaluation data was acquired through bathing experiments. The evaluated showerheads were separated into three groups according to usage water flow and the level of satisfaction. The relationships between usage water flow, the level of satisfaction and physical properties were compared. The results identified that Spray Force and Spray Force-per-Hole were physical properties that influence usage water flow. Spray force-per-hole, water volume ratio in Spray Patterns within φ 100 and φ 150, Temperature Drop and Spray Angle were identified as physical properties that influenced the level of satisfaction. The level of satisfaction and usage water flow has a spurious correlation through the physical properties of Spray Force-per-Hole and Temperature Drop. It is possible to improve the level of satisfaction independent of amount of water usage through designs that set an appropriate value for water volume ratio and Spray Angle for Spray Patterns within φ 100 and φ 150.

  9. The Impacts of Water Conservation Strategies on Water Use: Four Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yushiou; Cohen, Sara; Vogel, Richard M

    2011-08-01

    We assessed impacts on water use achieved by implementation of controlled experiments relating to four water conservation strategies in four towns within the Ipswich watershed in Massachusetts. The strategies included (1) installation of weather-sensitive irrigation controller switches (WSICS) in residences and municipal athletic fields; (2) installation of rainwater harvesting systems in residences; (3) two outreach programs: (a) free home indoor water use audits and water fixture retrofit kits and (b) rebates for low-water-demand toilets and washing machines; and (4) soil amendments to improve soil moisture retention at a municipal athletic field. The goals of this study are to summarize the effectiveness of the four water conservation strategies and to introduce nonparametric statistical methods for evaluating the effectiveness of these conservation strategies in reducing water use. It was found that (1) the municipal WSICS significantly reduced water use; (2) residences with high irrigation demand were more likely than low water users to experience a substantial demand decrease when equipped with the WSICS; (3) rainwater harvesting provided substantial rainwater use, but these volumes were small relative to total domestic water use and relative to the natural fluctuations in domestic water use; (4) both the audits/retrofit and rebate programs resulted in significant water savings; and (5) a modeling approach showed potential water savings from soil amendments in ball fields.

  10. 浅析节水型园林建设中节水的应用%Analysis of application of water-saving in the water-saving landscape construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡飞; 谭德远; 高彦波; 郭宏凯; 翟鹏辉

    2015-01-01

    我国是世界公认的13个淡水资源最贫乏的国家之一,而北方又是我国缺水严重的地区,且随着我国城市化发展进程的加快,人均拥有量将更加减少。为此,在我国北方推进节水节能型园林建设很有必要。推进节水节能型园林建设,须淘汰现有的、落后的灌溉方式,采用滴灌、渗灌等先进灌溉方式。且要大力发展集雨工程建设,将集雨工程建设作为现代园林建设的一项标准,需有专项资金扶持。通过对我国城市园林绿地用水来源和节水技术进行分析,列举我国城市园林节水的途径,为我国节水型园林绿地建设提供指导。%Water scarcity is significant in the northern China, which requires us to vigorously promote water-saving garden construction. Advanced water-saving facilities such as drip irrigation, subsurface irrigation and other equipment should be used to promote various water-saving technologies, eliminate the outdated irrigation, vigorous develop rainwater-garden. Through the analysis of water problems of landscaping, it explored the ways of urban garden rainwater utilization, described the practical significance of the construction of water-saving landscaping. This article analyzed water sources and water saving technologies of city landscape, listed several ways of water-saving of city garden, and would provide a significant guidance to domestic water-saving landscape construction.

  11. Price System for Water Supply and its Economic Impact Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In light of the actual economic circumstances and water price level, the CGE model to simulate the price policy for multiple water sources is modified and expanded. A water price reform plan is proposed to meet water-saving requirements and water resources allocation. The affected scale and scope for implementing the water price policy is evaluated on a quantitative basis. Research results indicate that a reasonable water price system in Tianjin in 2020 should be set up as follows: the comprehensive tap water price stands at 4$/m3, the tap water price for industrial, administrative and business service sectors is 2.4$/m3, and the tap water price for special industry and domestic use are 8.8$/m3 and 1.4$/m3 respectively. The adjusted water price will bring about tangible results to water resources allocation optimization and water conservation. Although most sectors are negatively affected to varying degrees after raising the water price, particularly the lodging and catering sectors, a 100% water price rising will produce only little impact on price index, and sectoral output and employment will not cause economic fluctuations or social instability. Water price adjustments, as long as it is reasonable, will be more positive than negative on the whole. Research outcomes will provide a scientific decision-making basis for formulating the local water price policy.

  12. The Illusory Effects of Saving Incentives on Saving

    OpenAIRE

    Engen, Eric M.; William G. Gale; John Karl Scholz

    1996-01-01

    The authors evaluate research on how tax-based saving incentives (IRAs and 401(k)s) affect saving. Previous research overstates the impact of the incentives on saving by failing to account for several issues: households with saving incentives have stronger tastes for saving than others; saving incentives have interacted with debt, nonfinancial assets, financial markets, and pensions; and saving incentives represent pretax balances, whereas taxable accounts represent posttax balances. Accounti...

  13. Impacts of Water Quality on Residential Water Heating Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2013-11-01

    Water heating is a ubiquitous energy use in all residential housing, accounting for 17.7% of residential energy use (EIA 2012). Today, there are many efficient water heating options available for every fuel type, from electric and gas to more unconventional fuel types like propane, solar, and fuel oil. Which water heating option is the best choice for a given household will depend on a number of factors, including average daily hot water use (total gallons per day), hot water draw patterns (close together or spread out), the hot water distribution system (compact or distributed), installation constraints (such as space, electrical service, or venting accommodations) and fuel-type availability and cost. While in general more efficient water heaters are more expensive than conventional water heating technologies, the savings in energy use and, thus, utility bills can recoup the additional upfront investment and make an efficient water heater a good investment over time in most situations, although the specific payback period for a given installation will vary widely. However, the expected lifetime of a water heater in a given installation can dramatically influence the cost effectiveness and savings potential of a water heater and should be considered, along with water use characteristics, fuel availability and cost, and specific home characteristics when selecting the optimum water heating equipment for a particular installation. This report provides recommendations for selecting and maintaining water heating equipment based on local water quality characteristics.

  14. Mechanisms underlying plant resilience to water deficits: prospects for water-saving agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, M M; Oliveira, M M

    2004-11-01

    Drought is one of the greatest limitations to crop expansion outside the present-day agricultural areas. It will become increasingly important in regions of the globe where, in the past, the problem was negligible, due to the recognized changes in global climate. Today the concern is with improving cultural practices and crop genotypes for drought-prone areas; therefore, understanding the mechanisms behind drought resistance and the efficient use of water by the plants is fundamental for the achievement of those goals. In this paper, the major constraints to carbon assimilation and the metabolic regulations that play a role in plant responses to water deficits, acting in isolation or in conjunction with other stresses, is reviewed. The effects on carbon assimilation include increased resistance to diffusion by stomata and the mesophyll, as well as biochemical and photochemical adjustments. Oxidative stress is critical for crops that experience drought episodes. The role of detoxifying systems in preventing irreversible damage to photosynthetic machinery and of redox molecules as local or systemic signals is revised. Plant capacity to avoid or repair membrane damage during dehydration and rehydration processes is pivotal for the maintenance of membrane integrity, especially for those that embed functional proteins. Among such proteins are water transporters, whose role in the regulation of plant water status and transport of other metabolites is the subject of intense investigation. Long-distance chemical signalling, as an early response to drought, started to be unravelled more than a decade ago. The effects of those signals on carbon assimilation and partitioning of assimilates between reproductive and non-reproductive structures are revised and discussed in the context of novel management techniques. These applications are designed to combine increased crop water-use efficiency with sustained yield and improved quality of the products. Through an understanding of

  15. Water impacting on superhydrophobic macrotextures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Anaïs; Symon, Sean; Clanet, Christophe; Quéré, David

    2015-08-11

    It has been recently shown that the presence of macrotextures on superhydrophobic materials can markedly modify the dynamics of water impacting them, and in particular significantly reduce the contact time of bouncing drops, compared with what is observed on a flat surface. This finding constitutes a significant step in the maximization of water repellency, since it enables to minimize even further the contact between solid and liquid. It also opens a new axis of research on the design of super-structures to induce specific functions such as anti-freezing, liquid fragmentation and/or recomposition, guiding, trapping and so on. Here we show that the contact time of drops bouncing on a repellent macrotexture takes discrete values when varying the impact speed. This allows us to propose a quantitative analysis of the reduction of contact time and thus to understand how and why macrotextures can control the dynamical properties of bouncing drops.

  16. Water savings potentials of irrigation systems: global simulation of processes and linkages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jägermeyr, J.; Gerten, D.; Heinke, J.; Schaphoff, S.; Kummu, M.; Lucht, W.

    2015-07-01

    Global agricultural production is heavily sustained by irrigation, but irrigation system efficiencies are often surprisingly low. However, our knowledge of irrigation efficiencies is mostly confined to rough indicative estimates for countries or regions that do not account for spatiotemporal heterogeneity due to climate and other biophysical dependencies. To allow for refined estimates of global agricultural water use, and of water saving and water productivity potentials constrained by biophysical processes and also non-trivial downstream effects, we incorporated a process-based representation of the three major irrigation systems (surface, sprinkler, and drip) into a bio- and agrosphere model, LPJmL. Based on this enhanced model we provide a gridded world map of irrigation efficiencies that are calculated in direct linkage to differences in system types, crop types, climatic and hydrologic conditions, and overall crop management. We find pronounced regional patterns in beneficial irrigation efficiency (a refined irrigation efficiency indicator accounting for crop-productive water consumption only), due to differences in these features, with the lowest values (values (> 60 %) in Europe and North America. We arrive at an estimate of global irrigation water withdrawal of 2469 km3 (2004-2009 average); irrigation water consumption is calculated to be 1257 km3, of which 608 km3 are non-beneficially consumed, i.e., lost through evaporation, interception, and conveyance. Replacing surface systems by sprinkler or drip systems could, on average across the world's river basins, reduce the non-beneficial consumption at river basin level by 54 and 76 %, respectively, while maintaining the current level of crop yields. Accordingly, crop water productivity would increase by 9 and 15 %, respectively, and by much more in specific regions such as in the Indus basin. This study significantly advances the global quantification of irrigation systems while providing a framework for

  17. 机械化节水灌溉技术探讨%Discussion on Mechanized Water-saving Irrigation Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡艳清; 孙号茗; 田树良

    2012-01-01

    This article deals with the definition, advantages and drawbacks of such mechanized water saving irrigation techniques as sprinkling irrigation, micro-irrigation and walking water-saving irrigation, and describes the technical characteristics and applicabiIity in the application process of these various water-saving techniques in a bid to provide reference for the promotion and application of mech- anized water-saving irrigation techniques.%为缓解我国水资源短缺的情况,介绍喷灌机械化技术、微灌机械化技术和行走节水灌溉机械化技术的定义及优缺点.阐述各项节水技术在应用过程中的技术特点及适用性,为推广应用机械化节水灌溉技术提供参考。

  18. Exploring Northwest China's agricultural water-saving strategy: analysis of water use efficiency based on an SE-DEA model conducted in Xi'an, Shaanxi Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, L; Fang, L; Wang, H; Chen, L; Yang, Y; Qu, X J; Wang, C Y; Yuan, Y; Wang, S B; Wang, Y N

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, water scarcity threatens delivery of water to urban centers. Increasing water use efficiency (WUE) is often recommended to reduce water demand, especially in water-scarce areas. In this paper, agricultural water use efficiency (AWUE) is examined using the super-efficient data envelopment analysis (DEA) approach in Xi'an in Northwest China at a temporal and spatial level. The grey systems analysis technique was then adopted to identify the factors that influenced the efficiency differentials under the shortage of water resources. From the perspective of temporal scales, the AWUE increased year by year during 2004-2012, and the highest (2.05) was obtained in 2009. Additionally, the AWUE was the best in the urban area at the spatial scale. Moreover, the key influencing factors of the AWUE are the financial situations and agricultural water-saving technology. Finally, we identified several knowledge gaps and proposed water-saving strategies for increasing AWUE and reducing its water demand by: (1) improving irrigation practices (timing and amounts) based on compatible water-saving techniques; (2) maximizing regional WUE by managing water resources and allocation at regional scales as well as enhancing coordination among Chinese water governance institutes.

  19. 印染企业水平衡测试与节能节水潜力分析%Analysis of Water Balance Test and Energy-Saving Water-Saving Potential in Printing and Dyeing Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚成晨; 张伟; 金平良; 李健

    2015-01-01

    Printing and Dyeing industry consumes huge water in textile industry. High energy consumption, high water consumption and high pollution are main factors to prevent printing and dyeing industry from further developing. The article studied enterprises water consumption structure and characteristics and analyzed existing problems in traditional printing and dyeing process in the view of energy-saving through printing and dyeing enterprises water balance test. It discussed about energy-saving water-saving potential and all kinds of measurements features and feasibility in printing and dyeing enterprises, which improved resource utilization efficiency in printing and dyeing enterprises and provided reference for clean energy production.%印染行业是纺织工业的用水大户,高能耗、高水耗、高污染是阻碍印染行业发展的主要因素。文章通过印染企业水平衡测试,了解企业用水结构及特点,并从节能减排的角度分析传统印染工艺存在的问题,探讨印染企业节能节水潜力和各项措施的特点及可行性,为印染企业提高资源利用效率,实现清洁生产提供参考与借鉴。

  20. Energy and Economic Impacts of U.S. Federal Energy and Water Conservation Standards Adopted From 1987 through 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, Stephen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Williams, Alison [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chan, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents estimates of the key impacts of Federal energy and water conservation standards adopted from 1987 through 2012. The standards for consumer products and commercial and industrial equipment include those set by legislation as well as standards adopted by DOE through rulemaking. In 2012, the standards saved an estimated 3.6 quads of primary energy, which is equivalent to 3% of total U.S. energy consumption. The savings in operating costs for households and businesses totaled $51.4 billion. The average household saved $347 in operating costs as a result of residential and plumbing product standards. The estimated reduction in CO2 emissions associated with the standards in 2012 was 198 million metric tons, which is equivalent to 3% of total U.S. CO2 emissions. The estimated cumulative energy savings over the period 1990-2070 amount to 179 quads. Accounting for the increased upfront costs of more-efficient products and the operating cost (energy and water) savings over the products’ lifetime, the standards have a past and projected cumulative net present value (NPV) of consumer benefit of between $1,104 billion and $1,390 billion, using 7 percent and 3 percent discount rates, respectively. The water conservation standards, together with energy conservation standards that also save water, reduced water use by 1.8 trillion gallons in 2012, and will achieve cumulative water savings by 2040 of 54 trillion gallons. The estimated consumer savings in 2012 from reduced water use amounted to $13 billon.

  1. Energy and Economic Impacts of U.S. Federal Energy and Water Conservation Standards Adopted From 1987 Through 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, Stephen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Williams, Alison [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chan, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Sarah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-02-17

    This paper presents estimates of the key impacts of Federal energy and water conservation standards adopted from 1987 through 2015. The standards for consumer products and commercial and industrial equipment include those set by legislation as well as standards adopted by DOE through rulemaking. In 2015, the standards saved an estimated 4.49 quads of primary energy, which is equivalent to 5% of total U.S. energy consumption. The savings in operating costs for households and businesses totaled $63.4 billion. The average household saved $320 in operating costs as a result of residential appliance standards. The estimated reduction in CO2 emissions associated with the standards in 2015 was 238 million metric tons, which is equivalent to 4.3% of total U.S. CO2 emissions. The estimated cumulative energy savings over the period 1990-2090 amount to 216.9 quads. Accounting for the increased upfront costs of more-efficient products and the operating cost (energy and water) savings over the products’ lifetime, the standards have a cumulative net present value (NPV) of consumer benefit of between $1,627 billion and $1,887 billion, using 7 percent and 3 percent discount rates, respectively. The water conservation standards, together with energy conservation standards that also save water, reduced water use by 1.9 trillion gallons in 2015 and estimated cumulative water savings by 2090 amount to 55 trillion gallons. The estimated consumer savings in 2015 from reduced water use amounted to $12 billon.

  2. Energy and water saving measures at the Arloev sugar mill. Final report; Energi- och vattenbesparande aatgaerder vid Arloevs Sockerbruk. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wamsler, M. [AAF-Processdesign AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

    2001-10-01

    The project comprised several, mutually dependent, sub-projects; mapping, investigation of ways to reduce water consumption, membrane tests aiming to find ways to recover sugar, and pinch analysis to evaluate the possibilities for improved process integration. This final report deals with the overall project results. Identified savings opportunities and savings potentials are presented. The presented measures represent an overall optimisation based on the results of all the project parts. Already during the project, measures have been implemented that are calculated to save 65 000 m{sup 3} water annually, corresponding to 10 % of the total water consumption. This saving is in level with the goals for the project. In the table below, these and additional measures are presented with a total savings potential at approximately 200 000 m{sup 3} /year water. The project will then achieve a saving of just below 35 % of present water consumption. Also in the membrane study the results surpassed the expectations. It was found that with nano filtering a sugar concentration of more than 10 %(W) could be reached in the retentate at a flux 50al/m{sup 2}h. The total sugar losses were less than 5 %, i.e. 95 % should be possible to recover. In total, a savings potential of more than 300 tonnes sugar per year is indicated. The Energy savings in the project are calculated to 7,4 GWh/year, of which 0,2 GWh/year by reduced water consumption, 0,6 GWh/year by water recovery, 1,4 GWh/year by membrane technology and 5,2aGWh/year as a result of process integration. This should be compared to the target 2,5 GWh/year. Hence, the results are almost three times the expected. The savings in monetary terms are estimated at just under SEK 5 million per year. The investment is roughly estimated at between SEK 5 and 6 million, of which SEK 4 million for the membrane equipment and SEK 0,5 million for a process water buffer tank. The remaining investment costs cover heat exchangers, control equipment

  3. THE IMPACT OF COMMUNITY SAVINGS AND INVESTMENT PROMOTION PROGRAM ON HOUSEHOLD INCOME AND CREDIT MARKET PARTICIPATION IN KASUNGU DISTRICT, CENTRAL MALAWI

    OpenAIRE

    MWALUGHALI, OBED GILBERT FREDRICK

    2013-01-01

    This study analyses the impact of Community Savings and Investment Program (COMSIP) activities on household income and credit of member households of COMSIP groups in Kasungu District in Central Malawi. COMSIP groups are a form of village-based microcredit and community-based savings institutions with a number of socio-economic functions. The functions include mobilization of communities to save and/or invest their resources into income generating initiatives and provide credit. Using data fr...

  4. Impact of Water Intensity and Efficiency on Water Resources Sustainability in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    BIN, Lingling; XU, Xinyi; YANG, Zhongwen; XU, Kui

    2015-04-01

    Water problems in China have characters of less per capita, highly developed and low efficiency; it is essential to pay close attention to the sustainable utilization of water resources. This paper aims to explore the impact of human activities on the sustainability of water resources in China. Three important factors affecting sustainability significantly were involved: Water Resources (WR), Water Intensity (WI) and Water Efficiency (WE). Assessment of the three factors were conducted in 356 cities in mainland China, and each indicator is graded from "very low" to "very high" according to the eigenvalue magnitude. China is then classified into four zones to differentiate regional variations of the impact of human activities on water sustainability. Results show that 34% of the areas have high WI values and 58% have low WE values. It is recommended that water resource polices be turned to a more sustainable management strategy in areas with high intensity and low efficiency and sustainability significantly low. Zone I regions should be focused on particular attention for its exploitation of water resources reached an extreme state, water efficiency should be highly improved and water-saving management policy implemented to maintain the sustainable development of water resources and ecosystems.

  5. Designing Rainwater Harvesting Systems Cost-Effectively in a Urban Water-Energy Saving Scheme by Using a GIS-Simulation Based Design System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yie-Ru Chiu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Current centralized urban water supply depends largely on energy consumption, creating critical water-energy challenge especially for many rapid growing Asian cities. In this context, harvesting rooftop rainwater for non-potable use has enormous potential to ease the worsening water-energy issue. For this, we propose a geographic information system (GIS-simulation-based design system (GSBDS to explore how rainwater harvesting systems (RWHSs can be systematically and cost-effectively designed as an innovative water-energy conservation scheme on a city scale. This GSBDS integrated a rainfall data base, water balance model, spatial technologies, energy-saving investigation, and economic feasibility analysis based on a case study of eight communities in the Taipei metropolitan area, Taiwan. Addressing both the temporal and spatial variations in rainfall, the GSBDS enhanced the broad application of RWHS evaluations. The results indicate that the scheme is feasible based on the optimal design when both water and energy-savings are evaluated. RWHSs were observed to be cost-effective and facilitated 21.6% domestic water-use savings, and 138.6 (kWh/year-family energy-savings. Furthermore, the cost of per unit-energy-saving is lower than that from solar PV systems in 85% of the RWHS settings. Hence, RWHSs not only enable water-savings, but are also an alternative renewable energy-saving approach that can address the water-energy dilemma caused by rapid urbanization.

  6. Energy management in multi-municipal water supply systems. Identifying energy cost savings from readily available time-series electricity consumption and water production data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, V.; Castanheira, L. [ENERGAIA, Energy Management Agency of Gaia (Portugal); Fleming, P. [Institute of Energy and Sustainable Development, De Montfort University, (United Kingdom); Gouveia, J. Borges [Department of Engineering and Industrial Management, Aveiro University (Portugal)

    2002-07-01

    This paper analyses data from 21 water pumping stations to identify electricity saving opportunities. The specific energy consumption of the different pumping stations are calculated. Using a combination of bivariate correlation analysis and CUSUM analysis, the water pumping related energy consumption and the non pumping of electricity consumption have been identified. This time-series energy analysis techniques provided much more information than the traditional energy consumption technique. Data is presented for one pumping station that identifies potential electricity savings through modifications to the current pumping regime. Bivariate analysis, followed by CUSUM technique can help improve the cost effectiveness of the energy audit by analysing the data for the pumping stations prior to the audit. Such an analysis can then help the energy auditor identify a major electricity saving opportunities in a shorter time and so make the whole approach more cost effective.

  7. The precautionary savings motive and household savings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastrogiacomo, Mauro; Alessie, Rob

    2014-01-01

    We quantified the relative importance of the precautionary motive in determining savings. Existing empirical evidence suggests that the impact of precautionary savings is small if one uses a subjective (based on self-reported expectations) measure of uncertainty about next year income. However, othe

  8. How much drinking water can be saved by using rainwater harvesting on a large urban area? application to Paris agglomeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmeziti, Ali; Coutard, Olivier; de Gouvello, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    This paper is based on a prospective scenario of development of rainwater harvesting (RWH) on a given large urban area (such as metropolitan area or region). In such a perspective, a new method is proposed to quantify the related potential of potable water savings (PPWS) indicator on this type of area by adapting the reference model usually used on the building level. The method is based on four setting-up principles: gathering (definition of buildings-types and municipalities-types), progressing (use of an intermediate level), increasing (choice of an upper estimation) and prioritizing (ranking the stakes of RWH). Its application to the Paris agglomeration shows that is possible to save up to 11% of the total current potable water through the use of RWH. It also shows that the residential sector offers the most important part because it holds two-thirds of the agglomeration PPWS.

  9. Measuring Savings

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Schreiner

    2001-01-01

    Development depends on saving. But what exactly is saving, and how is it measured? This paper defines saving and describes several measures of financial savings. The measures account for the passage of time and for the three stages of saving: putting in (depositing), keeping in (maintaining a balance), and taking out (withdrawing). Together, the different measures capture how people move financial resources through time.

  10. Rice evapotranspiration at the field and canopy scales under water-saving irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyin; Xu, Junzeng; Yang, Shihong; Zhang, Jiangang

    2017-02-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is an important process of land surface water and thermal cycling, with large temporal and spatial variability. To reveal the effect of water-saving irrigation (WSI) on rice ET at different spatial scales and understand the cross spatial scale difference, rice ET under WSI condition at canopy (ETCML) and field scale (ETEC) were measured simultaneously by mini-lysimeter and eddy covariance (EC) in the rice season of 2014. To overcome the shortage of energy balance deficit by EC system, and evaluate the influence of energy balance closure degree on ETEC, ETEC was corrected as ET_{EC}^{*} by energy balance closure correction according to the evaporative fraction. Seasonal average daily ETEC, ET_{EC}^{*} and ETCML of rice under WSI practice were estimated as 3.12, 4.03 and 4.35 mm day-1, smaller than the values reported in flooded paddy fields. Daily ETEC, ET_{EC}^{*} and ETCML varied in a similar trends and reached the maximum in late tillering, then decreased along with the crop growth in late season. The value of ETEC was much lower than ETCML, and was frequently 1-2 h lagged behind ETCML. It indicated that the energy balance deficit resulted in underestimation of crop ET by EC system. The corrected value of ET_{EC}^{*} matched ETCML much better than ETEC, with a smaller RMSE (0.086 mm h-1) and higher R 2 (0.843) and IOA (0.961). The time lapse between ET_{EC}^{*} and ETCML was mostly shortened to less than 0.5 h. The multiple stepwise regression analysis indicated that net radiation (R n) is the dominant factor for rice ET, and soil moisture (θ) is another significant factor (p < 0.01) in WSI rice fields. The difference between ETCML and ET_{EC}^{*} (ET_{CML} - ET_{EC^{*} ) were significantly (p < 0.05) correlated with R n, air temperature (T a), and air vapor pressure deficit (D), and its partial correlation coefficients to R n and T a were slightly greater than D. Thus, R n, T a and D are important variables for understanding the spatial

  11. The impact of fiscal policy and inflation on national saving. A reply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. MODIGLIANI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article serves as a response to Nicola Rossi’s critique of the authors’ previous work on fiscal policy and national savings in Italy. The authors reaffirm their previous finding that deficits have indeed reduced national savings and in particular make two points. First, contrary to his assertions, Rossi’s evidence is inconsistent with the Ricardian Equivalence Proposition. Second, this failure becomes even more apparent if one relies on the updated formulation and improved data underlying the more recent contribution of Modigliani and Jappelli (1987.

  12. 我国工业节水与对策分析%Importance & Measures to Save Industrial Water in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许芳涤; 王昕彤

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the current situation of water resources in China and the shortage of industrial water and water resources. However, the problems about industrial water savingare existing in China, such as non-perfect water-saving standard, low water recycle rate and large amount of waste water discharge. In order to solve those problems, an overall industrial water-saving code of China is to be established to regulate the utilization of industrial water, and industrial enterprises shall increase the utilization rate of recycled water, improve the cooling techniques and industrial waste water treating technique, adjust the industrial structure and eliminate backward production capacity. Restraining the consumption of industrial water by the government's regulations and taking proper water-saving measures by industrial enterprises can reduce the consumption of industrial water in China to support the sustainable development of the industry of China.%对目前我国水资源现状进行简要概述,说明工业用水及水资源不足的情况。指出我国目前工业用水存在节水标准不健全、重复利用率低、废水排放量大等问题。为解决这些问题,我国需要制定完善工业节水标准规范以及约束工业用水,企业需要增加循环利用率,改进冷却技术,加强工业废水的处理力度,调整工业结构和淘汰落后产能。通过国家政策的约束和企业的节水措施,降低我国工业用水量,促进工业的可持续发展。

  13. The impact of unemployment insurance savings accounts on subsequent employment quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagler, P.

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of unemployment insurance savings accounts (UISA) in Chile in October 2002 led to more comprehensive unemployment protection while decreasing the opportunity cost of job change. Using a difference-in-differences approach this paper examines whether the introduction of UISA had an im

  14. Subsidizing the adoption of energy-saving technologies; Analyzing the impact of uncertainty, learning and maturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.L.F. de Groot (Henri); D.P. van Soest (Daan); P. Mulder (Peter)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractAs part of the Kyoto Protocol, many countries have committed themselves to substantially reduce the emission of greenhouse gases within a politically imposed time constraint. Investment subsidies can be an important instrument to stimulate the adoption of energy-saving technologies to ac

  15. The need to triple the impact of energy saving policies in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselink, B.; Harmsen, R.

    2011-01-01

    In the past five years, the European Union (EU) has considerably strengthened its climate and renewable energy policies. The EU’s three ‘20 %’ targets for 2020 on greenhouse gases (GHGs), renewables and energy savings are implemented through a remarkable package of regulatory EU policies: • the EU

  16. Life-cycle savings, bequest, and a diminishing impact of scale on growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Jensen, Martin Kaae

    2009-01-01

    The present paper shows that the savings motive critically affects the size and sign of scale effects in standard endogenous growth models. If the bequest motive dominates, the scale effect is positive. If the life-cycle motive dominates, the scale effect is ambiguous and may even be negative....

  17. Simulating structural response to water impact

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, James C; Vignjevic, Rade

    2012-01-01

    Structural response to water impact is important for several areas, including the aerospace and marine industries. Aircraft must be designed to cope with ditching and offshore structures are subject to extreme wave impact and green water loading. The goal is a reliable technique for predicting the structural response to extreme water loading. This is a complex problem involving the interaction of non-linear fluid behaviour (breaking waves, fluid impact) with non-linear structural behaviour (l...

  18. 宁夏卫宁灌区水权转让节水工程节水量计算方法探讨%A Discussion on Calculation Method of Water-saving Quantity of Water Rights Transfer and Water Saving Projects of Weining Irrigation Area In Ningxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马鹏霖; 张万宝; 王丽君

    2015-01-01

    In Ningxia the local water resources are scarce; the economic and social development relies mainly on Yellow River transit water. In recent years, by water rights transfer, the problem of water usage of the new industrial projects has been relieved. The water right transfer mainly is to realize water saving by channel lining to save channel leaking water. In order to accurately check and ratify the water-saving quantity of the water rights transfer projects, aiming at the calculation method of the water-saving quantity by channel lining in the water rights transfer and water-saving improvement projects, based on the calculation principle of water-saving quantity, by an analysis of the long-term monitoring data, the method for determining the parameters is put forward to provide a reference for analysis and calculation of the water-saving quantity.%宁夏当地水资源十分匮乏,经济社会发展主要依赖于过境黄河水。近年来通过水权转让,缓解了新上工业项目用水问题。水权转让主要是通过引黄灌区渠道衬砌,节约渠道渗漏水量来实现节水。为了准确核定水权转让工程节水量,针对水权转让节水改造工程中渠道衬砌节水量的计算方法,根据节水量的计算原理,通过灌区长期监测资料分析并提出参数的确定方法,为节水量的分析计算提供参考依据。

  19. 建筑给排水中的节水和水资源利用分析%The water saving and water resource utilization analysis in building water supply and drainage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彦虎

    2015-01-01

    针对建筑给排水设计中水资源浪费的问题,从使用节水配水器、优质管材、采取减压措施、优化热水循环系统、强化节水意识等方面,提出了建筑给排水的节水对策,有利于水资源的高效应用。%According to the water resource problems in building water supply and drainage design,from the use of water-saving distributor,high quality steel tubes,using relief measures,optimization of hot water circulation system,strengthening the water saving awareness and other aspects,put forward water saving countermeasures for building water supply and drainage,was conducive to the efficient application of water resources.

  20. The Future is Green: Tribal College Saving Water, Electricity--and Money

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Gelvin

    2005-01-01

    Tribal colleges and universities around the country are harnessing natural sources of energy on their campuses. Renewable energy and sustainable building design have many advantages--they save money and provide healthier learning and working environments while allowing people to live in greater harmony with the earth. This article discusses…

  1. [Influences of water-saved and nitrogen-reduced practice on soil microbial and microfauna assemblage in paddy field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Juan; Chen, Xiao-yun; Liu, Man-qiang; Zhuang, Xi-ping; Sun, Zhen; Hu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    The resource and environmental problems caused by excessive consumption of water and fertilizer in rice production have recently aroused widespread concern. This study investigated the effects of irrigation modes (conventional irrigation and 25% water-saved irrigation) and different N application rates (conventional high-nitrogen fertilization and 40% nitrogen-reduced fertilization) on microbial and microfauna assemblages at tillering and ripening stages in paddy field. The results showed that compared with conventional irrigation (CF), water-saved irrigation (WS) decreased the soil pH at tillering stage. Soil dissolved organic matter (dissolved organic C and N) and microbial biomass C and N were significantly affected by irrigation, nitrogen fertilizer and their interactions. WS or N-reduced fertilization (LN) decreased the contents of dissolved organic matter; WS increased microbial biomass C but decreased microbial biomass N. Nitrate was significantly higher in WS than CF, while ammonium showed reverse pattern. At tillering stage, the soil microbial biomass from bacteria, fungi, actinomy and protozoa was higher in WS than in CF, but the trend was opposite at ripening stage. There was a significant interation between irrigation and fertilization on soil rotifer numbers and microbial-feeding nematodes. At tillering stage, WS increased the numbers of rotifer and nematode, and also the proportion of bacterial-feeding nematode; LN increased the abundance of rotifer but decreased the abundance of nematode. In summary, soil microbial and microfauna assemblages showed different response to water-saved and nitrogen-reduced agricultural managements, which depended on different crop growth stages, but also the complex interactions of water and nitrogen and between biological groups in food webs.

  2. Literature Review of the Potential Energy Savings and Retention Water from Green Roofs in Comparison with Conventional Ones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tselekis, Kyriakoulis

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study is the comparison of green roof systems with conventional isolated and non-isolated ones in order to identify the potential energy savings of green roofs and the benefits provided in comparison with the cost of construction to the buildings. The region of interest is the Watergraafsmeer area in the city of Amsterdam. The method evaluates literature reports - mostly from 2003 to 2010 - that present the advantages of green roofs. Examples in real implementation of green roofs in USA, UK and Germany, retention of rainfall and a Life Cycle Assessment from a residential construction in Madrid will be introduced, showing the energy savings from insulation and heating/cooling that can be gained. All the reports have shown a reduction in energy costs and in runoff of water. Hence, costs and retrofitting potential completes the research. The age of buildings and the absence of insulation make green roofs an ideal alternative project for the retrofit of Watergraafsmeer.

  3. Measuring the impact of urban policies on transportation energy saving using a land use-transport model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanobu Kii

    2014-03-01

    This study demonstrates the applicability of a land-use transport model to the assessment of urban policies for building smart communities. First, we outline a model that explicitly formulates the actors' location-related decisions and travel behavior. Second, we apply this model to two urban policies – road pricing and land-use regulation – to assess their long-term impact on energy saving and sustainability using the case of a simplified synthetic city. Our study verifies that, under assumed conditions, the model has the capacity to assess urban policies on energy use and sustainability in a consistent fashion.

  4. The Impact of Rate Design and Net Metering on the Bill Savings from Distributed PV for Residential Customers in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darghouth, Naim; Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan

    2010-03-30

    Net metering has become a widespread policy in the U.S. for supporting distributed photovoltaics (PV) adoption. Though specific design details vary, net metering allows customers with PV to reduce their electric bills by offsetting their consumption with PV generation, independent of the timing of the generation relative to consumption - in effect, compensating the PV generation at retail electricity rates (Rose et al. 2009). While net metering has played an important role in jump-starting the residential PV market in the U.S., challenges to net metering policies have emerged in a number of states and contexts, and alternative compensation methods are under consideration. Moreover, one inherent feature of net metering is that the value of the utility bill savings it provides to customers with PV depends heavily on the structure of the underlying retail electricity rate, as well as on the characteristics of the customer and PV system. Consequently, the value of net metering - and the impact of moving to alternative compensation mechanisms - can vary substantially from one customer to the next. For these reasons, it is important for policymakers and others that seek to support the development of distributed PV to understand both how the bill savings varies under net metering, and how the bill savings under net metering compares to other possible compensation mechanisms. To advance this understanding, we analyze the bill savings from PV for residential customers of California's two largest electric utilities, Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E) and Southern California Edison (SCE). The analysis is based on hourly load data from a sample of 215 residential customers located in the service territories of the two utilities, matched with simulated hourly PV production for the same time period based on data from the nearest of 73 weather stations in the state.

  5. Savings from industrial electronics in water supply and treatment; L'electronique industrielle source d'economie dans la fourniture et le traitement des eaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnefoi, P. [Schneider Electric, 92 - Rueil Malmaison (France)

    2003-04-01

    The important part of electrical energy, within the cost of water distribution and treatment, requires water stations to be optimised and/or modernized. Industrial electronic devices intended for control and monitoring, such as starters and electronic variable speed drives, allow between 25 to 30% of electrical energy cost to be saved and adds many functions. Moreover, the expansion of automation, which is linked to the expansion of applications through the Internet, offers new management and savings. (author)

  6. Water-saving Irrigation Technology and Automation Prospects%节水灌溉自动化技术的发展及前景分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜训宇; 段生梅; 母利

    2011-01-01

    Automate the analysis of water-saving irrigation technology development status at home and abroad,the water-saving irrigation automation technology trends and a detailed analysis of the prospects.%阐述节水灌溉自动化技术的国内外发展现状,分析了节水灌溉自动化技术的发展趋势和发展前景。

  7. Characterization of mercury species in brown and white rice (Oryza sativa L.) grown in water-saving paddies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothenberg, Sarah E., E-mail: rothenberg.sarah@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 46 Guanshui Lu, Guiyang 550002 (China); Feng Xinbin, E-mail: fengxinbin@vip.skleg.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 46 Guanshui Lu, Guiyang 550002 (China); Dong Bin, E-mail: dongbin@whu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Water Resources and Hydropower Engineering Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Shang Lihai, E-mail: shanglihai@vip.gyig.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 46 Guanshui Lu, Guiyang 550002 (China); Yin Runsheng, E-mail: yinrunsheng2002@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 46 Guanshui Lu, Guiyang 550002 (China); Yuan Xiaobo, E-mail: xiantao_131@163.com [College of Resources and the Environment, Southwest University, Chongqing 400716 (China)

    2011-05-15

    In China, total Hg (Hg{sub T}) and methylmercury (MeHg) were quantified in rice grain grown in three sites using water-saving rice cultivation methods, and in one Hg-contaminated site, where rice was grown under flooded conditions. Polished white rice concentrations of Hg{sub T} (water-saving: 3.3 {+-} 1.6 ng/g; flooded: 110 {+-} 9.2 ng/g) and MeHg (water-saving 1.3 {+-} 0.56 ng/g; flooded: 12 {+-} 2.4 ng/g) were positively correlated with root-soil Hg{sub T} and MeHg contents (Hg{sub T}: r{sup 2} = 0.97, MeHg: r{sup 2} = 0.87, p < 0.05 for both), which suggested a portion of Hg species in rice grain was derived from the soil, and translocation of Hg species from soil to rice grain was independent of irrigation practices and Hg levels, although other factors may be important. Concentrations of Hg{sub T} and other trace elements were significantly higher in unmilled brown rice (p < 0.05), while MeHg content was similar (p > 0.20), indicating MeHg infiltrated the endosperm (i.e., white rice) more efficiently than inorganic Hg(II). - Highlights: > First time that Hg{sub T} and MeHg were characterized in both brown and white rice. > MeHg translocation into the endosperm was more efficient than inorganic Hg(II). > In this respect, MeHg behaved like dimethylarsinic acid and organic Se species. > In white rice, Hg{sub T} and MeHg were positively correlated with soil Hg{sub T} and MeHg. > Uptake rates of Hg{sub T} and MeHg were independent of irrigation methods and Hg content. - Methylmercury was more efficiently translocated to the endosperm than inorganic mercury.

  8. The Impact of Social and Financial Education on Savings Attitudes and Behavior Among Primary School Children in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Supanantaroek, Suthinee; Lensink, Robert; Hansen, Nina

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Saving plays a crucial role in the process of economic growth. However, one main reason why poor people often do not save is that they lack financial knowledge. Improving the savings culture of children through financial education is a promising way to develop savings attitudes and

  9. The Impact of Social and Financial Education on Savings Attitudes and Behavior Among Primary School Children in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Supanantaroek, Suthinee; Lensink, Robert; Hansen, Nina

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Saving plays a crucial role in the process of economic growth. However, one main reason why poor people often do not save is that they lack financial knowledge. Improving the savings culture of children through financial education is a promising way to develop savings attitudes and behav

  10. 氯碱厂节水技术改造%Water saving technology transformation of chlor-alkali plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董雷; 刘勇先

    2012-01-01

    介绍了氯碱厂一次盐水、电解、氯气处理、氢气处理工序的节水改造情况。通过技术改造,回收了大量的冷凝水及废水,减少了酸性水对厂房、设备的腐蚀。%The water saving technology transformation of chlor-alkali plant was introduced,including the brine process,electrolysis process and chlorine and hydrogen treatment.After technology transformation,the waste water was recycled,and reduced the corrosion of acidic water for the plant and equipment.The economic and social benefits were better.

  11. 建筑给排水设计中的节能减排%Energy-saving and emission-reducing in architectural water supply and drainage design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    支山

    2015-01-01

    以节约能源和保护环境为核心,阐述了建筑工程给排水设计中节能减排的意义,并针对建筑工程给排水节能减排的问题,从给水设计、排水设计等几个方面进行了讨论,以大力推广节能减排措施。%To save energy and protect the environment as the core,the thesis discusses energy-saving and emission-reducing meaning in architec-tural engineering water supply and drainage design. In light of energy-saving and emission-reducing problems of architectural engineering water supply and drainage,it discusses water supply and drainage design,with a view to promote energy-saving and emission-reducing measures.

  12. Impacts of sparing use of water on farmer income of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhan; Deng, Xiangzheng; Chen, Jiancheng

    We examine relationships between nationwide sparing use of water and farmer income of China in this article. As increasing implementation of water projects and irrigation system, the cost of water use has increased in many regions. However, as local policy-oriented urban expansion and ecological restoration have carried out during the past decade, water demand has increased. The spatial distributions of water use and farmer income are uneven and their relationships are ambiguous over time, especially it is uncertain that farmers can benefit from those so called water-saving programs when urban expansion grows faster in China. Based on consumption theory, empirical results of Blundell-Bond dynamic panel-data model with generalized method of moments (GMM) estimators indicate saving one percent of water has positive impacts at 0.085-0.35 percent on farmer income in the following statistical year. Population has negative impacts on farmer income. Particularly in Central China, one percent of increase in population will statistically significantly decrease 0.276 percent of contemporaneous farmer income. Particularly, in Eastern China with large population during years 2004 through 2012, the total amount of water use increases one percent, contemporaneous farmer income loses 0.04 percent. Thus, saving water can benefit future farmer income, and it indicates that urban expansion may induce the diversion of resources and agricultural production from rural to urban area. Policy implication of relationships between water allocation and farmer income distribution caused by water-saving programs needs to be further studied at regional scale, in particularly to the regions with large population and urban expansion in China.

  13. Estimating health care cost savings from an educational intervention to prevent bleeding-related complications: the outcomes impact analysis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravyn, Dana; Ravyn, Vipa; Lowney, Rob; Ferraris, Victor

    2014-01-01

    Investments in continuing medical education (CME) exceed $2 billion annually, but few studies report the economic impact of CME activities. Analysis of patient-level economic outcomes data is often not feasible. Accordingly, we developed a model to illustrate estimation of the potential economic impact associated with CME activity outcomes. Outcomes impact analysis demonstrated how costs averted from a CME symposium that promoted prevention of bleeding-related complications (BRC) and reoperation for bleeding (RFB) in cardiac and thoracic operations could be estimated. Model parameter estimates were from published studies of costs associated with BRC and RFB. Operative volume estimates came from the Society of Thoracic Surgeons workforce data. The base case predicted 3 in 10 participants preventing one BRC or RFB in 2% or 1.5% of annual operations, respectively. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA) evaluated the effect of parameter uncertainty. 92% of participants (n = 133) self-reported commitment to change, a validated measure of behavior change. For BRC, estimates for costs averted were $1,502,769 (95% confidence interval [CI], $869,860-$2,359,068) for cardiac operations and $2,715,246 (95% CI, $1,590,308-$4,217,092) for thoracic operations. For RFB, the savings estimates were $2,233,988 (95% CI, $1,223,901-$3,648,719). Our economic model demonstrates that application of CME-related learning to prevent bleeding complications may yield substantial cost savings. Model prediction of averted costs associated with CME allows estimation of the economic impact on outcomes in the absence of patient-level outcomes data related to CME activities. © 2014 The Alliance for Continuing Education in the Health Professions, the Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education, and the Council on Continuing Medical Education, Association for Hospital Medical Education.

  14. Thermosyphon Cooler Hybrid System for Water Savings in an Energy-Efficient HPC Data Center: Modeling and Installation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, Thomas; Liu, Zan; Sickinger, David; Regimbal, Kevin; Martinez, David

    2017-02-01

    The Thermosyphon Cooler Hybrid System (TCHS) integrates the control of a dry heat rejection device, the thermosyphon cooler (TSC), with an open cooling tower. A combination of equipment and controls, this new heat rejection system embraces the 'smart use of water,' using evaporative cooling when it is most advantageous and then saving water and modulating toward increased dry sensible cooling as system operations and ambient weather conditions permit. Innovative fan control strategies ensure the most economical balance between water savings and parasitic fan energy. The unique low-pressure-drop design of the TSC allows water to be cooled directly by the TSC evaporator without risk of bursting tubes in subfreezing ambient conditions. Johnson Controls partnered with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Sandia National Laboratories to deploy the TSC as a test bed at NREL's high-performance computing (HPC) data center in the first half of 2016. Located in NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF), this HPC data center has achieved an annualized average power usage effectiveness rating of 1.06 or better since 2012. Warm-water liquid cooling is used to capture heat generated by computer systems direct to water; that waste heat is either reused as the primary heat source in the ESIF building or rejected using evaporative cooling. This data center is the single largest source of water and power demand on the NREL campus, using about 7,600 m3 (2.0 million gal) of water during the past year with an hourly average IT load of nearly 1 MW (3.4 million Btu/h) -- so dramatically reducing water use while continuing efficient data center operations is of significant interest. Because Sandia's climate is similar to NREL's, this new heat rejection system being deployed at NREL has gained interest at Sandia. Sandia's data centers utilize an hourly average of 8.5 MW (29 million Btu/h) and are also one of the largest consumers of

  15. Short-term versus long-term rainfall time series in the assessment of potable water savings by using rainwater in houses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghisi, Enedir; Cardoso, Karla Albino; Rupp, Ricardo Forgiarini

    2012-06-15

    The main objective of this article is to assess the possibility of using short-term instead of long-term rainfall time series to evaluate the potential for potable water savings by using rainwater in houses. The analysis was performed considering rainfall data from 1960 to 1995 for the city of Santa Bárbara do Oeste, located in the state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. The influence of the rainfall time series, roof area, potable water demand and percentage rainwater demand on the potential for potable water savings was evaluated. The potential for potable water savings was estimated using computer simulations considering a set of long-term rainfall time series and different sets of short-term rainfall time series. The ideal rainwater tank capacity was also assessed for some cases. It was observed that the higher the percentage rainwater demand and the shorter the rainfall time series, the larger the difference between the potential for potable water savings and the greater the variation in the ideal rainwater tank size. The sets of short-term rainfall time series considered adequate for different scenarios ranged from 1 to 13 years depending on the roof area, percentage rainwater demand and potable water demand. The main finding of the research is that sets of short-term rainfall time series can be used to assess the potential for potable water savings by using rainwater, as the results obtained are similar to those obtained from the long-term rainfall time series.

  16. Water and Energy Savings using Demand Hot Water Recirculating Systems in Residential Homes: A Case Study of Five Homes in Palo Alto, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ally, M.R.

    2002-11-14

    This report summarizes a preliminary study aimed at estimating the potential of saving potable water, (and the electrical energy used to heat it), that is presently lost directly to the drain while occupants wait for hot water to arrive at the faucet (point of use). Data were collected from five single-family homes in Palo Alto, California. Despite the small sample size in this study, the results make a compelling case for retrofitting homes with hot water recirculation systems to eliminate unnecessary wastage of water at the point of use. Technical as well as behavioral and attitudinal changes towards water conservation are necessary for a fulfilling and successful conservation effort. This report focuses on the technical issues, but behavioral issues are also noted, which may be factored into future studies involving local and state governments and utility companies.

  17. E3 Success Story - Path Toward Sustainability Leads to Significant Water Savings: Southwire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwire—a manufacturer of wire and cable products— searched for opportunities to reduce its water use and launched a sustainability campaign that established goals to reduce water use by 15 percent and overall carbon footprint by 10 percent.

  18. THE BALANCE BETWEEN SUPPLY AND DEMAND OF WATER RESOURCES AND THE WATER—SAVING POTENTIAL FOR AGRICULTURE IN THE HEXI CORRIDOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAOQian-zhao; DUHu-lin; 等

    2002-01-01

    The Hexi Corridor is an important base of agriculture development in Northwest China.According to recent statistics,there are 65.94×108 m3 of water resource available in the Hexi Corridor.At present,net consumption in development and utilization is 43.33×108m3.Water supply and demand reach a balance on the recent level of production ,but loss of evaporation and evapotranspiration is as much as 25.69×108m3.So net use efficiency of water resources is 59%.Based on analyzing balance between water and land considering ecological environment at present,there exists the serious water shortage in the Shiyang River system where irrigation land considering ecological environment at present,there exists the serious water shortage in the Shiyang River system where irrigation lands have overloaded.These is a comparative balance between supply and demand of water resource in the Heibe River system.and the Sule River system has some surplus water to extend irrigation land.Use of agriculture water accounts for 83.3% and ecological forest and grass for 6.9%.The Hexi Corridor still has a great potential for water saving in agriculture production.Water-saving efficiency of irrigation is about 10% by using such traditiona technologies as furrow and border-dike irrigation and small check irrigation,and water-saving wigh plastic film cover and techniques of advanced sprinkler and drip/micro irrigation ete.can save more than 60% of irrigated water.Incremental irrigation area for water-saving potential in the Hexi Corridor has been estimated as 56%-197% to original irrigation area.So the second water sources can be developed from water saving agriculture in the Hexi Corridor under Development of the Western Part of China in large scale .This potential can be realized step by step through developing the water-saving measures,improving the ecological condition of oasis agriculture,and optimizing allocation of water resources in there river systems.

  19. Household Savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Lusardi, Annamaria

    In this survey, we review the recent theoretical and empirical literature on household saving and consumption. The discussion is structured around a list of motives for saving and how well the standard theory captures these motives. We show that almost all of the motives for saving that have been...

  20. Socio-economic impact of antiretroviral treatment in HIV patients. An economic review of cost savings after introduction of HAART.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo, Teresa; García Goñi, Manuel; Muñoz-Fernández, María Angeles

    2009-01-01

    Star celebrities such as Rock Hudson, Freddie Mercury, Magic Johnson, and Isaac Asimov have unfortunately something in common: they were all victims of the HIV global pandemic. Since then HIV infection has become considered a pandemic disease, and it is regarded as a priority in healthcare worldwide. It is ranked as the first cause of death among young people in industrialized countries, and it is recognized as a public healthcare problem due to its human, social, mass media, and economic impact. Incorporation of new and highly active antiretroviral treatment, available since 1996 for HIV/AIDS treatment, has provoked a radical change in the disease pattern, as well as in the impact on patient survival and quality of life. The pharmaceutical industry's contribution, based on the research for more active new drugs, has been pivotal. Mortality rates have decreased significantly in 20 years by 50% and now AIDS is considered a chronic and controlled disease. In this review we have studied the impact of HAART treatment on infected patients, allowing them to maintain their status as active workers and the decreased absenteeism from work derived from this, contributing ultimately to overall social wealth and, thus, to economic growth. Furthermore, an analysis of the impact on healthcare costs, quality of life per year, life per year gained, cost economic savings and cost opportunity among other parameters has shown that society and governments are gaining major benefits from the inclusion of antiretroviral therapies in HIV/AIDS patients.

  1. Impact Assessment of Water Crisis on Socio Economic Life of Agrarian Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Irfan Sabir

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study will be to explore the effects of scarcity of water on farmers’ socio economic values & standard of living while taking adoption of water saving technologies or better water resource management plan by farmers as moderating variable. A sample of 150 household farmers in district Okara was selected through multistage sampling techniques. A well structured questionnaire was designed on five point licker scale covering various dimensions of water crises and their impact on socio economic dimension of farmer’s lives. For data analysis quantitative techniques of multiple regression & regression for moderation were applied by using SPSS 16.

  2. Indirect economic impacts in water supplies augmented with desalinated water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygaard, Martin; Arvin, Erik; Binning, Philip John

    2010-01-01

    softeners. This paper describes potential economic consequences of diluting Copenhagen's drinking water with desalinated water. With a mineral content at 50% of current levels, dental caries and cardiovascular diseases are expected to increase by 51 and 23% respectively. Meanwhile, the number of dish...... going from fresh water based to desalinated water supply. Large uncertainties prevent the current results from being used for or against desalination as an option for Copenhagen's water supply. In the future, more impacts and an uncertainty analysis will be added to the assessment....

  3. Development and application of water and energy saving irrigation systems in arid zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sourell, H.; Schoen, H.; Shani, U.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes an irrigation system, which combines the flexibility and low labor intensity of the mobile irrigation equipment with the more accurate water distribution of the microirrigation equipment. The high volume sprinklers have been removed from the boom for this purpose and been replaced with nozzles or drip hoses, which apply the water more accurately and directly with low pressure in the vicinity of the plant. Experiments in the Negev desert performed in cooperation with the Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Volcani Center, Tel Aviv, revealed the following advantages: High efficiency of water application; water distribution independent of wind effects; low water distribution pressure and low energy requirements; high operational reliability; low investment costs; low leaf interception with possibility for use of saline water.

  4. [Energy Consumption Comparison and Energy Saving Approaches for Different Wastewater Treatment Processes in a Large-scale Reclaimed Water Plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min; Li, Ya-ming; Wei, Yuan-song; Lü, Jian; Yu, Da-wei; Liu, Ji-bao; Fan, Yao-bo

    2015-06-01

    Energy consumption is the main performance indicator of reclaimed water plant (RWP) operation. Methods of specific energy consumption analysis, unit energy consumption analysis and redundancy analysis were applied to investigate the composition and spatio-temporal distribution of energy consumption in Qinghe RWP with inverted A2/O, A2/O and A2/O-MBR processes. And the A2/ O-MBR process was mainly analyzed to identify the main nodes and causes for high energy consumption, approaches for energy saving were explored, and the energy consumption before and after upgrading for energy saving was compared. The results showed that aeration was the key factor affecting energy consumption in both conventional and A2/O-MBR processes, accounting for 42.97% and 50.65% of total energy consumption, respectively. A pulsating aeration allowed an increasing membrane flux and remarkably reduced the energy consumption of the A2/O-MBR process while still meeting the effluent standard, e.g., the membrane flux was increased by 20%, and the energy consumptions per kiloton wastewater and kilogram COD(removed) were decreased by 42.39% to 0.53 kW-h-kg-3 and by 54.74% to 1.29 kW x h x kg(-1), respectively. The decrease of backflow ratio in the A2/O-MBR process within a certain range would not deteriorate the effluent quality due to its insignificant correlation with the effluent quality, and therefore may be considered as one of the ways for further energy saving.

  5. Impact of Untreated Sedimentation Tank Sludge Water Recycle on Water Quality During Treatment of Low Turbidity Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ronggang Xu; Yongpeng Xu; Fuyi Cui; Li He; Dong Wang; Qingfeng Su

    2015-01-01

    The overall purpose of this research is to examine the impact of untreated sedimentation tank sludge water ( USTSW) recycle on water quality during treatment of low turbidity water in coagulation—sedimentation processes. 950 mL of raw water and different concentrations of 50 mL USTSW are injected into six 1 000 mL beakers without coagulant.The results indicate that USTSW characterized as accumulated suspended solids and organic matter has active ingredients, which possess the equivalent function of coagulant. The optimal blended water turbidity is in the range of 10-20 NTU, within which USTSW recycle achieves the highest save coagulant rate. The mechanism of strengthening coagulation effect when USTSW recycle mainly depends on the chemical effect and physical effect. What is more, through scanning electron microscopy ( SEM) , it is found that the floc structures with USTSW recycle are more compact than those without USTSW recycle. Besides, the water quality parameters of color, NH3⁃N, CODMn , UV254 , total aluminum, total manganese when USTSW recycle is better than the raw water without recycle, indicating that USTSW recycle can improve water quality with strengthening coagulation effect.

  6. Assessing the Energy Savings of Tankless Water Heater Retrofits in Public Housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ries, R.; Walters, R.; Dwiantoro, D.

    2013-01-01

    This report describes the methodology, analysis, and findings from a case study of a 110 unit retrofit of gas tankless water heaters in a hot/humid climate in Alachua County, Florida. The housing units had their gas-fired tank type water heaters replaced with gas-fired tankless water heaters as part of a federal program that targeted reduced energy use in public housing.

  7. Assessing the Energy Savings of Tankless Water Heater Retrofits in Public Housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ries, R. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Building Energy Efficient Housing for America (BEEHA)Team; Walters, R. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Building Energy Efficient Housing for America (BEEHA)Team; Dwiantoro, D. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Building Energy Efficient Housing for America (BEEHA)Team

    2013-01-01

    This report describes the methodology, analysis, and findings from a case study of a 110 unit retrofit of gas tankless water heaters in a hot/humid climate in Alachua County, Florida.The gas-fired tank type water heaters in the housing units were replaced with gas-fired tankless water heaters as part of a federal program that targeted reduced energy use in public housing.

  8. THE IMPACT OF PENSIONS SAVING AND EDUCATION DEFICIT ON THE LIVING STANDARDS IN ROMANIA, IN THE POST-ACTIVITY PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANDRA TEODORESCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The present paper starts with the study on the annual pension deficit in the EU member states, elaborated by AVIVA and DELOITTE companies in 2010. The paper analyzes the impact of pensions saving and education deficit on the living standards in Romania, in the post-activity period. It comprises the following sections: an introduction to the analysis, several definitions and the calculation method employed in the above-mentioned study, comparisons between Romania and other EU members states, focusing on the pension deficit, as well as a brief overview on the pension systems in Romania. In the end of the paper, we propose a debate on good financial planning that can make the difference between poverty and a decent standard of living at the time of retirement.

  9. Energy and Economic Impacts of U.S. Federal Energy and Water Conservation Standards Adopted From 1987 Through 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, Stephen; Williams, Alison; Chan, Peter

    2014-06-30

    This paper presents estimates of the key impacts of Federal energy and water conservation standards adopted from 1987 through 2013. The standards for consumer products and commercial and industrial equipment include those set by legislation as well as standards adopted by DOE through rulemaking. In 2013, the standards saved an estimated 4.05 quads of primary energy, which is equivalent to 4% of total U.S. energy consumption. The savings in operating costs for households and businesses totaled $56 billion. The average household saved $361 in operating costs as a result of residential and plumbing product standards. The estimated reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions associated with the standards in 2013 was 218 million metric tons, which is equivalent to 4% of total U.S. CO{sub 2} emissions. The estimated cumulative energy savings over the period 1990-2090 amount to 181 quads. Accounting for the increased upfront costs of more-efficient products and the operating cost (energy and water) savings over the products’ lifetime, the standards have a past and projected cumulative net present value (NPV) of consumer benefit of between $1,271 billion and $1,487 billion, using 7 percent and 3 percent discount rates, respectively. The water conservation standards, together with energy conservation standards that also save water, reduced water use by 1.9 trillion gallons in 2013, and will achieve cumulative water savings by 2090 of 55 trillion gallons. The estimated consumer savings in 2013 from reduced water use amounted to $16 billon.

  10. Coconut irrigation water saving as a function of areas of the concentration of the root system and soil cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lucia Antunes de Lima

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian production of coconut has not been sufficient to attend the internal market demand which has resulted in great importations of dry and semi industrialized coconut (IBGE, 2006. The northeast of Brazil has the greatest coconut production and is, at the same time, characterized for its high evapotranspiration demand and the lowest precipitation, therefore, it is necessary to optimize the irrigation water used. During the development phase of the coconut tree, most of the root system concentrates around 1m of radius, and in the adult phase, in larger part, to a radius up to 2m. The traditional procedure of calculation of the water volume to be applied through irrigation, normally considers the area given by the crop planting spacing and a canopy cover coefficient. This results in great volumes of water applied unnecessarily. To save water, this study investigates the calculation of the volume of irrigation water considering the areas where larger concentration of the root system occurs. For the first year of development of the coconut tree, four areas of irrigation delimited by rings of zinc with diameters of 0.7 m, 0.8, 0.9 and 1.0 m were used to irrigate the portion with the larger concentration of the root system, and two conditions of soil covering (covered and bare soil, plus a control (4 x 2 + 1, resulting in nine treatments with three repetitions, totaling 27 plots. The procedure proposed in this research for the calculation of the water volume to be applied in the coconut crop, based on areas of larger concentration of the root system, promoted considerable economy of water, in relation to the procedure traditionally used. The isolation of the soil surface in order to avoid the evaporation contributed to a substantial reduction of the applied volume of water as well.

  11. Effects of water-saving irrigation on emissions of greenhouse gases and prokaryotic communities in rice paddy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jae-Hyung; Choi, Min-Young; Kim, Byung-Yong; Lee, Jong-Sik; Song, Jaekyeong; Kim, Gun-Yeob; Weon, Hang-Yeon

    2014-08-01

    The effects of water-saving irrigation on emissions of greenhouse gases and soil prokaryotic communities were investigated in an experimental rice field. The water layer was kept at 1-2 cm in the water-saving (WS) irrigation treatment and at 6 cm in the continuous flooding (CF) irrigation treatment. WS irrigation decreased CH(4) emissions by 78 % and increased N(2)O emissions by 533 %, resulting in 78 % reduction of global warming potential compared to the CF irrigation. WS irrigation did not affect the abundance or phylogenetic distribution of bacterial/archaeal 16S rRNA genes and the abundance of bacterial/archaeal 16S rRNAs. The transcript abundance of CH(4) emission-related genes generally followed CH(4) emission patterns, but the difference in abundance between mcrA transcripts and amoA/pmoA transcripts best described the differences in CH(4) emissions between the two irrigation practices. WS irrigation increased the relative abundance of 16S rRNAs and functional gene transcripts associated with Anaeromyxobacter and Methylocystis spp., suggesting that their activities might be important in emissions of the greenhouse gases. The N(2)O emission patterns were not reflected in the abundance of N(2)O emission-related genes and transcripts. We showed that the alternative irrigation practice was effective for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from rice fields and that it did not affect the overall size and structure of the soil prokaryotic community but did affect the activity of some groups.

  12. Enhancing water and fertilizer saving without compromising rice yield through integrated crop management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wardana, I.P.; Gani, A.; Abdulrachmann, S.; Bindraban, P.S.; Keulen, van H.

    2010-01-01

    Water and fertilizer scarcity amid the increasing need of rice production challenges today’s agriculture. Integrated crop management (ICM) is a combination of water, crop, and nutrient management that optimizes the synergistic interaction of these components aiming at improving resource use efficien

  13. Enhancing water and fertilizer saving without compromising rice yield through integrated crop management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wardana, I.P.; Gani, A.; Abdulrachmann, S.; Bindraban, P.S.; Keulen, van H.

    2010-01-01

    Water and fertilizer scarcity amid the increasing need of rice production challenges today’s agriculture. Integrated crop management (ICM) is a combination of water, crop, and nutrient management that optimizes the synergistic interaction of these components aiming at improving resource use

  14. EFFECT OF GROUNDWATER TABLE CONTROL ON WATER SAVING IRRIGATION STRATEGIES IN THE QINGTONGXIA IRRIGATION DISTRICT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiu-gui; HOLLANDERS P. H. J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on the analysis of the effects of groundwater table control under different irrigation water amounts on the water and salinity balance and on crop yield. Two experimental areas, the Pingluo and Huinong experimental sites, were selected to collect the required data.The agro-hydrological model Soil-Water Atmosphere-Plant(SWAP) was used to analyse the water flows and salt transport processes for different groundwater levels and irrigation scenarios. Six scenarios, which resulted from different groundwater table regimes combined with different irrigation amounts, were simulated. The results show that high groundwater tables due to the excessive irrigation are the main cause of the large amount of drainage water and low crop yield;reducing irrigation water without a lower groundwater table will not lead to a large reduction of the drainage water, and will reduce the crop yield even more; to lower the groundwater table is a good measure to control the drainage water and increase crop yield.

  15. To save water or not? : A study of water scarcity at multiple levels, and people's attitudestowards it in Bangalore, India

    OpenAIRE

    Bognäs, Désirée

    2011-01-01

    In a situation where population growth and development is to be sustained throughnaturally limited water resources, something needs to be done to either render waterusage more effective or make more water available. This is the situation in Bangalore Urban District (BUD), an ever growing city lying far from perennial water sources. This thesis presents the water situation in BUD, and aims to analyze the current status of water resources on multiple levels in BUD. Further the aim is to look at...

  16. Energy Saving in Water Distribution Network through Pump as Turbine Generators: Economic and Environmental Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro De Marchis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Complex systems of water distribution networks (WDS are used to supply water to users. WDSs are systems where a lot of distributed energy is available. Historically, this energy is artificially dissipated by pressure reduction valves (PRVs, thanks to which water utilities manage the pressure level in selected nodes of the network. The present study explores the use of economic hydraulic machines, pumps as turbines (PATs to produce energy in a small network located in a town close to Palermo (Italy. The main idea is to avoid dissipation in favor of renewable energy production. The proposed study is applied to a WDN typical of the Mediterranean countries, where the users, to collect water during the period of water scarcity conditions, install private tanks. The presence of private tanks deeply modifies the network from its designed condition. In the proposed analysis, the economic benefit of PATs application in water distribution networks has been investigated, accounting for the presence of users’ private tanks. The analysis, carried out by mean of a mathematical model able to dynamically simulate the water distribution network with PATs, shows the advantage of their installation in terms of renewable energy recovery, even though the energy production of PATs is strictly conditioned by their installation position.

  17. Will farmers save water? A theoretical analysis of groundwater conservation policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of agricultural irrigation systems has generated significant increases in food production and farm income. However, unplanned and unconstrained groundwater use could also cause serious consequences. To extend the economic life of groundwater, water conservation issues have become the...

  18. Energy- and water saving measures for hot water distribution in residential buildings; Energie- und wassersparende Massnahmen bei der Warmwasserverteilung im Wohnungsbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brillinger, M.H.; Pufahl, T.; Valentin, G.

    2004-02-01

    The energy need of residential buildings consists of the need for heating plus the need for preparing and distributing hot water. As over the past years the need for heating energy in residential buildings could be gradually reduced thanks to successful energy saving measures, the energy need for water heating and distribution has been gaining more and more importance. In buildings with an energy insulating standard complying with the energy saving regulation, the energy need for hot water amounts to 30 to 50% of the total energy need for heating and hot water. Another reason for the topic of hot water to gain more importance is that due to the high degree of isolation in low-energy houses, the heating period is reduced to 100 - 150 days. This cuts down the possibility of using waste heat from hot water pipes. The investigation presented here is to give planners ideas and help them in taking decisions regarding the conception and design of hot water supply in residential buildings which also include the principle of energy minimisation and saving potable water as far as possible. (orig.) [German] Der Energiebedarf fuer die Waermeversorgung von Wohngebaeuden setzt sich aus dem Bedarf fuer die Heizung und dem Bedarf fuer die Warmwassererwaermung und -verteilung zusammen. Nachdem der Heizenergiebedarf fuer Wohngebaeude infolge erfolgreicher Energieeinsparmassnahmen in den letzten Jahren mehr und mehr reduziert werden konnte, kommt dem Energiebedarf fuer die Warmwassererwaermung und -verteilung eine immer staerkere Bedeutung zu. Bei Gebaeuden mit einem Energiedaemmstandard nach Energieeinsparverordnung macht der Energiebedarf fuer das Warmwasser zwischen 30 und 50% des Gesamtenergiebedarfs fuer Heizung und Warmwasser des Haushaltes aus. Die Bedeutung der Warmwasserthematik im Wohnungsbau nimmt auch deshalb zu, weil es in Folge der hohen Waermedaemmung bei Niedrigenergiehaeusern zu einer Reduzierung der Heizperiode auf 100-150 Tage kommt. Damit wird die

  19. CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS ON WATER RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. CORNEA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate change impacts on water resources – The most recent scientific assessment by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC [6] concludes that, since the late 19th century, anthropogenic induced emissions of greenhouse gases have contributed to an increase in global surface temperatures of about 0.3 to 0.6o C. Based on the IPCC’s scenario of future greenhouse gas emissions and aerosols a further increase of 2o C is expected by the year 2100. Plants, animals, natural and managed ecosystems, and human settlements are susceptible to variations in the storage, fluxes, and quality of water and sensitive to climate change. From urban and agricultural water supplies to flood management and aquatic ecosystem protection, global warming is affecting all aspects of water resource management. Rising temperatures, loss of snowpack, escalating size and frequency of flood events, and rising sea levels are just some of the impacts of climate change that have broad implications for the management of water resources. With robust scientific evidence showing that human-induced climate change is occurring, it is critical to understand how water quantity and quality might be affected. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the environmental risks caused by climate anomalies on water resources, to examine the negative impacts of a greenhouse warming on the supply and demand for water and the resulting socio-economic implications.

  20. Impact of floats on water

    CERN Document Server

    de Divitiis, Nicola; 10.1017/S002211200200229X

    2009-01-01

    The impact of a wedge-shaped body on the free surface of a weightless inviscid incompressible liquid is considered. Both symmetrical and unsymmetrical entries at constant velocity are dealt with. The differential problem corresponds to the physico-mathematical model of a distribution of potential singularities and, in particular, the flow singularities at the ends of the wetted regions are represented by sinks. A conformal transformation of the flow field is adopted and the unknown intensities of the discontinuities are found by an optimization procedure, together with the solution of the nonlinear free-surface problem. The flow separation at a sideslip is also considered.

  1. Energy saving report; Energispareredegoerelse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-05-01

    Making the energy consumption more efficient in Denmark by means of energy saving are connected to the Danish government's overall National Growth Strategy. A reduced consumption of energy as a result of economic attractive energy saving initiatives leads to reduced energy costs and consequently an improvement of Denmark's competitive power. Furthermore, reducing the energy consumption decreases the vulnerability towards rising energy prices, and the security of supplies is increased. Finally energy conservation serves as a means of reducing environmental impact from the energy sector. Energy consumption is not damaging to the environment in itself, however, to the extent that energy consumption causes negative impact on the environment, e.g. through discharge of environmentally damaging substances generated during energy production, a reduction of the energy consumption will benefit the environment. Energy saving in itself does not lead to a decrease in CO{sub 2} emission in Denmark unless it is accompanied by an adjustment of CO{sub 2} quotas on production of electricity. The Danish Government emphasizes that the energy saving efforts are cost-effective both for the society and for the consumers. The energy saving report contains an updated projection of the Danish energy consumption and an evaluation of the impacts of the energy saving efforts. The impacts of more effective end use of energy are described, and an account of the barriers preventing the realization of a number of potential economic attractive energy saving initiatives is made. Finally the energy saving report presents a number of proposals for new energy saving initiatives. (BA)

  2. Water Resources Impacts on Tribal Irrigation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minihane, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) Branch of Irrigation and Power provides oversight and technical support to select irrigation projects and systems on tribal lands. The BIA provides operations and maintenance support for 16 irrigation systems. To make the best use of limited resources, the BIA must incorporate climate change impacts on hydrology and water management for these irrigation systems in the coming decades. The 16 irrigation projects discussed here are divided into three climatological regions: the Pacific Northwest Region, the Greater Rocky Mountain Region, and the Western, Southwest, & Navajo Region. Significant climate projections that impact irrigation systems in one or more of these regions include increased temperatures and evaporative demand, earlier snowmelt and runoff, an increase in floods, an increase in heavy precipitation events, an increase in the frequency and intensity of droughts, and declining water supplies. Some irrigation projects are particularly vulnerable to these climate impacts because they are in already water-stressed areas or areas in which water resources are over-allocated. Other irrigation projects will have to adjust their storage and water management strategies to accommodate changes in the timing of streamflow. Overall, though, the BIA will be better able to assist tribal nations by incorporating expected climate impacts into their water resources management practices.

  3. Saving lives for a lifetime: supporting orphans and vulnerable children impacted by HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Beverly J; Yates, Dee Dee; Lovich, Ronnie; Coulibaly-Traore, Djeneba; Sherr, Lorraine; Thurman, Tonya Renee; Sampson, Anita; Howard, Brian

    2012-08-15

    President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR's) response to the millions of children impacted by HIV/AIDS was to designate 10% of its budget to securing their futures, making it the leading supporter of programs reaching orphan and vulnerable children (OVC) programs globally. This article describes the evolution of PEPFAR's OVC response based on programmatic lessons learned and an evergrowing understanding of the impacts of HIV/AIDS. In launching this international emergency effort and transitioning it toward sustainable local systems, PEPFAR helped establish both the technical content and the central importance of care and support for OVC as a necessary complement to biomedical efforts to end the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Critical services are reaching millions of HIV-affected children and families through vast networks of community-based responders and strengthened national systems of care. But rapid program scale-up has at times resulted in inconsistent responses, failure to match resources to properly assessed needs, and a dearth of rigorous program evaluations. Key investments should continue to be directed toward more sustainable and effective responses. These include greater attention to children's most significant developmental stages, a focus on building the resilience of families and communities, a proper balance of government and civil society investments, and more rigorous evaluation and research to ensure evidence-based programming. Even as HIV prevalence declines and medical treatment improves and expands, the impacts of HIV/AIDS on children, families, communities, economies, and societies will continue to accumulate for generations. Protecting the full potential of children-and thus of societies-requires sustained and strategic global investments aligned with experience and science.

  4. Napa Earthquake impact on water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.

    2014-12-01

    South Napa earthquake occurred in Napa, California on August 24 at 3am, local time, and the magnitude is 6.0. The earthquake was the largest in SF Bay Area since the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. Economic loss topped $ 1 billion. Wine makers cleaning up and estimated the damage on tourism. Around 15,000 cases of lovely cabernet were pouring into the garden at the Hess Collection. Earthquake potentially raise water pollution risks, could cause water crisis. CA suffered water shortage recent years, and it could be helpful on how to prevent underground/surface water pollution from earthquake. This research gives a clear view on drinking water system in CA, pollution on river systems, as well as estimation on earthquake impact on water supply. The Sacramento-San Joaquin River delta (close to Napa), is the center of the state's water distribution system, delivering fresh water to more than 25 million residents and 3 million acres of farmland. Delta water conveyed through a network of levees is crucial to Southern California. The drought has significantly curtailed water export, and salt water intrusion reduced fresh water outflows. Strong shaking from a nearby earthquake can cause saturated, loose, sandy soils liquefaction, and could potentially damage major delta levee systems near Napa. Napa earthquake is a wake-up call for Southern California. It could potentially damage freshwater supply system.

  5. Jordanian industrial sector future energy consumption: Potential savings and environmental impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallat, Yousef; Al-Ghandoor, Ahmed; Salaymah, Mohammad

    2012-11-01

    This paper analyzes and evaluates impacts of introducing some efficient measures on the future fuel and electricity demands and associated reduction in GHG emissions. Without employing most effective energy conservation measures, energy demand is expected to rise by approximately 38% within 12 years time. Consequently, associated GHG emissions resulting from activities within the industrial sector are predicted to rise by 33% for the same period. However, if recommended energy management measures are implemented on a gradual basis, electricity and fuel consumptions as well as GHG emissions are forecasted to increase at a lower rate.

  6. Water and chemical savings in cooling towers by using membrane capacitive deionization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limpt, van B.; Wal, van der A.

    2014-01-01

    Membrane capacitive deionization (MCDI) is a water desalination technology based on applying a voltage difference between two oppositely placed porous carbon electrodes. In front of each electrode, an ion exchange membrane is positioned, and between them, a spacer is situated, which transports the w

  7. Potential for Water Savings by Defoliation of Saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) by Saltcedar Beetles (Diorhabda carinulata) in the Upper Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagler, P. L.; Nguyen, U.; Bateman, H. L.; Jarchow, C.; van Riper, C., III; Waugh, W.; Glenn, E.

    2016-12-01

    Northern saltcedar beetles (Diorhabda carinata) have spread widely in riparian zones on the Colorado Plateau since their initial release in 2002. One goal of the releases was to reduce water consumption by saltcedar in order to conserve water through reduction of evapotranspiration (ET). The beetle moved south on the Virgin River and reached Big Bend State Park in Nevada in 2014, an expansion rate of 60 km/year. This is important because the beetle's photoperiod requirement for diapause was expected to prevent them from moving south of 37°N latitude, where endangered southwest willow flycatcher habitat occurs. In addition to focusing on the rate of dispersal of the beetles, we used remote sensing estimates of ET at 13 sites on the Colorado, San Juan, Virgin and Dolores rivers and their tributaries to estimate riparian zone ET before and after beetle releases. We estimate that water savings from 2007-2015 was 31.5 million m3/yr (25,547 acre-ft/yr), amounting to 0.258 % of annual river flow from the Upper Colorado River Basin to the Lower Basin. Reasons for the relatively low potential water savings are: 1) baseline ET before beetle release was modest (0.472 m/yr); 2) reduction in ET was low (0.061 m/yr) because saltcedar stands tended to recover after defoliation; 3) riparian ET even in the absence of beetles was only 1.8 % of river flows, calculated as the before beetle average annual ET (472 mm/yr) times the total area of saltcedar (51,588 ha) divided by the combined total average annual flows (1964-2015) from the upper to lower catchment areas of the Colorado River Basin at the USGS gages (12,215 million m3/yr or 9.90 million acre-ft). Further research is suggested to concentrate on the ecological impacts (both positive and negative) of beetles on riparian zones and on identifying management options to maximize riparian health.

  8. 我国节水农业发展现状研究%The study on development of china's water-saving agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁青青; 朱厚岩

    2011-01-01

    The utilization coefficient of irrigation water in China is 45%,far behind the 70% of developed countries;The efficiency of national agricultural water is low,the unit grain yield water of developing countries is 2.5-3 times higher than developed countries.Therefore,the development of water-saving agriculture in China has a crucial significance.This paper based on the current situation of China's agricultural development,combined with the layout of the development of China's water-saving agriculture,focusing on analysis of technical,institutional,financial and policy aspects of five major water-saving agricultural areas,review and exchange of successful experience developing water saving agriculture,analysis of its shortcomings and put forward countermeasures to promote water-saving agricultural development.%中国的灌溉水利用系数只有45%,大大落后于发达国家的70%;全国农业用水效率较低,单位粮食产量耗水量比发达国家高2.5~3倍。所以我国发展节水农业具有至关重要的意义。本文根据我国农业发展现状,结合我国节水农业发展布局,重点分析5大节水农业区在技术、制度、资金和政策等方面的节水农业现状,总结交流发展节水农业的成功经验,分析其存在的不足,从而提出更好的促进节水农业发展的路径。

  9. Potential energy savings with exterior shades in large office buildings and the impact of discomfort glare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Sabine [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lee, Eleanor [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Exterior shades are highly efficient for reducing solar load in commercial buildings. Their impact on net energy use depends on the annual energy balance of heating, cooling, fan and lighting energy. This paper discusses the overall energy use intensity of various external shading systems for a prototypical large office building split into the different types of energy use and for different orientations and window sizes. Lighting energy was calculated for a constant lighting power as well as for dimmed lighting fixtures (daylighting control). In Section 3, slat angles and solar cut-off angles were varied for fixed exterior slat shading systems. While the most light-blocking shades performed best for the case without daylighting controls, the optimum cut-off angle with daylighting controls was found to be 30 deg for the office building prototype used in Chicago and Houston. For large window-to-wall (WWR) ratios, window related annual energy use could be reduced by at least 70 % without daylighting control and by a minimum of 86 % with daylighting control in average over all orientations. The occurrence of discomfort glare was is considered in Section 4 of the paper, which looks at the performance of commercially available exterior shading systems when an interior shade is used in addition to the exterior shade during hours when occupants would experience discomfort glare. Glare control impacts overall energy use intensity significantly for exterior shades with high transmittance, especially when daylighting controls are used. In these cases, exterior shades are only beneficial for window-to-wall areas ≥ 45% in the hot Houston climate. For smaller windows and in a heating/cooling climate like Chicago, exterior shades can increase energy consumption

  10. Air Evaporation closed cycle water recovery technology - Advanced energy saving designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morasko, Gwyndolyn; Putnam, David F.; Bagdigian, Robert

    1986-01-01

    The Air Evaporation water recovery system is a visible candidate for Space Station application. A four-man Air Evaporation open cycle system has been successfully demonstrated for waste water recovery in manned chamber tests. The design improvements described in this paper greatly enhance the system operation and energy efficiency of the air evaporation process. A state-of-the-art wick feed design which results in reduced logistics requirements is presented. In addition, several design concepts that incorporate regenerative features to minimize the energy input to the system are discussed. These include a recuperative heat exchanger, a heat pump for energy transfer to the air heater, and solar collectors for evaporative heat. The addition of the energy recovery devices will result in an energy reduction of more than 80 percent over the systems used in earlier manned chamber tests.

  11. Impact of Ducting on Heat Pump Water Heater Space Conditioning Energy Use and Comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Parker, Graham B.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2014-07-21

    Increasing penetration of heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) in the residential sector will offer an important opportunity for energy savings, with a theoretical energy savings of up to 63% per water heater and up to 11% of residential energy use (EIA 2009). However, significant barriers must be overcome before this technology will reach widespread adoption in the Pacific Northwest region and nationwide. One significant barrier noted by the Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (NEEA) is the possible interaction with the homes’ space conditioning system for units installed in conditioned spaces. Such complex interactions may decrease the magnitude of whole-house savings available from HPWH installed in the conditioned space in cold climates and could lead to comfort concerns (Larson et al. 2011; Kresta 2012). Modeling studies indicate that the installation location of HPWHs can significantly impact their performance and the resultant whole-house energy savings (Larson et al. 2012; Maguire et al. 2013). However, field data are not currently available to validate these results. This field evaluation of two GE GeoSpring HPWHs in the PNNL Lab Homes is designed to measure the performance and impact on the Lab Home HVAC system of a GE GeoSpring HPWH configured with exhaust ducting compared to an unducted GeoSpring HPWH during heating and cooling season periods; and measure the performance and impact on the Lab Home HVAC system of the GeoSpring HPWH with both supply and exhaust air ducting as compared to an unducted GeoSpring HPWH during heating and cooling season periods. Important metrics evaluated in these experiments include water heater energy use, HVAC energy use, whole house energy use, interior temperatures (as a proxy for thermal comfort), and cost impacts. This technical report presents results from the PNNL Lab Homes experiment.

  12. Energy-Saving Vibration Impulse Coal Degradation at Finely Dispersed Coal-Water Slurry Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moiseev V.A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical and experimental research results of processes of finely dispersed coal-water slurry preparation for further generation of energetic gas in direct flow and vortex gas generator plants have been presented. It has been stated that frequency parameters of parabolic vibration impulse mill influence degradation degree. Pressure influence on coal parameters in grinding cavity has been proven. Experimental researches have proven efficiency of vibration impulse mill with unbalanced mass vibrator generator development. Conditions of development on intergranular walls of coal cracks have been defined.

  13. Consumer impacts on dividends from solar water heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, F.; Levermore, G. [University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Lynch, H. [Centre for Alternative Technology, Machynlleth, University of East London, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    Common domestic solar water heating system usage patterns were investigated by a survey of 55 installations. These usage patterns were modelled by simulation based on the actual occupants' use of boiler or other auxiliary heating control strategies. These strategies were not optimal, as often assumed. The effectiveness of the technology was found to be highly sensitive to the time settings used for auxiliary water heating, and the 65% of solar householders using their boilers in the mornings were found to be forgoing 75% of their potential savings. Additionally, 92% of consumers were found to be small households, whose potential savings were only 23% of those of larger households, which use more hot water. Overall the majority (at least 60%) of the systems surveyed were found to be achieving no more than 6% of their potential savings. Incorporating consideration of Legionella issues, results indicate that if solar thermal technology is to deliver its potential to CO2 reduction targets: solar householders must avoid any use of their auxiliary water heating systems before the end of the main warmth of the day, grants for solar technology should be focused on households with higher hot water demands, and particularly on those that are dependent on electricity for water heating, health and safety requirements for hot water storage must be reviewed and, if possible, required temperatures should be set at a lower level, so that carbon savings from solar water heating may be optimized.

  14. Humidifier prevents corrosion and legionella and saves water and energy; Bevochtigingssysteem voorkomt corrosie en legionella en bespaart water en energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huizinga, H.T. [Heat Transfer Holland, Zuidwolde (Netherlands)

    2009-04-15

    The renewal of the central water humidifier in the laboratory of DSM-Resins (chemical industry) in Zwolle, Netherlands, leads to a better air conditioning system and prevents corrosion and legionella. At the same time, water and energy consumption are substantially reduced. This renewal fits perfectly within DSM's company policy to decrease the annual energy consumption by 2 %. [Dutch] Het vernieuwen van het centrale waterbevochtigingssysteem in het laboratorium van DSM-Resins te Zwolle verbetert het luchtbehandelingssysteem en voorkomt corrosie en legionella. Tevens vindt er een besparing plaats in water en energiegebruik. Deze vernieuwing past in de beleidsdoelstelling van DSM om iedere jaar 2% minder energie te gebruiken.

  15. Water Saving and Water Resource Use in Yunnan Provincial Museum%云南省博物馆的建筑节水与水资源利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓小一

    2011-01-01

    The water consumption features of large public buildings are fully considered in the design of Yunnan Provincial Museum Project. Roof rainwater and domestic sewage are treated and reused for greening gardens, washing pavement and landscape, the reuse rate of recycled water is 76%, with good social and economic benefits. The design of water saving and reuse in the museum is introduced, including biological and chemical sewage treatment process, roof rainwater coagulation sedimentation/disinfection treatment process, and the ANCS treatment technology for recycling landscape water. The project is conducted in accordance with the sustainable development concepts to maximize saving of resources for green buildings, reduce pollution and protect the environment.%云南省博物馆工程在设计中充分考虑了大型公建的用水特点,将屋面雨水及生活排水处理后回用于园林绿化、浇洒路面及景观补水等,再生水回用率达到76%,具有良好的社会效益和经济效益.介绍了该博物馆的节水与水资源再利用设计,主要包括生活污水的生化处理工艺,屋面雨水的混凝沉淀/消毒处理工艺,以及景观水的ANCS循环处理使用技术.该项目的实施符合绿色建筑最大限度节约资源、减少污染和保护环境的可持续发展理念.

  16. Estimate of Cost-Effective Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies Energy Savings, Environmental and Financial Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letschert, Virginie E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bojda, Nicholas [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ke, Jing [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McNeil, Michael A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This study analyzes the financial impacts on consumers of minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) for appliances that could be implemented in 13 major economies around the world. We use the Bottom-Up Energy Analysis System (BUENAS), developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), to analyze various appliance efficiency target levels to estimate the net present value (NPV) of policies designed to provide maximum energy savings while not penalizing consumers financially. These policies constitute what we call the “cost-effective potential” (CEP) scenario. The CEP scenario is designed to answer the question: How high can we raise the efficiency bar in mandatory programs while still saving consumers money?

  17. Collection of Condensate Water: Global Potential and Water Quality Impacts

    KAUST Repository

    Loveless, Kolin Joseph

    2012-12-28

    Water is a valuable resource throughout the world, especially in hot, dry climates and regions experiencing significant population growth. Supplies of fresh water are complicated by the economic and political conditions in many of these regions. Technologies that can supply fresh water at a reduced cost are therefore becoming increasingly important and the impact of such technologies can be substantial. This paper considers the collection of condensate water from large air conditioning units as a possible method to alleviate water scarcity issues. Using the results of a climate model that tested data collected from 2000 to 2010, we have identified areas in the world with the greatest collection potential. We gave special consideration to areas with known water scarcities, including the coastal regions of the Arabian Peninsula, Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. We found that the quality of the collected water is an important criterion in determining the potential uses for this water. Condensate water samples were collected from a few locations in Saudi Arabia and detailed characterizations were conducted to determine the quality of this water. We found that the quality of condensate water collected from various locations and types of air conditioners was very high with conductivities reaching as low as 18 μS/cm and turbidities of 0. 041 NTU. The quality of the collected condensate was close to that of distilled water and, with low-cost polishing treatments, such as ion exchange resins and electrochemical processes, the condensate quality could easily reach that of potable water. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  18. Development of a Computer-based Benchmarking and Analytical Tool. Benchmarking and Energy & Water Savings Tool in Dairy Plants (BEST-Dairy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tengfang [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Flapper, Joris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ke, Jing [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kramer, Klaas [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sathaye, Jayant [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-02-01

    The overall goal of the project is to develop a computer-based benchmarking and energy and water savings tool (BEST-Dairy) for use in the California dairy industry – including four dairy processes – cheese, fluid milk, butter, and milk powder.

  19. User's Manual for BEST-Dairy: Benchmarking and Energy/water-Saving Tool (BEST) for the Dairy Processing Industry (Version 1.2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, T.; Ke, J.; Sathaye, J.

    2011-04-20

    This User's Manual summarizes the background information of the Benchmarking and Energy/water-Saving Tool (BEST) for the Dairy Processing Industry (Version 1.2, 2011), including'Read Me' portion of the tool, the sections of Introduction, and Instructions for the BEST-Dairy tool that is developed and distributed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL).

  20. The Design of Impact Test-Bed for High-Flow Water Medium Relief Valve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junliang Chang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Water medium hydraulic systems are widely used in coal mining machinery. As the power of hydraulic system becomes higher, the flow and pressure of water medium relief valve are also higher, and the flow may reach 2000 L/min. However, there is no relevant test-bed which could provide instantaneous high-pressure and high-flow to support the experiment for high-flow relief valve; consequently, this impact test-bed for high-flow water medium relief valve is designed to satisfy fast loading demand. Through building model, simulation analysis, and construction of an impact test-bed of high-flow water medium relief valve, the dynamic performance of high-flow water medium relief valve is detected. The setting pressure of relief valve, the accumulator volume and the filling fluid pressure, and the damping of cartridge valve can be changed, and the dynamic performance of high-flow water medium relief valve under different impact loads is detected. The results show that the designed impact test-bed of high-flow water medium relief valve could provide required high-pressure and high-flow emulsion for the tested water medium relief valve, and it could control the strength of impact load, which is an energy saving, high efficiency, and low cost method.

  1. 浅谈化工给排水设计节水措施%Discussion on water saving measures of water suppIy and drainage design in chemicaI industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴志云

    2015-01-01

    The design of water supply and drainage in chemical industry follows the rule of water saving, and to meet the requirements of water saving and wastewater reduction, realize the aims of wastewater zero dis-charge or approach zero-discharge as well, some measures such as: using high-efficient, water-saving technolo-gies and equipments, optimizing technological operating parameters, were adopted. The water-saving technologies, equipments and measures used in domestic water supply system, industrial water supply system, fire protection water system;circulating cooling water system;desalted water system and reclaimed water system, were discussed.%化工给排水系统设计遵循节水原则,采用高效、节水的技术和设备,优化工艺运行参数,达到节水、减少废水排放的要求,尽量实现废水零排放或趋零排放。就化工企业生活给水系统、生产给水系统、消防水系统、循环冷却水系统、除盐水系统及回用水系统采用的节水技术、设备、措施等进行探讨。

  2. The impact of diabetes on the labour force participation, savings and retirement income of workers aged 45-64 years in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Schofield

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a debilitating and costly condition. The costs of reduced labour force participation due to diabetes can have severe economic impacts on individuals by reducing their living standards during working and retirement years.A purpose-built microsimulation model of Australians aged 45-64 years in 2010, Health&WealthMOD2030, was used to estimate the lost savings at age 65 due to premature exit from the labour force because of diabetes. Regression models were used to examine the differences between the projected savings and retirement incomes of people at age 65 for those currently working full or part time with no chronic health condition, full or part time with diabetes, and people not in the labour force due to diabetes.All Australians aged 45-65 years who are employed full time in 2010 will have accumulated some savings at age 65; whereas only 90.5% of those who are out of the labour force due to diabetes will have done so. By the time they reach age 65, those who retire from the labour force early due to diabetes have a median projected savings of less than $35,000. This is far lower than the median value of total savings for those who remained in the labour force full time with no chronic condition, projected to have $638,000 at age 65.Not only does premature retirement due to diabetes limit the immediate income available to individuals with this condition, but it also reduces their long-term financial capacity by reducing their accumulated savings and the income these savings could generate in retirement. Policies designed to support the labour force participation of those with diabetes, or interventions to prevent the onset of the disease itself, should be a priority to preserve living standards comparable with others who do not suffer from this condition.

  3. Integrated Water and CGE Model of the Impacts of Water Policy on the Beijing's Economy and Output

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Jun; Deng Qun; Sun Yangbo

    2010-01-01

    The article used general equilibrium model to analyze the change of gross domestic product and industry output affected by water resources policies in Beijing City by using GEMPACK soft tool.The article researches on rules of water supply and demand,evaluating water resources,building water resources input and output table,establishing water computable general equilibrium model and stimulating water policy.The stimulation gives a scenario that increases water price by 10%.The result shows the following aspects.First,water resources policy infects gross domestic product and industry output in different ways.There are different behaviors in different industries as to the water policy.Agriculture industry has the same tendency as water price change and it has more sensitive to water quantity than to water price.For basic energy industries such as oil and chemistry and gas,they show diversity tendency.As to some high water consumer industry such as paper and textile etc.,water resource economic policy can infect them greatly and can promote them to accomplish more water-saving technology.Waste water and construction and service industries show the same tendency as to water policy.Second,government should pay more attention to water resource policy by macro economic administration.The simulation also shows that the output and supply and consumer price change more than expect as to water policy in a free market economic in water industry.So as to a government policy maker,one should be more carefully and prepare suitable forecast and plan to water policy and its negative impact.

  4. Saving Energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    More and more Chinese consumers are beginning to think about their energy-saving needs when buying apartments. The energy-saving estate market is huge, which provides great opportunities for companies in the business, especially foreign investors. But just how big is this market and how is it developing? Which fields in this industry are suitable for foreign businesses? With these questions in mind, Beijing Review spoke with Li Shuren, Vice Secretary General of the China Real Estate and Housing Research ...

  5. Saving, dependency and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, A C; Schmidt, R M

    1996-01-01

    This study examines the impact of dependency on savings between 65 less developed countries (LDCs) and 23 developed countries over time and cross-sectionally since 1960. The study tests a modified Leff model and the Mason life-cycle framework. Empirical estimates address potential simultaneity between savings and output growth. The price indices of Summers and Heston are used because each country's national accounts are converted from nominal into purchasing-power variables. This eliminates the problems with using exchange rates which vary systematically by level of development with a "true" index of purchasing power. Savings (S/Y) is the percentage share of gross national saving in gross domestic product. Ygr is the growth of per capita income. Y/N gr is the growth in the per capita gross domestic product. Analysis is based on ordinary least squares (OLS) and two-stage least squares techniques, treatment for heteroscedascity, aggregation periods, several definitions of savings, different country samples, and aged dependency and youth dependency. Findings support the Mason variable-growth life-cycle framework that shows that changes in demographic factors accounted for a large part of savings. The relationships in the modified Leff-type model were weak, with the exception of the mildly negative youth and elderly dependency impact in the 1980s. The rate of growth of youth dependency was negative and significant in all cross-sections for the full sample, all panel estimates for both LDCs and the full sample, and in the 1980s for LDCs. In the OLS model, life-cycle effects were weaker, but direct dependency effects were stronger. S/Y over time became slightly more sensitive to changes in life cycle impacts but less sensitive to youth dependency. Demography's impact on savings over time is attributed to the increase in the pace of youth dependency decline and secondarily to its increasing sensitivity to life-cycle effects.

  6. Impact welding of foils by water jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turgutlu, A.; Akyurt, M. [King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia). Mechanical Engineering Dept.; Al-Hassani, S.T.S. [UMIST, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1996-11-01

    Impact welding is a practical and economically feasible process for the solid-phase welding of similar and dissimilar metals. The versatile process is applicable to combinations of materials usually considered incompatible using more conventional joining methods. Thus, unlike with other spot welding methods, it is possible to use impact spot welding to join two metals of widely different melting points. Considerable research is needed to gain a thorough understanding of this process, its potential and possible new applications. Impact spot welding is similar to the familiar explosive welding process. Impact spot welding can be brought about by the action of a high-velocity object, such as projectile, on the material comprising the impacting object-target interface. The projectile impinging onto the top surface of a flyer plate at the target provides the energy of collision. Subsequently, the flyer plate moves with the projectile toward the base plate. A second impact occurs between the center of the bulge of the flyer plate and the base plate. The central collision of impact spreads radially out with an angle of collision. This oblique collision is an important feature of this process. The manner in which the flyer plate deforms due to the impact of a high-speed object is significant in defining spot welding geometry. The deformation is produced by a combination of elastic, plastic and hydrodynamic wave propagation involving normal, bending and shear stresses. Metallic materials are forcibly driven together by the use of an impactor in such a way that a strong metallurgical bond is formed. Therefore, the use of either explosives or impactors, which may be water jets or solid projectiles, is incidental. Bonding results, in general, only from the impact of the two or more materials. In this sense the resulting bonding may be called impact bonding instead of explosive bonding.

  7. The impact of rate design and net metering on the bill savings from distributed PV for residential customers in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darghouth, Naim R., E-mail: ndarghouth@lbl.gov [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, MS 90R4000, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Energy and Resources Group, 310 Barrows Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, MS 90R4000, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Net metering has become a widespread mechanism in the U.S. for supporting customer adoption of distributed photovoltaics (PV), but has faced challenges as PV installations grow to a larger share of generation in a number of states. This paper examines the value of the bill savings that customers receive under net metering, and the associated role of retail rate design, based on a sample of approximately two hundred residential customers of California's two largest electric utilities. We find that the bill savings per kWh of PV electricity generated varies by more than a factor of four across the customers in the sample, which is largely attributable to the inclining block structure of the utilities' residential retail rates. We also compare the bill savings under net metering to that received under three potential alternative compensation mechanisms, based on California's Market Price Referent (MPR). We find that net metering provides significantly greater bill savings than a full MPR-based feed-in tariff, but only modestly greater savings than alternative mechanisms under which hourly or monthly net excess generation is compensated at the MPR rate. - Highlights: > We examine the value of bill savings under net metering to PV owners in California. > Bill savings per kWh of PV generation varies by a factor of four with net metering. The variation is attributable to rate design, the unique inclining block structure. > The median value of bill savings is reduced by 40-67% with MPR feed-in tariff. > The median value of bill savings is reduced by 6-12% with hourly netting.

  8. The impact of water scarcity on economic development initiatives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of water scarcity on economic development initiatives. ... alike that it is likely that water demand will outstrip water supply within the next decade. ... having chronic water shortages, a condition exacerbated by climate change and the ...

  9. Energy saving modification for cooling tower by using water turbine%利用水轮机对冷却塔进行节能改造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文祥

    2015-01-01

    This paper explains the energy saving principles and advantages of electric fan of large scale cooling tower,and introduces the design procedure,modification project,data calculation and analysis,and energy saving calculation as well as static payback time of mixed flow water turbine special for cooling tower instead of motor. After modification,energy-saving purpose is achieved.%阐述了大型冷却塔电动风机节能改造的原理和优点,介绍了以冷却塔专用混流式水轮机取代电机的设计过程、改造工程、数据计算及分析、节能计算、静态投资回收期等,改造后达到了节能目的。

  10. Grey water impact on soil physical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel L. Murcia-Sarmiento

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing demand for food produced by the increase in population, water as an indispensable element in the growth cycle of plants every day becomes a fundamental aspect of production. The demand for the use of this resource is necessary to search for alternatives that should be evaluated to avoid potential negative impacts. In this paper, the changes in some physical properties of soil irrigated with synthetic gray water were evaluated. The experimental design involved: one factor: home water and two treatments; without treated water (T1 and treated water (T2. The variables to consider in the soil were: electrical conductivity (EC, exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP, average weighted diameter (MWD and soil moisture retention (RHS. The water used in drip irrigation high frequency was monitored by tensiometer for producing a bean crop (Phaseolous vulgaris L. As filtration system used was employed a unit composed of a sand filter (FLA and a subsurface flow wetland artificial (HFSS. The treatments showed significant differences in the PSI and the RHS. The FLA+HFSS system is an alternative to the gray water treatment due to increased sodium retention.

  11. Modeling climate change impacts on water trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Bin; Maqsood, Imran; Gong, Yazhen

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents a new method of evaluating the impacts of climate change on the long-term performance of water trading programs, through designing an indicator to measure the mean of periodic water volume that can be released by trading through a water-use system. The indicator is computed with a stochastic optimization model which can reflect the random uncertainty of water availability. The developed method was demonstrated in the Swift Current Creek watershed of Prairie Canada under two future scenarios simulated by a Canadian Regional Climate Model, in which total water availabilities under future scenarios were estimated using a monthly water balance model. Frequency analysis was performed to obtain the best probability distributions for both observed and simulated water quantity data. Results from the case study indicate that the performance of a trading system is highly scenario-dependent in future climate, with trading effectiveness highly optimistic or undesirable under different future scenarios. Trading effectiveness also largely depends on trading costs, with high costs resulting in failure of the trading program.

  12. Discussing of Water-saving Measures on Corn Ethanol Production%关于玉米酒精生产节水措施的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙兴滨; 赵加瑞; 王志国; 陆建接; 边兴玉

    2012-01-01

    Results from research on 12 domestic producers of corn ethanol shows that, all companies have water-saving measures in each section, from the spices mixing to the distillation. We can save much more water if technical measures were done to achieve water reuse or multiple uses based on the characteristics of each section.%通过对国内12家玉米酒精生产企业的调研,结果表明,从酒精生产的拌料开始一直到蒸馏,不同酒精企业在各个工段都有节水措施。如果能针对每一工段各自的用水特点统筹规划,采用一些先进的技术措施,做到重复利用或一水多用,可以节约大量用水。

  13. 建筑给水排水节能途径的探讨%Discuss the Energy Saving Approach of Building Water Supply and Drainage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘永强

    2014-01-01

    文章针对建筑的给水与排水,分析了建筑给水排水节能途径,同时针对建筑给水排水节能的重要性进行了探究。旨在全面促进现代化建筑事业的发展,促进可持续社会和资源节约型社会的建设。%This article aims at the building water supply and drainage, analyzes the energy saving approach of building w-ater supply and drainage, and explores the importance of bu-ilding water supply and drainage energy saving at the same ti-me so as to comprehensively promote the development of mo-dern buildings and promote sustainable social and the const-ruction of a conservation-minded society.

  14. Effects of water-saving irrigation practices and drought resistant rice variety on greenhouse gas emissions from a no-till paddy in the central lowlands of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Ying; Ge, Junzhu; Tian, Shaoyang; Li, Shuya [MOA Key Laboratory of Crop Physiology, Ecology and Cultivation (The Middle Reaches of Yangtze River), Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei 430070 (China); College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Nguy-Robertson, Anthony L. [Center for Advanced Land Management Information Technologies, School of Natural Resources, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583-0973 (United States); Zhan, Ming, E-mail: zhanming@mail.hzau.edu.cn [MOA Key Laboratory of Crop Physiology, Ecology and Cultivation (The Middle Reaches of Yangtze River), Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei 430070 (China); College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Cao, Cougui, E-mail: ccgui@mail.hzau.edu.cn [MOA Key Laboratory of Crop Physiology, Ecology and Cultivation (The Middle Reaches of Yangtze River), Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei 430070 (China); College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2015-02-01

    As pressure on water resources increases, alternative practices to conserve water in paddies have been developed. Few studies have simultaneously examined the effectiveness of different water regimes on conserving water, mitigating greenhouse gases (GHG), and maintaining yields in rice production. This study, which was conducted during the drought of 2013, examined all three factors using a split-plot experiment with two rice varieties in a no-till paddy managed under three different water regimes: 1) continuous flooding (CF), 2) flooded and wet intermittent irrigation (FWI), and 3) flooded and dry intermittent irrigation (FDI). The Methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions were measured using static chamber-gas measurements, and the carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions were monitored using a soil CO{sub 2} flux system (LI-8100). Compared with CF, FWI and FDI irrigation strategies reduced CH{sub 4} emissions by 60% and 83%, respectively. In contrast, CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O fluxes increased by 65% and 9%, respectively, under FWI watering regime and by 104% and 11%, respectively, under FDI managed plots. Although CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O emissions increased, the global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) of all three GHG decreased by up to 25% and 29% (p < 0.01), respectively, using water-saving irrigation strategies. The rice variety also affected yields and GHG emissions in response to different water regimes. The drought-resistance rice variety (HY3) was observed to maintain yields, conserve water, and reduce GHG under the FWI irrigation management compared with the typical variety (FYY299) planted in the region. The FYY299 only had significantly lower GWP and GHGI when the yield was reduced under FDI water regime. In conclusion, FWI irrigation strategy could be an effective option for simultaneously saving water and mitigating GWP without reducing rice yields using drought-resistant rice varieties, such as HY3

  15. Application of water-saving irrigation techniques and water conservation engineering mode%节水灌溉技术及节水工程模式的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴佐飞

    2015-01-01

    The water-saving irrigation technology can effectively improve the efficiency of water use. With the shortage of water resources in the world, water conservation has become the consensus of the world's development. Actively and effectively carry out water-saving irrigation technology, we need a specific plan, Water-saving irrigation technology to refine the main way that the ground hanging technique, sprinkler and drip irrigation technology establish water conservation engineering model that drains well together the introduction of river recharge mode, pure well tank and peri-urban agriculture model eco-efficient water-saving mode of agricultural facilities.%节水灌溉技术可以有效地提高水资源的利用效率。随着世界水资源的短缺,节约用水已经成为全世界发展的共识。积极有效地开展节水灌溉技术,需要我们具体的规划,细化节水灌溉技术的主要方式即地面灌溉技术、喷灌技术和滴灌技术,建立节水工程模式即引河补源渠井结合模式、纯井灌区生态农业模式和城郊设施农业高效节水模式。

  16. On application of water-saving measures in factual project%节水措施在实际工程中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙春莉

    2012-01-01

    以某新建校区给水工程为例,通过对校区最高日用水量的计算,介绍了几种节水措施,包括设置中水系统、废水再利用、雨水回收再利用及水表设置,以达到节水的目的,进而满足《建筑给水排水技术措施》的要求。%Taking the water-supply project of some college as the example, through to the campus of the highest daily water calculation, the paper adopts some water-saving measures including the design for water reuse system, the recycling of waste water, the reuse of rainwater recycling, and the allocation of the water meter by calculating the general water consumption of the college, so as to save water and meet the demand of Architectural Water-supply and Drainage Technical Measures.

  17. 玻璃厂生活给排水节水措施的探讨%Discussion on Water-saving Measures of Household Water Supply and Drainage in Glass Factory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙志强

    2012-01-01

    The water-saving technology in connection with household water supply and drainage in glass factory was discussed by taking the following steps : strengthening water meter management , employing excellent water-supply pipe and valve , adopting water-saving sanitary wares , controlling over-pressure flow rate , Reusing recycled water and making use of rain water.%针对玻璃厂的生活给排水系统,通过加强水表管理、使用优质给水管材及阀门、使用节水型卫生器具、控制超压出流、中水回用及雨水利用等方面探讨了玻璃厂的节水技术,以达到节水之目的。

  18. Gauging the Impact of Various Definitions of Low- and Moderate-Income Communities on Possible Electricity Savings From Weatherization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, Ian M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-06-20

    With rising interest in lowering energy costs for low- and moderate-income households, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) asked Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to assess the implications of pursuing energy efficiency neighborhood-by-neighborhood where those households are most prevalent. DOE provided certain scenarios for qualifying geographic areas as “low- and moderate-income communities,” and LBNL used data on demographics, housing types and recent savings from low-income retrofits or weatherization to provide rough electricity savings estimates under those scenarios.

  19. 基于干旱区的大豆高效节水灌溉制度制定%Formulation of High-efficiency Water Saving Irrigation System for Soya Bean in Dry Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    由剑波; 陈志东; 高兴民

    2012-01-01

    Soya bean belongs to a dry crop requiring much water and has a strict demand for soil moisture.The soil moisture has a great impact on the growth of soya bean in different developmental stages and soya bean yields.The water-saving irrigation system of soya bean in dry area is formulated according to soil moisture in different developmental stages in the study.%大豆属于需水较多的旱作物,对土壤水分的要求比较严格,土壤水分充足与否,对大豆各生育阶段的发育及产量形成,都有较大的影响。文章对大豆不同生育期的土壤水分,制定出干旱区大豆的节水灌溉制度。

  20. Demand-side management energy saving potential in commercial and governmental/institutional sectors and its impact on power planning : a case study of central grid of Oman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, A.S.; Al-Khrousi, A.R.; Al-Hindi, M.; Al-Mahrouqi, Y. [Sultan Qaboos Univ., Al-Khod (Oman). College of Engineering

    2006-07-01

    The results of Demand-Side Management (DSM) energy saving potential in commercial, government and institutional sectors of Oman were presented along with an evaluation of its impact on generation capacity and energy savings. DSM was defined as electricity demand management by methods such as peak clipping, valley filling, load shifting, and strategic conservation. Peak clipping reduces electricity demand during on-peak periods of the day, thus lowering the peak demand that utilities must meet. In contrast, valley filling increases the electrical load during off-peak periods. Load shifting refers to the movement of loads from peak periods to off-peak periods without any shift in energy use. Strategic load growth aims to increase the load in the future, while strategic conservation aims to decrease the load in the future without any shift in demand to another time. The purpose of DSM is to influence the amount or timing of customers' energy use. It has a positive environmental outlook and provides the best solution between load growth and increasing constraints on new and existing generation, transmission and distribution capacity. Resource options for DSM include energy efficiency options, such as energy efficient appliances, lighting, high efficiency heating, ventilating and air conditioning. Other options include load management and tariffs such as time-of-use incentives. The goal of electricity planning is to meet the load forecast with high reliability at a minimum cost. DSM economic energy savings potential is worked out from both the customer point of view and the electric utility's point of view. The study showed that the use of DSM in commercial and government sectors is economically justified from the customer point of view. DSM programs in the government and commercial sectors reduced the energy consumption to 21 and 38 per cent respectively. The discounted payback period of investment in efficient lighting and air-conditioning was between 4

  1. Water-saving Technologies, Solar Green House and Ecological Rehabilitation in Minqin Oasis of Gansu Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Weichun; Shi Minjun; Zhao Xuetao

    2008-01-01

    Land degradation and desertification have become severe environmental problems in arid areas due to excessive use of water resources. It is urgent to reduce agricultural water use for ecological rehabilitation, which may result in a decrease in agricultural production and farmer's welfare. This paper focused on the impacts of some main measures including extensions of watersaving irrigation, expanding solar green house and increasing offfarm employment, which are generally recognized to be important to alleviate water shortage and poverty. A bio-economic model is applied taking Minqin Oasis in Gansu Province as a case study site. Simulation results showed that the effect of expanding solar greenhouse was more positive than other ones so it drew more attention. On the view of the different effects between each irrigation zone, mixed policy patterns suitable for them are suggested. In Baqu, expanding solar greenhouse should be the most important, auxiliary with encouraging pipe irrigation. Inversely, with regard to Quanshan, the major attention should be paid to subsidy for pipe irrigation and it would be better to supply the off-farm employment opportunities to the households in Huqu, where the expanding of solar greenhouse should also be summoned. Finally, it should be noted that farmer's income would only resume to 90% of the current level in the short run by putting more effort into local policies. Thus, the ecological compensation is needed to ensure farmer's welfare.

  2. Impact of Water Withdrawals from Groundwater and Surface Water on Continental Water Storage Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doell, Petra; Hoffmann-Dobrev, Heike; Portmann, Felix T.; Siebert, Stefan; Eicker, Annette; Rodell, Matthew; Strassberg, Gil

    2011-01-01

    Humans have strongly impacted the global water cycle, not only water flows but also water storage. We have performed a first global-scale analysis of the impact of water withdrawals on water storage variations, using the global water resources and use model WaterGAP. This required estimation of fractions of total water withdrawals from groundwater, considering five water use sectors. According to our assessment, the source of 35% of the water withdrawn worldwide (4300 cubic km/yr during 1998-2002) is groundwater. Groundwater contributes 42%, 36% and 27% of water used for irrigation, households and manufacturing, respectively, while we assume that only surface water is used for livestock and for cooling of thermal power plants. Consumptive water use was 1400 cubic km/yr during 1998-2002. It is the sum of the net abstraction of 250 cubic km/yr of groundwater (taking into account evapotranspiration and return flows of withdrawn surface water and groundwater) and the net abstraction of 1150 km3/yr of surface water. Computed net abstractions indicate, for the first time at the global scale, where and when human water withdrawals decrease or increase groundwater or surface water storage. In regions with extensive surface water irrigation, such as Southern China, net abstractions from groundwater are negative, i.e. groundwater is recharged by irrigation. The opposite is true for areas dominated by groundwater irrigation, such as in the High Plains aquifer of the central USA, where net abstraction of surface water is negative because return flow of withdrawn groundwater recharges the surface water compartments. In intensively irrigated areas, the amplitude of seasonal total water storage variations is generally increased due to human water use; however, in some areas, it is decreased. For the High Plains aquifer and the whole Mississippi basin, modeled groundwater and total water storage variations were compared with estimates of groundwater storage variations based on

  3. Water saving at the field scale with Irrig-OH, an open-hardware environment device for soil water potential monitoring and irrigation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masseroni, Daniele; Facchi, Arianna; Gandolfi, Claudio

    2015-04-01

    -30 kPa and, finally, from the end of May to the harvesting time (maturation process), irrigation was applied when SWP reached -25 kPa. Every time irrigation events were stopped when SWP at the field capacity (-10 kPa) was restored in the upper part of the root zone. Results showed a water saving of nearly 50% using the Irrig-OH device, without consequences on the quantity and quality of the production. Plant physiological status based on LWP, T and CWSI measurements showed that despite the different irrigation treatments adopted, no considerable plant stress was found in both rows. In particular, maximum values of the previous indices, performed at midday, were respectively -2 MPa, 1.4 mm h-1 and 0.6, which were in good agreement with those observed by many researches for no-stressed peach orchards in Mediterranean areas.

  4. A Discussion on Cane Sugar Production of Water-saving Measures%浅谈甘蔗制糖生产节水措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李锦生; 唐海燕; 韦丽娜

    2012-01-01

    Based on the lack of water resource, problems of water access and drainage, and the requirements of "The Eleventh Five-Year" on the sugar mills in energy saving and emission reduction, it is supposed that measures should be applied including new energy saving and environmental protection equipment, drainage system that divert clean water from polluted, clean water recycling, and polluted water treatment, etc. Appropriate management and assessment mechanism should be also appled to achieve the purpose of conservation and emission reduction.%本文根据近年来糖厂在扩建、改造后面临的水资源缺乏,取、排水困难及“十一五”节能减排对糖厂的目标要求,认为制糖生产可以通过采用新型节能环保设备对排水进行清污分流、清水循环利用、污水终端治理等措施,配合适当的管理考核机制达到节水减排的目的。

  5. Saving the Planet’s Climate or Water Resources? The Trade-Off between Carbon and Water Footprints of European Biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Berger

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Little information regarding the global water footprint of biofuels consumed in Europe is available. Therefore, the ultimate origin of feedstock underlying European biodiesel and bioethanol consumption was investigated and combined with the irrigation requirements of different crops in different countries. A (blue water consumption of 1.9 m3 in 12 countries per GJ of European biodiesel and 3.3 m3 in 23 countries per GJ of bioethanol was determined. Even though this represents an increase by a factor of 60 and 40 compared to fossil diesel and gasoline, these figures are low compared to global average data. The assessment of local consequences has shown that the irrigation of sunflower seed in Spain causes 50% of the impacts resulting from biodiesel—even though it constitutes only 0.9% of the feedstock. In case of bioethanol production, the irrigation of sugar cane in Egypt, which constitutes only 0.7% of the underlying feedstock, causes 20% of the impacts. In a case study on passenger cars, it was shown that biofuels can reduce the global warming potential by circa 50% along the product life cycle. However, the price of this improvement is an approximate 19 times increased water consumption, and resulting local impacts are even more severe.

  6. Virtual water: Virtuous impact? : the unsteady state of virtual water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roth, D.; Warner, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    “Virtual water,” water needed for crop production, is now being mainstreamed in the water policy world. Relying on virtual water in the form of food imports is increasingly recommended as good policy for water-scarce areas. Virtual water globalizes discussions on water scarcity, ecological sustainab

  7. Virtual water: Virtuous impact? : the unsteady state of virtual water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roth, D.; Warner, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    “Virtual water,” water needed for crop production, is now being mainstreamed in the water policy world. Relying on virtual water in the form of food imports is increasingly recommended as good policy for water-scarce areas. Virtual water globalizes discussions on water scarcity, ecological

  8. Study on impact of energy price comparison on energy saving benefits of heat pump in North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, X.; Tian, Q.; Zhang, Y. G.; Bai, H. F.

    2016-08-01

    As to the heat pump technology applying in the HVAC engineering, the relationship between energy saving rate (ESR) and electricity cost saving rate (ECSR) of heat pump should be a positive correlation in theory. But in the actual energy price system, due to the fluctuating energy price comparison, the relationship between them is of less coordination. Moreover, despite the high ESR, the economic benefit of ECSR is lost. In this paper, via the case analysis under the condition of average technical and economic parameters in North China, the critical point rate of economic benefit of ECSR in energy price comparison among prices of residential electricity, steam-coal, and residential natural gas is found, which is about 2:3:8. Also, a viewpoint as well as method is suggested to promote the wide usage of heat pump, balance energy supply structure, save energy consumption, and reduce emissions by optimizing the energy price comparison, which is feasible and desirable to raise the price comparison between residential electricity and natural gas, and reduce the price comparison between residential electricity and steam-coal in a certain extent.

  9. Energy saving by reducing the diameter of the impeller for water pumping in the dilution stage of honey in alcohol production. Distillery "Paradise."

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edelvy Bravo Amarante

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The sugar industry is a big consumer of the resource water in all its processes, including the alcohol production industry, one of the derivatives of its main process. Associated to water consumption there are important energetic expenses mainly for the necessity of using electro-pumps for its transfer. In the alcohol production the highest values of water consumed are concentrated in the fermentation stage. In the industry, object of study the highest consumptions are associated to the molasses dilution stage in alcohol production. This is the reason why this investigation is developed with the objective of assessing the water pumping system in the dilution stage in the distillery "Paradise", located in Sancti Spiritus, Cuba. As a result of this analysis it is proposed the reduction of the diameter of the pump impeller, it would make possible to save 38 249 kW-h per year, equivalent to $ 8 315, 67 per year.

  10. Numerical simulation of high pressure water jet impacting concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jialiang; Wang, Mengjin; Zhang, Di

    2017-08-01

    High pressure water jet technology is an unconventional concrete crushing technology. In order to reveal the mechanism of high pressure water jet impacting concrete, it built a three-dimensional numerical model of high pressure water jet impacting concrete based on fluid mechanics and damage mechanics. And the numerical model was verified by theoretical analysis and experiments. Based on this model, it studied the stress characteristics in concrete under high pressure water jet impacting at different time, and quantified the damage evolution rules in concrete along the water jet radial direction. The results can provide theoretical basis and guidance for the high pressure water jet crushing concrete technology.

  11. Impact of Global Warming on Water Resource in Arid Area of Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Aigang; DING Yongjian; PANG Hongxi; YUAN Lingling; HE Yuanqing

    2005-01-01

    As the unprecedented global warming is under way, the glacier retreat is getting more and more serious. In the inland arid area of Northwest China, due to very scarce precipitation, where there is water, there are oases. And the glacier melt water amounts to 22 % of the total direct supply of the inland river water and is of crucial importance to the survival and development of the oases. In this paper,using both the observed data and the previous research achievements of the glaciers in the inland valley of Northwest China where the oasis depending on the glacier is the only location suitable for human living, the authors describe the glacier retreat trend over the past half century, focusing on discussing the possible impact of the glacier retreat on the melt water runoff that is almost the only water resource efficient to nourish the oases. The authors find that even with increasing amount of water from the glacier with global warming, the water shortage is getting more and more serious and the environment is under a degrading way due to the accelerating economical development. The water shortage is bound to be more serious if the glacier retreat keeps on, especially after the glacier melt water is over its top for the degraded glacier scale. So suggestions are stressed in the end that a new water-saving pattern should be adopted in the area for a sustainable development due to the warming-up induced continuous glacier retreat.

  12. Explore Energy Saving Turbine Closed Water System%汽轮机组闭冷水系统节能改造的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴基富

    2014-01-01

    通过介绍汽轮机组闭冷水系统的概况,论述闭冷水系统优化改造的必要性,并结合相关节能改造措施,选择正确的改造方案,对汽轮机组闭冷水系统进行节能改造。运行结果表明,该改造方案有效降低了闭冷水系统能源损耗,具有良好的系统工作效益,值得推广应用。%Introduction Turbine closed water system overview, discusses the need for the transformation of closed water system optimization, combined with relevant energy saving measures to select the correct transformation program, closed cooling water system for steam turbine for energy saving. The result shows that the transformation program closed water system effectively reduces energy consumption, has a good system of work benefits, and should be widely applied.

  13. Simulations of asteroid impacts on water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisler, G. R.; Weaver, R. P.; Gittings, M. L.

    2002-05-01

    We have performed a series of two-dimensional and three-dimensional simulations of asteroid impacts into an ocean using the SAGE code from Los Alamos National Laboratory and Science Applications International Corporation. The SAGE code is a compressible Eulerian hydrodynamics code using continuous adaptive mesh refinement for following discontinuities with a fine grid while treating the bulk of the simulation more coarsely. We have used realistic equations of state for the atmosphere, sea water, the oceanic crust and mantle. In two dimensions, we threw asteroid impactors at 20 km/s vertically through an exponential atmosphere into a 5 km deep ocean. The impactors were composed of mantle material (3.32 g/cc) with diameters of 250m, 500m, and 1000m, chosen to compare with the previous work of Crawford and Mader. We also performed some runs with asteroids composed of iron (7.8 g/cc). Because some of the iron asteroids produced craters that penetrated the basalt crust, we included a layer of mantle material in all simulations. A vertical impact produces a large underwater cavity with nearly vertical walls followed by a collapse starting from the bottom and subsequent vertical jetting. Tsunamis up to a kilometer in initial height were generated and followed out to 100 km from the point of impact. In the three-dimensional run, an impactor of iron was thrown at 20 km/s at an angle of 45 degrees. Differences between this run and the vertical two-dimensional runs will be discussed.

  14. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... choose "Save target as…", save file in desired location. Firefox/Chrome: Right-click on the link, choose "Save link as…", save file in desired location. Safari: Right-click or command-click on the ...

  15. 基于水权理论的农业节水措施探讨%Discussion on the Measures of Agricultural Water Saving based on Water Right Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿布都艾尼·肉扎洪

    2015-01-01

    With the development of social economy and population increasing, the contradiction between the shortage of water resource and the demand of water is getting more prominent. In the article, according to the problem of water resource shortage in some parts, based on the theory of water right, it discussed the key links of clearing water right, building up water system, setting up water price mechanism and water market growing etc., and the important function in agricultural water saving. It provided a reference for promoting the sustainable development of agricultural water saving in irrigation area.%随着经济社会的不断发展和人口的增加,水资源短缺和供需矛盾更加突出。针对部分地区的水资源紧缺问题,基于水权理论,探讨明晰水权、建立用水体系、构建水价格机制与水市场培育等关键环节,在农业节水中发挥的重要作用,为促进灌区农业节水可持续发展提供参考。

  16. Discussion on design of water system of water-saving refinery in drought area of Africa%非洲干旱地区节水型炼油厂水系统设计的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张铁刚; 梅玉兴; 孙伟锋; 隋许英; 邹茂荣

    2012-01-01

    As water resource is one of the important factors restricting the construction of refineries in drought area of Africa, how to save water and use water properly is the question that the refineries must face. Combining the practical construction projects, through the analysis of the design of systems for water intaking, water purification, circulating cooling water, desalting water, sewage treatment and reclaimed water reuse, some feasible design schemes and water saving measures were summarized, which provided reference for the water system design of refineries in similar drought areas.%水资源是制约非洲干旱地区新建炼油厂的重要因素之一,因此,如何节水、用水,是炼油厂必须面对的问题.结合实际工程,通过对炼油厂取水、净化水、循环冷却水、除盐水、污水处理及污水回用水系统设计的分析,总结了炼油厂水系统的设计方法、节水思路和措施,对类似干旱地区炼油厂工程设计有一定的借鉴意义.

  17. 化纤生产中循环水系统的节能改造%Research on Recirculating Water System Reformation for Energy Saving

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪宝华; 王瑞祥; 张书林

    2012-01-01

    传统循环水系统都是能耗较大,生产成本、运行费用较高,不利于产品的市场竞争.选用当前最先进的高效节能水泵、专利产品水动风机冷却塔及变频控制系统等新型节能设备对原低产、高耗系统进行改造,替换了原有系统的陈旧设备,变动部分管线,对循环水系统进行工艺优化,在保证系统中循环水的流量和扬程不变的情况下,换热设备的冷却效果和稳定性比原有设备提高许多,系统用电量只有原系统的60%左右.运行实践表明,经过改造后,节能降耗效果明显.%Traditional recirculating water system has the disadvantages of high energy consumption, high operation cost, and is leads the company to a worse position in the market competition. The high efficient and energy saving pump, return water driven cooling tower fan, inverter control system and other new energy saving equipments are applied to reform the current system, by changing the old equipment and partial pipe line. The efficiency of the heat exchanging equipment has improved a lot and electricity consumption is only 60 % of the old system, while the flow and head of the recirculating water are not changed. The effect of energy saving of the new system is obviously.

  18. Cost and impact of scaling up interventions to save lives of mothers and children: taking South Africa closer to MDGs 4 and 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lumbwe Chola

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: South Africa has made substantial progress on child and maternal mortality, yet many avoidable deaths of mothers and children still occur. This analysis identifies priority interventions to be scaled up nationally and projects the potential maternal and child lives saved. Design: We modelled the impact of maternal, newborn and child interventions using the Lives Saved Tools Projections to 2015 and used realistic coverage increases based on expert opinion considering recent policy change, financial and resource inputs, and observed coverage change. A scenario analysis was undertaken to test the impact of increasing intervention coverage to 95%. Results: By 2015, with realistic coverage, the maternal mortality ratio (MMR can reduce to 153 deaths per 100,000 and child mortality to 34 deaths per 1,000 live births. Fifteen interventions, including labour and delivery management, early HIV treatment in pregnancy, prevention of mother-to-child transmission and handwashing with soap, will save an additional 9,000 newborns and children and 1,000 mothers annually. An additional US$370 million (US$7 per capita will be required annually to scale up these interventions. When intervention coverage is increased to 95%, breastfeeding promotion becomes the top intervention, the MMR reduces to 116 and the child mortality ratio to 23. Conclusions: The 15 interventions identified were adopted by the National Department of Health, and the Health Minister launched a campaign to encourage Provincial Health Departments to scale up coverage. It is hoped that by focusing on implementing these 15 interventions at high quality, South Africa will reach Millennium Development Goal (MDG 4 soon after 2015 and MDG 5 several years later. Focus on HIV and TB during early antenatal care is essential. Strategic gains could be realised by targeting vulnerable populations and districts with the worst health outcomes. The analysis demonstrates the usefulness of priority

  19. Cost and impact of scaling up interventions to save lives of mothers and children: taking South Africa closer to MDGs 4 and 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chola, Lumbwe; Pillay, Yogan; Barron, Peter; Tugendhaft, Aviva; Kerber, Kate; Hofman, Karen

    2015-01-01

    South Africa has made substantial progress on child and maternal mortality, yet many avoidable deaths of mothers and children still occur. This analysis identifies priority interventions to be scaled up nationally and projects the potential maternal and child lives saved. We modelled the impact of maternal, newborn and child interventions using the Lives Saved Tools Projections to 2015 and used realistic coverage increases based on expert opinion considering recent policy change, financial and resource inputs, and observed coverage change. A scenario analysis was undertaken to test the impact of increasing intervention coverage to 95%. By 2015, with realistic coverage, the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) can reduce to 153 deaths per 100,000 and child mortality to 34 deaths per 1,000 live births. Fifteen interventions, including labour and delivery management, early HIV treatment in pregnancy, prevention of mother-to-child transmission and handwashing with soap, will save an additional 9,000 newborns and children and 1,000 mothers annually. An additional US$370 million (US$7 per capita) will be required annually to scale up these interventions. When intervention coverage is increased to 95%, breastfeeding promotion becomes the top intervention, the MMR reduces to 116 and the child mortality ratio to 23. The 15 interventions identified were adopted by the National Department of Health, and the Health Minister launched a campaign to encourage Provincial Health Departments to scale up coverage. It is hoped that by focusing on implementing these 15 interventions at high quality, South Africa will reach Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 soon after 2015 and MDG 5 several years later. Focus on HIV and TB during early antenatal care is essential. Strategic gains could be realised by targeting vulnerable populations and districts with the worst health outcomes. The analysis demonstrates the usefulness of priority setting tools and the potential for evidence-based decision

  20. Energy-Saving Water System of Experimental Refrigerating Machine for Air-Conditioning%节能型实验用空调制冷机水系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁建新; 周斌; 彭维; 吴梅花; 齐典伟

    2011-01-01

    提出了节能型实验用空调制冷机水系统.充分利用实验装置的冷凝热、制冷量等自身能源,有效地解决了原有实验用空调制冷机水系统存在的问题,同时还减少了自来水的消耗量,并以实验证明了节能型实验用空调制冷机水系统的优点.%This article put forward an energy-saving water system of experimental refrigerating machine for air conditioning,which makes full use of its energy of the experimental facility. This system also solves the problems of the existed previous water system, and reduces the water consumption.

  1. The necessity of Energy-Saving Reconstruct of Circulating Water Cooling Tower%循环水冷却塔节能改造必要性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡俊

    2014-01-01

    The article introduces the traditional cooling tower motor reducer drive and newly developed energy-saving water power during the 12th Five Year Plan Period. Taking the circulating water cooling tower transformation technology of Guixi smelter for exam-ple, the cooling tower fan rotating was driven by water power machine instead of the motor, coupling and reducer in traditional cooling tower. Thus, the equipment investment and electricity load were reduced to realize the energy-saving effect.%介绍传统冷却塔电机减速机传动和十二五期间新研发的节能水能机,并以贵溪冶炼厂循环水冷却塔改造技术为例,即将冷却塔由水能机驱动风机旋转,代替传统冷却塔中的电机、联轴器、减速机,以减少设备投入,降低用电负荷,达到预期节能效果。

  2. ANALYSIS ON WATER SAVING AND POLLUTANT REDUCING IN PRODUCTION OF CONCENTRATED FRUIT JUICE%浓缩果汁生产中的节水减污分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘萍萍; 赵顺利; 谭良玺; 高原; 向文力

    2011-01-01

    Water,acts as a basic source,was heavily dissipated in the process of concentrated fruit juice production,and then,poured as wastewater with high COD loadings.The wastewater from a fruit juice features large fluctuation in its quality and quantity,using traditional aerobic treatment technology is hardly fit for the great change.The water use of several local typical enterprises was investigated and online monitoring,was carried out,it was proposed some suggestins on water-saving and pollution-reducing from the control of water quantity,wastewater emissions,wastewater treatment technology.If these water saving and abatement proposals were put into practice,the water consumption of this company would be lowered by 31.68%,the total COD into the sewage station would be reduced by about 20%.%浓缩果汁生产过程中消耗大量新鲜水,排放废水COD含量高,水质、水量波动大,传统的好氧处理方法难以取得理想效果。通过对几个典型浓缩果汁企业用水的调查和在线监测,从水量控制、废水减排、废水处理工艺等方面提出节水减污建议,实行清洁生产措施后,该企业耗水量减少了31.68%,排入污水站COD总量减少约20%。

  3. Institutional aspects of proportional water allocation in practice: case of the Odzani River Irrigation Company, Save Catchment, Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senzanje, A.; van der Zaag, P.

    Under the new Water Act [Government of Zimbabwe, 1998. Water Act, Chapter 20:24, No. 31/98. Government Printers, Harare] of Zimbabwe which abolished the priority date system for the allocation of surface water in a catchment, it is widely believed that the alternative will be the proportional water allocation system. The proportional water allocation system has been practiced by groups of water users in a number of sub-catchments in Zimbabwe including Mupfuri, Mazowe and Odzi River systems, mainly in the form of dam syndicates (groups of users jointly owning a dam) and irrigation companies (groups of irrigators sharing one source of water). This paper presents the practical experiences with, and lessons that can be learnt from proportional water allocation in the Odzani River Irrigation Company (ORIC) on the Odzi River system in Manicaland in Zimbabwe. ORIC was formed under the provisions of the old Water Act after the construction of the canal, and currently has 50 irrigating members. They are engaged in a variety of agricultural enterprises that include crop production, horticulture and dairying. All members have sub-permits (sub-rights) that enable them to draw water, but the company has a single permit to abstract water from the Odzi River into their supply canal. Farmers’ perception and understanding of proportional water allocation varied but generally defined it as getting a certain percentage of water depending on the amount available in the canal and one’s water permit. One of the major sources of problems in ORIC is inequitable access to water arising from water poaching. Overall, ORIC farmers felt that for proportional water allocation to work properly, the services of a fulltime water bailiff are required, farmers must have their own storage facilities, water should be metered, members should participate fully in decision making, politics should be kept to a minimum and conflicts must be resolved internally.

  4. Quantifying Impacts of Food Trade on Water Availability Considering Water Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, T.; Yano, S.; Hanasaki, N.

    2012-12-01

    Food production requires a lot of water, and traded food potentially has external impacts on environment through reducing the water availability in the producing region. Water footprint is supposed to be an indicator to reflect the impacts of water use. However, impacts of water use on environment, resource, and sustainability are different in place and time, and according to the sources of water withdrawals. Therefore it is preferable to characterize the water withdrawals or consumptions rather than just accumulate the total amount of water use when estimating water footprint. In this study, a new methodology, global green-water equivalent method, is proposed in which regional characterization factors are determined based on the estimates of natural hydrological cycles, such as precipitation, total runoff, and sub-surface runoff, and applied for green-water, river(+reservoir) water, and non-renewable ground water uses. Water footprint of the world associated with the production of 19 major crops was estimated using an integrated hydrological and water resources modeling system (H08), with atmospheric forcing data for 1991-2000 with spatial resolution of 0.5 by 0.5 longitudinal and latitudinal degrees. The impacts is estimated to be 6 times larger than the simple summation of green and blue water uses, and reflect the climatological water scarcity conditions geographically. The results can be used to compare the possible impacts of food trade associated with various crops from various regions on environment through reducing the availability of water resources in the cropping area.

  5. Cross-sectoral conflicts for water under climate change: the need to include water quality impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Vliet, van, A.J.H.; Ludwig, F.; P. Kabat

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is expected to increase pressures on water use between different sectors (e.g. agriculture, energy, industry, domestic uses) and ecosystems. While climate change impacts on water availability have been studied widely, less work has been done to assess impacts on water quality. This study proposes a modelling framework to incorporate water quality in analyses of cross-sectoral conflicts for water between human uses and ecosystems under climate change and socio-economic changes. ...

  6. Water Penetration through a Superhydrophobic Mesh During a Drop Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Seunggeol; Sen, Prosenjit; Nam, Youngsuk; Lee, Choongyeop

    2017-01-06

    When a water drop impacts a mesh having submillimeter pores, a part of the drop penetrates through the mesh if the impact velocity is sufficiently large. Here we show that different surface wettability, i.e., hydrophobicity and superhydrophobicity, leads to different water penetration dynamics on a mesh during drop impact. We show, despite the water repellence of a superhydrophobic surface, that water can penetrate a superhydrophobic mesh more easily (i.e., at a lower impact velocity) over a hydrophobic mesh via a penetration mechanism unique to a superhydrophobic mesh. On a superhydrophobic mesh, the water penetration can occur during the drop recoil stage, which appears at a lower impact velocity than the critical impact velocity for water penetration right upon impact. We propose that this unique water penetration on a superhydrophobic mesh can be attributed to the combination of the hydrodynamic focusing and the momentum transfer from the water drop when it is about to bounce off the surface, at which point the water drop retrieves most of its kinetic energy due to the negligible friction on superhydrophobic surfaces.

  7. An Environmental Analysis of the Effect of Energy Saving, Production and Recovery Measures on Water Supply Systems under Scarcity Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Puleo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Water is one of the primary resources provided for maintaining quality of life and social status in urban areas. As potable water is considered to be a primary need, water service has usually been managed without examining the economic and environmental sustainability of supply processes. Currently, due to increases in energy costs and the growth of environment preservation policies, reducing water leakage, energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG production have become primary objectives in reducing the environmental footprint of water service. The present paper suggests the implementation of some performance indicators that show the interdependence of water loss, energy consumption and GHG emission. These indicators are used to compare a few possible mitigation scenarios involving water loss reduction and increasing the system’s energy efficiency. The proposed indicators were applied to a complex urban water supply system serving the city of Palermo (Italy.

  8. Climate Change Impacts on Water and Energy for Army Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    for drinking ? If your installation recycles water , what was the highest average daily wa- ter use in MGD including: (a) the recycled water and (b...2009. Rainfall and outbreaks of drinking water related disease and in England and Wales. Journal of Water and Health 7(1):1–8. doi:10.2166/wh.2009.143...Impacts to Soldier safety; reduced access to military water crossings and river operations; reduced off- road maneuver capacity; increased maintenance

  9. Impacts of tourism in Slovenian alpine areas on water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Cigale

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is not only an important economic activity but also a source of pressures on environment, including water. On the other hand appropriate water quality is of great importance for tourism development. The contribution of tourism to pressures on water is important, but not dominant. Exceptions are impacts of tourism on the uninhabited areas, where tourism and recreation are the main sources of pressures on water resources. Nonetheless, quantities of used and sewage water are relatively modest.

  10. Cross-sectoral conflicts for water under climate change: the need to include water quality impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van M.T.H.; Ludwig, F.; Kabat, P.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is expected to increase pressures on water use between different sectors (e.g. agriculture, energy, industry, domestic uses) and ecosystems. While climate change impacts on water availability have been studied widely, less work has been done to assess impacts on water quality. This

  11. Cross-sectoral conflicts for water under climate change: the need to include water quality impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van M.T.H.; Ludwig, F.; Kabat, P.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is expected to increase pressures on water use between different sectors (e.g. agriculture, energy, industry, domestic uses) and ecosystems. While climate change impacts on water availability have been studied widely, less work has been done to assess impacts on water quality. This st

  12. How To Save Money By Using Less Electricity, Natural Gas, and Water: A Do-It-Yourself Guide. Publication 228.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Univ., Berkeley. Lawrence Berkeley Lab.

    Presented are ways in which consumers can improve the energy efficiency of their homes and conserve water. Organized by types of energy use, the guide points out what to look for and what changes to consider as homeowners inspect heating and air conditioning systems, the hot water system, kitchen appliances, lighting, and water use. Conservation…

  13. 广州城市园林绿地节水灌溉现状%Present Situation on Guangzhou's Landscape Water-saving Irrigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅小霞; 周先武; 杨伟儿; 吴俭峰

    2011-01-01

    文章从节水灌溉方式的普及情况、灌溉系统规划设计、主要节水灌溉方式、灌溉水源、灌溉管理、灌溉科学技术研究等方面,概述了广州城市园林绿地节水灌溉的现状,并提出了提高园林绿地节水灌溉水平的若干建议。%Popularity of water-saving irrigation system, irrigation system design, popularly-used irrigation model, source of water, irrigating management and irrigation technique research in Guangzhou landscape were disscussed and analysed. Based on the investigation and situation on Guangzhou landscape irrigation some suggestions were proposed.

  14. Demonstration and analysis of water saving irrigation water source in Gaizhou City%盖州市节水灌溉水源论证及影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘成刚

    2016-01-01

    The water-saving projects using pipe irrigation and micro sprinkler irrigation , in the project area crops to corn and watermelon, water to groundwater dominated, the from the water solution, supply and drainage calculation and underground water demonstration and influence were analysis shows the demonstration unit of water consumption were in groundwater allowable exploitation range, there is no breakthrough in the state assigned groundwater take water quota of total control. So the water saving irrigation project is reasonable.%节水项目采用管灌和微喷的方式灌溉,项目区内作物种植以玉米和西瓜为主,水源以地下水为主。从取水方案、补给项和排泄项的计算,地下水源论证及影响进行分析可知,所有论证单元的用水量均在地下水允许开采范围内,没有突破国家下达的地下水取用水总量控制指标,故此节水灌溉项目用水合理。

  15. Impact of water drops on small targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozhkov, A.; Prunet-Foch, B.; Vignes-Adler, M.

    2002-10-01

    The collision of water drops against small targets was studied experimentally by means of a high-speed photography technique. The drop impact velocity was about 3.5 m/s. Drop diameters were in the range of 2.8-4.0 mm. The target was a stainless steel disk of 3.9 mm diameter. The drop spread beyond the target like a central cap surrounded by a thin, slightly conical lamella bounded by a thicker rim. By mounting a small obstacle near the target, surface-tension driven Mach waves in the flowing lamella were generated, which are formally equivalent to the familiar compressibility driven Mach waves in gas dynamics. From the measurement of the Mach angle, the values of some flow parameters could be obtained as functions of time, which provided insight into the flow structure. The liquid flowed from the central cap to the liquid rim through the thin lamella at constant momentum flux. At a certain stage of the process, most of the liquid accumulated in the rim and the internal part of the lamella became metastable. In this situation, a rupture wave propagating through the metastable internal part of the lamella caused the rim to retract while forming outwardly directed secondary jets. The jets disintegrated into secondary droplets due to the Savart-Plateau-Rayleigh instability. Prior to the end of the retraction, an internal circular wave of rupture was formed. It originated at the target and then it propagated to meet the retracting rim. Their meeting resulted in a crown of tiny droplets. A theoretical analysis of the ejection process is proposed.

  16. Novel energy saving strategy for separating acetic acid – water in extractive distillation with N-methyl acetamide as entrainer

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Xinqiang; Peng, Changjun; Liu, Honglai

    2017-09-01

    The design of homogeneous extractive distillation for acetic acid (AA) dehydration with N-methyl acetamide (NMA) as entrainer was investigated. It belongs to the classification of 0.0-1. The main challenge is that NMA and AA will lead to another pinch point, probably leading to energy cost and total annual cost (TAC) increase. Through analyzing thermodynamic insight, we have proposed a new strategy: low recycling entrainer purity for the extractive distillation of class 0.0-1 with no univolatility line existing. The strategy could save energy cost by avoiding the approach of the pinch point between AA and NMA. We have run sequence iterative optimization method for the process optimization. The total eleven variables are optimized. Results show that energy consumption and TAC are reduced by 50.6% and 52.1%, respectively. The results also reveal that a suitable shift of the feed tray locations improves the efficiency of the separation, even when less entrainer is used.

  17. Using the lives saved tool (LiST) to model mHealth impact on neonatal survival in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Youngji; Labrique, Alain B; Lefevre, Amnesty E; Mehl, Garrett; Pfaff, Teresa; Walker, Neff; Friberg, Ingrid K

    2014-01-01

    While the importance of mHealth scale-up has been broadly emphasized in the mHealth community, it is necessary to guide scale up efforts and investment in ways to help achieve the mortality reduction targets set by global calls to action such as the Millennium Development Goals, not merely to expand programs. We used the Lives Saved Tool (LiST)--an evidence-based modeling software--to identify priority areas for maternal and neonatal health services, by formulating six individual and combined interventions scenarios for two countries, Bangladesh and Uganda. Our findings show that skilled birth attendance and increased facility delivery as targets for mHealth strategies are likely to provide the biggest mortality impact relative to other intervention scenarios. Although further validation of this model is desirable, tools such as LiST can help us leverage the benefit of mHealth by articulating the most appropriate delivery points in the continuum of care to save lives.

  18. Using the lives saved tool (LiST to model mHealth impact on neonatal survival in resource-limited settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngji Jo

    Full Text Available While the importance of mHealth scale-up has been broadly emphasized in the mHealth community, it is necessary to guide scale up efforts and investment in ways to help achieve the mortality reduction targets set by global calls to action such as the Millennium Development Goals, not merely to expand programs. We used the Lives Saved Tool (LiST--an evidence-based modeling software--to identify priority areas for maternal and neonatal health services, by formulating six individual and combined interventions scenarios for two countries, Bangladesh and Uganda. Our findings show that skilled birth attendance and increased facility delivery as targets for mHealth strategies are likely to provide the biggest mortality impact relative to other intervention scenarios. Although further validation of this model is desirable, tools such as LiST can help us leverage the benefit of mHealth by articulating the most appropriate delivery points in the continuum of care to save lives.

  19. The impact of industrial waste of Venezuelan marine water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Frank [Bechtel Corp., Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Guarino, Carmen [Guarino Engineers, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Arias, Marlene [Ministerio del Ambiente y Recursos Naturales Renovables, Caracas (Venezuela)

    1993-12-31

    The Puerto Cabello-Marron coastal area of Venezuela is an ideal location for industries that require large land areas, water, marine transportation, minimum habitation, cooling water, etc. However, mercury spills have produced concern in the entire coastal zone. The area was investigated and negative impacts were identified. Consequently, recommendations for waste water management were proceeded. 13 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Water quality impacts of forest fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecle Aregai; Daniel Neary

    2015-01-01

    Forest fires have been serious menace, many times resulting in tremendous economic, cultural and ecological damage to many parts of the United States. One particular area that has been significantly affected is the water quality of streams and lakes in the water thirsty southwestern United States. This is because the surface water coming off burned areas has resulted...

  1. Estimated Energy Savings and Financial Impacts of Nanomaterials by Design on Selected Applications in the Chemical Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thayer, Gary R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Roach, J. Fred [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dauelsberg, Lori [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2006-03-01

    This study provides a preliminary analysis of the potential impact that nanotechnology could have on energy efficiency, economic competitiveness, waste reduction, and productivity, in the chemical and related industries.

  2. The impact on hospitals of reducing surgical complications suggests many will need shared savings programs with payers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupka, Dan C; Sandberg, Warren S; Weeks, William B

    2012-11-01

    Reducing the complications that patients experience following surgery has garnered renewed attention from the medical and policy community. Reducing surgical complications is, foremost, critically important for patients. Moreover, in a competitive environment increasingly characterized by transparency of outcomes, the surgical complication rate is an important measure of hospital performance that could strongly influence choices of care and care sites made by patients and payers. However, programs to achieve such improvements can reduce hospital revenues, as reimbursements to treat patients for complications decrease. In this article we examine the business case for hospitals' consideration of programs to reduce surgical complications. We found that if a hospital's surgical inpatient volume is not growing, such a program results in negative cash flow. We also found that if a hospital's surgical volume is growing, and if the hospital can sufficiently reduce the average length-of-stay for surgical patients without complications, the cash flow could be positive. We recommend that hospitals with limited growth prospects that are nonetheless contemplating a surgical complication reduction program establish agreements with payers to share in any savings generated by the program.

  3. Impact analysis of government investment on water projects in the arid Gansu Province of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhan; Deng, Xiangzheng; Li, Xiubin; Zhou, Qing; Yan, Haiming

    In this paper, we introduced three-nested Constant Elasticity of Substitution (CES) production function into a static Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) Model. Through four levels of factor productivity, we constructed three nested production function of land use productivity in the conceptual modeling frameworks. The first level of factor productivity is generated by the basic value-added land. On the second level, factor productivity in each sector is generated by human activities that presents human intervention to the first level of factor productivity. On the third level of factor productivity, water allocation reshapes the non-linear structure of transaction among first and second levels. From the perspective of resource utilization, we examined the economic efficiency of water allocation. The scenario-based empirical analysis results show that the three-nested CES production function within CGE model is well-behaved to present the economy system of the case study area. Firstly, water scarcity harmed economic production. Government investment on water projects in Gansu thereby had impacts on economic outcomes. Secondly, huge governmental financing on water projects bring depreciation of present value of social welfare. Moreover, water use for environment adaptation pressures on water supply. The theoretical water price can be sharply increased due to the increasing costs of factor inputs. Thirdly, water use efficiency can be improved by water projects, typically can be benefited from the expansion of water-saving irrigation areas even in those expanding dry area in Gansu. Therefore, increasing governmental financing on water projects can depreciate present value of social welfare but benefit economic efficiency for future generation.

  4. SAVING HISTOBY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Improved protection given to cultural heritage sites as China's grand water diversion project continues For 48 years it has lain submerged in a reservoir. Now, completely reconstructed. Jingle Palace, the most magnificent of the nine Taoist palaces in UNESCO's world heritage site of the Wudangshan Mountains, was

  5. Net savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roche, P.

    2001-02-01

    The state of e-commerce in the Canadian upstream oil and natural gas sector is examined in an effort to discover the extent to which the .com economy has penetrated the marketplace. The overall assessment is that although the situation varies from producer to producer and process to process, a bustling digital marketplace in the Canadian oil business has yet to emerge. Nevertheless, there are several examples of companies using e-business tools to minimize technology staffing and to eliminate wasteful practices. Initiatives cited include streamlining of supply chains to cut handling costs, using application service providers to trim information technology budgets, and adopting electronic joint interest billing to save on printing, postage and re-entering data. Most notable efforts have been made by companies such as BXL Energy Limited and Genesis Exploration Limited, both of which are boosting efficiency on the inside by contracting out data storage and software applications. For example, BXL has replaced its microfilm log library occupying six cabinets, and totalling about 9,000 lbs., by a fibre optic line. All applications can now be run from a laptop which weighs three to four pounds. In a similar vein, Genesis Exploration started using application service providers (ASPs) to avoid the cost and hassle of buying and maintaining major software applications in-house. By accessing the ASPs, Genesis staff can run software without buying or installing it on their own computers. In yet another example of cutting information technology costs, Pengrowth Corporation has its network administration done remotely over the Internet by Northwest Digital Systems (NWD). As far as the industry at large is concerned, the answer appears to be in a digital marketplace specifically tailored to the upstream sector's unique profile. As a start, a study is underway by Deloitte Consulting to explore producer interest in joining or founding an upstream digital marketplace. The study

  6. A Review on the Current Situation and Countermeasures of Water-saving Irrigation Technology Extension in China%我国节水灌溉技术推广现状与对策研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵文杰; 丁凡琳

    2015-01-01

    目前我国节水灌溉技术的推广和使用取得了一定成果,但其发展潜力仍十分巨大,并且在技术推广过程中存在诸多问题,限制了节水灌溉技术的推广和采纳。管理制度不合理、水权制度不明确、水价机制不健全、农户节水意识不强以及农村传统社会的变迁等都给先进节水灌溉技术的推广带来困难;必须进一步完善制度,增加对节水灌溉技术推广的资金支持,将技术研究和推广与农民需求相结合,才能促使节水灌溉技术的有效推广。%Extension and acceptation of water-saving irrigation technology have got some results in China .While the development po‐tential of water-saving technology is very huge ,and many problems during the extension process have restricted the extension and ac‐ceptation of water-saving irrigation technology .Unreasonable management system ,undefined water rights system ,unsound water price system ,unconsciousness of saving water of farmers and the transformation of traditional rural places all make it difficult to ex‐tend water-saving technology .In order to make the extension of water-saving technology more sufficiently ,it needs to improve the institutional system ,increase financial support and combine the make research and extension of the technology with needs of farmers .

  7. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... children, parents, and public health professionals. More > Hand Hygiene Saves Lives (5:10) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Hand Hygiene Saves Lives Hand Hygiene Saves Lives Transcript [28 KB, 2 pages] High ...

  8. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... including, children, parents, and public health professionals. More > Hand Hygiene Saves Lives (5:10) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Hand Hygiene Saves Lives Hand Hygiene Saves Lives Transcript [28 KB, 2 pages] High ...

  9. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... including, children, parents, and public health professionals. More > Hand Hygiene Saves Lives (5:10) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Hand Hygiene Saves Lives Hand Hygiene Saves Lives Transcript [28 KB, 2 pages] High ...

  10. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... TV Contact and Feedback Form Download Instructions Explorer: Right-click on the link, choose "Save target as…", save file in desired location. Firefox/Chrome: Right-click on the link, choose "Save link as…", ...

  11. Ground and Intermediate Water Equilibrium with Water-Bearing Rock Minerals (Moldova) under Anthropogenic Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timoshenkova, A. N.; Moraru, C. Ye; Pasechnik, Ye Yu; Tokarenko, O. G.; Butoshina, V. A.

    2016-03-01

    The calculation results of ground water equilibrium with the major water-bearing rock minerals (Moldova) are presented under the condition of anthropogenic impact. As a calculation model the HydroGeo software is used. It is shown that both “ground water-rock” and “intermediate water-rock” systems are in equilibrium with a number of minerals.

  12. Identification and assessment of potential water quality impact factors for drinking-water reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qing; Deng, Jinsong; Wang, Ke; Lin, Yi; Li, Jun; Gan, Muye; Ma, Ligang; Hong, Yang

    2014-06-10

    Various reservoirs have been serving as the most important drinking water sources in Zhejiang Province, China, due to the uneven distribution of precipitation and severe river pollution. Unfortunately, rapid urbanization and industrialization have been continuously challenging the water quality of the drinking-water reservoirs. The identification and assessment of potential impacts is indispensable in water resource management and protection. This study investigates the drinking water reservoirs in Zhejiang Province to better understand the potential impact on water quality. Altogether seventy-three typical drinking reservoirs in Zhejiang Province encompassing various water storage levels were selected and evaluated. Using fifty-two reservoirs as training samples, the classification and regression tree (CART) method and sixteen comprehensive variables, including six sub-sets (land use, population, socio-economy, geographical features, inherent characteristics, and climate), were adopted to establish a decision-making model for identifying and assessing their potential impacts on drinking-water quality. The water quality class of the remaining twenty-one reservoirs was then predicted and tested based on the decision-making model, resulting in a water quality class attribution accuracy of 81.0%. Based on the decision rules and quantitative importance of the independent variables, industrial emissions was identified as the most important factor influencing the water quality of reservoirs; land use and human habitation also had a substantial impact on water quality. The results of this study provide insights into the factors impacting the water quality of reservoirs as well as basic information for protecting reservoir water resources.

  13. 浅议覆膜保墒旱作节水农业技术%Film Preservation of Soil Moisture Water-saving Agricultural Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵晓林

    2013-01-01

    Laminating moisture conservation technology is an important scientific and technological support for the development of water-saving agriculture. Including the autumn coated and early spring laminating coating in the modern sense of the soil moisture water-saving agricultural technology in the coating time semi film coverage and film coverage, including in the coating way to stay membranes, including the extension of the cover film using with stubble wintering and a film two years. Compared with the traditional plastic film cover cropping, the modern coating soil moisture water-saving agriculture technology to achieve the basic "five changes": GM crops sowing date coating for the fall or early spring coating change semimembranosus coverage for the whole film coverage, change a film for a film two years with a one-year change ridge surface level multicast double furrow sowing, five changed almost all planting corn planting corn for local conditions, potato, sunflower, melon, millet drought-resistant crops and other characteristics.%覆膜保墒技术是发展旱作节水农业的重要科技支撑。现代意义上的覆膜保墒旱作节水农业技术在覆膜时间上包括秋覆膜和早春覆膜,在覆膜方式上包括半膜覆盖和全膜覆盖,在覆盖膜延期利用上包括留膜留茬越冬和一膜两年用。与传统地膜覆盖种植方式相比,现代覆膜保墒旱作节水农业技术基本实现了“五改”:一是改作物播期覆膜为秋季或早春覆膜,二是改半膜覆盖为全膜覆盖,三是改一膜一年用为一膜两年用,四是改垄面平播为双垄沟播,五是改几乎全部种植玉米为因地制宜种植玉米、马铃薯、向日葵、西甜瓜、谷子等各种特色抗旱作物。

  14. Seatbelt use to save money: Impact on hospital costs of occupants who are involved in motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guang-Ming; Newmyer, Ashley; Qu, Ming

    2017-03-01

    Seatbelt use is the single most effective way to save lives in motor vehicle crashes (MVC). However, although safety belt laws have been enacted in many countries, seatbelt usage throughout the world remains below optimal levels, and educational interventions may be needed to further increase seatbelt use. In addition to reducing crash-related injuries and deaths, reduced medical expenditures resulting from seatbelt use are an additional benefit that could make such interventions cost-effective. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to estimate the correlation between seatbelt use and hospital costs of injuries involved in MVC. The data used in this study were from the Nebraska CODES database for motor vehicle crashes that occurred between 2004 and 2013. The hospital cost information and information about other factors were obtained by linking crash reports with hospital discharge data. A multivariable regression model was performed for the association between seatbelt use and hospital costs. Mean hospital costs were significantly lower among motor vehicle occupants using a lap-shoulder seatbelt ($2909), lap-only seatbelt ($2289), children's seatbelt ($1132), or booster ($1473) when compared with those not using any type of seatbelt ($7099). After adjusting for relevant factors, there were still significantly decreased hospital costs for motor vehicle occupants using a lap-shoulder seatbelt (84.7%), lap-only seatbelt (74.1%), shoulder-only seatbelt (40.6%), children's seatbelt (95.9%), or booster (82.8%) compared to those not using a seatbelt. Seatbelt use is significantly associated with reduced hospital costs among injured MVC occupants. The findings in this study will provide important educational information for emergency department nurses who can encourage safety belt use for vehicle occupants. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Assessing the impact of sinus-saving modifications of carotid endarterectomy on autonomic regulation and central hemodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. А. Фокин

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundSuch complications as myocardial infarction, hyperperfusion syndrome and its effects, postoperative hematomes constitute a life-threatening event during early follow-up of carotid surgery. One of the main risk factors for these complications is a variation of central hemodynamics, especially that leading to arterial hypertension.ObjectiveThe study aimed to evaluate the safety of carotid sinus surgery as a way of preventing arterial hypertension after carotid artery reconstructions. The other objective was to compare the resultant data with the heart rate variations obtained during rhythmocardiography.MethodsThe study focused on central hemodynamics indicators and included 290 cases. All patients were broken down in two groups. 167 patients of the first group underwent dissection of carotid sinus nerves. The carotid sinus nerves of patients from the second group (123 patients were kept intact. Analysis of autonomic regulation of 13 patients from the first group and 17 patients from the other one was then carried out, with the heart rate variations accurately estimated at the neurocardiological laboratory.ResultsOn the first postoperative day all hemodynamic indicators (such as SBP, DBP, pulse pressure, heart rate in the second group were lower than those in the first group of patients (p<0.05, while tending to recover by the third day. This fact kept postoperative complications to a minimum. The patients from the second group also demonstrated a lower activity of the sympathetic nervous system and a higher activity of the parasympathetic one. These results explain the difference between the central hemodynamic indicators in two groups.ConclusionCarotid sinus-saving surgery decreases the risk of early postoperative complications caused by arterial hypertension. 

  16. Potential health impacts of hard water

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sengupta, Pallav

    2013-01-01

    ... the hardness of the drinking water. In addition, several epidemiological investigations have demonstrated the relation between risk for cardiovascular disease, growth retardation, reproductive failure, and other health problems...

  17. Evaluating Impacts of Industrial Transformation on Water Consumption in the Heihe River Basin of Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Wu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Growing water scarcity is one of the central challenges for sustainability in China, given its burgeoning industry and huge population, especially in the arid and semi-arid inland river basin where precipitation is very limited. Industrial transformation is an important engine of economic growth, which is required to be implemented by governments at all levels in China. Economic models have generally been applied to evaluate the effects of economic policy change (e.g., industrial transformation or adjustment of price on the allocation of production factors. The computable general equilibrium (CGE model is an effective tool to reallocate the primary factors across sectors for different industrial transformation scenarios. In this research, we first briefly introduced the principles and structure of the CGE model, which embeds water resources as a primary factor of production. Then we chose Zhangye as an example to evaluate the impacts of industrial transformation on water consumption under three designed scenarios with the water-embedded CGE model. Simulation results showed that there will be considerable water saving benefit from industrial transformation when the output value of secondary industry and tertiary industry increases and the contribution of the planting sector to the total output value decreases. Finally, we put forward a scheme that can improve water utilization efficiency in policy options.

  18. Water temperature impacts water consumption by range cattle in winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water consumption and DMI have been found to be positively correlated, which may interact with ingestion of cold water or grazed frozen forage due to transitory reductions in temperature of ruminal contents. The hypothesis underpinning the study explores the potential that cows provided warm drinkin...

  19. Water-saving Benefit Analysis Based on the Supply and Demand Balance and Water-using Efficiency Model%基于供需平衡和用水效率模型的节水效益分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永战

    2014-01-01

    Water conservation is an action that comprehensive measures of engineering, technique, economy and management are taken to ensure the rational use of water, improve the use efficiency of water and reduce invalid loss. Under the current conditions of water shortage and increasing serious water pollution, water conservation is a strategic infrastructure project for the exploitation and use of water resources. Evaluation system model is established by water supply and demand ratio (R1) and water-saving benefit ratio (R2). The two aspects of evaluation factors could get the level value of water-saving benefit, and they are both independent parameters, so this model has high reference value.%节约用水是在确保合理用水,以提高水资源利用效率、降低无效损耗为目的,所采取的工程、技术、经济和管理等各项综合措施的行为。在目前水资源短缺和水污染日趋严重的条件下,节约用水作为水资源开发利用的一项战略性基础工程,通过水资源供需比(R1)和节水效益比(R2)两方面评价因素来建立评价系统模型,可得到节水效益的水平值,而两者均为独立参数,减少关联因素的影响程度,此模型评价具有较高的参考价值。

  20. 5 case studies : boiler system increases availability of hot water in CAP REIT apartment buildings while saving energy : electric-to-gas retrofit drives down energy costs and improves building performance : Novitherm heat reflector panels saves 28 per cent in heating costs for apartment building : Novitherm heat reflector panel installation with system adjustment saves 33.2 per cent in energy costs : natural gas conversion saves over $315,000 a year for condominium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    These 5 case studies presented the details of new systems and retrofits conducted by Enbridge Gas Distribution and its partners to improve the energy efficiency of various public and residential buildings. System retrofits included the installation of boiler system installed to address tenant demands on the domestic hot water systems of properties purchased purchased by the CAP REIT organization. The comprehensive program used to address the problems included replacement of the systems with high efficiency heating boilers designed to integrate space, hot water, ramp, and pool heat. A centralized controller included setback control, trend-following processors, and the isolation of heating equipment. The second case study described an electric-to-gas conversion of a make-up air unit and boiler system at an all-electric apartment building. The system was designed to address excessive air handling and water heating costs. The gas conversion included new heating and hot water boilers, as well as a number of efficiency upgrades. The third and fourth case study described the installation of Novitherm heat reflector panels at apartment buildings in Toronto. The fifth case study described a natural gas conversion project conducted at a luxury condominium. Energy savings for all 5 projects were presented. 9 figs.

  1. Impacts of climate change on surface water quality in relation to drinking water production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpla, I; Jung, A-V; Baures, E; Clement, M; Thomas, O

    2009-11-01

    Besides climate change impacts on water availability and hydrological risks, the consequences on water quality is just beginning to be studied. This review aims at proposing a synthesis of the most recent existing interdisciplinary literature on the topic. After a short presentation about the role of the main factors (warming and consequences of extreme events) explaining climate change effects on water quality, the focus will be on two main points. First, the impacts on water quality of resources (rivers and lakes) modifying parameters values (physico-chemical parameters, micropollutants and biological parameters) are considered. Then, the expected impacts on drinking water production and quality of supplied water are discussed. The main conclusion which can be drawn is that a degradation trend of drinking water quality in the context of climate change leads to an increase of at risk situations related to potential health impact.

  2. Linking economic water use, freshwater ecosystem impacts, and virtual water trade in a Great Lakes watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubako, S. T.; Ruddell, B. L.; Mayer, A. S.

    2013-12-01

    The impact of human water uses and economic pressures on freshwater ecosystems is of growing interest for water resource management worldwide. This case study for a water-rich watershed in the Great Lakes region links the economic pressures on water resources as revealed by virtual water trade balances to the nature of the economic water use and the associated impacts on the freshwater ecosystem. A water accounting framework that combines water consumption data and economic data from input output tables is applied to quantify localized virtual water imports and exports in the Kalamazoo watershed which comprises ten counties. Water using economic activities at the county level are conformed to watershed boundaries through land use-water use relationships. The counties are part of a region implementing the Michigan Water Withdrawal Assessment Process, including new regulatory approaches for adaptive water resources management under a riparian water rights framework. The results show that at local level, there exists considerable water use intensity and virtual water trade balance disparity among the counties and between water use sectors in this watershed. The watershed is a net virtual water importer, with some counties outsourcing nearly half of their water resource impacts, and some outsourcing nearly all water resource impacts. The largest virtual water imports are associated with agriculture, thermoelectric power generation and industry, while the bulk of the exports are associated with thermoelectric power generation and commercial activities. The methodology is applicable to various spatial levels ranging from the micro sub-watershed level to the macro Great Lakes watershed region, subject to the availability of reliable water use and economic data.

  3. 给水规划设计中节能措施的思考%Energy-saving Measures for Water Supply Planning Designing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王全; 王立; 杨长岭; 张克峰; 孟付明; 王永磊; 王成刚

    2014-01-01

    给水专项规划作为城市总体规划的一个重要组成部分,关系到城市的发展,越来越得到相关部门的重视。给水专项规划设计中的节能主要体现在用水量预测及水资源平衡分析、供水方式的选择、城市再生水利用、新型管材的选用、水力计算、规划实施方案决策等方面。结合给水专项规划中的部分实例,简要分析了规划设计过程中各个环节的节能控制措施。提出了多种方法预测城市用水量、分区分压供水方案、城市工业用水和市政杂用水考虑优先使用再生水、推荐使用新型管材、控制点服务水头及管道经济流速的确定方法、合理确定近期实施方案、充分利用现状给水设施、给水管理系统整合提效等观点。%Special planning of water supply is an important part of urban planning in city. It relates to the urban development which attracts more and more attention by various departments and organizations. The energy-saving design is special planning of water supply mainly reflects in the prediction of water consumption and water resources balance analysis, supply options, reclaimed water in city, the selection of new pipes, hydraulic calculation, the plan implementation decisions. Energy-saving control measures are analyzed briefly during each link of the design process, combined with cases of the water supply in the special planning. Proposed a variety of methods to predict urban water consumption, including the partition and partial pressure of water supply scheme, the priority use of recycled water in urban industrial water and municipal miscellaneous water, the suggestion to use new pipe, the method for determining service head and the point of low-cost pipeline flow rate, reasonable assurance as to the recent implementation of the program, taking full advantage of the current water supply facilities, integration and efficiency improve-ment of water management systems, and so on.

  4. Taxation and the household saving rate: evidence from OECD countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vito Tanzi

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes anew the relationship between taxation and the household saving rate. On the basis of standard savings and tax revenue data from a sample of OECD countries, it provides compelling empirical evidence of a powerful impact of taxes on household savings. In particular, income taxes are shown to affect negatively the household saving rate much more than consumption taxes.

  5. Energy savings based on solar heating and improved cooling of the district heating water; Energibesparelser baseret paa solvarme og bedre afkoeling af fjernvarmevandet. Projektrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fafner, K.; Kristjansson, H.; Hansen, Karl Erik

    2009-08-15

    The report analyses and compares the potential for savings in the heat supply, namely use of solar heating and better cooling of the circulating water in the district heating system. The analyses shows that better cooling in the users' heating systems, i.e. lower district heating temperature, should have higher priority than installation of a solar heating system. The report also demonstrates that solar heating continues to have a large un-utilized potential in the Danish heat supply in general, but for the individual building owner installation of a solar heating system will be far more expensive than buying a part of a large-scale solar heating system. However, lowering the return temperature in the district heating transmission pipes is economically more attractive for the building owners than solar heating.

  6. Discussion on technical measures for water saving of roof greening%屋顶绿化节水技术措施的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓宇

    2014-01-01

    Combined with the specific characteristics of roof greening , hydrophobic layer of water -saving irrigation technology of roof greening and planting area of roof garden structural layer is improved , the reasonable design thoughts solving the roof greening irrigation and drainage problems often meet in the course of designing were put forward .%本文结合屋顶绿化的具体特点,探讨屋顶绿化的节水灌溉技术的选择和屋顶花园种植区构造层中的疏水层改进,对解决屋顶绿化灌溉与排水设计过程中常遇见的问题提出了合理的设计思路。

  7. Several dry water-saving irrigation methods comparative analysis of mechanical%几种旱田节水机械灌溉方式对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冬梅; 赵振芳; 王晓峰

    2013-01-01

    Articles Yushu currently implemented through the introduction of irrigation method discussed in detail the comparative analysis of upland irrigation methods, which made the application of the current dry water-saving irrigation and sprinkler irrigation methods operability advantages advocate vigorously promoted.%文章通过对榆树市目前实施的喷灌方式的介绍,详细地论述了旱田灌溉方式的对比分析,从而提出了当前旱田节水灌溉方式应用的可操作性和喷灌方式的优点,提倡大力推广。

  8. Quantitative Assessment of Comprehensive Benefits of Water Saving Agriculture%节水农业综合效益价值评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚琳琳; 陈菁

    2011-01-01

    Based on the concept of comprehensive benefits of water saving agriculture,the assessment indicator system,including economic benefits,environmental benefits and social benefits,was proposed to quantitative assessment for comprehensive benefits of water saving agriculture,index weights were calculated by combination weighting method based on unitization constraint conditions.The quantitative assessment mode which was traditional market method multiplier method was built.Taking the water saving agriculture of Zaohe Irrigation District as a case study,the economic benefits,environmental benefits,sociality benefits and comprehensive benefits were calculated is and growth and stability,cost-benefit and sensitivity of all benefits were analyzed.It is concluded that all benefits displays generally to be increasing and growth and stability existence difference.The social benefits have the highest proportion,accounted for more than 50% of comprehensive benefits,and the second is environmental benefits and economics benefits.The water saving agriculture shows a higher benefit cost ratio,net present value,internal rate of retune and uncertain risk ability.%在界定节水农业综合效益概念和内涵的基础上,从经济、环境、社会三方面提出节水农业综合效益价值评估指标体系,应用基于单位化约束条件的综合集成赋权法确定指标权重,建立以货币为衡量标准的节水农业综合效益评估模式。以皂河灌区为例,对节水农业经济、环境、社会及综合效益进行估算,即估算节水农业实施后年效益流量,分析节水农业效益价值动态演变,增长速度与稳定性、费用效益及敏感性。研究结果表明,节水农业综合效益逐期递增,且逐渐呈现稳定增长的态势;社会效益占综合效益比例最高,达50%以上,其次是环境效益和经济效益。各项效益增长速度与稳定性存在显著差异;节水农业费用效益比、净现值及经济内部收益

  9. Virtual water flows and Water Balance Impacts of the U.S. Great Lakes Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddell, B. L.; Mayer, A. S.; Mubako, S. T.

    2014-12-01

    To assess the impacts of human water use and trade on water balances, we estimate virtual water flows for counties in the U.S. portion of the Great Lakes basin. This is a water-rich region, but one where ecohydrological 'hotspots' are created by water scarcity in certain locations (Mubako et al., 2012). Trade shifts water uses from one location to another, causing water scarcity in some locations but mitigating water scarcity in other locations. A database of water withdrawals was assembled to give point-wise withdrawals by location, source, and use category (commercial, thermoelectric power, industrial, agricultural, mining). Point-wise consumptive use is aggregated to the county level, giving direct, virtual water exports by county. A county-level trade database provides import and export data for the various use categories. We link the annual virtual water exported from a county for a given use category to corresponding annual trade exports. Virtual water balances for each county by use category are calculated, and then compared with the renewable annual freshwater supply. Preliminary findings are that overall virtual water balances (imports - exports) are positive for almost all counties, because urban areas import goods and services that are more water intensive than the exported goods and services. However, for some agriculturally-intensive counties, the overall impact of virtual water trade on the water balance is close to zero, and the balance for agricultural sector virtual water trade is negative, reflecting a net impact of economic trade on the water balance in these locations. We also compare the virtual water balance to available water resources, using annual precipitation less evapotranspiration as a crude estimate of net renewable water availability. In some counties virtual water exports approach 30% of the available water resources, indicating the potential for water scarcity, especially from an aquatic ecosystem standpoint.

  10. The dilemma of saving water or being cool: What determines the stomatal response under a changing climate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighi, Erfan; Kirchner, James W.; Entekhabi, Dara

    2017-04-01

    Stomata play a critical role in terrestrial water and carbon cycles, regulating the trade-off between photosynthetic carbon gain and water loss in leaves. They adjust their aperture in response to a number of physiological and environmental factors, yet the mechanisms driving this response, particularly under climate extremes, remain poorly understood. Partial or complete stomatal closure reduces plant water stress under water-limited or high atmospheric evaporative demand conditions, but at the cost of reduced productivity, elevated heat, leaf shedding, and mortality. A proper account of such complex stomatal behavior is of particular importance for current ecosystem models that poorly capture observed vegetation responses in the context of climate change which is predicted to cause more frequent and intense temperature extremes along with an increase in the frequency of drought in many regions in the future. This study seeks to explore stomatal responses to environmental change accounted for by a varying soil-plant resistance under different atmospheric and soil moisture conditions. To this end, we developed a physically based transpiration model that couples stomatal control of leaf gas exchange to the leaf surface energy balance and the entire plant hydraulic system by considering the interdependence of the guard cell water potential (or turgor pressure) and transpiration rates. Model simulations of diurnal variations in transpiration rates were in good agreement with field observations, and facilitated quantitative prediction of stomatal and xylem flow regulation under a wide range of environmental conditions. Preliminary results demonstrate how soil and plant hydraulic conductances regulating stomatal opening and closure can help mitigate climatic water deficit (e.g., at midday) by boosting evaporative cooling. Our results are expected to advance physical understanding of the water cycle in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum, and shed light on observed

  11. Elevated carbon dioxide: impacts on soil and plant water relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kirkham, M. B

    2011-01-01

    .... Focusing on this critical issue, Elevated Carbon Dioxide: Impacts on Soil and Plant Water Relations presents research conducted on field-grown sorghum, winter wheat, and rangeland plants under elevated CO2...

  12. Research progress and development trend of water saving agriculture based on CiteSpace%基于 CiteSpace 的农业节水研究进展与发展趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代锋刚; 蔡焕杰

    2015-01-01

    By use of the critical documents and frontier knowledge, the paper used CiteSpace information visualization software to carry out visualization qualitative research for invisible scientific knowledge.Using cocitation analysis, multiple statistical analysis and social network analysis,it drawn the citation network map, the highly cited references map and the advanced progress hot word time zone map in water saving agriculture research.The results show that most of the literature of agricultural water saving at home and abroad highly cited are about the experimental method and the technology application.In recent years, China more focuses on the research of water-saving irrigation, water resources, water-saving society, agri-cultural water saving technology.The relevant agricultural water-saving in foreign country early focuses on intense research in irrigation water use efficiency and irrigation water resources, virtual water, agricultur-al production and planting structure.The domestic research on the efficient use of crop water-based genet-ic breeding and molecular biology is relatively weak.The biological water-saving mechanism of crop resist-ance to drought and high water use efficiency, water nutrient coupling and high yield coordination mecha-nism need to study further.The joint utilization of agricultual water saving technology needs to be strength-ened;the effects evaluation of agricultural water-saving agricultural water-saving on eco-environmental is the research trends in the future.the analysis tools of mapping knowledge domains based on CiteSpace vi-sualization, which make up for the subjectivity shortcoming of scientists traditional methods, and has im-portant academic reference value for the exploration and discovery of the evolution law of disciplines hotspots and the latest development trend.%借助CiteSpace可视化软件,对无形的科学知识进行了可视化计量研究。利用共引共词分析、多元统计分析、社会网络分析

  13. Potential health impacts of hard water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Pallav

    2013-08-01

    In the past five decades or so evidence has been accumulating about an environmental factor, which appears to be influencing mortality, in particular, cardiovascular mortality, and this is the hardness of the drinking water. In addition, several epidemiological investigations have demonstrated the relation between risk for cardiovascular disease, growth retardation, reproductive failure, and other health problems and hardness of drinking water or its content of magnesium and calcium. In addition, the acidity of the water influences the reabsorption of calcium and magnesium in the renal tubule. Not only, calcium and magnesium, but other constituents also affect different health aspects. Thus, the present review attempts to explore the health effects of hard water and its constituents.

  14. 76 FR 27344 - Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Mojave National Preserve, San...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... National Park Service Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Mojave National... Prepare a Water Resources Management Plan/ Environmental Impact Statement for Mojave National Preserve... to inform preparation of a Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement...

  15. Commercial Integrated Heat Pump with Thermal Storage --Demonstrate Greater than 50% Average Annual Energy Savings, Compared with Baseline Heat Pump and Water Heater (Go/No-Go) FY16 4th Quarter Milestone Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Baxter, Van D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rice, C. Keith [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Abu-Heiba, Ahmad [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    For this study, we authored a new air source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) model in EnergyPlus, and conducted building energy simulations to demonstrate greater than 50% average energy savings, in comparison to a baseline heat pump with electric water heater, over 10 US cities, based on the EnergyPlus quick-service restaurant template building. We also assessed water heating energy saving potentials using ASIHP versus gas heating, and pointed out climate zones where AS-IHPs are promising.

  16. Energy-saving Transformation of Feed Water Pump Supporting 50MW Units%50 MW 机组配套给水泵节能改造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨超

    2015-01-01

    The feed water pump for the 50 MW steam boiler has a high head of delivery, causing high power consumption. By comparative analysis of three retrofit schemes which are the pump type replacement, motor frequency conversion regulation and removing primary impeller of feed water pump, the third retroift scheme has been selected. After impeller-saving transformation, the feed water pump can reduce power consumption from 6.17 kW•h/t to 5.45 kW•h/t, resulting in a remarkable economic beneift.%针对50 MW 汽轮机组锅炉给水泵扬程富裕过高,引起锅炉给水电耗率高的问题,提出给水泵换型、电机变频调节和抽掉给水泵一级叶轮3种改造方案,通过对比分析,选用抽掉给水泵一级叶轮的改造方案。减一级叶轮后,给水泵电耗率由6.17 kW•h/t 降至5.45 kW•h/t,经济效果显著。

  17. 深圳建科大楼绿色建筑节水设计%Water-saving Design of Jianke Building in Shenzhen City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭世瑾; 王莉芸; 蒋兴林

    2011-01-01

    深圳建科大楼是深圳市可再生能源利用示范工程之一,目前已运行使用一年多,效果较好.从给水系统、太阳能热水系统、生活排水、中水回用系统、雨水收集回用系统、管材与设备选择等方面阐述了该工程的绿色建筑节水设计,可供类似工程参考.%Jianke Building is one of renewable energy utilization demonstration projects in Shenzhen City, and it has been operated for more than one year with excellent efficiency. The water-saving design of the green building is described in terms of drinking water system , solar hot water system, domestic sewage drainage and reuse system, stormwater harvesting and reuse system and selection of pipes and equipments, with a view to provide a reference for similar projects.

  18. Compounding Impacts of Human-Induced Water Stress and Climate Change on Water Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehran, Ali; AghaKouchak, Amir; Nakhjiri, Navid; Stewardson, Michael J.; Peel, Murray C.; Phillips, Thomas J.; Wada, Yoshihide; Ravalico, Jakin K.

    2017-01-01

    The terrestrial phase of the water cycle can be seriously impacted by water management and human water use behavior (e.g., reservoir operation, and irrigation withdrawals). Here we outline a method for assessing water availability in a changing climate, while explicitly considering anthropogenic water demand scenarios and water supply infrastructure designed to cope with climatic extremes. The framework brings a top-down and bottom-up approach to provide localized water assessment based on local water supply infrastructure and projected water demands. When our framework is applied to southeastern Australia we find that, for some combinations of climatic change and water demand, the region could experience water stress similar or worse than the epic Millennium Drought. We show considering only the influence of future climate on water supply, and neglecting future changes in water demand and water storage augmentation might lead to opposing perspectives on future water availability. While human water use can significantly exacerbate climate change impacts on water availability, if managed well, it allows societies to react and adapt to a changing climate. The methodology we present offers a unique avenue for linking climatic and hydrologic processes to water resource supply and demand management and other human interactions.

  19. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Explorer: Right-click on the link, choose "Save target as…", save file in desired location. Firefox/Chrome: ... Explorer: Right-click on the link, choose "Save target as…", save file in desired location. Firefox/Chrome: ...

  20. Water-saving ground cover rice production system reduces net greenhouse gas fluxes in an annual rice-based cropping system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Yao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To safeguard food security and preserve precious water resources, the technology of water-saving ground cover rice production system (GCRPS is being increasingly adopted for the rice cultivation. However, changes in soil water status and temperature under GCRPS may affect soil biogeochemical processes that control the biosphere–atmosphere exchanges of methane (CH4, nitrous oxide (N2O and carbon dioxide (CO2. The overall goal of this study is to better understand how net ecosystem greenhouse gas exchanges (NEGE and grain yields are affected by GCRPS in an annual rice-based cropping system. Our evaluation was based on measurements of the CH4 and N2O fluxes and soil heterotrophic respiration (CO2 emission over a complete year, as well as the estimated soil carbon sequestration intensity for six different fertilizer treatments for conventional paddy and GCRPS. The fertilizer treatments included urea application and no N fertilization for both conventional paddy (CUN and CNN and GCRPS (GUN and GNN, solely chicken manure (GCM and combined urea and chicken manure applications (GUM for GCRPS. Averaging across all the fertilizer treatments, GCRPS increased annual N2O emission and grain yield by 40% and 9%, respectively, and decreased annual CH4 emission by 69%, while GCRPS did not affect soil CO2 emissions relative to the conventional paddy. The annual direct emission factors of N2O were 4.01, 0.087 and 0.50% for GUN, GCM and GUM, respectively, and 1.52% for the conventional paddy (CUN. The annual soil carbon sequestration intensity under GCRPS was estimated to be an average of −1.33 Mg C ha−1 yr−1, which is approximately 44% higher than the conventional paddy. The annual NEGE were 10.80–11.02 Mg CO2-eq ha−1 yr−1 for the conventional paddy and 3.05–9.37 Mg CO2-eq ha−1 yr−1 for the GCRPS, suggesting the potential feasibility of GCRPS in reducing net greenhouse effect from rice cultivation. Using organic fertilizers for GCRPS

  1. Impact of intraformational water zones on SAGD performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbridge, J.K.; Gates, I.D. [Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Calgary (Canada); Cey, E. [Dept. of Geoscience, University of Calgary (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In the Alberta oil sands steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is used to reduce oil viscosity. It has been found that intraformational water zones exist in oil sand reservoirs and they can act either act as thief zones or be sealed off by mobilized bitumen. The aim of this paper is to determine the effect of intraformational water zones on SAGD performance. A rectangular reservoir was modeled and thermal reservoir simulations were carried out using the commercial CMG simulator on a base case and other scenarios. Results showed that water zones have an important impact on SAGD performance, the inclusion of water channels induced production drops while an increase of connectedness of water zones improved production performance. This study highlighted that water zones have an important impact on SAGD performance whether it is a positive or a negative one.

  2. Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program Development of a Computer-based Benchmarking and Analytical Tool. Benchmarking and Energy & Water Savings Tool in Dairy Plants (BEST-Dairy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tengfang [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Flapper, Joris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ke, Jing [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kramer, Klaas [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sathaye, Jayant [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-02-01

    The overall goal of the project is to develop a computer-based benchmarking and energy and water savings tool (BEST-Dairy) for use in the California dairy industry - including four dairy processes - cheese, fluid milk, butter, and milk powder. BEST-Dairy tool developed in this project provides three options for the user to benchmark each of the dairy product included in the tool, with each option differentiated based on specific detail level of process or plant, i.e., 1) plant level; 2) process-group level, and 3) process-step level. For each detail level, the tool accounts for differences in production and other variables affecting energy use in dairy processes. The dairy products include cheese, fluid milk, butter, milk powder, etc. The BEST-Dairy tool can be applied to a wide range of dairy facilities to provide energy and water savings estimates, which are based upon the comparisons with the best available reference cases that were established through reviewing information from international and national samples. We have performed and completed alpha- and beta-testing (field testing) of the BEST-Dairy tool, through which feedback from voluntary users in the U.S. dairy industry was gathered to validate and improve the tool's functionality. BEST-Dairy v1.2 was formally published in May 2011, and has been made available for free downloads from the internet (i.e., http://best-dairy.lbl.gov). A user's manual has been developed and published as the companion documentation for use with the BEST-Dairy tool. In addition, we also carried out technology transfer activities by engaging the dairy industry in the process of tool development and testing, including field testing, technical presentations, and technical assistance throughout the project. To date, users from more than ten countries in addition to those in the U.S. have downloaded the BEST-Dairy from the LBNL website. It is expected that the use of BEST-Dairy tool will advance understanding of energy and

  3. Novel Energy-saving Cold, Hot and Warm Temperature Drinking Water Machine%新型节能冷热温饮水机

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周倩; 黄曾新; 刘志强

    2013-01-01

      Drinking water machines sold on the market generally adopt resistant type heating technology, and adopt semiconductor type or compression type refrigeration technology. Therefore, the coefficient of energy efficiency is not high. According to the principle of thermoelectric refrigeration, the present invention conducted an original research. Two groups of the semiconductor refrigeration pieces were placed in the two interlayer between the three metal water tanks of square cross section, and the structure of three water tanks with two interlayer was composed. When the direct current was passed through the semiconductor refrigeration pieces, the hot water, cold water and warm water are obtained separately in the three tanks. The present invention is a kind of novel energy-saving cold, hot and warm temperature drinking water machine. According to the experiment data, in the condition of higher beginning water temperature and higher ambient air temperature, the cooling effect of cold water is better. So, the present invention is more applicable for the southern region.%  市场上销售的饮水机通常采用电阻式(电热管)加热技术,而采用的制冷技术则为半导体制冷或压缩式制冷技术。因此,这些饮水机的能效系数不高。本发明根据半导体制冷原理进行了原创性研究。在三个方形截面金属水箱之间的二个夹层中放置二组半导体制冷片,组成三箱二夹层的结构。通过直流电后,在三个水箱内分别获得热水、冷水和温水。本发明是一种新型节能的冷热温饮水机。根据实验数据,在水初温和气温比较高的情况下,冷水的降温效果较好。因此,本发明对于南方地区是比较适用的。

  4. Air2Air{trademark} water-saving technology goes on line at PNM's San Juan station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-06-15

    The US Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory estimates that US power plant cooling towers evaporate a total of no less than three billion gallons of water each day. A new technology from SPX currently under test at Public Service of New Mexico's San Juan coal fired unit could provide a way of recovering some of this. 1 fig.

  5. 节能洗浴热水系统的设计与实现%Design and Realization of the Energy-saving Water-heating System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄彬轲; 吴影清; 张侃谕

    2011-01-01

    In order to change the former situation of environmental pollution and energy wasting brought by using original oil-fired boilers, the combined heating method composed of solar collector and air source heating pump is designed for making hot water. By adopting the framework of PLC + HMI, the control system offering user-friendly human machine interface has been developed. With fuzzy control strategy, the system is more stable and energy saving. In addition, based on time-oriented electricity pricing policy, the operational strategy of the heat pump is arranged reasonably. The practice verifies that when the system is operating, the production is on-demand and in real-time control and offers excellent energy saving effect.%为改变使用燃油锅炉所造成的环境污染、能源浪费等局面,设计了一种采用太阳能集热器与空气源热泵组合加热的方式制取热水的方法.应用PLC+ HMI的架构开发具有友好人机交互界面的控制系统;采用模糊控制策略,使系统稳定且节能;同时根据分时电价的情况,合理安排热泵运行策略.实践证明,系统运行时按需生产,实时控制,具有良好的节能节电效果.

  6. Distribution of genes associated with yield potential and water-saving in Chinese Zone II wheat detected by developed functional markers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zhenxian Gao; Zhanliang Shi; Aimin Zhang; Jinkao Guo

    2015-03-01

    Functional markers (FMs) developed from sequence polymorphisms are present in allelic variants of a functional gene at a locus and are directly associated with phenotypic variations. In this study, FM linked to Rht-B1, Rht-D1, TaCwi-A1, TaSus2-2B, TaGW2-6A and Dreb-B1 genes conferring to yield potential and water-saving were selected to analyse the distribution in 102 wheat varieties, most of which were authorized in the past decade and adapted to grow in Zone II of China. First, the semi-dwarfing genes Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b (mutant alleles) conferring to grain yield were analysed. The frequencies of favourable alleles Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b were 32.4 and 58.8%, respectively. Comparing with the previous report, the frequency of Rht-B1b among cultivars in this study is similar to the frequency among cultivars released in the 1990s, while the frequency of Rht-D1b is slightly lower than the previous report 63.9%. Twelve (11.8%) cultivars neither contained Rht-B1b nor Rht-D1b, while only Yumai 66 contained both semidwarfing genes. Linyuan8 and Xinong 928 are heterozygous at RhtB1 locus and Zhengmai 9023 is heterozygous at both RhtB1 and Rht-D1 loci. Second, the TaCwi-A1, TaSus2-2B and TaGW2-6A genes considered as candidate genes related to grain weight were detected. We found that the frequencies of the favourable alleles were 76.5, 56.9 and 69.6%, respectively. Among the 102 wheat varieties, 30 contained all the three favourable genes, 45 contained two of the three favourable genes and 27 contained only one. There are eight wheat varieties (7.8%) in hybrid state at the TaCWI-A1 locus. Third, the designed FM linked to water-saving gene Dreb-B1 were validated on 102 wheat varieties. The results showed that the haplotypes of 47 wheat varieties at the Dreb-B1 locus were same as that of Opata 85, and 55 wheat varieties showed the signal expected for W7984 (Opata 85 and W7984 are parents of the ITMI mapping population). This information will be useful for the wheat breeding

  7. Energy Saving in a Water Supply Network by Coupling a Pump and a Pump As Turbine (PAT) in a Turbopump

    OpenAIRE

    Armando Carravetta; Lauro Antipodi; Umberto Golia; Oreste Fecarotta

    2017-01-01

    The management of a water distribution network (WDN) is performed by valve and pump control, to regulate both the pressure and the discharge between certain limits. The energy that is usually merely dissipated by valves can instead be converted and used to partially supply the pumping stations. Pumps used as turbines (PAT) can be used in order to both reduce pressure and recover energy, with proven economic benefits. The direct coupling of the PAT shaft with the pump shaft in a PAT-pump turbo...

  8. The Impacts of Water Conservation Strategies on Water Use: Four Case Studies1

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, Yushiou; Cohen, Sara; Vogel, Richard M

    2011-01-01

    We assessed impacts on water use achieved by implementation of controlled experiments relating to four water conservation strategies in four towns within the Ipswich watershed in Massachusetts. The strategies included (1) installation of weather-sensitive irrigation controller switches (WSICS) in residences and municipal athletic fields; (2) installation of rainwater harvesting systems in residences; (3) two outreach programs: (a) free home indoor water use audits and water fixture retrofit k...

  9. Identification and Assessment of Potential Water Quality Impact Factors for Drinking-Water Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Gu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Various reservoirs have been serving as the most important drinking water sources in Zhejiang Province, China, due to the uneven distribution of precipitation and severe river pollution. Unfortunately, rapid urbanization and industrialization have been continuously challenging the water quality of the drinking-water reservoirs. The identification and assessment of potential impacts is indispensable in water resource management and protection. This study investigates the drinking water reservoirs in Zhejiang Province to better understand the potential impact on water quality. Altogether seventy-three typical drinking reservoirs in Zhejiang Province encompassing various water storage levels were selected and evaluated. Using fifty-two reservoirs as training samples, the classification and regression tree (CART method and sixteen comprehensive variables, including six sub-sets (land use, population, socio-economy, geographical features, inherent characteristics, and climate, were adopted to establish a decision-making model for identifying and assessing their potential impacts on drinking-water quality. The water quality class of the remaining twenty-one reservoirs was then predicted and tested based on the decision-making model, resulting in a water quality class attribution accuracy of 81.0%. Based on the decision rules and quantitative importance of the independent variables, industrial emissions was identified as the most important factor influencing the water quality of reservoirs; land use and human habitation also had a substantial impact on water quality. The results of this study provide insights into the factors impacting the water quality of reservoirs as well as basic information for protecting reservoir water resources.

  10. Water drop impact onto oil covered solid surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ningli; Chen, Huanchen; Amirfazli, Alidad

    2016-11-01

    Droplet impact onto an oily surface can be encountered routinely in industrial applications; e.g., in spray cooling. It is not clear from literature what impact an oil film may have on the impact process. In this work, water drop impact onto both hydrophobic (glass) and hydrophilic (OTS) substrates which were covered by oil films (silicone) of different thickness (5um-50um) and viscosity (5cst-100cst) were performed. The effects of drop impact velocity, film thickness, and viscosity of the oil film and wettability of the substrate were studied. Our results show that when the film viscosity and impact velocity is low, the water drop deformed into the usual disk shape after impact, and rebounded from the surface. Such rebound phenomena disappears, when the viscosity of oil becomes very large. With the increase of the impact velocity, crown and splashing appears in the spreading phase. The crown and splashing behavior appears more easily with the increase of film thickness and decrease of its viscosity. It was also found that the substrate wettability can only affect the impact process in cases which drop has a large Webber number (We = 594), and the film's viscosity and thickness are small. This work was support by National Natural Science Foundation of China and the Project Number is 51506084.

  11. Human Interventions versus Climate Change: Impacts on Water Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, M. R.; Acharya, K.

    2009-12-01

    Water availability and occurrence of water induced disasters are impacted by both natural and human centric drivers. Climate change is considered to be one of the noted drivers in this regard. Human interventions through land use/land cover change, stream and floodplain regulations via dams, weirs, and embankments could be other equally important group of drivers. Unlike developed countries that have both resources and capabilities to adapt and mitigate the impact of such drivers, developing countries are increasingly at more risk. Identifying roles of such drivers are fundamental to the formulation of any adaptation and mitigation plans for their impacts for developing countries. In this study, we present a few examples from three regions of Nepal- a developing country in South Asia generally considered as a water rich country. Through results of modeling and statistical analyses, we show which driver is in control in different watersheds. Preliminary results show that climate change impact appears to be more prominent in large snow-fed river basins. In the smaller non-snow-fed watersheds originating from the middle hill, the impacts are not explicit despite perception of local people about changes in the water availability. In the southern belt bordering India, the impacts of river regulation on downstream areas are found to be the principal cause of flooding/inundation.

  12. Save Our Streams and Waterways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis. Center for School Improvement and Performance.

    Protection of existing water supplies is critical to ensuring good health for people and animals alike. This program is aligned with the Izaak Walton League of American's Save Our Streams program which is based on the concept that students can greatly improve the quality of a nearby stream, pond, or river by regular visits and monitoring. The…

  13. Columbus Saves: Saving Money in Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shockey, Susan

    2004-01-01

    The "Columbus Saves" educational program is a broad-based community coalition made up of more than 40 local organizations from the education, nonprofit, government, faith-based, and private sectors. Common goals of partners in reaching Columbus, Ohio's 1.5 million residents are to: (a) promote increased savings through education and…

  14. Save a life--save the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruh, Sharon; Jezek, Kenda

    2010-01-01

    The ancient Hebrew principle of Pikuach Nephesh, "He who saves a life saves the world entire," took precedence in the healing ministry of Jesus. Today, when Christian nurses persist in serving others, striving to achieve compassion and professional excellence, they too uphold the law of "preserving life."

  15. Watering down the impact of mineral operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huxley, C.

    1998-11-01

    New guidance for mineral operators and mineral planning authorities (MPAs) has been published by environmental consultants Symonds Travers Morgan on behalf of the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions (DETR) in a report called Reducing the effects of surface mineral workings on the water environment: a guide to good practice? The article explains its significance to mineral operators. The report highlights problems caused by opencast coal extraction, large-scale quarrying of limestone and chalk from major Karstic aquifers and sand and gravel workings in river flood planes. 1 ref., 6 photos.

  16. Research on Intelligent Facilities Agricultural Water-saving Irrigation Control System%智能化设施农业节水灌溉控制系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段从文

    2015-01-01

    随着农业节水灌溉控制技术不断改进和成熟,智能化灌溉设备开始取代传统农机灌溉,在节水灌溉中实现了系统化和自动化运作.结合国内外先进节水灌溉经验,研究提出适合我国国情发展的节水灌溉控制系统,其控制的核心主要有两点:一测、二控.%With the development and improvement of agricultural water saving irrigation control technology,intelligent irrigation equipment begins to replace traditional agricultural machinery irrigation and realizes systematic and automatic operation in water saving irrigation.Combined with advanced water saving irrigation experiences,this research puts forward water saving irrigation control system that is suitable for the development of our country,the key points of the system lie in measuring and controlling.

  17. "You can also save a life!": children's drawings as a non-verbal assessment of the impact of cardiopulmonary resuscitation training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petriş, Antoniu Octavian; Tatu-Chiţoiu, Gabriel; Cimpoeşu, Diana; Ionescu, Daniela Florentina; Pop, Călin; Oprea, Nadia; Ţînţ, Diana

    2017-04-01

    Drawings made by training children into cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) during the special education week called "School otherwise" can be used as non-verbal means of expression and communication to assess the impact of such training. We analyzed the questionnaires and drawings completed by 327 schoolchildren in different stages of education. After a brief overview of the basic life support (BLS) steps and after watching a video presenting the dynamic performance of the BLS sequence, subjects were asked to complete a questionnaire and make a drawing to express main CPR messages. Questionnaires were filled completely in 97.6 % and drawings were done in 90.2 % cases. Half of the subjects had already witnessed a kind of medical emergency and 96.94 % knew the correct "112" emergency phone number. The drawings were single images (83.81 %) and less cartoon strips (16.18 %). Main themes of the slogans were "Save a life!", "Help!", "Call 112!", "Do not be indifferent/insensible/apathic!" through the use of drawings interpretation, CPR trainers can use art as a way to build a better relation with schoolchildren, to connect to their thoughts and feelings and obtain the highest quality education.

  18. Aluminum powder impacts the properties of EPS insulation energy-saving wall panel%铝粉对EPS节能保温墙板性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周鹏杰; 倪修全

    2013-01-01

    EPS节能保温墙板是一种轻型且保温效果好的保温材料,若在制作过程中加入铝粉,铝粉参与水化产生的氢氧化钙反应,生成氢气泡,使混凝土内部形成许多蜂窝状的结构,能增强保温效果。但当掺入过量铝粉时,发气量过大,墙体内部孔隙率过大,将影响混凝土的抗压强度,为此需要对铝粉的掺量进行研究。%EPS insulation energy-saving wall panels is a kind of light and heat preservation materials with good effect, if adding aluminum powder in the production process, Aluminum can react with the hydration of calcium hydroxide and generate hydrogen bubble, and form a number of cellular structure Inside the concrete, which enhances the heat preservation effect. When mixed with excess aluminum powder, it will have too much gas, and the large porosity impacts the compressive strength of concrete. So to study the content of aluminum powder is needed.

  19. Telecardiology application in jordan: its impact on diagnosis and disease management, patients' quality of life, and time- and cost-savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khader, Yousef Saleh; Jarrah, Mohamad Ismail; Al-Shudifat, Abde-Ellah M; Shdaifat, Amjad; Aljanabi, Husham; Al-Fakeh, Shadwan Ismeil; Turk, Elias Emil; Zayed, Khaled Ali; Al Quran, Hanadi A; Ellauzi, Ziad Mohd; Al Tahan, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To assess the impact of live interactive telecardiology on diagnosis and disease management, patients' quality of life, and time- and cost-savings. Methods. All consecutive patients who attended or were referred to the teleclinics for suspected cardiac problems in two hospitals in remote areas of Jordan during the study period were included in the study. Patients were interviewed for relevant information and their quality of life was assessed during the first visit and 8 weeks after the last visit. Results. A total of 76 patients were included in this study. Final diagnosis and treatment plan were established as part of the telecardiology consultations in 71.1% and 77.3% of patients, respectively. Patients' travel was avoided for 38 (50.0%) who were managed locally. The majority of patients perceived that the visit to the telecardiology clinic results in less travel time (96.1%), less waiting time (98.1%), and lower cost (100.0%). Telecardiology consultations resulted in an improvement in the quality of life after two months of the first visit. Conclusions. Telecardiology care in remote areas of Jordan would improve the access to health care, help to reach proper diagnosis and establish the treatment plan, and improve the quality of life.

  20. Impact of peatland restoration on water treatability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, Stuart; van Dongen, Bart; Robinson, Clare; Boult, Stephen

    2013-04-01

    The design of catchment management practices for upland peat to optimise runoff quantity and quality has been a focus of research for many years. This has been necessary because these catchments are often used for drinking water collection. However, because of more recent concerns about the greenhouse gas (GHG) potential of CO2 and CH4 emissions peat management practices may also be required to maintain or enhance immobilisation of organic carbon (OC). With respect to both GHG emissions and drinking water quality the most significant component of runoff is OC and research has, therefore, focussed on understanding what controls variability in its mass flux. However, in both cases the size and chemical composition of the OC may be as, or more, important than the amount. These characteristics will control the lability of the OC - the rate at which solid OC is converted to GHG - and also the ease with which the treatment process can make runoff potable. Pristine sphagnum covered peat and eroded bare peat are end members of catchment cover resulting from historic changes in air quality - pollutant inputs - and land management practices. They are also the likely end members under future environmental changes such as climatic warming, alterations in rainfall regime and the land management practices selected to minimise GHG emissions. This work compares the particle size distribution and chemical composition of OC in runoff from simulations of sphagnum covered and bare peat. Furthermore, the influence of the OC, and of size fractions of the OC, on a critical part of the water treatment process; the flocculation of Fe(OH)3 are assessed. The PSD of OC from sphagnum was much smaller than that from bare peat. The former was predominantly carbohydrate whilst the latter was phenolic suggesting the former would be more labile. For sphagnum covered peat runoff flocculation of Fe(OH)3 was prevented at concentrations from 20 to as low as 5 mg/l (OC). However, the runoff from areas

  1. Global hotspots of water scarcity impacts due to human interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldkamp, T.; Wada, Y.; Aerts, J.; Ward, P.; Satoh, Y.; Pokhrel, Y. N.; Masaki, Y.; Doll, P. M.; Ostberg, S.; Oki, T.; Gosling, S.; Liu, J.

    2016-12-01

    Water scarcity is rapidly increasing in many global river basins, due to both local increases in water demand and human interventions affecting stream flow. In a novel multi-model multi-forcing assessment over the period 1971-2010, we examine how several human interventions have affected water scarcity, namely land use change, reservoir operations, and upstream water withdrawals. We show that these human interventions have caused increased water scarcity for 16% of the global population, and decreased water scarcity for 13%, and have contributed to distinct patterns of water scarcity hotspots. We also show that a combination of human interventions and changes in local water demands have led to an increase in the duration of extreme water scarcity events in 30% of the global land area, inhabited by 49% of the global population. Upstream human interventions are the main dominant driver (in 86% of the cases) of negative impacts on downstream fresh water resources and water scarcity. Therefore, adaptation measures should be embedded in integrated river basin management plans, addressing upstream effects on downstream water scarcity.This study is the first in its kind to evaluate how human interventions affected water scarcity conditions as well as the exposure to and persistence of water scarcity events, using an ensemble of five global water impact models (H08, LPJmL, MATSIRO, PCR-GLOBWB, WaterGAP) driven by three global state-of-the art observations-based historical climate data-sets (PGFv2, GSWP3, WFD/WFDEI) and a set of socio-economic proxies (GDP, population density, livestock density, land use and land cover) to model historical demands. A novelty of this research is the use of the HYDE 3.1 - MIRCA dataset for simulating the time-varying effects of changes in irrigation and/or cropland patterns. With the incorporation of a spatially and temporally explicit indicator to describe minimum environmental flow requirements, i.e. the amount of water that ecosystems need

  2. Retrospective comparison of Traditional vs. LigaSure impact dissection during pancreatoduodenectomy: how to save money by using an expensive device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinni, Giuseppe; Pasculli, Alessandro; D'Ambrosio, Erasmina; Gurrado, Angela; Lissidini, Germana; Testini, Mario

    2013-09-01

    Pancreatoduodenectomy is an exceptional procedure that requires an extensive dissection of the supramesocolic region extended to the first jejunal limb. Lymphadenectomy, required for cancer, increases the dissection surface. The extensive preparation of the area is traditionally conducted with bipolar ormonopolar instruments, while clips, ligatures, and sutures are used for haemostasis. LigaSure™ vessel sealing(LSVS; Valleylab, Boulder, CO) is a technology that obtains vessel closure by using the body's own collagen and elastin to create a permanent fusion zone. This is obtained by a combination of forceps pressure and radio frequency. This effect has been improved by the introduction of the Force Triad™ (Valleylab, Boulder,CO) energy platform, controlled by TissueFect™ (Valleylab, Boulder, CO) sensing technology. With this device, the surgeon is able to fuse vessels up to 7 mm, lymphatics, tissue bundles, and pulmonary vasculature in a fast-seal cycle of almost 4 seconds. In our daily practice of open surgery we observe a rapid improvement of abdominal drainage output with a drastic reduction of protein loss. Its practical significance is, in our opinion, that we obtain a rapid recovery of normal serum protein levels with a low number of blood/plasmasac transfusions and a real improvement of anastomosis healing. Moreover, the efficacy and the speed of work of the device allow us to reduce the operating time significantly but safely. We performed a retrospective analysis of the data of 20 pancreatic resections conducted both with traditional dissection and with the Liga-Sure Impact device with Force Triad platform in order to verify whether observed data were real. Our clinical results show that the use of the LigaSure Impact device with Force Triad energy platform is really useful in open surgery to save operating time, number of postoperative days, and hemoderivate administration.

  3. The Climaware project: Impacts of climate change on water resources management - regional strategies and European view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirel, Guillaume; D'Agostino, Daniela; Démerliac, Stéphane; Dorchies, David; Flörke, Martina; Jay-Allemand, Maxime; Jost, Claudine; Kehr, Katrin; Perrin, Charles; Scardigno, Alessandra; Schneider, Christof; Theobald, Stephan; Träbing, Klaus

    2014-05-01

    an integrated analysis across different spatial scales. To fulfil the objectives of the ClimAware project, the following modelling methodology was implemented. Starting from a European modelling approach of water availability and use based on the WaterGAP3 model, the changes in the hydrologic regimes and water use of different sectors were analysed. Subsequently three case studies were used to investigate the impacts of CC at a regional scale. Regional models from three different countries and focusing on three types of water management issues were developed: • Hydromorphology (Eder basin, Germany): By using different scenarios, the influence of CC on the hydromorphological characteristics of the River Weser according to the WFD was evaluated and proposals for implementation were given. The objective was to examine, on typical river sections, how the WFD objectives can be implemented under CC constraints. • Dam management (Seine basin, France): Water management on the River Seine for water supply and flood alleviation is partly based on the management of artificial reservoirs. The case study developed scenarios linking the impact of CC on water resources and the expected change on the uses and on the management of the system. • Agricultural water use (Apulia region, Italy): In this region, economic and demographic changes cause an increase in the demand for good-quality municipal and industrial water. Besides, changes in the agricultural practices increase the demand for water in the agricultural sector. Since water is scarce in this region, the study focuses on the agricultural sector, which has the largest water saving potential. The final assessment comprises a cross-scale integration between the European and regional modelling frameworks in order to facilitate knowledge transfer and to help establishing sustainable and integrated water resources management plans.

  4. Numerical simulation of the impacts of water level variation on water age in Dahuofang Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinwen; Shen, Yongming

    2015-06-01

    The transport timescales were investigated in response to water level variation under different constant flow rates in Dahuofang Reservoir. The concept of water age was applied to quantify the transport timescales. A three-dimensional hydrodynamic model was developed based on the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC). The model was calibrated for water surface elevation and temperature profiles from April 1, 2008 to October 31, 2008. Comparisons of observed and modeled data showed that the model reproduced the water level fluctuation and thermal stratification during warm season and vertical mixing during cold season fairly well. The calibrated model was then applied to investigate the response of water age to water level changes in Dahuofang Reservoir. Model results showed that water age increases from confluence toward dam zone. In the vertical direction, the water age is relatively uniform at upstream and stratifies further downstream, with a larger value at bottom layer than at surface layer. Comparisons demonstrated that water level variation has a significant impact on transport timescales in the reservoir. The impact of water level drawdown on water age is stronger at bottom layer than at surface layer. Under high flow conditions, the water age decreases 0-20 days at surface layer and 15-25 days at bottom layer. Under mean flow conditions, the water age decreases 20-30 days at surface layer and 30-50 days at bottom layer. Furthermore, the impact is minor in the upstream and increases further downstream. The vertical stratification of water age weakens as the water level decreases. This study provides a numerical tool to quantify the transport timescale in Dahuofang Reservoir and supports adaptive management of regional water resources by local authorities.

  5. ARC Code TI: Save

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Save is a framework for implementing highly available network-accessible services. Save consists of a command-line utility and a small set of extensions for the...

  6. Impact of disinfection on drinking water biofilm bacterial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Zilong; Dai, Yu; Xie, Shuguang; Chen, Chao; Zhang, Xiaojian

    2015-11-01

    Disinfectants are commonly applied to control the growth of microorganisms in drinking water distribution systems. However, the effect of disinfection on drinking water microbial community remains poorly understood. The present study investigated the impacts of different disinfectants (chlorine and chloramine) and dosages on biofilm bacterial community in bench-scale pipe section reactors. Illumina MiSeq sequencing illustrated that disinfection strategy could affect both bacterial diversity and community structure of drinking water biofilm. Proteobacteria tended to predominate in chloraminated drinking water biofilms, while Firmicutes in chlorinated and unchlorinated biofilms. The major proteobacterial groups were influenced by both disinfectant type and dosage. In addition, chloramination had a more profound impact on bacterial community than chlorination.

  7. Performance Evaluation of Pressure Transducers for Water Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilakos, Gregory J.; Stegall, David E.; Treadway, Sean

    2012-01-01

    The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle is being designed for water landings. In order to benchmark the ability of engineering tools to predict water landing loads, test programs are underway for scale model and full-scale water impacts. These test programs are predicated on the reliable measurement of impact pressure histories. Tests have been performed with a variety of pressure transducers from various manufacturers. Both piezoelectric and piezoresistive devices have been tested. Effects such as thermal shock, pinching of the transducer head, and flushness of the transducer mounting have been studied. Data acquisition issues such as sampling rate and anti-aliasing filtering also have been studied. The response of pressure transducers have been compared side-by-side on an impulse test rig and on a 20-inch diameter hemisphere dropped into a pool of water. The results have identified a range of viable configurations for pressure measurement dependent on the objectives of the test program.

  8. Impacts of extreme flooding on riverbank filtration water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascott, M J; Lapworth, D J; Gooddy, D C; Sage, R C; Karapanos, I

    2016-06-01

    Riverbank filtration schemes form a significant component of public water treatment processes on a global level. Understanding the resilience and water quality recovery of these systems following severe flooding is critical for effective water resources management under potential future climate change. This paper assesses the impact of floodplain inundation on the water quality of a shallow aquifer riverbank filtration system and how water quality recovers following an extreme (1 in 17 year, duration >70 days, 7 day inundation) flood event. During the inundation event, riverbank filtrate water quality is dominated by rapid direct recharge and floodwater infiltration (high fraction of surface water, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) >140% baseline values, >1 log increase in micro-organic contaminants, microbial detects and turbidity, low specific electrical conductivity (SEC) 400% baseline). A rapid recovery is observed in water quality with most floodwater impacts only observed for 2-3 weeks after the flooding event and a return to normal groundwater conditions within 6 weeks (lower fraction of surface water, higher SEC, lower DOC, organic and microbial detects, DO). Recovery rates are constrained by the hydrogeological site setting, the abstraction regime and the water quality trends at site boundary conditions. In this case, increased abstraction rates and a high transmissivity aquifer facilitate rapid water quality recoveries, with longer term trends controlled by background river and groundwater qualities. Temporary reductions in abstraction rates appear to slow water quality recoveries. Flexible operating regimes such as the one implemented at this study site are likely to be required if shallow aquifer riverbank filtration systems are to be resilient to future inundation events. Development of a conceptual understanding of hydrochemical boundaries and site hydrogeology through monitoring is required to assess the suitability of a prospective riverbank filtration

  9. CFD based investigation on the impact acceleration when a gannet impacts with water during plunge diving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T M; Yang, X B; Liang, J H; Yao, G C; Zhao, W D

    2013-09-01

    Plunge diving is the most commonly used feeding method of a gannet, which can make the gannet transit from air to water rapidly and successfully. A large impact acceleration can be generated due to the air-to-water transition. However, the impact acceleration experienced by the gannet during plunge diving has not been studied. In this paper, this issue is investigated by using the CFD method. The effect of the dropping height and the water-entry inclination angle on the impact acceleration is considered. The results reveal that the impact acceleration along the longitudinal body axis increases with either of the two parameters. The peak time decreases with the dropping height. A quadratic relation is found between the peak impact acceleration and the initial water-entry velocity. According to the computation, when the dropping height is 30 m (most of gannets plunge from about this height), the peak impact acceleration can reach about 23 times the gravitational acceleration, which will exert a considerable force on the gannet body. Furthermore, the pressure distribution of different water-entry inclination angles indicates that the large pressure asymmetry caused by a small oblique angle may lead to a large impact acceleration in the direction perpendicular to the longitudinal body axis and cause damage to the neck of the gannet, which partly explains the reason why a gannet performing a high plunge diving in nature enters water with a large oblique angle from the perspective of impact mechanics. The investigation on the plunge-diving behavior in this paper will inspire and promote the development of a biomimetic amphibious robot that transits from air to water with the plunge-diving mode.

  10. GLOBAL WARMING AND ITS IMPACT ON WATER RESOURCES

    OpenAIRE

    Debu Mukherjee

    2016-01-01

    Global warming is the gradual heating of earth's surface, oceans and atmosphere. Global warming is primarily a problem of too much carbon dioxide in the atmosphere which acts as a blanket, trapping heat and warming the planet. The relationship between water, energy, agriculture and climate is a significant one. As the earth’s temperature continues to rise, we can expect a significant impact on our fresh water supplies with the potential for devastating effects on these resources.&nb...

  11. Impact of fish pond harvest on water quality especially on

    OpenAIRE

    FREIDINGER, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The topic of this thesis is the impact of fish pond harvest on water quality especially on concentration of suspended solids and phosphorous. Goal of the study is to contribute to ongoing discussion about carp aquaculture's role in fresh water pollution. Sampling was carried out in five carp ponds in the Třeboňsko Protected Landscape Area. Main monitored parameters were concentration of suspended solids and total phosphorous during pond drainage and fish harvest.Results of the study confirmed...

  12. Removing the impact of water abstractions on flow duration curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoero, Alessandro; Ganora, Daniele; Galeati, Giorgio; Laio, Francesco; Claps, Pierluigi

    2015-04-01

    Changes and interactions between human system and water cycle are getting increased attention in the scientific community. Commonly discharge data needed for water resources studies were collected close to urban or industrial settlements, thus in environments where the interest for surveying was not merely scientific, but also for socio-economical purposes. Working in non-natural environments we must take into account human impacts, like the one due to water intakes for irrigation or hydropower generation, while assessing the actual water availability and variability in a river. This can became an issue in alpine areas, where hydropower exploitation is heavy and it is common to have water abstraction before a gauge station. To have a gauge station downstream a water intake can be useful to survey the environmental flow release and to record the maximum flood values, which should not be affected by the water abstraction. Nevertheless with this configuration we are unable to define properly the water volumes available in the river, information crucial to assess low flows and investigate drought risk. This situation leads to a substantial difference between observed data (affected by the human impact) and natural data (as would have been without abstraction). A main issue is how to correct these impacts and restore the natural streamflow values. The most obvious and reliable solution would be to ask for abstraction data to water users, but these data are hard to collect. Usually they are not available, because not public or not even collected by the water exploiters. A solution could be to develop a rainfall-run-off model of the basin upstream the gauge station, but this approach needs a great number of data and parameters Working in a regional framework and not on single case studies, our goal is to provide a consistent estimate of the non-impacted statistics of the river (i.e. mean value, L-moments of variation and skewness). We proposed a parsimonious method, based

  13. Water Impacts of High Solar PV Electricity Penetration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cohen, Stuart [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This analysis provides a detailed national and regional description of the water-related impacts and constraints of high solar electricity penetration scenarios in the U.S. in 2030 and 2050. A modified version of the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model that incorporates water resource availability and costs as a constraint in each of its 134 Balancing Area (BA) regions was utilized to explore national and regional differences in water use impacts and solar deployment locations under different solar energy cost and water availability scenarios (Macknick et al. 2015). Water resource availability and cost data are from recently completed research at Sandia National Laboratories (Tidwell et al. 2013a). Scenarios analyzed include two business-as-usual solar energy cost cases, one with and one without considering available water resources, and four solar energy cost cases that meet the SunShot cost goals (i.e., $1/watt for utility-scale PV systems), with varying levels of water availability restrictions. This analysis provides insight into the role solar energy technologies have in the broader electricity sector under scenarios of water constraints.

  14. Research on Water-saving and Efficiency-increasing Irrigation Schedule of Controlling Irrigation and Moderate Storing Water for Rice%水秸“控灌中蓄”节水增效灌溉制度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐义军; 李桂元

    2011-01-01

    According to the characteristic of rice irrigation in south China, which is the combination of artificial supplement irrigation with natural rainfall its growth, the research on water-saving and efficiency-increasing irrigation schedule for rice is conducted. A set of irrigation schedule of controlling irrigation and moderate storing water is put forward. By means of simulation analysis and comparisons with existing irrigation system, it is indicates that the irrigation schedule of controlling irrigation and moderate storing water has obvious water-saving effect ,certain production-increasing effect and significant social-economy-ecological benefit. So it is worth popularizing with large range.%针对我国南方水稻灌溉主要是在利用其生育期天然降雨的基础上人工补充灌溉的特点,开展水稻节水增效灌溉制度研究,提出了一套“控灌中蓄”节水增效灌溉制度,通过与现行主要水稻节水灌溉制度进行理论模拟分析比较及小区灌溉试验验证,表明此种灌溉制度节水效果明显,且有一定的增产效果,社会经济生态效益显著,值得大范围推广。

  15. Changes in DNA Methylation Pattern at Two Seedling Stages in Water Saving and Drought-Resistant Rice Variety after Drought Stress Domestication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENGXiao-guo; CHENLiang; LOUQiao-jun; XIAHui; LIMing-shou; LUOLi-jun

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies revealed that DNA methylation plays an important role in plant growth and development. In this study, a water-saving and drought-resistantricevarietyHuhan3wassubjected to drought stressfrom tillering to grain-filling stages insix successivegrowth cycles. The variations in DNA methylation pattern between the original generation (G0) and the sixth generation (G6) were analyzed by usingmethylationsensitiveamplificationpolymorphism method. The results revealed that themethylated loci accounted for34.3% to 34.8%ofthetotal loci. Amongthese methylated loci,83.1% to84.8% were full-and hyper-methylated and15.2% to16.9%were hemi-methylated. The DNA methylation level decreased from the three-leafto four-leaf stagesin Huhan3. Differentially methylated loci (DML) between generationsor/and between different developmental stages accounted for 4.0% of the total loci, most of which were only related to plant development (57.9%). Compared to G0, the DNA methylation pattern of G6changed after drought domestication, at the three-leafstage, de-methylation accountingfor59.1%, while atthefour-leaf stage, re-methylation for47.9%. Genome-wide alternations of DNA methylation were observed between the two seedling stages, and DML mainly occurred on the gene’s promoter and exon region. The genesrelated toDML involved in a wide range of functional biologyand participated in many important biological processes.

  16. Impact of Environmental Factors on Legionella Populations in Drinking Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Otto Schwake

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available To examine the impact of environmental factors on Legionella in drinking water distribution systems, the growth and survival of Legionella under various conditions was studied. When incubated in tap water at 4 °C, 25 °C, and 32 °C, L. pneumophila survival trends varied amongst the temperatures, with the stable populations maintained for months at 25 °C and 32 °C demonstrating that survival is possible at these temperatures for extended periods in oligotrophic conditions. After inoculating coupons of PVC, copper, brass, and cast iron, L. pneumophila colonized biofilms formed on each within days to a similar extent, with the exception of cast iron, which contained 1-log less Legionella after 90 days. L. pneumophila spiked in a model drinking water distribution system colonized the system within days. Chlorination of the system had a greater effect on biofilm-associated Legionella concentrations, with populations returning to pre-chlorination levels within six weeks. Biofilms sampled from drinking water meters collected from two areas within central Arizona were analyzed via PCR for the presence of Legionella. Occurrence in only one area indicates that environmental differences in water distribution systems may have an impact on the survival of Legionella. These results document the impact of different environmental conditions on the survival of Legionella in water.

  17. Water Supply and Drainage Engineering with Energy-saving Technology for Building%建筑给排水节能节水技术及应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李刚

    2013-01-01

    China locates at the region of water shortage, domestic water environment pollution is getting worse, so water-saving and wa-ter-reuse is crucial. Water supply and drainage system includes water supply system, greywater system and drainage system, as an important part of the construction project. A series of corresponding laws and regulations should be issued to strengthen daily management and propa-ganda. The water supply and drainage engineering is expounded on its strategic significance of water-saving and energy-saving. The existing difficulties are researched from multi-angle perspective, as well as architectural energy-saving technical measures.%  我国属于水资源短缺国家,水环境污染问题日益严重,节水和水资源再利用势在必行。作为建筑工程的重要组成部分,给排水共分为3个部分,即给水系统、中水系统和排水系统。在建筑节水、节能方面,应出台一系列相应的法律法规,加大日常管理与宣传力度。在分析我国建筑给排水工程中水资源利用现状的基础上,重点剖析给排水节能节水的战略意义,多角度探析建筑给排水节能节水技术存在的问题,就建筑给排水工程的节水节能技术措施进行了阐述。

  18. Calculations of Asteroid Impacts into Deep and Shallow Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisler, Galen; Weaver, Robert; Gittings, Michael

    2011-06-01

    Contrary to received opinion, ocean impacts of small (impacts, just as for land impacts, are the atmospheric effects. We present illustrative hydrodynamic calculations of impacts into both deep and shallow seas, and draw conclusions from a parameter study in which the size of the impactor and the depth of the sea are varied independently. For vertical impacts at 20 km/s, craters in the seafloor are produced when the water depth is less than about 5-7 times the asteroid diameter. Both the depth and the diameter of the transient crater scale with the asteroid diameter, so the volume of water excavated scales with the asteroid volume. About a third of the crater volume is vaporised, because the kinetic energy per unit mass of the asteroid is much larger than the latent heat of vaporisation of water. The vaporised water carries away a considerable fraction of the impact energy in an explosively expanding blast wave which is responsible for devastating local effects and may affect worldwide climate. Of the remaining energy, a substantial portion is used in the crown splash and the rebound jet that forms as the transient crater collapses. The collapse and rebound cycle leads to a propagating wave with a wavelength considerably shorter than classical tsunamis, being only about twice the diameter of the transient crater. Propagation of this wave is hindered somewhat because its amplitude is so large that it breaks in deep water and is strongly affected by the blast wave's perturbation of the atmosphere. Even if propagation were perfect, however, the volume of water delivered per metre of shoreline is less than was delivered by the Boxing Day 2004 tsunami for any impactor smaller than 500 m diameter in an ocean of 5 km depth or less. Near-field effects are dangerous for impactors of diameter 200 m or greater; hurricane-force winds can extend tens of kilometers from the impact point, and fallout from the initial splash can be extremely violent. There is some indication that

  19. EnergySavers: Tips on Saving Money & Energy at Home (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's consumer guide to saving money and energy at home and on the road. It consists of the following articles: (1) Save Money and Energy Today - Get started with things you can do now, and use the whole-house approach to ensure that your investments are wisely made to save you money and energy; (2) Your Home's Energy Use - Find out how your home uses energy, and where it's losing the most energy so you can develop a plan to save in the short and long term; (3) Air Leaks and Insulation - Seal air leaks and insulate your home properly so your energy dollars don't seep through the cracks; (4) Heating and Cooling - Use efficient systems to heat and cool your home, and save money and increase comfort by properly maintaining and upgrading equipment; (5) Water Heating - Use the right water heater for your home, insulate it and lower its temperature, and use less water to avoid paying too much; (6) Windows - Enjoy light and views while saving money by installing energy-efficient windows, and use strategies to keep your current windows from losing energy; (7) Lighting - Choose today's energy-efficient lighting for some of the easiest and cheapest ways to reduce your electric bill; (8) Appliances - Use efficient appliances through-out your home, and get greater performance with lower energy bills; (9) Home Office and Electronics - Find out how much energy your electronics use, reduce their out-put when you're not using them, and choose efficient electronics to save money; (10) Renewable Energy - Use renewable energy at home such as solar and wind to save energy dollars while reducing environmental impact; (11) Transportation - Choose efficient transportation options and drive more efficiently to save at the gas pump; and (12) References - Use our reference list to learn more about energy efficiency and renewable energy.

  20. Impact Assessment of Water Crisis on Socio Economic Life of Agrarian Community

    OpenAIRE

    Raja Irfan Sabir; Muhammad Irfan; Naeem Akhtar; Farooq Nawaz; Muhammad Shahnawaz

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of the present study will be to explore the effects of scarcity of water on farmers’ socio economic values & standard of living while taking adoption of water saving technologies or better water resource management plan by farmers as moderating variable. A sample of 150 household farmers in district Okara was selected through multistage sampling techniques. A well structured questionnaire was designed on five point licker scale covering various dimensions of water crises and th...

  1. Assessing the impacts of climatic change on mountain water resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beniston, Martin; Stoffel, Markus

    2014-09-15

    As the evidence for human induced climate change becomes clearer, so too does the realization that its effects will have impacts on numerous environmental and socio-economic systems. Mountains are recognized as very sensitive physical environments with populations whose histories and current social positions often strain their capacity to accommodate intense and rapid changes to their resource base. It is thus essential to assess the impacts of a changing climate, focusing on the quantity of water originating in mountain regions, particularly where snow and ice melt represent a large streamflow component as well as a local resource in terms of freshwater supply, hydropower generation, or irrigation. Increasing evidence of glacier retreat, permafrost degradation and reduced mountain snowpack has been observed in many regions, thereby suggesting that climate change may seriously affect streamflow regimes. These changes could in turn threaten the availability of water resources for many environmental and economic systems, and exacerbate a range of natural hazards that would compound these impacts. As a consequence, socio-economic structures of downstream living populations would be also impacted, calling for better preparedness and strategies to avoid conflicts of interest between water-dependent economic actors. This paper is thus an introduction to the Special Issue of this journal dedicated to the European Union Seventh Framework Program (EU-FP7) project ACQWA (Assessing Climate Impacts on the Quantity and Quality of WAter), a major European network of scientists that was coordinated by the University of Geneva from 2008 to 2014. The goal of ACQWA has been to address a number of these issues and propose a range of solutions for adaptation to change and to help improve water governance in regions where quantity, seasonality, and perhaps quality of water may substantially change in coming decades.

  2. Water Footprint and Impact of Water Consumption for Food, Feed, Fuel Crops Production in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabbir H. Gheewala

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The proliferation of food, feed and biofuels demands promises to increase pressure on water competition and stress, particularly for Thailand, which has a large agricultural base. This study assesses the water footprint of ten staple crops grown in different regions across the country and evaluates the impact of crop water use in different regions/watersheds by the water stress index and the indication of water deprivation potential. The ten crops include major rice, second rice, maize, soybean, mungbean, peanut, cassava, sugarcane, pineapple and oil palm. The water stress index of the 25 major watersheds in Thailand has been evaluated. The results show that there are high variations of crop water requirements grown in different regions due to many factors. However, based on the current cropping systems, the Northeastern region has the highest water requirement for both green water (or rain water and blue water (or irrigation water. Rice (paddy farming requires the highest amount of irrigation water, i.e., around 10,489 million m3/year followed by the maize, sugarcane, oil palm and cassava. Major rice cultivation induces the highest water deprivation, i.e., 1862 million m3H2Oeq/year; followed by sugarcane, second rice and cassava. The watersheds that have high risk on water competition due to increase in production of the ten crops considered are the Mun, Chi and Chao Phraya watersheds. The main contribution is from the second rice cultivation. Recommendations have been proposed for sustainable crops production in the future.

  3. The WULCA consensus characterization model for water scarcity footprints: assessing impacts of water consumption based on available water remaining (AWARE)

    OpenAIRE

    Boulay, A.-M.; Bare, J.; Benini, L.; Berger, M.; Lathuillière, M.J.; Manzardo, A.; Margni, M.; Motoshita, M.; Núñez, M.; Pastor, A.V.; Ridoutt, B.; Oki, T.; Worbe, S.; Pfister, S.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used to assess freshwater-related impacts according to a new water footprint framework formalized in the ISO 14046 standard. To date, no consensus-based approach exists for applying this standard and results are not always comparable when different scarcity or stress indicators are used for characterization of impacts. This paper presents the outcome of a 2-year consensus building process by the Water Use in Life Cycle Assessment (WULCA), a wor...

  4. Agronomic aspects and environmental impact of reusing marginal water in irrigation: a case study from Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mowelhi, N M; Abo Soliman, S M S; Barbary, S M; El-Shahawy, M I

    2006-01-01

    by mixing with rice straw (1:1 w/w) for economic crop production and saving mineral fertilisers. GENERAL CONCLUSION: In the North Nile Delta, marginal water (especially BDW) can be safely used without significant negative impact on the environment, but there is a need for multi-disciplinary, long-term research to investigate irrigation with marginal water in terms of the environment, public health and agricultural productivity.

  5. Water Quality Impacts of Pure Chlorine Dioxide Pretreatment at the Roanoke County (Virginia) Water Treatment Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Ellenberger, Christine Spada

    1999-01-01

    WATER QUALITY IMPACTS OF PURE CHLORINE DIOXIDE PRETREATMENT AT THE ROANOKE COUNTY (VIRGINIA) WATER TREATMENT PLANT by Christine S. Ellenberger Dr. Robert C. Hoehn, Chairman (ABSTRACT) Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) was included in the Spring Hollow Water Treatment Plant (Roanoke County, Virginia) to oxidize manganese and iron, prevent tastes and odors, and avoid the formation of excessive halogenated disinfection by-products. A state-of-the-art, gas:solid ClO2 generation system ...

  6. Water-saving technologies affect the grain characteristics and recovery of fine-grain rice cultivars in semi-arid environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabran, Khawar; Riaz, Muhammad; Hussain, Mubshar; Nasim, Wajid; Zaman, Umar; Fahad, Shah; Chauhan, Bhagirath Singh

    2017-05-01

    Growing rice with less water is direly needed due to declining water sources worldwide, but using methods that require less water inputs can have an impact on grain characteristics and recovery. A 2-year field study was conducted to evaluate the impact of conventionally sown flooded rice and low-water-input rice systems on the grain characteristics and recovery of fine rice. Three fine grain rice cultivars-Super Basmati, Basmati 2000, and Shaheen Basmati-were grown under conventional flooded transplanted rice (CFTR), alternate wetting and drying (AWD), and aerobic rice systems. Grain characteristics and rice recovery were significantly influenced by different water regimes (production systems). Poor milling, including the lowest percentage of brown (head) rice (65.3%) and polished (white) rice (64.2-66.9%) and the highest percentage of broken brown rice (10.2%), husk (24.5%-26.3%), polished broken rice (24.7%), and bran (11.0-12.5%), were recorded in the aerobic rice system sown with Shaheen Basmati. With a few exceptions, cultivars sown in CFTR were found to possess a higher percentage of brown (head) and polished (white) rice and they had incurred the least losses in the form of brown broken rice, husk, polished broken rice, and bran. In conclusion, better grain quality and recovery of rice can be attained by growing Super Basmati under the CFTR system. Growing Shaheen Basmati under low-water-input systems, the aerobic rice system in particular, resulted in poor grain characteristics tied with less rice recovery.

  7. Quantifying the human impact on water resources: a critical review of the water footprint concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenoweth, J.; Hadjikakou, M.; Zoumides, C.

    2014-06-01

    The water footprint is a consumption-based indicator of water use, referring to the total volume of freshwater used directly and indirectly by a nation or a company, or in the provision of a product or service. Despite widespread enthusiasm for the development and use of water footprints, some concerns have been raised about the concept and its usefulness. A variety of methodologies have been developed for water footprinting which differ with respect to how they deal with different forms of water use. The result is water footprint estimates which vary dramatically, often creating confusion. Despite these methodological qualms, the concept has had notable success in raising awareness about water use in agricultural and industrial supply chains, by providing a previously unavailable and (seemingly) simple numerical indicator of water use. Nevertheless, and even though a range of uses have already been suggested for water footprinting, its policy value remains unclear. Unlike the carbon footprint which provides a universal measure of human impact on the atmosphere's limited absorptive capacity, the water footprint in its conventional form solely quantifies a single production input without any accounting of the impacts of use, which vary spatially and temporally. Following an extensive review of the literature related to water footprints, this paper critically examines the present uses of the concept, focusing on its current strengths, shortcomings and promising research avenues to advance it.

  8. An analysis of eco-environmental impacts of the south-to-north water transfer project on the receiving areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Gan, Hong; Xiao, Yuquan; You, Jinjun

    2010-05-01

    balancing method is used to quantitatively analyze the roles of the Phase I projects in improving the eco-environment in the receiving areas from the angles of alleviation of drought severity, replacement of local source water supply, reduction of groundwater abstraction, replacement of agricultural water occupied by urban water supply, increase of agricultural and ecological water use by water transfer, etc. The results show that the Phase I projects have produced significant impacts on the improvement of urban water supply and agricultural eco-environment in the receiving areas, but cannot fundamentally solve the groundwater over-abstraction problem, and water saving, water transfer and pollution control need to be implemented simultaneously in order to fully tap the benefits of the Phase I projects.

  9. Potential impacts of changing supply-water quality on drinking water distribution: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Zhang, Ya; Knibbe, Willem-Jan; Feng, Cuijie; Liu, Wentso; Medema, Gertjan; van der Meer, Walter

    2017-06-01

    Driven by the development of water purification technologies and water quality regulations, the use of better source water and/or upgraded water treatment processes to improve drinking water quality have become common practices worldwide. However, even though these elements lead to improved water quality, the water quality may be impacted during its distribution through piped networks due to the processes such as pipe material release, biofilm formation and detachment, accumulation and resuspension of loose deposits. Irregular changes in supply-water quality may cause physiochemical and microbiological de-stabilization of pipe material, biofilms and loose deposits in the distribution system that have been established over decades and may harbor components that cause health or esthetical issues (brown water). Even though it is clearly relevant to customers' health (e.g., recent Flint water crisis), until now, switching of supply-water quality is done without any systematic evaluation. This article reviews the contaminants that develop in the water distribution system and their characteristics, as well as the possible transition effects during the switching of treated water quality by destabilization and the release of pipe material and contaminants into the water and the subsequent risks. At the end of this article, a framework is proposed for the evaluation of potential transition effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Impact of Climate Change on Water Resources in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An-Yuan Tsai Wen-Cheng Huang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper establishes a comprehensive assessment model to measure the regional impact of climate change on Taiwan¡¦s water resources. Working from future rainfall data simulated by Japan¡¦s high-resolution GCM model JMA/MRI TL959L60 in a SRES-A1B scenario, we first apply climate change to an assessment model of renewable water resources to estimate the volume of renewable water resources on a regional basis. We then conduct a water resources system simulation based on estimates of future water needs, regional reservoir effective capacity and renewable water resource volume. This paper uses three water resource assessment indicators: the annual water utilization ratio indicator, the water shortage indicator and the extreme event occurrence indicator. Through fuzzy comprehensive assessment, we divide the evaluation set into five levels: very good (L1, good (L2, fair (L3, poor (L4 and very poor (L5. Results indicate that, given the effects of future climate change (2080 - 2099 and the increase in water demand, future water resources conditions in northern and eastern Taiwan will not be significantly different from historical levels (1979 - 1998 and will maintain a ¡§good¡¨ level (L2, while the conditions in southern Taiwan will visibly deteriorate from its historical ¡§fair¡¨ level (L3 to ¡§poor¡¨ (L4; and the future conditions for central Taiwan will be ¡§poor¡¨ (L4. The initiation of adaptation options for water management in southern and central Taiwan would be needed by increasing reservoir capacity and reducing overall water use.

  11. Impact of nutritional strategies on water productivity indicators for pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Pascale Palhares

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The productivity of water is a poorly considered indicator in animal agriculture. This is because water is a resource still believed by persons in the production network to be abundant and of good quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of nutritional strategies in water productivity indicators for growing and slaughtering pigs. Five strategies were evaluated: control diet (T1, with a reduction in the level of crude protein (T2, phytase (T3, organic minerals (T4 and the three nutritional strategies combined (T5. The water productivity indicator is defined as the quantity of product by water used. The following indicators were calculated: total weight (kg L-1, cold carcass (kg L-1 lean carcass (L kg-1, and nutrition (kcal L-1. T5 showed the best productivities for each liter of water used. The total weight productivity in this treatment was 3.0 kg L-1, while in T1 was 2.5 kg L-1. T3 had the lowest productivities. The nutritional water productivities were 2,512, 2,763, 2,657, 2,814, and 3,039 kcal L-1, respectively for T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5. Nutritional strategies reduce the use of drinking water and therefore improve water productivities. The best productivities were observed when combining the strategies.

  12. Impact of Yangtze river water transfer on the water quality of the Lixia river watershed, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxue Ma

    Full Text Available To improve water quality and reduce the negative impacts of sudden inputs of water pollution in the Lixia River watershed, China, a series of experimental water transfers from the Yangtze River to the Lixia River were conducted from 2 December 2006 to 7 January 2007. Water samples were collected every six days at 55 monitoring sites during this period. Eight water parameters (water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO, chemical oxygen demand (COD, potassium permanganate index (CODMn, ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N, electrical conductivity (EC, and water transparency (WT were analyzed to determine changes in nutrient concentrations during water transfers. The comprehensive pollution index (Pi and single-factor (Si evaluation methods were applied to evaluate spatio-temporal patterns of water quality during water transfers. Water quality parameters displayed different spatial and temporal distribution patterns within the watershed. Water quality was improved significantly by the water transfers, especially for sites closer to water intake points. The degree of improvement is positively related to rates of transfer inflow and drainage outflow. The effects differed for different water quality parameters at each site and at different water transfer times. There were notable decreases in NH4+-N, DO, COD, and CODMn across the entire watershed. However, positive effects on EC and pH were not observed. It is concluded that freshwater transfers from the Yangtze River can be used as an emergency measure to flush pollutants from the Lixia River watershed. Improved understanding of the effects of water transfers on water quality can help the development and implementation of effective strategies to improve water quality within this watershed.

  13. Proactive modeling of water quality impacts of extreme precipitation events in a drinking water reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeznach, Lillian C; Hagemann, Mark; Park, Mi-Hyun; Tobiason, John E

    2017-10-01

    Extreme precipitation events are of concern to managers of drinking water sources because these occurrences can affect both water supply quantity and quality. However, little is known about how these low probability events impact organic matter and nutrient loads to surface water sources and how these loads may impact raw water quality. This study describes a method for evaluating the sensitivity of a water body of interest from watershed input simulations under extreme precipitation events. An example application of the method is illustrated using the Wachusett Reservoir, an oligo-mesotrophic surface water reservoir in central Massachusetts and a major drinking water supply to metropolitan Boston. Extreme precipitation event simulations during the spring and summer resulted in total organic carbon, UV-254 (a surrogate measurement for reactive organic matter), and total algae concentrations at the drinking water intake that exceeded recorded maximums. Nutrient concentrations after storm events were less likely to exceed recorded historical maximums. For this particular reservoir, increasing inter-reservoir transfers of water with lower organic matter content after a large precipitation event has been shown in practice and in model simulations to decrease organic matter levels at the drinking water intake, therefore decreasing treatment associated oxidant demand, energy for UV disinfection, and the potential for formation of disinfection byproducts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Reliability and Efficacy of Water Use Estimation Techniques and their Impact on Water Management and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A.; Deeds, N.; Kelley, V.

    2012-12-01

    Estimating how much water is being used by various water users is key to effective management and optimal utilization of groundwater resources. This is especially true for aquifers like the Ogallala that are severely stressed and display depleting trends over the last many years. The High Plains Underground Water Conservation District (HPWD) is the largest and oldest of the Texas water conservation districts, and oversees approximately 1.7 million irrigated acres. Water users within the 16 counties that comprise the HPWD draw from the Ogallala extensively. The HPWD has recently proposed flow-meters as well as various 'alternative methods' for water users to report water usage. Alternative methods include using a) site specific energy conversion factors to convert total amount of energy used (for pumping stations) to water pumped, b) reporting nozzle package (on center pivot irrigation systems) specifications and hours of usage, and c) reporting concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). The focus of this project was to evaluate the reliability and effectiveness for each of these water use estimation techniques for regulatory purposes. Reliability and effectiveness of direct flow-metering devices was also addressed. Findings indicate that due to site-specific variability and hydrogeologic heterogeneity, alternative methods for estimating water use can have significant uncertainties associated with water use estimates. The impact of these uncertainties on overall water usage, conservation, and management was also evaluated. The findings were communicated to the Stakeholder Advisory Group and the Water Conservation District with guidelines and recommendations on how best to implement the various techniques.

  15. A COMBINED DATA PROCESSING METHOD ON WATER IMPACT FORCE MEASUREMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Meng-hua; CHEN Xiao-peng

    2012-01-01

    A combined method is proposed to determine the water entry acceleration at a low impact velocity through image processing.The procedure includes:(1) a sequence of images for water impact are recorded by a high speed camera,(2) the sub-pixel image processing method is employed to calculate the displacement with an accuracy on the “sub-pixel” level,(3) the acceleration of the object is acquired by differentiating the displacement twice and with results being further filtered by a carefully designed low-pass Butterworth filter.A theoretically based analysis is conducted for designing the parameters of the low-pass filters.It is shown that the water entry can be regarded as a procedure with a slowly changing velocity.The method is validated with the standard sinusoidal motion and the water entry of a sphere.This approach could be considered as an auxiliary method during the early-stage study of the water entry,and it could be further applied to some complicated circumstances,like the water entry of spinning spheres.

  16. Accounting for the water impacts of ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fingerman, Kevin R; Torn, Margaret S; Kammen, Daniel M [Energy and Resources Group, University of California, Berkeley, 310 Barrows Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-3050 (United States); O' Hare, Michael H, E-mail: kfingerman@berkeley.ed [Goldman School of Public Policy, University of California, Berkeley, 2607 Hearst Avenue, Berkeley, CA 94720-7320 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Biofuels account for 1-2% of global transportation fuel and their share is projected to continue rising, with potentially serious consequences for water resources. However, current literature does not present sufficient spatial resolution to characterize this localized effect. We used a coupled agro-climatic and life cycle assessment model to estimate the water resource impacts of bioenergy expansion scenarios at a county-level resolution. The study focused on the case of California, with its range of agroecological conditions, water scarcity, and aggressive alternative fuel incentive policies. Life cycle water consumption for ethanol production in California is up to 1000 times that of gasoline due to a cultivation phase that consumes over 99% of life cycle water use for agricultural biofuels. This consumption varies by up to 60% among different feedstocks and by over 350% across regions in California. Rigorous policy analysis requires spatially resolved modeling of water resource impacts and careful consideration of the various metrics that might act to constrain technology and policy options.

  17. Assessment of impact of water diversion projects on ecological water uses in arid region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song-hao SHANG; Hui-jie WANG

    2013-01-01

    In arid regions, large-scale water diversion from rivers leads to significant changes in river flow regimes, which may have large impacts on ecological water uses of river-dependent ecosystems, such as river, lake, wetland, and riparian ecosystems. To assess the integrated impact of water diversion on ecological water uses, we proposed a hierarchy evaluation model composed of four layers representing the evaluation goal, sub-areas of the influenced region, evaluation criteria, and water diversion schemes, respectively. The evaluation criteria for different types of ecological water uses were proposed, and the analytical hierarchy process was used for the integrated assessment. For a river ecosystem, the percentage of mean annual flow was used to define the grade of environmental flow. For a lake ecosystem, water recharge to the lake to compensate the lake water losses was used to assess the ecological water use of a lake. The flooding level of the wetland and the groundwater level in the riparian plain were used to assess the wetland and riparian ecological water uses, respectively. The proposed model was applied to a basin in northern Xinjiang in northwest China, where both water diversion and inter-basin water transfer projects were planned to be carried out. Based on assessment results for the whole study area and two sub-areas, an appropriate scheme was recommended from four planning schemes. With the recommended scheme, ecological water uses of the influenced ecosystems can be maintained at an acceptable level. Meanwhile, economical water requirements can be met to a great extent.

  18. 自来水厂水泵变频节电改造效果分析%Analysis on the Effect of Frequency Conversion and Power Saving of Water Pump in Waterworks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李会祥; 赵敏

    2015-01-01

    节能降耗是建设资源节约型社会的重要措施,也是企业降低生产成本最有效和最安全的一种方法。随着电力电子技术和自动控制技术的快速发展,变频调速技术在节能降耗、自动化生产等方面的优势得到充分体现,并得到了迅速的普及和应用,产生了巨大的经济效益和社会效益。简要介绍了变频调速技术的节能原理,并对自来水厂水泵变频节能改造后的效果进行探讨和分析。%Energy saving and consumption reduction is an important measure to construct the resource saving society, and it is also the most effective and safe method for enterprise to reduce production cost. Along with the rapid development of power electronic technology and automatic control technology, frequency conversion speed regulation technology in saving energy and reducing consumption, automated production advantages are fully reflected, and the rapid popularization and application, resulting in huge economic benefit and social benefit. This paper briefly introduces energy saving principle of variable frequency speed regulation technology, and discusses the effect of energy saving and energy saving of water pump frequency conversion.

  19. Long-Term No-Tillage Direct Seeding Mode for Water-Saving and Drought-Resistance Rice Production in Rice-Rapeseed Rotation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Xing-bin; CHEN Chen; LUO Li-jun; XIA Long-ping; LIU Kang; CHEN Yin-hua; YU Xin-qiao

    2014-01-01

    To study the effects of long-term no-tillage direct seeding mode on rice yield and the soil physiochemical property in a rice-rapeseed rotation system, a comparative experiment with a water-saving and drought-resistance rice (WDR) variety and a double low rapeseed variety as materials was conducted under no-tillage direct seeding (NTDS) mode and conventional tillage direct seeding (CTDS) mode for four years, using the CTDS mode as the control. Compared with the CTDS mode, the actual rice yield of WDR decreased by 8.10%at the first year, whereas the plant height, spikelet number per panicle, spikelet fertility, 1000-grain weight, grain yield, actual yield, and harvest index increased with no-tillage years, which led to the actual yield increase by 6.49%at the fourth year. Correlation analysis showed that the panicle length was significantly related to the actual yield of WDR. Compared with the CTDS mode in terms of the soil properties, the pH value of the NTDS mode decreased every year, whereas the contents of soil organic matter and total N of the NTDS mode increased. In the 0-5 cm layer of the NTDS mode, the soil bulk decreased, whereas the contents of soil organic matter, total N, and available N increased. In the 5-20 cm layer of the NTDS mode, the available N and K decreased, whereas the soil bulk, contents of soil organic matter, and total N increased. In summary, the NTDS mode increased the rice yield, and could improve the paddy soil fertility of the top layer.

  20. The EU must triple its energy saving policy effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselink, B.; Eichhammer, W.; Harmsen, R.

    2010-01-01

    The impact of EU energy savings policy must triple to achieve the bloc’s 2020 energy savings goal. But such efforts could get a much better foundation if European leaders set a binding energy consumption target, rather than the current indicative savings target. The evidence for such

  1. Terrestrial water cycle and the impact of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Fulu; Yokozawa, Masayuki; Hayashi, Yousay; Lin, Erda

    2003-06-01

    The terrestrial water cycle and the impact of climate change are critical for agricultural and natural ecosystems. In this paper, we assess both by running a macro-scale water balance model under a baseline condition and 2 General Circulation Model (GCM)-based climate change scenarios. The results show that in 2021-2030, water demand will increase worldwide due to climate change. Water shortage is expected to worsen in western Asia, the Arabian Peninsula, northern and southern Africa, northeastern Australia, southwestern North America, and central South America. A significant increase in surface runoff is expected in southern Asia and a significant decrease is expected in northern South America. These changes will have implications for regional environment and socioeconomics.

  2. Terrestrial Water Cycle and the Impact of Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fulu Tao; Erda Lin [Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing (China). Agrometeorology Inst.; Yokozawa, Masayuki; Hayashi, Yousay [National Inst. for Agro-Environmental Sciences, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2003-06-01

    The terrestrial water cycle and the impact of climate change are critical for agricultural and natural ecosystems. In this paper, we assess both by running a macro-scale water balance model under a baseline condition and 2 General Circulation Model (GCM)-based climate change scenarios. The results show that in 2021-2030, water demand will increase worldwide due to climate change. Water shortage is expected to worsen in western Asia, the Arabian Peninsula, northern and southern Africa, northeastern Australia, southwestern North America, and central South America. A significant increase in surface runoff is expected in southern Asia and a significant decrease is expected in northern South America. These changes will have implications for regional environment and socio-economics.

  3. Assessment of climate change impact on water diversion strategies of Melamchi Water Supply Project in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Sangam; Shrestha, Manish; Babel, Mukand S.

    2017-04-01

    This paper analyzes the climate change impact on water diversion plan of Melamchi Water Supply Project (MWSP) in Nepal. The MWSP is an interbasin water transfer project aimed at diverting water from the Melamchi River of the Indrawati River basin to Kathmandu Valley for drinking water purpose. Future temperature and precipitation of the basin were predicted using the outputs of two regional climate models (RCMs) and two general circulation models (GCMs) under two representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios which were then used as inputs to Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to predict the water availability and evaluate the water diversion strategies in the future. The average temperature of the basin is projected to increase by 2.35 to 4.25 °C under RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5, respectively, by 2085s. The average precipitation in the basin is projected to increase by 6-18 % in the future. The annual water availability is projected to increase in the future; however, the variability is observed in monthly water availability in the basin. The water supply and demand scenarios of Kathmandu Valley was also examined by considering the population increase, unaccounted for water and water diversion from MWSP in the future. It is observed that even with the additional supply of water from MWSP and reduction of unaccounted for water, the Kathmandu Valley will be still under water scarcity in the future. The findings of this study can be helpful to formulate water supply and demand management strategies in Kathmandu Valley in the context of climate change in the future.

  4. Assessment of climate change impact on water diversion strategies of Melamchi Water Supply Project in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Sangam; Shrestha, Manish; Babel, Mukand S.

    2015-12-01

    This paper analyzes the climate change impact on water diversion plan of Melamchi Water Supply Project (MWSP) in Nepal. The MWSP is an interbasin water transfer project aimed at diverting water from the Melamchi River of the Indrawati River basin to Kathmandu Valley for drinking water purpose. Future temperature and precipitation of the basin were predicted using the outputs of two regional climate models (RCMs) and two general circulation models (GCMs) under two representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios which were then used as inputs to Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to predict the water availability and evaluate the water diversion strategies in the future. The average temperature of the basin is projected to increase by 2.35 to 4.25 °C under RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5, respectively, by 2085s. The average precipitation in the basin is projected to increase by 6-18 % in the future. The annual water availability is projected to increase in the future; however, the variability is observed in monthly water availability in the basin. The water supply and demand scenarios of Kathmandu Valley was also examined by considering the population increase, unaccounted for water and water diversion from MWSP in the future. It is observed that even with the additional supply of water from MWSP and reduction of unaccounted for water, the Kathmandu Valley will be still under water scarcity in the future. The findings of this study can be helpful to formulate water supply and demand management strategies in Kathmandu Valley in the context of climate change in the future.

  5. 节水抗旱稻新组合“旱优73”高产制种技术%High yield seed production techniques of water saving and drought resistance rice combination“Hanyou 73”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰有明

    2015-01-01

    旱优73是籼型三系节水抗旱稻新组合,具有节水抗旱、抗性强、米质优、适应性广等特点。根据近几年对其亲本的观察和制种实践,总结该组合的高产制种技术。%“Hanyou 73”is a new water saving and drought resistance combination of three line Indica rice,showing water saving and drought resistance,high resistance to diseases,high quality and good adaptability. This paper sum-marized its high yield seed production techniques based on observation on its parents and practice in seed production in recent years.

  6. SAVED LEAVE BONUS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des ressources humaines

    2000-01-01

    Staff members participating in the RSL programme are entitled to one additional day of saved leave for each full period of 20 days remaining in their saved leave account on 31 December 1999.Allowing some time for all concerned to make sure that their periods of leave taken in 1999 are properly registered, HR division will proceed with the crediting of the appropriate number of days in the saved leave accounts from 25 January 2000.Human Resources DivisionTel.73359

  7. Saving for Future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡文莎

    2009-01-01

    阅读下面的短文,并根据短文后的要求答题。(注意问题后的词数要求) Learning to save money when you're young is an important lesson. All good lessons and habits begin early, and saving is a skill that everyone needs. Many people--adults included--do not have a good sense of saving for the long run.

  8. Impacts of Groundwater Pumping on Regional and Global Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Yoshihide

    2016-01-01

    Except frozen water in ice and glaciers (68%), groundwater is the world's largest distributed store of freshwater (30%), and has strategic importance to global food and water security. In this chapter, the most recent advances assessing human impact on regional and global groundwater resources are reviewed. This chapter critically evaluates the recently advanced modeling approaches quantifying the effect of groundwater pumping in regional and global groundwater resources and the evidence of feedback to the Earth system including sea-level rise associated with groundwater use. At last, critical challenges and opportunities are identified in the use of groundwater to adapt to growing food demand and uncertain climate.

  9. 新型节能型两段加热热泵开水器的研制%Research and manufacture of a new type energy-saving heat pump drinking water boiler with two-stages heating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金云学; 江勇; 成志方

    2011-01-01

    分析了电加热开水器的现状和空气源热泵优点,以及热泵制取高温热水存在的问题.提出将空气源热泵和电加热开水器相结合的设想,并与先进的步进补水技术相结合,设计了一种新型节能型开水器,并阐述了其设计简图、工作原理、加热模式、补水方式、除霜控制,分析了其低温段及整体能效,体现了其节能效果.%The status of electric heating drinking water boiler and the advantages of air source heat pump are analyzed, and the problems of making high temperature hot water with heat pump are discussed. Based on the idea of combining air source heat pump and electric heating drinking water boiler, a new type energy-saving drinking water boiler is presented with the advanced technology of step water-supply. The details of design sketch, working principle, heating mode, water supply method and defrost control are described. Furthermore, low-temperature part and the overall energy efficiency of the drinking water boiler are analyzed. Also, its energy-saving effect is reflected.

  10. Development and Application of Air Conditioner with Energy-saving Condensate Water Nebulization for Vehicle%车载冷凝雾化节能空调的开发与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢建萍

    2011-01-01

    The author introduces a new type of auto air-conditioner, which has marked energy-saving effect through condensation water nebulization. This auto air-conditioner could be widely applied.%介绍一种带冷凝水雾化装置的新型空调系统。该系统具有明显的节能降耗效果,应用前景广泛。

  11. An analysis of Water Supply Heat Pump's Capability of Energy Storage and Energy Saving Using Electricity%水源热泵系统蓄能节能的可行性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴薇; 张小松

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the characteristic of water supply heat pump (WLHP) is introduced. The thermal performanceand effect of energy saving that can be used to heating and cooling at the same time (the distinctive working mode) is em-phasized. A new idea of heat input using wave trough electricity instead of boilers is brought up, the effect and significance ofthis new method is discussed.

  12. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Center (EOC) 101 Emergency Operations Center CDC Laboratory Science: Mission Critical Saving Lives, Protecting People Environmental Health CDC Tracking Network Health Begins at Home ...

  13. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Center (EOC) 101 Emergency Operations Center CDC Laboratory Science: Mission Critical Saving Lives, Protecting People Environmental Health CDC Tracking Network Health Begins at Home Smoke- ...

  14. Saving electricity in a hurry - update 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasquier, Sara Bryan

    2011-06-15

    As demonstrated by the March 2011 earthquake and tsunami-triggered blackouts in Japan, electricity shortfalls can happen anytime and anywhere. Countries can minimise the negative economic, social and environmental impacts of such electricity shortfalls by developing emergency energy-saving strategies before a crisis occurs. This new IEA report highlights preliminary findings and conclusions from electricity shortfalls in Japan, the United States, New Zealand, South Africa and Chile. It draws on recent analysis to: reinforce well-established guidelines on diagnosing electricity shortfalls, identifying energy-saving opportunities and selecting a package of energy-saving measures; and highlight proven practice for implementing emergency energy-saving programmes. This paper will be valuable to government, academic, private-sector and civil-society stakeholders who inform, develop and implement electricity policy in general, and emergency energy-saving programmes in particular.

  15. Construction of Water-saving Society in Yangling High-tech Agriculture Demonstration Zone%杨凌示范区节水型社会建设工作浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔娅茹

    2011-01-01

    杨凌区地处关中腹地,区内各行业的取水水源均为地下水,随着经济社会的不断发展,水资源将成为制约本区发展的"瓶颈",节水型社会建设的深入开展对于缓解地区水资源矛盾,促进区域经济健康持续发展,有极其重要的作用。本文通过对杨凌区节水型社会建设工作开展情况的详细介绍,分析了存在的问题及面临的形势,提出今后节水型社会建设的工作思路,对今后节水工作的开展具有借鉴意义。%Yangling is located in central plain of Shaanxi Province,water use by all walks of life comes from groundwater,so the water resource will limit the area development with the economic growth in the future.The construction of water-saving society will alleviate the contradiction between water use and water resource,and promote economic growth as well.Through the presentation of the construction of a water-saving society in Yangling,the paper analyzes the problems and puts forth suggestions for the development of water-saving work.

  16. Selecting downscaled climate projections for water resource impacts and adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Jean-Philippe; Hingray, Benoît

    2015-04-01

    Increasingly large ensembles of global and regional climate projections are being produced and delivered to the climate impact community. However, such an enormous amount of information can hardly been dealt with by some impact models due to computational constraints. Strategies for transparently selecting climate projections are therefore urgently needed for informing small-scale impact and adaptation studies and preventing potential pitfalls in interpreting ensemble results from impact models. This work proposes results from a selection approach implemented for an integrated water resource impact and adaptation study in the Durance river basin (Southern French Alps). A large ensemble of 3000 daily transient gridded climate projections was made available for this study. It was built from different runs of 4 ENSEMBLES Stream2 GCMs, statistically downscaled by 3 probabilistic methods based on the K-nearest neighbours resampling approach (Lafaysse et al., 2014). The selection approach considered here exemplifies one of the multiple possible approaches described in a framework for identifying tailored subsets of climate projections for impact and adaptation studies proposed by Vidal & Hingray (2014). It was chosen based on the specificities of both the study objectives and the characteristics of the projection dataset. This selection approach aims at propagating as far as possible the relative contributions of the four different sources of uncertainties considered, namely GCM structure, large-scale natural variability, structure of the downscaling method, and catchment-scale natural variability. Moreover, it took the form of a hierarchical structure to deal with the specific constraints of several types of impact models (hydrological models, irrigation demand models and reservoir management models). The implemented 3-layer selection approach is therefore mainly based on conditioned Latin Hypercube sampling (Christierson et al., 2012). The choice of conditioning

  17. Components and Algorithm of Incremental Cost in Green Building Water-saving Project%绿色建筑节水项目增量成本的构成与算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴宏祥; 曲凯; 赵芳

    2011-01-01

    Aiming at large difference in understanding the conception and elements of direct incremental cost in green building water-saving projects between the government and developers as well as lack of a unified calculation method in China, the definition, calculation principle, components and algorithm of incremental cost in green building water-saving project are proposed and verified through the water-saving demonstration project in a green building residential area in western China.%针对我国政府和开发商对绿色建筑节水项目直接增量成本的概念、构成要素等理解差异较大,缺乏统一的计算方法的现状,提出了绿色建筑节水项目直接增量成本定义、计算原则、构成内容及其计算方法,并以西部某绿色建筑小区节水示范项目为例进行验证.

  18. Evaluation of Water Efficiency in Green Building in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Li Cheng

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Low carbon policies, including those aimed at increasing water efficiency, have been adopted as a crucial strategy for combating global warming and climate change. The green building evaluation system used in Taiwan was first applied in 1999 and initially utilized a building’s water efficiency as the threshold index for determining the building’s environmental impact. Since 1999, more than a thousand buildings have been certified as green buildings using this evaluation system. The quantitative effects of water conservation efforts should be provided to policy makers as a form of positive feedback. To that end, the present study offers a calculation process for estimating the quantitative volume of water saved by practical green buildings. The baseline water usage for all kinds of buildings was determined to serve as the criterion for determining the water-saving efficiency of individual buildings. An investigation of the average water-saving rate from 2000 to 2013 for 1320 buildings certified as green buildings was also conducted to validate the estimation results and found that these green buildings saved an average of approximately 37.6% compared to the baseline water usage rate for all buildings. Water savings will inevitably follow from the use of water-saving appliances or water-saving designs for buildings. The proposed calculation process can be used to clarify the relationships between specific water-saving concepts and the real water usage efficiency of green buildings.

  19. Energy Savings Lifetimes and Persistence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, Ian M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schiller, Steven R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Todd, Annika [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Billingsley, Megan A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, Charles A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schwartz, Lisa C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This technical brief explains the concepts of energy savings lifetimes and savings persistence and discusses how program administrators use these factors to calculate savings for efficiency measures, programs and portfolios. Savings lifetime is the length of time that one or more energy efficiency measures or activities save energy, and savings persistence is the change in savings throughout the functional life of a given efficiency measure or activity. Savings lifetimes are essential for assessing the lifecycle benefits and cost effectiveness of efficiency activities and for forecasting loads in resource planning. The brief also provides estimates of savings lifetimes derived from a national collection of costs and savings for electric efficiency programs and portfolios.

  20. The Energy-saving Optimization of Chilled Water Refrigeration System for a Large Chemical Enterprise%大型化工企业冷冻水制备系统节能优化改造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    From energy saving point of view , the energy-saving optimization scheme of chilled water refrigeration system for Lucky Film Co ., Ltd.was determined by problems in the refrigeration operation system and the company ’ s practical situation .The exact schemes were the centrifugal refrigeration machine instead of lithium bro-mide absorption refrigerating machine , installing screw chiller , and fan and pump energy saving transformation and water substitute for circulating water and so on .Analysis of economic and energy saving benefit of chilled water preparation system after optimization and reform was presented .The results show that the optimal modification was not only achieved better energy-saving effect, but also improved economic and social the benefits .In 2014, the a-mount of water used reduced to 65.5%, the water and electricity consumption per cooling capacity reduced to 68.5% and 8.7%respectively, and the cost reduction amounts up to 1.217 million Yuan.The comprehensive en-ergy consumption was dropped by 5.23%.%从节能的角度出发,针对某大型化工企业冷冻水制备系统运行过程中存在的问题,并结合公司实际情况确定了制冷系统的节能优化改造方案。通过对离心制冷机替代溴化锂制冷机、安装螺杆制冷机、风机水泵节能改造、循环补充水的中水替代等方案的实施,进行优化改造后冷冻水制备系统经济和节能效益分析。方案实施后不但取得较好的节能效益,也带来了比较大的经济效益,2014年水的消耗量降低65.5%,水单耗降低68.5%,电单耗下降8.7%,全年节约费用为121.7万元,实现综合能耗同比下降5.23%。

  1. Climate-Determined Suitability of the Water Saving Technology "Alternate Wetting and Drying" in Rice Systems: A Scalable Methodology demonstrated for a Province in the Philippines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Nelson

    Full Text Available 70% of the world's freshwater is used for irrigated agriculture and demand is expected to increase to meet future food security requirements. In Asia, rice accounts for the largest proportion of irrigated water use and reducing or conserving water in rice systems has been a long standing goal in agricultural research. The Alternate Wetting and Drying (AWD technique has been developed to reduce water use by up to 30% compared to the continuously flooded conditions typically found in rice systems, while not impacting yield. AWD also reduces methane emissions produced by anaerobic archae and hence has applications for reducing water use and greenhouse gas emissions. Although AWD is being promoted across Asia, there have been no attempts to estimate the suitable area for this promising technology on a large scale. We present and demonstrate a spatial and temporal climate suitability assessment method for AWD that can be widely applied across rice systems in Asia. We use a simple water balance model and easily available spatial and temporal information on rice area, rice seasonality, rainfall, potential evapotranspiration and soil percolation rates to assess the suitable area per season. We apply the model to Cagayan province in the Philippines and conduct a sensitivity analysis to account for uncertainties in soil percolation and suitability classification. As expected, the entire dry season is climatically suitable for AWD for all scenarios. A further 60% of the wet season area is found suitable contradicting general perceptions that AWD would not be feasible in the wet season and showing that spatial and temporal assessments are necessary to explore the full potential of AWD.

  2. The Impact of a Deep-Water Plunging Breaker

    CERN Document Server

    Ikeda, Christine; Brucker, Kyle A; Drazen, David A; Dommermuth, Douglas G; Fu, Thomas; Fullerton, Anne M; Duncan, James H

    2014-01-01

    The impact of a plunging breaking wave (wavelength approximately 1.3m) on a rigidly mounted rigid cube structure (dimension 0.31m) that is partially submerged is explored through experiments and numerical calculations. The experiments are carried out in a wave tank and the breaker is generated with a mechanical wave maker using a dispersive focusing technique. The water-surface profile upstream of the front face of the cube and in its vertical centerplane is measured using a cinematic laser-induced fluorescence technique. The three-dimensional flow in the wave tank is simulated directly using the Numerical Flow Analysis (NFA) code. The experiments and the calculations are used to explore the details of the wave-impact process and, in particular, the formation of the high-speed vertical jet that is found on the front face of the cube under some impact conditions.

  3. A surface water flooding impact library for flood risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldridge Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing demand for improved risk-based Surface Water Flooding (SWF warning systems is evident in EU directives and in the UK Government’s Pitt Review of the 2007 summer floods. This paper presents a novel approach for collating receptor and vulnerability datasets via the concept of an Impact Library, developed by the Health and Safety Laboratory as a depository of pre-calculated impact information on SWF risk for use in a real-time SWF Hazard Impact Model (HIM. This has potential benefits for the Flood Forecasting Centre (FFC as the organisation responsible for the issuing of flood guidance information for England and Wales. The SWF HIM takes a pixel-based approach to link probabilistic surface water runoff forecasts produced by CEH’s Grid-to-Grid hydrological model with Impact Library information to generate impact assessments. These are combined to estimate flood risk as a combination of impact severity and forecast likelihood, at 1km pixel level, and summarised for counties and local authorities. The SWF HIM takes advantage of recent advances in operational ensemble forecasting of rainfall by the Met Office and of SWF by the Environment Agency and CEH working together through the FFC. Results are presented for a case study event which affected the North East of England during 2012. The work has been developed through the UK’s Natural Hazards Partnership (NHP, a group of organisations gathered to provide information, research and analysis on natural hazards for civil contingencies, government and responders across the UK.

  4. Impact of climate forcing uncertainty and human water use on global and continental water balance components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller Schmied, Hannes; Adam, Linda; Eisner, Stephanie; Fink, Gabriel; Flörke, Martina; Kim, Hyungjun; Oki, Taikan; Portmann, Felix Theodor; Reinecke, Robert; Riedel, Claudia; Song, Qi; Zhang, Jing; Döll, Petra

    2016-10-01

    The assessment of water balance components using global hydrological models is subject to climate forcing uncertainty as well as to an increasing intensity of human water use within the 20th century. The uncertainty of five state-of-the-art climate forcings and the resulting range of cell runoff that is simulated by the global hydrological model WaterGAP is presented. On the global land surface, about 62 % of precipitation evapotranspires, whereas 38 % discharges into oceans and inland sinks. During 1971-2000, evapotranspiration due to human water use amounted to almost 1 % of precipitation, while this anthropogenic water flow increased by a factor of approximately 5 between 1901 and 2010. Deviation of estimated global discharge from the ensemble mean due to climate forcing uncertainty is approximately 4 %. Precipitation uncertainty is the most important reason for the uncertainty of discharge and evapotranspiration, followed by shortwave downward radiation. At continental levels, deviations of water balance components due to uncertain climate forcing are higher, with the highest discharge deviations occurring for river discharge in Africa (-6 to 11 % from the ensemble mean). Uncertain climate forcings also affect the estimation of irrigation water use and thus the estimated human impact of river discharge. The uncertainty range of global irrigation water consumption amounts to approximately 50 % of the global sum of water consumption in the other water use sector.

  5. 浅议节水工程建设是水利事业发展的必然趋势%Water-Saving Project is the Inevitable Trend of Irrigation Works

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵小红

    2014-01-01

    河北省涿鹿县桑干河灌区是张家口市唯一的大型灌区,由于干旱,无论是地表水、还是地下水都满足不了灌区内人畜饮水、工农业生产用水的需要。为此,必须全方位地发展节水工程建设,从农业、工业、生活方面采取节水措施,利用好非常规水源,大力保护与治理水生态环境。%The irrigation area of Sanggan River in Zhuolu County of Hebei Province is the only vast irrigation area in Zhangjiakou. However,due to the drought of this place,either the surface water or the underground water can answer the need of animals and people,or industry and agriculture. Therefore,water-saving project,including agriculture,industry,and household water saving,use of unconventional water sources,protection of water ecology environment is needed.

  6. WATER QUALITY ANALYSIS OF AGRICULTURALLY IMPACTED TIDAL BLACKBIRD CREEK, DELAWARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Stone

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Blackbird Creek, Delaware is a small watershed in northern Delaware that has a significant proportion of land designated for agricultural land use. The Blackbird Creek water monitoring program was initiated in 2012 to assess the condition of the watershed’s habitats using multiple measures of water quality. Habitats were identified based on percent adjacent agricultural land use. Study sites varying from five to fourteen were sampled biweekly during April and November, 2012-2015. Data were analyzed using principal component analysis and generalized linear modeling. Results from these first four years of data documented no significant differences in water quality parameters (dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature, salinity, inorganic nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, orthophosphate, alkalinity, and turbidity between the two habitats, although both orthophosphate and turbidity were elevated beyond EPA-recommended values. There were statistically significant differences for all of the parameters between agriculture seasons. The lack of notable differences between habitats suggests that, while the watershed is generally impacted by agricultural land use practices, there appears to be no impact on the surface water chemistry. Because there were no differences between habitats, it was concluded that seasonal differences were likely due to basic seasonal variation and were not a function of agricultural land use practices.

  7. Climate change impacts on water barriers and possibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Peter

    The purpose is to elucidate climate change impacts on water related to precipitation, catchment hydrology, water management and land development in fruit export regions at the desert margin in Chile. The case is a region exposed to intense globalization and severe climate change. A timeline (past...... on precipitation. The change and variability is most serious in the northernmost valleys that receive less than 200 mm/yr. This is strengthened by the northwards decrease in the importance of mountains. Precipitation in the mountains, glaciers and snowfields are the main source of irrigation water...... – not the lowland precipitation. As a result annual discharge is up to 50 times lower compared to the southernmost valleys. This did not impede the expansion of fruit plantations explained by the expansion of irrigation canals, and the adoption of drip irrigation. More serious are land tenure barriers, the lack...

  8. Energy Savers: Tips on Saving Money & Energy at Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-05-01

    Provides consumers with home energy and money savings tips such as insulation, weatherization, heating, cooling, water heating, energy efficient windows, landscaping, lighting, and energy efficient appliances.

  9. Energy Savers: Tips on Saving Money & Energy at Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-12-01

    Provides consumers with home energy and money savings tips such as insulation, weatherization, heating, cooling, water heating, energy efficient windows, landscaping, lighting, and energy efficient appliances.

  10. Agricultural Impacts on Water Resources: Recommendations for Successful Applied Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmel, D.

    2014-12-01

    We, as water resource professionals, are faced with a truly monumental challenge - that is feeding the world's growing population and ensuring it has an adequate supply of clean water. As researchers and educators it is good for us to regularly remember that our research and outreach efforts are critical to people around the world, many of whom are desperate for solutions to water quality and supply problems and their impacts on food supply, land management, and ecosystem protection. In this presentation, recommendations for successful applied research on agricultural impacts on water resources will be provided. The benefits of building multidisciplinary teams will be illustrated with examples related to the development and world-wide application of the ALMANAC, SWAT, and EPIC/APEX models. The value of non-traditional partnerships will be shown by the Soil Health Partnership, a coalition of agricultural producers, chemical and seed companies, and environmental advocacy groups. The results of empowering decision-makers with useful data will be illustrated with examples related to bacteria source and transport data and the MANAGE database, which contains runoff nitrogen and phosphorus data for cultivated, pasture, and forest land uses. The benefits of focusing on sustainable solutions will be shown through examples of soil testing, fertilizers application, on-farm profit analysis, and soil health assessment. And the value of welcoming criticism will be illustrated by the development of a framework to estimate and publish uncertainty in measured discharge and water quality data. The good news for researchers is that the agricultural industry is faced with profitability concerns and the need to wisely utilize soil and water resources, and simultaneously state and federal agencies crave sound-science to improve decision making, policy, and regulation. Thus, the audience for and beneficiaries of agricultural research are ready and hungry for applied research results.

  11. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... practice hand hygiene in hospitals and other healthcare facilities. Release Date: 8/4/2010 Source: Healthcare-associated ... choose "Save target as…", save file in desired location. Firefox/Chrome: Right-click on the link, choose " ...

  12. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to us. Send us a comment about our videos . Learn more about CDC-TV Download Instructions Explorer: Right-click on the link, choose "Save target as…", save file in desired location. Firefox/Chrome: Right-click on the ... CDC-TV CDC-TV videos cover a variety of health, safety and preparedness ...

  13. Polish households’ saving strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Anioła

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of households’ saving strategies types classification. A cluster analysis method, based on households’ saving portfolio, was used for classification. Six types of strategies were distinguished: low risk, conservative, very passive, very conservative, diversification and aggressive.

  14. Potential energy savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    1996-01-01

    This chapter describes the chosen methods for estimating the potential energy savings if ordinary window glazing is exchanged with aerogel glazing as well as commercial low-energy glazings.......This chapter describes the chosen methods for estimating the potential energy savings if ordinary window glazing is exchanged with aerogel glazing as well as commercial low-energy glazings....

  15. The Improved Design of the Multifunctional Water-saving Membrane Seeder%多功能节水覆膜播种机的改进设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏红旭; 杜凤永; 陈立东; 高昆; 李国昉

    2015-01-01

    Multifunctional water-saving membrane seeder is one of the seeding machines which is used for seeding peanut and ditching ditches, ridging, fertilizing, seeding, covering soil, spraying and mulching.Based on the seeding device the design has solved some problems which the cylindrical sealers can't transport enough soil and the distance between seed and fertilizers is difficult to be adjusted, with structures such as opener, film device and cylindrical sealers have been optimized.Using PROE to make a seeder model, with some parts parameterized.Then make a dynamic simulation for the seeder.The results show that, the machine has a compact structure, perfect function, which can complete the ditching, seeding, mulching film, covering soil, drip irrigation pipe laying, spraying and other integrated joint operation.%多功能节水覆膜播种机是集起垄、开沟、施肥、播种、覆土、喷药、铺膜、压膜及膜上覆土等过程于一体的播种机。为此,通过对排种器、开沟器、挂膜机构、覆土镇压等装置的结构进行优化设计,解决了传统播种机功能单一及覆土筒盖土不实、种肥间距难以调节等问题。同时,利用Pro/E 对播种机整机进行建模,对部分零件进行了参数化及动态仿真。结果表明:该机结构紧凑、功能完善,能够完成开沟、播种、铺膜、覆土、铺滴灌管,以及喷药等一体化联合作业。

  16. NASA's Impacts Towards Improving International Water Management Using Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, D. L.; Doorn, B.; Searby, N. D.; Entin, J. K.; Lawford, R. G.; Mohr, K. I.; Lee, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    Key objectives of the NASA's Water Resources and Capacity Building Programs are to discover and demonstrate innovative uses and practical benefits of NASA's advanced system technologies for improved water management. This presentation will emphasize NASA's water research, applications, and capacity building activities using satellites and models to contribute to water issues including water availability, transboundary water, flooding and droughts to international partners, particularly developing countries. NASA's free and open exchange of Earth data observations and products helps engage and improve integrated observation networks and enables national and multi-national regional water cycle research and applications that are especially useful in data sparse regions of most developing countries. NASA satellite and modeling products provide a huge volume of valuable data extending back over 50 years across a broad range of spatial (local to global) and temporal (hourly to decadal) scales and include many products that are available in near real time (see earthdata.nasa.gov). To further accomplish these objectives NASA works to actively partner with public and private groups (e.g. federal agencies, universities, NGO's, and industry) in the U.S. and internationally to ensure the broadest use of its satellites and related information and products and to collaborate with regional end users who know the regions and their needs best. The event will help demonstrate the strong partnering and the use of satellite data to provide synoptic and repetitive spatial coverage helping water managers' deal with complex issues. This presentation will outline and describe NASA's international water related research, applications and capacity building programs' efforts to address developing countries critical water challenges in Asia, African and Latin America. This will specifically highlight impacts and case studies from NASA's programs in Water Resources (e.g., drought, snow

  17. Natural attenuation of mining pollutants in the transboundary Save River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meck, M. L.; Masamba, W. R. L.; Atlhopheng, J.; Ringrose, S.

    The objective of the study was to investigate the role played by the natural environment in protecting the transboundary Save River from the impacts of metals derived from phosphate mining at Dorowa. The study is a follow up study from a previous one that noted that there is natural attenuation at Dorowa. Water and sediment samples were collected in the Save River and the streams that drain the Dorowa dumps. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to analyze the cations (Na +, K +, Ca 2+, Mg 2+, Cu 2+, Co 2+, Fe 2+, Ni 2+, Zn 2+, Pb 2+, Sn 2+, Mn 2+, Cd 2+) in the samples. Major anions Cl -, SO42- and NO3- were analyzed by standard chromatography whilst CO32- and HCO3- were determined by titration. pH was measured on site. Geochemical modeling of the water composition was conducted with Visual Minteq. The results show that natural attenuation is being achieved through precipitation of solids from the water and subsequent deposition onto the sediments. Six of the metals are almost completely precipitated (Cu 99.99%, Fe 99.39%, Ni 91.24%, Pb 99.87%, Sn 99.99% and Zn 88.66%). However Mn, Co and Cd remain in solution. Thus the natural environment is protecting the Save River which is a transboundary river from the impacts of mining through precipitation of the metals. Users downstream of Dorowa mine are therefore not being affected by mining pollution. This study demonstrates that besides being a legitimate and important user of water, the natural environment can also play a significant role in protecting water quality by attenuating metals naturally. By analyzing costs incurred in several places where alternative methods are employed to remediate metal related pollution the study concludes that natural remediation at Dorowa is saving the nation in environmental costs. Therefore the paper advocates for appreciation of the role that the natural environment plays in protecting ecosystems from the impact of human developments and environmental costs

  18. Impact-activated solidification of cornstarch and water suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waitukaitis, Scott Russell

    Liquids typically offer little resistance to impacting objects . Surprisingly, dense suspensions of liquids mixed with micron-sized particles can provide tremendous impact resistance, even though they appear liquid like when left at rest or perturbed lightly. The most well-known example is a dense mixture of cornstarch and water, which can easily provide enough impact resistance to allow a full-grown person to run across its surface. Previous studies have linked this so-called ``shear thickening'' to experiments carried out under steady state shear and attributed it to hydrodynamic interactions or granular dilation. However, neither of these explanations alone can account for the stress scales required to keep a running person above the free surface. This thesis investigates the mechanism for this impact resistance in dense suspensions. We begin by studying impact directly and watching a rod as it strikes the surface of a dense suspension of cornstarch and water. Using high-speed video and embedded force and acceleration sensing, we show that the rod motion leads to the rapid growth of a solid-like object below the impact site. With X-ray videography to see the dynamics of the suspension interior and laser sheet measurements of the surface profile, we show how this solid drags on the surrounding suspension, creating substantial peripheral flow and leading to the rapid extraction of the impactor's momentum. Suspecting that the solidification below the rod may be related to jamming of the particle sub-phase, we carry out 2D experiments with macroscopic disks to show how uniaxial compression of an initially unjammed system can lead to dynamic jamming fronts. In doing so, we show how these fronts are sensitive to the system's initial packing fraction relative to the point at which it jams and also discover that the widths of these fronts are related to a diverging correlation length. Finally, we take these results back to the suspension, where we perform careful, speed

  19. Energy Saving and Benefit Analysis of Water Cooled Heat Pump Energy Recovery System%水冷热泵机组冷热回收系统的节能效益分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁莉莉

    2013-01-01

    本文结合华南地区的温泉度假区实际案例,针对水冷热泵机组冷热回收系统应用,详细介绍其系统设计、运行策略、实际运行数据分析、全年能耗模拟与节能效果分析等,充分证明了该系统的节能效果与经济效益。同时指出,针对酒店行业,水冷热泵机组非常适合在制冷同时回收冷凝器热量,用于免费制取生活热水,节能效益显著。%Combined with the actual case of hot spring resort in south area, aimed at the water cooled heat pump energy recovery system, the system design, operation strategy, real operating data record, whole year energy simulation and energy saving analysis were introduced. The energy saving effect and economic benefits were demostrated. Meanwhile, it is pointed out that in hotel application the condensing heat of heat pumps is very suitable to be recovered to heat domestic hot water while heat pumps are running for cooling, and the energy saving would be remarkable.

  20. 76 FR 50494 - Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Mojave National Preserve, San...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-15

    ... National Park Service Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Mojave National... Scoping Period for Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement for Mojave National... National Park Service is preparing a Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement...

  1. Impact of pipes networks simplification on water hammer phenomenon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ali A M Gad; Hassan I Mohammed

    2014-10-01

    Simplification of water supply networks is an indispensible design step to make the original network easier to be analysed. The impact of networks’ simplification on water hammer phenomenon is investigated. This study uses two loops network with different diameters, thicknesses, and roughness coefficients. The network is fed from a boundary head reservoir and loaded by either distributed or concentrated boundary water demands. According to both hydraulic and hydraulic plus water quality equivalence, three simplification levels are performed. The effect of demands’ concentration on the transient flow is checked. The transient flow is initialized by either concentrated or distributed boundary demands which are suddenly shut-off or released. WHAMO software is used for simulation. All scenarios showed that both hydraulic equivalence and demands’ concentration simplifications increase the transient pressure and flow rate. However, hydraulic plus water quality equivalence simplification produces an adverse effect. Therefore, simplifications of the networks should be done carefully. Also, it was found that pump shut-off gives the same trend of valve shut-off or release.

  2. The impact of land use on microbial surface water pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Christiane; Rechenburg, Andrea; Rind, Esther; Kistemann, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Our knowledge relating to water contamination from point and diffuse sources has increased in recent years and there have been many studies undertaken focusing on effluent from sewage plants or combined sewer overflows. However, there is still only a limited amount of microbial data on non-point sources leading to diffuse pollution of surface waters. In this study, the concentrations of several indicator micro-organisms and pathogens in the upper reaches of a river system were examined over a period of 16 months. In addition to bacteria, diffuse pollution caused by Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. was analysed. A single land use type predestined to cause high concentrations of all microbial parameters could not be identified. The influence of different land use types varies between microbial species. The microbial concentration in river water cannot be explained by stable non-point effluent concentrations from different land use types. There is variation in the ranking of the potential of different land use types resulting in surface water contamination with regard to minimum, median and maximum effects. These differences between median and maximum impact indicate that small-scale events like spreading manure substantially influence the general contamination potential of a land use type and may cause increasing micro-organism concentrations in the river water by mobilisation during the next rainfall event. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. IMPACT OF HYDRAULIC FRACTURING ON THE QUALITY OF NATURAL WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Cel

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Poland, due to the estimated shale gas deposits amounting to 346-768 billion m3 has become one of the most attractive regions for shale gas exploration in Europe. Throughout the period 2010-2015, 72 exploratory drillings have been made (as of 4.01.2016 while hydraulic fracturing was carried out 25 times. Employing new drilling and shale gas prospecting technologies raises a question pertaining to their impact on the environment. The number of chemical compounds used (approximately 2000 for the production of new technological fluids may potentially pollute the environment. The fact that the composition of these fluids remains undisclosed hinders the assessment of their impact on the environment and devising optimal methods for managing this type of waste. The presented work indicates the chemical compounds which may infiltrate to groundwater, identified on the basis of technological fluids characteristics, as well as the review of studies pertaining to their impact on potable water carried out in the United States. The study focused on marking heavy metals, calcium, sodium, magnesium, potassium, chlorides and sulphates in the surface waters collected in proximity of Lewino well.

  4. Impact of Water on Rheological Behavior of Polyurethane Glues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laiveniece Laura

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Gluing of wood with great moisture content has challenge of water interaction with glue to give unwanted changes in glue properties and formed bond-line. Rheological measurements of polyurethane glues are sufficiently effective method to understand the polymer curing process and viscoelastic properties. Gel formation point is important parameter for a glue from the point of its application. When glue reaches the gel formation point, its viscosity drastically increases so that it could not properly wet the wood and it can result in poor bonds. One-component moisture curing polyurethane glues require water molecules for the polyadditional reaction. When water is involved in the curing reaction, it reacts with the isocyanate groups of glue and can lead to the formation of excessive carbon dioxide and thus can lead to glue penetration out of bond-line, additional backpressure. The dynamic viscoelastic parameters such as complex dynamic viscosity (ή, phase angle (δ, elastic storage modulus (G”, the viscous loss modulus (G” of two kinds of polyurethane glues depending on added water amount (from 0.9% to 10.0% at a constant frequency and deformation (oscillation mode were determined using rheometer. The aim of the present study was to investigate impact of added water on rheological behavior of polyurethane glues. At the end of this study it was concluded that tested glues indicated various behavior depending on chemical composition and added water content. Gel formation point is higher in case of GlueI. However, gel formation time was higher in case of GlueII and was not dependent on added water content. Gel formation time was faster for GlueII. Nevertheless, faster formed gel is stronger than longer formed gel of GlueI.

  5. Impacts of forest restoration on water yield: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filoso, Solange; Bezerra, Maíra Ometto; Weiss, Katherine C B; Palmer, Margaret A

    2017-01-01

    Enhancing water provision services is a common target in forest restoration projects worldwide due to growing concerns over freshwater scarcity. However, whether or not forest cover expansion or restoration can improve water provision services is still unclear and highly disputed. The goal of this review is to provide a balanced and impartial assessment of the impacts of forest restoration and forest cover expansion on water yields as informed by the scientific literature. Potential sources of bias on the results of papers published are also examined. English, Spanish and Portuguese peer-review articles in Agricola, CAB Abstracts, ISI Web of Science, JSTOR, Google Scholar, and SciELO. Databases were searched through 2015. Intervention terms included forest restoration, regeneration/regrowth, forest second-growth, forestation/afforestation, and forestry. Target terms included water yield/quantity, streamflow, discharge, channel runoff, and annual flow. Articles were pre-selected based on key words in the title, abstract or text. Eligible articles addressed relevant interventions and targets and included quantitative information. Most studies reported decreases in water yields following the intervention, while other hydrological benefits have been observed. However, relatively few studies focused specifically on forest restoration, especially with native species, and/or on projects done at large spatial or temporal scales. Information is especially limited for the humid tropics and subtropics. While most studies reported a decrease in water yields, meta-analyses from a sub-set of studies suggest the potential influence of temporal and/or spatial scales on the outcomes of forest cover expansion or restoration projects. Given the many other benefits of forest restoration, improving our understanding of when and why forest restoration can lead to recovery of water yields is crucial to help improve positive outcomes and prevent unintended consequences. Our study

  6. Influence of malaxation time of olive paste on oil extraction yields and chemical and organoleptic characteristics of virgin olive oil obtained by a centrifugal decanter at water saving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serraiocco, A.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimental tests were carried out to ascertain the influence of malaxation time of olive paste on extraction yields and qualitative characteristics of virgin olive oils obtained by a centrifugal decanter at water saving. Results show that malaxation time has to be no less than 45 minutes to have a satisfactory oil extraction yield. Furthermore, it was ascertained that the malaxation time, protracted up to 90 minutes, does not have influence upon qualitative and organoleptic characteristics of oils. Only the total phenols content of oils changed significantly when the malaxation time of olive paste increased from 15 to 90 minutes. However, in this research has been demonstrated that in some cases the total phenols content of oils increased during the first 30-45 minutes of malaxation and after it diminished. This is due to the variation of total phenols content of vegetable water that in the first time increased and after diminished very quickly. Because of the partition equilibrium law, the total phenols content of oil changed in the same way. Finally, results show that the composition of volatile substances of head-space of oils did not change increasing the malaxation time of olive paste obtained from good quality olive fruits.Se realizaron pruebas experimentales para verificar la influencia del tiempo de batido sobre los rendimientos en aceite y sobre las características de la calidad de los aceites obtenidos con un decanter centrifugo con ahorro de agua. Los resultados conseguidos indicaron que el tiempo de batido no debe ser inferior a 45 minutos para poder obtener rendimientos en aceite satisfactorios. Además, se pudo verificar que la operación de batido, aun siendo prolongada a 90 minutos, no influencia significativamente en las características cualitativas y organolépticas de los aceites. Solo el contenido de fenoles totales en los aceites disminuyó cuando el tiempo de batido fue incrementado de 15 a 90 minutos. Sin embargo, se

  7. Electric energy saving and its impact in the mining industry; El ahorro de energia electrica y su impacto en la industria minera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urteaga Dufour, Jose Antonio [Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (FIDE), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    In this paper are shown the most important results of the energy diagnosis performed in some representative industries of the mining industry, where opportunity areas were detected in electric energy saving, starting from those measures that do not require investment up to the ones that require medium investment, recoverable in less than two years terms as a maximum and with electric energy saving ranging from 10% to 25%. [Espanol] En este trabajo, se presentan los resultados mas importantes, obtenidos en el diagnostico energetico realizado en algunas empresas representativas de la rama de la mineria, en donde se detectaron areas de oportunidad de ahorro de energia electrica que van desde aquellas medidas que no requieren inversiones hasta las que requieren medianas inversiones, recuperables en menos de dos anos como maximo y con ahorros de energia que van desde un 10% hasta un 25%.

  8. Development of the Workplace Health Savings Calculator: a practical tool to measure economic impact from reduced absenteeism and staff turnover in workplace health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Siyan; Campbell, Sharon; Sanderson, Kristy; Cazaly, Carl; Venn, Alison; Owen, Carole; Palmer, Andrew J

    2015-09-18

    Workplace health promotion is focussed on improving the health and wellbeing of workers. Although quantifiable effectiveness and economic evidence is variable, workplace health promotion is recognised by both government and business stakeholders as potentially beneficial for worker health and economic advantage. Despite the current debate on whether conclusive positive outcomes exist, governments are investing, and business engagement is necessary for value to be realised. Practical tools are needed to assist decision makers in developing the business case for workplace health promotion programs. Our primary objective was to develop an evidence-based, simple and easy-to-use resource (calculator) for Australian employers interested in workplace health investment figures. Three phases were undertaken to develop the calculator. First, evidence from a literature review located appropriate effectiveness measures. Second, a review of employer-facilitated programs aimed at improving the health and wellbeing of employees was utilised to identify change estimates surrounding these measures, and third, currently available online evaluation tools and models were investigated. We present a simple web-based calculator for use by employers who wish to estimate potential annual savings associated with implementing a successful workplace health promotion program. The calculator uses effectiveness measures (absenteeism and staff turnover rates) and change estimates sourced from 55 case studies to generate the annual savings an employer may potentially gain. Australian wage statistics were used to calculate replacement costs due to staff turnover. The calculator was named the Workplace Health Savings Calculator and adapted and reproduced on the Healthy Workers web portal by the Australian Commonwealth Government Department of Health and Ageing. The Workplace Health Savings Calculator is a simple online business tool that aims to engage employers and to assist participation

  9. 节水器具推广财政补贴标准测算方法%Research of the Standard Calculation Method of Financial Subsidies on the Promotion of Water-Saving Devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李可任; 左其亭

    2012-01-01

    针对我国水资源异常短缺的严峻形势和居民日常生活用水严重浪费的事实,实施全国范围内的节水器具推广财政补贴制度势在必行.但财政补贴标准测算作为节水器具推广财政补贴制度构建工作的核心内容却尚不明确.现结合国家相关文件精神和现阶段国情的基础,选定财政补贴标准测算的影响因素,在考虑影响因素和国家政策的条件下确定财政补贴标准分区.最后,在充分考虑节水器具自身特性的基础上,提出各分区补贴标准测算系数和测算表达式.将该测算方法应用于现阶段我国节水器具推广财政补贴计算,经对比分析,认为结果是合理的.%The serious contradiction between the shortage of water resources and extravagant use of domestic water in China prompts the urgent application of the financial subsidy system for promoting the nationwide use of the water-saving devices. However,the financial subsidy standard is not clear as the key of the financial subsidies on the promotion of the water-saving devices. Based on the national spirit of the relevant documents and the current national conditions, the influencing factors affecting the standard of the financial subsidies are selected and the partitions of the financial subsidies are determined in light of the influence factors and national policies. Finally, the standard calculation coefficient and calculation equation for each partition of the subsidy standard are proposed on the basis of fully considering the features of the water-saving devices. The calculation method is then applied to the calculation of the financial subsidies on the promotion of the water-saving devices at the present stage in China,and the results are reasonable based on the comparative analysis.

  10. Water for utilities: climate change impacts on water quality and water availability for utilities in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwolsman, J.J.G.; Vliet, van M.T.H.; Bonte, M.; Gorski, N.; Flörke, M.; Eisner, S.; Ludwig, F.

    2011-01-01

    This report provides an assessment of the consequences of changing water availability for production of drinking water, the manufacturing industry and power production in Europe, due to climate change and socio-economic developments. The report is based up on projections of demographic and

  11. Impact of water scarcity on food security at meso level in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Fahim, Muhammad Amir

    2011-01-01

    Pakistan is confronting the problem of water scarcity which is rendering an adverse impact on food security. The study examines the impact of water scarcity on food security in an era of climate change. It further focuses on projecting the future trends of water and food stock. The research effort probes the links among water scarcity, climate change, food security, water security, food inflation, poverty and management of water resources. Data on food security was collected from the FSA (Foo...

  12. Impact of water scarcity on food security at micro level in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Fahim, Muhammad Amir

    2011-01-01

    Pakistan is confronting the problem of water scarcity which is rendering an adverse impact on food security. The study examines the impact of water scarcity on food security in an era of climate change. It further focuses on projecting the future trends of water and food stock. The research effort probes the links among water scarcity, climate change, food security, water security, food inflation, poverty and management of water resources. Data on food security was collected from the FSA (Foo...

  13. Impact of water scarcity on food security at macro level in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Fahim, Muhammad Amir

    2011-01-01

    Pakistan is confronting the problem of water scarcity which is rendering an adverse impact on food security. The study examines the impact of water scarcity on food security in an era of climate change. It further focuses on projecting the future trends of water and food stock. The research effort probes the links among water scarcity, climate change, food security, water security, food inflation, poverty and management of water resources. Data on food security was collected from the FSA (Foo...

  14. Impact of water scarcity on food security at macro level in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Fahim, Muhammad Amir

    2011-01-01

    Pakistan is confronting the problem of water scarcity which is rendering an adverse impact on food security. The study examines the impact of water scarcity on food security in an era of climate change. It further focuses on projecting the future trends of water and food stock. The research effort probes the links among water scarcity, climate change, food security, water security, food inflation, poverty and management of water resources. Data on food security was collected from the FSA (Foo...

  15. Impact of water scarcity on food security at micro level in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Fahim, Muhammad Amir

    2011-01-01

    Pakistan is confronting the problem of water scarcity which is rendering an adverse impact on food security. The study examines the impact of water scarcity on food security in an era of climate change. It further focuses on projecting the future trends of water and food stock. The research effort probes the links among water scarcity, climate change, food security, water security, food inflation, poverty and management of water resources. Data on food security was collected from the FSA (Foo...

  16. Impact of water scarcity on food security at meso level in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Fahim, Muhammad Amir

    2011-01-01

    Pakistan is confronting the problem of water scarcity which is rendering an adverse impact on food security. The study examines the impact of water scarcity on food security in an era of climate change. It further focuses on projecting the future trends of water and food stock. The research effort probes the links among water scarcity, climate change, food security, water security, food inflation, poverty and management of water resources. Data on food security was collected from the FSA (Foo...

  17. Assessment of human impact on water quality along Manyame River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirivashe P. Masere

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Human activities such as urbanization, agriculture, sewage treatment and industrialization are affecting water resources both quantitatively and qualitatively. The impact of these activities were studied by measuring and determining the concentration and values of eight selected water quality parameters namely nitrates, phosphates, copper, iron, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, dissolved oxygen (DO, pH and turbidity along Manyame River, in the Manyame Catchment. Thirty five sites were sampled from the source of the river which is at Seke Dam, along Manyame River and on the tributaries (Ruwa, Nyatsime, Mukuvisi and Marimba just before they join the river. The 35 sites were categorized into 5 groups (A, B, C, D and E with group A and E being the upstream and downstream of Manyame. The analysis of results was undertaken using a simple one-way ANOVA with group as the only source of variation. Turbidity values, nitrate and phosphate concentrations were found to be higher than the Zimbabwe National Water Authority (ZINWA maximum permissible standards for surface waters. DO saturation in the downstream groups was less than 75% (ZINWA standard. Agricultural and urban runoff and sewage effluent were responsible of the high nutrient levels and turbidity, which in turn, reduced the dissolved oxygen (DO.

  18. Impact of major volcanic eruptions on stratospheric water vapour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löffler, Michael; Brinkop, Sabine; Jöckel, Patrick

    2016-05-01

    Volcanic eruptions can have a significant impact on the Earth's weather and climate system. Besides the subsequent tropospheric changes, the stratosphere is also influenced by large eruptions. Here changes in stratospheric water vapour after the two major volcanic eruptions of El Chichón in Mexico in 1982 and Mount Pinatubo on the Philippines in 1991 are investigated with chemistry-climate model simulations. This study is based on two simulations with specified dynamics of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Hamburg - Modular Earth Submodel System (ECHAM/MESSy) Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) model, performed within the Earth System Chemistry integrated Modelling (ESCiMo) project, of which only one includes the long-wave volcanic forcing through prescribed aerosol optical properties. The results show a significant increase in stratospheric water vapour induced by the eruptions, resulting from increased heating rates and the subsequent changes in stratospheric and tropopause temperatures in the tropics. The tropical vertical advection and the South Asian summer monsoon are identified as sources for the additional water vapour in the stratosphere. Additionally, volcanic influences on tropospheric water vapour and El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are evident, if the long-wave forcing is strong enough. Our results are corroborated by additional sensitivity simulations of the Mount Pinatubo period with reduced nudging and reduced volcanic aerosol extinction.

  19. Ecotoxic impact of suspended solids collected from polluted surface waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weltens, R.; Witters, H.; Corbisier, P. [Vito, Environmental Toxicology, MOL (Belgium)

    2001-07-01

    Scope and background. Earlier studies showed that artificially contaminated particulate matter could be responsible for acute effects in water fleas and fish. Physical/chemical measurements on suspended solids and river water collected in the field showed that these samples were often contaminated with mixtures of toxic molecules. Objectives. The present pilot study was started to investigate the possible ecotoxic impact of suspended solids collected in situ. Methods. Suspended solids and river waters were collected from 22 locations of polluted rivers in the Flanders. An extensive list of chemical components and physical parameters were measured in these matrices. Partition coefficients for water column and suspended solids were calculated. Toxicity of suspensions of solid materials was investigated in 3 test organisms of different trophic levels: Bacteria (BIOMET trademark), filter feeder (Daphnia magna) and fish (rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) or zebrafish (Danio rerio)). The acute toxicity was measured in a worst-case scenario using high concentrations of solids resuspended in standard medium and at standard conditions. (orig.)

  20. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... public health professionals. More > Hand Hygiene Saves Lives (5:10) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Hand ... High resolution [22.9 MB] Open Captioned [14.5 MB] Request a higher resolution file Copy the ...

  1. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Laboratory Science: Mission Critical Saving Lives, Protecting People Environmental Health CDC Tracking Network Health Begins at Home ... To Health (4:17) Vital Signs High Blood Pressure Spanish Diseases & Conditions Hablemos de la Influenza Influenza ...

  2. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Obesity Epidemic Outbreaks CDC: Protecting Americans through Global Health Ebola and Contact Tracing Global Disease Detectives in ... Science: Mission Critical Saving Lives, Protecting People Environmental Health CDC Tracking Network Health Begins at Home Smoke- ...

  3. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Saving Lives, Protecting People Environmental Health CDC Tracking Network Health Begins at Home Smoke-free Multiunit Housing ... maintained by: Office of the Associate Director for Communication, Division of News and Electronic Media Email Recommend ...

  4. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Center (EOC) 101 Emergency Operations Center CDC Laboratory Science: Mission Critical Saving Lives, Protecting People Environmental Health ... Break the Silence: Stop the Violence Injury Prevention Research In the Swim of Things Safe Teen Drivers ...

  5. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... To Health (4:17) Vital Signs High Blood Pressure Spanish Diseases & Conditions Hablemos de la Influenza Influenza ... Videos are prepared for different audiences including, children, parents, and public health professionals. More > Hand Hygiene Saves ...

  6. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tricky Treats Hygiene Fight Germs. Wash Your Hands! Go with the Flow Hand Hygiene Saves Lives Wash ... Wes Studi: Signs (:30) Traveler’s Health Way to Go Way to Go: Many Healthy Returns (4:00) ...

  7. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Critical Saving Lives, Protecting People Environmental Health CDC Tracking Network Health Begins at Home Smoke-free Multiunit ... The Story of Folic Acid Fortification Through the Eyes of the Eagle Wes Studi: Don’t Get ...

  8. Realized Cost Savings 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This dataset is provided as a requirement of OMB’s Integrated Data Collection (IDC) and links to VA’s Realized Cost Savings and Avoidances data in JSON format. Cost...

  9. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Saving Lives, Protecting People Environmental Health CDC Tracking Network Health Begins at Home Smoke-free Multiunit Housing ... Email CDC-INFO U.S. Department of Health & Human Services HHS/Open USA.gov Top

  10. Analysis of the Energy and Water Saving Technologies of Water Supply and Drainage Engineering%给水排水工程的节能节水技术探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈弼川

    2013-01-01

    随着社会的不断发展,建筑行业也在蓬勃发展,给水排水工程在建筑工程中占据着重要位置。根据资料显示,建筑耗能在整个社会能源消耗中约占总耗能资源的30%。本文根据施工案例,分析了排水节能设计技术。%With the continuous development of society, the construction industry is also booming, and the water supply and drainage project occupies an important position in cons-truction. According to statistics, the building energy consum-ption in the whole society energy consumption accounts for about 30%of the total resource consumption. This article bas-es on the construction cases and analyzes the technology of dr-ainage and energy saving design.

  11. Active vs. Passive Decisions and Crowdout in Retirement Savings Accounts: Evidence from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben Heien; Leth-Petersen, Søren; Chetty, Raj

    2012-01-01

    Do retirement savings policies – such as tax subsidies or employer-provided pension plans – increase total saving for retirement or simply induce shifting across accounts? We revisit this classic question using 45 million observations on savings for the population of Denmark. We find that a policy......'s impact on total savings depends critically on whether it changes savings rates by active or passive choice. Tax subsidies, which rely upon individuals to take an action to raise savings, have small impacts on total wealth. We estimate that each $1 of tax expenditure on subsidies increases total saving...

  12. 节能型水源热泵中央空调在居住小区中的应用%On application of energy-saving water source heat pump center air-conditioner in residential complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵艳军

    2012-01-01

    The paper introduces the basic principle for the energy-saving water source heat pump center air-conditioner,has the detailed indication of the "green,environmental-friendly,energy-saving and comfortable" new resource,undertakes the comparative analysis by comparing it with other resources by the list intercomparison from the comfortableness,the initial investment and the running cost,and concludes the energy-saving geothermic air-conditioner can bring newer and more comfortable living environment%介绍了节能型水源热泵中央空调的基本原理,对这种"绿色、环保、节能、舒适"的新能源做了详尽的说明,并通过列表比对等方法与其他能源形式从舒适性、初投资及运行费等方面进行了对比分析,得出节能型地温中央空调将为居住小区带来全新和更为舒适的生活环境的结论。

  13. Hydraulic "fracking": are surface water impacts an ecological concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, G Allen; Basu, Niladri; Ellis, Brian R; Kapo, Katherine E; Entrekin, Sally; Nadelhoffer, Knute

    2014-08-01

    Use of high-volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF) in unconventional reservoirs to recover previously inaccessible oil and natural gas is rapidly expanding in North America and elsewhere. Although hydraulic fracturing has been practiced for decades, the advent of more technologically advanced horizontal drilling coupled with improved slickwater chemical formulations has allowed extensive natural gas and oil deposits to be recovered from shale formations. Millions of liters of local groundwaters are utilized to generate extensive fracture networks within these low-permeability reservoirs, allowing extraction of the trapped hydrocarbons. Although the technology is relatively standardized, the geographies and related policies and regulations guiding these operations vary markedly. Some ecosystems are more at risk from these operations than others because of either their sensitivities or the manner in which the HVHF operations are conducted. Generally, the closer geographical proximity of the susceptible ecosystem to a drilling site or a location of related industrial processes, the higher the risk of that ecosystem being impacted by the operation. The associated construction of roads, power grids, pipelines, well pads, and water-extraction systems along with increased truck traffic are common to virtually all HVHF operations. These operations may result in increased erosion and sedimentation, increased risk to aquatic ecosystems from chemical spills or runoff, habitat fragmentation, loss of stream riparian zones, altered biogeochemical cycling, and reduction of available surface and hyporheic water volumes because of withdrawal-induced lowering of local groundwater levels. The potential risks to surface waters from HVHF operations are similar in many ways to those resulting from agriculture, silviculture, mining, and urban development. Indeed, groundwater extraction associated with agriculture is perhaps a larger concern in the long term in some regions. Understanding the

  14. Impacts of Participatory Modeling on Climate Change-related Water Management Impacts in Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, K. E.; Kossak, D. J.; Mayer, A. S.; Vivoni, E. R.; Robles-Morua, A.; Gamez Molina, V.; Dana, K.; Mirchi, A.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change-related impacts on water resources are expected to be particularly severe in the arid developing world. As a result, we conducted a series of participatory modeling workshops on hydrologic and water resources systems modeling in the face of climate change in Sonora, Mexico. Pre-surveys were administered to participants on Day 1 of a series of four workshops spaced out over three months in 2013. Post-surveys repeated many pre-survey questions and included questions assessing the quality of the workshops and models. We report on significant changes in participant perceptions of water resource models and problems and their assessment of the workshops. These findings will be of great value to future participatory modeling efforts, particularly within the developing world.

  15. 工程型太阳能热泵热水系统节能效益分析%Energy-saving Benefit Analysis of Engineering Type Solar Energy Hot Water System in Conjunction with Heat Pump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    According to the engineering case region meteorological data and solar resource characteristics,the solar energy centralized heating system in Conjunction with heat pump used in the hotel is analyzed based on saving benefits. By means of comprehensive analyzing of annual amount of energy saving,cost saving,payback period for the increase of the initial investment,as well as environmental benefits of the solar energy heat pump hot water system,it is indicated that solar energy heat pump hot water system project not only has the very high heat efficiency and environmental adaptability but also has high economy efficiency. It is a kind of heating water systems of ideal high quality.%  根据工程案例地区气象参数及太阳能资源特点,对已投入宾馆使用的太阳能热泵集中供热水系统进行节能效益分析。通过对太阳能热泵热水系统的年节能量,节省费用,系统增加的初投资的回收年限,以及太阳能热泵热水系统的环保效益进行综合分析。表明工程型太阳能热泵热水系统不仅具有很高的热效率和环境适应性同时具有较高的经济性,是一种理想的高品质供热水系统。

  16. Energy saving in milk processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Janzekovic

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: of this paper is to present the justification of replacement of the obsolete system for milk pasteurization and washing of the production line by the newer CIP system (cleaning in place in the dairy. The latter ensures reliable washing and sterilization of lines and machines, which is one of the principal prerequisites for the product quality.Design/methodology/approach: The measurements were performed with the installed equipment CIP Module 5111 - 5116. The cleaning equipment is an 8 line satellite system. The SPS control and the visualization take place through the RAS (Remote - Access network. The visualization data are archived and the visualization is connected to the PC network. The worn Alfa Laval pasteur has been replaced by the new Fischer equipment.Findings: The new CIP system assured 43% water saving, if compared with the old equipment. Saving of washing agents (caustic solution, acid amounted to 11.5%. Due to smaller need for energy (gas, electricity the energy costs were reduced by 19%.Research limitations/implications: The modern system for pasteurization and washing is closely connected with energy saving measures. It allows the production of safe milk products in accordance with HACCP (hazard analyses of critical control points and reduces the hazard of injuries with chemicals.Practical implications: For any company the investments are a decisive factor for its growth and development. Modernization of systems for washing of production lines in dairies assures the cost reduction at all levels and the milk processing into high-quality milk products.Originality/value: The new CIP energy saving system has an influence on the costs of the dairy business activities and the reduction of environment burdening. Owing to the use of new equipment allowing 20 second maintaining time of pasteurization the pasteurization temperature has been reduced from 78°C to 76°C and, thus, the profitability of the pasteurization process has

  17. Minimizing Adverse Environmental Impact: How Murky the Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reed W. Super

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The withdrawal of water from the nation’s waterways to cool industrial facilities kills billions of adult, juvenile, and larval fish each year. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA promulgation of categorical rules defining the best technology available to minimize adverse environmental impact (AEI could standardize and improve the control of such mortality. However, in an attempt to avoid compliance costs, industry has seized on the statutory phrase “adverse environmental impact” to propose significant procedural and substantive hurdles and layers of uncertainty in the permitting of cooling-water intakes under the Clean Water Act. These include, among other things, a requirement to prove that a particular facility threatens the sustainability of an aquatic population as a prerequisite to regulation. Such claims have no foundation in science, law, or the English language. Any nontrivial aquatic mortality constitutes AEI, as the EPA and several state and federal regulatory agencies have properly acknowledged. The focus of scientists, lawyers, regulators, permit applicants, and other interested parties should not be on defining AEI, but rather on minimizing AEI, which requires minimization of impingement and entrainment.

  18. 浙江省工业用水的节水潜力及影响因素分析%Analysis on the water-saving potential and influence factors of industry in Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宁; 张媛媛

    2011-01-01

    对浙江省工业用水的资源配置效率进行了分析,在此基础上,以工业用水效率最高的地级市舟山市为参照,分析了浙江省其他地级市工业用水的节水潜力,以工业用水效率为因变量,对影响工业用水效率的因素进行回归分析,根据分析结果对浙江省工业用水效率的提高提出建议.结果表明:目前浙江省工业用水的资源配置偏离了效率原则,各地级市的工业用水有较大的节水潜力;对工业用水效率有显著影响的因素包括人均GDP、工业增值率、工业用水价格、外商及港澳台商投资规模以及人均教育费用等.各地级市应根据本地实际情况制定节水目标,采取相应政策措施提高该地区的工业用水效率,以保持经济、社会稳定健康地发展.%This paper analyzed the water resource distribution efficiency of industry in Zhejiang Province. Based on this analysis, taking the highest industry water utilization efficient prefecture-level city- Zhoushan City as reference, this paper analyzed the water-saving potential of other prefecture-level cities in Zhejiang Province; meanwhile, taking the industry water utilization efficiency as induced variable, a regression analysis was carried out on the influence factors on industry water utilization efficiency; finally, according to the analysis results, the suggestion about improving Zhejiang Province industry water utilization efficiency was brought forward. The results showed; currently the water resource distribution in Zhejiang Province industry departure from efficiency principle, and there was still high water-saving potential in other prefecture-level cities; the obvious influence factors on water-saving efficiency included per capita GDP, industry increase rate, industrial use water price, scale of foreign capital and capital from Hong Kong, Macao, and Taiwan, and per capita education cost. Every prefecture-level city should decide the water-saving goal

  19. 对家用空调冷凝水节能利用的几点思考%Reflections on Household Use of Energy-saving Air-conditioning Condensate Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冬梅

    2014-01-01

    Home air conditioning condensate water, cooled condenser and recovery to explore in order to find effective use of condensate way to achieve home air conditioning energy saving effect.%对家用空调冷凝水的水量、冷却冷凝器和回收装置进行探究,以期能够找到有效利用冷凝水的方法,实现家用空调节能的效果。

  20. 光学镜片加工企业节水改造实例%Case study on the modification of water-saving in optical lens processing enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张霞; 张雷; 朱海涛; 刘娜

    2016-01-01

    光学镜片加工的清洗流程消耗大量水资源,同时末端产生大量清洗废水。2015年水污染防治行动计划实施,其中明确提出着力节约保护水资源,生产企业面临严峻的节水压力。天津市某光学镜片加工企业通过建立水平衡明确镜片加工清洗流程的用水排水情况,在此基础上对清洗流程进行改造,取得了明显的节水效益和废水减排效益。%A large number of wate r resources is consumed in the cleaning process of optical lens processing enter-prises,and a great deal of cleaning wastewater is produced at the terminal at the same time. The water pollution con-trol action plan was implemented in 2015 ,and it was proposed that the saving and protection of water resources should be focused on definitely. Production enterprises are facing severe pressure from the conservation of water reso-urces. By means of establishing water consumption balance ,the water discharge situation in optical lens processing cleaning process has been comfirmed for an optical lens processing factory in Tianjin. Based on this ,the cleaning process has been modified,and obvious water saving profit and wastewater emission reduction profit are obtained.

  1. Numerical Investigation of the Consequences of Land Impacts, Water Impacts, or Air Bursts of Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzedine, S. M.; Dearborn, D. S.; Miller, P. L.

    2015-12-01

    The annual probability of an asteroid impact is low, but over time, such catastrophic events are inevitable. Interest in assessing the impact consequences has led us to develop a physics-based framework to seamlessly simulate the event from entry to impact, including air and water shock propagation and wave generation. The non-linear effects are simulated using the hydrodynamics code GEODYN. As effects propagate outward, they become a wave source for the linear-elastic-wave propagation code, WPP/WWP. The GEODYN-WPP/WWP coupling is based on the structured adaptive-mesh-refinement infrastructure, SAMRAI, and has been used in FEMA table-top exercises conducted in 2013 and 2014, and more recently, the 2015 Planetary Defense Conference exercise. Results from these simulations provide an estimate of onshore effects and can inform more sophisticated inundation models. The capabilities of this methodology are illustrated by providing results for different impact locations, and an exploration of asteroid size on the waves arriving at the shoreline of area cities. We constructed the maximum and minimum envelops of water-wave heights given the size of the asteroid and the location of the impact along the risk corridor. Such profiles can inform emergency response and disaster-mitigation efforts, and may be used for design of maritime protection or assessment of risk to shoreline structures of interest. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-675390-DRAFT.

  2. Water constraints on European power supply under climate change: Impacts on electricity prices

    OpenAIRE

    Michelle T.H. van Vliet; Vögele, Stefan; Rübbelke, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Recent warm, dry summers showed the vulnerability of the European power sector to low water availability and high river temperatures. Climate change is likely to impact electricity supply, in terms of both water availabilty for hydropower generation and cooling water usage for thermoelectric power production. Here, we show the impacts of climate change and changes in water availability and water temperature on European electricity production and prices. Using simulations of daily river flo...

  3. Impact of Deforestation on Water Budget in Sudanian Climate (Benin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galle, S.; Mamadou, O.; Cohard, J. M.; Peugeot, C.; Ntiwunwa, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    In West Africa, surface atmosphere exchanges have been found to impact both regional and local features of the Monsoon. At local scale the spatial patterns of evaporative fraction can drive the trajectories of mesoscale convective systems. Within Sudanian climate, ~80% of the precipitation returns to atmosphere through evapotranspiration. However, this amount and its seasonal dynamic may vary with the vegetation cover. Consequently, one might expect that any land use or climate changes could lead to the modification of the surface feedbacks, and, thus on both the atmospheric and the continental water cycle. The sudanian region of West Africa is submitted to a 3% demographical increase per year, which induces a drastic expansion of crops areas. In the Upper Oueme basin, the natural forest cover reduces from 70% to 25% in 40 years. This study aims at quantifying the changes in evapotranspiration regime caused by such a land use change under sudanian climate. The AMMA-CATCH observatory documents evapotranspiration flux in West Africa since 2007. A pluri-annual energy budget of a forest and a cropland area are analysed. It is shown that sudanian forest evapo-transpirated always more than cropland areas because of agricultural practice and water availability for trees. Thus, during the dry season, the cropland areas are bare while the forests do not completely lose their leaves. Their deep root systems allow the trees to get access to water. Observed evapotranspiration is significant over forests. During the rainy season, vegetation is fully developed and well-watered. Nevertheless, lower but significant differences in evaporative fraction are also observed. At annual scale these differences lead to a 13% to 30% reduction of evapotranspiration with deforestation.

  4. Modernized approach for the remediation of produced water impacted sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knafla, A.; Carey, J. [Equilibrium Environmental Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Stokes, D. [Talisman Energy Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Carey, J.; Sunita, R.

    2007-10-01

    This article described a project conducted to remediate a site in southeast Saskatchewan polluted by releases of produced water-related salts and boron during the 1960s. A risk assessment was conducted to define endpoints based on equivalent land capability and the potential for health risks. Multiple toxic stressors complicated the assessment, and limited published data were available regarding cumulative and interactive effects. Boron concentrations exceeded recommended guidelines, and the poor permeability of surface soils caused reduced infiltration and increased run-off. An automated pumping system was designed to allow for variable leachate removal rates depending on groundwater elevations. A distillation system using moderately saline water from a nearby source was designed to offset scaling that occurred due to high calcium sulfate concentrations. Results of the project suggested that the combination of groundwater control, improving surface soil permeability, establishing plant growth, and available water for infiltration resulted in significant improvements in soil quality and an approach towards land capability endpoints. The use of moderately saline irrigation water led to significant improvements in the soil salinity of heavily impacted areas. Test plots were then formed to test the efficacy of manure and calcium nitrate as a remediation technique. Test plots were treated with Roundup, and calcium nitrate before seeding, or with manure and calcium nitrate followed by rototilling and seeding. In treated plots, plant growth was observed for barley, alkali grass, wheatgrasses, orchard grass, rye, and alfalfa. Greater plant height and yield was visible in the manure and calcium nitrate treated plots. A decrease in boron topsoil concentrations was also observed. Average bioconcentration factors was calculated as 29.5. It was concluded that the method can provide a 20 per cent annual soil concentration reduction rate. 6 figs.

  5. Estimates of Savings Achievable from Irrigation Controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Alison; Fuchs, Heidi; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham

    2014-03-28

    This paper performs a literature review and meta-analysis of water savings from several types of advanced irrigation controllers: rain sensors (RS), weather-based irrigation controllers (WBIC), and soil moisture sensors (SMS).The purpose of this work is to derive average water savings per controller type, based to the extent possible on all available data. After a preliminary data scrubbing, we utilized a series of analytical filters to develop our best estimate of average savings. We applied filters to remove data that might bias the sample such as data self-reported by manufacturers, data resulting from studies focusing on high-water users, or data presented in a non-comparable format such as based on total household water use instead of outdoor water use. Because the resulting number of studies was too small to be statistically significant when broken down by controller type, this paper represents a survey and synthesis of available data rather than a definitive statement regarding whether the estimated water savings are representative.

  6. Climate Change-Related Water Disasters' Impact on Population Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenema, Tener Goodwin; Thornton, Clifton P; Lavin, Roberta Proffitt; Bender, Annah K; Seal, Stella; Corley, Andrew

    2017-08-18

    Rising global temperatures have resulted in an increased frequency and severity of cyclones, hurricanes, and flooding in many parts of the world. These climate change-related water disasters (CCRWDs) have a devastating impact on communities and the health of residents. Clinicians and policymakers require a substantive body of evidence on which to base planning, prevention, and disaster response to these events. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature concerning the impact of CCRWDs on public health in order to identify factors in these events that are amenable to preparedness and mitigation. Ultimately, this evidence could be used by nurses to advocate for greater preparedness initiatives and inform national and international disaster policy. A systematic literature review of publications identified through a comprehensive search of five relevant databases (PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature [CINAHL], Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science) was conducted using a modified Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) approach in January 2017 to describe major themes and associated factors of the impact of CCRWDs on population health. Three major themes emerged: environmental disruption resulting in exposure to toxins, population susceptibility, and health systems infrastructure (failure to plan-prepare-mitigate, inadequate response, and lack of infrastructure). Direct health impact was characterized by four major categories: weather-related morbidity and mortality, waterborne diseases/water-related illness, vector-borne and zoonotic diseases, and psychiatric/mental health effects. Scope and duration of the event are factors that exacerbate the impact of CCRWDs. Discussion of specific factors amenable to mitigation was limited. Flooding as an event was overrepresented in this analysis (60%), and the majority of the research reviewed was conducted in high-income or upper

  7. 67 FR 64639 - Announcement of a Public Stakeholder Meeting on Drinking Water Distribution System Impacts on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-10-21

    ... AGENCY Announcement of a Public Stakeholder Meeting on Drinking Water Distribution System Impacts on... finished water quality in distribution systems. The purpose of this meeting is to provide information to... public health impacts of drinking water distribution systems. Those registered by November 8 will receive...

  8. 76 FR 78096 - U.S. Advanced Boiling Water Reactor Aircraft Impact Design Certification Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 52 RIN 3150-AI84 U.S. Advanced Boiling Water Reactor Aircraft Impact Design.... Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (U.S. ABWR) standard plant design to comply with the NRC's aircraft impact...--Design Certification Rule for the U.S. Advanced Boiling Water Reactor IV. Section-by-Section Analysis A...

  9. Performance of funnel-shaped plastic bottle for water saving cultivation in extreme arid region%极端干旱区漏斗状塑料瓶的节水栽培性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹林涛; 高斌; 王前道; 曹亦斌

    2012-01-01

    为解决缺水高渗透地区新栽植物难以存活问题,该文通过室内实验与现场试验研究了塑料瓶的节水栽培性能.室内模拟不同的水分散失条件,连续多U定时测试塑料瓶内砂土的含水量,回归分析剩余含水量随时问的变化函数.结果表明:温度越高,水分散失速度越大;由饱和含水量至萎蔫含水量,在室温(22±1)℃下可以间隔9d浇水1次;漏斗状比直筒状瓶有利于延迟水分渗透;砂粒与有机肥比黏粒有利于锁住水分,可用以调节水分散失速度.现场栽植试验(有瓶与无瓶)比较亦证实该方法的有效性.由于漏斗状塑料瓶具有留存水流与延迟渗透的节水功效,有利于缺水或高渗透地区草、灌木植物的栽培.%In order to resolve the plants survival difficulty in high permeability or water-shortage area, the water-saving cultivation by funnel-shaped plastic bottle was studied through laboratory and field tests. Different water losing conditions were simulated in the laboratory to continuously test water content of sandy soil in the plastic bottle every day. Then, the regressive function was built to describe the relationship between remaining water content in sandy soil and time. Testing Results showed that the higher the environment temperature was, the greater the rate of water loss. From the saturated water content to the wilting water content, an interval of watering could be 9 days at room temperature((22±l)°C).The funnel-shaped bottles could delay water loss compared to straight cylinder-shaped bottles. Sand particles combined with organic fertilizers were more facilitated to conserve water than clay soil, and they could be used to adjust the rate of water loss. Field planting tests (with bottles and without bottles) confirmed its water-saving effectiveness. Due to high efficiency of water accumulation and saving, funnel-shaped bottles can benefit plants cultivation in high permeability or water-shortage area.

  10. Energy savings in the Danish building stock until 2050

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Kragh, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    A study has been conducted analysing the energy savings for space heating and domestic hot water in the Danish building stock due to renovation of building components at the end of their service life. The purpose of the study was to estimate the energy savings until 2050 as building components ar...... savings, due to the level of the current requirements. Higher energy savings can, though, be achieved e.g. by setting requirements for balanced mechanical ventilation with heat recovery and use of solar heating for domestic hot water....

  11. Impact of reactor water chemistry on cladding performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, B. [University of Toronto, Centre for Nuclear Engineering, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1997-07-01

    Water chemistry may have a major impact on fuel cladding performance in PWRs. If the saturation temperature on the surface of fuel cladding is exceeded, either because of the thermal hydraulics of the system, or because of crud deposition, then LiOH concentration can occur within thick porous oxide films on the cladding. This can degrade the protective film and accelerate the corrosion rate of the cladding. If sufficient boric acid is also present in the coolant then these effects may be mitigated. This is normally the case through most of any reactor fuel cycle. Extensive surface boiling may disrupt this equilibrium because of the volatility of boric acid in steam. Under such conditions severe cladding corrosion can ensue. The potential for such effects on high burnup cladding in CANDU reactors, where bone acid is not present in the primary coolant, is discussed. (author)

  12. Potential impacts of global warming on water resources in southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuhler, M

    2003-01-01

    Global warming will have a significant impact on water resources within the 20 to 90-year planning period of many water projects. Arid and semi-arid regions such as Southern California are especially vulnerable to anticipated negative impacts of global warming on water resources. Long-range water facility planning must consider global climate change in the recommended mix of new facilities needed to meet future water requirements. The generally accepted impacts of global warming include temperature, rising sea levels, more frequent and severe floods and droughts, and a shift from snowfall to rain. Precipitation changes are more difficult to predict. For Southern California, these impacts will be especially severe on surface water supplies. Additionally, rising sea levels will exacerbate salt-water intrusion into freshwater and impact the quality of surface water supplies. Integrated water resources planning is emerging as a tool to develop water supplies and demand management strategies that are less vulnerable to the impacts of global warming. These tools include water conservation, conjunctive use of surface and groundwater and desalination of brackish water and possibly seawater. Additionally, planning for future water needs should include explicit consideration of the potential range of global warming impacts through techniques such as scenario planning.

  13. Dosimetric impact of density variations in Solid Water 457 water-equivalent slabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litzenberg, Dale W; Amro, Hanan; Prisciandaro, Joann I; Acosta, Eduardo; Gallagher, Ian; Roberts, Don A

    2011-04-22

    The purpose of this study was to determine the dosimetric impact of density variations observed in water-equivalent solid slabs. Measurements were performed using two 30 cm × 30 cm water-equivalent slabs, one being 4 cm think and the other 5 cm thick. The location and extent of density variations were determined by computed tomography (CT) scans. Additional imaging measurements were made with an amorphous silicon megavoltage portal imaging device and an ultrasound unit. Dosimetric measurements were conducted with a 2D ion chamber array, and a scanned diode in water. Additional measurements and calculations were made of small rectilinear void inhomogeneities formed with water-equivalent slabs, using a 2D ion chamber array and the convolution superposition algorithm. Two general types of density variation features were observed on CT images: 1) regions of many centimeters across, but typically only a few millimeters thick, with electron densities a few percent lower than the bulk material, and 2) cylindrical regions roughly 0.2 cm in diameter and up to 20 cm long with electron densities up to 5% lower than the surrounding material. The density variations were not visible on kilovoltage, megavoltage or ultrasound images. The dosimetric impact of the density variations were not detectable to within 0.1% using the 2D ion chamber array or the scanning photon diode at distances 0.4 cm to 2 cm beyond the features. High-resolution dosimetric calculations using the convolution-superposition algorithm with density corrections enabled on CT-based datasets showed no discernable dosimetric impact. Calculations and measurements on simulated voids place the upper limit on possible dosimetric variations from observed density variations at much less than 0.6%. CT imaging of water-equivalent slabs may reveal density variations which are otherwise unobserved with kV, MV, or ultrasound imaging. No dosimetric impact from these features was measureable with an ion chamber array or

  14. Diet change and food loss reduction: What is their combined impact on global water use and scarcity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalava, Mika; Guillaume, Joseph H. A.; Kummu, Matti; Porkka, Miina; Siebert, Stefan; Varis, Olli

    2016-03-01

    There is a pressing need to improve food security and reduce environmental impacts of agricultural production globally. Two of the proposed measures are diet change from animal-based to plant-based foodstuffs and reduction of food losses and waste. These two measures are linked, as diet change affects production and consumption of foodstuffs and consequently loss processes through their different water footprints and loss percentages. This paper takes this link into account for the first time and provides an assessment of the combined potential contribution of diet change and food loss reduction for reducing water footprints and water scarcity. We apply scenarios in which we change diets to follow basic dietary recommendations, limit animal-based protein intake to 25% of total protein intake, and halve food losses to study single and combined effects of diet change and loss reduction. Dietary recommendations alone would achieve 6% and 7% reductions of blue and green water consumption, respectively, while changing diets to contain less animal products would result in savings of 11% and 18%, respectively. Halving food loss would alone achieve 12% reductions for both blue and green water. Combining the measures would reduce water consumption by 23% and 28%, respectively, lowering water scarcity in areas with a population of over 600 million. At a global scale, effects of diet change and loss reduction were synergistic with loss reductions being more effective under changed diet. This demonstrates the importance of considering the link between diet change and loss reduction in assessments of food security and resource use.

  15. Saving lives in the present versus saving lives in the future--is there a framing effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannesson, M; Johansson, P O

    1997-11-01

    This study considers how to compare programs which are designed to save lives. "To estimate the discount rate for lives saved in the future a number of studies have been carried out on the trade-off between saving lives now and in the future. A telephone survey is administered to about 1,700 individuals [in Sweden] to test if the framing of the question affects the estimated trade-off. In one sample the question is framed as saving 100 lives today versus saving x future lives and in one sample the question is framed as saving 100 future lives versus saving y lives today. The result shows that the framing has a major impact on the trade-off."

  16. Climate Change and Water in Vulnerable Agriculture: Impacts - Mitigation - Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalezios, Nicolas; Tarquis, Ana Maria

    2016-04-01

    Agriculture highly depends on climate and is adversely affected by climate extremes caused mainly by anthropogenic climate change and increasing climate variability. Moreover, agricultural production risks and vulnerability of agriculture may become an issue in several regions around the world, since they are likely to increase the incidence of crop failure. The aim of this paper is to present the water availability and requirements in Southern Europe and specifically in the Mediterranean region, which is characterized by vulnerable agriculture. Indeed, the climatic trend in the 21st century for this region indicates temperature increase, precipitation decrease combined with an increase in the frequency of climate extremes, such as droughts, heat waves and forest fires. The three major components of climate change are examined, namely impacts, mitigation and adaptation. In particular, precipitation frequency analysis has already indicated a reduction in the precipitation amounts and a shift towards more intense rainstorms. Moreover, time series of drought indices are presented in affected areas. The importance of climate change mitigation measures is also highlighted. Finally, an adaptation scheme for agriculture from climate change in vulnerable and water scarce areas is presented.

  17. Energy saving analysis of free cooling in chilled water system for data centers%数据中心冷水系统自然冷却节能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张素丽

    2016-01-01

    介绍了数据中心冷水系统自然冷却的概念、原理和系统形式,分析了部分自然冷却系统的相对节能性。以上海、北京、呼和浩特3个城市的典型气候条件作为分析依据,研究了部分自然冷却采用不同冷水供回水温度时的相对节能优势。%Presents the concept,principle and system forms of chilled water system for data centers, and analyses the relative energy saving property of part-free cooling system.Taking the typical climate conditions of Shanghai,Beijing and Hohhot as analysis data,studies the relative energy saving advantage of different chilled water supply and return temperature in the part-free cooling system.

  18. Energy-saving Technical Reconstruction about Circulating Water of Cooling Air Machine in Refinery Plant%炼油厂循环水冷却风机节能技术改造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周毅

    2011-01-01

    At present,the electric air machines are used in circulating water cooling tower in many refinery plants,where the backwater lift is generally high.Combining the energy-saving technical example about CNOOC Ningbo Daxie/Zhoushan Petrochemical LTD's second reconstruction of cooling air machine,the energy-saving effect of cooling water machine was evaluated,and the developing significance in refinery plants was also analyzed.%针对目前国内大多数炼油企业循环水冷却塔均按电动风机进行设计,普遍存在回水扬程偏大的现象。结合中海石油宁波大榭/舟山石化有限公司二套循环水冷却风机节能改造的应用实例,评价了水动冷却风机的节能效果,并分析了其在炼油企业推广的意义。

  19. Electric power saving in the drinkable water, sewage and sanitation system, La Piedad; Ahorro de energia electrica en el sistema de agua potable, alcantarillado y saneamiento de La Piedad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sistema de Agua Potable, Alcantarillado y Saneamiento de la Piedad (Mexico). E-mail: sapaslapiedad@prodigy.net.mx

    2006-04-15

    In Michoacan, Mexico, a project who seeks to benefice the Municipal public resources was crated in 1994. It would be achieved trough the electric power saving in the public lighting system, and drinkable water pumping and black water, since those activities required the budget biggest part. The program could be developed recently and the saving was significant. In addition the electromechanical efficiency increased in the equipment installation. This work is an example for other States to do something similar that can improve their conditions. [Spanish] En el estado de Michoacan, Mexico se creo un proyecto en el ano de 1994, el cual buscaba beneficiar los recursos publicos municipales, a traves del ahorro de la energia electrica en los sistemas de alumbrado publico y bombeo de agua potable y aguas negras, ya que estas actividades son las que requieren la mayor parte del presupuesto. El programa pudo llevarse a cabo en anos recientes y el ahorro fue significativo, ademas de que aumento la eficiencia electromecanica en los equipos que se instalaron, y esta obra ha servido de ejemplo a otros estados para que realicen algo similar que pueda mejorar su situacion.

  20. Impact degassing of water and noble gases from silicates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, S.; Hiyagon, H.; Iijima, Y.; Syono, Y.

    1994-01-01

    Previous shock experiments by Ahrens and his colleagues show that degassing of H2O and CO2 occurs at 8-65GPa from hydrous minerals such as serpentine. In early solar system, the impact degassing would have played an important part in the formation of primary-atmospheres of the terrestrial planets. However, degassing conditions of noble gases are not well-known because there are few experiments for them. We conducted some shock recovery experiments to investigate the degassing condition and to understand the degassing mechanisms of water and noble gases. We used natural richterites (Ri), amphibolites (Am), serpentines (Sep) and orthoclases (or) as target samples. These, except Sep, contain radiogenic noble gases such as (40)Ar. The samples were put in stainless steel containers, and were show by a rail gun at ISAS or single-stage powder guns at Nagoya or Tohoku University, Japan. We used two kinds of containers: 'open' type containers having a ventilating path for released volatiles for most of samples and 'closed' type ones for some samples for comparison. On Ri and Sep, we made shock experiments for pre-heated (at 400-500 C) and unheated targets, and for powdered and uncrushed samples. Water and noble gases were analyzed both for the recovered shocked samples and the unshocked original samples, and the fractions of the degassed volatiles were calculated by comparing them. Water content in the sample was analyzed by thermo-gravimetry. Noble gases were extracted by heating the samples under high vacuum and analyzed with a sector-type mass spectrometer.