WorldWideScience

Sample records for water samples utilizing

  1. Developing Water Sampling Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Participants in the D-19 symposium on aquatic sampling and measurement for water pollution assessment were informed that determining the extent of waste water stream pollution is not a cut and dry procedure. Topics discussed include field sampling, representative sampling from storm sewers, suggested sampler features and application of improved…

  2. Reactor water sampling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamaki, Kazuo.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention concerns a reactor water sampling device for sampling reactor water in an in-core monitor (neutron measuring tube) housing in a BWR type reactor. The upper end portion of a drain pipe of the reactor water sampling device is attached detachably to an in-core monitor flange. A push-up rod is inserted in the drain pipe vertically movably. A sampling vessel and a vacuum pump are connected to the lower end of the drain pipe. A vacuum pump is operated to depressurize the inside of the device and move the push-up rod upwardly. Reactor water in the in-core monitor housing flows between the drain pipe and the push-up rod and flows into the sampling vessel. With such a constitution, reactor water in the in-core monitor housing can be sampled rapidly with neither opening the lid of the reactor pressure vessel nor being in contact with air. Accordingly, operator's exposure dose can be reduced. (I.N.)

  3. Cooling clothing utilizing water evaporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakoi, Tomonori; Tominaga, Naoto; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2014-01-01

    . To prevent wet discomfort, the T-shirt was made of a polyester material having a water-repellent silicon coating on the inner surface. The chest, front upper arms, and nape of the neck were adopted as the cooling areas of the human body. We conducted human subject experiments in an office with air......We developed cooling clothing that utilizes water evaporation to cool the human body and has a mechanism to control the cooling intensity. Clean water was supplied to the outer surface of the T-shirt of the cooling clothing, and a small fan was used to enhance evaporation on this outer surface...... temperature ranging from 27.4 to 30.7 °C to establish a suitable water supply control method. A water supply control method that prevents water accumulation in the T-shirt and water dribbling was validated; this method is established based on the concept of the water evaporation capacity under the applied...

  4. Water born pollutants sampling using porous suction samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baig, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    The common standard method of sampling water born pollutants in the vadoze zone is core sampling and it is followed by extraction of pore fluid. This method does not allow sampling at the same location next time and again later on. There is an alternative approach for sampling fluids (water born pollutants) from both saturated and unsaturated regions of vadose zone using porous suction samplers. There are three types of porous suction samplers, vacuum-operated, pressure-vacuum lysimeters, high pressure vacuum samples. The suction samples are operated in the range of 0-70 centi bars and usually consist of ceramic and polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE). The operation range of PTFE is higher than ceramic cups. These samplers are well suited for in situ and repeated sampling form the same location. This paper discusses the physical properties and operating condition of such samplers to the utilized under our environmental sampling. (author)

  5. Water and Sewage Utilities Sector (NAICS 2213)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental regulation information for water utilities, including drinking and wastewater treatment facilities. Includes links to NESHAP for POTW, compliance information, and information about pretreatment programs.

  6. Asset Management for Water and Wastewater Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renewing and replacing the nation's public water infrastructure is an ongoing task. Asset management can help a utility maximize the value of its capital as well as its operations and maintenance dollars.

  7. Performance evaluation soil samples utilizing encapsulation technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlgran, James R.

    1999-01-01

    Performance evaluation soil samples and method of their preparation using encapsulation technology to encapsulate analytes which are introduced into a soil matrix for analysis and evaluation by analytical laboratories. Target analytes are mixed in an appropriate solvent at predetermined concentrations. The mixture is emulsified in a solution of polymeric film forming material. The emulsified solution is polymerized to form microcapsules. The microcapsules are recovered, quantitated and introduced into a soil matrix in a predetermined ratio to form soil samples with the desired analyte concentration.

  8. Bayesian stratified sampling to assess corpus utility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochberg, J.; Scovel, C.; Thomas, T.; Hall, S.

    1998-12-01

    This paper describes a method for asking statistical questions about a large text corpus. The authors exemplify the method by addressing the question, ``What percentage of Federal Register documents are real documents, of possible interest to a text researcher or analyst?`` They estimate an answer to this question by evaluating 200 documents selected from a corpus of 45,820 Federal Register documents. Bayesian analysis and stratified sampling are used to reduce the sampling uncertainty of the estimate from over 3,100 documents to fewer than 1,000. A possible application of the method is to establish baseline statistics used to estimate recall rates for information retrieval systems.

  9. Not business as usual for water utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, L.M.

    1990-01-01

    This article addresses the implementation of the requirements of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) Amendments of 1986 and their economic impacts to water utilities, financiers, stockholders and consumers. The author looks at various funding schemes, rate structure changes and potential mergers all designed to finance the compliance with new EPA standards

  10. Measurement of 90Sr in fresh water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belanova, A.; Meresova, J.; Svetlik, I.; Tomaskova, L.

    2008-01-01

    This preliminary study show new experimental approach to the determination of the radionuclide 90 Sr in water samples. The new method of dynamic windows utilizing liquid scintillation counting was applied on model and surface water samples. Our results show the demand of separation technique with significantly higher yields. (authors)

  11. Water utilization in the Snake River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, William Glenn; Stabler, Herman

    1935-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the present utilization of the water in the Snake River Basin with special reference to irrigation and power and to present essential facts concerning possible future utilization. No detailed plan of development is suggested. An attempt has been made, however, to discuss features that should be taken into account in the formulation of a definite plan of development. On account of the size of the area involved, which is practically as large as the New England States and New York combined, and the magnitude of present development and future possibilities, considerable details have of necessity been omitted. The records of stream flow in the basin are contained in the reports on surface water supply published annually by the Geological Survey. These records are of the greatest value in connection with the present and future regulation and utilization of the basin's largest asset water.

  12. Physicochemical characteristics of undrainable water dams utilized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pH, electro-conductivity and total dissoved solutes (TDS) were measured in-situ from three reservoirs (Gathathini, Lusoi and Kianda dams) differing in their habitat characteristics. Water samples were collected for determination of the ionic concentartions of the reservoirs. Water quality status differed markedly between sites, ...

  13. Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) - National Inpatient Sample

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2001 forward. The National (Nationwide) Inpatient Sample (NIS) is part of a family of databases and software tools developed for the Healthcare Cost and Utilization...

  14. Utility requirements for advanced light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machiels, A.; Gray, S.; Mulford, T.; Rodwell, E.

    1996-01-01

    The nuclear energy industry is actively engaged in developing advanced light water reactor (ALWR) designs for the next century. The new designs take advantage of the thousands of reactor-years of experience that have been accumulated by operating over 400 plants worldwide. The EPRI effort began in the early 1980's, when a survey of utility executives was conducted to determine their prerequisites for ordering nuclear power plants. The results were clear: new plants had to be simpler and safer, and have greater design margins, i.e., be more forgiving. The utility executives also supported making improvements to the established light water reactor technology, rather than trying to develop new reactor concepts. Finally, they wanted the option to build mid-size plants (∼600 MWe) in addition to full-size plants of more than 1200 MWe. 4 refs

  15. Climate change adaptation in regulated water utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicuna, S.; Melo, O.; Harou, J. J.; Characklis, G. W.; Ricalde, I.

    2017-12-01

    Concern about climate change impacts on water supply systems has grown in recent years. However, there are still few examples of pro-active interventions (e.g. infrastructure investment or policy changes) meant to address plausible future changes. Deep uncertainty associated with climate impacts, future demands, and regulatory constraints might explain why utility planning in a range of contexts doesn't explicitly consider climate change scenarios and potential adaptive responses. Given the importance of water supplies for economic development and the cost and longevity of many water infrastructure investments, large urban water supply systems could suffer from lack of pro-active climate change adaptation. Water utilities need to balance the potential for high regret stranded assets on the one side, with insufficient supplies leading to potentially severe socio-economic, political and environmental failures on the other, and need to deal with a range of interests and constraints. This work presents initial findings from a project looking at how cities in Chile, the US and the UK are developing regulatory frameworks that incorporate utility planning under uncertainty. Considering for example the city of Santiago, Chile, recent studies have shown that although high scarcity cost scenarios are plausible, pre-emptive investment to guard from possible water supply failures is still remote and not accommodated by current planning practice. A first goal of the project is to compare and contrast regulatory approaches to utility risks considering climate change adaptation measures. Subsequently we plan to develop and propose a custom approach for the city of Santiago based on lessons learned from other contexts. The methodological approach combines institutional assessment of water supply regulatory frameworks with simulation-based decision-making under uncertainty approaches. Here we present initial work comparing the regulatory frameworks in Chile, UK and USA evaluating

  16. Radon measurement in Malaysia water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, A.B.; Rosli Mahat; Yusof Md Amin

    1995-01-01

    This paper reported the results of the measurement of radon in local water. The water samples collected were rainwater, river water, seawater, well water or ground water at area of State of Selangor and Kuala Lumpur. The samples were collected in scintillation cell ZnS(Ag) through Radon Degassing Unit RDU 200. Alpha activity was counted with scintillation counters RD 200 at energy 5.5 MeV. (author)

  17. Determination of Phthalates in Drinking Water Samples

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    successfully applied to the analysis of phthalate esters contamination in bottled drinking water samples. ... esters are used in the manufacturing of polyvinyl chloride. (PVC). ... water, soil, air, food products and the human body. (Castillo et al.

  18. Water sample-collection and distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, R. R.

    1978-01-01

    Collection and distribution system samples water from six designated stations, filtered if desired, and delivers it to various analytical sensors. System may be controlled by Water Monitoring Data Acquisition System or operated manually.

  19. Water Utility Lime Sludge Reuse – An Environmental Sorbent ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lime sludge can be used as an environmental sorbent to remove sulfur dioxide (SO2) and acid gases, by the ultra-fine CaCO3 particles, and to sequester mercury and other heavy metals, by the Natural Organic Matter and residual activated carbon. The laboratory experimental set up included a simulated flue gas preparation unit, a lab-scale wet scrubber, and a mercury analyzer system. The influent mercury concentration was based on a range from 22 surveyed power plants. The reactivity of the lime sludge sample for acid neutralization was determined using a method similar to method ASTM C1318-95. Similar experiments were conducted using reagent calcium carbonate and calcium sulfate to obtain baseline data for comparing with the lime sludge test results. The project also evaluated the techno-economic feasibility and sustainable benefits of reusing lime softening sludge. If implemented on a large scale, this transformative approach for recycling waste materials from water treatment utilities at power generation utilities for environmental cleanup can save both water and power utilities millions of dollars. Huge amounts of lime sludge waste, generated from hundreds of water treatment utilities across the U.S., is currently disposed in landfills. This project evaluated a sustainable and economically-attractive approach to the use of lime sludge waste as a valuable resource for power generation utilities.

  20. Modeling regulated water utility investment incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, S.; Harou, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    This work attempts to model the infrastructure investment choices of privatized water utilities subject to rate of return and price cap regulation. The goal is to understand how regulation influences water companies' investment decisions such as their desire to engage in transfers with neighbouring companies. We formulate a profit maximization capacity expansion model that finds the schedule of new supply, demand management and transfer schemes that maintain the annual supply-demand balance and maximize a companies' profit under the 2010-15 price control process in England. Regulatory incentives for costs savings are also represented in the model. These include: the CIS scheme for the capital expenditure (capex) and incentive allowance schemes for the operating expenditure (opex) . The profit-maximizing investment program (what to build, when and what size) is compared with the least cost program (social optimum). We apply this formulation to several water companies in South East England to model performance and sensitivity to water network particulars. Results show that if companies' are able to outperform the regulatory assumption on the cost of capital, a capital bias can be generated, due to the fact that the capital expenditure, contrarily to opex, can be remunerated through the companies' regulatory capital value (RCV). The occurrence of the 'capital bias' or its entity depends on the extent to which a company can finance its investments at a rate below the allowed cost of capital. The bias can be reduced by the regulatory penalties for underperformances on the capital expenditure (CIS scheme); Sensitivity analysis can be applied by varying the CIS penalty to see how and to which extent this impacts the capital bias effect. We show how regulatory changes could potentially be devised to partially remove the 'capital bias' effect. Solutions potentially include allowing for incentives on total expenditure rather than separately for capex and opex and allowing

  1. Assessing the performance of urban water utilities in Mozambique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Benchmarking analysis has become a strategic tool through which water regulators around the world measure the performance of water utilities. Since 2008, the Water Regulatory Council of Mozambique has been implementing a benchmarking framework to analyse the performance of urban water utilities. This paper ...

  2. Advances in Radiocarbon Measurement of Water Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janovics, R.; Molnar, M.; Major, I. [Institute of Nuclear Research (ATO MKI), Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-4001 Debrecen (Hungary); Svetlik, I. [Department of Radiation Dosimetry, Nuclear Physics Institute AS CR, Prague (Czech Republic); Wacker, L. [Institute for Particle Physics, ETH Hoenggerberg, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2013-07-15

    In this paper two very different and novel methods for the {sup 14}C measurement of water samples are presented. The first method uses direct absorption into a scintillation cocktail and a following liquid scintillation measurement. Typical sample size is 20-40 L and overall uncertainty is {+-} 2% for modern samples. It is a very cost effective and easy to use method based on a novel and simple static absorption process for the CO{sub 2} extracted from groundwater. The other very sensitive method is based on accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) using a gas ion source. With a MICADAS type AMS system we demonstrated that you can routinely measure the {sup 14}C content of 1 mL of water sample with better than 1% precision (for a modern sample). This direct {sup 14}C AMS measurement of water takes less than 20 minutes including sample preparation. (author)

  3. Water Sample Points, Navajo Nation, 2000, USACE

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This point shapefile presents the locations and results for water samples collected on the Navajo Nation by the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) for the US...

  4. Sample preparation procedures utilized in microbial metabolomics: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patejko, Małgorzata; Jacyna, Julia; Markuszewski, Michał J

    2017-02-01

    Bacteria are remarkably diverse in terms of their size, structure and biochemical properties. Due to this fact, it is hard to develop a universal method for handling bacteria cultures during metabolomic analysis. The choice of suitable processing methods constitutes a key element in any analysis, because only appropriate selection of procedures may provide accurate results, leading to reliable conclusions. Because of that, every analytical experiment concerning bacteria requires individually and very carefully planned research methodology. Although every study varies in terms of sample preparation, there are few general steps to follow while planning experiment, like sampling, separation of cells from growth medium, stopping their metabolism and extraction. As a result of extraction, all intracellular metabolites should be washed out from cell environment. What is more, extraction method utilized cannot cause any chemical decomposition or degradation of the metabolome. Furthermore, chosen extraction method should correlate with analytical technique, so it will not disturb or prolong following sample preparation steps. For those reasons, we observe a need to summarize sample preparation procedures currently utilized in microbial metabolomic studies. In the presented overview, papers concerning analysis of extra- and intracellular metabolites, published over the last decade, have been discussed. Presented work gives some basic guidelines that might be useful while planning experiments in microbial metabolomics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Radon in water samples around Ningyo Toge area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuta, Sadaaki [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Kamisaibara, Okayama (Japan). Ningyo Toge Works

    1997-02-01

    Radon concentrations of river water and drinking water were surveyed. Water samples were collected from the region around Ningyo-Toge Works which were positioned on a granitic layer having uranium deposit. Each sample was taken using a separating funnel and the radioactivity was counted by liquid scintillation counter (ALOKA, LB-2). Since there were old working places of mine in the region, mine drainages from them were also analyzed. The radon concentration of drinking water from the region ranged from 0.1 to 230 Bq/l. The samples with a higher activity than 100 Bq/l were water from springs or wells and the area of the highest Rn concentration was on a typical granitic layer, suggesting some geographic effects on Rn concentration. Some samples of drinking water had slightly higher levels of Rn, probably due to the utilization of underflow as its source. The mean concentration of Rn became higher in the order; river water, drinking water, mine drainage in the region. In addition, a negative correlation between Rn concentration of water and the river flow rate was observed in this region. (M.N.)

  6. Water sampling techniques for continuous monitoring of pesticides in water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šunjka Dragana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Good ecological and chemical status of water represents the most important aim of the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC, which implies respect of water quality standards at the level of entire river basin (2008/105/EC and 2013/39/EC. This especially refers to the control of pesticide residues in surface waters. In order to achieve the set goals, a continuous monitoring program that should provide a comprehensive and interrelated overview of water status should be implemented. However, it demands the use of appropriate analysis techniques. Until now, the procedure for sampling and quantification of residual pesticide quantities in aquatic environment was based on the use of traditional sampling techniques that imply periodical collecting of individual samples. However, this type of sampling provides only a snapshot of the situation in regard to the presence of pollutants in water. As an alternative, the technique of passive sampling of pollutants in water, including pesticides has been introduced. Different samplers are available for pesticide sampling in surface water, depending on compounds. The technique itself is based on keeping a device in water over a longer period of time which varies from several days to several weeks, depending on the kind of compound. In this manner, the average concentrations of pollutants dissolved in water during a time period (time-weighted average concentrations, TWA are obtained, which enables monitoring of trends in areal and seasonal variations. The use of these techniques also leads to an increase in sensitivity of analytical methods, considering that pre-concentration of analytes takes place within the sorption medium. However, the use of these techniques for determination of pesticide concentrations in real water environments requires calibration studies for the estimation of sampling rates (Rs. Rs is a volume of water per time, calculated as the product of overall mass transfer coefficient and area of

  7. The WIPP Water Quality Sampling Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhland, D.; Morse, J.G.; Colton, D.

    1986-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a Department of Energy facility, will be used for the underground disposal of wastes. The Water Quality Sampling Program (WQSP) is designed to obtain representative and reproducible water samples to depict accurate water composition data for characterization and monitoring programs in the vicinity of the WIPP. The WQSP is designed to input data into four major programs for the WIPP project: Geochemical Site Characterization, Radiological Baseline, Environmental Baseline, and Performance Assessment. The water-bearing units of interest are the Culebra and Magneta Dolomite Members of the Rustler Formation, units in the Dewey Lake Redbeds, and the Bell Canyon Formation. At least two chemically distinct types of water occur in the Culebra, one being a sodium/potassium chloride water and the other being a calcium/magnesium sulfate water. Water from the Culebra wells to the south of the WIPP site is distinctly fresher and tends to be of the calcium/magnesium sulfate type. Water in the Culebra in the north and around the WIPP site is distinctly fresher and tends to be of the sodium/potassium chloride type and is much higher in total dissolved solids. The program, which is currently 1 year old, will continue throughout the life of the facility as part of the Environmental Monitoring Program

  8. Portable field water sample filtration unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebert, A.J.; Young, G.G.

    1977-01-01

    A lightweight back-packable field-tested filtration unit is described. The unit is easily cleaned without cross contamination at the part-per-billion level and allows rapid filtration of boiling hot and sometimes muddy water. The filtration results in samples that are free of bacteria and particulates and which resist algae growth even after storage for months. 3 figures

  9. Water sampling device for detecting fuel failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masubuchi, Yukio.

    1997-01-01

    A notched portion is formed at the lower end of an outer cap, and an extensible air bag is disposed being in contact with the inner side of the notched portion. A compressed air is sent into the outer gap through an air supply pipe to urge coolants thereby lowering the water level. A portion of the compressed air gets out of the outer gap from the notched portion, and if air bubbles are observed on the surface of coolants in a pressure vessel of a reactor, the outer cap is confirmed to be attached to the upper lattice plate. Compressed air is supplied to the air bag to close the notched portion. Then, coolants are sucked from a water level confirmation pipe. The level of coolants is further lowered, and the compressed air is sucked from the water level confirmation pipe instead of the coolants. Then, the level of the coolants at the inner side of the inner cap is confirmed to be made lower than the upper end of the channel box of a reactor fuel assembly. Then, coolants in the channel box are sampled, as a specimen water, through a water sampling pipe. (I.N.)

  10. The Existing Regulatory Conditions for 'Energy Smart Water Utilities'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, Ellen Margrethe

    2014-01-01

    This chapter is focused on the legal conditions that exist for the energy–smart water utilities in the European Union (EU). In section 2 the interdependencies of water and energy services and the growing interest in solving these problems that may arise from this interdependence by regulatory ini...... legal design and the problems that it causes for the water utilities that want to be resource–efficient and have a low–carbon footprint.......This chapter is focused on the legal conditions that exist for the energy–smart water utilities in the European Union (EU). In section 2 the interdependencies of water and energy services and the growing interest in solving these problems that may arise from this interdependence by regulatory...... initiatives are shortly described. One of the solutions needed is a reduction of energy use in the water utilities by their utilisation of renewable sources – acting as energy–smart water utilities. Such utilities are described in section 3. The policy and law regulating the water utilities are important...

  11. PIXE analysis applied to characterized water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Maristela S.; Carneiro, Luana Gomes; Medeiros, Geiza; Sampaio, Camilla; Martorell, Ana Beatriz Targino; Gouvea, Stella; Cunha, Kenya Moore Dias da

    2011-01-01

    Araxa, in Brazil, is a naturally high background area located in the State of Minas Gerais with a population of about 93 672 people. Araxa is historical city famous for its mineral water sources and mud from Termas de Araxa spa, which have been used for therapeutic, and recreation purposes. Other important aspect of economy of the city are mining and metallurgic industries. In the Araxa area is located the largest deposit of pyrochlore, a niobium mineral, and also a deposit of apatite, a phosphate mineral both containing Th and U associated to crystal lattice. The minerals are obtained from open pit mines, the minerals are processed in industrial also located in city of Araxa, these plants process the pyrochlore and apatite to obtain the Fe-Nb alloy and the concentrate of phosphate, respectively. Studies were developed in this area to assessment the occupational risk of the workers due to exposure to dust particles during the routine working, however very few studies evaluated the water contamination outside the mines in order to determine the metal (stables elements) concentrations in water and also the concentrations of the radionuclides in water. This paper presents the previous results of a study to identify and determine the concentrations of metals (stables elements) and radionuclides in river around the city. The water from these rivers is used as drinking water and irrigation water. The water samples were collected in different rivers around the Araxa city and the samples were analyzed using PIXE technique. A proton beam of 2 MeV obtained from the van de Graaff electrostatic accelerator was used to induce the characteristic X-rays. S, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, Ba, Pb and U were identified in the mass spectrum of the samples. The elemental mass concentrations were compared using a non-parametric statistical test. The results of the statistical test showed that the elemental mass concentrations did not present the same distribution. These results indicated

  12. Determination of 40K in water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, C. E.; Miranda C, L.; Cuevas J, A. K.; Vega C, H. R.

    2014-10-01

    The natural water used for human consumption comes from different sources, which may contain suspended solids in varying proportions. In groundwater, the source of suspended solids is related to the dissolution of mineral strata by the waters and leaching of rocks. Also, the radioactivity could concentrate on the bodies of slow-moving water that eventually could present a risk to ecosystems, as well as for the consumer. The water usually contains several natural radionuclides as: tritium, radon, radio, uranium isotopes, etc. The objective of this study was to evaluate the concentration of 40 K in water from different areas of Zacatecas state (Mexico). Four water samples were taken in triplicate from different areas; the 40 K concentration was measured with a spectrum metric system of gamma radiation with NaI (Tl) scintillation detector of 7.62 cm. In the measuring process a standard was prepared using water and KCl analytic grade where the 40 K concentration is 6.25 mol/Lt adding 250 mg/ml of potassium. Also the system was calibrated in energy using 3 point sources of 137 Cs, diameter 22 Na and 7.62 cm of height, using containers Marinelli and 60 Co. In the obtained spectra was observed that the photon of 1.432 MeV that emits the 40 K when decaying is the most important. The highest concentration was of 123 ± 5.2 Bq/lt and the lowest was of 9 ± 0.4 Bq/lt. Under the standards of drinking water, an amount of 40 K deposits an effective dose which contributes to annual dose received by people. (Author)

  13. Water Utility Planning for an Emergency Drinking Water Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reviews roles and responsibilities among various levels of government regarding emergency water supplies and seeks to encourage collaboration and partnership regarding emergency water supply planning.

  14. Public-Private Partnership Enhances Water Utility's Performance in Armenia

    OpenAIRE

    Tokhmakhian, Zaruhi; Eiweida, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Public-Private Participation (PPP) schemes were successfully implemented in several water utilities in Armenia, yielding excellent results for the development of the water and wastewater sectors. Armenia is one of the few countries in the region to have had such a successful PPP experience. For many years after the collapse of the Soviet economy, most of the water supply and sanitation sys...

  15. Reservoirs operation and water resources utilization coordination in Hongshuihe basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chonghao; Chi, Kaige; Pang, Bo; Tang, Hongbin

    2018-06-01

    In the recent decade, the demand for water resources has been increasing with the economic development. The reservoirs of cascade hydropower stations in Hongshuihe basin, which are constructed with a main purpose of power generation, are facing more integrated water resources utilization problem. The conflict between power generation of cascade reservoirs and flood control, shipping, environmental protection and water supply has become increasingly prominent. This paper introduces the general situation and integrated water demand of cascade reservoirs in Hongshuihe basin, and it analyses the impact of various types of integrated water demand on power generation and supply. It establishes mathematic models, constrained by various types of integrated water demand, to guide the operation and water resources utilization management of cascade reservoirs in Hongshuihe basin. Integrated water coordination mechanism of Hongshuihe basin is also introduced. It provides a technical and management guide and demonstration for cascade reservoirs operation and integrated water management at home and abroad.

  16. Demonstration of thermal water utilization in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.W.; Miller, H.H. Jr.

    1974-01-01

    A 5-yr demonstration project was conducted to determine benefits and identify harmful effects of using waste heat in condenser cooling water (90 0 F-110 0 F) for agricultural purposes. Initial phases emphasized use and evaluation of warm water for spring frost protection, irrigation, and plant cooling in summer. Row crops, and fruit and nut trees were used in the evaluation. Undersoil heating was demonstrated on a 1.2-acre soil plot. Two and one half inch plastic pipes were buried 26 in deep and 5 ft on center, connecting to 6-in. steel headers. Warm water was circulated through the grid, heating soil on which row crops were grown. Crop production was evaluated in a 22 x 55-ft plastic greenhouse constructed on a portion of the undersoil heat grid. The greatest potential benefit of waste heat use in agriculture is in the area of greenhouse soil heating. Monetary benefits from industrial waste heat appear achievable through proper management

  17. Investigative studies on water contamination in Bangladesh. Primary treatment of water samples at the sampling site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sera, K.; Islam, Md. Shafiqul; Takatsuji, T.; Nakamura, T.; Goto, S.; Takahashi, C.; Saitoh, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Arsenic concentration in 13 well waters, 9 pond waters, 10 agricultural waters and a coconut juice taken in Comilla district, Bangladesh, where the problem of arsenic pollution is the most severe, was investigated. High-level arsenic is detected even in the well water which has been kept drinking by the people. Relatively high arsenic concentration was detected for some pond and farm waters even though the sampling was performed just after the rainy season and the waters were expected to be highly diluted. Clear relationship was observed in elemental compositions between the pond water and the coconut juice collected at the edge of the water. These results are expected to become the basic information for evaluating the risk of individual food such as cultured fishes, shrimps and farm products, and for controlling total intakes of arsenic. In order to solve the problem of transportation of water samples internationally, a simple method of target preparation performed at the sampling site was established and its validity was confirmed. All targets were prepared at the sampling sites in this study on the basis of this method. (author)

  18. 75 FR 20352 - National Drinking Water Advisory Council's Climate Ready Water Utilities Working Group Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9139-3] National Drinking Water Advisory Council's Climate Ready Water Utilities Working Group Meeting Announcement AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION...-person meeting of the Climate Ready Water Utilities (CRWU) Working Group of the National Drinking Water...

  19. 75 FR 1380 - National Drinking Water Advisory Council's Climate Ready Water Utilities Working Group Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-11

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9101-9] National Drinking Water Advisory Council's Climate Ready Water Utilities Working Group Meeting Announcement AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION... meeting of the Climate Ready Water Utilities (CRWU) Working Group of the National Drinking Water Advisory...

  20. Utility service quality - telecommincations, electricity, water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, L. [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States). Public Utility Research Center

    2005-09-01

    This survey of quality-of-service issues raised by regulation identifies 12 steps for promoting efficient sector performance. First, regulators must identify objectives and prioritize them. Inter-agency coordination is often required to establish targets. Regulators must also determine a process for selecting measures and an appropriate method for evaluating them. Finally, performance incentives must be established and outcomes periodically reviewed. Telecommunications, electricity, and water all have multiple dimensions of quality that warrant careful attention. (Author)

  1. Water evaporation: a transition path sampling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varilly, Patrick; Chandler, David

    2013-02-07

    We use transition path sampling to study evaporation in the SPC/E model of liquid water. On the basis of thousands of evaporation trajectories, we characterize the members of the transition state ensemble (TSE), which exhibit a liquid-vapor interface with predominantly negative mean curvature at the site of evaporation. We also find that after evaporation is complete, the distributions of translational and angular momenta of the evaporated water are Maxwellian with a temperature equal to that of the liquid. To characterize the evaporation trajectories in their entirety, we find that it suffices to project them onto just two coordinates: the distance of the evaporating molecule to the instantaneous liquid-vapor interface and the velocity of the water along the average interface normal. In this projected space, we find that the TSE is well-captured by a simple model of ballistic escape from a deep potential well, with no additional barrier to evaporation beyond the cohesive strength of the liquid. Equivalently, they are consistent with a near-unity probability for a water molecule impinging upon a liquid droplet to condense. These results agree with previous simulations and with some, but not all, recent experiments.

  2. Dynamic Coupling Analysis of Urbanization and Water Resource Utilization Systems in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailiang Ma

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available While urbanization brings economic and social benefits, it also causes water pollution and other environmental ecological problems. This paper provides a theoretical framework to quantitatively analyze the dynamic relationship between water resource utilization and the process of urbanization. Using data from Jiangsu province, we first construct indices to evaluate urbanization and water resource utilization. We then adopt an entropy model to examine the correlation between urbanization and water resource utilization. In addition, we introduce a dynamic coupling model to analyze and predict the coupling degree between urbanization and water resource utilization. Our analyses show that pairing with rising urbanization during 2002–2014, the overall index of water resource utilization in Jiangsu province has experienced a “decline -rise-decline” trend. Specifically, after the index of water resource utilization reached its lowest point in 2004, it gradually began to rise. Water resource utilization reached its highest value in 2010. The coupling degree between urbanization and water resource utilization was relatively low in 2002 and 2003 varying between −90° and 0°. It has been rising since then. Out-of-sample forecasts indicate that the coupling degree will reach its highest value of 74.799° in 2016, then will start to gradually decline. Jiangsu province was chosen as our studied area because it is one of the selected pilot provinces for China’s economic reform and social development. The analysis of the relationship between provincial water resource utilization and urbanization is essential to the understanding of the dynamic relationship between these two systems. It also serves as an important input for developing national policies for sustainable urbanization and water resource management.

  3. Uranium utilization of light water cooled reactors and fast breeders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stojadinovic, Timm

    1991-08-01

    The better uranium utilization of fast breeder reactors as compared with water cooled reactors is one argument in favour of the breeder introduction. This report tries to quantify this difference. It gives a generally valid formalism for the uranium utilization as a function of the fuel burnup, the conversion rate, fuel cycle losses and the fuel enrichment. On the basis of realistic assumptions, the ratio between the utilizations of breeder reactors to that of light water cooled reactors (LWR) amounts to 180 for the open LWR cycle and 100 in case of plutonium recycling in LWRs

  4. Access and utilization of water and sanitation facilities and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Lack of safe water, sanitation and hygiene remains one of the most pressing global health issues of our time. Water and sanitation-related improvements are crucial in meeting the Global Sustainable Development Goals. This study was conducted to determine the access, utilization, and determinants of access ...

  5. Low Cost Mars Sample Return Utilizing Dragon Lander Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, Carol R.

    2014-01-01

    We studied a Mars sample return (MSR) mission that lands a SpaceX Dragon Capsule on Mars carrying sample collection hardware (an arm, drill, or small rover) and a spacecraft stack consisting of a Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV) and Earth Return Vehicle (ERV) that collectively carry the sample container from Mars back to Earth orbit.

  6. 75 FR 54871 - National Drinking Water Advisory Council's Climate Ready Water Utilities Working Group Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9198-8] National Drinking Water Advisory Council's Climate Ready Water Utilities Working Group Meeting Announcement AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... final in-person meeting of the Climate Ready Water Utilities (CRWU) Working Group of the National...

  7. 75 FR 35458 - National Drinking Water Advisory Council's Climate Ready Water Utilities Working Group Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9165-6] National Drinking Water Advisory Council's Climate Ready Water Utilities Working Group Meeting Announcement AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... fourth in-person meeting of the Climate Ready Water Utilities (CRWU) Working Group of the National...

  8. Utility Leadership in Defining Requirements for Advanced Light Water Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugnet, William R.; Layman, William H.

    1990-01-01

    It is appropriate, based on twenty five years of operating experience, that utilities take a position of leadership in developing the technical design and performance requirements for the next generations of nuclear electric generating plants. The U. S. utilities, through the Electric Power Research Institute, began an initiative in 1985 to develop such Utility requirements. Many international Utility organizations, including Korea Electric Power Corporation, have joined as full participants in this important Utility industry initiative. In light of the closer linkage among countries of the world due to rapid travel and telecommunications, it is also appropriate that there be international dialogue and agreement on the principal standards for nuclear power plant acceptability and performance. The Utility/EPRI Advanced Light Water Reactor Program guided by the ALRR Utility Steering Committee has been very successful in developing these Utility requirements. This paper will summarize the state of development of the ALRR Utility Requirements for Evolutionary Plants, recent developments in their review by the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, resolution of open issues, and the extension of this effort to develop a companion set of ALRR Utility Requirements for plants employing passive safety features

  9. Sea water desalination utilizing waste heat by low temperature evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raha, A.; Srivastava, A.; Rao, I.S.; Majumdar, M.; Srivastava, V.K.; Tewari, P.K.

    2007-01-01

    Economics of a process is controlled by management of energy and resources. Fresh water has become most valued resource in industries. Desalination is a process by which fresh water resource is generated from sea water or brackish water, but it is an energy intensive process. The energy cost contributes around 25-40% to the total cost of the desalted water. Utilization of waste heat from industrial streams is one of the ecofriendly ways to produce low cost desalted water. Keeping this in mind Low Temperature Evaporation (LTE) desalination technology utilizing low quality waste heat in the form of hot water (as low as 50 deg C) or low pressure steam (0.13 bar) has been developed for offshore and land based applications to produce high purity water (conductivity < 2μS/cm) from sea water. The probability of the scale formation is practically eliminated by operating it at low temperature and controlling the brine concentration. It also does not require elaborate chemical pretreatment of sea water except chlorination, so it has no environmental impact. LTE technology has found major applications in nuclear reactors where large quantity of low quality waste heat is available to produce high quality desalted water for make up water requirement replacing conventional ion exchange process. Successful continuous operation of 30 Te/day LTE desalination plant utilizing waste heat from nuclear research reactor has demonstrated the safety, reliability, extreme plant availability and economics of nuclear desalination by LTE technology. It is also proposed to utilize waste heat from Main Heat Transport (MHT) purification circuit of Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) to produce about 250 Te/ day high quality desalinated water by Low Temperature Evaporation (LTE) process for the reactor make up and plant utilization. Recently we have commissioned a 50 Te/day 2-effect low temperature desalination plant with cooling tower where the specific energy and cooling water requirement are

  10. The Legal Conditions for Water Utilities Eco-Innovation as Energy Smart Water Utilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, Ellen Margrethe

    2013-01-01

    Welfare and green growth rest havely on an appropriate supply of safe water, the provision of adequate sewage, and on energy services. These services are interdependent, as water is an integral part of electric-power generation. Energy is also an integrated part of water services, as satisfying w...

  11. Quantitative studies of water and sanitation utilities: a literature survey

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Sanford V; Marques, Rui Cunha

    2010-01-01

    This paper performs a literature update of quantitative studies of water and sanitation services (WSS). There are 190 studies which use cost or production functions to evaluate the performance of WSS utilities. The studies examine (1) the scale, scope or density economies of utilities in a particular country or region, (2) the influence of ownership on efficiency, (3) the existence and power of incentives associated with different governance systems (including external regulation), and (4) pe...

  12. Productivity growth and price regulation of Slovenian water distribution utilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Zorić

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyse the price regulation method and performance of thewater industry in Slovenia. A stochastic cost frontier model is employed to estimate and decompose the total factor productivity (TFP growth of water distribution utilities in the 1997-2003 period. The main goal is to find out whether the lack of proper incentives to improve performance has resulted in the low TFP growth of Slovenian water distribution utilities. The evidence suggests that cost inefficiencies are present in water utilities, which indicates considerable cost saving potential in the analysed industry. Technical change is found to have positively affected the TFP growth over time, while cost inefficiency levels remained essentially unchanged. Overall, the average annual TFP growth in the analysed period is estimated to be only slightly above zero, which is a relatively poor result. This can largely be contributed to the present institutional and regulatory setting that does not stimulate utilities to improve productivity. Therefore, the introduction of an independent regulatory agency and an incentive-based price regulation scheme should be seriously considered in order to enhance the performance of Slovenian water distribution utilities.

  13. Utilization of saline water and land: Reclaiming lost resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naqvi, Mujtaba

    2001-01-01

    There is an abundance of saline water on the globe. Large tracts of land are arid and/or salt-affected, and a large number of plant species are known to be salt-tolerant. It would seem obvious that salt tolerant plants (halophytes) have a role in utilizing the two wasted resources, saline water and wastelands. We will briefly describe how these resources can be fruitfully utilized and how the IAEA has helped several countries to demonstrate the possibility of cultivating salt tolerant plant species on arid saline wastelands for economic and environmental benefit. After some brief introductory remarks we will discuss the results of the project

  14. Uses of communication satellites in water utility operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, W. S.

    This paper proposes a system to serve the communications needs of the operating side of a water utility and estimates the requirements and capabilities of the equipment needed. The system requires the shared use of a satellite transponder with 100% backup. Messages consist of data packets containing data and control information, plus voice transmission. Satellite communication may have a price advantage in some instances over wire line or VHF radio and have greater survivability in case of a natural disaster. Water and other utilities represent a significant market for low cost mass produced satellite earth terminals.

  15. Analysis of thermal water utilization in the northeastern Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Rman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The presented research aims at identification of thermal water users in NE Slovenia, at finding type and amountof the produced thermal water as well as its utilization practice. The energetic overview has been upgradedby a description of current observational monitoring practice and thermal waste water management, but technologicalproblems of thermal water use and their mitigation are discussed also. We have ascertained that 14 of 26active geothermalwells tap the Mura Formation aquifer in which the only reinjection well is perforated also. Totalthermal water abstraction summed to 3.29 million m3 in 2011. Cascade use of thermal water is abundant, whereindividual space and sanitary water heating is followed by heating of spa infrastructure and balneology. Greenhouseheating systems and district heating were also identified. Operational monitoring of these geothermal wellsis generally insufficient, and geothermal aquifers are overexploited due to decades of historical water abstraction.All these facts indicate the need for applying appropriate measures which will improve their natural conditions aswell as simultaneously enable further and even higher thermal water utilization in the future.

  16. Utilization of balance equipment in windsurf beginners off water training.

    OpenAIRE

    Frič, Čestmír

    2013-01-01

    Work name: Utilization of balance equipment in windsurf beginners off water training. Aim of work: To determin and evaluate significance of balance equipment in off water training. Method: The method of comparative experiment have been used in this thesis. Than the obtained data were evaluated. It was nessesary to create and compare two groups of people, compound of young healthy individuals in the age 20 - 30 both male and female. The only condition for the research was their zero experience...

  17. 3D reconstruction of radioactive sample utilizing gamma tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoul, David; Zháňal, Pavel

    2018-07-01

    Unique three-dimensional (3D) tomography apparatus was developed and successfully tested at Research Centre Rez, which concentrates at investigation of the degradation of microstructural and mechanical properties of structural materials of nuclear reactors components after a long-term operating exposure. The apparatus allows a 3D view into the interior of low-dimension radioactive samples with a diameter up to several centimeters and a resolution in order of cubic millimeters. It is designed to detect domains with different levels of radioactivity such as cavities, cracks or regions with different chemical composition. The unique collimator design, the use of stepper motors for fine and accurate sample scanning, along with advanced 3D image reconstruction software developed at Research Centre Rez, enables a resolution approaching 1 mm3. Devices working on a similar principle have been used for decades, e.g., in nuclear medicine for the diagnosis of malignant tumors, and are increasingly being applied in the nuclear industry. However, for the first time similar equipment is used for non-destructive testing of low-dimension radioactive samples.

  18. Development and utilization of spring water in small scale supply ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development and utilization of spring water in small scale supply scheme for the Kogi State Polytechnic, Lokoja, central Nigeria. Joseph Omada. Abstract. No Abstract. Journal of Mining and Geology 2005, Vol. 41(1): 131-135. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  19. Towards a benchmarking paradigm in European water utilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marques, R.C.; de Witte, K.

    2010-01-01

    This article explains the benefits of using benchmarking tools in the public sector to drive up performance. The authors examine the case of European water utilities, focusing on four countries: Portugal, Belgium, The Netherlands and the UK. They argue for the creation of a European ‘observatory’ to

  20. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Maybell, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    This water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) describes planned water sampling activities and provides the regulatory and technical basis for ground water sampling in 1994 at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site in Maybell, Colorado. The WSAP identifies and justifies sampling locations, analytical parameters, and sampling frequencies at the site. The ground water data will be used for site characterization and risk assessment. The regulatory basis for the ground water and surface water monitoring activities is derived from the EPA regulations in 40 CFR Part 192 (1993) and the proposed EPA standards of 1987 (52 FR 36000). Sampling procedures are guided by the UMTRA Project standard operating procedures (SOP) (JEG, n.d.), the Technical Approach Document (TAD) (DOE, 1989), and the most effective technical approach for the site. This WSAP also includes a summary and the results of water sampling activities from 1989 through 1992 (no sampling was performed in 1993)

  1. UMTRA water sampling and analysis plan, Green River, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papusch, R.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) is to provide a basis for groundwater and surface water sampling at the Green River Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. This WSAP identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the monitoring locations

  2. Par Pond refill water quality sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, J.W. II; Martin, F.D.; Westbury, H.M.

    1996-08-01

    This study was designed to document anoxia and its cause in the event that the anoxia caused a fish kill. However, no fish kill was observed during this study, and dissolved oxygen and nutrient concentrations generally remained within the range expected for southeastern reservoirs. Par Pond water quality monitoring will continue during the second summer after refill as the aquatic macrophytes become reestablished and nutrients in the sediments are released to the water column

  3. PASSIVE SAMPLING OF GROUND WATER MONITORING WELLS WITHOUT PURGING MULTILEVEL WELL CHEMISTRY AND TRACER DISAPPEARANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is essential that the sampling techniques utilized in groundwater monitoring provide data that accurately depicts the water quality of the sampled aquifer in the vicinity of the well. Due to the large amount of monitoring activity currently underway in the U.S.A. it is also im...

  4. Physico-chemical characteristics of water sample from Aiba Stream ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at assessing the effectiveness of solar distillation in purification of water. The water sample collected from Aiba stream was subjected to double slope solar water distillation unit. The physico- chemical characteristics of the raw sample and the distillate were determined using standard methods. The.

  5. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Gunnison, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    This water sampling and analysis plan summarizes the results of previous water sampling activities and the plan for water sampling activities for calendar year 1994. A buffer zone monitoring plan is included as an appendix. The buffer zone monitoring plan is designed to protect the public from residual contamination that entered the ground water as a result of former milling operations. Surface remedial action at the Gunnison Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site began in 1992; completion is expected in 1995. Ground water and surface water will be sampled semiannually in 1994 at the Gunnison processing site (GUN-01) and disposal site (GUN-08). Results of previous water sampling at the Gunnison processing site indicate that ground water in the alluvium is contaminated by the former uranium processing activities. Background ground water conditions have been established in the uppermost aquifer (Tertiary gravels) at the Gunnison disposal site. The monitor well locations provide a representative distribution of sampling points to characterize ground water quality and ground water flow conditions in the vicinity of the sites. The list of analytes has been modified with time to reflect constituents that are related to uranium processing activities and the parameters needed for geochemical evaluation. Water sampling will be conducted at least semiannually during and one year following the period of construction activities, to comply with the ground water protection strategy discussed in the remedial action plan (DOE, 1992a)

  6. Business Opportunity Prospectus for Utilities in Solar Water Heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Energy Alliance Group

    1999-06-30

    Faced with deregulation and increasingly aggressive competition, utilities are looking for new products and services to increase revenues, improve customer loyalty and retention, and establish barriers to market erosion. With open access now a reality, and retail wheeling just around the corner, business expansion via new products and services is now the central goal for most utilities in the United States. It may seem surprising that solar thermal energy as applied to heating domestic hot water - an idea that has been around for a long time - offers what utilities and their residential customers want most in a new product/service. This document not only explains how and why, it shows how to get into the business and succeed on a commercial scale.

  7. Analysis of phthalate esters contamination in drinking water samples ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The optimum condition method was successfully applied to the analysis of phthalate esters contamination in bottled drinking water samples. The concentration of DMP, DEP and DBP in drinking water samples were below allowable levels, while the DEHP concentration in three samples was found to be greater than the ...

  8. Guidelines for sampling fish in inland waters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Backiel, Tadeusz; Welcomme, R. L

    1980-01-01

    The book is addressed mainly to Fishery Biologists but it is hoped that Fishing Gear Technologists also can acquire some basic knowledge of sampling problems and procedures which, in turn, can result...

  9. Advanced Water Purification System for In Situ Resource Utilization Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    A main goal in the field of In Situ Resource Utilization is to develop technologies that produce oxygen from regolith to provide consumables to an extratrrestrial outpost. The processes developed reduce metal oxides in the regolith to produce water, which is then electrolyzed to produce oxygen. Hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids are byproducts of the reduction processes, which must be removed to meet electrolysis purity standards. We previously characterized Nation, a highly water selective polymeric proton-exchange membrane, as a filtrtion material to recover pure water from the contaminated solution. While the membranes successfully removed both acid contaminants, the removal efficiency of and water flow rate through the membranes were not sufficient to produce large volumes of electrolysis-grade water. In the present study, we investigated electrodialysis as a potential acid removable technique. Our studies have show a rapid and significant reduction in chloride and fluoride concentrations in the feed solution, while generating a relatively small volume of concentrated waste water. Electrodialysis has shown significant promise as the primary separation technique in ISRU water purification processes.

  10. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan -- Shiprock, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    Water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) is required for each U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site to provide a basis for ground water and surface water sampling at disposal and former processing sites. This WSAP identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the monitoring stations at the Navaho Reservation in Shiprock, New Mexico, UMTRA Project site. The purposes of the water sampling at Shiprock for fiscal year (FY) 1994 are to (1) collect water quality data at new monitoring locations in order to build a defensible statistical data base, (2) monitor plume movement on the terrace and floodplain, and (3) monitor the impact of alluvial ground water discharge into the San Juan River. The third activity is important because the community of Shiprock withdraws water from the San Juan River directly across from the contaminated alluvial floodplain below the abandoned uranium mill tailings processing site

  11. Spectrophotometric Determination of Boron in Environmental Water Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    San San; Khin Win Kyi; Kwaw Naing

    2002-02-01

    The present paper deals with the study on the methods for the determination of boron in the environmental water samples. The standard methods which are useful for this determination are discussed thoroughly in this work. Among the standard methods approved by American Public Health Association, the carmine method was selected for this study. Prior to the determination of boron in the water samples, the precision and accuracy of the methods of choice were examined by using standard boron solutions. The determination of Boron was carried out by using water samples, waste water from Aquaculture Research Centre, University of Yangon, the Ayeyarwady River water near Magway Myathalon Pagoda in Magway Division, ground water from Sanchaung Township, and tap water from Universities' Research Centre, University of Yangon. Analyses of these water samples were done and statistical treatment of the results was carried out. (author)

  12. Effective drinking water collaborations are not accidental: interagency relationships in the international water utility sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalba, D I; Cromar, N J; Pollard, S J T; Charrois, J W; Bradshaw, R; Hrudey, S E

    2014-02-01

    The role that deficient institutional relationships have played in aggravating drinking water incidents over the last 30 years has been identified in several inquiries of high profile drinking water safety events, peer-reviewed articles and media reports. These indicate that collaboration between water utilities and public health agencies (PHAs) during normal operations, and in emergencies, needs improvement. Here, critical elements of these interagency collaborations, that can be integrated within the corporate risk management structures of water utilities and PHAs alike, were identified using a grounded theory approach and 51 semi-structured interviews with utility and PHA staff. Core determinants of effective interagency relationships are discussed. Intentionally maintained functional relationships represent a key ingredient in assuring the delivery of safe, high quality drinking water. © 2013.

  13. Advanced Water Purification System for In Situ Resource Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Stephen M.; Jolley, Scott T.; Captain, James G.

    2013-01-01

    One of NASA's goals is to enable longterm human presence in space, without the need for continuous replenishment of consumables from Earth. In situ resource utilization (ISRU) is the use of extraterrestrial resources to support activities such as human life-support, material fabrication and repair, and radiation shielding. Potential sources of ISRU resources include lunar and Martian regolith, and Martian atmosphere. Water and byproducts (including hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids) can be produced from lunar regolith via a high-temperature hydrogen reduction reaction and passing the produced gas through a condenser. center dot Due to the high solubility of HCI and HF in water, these byproducts are expected to be present in the product stream (up to 20,000 ppm) and must be removed (less than 10 ppm) prior to water consumption or electrolysis.

  14. chemical and microbiological assessment of surface water samples

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    were investigated in this study: Nine samples from different surface water bodies, two samples from two effluent sources ... Ezeagu, Udi, Nkanu, Oji River and some parts of Awgu and Aninri ..... Study of Stream Output from Small Catchments.

  15. Preconcentration NAA for simultaneous multielemental determination in water sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatt, A.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Environment concerns with water, air, land and their interrelationship viz., human beings, fauna and flora. One of the important environmental compartments is water. Elements present in water might face a whole lot of physico-chemical conditions. This poses challenges to measure their total concentrations as well as different species. Preconcentration of the elements present in water samples is a necessary requisites in water analysis. For multi elements concentration measurements, Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) is one of the preferred analytical techniques due to its sensitivity and selectivity. In this talk preconcentration NAA for multielemental determination in water sample determination will be discussed

  16. Water Electrolysis for In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kristopher A.

    2016-01-01

    Sending humans to Mars for any significant amount of time will require capabilities and technologies that enable Earth independence. To move towards this independence, the resources found on Mars must be utilized to produce the items needed to sustain humans away from Earth. To accomplish this task, NASA is studying In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) systems and techniques to make use of the atmospheric carbon dioxide and the water found on Mars. Among other things, these substances can be harvested and processed to make oxygen and methane. Oxygen is essential, not only for sustaining the lives of the crew on Mars, but also as the oxidizer for an oxygen-methane propulsion system that could be utilized on a Mars ascent vehicle. Given the presence of water on Mars, the electrolysis of water is a common technique to produce the desired oxygen. Towards this goal, NASA designed and developed a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) water electrolysis system, which was originally slated to produce oxygen for propulsion and fuel cell use in the Mars Atmosphere and Regolith COllector/PrOcessor for Lander Operations (MARCO POLO) project. As part of the Human Exploration Spacecraft Testbed for Integration and Advancement (HESTIA) project, this same electrolysis system, originally targeted at enabling in situ propulsion and power, operated in a life-support scenario. During HESTIA testing at Johnson Space Center, the electrolysis system supplied oxygen to a chamber simulating a habitat housing four crewmembers. Inside the chamber, oxygen was removed from the atmosphere to simulate consumption by the crew, and the electrolysis system's oxygen was added to replenish it. The electrolysis system operated nominally throughout the duration of the HESTIA test campaign, and the oxygen levels in the life support chamber were maintained at the desired levels.

  17. Measurement of radioactivity in water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, L.

    1990-01-01

    Public concern about the levels of radioactivity release to the environment whether authorised discharges or resulting from nuclear accident, has increased in recent years. Consequently there is increasing pressure for reliable data on the distribution of radioactivity and the extent of its intrusion into food chains and water supplies. As a result a number of laboratories not experienced in radioactivity measurements have acquired nucleonic counting equipment. These notes explore the underlying basics and indicate sources of essential data and information which are required for a better understanding of radioactivity measurements. Particular attention is directed to the screening tests which are usually designated ''gross'' alpha and ''gross'' beta activity measurement. (author)

  18. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Naturita, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    Surface remedial action is scheduled to begin at the Naturita UMTRA Project processing site in the spring of 1994. No water sampling was performed during 1993 at either the Naturita processing site (NAT-01) or the Dry Flats disposal site (NAT-12). Results of previous water sampling at the Naturita processing site indicate that ground water in the alluvium is contaminated as a result of uranium processing activities. Baseline ground water conditions have been established in the uppermost aquifer at the Dry Flats disposal site. Water sampling activities scheduled for April 1994 include preconstruction sampling of selected monitor wells at the processing site, surface water sampling of the San Miguel River, sampling of several springs/seeps in the vicinity of the disposal site, and sampling of two monitor wells in Coke Oven Valley. The monitor well locations provide sampling points to characterize ground water quality and flow conditions in the vicinity of the sites. The list of analytes has been updated to reflect constituents related to uranium processing activities and the parameters needed for geochemical evaluation. Water sampling will be conducted annually at minimum during the period of construction activities

  19. PCR detection of Burkholderia multivorans in water and soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Charlotte; Daenekindt, Stijn; Vandamme, Peter

    2016-08-12

    Although semi-selective growth media have been developed for the isolation of Burkholderia cepacia complex bacteria from the environment, thus far Burkholderia multivorans has rarely been isolated from such samples. Because environmental B. multivorans isolates mainly originate from water samples, we hypothesized that water rather than soil is its most likely environmental niche. The aim of the present study was to assess the occurrence of B. multivorans in water samples from Flanders (Belgium) using a fast, culture-independent PCR assay. A nested PCR approach was used to achieve high sensitivity, and specificity was confirmed by sequencing the resulting amplicons. B. multivorans was detected in 11 % of the water samples (n = 112) and 92 % of the soil samples (n = 25) tested. The percentage of false positives was higher for water samples compared to soil samples, showing that the presently available B. multivorans recA primers lack specificity when applied to the analysis of water samples. The results of the present study demonstrate that B. multivorans DNA is commonly present in soil samples and to a lesser extent in water samples in Flanders (Belgium).

  20. Microbial Condition of Water Samples from Foreign Fuel Storage Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, C.J.

    1998-01-01

    In order to assess the microbial condition of foreign spent nuclear fuel storage facilities and their possible impact on SRS storage basins, twenty-three water samples were analyzed from 12 different countries. Fifteen of the water samples were analyzed and described in an earlier report (WSRC-TR-97-00365 [1]). This report describes nine additional samples received from October 1997 through March 1998. The samples include three from Australia, two from Denmark and Germany and one sample from Italy and Greece. Each water sample was analyzed for microbial content and activity as determined by total bacteria, viable aerobic bacteria, viable anaerobic bacteria, viable sulfate-reducing bacteria, viable acid-producing bacteria and enzyme diversity. The results for each water sample were then compared to all other foreign samples analyzed to date and monthly samples pulled from the receiving basin for off-site fuel (RBOF), at SRS. Of the nine samples analyzed, four samples from Italy, Germany and Greece had considerably higher microbiological activity than that historically found in the RBOF. This microbial activity included high levels of enzyme diversity and the presence of viable organisms that have been associated with microbial influenced corrosion in other environments. The three samples from Australia had microbial activities similar to that in the RBOF while the two samples from Denmark had lower levels of microbial activity. These results suggest that a significant number of the foreign storage facilities have water quality standards that allow microbial proliferation and survival

  1. Emergy evaluation of water utilization benefits in water-ecological-economic system based on water cycle process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, X.; Wu, Z.; Lv, C.

    2017-12-01

    The water utilization benefits are formed by the material flow, energy flow, information flow and value stream in the whole water cycle process, and reflected along with the material circulation of inner system. But most of traditional water utilization benefits evaluation are based on the macro level, only consider the whole material input and output and energy conversion relation, and lack the characterization of water utilization benefits accompanying with water cycle process from the formation mechanism. In addition, most studies are from the perspective of economics, only pay attention to the whole economic output and sewage treatment economic investment, but neglect the ecological function benefits of water cycle, Therefore, from the perspective of internal material circulation in the whole system, taking water cycle process as the process of material circulation and energy flow, the circulation and flow process of water and other ecological environment, social economic elements were described, and the composition of water utilization positive and negative benefits in water-ecological-economic system was explored, and the performance of each benefit was analyzed. On this basis, the emergy calculation method of each benefit was proposed by emergy quantitative analysis technique, which can realize the unified measurement and evaluation of water utilization benefits in water-ecological-economic system. Then, taking Zhengzhou city as an example, the corresponding benefits of different water cycle links were calculated quantitatively by emergy method, and the results showed that the emergy evaluation method of water utilization benefits can unify the ecosystem and the economic system, achieve uniform quantitative analysis, and measure the true value of natural resources and human economic activities comprehensively.

  2. Natural Radioactivity Pattern of Surabaya Water Environmental Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosidi; Agus Taftazani

    2007-01-01

    The gross β radioactivity and natural radionuclide of Surabaya environmental samples pattern have been evaluated. The environmental samples were chosen randomly at 12 locations. The environment samples were water (fresh, estuary and coastal), sediment, eichhornia crassipes (Mart) Solms, Mangrove (Rhizophora stylosa), (Moolgarda delicatus) fish and (Johnius (Johnieops) borneensis) (Sharpnose hammer croaker) fish. The water sample was evaporated; the sediment sample was dried and ground; the biotic samples was burnt at the temperature 500 °C ; The gross β measurement using GM detector and the radionuclides has been identified by γ spectrometer. From the investigation results could be concluded that the natural radioactivity of environmental samples was very low. gross-β of water samples were lower than the threshold value of local government regulation of Surabaya no: 2 year 2004 (1 Bq/L). The distribution of gross-β activity of eichhornia crassipes (Mart) Solms was higher than the other biotic, water and sediment samples as well as the accumulation of radionuclides in the water organism was taken place. The result of identification using γ spectrometer has detected 7 of radionuclides, i.e 210 Pb, 212 Pb, 214 Pb, 208 Tl, 214 Bi, 228 Ac, and 40 K in all sample. The distribution factor of sediment F D was less than bioaccumulation factor of biotic F B and it indicates that there the radionuclide accumulation migration follows the pattern of water - sediment - biotic sample. (author)

  3. Sampling procedure, receipt and conservation of water samples to determine environmental radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herranz, M.; Navarro, E.; Payeras, J.

    2009-01-01

    The present document informs about essential goals, processes and contents that the subgroups Sampling and Samples Preparation and Conservation believe they should be part of the procedure to obtain a correct sampling, receipt, conservation and preparation of samples of continental, marine and waste water before qualifying its radioactive content.

  4. Radioactivity in waste water samples from COGEMA supplied by Greenpeace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinen, H.A.J.M.; Kwakman, P.J.M.; Overwater, R.M.W.; Tax, R.B.; Nissan, L.A.

    1999-01-01

    The environmental organization Greenpeace sampled waste water from the reprocessing plant COGEMA in La Hague, France, in May 1999. On request of the Inspection Environmental Hygiene, The Dutch National Institute for Public Health and Environmental Protection (RIVM) determined the radioactivity of the waste water samples. 5 refs

  5. Determination of Phenols in Water Samples using a Supported ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sample preparation method was tested for the determination of phenols in river water samples and landfill leachate. Concentrations of phenols in river water were found to be in the range 4.2 μg L–1 for 2-chlorophenol to 50 μg L–1 for 4-chlorophenol. In landfill leachate, 4-chlorophenol was detected at a concentration ...

  6. Sampling procedure for lake or stream surface water chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Musselman

    2012-01-01

    Surface waters collected in the field for chemical analyses are easily contaminated. This research note presents a step-by-step detailed description of how to avoid sample contamination when field collecting, processing, and transporting surface water samples for laboratory analysis.

  7. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Grand Junction, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    Surface remedial action will be completed at the Grand Junction processing site during the summer of 1994. Results of 1993 water sampling indicate that ground water flow conditions and ground water quality at the processing site have remained relatively constant with time. Uranium concentrations in ground water continue to exceed the maximum concentration limits, providing the best indication of the extent of contaminated ground water. Evaluation of surface water quality of the Colorado River indicate no impact from uranium processing activities. No compliance monitoring at the Cheney disposal site has been proposed because ground water in the Dakota Sandstone (uppermost aquifer) is classified as limited-use (Class 111) and because the disposal cell is hydrogeologically isolated from the uppermost aquifer. The following water sampling and water level monitoring activities are planned for calendar year 1994: (i) Semiannual (early summer and late fall) sampling of six existing monitor wells at the former Grand Junction processing site. Analytical results from this sampling will be used to continue characterizing hydrogeochemical trends in background ground water quality and in the contaminated ground water area resulting from source term (tailings) removal. (ii) Water level monitoring of approximately three proposed monitor wells projected to be installed in the alluvium at the processing site in September 1994. Data loggers will be installed in these wells, and water levels will be electronically monitored six times a day. These long-term, continuous ground water level data will be collected to better understand the relationship between surface and ground water at the site. Water level and water quality data eventually will be used in future ground water modeling to establish boundary conditions in the vicinity of the Grand Junction processing site. Modeling results will be used to help demonstrate and document the potential remedial alternative of natural flushing

  8. Evaluation of Universitas Indonesia’s Recharge Pond Performance and Potential Utilization for Raw Water Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Suwartha

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The UI recharge pond has been constructed 5 years ago. However, monitoring and evaluation activities on its performances are very lack. Aims of this study are to understand the recharge rate, and to evaluate existing quantity and water quality of the pond during dry and rainy season. Measurement of water depth, rainfall intensity, and evaporation is conducted to determine water availability, recharge rate, and water balance of the recharge pond. Amount of surface water is collected from recharge pond and river at three sampling point to determine existing water quality of the pond. The results showed that recharge rate of the pond between dry season (3.2 mm/day and wet season (6.1 mm/day are considered as insignificant different. The water balance of the recharge pond shows an excessive rate. Various physics and chemical parameters (turbidity, color, TDS, pH, and  Cl are found to have concentration lower than the water quality standard. The results suggest that the pond surface water is remain suitable to be recharged into aquifer zone so that sustaining ground water conservation campaign, and it is potential to be utilized as an additional  raw water source for domestic water demand of UI Campus Depok.

  9. A Comparison of Soil-Water Sampling Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindall, J. A.; Figueroa-Johnson, M.; Friedel, M. J.

    2007-12-01

    The representativeness of soil pore water extracted by suction lysimeters in ground-water monitoring studies is a problem that often confounds interpretation of measured data. Current soil water sampling techniques cannot identify the soil volume from which a pore water sample is extracted, neither macroscopic, microscopic, or preferential flowpath. This research was undertaken to compare values of extracted suction lysimeters samples from intact soil cores with samples obtained by the direct extraction methods to determine what portion of soil pore water is sampled by each method. Intact soil cores (30 centimeter (cm) diameter by 40 cm height) were extracted from two different sites - a sandy soil near Altamonte Springs, Florida and a clayey soil near Centralia in Boone County, Missouri. Isotopically labeled water (O18? - analyzed by mass spectrometry) and bromide concentrations (KBr- - measured using ion chromatography) from water samples taken by suction lysimeters was compared with samples obtained by direct extraction methods of centrifugation and azeotropic distillation. Water samples collected by direct extraction were about 0.25 ? more negative (depleted) than that collected by suction lysimeter values from a sandy soil and about 2-7 ? more negative from a well structured clayey soil. Results indicate that the majority of soil water in well-structured soil is strongly bound to soil grain surfaces and is not easily sampled by suction lysimeters. In cases where a sufficient volume of water has passed through the soil profile and displaced previous pore water, suction lysimeters will collect a representative sample of soil pore water from the sampled depth interval. It is suggested that for stable isotope studies monitoring precipitation and soil water, suction lysimeter should be installed at shallow depths (10 cm). Samples should also be coordinated with precipitation events. The data also indicate that each extraction method be use to sample a different

  10. Conversion of Blue Water into Green Water for Improving Utilization Ratio of Water Resources in Degraded Karst Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Chen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation deterioration and soil loss are the main causes of more precipitation leakages and surface water shortages in degraded karst areas. In order to improve the utilization of water resources in such regions, water storage engineering has been considered; however, site selection and cost associated with the special karstic geological structure have made this difficult. According to the principle of the Soil Plant Atmosphere Continuum, increasing both vegetation cover and soil thickness would change water cycle process, resulting in a transformation from leaked blue water (liquid form into green water (gas or saturated water form for terrestrial plant ecosystems, thereby improving the utilization of water resources. Using the Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer model and the geographical distributed approach, this study simulated the conversion from leaked blue water (leakage into green water in the environs of Guiyang, a typical degraded karst area. The primary results were as follows: (1 Green water in the area accounted for <50% of precipitation, well below the world average of 65%; (2 Vegetation growth played an important role in converting leakage into green water; however, once it increased to 56%, its contribution to reducing leakage decreased sharply; (3 Increasing soil thickness by 20 cm converted the leakage considerably. The order of leakage reduction under different precipitation scenarios was dry year > normal year > rainy year. Thus, increased soil thickness was shown effective in improving the utilization ratio of water resources and in raising the amount of plant ecological water use; (4 The transformation of blue water into green water, which avoids constructions of hydraulic engineering, could provide an alternative solution for the improvement of the utilization of water resources in degraded karst area. Although there are inevitable uncertainties in simulation process, it has important significance for overcoming similar

  11. Monitoring and sampling perched ground water in a basaltic terrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbell, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Perched ground water zones can provide significant information on water and contaminant movement. This paper presents information about perched ground water obtained from drilling and monitoring at a hazardous and radioactive waste disposal site at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Six of forty-five wells drilled at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex have detected perched water in basalts above sedimentary interbeds. This paper describes the distribution and characteristics of perched ground water. It discusses perched water below the surficial sediments in wells at the RWMC, the characteristics of chemical constituents found in perched water, the implications for contaminant transport in the unsaturated zone of water, and the lateral extent of perched water. Recommendations are made to increase the probability of detecting and sampling low yield perched water zones. 6 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Thorium utilization in heavy water moderated Accelerator Driven Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajpai, Anil; Degweker, S.B.; Ghosh, Biplab

    2011-01-01

    Research on Accelerator Driven Systems (ADSs) is being carried out around the world primarily with the objective of waste transmutation. Presently, the volume of waste in India is small and therefore there is little incentive to develop ADS based waste transmutation technology immediately. With limited indigenous U availability and the presence of large Th deposits in the country, there is a clear incentive to develop Th related technologies. India also has vast experience in design, construction and operation of heavy water moderated reactors. Heavy water moderated reactors employing solid Th fuels can be self sustaining, but the discharge burnups are too low to be economical. A possible way to improve the performance such reactors is to use an external neutron source as is done in ADS. This paper discusses our studies on Th utilization in heavy water moderated ADSs. The study is carried out at the lattice level. The time averaged k-infinity of the Th bundle from zero burnup up to the discharge burnup is taken to be the same as the core (ensemble) averaged k-infinity. For the purpose of the analysis we have chosen standard PHWR and AHWR assemblies. Variation of the pitch and coolant (H 2 O/D 2 O) are studied. Both, the once through cycle and the recycling option are studied. In the latter case the study is carried out for various enrichments (% 233 U in Th) of the recycled Th fuel bundles. The code DTF as modified for lattice and burnup calculations (BURNTRAN) was used for carrying out the study. The once through cycle represents the most attractive ADS concept (Th burner ADS) possible for Th utilization. It avoids reprocessing of Th spent fuel and in the ideal situation the use of any fissile material either initially or for sustaining itself. The gain in this system is however rather low requiring a high power accelerator and a substantial fraction of the power generated to be fed back to the accelerator. The self sustaining Th-U cycle in a heavy moderated ADS

  13. Soil Gas Sample Handling: Evaluation of Water Removal and Sample Ganging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, Brad G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Abrecht, David G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hayes, James C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mendoza, Donaldo P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-10-31

    Soil gas sampling is currently conducted in support of Nuclear Test Ban treaty verification. Soil gas samples are collected and analyzed for isotopes of interest. Some issues that can impact sampling and analysis of these samples are excess moisture and sample processing time. Here we discuss three potential improvements to the current sampling protocol; a desiccant for water removal, use of molecular sieve to remove CO2 from the sample during collection, and a ganging manifold to allow composite analysis of multiple samples.

  14. UMTRA water sampling and analysis plan, Tuba City, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide background, guidance, and justification for fiscal year (FY) 1994 water sampling activities for the uranium mil tailings site at Tuba City, Arizona. This sampling and analysis plan will form the basis for groundwater sampling and analysis work orders to be implemented in FY94

  15. Water sampling device for fuel rod failure monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oogami, Hideaki; Echigoya, Hironori; Matsuoka, Tesshi.

    1991-01-01

    The device of the present invention accurately samples coolants in a channel box as sampling water even if the upper end of the channel box of a fuel assembly is positioned at the same height or lower than the upper end of an upper lattice plate. An existent device comprises an outer cap, an inner cap, an air supply pipe and a water sampling tube. In addition, the device of the present invention comprises a sealing material disposed at the end of the outer cap for keeping liquid sealing with the upper lattice plate and a water level monitoring pipe extended to lower than the inner cap passing through the liquid sealing of the outer cap for sucking the atmosphere in the outer cap. Pressurized air is sent through the air supply pipe, to lower the water level of the coolants in the outer cap and the water level monitoring pipe sucks the pressurized air, by which the inside and the outside of the channel box are partitioned. Subsequently, if the sample water is sampled by a sampling tube, sampling water which enables accurate evaluation for radioactivity concentration in the fuel assembly can be obtained. (I.S.)

  16. Catch me if you can: Comparing ballast water sampling skids to traditional net sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradie, Johanna; Gianoli, Claudio; Linley, Robert Dallas; Schillak, Lothar; Schneider, Gerd; Stehouwer, Peter; Bailey, Sarah

    2018-03-01

    With the recent ratification of the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments, 2004, it will soon be necessary to assess ships for compliance with ballast water discharge standards. Sampling skids that allow the efficient collection of ballast water samples in a compact space have been developed for this purpose. We ran 22 trials on board the RV Meteor from June 4-15, 2015 to evaluate the performance of three ballast water sampling devices (traditional plankton net, Triton sampling skid, SGS sampling skid) for three organism size classes: ≥ 50 μm, ≥ 10 μm to Natural sea water was run through the ballast water system and untreated samples were collected using paired sampling devices. Collected samples were analyzed in parallel by multiple analysts using several different analytic methods to quantify organism concentrations. To determine whether there were differences in the number of viable organisms collected across sampling devices, results were standardized and statistically treated to filter out other sources of variability, resulting in an outcome variable representing the mean difference in measurements that can be attributed to sampling devices. These results were tested for significance using pairwise Tukey contrasts. Differences in organism concentrations were found in 50% of comparisons between sampling skids and the plankton net for ≥ 50 μm, and ≥ 10 μm to < 50 μm size classes, with net samples containing either higher or lower densities. There were no differences for < 10 μm organisms. Future work will be required to explicitly examine the potential effects of flow velocity, sampling duration, sampled volume, and organism concentrations on sampling device performance.

  17. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Tuba City, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    Planned, routine ground water sampling activities at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site in Tuba City, Arizona, are described in the following sections of this water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP). This plan identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the stations routinely monitored at the site. The ground water data are used for site characterization and risk assessment. The regulatory basis for routine ground water monitoring at UMTRA Project sites is derived from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations in 40 CFR Part 192 (1994) and the final EPA standards of 1995 (60 FR 2854). Sampling procedures are guided by the UMTRA Project standard operating procedures (SOP) (JEG, n.d.), and the most effective technical approach for the site

  18. Energy and water quality management systems for water utility's operations: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherchi, Carla; Badruzzaman, Mohammad; Oppenheimer, Joan; Bros, Christopher M; Jacangelo, Joseph G

    2015-04-15

    Holistic management of water and energy resources is critical for water utilities facing increasing energy prices, water supply shortage and stringent regulatory requirements. In the early 1990s, the concept of an integrated Energy and Water Quality Management System (EWQMS) was developed as an operational optimization framework for solving water quality, water supply and energy management problems simultaneously. Approximately twenty water utilities have implemented an EWQMS by interfacing commercial or in-house software optimization programs with existing control systems. For utilities with an installed EWQMS, operating cost savings of 8-15% have been reported due to higher use of cheaper tariff periods and better operating efficiencies, resulting in the reduction in energy consumption of ∼6-9%. This review provides the current state-of-knowledge on EWQMS typical structural features and operational strategies and benefits and drawbacks are analyzed. The review also highlights the challenges encountered during installation and implementation of EWQMS and identifies the knowledge gaps that should motivate new research efforts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effective drinking water collaborations are not accidental: Interagency relationships in the international water utility sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalba, D.I.; Cromar, N.J.; Pollard, S.J.T.; Charrois, J.W.; Bradshaw, R.; Hrudey, S.E.

    2014-01-01

    The role that deficient institutional relationships have played in aggravating drinking water incidents over the last 30 years has been identified in several inquiries of high profile drinking water safety events, peer-reviewed articles and media reports. These indicate that collaboration between water utilities and public health agencies (PHAs) during normal operations, and in emergencies, needs improvement. Here, critical elements of these interagency collaborations, that can be integrated within the corporate risk management structures of water utilities and PHAs alike, were identified using a grounded theory approach and 51 semi-structured interviews with utility and PHA staff. Core determinants of effective interagency relationships are discussed. Intentionally maintained functional relationships represent a key ingredient in assuring the delivery of safe, high quality drinking water. - Highlights: • Qualitative analysis of current water sector practices on interagency relations • Identification of suboptimal approaches to working with public health agencies • Effective strategies for developing and maintaining institutional collaborations • Supporting the implementation of WHO guidelines for drinking water quality

  20. Effective drinking water collaborations are not accidental: Interagency relationships in the international water utility sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalba, D.I. [School of Medicine, Flinders University, GPO 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Cromar, N.J., E-mail: nancy.cromar@flinders.edu.au [School of the Environment, Flinders University, GPO 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Pollard, S.J.T. [Cranfield Water Science Institute, Cranfield University, Bedfordshire, MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Charrois, J.W. [Curtin Water Quality Research Centre, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Bradshaw, R. [Cranfield Water Science Institute, Cranfield University, Bedfordshire, MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Hrudey, S.E. [Analytical and Environmental Toxicology Division, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, 10-102 Clinical Sciences Building, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2G3 (Canada)

    2014-02-01

    The role that deficient institutional relationships have played in aggravating drinking water incidents over the last 30 years has been identified in several inquiries of high profile drinking water safety events, peer-reviewed articles and media reports. These indicate that collaboration between water utilities and public health agencies (PHAs) during normal operations, and in emergencies, needs improvement. Here, critical elements of these interagency collaborations, that can be integrated within the corporate risk management structures of water utilities and PHAs alike, were identified using a grounded theory approach and 51 semi-structured interviews with utility and PHA staff. Core determinants of effective interagency relationships are discussed. Intentionally maintained functional relationships represent a key ingredient in assuring the delivery of safe, high quality drinking water. - Highlights: • Qualitative analysis of current water sector practices on interagency relations • Identification of suboptimal approaches to working with public health agencies • Effective strategies for developing and maintaining institutional collaborations • Supporting the implementation of WHO guidelines for drinking water quality.

  1. Monitoring and sampling perched ground water in a basaltic terrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbell, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Perched ground water zones are often overlooked in monitoring plans, but they can provide significant information on water and contaminant movement. This paper presents information about perched ground water obtained from drilling and monitoring at a hazardous and radioactive waste disposal site at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Six of forty-five wells drilled at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex have detected perched water in basalts above sedimentary interbeds. Perched water has been detected at depths of 90 and 210 ft below land surface, approximately 370 ft above the regional water table. Eighteen years of water level measurements from one well at a depth of 210 ft indicate a consistent source of water. Water level data indicate a seasonal fluctuation. The maximum water level in this well varies within a 0.5 ft interval, suggesting the water level reaches equilibrium with the inflow to the well at this height. Volatile organic constituents have been detected in concentrations from 1.2 to 1.4 mg/L of carbon tetrachloride. Eight other volatile organics have been detected. The concentrations of organics are consistent with the prevailing theory of movement by diffusion in the gaseous phase. Results of tritium analyses indicate water has moved to a depth of 86 ft in 17 yr. Results of well sampling analyses indicate monitoring and sampling of perched water can be a valuable resource for understanding the hydrogeologic environment of the vadose zone at disposal sites

  2. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Monument Valley, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    The Monument Valley Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site in Cane Valley is a former uranium mill that has undergone surface remediation in the form of tailings and contaminated materials removal. Contaminated materials from the Monument Valley (Arizona) UMTRA Project site have been transported to the Mexican Hat (Utah) UMTRA Project site for consolidation with the Mexican Hat tailings. Tailings removal was completed in February 1994. Three geologic units at the site contain water: the unconsolidated eolian and alluvial deposits (alluvial aquifer), the Shinarump Conglomerate (Shinarump Member), and the De Chelly Sandstone. Water quality analyses indicate the contaminant plume has migrated north of the site and is mainly in the alluvial aquifer. An upward hydraulic gradient in the De Chelly Sandstone provides some protection to that aquifer. This water sampling and analysis plan recommends sampling domestic wells, monitor wells, and surface water in April and September 1994. The purpose of sampling is to continue periodic monitoring for the surface program, evaluate changes to water quality for site characterization, and provide data for the baseline risk assessment. Samples taken in April will be representative of high ground water levels and samples taken in September will be representative of low ground water levels. Filtered and nonfiltered samples will be analyzed for plume indicator parameters and baseline risk assessment parameters

  3. Sampling and Analysis Plan for the 105-N Basin Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.O. Mahood

    1997-01-01

    This sampling and analysis plan defines the strategy, and field and laboratory methods that will be used to characterize 105-N Basin water. The water will be shipped to the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility for treatment and disposal as part of N Reactor deactivation. These analyses are necessary to ensure that the water will meet the acceptance criteria of the ETF, as established in the Memorandum of Understanding for storage and treatment of water from N-Basin (Appendix A), and the characterization requirements for 100-N Area water provided in a letter from ETF personnel (Appendix B)

  4. Validation of single-sample doubly labeled water method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, M.D.; Weathers, W.W.

    1989-01-01

    We have experimentally validated a single-sample variant of the doubly labeled water method for measuring metabolic rate and water turnover in a very small passerine bird, the verdin (Auriparus flaviceps). We measured CO 2 production using the Haldane gravimetric technique and compared these values with estimates derived from isotopic data. Doubly labeled water results based on the one-sample calculations differed from Haldane values by less than 0.5% on average (range -8.3 to 11.2%, n = 9). Water flux computed by the single-sample method differed by -1.5% on average from results for the same birds based on the standard, two-sample technique (range -13.7 to 2.0%, n = 9)

  5. Preconcentration of uranium in water samples using dispersive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preconcentration of uranium in water samples using dispersive liquid-liquid micro- extraction coupled with solid-phase extraction and determination with inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry.

  6. bacteriological analysis of well water samples in sagamu.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Oboro VO

    Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Nigeria. *Correspondence. ... All the water samples exceeded the standard limit of the most probable ... or disinfection and this could lead to outbreak of water borne diseases. ... The bottle was brought up to a surface.

  7. Contamination of Ground Water Samples from Well Installations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn, Christian; Madsen, Jørgen Øgaard; Simonsen, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Leaching of a plasticizer, N-butylbenzenesulfonamide, from ground water multilevel sampling installations in nylon has been demonstrated. The leaching resulted in concentrations of DOC and apparent AOX, both comparable with those observed in landfill contaminated ground waters. It is concluded...... that nylon should not be used in studies of contamination with organic compounds....

  8. Bacterial contamination of water samples in Gabon, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Ehrhardt

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of water is a major burden in the public health setting of developing countries. We therefore assessed the quality of water samples in Gabon in 2013. The main findings were a contamination rate with coliforms of 13.5% and the detection of a possible environmental reservoir for extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing bacteria.

  9. High-frequency, long-duration water sampling in acid mine drainage studies: a short review of current methods and recent advances in automated water samplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Hand-collected grab samples are the most common water sampling method but using grab sampling to monitor temporally variable aquatic processes such as diel metal cycling or episodic events is rarely feasible or cost-effective. Currently available automated samplers are a proven, widely used technology and typically collect up to 24 samples during a deployment. However, these automated samplers are not well suited for long-term sampling in remote areas or in freezing conditions. There is a critical need for low-cost, long-duration, high-frequency water sampling technology to improve our understanding of the geochemical response to temporally variable processes. This review article will examine recent developments in automated water sampler technology and utilize selected field data from acid mine drainage studies to illustrate the utility of high-frequency, long-duration water sampling.

  10. Ion Chromatographic Analyses of Sea Waters, Brines and Related Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Nataša Gros

    2013-01-01

    This review focuses on the ion chromatographic methods for the analyses of natural waters with high ionic strength. At the beginning a natural diversity in ionic composition of waters is highlighted and terminology clarified. In continuation a brief overview of other review articles of potential interest is given. A review of ion chromatographic methods is organized in four sections. The first section comprises articles focused on the determination of ionic composition of water samples as com...

  11. Reduction of hexavalent chromium in water samples acidified for preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stollenwerk, K.G.; Grove, D.B.

    1985-01-01

    Reduction of hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), in water samples, preserved by standard techniques, was investigated. The standard preservation technique for water samples that are to be analyzed for Cr(VI) consists of filtration through a 0.45-??m membrane, acidification to a pH plastic bottles. Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of H+ concentration, NO2, temperature, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) on the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III). The rate of reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) increased with increasing NO2, DOC, H+, and temperature. Reduction of Cr(VI) by organic matter occurred in some samples even though the samples were unacidified. Reduction of Cr(VI) is inhibited to an extent by storing the sample at 4??C. Stability of Cr(VI) in water is variable and depends on the other constituents present in the sample. Water samples collected for the determination of Cr(VI) should be filtered (0.45-??m membrane), refrigerated, and analyzed as quickly as possible. Water samples should not be acidified. Measurement of total Cr in addition to Cr(VI) can serve as a check for Cr(VI) reduction. If total Cr is greater than Cr(VI), the possibility that Cr(VI) reduction has occurred needs to be considered.The rate of reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) increased with increasing NO//2, DOC, H** plus , and temperature. Reduction of Cr(VI) by organic matter occurred in some samples even though the samples were unacidified. Reduction of Cr(VI) is inhibited to an extent by storing the sample at 4 degree C. Stability of Cr(VI) in water is variable and depends on the other constituents present in the sample. Water samples collected for the determination of Cr(VI) should be filtered (0. 45- mu m membrane), refrigerated, and analyzed as quickly as possible. Water samples should not be acidified. Measurement of total Cr in addition to Cr(VI) can serve as a check for Cr(VI) reduction. If total Cr is greater than Cr(VI), the possibility that Cr(VI) reduction has occurred needs

  12. Urban water infrastructure asset management - a structured approach in four water utilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, M A; Silva, M Santos; Coelho, S T; Almeida, M C; Covas, D I C

    2012-01-01

    Water services are a strategic sector of large social and economic relevance. It is therefore essential that they are managed rationally and efficiently. Advanced water supply and wastewater infrastructure asset management (IAM) is key in achieving adequate levels of service in the future, particularly with regard to reliable and high quality drinking water supply, prevention of urban flooding, efficient use of natural resources and prevention of pollution. This paper presents a methodology for supporting the development of urban water IAM, developed during the AWARE-P project as well as an appraisal of its implementation in four water utilities. Both water supply and wastewater systems were considered. Due to the different contexts and features of the utilities, the main concerns vary from case to case; some problems essentially are related to performance, others to risk. Cost is a common deciding factor. The paper describes the procedure applied, focusing on the diversity of drivers, constraints, benefits and outcomes. It also points out the main challenges and the results obtained through the implementation of a structured procedure for supporting urban water IAM.

  13. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Mexican Hat, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    The Mexican Hat, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site is a former uranium mill that is undergoing surface remediation in the form of on-site tailings stabilization. Contaminated surface materials from the Monument Valley, Arizona, UMTRA Project site have been transported to the Mexican Hat site and are being consolidated with the Mexican Hat tailings. The scheduled completion of the tailings disposal cell is August 1995. Water is found in two geologic units at the site: the Halgaito Shale Formation and the Honaker Trail Formation. The tailings rest on the Halgaito Shale, and water contained in that unit is a result of milling activities and, to a lesser extent, water released from the tailings from compaction during remedial action construction of the disposal cell. Water in the Halgaito Shale flows through fractures and discharges at seeps along nearby arroyos. Flow from the seeps will diminish as water drains from the unit. Ground water in the lower unit, the Honaker Trail Formation, is protected from contamination by an upward hydraulic gradient. There are no nearby water supply wells because of widespread poor background ground water quality and quantity, and the San Juan River shows no impacts from the site. This water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) recommends sampling six seeps and one upgradient monitor well compared in the Honaker Trail Formation. Samples will be taken in April 1994 (representative of high group water levels) and September 1994 (representative of low ground water levels). Analyses will be performed on filtered samples for plume indicator parameters

  14. “Nanofiltration” Enabled by Super-Absorbent Polymer Beads for Concentrating Microorganisms in Water Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xing; Bahnemann, Janina; Wang, Siwen; Yang, Yang; Hoffmann, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    Detection and quantification of pathogens in water is critical for the protection of human health and for drinking water safety and security. When the pathogen concentrations are low, large sample volumes (several liters) are needed to achieve reliable quantitative results. However, most microbial identification methods utilize relatively small sample volumes. As a consequence, a concentration step is often required to detect pathogens in natural waters. Herein, we introduce a novel water sample concentration method based on superabsorbent polymer (SAP) beads. When SAP beads swell with water, small molecules can be sorbed within the beads, but larger particles are excluded and, thus, concentrated in the residual non-sorbed water. To illustrate this approach, millimeter-sized poly(acrylamide-co-itaconic acid) (P(AM-co-IA)) beads are synthesized and successfully applied to concentrate water samples containing two model microorganisms: Escherichia coli and bacteriophage MS2. Experimental results indicate that the size of the water channel within water swollen P(AM-co-IA) hydrogel beads is on the order of several nanometers. The millimeter size coupled with a negative surface charge of the beads are shown to be critical in order to achieve high levels of concentration. This new concentration procedure is very fast, effective, scalable, and low-cost with no need for complex instrumentation. PMID:26876979

  15. Financing Disaster Recovery and Resilience Mitigation for Water and Wastewater Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Free webinar series on Financing for Disaster Recovery and Resilience Mitigation for Water and Wastewater Utilities, hosted by EPA's Water Infrastructure and Resiliency Finance Center and Water Security Division.

  16. China’s Water Utilization Efficiency: An Analysis with Environmental Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailiang Ma

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper estimates China’s water utilization efficiency using the directional distance function to take into account the environmental degradation affecting the economy. We further analyze the spatial correlation and the factors influencing the utilization efficiency using spatial panel data models. The results show that water utilization efficiency in China differs between provinces and regions. For example, water utilization efficiency in the eastern coastal provinces is significantly higher than that of inland provinces. The pattern of spatial auto-correlation Moran’s I index presents significant spatial auto-correlation and evident cluster tendencies in China’s inter-provincial water utilization. Factors that contribute to water utilization efficiency include economic development, technological progress, and economic openness. Negative factors affecting water utilization efficiency arise from industrial structure, government interference, and water resources endowment. In addition, the price of water resources is insignificant. The improvement of water utilization efficiency is essential to sustainable economic development. To raise the utilization efficiency of water resources, China should focus on transforming its industrial restructure, advancing technological development, enhancing economic openness, and encouraging entrepreneurial innovations. Moreover, establishing a mechanism to encourage water conservation and reduce wastewater pollution will further increase water utilization efficiency.

  17. Heavy water standards. Qualitative analyses, sample treating, stocking and manipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavelescu, M.; Steflea, D.; Mihancea, I.; Varlam, M.; Irimescu, R.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents methods and procedures for measuring heavy water concentration, and also sampling, stocking and handling of samples to be analysed. The main concentration analysis methods are: mass spectrometry, for concentrations less then 1%, densitometry, for concentrations within the range 1% - 99% and infrared spectrometry for concentrations above 99%. Procedures of sampling, processing and purification appropriate to these measuring methods were established. 1 Tab

  18. Major inorganic elements in tap water samples in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azrina, A; Khoo, H E; Idris, M A; Amin, I; Razman, M R

    2011-08-01

    Quality drinking water should be free from harmful levels of impurities such as heavy metals and other inorganic elements. Samples of tap water collected from 24 locations in Peninsular Malaysia were determined for inorganic element content. Minerals and heavy metals were analysed by spectroscopy methods, while non-metal elements were analysed using test kits. Minerals and heavy metals determined were sodium, magnesium, potassium, calcium, chromium, manganese, iron, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic, cadmium and lead while the non-metal elements were fluoride, chloride, nitrate and sulphate. Most of the inorganic elements found in the samples were below the maximum permitted levels recommended by inter-national drinking water standard limits, except for iron and manganese. Iron concentration of tap water from one of the locations was higher than the standard limit. In general, tap water from different parts of Peninsular Malaysia had low concentrations of heavy metals and inorganic elements.

  19. Quality-control design for surface-water sampling in the National Water-Quality Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riskin, Melissa L.; Reutter, David C.; Martin, Jeffrey D.; Mueller, David K.

    2018-04-10

    The data-quality objectives for samples collected at surface-water sites in the National Water-Quality Network include estimating the extent to which contamination, matrix effects, and measurement variability affect interpretation of environmental conditions. Quality-control samples provide insight into how well the samples collected at surface-water sites represent the true environmental conditions. Quality-control samples used in this program include field blanks, replicates, and field matrix spikes. This report describes the design for collection of these quality-control samples and the data management needed to properly identify these samples in the U.S. Geological Survey’s national database.

  20. INVESTIGATION OF QUANTIFICATION OF FLOOD CONTROL AND WATER UTILIZATION EFFECT OF RAINFALL INFILTRATION FACILITY BY USING WATER BALANCE ANALYSIS MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    文, 勇起; BUN, Yuki

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, many flood damage and drought attributed to urbanization has occurred. At present infiltration facility is suggested for the solution of these problems. Based on this background, the purpose of this study is investigation of quantification of flood control and water utilization effect of rainfall infiltration facility by using water balance analysis model. Key Words : flood control, water utilization , rainfall infiltration facility

  1. Unsaturated flow characterization utilizing water content data collected within the capillary fringe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baehr, Arthur; Reilly, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    An analysis is presented to determine unsaturated zone hydraulic parameters based on detailed water content profiles, which can be readily acquired during hydrological investigations. Core samples taken through the unsaturated zone allow for the acquisition of gravimetrically determined water content data as a function of elevation at 3 inch intervals. This dense spacing of data provides several measurements of the water content within the capillary fringe, which are utilized to determine capillary pressure function parameters via least-squares calibration. The water content data collected above the capillary fringe are used to calculate dimensionless flow as a function of elevation providing a snapshot characterization of flow through the unsaturated zone. The water content at a flow stagnation point provides an in situ estimate of specific yield. In situ determinations of capillary pressure function parameters utilizing this method, together with particle-size distributions, can provide a valuable supplement to data libraries of unsaturated zone hydraulic parameters. The method is illustrated using data collected from plots within an agricultural research facility in Wisconsin.

  2. The collection and field chemical analysis of water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korte, N.E.; Ealey, D.T.; Hollenbach, M.H.

    1984-01-01

    A successful water sampling program requires a clear understanding of appropriate measurement and sampling procedures in order to obtain reliable field data and representative samples. It is imperative that the personnel involved have a thorough knowledge of the limitations of the techniques being used. Though this seems self-evident, many sampling and field-chemical-analysis programs are still not properly conducted. Recognizing these problems, the Department of Energy contracted with Bendix Field Engineering Corporation through the Technical Measurements Center to develop and select procedures for water sampling and field chemical analysis at waste sites. The fundamental causese of poor field programs are addressed in this paper, largely through discussion of specific field-measurement techniques and their limitations. Recommendations for improvement, including quality-assurance measures, are also presented

  3. Report of the workshop Energy Utility and Solar Water Heater 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The title workshop was organized to increase the interest of energy utilities for the Solar Water Heater campaign by providing representatives of the utilities with information about the technical and marketing aspects of solar boilers, and to stimulate knowledge transfer between the energy utilities about the method, the possibilities and bottlenecks of solar water heater projects

  4. Study of water quality improvements during riverbank filtration at three midwestern United States drinking water utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, W.; Bouwer, E.; Ball, W.; O'Melia, C.; Lechevallier, M.; Arora, H.; Aboytes, R.; Speth, T.

    2003-04-01

    Riverbank filtration (RBF) is a process during which surface water is subjected to subsurface flow prior to extraction from wells. During infiltration and soil passage, surface water is subjected to a combination of physical, chemical, and biological processes such as filtration, dilution, sorption, and biodegradation that can significantly improve the raw water quality (Tufenkji et al, 2002; Kuehn and Mueller, 2000; Kivimaki et al, 1998; Stuyfzand, 1998). Transport through alluvial aquifers is associated with a number of water quality benefits, including removal of microbes, pesticides, total and dissolved organic carbon (TOC and DOC), nitrate, and other contaminants (Hiscock and Grischek, 2002; Tufenkji et al., 2002; Ray et al, 2002; Kuehn and Mueller, 2000; Doussan et al, 1997; Cosovic et al, 1996; Juttner, 1995; Miettinen et al, 1994). In comparison to most groundwater sources, alluvial aquifers that are hydraulically connected to rivers are typically easier to exploit (shallow) and more highly productive for drinking water supplies (Doussan et al, 1997). Increased applications of RBF are anticipated as drinking water utilities strive to meet increasingly stringent drinking water regulations, especially with regard to the provision of multiple barriers for protection against microbial pathogens, and with regard to tighter regulations for disinfection by-products (DBPs), such as trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs). In the above context, research was conducted to document the water quality benefits during RBF at three major river sources in the mid-western United States, specifically with regard to DBP precursor organic matter and microbial pathogens. Specific objectives were to: 1. Evaluate the merits of RBF for removing/controlling DBP precursors and certain other drinking water contaminants (e.g. microorganisms). 2. Evaluate whether RBF can improve finished drinking water quality by removing and/or altering natural organic matter (NOM) in a

  5. A study of water in glass by an autoradiographic method that utilizes tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knickerbocker, S.H.; Brown, S.D.; Joshi, S.B.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter determines water concentration and spatial distribution in glass by an autoradiographic method that makes use of tritiated water as the tagged species. Describes the method and presents some typical results. Lists advantages and disadvantages associated with the method and examines other methods that might be used for the study of water in glass. Discusses dry glass preparation, the addition of tritiated water to glass, glass preparation, film selection, and film analysis. Shows tritium autoradiography to be a valuable technique for measuring the content and spatial distribution of water in inorganic glasses. Finds that the technique yields unique information, particularly in regard to spatial distribution, when compared with techniques of IR spectroscopy, SIMS, SIPS, NRRA, ESR and NMR. Points out that large areas (e.g., several square inches) of sample can be mapped in a single exposure. Notes that the spatial resolution of water in the glass network can be 10 -7 m, so very accurate diffusion profiles are obtainable

  6. User manuals for the Delaware River Basin Water Availability Tool for Environmental Resources (DRB–WATER) and associated WATER application utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Tanja N.; Lant, Jeremiah G.

    2015-11-18

    The Water Availability Tool for Environmental Resources (WATER) is a decision support system (DSS) for the nontidal part of the Delaware River Basin (DRB) that provides a consistent and objective method of simulating streamflow under historical, forecasted, and managed conditions. WATER integrates geospatial sampling of landscape characteristics, including topographic and soil properties, with a regionally calibrated hillslope-hydrology model, an impervious-surface model, and hydroclimatic models that have been parameterized using three hydrologic response units—forested, agricultural, and developed land cover. It is this integration that enables the regional hydrologic-modeling approach used in WATER without requiring site-specific optimization or those stationary conditions inferred when using a statistical model. The DSS provides a “historical” database, ideal for simulating streamflow for 2001–11, in addition to land-cover forecasts that focus on 2030 and 2060. The WATER Application Utilities are provided with the DSS and apply change factors for precipitation, temperature, and potential evapotranspiration to a 1981–2011 climatic record provided with the DSS. These change factors were derived from a suite of general circulation models (GCMs) and representative concentration pathway (RCP) emission scenarios. These change factors are based on 25-year monthly averages (normals) that are centere on 2030 and 2060. The WATER Application Utilities also can be used to apply a 2010 snapshot of water use for the DRB; a factorial approach enables scenario testing of increased or decreased water use for each simulation. Finally, the WATER Application Utilities can be used to reformat streamflow time series for input to statistical or reservoir management software. 

  7. Toward Complete Utilization of Miscanthus in a Hot-Water Extraction-Based Biorefinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Ting Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Miscanthus (Miscanthus sp. Family: Poaceae was hot-water extracted (two h, at 160 °C at three scales: laboratory (Parr reactor, 300 cm3, intermediate (M/K digester, 4000 cm3, and pilot (65 ft3-digester, 1.841 × 106 cm3. Hot-water extracted miscanthus, hydrolyzate, and lignin recovered from hydrolyzate were characterized and evaluated for potential uses aiming at complete utilization of miscanthus. Effects of scale-up on digester yield, removal of hemicelluloses, deashing, delignification degree, lignin recovery and purity, and cellulose retention were studied. The scale-dependent results demonstrated that before implementation, hot-water extraction (HWE should be evaluated on a scale larger than a laboratory scale. The production of energy-enriched fuel pellets from hot-water extracted miscanthus, especially in combination with recovered lignin is recommended, as energy of combustion increased gradually from native to hot-water extracted miscanthus to recovered lignin. The native and pilot-scale hot-water extracted miscanthus samples were also subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis using a cellulase-hemicellulase cocktail, to produce fermentable sugars. Hot-water extracted biomass released higher amount of glucose and xylose verifying benefits of HWE as an effective pretreatment for xylan-rich lignocellulosics. The recovered lignin was used to prepare a formaldehyde-free alternative to phenol-formaldehyde resins and as an antioxidant. Promising results were obtained for these lignin valorization pathways.

  8. A device for fresh water sampling before radioactive measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maubert, Henri; Picat, Philippe.

    1982-06-01

    On account of the many field operations carried out by the laboratory, a water sampling device has been developed. This portable autonomous device performs in situ water filtration and concentration on ion exchange resins and activated carbon columns. The device is described and the trapping performance for 8 radionuclides is given. A comparison is made with the so-called evaporation method. The effects of the treatment of the filtrating elements on the radioactive results are studied. This sampling method is very sensitive [fr

  9. Assessment of the Utility of Cytology and Flow Cytometry of Cerebrospinal Fluid Samples in Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Anna S; Giorgadze, Tamara; Tam, Wayne; Chadburn, Amy

    2018-01-01

    We sought to assess the utility and limitations of both flow cytometry (FC) and cytology for the analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in a practical clinical setting. A total of 393 consecutive CSF samples from 171 patients submitted for both cytomorphologic and FC assessments were analyzed. Both FC and cytology findings were negative for malignancy in 315/393 samples (80%), and either positive (POS) or suspicious/atypical (SUSP/AT) in 7% of samples. This resulted in high agreement between FC and cytology (87%). Minor discrepancies were present in 4% of the cases. In 28 samples, an abnormal population was detected by FC but not by cytology. FC and cytology are important complementary methods for analyzing CSF samples. In cases where cytology is SUSP/AT and FC is inconclusive or negative, additional specimens should be submitted for immunostaining, cytogenetics, and/or molecular studies. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Gas-driven pump for ground-water samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signor, Donald C.

    1978-01-01

    Observation wells installed for artificial-recharge research and other wells used in different ground-water programs are frequently cased with small-diameter steel pipe. To obtain samples from these small-diameter wells in order to monitor water quality, and to calibrate solute-transport models, a small-diameter pump with unique operating characteristics is required that causes a minimum alternation of samples during field sampling. A small-diameter gas-driven pump was designed and built to obtain water samples from wells of two-inch diameter or larger. The pump is a double-piston type with the following characteristics: (1) The water sample is isolated from the operating gas, (2) no source of electricity is ncessary, (3) operation is continuous, (4) use of compressed gas is efficient, and (5) operation is reliable over extended periods of time. Principles of operation, actual operation techniques, gas-use analyses and operating experience are described. Complete working drawings and a component list are included. Recent modifications and pump construction for high-pressure applications also are described. (Woodard-USGS)

  11. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Durango, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Surface remedial action has been completed at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project in Durango, Colorado. Contaminated soil and debris have been removed from the former processing site and placed in the Bodo Canyon disposal cell. Ground water at the former uranium mill/tailings site and raffinate pond area has been contaminated by the former milling operations. The ground water at the disposal site was not impacted by the former milling operations at the time of the cell's construction. Activities for fiscal 1994 involve ground water sampling and site characterization of the disposal site

  12. Bacterial composition in a metropolitan drinking water distribution system utilizing different source waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Alvarez, Vicente; Humrighouse, Ben W; Revetta, Randy P; Santo Domingo, Jorge W

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the bacterial composition of water samples from two service areas within a drinking water distribution system (DWDS), each associated with a different primary source of water (groundwater, GW; surface water, SW) and different treatment process. Community analysis based on 16S rRNA gene clone libraries indicated that Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium spp.) and α-Proteobacteria represented nearly 43 and 38% of the total sequences, respectively. Sequences closely related to Legionella, Pseudomonas, and Vibrio spp. were also identified. In spite of the high number of sequences (71%) shared in both areas, multivariable analysis revealed significant differences between the GW and SW areas. While the dominant phylotypes where not significantly contributing in the ordination of samples, the populations associated with the core of phylotypes (1-10% in each sample) significantly contributed to the differences between both service areas. Diversity indices indicate that the microbial community inhabiting the SW area is more diverse and contains more distantly related species coexisting with local assemblages as compared with the GW area. The bacterial community structure of SW and GW service areas were dissimilar, suggesting that their respective source water and/or water quality parameters shaped by the treatment processes may contribute to the differences in community structure observed.

  13. Water and steam sampling systems; Provtagningssystem foer vatten och aanga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellman, Mats

    2009-10-15

    The supervision of cycle chemistry can be divided into two parts, the sampling system and the chemical analysis. In modern steam generating plants most of the chemical analyses are carried out on-line. The detection limits of these analyzers are pushed downward to the ppt-range (parts per trillion), however the analyses are not more correct than the accuracy of the sampling system. A lot of attention has been put to the analyzers and the statistics to interpret the results but the sampling procedures has gained much less attention. This report aims to give guidance of the considerations to be made regarding sampling systems. Sampling is necessary since most analysis of interesting parameters cannot be carried out in- situ on-line in the steam cycle. Today's on-line instruments for pH, conductivity, silica etc. are designed to meet a water sample at a temperature of 10-30 deg C. This means that the sampling system has to extract a representative sample from the process, transport and cool it down to room temperature without changing the characteristics of the fluid. In the literature research work, standards and other reports can be found. Although giving similar recommendations in most aspects there are some discrepancies that may be confusing. This report covers all parts in the sampling system: Sample points and nozzles; Sample lines; Valves, regulating and on-off; Sample coolers; Temperature, pressure and flow rate control; Cooling water; and Water recovery. On-line analyzers connecting to the sampling system are not covered. This report aims to clarify what guidelines are most appropriate amongst the existing ones. The report should also give guidance to the design of the sampling system in order to achieve representative samples. In addition to this the report gives an overview of the fluid mechanics involved in sampling. The target group of this report is owners and operators of steam generators, vendors of power plant equipment, consultants working in

  14. Utilization of Groundwater, Spring, and the Surface Water for Drinking Water Service for the People of Surakarta

    OpenAIRE

    Team PDAM Surakarta

    2004-01-01

    Case study: utilizing the groundwater, water resources, and surface of water to supply the drinking water for the inhabitants is Surakarta. Of the early target at 75%, the supply of drinking water for the inhabitants in Surakarta only achieves 44%. Because of this, the Regional Drinking Water ompany (PDAM) of Surakarta made a decision to: 1) utilize the debit of water production by making a deep well at a capacity of 30 liters a second for a short term, and on the basis of the study of water ...

  15. The IBNET Water Supply and Sanitation Blue Book 2014 : The International Benchmarking Network for Water and Sanitation Utilities Databook

    OpenAIRE

    Danilenko, Alexander; van den Berg, Caroline; Macheve, Berta; Moffitt, L. Joe

    2014-01-01

    Well-run water utilities play an important role in ending poverty and boosting shared prosperity. Consumers need reliable access to high quality and affordable water and sanitation services. To deliver these basic services efficiently and effectively requires high-performing utilities that are able to respond to urban growth, to connect with the poor, and to improve wastewater disposal practices. The IBNET Water Supply and Sanitation Blue Book 2014 summarizes the water sector status from 2006...

  16. Possibilities of utilization of water hyacinth for making water hyacinth-cement boards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Portland cement when casted in the form of thin sheets, alone is too brittle and rigid to develop enough serviceable value. An additional fibrous material reinforces such a cement product and improves its tensile strength. The fibrous material forms a continuos phase in a cement base. The use of fibres as a reinforcing material has been known to man from the days of ancient civilisation when he first started making sunbaked mud bricks. It was found that if the mix contained fibrous material, the bricks became stronger on drying. Asbestos fibre is predominantly used in various asbestos cement products as a reinforcing material since it is fibrous, non-combustible and has sufficient tensile strength. When mixed with 10-20% asbestos fibres, the cement gives a strong material which is commonly available as corrugated or plain sheets used for building and other purposes. As a part of the project on utilization of water hyacinth, RRL, Jorhat, undertook investigations on the possibilities of making water hyacinth-cement sheets similar to asbestos-cement sheets. Another objective of this investigation was to develop a technology for making boards from water hyacinth and cement for rural housing and other purposes in a scale appropriate to the rural sector. Water hyacinth fibre has certain similarities with asbestos fibre. For example, both are polymers as well as fibrous. However, asbestos fibre is non-combustible whilst water hyacinth fibre is combustible. This of course does not pose any difficulty since the fibres remain in a cement matrix in the form of a sheet which is almost completely impervious. For the same reason the decomposition due to weathering and microbial action is also arrested. Crysotile asbestos, which is primarily used for making asbestos-cement sheets, makes fibres very rapidly in water as does pulp from water hyacinth. This characteristic of water hyacinth pulp is definitely a disadvantage in paper making in modern high speed machines but may be of

  17. Sampling art for ground-water monitoring wells in nuclide migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wenyuan; Tu Guorong; Dang Haijun; Wang Xuhui; Ke Changfeng

    2010-01-01

    Ground-Water sampling is one of the key parts in field nuclide migration. The objective of ground-water sampling program is to obtain samples that are representative of formation-quality water. In this paper, the ground-water sampling standards and the developments of sampling devices are reviewed. We also designed the sampling study projects which include the sampling methods, sampling parameters and the elementary devise of two types of ground-Water sampling devices. (authors)

  18. Filtration recovery of extracellular DNA from environmental water samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    qPCR methods are able to analyze DNA from microbes within hours of collecting water samples, providing the promptest notification and public awareness possible when unsafe pathogenic levels are reached. Health risk, however, may be overestimated by the presence of extracellular ...

  19. Determination of thiobencarb in water samples by gas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Homogeneous liquid-liquid microextraction via flotation assistance (HLLME-FA) coupled with gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) was applied for the extraction and determination of thiobencarb in water samples. In this study, a special extraction cell was designed to facilitate collection of the ...

  20. Determination of lead at nanogram level in water samples by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A novel method of chemistry applicable to the determination of trace lead in water samples based on the resonance light scattering (RLS) technique has been developed. In dilute phosphoric acid medium, in the presence of a large excess of I-, Pb(II) can form [PbI4]2-, which further reacts with tetrabutyl ammonium bromide ...

  1. preconcentration of uranium in water samples using dispersive

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. S. Chandravanshi

    Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, P.O. Box 14395-836, Tehran, Iran. 2Department of ... A new liquid phase microextraction method based on the dispersion of an extraction solvent into aqueous phase ... optical emission spectrometry, Uranium, Water samples ..... The validation of the presented procedure was performed ...

  2. In situ sampling of interstitial water from lake sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkman, Albertus G.; van Raaphorst, Wim; Lijklema, Lambertus

    1982-01-01

    A sampler with a relatively high resolution has been developed, which allows interstitial water to be obtained from lake sediments at well defined depths, without serious disturbance of sediment structure. Oxidation effects are excluded. Sampling time is in the order of a day. Installation requires

  3. Optimal urban water conservation strategies considering embedded energy: coupling end-use and utility water-energy models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escriva-Bou, A.; Lund, J. R.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Spang, E. S.; Loge, F. J.

    2014-12-01

    Although most freshwater resources are used in agriculture, a greater amount of energy is consumed per unit of water supply for urban areas. Therefore, efforts to reduce the carbon footprint of water in cities, including the energy embedded within household uses, can be an order of magnitude larger than for other water uses. This characteristic of urban water systems creates a promising opportunity to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions, particularly given rapidly growing urbanization worldwide. Based on a previous Water-Energy-CO2 emissions model for household water end uses, this research introduces a probabilistic two-stage optimization model considering technical and behavioral decision variables to obtain the most economical strategies to minimize household water and water-related energy bills given both water and energy price shocks. Results show that adoption rates to reduce energy intensive appliances increase significantly, resulting in an overall 20% growth in indoor water conservation if household dwellers include the energy cost of their water use. To analyze the consequences on a utility-scale, we develop an hourly water-energy model based on data from East Bay Municipal Utility District in California, including the residential consumption, obtaining that water end uses accounts for roughly 90% of total water-related energy, but the 10% that is managed by the utility is worth over 12 million annually. Once the entire end-use + utility model is completed, several demand-side management conservation strategies were simulated for the city of San Ramon. In this smaller water district, roughly 5% of total EBMUD water use, we found that the optimal household strategies can reduce total GHG emissions by 4% and utility's energy cost over 70,000/yr. Especially interesting from the utility perspective could be the "smoothing" of water use peaks by avoiding daytime irrigation that among other benefits might reduce utility energy costs by 0.5% according to our

  4. Ground-water sample collection and analysis plan for the ground-water surveillance project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryce, R.W.; Evans, J.C.; Olsen, K.B.

    1991-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory performs ground-water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site in support of DOE's environmental surveillance responsibilities. The purpose of this document is to translate DOE's General Environmental Protection Program (DOE Order 5400.1) into a comprehensive ground-water sample collection and analysis plan for the Hanford Site. This sample collection and analysis plan sets forth the environmental surveillance objectives applicable to ground water, identifies the strategy for selecting sample collection locations, and lists the analyses to be performed to meet those objectives

  5. Health care utilization in a sample of Canadian lesbian women: predictors of risk and resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Sherry; Senn, Charlene Y

    2003-01-01

    This study was designed to test an exploratory path model predicting health care utilization by lesbian women. Using structural equation modeling we examined the joint influence of internalized homophobia, feminism, comfort with health care providers (HCPs), education, and disclosure of sexual identity both in one's life and to one's HCP on health care utilization. Surveys were completed by 254 Canadian lesbian women (54% participation rate) recruited through snowball sampling and specialized media. The majority (95%) of women were White, 3% (n = 7) were women of colour, and the remaining six women did not indicate ethnicity. Participants ranged in age from 18 to 67 with a mean age of 38.85 years (SD = 9.12). In the final path model, higher education predicted greater feminism, more disclosure to HCPs, and better utilization of health services. Feminism predicted both decreased levels of internalized homophobia and increased disclosure across relationships. Being more open about one's sexual identity was related to increased disclosure to HCPs, which in turn, led to better health care utilization. Finally, the more comfortable women were with their HCP the more likely they were to seek preventive care. All paths were significant at p < .01. The path model offers insight into potential target areas for intervention with the goal of improving health care utilization in lesbian women.

  6. Utilization of the National Inpatient Sample for abdominal aortic aneurysm research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dua, Anahita; Ali, Fadwa; Traudt, Elizabeth; Desai, Sapan S

    2017-10-01

    Large administrative databases, including the Medicare database by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, the National Surgical Quality Improvement Project database sponsored by the American College of Surgeons, and the National Inpatient Sample, have been used by major public health agencies for years. More recently, medical researchers have turned to database research to power studies on diseases that are noted to be relatively scarce. This study aimed to review and discuss the utilization of the National Inpatient Sample for abdominal aortic aneurysm research, inclusive of its advantages, disadvantages, and best practices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Sampling method of water sources at study site Taiping, Perak and Pulau Burung, Penang for research on pollutant movement in underground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Rifaie Mohd Murtadza; Mohd Tadza Abdul Rahman; Kamarudin Samuding; Roslanzairi Mostapa

    2005-01-01

    This paperwork explain the method of water sampling being used to take the water samples from the study sites in Taiping, Perak and Pulau Burung, Pulau Pinang. The sampling involve collecting of water samples for groundwater from boreholes and surface water from canal, river, pond, and ex-mining pond from several locations at the study sites. This study also elaborates the instruments and chemical used. The main purpose of this sampling are to obtain the important water quality parameters such as pH, conductivity, Total Dissolved Solid (TDS), heavy metals, anions, cations, and environmental isotopes delta values (d) for 18O, Deuterium dan Tritium. A correct sampling method according to standard is very important to ensure an accurate and precise results. With this, the data from the laboratory tests result can be fully utilized to make the interpretation of the pollutants movement. (Author)

  8. Domestic Water Utilization and Its Determinants in the Rural Areas of Oyo State, Nigeria Using Multivariate Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    T. O. Ogunbode; I. P. Ifabiyi

    2017-01-01

    Investigation into water utilization and its determinants in the rural areas is salient to a result-oriented management of this resource. Thus, a research was conducted to assess the pattern of domestic water uses and its determinant in the rural areas of Oyo State, Nigeria. A multistage sampling technique was applied to select 124 villages from 25 out of the 33 LGAs in Oyo State, Nigeria with 5 villages from each. Ten structured questionnaire were administered in each of the selected village...

  9. Algae viability over time in a ballast water sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollasch, Stephan; David, Matej

    2018-03-01

    The biology of vessels' ballast water needs to be analysed for several reasons, one of these being performance tests of ballast water management systems. This analysis includes a viability assessment of phytoplankton. To overcome logistical problems to get algae sample processing gear on board of a vessel to document algae viability, samples may be transported to land-based laboratories. Concerns were raised how the storage conditions of the sample may impact algae viability over time and what the most appropriate storage conditions were. Here we answer these questions with a long-term algae viability study with daily sample analysis using Pulse-Amplitude Modulated (PAM) fluorometry. The sample was analysed over 79 days. We tested different storage conditions: fridge and room temperature with and without light. It seems that during the first two weeks of the experiment the viability remains almost unchanged with a slight downwards trend. In the continuing period, before the sample was split, a slightly stronger downwards viability trend was observed, which occurred at a similar rate towards the end of the experiment. After the sample was split, the strongest viability reduction was measured for the sample stored without light at room temperature. We concluded that the storage conditions, especially regarding temperature and light exposure, have a stronger impact on algae viability compared to the storage duration and that inappropriate storage conditions reduce algal viability. A sample storage time of up to two weeks in a dark and cool environment has little influence on the organism viability. This indicates that a two week time duration between sample taking on board a vessel and the viability measurement in a land-based laboratory may not be very critical.

  10. The clean water act -- (Federal Water Pollution Control Act), what it means to utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talt, L.A. [Howard and Howard Attorneys, Bloomfield Hills, MI (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Departing from previous policy, in August 1993 the USEPA`s Water Office recommended that the agency regulate a proposed electric power plant`s cooling pond as a water of the US. At issue was a proposal by Florida Power corp. to build a new electric power plant in Polk County, Florida. A 2,600 acre cooling pond to collect heated and discharged water was included in the proposal. Region 4 USEPA staff asked USEPA Headquarters in Washington, DC to decide whether the pond was exempt from the CWA or a water of the US. The pond could be a habitat for migratory birds according to a memo prepared by Region 4 staff. The USEPA Water Office used the presence of migratory birds to claim a nexus to interstate commerce and therefore concluded that the pond should be regulated under the CWA. Electric power industry proponents have argued that an overly expansive definition of waters of the US may result in any new power plant being required to construct cooling towers. Cooling towers are said to be a more expensive and wasteful method to cool heated water. Region 4 ultimately recanted its earlier position after considerable discussions with various other Environmental Protection Agency offices and, no doubt industry pressure. Florida Power Corp. was not required to obtain an NPDES permit for the cooling pond. The lesson of Florida Power Corp. is that the regulatory environment for utilities can be uncertain under the Clean Water Act even in the face of a relatively straightforward exemption from regulation.

  11. In-Situ Resource Utilization: Water Extraction from Regolith

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Several technologies are being evaluated to extract water from a variety of water-bearing extraterrestrial soils, including near-surface granular and hard hydrated...

  12. Handbook for the Institutional and Financial Implementation of Water Utilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-01

    course. As industrialization occurred, the riparia " concept was expanded to allow use of adequate quantities of water for manufac- turing. Each riparian...laws including those concerned with zoning regulations, health and sanitation standards, I.... and the control of water pollution. 4. Financial...water flows by gravity. Groundwater - Subsurface water occupying the saturation zone , from which wells and springs are fed. Hardness - A characteristic

  13. Collection and preparation of water samples for hydrogeochemical reconnaissance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baucom, E.I.; Ferguson, R.B.; Wallace, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    A method based on ion exchange and neutron activation analysis (NAA) was developed and field-tested to determine uranium over the range 0.02 to 10,000 ppb in natural water using a single procedure. Water samples are filtered in the field using a specially-designed one-liter filter apparatus pressurized to 40 psig with an inert gas. The filtered water is treated with a high purity, mixed cation-anion resin in the hydronium-hydroxide form. All ions are removed from solution under the strong driving force of the neutralization reaction. Anionic, cationic, and natural complexes of uranium can be concentrated with this method. Field tests showed greater than 95 percent recovery of 13 elements analyzed (including greater than 99 percent recovery of uranium) and greater than or equal to 90 percent recovery of 4 other elements. Uranium collected on the resin was quantitatively determined by NAA. Coefficient of variation for sampling plus analysis was less than 20 percent for samples containing more than 0.1 ppb uranium. Advantages of this method include: (1) wide dynamic range, (2) low detection limit for uranium (0.02 ppb), (3) high precision and accuracy, (4) relatively low cost, (5) high-yield recovery from low-level aqueous samples without risk of loss to containers, (6) decreased risk of significant sample contamination compared with other low-level methods, (7) production of stable samples suitable for retrievable storage, and(8) concentration of other ions that can be determined by NAA. This paper presents (1) background regarding development of procedures for sample collection and preparation, (2) results of development programs, (3) description of equipment and field procedures, and (4) preliminary conclusions regarding use of this technology for hydrogeochemical reconnaissance for uranium

  14. Characterization and constructive utilization of sludge produced in clari-flocculation unit of water treatment plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Tarique; Ahmad, Kafeel; Alam, Mehtab

    2018-03-01

    All water treatment plants produce waste/residue amid the treatment of raw water. This study selectively investigates the clariflocculator sludge for its physicochemical characteristics and potential reuse options. Sieve analysis, XRF, SEM, XRD, FTIR, and TG-DTA instrumental techniques have been used to characterize the sludge sample. Results show that clariflocculator sludge contains about 78% fine sand having grain size range 150-75 μm. SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3 and CaO constitute the maximum percentage of chemical compounds present in the sludge and quartz is the main crystalline phase of the sludge. Recycling and reuse of this sludge, especially, as fine sand in preparing mortar, concrete mix and other civil engineering products would pave the way for constructive utilization with safe and sustainable sludge management strategies.

  15. Determination of Cs-134 and Cs-137 rain water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, M.F.; Mazzilli, B.

    1988-01-01

    In order to setting an environmental monitoring program at IPEN, was developed a fast and simple methodology for concentration of Cs-134 and Cs-137 in rain water. This procedure consists in the precipitation of cesium and others cathions of its family (NH 4 + , K + and Rb + ) by ammonium molybdophosphate. The measures of the desintegration rates of Cs-134 and Cs-137 was done by gamma spectrometry in a Ge(Li) detector. After setting up the ideal experimental conditions, the procedure was used to analyze four samples of rain water. (author) [pt

  16. Hexagonal ice in pure water and biological NMR samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Thomas; Gath, Julia; Hunkeler, Andreas; Ernst, Matthias, E-mail: maer@ethz.ch [ETH Zurich, Physical Chemistry (Switzerland); Böckmann, Anja, E-mail: a.bockmann@ibcp.fr [UMR 5086 CNRS, Université de Lyon 1, Institut de Biologie et Chimie des Protéines (France); Meier, Beat H., E-mail: beme@ethz.ch [ETH Zurich, Physical Chemistry (Switzerland)

    2017-01-15

    Ice, in addition to “liquid” water and protein, is an important component of protein samples for NMR spectroscopy at subfreezing temperatures but it has rarely been observed spectroscopically in this context. We characterize its spectroscopic behavior in the temperature range from 100 to 273 K, and find that it behaves like pure water ice. The interference of magic-angle spinning (MAS) as well as rf multiple-pulse sequences with Bjerrum-defect motion greatly influences the ice spectra.

  17. Access and utilization of water and sanitation facilities and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elias Nyanza;ola

    This study was conducted to determine the access, utilization and determinants ... Results: A total of 175 households participated in the study. ..... et al., 2013; Mukoonyo et al., 2007) it is among the first studies to contribute to the evidence base.

  18. Reducing Operating Costs and Energy Consumption at Water Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to their unique combination of high energy usage and potential for significant savings, utilities are turning to energy-efficient technologies to help save money. Learn about cost and energy saving technologies from this brochure.

  19. Determination of Sr-90 in rain water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, M.F.; Cunha, I.I.L.

    1988-01-01

    A work that aim is to establish radiochemical method for the determination of Sr-90 in rain water samples has been studied, as a step in an environmental monitoring program of radioactive elements. The analysis includes the preconcentration of strontium diluted in a large volume sample by precipitation of strontium as carbonate, separation of strontium from interfering elements (calcium, barium and rare earths), separation of strontium from ytrium, precipitation of purified strontium and ytrium respectively as carbonate and oxalate, and counting of Sr-90 and Y-90 activities in a low background anticoincidence beta counter. (author) [pt

  20. Monolith Chromatography as Sample Preparation Step in Virome Studies of Water Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Aguirre, Ion; Kutnjak, Denis; Rački, Nejc; Rupar, Matevž; Ravnikar, Maja

    2018-01-01

    Viruses exist in aquatic media and many of them use this media as transmission route. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have opened new doors in virus research, allowing also to reveal a hidden diversity of viral species in aquatic environments. Not surprisingly, many of the newly discovered viruses are found in environmental fresh and marine waters. One of the problems in virome research can be the low amount of viral nucleic acids present in the sample in contrast to the background ones (host, eukaryotic, prokaryotic, environmental). Therefore, virus enrichment prior to NGS is necessary in many cases. In water samples, an added problem resides in the low concentration of viruses typically present in aquatic media. Different concentration strategies have been used to overcome such limitations. CIM monoliths are a new generation of chromatographic supports that due to their particular structural characteristics are very efficient in concentration and purification of viruses. In this chapter, we describe the use of CIM monolithic chromatography for sample preparation step in NGS studies targeting viruses in fresh or marine water. The step-by-step protocol will include a case study where CIM concentration was used to study the virome of a wastewater sample using NGS.

  1. Utilization of AHWR critical facility for research and development work on large sample NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acharya, R.; Dasari, K.B.; Pujari, P.K.; Swain, K.K.; Reddy, A.V.R.; Verma, S.K.; De, S.K.

    2014-01-01

    The graphite reflector position of AHWR critical facility (CF) was utilized for analysis of large size (g-kg scale) samples using internal mono standard neutron activation analysis (IM-NAA). The reactor position was characterized by cadmium ratio method using In monitor for total flux and sub cadmium to epithermal flux ratio (f). Large sample neutron activation analysis (LSNAA) work was carried out for samples of stainless steel, ancient and new clay potteries and dross. Large as well as non-standard geometry samples (1 g - 0.5 kg) were irradiated. Radioactive assay was carried out using high resolution gamma ray spectrometry. Concentration ratios obtained by IM-NAA were used for provenance study of 30 clay potteries, obtained from excavated Buddhist sites of AP, India. Concentrations of Au and Ag were determined in not so homogeneous three large size samples of dross. An X-Z rotary scanning unit has been installed for counting large and not so homogeneous samples. (author)

  2. [Water utilization characteristics of the degraded poplar shelterbelts in Zhangbei, Hebei, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huan; Cao, Jun; Wang, Hua Bing; Song, Bo; Jia, Guo Dong; Liu, Zi Qiang; Yu, Xin Xiao; Zeng, Jia

    2018-05-01

    In Zhangbei County, Hebei Province, poplar-dominated shelterbelts are degraded to different extents. Water availability is the main limiting factor for plant survival in arid areas. The purpose of this study was to reveal the relationship between water availability and poplar degradation. Based on the hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope techniques, we explored the water sources of Populus simonii under different degradation degrees by comparing the isotopic values of P. simonii xylem water with that in potential water source, and calculated the utilization ratio of each water source. The results showed that the water sources of poplar trees varied with degradation degree. The water sources of P. simonii gradually transferred from the deep layer to the surface layer with the increases of degradation. P. simonii with no degradation mainly absorbed soil water in the range of 320-400 cm, with the utilization rate being 25.1%. P. simonii with slight degradation mainly used soil water at depth of 120-180, 180-240 and 240-320 cm. The total utilization rate of three layers was close to 50.0%, with less utilization of water from other layers. The moderately degraded P. simonii mainly used soil water at depth of 20-40, 40-60 and 60-80 cm. The utilization rate of each layer was 17.5%-20.9%, and the contribution rate of soil water under 120 cm was less than 10.0%. The severely degraded P. simonii mainly used water from surface soil layer (0-20 cm), with the utilization rate being 30.4%, which was significantly higher than that of other water sources. The water sources of poplar shelter forests were gradually shallower during the process of degradation. However, the low soil water content in the shallow layer could not meet the normal water demand of poplar, which would accelerate the degradation and even decline of poplar.

  3. Fluoroquinolone antibiotics in environmental waters: sample preparation and determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speltini, Andrea; Sturini, Michela; Maraschi, Federica; Profumo, Antonella

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this review is to provide a general overview on the analytical methods proposed in the last decade for trace fluoroquinolone (FQ) determination in environmental waters. A large number of studies have been developed on this topic in reason of the importance of their monitoring in the studies of environmental mobility and potential degradation pathways. Every step of the analysis has been carefully considered, with a particular attention to sample preparation, in relationship with the problems involved in the analysis of real matrices. The different strategies to minimise interference from organic matter and to achieve optimal sensitivity, especially important in those samples with lower FQ concentrations, were also highlighted. Results and progress in this field have been described and critically commented. Moreover, a worldwide overview on the presence of FQs in the environmental waters has been reported.

  4. Utilization of composite fecal samples for detection of anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Melissa M; Paras, Kelsey L; Howell, Sue B; Kaplan, Ray M

    2017-06-15

    Recent reports indicate that anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle is becoming increasingly prevalent worldwide. Presently, the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) is the only means available for detection of resistance to anthelmintics in cattle herds at the farm level. However, the FECRT is labor and cost intensive, and consequently is only rarely performed on cattle farms unless for research purposes. If costs could be reduced, cattle producers might be more likely to pursue drug resistance testing on their farms. One approach to reducing the cost of the FECRT, is the use of composite fecal samples for performing fecal egg counts (FEC), rather than conducting FEC on fecal samples from 15 to 20 individual animals. In this study FECRT were performed on 14 groups of cattle using both individual and composite FEC methods To measure how well the results of composite sampling reproduce those of individual sampling, Lin's Concordance Correlation Coefficient was utilized to describe both the linear relationship between methods and the slope and y-intercept of the line relating the data sets. There was little difference between the approaches with 98% agreement in mean FEC found between methods Mean FEC based on individual counts ranged between 0 and 670.6 eggs per gram of feces, indicating that the results of this study are applicable to a wide range of FEC levels. Standard error of the mean FEC and range of FEC are reported for each group prior to and following treatment to describe the variability of the data set. There was greater than 95% agreement in drug efficacy between individual and composite sampling methods, demonstrating composite sampling is appropriate to evaluate drug efficacy. Notably, for all groups tested the efficacy calculated by composite sampling was within the 95% confidence interval for efficacy calculated using individual sampling. The use of composite samples was shown to reduce the number of FEC required by 79

  5. An opacity-sampled treatment of water vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, David R.; Augason, Gordon C.; Johnson, Hollis R.

    1989-01-01

    Although the bands of H2O are strong in the spectra of cool stars and calculations have repeatedly demonstrated their significance as opacity sources, only approximate opacities are currently available, due both to the difficulty of accounting for the millions of lines involved and to the inadequacy of laboratory and theoretical data. To overcome these obstacles, a new treatment is presented, based upon a statistical representation of the water vapor spectrum derived from available laboratory data. This statistical spectrum of water vapor employs an exponential distribution of line strengths and random positions of lines whose overall properties are forced to reproduce the mean opacities observed in the laboratory. The resultant data set is then treated by the opacity-sampling method exactly as are all other lines, both molecular and atomic. Significant differences are found between the results of this improved treatment and the results obtained with previous treatments of water-vapor opacity.

  6. GROUND WATER SAMPLING OF VOCS IN THE WATER/CAPILLARY FRINGE AREA FOR VAPOR INTRUSION ASSESSMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vapor intrusion has recently been considered a major pathway for increased indoor air contamination from certain volatile organic contaminants (VOCs). The recent Draft EPA Subsurface Vapor Intrusion Guidance Document states that ground water samples should be obtained from the u...

  7. Adaptive Kalman Filter Based on Adjustable Sampling Interval in Burst Detection for Water Distribution System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doo Yong Choi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid detection of bursts and leaks in water distribution systems (WDSs can reduce the social and economic costs incurred through direct loss of water into the ground, additional energy demand for water supply, and service interruptions. Many real-time burst detection models have been developed in accordance with the use of supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA systems and the establishment of district meter areas (DMAs. Nonetheless, no consideration has been given to how frequently a flow meter measures and transmits data for predicting breaks and leaks in pipes. This paper analyzes the effect of sampling interval when an adaptive Kalman filter is used for detecting bursts in a WDS. A new sampling algorithm is presented that adjusts the sampling interval depending on the normalized residuals of flow after filtering. The proposed algorithm is applied to a virtual sinusoidal flow curve and real DMA flow data obtained from Jeongeup city in South Korea. The simulation results prove that the self-adjusting algorithm for determining the sampling interval is efficient and maintains reasonable accuracy in burst detection. The proposed sampling method has a significant potential for water utilities to build and operate real-time DMA monitoring systems combined with smart customer metering systems.

  8. Monitoring of fluoride in water samples using a smartphone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, Saurabh [Akvo Foundation (Netherlands); Krishnan, Sunderrajan [INREM Foundation (India); Rajkumar, Samuel; Halery, Nischal; Balkunde, Pradeep [Akvo Foundation (Netherlands)

    2016-05-01

    In several parts of India, groundwater is the only reliable, year round source for drinking water. Prevention of fluorosis, a chronic disease resulting from excess intake of fluoride, requires the screening of all groundwater sources for fluoride in endemic areas. In this paper, the authors present a field deployable colorimetric analyzer based on an inexpensive smartphone embedded with digital camera for taking photograph of the colored solution as well as an easy-fit, and compact sample chamber (Akvo Caddisfly). Phones marketed by different smartphone makers were used. Commercially available zirconium xylenol orange reagent was used for determining fluoride concentration. A software program was developed to use with the phone for recording and analyzing the RGB color of the picture. Linear range for fluoride estimation was 0–2 mg l{sup −1}. Around 200 samples, which consisted of laboratory prepared as well as field samples collected from different locations in Karnataka, India, were tested with Akvo Caddisfly. The results showed a significant positive correlation between Ion Selective Electrode (ISE) method and Akvo Caddisfly (Phones A, B and C), with correlation coefficient ranging between 0.9952 and 1.000. In addition, there was no significant difference in the mean fluoride content values between ISE and Phone B and C except for Phone A. Thus the smartphone method is economical and suited for groundwater fluoride analysis in the field. - Highlights: • Fluoride is an inorganic pollutant in ground water, affecting human health. • A colorimetric method for measurement of fluoride in drinking water with smartphone • Measurement is by mixing water with zirconyl xylenol orange complex reagent. • Results are comparable with laboratory-based ion selective fluoride electrode method.

  9. Monitoring of fluoride in water samples using a smartphone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, Saurabh; Krishnan, Sunderrajan; Rajkumar, Samuel; Halery, Nischal; Balkunde, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    In several parts of India, groundwater is the only reliable, year round source for drinking water. Prevention of fluorosis, a chronic disease resulting from excess intake of fluoride, requires the screening of all groundwater sources for fluoride in endemic areas. In this paper, the authors present a field deployable colorimetric analyzer based on an inexpensive smartphone embedded with digital camera for taking photograph of the colored solution as well as an easy-fit, and compact sample chamber (Akvo Caddisfly). Phones marketed by different smartphone makers were used. Commercially available zirconium xylenol orange reagent was used for determining fluoride concentration. A software program was developed to use with the phone for recording and analyzing the RGB color of the picture. Linear range for fluoride estimation was 0–2 mg l"−"1. Around 200 samples, which consisted of laboratory prepared as well as field samples collected from different locations in Karnataka, India, were tested with Akvo Caddisfly. The results showed a significant positive correlation between Ion Selective Electrode (ISE) method and Akvo Caddisfly (Phones A, B and C), with correlation coefficient ranging between 0.9952 and 1.000. In addition, there was no significant difference in the mean fluoride content values between ISE and Phone B and C except for Phone A. Thus the smartphone method is economical and suited for groundwater fluoride analysis in the field. - Highlights: • Fluoride is an inorganic pollutant in ground water, affecting human health. • A colorimetric method for measurement of fluoride in drinking water with smartphone • Measurement is by mixing water with zirconyl xylenol orange complex reagent. • Results are comparable with laboratory-based ion selective fluoride electrode method.

  10. Utilization of solar energy through photosynthesis and artificial water photolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, E.

    1976-01-01

    The plants build up organic matter with a carbon content of the order of 1011 t/year by means of photochemistry. Energy farming for the production of liquid or gaseous fuel is discussed. Yet the abiotic photolysis of water with production of hydrogen is preferable. By means of synthetic, asymmetric, photochemically active, membranes the primary products of water photolysis could be spatially separated so that their recombination is prevented.(author)

  11. Ion Chromatographic Analyses of Sea Waters, Brines and Related Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Gros

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on the ion chromatographic methods for the analyses of natural waters with high ionic strength. At the beginning a natural diversity in ionic composition of waters is highlighted and terminology clarified. In continuation a brief overview of other review articles of potential interest is given. A review of ion chromatographic methods is organized in four sections. The first section comprises articles focused on the determination of ionic composition of water samples as completely as possible. The sections—Selected Anions, Selected Cations and Metals—follow. The most essential experimental conditions used in different methods are summarized in tables for a rapid comparison. Techniques encountered in the reviewed articles comprise: direct determinations of ions in untreated samples with ion- or ion-exclusion chromatography, or electrostatic ion chromatography; matrix elimination with column-switching; pre-concentration with a chelation ion chromatography and purge-and-trap pre-concentration. Different detection methods were used: non-suppressed conductometric or suppressed conductometric, direct spectrometric or spectrometric after a post-column derivetization, and inductively coupled plasma in combination with optical emission or mass spectrometry.

  12. Human resources management in the water utilities of Hermosillo and Mexicali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Loera Burnes

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available

    This paper studies how the Human Resources Management Systems (HRMS influence the performance of water utilities in Mexico. The differentiated performance of the water utilities of the cities of Hermosillo and Mexicali were compared to their HRMS characteristics through the analysis of four categories: 1 Hiring policies, 2 Development and training, 3 Salaries, benefits and incentives, and 4 Sanctions systems. The main differences between these utilities are on categories 2 and 3, where Mexicali shows greater levels. The study provides a vision of water utilities from the point of view of HRMG, which has not been taken into account in previous research. Although Mexicali provides its workers with better training and incentives, it is observed that the influence of local governments and the excessive power of unions have led to weak HRMS that affect the performance of water utilities.

  13. Micellar electrokinetic chromatographic determination of triazine herbicides in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Zhang, Shuaihua; Yin, Xiaofang; Wang, Chun; Wang, Zhi

    2014-09-01

    Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with online sweeping preconcentration in micellar electrokinetic chromatography was developed for the simultaneous determination of five triazine herbicides (atrazine, simazine, propazine, prometon and simetryn) in water samples. Several experimental parameters affecting the extraction efficiencies such as the type and volume of both the extraction and dispersive solvents, the addition of salt to sample solution, the extraction time and the pH of the sample solution were investigated. Under optimum conditions, the linearity of the method was good in the range from 0.33 to 20 ng mL(-1) for simazine, propazine, atrazine and simetryn, and from 0.17 to 20 ng mL(-1) for prometon, respectively. The sensitivity enrichment factors were in the range from 1750 to 2100, depending on the compound. The limit of detection (S/N = 3) ranged from 0.05 to 0.10 ng mL(-1). The developed method was successfully applied to the analysis of the five triazines in river, ground and well waters. © The Author [2013]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Program on MOX fuel utilization in light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenda, Hirofumi

    2000-01-01

    MOX fuel utilization program by the Japanese electric power companies was released in February, 1997. Principal philosophy for MOX fuel design is that MOX fuel shall be compatible with Uranium fuel and behavior of core loaded with MOX fuel shall be similar to that of conventional core. MOX fuel is designed so that geometry and nuclear capability of MOX fuel are equivalent to Uranium fuel. (author)

  15. Differences in microbial community composition between injection and production water samples of water flooding petroleum reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Gao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Microbial communities in injected water are expected to have significant influence on those of reservoir strata in long-term water flooding petroleum reservoirs. To investigate the similarities and differences in microbial communities in injected water and reservoir strata, high-throughput sequencing of microbial partial 16S rRNA of the water samples collected from the wellhead and downhole of injection wells, and from production wells in a homogeneous sandstone reservoir and a heterogeneous conglomerate reservoir were performed. The results indicate that a small number of microbial populations are shared between the water samples from the injection and production wells in the sandstone reservoir, whereas a large number of microbial populations are shared in the conglomerate reservoir. The bacterial and archaeal communities in the reservoir strata have high concentrations, which are similar to those in the injected water. However, microbial population abundance exhibited large differences between the water samples from the injection and production wells. The number of shared populations reflects the influence of microbial communities in injected water on those in reservoir strata to some extent, and show strong association with the unique variation of reservoir environments.

  16. New role for communication fibre optic cables in water utility for leak detection on main water pipeline

    OpenAIRE

    Graovac Radojica M.; Marković Dragomir V.

    2015-01-01

    During construction of main water pipeline it is usual practice to lay fibre optic communication cable along water pipe. This cable is one of the up to date communication media which is used for the connection purposes of water control SCADA equipment as well as for establishing of telephone communication between water utility plants. By developing of new electronic equipment known as DTS (Distributed Temperature Sensing) and DAS (Distributed Acoustic Sensing) equipment it has been opened the...

  17. Nuclear power plants and the environment. Water samplings and releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, Philippe; Bordet, Francois; Chevalier, Christian; Colin, Jean-Luc; Khalanski, Michel

    2013-01-01

    This voluminous and illustrated guide aims at giving detailed information on the nature of waters used by nuclear power plants and of releases, on how these samplings and controls are performed, on the associated risks for the environment and public health, and on how public is informed. After a general overview of these issues, a chapter addresses the protection of nature and biodiversity and the actions performed by EDF in this respect. The next chapter deals with public information. The next chapters discuss the water needs of a nuclear power plant, effluent releases and their impacts. Two chapters are dedicated to the monitoring and control of the environment, and to the various techniques of environmental metrology. Legal and regulatory aspects are then presented

  18. Impact on a utility, utility customers and the environment of an ensemble of solar domestic hot water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cragan, K.E.; Klein, S.A.; Beckman, W.A.

    1995-01-01

    The benefits of the installation of a large number of solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems are identified and quantified. The benefits of SDHW systems include reduced energy use, reduced electrical demand, and reduced pollution. The avoided emissions, capacity contribution, energy and demand savings were evaluated using the power generation schedules, emissions data and annual hourly load profiles from a Wisconsin utility. It is shown that each six square meter solar water heater system can save annually: 3,560 kWh of energy, 0.66 kW of peak demand, and over four tons of pollution

  19. Groundwater science in water-utility operations: global reflections on current status and future needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Stephen; Sage, Rob

    2017-08-01

    The relevance of groundwater science to water-utility operations is analysed from a broad international perspective, identifying key concerns and specific opportunities for the future. The strategic importance worldwide of water utilities assuming the role of lead stakeholders for integrated groundwater resource management, recognizing their often considerable technical know-how and highly significant data holdings, is emphasized. Concurrently, the utilities themselves will need an ever-closer appreciation of groundwater-system behaviour if they are to manage efficiently their water-supply and wastewater operations.

  20. UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Salt Lake City, Utah. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    This water sampling and analysis plan describes planned, routine ground water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site in Salt Lake City, Utah. This plan identifies and justifies sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequencies for routine monitoring of ground water, sediments, and surface waters at monitoring stations on the site

  1. Climate Variability and Access to and Utilization of Water Resources ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The team will collect climate and hydrological data, and conduct household surveys in three informal neighborhoods (Nonghin, Polesgo, Nioko II) in Ougadougou, covering approximately 35 000 people. The methods used to analyze and interpret the quantitative data gathered on the availability and quality of water will be ...

  2. CLASSICS Are we Utilizing our Water Resources Wisely?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    the benefit of his countrymen shines through every page of this lucid and ... people aware of the value of water since no part of the cost in providing it was charged ..... Public should have access to information so collected by official agencies.

  3. Perceived utility of emotion: the structure and construct validity of the Perceived Affect Utility Scale in a cross-ethnic sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Philip I; Berenbaum, Howard

    2012-01-01

    This study introduces a new measure of the perceived utility of emotion, which is the degree to which emotions are perceived to be useful in achieving goals. In this study, we administered this new measure, the Perceived Affect Utility Scale (PAUSe), to a sample of 142 European American and 156 East Asian American college students. Confirmatory factor analyses provided support for a new, culturally informed parsing of emotion and for perceived utility of emotion to be distinguishable from ideal affect, a related but separate construct. Next, we explored the potential importance of perceived utility of emotion in cultural research. Through path analyses, we found that: (a) culturally relevant variables (e.g., independence) played a mediating role in the link between ethnic group and perceived utility of emotion; and (b) perceived utility of emotion played a mediating role in the link between culturally relevant variables and ideal affect. In particular, perceived utility of self-centered emotions (e.g., pride) was found to be associated with independence and ideal affect of those same emotions. In contrast, perceived utility of other-centered emotions (e.g., appreciation) was found to be associated with interdependence, dutifulness/self-discipline, and ideal affect of those same emotions. Implications for perceived utility of emotion in understanding cultural factors are discussed.

  4. Fast and effective determination of strontium-90 in high volumes water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basarabova, B.; Dulanska, S.

    2014-01-01

    A simple and fast method was developed for determination of 90 Sr in high volumes of water samples from vicinity of nuclear power facilities. Samples were taken from the environment near Nuclear Power Plants in Jaslovske Bohunice and Mochovce in Slovakia. For determination of 90 Sr was used solid phase extraction using commercial sorbent Analig R Sr-01 from company IBC Advanced Technologies, Inc.. Determination of 90 Sr was performed with dilute solution of HNO 3 (1.5-2 M) and also tested in base medium with NaOH. For elution of 90 Sr was used eluent EDTA with pH in range 8-9. To achieve fast determination, automation was applied, which brings significant reduction of separation time. Concentration of water samples with evaporation was not necessary. Separation was performed immediately after filtration of analyzed samples. The aim of this study was development of less expensive, time unlimited and energy saving method for determination of 90 Sr in comparison with conventional methods. Separation time for fast-flow with volume of 10 dm 3 of water samples was 3.5 hours (flow-rate approximately 3.2 dm 3 / 1 hour). Radiochemical strontium yield was traced by using radionuclide 85 Sr. Samples were measured with HPGe detector (High-purity Germanium detector) at energy E φ = 514 keV. By using Analig R Sr-01 yields in range 72 - 96 % were achieved. Separation based on solid phase extraction using Analig R Sr-01 employing utilization of automation offers new, fast and effective method for determination of 90 Sr in water matrix. After ingrowth of yttrium samples were measured by Liquid Scintillation Spectrometer Packard Tricarb 2900 TR with software Quanta Smart. (authors)

  5. Multielement neutron activation analysis of underground water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusaka, Yuzuru; Tsuji, Haruo; Fujimoto, Yuzo; Ishida, Keiko; Mamuro, Tetsuo.

    1980-01-01

    An instrumental neutron activation analysis by gamma-ray spectrometry with high resolution and large volume Ge (Li) detectors followed by data processing with an electronic computer was applied to the multielemental analysis to elucidate the chemical qualities of the underground water which has been widely used in the sake brewing industries in Mikage, Uozaki and Nishinomiya districts, called as miyamizu. The evaporated residues of the water samples were subjected to the neutron irradiations in reactor for 1 min at a thermal flux of 1.5 x 10 12 n.cm -2 .sec -1 and for 30 hrs at a thermal flux of 9.3 x 10 11 n.cm -2 .sec -1 or for 5 hrs at a thermal flux of 3.9 x 10 12 n.cm -2 .sec -1 . Thus, 11 elements in the former short irradiation and 38 elements in the latter two kinds of long irradiation can be analyzed. Conventional chemical analysis including atomic absorption method and others are also applied on the same samples, and putting the all results together, some considerations concerning the geochemical meaning of the analytical values are made. (author)

  6. Utilizing the fluidized bed to initiate water treatment on site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadvand, H.; Germann, G.; Gandee, J.P.; Buehler, V.T.

    1995-01-01

    Escalating wastewater disposal costs coupled with enforcement of stricter regulations push industrial sites previously without water treatment to treat on site. These sites, inexperienced in water treatment, require a treatment technology that is easily installed, operated, and maintained. The aerobic granular activated carbon (GAC) fluidized bed incorporates biological and adsorptive technologies into a simple, cost-effective process capable of meeting strict effluent requirements. Two case studies at industrial sites illustrate the installation and operation of the fluidized bed and emphasize the ability to use the fluidized bed singularly or as an integral component of a treatment system capable of achieving treatment levels that allow surface discharge and reinjection. Attention is focused on BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes)

  7. Water Utility Management Strategies in Turkey: The current situation and the challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alp, E.; Aksoy, M. N.; Koçer, B.

    2013-12-01

    As the effects of climate change becomes more prominent, current challenges related to water and wastewater management is becoming more serious. Providing water that satisfies environmental and safety standards in terms of quantity and quality is needed to maintain human life without compromising the need of future generations. Besides providing safe and affordable water, necessary treatment should be achieved according to several important factors such as receiving body standards, discharge standards, water reuse options. Therefore, management of water becomes more crucial than ever that states have to provide accessibility of safe water with affordable cost to its citizens with the means of effective utility management, including water treatment facilities, wastewater treatment facilities, water supply facilities and water distribution systems. Water utilities encounter with several challenges related to cost, infrastructure, population, legislation, workforce and resource. This study aims to determine the current situation and the necessary strategies to improve utility management in Turkish municipalities in a sustainable manner. US Environment Protection Agency (EPA) has formed a tool on effective utility management that assists utilities to provide a solution for both current and future challenges. In this study, we used EPA's guidelines and developed a survey consists of 60 questions under 10 sub-topics (Product Quality, Employee & Leadership Development, Stakeholder Understanding & Support, Operational Optimization, Infrastructure Stability, Financial Viability, Community Sustainability, Customer Satisfaction, Operational Resiliency, and Water Resource Adequacy). This survey was sent to the managers of 25 metropolitan municipalities in Turkey to assess the current condition of municipalities. After the evaluation of the survey results for each topic, including the importance given by managers, facilities were rated according to their level of achievement

  8. Climate Change Vulnerability Assessments: Four Case Studies of Water Utility Practices (2011 Final)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has released the final report titled, Climate Change Vulnerability Assessments: Four Case Studies of Water Utility Practices. This report was prepared by the National Center for Environmental Assessment's Global Climate Research Staff in the Office of Research and D...

  9. Design features of the Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) which improve fuel utilization in light water reactors (LWBR development program)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecker, H.C.; Freeman, L.B.

    1981-08-01

    This report surveys reactor core design features of the Light Water Breeder Reactor which make possible improved fuel utilization in light water reactor systems and breeding with the uranium-thorium fuel cycle. The impact of developing the uranium-thorium fuel cycle on utilization of nuclear fuel resources is discussed. The specific core design features related to improved fuel utilization and breeding which have been implemented in the Shippingport LWBR core are presented. These design features include a seed-blanket module with movable fuel for reactivity control, radial and axial reflcetor regions, low hafnium Zircaloy for fuel element cladding and structurals, and a closely spaced fuel rod lattice. Also included is a discussion of several design modifications which could further improve fuel utilization in future light water reactor systems. These include further development of movable fuel control, use of Zircaloy fuel rod support grids, and fuel element design modifications

  10. Utilization of immobilized urease for waste water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husted, R. R.

    1974-01-01

    The feasibility of using immobilized urease for urea removal from waste water for space system applications is considered, specifically the elimination of the urea toxicity problem in a 30-day Orbiting Frog Otolith (OFO) flight experiment. Because urease catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to ammonia and carbon dioxide, control of their concentrations within nontoxic limits was also determined. The results of this study led to the use of free urease in lieu of the immobilized urease for controlling urea concentrations. An ion exchange resin was used which reduced the NH3 level by 94% while reducing the sodium ion concentration only 10%.

  11. Human resources management in the water utilities of Hermosillo and Mexicali

    OpenAIRE

    Edmundo Loera Burnes; Alejandro Salazar Adams

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies how the Human Resources Management Systems (HRMS) influence the performance of water utilities in Mexico. The differentiated performance of the water utilities of the cities of Hermosillo and Mexicali were compared to their HRMS characteristics through the analysis of four categories: 1) Hiring policies, 2) Development and training, 3) Salaries, benefits and incentives, and 4) Sanct...

  12. Determination of 210Pb and 210Po in water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayranov, M.; Tosheva, Z.; Kies, A.

    2004-01-01

    Lead-210 and Polonium-210 are naturally occurring members of the Uranium-238 decay series. They could be found in various environmental samples, such as groundwater, fish and shellfish, contributing an important component of the human natural radiation background. For this reason the development of a fast, reproducible and sensitive method for determination of 210 Pb and 210 Po is of a great concern. The aims of our study were to adopt procedures for radiochemical separation of these radionuclides and radioanalytical methods for their determination. The combination of electrochemical deposition, co-precipitation and extraction chromatography gives the opportunity for fast and effective radiochemical separation of the analytes. Polonium was spontaneously plated on copper disk from the stock solution. Lead was co-precipitated with Fe(OH) 3 and further purified by extraction chromatography on Sr Spec columns. Alpha spectra of polonium were collected on Canberra PIPS detectors with 900 mm 2 active surface. The activities of lead were determined by LSC (Gardian Wallac Oy). The minimum detectable activities for sample size 1000 mL and chemical yield of 88 % for the polonium and 85 % for the lead are presented. The proposed method proved to be fast, accurate and reproducible for routine determination of lead and polonium in environmental water samples. (authors)

  13. Economical utilization of hot water - an important precondition for an efficient utilization of waste heat in milk cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, E; Pflug, C

    1985-01-01

    Indispensable both in the field of hydroecological and energy policies is the economical utilization of hot water. Hydroecological process analyses in specialized dairy cattle plants have shown that the specific mean annual abstraction of hot water (50/sup 0/C) may be reduced to 14 l per cow and per day. The proportionate contribution of different operational sectors and methods to arrive at the standards are pointed out. Economizing dairy cattly plants reducing hot water consumption as indicated and reaching average milking outputs of >= 1 l per cow and per day may thus bridge the summer season by heat recovery processes producing a sufficient quantity of hot water and allowing a shutdown of all heating units. At present the majority of dairy cattle plants cannot yet dispense with supplementary water during the remaining months. The hot water consumption rate is highest at the end of shifts. In double-shifted dairy cattle plants the estimated maximum hourly consumption amounts to 12 per cent of the average daily consumption. (orig.).

  14. Managing water utility financial risks through third-party index insurance contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeff, Harrison B.; Characklis, Gregory W.

    2013-08-01

    As developing new supply capacity has become increasingly expensive and difficult to permit (i.e., regulatory approval), utilities have become more reliant on temporary demand management programs, such as outdoor water use restrictions, for ensuring reliability during drought. However, a significant fraction of water utility income is often derived from the volumetric sale of water, and such restrictions can lead to substantial revenue losses. Given that many utilities set prices at levels commensurate with recovering costs, these revenue losses can leave them financially vulnerable to budgetary shortfalls. This work explores approaches for mitigating drought-related revenue losses through the use of third-party financial insurance contracts based on streamflow indices. Two different types of contracts are developed, and their efficacy is compared against two more traditional forms of financial hedging used by water utilities: Drought surcharges and contingency funds (i.e., self-insurance). Strategies involving each of these approaches, as well as their use in combination, are applied under conditions facing the water utility serving Durham, North Carolina. A multireservoir model provides information on the scale and timing of droughts, and the financial effects of these events are simulated using detailed data derived from utility billing records. Results suggest that third-party index insurance contracts, either independently or in combination with more traditional hedging tools, can provide an effective means of reducing a utility's financial vulnerability to drought.

  15. Fluorescent determination of graphene quantum dots in water samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benítez-Martínez, Sandra; Valcárcel, Miguel, E-mail: qa1meobj@uco.es

    2015-10-08

    This work presents a simple, fast and sensitive method for the preconcentration and quantification of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) in aqueous samples. GQDs are considered an object of analysis (analyte) not an analytical tool which is the most frequent situation in Analytical Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. This approach is based on the preconcentration of graphene quantum dots on an anion exchange sorbent by solid phase extraction and their subsequent elution prior fluorimetric analysis of the solution containing graphene quantum dots. Parameters of the extraction procedure such as sample volume, type of solvent, sample pH, sample flow rate and elution conditions were investigated in order to achieve extraction efficiency. The limits of detection and quantification were 7.5 μg L{sup −1} and 25 μg L{sup −1}, respectively. The precision for 200 μg L{sup −1}, expressed as %RSD, was 2.8%. Recoveries percentages between 86.9 and 103.9% were obtained for two different concentration levels. Interferences from other nanoparticles were studied and no significant changes were observed at the concentration levels tested. Consequently, the optimized procedure has great potential to be applied to the determination of graphene quantum dots at trace levels in drinking and environmental waters. - Highlights: • Development of a novel and simple method for determination of graphene quantum dots. • Preconcentration of graphene quantum dots by solid phase extraction. • Fluorescence spectroscopy allows fast measurements. • High sensitivity and great reproducibility are achieved.

  16. Technical-economic aspects of the utilization of geothermal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbier, E.

    1989-01-01

    A brief description is given of the physico-chemical parameters characterized a hot water geothermal reservoir and of its exploitation by means of single or coupled (doublet) wells. The technical aspects of geothermal heat to the users is then discussed, beginning with corrosion of materials caused by seven main agents: oxygen, hydrogen sulphide, carbon dioxide, ammonia, hydrogen, sulphates and chlorides. A brief mention is made of scaling due to calcium carbonate, silica and calcium sulphates. The basic components of a geothermal plant for non-electric uses are then discussed: production pumps, surface pipelines, heat exchangers, heat pumps and reinjection pumps. The advantages and disadvantages of the different equipment and materials used in the geothermal sector are also presented. A list is also given of the criteria used in the energy and economic balance of a geothermal operation. (author). 24 refs, 13 figs, 2 tabs

  17. utilization of some agricultural wastes in treating water pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gad, H.M.H.H.

    2003-01-01

    Rice husks, a locally available agricultural by-product, were investigated with aim of producing good adsorbing materials suitable for remediating water pollution . Raw lignocellulose was treated through various procedures: simple carbonization to high temperature, pyrolysis under flowing steam at moderate temperatures and chemical activation with H 3 PO 4 followed by pyrolysis at moderate temperature . A partially deashed precursor was obtained by boiling in alkali solution, thereafter botanical residue was steam activated at a single temperature, and leachate acidified whereby silica was precipitated, many types of adsorbents were thus derived: chars, activated carbon and silica. the obtained various categories of sorbents were characterized by different techniques to asses their physico-chemical and adsorptive properties . this involved: ash content, thermogravimetry, FTIR, electron microscopy, N 2 gas adsorption at 77 k and adsorption capacity from solution using probe molecules

  18. International Comparison of Water Resources Utilization Efficiency in the Silk Road Economic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Long; Ma, Jing; Deng, Wei; Wang, Yong

    2018-03-01

    In order to get knowledge of the standard of water utilization of the Silk Road Economic Belt from international point of view, the paper analyzes the annual variation of water resources utilization in the Silk Road Economic Belt, and compares with other typical countries. The study shows that Water resources utilization efficiency has been greatly improved in recent 20 years and the water consumption per USD 10000 of GDP has been declined 87.97%. the improvement of industrial water consumption efficiency is the key driving factors for substantial decrease in water consumption.The comparison of water utilization and human development shows that the higher HDI the country is, the more efficient water utilization the country has. water consumption per USD 10000 of GDP in country with HDI>0.9 is 194m³, being 8.5% of that in country with HDI from 0.5 to 0.6. On the premise of maintaining the stable economic and social development of the Silk Road Economic Belt, the realization of the control target of total water consumption must depend on the strict control over the disorderly expansion of irrigated area, the change in the mode of economic growth, the implementation of the development strategy for new industrialization and urbanization, vigorous development of the processing industry with low water consumption as well as the high-tech and high value-added industry. Only in this way, the control target of total water consumption can be realized in the process of completing the industrialization task.

  19. Managing globalisation in public utilities : public service transnational corporations and the case of the global water industry

    OpenAIRE

    Finger, Matthias; Lobina, Emanuele

    1999-01-01

    Liberalisation, deregulation and privatisation of water and other public utilities have not produced the alleged efficiency gains of open international competition in public utilities, as the result has been restricted access to utilities rather than unleashed competition. Where water utilities have been privatised, TNCs have reproduced the typically monopolistic behaviour, enhancing concentration through vertical and horizontal integration, collusive conduct and other restrictive practices o...

  20. Study of the possibility of thermal utilization of contaminated water in low-power boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslyakov, P. V.; Proskurin, Y. V.; Zaichenko, M. N.

    2017-09-01

    The utilization of water contaminated with oil products is a topical problem for thermal power plants and boiler houses. It is reasonable to use special water treatment equipment only for large power engineering and industry facilities. Thermal utilization of contaminated water in boiler furnaces is proposed as an alternative version of its utilization. Since there are hot-water fire-tube boilers at many enterprises, it is necessary to study the possibility of thermal utilization of water contaminated with oil products in their furnaces. The object of this study is a KV-GM-2.0 boiler with a heating power of 2 MW. The pressurized burner developed at the Moscow Power Engineering Institute, National Research University, was used as a burner device for supplying liquid fuel. The computational investigations were performed on the basis of the computer simulation of processes of liquid fuel atomization, mixing, ignition, and burnout; in addition, the formation of nitrogen oxides was simulated on the basis of ANSYS Fluent computational dynamics software packages, taking into account radiative and convective heat transfer. Analysis of the results of numerical experiments on the combined supply of crude oil and water contaminated with oil products has shown that the thermal utilization of contaminated water in fire-tube boilers cannot be recommended. The main causes here are the impingement of oil droplets on the walls of the flame tube, as well as the delay in combustion and increased emissions of nitrogen oxides. The thermal utilization of contaminated water combined with diesel fuel can be arranged provided that the water consumption is not more than 3%; however, this increases the emission of nitrogen oxides. The further increase in contaminated water consumption will lead to the reduction of the reliability of the combustion process.

  1. Below-ground interspecific competition for water in a rubber agroforestry system may enhance water utilization in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Junen; Liu, Wenjie; Chen, Chunfeng

    2016-01-19

    Rubber-based (Hevea brasiliensis) agroforestry systems are regarded as the best way to improve the sustainability of rubber monocultures, but few reports have examined water use in such systems. Accordingly, we tested whether interplanting facilitates water utilization of rubber trees using stable isotope (δD, δ(18)O, and δ(13)C) methods and by measuring soil water content (SWC), shoot potential, and leaf C and N concentrations in a Hevea-Flemingia agroforestry system in Xishuangbanna, southwestern China. We detected a big difference in the utilization of different soil layer water between both species in this agroforestry system, as evidenced by the opposite seasonal fluctuations in both δD and δ(18)O in stem water. However, similar predawn shoot potential of rubber trees at both sites demonstrating that the interplanted species did not affect the water requirements of rubber trees greatly. Rubber trees with higher δ(13)C and more stable physiological indexes in this agroforestry system showed higher water use efficiency (WUE) and tolerance ability, and the SWC results suggested this agroforestry is conductive to water conservation. Our results clearly indicated that intercropping legume plants with rubber trees can benefit rubber trees own higher N supply, increase their WUE and better utilize soil water of each soil layer.

  2. Liquid Water from First Principles: Validation of Different Sampling Approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mundy, C J; Kuo, W; Siepmann, J; McGrath, M J; Vondevondele, J; Sprik, M; Hutter, J; Parrinello, M; Mohamed, F; Krack, M; Chen, B; Klein, M

    2004-05-20

    A series of first principles molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations were carried out for liquid water to assess the validity and reproducibility of different sampling approaches. These simulations include Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations using the program CPMD with different values of the fictitious electron mass in the microcanonical and canonical ensembles, Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics using the programs CPMD and CP2K in the microcanonical ensemble, and Metropolis Monte Carlo using CP2K in the canonical ensemble. With the exception of one simulation for 128 water molecules, all other simulations were carried out for systems consisting of 64 molecules. It is found that the structural and thermodynamic properties of these simulations are in excellent agreement with each other as long as adiabatic sampling is maintained in the Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations either by choosing a sufficiently small fictitious mass in the microcanonical ensemble or by Nos{acute e}-Hoover thermostats in the canonical ensemble. Using the Becke-Lee-Yang-Parr exchange and correlation energy functionals and norm-conserving Troullier-Martins or Goedecker-Teter-Hutter pseudopotentials, simulations at a fixed density of 1.0 g/cm{sup 3} and a temperature close to 315 K yield a height of the first peak in the oxygen-oxygen radial distribution function of about 3.0, a classical constant-volume heat capacity of about 70 J K{sup -1} mol{sup -1}, and a self-diffusion constant of about 0.1 Angstroms{sup 2}/ps.

  3. The differences in healthcare utilization for dental caries based on the implementation of water fluoridation in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Myung-Soo; Han, Kyu-Tae; Park, Sohee; Moon, Ki Tae; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2016-11-08

    There were some debates about the water fluoridation program in South Korea, even if the program had generally substantial effectiveness. Because the out-of-pocket expenditures for dental care were higher in South Korea than in other countries, an efficient solution was needed. Therefore, we examined the relationship between the implementation of water fluoridation and the utilization of dental care. We used the National Health Insurance Service National Sample Cohort. In this study, data finally included 472,250 patients who were newly diagnosed with dental caries during 2003-2013. We performed survival analysis using cox proportional hazard model, negative binomial-regression, and regression analyses using generalized estimating equation models. There were 48.49 % outpatient dental care visit during study period. Individuals with water fluoridation had a lower risk of dental care visits (HR = 0.949, 95 % CI = 0.928-0.971). Among the individuals who experienced a dental care visit, those with water fluoridation program had a lower number of dental care visits (β = -0.029), and the period of water fluoridation had an inverse association with the dental care expenditures. The implementation of water fluoridation programs and these periods are associated with reducing the utilization of dental health care. Considering these positive impacts, healthcare professionals must consider preventive strategies for activating water fluoridation programs, such as changes in public perception and relations, for the effective management of dental care in South Korea.

  4. Efficient utilization of rain water in hill agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.R.; Singh, S.S.; Khan, A.R.

    2002-05-01

    Hill areas generally receive rainfall of around or more than 1150 mm. More than 2500 mm rainfall is received in about 30.2 million ha hilly area of the country. Besides many other factors high rainfall and heavy runoff are mainly responsible for low productivity. Because of sloppy characters and shallow soil depth, major fraction of rainwater is lost as runoff. Invariably evaporation exceeds the moisture stored and thereby depletes soils of their moisture reserve when crops are to be sown. Too much water at one time and too little in another during the same year causes wide instability in the production and productivity (Gupta et al., 2000). In high rainfall/hilly areas small and scattered land holdings exclusively rain dependent subsistence type of agriculture, low irrigated area of eastern Himalaya (northeastern region of India) further aggravate the problem. Harvesting of runoff at micro level for storage and recycling, control of erosion and moisture conservation are necessary and possible measures for better crop production. (author)

  5. Practical aspects of sea and fresh-water algae utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyanishkene, V.B.; Zlobin, V.S.; Zheleznyakova, O.V.

    1988-01-01

    Regularities of sea and fresh-water microalgae cultivation, revealed during the operation of industrial plants, are presented in detail. The study of the Platymonas viridis cultivation mechanisms has shown the possibility of active intervention into the cycle of intense reproduction of the biomass. Among physical factors of the medium, which influence the reproduction of the industrial strain of Platymonas viridis, the effect of the red light, ultraviolet radiation, ultrahigh frequency fields and gamma radiation upon the cell division of these microalgae has been investigated. It has been shown that the effect of gamma radiation on the cell division of Platymonas viridis, other bacteria and protozoans is inhibiting. In the experiments using the radionuclides strontium-90 and cerium-144 as indicators of metabolism the dependence of the radionuclide accumulation factor on the quantity of stable lead as well as the effect of the temperature on the accumulation process have been studied. The coefficients of 90 Sr and 144 Ce accumulation by Nitellopsis obtusa cell compartments depending on stable lead and temperature are presented. 200 refs.; 21 figs.; 54 tabs

  6. Colombia - Expanding Services to Low-Income Areas Comparing Private and Public Water Utilities

    OpenAIRE

    Sotomayor, Maria Angelica

    2003-01-01

    Colombia is one of the most active Latin American countries in incorporating private sector participation (PSP) in managing water utilities. One of the community's main concerns is that reforms that treat water and sanitation services as an economic asset rather than as a social good and that allow providers to apply commercial (profit-oriented) criteria, may tend to restrict access to the...

  7. Determination of trihalomethanes in water samples: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Pavon, Jose Luis [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad de Salamanca, 37008 Salamanca (Spain)], E-mail: jlpp@usal.es; Herrero Martin, Sara; Garcia Pinto, Carmelo; Moreno Cordero, Bernardo [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad de Salamanca, 37008 Salamanca (Spain)

    2008-11-23

    This article reviews the most recent literature addressing the analytical methods applied for trihalomethanes (THMs) determination in water samples. This analysis is usually performed with gas chromatography (GC) combined with a preconcentration step. The detectors most widely used in this type of analyses are mass spectrometers (MS) and electron capture detectors (ECD). Here, we review the analytical characteristics, the time required for analysis, and the simplicity of the optimised methods. The main difference between these methods lies in the sample pretreatment step; therefore, special emphasis is placed on this aspect. The techniques covered are direct aqueous injection (DAI), liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), headspace (HS), and membrane-based techniques. We also review the main chromatographic columns employed and consider novel aspects of chromatographic analysis, such as the use of fast gas chromatography (FGC). Concerning the detection step, besides the common techniques, the use of uncommon detectors such as fluorescence detector, pulsed discharge photoionization detector (PDPID), dry electrolytic conductivity detector (DELCD), atomic emission detector (AED) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for this type of analysis is described.

  8. Utilization of light water reactors for plutonium incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galperin, A.

    1995-01-01

    In this work a potential of incineration of excess Pu in LWR's is investigated. In order to maintain the economic viability of the Pu incineration option it should be carried out by the existing power plants without additional investment for plant modifications. Design variations are reduced to the fuel cycle optimization, i.e. fuel composition may be varied to achieve optimal Pu destruction. Fuel mixtures considered in this work were based either on uranium or thorium fertile materials and Pu as a fissile component. The slightly enriched U fuel cycle for a typical pressurized water reactor was considered as a reference case. The Pu content of all fuels was adjusted to assure the identical cycle length and discharged burnup values. An equilibrium cycle was simulated by performing cluster burnup calculations. The material composition data for the whole core was estimated based on the core, fuel and cycle parameters. The annual production of Pu of a standard PWR with 1100 MWe output is about 298 kg. The same core completely loaded with the MOX fuel is estimated to consume 474 kg of Pu, mainly fissile isotopes. The MOX-239 fuel type (pure Pu-239) shows a potential toreduce the initial total Pu inventory by 220 kg/year and fissile Pu inventory by 420 kg/year. TMOX and TMOX-239 are based on Th-232 as a fertile component of the fuel, instead of U-238. The amount of Pu destroyed per year for both cases is significantly higher than that of U-based fuels. Especially impressive is the reduction in fissile Pu inventory: more than 900 kg/year. (author)

  9. New role for communication fibre optic cables in water utility for leak detection on main water pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graovac Radojica M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available During construction of main water pipeline it is usual practice to lay fibre optic communication cable along water pipe. This cable is one of the up to date communication media which is used for the connection purposes of water control SCADA equipment as well as for establishing of telephone communication between water utility plants. By developing of new electronic equipment known as DTS (Distributed Temperature Sensing and DAS (Distributed Acoustic Sensing equipment it has been opened the possibility, with this equipment and by utilizing of dedicated optical fibres of optical fibre communication cable as a sensor, to detect leakage point by temperature monitoring or monitoring of acoustic changes along water pipeline (as detection of temperature change of soil at leakage point or detection of acoustic change at leakage point.

  10. Utility of Helicobacter spp. associated GFD markers for detecting avian fecal pollution in natural waters of two continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, W; Harwood, V J; Nguyen, K; Young, S; Hamilton, K; Toze, S

    2016-01-01

    Avian fecal droppings may negatively impact environmental water quality due to the presence of high concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and zoonotic pathogens. This study was aimed at evaluating the performance characteristics and utility of a Helicobacter spp. associated GFD marker by screening 265 fecal and wastewater samples from a range of avian and non-avian host groups from two continents (Brisbane, Australia and Florida, USA). The host-prevalence and -specificity of this marker among fecal and wastewater samples tested from Brisbane were 0.58 and 0.94 (maximum value of 1.00). These values for the Florida fecal samples were 0.30 (host-prevalence) and 1.00 (host-specificity). The concentrations of the GFD markers in avian and non-avian fecal nucleic acid samples were measured at a test concentration of 10 ng of nucleic acid at Brisbane and Florida laboratories using the quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay. The mean concentrations of the GFD marker in avian fecal nucleic acid samples (5.2 × 10(3) gene copies) were two orders of magnitude higher than non-avian fecal nucleic acid samples (8.6 × 10(1) gene copies). The utility of this marker was evaluated by testing water samples from the Brisbane River, Brisbane and a freshwater creek in Florida. Among the 18 water samples tested from the Brisbane River, 83% (n = 18) were positive for the GFD marker, and the concentrations ranged from 6.0 × 10(1)-3.2 × 10(2) gene copies per 100 mL water. In all, 92% (n = 25) water samples from the freshwater creek in Florida were also positive for the GFD marker with concentrations ranging from 2.8 × 10(1)-1.3 × 10(4) gene copies per 100 mL water. Based on the results, it can be concluded that the GFD marker is highly specific to avian host groups, and could be used as a reliable marker to detect the presence and amount of avian fecal pollution in environmental waters. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Sampling and analysis for radon-222 dissolved in ground water and surface water

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWayne, Cecil L.; Gesell, T.F.

    1992-01-01

    Radon-222 is a naturally occurring radioactive gas in the uranium-238 decay series that has traditionally been called, simply, radon. The lung cancer risks associated with the inhalation of radon decay products have been well documented by epidemiological studies on populations of uranium miners. The realization that radon is a public health hazard has raised the need for sampling and analytical guidelines for field personnel. Several sampling and analytical methods are being used to document radon concentrations in ground water and surface water worldwide but no convenient, single set of guidelines is available. Three different sampling and analytical methods - bubbler, liquid scintillation, and field screening - are discussed in this paper. The bubbler and liquid scintillation methods have high accuracy and precision, and small analytical method detection limits of 0.2 and 10 pCi/l (picocuries per liter), respectively. The field screening method generally is used as a qualitative reconnaissance tool.

  12. Diel production and microheterotrophic utilization of dissolved free amino acids in waters off southern California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlucci, A.F.; Craven, D.B.; Henrichs, S.M.

    1984-01-01

    Diel patterns of dissolved free amino acid (DFAA) concentration and microheterotrophic utilization were examined in the spring and fall of 1981 in euphotic waters from the base of the mixed layer off the southern California coast. The average depths of the isotherms sampled were 19.2 m for spring and 9.0 for fall. Total DFAA levels were generally higher in the spring than in the fall, 18 to 66 nM and 14 to 20 nM, respectively. Two daily concentration maxima and minima were observed for total DFAAs as well as for most individual DFAAs. Maxima were usually measured in the mid-dark period and in the early afternoon; minima were typically observed in early morning and late afternoon. Bacterial cell numbers reached maximal values near midnight in both seasons. The increases coincided with one of the total DFAA maxima. The second total DFAA maximum occurred in early to midafternoon, during the time of maximum photosynthetic carbon production and rapid dissolved amino acid utilization. Microbial metabolism (incorporation plus respiration) of selected 3 H-amino acids was 2.7 to 4.1 times greater during the daylight hours. DFAA turnover times, based on these metabolic measurements, ranged between 11 and 36 h for the amino acids tested, and rates were 1.7 to 3.7 times faster in the daylight hours than at night. DFAA distributions were related to primary production and chlorophyll a concentrations. Amino acids were estimated to represent 9 to 45% of the total phytoplankton exudate. Microheterotrophic utilization or production of total protein amino acids was estimated as 3.6 μg of C liter -1 day -1 in spring and 1.9 μg of C liter -1 day -1 in the fall. Assimilation efficiency for dissolved amino acids averaged 65% for marine microheterotrophs

  13. Application of Information Technology Solution for Early Warning Systems at Water Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bałut, Alicja

    2018-02-01

    Deployment of IT solutions in water utilities in Poland concerns nowadays lots beyond GIS implementation projects [1]. The scope of modern IT platforms is truly advanced software for complete management of water treatment processes and involved objects, including ranges of various types of equipment. There are multiply factors that disrupt required volumes of supplied water. They are normally classified as natural, accidental and intentional. This paper addresses potential residing in already deployed IT solutions of water utilities in and also in new ones being now developed. Primarily- from the perspective of intentional, terrorist threats. This document depicts operating procedures that are called in case of spotted contamination in a water supply (damage of key elements of the network infrastructure) or in case of an introduction factors. This paper also discusses relevant IT tools with access provided to network operators or water plant owners that are extremely useful in accurate pinpointing the treat and in following relevant operating procedures and related actions.

  14. Application of nanotechnologies for solving ecological problems on produced water utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajiyev, S.K.; Kalbaliyeva, E.S.; Kazimov, F.K.

    2010-01-01

    Utilization of produced water is connected with the problems of its purification, repeated use and following the corresponding ecological requirements.Constant growth of the amount of produced water in extracted fluid and contaminating components require improvement of existing methods of utilization and development of advanced technologies. In the result of development of nanocomposites on the base of metallic nanoparticles it has been achieved significant improvement of purification efficiency of produced water, as well as decrease of surface tension, viscosity, increase of corrosion resistance and protection against salt deposition.

  15. EQ-5D™-derived utility values for different levels of migraine severity from a UK sample of migraineurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stafford Megan R

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To estimate utility values for different levels of migraine pain severity from a United Kingdom (UK sample of migraineurs. Methods One hundred and six migraineurs completed the EQ-5D to evaluate their health status for mild, moderate and severe levels of migraine pain severity for a recent migraine attack, and for current health defined as health status within seven days post-migraine attack. Statistical tests were used to evaluate differences in mean utility scores by migraine severity. Results Utility scores for each health state were significantly different from 1.0 (no problems on any EQ-5D dimension (p  Conclusions Results indicate that all levels of migraine pain are associated with significantly reduced utility values. As severity worsened, utility decreased and severe migraine pain was considered a health state worse than death. Results can be used in cost-utility models examining the relative economic value of therapeutic strategies for migraine in the UK.

  16. Sampling trace organic compounds in water: a comparison of a continuous active sampler to continuous passive and discrete sampling methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coes, Alissa L; Paretti, Nicholas V; Foreman, William T; Iverson, Jana L; Alvarez, David A

    2014-03-01

    A continuous active sampling method was compared to continuous passive and discrete sampling methods for the sampling of trace organic compounds (TOCs) in water. Results from each method are compared and contrasted in order to provide information for future investigators to use while selecting appropriate sampling methods for their research. The continuous low-level aquatic monitoring (CLAM) sampler (C.I.Agent® Storm-Water Solutions) is a submersible, low flow-rate sampler, that continuously draws water through solid-phase extraction media. CLAM samplers were deployed at two wastewater-dominated stream field sites in conjunction with the deployment of polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) and the collection of discrete (grab) water samples. All samples were analyzed for a suite of 69 TOCs. The CLAM and POCIS samples represent time-integrated samples that accumulate the TOCs present in the water over the deployment period (19-23 h for CLAM and 29 days for POCIS); the discrete samples represent only the TOCs present in the water at the time and place of sampling. Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling and cluster analysis were used to examine patterns in both TOC detections and relative concentrations between the three sampling methods. A greater number of TOCs were detected in the CLAM samples than in corresponding discrete and POCIS samples, but TOC concentrations in the CLAM samples were significantly lower than in the discrete and (or) POCIS samples. Thirteen TOCs of varying polarity were detected by all of the three methods. TOC detections and concentrations obtained by the three sampling methods, however, are dependent on multiple factors. This study found that stream discharge, constituent loading, and compound type all affected TOC concentrations detected by each method. In addition, TOC detections and concentrations were affected by the reporting limits, bias, recovery, and performance of each method. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Sampling trace organic compounds in water: a comparison of a continuous active sampler to continuous passive and discrete sampling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coes, Alissa L.; Paretti, Nicholas V.; Foreman, William T.; Iverson, Jana L.; Alvarez, David A.

    2014-01-01

    A continuous active sampling method was compared to continuous passive and discrete sampling methods for the sampling of trace organic compounds (TOCs) in water. Results from each method are compared and contrasted in order to provide information for future investigators to use while selecting appropriate sampling methods for their research. The continuous low-level aquatic monitoring (CLAM) sampler (C.I.Agent® Storm-Water Solutions) is a submersible, low flow-rate sampler, that continuously draws water through solid-phase extraction media. CLAM samplers were deployed at two wastewater-dominated stream field sites in conjunction with the deployment of polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) and the collection of discrete (grab) water samples. All samples were analyzed for a suite of 69 TOCs. The CLAM and POCIS samples represent time-integrated samples that accumulate the TOCs present in the water over the deployment period (19–23 h for CLAM and 29 days for POCIS); the discrete samples represent only the TOCs present in the water at the time and place of sampling. Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling and cluster analysis were used to examine patterns in both TOC detections and relative concentrations between the three sampling methods. A greater number of TOCs were detected in the CLAM samples than in corresponding discrete and POCIS samples, but TOC concentrations in the CLAM samples were significantly lower than in the discrete and (or) POCIS samples. Thirteen TOCs of varying polarity were detected by all of the three methods. TOC detections and concentrations obtained by the three sampling methods, however, are dependent on multiple factors. This study found that stream discharge, constituent loading, and compound type all affected TOC concentrations detected by each method. In addition, TOC detections and concentrations were affected by the reporting limits, bias, recovery, and performance of each method.

  18. Utilization of neutrons in nuclear data measurements and bulk sample analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonah, S. A.

    1995-01-01

    Experimental investigations were carried out with neutrons in the fields of neutron data measurements and bulk sample analysis based on the interactions of neutron interactions required in the investigations together with some salient features of the sources employed are enumerated. Excitation cross section curves and isomeric cross section ratio of 58 Ni(n,p) 58 Co m , g reaction over the neutron energy range of between 5 and 15 MeV were determined using the activation analysis technique in combination with high-resolution gamma spectroscopy. Characteristics of the incident neutrons produced via the D-T reaction of a neutron generator and D-D reaction of a cyclotron were determined experimentally to account for the contributing effects of background neutrons especially in the 5-13 MeV neutron energy range where existing data are scanty and rather discrepant. The measured data agree well with calculated data using nuclear models but deviate significantly from the recommended data based on existing literature data. The measured δ act and δ m /δ g data made it possible to determine the cross section curve for 58 Ni(n,p) 58 Co m reaction. Furthermore the flux density distributions of thermal and primary fast neutrons in different configurations of bulk samples consisting of water, graphite and coal together with the attenuation characteristics were determined by the activation analysis and pulse height response spectrometry techniques. From the results obtained, an experimental geometry has been proposed for on-line elemental analysis of coal and other minerals. Similarly the total hydrogen content and 0+C/H atomic ratio in household and motor oils as well as crude oil samples of different origins were measured by an improved experimental arrangement based on the thermal neutron reflection technique. A detection limit of 0.12 w % was obtained for hydrogen indicating the possible adaptation of this technique for quality control of petroleum products

  19. THE UTILIZATION STRUCTURE OF THERMAL WATER WELLS AND ITS UNEXPLOITED CAPACITIES IN HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BALÁZS KULCSÁR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to mitigate Hungary’s vulnerability in energy supply and accomplish the renewable energy production targets, it is essential to discover exploitable alternative opportunities for energy production and step up the utilization of the available capacities. The purpose of this publication is to map up the utilization structure of the existing Hungarian thermal water wells, describe its changes over the past 16 years, reveal the associated reasons and define the unutilized well capacities that may contribute to increasing the exploitation of geothermal heat by municipalities. The studies have been conducted in view of the Cadaster of Thermal Water Wells of Hungary compiled in 1994, the well cadasters kept by the regional water management directorates, as well as the data of the digital thermal water cadaster of 2010. The calculations performed for the evaluation of data have been based on the ratios and respective utilization areas of the existing wells. In the past 150 years, nearly 1500 thermal water wells have been drilled for use by a broad range of economic operations. The principal goals of constructing thermal water wells encompass the use of water in balneology, water and heat supply to the agriculture, hydrocarbon research and the satisfaction of municipal water demands. In 1994, 26% of the facilities was operated as baths, 21% was used by agriculture, while 13% and 12% served communal and waterworks supply, respectively. Then in 2010, 31% of thermal water wells was continued to be used for the water supply of bathing establishments, followed by 20% for agricultural use, 19% for utilization by waterworks, 11% for observation purposes and 10% for communal use. During the 16 years between 1994 and 2010, the priorities of utilization often changed, new demands emerged in addition to the former utilization goals of thermal water wells. The economic landscape and changes in consumer habits have transformed the group of consumers, which

  20. Radiation treatment of organic substances which are difficult to decompose for utilizing sewage water again. Radiation decomposition of lignin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiguchi, Masayuki; Sawai, Taruko; Tanabe, Hiroko

    1996-01-01

    The sewerage model projects utilizing sewage-treated water and the sewerage model project for the future city executed in Tokyo are described. It is important to obtain the treated water which is suitable to purposes by setting up the target for control and reducing the organic contamination which is difficult to decompose. In fiscal year 1995, as to the decomposing treatment of lignin by radiation, the effect of reducing coloring and the influence when actual flowing-in sewage and treated water coexist were examined. The experimental samples were lignin aqueous solution, synthetic sewage and flowing-in sewage, treated water, and the mixture of treated water and synthetic sewage. The measurement of water quality is explained. The γ ray irradiation with a Co-60 source was carried out. The results of respective samples are reported. When total organic carbon was at the level in flowing-in sewage and treated water, irradiation was effective for eliminating coloring. The soluble organic substances which are difficult to decompose were efficiently decomposed by irradiation. (K.I.)

  1. Preliminary Investigation on the Effects of Shockwaves on Water Samples Using a Portable Semi-Automatic Shocktube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessley, G. Jims John

    2017-10-01

    The propagation of shock waves through any media results in an instantaneous increase in pressure and temperature behind the shockwave. The scope of utilizing this sudden rise in pressure and temperature in new industrial, biological and commercial areas has been explored and the opportunities are tremendous. This paper presents the design and testing of a portable semi-automatic shock tube on water samples mixed with salt. The preliminary analysis shows encouraging results as the salinity of water samples were reduced up to 5% when bombarded with 250 shocks generated using a pressure ratio of 2. 5. Paper used for normal printing is used as the diaphragm to generate the shocks. The impact of shocks of much higher intensity obtained using different diaphragms will lead to more reduction in the salinity of the sea water, thus leading to production of potable water from saline water, which is the need of the hour.

  2. Electric portfolio modeling with stochastic water - climate interactions: Implications for co-management of water and electric utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldeyesus, Tibebe Argaw

    Water supply constraints can significantly restrict electric power generation, and such constraints are expected to worsen with future climate change. The overarching goal of this thesis is to incorporate stochastic water-climate interactions into electricity portfolio models and evaluate various pathways for water savings in co-managed water-electric utilities. Colorado Springs Utilities (CSU) is used as a case study to explore the above issues. The thesis consists of three objectives: Characterize seasonality of water withdrawal intensity factors (WWIF) for electric power generation and develop a risk assessment framework due to water shortages; Incorporate water constraints into electricity portfolio models and evaluate the impact of varying capital investments (both power generation and cooling technologies) on water use and greenhouse gas emissions; Compare the unit cost and overall water savings from both water and electric sectors in co-managed utilities to facilitate overall water management. This thesis provided the first discovery and characterization of seasonality of WWIF with distinct summertime and wintertime variations of +/-17% compared to the power plant average (0.64gal/kwh) which itself is found to be significantly higher than the literature average (0.53gal/kwh). Both the streamflow and WWIF are found to be highly correlated with monthly average temperature (r-sq = 89%) and monthly precipitation (r-sq of 38%) enabling stochastic simulation of future WWIF under moderate climate change scenario. Future risk to electric power generation also showed the risk to be underestimated significantly when using either the literature average or the power plant average WWIF. Seasonal variation in WWIF along with seasonality in streamflow, electricity demand and other municipal water demands along with storage are shown to be important factors for more realistic risk estimation. The unlimited investment in power generation and/or cooling technologies is also

  3. Assessment of Sr-90 in water samples: precision and accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nisti, Marcelo B.; Saueia, Cátia H.R.; Castilho, Bruna; Mazzilli, Barbara P., E-mail: mbnisti@ipen.br, E-mail: chsaueia@ipen.br, E-mail: bcastilho@ipen.br, E-mail: mazzilli@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    The study of artificial radionuclides dispersion into the environment is very important to control the nuclear waste discharges, nuclear accidents and nuclear weapons testing. The accidents in Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant and Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, released several radionuclides in the environment by aerial deposition and liquid discharge, with various level of radioactivity. The {sup 90}Sr was one of the elements released into the environment. The {sup 90}Sr is produced by nuclear fission with a physical half-life of 28.79 years with decay energy of 0.546 MeV. The aims of this study are to evaluate the precision and accuracy of three methodologies for the determination of {sup 90}Sr in water samples: Cerenkov, LSC direct method and with radiochemical separation. The performance of the methodologies was evaluated by using two scintillation counters (Quantulus and Hidex). The parameters Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA) and Figure Of Merit (FOM) were determined for each method, the precision and accuracy were checked using {sup 90}Sr standard solutions. (author)

  4. Verification of spectrophotometric method for nitrate analysis in water samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawati, Puji; Gusrianti, Reny; Dwisiwi, Bledug Bernanti; Purbaningtias, Tri Esti; Wiyantoko, Bayu

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this research was to verify the spectrophotometric method to analyze nitrate in water samples using APHA 2012 Section 4500 NO3-B method. The verification parameters used were: linearity, method detection limit, level of quantitation, level of linearity, accuracy and precision. Linearity was obtained by using 0 to 50 mg/L nitrate standard solution and the correlation coefficient of standard calibration linear regression equation was 0.9981. The method detection limit (MDL) was defined as 0,1294 mg/L and limit of quantitation (LOQ) was 0,4117 mg/L. The result of a level of linearity (LOL) was 50 mg/L and nitrate concentration 10 to 50 mg/L was linear with a level of confidence was 99%. The accuracy was determined through recovery value was 109.1907%. The precision value was observed using % relative standard deviation (%RSD) from repeatability and its result was 1.0886%. The tested performance criteria showed that the methodology was verified under the laboratory conditions.

  5. Legionella saoudiensis sp. nov., isolated from a sewage water sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajrai, Leena Hussein; Azhar, Esam Ibraheem; Yasir, Muhammad; Jardot, Priscilla; Barrassi, Lina; Raoult, Didier; La Scola, Bernard; Pagnier, Isabelle

    2016-11-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, bacilli-shaped bacterial strain, LS-1T, was isolated from a sewage water sample collected in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The taxonomic position of strain LS-1T was investigated using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and those of four other genes indicated that strain LS-1T belongs to the genus Legionella in the family Legionellaceae. Regarding the 16S rRNA gene, the most closely related species are Legionella rowbothamii LLAP-6T (98.6 %) and Legionella lytica L2T (98.5 %). The mip gene sequence of strain LS-1T showed 94 % sequence similarity with that of L. lytica L2T and 93 % similarity with that of L. rowbothamii LLAP-6T. Strain LS-1T grew optimally at a temperature of 32 °C on a buffered charcoal yeast extract (BCYE) agar plate in a 5 % CO2 atmosphere and had a flagellum. The combined phylogenetic, phenotypic and genomic sequence data suggest that strain LS-1T represents a novel species of the genus Legionella, for which the name Legionella saoudiensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LS-1T (=DSM 101682T=CSUR P2101T).

  6. Methods to maximise recovery of environmental DNA from water samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rheyda Hinlo

    Full Text Available The environmental DNA (eDNA method is a detection technique that is rapidly gaining credibility as a sensitive tool useful in the surveillance and monitoring of invasive and threatened species. Because eDNA analysis often deals with small quantities of short and degraded DNA fragments, methods that maximize eDNA recovery are required to increase detectability. In this study, we performed experiments at different stages of the eDNA analysis to show which combinations of methods give the best recovery rate for eDNA. Using Oriental weatherloach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus as a study species, we show that various combinations of DNA capture, preservation and extraction methods can significantly affect DNA yield. Filtration using cellulose nitrate filter paper preserved in ethanol or stored in a -20°C freezer and extracted with the Qiagen DNeasy kit outperformed other combinations in terms of cost and efficiency of DNA recovery. Our results support the recommendation to filter water samples within 24hours but if this is not possible, our results suggest that refrigeration may be a better option than freezing for short-term storage (i.e., 3-5 days. This information is useful in designing eDNA detection of low-density invasive or threatened species, where small variations in DNA recovery can signify the difference between detection success or failure.

  7. Assessment of Sr-90 in water samples: precision and accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisti, Marcelo B.; Saueia, Cátia H.R.; Castilho, Bruna; Mazzilli, Barbara P.

    2017-01-01

    The study of artificial radionuclides dispersion into the environment is very important to control the nuclear waste discharges, nuclear accidents and nuclear weapons testing. The accidents in Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant and Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, released several radionuclides in the environment by aerial deposition and liquid discharge, with various level of radioactivity. The 90 Sr was one of the elements released into the environment. The 90 Sr is produced by nuclear fission with a physical half-life of 28.79 years with decay energy of 0.546 MeV. The aims of this study are to evaluate the precision and accuracy of three methodologies for the determination of 90 Sr in water samples: Cerenkov, LSC direct method and with radiochemical separation. The performance of the methodologies was evaluated by using two scintillation counters (Quantulus and Hidex). The parameters Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA) and Figure Of Merit (FOM) were determined for each method, the precision and accuracy were checked using 90 Sr standard solutions. (author)

  8. Dynamic Evaluation of Water Quality Improvement Based on Effective Utilization of Stockbreeding Biomass Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Yan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The stockbreeding industry is growing rapidly in rural regions of China, carrying a high risk to the water environment due to the emission of huge amounts of pollutants in terms of COD, T-N and T-P to rivers. On the other hand, as a typical biomass resource, stockbreeding waste can be used as a clean energy source by biomass utilization technologies. In this paper, we constructed a dynamic linear optimization model to simulate the synthetic water environment management policies which includes both the water environment system and social-economic situational changes over 10 years. Based on the simulation, the model can precisely estimate trends of water quality, production of stockbreeding biomass energy and economic development under certain restrictions of the water environment. We examined seven towns of Shunyi district of Beijing as the target area to analyse synthetic water environment management policies by computer simulation based on the effective utilization of stockbreeding biomass resources to improve water quality and realize sustainable development. The purpose of our research is to establish an effective utilization method of biomass resources incorporating water environment preservation, resource reutilization and economic development, and finally realize the sustainable development of the society.

  9. Strontium isotope study of coal utilization by-products interacting with environmental waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivak-Birndorf, Lev J; Stewart, Brian W; Capo, Rosemary C; Chapman, Elizabeth C; Schroeder, Karl T; Brubaker, Tonya M

    2012-01-01

    Sequential leaching experiments on coal utilization by-products (CUB) were coupled with chemical and strontium (Sr) isotopic analyses to better understand the influence of coal type and combustion processes on CUB properties and the release of elements during interaction with environmental waters during disposal. Class C fly ash tended to release the highest quantity of minor and trace elements-including alkaline earth elements, sodium, chromium, copper, manganese, lead, titanium, and zinc-during sequential extraction, with bottom ash yielding the lowest. Strontium isotope ratios ((87)Sr/(86)Sr) in bulk-CUB samples (total dissolution of CUB) are generally higher in class F ash than in class C ash. Bulk-CUB ratios appear to be controlled by the geologic source of the mineral matter in the feed coal, and by Sr added during desulfurization treatments. Leachates of the CUB generally have Sr isotope ratios that are different than the bulk value, demonstrating that Sr was not isotopically homogenized during combustion. Variations in the Sr isotopic composition of CUB leachates were correlated with mobility of several major and trace elements; the data suggest that arsenic and lead are held in phases that contain the more radiogenic (high-(87)Sr/(86)Sr) component. A changing Sr isotope ratio of CUB-interacting waters in a disposal environment could forecast the release of certain strongly bound elements of environmental concern. This study lays the groundwork for the application of Sr isotopes as an environmental tracer for CUB-water interaction. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  10. When the 'soft-path' gets hard: demand management and financial instability for water utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeff, H. B.; Characklis, G. W.

    2014-12-01

    In the past, cost benefit analysis (CBA) has been viewed as an effective means of evaluating water utility strategies, particularly those that were dependent on the construction of new supply infrastructure. As water utilities have begun to embrace 'soft-path' approaches as a way to reduce the need for supply-centric development, CBA fails to recognize some important financial incentives affected by reduced water consumption. Demand management, both as a short-term response to drought and in longer-term actions to accommodate demand growth, can introduce revenue risks that adversely affect a utility's ability to repay debt, re-invest in aging infrastructure, or maintain reserve funds for use in a short-term emergency. A utility that does not generate sufficient revenue to support these functions may be subject to credit rating downgrades, which in turn affect the interest rate it pays on its debt. Interest rates are a critical consideration for utility managers in the capital-intensive water sector, where debt payments for infrastructure often account for a large portion of a utility's overall costs. Even a small increase in interest rates can add millions of dollars to the cost of new infrastructure. Recent studies have demonstrated that demand management techniques can lead to significant revenue variability, and credit rating agencies have begun to take notice of drought response plans when evaluating water utility credit ratings, providing utilities with a disincentive to fully embrace soft-path approaches. This analysis examines the impact of demand management schemes on key credit rating metrics for a water utility in Raleigh, North Carolina. The utility's consumer base is currently experiencing rapid population growth, and demand management has the potential to reduce the dependence on costly new supply infrastructure but could lead to financial instability that will significantly increase the costs of financing future projects. This work analyzes how 'soft

  11. Nitrogen and water utilization by trickle fertigated garlic using the neutron gauge and 15N technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad, M.J.; Al-Omari, M.; Zuraiki, S.; Qawasmi, W.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to increase water and fertilizer use efficiency for conventional fertilization and fertigation. The following treatments were included and studied in an RCB design with four replications of each treatment: Zero N, 30, 60 and 90 ppm N in the irrigation water. Additional soil application equivalent to one fertigation treatment was also included. The fertilizers were injected into the irrigation water by means of an injection pump. Garlic was planted in plot with dimensions of 3mx4.5m. Irrigation was applied to replenish 80% of the Class A pan evaporation on a weekly bases. Access tubes for neutron probe reading were mounted in each plot in three replications. The readings were taken before and after each irrigation or rainfall at 15, 30, 45, 60 and 90 cm soil depth. The labelled N fertilizers ( 15 N) were applied to microplots which contained five plants within each plot. At harvest, plant samples were taken from the microplots for the 15 N measurements. Plant samples were collected and prepared according to the instructions for sampling for 15 N analysis. The yield and its components were obtained from the macroplot. The yield continued to increase with increasing N fertigation rates. The fresh weight per head and per segment showed a similar trend as the yield did. However, the number of segments per head was not affected significantly by the investigated treatments in this study. This may indicate that the zero N treatments produced heads with small segments compared to that produced with N application. The dry weight of shoot, segment and segment membrane responded positively to the rates of N fertigation, reaching the maximum value at the rates of 80 and 120 kg N, irrespective of N fertigation or soil application. The soil application gave a production as high as the best fertigated N rate but lower than the zero N treatment. The percentage of N content in fruits and leaves was the highest with the fertigation treatments where the

  12. chemical and microbiological assessment of surface water samples

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    concentrations and bacteriological content. Evaluation of the results ... and Aninri local government areas of Enugu state. Surface water ... surface water bodies are prone to impacts from ... Coal Measures (Akamigbo, 1987). The geologic map ...

  13. Utilization of Weibull equation to obtain soil-water diffusivity in horizontal infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrini, I.A.

    1982-06-01

    Water movement was studied in horizontal infiltration experiments using laboratory columns of air-dry and homogeneous soil to obtain a simple and suitable equation for soil-water diffusivity. Many water content profiles for each one of the ten soil columns utilized were obtained through gamma-ray attenuation technique using a 137 Cs source. During the measurement of a particular water content profile, the soil column was held in the same position in order to measure changes in time and so to reduce the errors in water content determination. The Weibull equation utilized was excellent in fitting water content profiles experimental data. The use of an analytical function for ν, the Boltzmann variable, according to Weibull model, allowed to obtain a simple equation for soil water diffusivity. Comparisons among the equation here obtained for diffusivity and others solutions found in literature were made, and the unsuitability of a simple exponential variation of diffusivity with water content for the full range of the latter was shown. The necessity of admitting the time dependency for diffusivity was confirmed and also the possibility fixing that dependency on a well known value extended to generalized soil water infiltration studies was found. Finally, it was shown that the soil water diffusivity function given by the equation here proposed can be obtained just by the analysis of the wetting front advance as a function of time. (Author) [pt

  14. Propagation of errors from a null balance terahertz reflectometer to a sample's relative water content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjiloucas, S; Walker, G C; Bowen, J W; Zafiropoulos, A

    2009-01-01

    The THz water content index of a sample is defined and advantages in using such metric in estimating a sample's relative water content are discussed. The errors from reflectance measurements performed at two different THz frequencies using a quasi-optical null-balance reflectometer are propagated to the errors in estimating the sample water content index.

  15. Bacteriological analysis of well water samples in Sagamu | Idowu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Majority of the population in semi-urban and urban areas of Nigeria depend on wells as their source of water supply. Due to increasing cases of water-borne diseases in recent times, this study was carried out to examine the microbial quality of well water in Sagamu, Nigeria as a way of safeguarding public health against ...

  16. The Key Components of Job Satisfaction in Malaysian Water Utility Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Khalizani Khalid; Hanisah M. Salim; Siew-Phaik Loke; Khalisanni Khalid

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: This study aimed to examine the impacts of employees rewards and employees motivation on employees job satisfaction between public and private water utility organization in Malaysia. Approach: A total of 689 employees from both sectors participated. While hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to test the relationship between employees rewards, employees motivation and employees job satisfaction, gap analysis was utilized to determine the si...

  17. Fuel utilization potential in light water reactors with once-through fuel irradiation (AWBA Development Program)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rampolla, D.S.; Conley, G.H.; Candelore, N.R.; Cowell, G.K.; Estes, G.P.; Flanery, B.K.; Duncombe, E.; Dunyak, J.; Satterwhite, D.G.

    1979-07-01

    Current commercial light water reactor cores operate without recylce of fuel, on a once-through fuel cycle. To help conserve the limited nuclear fuel resources, there is interest in increasing the energy yield and, hence, fuel utilization from once-through fuel irradiation. This report evaluates the potential increase in fuel utilization of light water reactor cores operating on a once-through cycle assuming 0.2% enrichment plant tails assay. This evaluation is based on a large number of survey calculations using techniques which were verified by more detailed calculations of several core concepts. It is concluded that the maximum fuel utilization which could be achieved by practical once-through pressurized light water reactor cores with either uranium or thorium is about 17 MWYth/ST U 3 O 8 (Megawatt Years Thermal per Short Ton of U 3 O 8 ). This is about 50% higher than that of current commercial light water reactor cores. Achievement of this increased fuel utilization would require average fuel burnup beyond 50,000 MWD/MT and incorporation of the following design features to reduce parasitic losses of neutrons: reflector blankets to utilize neutrons that would otherwise leak out of the core; fuel management practices in which a smaller fraction of the core is replaced at each refueling; and neutron economic reactivity control, such as movable fuel control rather than soluble boron control. For a hypothetical situation in which all neutron leakage and parasitic losses are eliminated and fuel depletion is not limited by design considerations, a maximum fuel utilization of about 20 MWYth/ST U 3 O 8 is calculated for either uranium or thorium. It is concluded that fuel utilization for comparable reactor designs is better with uranium fuel than with thorium fuel for average fuel depletions of 30,000 to 35,000 MWD/MT which are characteristic of present light water reactor cores

  18. Utilization of high energy electron beam in the treatment of drinking and waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira Sampa, M.H. de; Borrely, S.I.; Morita, D.M.

    1991-08-01

    Samples of drinking water and waste water were irradiated using high energy electron beam with doses from 0.37kGy to 100kGy. Preliminary data show the removal of about 100% tri halomethanes (THM) in drinking water (concentration from 2.7 μg/1 to 45μg/1, 90% of the color of the Public Owned Wastewater Treatment Plant effluent and 87% of oil and grease of the cutting fluid waste water. (author)

  19. Real-time analysis of water movement in plant sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokota, Harumi; Furukawa, Jun; Tanoi, Keitaro

    2000-01-01

    To know the effect of drought stress on two cultivars of cowpea, drought tolerant (DT) and drought sensitive (DS), and to estimate vanadium treatment on plant activity, we performed real time 18 F labeled water uptake measurement by PETIS. Fluoride-18 was produced by bombarding a cubic ice target with 50 MeV protons using TIARA AVF cyclotron. Then 18 F labeled water was applied to investigate water movement in a cowpea plant. Real time water uptake manner could be monitored by PETIS. After the analysis by PETIS, we also measured the distribution of 18 F in a whole plant by BAS. When a cowpea plant was treated with drought stress, there was a difference in water uptake manner between DT and DS cultivar. When a cowpea plant was treated with V for 20 hours before the water uptake experiment, the total amount of 18 F labeled water absorption was found to be drastically decreased. (author)

  20. Real-time analysis of water movement in plant sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokota, Harumi; Furukawa, Jun; Tanoi, Keitaro [Graduate School, Tokyo Univ. (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    To know the effect of drought stress on two cultivars of cowpea, drought tolerant (DT) and drought sensitive (DS), and to estimate vanadium treatment on plant activity, we performed real time{sup 18}F labeled water uptake measurement by PETIS. Fluoride-18 was produced by bombarding a cubic ice target with 50 MeV protons using TIARA AVF cyclotron. Then {sup 18}F labeled water was applied to investigate water movement in a cowpea plant. Real time water uptake manner could be monitored by PETIS. After the analysis by PETIS, we also measured the distribution of {sup 18}F in a whole plant by BAS. When a cowpea plant was treated with drought stress, there was a difference in water uptake manner between DT and DS cultivar. When a cowpea plant was treated with V for 20 hours before the water uptake experiment, the total amount of {sup 18}F labeled water absorption was found to be drastically decreased. (author)

  1. A New Framework for Assessing the Sustainability Reporting Disclosure of Water Utilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Cantele

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability reporting is becoming more and more widespread among companies aiming at disclosing their contribution to sustainable development and gaining legitimacy from stakeholders. This is more significant for firms operating in a public services’ context and mainly when supplying a fundamental public resource, like water utilities. While the literature on sustainability reporting in the water sector is scant, there is an increasing need to study the usefulness and quality of its sustainability disclosures to adequately inform the stakeholders about the activities of water utilities to protect this fundamental resource and general sustainable development. This article presents a novel assessment framework based on a scoring technique and an empirical analysis on the sustainability reports of Italian water utilities carried out through it. The results highlight a low level of disclosure on the sustainability indicators suggested by the main sustainability reporting guidelines (Global Reporting Initiative, (GRI, and Sustainability Accounting Standard Board, (SASB; most companies tend to disclose only qualitative information and fail to inform about some material aspects of water management, such as water recycled, network resilience, water sources, and effluent quality. These findings indicate that sustainability reporting is mainly considered as a communication tool, rather than a performance measurement and an accountability tool, but also suggest the need for a new and international industry-specific sustainability reporting standard.

  2. TMI-2 in-vessel hydraulic systems utilize high water and high boron content fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baston, V.F.; Hofstetter, K.J.; Hofman, L.A.; Gallagher, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    Choice of a hydraulic fluid for use in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor vessel defueling equipment required consideration of the following constraints for the hydraulic fluid given an accidental spill into the reactor coolant system (RCS). The TMI-2 RCS hydraulic fluid utilized in the hydraulic operations utilized a solution composition of 95 wt% water and 5 wt% of the above base fluid. The TMI-2 hydraulic system utilizes pressures up to 3500 psi. The selected hydraulic fluid has been in use since December 1986 with minimal operational difficulties

  3. Microporous Carbon Spheres Solid Phase Membrane Tip Extraction for the Analysis of Nitrosamines in Water Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed Salisu Musa; Wan Aini Wan Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    A simple solid phase membrane tip extraction (SPMTE) utilizing microporous carbon spheres (MCS) was developed for the analysis of nitrosamines in aqueous samples. The method termed MCS-SPMTE was optimized for various important extraction parameters namely conditioning organic solvent, extraction time, effects of salt addition and pH change, desorption time, desorption solvent and sample volume. Under the optimized conditions, the method indicated good linearity in the range of 10-100 μg/ L with coefficients of determination, r 2 ≥0.9984. The method also demonstrated good reproducibility with % RSDs values ranging from 2.2 - 8.9 (n = 3). Limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for the method ranged from 3.2 - 4.8 μg/ L and 10.9 - 15.9 μg/L respectively. Recoveries for both tap-water and lake water samples spiked at 10 μg/L were in the range of 83.2 - 107.5 %. (author)

  4. Development of analytical techniques for water and environmental samples (2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eum, Chul Hun; Jeon, Chi Wan; Jung, Kang Sup; Song, Kyung Sun; Kim, Sang Yeon [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop new analytical methods with good detection limit for toxic inorganic and organic compounds. The analyses of CN, organic acids, particulate materials in environmental samples have been done using several methods such as Ion Chromatography, SPE, SPME, GC/MS, GC/FID, SPLITT (split-flow thin cell fractionation) during the second year of this project. Advantage and disadvantage of several distillation method (by KS, JIS, EPA) for CN analysis in wastewater were investigated. As the results, we proposed new distillation apparatus for CN analysis, which was proved to be simpler, faster and to get better recovery than conventional apparatus. And ion chromatograph/pulsed amperometric detector (IC/PAD) system instead of colorimetry for CN detection was setup to solve matrix interference. And SPE(solid phase extraction) and SPME (solid phase micro extraction) as liquid-solid extraction technique were applied to the analysis of phenols in wastewater. Optimum experimental conditions and factors influencing analytical results were determined. From these results, It could be concluded that C{sub 18} cartridge and polystyrene-divinylbenzene disk in SPE method, polyacrylate fiber in SPME were proper solid phase adsorbent for phenol. Optimum conditions to analyze phenol derivatives simultaneously were established. Also, Continuous SPLITT (Split-flow thin cell) Fractionation (CSF) is a new preparative separation technique that is useful for fractionation of particulate and macromolecular materials. CSF is carried out in a thin ribbon-like channel equipped with two splitters at both inlet and outlet of the channel. In this work, we set up a new CSF system, and tested using polystyrene latex standard particles. And then we fractionated particles contained in air and underground water based on their sedimentation coefficients using CSF. (author). 27 refs., 13 tabs., 31 figs.

  5. Utilization of water power in the Hochsauerland District. Possibilities of utilizing water power plants while deriving profits for tourism. Wasserkraftnutzung im Hochsauerlandkreis. Moeglichkeiten zur Inwertsetzung der Wasserkraftanlagen im Rahmen einer touristischen Route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peyrer, U.

    1994-01-01

    The idea of utilizing water power plants while driving profits for tourism intends to promote regional tourism and support the district at the same time. Since both precipitation and discharge conditions and the Hochsauerland relief provide favorable conditions for water power utilization, one finds various water wheel uses, i.e. corn mills or saw mills, water wheels for the metal-working industry, and hammer mills. This volume contains a comprehensive documentation of the water power plants in the Hochsauerland District. (BWI)

  6. Evaluation of storage and filtration protocols for alpine/subalpine lake water quality samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    John L. Korfmacher; Robert C. Musselman

    2007-01-01

    Many government agencies and other organizations sample natural alpine and subalpine surface waters using varying protocols for sample storage and filtration. Simplification of protocols would be beneficial if it could be shown that sample quality is unaffected. In this study, samples collected from low ionic strength waters in alpine and subalpine lake inlets...

  7. Drinking water sources, availability, quality, access and utilization for goats in the Karak Governorate, Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khaza'leh, Ja'far Mansur; Reiber, Christoph; Al Baqain, Raid; Valle Zárate, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Goat production is an important agricultural activity in Jordan. The country is one of the poorest countries in the world in terms of water scarcity. Provision of sufficient quantity of good quality drinking water is important for goats to maintain feed intake and production. This study aimed to evaluate the seasonal availability and quality of goats' drinking water sources, accessibility, and utilization in different zones in the Karak Governorate in southern Jordan. Data collection methods comprised interviews with purposively selected farmers and quality assessment of water sources. The provision of drinking water was considered as one of the major constraints for goat production, particularly during the dry season (DS). Long travel distances to the water sources, waiting time at watering points, and high fuel and labor costs were the key reasons associated with the problem. All the values of water quality (WQ) parameters were within acceptable limits of the guidelines for livestock drinking WQ with exception of iron, which showed slightly elevated concentration in one borehole source in the DS. These findings show that water shortage is an important problem leading to consequences for goat keepers. To alleviate the water shortage constraint and in view of the depleted groundwater sources, alternative water sources at reasonable distance have to be tapped and monitored for water quality and more efficient use of rainwater harvesting systems in the study area is recommended.

  8. Levels of Cadmium in Soil, Sediment and Water Samples from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cce

    The agricultural application of phosphate fertilizers represents a direct ... The samples were put into clean plastic containers and sealed. The plastic ... dried samples were ground and homogenized in a porcelain mortar, sieved to 40 mesh size.

  9. Water footprints as an indicator for the equitable utilization of shared water resources. (Case study: Egypt and Ethiopia shared water resources in Nile Basin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallam, Osama M.

    2014-12-01

    The question of "equity." is a vague and relative term in any event, criteria for equity are particularly difficult to determine in water conflicts, where international water law is ambiguous and often contradictory, and no mechanism exists to enforce principles which are agreed-upon. The aim of this study is using the water footprints as a concept to be an indicator or a measuring tool for the Equitable Utilization of shared water resources. Herein Egypt and Ethiopia water resources conflicts in Nile River Basin were selected as a case study. To achieve this study; water footprints, international virtual water flows and water footprint of national consumption of Egypt and Ethiopia has been analyzed. In this study, some indictors of equitable utilization has been gained for example; Egypt water footprint per capita is 1385 CM/yr/cap while in Ethiopia is 1167 CM/yr/cap, Egypt water footprint related to the national consumption is 95.15 BCM/yr, while in Ethiopia is 77.63 BCM/yr, and the external water footprints of Egypt is 28.5%, while in Ethiopia is 2.3% of the national consumption water footprint. The most important conclusion of this study is; natural, social, environmental and economical aspects should be taken into account when considering the water footprints as an effective measurable tool to assess the equable utilization of shared water resources, moreover the water footprints should be calculated using a real data and there is a necessity to establishing a global water footprints benchmarks for commodities as a reference.

  10. Separation and concentration of water-borne contaminants utilizing insulator-based dielectrophoresis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapizco-Encinas, Blanca Hazalia; Fiechtner, Gregory J.; Cummings, Eric B.; Davalos, Rafael V.; Kanouff, Michael P.; Simmons, Blake Alexander; McGraw, Gregory J.; Salmi, Allen J.; Ceremuga, Joseph T.; Fintschenko, Yolanda

    2006-01-01

    This report focuses on and presents the capabilities of insulator-based dielectrophoresis (iDEP) microdevices for the concentration and removal of water-borne bacteria, spores and inert particles. The dielectrophoretic behavior exhibited by the different particles of interest (both biological and inert) in each of these systems was observed to be a function of both the applied electric field and the characteristics of the particle, such as size, shape, and conductivity. The results obtained illustrate the potential of glass and polymer-based iDEP devices to act as a concentrator for a front-end device with significant homeland security and industrial applications for the threat analysis of bacteria, spores, and viruses. We observed that the polymeric devices exhibit the same iDEP behavior and efficacy in the field of use as their glass counterparts, but with the added benefit of being easily mass fabricated and developed in a variety of multi-scale formats that will allow for the realization of a truly high-throughput device. These results also demonstrate that the operating characteristics of the device can be tailored through the device fabrication technique utilized and the magnitude of the electric field gradient created within the insulating structures. We have developed systems capable of handling numerous flow rates and sample volume requirements, and have produced a deployable system suitable for use in any laboratory, industrial, or clinical setting.

  11. Emergy Evaluation of a Production and Utilization Process of Irrigation Water in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability evaluation of the process of water abstraction, distribution, and use for irrigation can contribute to the policy of decision making in irrigation development. Emergy theory and method are used to evaluate a pumping irrigation district in China. A corresponding framework for its emergy evaluation is proposed. Its emergy evaluation shows that water is the major component of inputs into the irrigation water production and utilization systems (24.7% and 47.9% of the total inputs, resp. and that the transformities of irrigation water and rice as the systems’ products (1.72E+05 sej/J and 1.42E+05 sej/J, resp.; sej/J = solar emjoules per joule represent their different emergy efficiencies. The irrigated agriculture production subsystem has a higher sustainability than the irrigation water production subsystem and the integrated production system, according to several emergy indices: renewability ratio (%R, emergy yield ratio (EYR, emergy investment ratio (EIR, environmental load ratio (ELR, and environmental sustainability index (ESI. The results show that the performance of this irrigation district could be further improved by increasing the utilization efficiencies of the main inputs in both the production and utilization process of irrigation water.

  12. Emergy evaluation of a production and utilization process of irrigation water in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dan; Luo, Zhao-Hui; Chen, Jing; Kong, Jun; She, Dong-Li

    2013-01-01

    Sustainability evaluation of the process of water abstraction, distribution, and use for irrigation can contribute to the policy of decision making in irrigation development. Emergy theory and method are used to evaluate a pumping irrigation district in China. A corresponding framework for its emergy evaluation is proposed. Its emergy evaluation shows that water is the major component of inputs into the irrigation water production and utilization systems (24.7% and 47.9% of the total inputs, resp.) and that the transformities of irrigation water and rice as the systems' products (1.72E + 05 sej/J and 1.42E + 05 sej/J, resp.; sej/J = solar emjoules per joule) represent their different emergy efficiencies. The irrigated agriculture production subsystem has a higher sustainability than the irrigation water production subsystem and the integrated production system, according to several emergy indices: renewability ratio (%R), emergy yield ratio (EYR), emergy investment ratio (EIR), environmental load ratio (ELR), and environmental sustainability index (ESI). The results show that the performance of this irrigation district could be further improved by increasing the utilization efficiencies of the main inputs in both the production and utilization process of irrigation water.

  13. Tritium concentrations in environmental water and food samples collected around the vicinity of the PNPP-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, T.Y.; Enriquez, S.O.; Duran, E.B.

    1986-01-01

    The natural radioactivity levels of tritium in environmental samples collected around the vicinity and more distant environment of the first Philippine Nuclear Power Plant (PNPP-1) in Bataan were assessed. The samples analyzed consisted of water samples such as seawater, freshwater, drinking water, groundwater and rainwater; and food samples such as cereals, vegetables, fruits; meat, milk fish and crustaceans. Tritium concentrations in water samples were determined by distillation and liquid scintillation counting techniques. The food samples were analyzed for tissue-free water tritium by the freezing-drying method followed by liquid scintillation counting techniques. (Auth.) 13 refs

  14. Improvement in fuel utilization in pressurized heavy water reactors due to increased heavy water purity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakrishnan, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that in a pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR), the reactivity of the reactor and, consequently, the discharge burnup of the fuel depend on the isotopic purity of the heavy water used in the reactor. The optimal purity of heavy water used in PHWRs, in turn, depends on the cost of fabricated uranium fuel and on the incremental cost incurred in improving the heavy water purity. The physics and economics aspects of the desirability of increasing the heavy water purity in PHWRs in India were first examined in 1978. With the cost data available at that time, it was found that improving the heavy water purity from 99.80% to 99.95% was economically attractive. The same problem is reinvestigated with current cost data. Even now, there is sufficient incentive to improve the isotopic purity of heavy water used in PHWRs. Admittedly, the economic advantage that can be derived depends on the cost of the fabricated fuel. Nevertheless, irrespective of the economics, there is also a fairly substantial saving in natural uranium. That the increase in the heavy water purity is to be maintained only in the low-pressure moderator system, and not in the high-pressure coolant system, makes the option of achieving higher fuel burnup with higher heavy water purity feasible

  15. Utilization threshold of surface water and groundwater based on the system optimization of crop planting structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang FU,Jiahong LI,Tianxiao LI,Dong LIU,Song CUI

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on the diversity of the agricultural system, this research calculates the planting structures of rice, maize and soybean considering the optimal economic-social-ecological aspects. Then, based on the uncertainty and randomness of the water resources system, the interval two-stage stochastic programming method, which introduces the uncertainty of the interval number, is used to calculate the groundwater exploitation and the use efficiency of surface water. The method considers the minimum cost of water as the objective of the uncertainty model for surface water and groundwater joint scheduling optimization for different planting structures. Finally, by calculating harmonious entropy, the optimal exploitation utilization interval of surface water and groundwater is determined for optimal cultivation in the Sanjiang Plain. The optimal matching of the planting structure under the economic system is suitable when the mining ratio of the surface is in 44.13%—45.45% and the exploitation utilization of groundwater is in 54.82%—66.86%, the optimal planting structure under the social system is suitable when surface water mining ratio is in 47.84%—48.04% and the groundwater exploitation threshold is in 67.07%—72.00%. This article optimizes the economic-social-ecological-water system, which is important for the development of a water- and food-conserving society and providing a more accurate management environment.

  16. Multi-purpose utilization and development of geothermal water: European overseas investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochiai, T [Natl. Research Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Japan

    1978-01-01

    In order to investigate the agricultural utilization of geothermal waters, a fact-finding team visited France, Italy, Iceland, and Turkey. In France, it was seen that the development and utilization of geothermal waters is in accord with Japanese practices. The production and reinjection wells are drilled to a depth of 1800 m. They are spaced about 10 m apart at the surface and about 800 m apart at the bottom. This is accomplished by drilling at an angle. The hot water is produced at a rate of about 90 t/h. It is passed through a heat exchanger where it warms surface water to about 70/sup 0/C. The warmed water is then supplied for purposes of district heating, greenhouse culture, and fish farming. The used hot water is then returned to the producing stratum via the reinjection well. Iceland began the production of hot geothermal water in 1925, and, at present, 99% of the city of Reykjavik is heated geothermally. The deepest production wells at Reykjavik reach 2000 m. The water produced has a temperature of 90-103/sup 0/C, and is also used for agricultural purposes.

  17. Evaluation Of Sachet Water Samples In Owerri Metropolis | Nwosu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Other surveys revealed that 12 brands had fake manufactures' address, 2 brands had NAFDAC registration number while 3 brands had genuine manufacturers' address on them. It was discovered that the producers packaged the water from their water source without any form of treatment or analysis on it. Key words: ...

  18. Soluble and insoluble pollutants in fog and rime water samples

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fišák, Jaroslav; Stoyanova, V.; Chaloupecký, Pavel; Řezáčová, Daniela; Tsacheva, Ts.; Kupenova, T.; Marinov, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 4, Sp. Iss. 2 (2009), S123-S130 ISSN 1801-5395 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/1918; GA AV ČR 1QS200420562 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : fog water * rime water * pollutant concentration Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  19. Formulation and utilization of choline based samples for dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bowen, Sean; Ardenkjær-Larsen, Jan Henrik

    2013-01-01

    their performance to more traditional sample formulations. Choline yields stable samples with exceptional polarization performance while simultaneously offering the capability to easily remove the choline after dissolution, perform experiments with the hyperpolarized choline, or anything in between....

  20. Water use and supply concerns for utility-scale solar projects in the Southwestern United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klise, Geoffrey Taylor; Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Reno, Marissa Devan; Moreland, Barbara Denise.; Zemlick, Katie M.; Macknick, Jordan

    2013-07-01

    As large utility-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) facilities are currently being built and planned for locations in the U.S. with the greatest solar resource potential, an understanding of water use for construction and operations is needed as siting tends to target locations with low natural rainfall and where most existing freshwater is already appropriated. Using methods outlined by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to determine water used in designated solar energy zones (SEZs) for construction and operations & maintenance, an estimate of water used over the lifetime at the solar power plant is determined and applied to each watershed in six Southwestern states. Results indicate that that PV systems overall use little water, though construction usage is high compared to O&M water use over the lifetime of the facility. Also noted is a transition being made from wet cooled to dry cooled CSP facilities that will significantly reduce operational water use at these facilities. Using these water use factors, estimates of future water demand for current and planned solar development was made. In efforts to determine where water could be a limiting factor in solar energy development, water availability, cost, and projected future competing demands were mapped for the six Southwestern states. Ten watersheds, 9 in California, and one in New Mexico were identified as being of particular concern because of limited water availability.

  1. Sexual orientation, treatment utilization, and barriers for alcohol related problems: Findings from a nationally representative sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Junior Lloyd; Mowbray, Orion

    2016-04-01

    Gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) individuals appear to have an increased likelihood of alcohol use disorders and treatment utilization for alcohol related problems compared to heterosexual individuals. Despite this increase, treatment utilization rates among GLB individuals remain low. In an effort to address this, our paper examined whether or not GLB individuals encounter unique barriers when pursuing treatment for alcohol related problems. Using data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol Related Conditions (NESARC), we examined service sector specific factors, some of which included (a) utilization rates, (b) self-reported treatment barriers, and (c) whether or not there were emergent differences among GLB individuals, after controlling for socio-demographic and clinical characteristics. Findings indicated that GLB individuals reported higher severity rates for alcohol use disorders when compared to heterosexual individuals, and were significantly more likely to utilize treatment services for alcohol related problems, however, not across all treatment sectors. While similar patterns were observed when examining barriers to treatment, bisexual individuals reported significantly more barriers than heterosexual and gay/lesbian individuals. These findings underscored the importance of identifying and developing interventions that addresses treatment barriers associated with alcohol use service utilization among GLB populations, and creating improved outreach and education programs to better address stigmas associated with substance use and sexuality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Effects of Operational and Environmental Variables on Efficiency of Danish Water and Wastewater Utilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Guerrini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency improvement is one of three patterns a public utility should follow in order to get funds for investments realization. The other two are recourse to bank loans or to private equity and tariff increase. Efficiency can be improved, for example, by growth and vertical integration and may be conditioned by environmental variables, such as customer and output density. Prior studies into the effects of these variables on the efficiency of water utilities do not agree on certain points (e.g., scale and economies of scope and rarely consider others (e.g., density economies. This article aims to contribute to the literature by analysing the efficiency of water utilities in Denmark, observing the effects of operational and environmental variables. The method is based on two-stage Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA applied to 101 water utilities. We found that the efficiency of the water sector was not affected by the observed variables, whereas that of wastewater was improved by smaller firm size, vertical integration strategy, and higher population density.

  3. How an existing telecommunications network can support the deployment of smart meters in a water utility?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel de Barros Moraes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This case study, based on interviews and technical analysis of a Brazilian water utility with more than 10 million clients, aims to understand what kind of adjusts on a telecommunications network, developed for operational and corporate use, demands to support a smart metering system, identifying this synergies and challenges.

  4. Optimal Size for Utilities? Returns to Scale in Water: Evidence from Benchmarking

    OpenAIRE

    Nicola Tynan; Bill Kingdom

    2005-01-01

    Using data from 270 water and sanitation providers, this Note investigates the relationship between a utility's size and its operating costs. The current trend toward transferring responsibility for providing services to the municipal level is driven in part by the assumption that this will make providers more responsive to customers' needs. But findings reported here suggest that smaller ...

  5. What’s Needed from Climate Modeling to Advance Actionable Science for Water Utilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsugli, J. J.; Anderson, C. J.; Smith, J. B.; Vogel, J. M.

    2009-12-01

    “…perfect information on climate change is neither available today nor likely to be available in the future, but … over time, as the threats climate change poses to our systems grow more real, predicting those effects with greater certainty is non-discretionary. We’re not yet at a level at which climate change projections can drive climate change adaptation.” (Testimony of WUCA Staff Chair David Behar to the House Committee on Science and Technology, May 5, 2009) To respond to this challenge, the Water Utility Climate Alliance (WUCA) has sponsored a white paper titled “Options for Improving Climate Modeling to Assist Water Utility Planning for Climate Change. ” This report concerns how investments in the science of climate change, and in particular climate modeling and downscaling, can best be directed to help make climate projections more actionable. The meaning of “model improvement” can be very different depending on whether one is talking to a climate model developer or to a water manager trying to incorporate climate projections in to planning. We first surveyed the WUCA members on present and potential uses of climate model projections and on climate inputs to their various system models. Based on those surveys and on subsequent discussions, we identified four dimensions along which improvement in modeling would make the science more “actionable”: improved model agreement on change in key parameters; narrowing the range of model projections; providing projections at spatial and temporal scales that match water utilities system models; providing projections that water utility planning horizons. With these goals in mind we developed four options for improving global-scale climate modeling and three options for improving downscaling that will be discussed. However, there does not seem to be a single investment - the proverbial “magic bullet” -- which will substantially reduce the range of model projections at the scales at which utility

  6. Assessment of management approaches in a public water utility: A case study of the Namibia water corporation (NAMWATER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndokosho, Johnson; Hoko, Zvikomborero; Makurira, Hodson

    More than 90% of urban water supply and sanitation services in developing countries are provided by public organizations. However, public provision of services has been inherently inefficient. As a result a number of initiatives have emerged in recent years with a common goal to improve service delivery. In Namibia, the water sector reform resulted in the creation of a public utility called the Namibia Water Corporation (NAMWATER) which is responsible for bulk water supply countrywide. Since its inception in 1998, NAMWATER has been experiencing poor financial performance. This paper presents the findings of a case study that compared the management approaches of NAMWATER to the New Public Management (NPM) paradigm. The focus of the NPM approach is for the public water sector to mirror private sector methods of management so that public utilities can accrue the benefits of effectiveness, efficiency and flexibility often associated with private sector. The study tools used were a combination of literature review, interviews and questionnaires. It was found out that NAMWATER has a high degree of autonomy in its operations, albeit government approved tariffs and sourcing of external financing. The utility reports to government annually to account for results. The utility embraces a notion of good corporate culture and adheres to sound management practices. NAMWATER demonstrated a strong market-orientation indicated by the outsourcing of non-core functions but benchmarking was poorly done. NAMWATER’s customer-orientation is poor as evidenced by the lack of customer care facilities. NAMWATER’s senior management delegated operational authority to lower management to facilitate flexibility and eliminate bottlenecks. The lower management is in turn held accountable for performance by the senior management. There are no robust methods of ensuring sufficient accountability indicated by absence of performance contracts or service level agreements. It was concluded that

  7. [Utilization of self-sampling kits for HPV testing in cervical cancer screening - pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondryášová, H; Koudeláková, V; Drábek, J; Vaněk, P; Slavkovský, R; Hajdúch, M

    2015-12-01

    To get initial experience with alternative sampling (self-sampling) for HPV testing as the means of cervical cancer screening program. Original work. Institute of Molecular and Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University in Olomouc. Based on expression of interest, 215 self-sampling kits were posted to women. Evalyn(®) Brush Vaginal swabs obtained by self-sampling were analyzed for the presence of HPV infection by Cobas 4800 HPV (Roche) followed by genotyping using PapilloCheck(®) HPV-Screening (Greiner Bio-One). Sixty women randomly chosen from our sample were sent a questionnaire focused on their experience with self-sampling. One hundred seventy-four of 215 (81%) distributed self-sampling devices have been delivered to analysis. All cervicovaginal swabs were sampled correctly and it was possible to analyze them by Cobas 4800 HPV test. Similarly, 98% (171/174) samples were analyzable by PapilloCheck(®) HPV-Screening.One hundred twenty-five (72%) of 174 tested samples were HPV negative. Low risk HPV infection was detected only in 7 samples (4%), and high risk HPV (hrHPV) infection was present in 42 samples (24%). The most frequently detected hrHPV genotypes were HPV16 (11/42; 26%) and HPV53 (6/42; 14%). HrHPV co-infection was detected in 10 cases, in 5 of them lrHPV infection was find also.Of the 60 questionnaires, 48 (80%) were returned. From this group, 47 (98%) women rated their experience with self-sampling device as good to excellent. User manual of self-sampling device was considered good to excellent by all women (100%). All women also rated the convenience of self-sampling device using as good to excellent. As expected, most of the women (n = 42 [88%]) preferred self-sampling to physician sampling. Cervicovaginal self-sampling leads to valid results of HPV screening using two molecular genetics methods and was accepted by Czech women very well. The self-sampling as an opportunity to participate in cervical cancer

  8. Utilization of water soluble plastics for radiological control within nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.J.; Deltete, C.P.; Homyk, W.A.; Kasprzak, L.; Robinson, P.J.

    1989-01-01

    The utilization of plastic products for radioactive contamination control within nuclear power facilities currently results in relatively large volumes of waste requiring disposal as low-level radioactive waste. The utilization of a polymer resin product that possesses comparable physical attributes to currently utilized plastic materials, but which is water soluble, has significant potential to reduce the volume of plastic waste requiring disposal as radwaste. Such a volume reduction will reduce overall plant )ampersand M costs, reduce the overall waste volume allocation utilization, and improve the regulatory perception of any plant realizing a volume reduction through plastic source minimization. This potential reduction in waste volume (and associated availability of the Low-level Waste Policy Amendments Act disposal allocation for other purposes), combined with potential economic benefits summarized above, has led to the undertaking of a detailed evaluation, presented in this paper

  9. Storm Water Sampling Data 11-16-17.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, Robert C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-12-01

    In the California Industrial General Permit (IGP) 2014-0057-DWQ for storm water monitoring, effective July 1, 2015, there are 21 contaminants that have been assigned NAL (Numeric Action Level) values, both annual and instantaneous.

  10. Wasted Heat Engine Utilization in Central AC Condenser Type Water Chiller for Economical Energy Water Heaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Rasta

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Central AC type water chiller is a refrigeration machine that release heat to environment. Heat energy that released to environment comes from room heat load that absorbed by machine and heat from compressor. The best form in using this loss energy is heat recovery water heater technology, where this machine will take heat from condenser by a heat exchanger to heating water. Refrigerant will flow in the heat exchanger before entering condenser, after that refrigerant flow to other components such as, expansion valve, evaporator, compressor and than return again to condenser, this process will be cycling regularly (closed cycle. Based on experimental and analysis result especially for AC with capacity 2 Pk, and tank capacity 75 liter, with water heater recovery device obtained that: (1 Compressor power consumption decrease from 1.66 kW to 1.59kW. (2 Heat rejected from condenser and used by water heater has ratio 4.683 kJ/s and 1.59 kJ/s, with water heater efficiency is 32.2%. (3 Maximum water temperature can be reached are in range 34oC – 47.5oC in 10-150 minutes and flow rate is 0.5 – 2.5 liter /min

  11. Algorithmic network monitoring for a modern water utility: a case study in Jerusalem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armon, A; Gutner, S; Rosenberg, A; Scolnicov, H

    2011-01-01

    We report on the design, deployment, and use of TaKaDu, a real-time algorithmic Water Infrastructure Monitoring solution, with a strong focus on water loss reduction and control. TaKaDu is provided as a commercial service to several customers worldwide. It has been in use at HaGihon, the Jerusalem utility, since mid 2009. Water utilities collect considerable real-time data from their networks, e.g. by means of a SCADA system and sensors measuring flow, pressure, and other data. We discuss how an algorithmic statistical solution analyses this wealth of raw data, flexibly using many types of input and picking out and reporting significant events and failures in the network. Of particular interest to most water utilities is the early detection capability for invisible leaks, also a means for preventing large visible bursts. The system also detects sensor and SCADA failures, various water quality issues, DMA boundary breaches, unrecorded or unintended network changes (like a valve or pump state change), and other events, including types unforeseen during system design. We discuss results from use at HaGihon, showing clear operational value.

  12. Climate Narratives: Combing multiple sources of information to develop risk management strategies for a municipal water utility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, D. N.; Basdekas, L.; Rajagopalan, B.; Stewart, N.

    2013-12-01

    Municipal water utilities often develop Integrated Water Resource Plans (IWRP), with the goal of providing a reliable, sustainable water supply to customers in a cost-effective manner. Colorado Springs Utilities, a 5-service provider (potable and waste water, solid waste, natural gas and electricity) in Colorado USA, recently undertook an IWRP. where they incorporated water supply, water demand, water quality, infrastructure reliability, environmental protection, and other measures within the context of complex water rights, such as their critically important 'exchange potential'. The IWRP noted that an uncertain climate was one of the greatest sources of uncertainty to achieving a sustainable water supply to a growing community of users. We describe how historic drought, paleo-climate, and climate change projections were blended together into climate narratives that informed a suite of water resource systems models used by the utility to explore the vulnerabilities of their water systems.

  13. Determination of the uranium concentration in water samples by the technique of fission track recording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraldo, L.P.

    1979-01-01

    The technique of fission track register was developed for the determination of micrograms of uranium. The Makrofol KG, a synthetic plastic made by Bayer, was used as the detector and the wet method was utilized. The detector calibration curve allows the determination of the uranium concentration in a sample within an interval from 8.0 to 0.4μgU/L, the total error ranging from 3.3% to 29.0% respectively. The method was used in the determination of the uranium content in various water samples, obtained from various sources like rivers, sea etc. in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Results were compared with those obtained by other authors using different methods. The average concentration found in sea waters (3.27 +- 9.12μgU/l) by this method is compatible with the international average accepted value of 3.3μgU/l, irrespective of site and depth. The determination of the uranium content by fission track counting has proved to be very convenient. (Author) [pt

  14. Reorganization of water utilities - regionalization, an opportunity to increase their efficiency A comparative literature - Albania Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Naqellari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is the study and analysis of factors affecting the need for reorganization of entities engaged in water supply services. From this perspective, the research seeks to identify international practices made in this regard and how they can be adapted to water utilities in Albania. The objective of this paper is to show that regionalization of water utilities is a successful development direction not only of studied literature but also practice in Albania. The study is based on sources of information taken from primary and secondary sources. The selected method for collecting and processing information from primary sources is the empirical method through direct surveys and questionnaires, whereas from secondary sources is descriptive and analytical method. As secondary sources, we are consulted and referred to academic resources, such as articles, books, studies and reports carried out and published by national organizations, local and foreign companies in this field.

  15. Water treatment system for utilities: Phase 1 -- Technology assessment. Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janss, T.M.; Tucker, R.E.

    1997-12-01

    A conceptual design for a water treatment system to reduce pollutants in manhole and vault water is presented as an alternative to current water disposal practices. Runoff and groundwater seepage that collects in vaults and manholes contains, or is likely to contain, concentrations of pollutants in excess of regulatory guidelines. Pollutants commonly present in storm water runoff consist of lead, cadmium, oil, grease and asbestos. The conceptual design presents the basis for a water treatment system that will reduce pollutant concentrations to levels below regulatory thresholds. The water treatment system is relatively inexpensive, small and simple to operate. A strainer is used to remove gross particulates, which are then stored for disposal. Utilizing centrifugal force, vault and manhole water is separated into constituent fractions including fine particulates, inorganics and oils. Fine particulates are stored with gross particulates for disposal. Chemical fixation is used to stabilize inorganics. Organic substances are stored for disposal. The water treatment system uses a granular activated carbon filter as an effluent polish to adsorb the remaining pollutants from the effluent water stream. The water can be discharged to the street or storm drain and the pollutants are stored for disposal as non-hazardous waste. This system represents a method to reduce pollutant volumes, reduced disposal costs and reduce corporate environmental liability. It should be noted that the initial phase of the development process is still in progress. This report is presented to reflect work in progress and as such should be considered preliminary

  16. Mutagenicity of drinking water sampled from the Yangtze River and Hanshui River (Wuhan section) and correlations with water quality parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xuemin; Lu, Yi; Yang, Xiaoming; Dong, Xiaorong; Ma, Kunpeng; Xiao, Sanhua; Wang, Yazhou; Tang, Fei

    2015-03-31

    A total of 54 water samples were collected during three different hydrologic periods (level period, wet period, and dry period) from Plant A and Plant B (a source for Yangtze River and Hanshui River water, respectively), and several water parameters, such as chemical oxygen demand (COD), turbidity, and total organic carbon (TOC), were simultaneously analyzed. The mutagenicity of the water samples was evaluated using the Ames test with Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100. According to the results, the organic compounds in the water were largely frame-shift mutagens, as positive results were found for most of the tests using TA98. All of the finished water samples exhibited stronger mutagenicity than the relative raw and distribution water samples, with water samples collected from Plant B presenting stronger mutagenic strength than those from Plant A. The finished water samples from Plant A displayed a seasonal-dependent variation. Water parameters including COD (r = 0.599, P = 0.009), TOC (r = 0.681, P = 0.02), UV254 (r = 0.711, P = 0.001), and total nitrogen (r = 0.570, P = 0.014) exhibited good correlations with mutagenicity (TA98), at 2.0 L/plate, which bolsters the argument of the importance of using mutagenicity as a new parameter to assess the quality of drinking water.

  17. Utilizing Raman Spectroscopy and Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy to investigate healthy and cancerous colon samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barzegar, A.; Rezaei, H.; Malekfar, R.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, spontaneous Raman scattering and surface-enhanced Raman scattering, Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy spectra have been investigated. The samples which were kept in the formalin solution selected from the human's healthy and cancerous colon tissues. The Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy spectra were collected by adding colloidal solution contained silver nanoparticles to the top of the samples. The recorded spectra were compared for the spontaneous Raman spectra of healthy and cancerous colon samples. The spontaneous and surface enhanced Raman scattering data were also collected and compared for both healthy and damaged samples.

  18. UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan: Canonsburg and Burrell, Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    Surface remedial action was completed at the Canonsburg and Burrell UMTRA Project sites in southwestern Pennsylvania in 1985 and 1987, respectively. Results of 1993 water sampling indicate ground water flow conditions and ground water quality at both sites have remained relatively consistent with time. Uranium concentrations in ground water continue to exceed the maximum concentration limit (MCL) at the Canonsburg site; no MCLs are exceeded in ground water at the Burrell site. Surface water quality shows no evidence of impact from the sites

  19. Utilization of solar energy in the photodegradation of gasoline in water and of oil-field-produced water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, José Ermírio F; Silva, Douglas N; Quina, Frank H; Chiavone-Filho, Osvaldo; Nascimento, Cláudio Augusto O

    2004-07-01

    The photo-Fenton process utilizes ferrous ions (Fe2+), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation as a source of hydroxyl radicals for the oxidation of organic matter present in aqueous effluents. The cost associated with the use of artificial irradiation sources has hindered industrial application of this process. In this work, the applicability of solar radiation for the photodegradation of raw gasoline in water has been studied. The photo-Fenton process was also applied to a real effluent, i.e., oil-field-produced water, and the experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of employing solar irradiation to degrade this complex saturated-hydrocarbon-containing system.

  20. Atomic absorption determination of ultratrace tellurium in rocks utilizing high sensitivity sampling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaty, R.D.

    1973-01-01

    The sampling boat and the graphite furnace were shown to possess the required sensitivity to detect tellurium at ultratrace levels, in a variety of sample types, by atomic absorption. In the sampling boat approach, tellurium in sample solutions is chemically separated and concentrated by extraction into methyl isobutyl ketone before measurement. For samples exhibiting extraction interferences or excessively high background absorption, a preliminary separation of tellurium by coprecipitation with selenium is described. Using this technique, tellurium can be quantitatively detected down to 5 nanograms and linear response is observed to 100 nanograms. Relative standard deviations of better than 7 percent are achieved for 50 nanograms of tellurium. For samples that have a tellurium content below the detection limits of the sampling boat, the graphite furnace is used for atomization. By this method, as little as 0.07 nanograms of tellurium can be detected, and a precision of 1 percent relative standard deviation is achievable at the 5 nanogram level. A routinely applicable procedure was developed for determining tellurium in rocks, using the graphite furnace, after a hydrofluoric acid decomposition of the sample. Using this procedure, tellurium data were obtained on 20 different rocks, and the significance of this new information is discussed. (Diss. Abstr. Int., B)

  1. Total and inorganic arsenic in fish samples from Norwegian waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julshamn, K.; Nilsen, B. M.; Frantzen, S.

    2012-01-01

    The contents of total arsenic and inorganic arsenic were determined in fillet samples of Northeast Arctic cod, herring, mackerel, Greenland halibut, tusk, saithe and Atlantic halibut. In total, 923 individual fish samples were analysed. The fish were mostly caught in the open sea off the coast......-assisted dissolution of the samples. The concentrations found for total arsenic varied greatly between fish species, and ranged from 0.3 to 110 mg kg–1 wet weight. For inorganic arsenic, the concentrations found were very low (...

  2. Mass transfer of H2O between petroleum and water: implications for oil field water sample quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCartney, R.A.; Ostvold, T.

    2005-01-01

    Water mass transfer can occur between water and petroleum during changes in pressure and temperature. This process can result in the dilution or concentration of dissolved ions in the water phase of oil field petroleum-water samples. In this study, PVT simulations were undertaken for 4 petroleum-water systems covering a range of reservoir conditions (80-185 o C; 300-1000 bar) and a range of water-petroleum mixtures (volume ratios of 1:1000-300:1000) to quantify the extent of H 2 O mass transfer as a result of pressure and temperature changes. Conditions were selected to be relevant to different types of oil field water sample (i.e. surface, downhole and core samples). The main variables determining the extent of dilution and concentration were found to be: (a) reservoir pressure and temperature, (b) pressure and temperature of separation of water and petroleum, (c) petroleum composition, and (d) petroleum:water ratio (PWR). The results showed that significant dilution and concentration of water samples could occur, particularly at high PWR. It was not possible to establish simple guidelines for identifying good and poor quality samples due to the interplay of the above variables. Sample quality is best investigated using PVT software of the type used in this study. (author)

  3. LTRM Water Quality Sampling Strata, UMRS La Grange Reach

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — The data set includes delineation of sampling strata for the six study reaches of the UMRR Program’s LTRM element. Separate strata coverages exist for each of the...

  4. Scenario-based water resources planning for utilities in the Lake Victoria region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Vishal K.; Aslam, Omar; Dale, Larry; Miller, Norman; Purkey, David R.

    Urban areas in the Lake Victoria (LV) region are experiencing the highest growth rates in Africa. As efforts to meet increasing demand accelerate, integrated water resources management (IWRM) tools provide opportunities for utilities and other stakeholders to develop a planning framework comprehensive enough to include short term (e.g. landuse change), as well as longer term (e.g. climate change) scenarios. This paper presents IWRM models built using the Water Evaluation And Planning (WEAP) decision support system, for three towns in the LV region - Bukoba (Tanzania), Masaka (Uganda), and Kisii (Kenya). Each model was calibrated under current system performance based on site visits, utility reporting and interviews. Projected water supply, demand, revenues and costs were then evaluated against a combination of climate, demographic and infrastructure scenarios up to 2050. Our results show that water supply in all three towns is currently infrastructure limited; achieving existing design capacity could meet most projected demand until 2020s in Masaka beyond which new supply and conservation strategies would be needed. In Bukoba, reducing leakages would provide little performance improvement in the short-term, but doubling capacity would meet all demands until 2050. In Kisii, major infrastructure investment is urgently needed. In Masaka, streamflow simulations show that wetland sources could satisfy all demand until 2050, but at the cost of almost no water downstream of the intake. These models demonstrate the value of IWRM tools for developing water management plans that integrate hydroclimatology-driven supply to demand projections on a single platform.

  5. Application of Information Technology Solution for Early Warning Systems at Water Utilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bałut Alicja

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Deployment of IT solutions in water utilities in Poland concerns nowadays lots beyond GIS implementation projects [1]. The scope of modern IT platforms is truly advanced software for complete management of water treatment processes and involved objects, including ranges of various types of equipment. There are multiply factors that disrupt required volumes of supplied water. They are normally classified as natural, accidental and intentional. This paper addresses potential residing in already deployed IT solutions of water utilities in and also in new ones being now developed. Primarily- from the perspective of intentional, terrorist threats. This document depicts operating procedures that are called in case of spotted contamination in a water supply (damage of key elements of the network infrastructure or in case of an introduction factors. This paper also discusses relevant IT tools with access provided to network operators or water plant owners that are extremely useful in accurate pinpointing the treat and in following relevant operating procedures and related actions.

  6. Difficulties in obtaining representative samples for compliance with the Ballast Water Management Convention

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Carney, K.J; Basurko, O.C; Pazouki, K.; Marsham, S.; Delany, J; Desai, D.V.; Anil, A.C; Mesbahi, E.

    water, the shape, size and number of ballast tanks and the heterogeneous distribution of organisms within tanks. These factors hinder efforts to obtain samples that truly represent the total ballast water onboard a vessel. A known cell density...

  7. High - velocity water jet impact on concrete samples

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mádr, V.; Uhlář, R.; Hlaváč, L. M.; Sitek, Libor; Foldyna, Josef; Hela, R.; Bodnárová, L.; Kaličinský, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 4 (2009), s. 43-48 ISSN 2067-3809 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : water jet * concrete * depth of penetration * disintegration volume Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering http://acta.fih.upt.ro/pdf/2009-4/ACTA-2009-4-08.pdf

  8. Beryllium-10 concentrations in water samples of high northern latitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strobl, C.; Eisenhauer, A.; Schulz, V.; Baumann, S.; Mangini, A. [Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften, Heildelberg (Germany); Kubik, P.W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    {sup 10}Be concentrations in the water column of high northern latitudes were not available so far. We present different {sup 10}Be profiles from the Norwegian-Greenland Sea, the Arctic Ocean, and the Laptev Sea. (author) 3 fig., 3 refs.

  9. Identifying potential surface water sampling sites for emerging ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emerging chemical pollutants (ECPs) are defined as new chemicals which do not have a regulatory status, but which may have an adverse effect on human health and the environment. The occurrence and concentrations of ECPs in South African water bodies are largely unknown, so monitoring is required in order to ...

  10. Sample container and storage for paclobutrazol monitoring in irrigation water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paclobutrazol is a plant growth retardant commonly used on greenhouse crops. Residues from paclobutrazol applications can accumulate in recirculated irrigation water. Given that paclobutrazol has a long half-life and potential biological activity in parts per billion concentrations, it would be de...

  11. WRI 50: Strategies for Cooling Electric Generating Facilities Utilizing Mine Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph J. Donovan; Brenden Duffy; Bruce R. Leavitt; James Stiles; Tamara Vandivort; Paul Ziemkiewicz

    2004-11-01

    Power generation and water consumption are inextricably linked. Because of this relationship DOE/NETL has funded a competitive research and development initiative to address this relationship. This report is part of that initiative and is in response to DOE/NETL solicitation DE-PS26-03NT41719-0. Thermal electric power generation requires large volumes of water to cool spent steam at the end of the turbine cycle. The required volumes are such that new plant siting is increasingly dependent on the availability of cooling circuit water. Even in the eastern U.S., large rivers such as the Monongahela may no longer be able to support additional, large power stations due to subscription of flow to existing plants, industrial, municipal and navigational requirements. Earlier studies conducted by West Virginia University (WV 132, WV 173 phase I, WV 173 Phase II, WV 173 Phase III, and WV 173 Phase IV in review) have identified that a large potential water resource resides in flooded, abandoned coal mines in the Pittsburgh Coal Basin, and likely elsewhere in the region and nation. This study evaluates the technical and economic potential of the Pittsburgh Coal Basin water source to supply new power plants with cooling water. Two approaches for supplying new power plants were evaluated. Type A employs mine water in conventional, evaporative cooling towers. Type B utilizes earth-coupled cooling with flooded underground mines as the principal heat sink for the power plant reject heat load. Existing mine discharges in the Pittsburgh Coal Basin were evaluated for flow and water quality. Based on this analysis, eight sites were identified where mine water could supply cooling water to a power plant. Three of these sites were employed for pre-engineering design and cost analysis of a Type A water supply system, including mine water collection, treatment, and delivery. This method was also applied to a ''base case'' river-source power plant, for comparison. Mine-water

  12. Robotic, MEMS-based Multi Utility Sample Preparation Instrument for ISS Biological Workstation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will develop a multi-functional, automated sample preparation instrument for biological wet-lab workstations on the ISS. The instrument is based on a...

  13. Proteoglycan and proteome profiling of central human pulmonary fibrotic tissue utilizing miniaturized sample preparation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmström, Johan; Larsen, Kristoffer; Hansson, Lennart

    2002-01-01

    -dimensional electrophoresis was interfaced to miniaturized sample preparation techniques using microcapillary extraction. Four protein groups were identified; cytoskeletal, adhesion, scavenger and metabolic proteins. These patient's proteomes showed a high degree of heterogeneity between patients but larger homogeneity...

  14. UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Grand Junction, Colorado. Revision 1, Version 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This water sampling and analysis plan describes the planned, routine ground water sampling activities at the Grand Junction US DOE Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site (GRJ-01) in Grand Junction, Colorado, and at the Cheney Disposal Site (GRJ-03) near Grand Junction. The plan identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequencies for the routine monitoring stations at the sites. Regulatory basis is in the US EPA regulations in 40 CFR Part 192 (1994) and EPA ground water quality standards of 1995 (60 FR 2854). This plan summarizes results of past water sampling activities, details water sampling activities planned for the next 2 years, and projects sampling activities for the next 5 years

  15. Polymeric ionic liquid-based portable tip microextraction device for on-site sample preparation of water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Pei, Junxian; Huang, Xiaojia; Lu, Min

    2018-06-05

    On-site sample preparation is highly desired because it avoids the transportation of large-volume samples and ensures the accuracy of the analytical results. In this work, a portable prototype of tip microextraction device (TMD) was designed and developed for on-site sample pretreatment. The assembly procedure of TMD is quite simple. Firstly, polymeric ionic liquid (PIL)-based adsorbent was in-situ prepared in a pipette tip. After that, the tip was connected with a syringe which was driven by a bidirectional motor. The flow rates in adsorption and desorption steps were controlled accurately by the motor. To evaluate the practicability of the developed device, the TMD was used to on-site sample preparation of waters and combined with high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection to measure trace estrogens in water samples. Under the most favorable conditions, the limits of detection (LODs, S/N = 3) for the target analytes were in the range of 4.9-22 ng/L, with good coefficients of determination. Confirmatory study well evidences that the extraction performance of TMD is comparable to that of the traditional laboratory solid-phase extraction process, but the proposed TMD is more simple and convenient. At the same time, the TMD avoids complicated sampling and transferring steps of large-volume water samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. SEAMIST trademark soil sampling for tritiated water: First year's results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallon, B.; Martins, S.A.; Houpis, J.L.; Lowry, W.; Cremer, C.D.

    1992-01-01

    SEAMIST trademark is a recently developed sampling system that enables one to measure various soil parameters by means of an inverted, removable, impermeable membrane tube inserted in a borehole. This membrane tube can have various measuring devices installed on it, such as gas ports, adsorbent pads, and electrical sensors. These membrane tubes are made of a laminated polymer. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California, has installed two of these systems to monitor tritium in soil resulting from a leak in an underground storage tank. One tube is equipped with gas ports to sample soil vapor and the other with adsorbent pads to sample soil moisture. Borehole stability was maintained using either sand-filled or air-inflated tubes. Both system implementations yielded concentrations or activities that compared well with the measured concentrations of tritium in the soil taken during borehole construction. In addition, an analysis of the data suggest that both systems prevented the vertical migration of tritium in the boreholes. Also, a neutron probe was successfully used in a blank membrane inserted in one of the boreholes to monitor the moisture in the soil without exposing the probe to the tritium. The neutron log showed excellent agreement with the soil moisture content measured in soil samples taken during borehole construction. This paper describes the two SEAMIST trademark systems used and presents sampling results and comparisons

  17. UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Gunnison, Colorado: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    This water sampling and analysis plan summarizes the results of previous water sampling activities and the plan for future water sampling activities, in accordance with the Guidance Document for Preparing Sampling and Analysis Plans for UMTRA Sites. A buffer zone monitoring plan for the Dos Rios Subdivision is included as an appendix. The buffer zone monitoring plan was developed to ensure continued protection to the public from residual contamination. The buffer zone is beyond the area depicted as contaminated ground water due to former milling operations. Surface remedial action at the Gunnison Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site began in 1992; completion is expected in 1995. Ground water and surface water will be sampled semiannually at the Gunnison processing site and disposal site. Results of previous water sampling at the Gunnison processing site indicate that ground water in the alluvium is contaminated by the former uranium processing activities. Background ground water conditions have been established in the uppermost aquifer at the Gunnison disposal site. The monitor well locations provide a representative distribution of sampling points to characterize ground water quality and ground water flow conditions in the vicinity of the sites. The list of analytes has been modified with time to reflect constituents that are related to uranium processing activities and the parameters needed for geochemical evaluation

  18. Better utilization of ground water in the Piedmont and mountain region of the southeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Ralph C.

    1979-01-01

    The development of water supplies for domestic consumption, and for those commercial and industrial uses requiring relatively pure water, has followed a pattern in the Piedmont and mountain areas of the southeast similar to that in most other humid areas. The first settlers utilized seepage springs on hillsides. Such springs occur along steep slopes where the water table intersects the land surface. As the population of the region grew, it became increasingly necessary to resort to shallow dug wells for domestic water supplies. Such wells also served as sources of water for the villages that developed, in time, around crossroad taverns. Seepage springs and dug wells are a satisfactory source of water in a virgin environment but are quickly polluted by careless waste-disposal practices. Thus disposal of domestic wastes in shallow pits resulted in epidemics of water-borne diseases as the villages grew into towns. This resulted in the third phase of water-supply development, which consisted of installing water lines and supplying water to homes from town-owned wells. In time, some of these wells became polluted and others failed to supply adequate water for the increasing needs of the larger urban areas. In the fourth phase these areas met their needs by drawing water from nearby streams. By the early years of this century it was possible to make this water palatable and relatively safe as a result of improvement in filtration methods. Streams, of course, have highly variable rates of flow and, as towns grew into small cities, the minimum flow of many streams was not adequate to meet the water-supply needs. This problem was solved in the fifth phase by building dams on the streams. We are still in this phase as we build larger and larger reservoirs to meet our growing water needs. Thus, through five phases of growth in the Piedmont and mountains we have advanced from the point where ground water was the sole source of supply to the point where it is the forgotten

  19. Federal Disaster Funding Opportunities for Water and Wastewater Utilities through the Drinking Water and Clean Water State Revolving Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    The following provides a checklist that will help you take advantage of Drinking Water State Revolving Funds. For more detailed information on Drinking Water SRF, see DWSRF in Fed FUNDS. For more information on Clean Water SRF, see CWSRF in Fed FUNDS.

  20. Total and inorganic arsenic in fish samples from Norwegian waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julshamn, Kaare; Nilsen, Bente M; Frantzen, Sylvia; Valdersnes, Stig; Maage, Amund; Nedreaas, Kjell; Sloth, Jens J

    2012-01-01

    The contents of total arsenic and inorganic arsenic were determined in fillet samples of Northeast Artic cod, herring, mackerel, Greenland halibut, tusk, saithe and Atlantic halibut. In total, 923 individual fish samples were analysed. The fish were mostly caught in the open sea off the coast of Norway, from 40 positions. The determination of total arsenic was carried out by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry following microwave-assisted wet digestion. The determination of inorganic arsenic was carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography-ICP-MS following microwave-assisted dissolution of the samples. The concentrations found for total arsenic varied greatly between fish species, and ranged from 0.3 to 110 mg kg(-1) wet weight. For inorganic arsenic, the concentrations found were very low (fish used in the recent EFSA opinion on arsenic in food.

  1. Past-Year Treatment Utilization Among Individuals Meeting DSM-5 PTSD Criteria: Results From a Nationally Representative Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Andrew C; Sripada, Rebecca K; Bohnert, Kipling M

    2018-03-01

    Little is known regarding treatment utilization among individuals meeting DSM-5 criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Data were analyzed from the third wave of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a nationally representative sample using DSM-5 criteria. Factors related to increased odds of PTSD treatment utilization for individuals meeting lifetime criteria included some college education versus less than a high school degree (odds ratio [OR]=3.17), having health insurance versus no insurance (OR=2.86), having a comorbid phobia disorder versus not having a phobia disorder (OR=1.36), and greater PTSD symptom count (OR=1.11). Older age (OR=.40), identifying as black or Asian versus white non-Hispanic (OR=.70 and OR=.28, respectively), and greater social functioning (OR=.98) were associated with decreased odds of PTSD treatment utilization. Results highlight factors that may be useful in identifying population subgroups with PTSD that are at risk for underutilization of services.

  2. Utilizing the International GeoSample Number Concept during ICDP Expedition COSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conze, Ronald; Lorenz, Henning; Ulbricht, Damian; Gorgas, Thomas; Elger, Kirsten

    2016-04-01

    The concept of the International GeoSample Number (IGSN) was introduced to uniquely identify and register geo-related sample material, and make it retrievable via electronic media (e.g., SESAR - http://www.geosamples.org/igsnabout). The general aim of the IGSN concept is to improve accessing stored sample material worldwide, enable the exact identification, its origin and provenance, and also the exact and complete citation of acquired samples throughout the literature. The ICDP expedition COSC (Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides, http://cosc.icdp-online.org) prompted for the first time in ICDP's history to assign and register IGSNs during an ongoing drilling campaign. ICDP drilling expeditions are using commonly the Drilling Information System DIS (http://doi.org/10.2204/iodp.sd.4.07.2007) for the inventory of recovered sample material. During COSC IGSNs were assigned to every drill hole, core run, core section, and sample taken from core material. The original IGSN specification has been extended to achieve the required uniqueness of IGSNs with our offline-procedure. The ICDP name space indicator and the Expedition ID (5054) are forming an extended prefix (ICDP5054). For every type of sample material, an encoded sequence of characters follows. This sequence is derived from the DIS naming convention which is unique from the beginning. Thereby every ICDP expedition has an unlimited name space for IGSN assignments. This direct derivation of IGSNs from the DIS database context ensures the distinct parent-child hierarchy of the IGSNs among each other. In the case of COSC this method of inventory-keeping of all drill cores was done routinely using the ExpeditionDIS during field work and subsequent sampling party. After completing the field campaign, all sample material was transferred to the "Nationales Bohrkernlager" in Berlin-Spandau, Germany. Corresponding data was subsequently imported into the CurationDIS used at the aforementioned core storage

  3. Experimental Assessment of Water Sprays Utilization for Controlling Hydrogen Sulfide Releases in Confined Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongfeng Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reported the utilization of water spray for controlling H2S release in a confined space, which is especially important in industry. A typical spray tower was modified to simulate the confined space for people's enterable routine operation (e.g., pump room, in which the dilution capacity of water sprays can also be evaluated. This work consists of two parts: the first part focuses on the influences of different operating conditions on chemical dilution capacities of water sprays in mechanisms; the second one is comparison between two nozzle configurations for evaluating their feasibilities of practical application. Water sprays express eligible performance for H2S release control even though their dilution capacity was weakened at high gaseous concentrations and rates of releases. The presence of Na2CO3 can significantly improve absorption effectiveness of H2S in water and the optimal Na2CO3 additive was found to be 1.0 g·L−1 in this test. Compared with Na2CO3, adjusting water flow rate may be an effective strategy in enhancing dilution capacity of water sprays due to the fact that larger flow rate led to both less dilution time (TD and dilution concentration (CD. Furthermore, multinozzle configuration is more efficient than single-nozzle configuration under the same water consumption.

  4. Zirconium(IV) functionalized magnetic nanocomposites for extraction of organophosphorus pesticides from environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li; Huang, Tengjun; Feng, Shun; Wang, Jide

    2016-07-22

    The widespread use of organophosphate pesticides (OPPs) in agriculture leads to residue accumulation in the environment which is dangerous to human health and disrupts the ecological balance. In this work, one nanocomposite immobilized zirconium (Zr, IV) was prepared and used as the affinity probes to quickly and selectively extract organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) from water samples. The Fe3O4-ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA)@Zr(IV) nanocomposites (NPs) were prepared by simply mixing Zr(IV) ions with Fe3O4-EDTA NPs synthesized by one-pot chemical co-precipitation method. The immobilized Zr(IV) ions were further utilized to capture OPPs based on their high affinity for the phosphate moiety in OPPs. Coupled with GC-MS, four OPPs were used as models to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach. Under the optimum conditions, the limits of detection for target OPPs were in the range of 0.10-10.30ngmL(-1) with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 0.61-4.40% (n=3), respectively. The linear ranges were over three orders of magnitudes (correlation coefficients, R(2)>0.9995). The Fe3O4-EDTA@Zr(IV) NPs were successfully applied to extract OPPs samples with recoveries of 86.95-112.60% and RSDs of 1.20-10.42% (n=3) from two spiked real water. By the proposed method, the matrix interference could be effectively eliminated. We hope our finding can provide a promising alternative for the fast extraction of OPPs from complex real samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Determination of Phenols in Water Samples using a Supported ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    This was achieved by pH adjustments in the sample and acceptor phases. The method was ... during wastewater treatment, since chlorine is added as a disinfectant. ... they give a high degree of selectivity and clean-up, use little or no organic ...

  6. Utility of gram staining for evaluation of the quality of cystic fibrosis sputum samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Bindu; Stapp, Jenny; Stapp, Lynn; Bugni, Linda; Van Dalfsen, Jill; Burns, Jane L

    2002-08-01

    The microscopic examination of Gram-stained sputum specimens is very helpful in the evaluation of patients with community-acquired pneumonia and has also been recommended for use in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. This study was undertaken to evaluate that recommendation. One hundred one sputum samples from CF patients were cultured for gram-negative bacilli and examined by Gram staining for both sputum adequacy (using the quality [Q] score) and bacterial morphology. Subjective evaluation of adequacy was also performed and categorized. Based on Q score evaluation, 41% of the samples would have been rejected despite a subjective appearance of purulence. Only three of these rejected samples were culture negative for gram-negative CF pathogens. Correlation between culture results and quantitative Gram stain examination was also poor. These data suggest that subjective evaluation combined with comprehensive bacteriology is superior to Gram staining in identifying pathogens in CF sputum.

  7. Human mixed lymphocyte cultures. Evaluation of microculture technique utilizing the multiple automated sample harvester (MASH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, G. B.; Strong, D. M.; Ahmed, A.; Green, S. S.; Sell, K. W.; Hartzman, R. J.; Bach, F. H.

    1973-01-01

    Use of lymphocyte cultures for in vitro studies such as pretransplant histocompatibility testing has established the need for standardization of this technique. A microculture technique has been developed that has facilitated the culturing of lymphocytes and increased the quantity of cultures feasible, while lowering the variation between replicate samples. Cultures were prepared for determination of tritiated thymidine incorporation using a Multiple Automated Sample Harvester (MASH). Using this system, the parameters that influence the in vitro responsiveness of human lymphocytes to allogeneic lymphocytes have been investigated. PMID:4271568

  8. Cost benefit analysis of outsourcing initiatives/strategy at water utilities corporation (Botswana) / G Mogomotsi

    OpenAIRE

    Mogomotsi, G

    2016-01-01

    After the Water Utilities Corporation adopted outsourcing as a policy initiative and operational directive various non-core functions were outsourced. This raises obvious questions as to why the Corporation suddenly decided to do this. Does the Corporation indeed benefit in terms of value addition from outsourced functions? Some of the pertinent questions include: To what extent did policy guidelines and operational measures govern the said outsourcing initiatives? What are the...

  9. Sodium-water reaction data needed by a utility for design assessment purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolt, P R [Fast Reactor Engineering, Barnwood, Gloucester (United Kingdom)

    1978-10-01

    Worldwide LMFBR experience has shown that LMFBR steam generator water/steam leakage into sodium can severely reduce steam generator availability and cause lengthy plant outages. Utility assessment LMFBR designs prior to placing an order to construct are likely to give emphasis to matters that can affect steam generator integrity, reliability and total operating cost. The data needed in carrying out such assessments is described. (author)

  10. Sodium-water reaction data needed by a utility for design assessment purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolt, P.R.

    1978-01-01

    Worldwide LMFBR experience has shown that LMFBR steam generator water/steam leakage into sodium can severely reduce steam generator availability and cause lengthy plant outages. Utility assessment LMFBR designs prior to placing an order to construct are likely to give emphasis to matters that can affect steam generator integrity, reliability and total operating cost. The data needed in carrying out such assessments is described. (author)

  11. Scope for utilizing gamma radiation for microbiological control of sewage waste-water in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, N.F.

    1975-01-01

    Conventional methods, including the activated sludge process, the trickling filter process and oxidation pond process, of treating sewage waste in India, do not adequately ensure safe utilization of the secondary effluent for land irrigation purposes. Preliminary findings indicate that gamma radiation in the range of 0.1-0.3 Mrad effectively destroys pathogens in the secondary effluent, thereby making available very large quantities of water for land irrigation and industrial purposes. (author)

  12. Standardization of advanced light water reactors and progress on achieving utility requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marston, T.U.; Layman, W.H.; Bockhold, G. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that for a number of years, the U.S. utilities had led an industry-wide effort to establish a technical foundation for the design of the next generation of light water reactors in the United States. Since 1985, this utility initiative has been effected through a major technical program managed by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); the U.S. Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) Program. In addition to the U.S. utility leadership and sponsorship, the ALWR Program also has the participation and sponsorship of a number of international utility companies and close cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The NPOC Strategic Plan for Building New Nuclear Plants creates a framework within which new standardized nuclear plants may be built. The Strategic Plan is an expression of the nuclear energy industry's serious intent to create the necessary conditions for new plant construction and operation. The industry has assembled a comprehensive, integrated list of actions that must be taken before new plants will be built and assigns responsibility for managing the various issues and sets time-tables and milestones against which we must measure progress

  13. Utilization of thin-layer chromatography for confirmational sampling during remedial excavation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) is a simple, efficient, inexpensive, and accurate method of chemical analysis. This method is applicable to field testing for confirming the limits of excavation during excavation of petroleum, oil, and/or lubricant (POL) contamination. Traditionally, excavation at contaminated sites suffers from a time delay due to the need to obtain laboratory confirmation of the limits of excavation. All suspected contaminated material is removed for stockpiling or remediation. The remaining soils need to be sampled to confirm that no contaminated material remains in the excavation. The site scientist collects samples and sends them out for analysis at a certified laboratory. The laboratory requires, even for a rush order, several days to analyze the samples. This time delay interferes with the efficiency of the operation. The excavations either have to be left open (which is a safety hazard) or reopened if additional material must be excavated. TLC samples can be collected and analyzed in several hours allowing for a short turnaround time for analytical results. The TLC method can be easily performed by a technician. Results of a case study from a subarctic Alaskan site will be reported. Simple operational TLC procedures will be shared. The equipment required for TLC analysis will be outlined. Correlation data between TLC and laboratory analysis will be presented

  14. UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    Surface remedial action is scheduled to begin at the Belfield and Bowman Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites in the spring of 1996. Water sampling was conducted in 1993 at both the Belfield processing site and the Bowman processing/disposal site. Results of the sampling at both sites indicate that ground water conditions have remained relatively stable over time. Water sampling activities are not scheduled for 1994 because ground water conditions at the two sites are relatively stable, the 1993 sampling was comprehensive, and surface remediation activities are not scheduled to start until 1996. The next water sampling event is scheduled before the start of remedial activities and will include sampling selected monitor wells at both sites and several domestic wells in the vicinity

  15. Concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water samples from different stages of treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogorzelec, Marta; Piekarska, Katarzyna

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the presence and concentration of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water samples from different stages of treatment and to verify the usefulness of semipermeable membrane devices for analysis of drinking water. For this purpose, study was conducted for a period of 5 months. Semipermeable membrane devices were deployed in a surface water treatment plant located in Lower Silesia (Poland). To determine the effect of water treatment on concentration of PAHs, three sampling places were chosen: raw water input, stream of water just before disinfection and treated water output. After each month of sampling SPMDs were changed for fresh ones and prepared for further analysis. Concentrations of fifteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Presented study indicates that the use of semipermeable membrane devices can be an effective tool for the analysis of aquatic environment, including monitoring of drinking water, where organic micropollutants are present at very low concentrations.

  16. Procedures for field chemical analyses of water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korte, N.; Ealey, D.

    1983-12-01

    A successful water-quality monitoring program requires a clear understanding of appropriate measurement procedures in order to obtain reliable field data. It is imperative that the responsible personnel have a thorough knowledge of the limitations of the techniques being used. Unfortunately, there is a belief that field analyses are simple and straightforward. Yet, significant controversy as well as misuse of common measurement techniques abounds. This document describes procedures for field measurements of pH, carbonate and bicarbonate, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, nitrate, Eh, and uranium. Each procedure section includes an extensive discussion regarding the limitations of the method as well as brief discussions of calibration procedures and available equipment. A key feature of these procedures is the consideration given to the ultimate use of the data. For example, if the data are to be used for geochemical modeling, more precautions are needed. In contrast, routine monitoring conducted merely to recognize gross changes can be accomplished with less effort. Finally, quality assurance documentation for each measurement is addressed in detail. Particular attention is given to recording sufficient information such that decisions concerning the quality of the data can be easily made. Application of the procedures and recommendations presented in this document should result in a uniform and credible water-quality monitoring program. 22 references, 4 figures, 3 tables

  17. Determination of rare earth elements in natural water samples – A review of sample separation, preconcentration and direct methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Andrew, E-mail: afisher@plymouth.ac.uk [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Plymouth University, Drake Circus, Plymouth, Devon, PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Kara, Derya [Department of Chemistry, Art and Science Faculty, Balikesir University, 10100, Balikesir (Turkey)

    2016-09-07

    This review discusses and compares the methods given for the determination of rare earth elements (REE) in natural water samples, including sea, river, lake, tap, ground and waste waters as well as Antarctic ice. Since REE are at very low concentrations in natural waters, numerous different preconcentration methods have been proposed to enable their measurement. These include liquid liquid extraction, dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction and solidified floating drop micro-extraction. In addition to liquid-liquid extraction methods, solid phase extraction using commercial resins, resins made in-house, silica-based exchange materials and other solid media is also discussed. These and other techniques such as precipitation/co-precipitation and flotation are compared in terms of speed, preconcentration factors achieved, precision, accuracy and limits of detection (LOD). Some papers have discussed the direct determination of REE in these sample types. Some have used specialised sample introduction systems such as ultrasonic nebulization whereas others have used a standard sample introduction system coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection. These direct methods have also been discussed and compared. - Highlights: • The determination of rare earth elements in waters is reviewed. • Assorted preconcentration techniques are discussed and evaluated. • Detection techniques include atomic spectrometry, potentiometry and spectrophotometry. • Special nebulisers and electrothermal vaporization approaches are reviewed.

  18. Electrochemically modified sulfisoxazole nanofilm on glassy carbon for determination of cadmium(II) in water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Vinod Kumar; Yola, Mehmet Lütfi; Atar, Necip; Solak, Ali Osman; Uzun, Lokman; Üstündağ, Zafer

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Sulfisoxazole was grafted onto glassy carbon electrode. • The electrode was characterized by spectroscopic and electrochemical methods. • It has been used for the determination of Cd(II) ions in real samples in very low concentrations. -- Abstract: Sulfisoxazole (SO) was grafted to glassy carbon electrode (GCE) via the electrochemical oxidation of SO in acetonitrile solution containing 0.1 M tetrabutylammoniumtetra-fluoroborate (TBATFB). The prepared electrode was characterized by using cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), reflection–absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The ellipsometric thickness of SO nanofilm at the glassy carbon surface was obtained as 14.48 ± 0.11 nm. The stability of the SO modified GCE was studied. The SO modified GCE was also utilized for the determination of Cd(II) ions in water samples in the presence of Pb(II) and Fe(II) by adsorptive stripping voltammetry. The linearity range and the detection limit of Cd(II) ions were 1.0 × 10 −10 to 5.0 × 10 −8 M and 3.3 × 10 −11 M (S/N = 3), respectively

  19. A procedure for the determination of Po-210 in water samples by alpha spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Reliable, comparable and 'fit for purpose' results are an essential requirement for any decision based on analytical measurements. For the analyst, the availability of tested and validated analytical procedures is a extremely important tool for production of such analytical measurements. For maximum utility, such procedures should be comprehensive, clearly formulated, and readily available to both the analyst and the customer for reference. Since 2004 the Environment programme of the IAEA has included activities aimed at the development of a set of procedures for the determination of radionuclides in terrestrial environmental samples. In the case of 210 Po, this started with the collection and review of about 130 papers from the scientific literature. Based on this review, two candidate methods for the chemical separation of 210 Po from water samples were selected for testing, refinement and validation in accordance with ISO guidelines. A comprehensive methodology for calculation of results including quantification of measurement uncertainty was also developed. This report presents the final procedure which was developed based on that work

  20. 222Rn in water: A comparison of two sample collection methods and two sample transport methods, and the determination of temporal variation in North Carolina ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hightower, J.H. III

    1994-01-01

    Objectives of this field experiment were: (1) determine whether there was a statistically significant difference between the radon concentrations of samples collected by EPA's standard method, using a syringe, and an alternative, slow-flow method; (2) determine whether there was a statistically significant difference between the measured radon concentrations of samples mailed vs samples not mailed; and (3) determine whether there was a temporal variation of water radon concentration over a 7-month period. The field experiment was conducted at 9 sites, 5 private wells, and 4 public wells, at various locations in North Carolina. Results showed that a syringe is not necessary for sample collection, there was generally no significant radon loss due to mailing samples, and there was statistically significant evidence of temporal variations in water radon concentrations

  1. [Detection of Cryptospordium spp. in environmental water samples by FTA-PCR].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Zhu, Qian; He, Yan-Yan; Jiang, Li; Jiang, Shou-Fu

    2011-02-01

    To establish a FTA-polymeras chain reaction (FTA-PCR) method in detection of Cryptospordium spp. in different sources of water. The semi automated immunomagnetic separation (IMS) of Cryptospordium oocysts in environmental water samples was performed firstly, and then genomic DNA of Cryptospordium oocysts was extracted by FTA filters disk. Oligonucleotide primers were designed based on the DNA fragment of the 18 S rRNA gene from C. parvum. Plate DNA was amplified with primers in PCR. The control DNA samples from Toxoplasma gondii,Sarcocystis suihominis, Echinococcus granulosus, and Clonorchis sinensis were amplified simultaneously. All PCR products were detected by agar electrophoresis dyed with ethidium bromide. The 446 bp fragment of DNA was detected in all samples of C. parvum, C. andersoni, and C. baileyi, while it was not detected in control groups in laboratory. No positive samples were found from 10 samples collected from tape water in 5 districts of Shanghai City by FTA-PCR. Nine positive samples were detected totally from 70 different environmental water samples, there were 0 out of 15 samples from the source of tape water, 2 out of 25 from the Huangpu River, 5 out of 15 from rivers around the animal farmers, 1 out of 9 from output water of contaminating water treatment factory, 1 out of 6 from the out gate of living contaminating water. The 446 bp fragment was detected from all the amplified positive water samples. FTA-PCR is an efficient method for gene detection of Cryptospordium oocysts, which could be used in detection of environmental water samples. The contamination degree of Cryptospordium oocysts in the river water around animal farms is high.

  2. UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Gunnison, Colorado. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    Surface remedial action at the Gunnison Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site began in 1992; completion is expected in 1995. Ground water and surface water will be sampled semiannually at the Gunnison processing site (GUN-01) and disposal site (GUN-08). Results of previous water sampling at the Gunnison processing site indicate that ground water in the alluvium is contaminated by the former uranium processing activities. Background ground water conditions have been established in the uppermost aquifer (Tertiary gravels) at the Gunnison disposal site. Semiannual water sampling is scheduled for the spring and fall. Water quality sampling is conducted at the processing site (1) to ensure protection of human health and the environment, (2) for ground water compliance monitoring during remedial action construction, and (3) to define the extent of contamination. At the processing site, the frequency and duration of sampling will be dependent upon the nature and extent of residual contamination and the compliance strategy chosen. The monitor well locations provide a representative distribution of sampling points to characterize ground water quality and ground water flow conditions in the vicinity of the sites. The list of analytes has been modified with time to reflect constituents that are related to uranium processing activities and the parameters needed for geochemical evaluation

  3. ADDRESSING ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES UNDER COMPREHENSIVE UTILIZATION OF GEOTHERMAL SALINE WATER RESOURCES IN THE NORTHERN DAGESTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sh. Ramazanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of the study is to develop technologies for processing geothermal brine produced with the extraction of oil as well as to solve environmental problems in the region.Methods. In order to determine the chemical composition and radioactivity of the geothermal water and solid samples, we used atomic absorption and gamma spectrometry. Evaluation of the effectiveness of the technology was made on the basis of experimental studies.Results. In the geothermal water, eight radionuclides were recognized and quantified with the activity of 87 ± 5 Bq / dm3. For the processing of this water to produce lithium carbonate and other components we propose a technological scheme, which provides a step of water purification from radio-nuclides. As a result of aeration and alkalinization, we can observe deactivation and purification of the geothermal water from mechanical impurities, iron ions, hydrogen carbonates and organic substances. Water treatment allows recovering lithium carbonate, magnesite caustic powder and salt from geothermal water. The mother liquors produced during manufacturing operations meet the requirements for the water suitable for waterflooding of oil reservoirs and can be injected for maintaining the reservoir pressure of the deposits.Conclusion. The implementation of the proposed processing technology of mineralized geothermal water produced with the extraction of oil in the Northern Dagestan will contribute to extend the life of the oil fields and improve the environmental problems. It will also allow import substitution in Russia for lithium carbonate and edible salt.

  4. Determination of radiocesium in environmental water samples using copper ferro(II)cyanide and sodium tetraphenylborate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, L.; Kuleff, I.; Djingova, R.

    2006-01-01

    A procedure for the radiochemical separation and radiochemical purification of radiocesium ( 134 Cs and 137 Cs) in bulk environmental water samples is proposed. Radiocesium was removed from the water by cation-exchange with copper ferro(II)cyanide and was purified by precipitation with sodium tetraphenylborate. The influence of the concentration of potassium in the water sample on the chemical yield was investigated. The validation of the proposed method was carried out by analyzing reference materials. The application of the method was demonstrated with the determination of the concentration of radiocesium in water samples from rivers around NPP 'Kozloduy', Bulgaria, Danube and Ogosta. (author)

  5. User Guide and Documentation for Five MODFLOW Ground-Water Modeling Utility Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta, Edward R.; Paschke, Suzanne S.; Litke, David W.

    2008-01-01

    This report documents five utility programs designed for use in conjunction with ground-water flow models developed with the U.S. Geological Survey's MODFLOW ground-water modeling program. One program extracts calculated flow values from one model for use as input to another model. The other four programs extract model input or output arrays from one model and make them available in a form that can be used to generate an ArcGIS raster data set. The resulting raster data sets may be useful for visual display of the data or for further geographic data processing. The utility program GRID2GRIDFLOW reads a MODFLOW binary output file of cell-by-cell flow terms for one (source) model grid and converts the flow values to input flow values for a different (target) model grid. The spatial and temporal discretization of the two models may differ. The four other utilities extract selected 2-dimensional data arrays in MODFLOW input and output files and write them to text files that can be imported into an ArcGIS geographic information system raster format. These four utilities require that the model cells be square and aligned with the projected coordinate system in which the model grid is defined. The four raster-conversion utilities are * CBC2RASTER, which extracts selected stress-package flow data from a MODFLOW binary output file of cell-by-cell flows; * DIS2RASTER, which extracts cell-elevation data from a MODFLOW Discretization file; * MFBIN2RASTER, which extracts array data from a MODFLOW binary output file of head or drawdown; and * MULT2RASTER, which extracts array data from a MODFLOW Multiplier file.

  6. Mixed functional monomers-based monolithic adsorbent for the effective extraction of sulfonylurea herbicides in water and soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Miao; Zhu, Xiangyu; Huang, Xiaojia

    2018-01-05

    Effective extraction is a key step in the determination of sulfonylurea herbicides (SUHs) in complicated samples. According to the chemical properties of SUHs, a new monolithic adsorbent utilizing acrylamidophenylboronic acid and vinylimidazole as mixed functional monomers was synthesized. The new adsorbent was employed as the extraction phase of multiple monolithic fiber solid-phase microextraction (MMF-SPME) of SUHs, and the extracted SUHs were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). Results well evidence that the prepared adsorbent could extract SUHs in environmental waters and soil effectively through multiply interactions such as boronate affinity, dipole-dipole and π-π interactions. Under the optimized extraction conditions, the limits of detection for target SUHs in environmental water and soil samples were 0.018-0.17μg/L and 0.14-1.23μg/kg, respectively. At the same time, the developed method also displayed some analytical merits including wide linear dynamic ranges, good method reproducibility, satisfactory sensitivity and low consume of organic solvent. Finally, the developed were successfully applied to monitor trace SUHs in environmental water and soil samples. The recoveries at three fortified concentrations were in the range of 70.6-119% with RSD below 11% in all cases. The obtained results well demonstrate the excellent practical applicability of the developed MMF-SPME-HPLC-DAD method for the monitoring of SUHs in water and soil samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Uranium content measurement in drinking water samples using track etch technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Mukesh; Kumar, Ajay; Singh, Surinder; Mahajan, R.K.; Walia, T.P.S.

    2003-01-01

    The concentration of uranium has been assessed in drinking water samples collected from different locations in Bathinda district, Punjab, India. The water samples are taken from hand pumps and tube wells. Uranium is determined using fission track technique. Uranium concentration in the water samples varies from 1.65±0.06 to 74.98±0.38 μg/l. These values are compared with safe limit values recommended for drinking water. Most of the water samples are found to have uranium concentration above the safe limit. Analysis of some heavy metals (Zn, Cd, Pb and Cu) in water is also done in order to see if some correlation exists between the concentration of uranium and these heavy metals. A weak positive correlation has been observed between the concentration of uranium and heavy metals of Pb, Cd and Cu

  8. Analysis of boron utilization in sample preparation for microorganisms detection by neutron radiography technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wacha, Reinaldo; Crispim, Verginia R.

    2000-01-01

    The neutron radiography technique applied to the microorganisms detection is the study of a new and faster alternative for diagnosis of infectious means. This work presents the parameters and the effects involved in the use of the boron as a conversion agent, that convert neutrons in a particles, capable ones of generating latent tracks in a solid state nuclear tracks detector, CR-39. The collected samples are doped with the boron by the incubation method, propitiating an interaction microorganisms/boron, that will guarantee the identification of the images of those microorganisms, through your morphology. (author)

  9. On the asymptotic improvement of supervised learning by utilizing additional unlabeled samples - Normal mixture density case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahshahani, Behzad M.; Landgrebe, David A.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of additional unlabeled samples in improving the supervised learning process is studied in this paper. Three learning processes. supervised, unsupervised, and combined supervised-unsupervised, are compared by studying the asymptotic behavior of the estimates obtained under each process. Upper and lower bounds on the asymptotic covariance matrices are derived. It is shown that under a normal mixture density assumption for the probability density function of the feature space, the combined supervised-unsupervised learning is always superior to the supervised learning in achieving better estimates. Experimental results are provided to verify the theoretical concepts.

  10. USDA Forest Service national protocols for sampling air pollution-sensitive waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. J. Sullivan

    2012-01-01

    The first step in designing a surface water sampling program is identifying one or more problems or questions that require information on water quality. Common water quality problems include nutrient enrichment (from a variety of causes), effects of atmospheric deposition (acidification, eutrophication, toxicity), and effects of major disturbances such as fire or pest...

  11. Evaluation of the Bacterial Status of Water Samples at Umudike Abia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    77.78%), Proteus spp.(66.67%), Serratia spp.(55.5%) and Vibro spp.(22.2%). The occurrence of the water borne pathogens appeared limited to the stream water samples, hence, continuous consumption without adequate treatment is potentially dangerous. Keywords: Water, rainwater, stream, bacteria, coliforms, pathogen ...

  12. UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Durango, Colorado. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    Planned, routine ground water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site in Durango, Colorado, are described in this water sampling and analysis plan. The plan identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the routine monitoring stations at the site. The ground water data are used to characterize the site ground water compliance strategies and to monitor contaminants of potential concern identified in the baseline risk assessment (DOE, 1995a). Regulatory basis for routine ground water monitoring at UMTRA Project sites is derived from the US EPA regulations in 40 CFR Part 192 (1994) and EPA standards of 1995 (60 FR 2854). Sampling procedures are guided by the UMTRA Project standard operating procedures (SOP) (JEG, n.d.), the Technical Approach Document (TAD) (DOE, 1989), and the most effective technical approach for the site

  13. Water Source Utilization of Hammock and Pine Rockland Plant Communities in the Everglades, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, A. K.; Sternberg, L.; Miralles-Wilhelm, F.

    2007-12-01

    South Florida has a mosaic of plant communities resulting from topographical differences, spatially varying hydroperiods and fire. The only plant communities not flooded in the wet season are hardwood hammocks and often pine rocklands. Natural fires burn off litter accumulated in pine rocklands, with the exception of organic matter in sinkholes in the limestone bedrock. This relative lack of soil is thought to constrain pineland plants in the Everglades to depend upon groundwater that is typically low in nutrients. In contrast, adjoining hardwood hammocks have accumulated an organic soil layer that traps rainwater and nutrients. Plants in hammocks may be able to utilize this water and thereby access nutrients present in the litter. Hammocks are thus viewed as localized areas of high nutrients and instances of vegetation feedback upon the oligotrophic everglades landscape enabling establishment and survival of flood-intolerant tropical hardwood species. This study examines water source use and couples it to foliar nutrient concentrations of plants found in hammocks and pinelands. We examined the δ2H and δ18O of stem waters in plants in Everglades National Park and compared those with the δ2H and δ18O of potential water sources. In the wet season hammock plants accessed both groundwater and water in the surface organic soil layer while in the dry season they relied more on groundwater. A similar seasonal shift was observed in pineland plants; however groundwater constituted a much higher proportion of total water uptake throughout the year under observation. Concomitant with differential water utilization by hammock and pineland plant communities, we observed hammock plants having a significantly higher annual mean foliar N and P concentration than pineland plants. Most hammock species are intolerant of flooded soils and are thus constrained by the high water table in the wet season, yet access the lowered groundwater table in the dry season due to drying up of

  14. Economical Feasibility of Utilizing Photovoltaics for Water Pumping in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Z. Sahin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy and water are the two major need of the globe which need to be addressed for the sustenance of the human beings on this planet. All the nations, no matter most populous, developed and developing need to diversify the means and ways of producing energy and at the same time guarding the environment. This study aims at techno economical feasibility of producing energy using PV solar panels and utilizing it to pump-water at Dhahran, Riyadh, Jeddah, Guriat, and Nejran regions in Saudi Arabia. The solar radiation data from these stations was used to generate electricity using PV panels of 9.99 kW total capacity. Nejran region was found to be most economical in terms of minimal payback period and cost of energy and maximum internal rate of return whereas PV power production was concerned. Water-pumping capacity of the solar PV energy system was calculated at five locations based on the PV power production and Goulds model 45J series of pumps. Monthly total and annual total water pumping capacities were determined. Considering the capital cost of combined solar PV energy system and the pump unit a cost analysis of water pumping for a well of 50 m total dynamic head (TDH was carried out. The cost of water pumping was found to vary between 2 and 3 /m3.

  15. Minimizing temperature instability of heat recovery hot water system utilizing optimized thermal energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suamir, I. N.; Sukadana, I. B. P.; Arsana, M. E.

    2018-01-01

    One energy-saving technology that starts gaining attractive for hotel industry application in Indonesia is the utilization of waste heat of a central air conditioning system to heat water for domestic hot water supply system. Implementing the technology for such application at a hotel was found that hot water capacity generated from the heat recovery system could satisfy domestic hot water demand of the hotel. The gas boilers installed in order to back up the system have never been used. The hot water supply, however, was found to be instable with hot water supply temperature fluctuated ranging from 45 °C to 62 °C. The temperature fluctuations reaches 17 °C, which is considered instable and can reduce hot water usage comfort level. This research is aimed to optimize the thermal energy storage in order to minimize the temperature instability of heat recovery hot water supply system. The research is a case study approach based on cooling and hot water demands of a hotel in Jakarta-Indonesia that has applied water cooled chillers with heat recovery systems. The hotel operation with 329 guest rooms and 8 function rooms showed that hot water production in the heat recovery system completed with 5 m3 thermal energy storage (TES) could not hold the hot water supply temperature constantly. The variations of the cooling demand and hot water demands day by day were identified. It was found that there was significant mismatched of available time (hours) between cooling demand which is directly correlated to the hot water production from the heat recovery system and hot water usage. The available TES system could not store heat rejected from the condenser of the chiller during cooling demand peak time between 14.00 and 18.00 hours. The extra heat from the heat recovery system consequently increases the temperature of hot water up to 62 °C. It is about 12 K above 50 °C the requirement hot water temperature of the hotel. In contrast, the TES could not deliver proper

  16. Water sampling using a drone at Yugama crater lake, Kusatsu-Shirane volcano, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Akihiko; Morita, Yuichi; Hashimoto, Takeshi; Mori, Toshiya; Ohba, Takeshi; Yaguchi, Muga; Kanda, Wataru

    2018-04-01

    Remote sampling of water from Yugama crater lake at Kusatsu-Shirane volcano, Japan, was performed using a drone. Despite the high altitude of over 2000 m above sea level, our simple method was successful in retrieving a 250 mL sample of lake water. The procedure presented here is easy for any researcher to follow who operates a drone without additional special apparatus. We compare the lake water sampled by drone with that sampled by hand at a site where regular samplings have previously been carried out. Chemical concentrations and stable isotope ratios are largely consistent between the two techniques. As the drone can fly automatically with the aid of navigation by Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), it is possible to repeatedly sample lake water from the same location, even when entry to Yugama crater lake is restricted due to the risk of eruption.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  17. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Water Chemistry of the Coral Reefs in American Samoa from Water Samples collected since 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water samples are collected and analyzed to assess spatial and temporal variation in the seawater carbonate systems of coral reef ecosystems in the Hawaiian and...

  18. An analysis of strategy plan on business performance of a water utility : a Midvaal water company case study / Erven Sello Malatji

    OpenAIRE

    Malatji, Erven Sello

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to assess the strategic management process of a water utility in South Africa. The research focused on Midvaal Water Company, a section 21 water utility based in South Africa, North West Province town of Klerksdorp. The objectives of the study were; (a) to assess the organisational level of knowledge when it comes to SMP, (b) to determine different perceptions with regards to SMP between management and employees, (c) to determine the organisational profiles (ag...

  19. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Salt Lake City, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    Surface remedial action was completed at the Salt Lake City, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site in the fall of 1987. Results of water sampling for the years 1992 to 1994 indicate that site-related ground water contamination occurs in the shallow unconfined aquifer (the uppermost aquifer). With respect to background ground water quality, contaminated ground water in the shallow, unconfined aquifer has elevated levels of chloride, sodium, sulfate, total dissolved solids, and uranium. No contamination associated with the former tailings pile occurs in levels exceeding background in ground water in the deeper confined aquifer. This document provides the water sampling and analysis plan for ground water monitoring at the former uranium processing site in Salt Lake City, Utah (otherwise known as the ''Vitro'' site, named after the Vitro Chemical Company that operated the mill). All contaminated materials removed from the processing site were relocated and stabilized in a disposal cell near Clive, Utah, some 85 miles west of the Vitro site (known as the ''Clive'' disposal site). No ground water monitoring is being performed at the Clive disposal site, since concurrence of the remedial action plan by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and completion of the disposal cell occurred before the US Environmental Protection Agency issued draft ground water standards in 1987 (52 FR 36000) for cleanup, stabilization, and control of residual radioactive materials at the disposal site. In addition, the likelihood of post-closure impact on the ground water is minimal to nonexistent, due to the naturally poor quality of the ground water. Water sampling activities planned for calendar year 1994 consist of sampling ground water from nine monitor wells to assess the migration of contamination within the shallow unconfined aquifer and sampling ground water from two existing monitor wells to assess ground water quality in the confined aquifer

  20. Enrichment and determination of small amounts of 90Sr/90Y in water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundschenk, H.

    1979-01-01

    Small amounts of 90 Sr/ 90 Y can be concentrated from large volumes of surface water (100 l) by precipitation of the phosphates, using bentonite as adsorber matrix. In the case of samples containing no or nearly no suspended matter (tap water, ground water, sea water), the daughter 90 Y can be extracted directly by using filter beds impregnated with HDEHP. The applicability of both techniques is demonstrated under realistic conditions. (orig.) 891 HP/orig. 892 MKO [de

  1. Determination of pyridine in soil and water samples of a polluted area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, R.J.B.; Renesse van Duivenbode, J.A.D. van

    1994-01-01

    A method for the analyses of pyridine in environmental samples is described. For soil samples a distillation procedure followed by an extraction, an acidic extraction or a Soxhlet extraction can be used. For water samples a distillation procedure followed by extraction can be employed. Deuterated pyridine is used as an internal standard and the extracts are analyzed by GC-MS. The recoveries of the methods are higher than 80%; the detection limits for pyridine are 0.01 mg/kg for soil samples and 0.2 μg/l for water samples. (orig.)

  2. The utilization of a pressurized-graphite/water/oxygen mixture for irradiated graphite incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonini, G.; Perotin, J.P.; Charlot, P.

    1992-01-01

    The authors demonstrate the interest of the utilization of a pressurized-graphite/water/oxygen mixture in the incineration of irradiated graphite. The aqueous phase comes in the form of a three-dimensional system that traps pressurized oxygen, the pulverulent solid being dispersed at the liquid/gas interfaces. These three-phasic formulations give the following advantages: reduction of the apparent viscosity of the mixture in comparison with a solid/liquid mixture at the same solid concentration; reduction of the solid/liquid interactions; self-pulverizability. thus promoting reduction of the flame length utilization of conventional burners; reduction of the flue gas flow rate; complete thermal destruction of graphite. (author)

  3. Advanced reactor design study. Assessing nonbackfittable concepts for improving uranium utilization in light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischman, R.M.; Goldsmith, S.; Newman, D.F.; Trapp, T.J.; Spinrad, B.I.

    1981-09-01

    The objective of the Advanced Reactor Design Study (ARDS) is to identify and evaluate nonbackfittable concepts for improving uranium utilization in light water reactors (LWRs). The results of this study provide a basis for selecting and demonstrating specific nonbackfittable concepts that have good potential for implementation. Lead responsibility for managing the study was assigned to the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). Nonbackfittable concepts for improving uranium utilization in LWRs on the once-through fuel cycle were selected separately for PWRs and BWRs due to basic differences in the way specific concepts apply to those plants. Nonbackfittable concepts are those that are too costly to incorporate in existing plants, and thus, could only be economically incorporated in new reactor designs or plants in very early stages of construction. Essential results of the Advanced Reactor Design Study are summarized

  4. Biostimulants and Its Potential Utilization in Functional Water-soluble Fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Qiang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Biostimulants are becoming widely applied and extended in the fertilizer industry, because of their effects on soil improvement, anti-stress ability enhancement and root growth promotion, which can increase efficient uptake and utilization of soil nutrients, crop yield and quality.This review introduced the concepts of biostimulants, and summarized the functions and related mechanisms of commonly-applied biostimulants in the market, i.e.humic acid, amino acid, seaweed extracts and plant-growth-promoting bacteria(PGPR. The properties and applied characteristics of different organic wastes containing some biostimulating compounds as the main material of functional water soluble fertilizers (WSFin the industry were presented. The technical keys to compound these organic wastes with some bio-active substances to produce the functional WSF were explored, with the aims to support the value -added utilization of organic wastes, reduce the use of fertilizers, and promote crops忆 quality and quantity.

  5. Water quality monitoring: A comparative case study of municipal and Curtin Sarawak's lake samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand Kumar, A.; Jaison, J.; Prabakaran, K.; Nagarajan, R.; Chan, Y. S.

    2016-03-01

    In this study, particle size distribution and zeta potential of the suspended particles in municipal water and lake surface water of Curtin Sarawak's lake were compared and the samples were analysed using dynamic light scattering method. High concentration of suspended particles affects the water quality as well as suppresses the aquatic photosynthetic systems. A new approach has been carried out in the current work to determine the particle size distribution and zeta potential of the suspended particles present in the water samples. The results for the lake samples showed that the particle size ranges from 180nm to 1345nm and the zeta potential values ranges from -8.58 mV to -26.1 mV. High zeta potential value was observed in the surface water samples of Curtin Sarawak's lake compared to the municipal water. The zeta potential values represent that the suspended particles are stable and chances of agglomeration is lower in lake water samples. Moreover, the effects of physico-chemical parameters on zeta potential of the water samples were also discussed.

  6. An assessment of solar hot water heating in the Washington, D.C. area - Implications for local utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, M. W.

    1980-04-01

    A survey of residential solar hot water heating in the Washington, D.C. area is presented with estimates of the total solar energy contribution per year. These estimates are examined in relation to a local utility's peak-load curves to determine the impact of a substantial increase in solar domestic hot water use over the next 20 yr in the area of utility management. The results indicate that a 10% market penetration of solar water heaters would have no detrimental effect on the utility's peak-load profile and could save several million dollars in new plant construction costs.

  7. Decision making for multiple utilization of water resources in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Pyar Ali

    1989-09-01

    The Clutha is the largest river in New Zealand. The last two decades have witnessed major conflicts centered on the utilization of the water resources of the upper Clutha river. These conflicts have by no means been finally resolved. The focus of this article is on institutional arrangements for water resource management on the Clutha, with particular reference to the decision-making processes that have culminated in the building of the high dam. It critically evaluates recent experiences and comments on future prospects for resolving resource use conflicts rationally through planning for multiple utilization in a climate of market led policies of the present government. The study demonstrates the inevitable conflicts that can arise within a public bureaucracy that combines dual responsibilities for policy making and operational functions. Hitherto, central government has been able to manipulate the water resource allocation process to its advantage because of a lack of clear separation between its two roles as a policy maker and developer. The conflicts that have manifested themselves during the last two decades over the Clutha should be seen as part of a wider public debate during the last two decades concerning resource utilization in New Zealand. The Clutha controversy was preceded by comparable concerns over the rising of the level of Lake Manapouri during the 1960s and has been followed by the debate over the “think big” resource development projects during the 1980s. The election of the fourth Labour government in 1983 has heralded a political and economic policy shift in New Zealand towards minimizing the role of public intervention in resource allocation and major structural reforms in the relative roles of central and regional government in resource management. The significance of these changes pose important implications for the future management of the Clutha.

  8. Recovery of diverse microbes in high turbidity surface water samples using dead-end ultrafiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mull, Bonnie; Hill, Vincent R

    2012-12-01

    Dead-end ultrafiltration (DEUF) has been reported to be a simple, field-deployable technique for recovering bacteria, viruses, and parasites from large-volume water samples for water quality testing and waterborne disease investigations. While DEUF has been reported for application to water samples having relatively low turbidity, little information is available regarding recovery efficiencies for this technique when applied to sampling turbid water samples such as those commonly found in lakes and rivers. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a DEUF technique for recovering MS2 bacteriophage, enterococci, Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, and Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in surface water samples having elevated turbidity. Average recovery efficiencies for each study microbe across all turbidity ranges were: MS2 (66%), C. parvum (49%), enterococci (85%), E. coli (81%), and C. perfringens (63%). The recovery efficiencies for MS2 and C. perfringens exhibited an inversely proportional relationship with turbidity, however no significant differences in recovery were observed for C. parvum, enterococci, or E. coli. Although ultrafilter clogging was observed, the DEUF method was able to process 100-L surface water samples at each turbidity level within 60 min. This study supports the use of the DEUF method for recovering a wide array of microbes in large-volume surface water samples having medium to high turbidity. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Pesticide residues analysis in water samples of Nagarpur and Saturia Upazila, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanuzzaman, M.; Rahman, M. A.; Islam, M. S.; Salam, M. A.; Nabi, M. R.

    2018-03-01

    Pesticides used to protect the crops from pest attack in the agricultural fields pose harmful effect to the non-target organisms such as human and many other aquatic and terrestrial organisms either directly or indirectly through food chain. The present study was conducted to monitor a total of seven pesticide residues under organochlorine, organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides in three different sources of pond water, paddy field water and tube-well water from Nagarpur Upazila and paddy field water in the company of Dhaleshwari and Gazikhali river water from Saturia Upazila, Bangladesh. A total of 40 water samples were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with ultraviolet detector. Among the organophosphorus pesticides, diazinon was detected in eight water samples at a concentration ranging from 4.11 to 257.91 μg/l whereas, malathion was detected only in one water sample at a concentration of 84.64 μg/l and chlorpyrifos pesticide was also detected only in one water sample and the concentration was 37.3 μg/l. Trace amount of carbaryl was identified but it was below the detection limit. None of the tested water samples was found to be contaminated with DDT or its metabolites (DDE and DDD). The water samples contaminated with the suspected pesticides were above the acceptable limit except for the fish pond samples of Sahabatpur and Dubaria union. To control the misuse of pesticides and to reduce the possible health risk, appropriate control systems of pests such as integrated pest management system should be implemented immediately by the authorities of the country.

  10. First Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence round-robin test of water samples: Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borgese, Laura; Bilo, Fabjola [Chemistry for Technologies Laboratory, University of Brescia, Brescia (Italy); Tsuji, Kouichi [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka City University, Osaka (Japan); Fernández-Ruiz, Ramón [Servicio Interdepartamental de Investigación (SIdI), Laboratorio de TXRF, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Margui, Eva [Department of Chemistry, University of Girona, Girona (Spain); Streli, Christina [TU Wien, Atominstitut,Radiation Physics, Vienna (Austria); Pepponi, Giancarlo [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Povo, Trento (Italy); Stosnach, Hagen [Bruker Nano GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Yamada, Takashi [Rigaku Corporation, Takatsuki, Osaka (Japan); Vandenabeele, Peter [Department of Archaeology, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Maina, David M.; Gatari, Michael [Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Nairobi, Nairobi (Kenya); Shepherd, Keith D.; Towett, Erick K. [World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), Nairobi (Kenya); Bennun, Leonardo [Laboratorio de Física Aplicada, Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción (Chile); Custo, Graciela; Vasquez, Cristina [Gerencia Química, Laboratorio B025, Centro Atómico Constituyentes, San Martín (Argentina); Depero, Laura E., E-mail: laura.depero@unibs.it [Chemistry for Technologies Laboratory, University of Brescia, Brescia (Italy)

    2014-11-01

    Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) is a mature technique to evaluate quantitatively the elemental composition of liquid samples deposited on clean and well polished reflectors. In this paper the results of the first worldwide TXRF round-robin test of water samples, involving 18 laboratories in 10 countries are presented and discussed. The test was performed within the framework of the VAMAS project, interlaboratory comparison of TXRF spectroscopy for environmental analysis, whose aim is to develop guidelines and a standard methodology for biological and environmental analysis by means of the TXRF analytical technique. - Highlights: • The discussion of the first worldwide TXRF round-robin test of water samples (18 laboratories of 10 countries) is reported. • Drinking, waste, and desalinated water samples were tested. • Data dispersion sources were identified: sample concentration, preparation, fitting procedure, and quantification. • The protocol for TXRF analysis of drinking water is proposed.

  11. Presence of pesticide residues in water, sediment and biological samples taken from aquatic environments in Honduras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, D.E.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to detect the presence of persistent pesticides in water, sediment and biological samples taken from aquatic environments in Honduras during the period 1995-98. Additionally, the LC 50 for 2 fungicides and 2 insecticides on post-larval Penaeus vannamei was determined in static water bioassays. A total of 80 water samples, 16 sediment samples and 7 biological samples (fish muscle tissue) were analyzed for detection of organochlorine and organophosphate pesticide residues. The results of sample analyses indicate a widespread contamination of Honduran continental and coastal waters with organochlorine pesticides. Most detections were of low ( 50 values and were therefore found to be much more toxic to the post-larval shrimp than the fungicides tridemorph and propiconazole. (author)

  12. A QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION OF THE WATER DISTRIBUTION IN A SOIL SAMPLE USING NEUTRON IMAGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Šácha

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical method by Kang et al. recently proposed for correcting two-dimensional neutron radiography for water quantification in soil. The method was tested on data from neutron imaging of the water infiltration in a soil sample. The raw data were affected by neutron scattering and by beam hardening artefacts. Two strategies for identifying the correction parameters are proposed in this paper. The method has been further developed for the case of three-dimensional neutron tomography. In a related experiment, neutron imaging is used to record ponded-infiltration experiments in two artificial soil samples. Radiograms, i.e., two-dimensional projections of the sample, were acquired during infiltration. A calculation was made of the amount of water and its distribution within the radiograms, in the form of two-dimensional water thickness maps. Tomograms were reconstructed from the corrected and uncorrected water thickness maps to obtain the 3D spatial distribution of the water content within the sample. Without the correction, the beam hardening and the scattering effects overestimated the water content values close to the perimeter of the sample, and at the same time underestimated the values close to the centre of the sample. The total water content of the entire sample was the same in both cases. The empirical correction method presented in this study is a relatively accurate, rapid and simple way to obtain the quantitatively determined water content from two-dimensional and three-dimensional neutron images. However, an independent method for measuring the total water volume in the sample is needed in order to identify the correction parameters.

  13. Utility of Respondent Driven Sampling to Reach Disadvantaged Emerging Adults for Assessment of Substance Use, Weight, and Sexual Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Jalie A; Simpson, Cathy A; Chandler, Susan D; Borch, Casey A; Davies, Susan L; Kerbawy, Shatomi J; Lewis, Terri H; Crawford, M Scott; Cheong, JeeWon; Michael, Max

    2016-01-01

    Emerging adulthood often entails heightened risk-taking with potential life-long consequences, and research on risk behaviors is needed to guide prevention programming, particularly in under-served and difficult to reach populations. This study evaluated the utility of Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS), a peer-driven methodology that corrects limitations of snowball sampling, to reach at-risk African American emerging adults from disadvantaged urban communities. Initial "seed" participants from the target group recruited peers, who then recruited their peers in an iterative process (110 males, 234 females; M age = 18.86 years). Structured field interviews assessed common health risk factors, including substance use, overweight/obesity, and sexual behaviors. Established gender-and age-related associations with risk factors were replicated, and sample risk profiles and prevalence estimates compared favorably with matched samples from representative U.S. national surveys. Findings supported the use of RDS as a sampling method and grassroots platform for research and prevention with community-dwelling risk groups.

  14. Sampling designs and methods for estimating fish-impingement losses at cooling-water intakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murarka, I.P.; Bodeau, D.J.

    1977-01-01

    Several systems for estimating fish impingement at power plant cooling-water intakes are compared to determine the most statistically efficient sampling designs and methods. Compared to a simple random sampling scheme the stratified systematic random sampling scheme, the systematic random sampling scheme, and the stratified random sampling scheme yield higher efficiencies and better estimators for the parameters in two models of fish impingement as a time-series process. Mathematical results and illustrative examples of the applications of the sampling schemes to simulated and real data are given. Some sampling designs applicable to fish-impingement studies are presented in appendixes

  15. Seasonal rationalization of river water quality sampling locations: a comparative study of the modified Sanders and multivariate statistical approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varekar, Vikas; Karmakar, Subhankar; Jha, Ramakar

    2016-02-01

    The design of surface water quality sampling location is a crucial decision-making process for rationalization of monitoring network. The quantity, quality, and types of available dataset (watershed characteristics and water quality data) may affect the selection of appropriate design methodology. The modified Sanders approach and multivariate statistical techniques [particularly factor analysis (FA)/principal component analysis (PCA)] are well-accepted and widely used techniques for design of sampling locations. However, their performance may vary significantly with quantity, quality, and types of available dataset. In this paper, an attempt has been made to evaluate performance of these techniques by accounting the effect of seasonal variation, under a situation of limited water quality data but extensive watershed characteristics information, as continuous and consistent river water quality data is usually difficult to obtain, whereas watershed information may be made available through application of geospatial techniques. A case study of Kali River, Western Uttar Pradesh, India, is selected for the analysis. The monitoring was carried out at 16 sampling locations. The discrete and diffuse pollution loads at different sampling sites were estimated and accounted using modified Sanders approach, whereas the monitored physical and chemical water quality parameters were utilized as inputs for FA/PCA. The designed optimum number of sampling locations for monsoon and non-monsoon seasons by modified Sanders approach are eight and seven while that for FA/PCA are eleven and nine, respectively. Less variation in the number and locations of designed sampling sites were obtained by both techniques, which shows stability of results. A geospatial analysis has also been carried out to check the significance of designed sampling location with respect to river basin characteristics and land use of the study area. Both methods are equally efficient; however, modified Sanders

  16. Estimation of uranium in drinking water samples collected from different locations across Tarapur, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusane, C.B.; Maity, Sukanta; Sahu, S.K.; Pandit, G.G.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, drinking water samples were collected from different locations across Tarapur, India for screening uranium contents. Uranium concentrations were determined by differential pulse adsorptive stripping voltammetry (DPASV). Uranium concentration in water samples varied in a wide range from 0.6-7.9 μg L -1 . Results were compared with the international water quality guidelines World Health Organization (WHO, 2011) and were found within the permissible limit. Results were also compared with the safe limit values for drinking water recommended by national organization like Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB). (author)

  17. Evaluation of the Purge Water Management System (PWMS) monitor well sampling technology at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiergesell, R.A.; Cardoso-Neto, J.E.; Williams, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    Due to the complex issues surrounding Investigation Derived Waste (IDW) at SRS, the Environmental Restoration Division has been exploring new technologies to deal with the purge water generated during monitoring well sampling. Standard procedures for sampling generates copious amounts of purge water that must be managed as hazardous waste, when containing hazardous and/or radiological contaminants exceeding certain threshold levels. SRS has obtained Regulator approval to field test an innovative surface release prevention mechanism to manage purge water. This mechanism is referred to as the Purge Water Management System (PWMS) and consists of a collapsible bladder situated within a rigid metal tank

  18. Uranium and thorium determination in water samples taken along River Kura

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadov, M.M.; Ibadov, N.A.; Safarova, K.S.; Humbatov, F.Y.; Suleymanov, B.A.

    2014-01-01

    Full text : In the present investigation, uranium and thorium concentration in rivers water of Azerbaijan has been measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The Agilent 7700x series ICP-MS applied for analysis of water samples. This method is based on direct introduction of samples, without any chemical pre-treatment, into an inductively coupled plasma plasma mass spectrometer. Uranium and thorium was determined at the mass mass numbers of 238 and 232 respectively using Bi-209 as internal standard. The main purpose of the study is to measure the level of uranium and thorium in water samples taken along river Kura

  19. Estimating an appropriate sampling frequency for monitoring ground water well contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuckfield, R.C.

    1994-01-01

    Nearly 1,500 ground water wells at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are sampled quarterly to monitor contamination by radionuclides and other hazardous constituents from nearby waste sites. Some 10,000 water samples were collected in 1993 at a laboratory analysis cost of $10,000,000. No widely accepted statistical method has been developed, to date, for estimating a technically defensible ground water sampling frequency consistent and compliant with federal regulations. Such a method is presented here based on the concept of statistical independence among successively measured contaminant concentrations in time

  20. The Nuclear option for U.S. electrical generating capacity additions utilizing boiling water reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrity, T.F.; Wilkins, D.R.

    1993-01-01

    The technology status of the Advanced Boiling Water (ABWR) and Simplified Boiling Water (SBWR) reactors are presented along with an analysis of the economic potential of advanced nuclear power generation systems based on BWR technology to meet the projected domestic electrical generating capacity need through 2005. The forecasted capacity needs are determined for each domestic North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) region. Extensive data sets detailing each NERC region's specific generation and load characteristics, and capital and fuel cost parameters are utilized in the economic analysis of the optimal generation additions to meet this need by use of an expansion planning model. In addition to a reference case, several sensitivity cases are performed with regard to capital costs and fuel price escalation

  1. Quantification of chlorine in zirconium oxide and biological samples by instrumental NAA utilizing PCF of Dhruva reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinde, Amol D.; Reddy, A.V.R.; Acharya, R.; Balaji Rao, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Recently studies on chlorine contents in various samples are being pursued due to its corrosive nature. Chlorine present at trace level in various finished products as well as powder is used as a raw material for production of different types of zircaloys used as structural materials in nuclear technology. As a part of quality assurance program, it is necessary to quantify chlorine accurately with suitable and simple technique. In the present work we have applied instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) utilizing its short-lived activation product ( 38 Cl, 37 min, 1642 and 2168 keV) for its estimation. Pneumatic Carrier Facility (PCF) of Dhruva reactor, BARC was used sample irradiation of zirconium oxide dry powder, synthetic wax and IAEA RMs 1515 (Apple leaves) and Lichen 336. (author)

  2. Investigation of contaminated soil and water samples and their affirmativeness. Untersuchungen kontaminierter Boden- und Wasserproben und deren Aussagekraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauch, H J; Eisenmann, R [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany, F.R.). DVGW-Forschungsstelle am Engler-Bunte-Institut

    1989-09-01

    Contaminations in gas utility premises are a potential pollution hazard; hence, ground water, soil air and soil need to be tested. The authors describe major requirements for such analyses. Soil samples are a specific problem due to the heterogeneity of the material which can be solved only by performing a very great number of individual measurements. This is demonstrated by examples from practice. The existing limits are not suitable for a hazard assessment of gasworks-typical contaminations. Schematic application of standard value recommendations like the 'Dutch List' and their abuse as a compilation of limits should be rejected. (orig.).

  3. Monitoring the aftermath of Flint drinking water contamination crisis: Another case of sampling bias?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goovaerts, Pierre

    2017-07-15

    The delay in reporting high levels of lead in Flint drinking water, following the city's switch to the Flint River as its water supply, was partially caused by the biased selection of sampling sites away from the lead pipe network. Since Flint returned to its pre-crisis source of drinking water, the State has been monitoring water lead levels (WLL) at selected "sentinel" sites. In a first phase that lasted two months, 739 residences were sampled, most of them bi-weekly, to determine the general health of the distribution system and to track temporal changes in lead levels. During the same period, water samples were also collected through a voluntary program whereby concerned citizens received free testing kits and conducted sampling on their own. State officials relied on the former data to demonstrate the steady improvement in water quality. A recent analysis of data collected by voluntary sampling revealed, however, an opposite trend with lead levels increasing over time. This paper looks at potential sampling bias to explain such differences. Although houses with higher WLL were more likely to be sampled repeatedly, voluntary sampling turned out to reproduce fairly well the main characteristics (i.e. presence of lead service lines (LSL), construction year) of Flint housing stock. State-controlled sampling was less representative; e.g., sentinel sites with LSL were mostly built between 1935 and 1950 in lower poverty areas, which might hamper our ability to disentangle the effects of LSL and premise plumbing (lead fixtures and pipes present within old houses) on WLL. Also, there was no sentinel site with LSL in two of the most impoverished wards, including where the percentage of children with elevated blood lead levels tripled following the switch in water supply. Correcting for sampling bias narrowed the gap between sampling programs, yet overall temporal trends are still opposite. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Understanding the origin and evolution of water in the Moon through lunar sample studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Mahesh; Tartèse, Romain; Barnes, Jessica J

    2014-09-13

    A paradigm shift has recently occurred in our knowledge and understanding of water in the lunar interior. This has transpired principally through continued analysis of returned lunar samples using modern analytical instrumentation. While these recent studies have undoubtedly measured indigenous water in lunar samples they have also highlighted our current limitations and some future challenges that need to be overcome in order to fully understand the origin, distribution and evolution of water in the lunar interior. Another exciting recent development in the field of lunar science has been the unambiguous detection of water or water ice on the surface of the Moon through instruments flown on a number of orbiting spacecraft missions. Considered together, sample-based studies and those from orbit strongly suggest that the Moon is not an anhydrous planetary body, as previously believed. New observations and measurements support the possibility of a wet lunar interior and the presence of distinct reservoirs of water on the lunar surface. Furthermore, an approach combining measurements of water abundance in lunar samples and its hydrogen isotopic composition has proved to be of vital importance to fingerprint and elucidate processes and source(s) involved in giving rise to the lunar water inventory. A number of sources are likely to have contributed to the water inventory of the Moon ranging from primordial water to meteorite-derived water ice through to the water formed during the reaction of solar wind hydrogen with the lunar soil. Perhaps two of the most striking findings from these recent studies are the revelation that at least some portions of the lunar interior are as water-rich as some Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalt source regions on Earth and that the water in the Earth and the Moon probably share a common origin. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Study benefit value of utilization water resources for energy and sustainable environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juniah, Restu; Sastradinata, Marwan

    2017-11-01

    Referring to the concept of sustainable development, the environment is said to be sustainable if the fulfillment of three pillars of development that is economic, social and ecological or the environment itself. The environment can sustained in the principle of ecology or basic principles of environmental science, when the three environmental components, namely the natural environment, the artificial environment (the built environment) and the social environment can be aligned for sustainability. The natural environment in this study is the water resources, the artificial environment is micro hydroelectric power generation (MHPG), and the social environment is the community living around the MHPG. The existence of MHPG is intended for the sustainability of special electrical energy for areas not yet reached by electricity derived from the state electricity company (SEC). The utilization of MHPG Singalaga in South Ogan Komering Ulu (OKUS) district is not only intended for economic, ecological, and social sustainability in Southern OKU district especially those who live in Singalaga Village, Kisam Tinggi District. This paper discusses the economic, ecological and social benefits of water resources utilization in Southern OKU District for MHPG Singalaga. The direct economic benefits that arise for people living around MHPG Singalaga is the cost incurred by the community for the use of electricity is less than if the community uses electricity coming from outside the MHPG. The cost to society in the form of dues amounting to IDR 15,000 a month / household. Social benefits with the absorption of manpower to manage the MHPG is chairman, secretary and 3 members, while the ecological benefits of water resources and sustainable energy as well as the community while maintaining the natural vegetation that is located around the MHPG for the continuity of water resources.

  6. Design, analysis, and interpretation of field quality-control data for water-sampling projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, David K.; Schertz, Terry L.; Martin, Jeffrey D.; Sandstrom, Mark W.

    2015-01-01

    The process of obtaining and analyzing water samples from the environment includes a number of steps that can affect the reported result. The equipment used to collect and filter samples, the bottles used for specific subsamples, any added preservatives, sample storage in the field, and shipment to the laboratory have the potential to affect how accurately samples represent the environment from which they were collected. During the early 1990s, the U.S. Geological Survey implemented policies to include the routine collection of quality-control samples in order to evaluate these effects and to ensure that water-quality data were adequately representing environmental conditions. Since that time, the U.S. Geological Survey Office of Water Quality has provided training in how to design effective field quality-control sampling programs and how to evaluate the resultant quality-control data. This report documents that training material and provides a reference for methods used to analyze quality-control data.

  7. Ionizing radiation as optimization method for aluminum detection from drinking water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazante-Yamguish, Renata; Geraldo, Aurea Beatriz C.; Moura, Eduardo; Manzoli, Jose Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    The presence of organic compounds in water samples is often responsible for metal complexation; depending on the analytic method, the organic fraction may dissemble the evaluation of the real values of metal concentration. Pre-treatment of the samples is advised when organic compounds are interfering agents, and thus sample mineralization may be accomplished by several chemical and/or physical methods. Here, the ionizing radiation was used as an advanced oxidation process (AOP), for sample pre-treatment before the analytic determination of total and dissolved aluminum by ICP-OES in drinking water samples from wells and spring source located at Billings dam region. Before irradiation, the spring source and wells' samples showed aluminum levels of 0.020 mg/l and 0.2 mg/l respectively; after irradiation, both samples showed a 8-fold increase of aluminum concentration. These results are discussed considering other physical and chemical parameters and peculiarities of sample sources. (author)

  8. Analytical study on the determination of boron in environmental water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, F.J.; Gimenez, E.; Hernandez, F.

    1993-01-01

    An analytical study on the determination of boron in environmental water samples was carried out. The curcumin and carmine standard methods were compared with the most recent Azomethine-H method in order to evaluate their analytical characteristics and feasibility for the analysis of boron in water samples. Analyses of synthetic water, ground water, sea water and waste water samples were carried out and a statistical evaluation of the results was made. The Azomethine-H method was found to be the most sensitive (detection limit 0.02 mg l -1 ) and selective (no interference of commonly occurring ions in water was observed), showing also the best precision (relative standard deviation lower than 4%). Moreover, it gave good results for all types of samples analyzed. The accuracy of this method was tested by the addition of known amounts of standard solutions to different types of water samples. The slopes of standard additions and direct calibration graphs were similar and recoveries of added boron ranged from 99 to 107%. (orig.)

  9. Estimation of uranium in different types of water and sand samples by adsorptive stripping voltammetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhalke, Sunil; Raghunath, Radha; Mishra, Suchismita; Suseela, B.; Tripathi, R.M.; Pandit, G.G.; Shukla, V.K.; Puranik, V.D.

    2005-01-01

    A method is standardized for the estimation of uranium by adsorptive stripping voltammetry using chloranilic acid (CAA) as complexing agent. The optimum parameters to get best sensitivity and good reproducibility for uranium were 60s adsorption time, pH 1.8, chloranilic acid (2x10 -4 M) and 0.002M EDTA. The peak potential under this condition was found to be -0.03 V. With these optimum parameters a sensitivity of 1.19 nA/nM uranium was observed. Detection limit for this optimum parameter was found to be 0.55 nM. This can be further improved by increasing adsorption time. Using this method, uranium was estimated in different type of water samples such as seawater, synthetic seawater, stream water, tap water, well water, bore well water and process water. This method has also been used for estimation of uranium in sand, organic solvent used for extraction of uranium from phosphoric acid and its raffinate. Sample digestion procedures used for estimation of uranium in various matrices are discussed. It has been observed from the analysis that the uranium peak potentials changes with matrix of the sample, hence, standard addition method is the best method to get reliable and accurate results. Quality assurance of the standardized method is verified by analyzing certified reference water sample from USDOE, participating intercomparison exercises and also by estimating uranium content in water samples both by differential pulse adsorptive stripping voltammetric and laser fluorimetric techniques. (author)

  10. Identification and quantification of pesticide residues in water samples of Dhamrai Upazila, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanuzzaman, M.; Rahman, M. A.; Salam, M. A.

    2017-10-01

    Being agricultural country, different types of pesticides are widely used in Bangladesh to prevent the crop losses due to pest attack which are ultimately drain to the water bodies. The present study was conducted to identify and quantify the organochlorine (DDT, DDE and DDD), organophosphorus (malathion, diazinon and chloropyrifos) and carbamate (carbaryl) residues in water samples of different sources from Dhamrai upazila of Bangladesh using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with ultra violate (UV) detector. Thirty water samples from fish pond, cultivated land and tube-well were collected in winter season to analyze the pesticide residues. Among the organophosphorus pesticides, malathion was present in seven water samples ranging from 42.58 to 922.8 μg/L, whereas diazinon was detected in water sample-8 (WS-8) and the concentration was 31.5 μg/L. None of the tested water samples was found to be contaminated with chlorpyrifos, carbaryl or DDT and its metabolites (DDE and DDD). Except for a tube-well water sample, concentrations of the detected residues are above the acceptable limit for human body as assigned by different organizations. To avoid the possible health hazards, the indiscriminate application of pesticides should be restricted and various substitute products like bio-pesticide should be introduced in a broad scale as soon as possible.

  11. Modeling Water Utility Investments and Improving Regulatory Policies using Economic Optimisation in England and Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, S.; Harou, J. J.

    2012-12-01

    Water utilities in England and Wales are regulated natural monopolies called 'water companies'. Water companies must obtain periodic regulatory approval for all investments (new supply infrastructure or demand management measures). Both water companies and their regulators use results from least economic cost capacity expansion optimisation models to develop or assess water supply investment plans. This presentation first describes the formulation of a flexible supply-demand planning capacity expansion model for water system planning. The model uses a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) formulation to choose the least-cost schedule of future supply schemes (reservoirs, desalination plants, etc.) and demand management (DM) measures (leakage reduction, water efficiency and metering options) and bulk transfers. Decisions include what schemes to implement, when to do so, how to size schemes and how much to use each scheme during each year of an n-year long planning horizon (typically 30 years). In addition to capital and operating (fixed and variable) costs, the estimated social and environmental costs of schemes are considered. Each proposed scheme is costed discretely at one or more capacities following regulatory guidelines. The model uses a node-link network structure: water demand nodes are connected to supply and demand management (DM) options (represented as nodes) or to other demand nodes (transfers). Yields from existing and proposed are estimated separately using detailed water resource system simulation models evaluated over the historical period. The model simultaneously considers multiple demand scenarios to ensure demands are met at required reliability levels; use levels of each scheme are evaluated for each demand scenario and weighted by scenario likelihood so that operating costs are accurately evaluated. Multiple interdependency relationships between schemes (pre-requisites, mutual exclusivity, start dates, etc.) can be accounted for by

  12. Utilization of air conditioner condenser as water heater in an effort to energy conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonawan, Hery; Saputro, Panji; Kurniawan, Iden Muhtar

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of utilization of air conditioner condenser as water heater. Modification of existing air conditioner system is an effort to harvest waste heat energy from condenser. Modification is conducted in order to test the system into two mode tests, first mode with one condenser and second mode with two condensers. Harvesting the waste heat from condenser needs a theoretical and practice study to see how much the AC performance changes if modifications are made. It should also be considered how the technique of harvesting waste heat for water heating purposes. From the problem, this paper presents a comparison between AC performance before and after modification. From the experiment, an increase in compressor power consumption is 4.3% after adding a new condenser. The hot water temperature is attained to 69 °C and ready for warm bath. The increase in power consumption is not too significant compared to the attainable hot water temperature. Also seen that the value of condenser Performance Factor increase from 5.8 to 6.25 or by 7.8%.

  13. Surf Zone Hydrodynamics and its Utilization in Biotechnical Stabilization of Water Reservoir Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Pelikán

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The water reservoir banks are eroded mainly by two factors. The first one is wave action (i.e. wave abrasion affecting the bank in direction from the reservoir. The second one is the influence of water flowing downward over the bank surface in direction from land into the reservoir (e.g. rainfall. The determination of regular altitudinal emplacement of proper designed particular biotechnical stabilization elements is the most important factor on which the right functionality of whole construction depends. Surf zone hydrodynamics solves the wave and water level changes inside the region extending from the wave breaking point to the limit of wave up-rush. The paper is focused on the utilization of piece of knowledge from a part of sea coast hydrodynamics and new approach in its application in the conditions of inland water bodies when designing the biotechnical stabilization elements along the shorelines. The “reinforced grass carpets” as a type of biotechnical method of bank stabilization are presented in the paper; whether the growth of grass root system is dependent on presence or absence of geomats in the soil structure and proceeding of their establishment on the shorelines.

  14. Methods for collecting algal samples as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Stephen D.; Cuffney, Thomas F.; Gurtz, Martin E.; Meador, Michael R.

    1993-01-01

    Benthic algae (periphyton) and phytoplankton communities are characterized in the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program as part of an integrated physical, chemical, and biological assessment of the Nation's water quality. This multidisciplinary approach provides multiple lines of evidence for evaluating water-quality status and trends, and for refining an understanding of the factors that affect water-quality conditions locally, regionally, and nationally. Water quality can be characterized by evaluating the results of qualitative and quantitative measurements of the algal community. Qualitative periphyton samples are collected to develop of list of taxa present in the sampling reach. Quantitative periphyton samples are collected to measure algal community structure within selected habitats. These samples of benthic algal communities are collected from natural substrates, using the sampling methods that are most appropriate for the habitat conditions. Phytoplankton samples may be collected in large nonwadeable streams and rivers to meet specific program objectives. Estimates of algal biomass (chlorophyll content and ash-free dry mass) also are optional measures that may be useful for interpreting water-quality conditions. A nationally consistent approach provides guidance on site, reach, and habitat selection, as well as information on methods and equipment for qualitative and quantitative sampling. Appropriate quality-assurance and quality-control guidelines are used to maximize the ability to analyze data locally, regionally, and nationally.

  15. Abstracts of the Seminar on Modern State of Water Resources of Tajikistan - Problems and Perspectives of Rational Utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This publication contains the abstracts of papers presented at the Seminar on Modern State of Water Resources of Tajikistan - Problems and Perspectives of Rational Utilization, held in Dushanbe in 2003

  16. Risk management for drinking water safety in low and middle income countries - cultural influences on water safety plan (WSP) implementation in urban water utilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Yahya Y; Parker, Alison; Smith, Jennifer A; Pollard, Simon J T

    2017-01-15

    We investigated cultural influences on the implementation of water safety plans (WSPs) using case studies from WSP pilots in India, Uganda and Jamaica. A comprehensive thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews (n=150 utility customers, n=32 WSP 'implementers' and n=9 WSP 'promoters'), field observations and related documents revealed 12 cultural themes, offered as 'enabling', 'limiting', or 'neutral', that influence WSP implementation in urban water utilities to varying extents. Aspects such as a 'deliver first, safety later' mind set; supply system knowledge management and storage practices; and non-compliance are deemed influential. Emergent themes of cultural influence (ET1 to ET12) are discussed by reference to the risk management, development studies and institutional culture literatures; by reference to their positive, negative or neutral influence on WSP implementation. The results have implications for the utility endorsement of WSPs, for the impact of organisational cultures on WSP implementation; for the scale-up of pilot studies; and they support repeated calls from practitioner communities for cultural attentiveness during WSP design. Findings on organisational cultures mirror those from utilities in higher income nations implementing WSPs - leadership, advocacy among promoters and customers (not just implementers) and purposeful knowledge management are critical to WSP success. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Experimental investigation of ice and snow melting process on pavement utilizing geothermal tail water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Huajun; Zhao Jun; Chen Zhihao

    2008-01-01

    Road ice and snow melting based on low temperature geothermal tail water is of significance to realize energy cascading utilization. A small scale ice and snow melting system is built in this work. Experiments of dynamic melting processes of crushed ice, solid ice, artificial snow and natural snow are conducted on concrete pavement. The results show that the melting process of ice and snow includes three phases: a starting period, a linear period and an accelerated period. The critical value of the snow free area ratio between the linear period and the accelerated period is about 0.6. The physical properties of ice and snow, linked with ambient conditions, have an obvious effect on the melting process. The difference of melting velocity and melting time between ice and snow is compared. To reduce energy consumption, the formation of ice on roads should be avoided if possible. The idling process is an effective pathway to improve the performance of melting systems. It is feasible to utilize geothermal tail water of about 40 deg. C for melting ice and snow on winter roads, and it is unnecessary to keep too high fluid temperatures during the practical design and applications. Besides, with the exception of solid ice, the density and porosity of snow and ice tend to be decreasing and increasing, respectively, as the ambient temperature decreases

  18. Utilization of low temperature geothermal water in traditional and advanced agricultural applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, L.; Pacciaroni, F.

    1992-01-01

    The locations of large amounts of low temperature geothermal sources (30 to 80 degrees C) have been identified in Italy and in many European countries; one of the most interesting utilization of these sources is greenhouse heating. Surplus investment in comparison with conventional heating systems is justified only by the application of low cost technologies for well completion, heating distribution and waste heat treatment. In the last few years, many efforts have been made in the development of these technologies and selection of more profitable crops. Since 1984, ENEA (Italian Agency for Energy, New Technologies and the Environment) has carried out experimental work in two geothermal stations located in Canino (VT) and in Gorgo di Latisana (UD). In these plants, a number of greenhouses enveloped with plastic film are provided with different heating systems; the combination of soil and forced air heating is preferred. Plastic pipes, buried in the soil, are used as soil heating for horticulture and fruit production. For plot plant cultivation, soil heating is obtained by plastic pipes half-buried in a concrete floor. Asparagus cultivation is carried out with buried pipes. No additional heating with conventional fuel is provided in any greenhouse. During these years, ENEA has developed heating and water distribution technologies: current industrial components are generally utilized. Moreover, ENEA has recently completed an advanced automatic control system able to control geothermal greenhouses, manage water distribution, save energy and optimize environmental conditions

  19. Utilization of low temperature geothermal water in traditional and advanced agricultural applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, L.; Pacciaroni, F.

    1992-12-31

    The locations of large amounts of low temperature geothermal sources (30 to 80 degrees C) have been identified in Italy and in many European countries; one of the most interesting utilization of these sources is greenhouse heating. Surplus investment in comparison with conventional heating systems is justified only by the application of low cost technologies for well completion, heating distribution and waste heat treatment. In the last few years, many efforts have been made in the development of these technologies and selection of more profitable crops. Since 1984, ENEA (Italian Agency for Energy, New Technologies and the Environment) has carried out experimental work in two geothermal stations located in Canino (VT) and in Gorgo di Latisana (UD). In these plants, a number of greenhouses enveloped with plastic film are provided with different heating systems; the combination of soil and forced air heating is preferred. Plastic pipes, buried in the soil, are used as soil heating for horticulture and fruit production. For plot plant cultivation, soil heating is obtained by plastic pipes half-buried in a concrete floor. Asparagus cultivation is carried out with buried pipes. No additional heating with conventional fuel is provided in any greenhouse. During these years, ENEA has developed heating and water distribution technologies: current industrial components are generally utilized. Moreover, ENEA has recently completed an advanced automatic control system able to control geothermal greenhouses, manage water distribution, save energy and optimize environmental conditions.

  20. Use of an Electronic Tongue System and Fuzzy Logic to Analyze Water Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Guilherme S.; Paterno, Leonardo G.; Fonseca, Fernando J.

    2009-05-01

    An electronic tongue (ET) system incorporating 8 chemical sensors was used in combination with two pattern recognition tools, namely principal component analysis (PCA) and Fuzzy logic for discriminating/classification of water samples from different sources (tap, distilled and three brands of mineral water). The Fuzzy program exhibited a higher accuracy than the PCA and allowed the ET to classify correctly 4 in 5 types of water. Exception was made for one brand of mineral water which was sometimes misclassified as tap water. On the other hand, the PCA grouped water samples in three clusters, one with the distilled water; a second with tap water and one brand of mineral water, and the third with the other two other brands of mineral water. Samples in the second and third clusters could not be distinguished. Nevertheless, close grouping between repeated tests indicated that the ET system response is reproducible. The potential use of the Fuzzy logic as the data processing tool in combination with an electronic tongue system is discussed.

  1. Genotoxicity assessment of water sampled from R-11 reservoir by means of allium test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bukatich, E.; Pryakhin, E. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine (Russian Federation); Geraskin, S. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    The Mayak PA was the first enterprise for the production of weapon-grade plutonium in Russia and it incorporates uranium-graphite reactors for plutonium production and radiochemical facilities for its separation. Radiochemical processing resulted in huge volumes of liquid radioactive wastes of different specific activities. To reduce the radionuclides release into the environment, a system of bypasses and ponds (the Techa Cascade Reservoirs system) to store low-activity liquid wastes has been constructed in the upper reaches of the Techa River. Currently, industrial reservoirs of Mayak PA contain over 350 million m{sup 3} of low-level radioactive liquid wastes with total activity over 7.4 x 10{sup 15} Bq. Reservoir R-11 is the final reservoir in the Techa Cascade Reservoirs system. The average specific activity of main radionuclides in the water of R-11 are: {sup 90}Sr - 1.4x10{sup 3} Bq/l; {sup 137}Cs - 3 Bq/l; {sup 3}H - 7x10{sup 2} Bq/l; α-emitting radionuclides - 2.6 x 10{sup -1} Bq/l. In our study the Allium-test was employed to estimate reservoir R-11 water genotoxic effects. In 2012, 3 water samples were collected in different parts of reservoir R-11. Water samples from the Shershnevskoye reservoir (artificial reservoir on the Miass River designed for Chelyabinsk city water supply) were used as natural control. Samples of distilled and bottled water were used as an additional laboratory control. The common onion, Allium cepa L. (Stuttgarter Riesen) was used. Healthy equal-sized bulbs were soaked for 24 hours at +4±2 deg. C to synchronize cell division. The bulbs were maintained in distilled water at +23 deg. C until roots have grown up to 2±1 mm length and then plunged into water samples. Control samples remained in distilled and bottled water as well as in water samples from the Shershnevskoye reservoir (natural control). Roots of the 18±3 mm length were randomly sampled and fixed in an alcohol/acetic acid mixture. For microscopic analysis, squashed

  2. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia lamblia in Water Samples from Jeddah and Makkah Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haytham Ahmed Zakai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Water contamination by Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium is one of the causes of diarrhoea throughout the world.  A total of 161 and 84 samples were collected from Jeddah and Makkah cities, respectively.  Each sample was concentrated by double centrifugation and the sediment was examined as a wet smear and after staining with Trichrome and Kinyoun stains.  The results showed that 56 (35% and 1 (0.62 % samples of Jeddah were positive for the oocyst of Cryptosporidium and cyst of Giardia, whereas only 21 (25% and 2 (2.4 % samples of Makkah showed positivity for oocysts and cyst of these parasites. Overall Cryptosporidium contamination in bottled water and water from filling stations was 6.8% and 17.4%, respectively. Maximum contamination for Cryptosporidium was recorded in tap water which was 51% and 25% in Jeddah and Makkah, respectively.

  3. Exploring the Legionella pneumophila positivity rate in hotel water samples from Antalya, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepin Özen, Nevgün; Tuğlu Ataman, Şenay; Emek, Mestan

    2017-05-01

    The genus Legionella is a fastidious Gram-negative bacteria widely distributed in natural waters and man made water supply systems. Legionella pneumophila is the aetiological agent of approximately 90% of reported Legionellosis cases, and serogroup 1 is the most frequent cause of infections. Legionnaires' disease is often associated with travel and continues to be a public health concern at present. The correct water management quality practices and rapid methods for analyzing Legionella species in environmental water is a key point for the prevention of Legionnaires' disease outbreaks. This study aimed to evaluate the positivity rates and serotyping of Legionella species from water samples in the region of Antalya, Turkey, which is an important tourism center. During January-December 2010, a total of 1403 samples of water that were collected from various hotels (n = 56) located in Antalya were investigated for Legionella pneumophila. All samples were screened for L. pneumophila by culture method according to "ISO 11731-2" criteria. The culture positive Legionella strains were serologically identified by latex agglutination test. A total of 142 Legionella pneumophila isolates were recovered from 21 (37.5%) of 56 hotels. The total frequency of L. pneumophila isolation from water samples was found as 10.1%. Serological typing of 142 Legionella isolates by latex agglutination test revealed that strains belonging to L. pneumophila serogroups 2-14 predominated in the examined samples (85%), while strains of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 were less numerous (15%). According to our knowledge, our study with the greatest number of water samples from Turkey demonstrates that L. pneumophila serogroups 2-14 is the most common isolate. Rapid isolation of L. pneumophila from environmental water samples is essential for the investigation of travel related outbreaks and the possible resources. Further studies are needed to have epidemiological data and to determine the types of L

  4. Monitoring well utility in a heterogeneous DNAPL source zone area: Insights from proximal multilevel sampler wells and sampling capture-zone modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Lindsay A; Rivett, Michael O; Wealthall, Gary P; Zeeb, Peter; Dumble, Peter

    2018-03-01

    Groundwater-quality assessment at contaminated sites often involves the use of short-screen (1.5 to 3 m) monitoring wells. However, even over these intervals considerable variation may occur in contaminant concentrations in groundwater adjacent to the well screen. This is especially true in heterogeneous dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) source zones, where cm-scale contamination variability may call into question the effectiveness of monitoring wells to deliver representative data. The utility of monitoring wells in such settings is evaluated by reference to high-resolution multilevel sampler (MLS) wells located proximally to short-screen wells, together with sampling capture-zone modelling to explore controls upon well sample provenance and sensitivity to monitoring protocols. Field data are analysed from the highly instrumented SABRE research site that contained an old trichloroethene source zone within a shallow alluvial aquifer at a UK industrial facility. With increased purging, monitoring-well samples tend to a flow-weighted average concentration but may exhibit sensitivity to the implemented protocol and degree of purging. Formation heterogeneity adjacent to the well-screen particularly, alongside pump-intake position and water level, influence this sensitivity. Purging of low volumes is vulnerable to poor reproducibility arising from concentration variability predicted over the initial 1 to 2 screen volumes purged. Marked heterogeneity may also result in limited long-term sample concentration stabilization. Development of bespoke monitoring protocols, that consider screen volumes purged, alongside water-quality indicator parameter stabilization, is recommended to validate and reduce uncertainty when interpreting monitoring-well data within source zone areas. Generalised recommendations on monitoring well based protocols are also developed. A key monitoring well utility is their proportionately greater sample draw from permeable horizons constituting

  5. Monitoring well utility in a heterogeneous DNAPL source zone area: Insights from proximal multilevel sampler wells and sampling capture-zone modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Lindsay A.; Rivett, Michael O.; Wealthall, Gary P.; Zeeb, Peter; Dumble, Peter

    2018-03-01

    Groundwater-quality assessment at contaminated sites often involves the use of short-screen (1.5 to 3 m) monitoring wells. However, even over these intervals considerable variation may occur in contaminant concentrations in groundwater adjacent to the well screen. This is especially true in heterogeneous dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) source zones, where cm-scale contamination variability may call into question the effectiveness of monitoring wells to deliver representative data. The utility of monitoring wells in such settings is evaluated by reference to high-resolution multilevel sampler (MLS) wells located proximally to short-screen wells, together with sampling capture-zone modelling to explore controls upon well sample provenance and sensitivity to monitoring protocols. Field data are analysed from the highly instrumented SABRE research site that contained an old trichloroethene source zone within a shallow alluvial aquifer at a UK industrial facility. With increased purging, monitoring-well samples tend to a flow-weighted average concentration but may exhibit sensitivity to the implemented protocol and degree of purging. Formation heterogeneity adjacent to the well-screen particularly, alongside pump-intake position and water level, influence this sensitivity. Purging of low volumes is vulnerable to poor reproducibility arising from concentration variability predicted over the initial 1 to 2 screen volumes purged. Marked heterogeneity may also result in limited long-term sample concentration stabilization. Development of bespoke monitoring protocols, that consider screen volumes purged, alongside water-quality indicator parameter stabilization, is recommended to validate and reduce uncertainty when interpreting monitoring-well data within source zone areas. Generalised recommendations on monitoring well based protocols are also developed. A key monitoring well utility is their proportionately greater sample draw from permeable horizons constituting a

  6. Middlesex Sampling Plant environmental report for calendar year 1992, 239 Mountain Avenue, Middlesex, New Jersey. Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program at the Middlesex Sampling Plant (MSP) and provides the results for 1992. The site, in the Borough of Middlesex, New Jersey, is a fenced area and includes four buildings and two storage piles that contain 50,800 m{sup 3} of radioactive and mixed hazardous waste. More than 70 percent of the MSP site is paved with asphalt. The MSP facility was established in 1943 by the Manhattan Engineer District (MED) to sample, store, and/or ship uranium, thorium, and beryllium ores. In 1955 the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), successor to MED, terminated the operation and later used the site for storage and limited sampling of thorium residues. In 1967 AEC activities ceased, onsite structures were decontaminated, and the site was certified for unrestricted use under criteria applicable at that time. In 1980 the US Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a multiphase remedial action project to clean up several vicinity properties onto which contamination from the plant had migrated. Material from these properties was consolidated into the storage piles onsite. Environmental surveillance of MSP began in 1980 when Congress added the site to DOE`s Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. The environmental surveillance program at MSP includes sampling networks for radon and thoron in air; external gamma radiation exposure; and radium-226, radium-228, thorium-230, thorium-232, and total uranium in surface water, sediment, and groundwater. Additionally, chemical analyses are performed to detect metals and organic compounds in surface water and groundwater and metals in sediments. This program assists in fulfilling th DOE policy of measuring and monitoring effluents from DOE activities and calculating hypothetical doses.

  7. Distribution and Prevalence of Myxobolus cerebralis in Postfire Areas of Plumas National Forest: Utility of Environmental DNA Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richey, Christine A; Kenelty, Kirsten V; Van Stone Hopkins, Kristina; Stevens, Brittany N; Martínez-López, Beatriz; Barnum, Samantha M; Hallett, Sascha L; Atkinson, Stephen D; Bartholomew, Jerri L; Soto, Esteban

    2018-04-30

    Myxobolus cerebralis is a myxozoan parasite and the etiological agent of whirling disease in salmonids. The parasite's life cycle involves waterborne spores and requires both a salmonid fish and the benthic freshwater oligochaete worm Tubifex tubifex (Oligochaeta: Tubificidae). Wildfires can lead to the erosion of fine sediments into stream channels and have been implicated as promoting environmental conditions that are suitable for the survival and success of T. tubifex, whose presence in turn can affect the prevalence of M. cerebralis. Analysis of environmental DNA (eDNA) has the potential to be a powerful tool for evaluating the presence of microorganisms, for which direct observation is impossible. We investigated the presence of M. cerebraliseDNA in river water and river sediment samples collected from areas affected by recent fire activity in Plumas National Forest, California. We compared eDNA loads in the environment to M. cerebralis infection in T. tubifex and sentinel-exposed Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and the presence of T. tubifex lineages in the same environment. For the latter, we developed a multiplex quantitative PCR assay for detection of T. tubifex lineages I, III, and V. Lineage IIIT. tubifex and M. cerebralis (eDNA as well as DNA extracted from fish and worm tissues) were detected only in samples obtained from areas affected by the Moonlight wildfire. The association between M. cerebralis infection in sentinel-exposed fish and eDNA detection in environmental samples only approached significance at a P-value of 0.056. However, given the difference in relative effort between the two sampling methods (host versus nonhost environment), our data suggest that eDNA sampling of water and substrate is a promising approach for surveillance of myxozoan fish parasites. © 2018 American Fisheries Society.

  8. Improved Drinking Water Disinfection with UVC-LEDs for Escherichia Coli and Bacillus Subtilis Utilizing Quartz Tubes as Light Guide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Gross

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A new approach is investigated utilizing light guidance capabilities of optical pure quartz glass in order to maximize drinking water disinfection efficiency with UVC-light-emitting diodes (LEDs. Two experimental setups consisting of soda-lime AR® glass (VWR, Darmstadt, Germany or HSQ® 100 quartz glass (Heraeus, Wasserburg, Germany reactors were designed to compare disinfection rates with and without total reflection of UVC radiation along the reactor walls. Each reactor was filled with 9 mL bacteria samples containing either E. coli DSM (Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen 498 or B. subtilis DSM 402 strains (concentration 1–3 × 106 colony forming units (CFU/mL with and without additional mixing and irradiation periods of 10, 40, and 90 s. Disinfection rates were increased up to 0.95 log10 (E. coli and 0.75 log10 (B. subtilis by the light guide approach in stagnant samples. The same experiments with mixing of the samples resulted in an increased disinfection efficiency of 3.07 log10 (E. coli and 1.59 log10 (B. subtilis. Optical calculations determine that total reflection is achieved with the applied UVC-LED’s viewing angle of 15°. Furthermore measurements show that HSQ® 100 quartz has a transmittance of 92% at 280 nm UVC irradiation compared to the transmittance of soda-lime glass of 2% (1 mm wall thickness.

  9. Supplement to the UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Slick Rock, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) provides the regulatory and technical basis for ground water and surface water sampling at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Union Carbide (UC) and North Continent (NC) processing sites and the Burro Canyon disposal site near Slick Rock, Colorado. The initial WSAP was finalized in August 1994 and will be completely revised in accordance with the WSAP guidance document (DOE, 1995) in late 1996. This version supplements the initial WSAP, reflects only minor changes in sampling that occurred in 1995, covers sampling scheduled for early 1996, and provides a preliminary projection of the next 5 years of sampling and monitoring activities. Once surface remedial action is completed at the former processing sites, additional and more detailed hydrogeologic characterization may be needed to develop the Ground Water Program conceptual ground water model and proposed compliance strategy. In addition, background ground water quality needs to be clearly defined to ensure that the baseline risk assessment accurately estimated risks from the contaminants of potential concern in contaminated ground water at the UC and NC sites

  10. Microbiology of the surface water samples in the high background radiation areas of Ramsar, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motamedifar, Mohammad; Zamani, Khosrow; Sedigh, Hadi; Mortazavi, Seyed Mohammad Javad; Taeb, Shahram; Haghani, M.; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali Reza; Soofi, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Residents of high background radiation areas of Ramsar have lived in these areas for many generations and received radiation doses much higher than the dose limit recommended by ICRP for radiation workers. The radioactivity of the high background radiation areas of Ramsar is reported to be due to 226 Ra and its decay products, which have been brought to the surface by the waters of hot springs. Over the past years the department has focused on different aspects of the health effects of the elevated levels of natural radiation in Ramsar. This study was aimed to perform a preliminary investigation on the bioeffects of exposure to elevated levels of natural radiation on the microbiology of surface water samples. Water samples were collected from surface water streams in Talesh Mahalleh district, Ramsar as well as a nearby area with normal levels of background radiation. Only two strains of bacteria, that is, Providencia stuartii and Shimwellia blattae, could be isolated from the water samples collected from high background radiation areas, while seven strains (Escherichia coli, Enterobacter asburiae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Shigella dysenteriae, Buttiauxella agerstis, Tatumella punctuata and Raoultella ornithinolytica) were isolated from the water samples collected from normal background radiation areas. All the bacteria isolated from water samples of high and normal background radiation areas were sensitive to ultraviolet radiation, heat, betadine, alcohol, and deconex. Although other investigators have reported that bacteria isolated from hot springs show radioresistance, the results reported here do not reveal any adaptive response. (author)

  11. Review of robust measurement of phosphorus in river water: sampling, storage, fractionation and sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. P. Jarvie

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews current knowledge on sampling, storage and analysis of phosphorus (P in river waters. Potential sensitivity of rivers with different physical, chemical and biological characteristics (trophic status, turbidity, flow regime, matrix chemistry is examined in terms of errors associated with sampling, sample preparation, storage, contamination, interference and analytical errors. Key issues identified include: The need to tailor analytical reagents and concentrations to take into account the characteristics of the sample matrix. The effects of matrix interference on the colorimetric analysis. The influence of variable rates of phospho-molybdenum blue colour formation. The differing responses of river waters to physical and chemical conditions of storage. The higher sensitivities of samples with low P concentrations to storage and analytical errors. Given high variability of river water characteristics in space and time, no single standardised methodology for sampling, storage and analysis of P in rivers can be offered. ‘Good Practice’ guidelines are suggested, which recommend that protocols for sampling, storage and analysis of river water for P is based on thorough site-specific method testing and assessment of P stability on storage. For wider sampling programmes at the regional/national scale where intensive site-specific method and stability testing are not feasible, ‘Precautionary Practice’ guidelines are suggested. The study highlights key areas requiring further investigation for improving methodological rigour. Keywords: phosphorus, orthophosphate, soluble reactive, particulate, colorimetry, stability, sensitivity, analytical error, storage, sampling, filtration, preservative, fractionation, digestion

  12. Guidance document for preparing water sampling and analysis plans for UMTRA Project sites. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    A water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) is prepared for each Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site to provide the rationale for routine ground water sampling at disposal sites and former processing sites. The WSAP identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the routine ground water monitoring stations at each site. This guidance document has been prepared by the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). Its purpose is to provide a consistent technical approach for sampling and monitoring activities performed under the WSAP and to provide a consistent format for the WSAP documents. It is designed for use by the TAC in preparing WSAPs and by the DOE, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, state and tribal agencies, other regulatory agencies, and the public in evaluating the content of WSAPS

  13. Soil and Water – What is Detectable through Microbiological Sample Preparation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concerns of a potential terrorist’s use of biological agents in soil and ground water are articulated by comparisons to major illnesses in this Country involving contaminated drinking water sources. Objectives are focused on the importance of sample preparation in the rapid, ...

  14. Analysis of trace uranium and plutonium in environmental water sample by ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xuemei

    2004-12-01

    The analysis of trace Uranium and Plutonium in environmental water is very important in the environment inspect. The preparation method of water samples are introduced and several common used method are compared. The analysis process and the calibration method with ICP-MS are discussed in detail considering present conditions. (author)

  15. Natural radioactivity in various water samples and radiation dose estimations in Bolu province, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorur, F Korkmaz; Camgoz, H

    2014-10-01

    The level of natural radioactivity for Bolu province of north-western Turkey was assessed in this study. There is no information about radioactivity measurement reported in water samples in the Bolu province so far. For this reason, gross α and β activities of 55 different water samples collected from tap, spring, mineral, river and lake waters in Bolu were determined. The mean activity concentrations were 68.11 mBq L(-1), 169.44 mBq L(-1) for gross α and β in tap water. For all samples the gross β activity is always higher than the gross α activity. All value of the gross α were lower than the limit value of 500 mBq L(-1) while two spring and one mineral water samples were found to have gross β activity concentrations of greater than 1000 mBq L(-1). The associated age-dependent dose from all water ingestion in Bolu was estimated. The total dose for adults had an average value exceeds the WHO recommended limit value. The risk levels from the direct ingestion of the natural radionuclides in tap and mineral water in Bolu were determinated. The mean (210)Po and (228)Ra risk the value of tap and mineral waters slightly exceeds what some consider on acceptable risk of 10(-4) or less. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Stable isotope ratio measurements on highly enriched water samples by means of laser spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Trigt, R; Kerstel, E.R.T.; Visser, GH; Meijer, H.A.J.

    2001-01-01

    We demonstrate the feasibility of using laser spectrometry (LS) to analyze isotopically highly enriched water samples (i.e., delta H-2 less than or equal to 15000 parts per thousand, delta O-18 less than or equal to 1200 parts per thousand), as often used in the biomedical doubly labeled water (DLW)

  17. Quality control on the accuracy of the total Beta activity index in different sample matrices water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujol, L.; Pablo, M. A. de; Payeras, J.

    2013-01-01

    The standard ISO/IEC 17025:2005 of general requirements for the technical competence of testing and calibration laboratories, provides that a laboratory shall have quality control procedures for monitoring the validity of tests and calibrations ago. In this paper, the experience of Isotopic Applications Laboratory (CEDEX) in controlling the accuracy rate of total beta activity in samples of drinking water, inland waters and marine waters is presented. (Author)

  18. Introduction of Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS) For River Water Samples Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakirah Abd Shukor; Mohd Suhaimi Hamzah; Shamsiah Abdul Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Metal contamination in water is a major component in the determination of water quality monitoring. In spite of the viability of several other metal ion analysis techniques for river water, atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) method is most commonly used due to the reproducibility results, short analysis time, cost effective, lower level detection and robust. Therefore, this article gives an overview on the principles, instrumentation techniques, sample preparations, instrument calibration and data analysis in a simple manner for beginner. (author)

  19. Qualilty, isotopes, and radiochemistry of water sampled from the Upper Moenkopi Village water-supply wells, Coconino County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruth, Rob; Beisner, Kimberly; Smith, Greg

    2013-01-01

    The Hopi Tribe Water Resources Program has granted contracts for studies to evaluate water supply conditions for the Moenkopi villages in Coconino County, Arizona. The Moenkopi villages include Upper Moenkopi Village and the village of Lower Moencopi, both on the Hopi Indian Reservation south of the Navajo community of Tuba City. These investigations have determined that water supplies are limited and vulnerable to several potential sources of contamination, including the Tuba City Landfill and a former uranium processing facility known as the Rare Metals Mill. Studies are ongoing to determine if uranium and other metals in groundwater beneath the landfill are greater than regional groundwater concentrations. The source of water supply for the Upper Moenkopi Village is three public-supply wells. The wells are referred to as MSW-1, MSW-2, and MSW-3 and all three wells obtain water from the regionally extensive N aquifer. The N aquifer is the principal aquifer in this region of northern Arizona and consists of thick beds of sandstone between less permeable layers of siltstone and mudstone. The relatively fine-grained character of the N aquifer inhibits rapid movement of water and large yields to wells. In recent years, water levels have declined in the three public-supply wells, causing concern that the current water supply will not be able to accommodate peak demand and allow for residential and economic growth. Analyses of major ions, nutrients, selected trace metals, stable and radioactive isotopes, and radiochemistry were performed on the groundwater samples from the three public-supply wells to describe general water-quality conditions and groundwater ages in and immediately surrounding the Upper Moenkopi Village area. None of the water samples collected from the public-supply wells exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency primary drinking water standards. The ratios of the major dissolved ions from the samples collected from MSW-1 and MSW-2 indicate

  20. Absolute measurement of the isotopic ratio of a water sample with very low deuterium content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagemann, R.; Nief, G.; Roth, E.

    1968-01-01

    The presence of H 3+ ions which are indistinguishable from HD + ions presents the principal difficulty encountered in the measurement of isotopic ratios of water samples with very low deuterium contents using a mass spectrometer. Thus, when the sample contains no deuterium, the mass spectrometer does not indicate zero. By producing, in situ, from the sample to be measured, water vapor with an isotopic ratio very close to zero using a small distilling column, this difficulty is overcome. This column, its operating parameters, as well as the way in which the measurements are made are described. An arrangement is employed in which the isotopic ratios can be measured with a sensitivity better than 0.01 x 10 -6 . The method is applied to the determination of the isotopic ratios of three low deuterium content water samples. The results obtained permit one to assign to the sample with the lowest deuterium content an absolute value equal to 1.71 ± 0.03 ppm. This water sample is a primary standard from which is determined the isotopic ratio of a natural water sample which serves as the laboratory standard. (author) [fr

  1. Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Steven K

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat

  2. Physicochemical transformation and algal toxicity of engineered nanoparticles in surface water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Luqing; Li, Jingyi; Yang, Kun; Liu, Jingfu; Lin, Daohui

    2016-01-01

    Most studies on the behavior and toxicity of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) have been conducted in artificial water with well-controlled conditions, which are dramatically different from natural waters with complex compositions. To better understand the fate and toxicity of NPs in the natural water environment, physicochemical transformations of four NPs (TiO_2, ZnO, Ag, and carbon nanotubes (CNTs)) and their toxicities towards a unicellular green alga (Chlorella pyrenoidosa) in four fresh water and one seawater sample were investigated. Results indicated that water chemistry had profound effects on aggregation, dissolution, and algal toxicity of the NPs. The strongest homoaggregation of the NPs was associated with the highest ionic strength, but no obvious correlation was observed between the homoaggregation of NPs and pH or dissolved organic matter content of the water samples. The greatest dissolution of ZnO NPs also occurred in seawater with the highest ionic strength, while the dissolution of Ag NPs varied differently from ZnO NPs. The released Zn"2"+ and especially Ag"+ mainly accounted for the algal toxicity of ZnO and Ag NPs, respectively. The NP-cell heteroagglomeration occurred generally for CNTs and Ag NPs, which contributed to the observed nanotoxicity. However, there was no significant correlation between the observed nanotoxicity and the type of NP or the water chemistry. It was thus concluded that the physicochemical transformations and algal toxicities of NPs in the natural water samples were caused by the combined effects of complex water quality parameters rather than any single influencing factor alone. These results will increase our knowledge on the fate and effects of NPs in the aquatic environment. - Highlights: • Transformation and algal toxicity of four NPs in five surface water samples were studied. • The transformation and toxicity were dependent on the types of NPs and water samples. • No single water parameter alone was

  3. Evaluation of the Validity of Groundwater Samples Obtained Using the Purge Water Management System at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beardsley, C.C.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the demonstration testing of the Purge Water Management System (PWMS) technology at the Savannah River Site (SRS), four wells were equipped with PWMS units in 1997 and a series of sampling events were conducted at each during 1997-1998. Three of the wells were located in A/M Area while the fourth was located at the Old Radioactive Waste Burial Ground in the General Separations Area.The PWMS is a ''closed-loop'', non-contact, system used to collect and return purge water to the originating aquifer after a sampling event without having significantly altered the water quality. One of the primary concerns as to its applicability at SRS, and elsewhere, is whether the PWMS might resample groundwater that is returned to the aquifer during the previous sampling event. The purpose of the present investigation was to compare groundwater chemical analysis data collected at the four test wells using the PWMS vs. historical data collected using the standard monitoring program methodology to determine if the PWMS provides representative monitoring samples.The analysis of the groundwater chemical concentrations indicates that the PWMS sampling methodology acquired representative groundwater samples at monitoring wells ABP-1A, ABP-4, ARP-3 and BGO-33C. Representative groundwater samples are achieved if the PWMS does not resample groundwater that has been purged and returned during a previous sampling event. Initial screening calculations, conducted prior to the selection of these four wells, indicated that groundwater velocities were high enough under the ambient hydraulic gradients to preclude resampling from occurring at the time intervals that were used at each well. Corroborating evidence included a tracer test that was conducted at BGO-33C, the high degree of similarity between analyte concentrations derived from the PWMS samples and those obtained from historical protocol sampling, as well as the fact that PWMS data extend all previously existing concentration

  4. Characterization samples of Tigris river water treated with nano colloidal silver (physically, chemically, microbiologically)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumboos, H. I.; Beden, S. J.; Zouari, K.; Chkir, N.; Ahmed, H. A.

    2012-12-01

    Many researches of using nano silver in purification of drinking water from bacteria and its effect on stan dared properties as drinking water were established. Two stages accomplished in these projects. First stage include preparation of colloidal silver with characterization process and prepare water samples through sedimentation, filtration process, PH and turbidity measure then treated with colloidal silver in volume ratio (0.1-Λ) ml/100ml. The second stage represent select the better results from stage one and take samples to determine the standard characterization values with chemical, physical and microbiological taste. Results will be compared with Iraq standard certification. (Author)

  5. Determination of natural uranium, thorium and radium isotopes in water and soil samples by alpha spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Le Cong; Tao, Chau Van; Thong, Luong Van; Linh, Duong Mong [University of Science Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam). Faculty of Physics and Engineering Physics; Dong, Nguyen Van [University of Science Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam). Faculty of Chemistry

    2011-08-15

    In this study, a simple procedure for the determination of natural uranium, thorium and radium isotopes in water and soil samples by alpha spectroscopy is described. This procedure allows a sequential extraction polonium, uranium, thorium and radium radionuclides from the same sample in two to three days. It was tested and validated with the analysis of certified reference materials from the IAEA. (orig.)

  6. Use of passive sampling devices for monitoring and compliance checking of POP concentrations in water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohmann, R.; Booij, K.; Smedes, F.; Vrana, B.

    2012-01-01

    The state of the art of passive water sampling of (nonpolar) organic contaminants is presented. Its suitability for regulatory monitoring is discussed, with an emphasis on the information yielded by passive sampling devices (PSDs), their relevance and associated uncertainties. Almost all persistent

  7. Study of the concentration of 7 Be in samples of rain water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintero P, E.; Rojas M, V.P.

    2004-01-01

    This work shows the methodology carried out for the determination of 7 Be in samples of rain water and the obtained results of the concentration of having said radionuclide in this sampled matrix during the last five years in the Nuclear Center of Mexico. (Author)

  8. Study of changes in bacterial and viral abundance in formaldehyde - Fixed water samples by epifluorescence microscopy

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parvathi, A.; Radhakrishnan, S.; Sajila, M.P.; Jacob, B.

    of bacteria and viruses in water samples from Cochin Backwater was determined by SYBR Green I staining and epifluorescence microscopy. The counts were determined for 45 days in samples fixed with 1–6% formaldehyde. The results suggest rapid decline in counts...

  9. Concentration of ions in selected bottled water samples sold in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Kam, Ryan Chuan Yang; Lim, Ai Phing; Praveena, Sarva Mangala

    2013-03-01

    Many consumers around the world, including Malaysians, have turned to bottled water as their main source of drinking water. The aim of this study is to determine the physical and chemical properties of bottled water samples sold in Selangor, Malaysia. A total of 20 bottled water brands consisting of `natural mineral (NM)' and `packaged drinking (PD)' types were randomly collected and analyzed for their physical-chemical characteristics: hydrogen ion concentration (pH), electrical conductivity (EC) and total dissolved solids (TDS), selected major ions: calcium (Ca), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg) and sodium (Na), and minor trace constituents: copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) to ascertain their suitability for human consumption. The results obtained were compared with guideline values recommended by World Health Organization (WHO) and Malaysian Ministry of Health (MMOH), respectively. It was found that all bottled water samples were in accordance with the guidelines set by WHO and MMOH except for one sample (D3) which was below the pH limit of 6.5. Both NM and PD bottled water were dominated by Na + K > Ca > Mg. Low values for EC and TDS in the bottled water samples showed that water was deficient in essential elements, likely an indication that these were removed by water treatment. Minerals like major ions were present in very low concentrations which could pose a risk to individuals who consume this water on a regular basis. Generally, the overall quality of the supplied bottled water was in accordance to standards and guidelines set by WHO and MMOH and safe for consumption.

  10. DETERMINATION OF ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES IN DRINKING WATERS SAMPLED FROM CLUJ AND HUNEDOARA COUNTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA-ELISABETA LOVÁSZ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Determination of organochlorine pesticides in drinking waterssampled from Cluj and Hunedoara counties. Pesticides are found scattered indifferent environmental factors (water, air, soil wherefrom they are drawn off byvegetal and animal organisms. Water pollution by pesticides results from the plantprotection products industry and also from massive application of these resourcesin agriculture and other branches of economy. Pesticides can reach surface wateralong with dripping waters and by infiltration may reach the groundwater layers,organochlorine pesticides are most often found in the water sources (dieldrin,endrin, DDT, aldrin, lindane, heptachlor, etc. due to their increased persistence inthe external environment. This study followed up the determination oforganochlorine pesticides in 14 drinking water samples collected from the outputof water treatment plants in Cluj and Hunedoara counties that process surfacewater and deep-water sources. For identification of organochlorine pesticides, thegas chromatographic method after liquid-liquid extraction was used, by a gascromatograph Shimadzu GC 2010 with detector ECD (Electron CaptureDetection. There were not detected higher values than the method detection limit(0.01 μg/l in the drinking water samples collected and analyzed for both totalorganochlorine pesticides and components, which were well below the maximumconcentration admitted by Law 452/2002 regarding drinking water quality. Resultsare correlated with the sanitary protection areas for water sources and with the useof agricultural lands in the area. The solution to reduce risk of pesticides use isecological agriculture , which gains increasingly more ground in Romania too.

  11. May 2011 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, Site (Data Validation Package)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Annual sampling was conducted at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, site for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program May 16-17, 2011, to monitor groundwater and surface water for potential radionuclide contamination. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). A duplicate sample was collected from location Johnson Artesian WL. Samples were analyzed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Radiation&Indoor Environments National Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectrometry, and for tritium using the conventional method. Tritium was not measured using the enrichment method because the EPA laboratory no longer offers that service. Results of this monitoring at the Rio Blanco site demonstrate that groundwater and surface water outside the boundaries have not been affected by project-related contaminants.

  12. Utility of solid phase spectrophotometry for the modified determination of trace amounts of cadmium in food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Alaa S; Gouda, Ayman A

    2012-05-01

    A modified selective, highly sensitive and accurate procedure for the determination of trace amounts of cadmium which reacts with 1-(2-benzothiazolylazo)-2-hydroxy-3-naphthoic acid (BTAHNA) to give a deep violet complex with high molar absorptivity (7.05×10(6)Lmol(-1) cm(-1), 3.92×10(7)Lmol(-1)cm(-1), 1.78×10(8)Lmol(-1)cm(-1), and 4.10×10(8)Lmol(-1)cm(-1)), fixed on a Dowex 1-X8 type anion-exchange resin for 10mL, 100mL, 500mL, and 1000mL, respectively. Calibration is linear over the range 0.2-3.5μgL(-1) with RSD of ⩽1.14% (n=10). The detection and quantification limits were calculated. Increasing the sample volume can enhance the sensitivity. The method has been successfully applied for the determination of Cd(II) in food samples, water samples and some salts samples without interfering effect of various cations and anions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Performance of a hydrostatic sampler for collecting samples at the water-sediment interface in lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando PEDROZO

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The water-sediment interface plays a significant role in the determination of the trophic degree of a waterbody. Numerous redox reactions take place there, resulting in the release of contaminants from the sediments to the water column. The aim of the present work was to develop an equipment for collecting samples from the water-sediment interface. Such equipment was to have a simple design, low construction cost, no depth limitations, and high levels of personal safety and to be reliable in the collection of samples. The performance of the hydrostatic sampler thus developed was tested against samples collected either remotely with a corer or directly with syringes by autonomous divers. The hydrostatic sampler permits access to depths where the costs of the traditional diving methodology are expensive, and where working conditions are dangerous for the diver. The hydrostatic sampler provides an additional means of collecting samples from the water-sediment interface, which together with pore-water samples, facilitates the investigation and understanding of chemical mechanisms in lakes, for instance, those that control the P release from sediment to the water column.

  14. [Detecting Thallium in Water Samples using Dispersive Liquid Phase Microextraction-Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jing; Li, Yan; Zheng, Bo; Tang, Wei; Chen, Xiao; Zou, Xiao-li

    2015-11-01

    To develope a method of solvent demulsification dispersive liquid phase microextraction (SD-DLPME) based on ion association reaction coupled with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFAAS) for detecting thallium in water samples. Methods Thallium ion in water samples was oxidized to Tl(III) with bromine water, which reacted with Cl- to form TlCl4-. The ionic associated compound with trioctylamine was obtained and extracted. DLPME was completed with ethanol as dispersive solvent. The separation of aqueous and organic phase was achieved by injecting into demulsification solvent without centrifugation. The extractant was collected and injected into GFAAS for analysis. With palladium colloid as matrix modifier, a two step drying and ashing temperature programming process was applied for high precision and sensitivity. The linear range was 0.05-2.0 microg/L, with a detection limit of 0.011 microg/L. The relative standard derivation (RSD) for detecting Tl in spiked water sample was 9.9%. The spiked recoveries of water samples ranged from 94.0% to 103.0%. The method is simple, sensitive and suitable for batch analysis of Tl in water samples.

  15. White HDPE bottles as source of serious contamination of water samples with Ba and Zn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, Clemens; Grimstvedt, Andreas; Frengstad, Bjørn; Finne, Tor Erik

    2007-03-15

    During a recent study of surface water quality factory new white high-density polyethylene (HDPE) bottles were used for collecting the water samples. According to the established field protocol of the Geological Survey of Norway the bottles were twice carefully rinsed with water in the field prior to sampling. Several blank samples using milli-Q (ELGA) water (>18.2 MOmega) were also prepared. On checking the analytical results the blanks returned values of Ag, Ba, Sr, V, Zn and Zr. For Ba and Zn the values (c. 300 microg/l and 95 microg/l) were about 10 times above the concentrations that can be expected in natural waters. A laboratory test of the bottles demonstrated that the bottles contaminate the samples with significant amounts of Ba and Zn and some Sr. Simple acid washing of the bottles prior to use did not solve the contamination problem for Ba and Zn. The results suggest that there may exist "clean" and "dirty" HDPE bottles depending on manufacturer/production process. When collecting water samples it is mandatory to check bottles regularly as a possible source of contamination.

  16. Effects of sterilization treatments on the analysis of TOC in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yiming; Xu, Lingfeng; Gong, Dongqin; Lu, Jun

    2010-01-01

    Decomposition experiments conducted with and without microbial processes are commonly used to study the effects of environmental microorganisms on the degradation of organic pollutants. However, the effects of biological pretreatment (sterilization) on organic matter often have a negative impact on such experiments. Based on the principle of water total organic carbon (TOC) analysis, the effects of physical sterilization treatments on determination of TOC and other water quality parameters were investigated. The results revealed that two conventional physical sterilization treatments, autoclaving and 60Co gamma-radiation sterilization, led to the direct decomposition of some organic pollutants, resulting in remarkable errors in the analysis of TOC in water samples. Furthermore, the extent of the errors varied with the intensity and the duration of sterilization treatments. Accordingly, a novel sterilization method for water samples, 0.45 microm micro-filtration coupled with ultraviolet radiation (MCUR), was developed in the present study. The results indicated that the MCUR method was capable of exerting a high bactericidal effect on the water sample while significantly decreasing the negative impact on the analysis of TOC and other water quality parameters. Before and after sterilization treatments, the relative errors of TOC determination could be controlled to lower than 3% for water samples with different categories and concentrations of organic pollutants by using MCUR.

  17. Set Up of an Automatic Water Quality Sampling System in Irrigation Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Heinz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a high-resolution automatic sampling system for continuous in situ measurements of stable water isotopic composition and nitrogen solutes along with hydrological information. The system facilitates concurrent monitoring of a large number of water and nutrient fluxes (ground, surface, irrigation and rain water in irrigated agriculture. For this purpose we couple an automatic sampling system with a Wavelength-Scanned Cavity Ring Down Spectrometry System (WS-CRDS for stable water isotope analysis (δ2H and δ18O, a reagentless hyperspectral UV photometer (ProPS for monitoring nitrate content and various water level sensors for hydrometric information. The automatic sampling system consists of different sampling stations equipped with pumps, a switch cabinet for valve and pump control and a computer operating the system. The complete system is operated via internet-based control software, allowing supervision from nearly anywhere. The system is currently set up at the International Rice Research Institute (Los Baños, The Philippines in a diversified rice growing system to continuously monitor water and nutrient fluxes. Here we present the system’s technical set-up and provide initial proof-of-concept with results for the isotopic composition of different water sources and nitrate values from the 2012 dry season.

  18. Determination of total alpha index in samples of see water by coprecipitation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez-Navarro, J.A.; Pujol, L.; Pozuelo, M.; Pablo, A. de

    1998-01-01

    An environmental radiological monitoring network in the Spanish sea waters was set up by CEDEX in 1993. Water radioactivity is determined quarterly in eleven sampling points along the Spanish coast. The gross alpha activity is one of the parameters to be determined. The usual method for monitoring the gross alpha activity includes sample evaporation to dryness on a disk and counting using ZnS(Ag) scintillation detector. Nevertheless, the gross alpha activity determination in saline waters, such as sea waters, is troublesome, because mass attenuation is high and a very small of water is needed (0.2 ml). The coprecipitation method allows to analyze 500 ml water samples, so the detection limit is reduced and sensitivity is improved. In this work, the coprecipitation method was used to determine the gross alpha activity in the radiological network of the Spanish coast sea waters during 1996 and 1997. Gross alpha activity was very homogenous. It averaged 0.0844±0.0086 Bq.1''1 and ranged from 0.062 to 0.102 Bq.1''1. In collaboration with CIEMAT a set of samples was analyzed, they averaged 0.0689±0.0074 Bq.1''1 and ranged from 0.056 to 0.082 Bq.1''1. (Author) 5 refs

  19. A rapid and sensitive analytical method for the determination of 14 pyrethroids in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feo, M L; Eljarrat, E; Barceló, D

    2010-04-09

    A simple, efficient and environmentally friendly analytical methodology is proposed for extracting and preconcentrating pyrethroids from water samples prior to gas chromatography-negative ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry (GC-NCI-MS) analysis. Fourteen pyrethroids were selected for this work: bifenthrin, cyfluthrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, esfenvalerate, fenvalerate, fenpropathrin, tau-fluvalinate, permethrin, phenothrin, resmethrin, tetramethrin and tralomethrin. The method is based on ultrasound-assisted emulsification-extraction (UAEE) of a water-immiscible solvent in an aqueous medium. Chloroform was used as extraction solvent in the UAEE technique. Target analytes were quantitatively extracted achieving an enrichment factor of 200 when 20 mL aliquot of pure water spiked with pyrethroid standards was extracted. The method was also evaluated with tap water and river water samples. Method detection limits (MDLs) ranged from 0.03 to 35.8 ng L(-1) with RSDs values or =0.998. Recovery values were in the range of 45-106%, showing satisfactory robustness of the method for analyzing pyrethroids in water samples. The proposed methodology was applied for the analysis of river water samples. Cypermethrin was detected at concentration levels ranging from 4.94 to 30.5 ng L(-1). Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Water-quality assessment of south-central Texas : comparison of water quality in surface-water samples collected manually and by automated samplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ging, Patricia B.

    1999-01-01

    Surface-water sampling protocols of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program specify samples for most properties and constituents to be collected manually in equal-width increments across a stream channel and composited for analysis. Single-point sampling with an automated sampler (autosampler) during storms was proposed in the upper part of the South-Central Texas NAWQA study unit, raising the question of whether property and constituent concentrations from automatically collected samples differ significantly from those in samples collected manually. Statistical (Wilcoxon signed-rank test) analyses of 3 to 16 paired concentrations for each of 26 properties and constituents from water samples collected using both methods at eight sites in the upper part of the study unit indicated that there were no significant differences in concentrations for dissolved constituents, other than calcium and organic carbon.

  1. Determination of radiocaesium in agriculture-related water samples containing suspended solids using gelling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsunami, Hisaya; Shin, Moono; Takahashi, Yoshihiko; Shinano, Takuro; Kitajima, Shiori; Tsuchiya, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    After the TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in 2011, the radiocaesium, which flowed into the paddy fields via irrigation water, have been widely investigated. When the concentration of radiocaesium in the water samples containing suspended solids were directly measured using a high purity germanium detector with a 2 L marinelli beaker, the radiocaesium concentration might be overestimated due to the sedimentation of the suspended solids during the measurement time. In fact, the values obtained by the direct method were higher than those obtained by the filtering method and/or the gelling method in most of the agriculture-related water samples. We concluded that the gelling method using sodium polyacrylate can be widely adapted for the analysis of the total radiocaesium in the agriculture-related water samples because of its many advantage such as simple preparation procedure, accurate analysis values, excellent long-term stability of geometry and low operating cost. (author)

  2. Analysis of bromate in drinking water using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry without sample pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaka, Koji; Asami, Mari; Takei, Kanako; Akiba, Michihiro

    2011-01-01

    An analytical method for determining bromate in drinking water was developed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The (18)O-enriched bromate was used as an internal standard. The limit of quantification (LOQ) of bromate was 0.2 µg/L. The peak of bromate was separated from those of coexisting ions (i.e., chloride, nitrate and sulfate). The relative and absolute recoveries of bromate in two drinking water samples and in a synthesized ion solution (100 mg/L chloride, 10 mg N/L nitrate, and 100 mg/L sulfate) were 99-105 and 94-105%, respectively. Bromate concentrations in 11 drinking water samples determined by LC-MS/MS were water without sample pretreatment.

  3. May 2013 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, Site (Data Validation Package)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutton, Rick [S.M. Stoller Corporation, Broomfield, CO (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Annual sampling was conducted at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, site for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program May 14-16, 2013, to monitor groundwater and surface water for potential radionuclide contamination. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). A duplicate sample was collected from location CER #1 Black Sulphur. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectrometry and for tritium using the conventional and enrichment methods.

  4. Utility of the Community Integration Questionnaire in a sample of adults with neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders receiving prevocational training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewski, Robert; Mitrushina, Maura

    2015-08-03

    To investigate utility of the Community Integration Questionnaire (CIQ) in a mixed sample of adults with neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. Cross-sectional, interview-based study. Participants were community-dwelling adults with disabilities resulting from neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders (N = 54), who participated in a pre-vocational readiness and social skills training program. Psychometric properties of the Community Integration Questionnaire (CIQ) were assessed and validated against Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory (MPAI) and The Problem Checklist from the New York University Head Injury Family Interview (PCL). Based on the revised scoring procedures, psychometric properties of the CIQ Home Competency scale were excellent, followed by the Total score and Social Integration scale. Productive Activity scale had low content validity and a weak association with the total score. Convergent and discriminant validity of the CIQ were demonstrated by correlation patterns with MPAI scales in the expected direction. Significant relationship was found with PCL Physical/Dependency scale. Significant associations were found with sex, living status, and record of subsequent employment. The results provide support for the use of the CIQ as a measure of participation in individuals with neurological and neuropsychiatric diagnoses and resulting disabilities. Implications for Rehabilitation An important goal of rehabilitation and training programs for individuals with dysfunction of the central nervous system is to promote their participation in social, vocational, and domestic activities. The Community Integration Questionnaire (CIQ) is a brief and efficient instrument for measuring these participation domains. This study demonstrated good psychometric properties and high utility of the CIQ in a sample of 54 individuals participating in a prevocational training program.

  5. Research on How to Remove Efficiently the Condensate Water of Sampling System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, SungHwan; Kim, MinSoo; Choi, HoYoung; In, WonHo

    2015-01-01

    Corrosion was caused in the measurement chamber inside the O 2 and H 2 analyzer, and thus measuring the concentration of O 2 and H 2 was not possible. It was confirmed that the cause of the occurrence of condensate water is due to the temperature difference caused during the process of the internal gas of the disposal and degasifier tank being brought into the analyzer. Thus, a heating system was installed inside and outside of the sampling panel for gas to remove generated condensate water in the analyzer and pipe. For the case where condensate water is not removed by the heating system, drain port is also installed in the sampling panel for gas to collect the condensate water of the sampling system. It was verified that there is a great volume of condensate water existing in the pipe line during the purging process after installing manufactured goods. The condensate water was fully removed by the installed heating cable and drain port. The heating cable was operated constantly at a temperature of 80 to 90 .deg. C, which allows the precise measurement of gas concentration and longer maintenance duration by blocking of the condensate water before being produced. To install instruments for measuring the gas, such as an O 2 and H 2 analyzer etc., consideration regarding whether there condensate water is present due to the temperature difference between the measuring system and analyzer is required

  6. Research on How to Remove Efficiently the Condensate Water of Sampling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, SungHwan; Kim, MinSoo; Choi, HoYoung; In, WonHo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Corrosion was caused in the measurement chamber inside the O{sub 2} and H{sub 2} analyzer, and thus measuring the concentration of O{sub 2} and H{sub 2} was not possible. It was confirmed that the cause of the occurrence of condensate water is due to the temperature difference caused during the process of the internal gas of the disposal and degasifier tank being brought into the analyzer. Thus, a heating system was installed inside and outside of the sampling panel for gas to remove generated condensate water in the analyzer and pipe. For the case where condensate water is not removed by the heating system, drain port is also installed in the sampling panel for gas to collect the condensate water of the sampling system. It was verified that there is a great volume of condensate water existing in the pipe line during the purging process after installing manufactured goods. The condensate water was fully removed by the installed heating cable and drain port. The heating cable was operated constantly at a temperature of 80 to 90 .deg. C, which allows the precise measurement of gas concentration and longer maintenance duration by blocking of the condensate water before being produced. To install instruments for measuring the gas, such as an O{sub 2} and H{sub 2} analyzer etc., consideration regarding whether there condensate water is present due to the temperature difference between the measuring system and analyzer is required.

  7. Concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water samples from different stages of treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pogorzelec Marta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the presence and concentration of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water samples from different stages of treatment and to verify the usefulness of semipermeable membrane devices for analysis of drinking water. For this purpose, study was conducted for a period of 5 months. Semipermeable membrane devices were deployed in a surface water treatment plant located in Lower Silesia (Poland. To determine the effect of water treatment on concentration of PAHs, three sampling places were chosen: raw water input, stream of water just before disinfection and treated water output. After each month of sampling SPMDs were changed for fresh ones and prepared for further analysis. Concentrations of fifteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Presented study indicates that the use of semipermeable membrane devices can be an effective tool for the analysis of aquatic environment, including monitoring of drinking water, where organic micropollutants are present at very low concentrations.

  8. Drinking Water Quality Forecast of Peshawar Valley on the Basis of Sample Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.U.; Bangash, F.K.

    2001-01-01

    Microbiological and related parameters of 75 portable water samples collected from source, distribution line and consumer tap in 25 different locations were investigated. The findings were used to forecast statistically the quality of drinking water of hole valley at all three sites and compared with WHO's standards. The study shows that the valley has good water deposits and suitable for drinking purposes however the same quality is not maintained throughout the distribution systems. The presence of total and fecal coliform in the samples collected from distribution line and consumer tap shows the mixing of wastewater through leaky joints and corroded underground supply system. The study also shows poor disinfecting practices in the study area. On the basis of this study we can say that the area got excellent subsoil water deposits but most of the consumers are supplied with water not fit for drinking purposes which is the main cause of Heath problems in the area. (author)

  9. Detection of protozoa in water samples by formalin/ether concentration method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora-Suarez, Fabiana; Rivera, Raul; Triviño-Valencia, Jessica; Gomez-Marin, Jorge E

    2016-09-01

    Methods to detect protozoa in water samples are expensive and laborious. We evaluated the formalin/ether concentration method to detect Giardia sp., Cryptosporidium sp. and Toxoplasma in water. In order to test the properties of the method, we spiked water samples with different amounts of each protozoa (0, 10 and 50 cysts or oocysts) in a volume of 10 L of water. Immunofluorescence assay was used for detection of Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Toxoplasma oocysts were identified by morphology. The mean percent of recovery in 10 repetitions of the entire method, in 10 samples spiked with ten parasites and read by three different observers, were for Cryptosporidium 71.3 ± 12, for Giardia 63 ± 10 and for Toxoplasma 91.6 ± 9 and the relative standard deviation of the method was of 17.5, 17.2 and 9.8, respectively. Intraobserver variation as measured by intraclass correlation coefficient, was fair for Toxoplasma, moderate for Cryptosporidium and almost perfect for Giardia. The method was then applied in 77 samples of raw and drinkable water in three different plant of water treatment. Cryptosporidium was found in 28 of 77 samples (36%) and Giardia in 31 of 77 samples (40%). Theses results identified significant differences in treatment process to reduce the presence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium. In conclusion, the formalin ether method to concentrate protozoa in water is a new alternative for low resources countries, where is urgently need to monitor and follow the presence of theses protozoa in drinkable water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Stable Isotopic Analysis on Water Utilization of Two Xerophytic Shrubs in a Revegetated Desert Area: Tengger Desert, China

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Huang; Zhishan Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Stable isotope studies on stable isotope ratios of hydrogen and oxygen in water within plants provide new information on water sources and water use patterns under natural conditions. In this study, the sources of water uptake for two typical xerophytic shrubs, Caragana korshinskii and Artemisia ordosica, were determined at four different-aged revegetated sites (1956, 1964, 1981, and 1987) in the Tengger Desert, a revegetated desert area in China. Samples from precipitation, soil water at dif...

  11. Effects of soil water saturation on sampling equilibrium and kinetics of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pil-Gon; Roh, Ji-Yeon; Hong, Yongseok; Kwon, Jung-Hwan

    2017-10-01

    Passive sampling can be applied for measuring the freely dissolved concentration of hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs) in soil pore water. When using passive samplers under field conditions, however, there are factors that might affect passive sampling equilibrium and kinetics, such as soil water saturation. To determine the effects of soil water saturation on passive sampling, the equilibrium and kinetics of passive sampling were evaluated by observing changes in the distribution coefficient between sampler and soil (K sampler/soil ) and the uptake rate constant (k u ) at various soil water saturations. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) passive samplers were deployed into artificial soils spiked with seven selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In dry soil (0% water saturation), both K sampler/soil and k u values were much lower than those in wet soils likely due to the contribution of adsorption of PAHs onto soil mineral surfaces and the conformational changes in soil organic matter. For high molecular weight PAHs (chrysene, benzo[a]pyrene, and dibenzo[a,h]anthracene), both K sampler/soil and k u values increased with increasing soil water saturation, whereas they decreased with increasing soil water saturation for low molecular weight PAHs (phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, and pyrene). Changes in the sorption capacity of soil organic matter with soil water content would be the main cause of the changes in passive sampling equilibrium. Henry's law constant could explain the different behaviors in uptake kinetics of the selected PAHs. The results of this study would be helpful when passive samplers are deployed under various soil water saturations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of physical and chemical heterogeneity on water-quality samples obtained from wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Thomas E.; Gibs, Jacob

    1993-01-01

    Factors that affect the mass of chemical constituents entering a well include the distributions of flow rate and chemical concentrations along and near the screened or open section of the well. Assuming a layered porous medium (with each layer being characterized by a uniform hydraulic conductivity and chemical concentration), a knowledge of the flow from each layer along the screened zone and of the chemical concentrations in each layer enables the total mass entering the well to be determined. Analyses of hypothetical systems and a site at Galloway, NJ, provide insight into the temporal variation of water-quality data observed when withdrawing water from screened wells in heterogeneous ground-water systems.The analyses of hypothetical systems quantitatively indicate the cause-and-effect relations that cause temporal variability in water samples obtained from wells. Chemical constituents that have relatively uniform concentrations with depth may not show variations in concentrations in the water discharged from a well after the well is purged (evacuation of standing water in the well casing). However, chemical constituents that do not have uniform concentrations near the screened interval of the well may show variations in concentrations in the well discharge water after purging because of the physics of ground-water flow in the vicinity of the screen.Water-quality samples were obtained through time over a 30 minute period from a site at Galloway, NJ. The water samples were analyzed for aromatic hydrocarbons, and the data for benzene, toluene, and meta+para xylene were evaluated for temporal variations. Samples were taken from seven discrete zones, and the flow-weighted concentrations of benzene, toluene, and meta+para xylene all indicate an increase in concentration over time during pumping. These observed trends in time were reproduced numerically based on the estimated concentration distribution in the aquifer and the flow rates from each zone.The results of

  13. Investigation of hydrophobic substrates for solution residue analysis utilizing an ambient desorption liquid sampling-atmospheric pressure glow discharge microplasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paing, Htoo W; Marcus, R Kenneth

    2018-03-12

    A practical method for preparation of solution residue samples for analysis utilizing the ambient desorption liquid sampling-atmospheric pressure glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (AD-LS-APGD-OES) microplasma is described. Initial efforts involving placement of solution aliquots in wells drilled into copper substrates, proved unsuccessful. A design-of-experiment (DOE) approach was carried out to determine influential factors during sample deposition including solution volume, solute concentration, number of droplets deposited, and the solution matrix. These various aspects are manifested in the mass of analyte deposited as well as the size/shape of the product residue. Statistical analysis demonstrated that only those initial attributes were significant factors towards the emission response of the analyte. Various approaches were investigated to better control the location/uniformity of the deposited sample. Three alternative substrates, a glass slide, a poly(tetrafluoro)ethylene (PTFE) sheet, and a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-coated glass slide, were evaluated towards the microplasma analytical performance. Co-deposition with simple organic dyes provided an accurate means of determining the location of the analyte with only minor influence on emission responses. The PDMS-coated glass provided the best performance by virtue of its providing a uniform spatial distribution of the residue material. This uniformity yielded an improved limits of detection by approximately 22× for 20 μL and 4 x for 2 μL over the other two substrates. While they operate by fundamentally different processes, this choice of substrate is not restricted to the LS-APGD, but may also be applicable to other AD methods such as DESI, DART, or LIBS. Further developments will be directed towards a field-deployable ambient desorption OES source for quantitative analysis of microvolume solution residues of nuclear forensics importance.

  14. Trace element analysis of mineral water samples by PIXE and ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, V.John; Augusthy, A.; Varier, K. M.; Magudapathy, P.; Panchapakesan, S.; Nair, K.G.M.

    1998-01-01

    Trace elements present in bottled mineral water have been studied by PIXE and ICP-MS. Samples from ten different brands of brands of bottled mineral water were prepared by preconcentration techniques. Measurements were carried out using the 2 MeV proton beam obtained from 3 MV Tandem pelletron accelerator at the Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar. Our results are compared with Indian standard packaged natural mineral water specifications, World Health Organisation (WHO) and European guidelines for drinking water standards. Concentration of aluminum was found to be more in one of the brands. In general, our results are comparable to the above standards. (author)

  15. THE UTILIZATION OF THE WATER RESOURCES OF NISTRU RIVER WITHIN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. MOCREAC

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the studies regarding the water funds, the regimes and characteristics of the flow of river Nistru, those internal larger and smaller ones, taking into consideration what basins exist and the ones with perspective can demonstrate the hydroenergetic potential values of the Republic of Moldova currently and for an extended period of time.The basic variant of the scheme of arrangement on Nistru r. on the basis of the requirements of today’s impact on the environment, the ecological flows, hydroenergetic equipments chosen for the parameters of sufficient operation, and the hydrotechnical unit must have an appearance of a complex utilization. The assurances of the flows and head of the hydro-electric plants with operation in cascade on rivers is caused by the strength of given data and the hydrologic calculations after interstate normatives applied now.

  16. Are implicit policy assumptions about climate adaptation trying to push drinking water utilities down an impossible path?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasic, M. R.; Ekstrom, J.; Bedsworth, L. W.; Baker, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Extreme events such as wildfires, droughts, and flooding are projected to be more frequent and intense under a changing climate, increasing challenges to water quality management. To protect and improve public health, drinking water utility managers need to understand and plan for climate change and extreme events. This three year study began with the assumption that improved climate projections were key to advancing climate adaptation at the local level. Through a survey (N = 259) and interviews (N = 61) with California drinking water utility managers during the peak of the state's recent drought, we found that scientific information was not a key barrier hindering adaptation. Instead, we found that managers fell into three distinct mental models based on their interaction with, perceptions, and attitudes, towards scientific information and the future of water in their system. One of the mental models, "modeled futures", is a concept most in line with how climate change scientists talk about the use of information. Drinking water utilities falling into the "modeled future" category tend to be larger systems that have adequate capacity to both receive and use scientific information. Medium and smaller utilities in California, that more often serve rural low income communities, tend to fall into the other two mental models, "whose future" and "no future". We show evidence that there is an implicit presumption that all drinking water utility managers should strive to align with "modeled future" mental models. This presentation questions this assumption as it leaves behind many utilities that need to adapt to climate change (several thousand in California alone), but may not have the technical, financial, managerial, or other capacity to do so. It is clear that no single solution or pathway to drought resilience exists for water utilities, but we argue that a more explicit understanding and definition of what it means to be a resilient drinking water utility is

  17. Heat Pump Water Heater Technology: Experiences of Residential Consumers and Utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashdown, BG

    2004-08-04

    benefits. Because it produces hot water by extracting heat from the air it tends to dehumidify and cool the room in which it is placed. Moreover, it tends to spread the water heating load across utility non-peak periods. Thus, electric utilities with peak load issues could justify internal programs to promote this technology to residential and commercial customers. For practical purposes, consumers are indifferent to the manner in which water is heated but are very interested in product attributes such as initial first cost, operating cost, performance, serviceability, product size, and installation costs. Thus, the principal drivers for penetrating markets are demonstrating reliability, leveraging the dehumidification attributes of the HPWH, and creating programs that embrace life-cycle cost principles. To supplement this, a product warranty with scrupulous quality control should be implemented; first-price reduction through engineering, perhaps by reducing level of energy efficiency, should be pursued; and niche markets should be courted. The first step toward market penetration is to address the HPWH's performance reliability. Next, the manufacturers could engage select utilities to aggressively market the HPWH. A good approach would be to target distinct segments of the market with the potential for the highest benefits from the technology. Communications media that address performance issues should be developed. When marketing to new home builders, the HPWH could be introduced as part of an energy-efficient package offered as a standard feature by builders of new homes within a community. Conducting focus groups across the United States to gather input on HPWH consumer values will feed useful data back to the manufacturers. ''Renaming'' and ''repackaging'' the HPWH to improve consumer perception, appliance aesthetics, and name recognition should be considered. Once an increased sales volume is achieved, the manufacturers

  18. Implementation of utilities operation and maintenance experience into the European pressurized water reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaiss, W.; Lallier, M.

    1999-01-01

    Since 1992 Electricite de France EDF and German Utilities GU work together with Nuclear Power International NPI, a subsidiary of Framatome and Siemens, in the development of the future European Pressurized Water Reactor EPR. The EPR is an evolutionary concept, based on the French N4 plants and the German KONVOI plants. From the beginning, experienced operation and maintenance people from the precursor plants participate at the design process. Their experience will lead to a plant, which is not only characterised by low investment costs, but also by good operability, high availability and low operation and maintenance costs. No expensive back-fittings should be necessary after commissioning, to reach these availability and maintenance targets. The utility specialists give design requirements for outage performance, system design, and layout. These design requirements are really determining the system performances, and not what was design basis before. It does not necessarily lead to system increases. Mainly it is a shifting of the emphasis to other items. There are even cases, where the system performances can be reduced. Mostly very small modifications, which are nearly cost neutral when implemented early in the design, have big impact on the further operation. If there are big cost influences, a sound balance between investment and gained availability is made together with the designers. There is very fruitful discussion between designers and operators, which is highly estimated by both sides. In this frame also new, revolutionary ideas are coming up, which are going mostly in the direction of investment cost reduction, without loosing operation freedom. It is the first time in Europe, that designers and operators are working so close together. It is also the first time, that the management and the decision making is dominated by the utilities. (author)

  19. Concentration and characteristics of depleted uranium in biological and water samples collected in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Guogang; Belli, Maria; Sansone, Umberto; Rosamilia, Silvia; Gaudino, Stefania

    2006-01-01

    During Balkan conflicts in 1994-1995, depleted uranium (DU) ordnance was employed and was left in the battlefield. Health concern is related to the risk arising from contamination of the environment with DU penetrators and dust. In order to evaluate the impact of DU on the environment and population in Bosnia and Herzegovina, radiological survey of DU in biological and water samples were carried out over the period 12-24 October 2002. The uranium isotopic concentrations in biological samples collected in Bosnia and Herzegovina, mainly lichens, mosses and barks, were found to be in the range of 0.27-35.7 Bq kg -1 for 238 U, 0.24-16.8 Bq kg -1 for 234 U, and 0.02-1.11 Bq kg -1 for 235 U, showing uranium levels to be higher than in the samples collected at the control site. Moreover, the 236 U in some of the samples was detectable. The isotopic ratios of 234 U/ 238 U showed DU to be detectable in many biological samples at most sites examined, but in very low levels. The presence of DU in the biological samples was as a result of DU contamination in air. The uranium concentrations in water samples collected in Bosnia and Herzegovina were found to be in the range of 0.27-16.2 mBq l -1 for 238 U, 0.41-15.6 mBq l -1 for 234 U and 0.012-0.695 mBq l -1 for 235 U, and two water samples were observed to be DU positive; these values are much lower than those in mineral water found in central Italy and below the WHO guideline for public drinking water. From radiotoxicological point of view, at this moment there is no significant radiological risk related to these investigated sites in terms of possible DU contamination of water and/or plants

  20. Locations of Sampling Stations for Water Quality Monitoring in Water Distribution Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathi, Shweta; Gupta, Rajesh

    2014-04-01

    Water quality is required to be monitored in the water distribution networks (WDNs) at salient locations to assure the safe quality of water supplied to the consumers. Such monitoring stations (MSs) provide warning against any accidental contaminations. Various objectives like demand coverage, time for detection, volume of water contaminated before detection, extent of contamination, expected population affected prior to detection, detection likelihood and others, have been independently or jointly considered in determining optimal number and location of MSs in WDNs. "Demand coverage" defined as the percentage of network demand monitored by a particular monitoring station is a simple measure to locate MSs. Several methods based on formulation of coverage matrix using pre-specified coverage criteria and optimization have been suggested. Coverage criteria is defined as some minimum percentage of total flow received at the monitoring stations that passed through any upstream node included then as covered node of the monitoring station. Number of monitoring stations increases with the increase in the value of coverage criteria. Thus, the design of monitoring station becomes subjective. A simple methodology is proposed herein which priority wise iteratively selects MSs to achieve targeted demand coverage. The proposed methodology provided the same number and location of MSs for illustrative network as an optimization method did. Further, the proposed method is simple and avoids subjectivity that could arise from the consideration of coverage criteria. The application of methodology is also shown on a WDN of Dharampeth zone (Nagpur city WDN in Maharashtra, India) having 285 nodes and 367 pipes.

  1. Ground-water sampling of the NNWSI (Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation) water table test wells surrounding Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matuska, N.A.

    1988-12-01

    The US Geological Survey (USGS), as part of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI) study of the water table in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, completed 16 test holes on the Nevada Test Site and Bureau of Land Management-administered lands surrounding Yucca Mountain. These 16 wells are monitored by the USGS for water-level data; however, they had not been sampled for ground-water chemistry or isotropic composition. As part of the review of the proposed Yucca Mountain high-level nuclear waste repository, the Desert Research Institute (DRI) sampled six of these wells. The goal of this sampling program was to measure field-dependent parameters of the water such as electrical conductivity, pH, temperature and dissolved oxygen, and to collect samples for major and minor element chemistry and isotopic analysis. This information will be used as part of a program to geochemically model the flow direction between the volcanic tuff aquifers and the underlying regional carbonate aquifer

  2. Characterization of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from Ganges water, human clinical and milk samples at Varanasi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Dharmendra K; Singh, Rakesh K; Singh, Durg V; Dubey, Suresh K

    2013-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes isolated from Ganges water, human clinical and milk samples were characterized by antibiotic susceptibility, serotype identification, detection of virulence genes and ERIC- and REP-PCR fingerprint analyses. All isolates were uniformly resistant to ampicillin, except two isolates, and showed variable resistance to gentamicin, cotrimoxazole, ofloxacin, rifampicin and tetracycline. Of the 20 isolates found positive for pathogens, seven (four human and three water isolates) belong to serogroups 4b, 4d and 4e; six (one human and five water isolates) belong to serogroups 1/2c and 3c; four milk isolates belong to serogroups 1/2b and 3b; and three milk isolates belong to serogroups 1/2a and 3a. Two water isolates, all human isolates, except one (Pb1) lacking inlJ gene, and three milk isolates possess inlA, inlC, plcA, prfA, actA, hlyA and iap genes. The remaining water and milk isolates showed variable presence of inlJ, plcA, prfA, and iap genes. ERIC- and REP-PCR based analyses collectively indicated that isolates of human clinical samples belong to identical or similar clone and isolates of water and milk samples belong to different clones. Overall study demonstrates the prevalence of pathogenic L. monocytogenes species in the environmental and clinical samples. Most of the isolates were resistant to commonly used antibiotics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Relationship of land use to water quality in the Chesapeake Bay region. [water sampling and photomapping river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correll, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    Both the proportions of the various land use categories present on each watershed and the specific management practices in use in each category affect the quality of runoff waters, and the water quality of the Bay. Several permanent and portable stations on various Maryland Rivers collect volume-integrated water samples. All samples are analyzed for a series of nutrient, particulate, bacterial, herbicide, and heavy metal parameters. Each basin is mapped with respect to land use by the analysis of low-elevation aerial photos. Analyses are verified and adjusted by ground truth surveys. Data are processed and stored in the Smithsonian Institution data bank. Land use categories being investigated include forests/old fields, pastureland, row crops, residential areas, upland swamps, and tidal marshes.

  4. An Optimized Method for Quantification of Pathogenic Leptospira in Environmental Water Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riediger, Irina N; Hoffmaster, Alex R; Casanovas-Massana, Arnau; Biondo, Alexander W; Ko, Albert I; Stoddard, Robyn A

    2016-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease usually acquired by contact with water contaminated with urine of infected animals. However, few molecular methods have been used to monitor or quantify pathogenic Leptospira in environmental water samples. Here we optimized a DNA extraction method for the quantification of leptospires using a previously described Taqman-based qPCR method targeting lipL32, a gene unique to and highly conserved in pathogenic Leptospira. QIAamp DNA mini, MO BIO PowerWater DNA and PowerSoil DNA Isolation kits were evaluated to extract DNA from sewage, pond, river and ultrapure water samples spiked with leptospires. Performance of each kit varied with sample type. Sample processing methods were further evaluated and optimized using the PowerSoil DNA kit due to its performance on turbid water samples and reproducibility. Centrifugation speeds, water volumes and use of Escherichia coli as a carrier were compared to improve DNA recovery. All matrices showed a strong linearity in a range of concentrations from 106 to 10° leptospires/mL and lower limits of detection ranging from Leptospira in environmental waters (river, pond and sewage) which consists of the concentration of 40 mL samples by centrifugation at 15,000×g for 20 minutes at 4°C, followed by DNA extraction with the PowerSoil DNA Isolation kit. Although the method described herein needs to be validated in environmental studies, it potentially provides the opportunity for effective, timely and sensitive assessment of environmental leptospiral burden.

  5. A confirmatory holding time study for purgeable VOCs in water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, O.R.; Bayne, C.K.; Siegrist, R.L.; Holden, W.H.; Bottrell, D.W.

    1996-01-01

    Analyte stability during pre-analytical storage is essential to the accurate quantification contaminants in environmental samples. This is particularly true for volatile organic compounds (VOCS) which can easily volatilize and/or degrade during sample storage. Recognizing this, regulatory agencies require water samples be collected in vials without headspace and stored at 4 degrees C, and that analyses be conducted within 14 days, 2048 even if samples are acid-preserved. Since the selection of a 14-day holding time was largely arbitrary, the appropriateness of this requirement must be re-evaluated. The goal of the study described here was to provide regulatory agencies with the necessary data to extend the maximum holding time for properly preserved VOC water samples to 28 days

  6. May 2012 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, Site (Data Validation Package)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Annual sampling was conducted at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, site for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program May 9-10, 2012, to monitor groundwater and surface water for potential radionuclide contamination. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). A duplicate sample was collected from location Johnson Artesian WL. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectrometry and for tritium using the conventional and enrichment methods. Results of this monitoring at the Rio Blanco site demonstrate that groundwater and surface water outside the site boundaries have not been affected by project-related contaminants.

  7. Preconcentration and determination of heavy metals in water, sediment and biological samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirkhanloo Hamid

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a simple, sensitive and accurate column preconcentration method was developed for the determination of Cd, Cu and Pb ions in river water, urine and sediment samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The procedure is based on the retention of the analytes on a mixed cellulose ester membrane (MCEM column from buffered sample solutions and then their elution from the column with nitric acid. Several parameters, such as pH of the sample solution, volume of the sample and eluent and flow rates of the sample were evaluated. The effects of diverse ions on the preconcentration were also investigated. The recoveries were >95 %. The developed method was applied to the determination of trace metal ions in river water, urine and sediment samples, with satisfactory results. The 3δ detection limits for Cu, Pb and Cd were found to be 2, 3 and 0.2 μg dm−3, respectively. The presented procedure was successfully applied for determination of the copper, lead and cadmium contents in real samples, i.e., river water and biological samples.

  8. [Optimization of solid-phase extraction for enrichment of toxic organic compounds in water samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming-quan; Li, Feng-min; Wu, Qian-yuan; Hu, Hong-ying

    2013-05-01

    A concentration method for enrichment of toxic organic compounds in water samples has been developed based on combined solid-phase extraction (SPE) to reduce impurities and improve recoveries of target compounds. This SPE method was evaluated in every stage to identify the source of impurities. Based on the analysis of Waters Oasis HLB without water samples, the eluent of SPE sorbent after dichloromethane and acetone contributed 85% of impurities during SPE process. In order to reduce the impurities from SPE sorbent, soxhlet extraction of dichloromethane followed by acetone and lastly methanol was applied to the sorbents for 24 hours and the results had proven that impurities were reduced significantly. In addition to soxhlet extraction, six types of prevalent SPE sorbents were used to absorb 40 target compounds, the lgK(ow) values of which were within the range of 1.46 and 8.1, and recovery rates were compared. It was noticed and confirmed that Waters Oasis HLB had shown the best recovery results for most of the common testing samples among all three styrenedivinylbenzene (SDB) polymer sorbents, which were 77% on average. Furthermore, Waters SepPak AC-2 provided good recovery results for pesticides among three types of activated carbon sorbents and the average recovery rates reached 74%. Therefore, Waters Oasis HLB and Waters SepPak AC-2 were combined to obtain a better recovery and the average recovery rate for the tested 40 compounds of this new SPE method was 87%.

  9. Insight into climate change from the carbon exchange of biocrusts utilizing non-rainfall water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Hailong; Hu, Chunxiang

    2017-05-31

    Biocrusts are model ecosystems of global change studies. However, light and non-rainfall water (NRW) were previously few considered. Different biocrust types further aggravated the inconsistence. So carbon-exchange of biocrusts (cyanobacteria crusts-AC1/AC2; cyanolichen crust-LC1; chlorolichen crust-LC2; moss crust-MC) utilizing NRW at various temperatures and light-intensities were determined under simulated and insitu mesocosm experiments. Carbon input of all biocrusts were negatively correlated with experimental temperature under all light-intensity with saturated water and stronger light with equivalent NRW, but positively correlated with temperature under weak light with equivalent NRW. LCPs and R/Pg of AC1 were lowest, followed in turn by AC2, LC2 and MC. Thus AC1 had most opportunities to use NRW, and 2.5 °C warming did cause significant changes of carbon exchange. Structural equation models further revealed that air-temperature was most important for carbon-exchange of ACs, but equally important as NRW for LC2 and MC; positive influence of warming on carbon-input in ACs was much stronger than the latter. Therefore, temperature effect on biocrust carbon-input depends on both moisture and light. Meanwhile, the role of NRW, transitional states between ACs, and obvious carbon-fixation differences between lichen crusts should be fully considered in the future study of biocrusts responding to climate change.

  10. Comparison of POCIS passive samplers vs. composite water sampling: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criquet, Justine; Dumoulin, David; Howsam, Michael; Mondamert, Leslie; Goossens, Jean-François; Prygiel, Jean; Billon, Gabriel

    2017-12-31

    The relevance of Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers (POCIS) was evaluated for the assessment of concentrations of 46 pesticides and 19 pharmaceuticals in a small, peri-urban river with multi-origin inputs. Throughout the period of POCIS deployment, 24h-average water samples were collected automatically, and showed the rapid temporal evolution of concentrations of several micropollutants, as well as permitting the calculation of average concentrations in the water phase for comparison with those estimated from POCIS passive samplers. In the daily water samples, cyproconazol, epoxyconazol and imidacloprid showed high temporal variations with concentrations ranging from under the limit of detection up to several hundreds of ngL -1 . Erythromycin, cyprofloxacin and iopromide also increased rapidly up to tens of ngL -1 within a few days. Conversely, atrazine, caffeine, diclofenac, and to a lesser extent carbamazepine and sucralose, were systematically present in the water samples and showed limited variation in concentrations. For most of the substances studied here, the passive samplers gave reliable average concentrations between the minimal and maximal daily concentrations during the time of deployment. For pesticides, a relatively good correlation was clearly established (R 2 =0.89) between the concentrations obtained by POCIS and those gained from average water samples. A slight underestimation of the concentration by POCIS can be attributed to inappropriate sampling rates extracted from the literature and for our system, and new values are proposed. Considering the all data set, 75% of the results indicate a relatively good agreement between the POCIS and the average water samples concentration (values of the ratio ranging between 0,33 and 3). Note further that this agreement between these concentrations remains valid considering different sampling rates extracted from the literature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of holding time and measurement error on culturing Legionella in environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanders, W Dana; Kirkland, Kimberly H; Shelton, Brian G

    2014-10-01

    Outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease require environmental testing of water samples from potentially implicated building water systems to identify the source of exposure. A previous study reports a large impact on Legionella sample results due to shipping and delays in sample processing. Specifically, this same study, without accounting for measurement error, reports more than half of shipped samples tested had Legionella levels that arbitrarily changed up or down by one or more logs, and the authors attribute this result to shipping time. Accordingly, we conducted a study to determine the effects of sample holding/shipping time on Legionella sample results while taking into account measurement error, which has previously not been addressed. We analyzed 159 samples, each split into 16 aliquots, of which one-half (8) were processed promptly after collection. The remaining half (8) were processed the following day to assess impact of holding/shipping time. A total of 2544 samples were analyzed including replicates. After accounting for inherent measurement error, we found that the effect of holding time on observed Legionella counts was small and should have no practical impact on interpretation of results. Holding samples increased the root mean squared error by only about 3-8%. Notably, for only one of 159 samples, did the average of the 8 replicate counts change by 1 log. Thus, our findings do not support the hypothesis of frequent, significant (≥= 1 log10 unit) Legionella colony count changes due to holding. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Strategies for monitoring the emerging polar organic contaminants in water with emphasis on integrative passive sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderström, Hanna; Lindberg, Richard H; Fick, Jerker

    2009-01-16

    Although polar organic contaminants (POCs) such as pharmaceuticals are considered as some of today's most emerging contaminants few of them are regulated or included in on-going monitoring programs. However, the growing concern among the public and researchers together with the new legislature within the European Union, the registration, evaluation and authorisation of chemicals (REACH) system will increase the future need of simple, low cost strategies for monitoring and risk assessment of POCs in aquatic environments. In this article, we overview the advantages and shortcomings of traditional and novel sampling techniques available for monitoring the emerging POCs in water. The benefits and drawbacks of using active and biological sampling were discussed and the principles of organic passive samplers (PS) presented. A detailed overview of type of polar organic PS available, and their classes of target compounds and field of applications were given, and the considerations involved in using them such as environmental effects and quality control were discussed. The usefulness of biological sampling of POCs in water was found to be limited. Polar organic PS was considered to be the only available, but nevertheless, an efficient alternative to active water sampling due to its simplicity, low cost, no need of power supply or maintenance, and the ability of collecting time-integrative samples with one sample collection. However, the polar organic PS need to be further developed before they can be used as standard in water quality monitoring programs.

  13. 129I, 60Co, and 106Ru measurements on water samples from the Hanford project environs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brauer, F.P.; Rieck, H.G. Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Groundwater flow and contamination patterns beneath the Hanford project reservation have been studied since the early days of the project. The measurement of radioactive materials at concentrations much below those required for radiation protection are useful for tracing groundwater movement and detection of potential contamination problems before they are apt to occur. Groundwater samples from a number of wells on or near the Hanford reservation have been analyzed for 129 I by neutron activation analysis and for gamma radioactivity by low-level coincidence gamma-ray spectrometry. The major radionuclides in addition to natural radioactivity detected in the underground waters by gamma-ray spectrometry were 106 Ru and 60 Co. Local river and rain water samples were also analyzed for 129 I and long-lived radionuclides. Special sample collection methods were developed to prevent contamination of the water samples during collection. Anions travel farther than cations in underground water systems since soils are primarily cation exchangers and retain the cations. Anion exchange techniques were used in the field and the laboratory to recover the desired radionuclides. Sample sizes ranged up to several thousand liters. This paper discusses the sample collection methods,analysis methods, and results obtained. The methods used were found to provide high sensitivity for groundwater studies. (auth)

  14. Using SPMDs for monitoring hydrophobic organic compounds in urban river water in Korea compared with using conventional water grab samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Un-Jung; Kim, Hee Young; Alvarez, David A.; Lee, In-Seok; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to verify the effectiveness of semi-permeablemembrane devices (SPMDs) formonitoring hydrophobic organic compounds, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), that are not easy to detect using conventional grab samples (because of their low concentrations), in water.We used SPMDs and grab samples to monitor PCBs and PBDEs upstream and downstream of a sewage treatment plant (STP) in the Suyeong River in Busan, Korea. Concentrations in three different phases (freely dissolved, apparently dissolved, and particulate) were measured, to investigate the aquatic fate of PCBs and PBDEs. The freely dissolved (SPMD) concentrations were 2–3 times higher than the apparently dissolved and particulate phase (grab sample) concentrations. No meaningful relationships were found between the total PCB and PBDE concentrations of the grab sample and SPMD sample because of the different partitioning behaviors and detection frequencies of the individual chemicals. However, the summed concentrations of specific PCB and PBDE congeners (that were abundant in all samples) in the grab and SPMD samples correlated well (r2 = 0.7451 for PCBs 28 + 52 + 153, r2 = 0.9987 for PBDEs 28 + 47 + 99). The PBDE concentrations measured using SPMDs decreased with increasing distance from the STP, but no apparent dilution effect was found in the grab samples. Our results show that SPMDs could be used to support grab sampling for specific chemicals, or to trace chemical sources (such as STPs) to the aquatic environment.

  15. The determination of levels of mercury, cadmium and lead in water samples from Naivasha area, Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muigai, P.G.; Kamau, G.N.; Kinyua, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    The analysis of mercury, cadmium and lead in water samples from different environments (Lake Naivasha, River Malewa boreholes and Olkaria geothermal wells) in Naivasha region and their possible origins are reported. The levels of mercury and lead in the water samples were above the maximum permissible limits of 0.005 mg/1 and 0.1 mg/1 respectively, as stipulated by the WHO. On the other hand, 83.3% of the samples had cadmium levels above the maximum permissible limit of 0.01mg/1 in drinking water by WHO. The mercury and lead levels were also higher than those previously obtained from different regions of Kenya, while those for cadmium were within the corresponding range. Possible sources of elevated values were the geology of the surrounding area, sewage treatment works, use of phosphate rock fertilizers and lead fuels.(author)

  16. The correlation of arsenic levels in drinking water with the biological samples of skin disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazi, Tasneem Gul [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan)], E-mail: tgkazi@yahoo.com; Arain, Muhammad Balal [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan)], E-mail: bilal_ku2004@yahoo.com; Baig, Jameel Ahmed [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan)], E-mail: jab_mughal@yahoo.com; Jamali, Muhammad Khan [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan)], E-mail: mkhanjamali@yahoo.com; Afridi, Hassan Imran [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan)], E-mail: hassanimranafridi@yahoo.com; Jalbani, Nusrat [Pakistan Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, University Road Karachi-75280 (Pakistan)], E-mail: nusratjalbani_21@yahoo.com; Sarfraz, Raja Adil [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan)], E-mail: rajaadilsarfraz@gmail.com; Shah, Abdul Qadir [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan)], E-mail: aqshah07@yahoo.com; Niaz, Abdul [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan)], E-mail: niazchemist2k6@yahoo.com

    2009-01-15

    Arsenic (As) poisoning has become a worldwide public health concern. The skin is quite sensitive to As and skin lesions are the most common and earliest nonmalignant effects associated to chronic As exposure. In 2005-2007, a survey was carried out on surface and groundwater arsenic contamination and relationships between As exposure via the drinking water and related adverse health effects (melanosis and keratosis) on villagers resides on the banks of Manchar lake, southern part of Sindh, Pakistan. We screened the population from arsenic-affected villages, 61 to 73% population were identified patients suffering from chronic arsenic toxicity. The effects of As toxicity via drinking water were estimated by biological samples (scalp hair and blood) of adults (males and females), have or have not skin problem (n = 187). The referent samples of both genders were also collected from the areas having low level of As (< 10 {mu}g/L) in drinking water (n = 121). Arsenic concentration in drinking water and biological samples were analyzed using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The range of arsenic concentrations in lake surface water was 35.2-158 {mu}g/L, which is 3-15 folds higher than World Health Organization [WHO, 2004. Guidelines for drinking-water quality third ed., WHO Geneva Switzerland.]. It was observed that As concentration in the scalp hair and blood samples were above the range of permissible values 0.034-0.319 {mu}g As/g for hair and < 0.5-4.2 {mu}g/L for blood. The linear regressions showed good correlations between arsenic concentrations in water versus hair and blood samples of exposed skin diseased subjects (R{sup 2} = 0.852 and 0.718) as compared to non-diseased subjects (R{sup 2} = 0.573 and 0.351), respectively.

  17. Detection by PCR of pathogenic protozoa in raw and drinkable water samples in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triviño-Valencia, Jessica; Lora, Fabiana; Zuluaga, Juan David; Gomez-Marin, Jorge E

    2016-05-01

    We evaluated the presence of DNA of Giardia, Toxoplasma, and Cryptosporidium by PCR, and of Giardia and Cryptosporidium genera by immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT), in water samples, before, during, and after plant treatment for drinkable water. We applied this method in 38 samples of 10 l of water taken from each of the water treatment steps and in 8 samples taken at home (only for Toxoplasma PCR) in Quindio region in Colombia. There were 8 positive samples for Cryptosporidium parvum (21 %), 4 for Cryptosporidium hominis (10.5 %), 27 for Toxoplasma gondii (58.6 %), 2 for Giardia duodenalis assemblage A (5.2 %), and 5 for G. duodenalis assemblage B (13.1 %). By IFAT, 23 % were positive for Giardia and 21 % for Cryptosporidium. An almost perfect agreement was found between IFAT and combined results of PCR, by Kappa composite proportion analysis. PCR positive samples were significantly more frequent in untreated raw water for C. parvum (p = 0.02). High mean of fecal coliforms, high pH values, and low mean of chlorine residuals were strongly correlated with PCR positivity for G. duodenalis assemblage B. High pH value was correlated with PCR positivity for C. parvum. Phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences was possible, showing water and human clinical sequences for Toxoplasma within the same phylogenetic group for B1 repeated sequence. PCR assay is complementary to IFAT assay for monitoring of protozoa in raw and drinkable water, enabling species identification and to look for phylogenetic analysis in protozoa from human and environmental sources.

  18. Removal of impurities from environmental water samples for tritium measurement by means of liquid scintillation counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuma, Yoichi; Noda, Mitsuyasu

    2000-01-01

    Tritium concentration in environmental water samples is usually measured by means of liquid scintillation counting. Before the counting distillation operation is necessarily required to remove impurities, which have possibility of bad influence on the measurement, from the samples. But the operation usually takes long time and it is also troublesome. If you could simplify the purification process, you would be much easily able to measure it. Then, we have studied the probability of replacement the process by filtration aiming to simplify the procedure. We prepared several environmental water samples and also several water samples added quenching materials. These samples were purified by means of the distillation and the filtration and the impurities in them were examined. The purified samples were mixed with scintillation cocktail and the tritium concentration was measured. We added small amount of tritium in the same samples and investigated their scintillation spectra and their ESCR values in order to compare the two purification methods. Two kinds of filters were used for the filtration: 0.45 μm and 0.1 μm pore sized membrane filters. The liquid scintillation counter was LB-3 produced by Aloka Co. and Ltd. The scintillation cocktail was Ultima Gold LLT made by Packard Instrument Co and Ltd. The vial was Polyvial 145 LSD made by Zinsser Analytic Co. and Ltd. As the result, there was no significant difference between the two purification methods then the filtration method is feasible instead of the distillation. (author)

  19. Identifying potential surface water sampling sites for emerging chemical pollutants in Gauteng Province, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, F; Dabrowski, JM; Forbes, PBC

    2017-01-01

    Emerging chemical pollutants (ECPs) are defined as new chemicals which do not have a regulatory status, but which may have an adverse effect on human health and the environment. The occurrence and concentrations of ECPs in South African water bodies are largely unknown, so monitoring is required in order to determine the potential threat that these ECPs may pose. Relevant surface water sampling sites in the Gauteng Province of South Africa were identified utilising a geographic information sy...

  20. Assessment of Heavy Metals in Water Samples of Certain Locations Situated Around Tumkur, Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Vijaya Bhaskar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface water and groundwater samples of certain locations namely Kallambella, Bugudanahalli, Maidala, Honnudike, Kunigal, Kadaba and Hebbur, situated around Tumkur were assessed in the month of September 2008 for pH, EC and heavy metals Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Zn and Ni. The pH vales of surface waters were in alkaline range of 7.8-8.2 and are well within safe limits for crop production. The pH of ground- water was in the range of 7.6-8.4. The conductivity was in the range of 0.20-0.68 mS/cm and 0.34-2.44 mS/cm for surface and groundwaters respectively. High EC value of Kallambella groundwater accounts for its salinity. All surface waters except Honnudike and Hebbur samples contain low concentrations of these metals and are ideal for irrigation. Though the samples from Honnudike, Kadaba and Hebbur have high iron concentration, only Honnudike and Hebbur samples have exceeded the limit of 5 mg/L required for irrigation. In groundwaters the concentrations of all these heavy metals except copper are also well in permissible limits and suitable for drinking. Cu, Fe, Ni and Zn were detected in all the samples and found in the range of 0.094-0.131, 0.958-12.537, 0.020-0.036 and 0.082-1.139 mg/L respectively in surface waters and these are in the range of 0.132-0.142, 0.125-1.014, 0.028-0.036 and 0.003-0.037 mg/L in ground- waters. The elements cadmium, mercury and manganese are absent in all the samples.

  1. Explanation of asymmetric dynamics of human water consumption in arid regions: prospect theory versus expected utility theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, F.; Lu, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Based on socioeconomic and hydrological data in three arid inland basins and error analysis, the dynamics of human water consumption (HWC) are analyzed to be asymmetric, i.e., HWC increase rapidly in wet periods while maintain or decrease slightly in dry periods. Besides the qualitative analysis that in wet periods great water availability inspires HWC to grow fast but the now expanded economy is managed to sustain by over-exploitation in dry periods, two quantitative models are established and tested, based on expected utility theory (EUT) and prospect theory (PT) respectively. EUT states that humans make decisions based on the total expected utility, namely the sum of utility function multiplied by probability of each result, while PT states that the utility function is defined over gains and losses separately, and probability should be replaced by probability weighting function.

  2. Development of a protocol for sampling and analysis of ballast water in Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achsah A Mitchell

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The transfer of ballast by the international shipping industry has negatively impacted the environment. To design such a protocol for the area, the ballast water tanks of seven bulk cargo vessels entering a Jamaican port were sampled between January 28, 2010 and August 17, 2010. Vessels originated from five ports and used three main routes, some of which conducted ballast water exchange. Twenty-six preserved and 22 live replicate zooplankton samples were obtained. Abundance and richness were higher than at temperate ports. Exchange did not alter the biotic composition but reduced the abundance. Two of the live sample replicates, containing 31.67 and 16.75 viable individuals m-3, were non-compliant with the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships’ Ballast Water and Sediments. Approximately 12% of the species identified in the ballast water were present in the waters nearest the port in 1995 and 11% were present in the entire bay in 2005. The protocol designed from this study can be used to aid the establishment of a ballast water management system in the Caribbean or used as a foundation for the development of further protocols.

  3. Field sampling of soil pore water to evaluate trace element mobility and associated environmental risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno-Jimenez, Eduardo, E-mail: eduardo.moreno@uam.es [Departamento de Quimica Agricola, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Beesley, Luke [James Hutton Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB15 8QH (United Kingdom); Lepp, Nicholas W. [35, Victoria Road, Formby, Liverpool L37 7DH (United Kingdom); Dickinson, Nicholas M. [Department of Ecology, Lincoln University, Lincoln 7647, PO Box 84 (New Zealand); Hartley, William [School of Computing, Science and Engineering, University of Salford, Cockcroft Building, Salford, M5 4WT (United Kingdom); Clemente, Rafael [Dep. of Soil and Water Conservation and Organic Waste Management, CEBAS-CSIC, Campus Universitario de Espinardo, PO Box 164, 30100 Espinardo, Murcia (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    Monitoring soil pollution is a key aspect in sustainable management of contaminated land but there is often debate over what should be monitored to assess ecological risk. Soil pore water, containing the most labile pollutant fraction in soils, can be easily collected in situ offering a routine way to monitor this risk. We present a compilation of data on concentration of trace elements (As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) in soil pore water collected in field conditions from a range of polluted and non-polluted soils in Spain and the UK during single and repeated monitoring, and propose a simple eco-toxicity test using this media. Sufficient pore water could be extracted for analysis both under semi-arid and temperate conditions, and eco-toxicity comparisons could be effectively made between polluted and non-polluted soils. We propose that in-situ pore water extraction could enhance the realism of risk assessment at some contaminated sites. - Highlights: > In situ pore water sampling successfully evaluates trace elements mobility in soils. > Field sampling proved robust for different soils, sites and climatic regimes. > Measurements may be directly related to ecotoxicological assays. > Both short and long-term monitoring of polluted lands may be achieved. > This method complements other widely used assays for environmental risk assessment. - In situ pore water sampling from a wide variety of soils proves to be a beneficial application to monitor the stability of pollutants in soils and subsequent risk through mobility.

  4. Glufosinate ammonium clean-up procedure from water samples using SPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayeb M., A.; Ismail B., S.; Mardiana-Jansar, K.; Ta, Goh Choo; Agustar, Hani Kartini

    2015-09-01

    For the determination of glufosinate ammonium residue in soil and water samples, different solid phase extraction (SPE) sorbent efficiency was studied. Four different SPE sorbents i.e.: CROMABOND PS-H+, CROMABOND PS-OH-, ISOLUTE ENV+, Water Sep-Pak and OASIS HLB were used. Sample clean-up performance was evaluated using high performance liquid chromatography (Agilent 1220 infinity LC) with fluorescence detector. Detection of FMO-derivatives was done at λ ex = 260 nm and λ em= 310 nm. OASIS HLB column was the most suitable for the clean-up in view of the overall feasibility of the analysis.

  5. Adsorptive stripping voltammetric determination of trace amounts of lead in environmental water samples with complicated matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grabarczyk M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A sensitive, simple and fast adsorptive stripping voltammetric procedure for trace determination of lead in environmental water samples has been developed. The method is based on adsorptive accumulation of the Pb(II-cupferron complex onto a hanging mercury drop electrode, followed by the reduction of the adsorbed species by a voltammetric scan using differential pulse modulation. The interference from surface active substances was eliminated by adsorption of interferents onto an Amberlite XAD-16 resin. Optimumconditions for removing the surfactants by mixing the analysed sample with resin were evaluated. The accuracy of the method was tested by analyzing certified reference material (SPS-WW1 Waste Water.

  6. Classification and authentication of unknown water samples using machine learning algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Palash K; Panchariya, P C; Kundu, Madhusree

    2011-07-01

    This paper proposes the development of water sample classification and authentication, in real life which is based on machine learning algorithms. The proposed techniques used experimental measurements from a pulse voltametry method which is based on an electronic tongue (E-tongue) instrumentation system with silver and platinum electrodes. E-tongue include arrays of solid state ion sensors, transducers even of different types, data collectors and data analysis tools, all oriented to the classification of liquid samples and authentication of unknown liquid samples. The time series signal and the corresponding raw data represent the measurement from a multi-sensor system. The E-tongue system, implemented in a laboratory environment for 6 numbers of different ISI (Bureau of Indian standard) certified water samples (Aquafina, Bisleri, Kingfisher, Oasis, Dolphin, and McDowell) was the data source for developing two types of machine learning algorithms like classification and regression. A water data set consisting of 6 numbers of sample classes containing 4402 numbers of features were considered. A PCA (principal component analysis) based classification and authentication tool was developed in this study as the machine learning component of the E-tongue system. A proposed partial least squares (PLS) based classifier, which was dedicated as well; to authenticate a specific category of water sample evolved out as an integral part of the E-tongue instrumentation system. The developed PCA and PLS based E-tongue system emancipated an overall encouraging authentication percentage accuracy with their excellent performances for the aforesaid categories of water samples. Copyright © 2011 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Alaska Commercial Fisheries Water Quality Sampling Methods and Procedures Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folley, G.; Pearson, L.; Crosby, C. [Alaska Dept. of Environmental Conservation, Soldotna, AK (United States); DeCola, E.; Robertson, T. [Nuka Research and Planning Group, Seldovia, AK (United States)

    2006-07-01

    A comprehensive water quality sampling program was conducted in response to the oil spill that occurred when the M/V Selendang Ayu ship ran aground near a major fishing port at Unalaska Island, Alaska in December 2004. In particular, the sampling program focused on the threat of spilled oil to the local commercial fisheries resources. Spill scientists were unable to confidently model the movement of oil away from the wreck because of limited oceanographic data. In order to determine which fish species were at risk of oil contamination, a real-time assessment of how and where the oil was moving was needed, because the wreck became a continual source of oil release for several weeks after the initial grounding. The newly developed methods and procedures used to detect whole oil during the sampling program will be presented in the Alaska Commercial Fisheries Water Quality Sampling Methods and Procedures Manual which is currently under development. The purpose of the manual is to provide instructions to spill managers while they try to determine where spilled oil has or has not been encountered. The manual will include a meaningful data set that can be analyzed in real time to assess oil movement and concentration. Sections on oil properties and processes will be included along with scientific water quality sampling methods for whole and dissolved phase oil to assess potential contamination of commercial fishery resources and gear in Alaska waters during an oil spill. The manual will present a general discussion of factors that should be considered when designing a sampling program after a spill. In order to implement Alaska's improved seafood safety measures, the spatial scope of spilled oil must be known. A water quality sampling program can provide state and federal fishery managers and food safety inspectors with important information as they identify at-risk fisheries. 11 refs., 7 figs.

  8. Impact of recharge through residual oil upon sampling of underlying ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, W.R.; Chang, Chichung; Klopp, R.A.; Bedient, P.B.

    1991-01-01

    At an aviation gasoline spill site in Traverse City, Michigan, historical records indicate a positive correlation between significant rainfall events and increased concentrations of slightly soluble organic compounds in the monitoring wells of the site. To investigate the recharge effect on ground water quality due to infiltrating water percolating past residual oil and into the saturated zone, an in situ infiltration experiment was performed at the site. Sampling cones were set at various depths below a circular test area, 13 feet (4 meters) in diameter. Rainfall was simulated by sprinkling the test area at a rate sufficiently low to prevent runoff. The sampling cones for soil-gas and ground water quality were installed in the unsaturated and saturated zones to observed the effects of the recharge process. Infiltrated water was determined to have transported organic constituents of the residual oil, specifically benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and ortho-xylene (BTEX), into the ground water beneath the water table, elevating the aqueous concentrations of these constituents in the saturated zone. Soil-gas concentrations of the organic compounds in the unsaturated zone increased with depth and time after the commencement of infiltration. Reaeration of the unconfined aquifer via the infiltrated water was observed. It is concluded that water quality measurements are directly coupled to recharge events for the sandy type of aquifer with an overlying oil phase, which was studied in this work. Ground water sampling strategies and data analysis need to reflect the effect of recharge from precipitation on shallow, unconfined aquifers where an oil phase may be present

  9. A simplified method for low-level tritium measurement in the environmental water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuma, Yoichi; Yamanishi, Hirokuni; Ogata, Yoshimune

    2004-01-01

    Low level liquid scintillation counting took much time with a lot of doing to distill off the impurities in the sample water before mixing the sample with the liquid scintillation cocktail. In the light of it, we investigated the possibility of an alternative filtration method for sample purification. The tritium concentration in the environmental water has become very low, and the samples have to be treated by electrolysis enrichment with a liquid scintillation analyzer. Using the solid polymer electrolyte enriching device, there is no need to add neither any electrolyte nor the neutralization after the concentration. If we could replace the distillation process with the filtration, the procedure would be simplified very much. We investigated the procedure and we were able to prove that the reverse osmosis (RO) filtration was available. Moreover, in order to rationalize all through the measurement method, we examined the followings: (1) Improvement of the enriching apparatus. (2) Easier measurement of heavy water concentration using a density meter, instead of a mass spectrometer. The concentration of water samples was measured to determine the enrichment rate of tritium during the electrolysis enrichment. (author)

  10. Determination of different contaminants in selective drinking water samples collected from Peshawar valley area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihsanullah; Khan, M.; Khattak, T.N.; Sattar, A.

    1999-01-01

    Among the pollutants carried through sewage, industrial effluents, fertilizers, pesticides; heavy metals and various pathogenic bacteria are directly related to human/animal diseases. Samples of drinking water were collected from different locations, in the Peshawar area. Cadmium, lead and copper levels in these samples were determined by potentiometric stripping analysis (PSA). The data indicated wide variation in the concentration of these heavy metals. Variation in results is discussed on the basis of some possible sources of contamination. The concentration of cadmium and lead in all the samples was higher compared to the values given in the guideline of World Health Organization (WHO) for drinking water. Copper was below the detection limit in majority of the samples. The values of Cd, Pb and Cu were in the range of 0.023-2.75, 0.025-1.88 and 0-0.67 mg/1 respectively. Various physical quality indices (ph, electrical conductivity and total solids) and pathogenic bacteria (E. coli and total coliforms) were also determined in water samples. Most of the drinking waters was found contaminated with higher levels of Cd and Pb and pathogenic bacteria and hence, considered unfit for drinking purposes. (author)

  11. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Falls City, Texas. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    Planned, routine ground water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site near Falls City, Texas, are described in this water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP). The following plan identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, and sampling frequency for the routine monitoring stations at the site. The ground water data are used for site characterization and risk assessment. The regulatory basis for routine ground water monitoring at UMTRA Project sites is derived from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations in 40 CFR Part 192. Sampling procedures are guided by the UMTRA Project standard operating procedures (SOP) (JEG, n.d.), the Technical Approach Document (TAD) (DOE, 1989), and the most effective technical approach for the site. The Falls City site is in Karnes County, Texas, approximately 8 miles [13 kilometers southwest of the town of Falls City and 46 mi (74 km) southeast of San Antonio, Texas. Before surface remedial action, the tailings site consisted of two parcels. Parcel A consisted of the mill site, one mill building, five tailings piles, and one tailings pond south of Farm-to-Market (FM) Road 1344 and west of FM 791. A sixth tailings pile designated Parcel B was north of FM 791 and east of FM 1344

  12. Umbrella sampling of proton transfer in a creatine-water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivchenko, Olga; Bachert, Peter; Imhof, Petra

    2014-04-01

    Proton transfer reactions are among the most common processes in chemistry and biology. Proton transfer between creatine and surrounding solvent water is underlying the chemical exchange saturation transfer used as a contrast in magnetic resonance imaging. The free energy barrier, determined by first-principles umbrella sampling simulations (EaDFT 3 kcal/mol) is in the same order of magnitude as the experimentally obtained activation energy. The underlying mechanism is a first proton transfer from the guanidinium group to the water pool, followed by a second transition where a proton is "transferred back" from the nearest water molecule to the deprotonated nitrogen atom of creatine.

  13. Frequency of hepatitis E and Hepatitis A virus in water sample collected from Faisalabad, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahir Ahmad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis E and Hepatitis A virus both are highly prevalent in Pakistan mainly present as a sporadic disease. The aim of the current study is to isolate and characterized the specific genotype of Hepatitis E virus from water bodies of Faisalabad, Pakistan. Drinking and sewage samples were qualitatively analyzed by using RT-PCR. HEV Genotype 1 strain was recovered from sewage water of Faisalabad. Prevalence of HEV and HAV in sewage water propose the possibility of gradual decline in the protection level of the circulated vaccine in the Pakistani population.

  14. Removal of arsenic from ground water samples collected from West Bengal, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajith, Nicy; Swain, K.K.; Dalvi, Aditi A.; Verma, R.

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic contamination in ground water is one of the major concerns in many parts of the world including Bangladesh and India. Considering the high toxicity of arsenic, World Health Organization (WHO) has set a provisional guideline value of 10 μg L -1 for arsenic in drinking water. Several methods have been adopted for the removal of arsenic from drinking water. Most of the methods fail to remove As(III), the most toxic form of arsenic. An extra oxidative treatment step is essential for effective removal of total arsenic. Manganese dioxide (MnO 2 ) oxidizes As(III) to As(V). Removal of arsenic from water using manganese dioxide has been reported. During this work, removal of arsenic from ground water samples collected from arsenic contaminated area of West Bengal, India were carried out using MnO 2

  15. Determination of anionic concentrations in ground water samples using ion chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prathibha, P.; Saradhi, I.V.; Pandit, G.G.; Puranik, V.D.

    2011-01-01

    Ion chromatography is a powerful separation technique for the quantitative measurement of anions in aqueous samples as well as in soil, sediment and air particulate samples leached in aqueous solutions. Ion chromatographic technique is developed by making use of suppressed ion conductivity detection (Small et.al.,1975) and it is a rapid multi ion analysis technique. The time, processing and effort required for the analysis of anions is much less compared to other techniques available such as ion selective electrode technique. In the present paper ground water samples collected around New BARC campus, Visakhapatnam are analyzed for anions using Ion chromatograph. The data generated will establish the current baseline status of the ionic contaminants in the study area. Groundwater samples are collected at 13 locations around BARC Vizag campus covering 30 km radius in September, 2009, April and July, 2010. The water samples include samples from hand pump and open wells in villages. The water samples are analyzed for fluoride, chloride, nitrate and sulphate using Metrohm make Ion chromatograph. The fluoride concentration in samples varied from 0.22 to 1.26 ppm, chloride from 18.7 to 810.9, nitrate from 1.34 to 378.5 ppm and sulphate from 13.29 to 250.69 ppm. No significant seasonal variations are observed in the samples collected from various locations except chloride at two locations. Ions Chromatograph is found to be a useful tool for simultaneous analysis of environmental samples with good accuracy where the concentrations of anions vary within an order of magnitude among them themselves. (author)

  16. Infrared thermometry and the crop water stress index. II. Sampling procedures and interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, B. R. [BP Research, Cleveland, OH (United States); Nielsen, D. C.; Shock, C. C.

    1992-10-15

    Infrared thermometry can be a valuable research and production tool for detecting and quantifying water stress in plants, as shown by a large volume of published research. Users of infrared thermometers (IRT) should be aware of the many equipment, environmental, and plant factors influencing canopy temperature measured by an IRT. The purpose of this paper is to describe factors influencing measured plant temperature, outline sampling procedures that will produce reliable Crop Water Stress Index (CWSI) values, and offer interpretations of CWSI and plant temperatures relative to crop production and other water stress parameters by reviewing previously conducted research. Factors that are considered are IRT condition, configuration, and position; psychrometer location; wind speed; solar radiation; time of day; leaf area and orientation; and appropriate non-water-stressed baseline equation. Standard sampling and CWSI calculation procedures are proposed. Use of CWSI with crops varying in type of response to water stress is described. Previously conducted research on plant temperatures or CWSI is tabulated by crop and water stress parameters measured. The paper provides valuable information to assist interested users of IRTs in making reliable water stress measurements. (author)

  17. Infrared thermometry and the crop water stress index. II. Sampling procedures and interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, B.R.; Nielsen, D.C.; Shock, C.C.

    1992-01-01

    Infrared thermometry can be a valuable research and production tool for detecting and quantifying water stress in plants, as shown by a large volume of published research. Users of infrared thermometers (IRT) should be aware of the many equipment, environmental, and plant factors influencing canopy temperature measured by an IRT. The purpose of this paper is to describe factors influencing measured plant temperature, outline sampling procedures that will produce reliable Crop Water Stress Index (CWSI) values, and offer interpretations of CWSI and plant temperatures relative to crop production and other water stress parameters by reviewing previously conducted research. Factors that are considered are IRT condition, configuration, and position; psychrometer location; wind speed; solar radiation; time of day; leaf area and orientation; and appropriate non-water-stressed baseline equation. Standard sampling and CWSI calculation procedures are proposed. Use of CWSI with crops varying in type of response to water stress is described. Previously conducted research on plant temperatures or CWSI is tabulated by crop and water stress parameters measured. The paper provides valuable information to assist interested users of IRTs in making reliable water stress measurements. (author)

  18. Metal quantification in water and sediment samples of billings reservoir by SR-TXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampaio, Sergio Arnaud; Moreira, Silvana; Vives, Ana Elisa Sirito de

    2007-01-01

    Billings is the largest reservoir water of the metropolitan Sao Paulo area, with approximately 100km 2 of water. Its basin hydrographic occupies more than 500km 2 in six cities. It concentrates the largest industrial park of South America and only its margins are busy for almost a million inhabitants. The quality of its waters is, therefore, constant of concern of the whole society. In this work the Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X Ray Fluorescence (SR-TXRF) is applied for the identification and quantification of metals in waters and sediments of the Billings dam. A comparison of the levels of metals found with the maximum permissive limits established by the Brazilian legislation was made. The purpose of social context is to contribute for the preservation of the local springs and the rational use of its waters. For the field work they were chosen 19 collection points, included the margins and the central portion of the dam, in agreement with similar approaches the those adopted by the Company of Technology of Environmental Sanitation of Sao Paulo State (CETESB).The water and sediment samples, as well as the certified and standard samples, were analyzed at Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), Campinas, SP, Brazil. Results indicate that the water and the sediments of the reservoir have concentrations above the legal limits. (author)

  19. Metal quantification in water and sediment samples of billings reservoir by SR-TXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampaio, Sergio Arnaud; Moreira, Silvana [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mails: silvana@fec.unicamp.br; sergioarnaud@hotmail.com; Vives, Ana Elisa Sirito de [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br

    2007-07-01

    Billings is the largest reservoir water of the metropolitan Sao Paulo area, with approximately 100km{sup 2} of water. Its basin hydrographic occupies more than 500km{sup 2} in six cities. It concentrates the largest industrial park of South America and only its margins are busy for almost a million inhabitants. The quality of its waters is, therefore, constant of concern of the whole society. In this work the Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X Ray Fluorescence (SR-TXRF) is applied for the identification and quantification of metals in waters and sediments of the Billings dam. A comparison of the levels of metals found with the maximum permissive limits established by the Brazilian legislation was made. The purpose of social context is to contribute for the preservation of the local springs and the rational use of its waters. For the field work they were chosen 19 collection points, included the margins and the central portion of the dam, in agreement with similar approaches the those adopted by the Company of Technology of Environmental Sanitation of Sao Paulo State (CETESB).The water and sediment samples, as well as the certified and standard samples, were analyzed at Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), Campinas, SP, Brazil. Results indicate that the water and the sediments of the reservoir have concentrations above the legal limits. (author)

  20. Simple Modification of Karl-Fischer Titration Method for Determination of Water Content in Colored Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Tavčar; Erika Turk; Samo Kreft

    2012-01-01

    The most commonly used technique for water content determination is Karl-Fischer titration with electrometric detection, requiring specialized equipment. When appropriate equipment is not available, the method can be performed through visual detection of a titration endpoint, which does not enable an analysis of colored samples. Here, we developed a method with spectrophotometric detection of a titration endpoint, appropriate for moisture determination of colored samples. The reaction takes p...

  1. Program for TI programmable 59 calculator for calculation of 3H concentration of water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, S.D.; Asghar, G.

    1982-09-01

    A program has been developed for TI Programmable 59 Calculator of Texas Instruments Inc. to calculate from the observed parameters such as count rate etc. the 3 H (tritium) concentration of water samples processed with/without prior electrolytic enrichment. Procedure to use the program has been described in detail. A brief description of the laboratory treatment of samples and the mathematical equations used in the calculations have been given. (orig./A.B.)

  2. Demonstration/Validation of the Snap Sampler Passive Ground Water Sampling Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    purging and sampling protocol. Analytes that were measured at the Pease site included total and dissolved concentrations of arsenic (As), calcium ...samples remain in the original bottle in which they were collected, presumably losses of volatiles and changes in concentrations of dissolved gases or...because of excavation and removal. This has resulted in hydraulically interconnected bedrock and overburden water- bearing zones in much of this area

  3. Effects of Geographic Diversification on Risk Pooling to Mitigate Drought-Related Financial Losses for Water Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Rachel; Characklis, Gregory W.; Serre, Marc L.

    2018-04-01

    As the costs and regulatory barriers to new water supply development continue to rise, drought management strategies have begun to rely more heavily on temporary conservation measures. While these measures are effective, they often lead to intermittent and unpredictable reductions in revenues that are financially disruptive to water utilities, raising concerns over lower credit ratings and higher rates of borrowing for this capital intensive sector. Consequently, there is growing interest in financial risk management strategies that reduce utility vulnerabilities. This research explores the development of financial index insurance designed to compensate a utility for drought-related losses. The focus is on analyzing candidate hydrologic indices that have the potential to be used by utilities across the US, increasing the potential for risk pooling, which would offer the possibility of both lower risk management costs and more widespread implementation. This work first analyzes drought-related financial risks for 315 publicly operated water utilities across the country and examines the effectiveness of financial contracts based on several indices both in terms of their correlation with utility revenues and their spatial autocorrelation across locations. Hydrologic-based index insurance contracts are then developed and tested over a 120 year period. Results indicate that risk pooling, even under conditions in which droughts are subject to some level of spatial autocorrelation, has the potential to significantly reduce the cost of managing financial risk.

  4. Sample preconcentration utilizing nanofractures generated by junction gap breakdown assisted by self-assembled monolayer of gold nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ping Jen

    Full Text Available The preconcentration of proteins with low concentrations can be used to increase the sensitivity and accuracy of detection. A nonlinear electrokinetic flow is induced in a nanofluidic channel due to the overlap of electrical double layers, resulting in the fast accumulation of proteins, referred to as the exclusion-enrichment effect. The proposed chip for protein preconcentration was fabricated using simple standard soft lithography with a polydimethylsiloxane replica. This study extends our previous paper, in which gold nanoparticles were manually deposited onto the surface of a protein preconcentrator. In the present work, nanofractures were formed by utilizing the self-assembly of gold-nanoparticle-assisted electric breakdown. This reliable method for nanofracture formation, involving self-assembled monolayers of nanoparticles at the junction gap between microchannels, also decreases the required electric breakdown voltage. The experimental results reveal that a high concentration factor of 1.5×10(4 for a protein sample with an extremely low concentration of 1 nM was achieved in 30 min by using the proposed chip, which is faster than our previously proposed chip at the same conditions. Moreover, an immunoassay of bovine serum albumin (BSA and anti-BSA was carried out to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed chip.

  5. Pulsed photothermal profiling of water-based samples using a spectrally composite reconstruction approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majaron, B; Milanic, M

    2010-01-01

    Pulsed photothermal profiling involves reconstruction of temperature depth profile induced in a layered sample by single-pulse laser exposure, based on transient change in mid-infrared (IR) emission from its surface. Earlier studies have indicated that in watery tissues, featuring a pronounced spectral variation of mid-IR absorption coefficient, analysis of broadband radiometric signals within the customary monochromatic approximation adversely affects profiling accuracy. We present here an experimental comparison of pulsed photothermal profiling in layered agar gel samples utilizing a spectrally composite kernel matrix vs. the customary approach. By utilizing a custom reconstruction code, the augmented approach reduces broadening of individual temperature peaks to 14% of the absorber depth, in contrast to 21% obtained with the customary approach.

  6. {sup 222}Rn determination in water and brine samples using liquid scintillation spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Thiago C.; Oliveira, Arno H., E-mail: oliveiratco2010@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Monteiro, Roberto P.G.; Moreira, Rubens M., E-mail: rpgm@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN-CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Liquid scintillation spectrometry (LSC) is the most common technique used for {sup 222}Rn determination in environmental aqueous sample. In this study, the performance of water-miscible (Ultima Gold AB) and immiscible (Optiscint) liquid scintillation cocktails has been compared for different matrices. {sup 241}Am, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 226}Ra standard solutions were used for LSC calibration. {sup 214}Po region was defined as better for both cocktails. Counting efficiency of 76 % and optimum PSA level of 95 for Ultima Gold AB cocktail, and counting efficiency of 82 % and optimum PSA level of 85 for Optiscint cocktail were obtained. Both cocktails showed similar results when applied for {sup 222}Rn activity determination in water and brine samples. However the Optiscint is recommended due to its quenching resistance. Limit of detection of 0.08 and 0.06 Bq l{sup -1} were obtained for water samples using a sample:cocktail ratio of 10:12 mL for Ultima Gold AB and Optiscint cocktails, respectively. Limit of detection of 0.08 and 0.04 Bq l{sup -1} were obtained for brine samples using a sample:cocktail ratio of 8:12 mL for Ultima Gold AB and Optiscint cocktails, respectively. (author)

  7. 222Rn determination in water and brine samples using liquid scintillation spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Thiago C.; Oliveira, Arno H.

    2017-01-01

    Liquid scintillation spectrometry (LSC) is the most common technique used for 222 Rn determination in environmental aqueous sample. In this study, the performance of water-miscible (Ultima Gold AB) and immiscible (Optiscint) liquid scintillation cocktails has been compared for different matrices. 241 Am, 90 Sr and 226 Ra standard solutions were used for LSC calibration. 214 Po region was defined as better for both cocktails. Counting efficiency of 76 % and optimum PSA level of 95 for Ultima Gold AB cocktail, and counting efficiency of 82 % and optimum PSA level of 85 for Optiscint cocktail were obtained. Both cocktails showed similar results when applied for 222 Rn activity determination in water and brine samples. However the Optiscint is recommended due to its quenching resistance. Limit of detection of 0.08 and 0.06 Bq l -1 were obtained for water samples using a sample:cocktail ratio of 10:12 mL for Ultima Gold AB and Optiscint cocktails, respectively. Limit of detection of 0.08 and 0.04 Bq l -1 were obtained for brine samples using a sample:cocktail ratio of 8:12 mL for Ultima Gold AB and Optiscint cocktails, respectively. (author)

  8. The installation of a multiport ground-water sampling system in the 300 Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilmore, T.J.

    1989-06-01

    In 1988, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory installed a multiport groundwater sampling system in well 399-1-20, drilled north of the 300 Area on the Hanford Site in southwestern Washington State. The purpose of installing the multiport system is to evaluate methods of determining the vertical distribution of contaminants and hydraulic heads in ground water. Well 399-1-20 is adjacent to a cluster of four Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) ground-water monitoring wells. This proximity makes it possible to compare sampling intervals and head measurements between the multiport system and the RCRA monitoring wells. Drilling and installation of the multiport system took 42 working days. Six sampling ports were installed in the upper unconfined aquifer at depths of approximately 120, 103, 86, 74, 56, and 44 feet. The locations of the sampling ports were determined by the hydrogeology of the area and the screened intervals of adjacent ground-water monitoring wells. The system was installed by backfilling sand around the sampling ports and isolating the ports with bentonite seals. The method proved adequate. For future installation, however, development and evaluation of an alternative method is recommended. In the alternative method suggested, the multiport system would be placed inside a cased and screened well, using packers to isolate the sampling zones. 4 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  9. Method validation to determine total alpha beta emitters in water samples using LSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Nashawati, A.; Al-akel, B.; Saaid, S.

    2006-06-01

    In this work a method was validated to determine gross alpha and beta emitters in water samples using liquid scintillation counter. 200 ml of water from each sample were evaporated to 20 ml and 8 ml of them were mixed with 12 ml of the suitable cocktail to be measured by liquid scintillation counter Wallac Winspectral 1414. The lower detection limit by this method (LDL) was 0.33 DPM for total alpha emitters and 1.3 DPM for total beta emitters. and the reproducibility limit was (± 2.32 DPM) and (±1.41 DPM) for total alpha and beta emitters respectively, and the repeatability limit was (±2.19 DPM) and (±1.11 DPM) for total alpha and beta emitters respectively. The method is easy and fast because of the simple preparation steps and the large number of samples that can be measured at the same time. In addition, many real samples and standard samples were analyzed by the method and showed accurate results so it was concluded that the method can be used with various water samples. (author)

  10. External quality control in ground-water sampling and analysis at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, S.H.; Juracich, S.P.

    1991-11-01

    At the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site, external Quality Control (QC) for ground-water monitoring is extensive and has included routine submittal of intra- and interlaboratory duplicate samples, blind samples, and several kinds of blank samples. Examination of the resulting QC data for nine of the constituents found in ground water at the Hanford Site shows that the quality of analysis has generally been within the expectations of precision and accuracy that have been established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The constituents subjected to review were nitrate, chromium, sodium, fluoride, carbon tetrachloride, tritium, ammonium, trichloroethylene, and cyanide. Of these, the fluoride measurements were notable exceptions and were poor by EPA standards. The review has shown that interlaboratory analysis of duplicate samples yields the most useful QC data for evaluating laboratory performance in determining commonly encountered constituents. For rarely encountered constituents, interlaboratory comparisons may be augmented with blind samples (synthetic samples of known composition). Intralaboratory comparisons, blanks, and spikes should be generally restricted to studies of suspected or known sample contamination and to studies of the adequacy of sampling and analytical procedures

  11. Physiological response of wild dugongs (Dugong dugon) to out-of-water sampling for health assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanyon, Janet M.; Sneath, Helen L.; Long, Trevor; Bonde, Robert K.

    2010-01-01

    The dugong (Dugong dugon) is a vulnerable marine mammal with large populations living in urban Queensland waters. A mark-recapture program for wild dugongs has been ongoing in southern Queensland since 2001. This program has involved capture and in-water sampling of more than 700 dugongs where animals have been held at the water surface for 5 min to be gene-tagged, measured, and biopsied. In 2008, this program expanded to examine more comprehensively body condition, reproductive status, and the health of wild dugongs in Moreton Bay. Using Sea World's research vessel, captured dugongs were lifted onto a boat and sampled out-of-water to obtain accurate body weights and morphometrics, collect blood and urine samples for baseline health parameters and hormone profiles, and ultrasound females for pregnancy status. In all, 30 dugongs, including two pregnant females, were sampled over 10 d and restrained on deck for up to 55 min each while biological data were collected. Each of the dugongs had their basic temperature-heart rate-respiration (THR) monitored throughout their period of handling, following protocols developed for the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus). This paper reports on the physiological response of captured dugongs during this out-of-water operation as indicated by their vital signs and the suitability of the manatee monitoring protocols to this related sirenian species. A recommendation is made that the range of vital signs of these wild dugongs be used as benchmark criteria of normal parameters for other studies that intend to sample dugongs out-of-water.

  12. Robowell: An automated process for monitoring ground water quality using established sampling protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato, G.E.; Smith, K.P.

    1999-01-01

    Robowell is an automated process for monitoring selected ground water quality properties and constituents by pumping a well or multilevel sampler. Robowell was developed and tested to provide a cost-effective monitoring system that meets protocols expected for manual sampling. The process uses commercially available electronics, instrumentation, and hardware, so it can be configured to monitor ground water quality using the equipment, purge protocol, and monitoring well design most appropriate for the monitoring site and the contaminants of interest. A Robowell prototype was installed on a sewage treatment plant infiltration bed that overlies a well-studied unconfined sand and gravel aquifer at the Massachusetts Military Reservation, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, during a time when two distinct plumes of constituents were released. The prototype was operated from May 10 to November 13, 1996, and quality-assurance/quality-control measurements demonstrated that the data obtained by the automated method was equivalent to data obtained by manual sampling methods using the same sampling protocols. Water level, specific conductance, pH, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, and dissolved ammonium were monitored by the prototype as the wells were purged according to U.S Geological Survey (USGS) ground water sampling protocols. Remote access to the data record, via phone modem communications, indicated the arrival of each plume over a few days and the subsequent geochemical reactions over the following weeks. Real-time availability of the monitoring record provided the information needed to initiate manual sampling efforts in response to changes in measured ground water quality, which proved the method and characterized the screened portion of the plume in detail through time. The methods and the case study described are presented to document the process for future use.

  13. Screening and Quantification of Aliphatic Primary Alkyl Corrosion Inhibitor Amines in Water Samples by Paper Spray Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jjunju, Fred P M; Maher, Simon; Damon, Deidre E; Barrett, Richard M; Syed, S U; Heeren, Ron M A; Taylor, Stephen; Badu-Tawiah, Abraham K

    2016-01-19

    Direct analysis and identification of long chain aliphatic primary diamine Duomeen O (n-oleyl-1,3-diaminopropane), corrosion inhibitor in raw water samples taken from a large medium pressure water tube boiler plant water samples at low LODs (corrosion inhibitors in an industrial water boiler plant and other related samples in the water treatment industry. This approach was applied for the analysis of three complex water samples including feedwater, condensate water, and boiler water, all collected from large medium pressure (MP) water tube boiler plants, known to be dosed with varying amounts of polyamine and amine corrosion inhibitor components. Polyamine chemistry is widely used for example in large high pressure (HP) boilers operating in municipal waste and recycling facilities to prevent corrosion of metals. The samples used in this study are from such a facility in Coventry waste treatment facility, U.K., which has 3 × 40 tonne/hour boilers operating at 17.5 bar.

  14. Solvent-assisted dispersive solid-phase extraction: A sample preparation method for trace detection of diazinon in urine and environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aladaghlo, Zolfaghar; Fakhari, Alireza; Behbahani, Mohammad

    2016-09-02

    In this research, a sample preparation method termed solvent-assisted dispersive solid-phase extraction (SA-DSPE) was applied. The used sample preparation method was based on the dispersion of the sorbent into the aqueous sample to maximize the interaction surface. In this approach, the dispersion of the sorbent at a very low milligram level was received by inserting a solution of the sorbent and disperser solvent into the aqueous sample. The cloudy solution created from the dispersion of the sorbent in the bulk aqueous sample. After pre-concentration of the diazinon, the cloudy solution was centrifuged and diazinon in the sediment phase dissolved in ethanol and determined by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector. Under the optimized conditions (pH of solution=7.0, Sorbent: benzophenone, 2%, Disperser solvent: ethanol, 500μL, Centrifuge: centrifuged at 4000rpm for 3min), the method detection limit for diazinon was 0.2, 0.3, 0.3 and 0.3μgL(-1) for distilled water, lake water, waste water and urine sample, respectively. Furthermore, the pre-concentration factor was 363.8, 356.1, 360.7 and 353.38 in distilled water, waste water, lake water and urine sample, respectively. SA-DSPE was successfully used for trace monitoring of diazinon in urine, lake and waste water samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Water Quality Sampling Locations Along the Shoreline of the Columbia River, Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Robert E.; Patton, Gregory W.

    2009-12-14

    As environmental monitoring evolved on the Hanford Site, several different conventions were used to name or describe location information for various sampling sites along the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. These methods range from handwritten descriptions in field notebooks to the use of modern electronic surveying equipment, such as Global Positioning System receivers. These diverse methods resulted in inconsistent archiving of analytical results in various electronic databases and published reports because of multiple names being used for the same site and inaccurate position data. This document provides listings of sampling sites that are associated with groundwater and river water sampling. The report identifies names and locations for sites associated with sampling: (a) near-river groundwater using aquifer sampling tubes; (b) riverbank springs and springs areas; (c) pore water collected from riverbed sediment; and (d) Columbia River water. Included in the listings are historical names used for a particular site and the best available geographic coordinates for the site, as of 2009. In an effort to create more consistency in the descriptive names used for water quality sampling sites, a naming convention is proposed in this document. The convention assumes that a unique identifier is assigned to each site that is monitored and that this identifier serves electronic database management requirements. The descriptive name is assigned for the convenience of the subsequent data user. As the historical database is used more intensively, this document may be revised as a consequence of discovering potential errors and also because of a need to gain consensus on the proposed naming convention for some water quality monitoring sites.

  16. Membrane solid-phase extraction: Field application for isolation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furlong, E.T.; Koleis, J.C.; Gates, P.M.

    1995-01-01

    Solid-phase extraction (SPE) membranes (M-SPE) were used to isolate microgram-per-liter to nanogram-per-liter quantities of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in 4- to 8-liter ground-water samples from a crude-oil-contaminated ground-water site near Bemidji, Minnesota. The M-SPE method was evaluated (1) under laboratory conditions using reagent water fortified with individual PAH at 1.23 micrograms per liter, and (2) at the Bemidji site. At the site, ground-water samples were processed and PAH isolated using a M-SPE system connected directly to the well pump. Following sample isolation, all M-SPE samples were extracted using dichloromethane and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with selected-ion monitoring. Operationally, the M-SPE method provided a simple means to isolate PAH on site at the wellhead, particularly for anoxic water samples. Acceptable recoveries, ranging from 56 to over 100 percent, were observed for lower molecular weight PAH (naphthalene to pyrene) using the M-SPE method. Recoveries using M-SPE were somewhat lower, but reproducible, for higher molecular weight PAH (chrysene to benzo[ghi]perylene), ranging from 18 to 56 percent. M-SPE provides the capability to collect and field isolate PAH from a sufficiently large number of samples to identify environmental chemical processes occurring at individual compound concentrations of 50 to 1,200 nanograms per liter. Using M-SPE, the potential for facilitated transport of PAH by in situ-derived dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was evaluated at the site. Plots comparing DOC and PAH concentrations indicate that PAH concentrations increase exponentially with linear increases in DOC concentrations

  17. Determination of radon and radium concentrations in drinking water samples around the city of Kutahya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahin, L.; Cetinkaya, H.; Murat Sac, M.; Ichedef, M.

    2013-01-01

    The concentration of radium and radon has been determined in drinking water samples collected from various locations of Kutahya city, Turkey. The water samples are taken from public water sources and tap water, with the collector chamber method used to measure the radon and radium concentration. The radon concentration ranges between 0.1 and 48.6±1.7 Bq l -1 , while the radium concentration varies from a minimum detectable activity of -1 in Kutahya city. In addition to the radon and radium levels, parameters such as pH, conductivity and temperature of the water, humidity, pressure, elevation and the coordinates of the sampling points have also been measured and recorded. The annual effective dose from radon and radium due to typical water usage has been calculated. The resulting contribution to the annual effective dose due to radon ingestion varies between 0.3 and 124.2 μSv y -1 ; the contribution to the annual effective dose due to radium ingestion varies between 0 and 143.3 μSv y -1 ; the dose contribution to the stomach due to radon ingestion varies between 0.03 and 14.9 μSv y -1 . The dose contribution due to radon inhalation ranges between 0.3 and 122.5 μSv y -1 , assuming a typical transfer of radon in water to the air. For the overwhelming majority of the Kutahya population, it is determined that the average radiation exposure from drinking water is less than 73.6μmSv y -1 . (authors)

  18. Quantitative Detection of Trace Malachite Green in Aquiculture Water Samples by Extractive Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiaowei; Yang, Shuiping; Chingin, Konstantin; Zhu, Liang; Zhang, Xinglei; Zhou, Zhiquan; Zhao, Zhanfeng

    2016-08-11

    Exposure to malachite green (MG) may pose great health risks to humans; thus, it is of prime importance to develop fast and robust methods to quantitatively screen the presence of malachite green in water. Herein the application of extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (EESI-MS) has been extended to the trace detection of MG within lake water and aquiculture water, due to the intensive use of MG as a biocide in fisheries. This method has the advantage of obviating offline liquid-liquid extraction or tedious matrix separation prior to the measurement of malachite green in native aqueous medium. The experimental results indicate that the extrapolated detection limit for MG was ~3.8 μg·L(-1) (S/N = 3) in lake water samples and ~0.5 μg·L(-1) in ultrapure water under optimized experimental conditions. The signal intensity of MG showed good linearity over the concentration range of 10-1000 μg·L(-1). Measurement of practical water samples fortified with MG at 0.01, 0.1 and 1.0 mg·L(-1) gave a good validation of the established calibration curve. The average recoveries and relative standard deviation (RSD) of malachite green in lake water and Carassius carassius fish farm effluent water were 115% (6.64% RSD), 85.4% (9.17% RSD) and 96.0% (7.44% RSD), respectively. Overall, the established EESI-MS/MS method has been demonstrated suitable for sensitive and rapid (malachite green in various aqueous media, indicating its potential for online real-time monitoring of real life samples.

  19. Report on water quality, sediment and water chemistry data for water and sediment samples collected from source areas to Melton Hill and Watts Bar reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomaszewski, T.M.; Bruggink, D.J.; Nunn, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    Contamination of surface water and sediments in the Clinch River and Watts Bar Reservoir (CR/WBR) system as a result of past and present activities by the US Department of Energy (DOE) on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and also activities by non-ORR facilities are being studied by the Clinch River Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP). Previous studies have documented the presence of heavy metals, organics, and radionuclides in the sediments of reservoirs in the vicinity. In support of the CR-ERP, during the summer of 1991, TVA collected and evaluated water and sediment samples from swimming areas and municipal water intakes on Watts Bar Reservoir, Melton Hill Reservoir and Norris Reservoir, which was considered a source of less-contaminated reference or background data. Despite the numerous studies, until the current work documented by this report, relatively few sediment or water samples had been collected by the CR-ERP in the immediate vicinity of contaminant point sources. This work focused on water and sediment samples taken from points immediately downstream from suspected effluent point sources both on and off the ORR. In August and September, 1994, TVA sampled surface water and sediment at twelve locations in melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs

  20. Energy Research Advisory Board, Civilian Nuclear Power Panel: Subpanel 1 report, Light water reactor utilization and improvement: Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    The Secretary of Energy requested that the Office of Nuclear Energy prepare a strategic national plan that outlines the Department's role in the future development of civilian nuclear power and that the Energy Research Advisory Board establish an ad hoc panel to review and comment on this plan. The Energy Research Advisory Board formed a panel for this review and three subpanels were formed. One subpanel was formed to address the institutional issues surrounding nuclear power, one on research and development for advanced nuclear power plants and a third subpanel on light water reactor utilization and improvement. The subpanel on light water reactors held two meetings at which representatives of the DOE, the NRC, EPRI, industry and academic groups made presentations. This is the report of the subpanel on light water reactor utilization and improvement. This report presents the subpanel's assessment of initiatives which the Department of Energy should undertake in the national interest, to develop and support light water reactor technologies