WorldWideScience

Sample records for water samples collected

  1. Water sample-collection and distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, R. R.

    1978-01-01

    Collection and distribution system samples water from six designated stations, filtered if desired, and delivers it to various analytical sensors. System may be controlled by Water Monitoring Data Acquisition System or operated manually.

  2. Guidelines for collection and field analysis of water-quality samples from streams in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, F.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Dorsey, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    This manual provides standardized guidelines and quality-control procedures for the collection and preservation of water-quality samples and defines procedures for making field analyses of unstable constituents or properties.

  3. Geothermal water and gas: collected methods for sampling and analysis. Comment issue. [Compilation of methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, J.G.; Serne, R.J.; Shannon, D.W.; Woodruff, E.M.

    1976-08-01

    A collection of methods for sampling and analysis of geothermal fluids and gases is presented. Compilations of analytic options for constituents in water and gases are given. Also, a survey of published methods of laboratory water analysis is included. It is stated that no recommendation of the applicability of the methods to geothermal brines should be assumed since the intent of the table is to encourage and solicit comments and discussion leading to recommended analytical procedures for geothermal waters and research. (WHK)

  4. Lead Concentration Levels in Water Samples Collected in Alameda County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethy, D.; Hoang, R.; Yu, I.; Hernandez, N.; Fang, K.; Zhang, W.; Li, J.; Munui, K. N.; Sot, R.; Luong, K.; Bonzo, R.; Sankar, R.; Chiu, D.; Rodriguez, V. A.

    2016-12-01

    The recent health crisis in Flint, Michigan has attracted an amount of interest in other public utilities' water supplies and infrastructure with regards to concerns over the presence of lead. In an effort to begin assessing the potential for a health crisis similar to that experienced in Flynt, during 2016 our team measured lead concentration levels in water samples by collected in Alameda County. More than 12 sites were selected from which samples were collected. These sites included parks, schools, and private residences. At each site 500mL samples were collected and prepared for later analysis. Samples were subjected to an analytical chemistry technique designed to isolate and concentrate lead to detectable levels of 1 part per billion (ppb). All 8 samples yielded detectable levels of lead; all samples were also well below the EPA regulatory 15 ppb. Two samples collected in West Oakland parks were found to have the highest and lowest levels: DeFremery (4 ppb) and Raimondi (1ppb), respectively. Though preliminary in nature, results from this study suggest that further investigations should be undertaken to assess possible lead contamination associated with drinking water sources in Alameda County.

  5. Water column and bed-sediment core samples collected from Brownlee Reservoir near Oxbow, Oregon, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosness, Ryan L.; Naymik, Jesse; Hopkins, Candice B.; DeWild, John F.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Idaho Power Company, collected water-column and bed-sediment core samples from eight sites in Brownlee Reservoir near Oxbow, Oregon, during May 5–7, 2012. Water-column and bed-sediment core samples were collected at each of the eight sites and analyzed for total mercury and methylmercury. Additional bed-sediment core samples, collected from three of the eight sites, were analyzed for pesticides and other organic compounds, trace metals, and physical characteristics, such as particle size. Total mercury and methylmercury were detected in each of the water column and bed-sediment core samples. Only 17 of the 417 unique pesticide and organic compounds were detected in bed-sediment core samples. Concentrations of most organic wastewater compounds detected in bed sediment were less than the reporting level. Trace metals detected were greater than the reporting level in all the bed-sediment core samples submitted for analysis. The particle size distribution of bed-sediment core samples was predominantly clay mixed with silt.

  6. Collecting a better water-quality sample: Reducing vertical stratification bias in open and closed channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selbig, William R.

    2017-01-01

    Collection of water-quality samples that accurately characterize average particle concentrations and distributions in channels can be complicated by large sources of variability. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed a fully automated Depth-Integrated Sample Arm (DISA) as a way to reduce bias and improve accuracy in water-quality concentration data. The DISA was designed to integrate with existing autosampler configurations commonly used for the collection of water-quality samples in vertical profile thereby providing a better representation of average suspended sediment and sediment-associated pollutant concentrations and distributions than traditional fixed-point samplers. In controlled laboratory experiments, known concentrations of suspended sediment ranging from 596 to 1,189 mg/L were injected into a 3 foot diameter closed channel (circular pipe) with regulated flows ranging from 1.4 to 27.8 ft3 /s. Median suspended sediment concentrations in water-quality samples collected using the DISA were within 7 percent of the known, injected value compared to 96 percent for traditional fixed-point samplers. Field evaluation of this technology in open channel fluvial systems showed median differences between paired DISA and fixed-point samples to be within 3 percent. The range of particle size measured in the open channel was generally that of clay and silt. Differences between the concentration and distribution measured between the two sampler configurations could potentially be much larger in open channels that transport larger particles, such as sand.

  7. Aqueous Processing of Atmospheric Organic Particles in Cloud Water Collected via Aircraft Sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boone, Eric J.; Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia; Wirth, Christopher; Shepson, Paul B.; Stirm, Brian H.; Pratt, Kerri A.

    2015-07-21

    Cloud water and below-cloud atmospheric particle samples were collected onboard a research aircraft during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) over a forested region of Alabama in June 2013. The organic molecular composition of the samples was studied to gain insights into the aqueous-phase processing of organic compounds within cloud droplets. High resolution mass spectrometry with nanospray desorption electrospray ionization and direct infusion electrospray ionization were utilized to compare the organic composition of the particle and cloud water samples, respectively. Isoprene and monoterpene-derived organosulfates and oligomers were identified in both the particles and cloud water, showing the significant influence of biogenic volatile organic compound oxidation above the forested region. While the average O:C ratios of the organic compounds were similar between the atmospheric particle and cloud water samples, the chemical composition of these samples was quite different. Specifically, hydrolysis of organosulfates and formation of nitrogen-containing compounds were observed for the cloud water when compared to the atmospheric particle samples, demonstrating that cloud processing changes the composition of organic aerosol.

  8. Methods for collecting benthic invertebrate samples as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuffney, Thomas F.; Gurtz, Martin E.; Meador, Michael R.

    1993-01-01

    Benthic invertebrate communities are evaluated as part of the ecological survey component of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. These biological data are collected along with physical and chemical data to assess water-quality conditions and to develop an understanding of the factors that affect water-quality conditions locally, regionally, and nationally. The objectives of benthic invertebrate community characterizations are to (1) develop for each site a list of tax a within the associated stream reach and (2) determine the structure of benthic invertebrate communities within selected habitats of that reach. A nationally consistent approach is used to achieve these objectives. This approach provides guidance on site, reach, and habitat selection and methods and equipment for qualitative multihabitat sampling and semi-quantitative single habitat sampling. Appropriate quality-assurance and quality-control guidelines are used to maximize the ability to analyze data within and among study units.

  9. Floating sample-collection platform with stage-activated automatic water sampler for streams with large variation in stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarte, Stephen R.; Schmidt, A.R.; Sullivan, Daniel J.

    1992-01-01

    A floating sample-collection platform is described for stream sites where the vertical or horizontal distance between the stream-sampling point and a safe location for the sampler exceed the suction head of the sampler. The platform allows continuous water sampling over the entire storm-runoff hydrogrpah. The platform was developed for a site in southern Illinois.

  10. Summary of inorganic compositional data for groundwater, soil-water, and surface-water samples collected at the Headgate Draw subsurface drip irrigation site, Johnson County, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geboy, Nicholas J.; Engle, Mark A.; Schroeder, Karl T.; Zupancic, John W.

    2011-01-01

    As part of a 5-year project on the impact of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) application of coalbed-methane (CBM) produced waters, water samples were collected from the Headgate Draw SDI site in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA. This research is part of a larger study to understand short- and long-term impacts on both soil and water quality from the beneficial use of CBM waters to grow forage crops through use of SDI. This document provides a summary of the context, sampling methodology, and quality assurance and quality control documentation of samples collected prior to and over the first year of SDI operation at the site (May 2008-October 2009). This report contains an associated database containing inorganic compositional data, water-quality criteria parameters, and calculated geochemical parameters for samples of groundwater, soil water, surface water, treated CBM waters, and as-received CBM waters collected at the Headgate Draw SDI site.

  11. Free water {sup 3}H concentration in diet samples collected during 1969-88 in Akita, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hisamatsu, S. [Institute for Environmental Sciences, Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan); Inoue, Y.; Miyamoto, K. [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Takizawa, Y. [National Institute for Minamata Disease, Minamata, Kumamoto (Japan)

    2000-05-01

    Fallout {sup 3}H concentrations in diet samples collected during 1969-88 in Akita Prefecture are reported in this paper. Since {sup 3}H is a potential nuclear fuel for fusion reactors in future, its environmental behavior is important for dose assessment of released {sup 3}H from the plants. Tritium in foods is classified into two types; free water {sup 3}H (FWT) and organically-bound {sup 3}H (OBT). The FWT is practically separated by means of freeze-drying, while the OBT is measured with water sample collected by combustion of dried sample. The OBT concentrations in foods and human tissue samples were reported for {sup 3}H originating from nuclear weapon fallout. We already published {sup 3}H concentrations in diet samples collected in Akita City during 1985-88. Although results for the samples collected in U.S.A. and European countries in the 1970s showed higher specific activity of OBT than FWT, our recent results in Japan indicate almost the same specific activity between them. Since the measurements for the samples in 1960s and 1970s are important to understand the long-term movement of {sup 3}H in the environment, we have searched old diet samples. Recently, diet samples collected in Akita Prefecture during 1969-80 were found and obtained for {sup 3}H analysis. The samples were originally gathered for nutrition survey programs and consisted of duplicate diet samples for 1 day from 10-30 persons. Food samples excluding boiled rice which is the staple food was homogenized by electric mixers after adding tap water. Then, the food and the boiled rice samples were stored in a refrigerator at -20degC. Free water in the samples was collected with lyophilization, then {sup 3}H in the water sample was measured after purification with low-level liquid scintillation counters. The free water {sup 3}H concentrations were measured for 57 diet samples (dish excluding boiled rice) and 17 boiled rice samples. The free water {sup 3}H concentrations in diet and rice samples

  12. Radiochemical analyses of water samples collected postshot in the vicinity of Tatum Dome, Mississippi. Technical letter: Dribble 42

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janzer, V.J.; Rucker, S.J.

    1965-02-08

    On the basis of the analytical methods used, preliminary radiochemical analysis of the water samples collected after the Salmon event indicate that no detectable level of radioactive contamination exists. Samples were obtained from the calcite caprock at a depth of 934 to 1,006 feet and through intervening aquifers to aquifer 1 at a depth of 365 to 421 feet from the surface. The water sample collected from the calcite caprock was taken within approximately 1,700 feet of the detonation. Periodic sampling of the wells will continue and more refined analytical techniques will be used in analyzing the samples. After the hydrologic test wells have been better developed by bailing, additional isotopes will be investigated.

  13. Detection of Vibrio cholerae and Acanthamoeba species from same natural water samples collected from different cholera endemic areas in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Amir

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vibrio cholerae O1 and V. cholerae O139 infect humans, causing the diarrheal and waterborne disease cholera, which is a worldwide health problem. V. cholerae and the free-living amoebae Acanthamoeba species are present in aquatic environments, including drinking water and it has shown that Acanthamoebae support bacterial growth and survival. Recently it has shown that Acanthamoeba species enhanced growth and survival of V. cholerae O1 and O139. Water samples from different cholera endemic areas in Sudan were collected with the aim to detect both V. cholerae and Acanthamoeba species from same natural water samples by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Findings For the first time both V. cholerae and Acanthamoeba species were detected in same natural water samples collected from different cholera endemic areas in Sudan. 89% of detected V. cholerae was found with Acanthamoeba in same water samples. Conclusions The current findings disclose Acanthamoedae as a biological factor enhancing survival of V. cholerae in nature.

  14. An assessment of the isotopic (2H/18O) integrity of water samples collected and stored by unattended precipitation totalizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzer, Stefan; Wassenaar, Leonard I.; Douence, Cedric; Araguas-Araguas, Luis

    2016-04-01

    The IAEA-WMO Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) provides worldwide δ18O and δ2H data for numerous hydrological and climatological studies. The traditional GNIP sample collection method relies on weather station operators to accumulate precipitation obtained from manual rain gauges. Over the past decades, widespread weather station automatization resulted in the increased use of unattended precipitation totalizers that accumulate and store the rainwater in the field for up to one month. Several low-tech measures were adopted to prevent in situ secondary evaporative isotopic enrichment (SEE) of totalized water samples (i.e. disequilibrium isotopic fractionation after precipitation is stored in the collection device). These include: (a) adding a 0.5-1 cm floating layer of paraffin oil to the totalizer bottle, (b) using an intake tube leading from the collection funnel and submerged to the bottom of the totalizer bottle, or (c) placing a table tennis ball in the funnel aiming to reduce evaporation of the collected water from the receiving bottle to the atmosphere. We assessed the isotopic integrity of stored rainwater samples for three totalizers under controlled settings: each aforementioned totalizer was filled with a 100 or 500 mL of isotopically known water and installed in the field with the intake funnels sheltered to prevent rainwater collection. Potential evapotranspiration (PET) was obtained from on-site meteorological recordings. Stored evaporative loss from each totalizer was evaluated on a monthly basis; gravimetrically and by analysing δ18O and δ2H of the stored water, for a period of 6 months and a cumulative PET of ˜500 mm. The gravimetric and isotope results revealed that for smaller water volumes (100 ml, corresponding to ca. 5 mm of monthly precipitation), negligible isotope enrichment (δ18O) was observed in the paraffin-oil based totalizer, whereas unacceptable evaporative isotope effects were observed for the ball

  15. Distribution of vibrio species in shellfish and water samples collected from the atlantic coastline of south-east Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyisi, Onyedikachukwu A L; Nwodo, Uchechukwu U; Iroegbu, Christian U

    2013-09-01

    Crayfish, lobster, and sea-water samples collected from five fishing islands on the Atlantic coast-Bight of Biafra (Bonny)-belonging to Ibaka Local Government Area of Akwa-Ibom State of Nigeria were bacteriologically evaluated on thiosulphate citrate bile-salt sucrose (TCBS) agar for Vibrio load and pathotypes. Mean log10 Vibrio counts of 7.64+/-2.78 cfu/g (in crayfish), 5.07+/-3.21 cfu/g (in lobster), and 3.06+/-2.27 cfu/mL (in sea-water) were obtained in rainy season (June-July) while counts in the dry season (November-December) were 6.25+/-1.93 cfu/g, 5.99+/-1.54 cfu/g, and 3.84+/-1.78 cfu/mL respectively. The physicochemical measurements (temperature, pH, and total dissolved solutes) of the sea-water did not vary significantly in the two seasons across all five islands. Vibrio species isolated were Vibrio cholerae (both O1 and non-O1 serotypes), V parahaemolyticus, V vulnificus, V mimicus, and V fluvialis. Both Ogawa and Inaba subtypes of V cholerae O1 serotype were found. In addition, the Hikojima subtype, which had not been previously reported in the region, was isolated in two samples. The results show that these Vibrio species are endemic in the area.

  16. Occurrence of microbial indicators and Clostridium perfringens in wastewater, water column samples, sediments, drinking water, and Weddell seal feces collected at McMurdo Station, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisle, John T; Smith, James J; Edwards, Diane D; McFeters, Gordon A

    2004-12-01

    McMurdo Station, Antarctica, has discharged untreated sewage into McMurdo Sound for decades. Previous studies delineated the impacted area, which included the drinking water intake, by using total coliform and Clostridium perfringens concentrations. The estimation of risk to humans in contact with the impacted and potable waters may be greater than presumed, as these microbial indicators may not be the most appropriate for this environment. To address these concerns, concentrations of these and additional indicators (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci, coliphage, and enteroviruses) in the untreated wastewater, water column, and sediments of the impacted area and drinking water treatment facility and distribution system at McMurdo Station were determined. Fecal samples from Weddell seals in this area were also collected and analyzed for indicators. All drinking water samples were negative for indicators except for a single total coliform-positive sample. Total coliforms were present in water column samples at higher concentrations than other indicators. Fecal coliform and enterococcus concentrations were similar to each other and greater than those of other indicators in sediment samples closer to the discharge site. C. perfringens concentrations were higher in sediments at greater distances from the discharge site. Seal fecal samples contained concentrations of fecal coliforms, E. coli, enterococci, and C. perfringens similar to those found in untreated sewage. All samples were negative for enteroviruses. A wastewater treatment facility at McMurdo Station has started operation, and these data provide a baseline data set for monitoring the recovery of the impacted area. The contribution of seal feces to indicator concentrations in this area should be considered.

  17. Toxicity of Water and Sediment Samples Collected in the Vicinity of the Mixed Waste Management Facility, 1995 and 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Three rounds of toxicity tests were conducted on water collected from eleven locations in the vicinity of the Mixed Waste Management Facility and four reference locations between January 1995 and April 1996.

  18. Toxicity of Water Samples Collected in the Vicinity of F and H Seepage Basin 1990-1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Bowers, B.

    1996-09-01

    Water and contaminants from the F- and H-Area Seepage Basins outcrop as shallow groundwater seeps down gradient from the basins. In 1990, 1991, 1993, 1994, and 1995, toxicity tests were performed on water collected from a number of these seeps, as well as from several locations in Fourmile Branch and several uncontaminated reference locations.

  19. Toxicity of Water Samples Collected in the Vicinity of F and H Seepage Basin 1990-1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Bowers, B.

    1996-09-01

    Water and contaminants from the F- and H-Area Seepage Basins outcrop as shallow groundwater seeps down gradient from the basins. In 1990, 1991, 1993, 1994, and 1995, toxicity tests were performed on water collected from a number of these seeps, as well as from several locations in Fourmile Branch and several uncontaminated reference locations.

  20. Application of bimodal distribution to the detection of changes in uranium concentration in drinking water collected by random daytime sampling method from a large water supply zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garboś, Sławomir; Święcicka, Dorota

    2015-11-01

    The random daytime (RDT) sampling method was used for the first time in the assessment of average weekly exposure to uranium through drinking water in a large water supply zone. Data set of uranium concentrations determined in 106 RDT samples collected in three runs from the water supply zone in Wroclaw (Poland), cannot be simply described by normal or log-normal distributions. Therefore, a numerical method designed for the detection and calculation of bimodal distribution was applied. The extracted two distributions containing data from the summer season of 2011 and the winter season of 2012 (nI=72) and from the summer season of 2013 (nII=34) allowed to estimate means of U concentrations in drinking water: 0.947 μg/L and 1.23 μg/L, respectively. As the removal efficiency of uranium during applied treatment process is negligible, the effect of increase in uranium concentration can be explained by higher U concentration in the surface-infiltration water used for the production of drinking water. During the summer season of 2013, heavy rains were observed in Lower Silesia region, causing floods over the territory of the entire region. Fluctuations in uranium concentrations in surface-infiltration water can be attributed to releases of uranium from specific sources - migration from phosphate fertilizers and leaching from mineral deposits. Thus, exposure to uranium through drinking water may increase during extreme rainfall events. The average chronic weekly intakes of uranium through drinking water, estimated on the basis of central values of the extracted normal distributions, accounted for 3.2% and 4.1% of tolerable weekly intake.

  1. Changes in sample collection and analytical techniques and effects on retrospective comparability of low-level concentrations of trace elements in ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivahnenko, T.; Szabo, Z.; Gibs, J.

    2001-01-01

    Ground-water sampling techniques were modified to reduce random low-level contamination during collection of filtered water samples for determination of trace-element concentrations. The modified sampling techniques were first used in New Jersey by the US Geological Survey in 1994 along with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis to determine the concentrations of 18 trace elements at the one microgram-per-liter (μg/L) level in the oxic water of the unconfined sand and gravel Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system. The revised technique tested included a combination of the following: collection of samples (1) with flow rates of about 2L per minute, (2) through acid-washed single-use disposable tubing and (3) a single-use disposable 0.45-μm pore size capsule filter, (4) contained within portable glove boxes, (5) in a dedicated clean sampling van, (6) only after turbidity stabilized at values less than 2 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU), when possible. Quality-assurance data, obtained from equipment blanks and split samples, indicated that trace element concentrations, with the exception of iron, chromium, aluminum, and zinc, measured in the samples collected in 1994 were not subject to random contamination at 1μg/L.Results from samples collected in 1994 were compared to those from samples collected in 1991 from the same 12 PVC-cased observation wells using the available sampling and analytical techniques at that time. Concentrations of copper, lead, manganese and zinc were statistically significantly lower in samples collected in 1994 than in 1991. Sampling techniques used in 1994 likely provided trace-element data that represented concentrations in the aquifer with less bias than data from 1991 when samples were collected without the same degree of attention to sample handling.

  2. Impact of collection container material and holding times on sample integrity for mercury and methylmercury in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riscassi, Ami L [ORNL; Miller, Carrie L [ORNL; Brooks, Scott C [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in streamwater can vary on short timescales (hourly or less) during storm flow and on a diel cycle; the frequency and timing of sampling required to accurately characterize these dynamics may be difficult to accomplish manually. Automated sampling can assist in sample collection; however use has been limited for Hg and MeHg analysis due to stability concerns of trace concentrations during extended storage times. We examined the viability of using automated samplers with disposable low-density polyethylene (LDPE) sample bags to collect industrially contaminated streamwater for unfiltered and filtered Hg and MeHg analysis. Specifically we investigated the effect of holding times ranging from hours to days on streamwater collected during baseflow and storm flow. Unfiltered and filtered Hg and MeHg concentrations decreased with increases in time prior to sample processing; holding times of 24 hours or less resulted in concentration changes (mean 11 7% different) similar to variability in duplicates collected manually during analogous field conditions (mean 7 10% different). Comparisons of samples collected with manual and automated techniques throughout a year for a wide range of stream conditions were also found to be similar to differences observed between duplicate grab samples. These results demonstrate automated sampling into LDPE bags with holding times of 24 hours or less can be effectively used to collect streamwater for Hg and MeHg analysis, and encourage the testing of these materials and methods for implementation in other aqueous systems where high-frequency sampling is warranted.

  3. Biochemical and microbiological evaluation of the water samples collected from different areas of district Kohat and Mohamand Agency, Pakistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayaz Ali

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of drinking water sources mainly due to microorganisms is the major problem in many areas of Pakistan. Pakistan is also facing the problem of contamination of drinking water which greatly affects human health and quality of life. The most important component of human beings for living is water. Therefore, it is important to analyze drinking water quality mostly in developing countries as the local people are mostly unaware of the water pollution. In this study, twenty three samples of water were analyzed during a 3-month period from the well and lake water supplies of different areas of Kohat and Mohamand Agency. The bacteriological evaluation was done and several tests were performed such as Total Plate Count, Coliform, Feacal coliform, Escherichia coli (E. coli and Biochemical test. In this study, thirteen samples were in the normal range and 10 samples were out of safety ranges fixed by World Health Organization (WHO. The water which was not fit for drinking can be a consistent risk of the infectious diseases and continuous assessment and purification strategies should be developed in these areas to reduce the microbial contamination. The proper training by the local public authorities is required to educate the local community about water pollution, their causes and preventive measures in order to improve the health status of the people in the regions.

  4. Prevalence of rotavirus, adenovirus, hepatitis A virus and enterovirus in water samples collected from different region of Peshawar, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Tahir; Arshad, Najma; Adnan, Fazal; Sadaf Zaidi, Najam-Us-Sahar; Shahid, Muhammad Talha; Zahoor, Usman; Afzal, Muhammad S; Anjum, Sadia

    2016-12-23

    Viral gastroenteritis and other water-borne diseases are the most neglected areas of research in Pakistan. To determine the quality of water, 4 enteric viruses were studied from different localities of Peshawar, Pakistan. The study validates the viral detection method for Rotavirus (RV), Human adenovirus (HAdV), Enterovirus (EV) and Hepatitis A virus (HAV), directly from water sources of rural areas of Peshawar, KPK, Pakistan. Overall, 95 five water samples were tested; among them, 9.47% were positive for RV, 38.94% for HAdV, 48.42% for EV and 12.63% for HAV. The presence of these viruses in water was directly correlated with meteorological data. High prevalence of EV and HAdV was detected frequently in the wet season from May - September, which can be the potential cause of spreading of gastroenteritis in the population. Environmental surveillance is an additional tool to evaluate the epidemiology of enteric viruses circulating in a given community.

  5. The research of the contamination levels present in samples of precipitation and surface waters collected from the catchment area Fuglebekken (Hornsund, Svalbard Archipelago)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruman, Marek; Szopińska, Małgorzata; Kozak, Katarzyna; Lehmann, Sara; Polkowska, Żaneta

    2014-10-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are contaminants that may appear in polar regions. In present work surface water was collected from the main stream water in the Fuglebekken basin. The precipitationsamples was collected from the near area by Polish Polar Station in Hornsund. The present investigationreveals the results of the analysis of these samples for their total phenols, formaldehyde, TOC, PAHs and PCBs content. The presence in the basin (thousands of kilometers distant from industrial centers) of those compounds is testimony to the fact that these compounds are transported over vast distances with air masses and deposited in regions devoid of any human impact.

  6. Biopolymers for sample collection, protection, and preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokulova, Iryna; Olsen, Eric; Vodyanoy, Vitaly

    2015-07-01

    One of the principal challenges in the collection of biological samples from air, water, and soil matrices is that the target agents are not stable enough to be transferred from the collection point to the laboratory of choice without experiencing significant degradation and loss of viability. At present, there is no method to transport biological samples over considerable distances safely, efficiently, and cost-effectively without the use of ice or refrigeration. Current techniques of protection and preservation of biological materials have serious drawbacks. Many known techniques of preservation cause structural damages, so that biological materials lose their structural integrity and viability. We review applications of a novel bacterial preservation process, which is nontoxic and water soluble and allows for the storage of samples without refrigeration. The method is capable of protecting the biological sample from the effects of environment for extended periods of time and then allows for the easy release of these collected biological materials from the protective medium without structural or DNA damage. Strategies for sample collection, preservation, and shipment of bacterial, viral samples are described. The water-soluble polymer is used to immobilize the biological material by replacing the water molecules within the sample with molecules of the biopolymer. The cured polymer results in a solid protective film that is stable to many organic solvents, but quickly removed by the application of the water-based solution. The process of immobilization does not require the use of any additives, accelerators, or plastifiers and does not involve high temperature or radiation to promote polymerization.

  7. Guidelines for the processing and quality assurance of benthic invertebrate samples collected as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuffney, T.F.; Gurtz, M.E.; Meador, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    Benthic invertebrate samples are collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. This is a perennial, multidisciplinary program that integrates biological, physical, and chemical indicators of water quality to evaluate status and trends and to develop an understanding of the factors controlling observed water quality. The Program examines water quality in 60 study units (coupled ground- and surface-water systems) that encompass most of the conterminous United States and parts of Alaska and Hawaii. Study-unit teams collect and process qualitative and semi-quantitative invertebrate samples according to standardized procedures. These samples are processed (elutriated and subsampled) in the field to produce as many as four sample components: large-rare, main-body, elutriate, and split. Each sample component is preserved in 10-percent formalin, and two components, large-rare and main-body, are sent to contract laboratories for further processing. The large-rare component is composed of large invertebrates that are removed from the sample matrix during field processing and placed in one or more containers. The main-body sample component consists of the remaining sample materials (sediment, detritus, and invertebrates) and is subsampled in the field to achieve a volume of 750 milliliters or less. The remaining two sample components, elutriate and split, are used for quality-assurance and quality-control purposes. Contract laboratories are used to identify and quantify invertebrates from the large-rare and main-body sample components according to the procedures and guidelines specified within this document. These guidelines allow the use of subsampling techniques to reduce the volume of sample material processed and to facilitate identifications. These processing procedures and techniques may be modified if the modifications provide equal or greater levels of accuracy and precision. The intent of sample processing is to

  8. Organophosphorus and Carbamate Pesticide Residues Detected in Water Samples Collected from Paddy and Vegetable Fields of the Savar and Dhamrai Upazilas in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Karim

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Several types of organophosphorous and carbamate pesticides have been used extensively by the farmers in Bangladesh during the last few decades. Twenty seven water samples collected from both paddy and vegetable fields in the Savar and Dhamrai Upazilas in Bangladesh were analyzed to determine the occurrence and distribution of organo-phosphorus (chlorpyrifos, malathion and diazinon and carbamate (carbaryl and carbofuran pesticide residues. A high performance liquid chromatograph instrument equipped with a photodiode array detector was used to determine the concentrations of these pesticide residues. Diazinon and carbofuran were detected in water samples collected from Savar Upazila at 0.9 μg/L and 198.7 μg/L, respectively. Malathion was also detected in a single water sample at 105.2 μg/L from Dhamrai Upazila. Carbaryl was the most common pesticide detected in Dhamrai Upazila at 14.1 and 18.1 μg/L, while another water sample from Dhamrai Upazila was contaminated with carbofuran at 105.2 μg/L. Chlorpyrifos was not detected in any sample. Overall, the pesticide residues detected were well above the maximum acceptable levels of total and individual pesticide contamination, at 0.5 and 0.1 μg/L, respectively, in water samples recommended by the European Economic Community (Directive 98/83/EC. The presence of these pesticide residues may be attributed by their intense use by the farmers living in these areas. Proper handling of these pesticides should be ensured to avoid direct or indirect exposure to these pesticides.

  9. Contribution of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) to whole toxicity of water samples collected in effluent-dominated urban streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Ikumi; Yasuda, Yusuke; Kagota, Kei-Ichiro; Yoneda, Saori; Nakada, Norihide; Kumar, Vimal; Kameda, Yutaka; Kimura, Kumiko; Tatarazako, Norihisa; Yamamoto, Hiroshi

    2017-10-01

    Water samples were collected from effluent-dominated urban streams in Tokushima, Kyoto, and Saitama in Japan to roughly determine the contribution of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and surfactants to whole toxicity of the water. Approximately 100 PPCPs including anionic surfactants such as linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), were chemically analyzed. Using 14 water samples, chronic or sub-chronic toxicity tests were conducted on three aquatic species, the green alga Raphidocelis subcapitata, the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia dubia, and the zebrafish Danio rerio. Bioassays for the selected individual PPCPs were conducted using the three species. Assuming the concentration addition (CA) model, the contribution of each PPCP to the whole toxicity of the riverwater was estimated based on toxicity unit (TU). The contribution of PPCPs, which primarily consists of a few antibiotic agents such as triclosan and clarithromycin, ranged from 0.9% to 69% of the whole toxicity of the water samples for algae, whereas the selected LAS congeners accounted for at most 5.3%. In contrast, the contribution of LAS ranged from 0.067% to 86% and from 0.021% to 27% of the whole toxicity for cladoceran and zebrafish, respectively, whereas that of PPCPs for these species was at most 2.1% at all sampling points. Our results suggest a limited contribution of PPCPs except for antimicrobial agents and the possible substantial contribution of LAS to toxicity in cladocerans and zebrafish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Application of a paper based device containing a new culture medium to detect Vibrio cholerae in water samples collected in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briquaire, Romain; Colwell, Rita R; Boncy, Jacques; Rossignol, Emmanuel; Dardy, Aline; Pandini, Isabelle; Villeval, François; Machuron, Jean-Louis; Huq, Anwar; Rashed, Shah; Vandevelde, Thierry; Rozand, Christine

    2017-02-01

    Cholera is now considered to be endemic in Haiti, often with increased incidence during rainy seasons. The challenge of cholera surveillance is exacerbated by the cost of sample collection and laboratory analysis. A diagnostic tool is needed that is low cost, easy-to-use, and able to detect and quantify Vibrio cholerae accurately in water samples within 18-24h, and perform reliably in remote settings lacking laboratory infrastructure and skilled staff. The two main objectives of this study were to develop and evaluate a new culture medium embedded in a new diagnostic tool (PAD for paper based analytical device) for detecting Vibrio cholerae from water samples collected in Haiti. The intent is to provide guidance for corrective action, such as chlorination, for water positive for V. cholerae epidemic strains. For detecting Vibrio cholerae, a new chromogenic medium was designed and evaluated as an alternative to thiosulfate citrate bile salts sucrose (TCBS) agar for testing raw water samples. Sensitivity and specificity of the medium were assessed using both raw and spiked water samples. The Vibrio cholerae chromogenic medium was proved to be highly selective against most of the cultivable bacteria in the water samples, without loss of sensitivity in detection of V. cholerae. Thus, reliability of this new culture medium for detection of V. cholerae in the presence of other Vibrio species in water samples offers a significant advantage. A new paper based device containing the new chromogenic medium previously evaluated was compared with reference methods for detecting V. cholerae from spiked water sample. The microbiological PAD specifications were evaluated in Haiti. More precisely, a total of 185 water samples were collected at five sites in Haiti, June 2014 and again in June 2015. With this new tool, three V. cholerae O1 and 17 V. cholerae non-O1/O139 strains were isolated. The presence of virulence-associated and regulatory genes, including ctxA, zot, ace, and tox

  11. Functionalization of chitosan with 3-nitro-4-amino benzoic acid moiety and its application to the collection/concentration of molybdenum in environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabarudin, Akhmad; Oshima, Mitsuko; Noguchi, Osamu; Motomizu, Shoji

    2007-10-31

    A chitosan resin functionalized with 3-nitro-4-amino benzoic acid moiety (CCTS-NABA resin) was newly synthesized for the collection/concentration of trace molybdenum by using cross-linked chitosan (CCTS) as base material. The carboxyl group of the moiety was chemically attached to amino group of cross-linked chitosan through amide bond formation. The adsorption behavior of molybdenum as well as other 60 elements on the resin was examined by passing the sample solutions through a mini-column packed with the resin. After the elution of the elements collected on the resin with 1M HNO(3), the eluates were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The CCTS-NABA resin can adsorb several metal ions, such as vanadium, gallium, arsenic, selenium, silver, bismuth, thorium, tungsten, tin, tellurium, copper, and molybdenum at appropriate pHs. Among these metal ions, only molybdenum could be adsorbed almost completely on the resin at acidic regions. An excellent selectivity toward molybdenum could be obtained at pH 3-4. The adsorption capacity of CCTS-NABA resin for Mo(VI) was 380mgg(-1) resin. Through the column pretreatment, alkali and alkaline earth metals in river water and seawater samples were successfully removed. The CCTS-NABA resin was applied to the adsorption/collection of molybdenum in river water and seawater samples. The concentrations of molybdenum in river water samples were found in the range of 0.84 and 0.95ppb (ngg(-1)), whereas molybdenum in seawater was about 9ppb. The validation of the proposed method was carried out by determining molybdenum in the certified reference materials of SLRS-4, CASS-4, and NASS-5 after passing through the CCTS-NABA resin; the results showed good agreement with the certified values.

  12. Uranium favorability of tertiary sedimentary rocks of the Pend Oreille River valley, Washington. [Measurement and sampling of surface sections, collection of samples from isolated outcrops, chemical and mineralogical analyses of samples, and examination of available water logs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marjaniemi, D.K.; Robins, J.W.

    1975-08-01

    Tertiary sedimentary rocks in the Pend Oreille River valley were investigated in a regional study to determine the favorability for potential uranium resources of northeastern Washington. This project involved measurement and sampling of surface sections, collection of samples from isolated outcrops, chemical and mineralogical analyses of samples, and examination of available water well logs. The Box Canyon Dam area north of Ione is judged to have very high favorability. Thick-bedded conglomerates interbedded with sandstones and silty sandstones compose the Tiger Formation in this area, and high radioactivity levels are found near the base of the formation. Uranophane is found along fracture surfaces or in veins. Carbonaceous material is present throughout the Tiger Formation in the area. Part of the broad Pend Oreille valley surrounding Cusick, Washington, is an area of high favorability. Potential host rocks in the Tiger Formation, consisting of arkosic sandstones interbedded with radioactive shales, probably extend throughout the subsurface part of this area. Carbonaceous material is present and some samples contain high concentrations of uranium. In addition, several other possible chemical indicators were found. The Tiger-Lost Creek area is rated as having medium favorability. The Tiger Formation contains very hard, poorly sorted granite conglomerate with some beds of arkosic sandstone and silty sandstone. The granite conglomerate was apparently derived from source rocks having relatively high uranium content. The lower part of the formation is more favorable than the upper part because of the presence of carbonaceous material, anomalously high concentrations of uranium, and other possible chemical indicators. The area west of Ione is judged to have low favorability, because of the very low permeability of the rocks and the very low uranium content. (auth)

  13. Molecular detection of native and invasive marine invertebrate larvae present in ballast and open water environmental samples collected in Puget Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, J.B.J.; Hoy, M.S.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    Non-native marine species have been and continue to be introduced into Puget Sound via several vectors including ship's ballast water. Some non-native species become invasive and negatively impact native species or near shore habitats. We present a new methodology for the development and testing of taxon specific PCR primers designed to assess environmental samples of ocean water for the presence of native and non-native bivalves, crustaceans and algae. The intergenic spacer regions (IGS; ITS1, ITS2 and 5.8S) of the ribosomal DNA were sequenced for adult samples of each taxon studied. We used these data along with those available in Genbank to design taxon and group specific primers and tested their stringency against artificial populations of plasmid constructs containing the entire IGS region for each of the 25 taxa in our study, respectively. Taxon and group specific primer sets were then used to detect the presence or absence of native and non-native planktonic life-history stages (propagules) from environmental samples of ballast water and plankton tow net samples collected in Puget Sound. This methodology provides an inexpensive and efficient way to test the discriminatory ability of taxon specific oligonucleotides (PCR primers) before creating molecular probes or beacons for use in molecular ecological applications such as probe hybridizations or microarray analyses. This work addresses the current need to develop molecular tools capable of diagnosing the presence of planktonic life-history stages from non-native marine species (potential invaders) in ballast water and other environmental samples. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  14. [Water Sample Results : Rocky Mountain Arsenal : 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A memorandum, from sample collector (organization unknown) Cathy H. to Rocky Mountain Arsenal staff, prefaces tabular water sample results collected from various...

  15. Dynamic Method for Identifying Collected Sample Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, John

    2008-01-01

    G-Sample is designed for sample collection missions to identify the presence and quantity of sample material gathered by spacecraft equipped with end effectors. The software method uses a maximum-likelihood estimator to identify the collected sample's mass based on onboard force-sensor measurements, thruster firings, and a dynamics model of the spacecraft. This makes sample mass identification a computation rather than a process requiring additional hardware. Simulation examples of G-Sample are provided for spacecraft model configurations with a sample collection device mounted on the end of an extended boom. In the absence of thrust knowledge errors, the results indicate that G-Sample can identify the amount of collected sample mass to within 10 grams (with 95-percent confidence) by using a force sensor with a noise and quantization floor of 50 micrometers. These results hold even in the presence of realistic parametric uncertainty in actual spacecraft inertia, center-of-mass offset, and first flexibility modes. Thrust profile knowledge is shown to be a dominant sensitivity for G-Sample, entering in a nearly one-to-one relationship with the final mass estimation error. This means thrust profiles should be well characterized with onboard accelerometers prior to sample collection. An overall sample-mass estimation error budget has been developed to approximate the effect of model uncertainty, sensor noise, data rate, and thrust profile error on the expected estimate of collected sample mass.

  16. Water Sample Points, Navajo Nation, 2000, USACE

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This point shapefile presents the locations and results for water samples collected on the Navajo Nation by the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) for the US...

  17. Determination of the anionic surfactant di(ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinate in water samples collected from Gulf of Mexico coastal waters before and after landfall of oil from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, May to October, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, James L.; Kanagy, Leslie K.; Furlong, Edward T.; McCoy, Jeff W.; Kanagy, Chris J.

    2011-01-01

    On April 22, 2010, the explosion on and subsequent sinking of the Deepwater Horizon oil drilling platform resulted in the release of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. At least 4.4 million barrels had been released into the Gulf of Mexico through July 15, 2010, 10 to 29 percent of which was chemically dispersed, primarily using two dispersant formulations. Initially, the dispersant Corexit 9527 was used, and when existing stocks of that formulation were exhausted, Corexit 9500 was used. Over 1.8 million gallons of the two dispersants were applied in the first 3 months after the spill. This report presents the development of an analytical method to analyze one of the primary surfactant components of both Corexit formulations, di(ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinate (DOSS), the preliminary results, and the associated quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) from samples collected from various points on the Gulf Coast between Texas and Florida. Seventy water samples and 8 field QC samples were collected before the predicted landfall of oil (pre-landfall) on the Gulf Coast, and 51 water samples and 10 field QC samples after the oil made landfall (post-landfall). Samples were collected in Teflon(Registered) bottles and stored at -20(degrees)C until analysis. Extraction of whole-water samples used sorption onto a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filter to isolate DOSS, with subsequent 50 percent methanol/water elution of the combined dissolved and particulate DOSS fractions. High-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) was used to identify and quantify DOSS by the isotope dilution method, using a custom-synthesized 13C4-DOSS labeled standard. Because of the ubiquitous presence of DOSS in laboratory reagent water, a chromatographic column was installed in the LC/MS/MS between the system pumps and the sample injector that separated this ambient background DOSS contamination from the sample DOSS, minimizing one source of blank contamination

  18. Preliminary survey of antibiotic-resistant fecal indicator bacteria and pathogenic Escherichia coli from river-water samples collected in Oakland County, Michigan, 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Lisa R.; Duris, Joseph W.; Aichele, Stephen S.

    2005-01-01

    A preliminary study was done in Oakland County, Michigan, to determine the concentration of fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliform bacteria and enterococci), antibiotic resistance patterns of these two groups, and the presence of potentially pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli). For selected sites, specific members of these groups [E. coli, Enterococcus faecium (E. faecium) and Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis)] were isolated and tested for levels of resistance to specific antibiotics used to treat human infections by pathogens in these groups and for their potential to transfer these resistances. In addition, water samples from all sites were tested for indicators of potentially pathogenic E. coli by three assays: a growth-based assay for sorbitol-negative E. coli, an immunological assay for E. coli O157, and a molecular assay for three virulence and two serotype genes. Samples were also collected from two non-urbanized sites outside of Oakland County. Results from the urbanized Oakland County area were compared to those from these two non-urbanized sites. Fecal indicator bacteria concentrations exceeded State of Michigan recreational water-quality standards and (or) recommended U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) standards in samples from all but two Oakland County sites. Multiple-antibiotic-resistant fecal coliform bacteria were found at all sites, including two reference sites from outside the county. Two sites (Stony Creek and Paint Creek) yielded fecal coliform isolates resistant to all tested antibiotics. Patterns indicative of extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)- producing fecal coliform bacteria were found at eight sites in Oakland County and E. coli resistant to clinically significant antibiotics were recovered from the River Rouge, Clinton River, and Paint Creek. Vancomycin-resistant presumptive enterococci were found at six sites in Oakland County and were not found at the reference sites. Evidence of acquired antibiotic resistances was

  19. Water Column Sonar Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The collection and analysis of water column sonar data is a relatively new avenue of research into the marine environment. Primary uses include assessing biological...

  20. Sample collection system for gel electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Jose A.; Stark, Peter C.; Dunbar, John M.; Hill, Karen K.; Kuske, Cheryl R.; Roybal, Gustavo

    2004-09-21

    An automatic sample collection system for use with an electrophoretic slab gel system is presented. The collection system can be used with a slab gel have one or more lanes. A detector is used to detect particle bands on the slab gel within a detection zone. Such detectors may use a laser to excite fluorescently labeled particles. The fluorescent light emitted from the excited particles is transmitted to low-level light detection electronics. Upon the detection of a particle of interest within the detection zone, a syringe pump is activated, sending a stream of buffer solution across the lane of the slab gel. The buffer solution collects the sample of interest and carries it through a collection port into a sample collection vial.

  1. Pseudothrombocytopenia with multiple anticoagulant sample collection tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Ferenc; Varga, Marina; Pataki, Zsolt; Rigo, Erzsebet

    2016-01-01

    The knowledge of pseudothrombocytopenia (PTCP) is important for the accuracy of a clinical assessment and for avoiding unnecessary treatment. An elderly patient was hospitalized with left lung pneumonia. Severe thrombocytopenia [platelet (PLT) number: 18 × 109/L] without any clinical bleeding was found in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid blood collection tube. PLT measurement was repeated in various anticoagulant [sodium citrate, lithium heparin, disodium oxalate, hirudin, and magnesium sulfate (Mg-sulfate)] sample collection tubes and all of them showed thrombocytopenia except with Mg-sulfate. To the best of our knowledge, PTCP with five anticoagulant sample collection tubes has not been reported earlier.

  2. Concentrations of selected constituents in surface-water and streambed-sediment samples collected from streams in and near an area of oil and natural-gas development, south-central Texas, 2011-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opsahl, Stephen P.; Crow, Cassi L.

    2014-01-01

    During 2011–13, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the San Antonio River Authority and the Guadalupe-Blanco River Authority, analyzed surface-water and streambed-sediment samples collected from 10 sites in the San Antonio River Basin to provide data for a broad range of constituents that might be associated with hydraulic fracturing and the produced waters that are a consequence of hydraulic fracturing. Among surface-water samples, all sulfide concentrations were less than the method detection limit of 0.79 milligrams per liter. Four glycols—diethylene glycol, ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, and triethylene glycol—were analyzed for in surface-water samples collected for this study, and none were detected. Of the 91 semivolatile organic compounds analyzed for this study, there were six detections, all but one of which were in storm-runoff samples. The base-flow sample collected at the San Antonio River at Goliad, Tex. (SAR Goliad), site contained bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, a plasticizer in polyvinyl chloride and a constituent in hydraulic fracturing fluids. The storm-runoff samples collected at the San Antonio River near Elmendorf, Tex. (SAR Elmendorf), and Ecleto Creek at County Road 326 near Runge, Tex. (Ecleto 2), sites also contained bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. The storm-runoff sample collected at the SAR Elmendorf site contained the plasticizer diethyl phthalate. Both storm-runoff samples collected at the Ecleto Creek near Runge, Tex. (Ecleto 1), and Ecleto 2 sites contained benzyl alcohol, a solvent commonly used in paints. Of the 67 volatile organic compounds analyzed in this study, there were a total of six detections, all of which were in base-flow samples. The surface-water sample collected at the SAR Elmendorf site contained bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and trichloromethane, all of which are disinfection byproducts associated with the chlorination of municipal water supplies and of treated municipal wastewater. The

  3. Final Report BW Sample Collection& Preparation Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, R P; Belgrader, P; Meyer, G; Benett, W J; Richards, J B; Hadley, D R; Stratton, P L; Milanovich, F P

    2002-01-31

    The objective of this project was to develop the technique needed to prepare a field collected sample for laboratory analysis and build a portable integrated biological detection instrument with new miniaturized and automated sample purification capabilities. The device will prepare bacterial spores, bacterial vegetative cells, and viral particles for PCR amplification.

  4. Collection of Condensate Water: Global Potential and Water Quality Impacts

    KAUST Repository

    Loveless, Kolin Joseph

    2012-12-28

    Water is a valuable resource throughout the world, especially in hot, dry climates and regions experiencing significant population growth. Supplies of fresh water are complicated by the economic and political conditions in many of these regions. Technologies that can supply fresh water at a reduced cost are therefore becoming increasingly important and the impact of such technologies can be substantial. This paper considers the collection of condensate water from large air conditioning units as a possible method to alleviate water scarcity issues. Using the results of a climate model that tested data collected from 2000 to 2010, we have identified areas in the world with the greatest collection potential. We gave special consideration to areas with known water scarcities, including the coastal regions of the Arabian Peninsula, Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. We found that the quality of the collected water is an important criterion in determining the potential uses for this water. Condensate water samples were collected from a few locations in Saudi Arabia and detailed characterizations were conducted to determine the quality of this water. We found that the quality of condensate water collected from various locations and types of air conditioners was very high with conductivities reaching as low as 18 μS/cm and turbidities of 0. 041 NTU. The quality of the collected condensate was close to that of distilled water and, with low-cost polishing treatments, such as ion exchange resins and electrochemical processes, the condensate quality could easily reach that of potable water. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  5. Application of Solid Sorbent Collection Techniques and High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Electrochemical Detection to the Analysis of Explosives in Water Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-11-01

    Methods were developed for the determination of several explosives components (nitro-organic compounds) in environmental waters. The methods are based on Porapak resin adsorption and Amberlite XAD-4 resin adsorption of the explosives are measured by high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. The technique provides a high degree of selectivity and sensitivity for these compounds in actual samples. Detection limits approach 1 microgram/l for many components.

  6. Importance of sampling frequency when collecting diatoms

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Naicheng

    2016-11-14

    There has been increasing interest in diatom-based bio-assessment but we still lack a comprehensive understanding of how to capture diatoms’ temporal dynamics with an appropriate sampling frequency (ASF). To cover this research gap, we collected and analyzed daily riverine diatom samples over a 1-year period (25 April 2013–30 April 2014) at the outlet of a German lowland river. The samples were classified into five clusters (1–5) by a Kohonen Self-Organizing Map (SOM) method based on similarity between species compositions over time. ASFs were determined to be 25 days at Cluster 2 (June-July 2013) and 13 days at Cluster 5 (February-April 2014), whereas no specific ASFs were found at Cluster 1 (April-May 2013), 3 (August-November 2013) (>30 days) and Cluster 4 (December 2013 - January 2014) (<1 day). ASFs showed dramatic seasonality and were negatively related to hydrological wetness conditions, suggesting that sampling interval should be reduced with increasing catchment wetness. A key implication of our findings for freshwater management is that long-term bio-monitoring protocols should be developed with the knowledge of tracking algal temporal dynamics with an appropriate sampling frequency.

  7. Importance of sampling frequency when collecting diatoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Naicheng; Faber, Claas; Sun, Xiuming; Qu, Yueming; Wang, Chao; Ivetic, Snjezana; Riis, Tenna; Ulrich, Uta; Fohrer, Nicola

    2016-11-01

    There has been increasing interest in diatom-based bio-assessment but we still lack a comprehensive understanding of how to capture diatoms’ temporal dynamics with an appropriate sampling frequency (ASF). To cover this research gap, we collected and analyzed daily riverine diatom samples over a 1-year period (25 April 2013–30 April 2014) at the outlet of a German lowland river. The samples were classified into five clusters (1–5) by a Kohonen Self-Organizing Map (SOM) method based on similarity between species compositions over time. ASFs were determined to be 25 days at Cluster 2 (June-July 2013) and 13 days at Cluster 5 (February-April 2014), whereas no specific ASFs were found at Cluster 1 (April-May 2013), 3 (August-November 2013) (>30 days) and Cluster 4 (December 2013 - January 2014) (management is that long-term bio-monitoring protocols should be developed with the knowledge of tracking algal temporal dynamics with an appropriate sampling frequency.

  8. Designing an enhanced groundwater sample collection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schalla, R.

    1994-10-01

    As part of an ongoing technical support mission to achieve excellence and efficiency in environmental restoration activities at the Laboratory for Energy and Health-Related Research (LEHR), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) provided guidance on the design and construction of monitoring wells and identified the most suitable type of groundwater sampling pump and accessories for monitoring wells. The goal was to utilize a monitoring well design that would allow for hydrologic testing and reduce turbidity to minimize the impact of sampling. The sampling results of the newly designed monitoring wells were clearly superior to those of the previously installed monitoring wells. The new wells exhibited reduced turbidity, in addition to improved access for instrumentation and hydrologic testing. The variable frequency submersible pump was selected as the best choice for obtaining groundwater samples. The literature references are listed at the end of this report. Despite some initial difficulties, the actual performance of the variable frequency, submersible pump and its accessories was effective in reducing sampling time and labor costs, and its ease of use was preferred over the previously used bladder pumps. The surface seals system, called the Dedicator, proved to be useful accessory to prevent surface contamination while providing easy access for water-level measurements and for connecting the pump. Cost savings resulted from the use of the pre-production pumps (beta units) donated by the manufacturer for the demonstration. However, larger savings resulted from shortened field time due to the ease in using the submersible pumps and the surface seal access system. Proper deployment of the monitoring wells also resulted in cost savings and ensured representative samples.

  9. 75 FR 43989 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Sample Collection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Sample Collection Plan for Dogs Treated With SLENTROL AGENCY: Food and Drug... treated dog (breed, age, gender and neuter status, type of food), and information about past SLENTROL use...

  10. Antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli strains isolated from Antarctic bird feces, water from inside a wastewater treatment plant, and seawater samples collected in the Antarctic Treaty area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbia, Virginia; Bello-Toledo, Helia; Jiménez, Sebastián; Quezada, Mario; Domínguez, Mariana; Vergara, Luis; Gómez-Fuentes, Claudio; Calisto-Ulloa, Nancy; González-Acuña, Daniel; López, Juana; González-Rocha, Gerardo

    2016-06-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a problem of global concern and is frequently associated with human activity. Studying antibiotic resistance in bacteria isolated from pristine environments, such as Antarctica, extends our understanding of these fragile ecosystems. Escherichia coli strains, important fecal indicator bacteria, were isolated on the Fildes Peninsula (which has the strongest human influence in Antarctica), from seawater, bird droppings, and water samples from inside a local wastewater treatment plant. The strains were subjected to molecular typing with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to determine their genetic relationships, and tested for antibiotic susceptibility with disk diffusion tests for several antibiotic families: β-lactams, quinolones, aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, phenicols, and trimethoprim-sulfonamide. The highest E. coli count in seawater samples was 2400 cfu/100 mL. Only strains isolated from seawater and the wastewater treatment plant showed any genetic relatedness between groups. Strains of both these groups were resistant to β-lactams, aminoglycosides, tetracycline, and trimethoprim-sulfonamide.In contrast, strains from bird feces were susceptible to all the antibiotics tested. We conclude that naturally occurring antibiotic resistance in E. coli strains isolated from Antarctic bird feces is rare and the bacterial antibiotic resistance found in seawater is probably associated with discharged treated wastewater originating from Fildes Peninsula treatment plants.

  11. Sampling procedure for lake or stream surface water chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Musselman

    2012-01-01

    Surface waters collected in the field for chemical analyses are easily contaminated. This research note presents a step-by-step detailed description of how to avoid sample contamination when field collecting, processing, and transporting surface water samples for laboratory analysis.

  12. Avian influenza surveillance sample collection and shipment protocol

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Instructions for mortality collection and shipment of avian influenza (AI) live bird surveillance sample collections. AI sample collections will include...

  13. Curating NASA's Past, Present, and Future Astromaterial Sample Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, R. A.; Allton, J. H.; Evans, C. A.; Fries, M. D.; McCubbin, F. M.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Righter, K.; Zolensky, M.; Stansbery, E. K.

    2016-01-01

    The Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office at NASA Johnson Space Center (hereafter JSC curation) is responsible for curating all of NASA's extraterrestrial samples. JSC presently curates 9 different astromaterials collections in seven different clean-room suites: (1) Apollo Samples (ISO (International Standards Organization) class 6 + 7); (2) Antarctic Meteorites (ISO 6 + 7); (3) Cosmic Dust Particles (ISO 5); (4) Microparticle Impact Collection (ISO 7; formerly called Space-Exposed Hardware); (5) Genesis Solar Wind Atoms (ISO 4); (6) Stardust Comet Particles (ISO 5); (7) Stardust Interstellar Particles (ISO 5); (8) Hayabusa Asteroid Particles (ISO 5); (9) OSIRIS-REx Spacecraft Coupons and Witness Plates (ISO 7). Additional cleanrooms are currently being planned to house samples from two new collections, Hayabusa 2 (2021) and OSIRIS-REx (2023). In addition to the labs that house the samples, we maintain a wide variety of infra-structure facilities required to support the clean rooms: HEPA-filtered air-handling systems, ultrapure dry gaseous nitrogen systems, an ultrapure water system, and cleaning facilities to provide clean tools and equipment for the labs. We also have sample preparation facilities for making thin sections, microtome sections, and even focused ion-beam sections. We routinely monitor the cleanliness of our clean rooms and infrastructure systems, including measurements of inorganic or organic contamination, weekly airborne particle counts, compositional and isotopic monitoring of liquid N2 deliveries, and daily UPW system monitoring. In addition to the physical maintenance of the samples, we track within our databases the current and ever changing characteristics (weight, location, etc.) of more than 250,000 individually numbered samples across our various collections, as well as more than 100,000 images, and countless "analog" records that record the sample processing records of each individual sample. JSC Curation is co-located with JSC

  14. Recommendations for representative ballast water sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollasch, Stephan; David, Matej

    2017-05-01

    Until now, the purpose of ballast water sampling studies was predominantly limited to general scientific interest to determine the variety of species arriving in ballast water in a recipient port. Knowing the variety of species arriving in ballast water also contributes to the assessment of relative species introduction vector importance. Further, some sampling campaigns addressed awareness raising or the determination of organism numbers per water volume to evaluate the species introduction risk by analysing the propagule pressure of species. A new aspect of ballast water sampling, which this contribution addresses, is compliance monitoring and enforcement of ballast water management standards as set by, e.g., the IMO Ballast Water Management Convention. To achieve this, sampling methods which result in representative ballast water samples are essential. We recommend such methods based on practical tests conducted on two commercial vessels also considering results from our previous studies. The results show that different sampling approaches influence the results regarding viable organism concentrations in ballast water samples. It was observed that the sampling duration (i.e., length of the sampling process), timing (i.e., in which point in time of the discharge the sample is taken), the number of samples and the sampled water quantity are the main factors influencing the concentrations of viable organisms in a ballast water sample. Based on our findings we provide recommendations for representative ballast water sampling.

  15. Biopolymers for Sample Collection, Protection, and Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-19

    biologicals at ambient temperature is given in Table 1. The preservation with a SampleMatrix® offered by Biomatrica®, San Diego , CA, is based on the...Vera M, Rivera D, Kloepper J, Bonilla R (2013) Evaluation of three methods for preservation of Azotobacter chroococcum and Azotobacter vinelandii. Univ

  16. physico-chemical properties of well water samples from some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Physico-Chemical Analysis: Water samples collected were analyzed by both classical and .... This and some other factors may be responsible for the ... Diatom (Bacillariophyta) diversity of an open access lagoon in. Lagos, Nigeria. Journal ...

  17. Snow White Trench Prepared for Sample Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The informally named 'Snow White' trench is the source for the next sample to be acquired by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander for analysis by the wet chemistry lab. The Surface Stereo Imager on Phoenix took this shadow-enhanced image of the trench, on the eastern end of Phoenix's work area, on Sol 103, or the 103rd day of the mission, Sept. 8, 2008. The trench is about 23 centimeters (9 inches) wide. The wet chemistry lab is part of Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity suite of instruments. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  18. Fast egg collection method greatly improves randomness of egg sampling in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Mads Fristrup

    2013-01-01

    When obtaining samples for population genetic studies, it is essential that the sampling is random. For Drosophila, one of the crucial steps in sampling experimental flies is the collection of eggs. Here an egg collection method is presented, which randomizes the eggs in a water column and dimini......When obtaining samples for population genetic studies, it is essential that the sampling is random. For Drosophila, one of the crucial steps in sampling experimental flies is the collection of eggs. Here an egg collection method is presented, which randomizes the eggs in a water column...... and to obtain a representative collection of genotypes, the method presented here is strongly recommended when collecting eggs from Drosophila....

  19. Fast egg collection method greatly improves randomness of egg sampling in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Mads Fristrup

    2013-01-01

    When obtaining samples for population genetic studies, it is essential that the sampling is random. For Drosophila, one of the crucial steps in sampling experimental flies is the collection of eggs. Here an egg collection method is presented, which randomizes the eggs in a water column and dimini......When obtaining samples for population genetic studies, it is essential that the sampling is random. For Drosophila, one of the crucial steps in sampling experimental flies is the collection of eggs. Here an egg collection method is presented, which randomizes the eggs in a water column...... and to obtain a representative collection of genotypes, the method presented here is strongly recommended when collecting eggs from Drosophila....

  20. Chapter A3. Cleaning of Equipment for Water Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Franceska D.; Radtke, Dean B.; Gibs, Jacob; Iwatsubo, Rick T.

    1998-01-01

    The National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data (National Field Manual) describes protocols and provides guidelines for U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel who collect data used to assess the quality of the Nation's surface-water and ground-water resources. Chapter A3 describes procedures for cleaning the equipment used to collect and process samples of surface water and ground water and procedures for assessing the efficacy of the equipment-cleaning process. This chapter is designed for use with the other chapters of this field manual. Each chapter of the National Field Manual is published separately and revised periodically. Newly published and revised chapters will be posted on the USGS page 'National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data.' The URL for this page is http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/twri9A/ (accessed September 20, 2004).

  1. Magnificent Ground Water Connection. [Sample Activities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    Water conservation and usage is an important concept in science. This document, geared specifically to New England, provides many activities for protecting and discussing ground water situations. Sample activities for grades K-6 include: (1) All the Water in the World; (2) The Case of the Disappearing Water; (3) Deep Subjects--Wells and Ground…

  2. 大体积水中痕量POPs的联动采集装置及其性能评价%A Linkage Sampling Equipment for Collecting Trace POPs in High - Volume Water and Its Performance Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏凡; 张海军; 袁和平; 刘崇杰; 齐沛沛; 陈吉平

    2011-01-01

    天然水体中的痕量持久性有机污染物(POPs)的定量分析通常需要采集大体积水样.针对大体积水样在过滤和吸附富集过程中滤膜易堵塞且耗时费力的缺点,研制了一种固液分离过滤-吸附富集联动装置.该装置主要由粗过滤器、离心分离屏、倒置微孔过滤器、固相吸附柱、流速控制阀和真空泵组成.与传统的滤膜过滤方式相比,其过滤效率提高了约1.5倍.利用此采样装置对大连西山水库水样和大辽河干流水样进行了富集,并采用高分辨气相色谱-高分辨质谱定量分析了其中的二(口恶)(口英)(PCDD/Fs)和多氯联苯(PCBs)的含量.结果表明,填加的13C12 - PCDD/Fs回收率能够满足HJ 77.1 -2008分析标准要求,填加的13C12 - PCBs回收率为40% ~ 100%,17种2,3,7,8位氯取代PCDD/Fs的相对标准偏差变化范围为16.3% ~ 24.7%.该采样装置使用简单,适合于大体积水样中痕量POPs的富集.%A high-volume water sampling is a necessary means to quantify trace persistent organic pollutants ( POPs) in natural water. However, the filter is so easily blocked that the filtration work can take a long time during the filtration of high-volume water. As for the disadvantage, a filtration-adsorption linkage water sampling equipment was developed. It was mainly composed of preliminary filter, centrifugal separation shield, upside-down membrane filter, solid-phase adsorption column, flow rate control valve, and vacuum pump. Compared with conventional membrane filtration method, the filtration efficiency was enhanced by about 1.5 times when using the linkage sampling equipment. Moreover, polychiorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans ( PCOD/Fs) and polychiorinated biphenyls ( PCBs) in water samples from Xishan Reservoir of Dalian and from the mainstream of Dalian River, collected by the linkage sampling equipment, were analyzed using high-resolution gas chromatography combined with high-resolution mass

  3. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from ENDEAVOUR, JOHN P. TULLY and PARIZEAU in the Coastal Waters of SE Alaska, Gulf of Alaska and North Pacific Ocean from 1985-02-12 to 2010-06-18 (NODC Accession 0110260)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0110260 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from ENDEAVOUR, JOHN P. TULLY and PARIZEAU in the Coastal Waters of SE Alaska, Gulf of...

  4. The development of a Martian atmospheric Sample collection canister

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulczycki, E.; Galey, C.; Kennedy, B.; Budney, C.; Bame, D.; Van Schilfgaarde, R.; Aisen, N.; Townsend, J.; Younse, P.; Piacentine, J.

    The collection of an atmospheric sample from Mars would provide significant insight to the understanding of the elemental composition and sub-surface out-gassing rates of noble gases. A team of engineers at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology have developed an atmospheric sample collection canister for Martian application. The engineering strategy has two basic elements: first, to collect two separately sealed 50 cubic centimeter unpressurized atmospheric samples with minimal sensing and actuation in a self contained pressure vessel; and second, to package this atmospheric sample canister in such a way that it can be easily integrated into the orbiting sample capsule for collection and return to Earth. Sample collection and integrity are demonstrated by emulating the atmospheric collection portion of the Mars Sample Return mission on a compressed timeline. The test results achieved by varying the pressure inside of a thermal vacuum chamber while opening and closing the valve on the sample canister at Mars ambient pressure. A commercial off-the-shelf medical grade micro-valve is utilized in the first iteration of this design to enable rapid testing of the system. The valve has been independently leak tested at JPL to quantify and separate the leak rates associated with the canister. The results are factored in to an overall system design that quantifies mass, power, and sensing requirements for a Martian atmospheric Sample Collection (MASC) canister as outlined in the Mars Sample Return mission profile. Qualitative results include the selection of materials to minimize sample contamination, preliminary science requirements, priorities in sample composition, flight valve selection criteria, a storyboard from sample collection to loading in the orbiting sample capsule, and contributions to maintaining “ Earth” clean exterior surfaces on the orbiting sample capsule.

  5. 28 CFR 28.12 - Collection of DNA samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Analysis, and Indexing § 28.12 Collection of DNA samples. (a) The Bureau of Prisons shall collect a DNA... whom the agency collects fingerprints and may be subject to other limitations or exceptions approved by... and not subject to further detention or proceedings; (3) Aliens held in connection with...

  6. Maui, Lanai, and Hawaii Water Quality Sampling Dataset Collected By Dr. Richard Brock on Behalf of the State of Hawaii Department of Health Mostly During 2001-2005 (NODC Accession 0031350)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Transects were made on three islands in nine areas to collect in situ water quality measurements. Each area has several survey transects from the shallows seaward....

  7. Trends in major-ion constituents and properties for selected sampling sites in the Tongue and Powder River watersheds, Montana and Wyoming, based on data collected during water years 1980-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sando, Steven K.; Vecchia, Aldo V.; Barnhart, Elliott P.; Sando, Thomas R.; Clark, Melanie L.; Lorenz, David L.

    2014-01-01

    The primary purpose of this report is to present information relating to flow-adjusted temporal trends in major-ion constituents and properties for 16 sampling sites in the Tongue and Powder River watersheds based on data collected during 1980–2010. In association with this primary purpose, the report presents background information on major-ion characteristics (including specific conductance, calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium adsorption ratio, sodium, alkalinity, chloride, fluoride, dissolved sulfate, and dissolved solids) of the sampling sites and coal-bed methane (CBM) produced water (groundwater pumped from coal seams) in the site watersheds, trend analysis methods, streamflow conditions, and factors that affect trend results. The Tongue and Powder River watersheds overlie the Powder River structural basin (PRB) in northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana. Limited extraction of coal-bed methane (CBM) from the PRB began in the early 1990’s, and increased dramatically during the late 1990’s and early 2000’s. CBM-extraction activities produce discharges of water with high concentrations of dissolved solids (particularly sodium and bicarbonate ions) relative to most stream water in the Tongue and Powder River watersheds. Water-quality of CBM produced water is of concern because of potential effects of sodium on agricultural soils and potential effects of bicarbonate on aquatic biota. Two parametric trend-analysis methods were used in this study: the time-series model (TSM) and ordinary least squares regression (OLS) on time, streamflow, and season. The TSM was used to analyze trends for 11 of the 16 study sites. For five sites, data requirements of the TSM were not met and OLS was used to analyze trends. Two primary 10-year trend-analysis periods were selected. Trend-analysis period 1 (water years 1986–95; hereinafter referred to as period 1) was selected to represent variability in major-ion concentrations in the Tongue and Powder River

  8. Groundwater quality and the relation between pH values and occurrence of trace elements and radionuclides in water samples collected from private wells in part of the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma Jurisdictional Area, central Oklahoma, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Carol J.

    2013-01-01

    micrograms per liter in one sample having a concentration of 147 micrograms per liter. Both samples had alkaline pH values, 8.0 and 8.4, respectively. Uranium concentrations ranged from 0.02 to 383 micrograms per liter with 5 of 20 samples exceeding the Maximum Contaminant Level of 30 micrograms per liter; the five wells with uranium concentrations exceeding 30 micrograms per liter had pH values ranging from 8.0 to 8.5. Concentrations of uranium and radon-222 and gross alpha-particle activity showed a positive relation to pH, with the highest concentrations and activity in samples having pH values of 8.0 or above. The groundwater samples contained dissolved oxygen and high concentrations of bicarbonate; these characteristics are also factors in increasing uranium solubility. Concentrations of radium-226 and radium-228 (combined) ranged from 0.03 to 1.7 picocuries per liter, with a median concentration of 0.45 picocuries per liter for all samples. Radon-222 concentrations ranged from 95 to 3,600 picocuries per liter with a median concentration of 261 picocuries per liter. Eight samples having pH values ranging from 8.0 to 8.7 exceeded the proposed Maximum Contaminant Level of 300 picocuries per liter for radon-222. Eight samples exceeded the 15 picocuries per liter Maximum Contaminant Level for gross alpha-particle activity at 72 hours (after sample collection) and at 30 days (after the initial count); those samples had pH values ranging from 8.0 to 8.5. Gross beta-particle activity increased in 15 of 21 samples during the interval from 72 hours to 30 days. The increase in gross beta-particle activity over time probably was caused by the ingrowth and decay of uranium daughter products that emit beta particles. Water-quality data collected for this study indicate that pH values above 8.0 are associated with potentially high concentrations of uranium and radon-222 and high gross alpha-particle activity in the study area. High pH values also are associated with potentially high

  9. Water quality monitoring and data collection in the Mississippi sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runner, Michael S.; Creswell, R.

    2002-01-01

    The United States Geological Survey and the Mississippi Department of Marine Resources are collecting data on the quality of the water in the Mississippi Sound of the Gulf of Mexico, and streamflow data for its tributaries. The U.S. Geological Survey is collecting continuous water-level data, continuous and discrete water-temperature data, continuous and discrete specific-conductance data, as well as chloride and salinity samples at two locations in the Mississippi Sound and three Corps of Engineers tidal gages. Continuous-discharge data are also being collected at two additional stations on tributaries. The Mississippi Department of Marine Resources collects water samples at 169 locations in the Gulf of Mexico. Between 1800 and 2000 samples are collected annually which are analyzed for turbidity and fecal coliform bacteria. The continuous data are made available real-time through the internet and are being used in conjunction with streamflow data, weather data, and sampling data for the monitoring and management of the oyster reefs, the shrimp fishery and other marine species and their habitats.

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF CORE SAMPLE COLLECTED FROM THE SALTSTONE DISPOSAL FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozzi, A.; Duncan, A.

    2010-01-28

    During the month of September 2008, grout core samples were collected from the Saltstone Disposal Facility, Vault 4, cell E. This grout was placed during processing campaigns in December 2007 from Deliquification, Dissolution and Adjustment Batch 2 salt solution. The 4QCY07 Waste Acceptance Criteria sample collected on 11/16/07 represents the salt solution in the core samples. Core samples were retrieved to initiate the historical database of properties of emplaced Saltstone and to demonstrate the correlation between field collected and laboratory prepared samples. Three samples were collected from three different locations. Samples were collected using a two-inch diameter concrete coring bit. In April 2009, the core samples were removed from the evacuated sample container, inspected, transferred to PVC containers, and backfilled with nitrogen. Samples furthest from the wall were the most intact cylindrically shaped cored samples. The shade of the core samples darkened as the depth of coring increased. Based on the visual inspection, sample 3-3 was selected for all subsequent analysis. The density and porosity of the Vault 4 core sample, 1.90 g/cm{sup 3} and 59.90% respectively, were comparable to values achieved for laboratory prepared samples. X-ray diffraction analysis identified phases consistent with the expectations for hydrated Saltstone. Microscopic analysis revealed morphology features characteristic of cementitious materials with fly ash and calcium silicate hydrate gel. When taken together, the results of the density, porosity, x-ray diffraction analysis and microscopic analysis support the conclusion that the Vault 4, Cell E core sample is representative of the expected waste form.

  11. An integrated flask sample collection system for greenhouse gas measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Turnbull

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A one hour integrated flask sampling system to collect air in automated NOAA/ESRL 12-flask packages is described. The integrating compressor system uses a mass flow controller to regulate the flow of air through a 15 l volume, thus providing a mixture of air collected over an hour-long period. By beginning with a high flow rate of 3800 standard liters per minute and gradually decreasing the flow rate over time to 290 standard liters per minute it is possible to obtain a nearly uniformly time averaged sample of air and collect it into a pressurized 0.7 l flask. The weighting function determining the air mixture obtained is described in detail. Laboratory and field tests demonstrate that the integrated sample approximates a simple mean of air collected during the one-hour sampling time.

  12. An integrated flask sample collection system for greenhouse gas measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Turnbull

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A one hour integrated flask sampling system to collect air in automated NOAA/ESRL 12-flask packages is described. The integrating compressor system uses a mass flow controller to regulate the flow of air through a 15 l volume, thus providing a mixture of air collected over an hour-long period. By beginning with a high flow rate of 3.8 standard liters per minute and gradually decreasing the flow rate over time to 0.29 standard liters per minute it is possible to obtain a nearly uniformly time averaged sample of air and collect it into a pressurized 0.7 l flask. The weighting function determining the air mixture obtained is described in detail. Laboratory and field tests demonstrate that the integrated sample approximates a simple mean of air collected during the one-hour sampling time.

  13. Fieldwork and catalogue of samples collected in Polan, September 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulsen, N.; Drewniak, A.; Glowniak, E.; Ineson, J.; Matyja, B.A.; Merta, T.; Wierzbowski, A.

    1995-12-31

    This report lists the collection of samples taken during the field work of the EFP-95 Project, named `The Polish Middle to Late Jurassic Epicratonic basin, stratigraphy, facies and basin history` (short title: Jurrasic basin study, Poland) in Poland, August 7-20, 1995. The samples were collected for palynological studies, and/or sedimentaological studies, and/or source rock studies, and/or reservoir rock characteristics. Prepared samples (slides etc.) are stored in the collections of the GEUS, and remaining rock-material at the store of the GEUS. Field work with collection of samples for palynological studies has been carried earlier in 1988 and at the Oxfordian and Kimmeridgian Joint Working Groups Meeting 1992. (au)

  14. CRUMP 2003 Selected Water Sample Results

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Point locations and water sampling results performed in 2003 by the Church Rock Uranium Monitoring Project (CRUMP) a consortium of organizations (Navajo Nation...

  15. Vaginal maturation index self-sample collection in mid-life women: acceptability and correlation with physician-collected samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Rachel; Austin, R Marshall; Dillon, Stacey; Chang, Chung-Chou Ho; Ness, Roberta B

    2008-01-01

    During menopause, the ratio of the three vaginal epithelial cell types (parabasal, intermediate, and superficial) changes. The proportion of these vaginal cell types is categorized by the vaginal maturation index (VMI). The VMI provides an objective assessment of vaginal hormone response as well as overall hormonal environment. The aim of this study was to determine the concordance of self- and physician-collected samples for VMI and evaluate participant preference for self-collection. Twenty women aged 42 to 67 years were enrolled. Each woman received instructions and self-collected a sample for VMI analysis from her posterior lateral vaginal walls. Next, she underwent a vaginal speculum examination for physician VMI sampling. Finally, she completed a survey regarding sampling preference, ease of self-sampling, and previous vaginal experience. Correlation between physician- and self-collected samples were calculated using Pearson's correlation coefficient and Cronbach's alpha. Participant characteristics, vaginal experiences, and sampling preferences were summarized using frequencies and measures of central tendencies. The relationships between preference for sampling method and previous vaginal experiences were examined using Fisher's exact test. Average age of the 20 participants was 52.2 years (range, 42-67 y). Women had a variety of previous vaginal experiences ranging from tampon use (100%) to previous vaginal self-swabbing (15%). Average self-collected VMI was 48.4 (range, 13.8-83.5) and physician-collected VMI was 49.9 (range, 20.5-83.5) with a correlation of 0.97 (P VMI, and the majority of women in our study preferred self-collection to physician collection. Vaginal self-sampling allows this technique for measuring overall hormonal environment to be used in clinical and epidemiological research.

  16. The Apollo lunar samples collection analysis and results

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the specific mission planning for lunar sample collection, the equipment used, and the analysis and findings concerning the samples at the Lunar Receiving Laboratory in Texas. Anthony Young documents the collection of Apollo samples for the first time for readers of all backgrounds, and includes interviews with many of those involved in planning and analyzing the samples. NASA contracted with the U.S. Geologic Survey to perform classroom and field training of the Apollo astronauts. NASA’s Geology Group within the Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston, Texas, helped to establish the goals of sample collection, as well as the design of sample collection tools, bags, and storage containers. In this book, detailed descriptions are given on the design of the lunar sampling tools, the Modular Experiment Transporter used on Apollo 14, and the specific areas of the Lunar Rover vehicle used for the Apollo 15, 16, and 17 missions, which carried the sampling tools, bags, and other related equipment ...

  17. A direct method for e-cigarette aerosol sample collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo, Pablo; Navas-Acien, Ana; Hess, Catherine; Jarmul, Stephanie; Rule, Ana

    2016-08-01

    E-cigarette use is increasing in populations around the world. Recent evidence has shown that the aerosol produced by e-cigarettes can contain a variety of toxicants. Published studies characterizing toxicants in e-cigarette aerosol have relied on filters, impingers or sorbent tubes, which are methods that require diluting or extracting the sample in a solution during collection. We have developed a collection system that directly condenses e-cigarette aerosol samples for chemical and toxicological analyses. The collection system consists of several cut pipette tips connected with short pieces of tubing. The pipette tip-based collection system can be connected to a peristaltic pump, a vacuum pump, or directly to an e-cigarette user for the e-cigarette aerosol to flow through the system. The pipette tip-based system condenses the aerosol produced by the e-cigarette and collects a liquid sample that is ready for analysis without the need of intermediate extraction solutions. We tested a total of 20 e-cigarettes from 5 different brands commercially available in Maryland. The pipette tip-based collection system condensed between 0.23 and 0.53mL of post-vaped e-liquid after 150 puffs. The proposed method is highly adaptable, can be used during field work and in experimental settings, and allows collecting aerosol samples from a wide variety of e-cigarette devices, yielding a condensate of the likely exact substance that is being delivered to the lungs.

  18. On the improvement of blood sample collection at clinical laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Blood samples are usually collected daily from different collection points, such hospitals and health centers, and transported to a core laboratory for testing. This paper presents a project to improve the collection routes of two of the largest clinical laboratories in Spain. These routes must be designed in a cost-efficient manner while satisfying two important constraints: (i) two-hour time windows between collection and delivery, and (ii) vehicle capacity. Methods A heuristic method based on a genetic algorithm has been designed to solve the problem of blood sample collection. The user enters the following information for each collection point: postal address, average collecting time, and average demand (in thermal containers). After implementing the algorithm using C programming, this is run and, in few seconds, it obtains optimal (or near-optimal) collection routes that specify the collection sequence for each vehicle. Different scenarios using various types of vehicles have been considered. Unless new collection points are added or problem parameters are changed substantially, routes need to be designed only once. Results The two laboratories in this study previously planned routes manually for 43 and 74 collection points, respectively. These routes were covered by an external carrier company. With the implementation of this algorithm, the number of routes could be reduced from ten to seven in one laboratory and from twelve to nine in the other, which represents significant annual savings in transportation costs. Conclusions The algorithm presented can be easily implemented in other laboratories that face this type of problem, and it is particularly interesting and useful as the number of collection points increases. The method designs blood collection routes with reduced costs that meet the time and capacity constraints of the problem. PMID:24406140

  19. Monitoring drip water isotope and element variability: A new device for automatic drip water collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitenbach, S. F. M.; Gilbert, M.-J.; Kwiecien, O.; Seifert, R.; Fleitmann, D.

    2012-04-01

    Understanding cave drip water elemental and stable isotope composition (δD and δ18O) are vital for interpreting climate proxy records derived from stalagmites as palaeoclimate archives. Delineating the temporal changes in drip water chemistry to climatic and environmental fluctuations (such as rainfall amount, degassing, bioactivity etc.) is even more important if calibration is attempted between climatic parameters and stalagmite proxy records. Monitoring of remote study sites has often been limited by the ability to regularly and manually collect drip water samples over an extended period of time. One important complication to be considered for stable isotope analysis is that sampling vials must be closed air-tight, in order to avoid post-sampling evaporation of the sampled water. To overcome these limitations we developed an automated and programmable sampling device that can collect 12 ml of drip water at pre-defined time intervals. A total of 49 samples can be collected in a turret over a period of up to one year. The device is powered by widely available C-cell batteries and works in cave environments with positive air temperature. The autosampler has been installed and tested in Waldheim Cave, Switzerland, where we collected water at 24h intervals. We present preliminary data for the winter period December 2011 to March 2012.

  20. A new method of snowmelt sampling for water stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penna, D.; Ahmad, M.; Birks, S. J.; Bouchaou, L.; Brencic, M.; Butt, S.; Holko, L.; Jeelani, G.; Martinez, D. E.; Melikadze, G.; Shanley, J.B.; Sokratov, S. A.; Stadnyk, T.; Sugimoto, A.; Vreca, P.

    2014-01-01

    We modified a passive capillary sampler (PCS) to collect snowmelt water for isotopic analysis. Past applications of PCSs have been to sample soil water, but the novel aspect of this study was the placement of the PCSs at the ground-snowpack interface to collect snowmelt. We deployed arrays of PCSs at 11 sites in ten partner countries on five continents representing a range of climate and snow cover worldwide. The PCS reliably collected snowmelt at all sites and caused negligible evaporative fractionation effects in the samples. PCS is low-cost, easy to install, and collects a representative integrated snowmelt sample throughout the melt season or at the melt event scale. Unlike snow cores, the PCS collects the water that would actually infiltrate the soil; thus, its isotopic composition is appropriate to use for tracing snowmelt water through the hydrologic cycle. The purpose of this Briefing is to show the potential advantages of PCSs and recommend guidelines for constructing and installing them based on our preliminary results from two snowmelt seasons.

  1. Filtration recovery of extracellular DNA from environmental water samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    qPCR methods are able to analyze DNA from microbes within hours of collecting water samples, providing the promptest notification and public awareness possible when unsafe pathogenic levels are reached. Health risk, however, may be overestimated by the presence of extracellular ...

  2. Astronaut Harrison Schmitt collects lunar rake samples during EVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Harrison H. Schmitt collects lunar rake samples at Station 1 during the first Apollo 17 extravehicular activity (EVA-1) at the Taurus-Littrow landing site. This picture was taken by Astronatu Eugene Cernan, Apollo 17 commander. Schmitt is the lunar module pilot. The lunar rake, An Apollo lunar geology hand tool, is used to collect discrete samples of rocks and rock chips ranging in size from one-half inch (1.3 cm) to one inch (2.5 cm).

  3. Radon in water samples around Ningyo Toge area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuta, Sadaaki [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Kamisaibara, Okayama (Japan). Ningyo Toge Works

    1997-02-01

    Radon concentrations of river water and drinking water were surveyed. Water samples were collected from the region around Ningyo-Toge Works which were positioned on a granitic layer having uranium deposit. Each sample was taken using a separating funnel and the radioactivity was counted by liquid scintillation counter (ALOKA, LB-2). Since there were old working places of mine in the region, mine drainages from them were also analyzed. The radon concentration of drinking water from the region ranged from 0.1 to 230 Bq/l. The samples with a higher activity than 100 Bq/l were water from springs or wells and the area of the highest Rn concentration was on a typical granitic layer, suggesting some geographic effects on Rn concentration. Some samples of drinking water had slightly higher levels of Rn, probably due to the utilization of underflow as its source. The mean concentration of Rn became higher in the order; river water, drinking water, mine drainage in the region. In addition, a negative correlation between Rn concentration of water and the river flow rate was observed in this region. (M.N.)

  4. Optimization of Eosine Analyses in Water Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kola, Liljana

    2010-01-01

    The fluorescence ability of Eosine enables its using as artificial tracer in the water system studies. The fluorescence intensity of fluorescent dyes in water samples depends on their physical and chemical properties, such as pH, temperature, presence of oxidants, etc. This paper presents the experience of the Center of Applied Nuclear Physics, Tirana, in this field. The problem is dealt with in relation to applying Eosine to trace and determine water movements within the karstic system and underground waters. We have used for this study the standard solutions of Eosine. The method we have elaborated to this purpose made it possible to optimize procedures we use to analyze samples for the presence of Eosine and measure its content, even in trace levels, by the means of a Perkin Elmer LS 55 Luminescence Spectrometer.

  5. Profile sampling to characterize particulate lead risks in potable water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Brandi; Masters, Sheldon; Edwards, Marc

    2014-06-17

    Traditional lead (Pb) profiling, or collecting sequential liters of water that flow from a consumer tap after a stagnation event, has recently received widespread use in understanding sources of Pb in drinking water and risks to consumer health, but has limitations in quantifying particulate Pb risks. A new profiling protocol was developed in which a series of traditional profiles are collected from the same tap at escalating flow rates. The results revealed marked differences in risks of Pb exposure from one consumer home to another as a function of flow rate, with homes grouped into four risk categories with differing flushing requirements and public education to protect consumers. On average, Pb concentrations detected in water at high flow without stagnation were at least three to four times higher than in first draw samples collected at low flow with stagnation, demonstrating a new "worst case" lead release scenario, contrary to the original regulatory assumption that stagnant, first draw samples contain the highest lead concentrations. Testing also revealed that in some cases water samples with visible particulates had much higher Pb than samples without visible particulates, and tests of different sample handling protocols confirmed that some EPA-allowed methods would not quantify as much as 99.9% of the Pb actually present (avg. 27% of Pb not quantified).

  6. Bacterial contamination in cold water samples obtained from water dispensers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuhata, Katsunori; Ishizaki, Naoto; Fukuyama, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    We carried out a basic study in order to evaluate the bacterial contamination in water dispensers. Water samples were obtained from water dispensers from October 2012 to November 2013, and standard plate counts (at 36˚C, 24 h) of the samples, as well as heterotrophic plate counts (at 25˚C, 7 d), were estimated with the standard methods for the examination of drinking water in Japan. Standard plate counts exceeding the water-quality standard (1.0×10(2) CFU/ml) were observed in 42 of the 140 samples (30.0%), with a maximum detected bacterial count of 2.1×10(5) CFU/ml. The rate of the standard plate counts exceeding the water quality standard tended to be higher when using a one-way type method or water dispensers with natural water. Ralstonia spp. was most commonly isolated, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated in a few cases. Some opportunistic pathogens were also isolated, suggesting that we should be more concerned about bacterial contamination in cold water supplied from water dispensers.

  7. Experimental Design for the INL Sample Collection Operational Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amidan, Brett G.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Matzke, Brett D.; Filliben, James J.; Jones, Barbara

    2007-12-13

    This document describes the test events and numbers of samples comprising the experimental design that was developed for the contamination, decontamination, and sampling of a building at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). This study is referred to as the INL Sample Collection Operational Test. Specific objectives were developed to guide the construction of the experimental design. The main objective is to assess the relative abilities of judgmental and probabilistic sampling strategies to detect contamination in individual rooms or on a whole floor of the INL building. A second objective is to assess the use of probabilistic and Bayesian (judgmental + probabilistic) sampling strategies to make clearance statements of the form “X% confidence that at least Y% of a room (or floor of the building) is not contaminated. The experimental design described in this report includes five test events. The test events (i) vary the floor of the building on which the contaminant will be released, (ii) provide for varying or adjusting the concentration of contaminant released to obtain the ideal concentration gradient across a floor of the building, and (iii) investigate overt as well as covert release of contaminants. The ideal contaminant gradient would have high concentrations of contaminant in rooms near the release point, with concentrations decreasing to zero in rooms at the opposite end of the building floor. For each of the five test events, the specified floor of the INL building will be contaminated with BG, a stand-in for Bacillus anthracis. The BG contaminant will be disseminated from a point-release device located in the room specified in the experimental design for each test event. Then judgmental and probabilistic samples will be collected according to the pre-specified sampling plan. Judgmental samples will be selected based on professional judgment and prior information. Probabilistic samples will be selected in sufficient numbers to provide desired confidence

  8. ISS Potable Water Sampling and Chemical Analysis Results for 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, John E., II; Plumlee, Debrah K.; Wallace William T.; Alverson, James T.; Benoit, Mickie J.; Gillispie, Robert L.; Hunter, David; Kuo, Mike; Rutz, Jeffrey A.; Hudson, Edgar K.; Loh, Leslie J.; Gazda, Daniel B.

    2017-01-01

    This paper continues the annual tradition of summarizing at this conference the results of chemical analyses performed on archival potable water samples returned from the International Space Station (ISS). 2016 represented a banner year for life on board the ISS, including the successful conclusion for two crew members of a record one-year mission. Water reclaimed from urine and/or humidity condensate remained the primary source of potable water for the crew members of ISS Expeditions 46-50. The year 2016 was also marked by the end of a long-standing tradition of U.S. sampling and monitoring of Russian Segment potable water sources. Two water samples taken during Expedition 46 in February 2016 and returned on Soyuz 44, represented the final Russian Segment samples to be collected and analyzed by the U.S. side. Although anticipated for 2016, a rise in the total organic carbon (TOC) concentration of the product water from the U.S. water processor assembly due to breakthrough of organic contaminants from the system did not materialize, as evidenced by the onboard TOC analyzer and archive sample results.

  9. Tank Access for Ballast Water Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    not constitute a standard, specification, or regulation. ~~r R~ obert C. chards "Director of Technical Development United States Coast Guard Research...Water Sampling Protocols (Technical Report No. 18). Hobart, Tasmania: Centre for Research on Introduced Marine Pests. U.S. Department of

  10. Reliability of chemical analyses of water samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beardon, R.

    1989-11-01

    Ground-water quality investigations require reliable chemical analyses of water samples. Unfortunately, laboratory analytical results are often unreliable. The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project`s solution to this problem was to establish a two phase quality assurance program for the analysis of water samples. In the first phase, eight laboratories analyzed three solutions of known composition. The analytical accuracy of each laboratory was ranked and three laboratories were awarded contracts. The second phase consists of on-going monitoring of the reliability of the selected laboratories. The following conclusions are based on two years experience with the UMTRA Project`s Quality Assurance Program. The reliability of laboratory analyses should not be taken for granted. Analytical reliability may be independent of the prices charged by laboratories. Quality assurance programs benefit both the customer and the laboratory.

  11. Reliability of chemical analyses of water samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beardon, R.

    1989-11-01

    Ground-water quality investigations require reliable chemical analyses of water samples. Unfortunately, laboratory analytical results are often unreliable. The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project`s solution to this problem was to establish a two phase quality assurance program for the analysis of water samples. In the first phase, eight laboratories analyzed three solutions of known composition. The analytical accuracy of each laboratory was ranked and three laboratories were awarded contracts. The second phase consists of on-going monitoring of the reliability of the selected laboratories. The following conclusions are based on two years experience with the UMTRA Project`s Quality Assurance Program. The reliability of laboratory analyses should not be taken for granted. Analytical reliability may be independent of the prices charged by laboratories. Quality assurance programs benefit both the customer and the laboratory.

  12. June 2011 Natural Gas and Produced Water Sampling at the Gasbuggy, New Mexico, Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-10-01

    Annual natural gas and produced water monitoring was conducted for gas wells adjacent to Section 36, where the Gasbuggy test was conducted, in accordance with the draft Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Plan for the Gasbuggy Site, Rio Arriba County, New Mexico. Sampling and analysis were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PLN/S04351, continually updated). Natural gas samples were collected for tritium and carbon-14 analyses. Produced water samples were collected and analyzed for tritium, gamma-emitting radionuclides (by high-resolution gamma spectrometry), gross alpha, and gross beta. A duplicate produced water sample was collected from well 30-039-21743. Produced water samples were not collected at locations 30-039-30161 and 30-039-21744 because of the lack of water. Samples were not collected from location 30-039-29988 because the well was shut-in.

  13. Collection of Stratospheric Samples using Balloon-Borne Payload System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Ajin; Safonova, Margarita; Murthy, Jayant; Sreejith, A. G.; Kumble, Sheshashayi; Mathew, Joice; Sarpotdar, Mayuresh; Kj, Nirmal; Suresh, Ambily; Chakravortty, Dipshikha; Rangarajan, Annapoorni

    2016-07-01

    Earth's atmosphere at stratospheric altitudes contains dust particles from soil lifted by weather, volcanic dust, man-made aerosols, IDP (Interplanetary Dust Particles) - remnants of comets and asteroids, and even interstellar dust. Satellite observations suggest that approximately 100--300 tons of cosmic dust enter Earth's atmosphere every day. However, very little is known about the microbial life in the upper atmosphere, where conditions are very much similar to that on Mars and possibly on some exoplanets. Stratosphere provides a good opportunity to study the existence or survival of biological life in these conditions. Despite the importance of this topic to astrobiology, stratospheric microbial diversity/survival remains largely unexplored, probably due to significant difficulties in the access and ensuring the absence of contamination of the samples. To conduct a detailed study into this, we are developing the balloon-borne payload system SAMPLE (Stratospheric Altitude Microbiology Probe for Life Existence) to collect dust samples from stratosphere and bring them in an hygienic and uncontaminated manner to a suitable laboratory environment, where further study will be conducted to establish the possibility of microbial life in the upper atmosphere. This balloon-borne payload system will rise through the atmosphere till it reaches an altitude of about 25-30 km above sea level. The payload consists of detachable pre-sterilized sampling chambers designed to collect and contain the dust samples and get them back to the surface without contamination during the flight, a microprocessor and a controller which will determine the altitude of the payload system to actively monitor the opening and closing of the sample collection chambers. For contamination control, we will have two extra chambers, one of which will fly but not open, and one will remain closed on the ground. Other onboard devices include environmental sensors, GPS tracking devices, cameras to monitor

  14. Prevention of hemolysis in blood samples collected from intravenous catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Avanzini, Paola; Cervellin, Gianfranco

    2013-05-01

    Samples drawn through intravenous catheters are frequently hemolyzed. We planned a prospective, randomized study to establish whether hemolysis in samples drawn from intravenous catheters may be reduced using S-Monovette® tubes collected by manual aspiration as compared with standard vacuum tubes. We studied 52 consecutive patients admitted to the ED. Blood was drawn through a 20-gauge intravenous catheter. A 5.0mL, Becton Dickinson Vacutainer® SST II Plus serum tube was collected and discarded. In the odd group of patients (i.e., n. 1, 3, 5, etc.), a second SST II tube was drawn with vacuum ("BD-V"), followed by a 5.5mL S-Monovette® serum tube collected with manual aspiration ("SD-A") and an identical S-Monovette collected by vacuum ("SD-V"). In the pair group of patients (i.e., n. 2, 4, 6, etc.), the sequence was modified to "SD-A", "SD-V" and "BD-V". Serum was separated and tested for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), potassium and cell-free hemoglobin. The mean concentration of potassium (+2.7% in BD-V and +1.7% in SD-V, respectively), LDH (+15% in BD-V and +7% in SD-V, respectively) and cell-free hemoglobin was significantly increased when samples were collected with vacuum tubes as compared with manual aspiration. No significant differences were observed between SD-V and BD-V. The frequency of hemolyzed samples was higher when blood was collected with the vacuum as compared with SD-A (i.e., 2%), but did not differ between BD-V and SD-V (i.e., 29 versus 31%; p=0.70). S-Monovette can be used with vacuum or aspiration collection. This latter approach allows blood drawing with limited shear stress and less likelihood of generating spuriously hemolysis. Copyright © 2013 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. IMPROVEMENT OF METHODS FOR HYDROBIOLOGICAL RESEARCH AND MODIFICATION OF STANDARD TOOLS FOR SAMPLE COLLECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Aligadjiev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The paper discusses the improvement of methods of hydrobiological studies by modifying tools for plankton and benthic samples collecting. Methods. In order to improve the standard methods of hydro-biological research, we have developed tools for sampling zooplankton and benthic environment of the Caspian Sea. Results. Long-term practice of selecting hydrobiological samples in the Caspian Sea shows that it is required to complete the modernization of the sampling tools used to collect hydrobiological material. With the introduction of Azov and Black Sea invasive comb jelly named Mnemiopsis leidyi A. Agassiz to the Caspian Sea there is a need to collect plankton samples without disturbing its integrity. Tools for collecting benthic fauna do not always give a complete picture of the state of benthic ecosystems because of the lack of visual site selection for sampling. Moreover, while sampling by dredge there is a probable loss of the samples, especially in areas with difficult terrain. Conclusion. We propose to modify a small model of Upstein net (applied in shallow water to collect zooplankton samples with an upper inverted cone that will significantly improve the catchability of the net in theCaspian Sea. Bottom sampler can be improved by installing a video camera for visual inspection of the bottom topography, and use sensors to determine tilt of the dredge and the position of the valves of the bucket. 

  16. American coot collective on-water dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Trenchard, Hugh

    2012-01-01

    American coot (Fulica americana) flocks exhibit water surface (two-dimensional) collective dynamics that oscillate between two primary phases: a disordered phase of low density and non-uniform coot body orientations; a synchronized phase characterized by high density, uniform body orientations and speed. For this small-scale study, data was obtained for flocks of 10 to ~250 members for these phases. Approximate durations of phase occurrences were recorded for different flock sizes and for both relatively calm and severe weather conditions. Results indicate that for timed durations of up to ~ 2 hours, small flocks (10 coots) exhibit a comparatively high disordered/synchronized phase ratio (PR) in relatively warm and well-sheltered conditions (substantially >1); large flocks (~100 or more) generally exhibit a PR near 1, while large flocks spend comparatively more time in a disordered phase in relatively calm conditions (PR somewhat >1), and spend more time in a synchronized phase during severe conditions (PR &l...

  17. Apollo 17 Astronaut Harrison Schmitt Collects Lunar Rock Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    In this Apollo 17 onboard photo, Lunar Module pilot Harrison H. Schmitt collects rock samples from a huge boulder near the Valley of Tourus-Littrow on the lunar surface. The seventh and last manned lunar landing and return to Earth mission, the Apollo 17, carrying a crew of three astronauts: Schmitt; Mission Commander Eugene A. Cernan; and Command Module pilot Ronald E. Evans, lifted off on December 7, 1972 from the Kennedy Space Flight Center (KSC). Scientific objectives of the Apollo 17 mission included geological surveying and sampling of materials and surface features in a preselected area of the Taurus-Littrow region, deploying and activating surface experiments, and conducting in-flight experiments and photographic tasks during lunar orbit and transearth coast (TEC). These objectives included: Deployed experiments such as the Apollo lunar surface experiment package (ALSEP) with a Heat Flow experiment, Lunar seismic profiling (LSP), Lunar surface gravimeter (LSG), Lunar atmospheric composition experiment (LACE) and Lunar ejecta and meteorites (LEAM). The mission also included Lunar Sampling and Lunar orbital experiments. Biomedical experiments included the Biostack II Experiment and the BIOCORE experiment. The mission marked the longest Apollo mission, 504 hours, and the longest lunar surface stay time, 75 hours, which allowed the astronauts to conduct an extensive geological investigation. They collected 257 pounds (117 kilograms) of lunar samples with the use of the Marshall Space Flight Center designed Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV). The mission ended on December 19, 1972

  18. Oxygen Isotopic Analyses of Water Extracted from Lunar Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn Martinez, M.; Thiemens, M. H.

    2014-12-01

    Oxygen exists in lunar materials in distinct phases having unique sources and equilibration histories. The oxygen isotopic composition (δ17O, δ18O) of various components of lunar materials has been studied extensively, but analyses of water in these samples are relatively sparse [1-3]. Samples collected on the lunar surface reflect not only the composition of their source reservoirs but also contributions from asteroidal and cometary impacts, interactions with solar wind and cosmic radiation, among other surface processes. Isotopic characterization of oxygen in lunar water could help resolve the major source of water in the Earth-Moon system by revealing if lunar water is primordial, asteroidal, or cometary in origin [1]. Methods: A lunar rock/soil sample is pumped to high vacuum to remove physisorbed water before heating step-wise to 50, 150, and 1000°C to extract extraterrestrial water without terrestrial contamination. The temperature at which water is evolved is proportional to the strength with which the water is bound in the sample and the relative difficulty of exchanging oxygen atoms in that water. This allows for the isolated extraction of water bound in different phases, which could have different source reservoirs and/or histories, as evidenced by the mass (in)dependence of oxygen compositions. A low blank procedure was developed to accommodate the low water content of lunar material [4]. Results: Oxygen isotopic analyses of lunar water extracted by stepwise heating lunar basalts and breccias with a range of compositions, petrologic types, and surface exposure ages will be presented. The cosmic ray exposure age of these samples varies by two orders of magnitude, and we will consider this in discussing the effects of solar wind and cosmic radiation on the oxygen isotopic composition (Δ17O). I will examine the implications of our water analyses for the composition of the oxygen-bearing reservoir from which that water formed, the effects of surface

  19. Appendix C. Collection of Samples for Chemical Agent Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koester, C; Thompson, C; Doerr, T; Scripsick, R

    2005-09-23

    This chapter describes procedures for the collection and analysis of samples of various matrices for the purpose of determining the presence of chemical agents in a civilian setting. This appendix is intended to provide the reader with sufficient information to make informed decisions about the sampling and analysis process and to suggest analytical strategies that might be implemented by the scientists performing sampling and analysis. This appendix is not intended to be used as a standard operating procedure to provide detailed instructions as to how trained scientists should handle samples. Chemical agents can be classified by their physical and chemical properties. Table 1 lists the chemical agents considered by this report. In selecting sampling and analysis methods, we have considered procedures proposed by the Organization for Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and peer-reviewed scientific literature. EPA analytical methods are good resources describing issues of quality assurance with respect to chain-of-custody, sample handling, and quality control requirements.

  20. Experimental and Sampling Design for the INL-2 Sample Collection Operational Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Matzke, Brett D.

    2009-02-16

    This report describes the experimental and sampling design developed to assess sampling approaches and methods for detecting contamination in a building and clearing the building for use after decontamination. An Idaho National Laboratory (INL) building will be contaminated with BG (Bacillus globigii, renamed Bacillus atrophaeus), a simulant for Bacillus anthracis (BA). The contamination, sampling, decontamination, and re-sampling will occur per the experimental and sampling design. This INL-2 Sample Collection Operational Test is being planned by the Validated Sampling Plan Working Group (VSPWG). The primary objectives are: 1) Evaluate judgmental and probabilistic sampling for characterization as well as probabilistic and combined (judgment and probabilistic) sampling approaches for clearance, 2) Conduct these evaluations for gradient contamination (from low or moderate down to absent or undetectable) for different initial concentrations of the contaminant, 3) Explore judgment composite sampling approaches to reduce sample numbers, 4) Collect baseline data to serve as an indication of the actual levels of contamination in the tests. A combined judgmental and random (CJR) approach uses Bayesian methodology to combine judgmental and probabilistic samples to make clearance statements of the form "X% confidence that at least Y% of an area does not contain detectable contamination” (X%/Y% clearance statements). The INL-2 experimental design has five test events, which 1) vary the floor of the INL building on which the contaminant will be released, 2) provide for varying the amount of contaminant released to obtain desired concentration gradients, and 3) investigate overt as well as covert release of contaminants. Desirable contaminant gradients would have moderate to low concentrations of contaminant in rooms near the release point, with concentrations down to zero in other rooms. Such gradients would provide a range of contamination levels to challenge the sampling

  1. Ecotoxic impact of suspended solids collected from polluted surface waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weltens, R.; Witters, H.; Corbisier, P. [Vito, Environmental Toxicology, MOL (Belgium)

    2001-07-01

    Scope and background. Earlier studies showed that artificially contaminated particulate matter could be responsible for acute effects in water fleas and fish. Physical/chemical measurements on suspended solids and river water collected in the field showed that these samples were often contaminated with mixtures of toxic molecules. Objectives. The present pilot study was started to investigate the possible ecotoxic impact of suspended solids collected in situ. Methods. Suspended solids and river waters were collected from 22 locations of polluted rivers in the Flanders. An extensive list of chemical components and physical parameters were measured in these matrices. Partition coefficients for water column and suspended solids were calculated. Toxicity of suspensions of solid materials was investigated in 3 test organisms of different trophic levels: Bacteria (BIOMET trademark), filter feeder (Daphnia magna) and fish (rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) or zebrafish (Danio rerio)). The acute toxicity was measured in a worst-case scenario using high concentrations of solids resuspended in standard medium and at standard conditions. (orig.)

  2. An unmanned mission to Mars with sample collection and in-situ resource utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    The design for the Mars Analysis and Return Vehicle with In-Situ Resource Utilization (MARVIN) project is outlined. The MARVIN mission is designed to collect samples of the Martian environment; to produce fuel from local Martian resources; and to use the fuel produced to return the samples to earth. It uses only existing technologies. Exploratory Technologies' mission-design efforts have focused on methods of orbit determination, sample collection, fuel production, power, communications, control, and structural design. Lambert Targeting provided Delta-V's, launch dates, and travel times. The landing site is the Tharsis Plateau, to the southeast of Olympus Mons, chosen for its substantial scientific value. Samples of soil, dust, and atmosphere are collected with lander-based collection devices: the soil sample, with a robotic arm similar to those used in the Viking missions; the atmospheric sample, from a bleed line to the compressor in the fuel-production facility; a dust sample, from the dust-collection container in the fuel-production facility; and a redundant dust sample, with a with a passive filter system, which relies upon neither a power source nor other collection methods. The sample-return capsule (SRC) houses these samples, which are triply contained to prevent contamination. Proven technology can be used to produce methane and oxygen for fuel with relative ease at the landing site: the Sabatier reactor produces methane and water by combining carbon dioxide and hydrogen (brought from earth); the Reverse Water-Gas Shift unit combines carbon dioxide and hydrogen to form carbon monoxide and water; a water-electrolysis unit splits the water into hydrogen and oxygen. The Mars-lander vehicle (MLV) transports the equipment from earth to Mars. The Mars-ascent vehicle (MAV) contains the SRC and the engine, which is the same for both the MLV and the MAV. All equipment that is unnecessary for the Mars-Earth trajectory remains on Mars. This report presents detailed

  3. Adsorption of Water on JSC-1A Lunar Simulant Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goering, John; Sah, Shweta; Burghaus, Uwe; Street, Kenneth W.

    2008-01-01

    Remote sensing probes sent to the moon in the 1990s indicated that water may exist in areas such as the bottoms of deep, permanently shadowed craters at the lunar poles, buried under regolith. Water is of paramount importance for any lunar exploration and colonization project which would require self-sustainable systems. Therefore, investigating the interaction of water with lunar regolith is pertinent to future exploration. The lunar environment can be approximated in ultra-high vacuum systems such as those used in thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). Questions about water dissociation, surface wetting, degree of crystallization, details of water-ice transitions, and cluster formation kinetics can be addressed by TDS. Lunar regolith specimens collected during the Apollo missions are still available though precious, so testing with simulant is required before applying to use lunar regolith samples. Hence, we used for these studies JSC-1a, mostly an aluminosilicate glass and basaltic material containing substantial amounts of plagioclase, some olivine and traces of other minerals. Objectives of this project include: 1) Manufacturing samples using as little raw material as possible, allowing the use of surface chemistry and kinetics tools to determine the feasibility of parallel studies on regolith, and 2) Characterizing the adsorption kinetics of water on the regolith simulant. This has implications for the probability of finding water on the moon and, if present, for recovery techniques. For condensed water films, complex TDS data were obtained containing multiple features, which are related to subtle rearrangements of the water adlayer. Results from JSC-1a TDS studies indicate: 1) Water dissociation on JSC-1a at low exposures, with features detected at temperatures as high as 450 K and 2) The formation of 3D water clusters and a rather porous condensed water film. It appears plausible that the sub- m sized particles act as nucleation centers.

  4. July 2010 Natural Gas and Produced Water Sampling at the Gasbuggy, New Mexico, Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plessinger, Mark [S.M. Stoller Corporation, Broomfield, CO (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Annual natural gas and produced water monitoring was conducted for gas wells adjacent to Section 36, where the Gasbuggy test was conducted, in accordance with the draft Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Plan for the Gasbuggy Site, Rio Arriba County, New Mexico. Sampling and analysis was conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites. (LMS/PLN/S04351, continually updated). Natural gas samples were collected for tritium and carbon-14 analysis. Produced water samples were collected and analyzed for tritium, gamma-emitting radionuclides (by high-resolution gamma spectrometry), gross alpha, and gross beta. An additional water sample was collected from well 29-6 Water Hole for analysis of tritium and gamma-emitting radionuclides. A duplicate produced water sample was collected from well 30-039-21743.

  5. Introduction to Field Water-Quality Methods for the Collection of Metals - 2007 Project Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Monica L.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Region VI of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and the Osage Nation presented three 3-day workshops, in June-August 2007, entitled ?Introduction to Field Water-Quality Methods for the Collection of Metals.? The purpose of the workshops was to provide instruction to tribes within USEPA Region VI on various USGS surface-water measurement methods and water-quality sampling protocols for the collection of surface-water samples for metals analysis. Workshop attendees included members from over 22 tribes and pueblos. USGS instructors came from Oklahoma, New Mexico, and Georgia. Workshops were held in eastern and south-central Oklahoma and New Mexico and covered many topics including presampling preparation, water-quality monitors, and sampling for metals in surface water. Attendees spent one full classroom day learning the field methods used by the USGS Water Resources Discipline and learning about the complexity of obtaining valid water-quality and quality-assurance data. Lectures included (1) a description of metal contamination sources in surface water; (2) introduction on how to select field sites, equipment, and laboratories for sample analysis; (3) collection of sediment in surface water; and (4) utilization of proper protocol and methodology for sampling metals in surface water. Attendees also were provided USGS sampling equipment for use during the field portion of the class so they had actual ?hands-on? experience to take back to their own organizations. The final 2 days of the workshop consisted of field demonstrations of current USGS water-quality sample-collection methods. The hands-on training ensured that attendees were exposed to and experienced proper sampling procedures. Attendees learned integrated-flow techniques during sample collection, field-property documentation, and discharge measurements and calculations. They also used enclosed chambers for sample processing and collected quality

  6. Fast egg collection method greatly improves randomness of egg sampling in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schou, Mads Fristrup

    2013-01-01

    When obtaining samples for population genetic studies, it is essential that the sampling is random. For Drosophila, one of the crucial steps in sampling experimental flies is the collection of eggs. Here an egg collection method is presented, which randomizes the eggs in a water column and diminishes environmental variance. This method was compared with a traditional egg collection method where eggs are collected directly from the medium. Within each method the observed and expected standard deviations of egg-to-adult viability were compared, whereby the difference in the randomness of the samples between the two methods was assessed. The method presented here was superior to the traditional method. Only 14% of the samples had a standard deviation higher than expected, as compared with 58% in the traditional method. To reduce bias in the estimation of the variance and the mean of a trait and to obtain a representative collection of genotypes, the method presented here is strongly recommended when collecting eggs from Drosophila.

  7. Gasbuggy, New Mexico, Natural Gas and Produced Water Sampling and Analysis Results for 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management conducted natural gas sampling for the Gasbuggy, New Mexico, site on June 7 and 8, 2011. Natural gas sampling consists of collecting both gas samples and samples of produced water from gas production wells. Water samples from gas production wells were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides, gross alpha, gross beta, and tritium. Natural gas samples were analyzed for tritium and carbon-14. ALS Laboratory Group in Fort Collins, Colorado, analyzed water samples. Isotech Laboratories in Champaign, Illinois, analyzed natural gas samples.

  8. 76 FR 40723 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Clean Water Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    ... AGENCY Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Clean Water Act... submitting comments. E-mail: OW-Docket@EPA.gov Mail: Water Docket, Environmental Protection Agency, Mailcode... , or in person viewing at the Water Docket in the EPA Docket Center (EPA/DC), EPA West, Room 3334, 1301...

  9. 76 FR 44904 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; State Water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; State Water Quality Program... Docket ID number EPA- HQ-OW-2011-0424, in the subject line.) Fax: 202-501-2346. Mail: Water Docket... is available for online viewing at http://www.regulations.gov , or in person viewing at the Water...

  10. 76 FR 41243 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; National Water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... AGENCY Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; National Water... workload involved in more than one hundred activities or tasks comprising a State water quality management... the on-line instructions for submitting comments. E-mail: OW-Docket@epa.gov . Mail: EPA Water Docket...

  11. 76 FR 38384 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Water Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... AGENCY Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Water Quality... this action are all States and certain authorized Indian Tribes that adopt water quality standards...: Water Quality Standards Regulation (Renewal). ICR Number: EPA ICR No. 988.11, OMB Control No. 2040-0049...

  12. Mucking about : robot takes the risk out of sample collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, L.

    2010-05-15

    According to Directive 74 of the Alberta Energy Resources Conservation Board, oilsands mine operators must take regular samples of tailings to monitor the reduction of fluid tailings. The tailings are a mixture of water, clay, sand and residual bitumen. Soft tailings tend to have the consistency of toothpaste, often with a surface crust. Most of the sampling is currently performed by people in boats or in vehicles. However, a group of mechanical engineering students at the University of Alberta have developed a robot that can perform the risky task of taking soil samples from partially dried oil sands tailings ponds to help determine their degree of stability. The all-tailings rover can navigate on soft tailings and take measurements to characterize the deposits. The robot measures soil strength using a penetrometer, a cone-tipped probe that is pushed about a metre into the ground. The force used indicates strength of soil up to about 20 kilopascals. The all-tailings rover looks like a small dune buggy, about one metre long. It has a gas motor with a hydraulic system that actuates the drive wheels. It also has onboard microprocessor control, a navigation unit including a global positioning satellite system and other sensors to navigate on soft ground. An onboard computer plans the trajectory or takes trajectory commands that have been sent by radio. Status information can be sent by radio to a separate computer. The robot can be hooked up to a satellite phone and operated remotely. A future model will do a dynamic penetrometer test that can mimic the vibrations of heavy equipment so that operators can determine if the deposit can support a bulldozer. Another prototype might penetrate as far down as 5 metres. 1 ref., 3 figs.

  13. Biomimetic water-collecting materials inspired by nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hai; Guo, Zhiguang; Liu, Weimin

    2016-03-11

    Nowadays, water shortage is a severe issue all over the world, especially in some arid and undeveloped areas. Interestingly, a variety of natural creatures can collect water from fog, which can provide a source of inspiration to develop novel and functional water-collecting materials. Recently, as an increasingly hot research topic, bioinspired materials with the water collection ability have captured vast scientific attention in both practical applications and fundamental research studies. In this review, we summarize the mechanisms of water collection in various natural creatures and present the fabrications, functions, applications, and new developments of bioinspired materials in recent years. The theoretical basis related to the phenomenon of water collection containing wetting behaviors and water droplet transportations is described in the beginning, i.e., the Young's equation, Wenzel model, Cassie model, surface energy gradient model and Laplace pressure equation. Then, the water collection mechanisms of three typical and widely researched natural animals and plants are discussed and their corresponding bioinspired materials are simultaneously detailed, which are cactus, spider, and desert beetles, respectively. This is followed by introducing another eight animals and plants (butterfly, shore birds, wheat awns, green bristlegrass, the Cotula fallax plant, Namib grass, green tree frogs and Australian desert lizards) that are rarely reported, exhibiting water collection properties or similar water droplet transportation. Finally, conclusions and outlook concerning the future development of bioinspired fog-collecting materials are presented.

  14. Consequences to water suppliers of collecting rainwater on housing estates

    OpenAIRE

    Gires, Auguste; De Gouvello, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    International audience; The collection, storage and use of rainwater from roofs reduce the need for potable water. However if water suppliers are to decrease their infrastructure costs as well as their operational costs (due to water savings), the rainwater system has to provide most of the time a significant percentage of the water demand. This paper adopts the view point of the water suppliers and investigates how reliable this source of water is in the case of a housing estate, considering...

  15. Quality of nutrient data from streams and ground water sampled during water years 1992-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, David K.; Titus, Cindy J.

    2005-01-01

    Proper interpretation of water-quality data requires consideration of the effects that bias and variability might have on measured constituent concentrations. In this report, methods are described to estimate the bias due to contamination of samples in the field or laboratory and the variability due to sample collection, processing, shipment, and analysis. Contamination can adversely affect interpretation of measured concentrations in comparison to standards or criteria. Variability can affect interpretation of small differences between individual measurements or mean concentrations. Contamination and variability are determined for nutrient data from quality-control samples (field blanks and replicates) collected as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program during water years 1992-2001. Statistical methods are used to estimate the likelihood of contamination and variability in all samples. Results are presented for five nutrient analytes from stream samples and four nutrient analytes from ground-water samples. Ammonia contamination can add at least 0.04 milligram per liter in up to 5 percent of all samples. This could account for more than 22 percent of measured concentrations at the low range of aquatic-life criteria (0.18 milligram per liter). Orthophosphate contamination, at least 0.019 milligram per liter in up to 5 percent of all samples, could account for more than 38 percent of measured concentrations at the limit to avoid eutrophication (0.05 milligram per liter). Nitrite-plus-nitrate and Kjeldahl nitrogen contamination is less than 0.4 milligram per liter in 99 percent of all samples; thus there is no significant effect on measured concentrations of environmental significance. Sampling variability has little or no effect on reported concentrations of ammonia, nitrite-plus-nitrate, orthophosphate, or total phosphorus sampled after 1998. The potential errors due to sampling variability are greater for the Kjeldahl nitrogen analytes and

  16. Produced water chemistry data for samples from four petroleum wells, Southern San Joaquin Valley, California, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tracy A.; Kulongoski, Justin; McMahon, Peter B.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board collected produced water samples from four petroleum wells in the southern San Joaquin Valley on November 5, 2014. This digital dataset contains the site information, analyzing laboratories and methods, and water chemistry and quality control results for these samples. Water chemistry results include concentrations of dissolved hydrocarbon gases and their isotopic composition; concentrations of inorganic constituents including salinity, major ions, and nutrients; dissolved organic carbon; and stable isotopes of water and strontium dissolved in water. Samples were analyzed by 5 laboratories operated or contracted by the USGS.

  17. Collecting Tail Hair Follicle for Bison DNA Sample

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — SOP guiding collection and processing of tail hair follicles from Bison for genetics analysis. Provides stepwise instructions and guidance on how to collect tail...

  18. BACTERIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF WATER SAMPLES IN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Man's assessment of the value surface drainage, catchments protection to ... turbidity and pH at the point at which the consumption, water must be aesthetically .... on the skin and nostril of humans (9). ... and Measurements Standards (Water).

  19. Baseline geochemical data for stream sediment and surface water samples from Panther Creek, the Middle Fork of the Salmon River, and the Main Salmon River from North Fork to Corn Creek, collected prior to the severe wildfires of 2000 in central Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppinger, Robert G.; Briggs, Paul H.; Brown, Zoe Ann; Crock, James G.; Meier, Allen; Theodorakos, Peter M.; Wilson, Stephen A.

    2001-01-01

    In 1996, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a reconnaissance baseline geochemical study in central Idaho. The purpose of the baseline study was to establish a 'geochemical snapshot' of the area, as a datum for monitoring future change in the geochemical landscape, whether natural or human-induced. This report presents the methology, analytical results, and sample descriptions for water, sediment, and heavy-mineral concentrate samples collected during this geochemical investigation. In the summer of 2000, the Clear Creek, Little Pistol, and Shellrock wildfires swept across much of the area that was sampled. Thus, these data represent a pre-fire baseline geochemical dataset. A 2001 post- fire study is planned and will involve re-sampling of the pre-fire baseline sites, to allow for pre- and post-fire comparison.

  20. Technetium-99 in biota samples collected along the Finnish coast in 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilus, E.; Vartti, V.-P.; Ikaeheimonen, T.K.; Mattila, J.; Klemola, S. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

    2002-07-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a method for analysing {sup 99}Tc at STUK (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority in Finland), and to establish whether {sup 99}Tc can be detected in Finnish coastal waters. Samples of Fucus vesiculosus, Myriophyllum spp., Macoma baltica, Mytilus edulis, Saduria entomon and seawater were collected at more than 30 stations along the western and southern coasts of Finland for {sup 99}Tc analysis. Small amounts of {sup 99}Tc were observed in all the Fucus samples collected; the activity concentrations ranged from 1.6 to 11.6 Bq kg{sup -1} dry wt. The highest concentrations were found in two samples taken from the northernmost stations in the Quark, probably for biological reasons. Due to the low salinity of the water, Fucus vesiculosus is very slow-growing and small in this area, which is at the extreme limit of its permanent distribution range in the Baltic Sea. In seawater and in all the other biota samples, the concentration of {sup 99}Tc was below the detection limit, which supports the use of Fucus as an indicator organism for {sup 99}Tc in the marine environment. Global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests carried out in the 1950s and 1960s is certainly the most important source of {sup 99}Tc detected in Fucus on the Finnish coast. In addition, the samples were analysed for gamma- emitting radionuclides. (orig.)

  1. Environmental contaminants in water, sediment and biological samples from Playa Lakes in southeastern New Mexico - 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Sediment, water, bird tissue, and invertebrates were collected from 10 playa lakes in Southeastern New Mexico in 1991 and 1992. These samples were analyzed for a...

  2. Geochemistry of Water Samples in the US from the NURE-HSSR Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Geochemical analyses of water samples throughout the U.S. collected by the hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance (HSSR) phase of the National Uranium...

  3. An experiment in representative ground-water sampling for water- quality analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntzinger, T.L.; Stullken, L.E.

    1988-01-01

    Obtaining a sample of groundwater that accurately represents the concentration of a chemical constituent in an aquifer is an important aspect of groundwater-quality studies. Varying aquifer and constituent properties may cause chemical constituents to move within selectively separate parts of the aquifer. An experiment was conducted in an agricultural region in south-central Kansas to address questions related to representative sample collection. Concentrations of selected constituents in samples taken from observation wells completed in the upper part of the aquifer were compared to concentrations in samples taken from irrigation wells to determine if there was a significant difference. Water in all wells sampled was a calcium bicarbonate type with more than 200 mg/L hardness and about 200 mg/L alkalinity. Sodium concentrations were also quite large (about 40 mg/L). There was a significant difference in the nitrite-plus-nitrate concentrations between samples from observation and irrigation wells. The median concentration of nitrite plus nitrate in water from observation wells was 5.7 mg/L compared to 3.4 mg/L in water from irrigation wells. The differences in concentrations of calcium, magnesium, and sodium (larger in water from irrigation wells) were significant at the 78% confidence level but not at the 97% confidence level. Concentrations of the herbicide, atrazine, were less than the detection limit of 0.1 micrograms/L in all but one well. (USGS)

  4. UMTRA water sampling and analysis plan, Green River, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papusch, R.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) is to provide a basis for groundwater and surface water sampling at the Green River Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. This WSAP identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the monitoring locations.

  5. Advanced Curation For Current and Future Extraterrestrial Sample Collections Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is a planned three-year project to develop  extraterrestrial sample curation techniques and equipment to prepare for future human and robotic sample return...

  6. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Riverton, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    Surface remediation was completed at the former uranium mill site in Riverton, Wyoming, in 1990. Residual radioactive materials (contaminated soil and debris) were removed and disposed of at Union Carbide Corporation`s (Umetco) nearby Gas Hills Title 2 facility. Ground water in the surficial and semiconfined aquifers (known collectively as the `uppermost aquifer`) below the former mill and tailings site has been contaminated. No contamination has been detected in the deeper, confined sandstone aquifer. The contaminant plume extends off site to the south and east. The plume is constrained by surface wetlands and small streams to the east and west of the site and by the Little Wind River to the south. Fifteen monitor wells installed in 1993 were sampled to better define the contaminant plume and to provide additional water quality data for the baseline risk assessment. Samples also were collected from domestic wells in response to a request by the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality in January 1994. No contamination attributable to the former uranium milling operations have ever been detected in any of the domestic wells used for potable supplies.

  7. Design of the CERN MEDICIS Collection and Sample Extraction System

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Alexander

    MEDICIS is a new facility at CERN ISOLDE that aims to produce radio-isotopes for medical research. Possible designs for the collection and transport system for the collection of radio-isotopes was investigated. A system using readily available equipment was devised with the the aim of keeping costs to a minimum whilst maintaining the highest safety standards. FLUKA, a Monte Carlo radiation transport code, was used to simulate the radiation from the isotopes to be collected. Of the isotopes to be collected 44Sc was found to give the largest dose by simulating the collection of all isotopes of interest to CERN’s MEDICIS facility, for medical research. The simulations helped guide the amount of shielding used in the final design. Swiss Regulations stipulating allowed activity level of individual isotopes was also considered within the body of the work.

  8. Atmospheric CO sub 2 concentrations derived from flask samples collected at USSR-operated sampling sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boden, T.A. (comp.) (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center); Brounshtein, A.M.; Faber, E.V.; Shashkov, A.A. (Glavnaya Geofizicheskaya Observatoriya, St. Petersburg (USSR))

    1991-12-01

    This document presents daily atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations from four USSR-operated sampling sites (Teriberka Station, Ocean Station Charlie, Bering Island, and Kotelny Island). The period of record varies by station with the earliest measurements dating back to 1983 and recent estimates from early 1991. These CO{sub 2} concentrations are derived from air samples collected in 1.5-L stainless steel electropolished flasks and later analyzed at the Main Geophysical Observatory (St. Petersburg, USSR) using a nondispersive infrared gas analyzer. Measurements not meeting wind direction, wind speed, inter-flask agreement, and climate condition criteria were either discarded or flagged. All measurements have been corrected for drift biases introduced during flask storage. These atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations are considered indicative of regional background air conditions and are directly traceable to the World Meteorological Organization's primary CO{sub 2} standards. These measurements support the rising trend in atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations measured at other monitoring sites around the world and may be compared with similar measurements made by various monitoring programs at other northern latitude sites. The document presents the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations in graphical and tabular form, describes the sampling methods, defines limitations and restrictions of the data, and describes the information on the magnetic media.

  9. Suspended-sediment concentration (SSC) and loss-on-ignition (LOI) data from water samples collected in 2014-15 by the U.S. Geological Survey in Chincoteague Bay, Maryland and Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — U.S. Geological Survey scientists and technical support staff measured oceanographic, water quality, seabed elevation change, and meteorological parameters in...

  10. Sampling trace organic compounds in water: a comparison of a continuous active sampler to continuous passive and discrete sampling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coes, Alissa L.; Paretti, Nicholas V.; Foreman, William T.; Iverson, Jana L.; Alvarez, David A.

    2014-01-01

    A continuous active sampling method was compared to continuous passive and discrete sampling methods for the sampling of trace organic compounds (TOCs) in water. Results from each method are compared and contrasted in order to provide information for future investigators to use while selecting appropriate sampling methods for their research. The continuous low-level aquatic monitoring (CLAM) sampler (C.I.Agent® Storm-Water Solutions) is a submersible, low flow-rate sampler, that continuously draws water through solid-phase extraction media. CLAM samplers were deployed at two wastewater-dominated stream field sites in conjunction with the deployment of polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) and the collection of discrete (grab) water samples. All samples were analyzed for a suite of 69 TOCs. The CLAM and POCIS samples represent time-integrated samples that accumulate the TOCs present in the water over the deployment period (19–23 h for CLAM and 29 days for POCIS); the discrete samples represent only the TOCs present in the water at the time and place of sampling. Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling and cluster analysis were used to examine patterns in both TOC detections and relative concentrations between the three sampling methods. A greater number of TOCs were detected in the CLAM samples than in corresponding discrete and POCIS samples, but TOC concentrations in the CLAM samples were significantly lower than in the discrete and (or) POCIS samples. Thirteen TOCs of varying polarity were detected by all of the three methods. TOC detections and concentrations obtained by the three sampling methods, however, are dependent on multiple factors. This study found that stream discharge, constituent loading, and compound type all affected TOC concentrations detected by each method. In addition, TOC detections and concentrations were affected by the reporting limits, bias, recovery, and performance of each method.

  11. Sampling trace organic compounds in water: a comparison of a continuous active sampler to continuous passive and discrete sampling methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coes, Alissa L; Paretti, Nicholas V; Foreman, William T; Iverson, Jana L; Alvarez, David A

    2014-03-01

    A continuous active sampling method was compared to continuous passive and discrete sampling methods for the sampling of trace organic compounds (TOCs) in water. Results from each method are compared and contrasted in order to provide information for future investigators to use while selecting appropriate sampling methods for their research. The continuous low-level aquatic monitoring (CLAM) sampler (C.I.Agent® Storm-Water Solutions) is a submersible, low flow-rate sampler, that continuously draws water through solid-phase extraction media. CLAM samplers were deployed at two wastewater-dominated stream field sites in conjunction with the deployment of polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) and the collection of discrete (grab) water samples. All samples were analyzed for a suite of 69 TOCs. The CLAM and POCIS samples represent time-integrated samples that accumulate the TOCs present in the water over the deployment period (19-23 h for CLAM and 29 days for POCIS); the discrete samples represent only the TOCs present in the water at the time and place of sampling. Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling and cluster analysis were used to examine patterns in both TOC detections and relative concentrations between the three sampling methods. A greater number of TOCs were detected in the CLAM samples than in corresponding discrete and POCIS samples, but TOC concentrations in the CLAM samples were significantly lower than in the discrete and (or) POCIS samples. Thirteen TOCs of varying polarity were detected by all of the three methods. TOC detections and concentrations obtained by the three sampling methods, however, are dependent on multiple factors. This study found that stream discharge, constituent loading, and compound type all affected TOC concentrations detected by each method. In addition, TOC detections and concentrations were affected by the reporting limits, bias, recovery, and performance of each method.

  12. Visualizing Water Quality Sampling-Events in Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Bolt

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Water quality sampling in Florida is acknowledged to be spatially and temporally variable. The rotational monitoring program that was created to capture data within the state’s thousands of miles of coastline and streams, and millions of acres of lakes, reservoirs, and ponds may be partly responsible for inducing the variability as an artifact. Florida’s new dissolved-oxygen-standard methodology will require more data to calculate a percent saturation. This additional data requirement’s impact can be seen when the new methodology is applied retrospectively to the historical collection. To understand how, where, and when the methodological change could alter the environmental quality narrative of state waters requires addressing induced bias from prior sampling events and behaviors. Here stream and coastal water quality data is explored through several modalities to maximize understanding and communication of the spatiotemporal relationships. Previous methodology and expected-retrospective calculations outside the regulatory framework are found to be significantly different, but dependent on the spatiotemporal perspective. Data visualization is leveraged to demonstrate these differences, their potential impacts on environmental narratives, and to direct further review and analysis.

  13. USE OF NATURAL WATERS AS U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY REFERENCE SAMPLES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzer, Victor J.

    1985-01-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey conducts research and collects hydrologic data relating to the Nation's water resources. Seven types of natural matrix reference water samples are prepared for use in the Survey's quality assurance program. These include samples containing major constituents, trace metals, nutrients, herbicides, insecticides, trace metals in a water and suspended-sediment mixture, and precipitation (snowmelt). To prepare these reference samples, natural water is collected in plastic drums and the sediment is allowed to settle. The water is then filtered, selected constituents are added, and if necessary the water is acidified and sterilized by ultraviolet irradiation before bottling in plastic or glass. These reference samples are distributed twice yearly to more than 100 laboratories for chemical analysis. The most probable values for each constituent are determined by evaluating the data submitted by the laboratories using statistical techniques recommended by ASTM.

  14. Design, analysis, and interpretation of field quality-control data for water-sampling projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, David K.; Schertz, Terry L.; Martin, Jeffrey D.; Sandstrom, Mark W.

    2015-01-01

    The process of obtaining and analyzing water samples from the environment includes a number of steps that can affect the reported result. The equipment used to collect and filter samples, the bottles used for specific subsamples, any added preservatives, sample storage in the field, and shipment to the laboratory have the potential to affect how accurately samples represent the environment from which they were collected. During the early 1990s, the U.S. Geological Survey implemented policies to include the routine collection of quality-control samples in order to evaluate these effects and to ensure that water-quality data were adequately representing environmental conditions. Since that time, the U.S. Geological Survey Office of Water Quality has provided training in how to design effective field quality-control sampling programs and how to evaluate the resultant quality-control data. This report documents that training material and provides a reference for methods used to analyze quality-control data.

  15. Chemical variability of groundwater samples collected from a coal seam gas exploration well, Maramarua, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taulis, Mauricio; Milke, Mark

    2013-03-01

    A pilot study has produced 31 groundwater samples from a coal seam gas (CSG) exploration well located in Maramarua, New Zealand. This paper describes sources of CSG water chemistry variations, and makes sampling and analytical recommendations to minimize these variations. The hydrochemical character of these samples is studied using factor analysis, geochemical modelling, and a sparging experiment. Factor analysis unveils carbon dioxide (CO(2)) degassing as the principal cause of sample variation (about 33%). Geochemical modelling corroborates these results and identifies minor precipitation of carbonate minerals with degassing. The sparging experiment confirms the effect of CO(2) degassing by showing a steady rise in pH while maintaining constant alkalinity. Factor analysis correlates variations in the major ion composition (about 17%) to changes in the pumping regime and to aquifer chemistry variations due to cation exchange reactions with argillaceous minerals. An effective CSG water sampling program can be put into practice by measuring pH at the wellhead and alkalinity at the laboratory; these data can later be used to calculate the carbonate speciation at the time the sample was collected. In addition, TDS variations can be reduced considerably if a correct drying temperature of 180 °C is consistently implemented.

  16. Monitoring of fluoride in water samples using a smartphone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, Saurabh [Akvo Foundation (Netherlands); Krishnan, Sunderrajan [INREM Foundation (India); Rajkumar, Samuel; Halery, Nischal; Balkunde, Pradeep [Akvo Foundation (Netherlands)

    2016-05-01

    In several parts of India, groundwater is the only reliable, year round source for drinking water. Prevention of fluorosis, a chronic disease resulting from excess intake of fluoride, requires the screening of all groundwater sources for fluoride in endemic areas. In this paper, the authors present a field deployable colorimetric analyzer based on an inexpensive smartphone embedded with digital camera for taking photograph of the colored solution as well as an easy-fit, and compact sample chamber (Akvo Caddisfly). Phones marketed by different smartphone makers were used. Commercially available zirconium xylenol orange reagent was used for determining fluoride concentration. A software program was developed to use with the phone for recording and analyzing the RGB color of the picture. Linear range for fluoride estimation was 0–2 mg l{sup −1}. Around 200 samples, which consisted of laboratory prepared as well as field samples collected from different locations in Karnataka, India, were tested with Akvo Caddisfly. The results showed a significant positive correlation between Ion Selective Electrode (ISE) method and Akvo Caddisfly (Phones A, B and C), with correlation coefficient ranging between 0.9952 and 1.000. In addition, there was no significant difference in the mean fluoride content values between ISE and Phone B and C except for Phone A. Thus the smartphone method is economical and suited for groundwater fluoride analysis in the field. - Highlights: • Fluoride is an inorganic pollutant in ground water, affecting human health. • A colorimetric method for measurement of fluoride in drinking water with smartphone • Measurement is by mixing water with zirconyl xylenol orange complex reagent. • Results are comparable with laboratory-based ion selective fluoride electrode method.

  17. Water collection behavior and hanging ability of bioinspired fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yongping; Chen, Yuan; Xue, Yan; Zheng, Yongmei; Jiang, Lei

    2012-03-13

    Since the water-collecting ability of the wetted cribellate spider capture silk is the result of a unique fiber structure, bioinspired fibers have been researched significantly so as to expose a new water-acquiring route in fogging-collection projects. However, the design of the geometry of bioinspired fiber is related to the ability of hanging drops, which has not been investigated in depth so far. Here, we fabricate bioinspired fibers to investigate the water collection behavior and the influence of geometry (i.e., periodicity of spindle knot) on the hanging-drop ability. We especially discuss water collection related to the periodicity of geometry on the bioinspired fiber. We reveal the length of the three phase contact line (TCL) at threshold conditions in conjunction with the maximal volume of a hanging drop at different modes. The study demonstrates that the geometrical structure of bioinspired fiber induces much stronger water hanging ability than that of uniform fiber, attributed to such special geometry that offers effectively an increasing TCL length or limits the contact length to be shorted. In addition, the geometry also improves the fog-collection efficiency by controlling tiny water drops to be collected in the large water drops at a given location.

  18. Adsorption of Water on Simulated Moon Dust Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goering, John P.; Sah, Shweta; Burghaus, Uwe; Street, Kenneth W., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    A lunar regolith simulant dust sample (JSC-1a) supported on a silica wafer (SiO2/Si(111)) has been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). The adsorption kinetics of water has been studied primarily by thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) and also by collecting isothermal adsorption transients. The support has been characterized by water TDS. JSC-1a consists mostly of aluminosilicate glass and other minerals containing Fe, Na, Ca, and Mg. The particle sizes span the range from a few microns up to 100 microns. At small exposures, H2O TDS is characterized by broad (100 to 450 K) structures; at large exposures distinct TDS peaks emerge that are assigned to amorphous solid water (145 K) and crystalline ice (165 K). Water dissociates on JSC-1a at small exposures but not on the bare silica support. It appears that rather porous condensed ice layers form at large exposures. At thermal impact energies, the initial adsorption probability amounts to 0.92+/-0.05.

  19. Combined-sewer overflow data and methods of sample collection for selected sites, Detroit, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweat, M.J.; Wolf, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    The discharge of untreated sewage is illegal in Michigan unless permitted under Act 245 due to public health concerns. In October, 1992, the Michigan Department of Natural Resources (MDNR, now the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality) issued a discharge permit to Detroit authorizing discharge from the City's 78 combined-sewer overflows (CSOs), and requiring that a long-term control plan be developed to achieve mandated waterquality standards in receiving waters. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) issued a national CSO policy in April, 1994, which requires (1) operational improvements of existing systems to minimize discharges and prevent their occurrence in dry weather; (2) publicly operated treatment works (POTW) to characterize the frequency and volume of discharges; and (3) construction of CSO discharge control projects where necessary.In 1993, the Southeast Michigan Council of Governments (SEMCOG) requested assistance from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Detroit Water and Sewerage Department (DWSD) and MDNR, Surface Water Quality Division, to address part of the technical data requirements for requirement 2. The USGS scope of services for this interdisciplinary, multiagency investigation consisted of collection, compilation, and interpretation of the necessary hydrologic data, and documentation of results. In addition to USGS personnel, personnel from DWSD assisted with the field collection of samples and in alerting USGS personnel to CSO effluent discharges.From October 1, 1994 through December 31, 1995, four CSOs discharging to the Detroit River in Detroit, Michigan (figure 1) were monitored to characterize storm-related water quantity and quality. Water velocity, stage, and precipitation were measured continuously and recorded at 5-minute intervals. Water-quality samples were collected at discrete times during storms and analyzed for inorganic and organic pollutants. Discharges were sampled between 30 and 78 times

  20. Consequences to water suppliers of collecting rainwater on housing estates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gires, Auguste; de Gouvello, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    The collection, storage and use of rainwater from roofs reduce the need for potable water. However, if water suppliers are to decrease their infrastructure costs as well as their operational costs (due to water savings), the rainwater system has to provide most of the time a significant percentage of the water demand. This paper adopts the viewpoint of the water suppliers and investigates how reliable this source of water is in the case of a housing estate, considering WC flushing as the only water demand. A housing estate was modelled and different realistic input scenarios (water demand for WC flushing, storage capacity, roof area, and rainfall) were defined. Three indicators were exhibited. The variability generated by each input on the indicators was evaluated. The indicators were estimated for 63 homogeneously distributed French cities. Among the indicators exhibited in this paper, the most relevant one is the percentage of water supplied from the tank that is secured during 95% of the days of the simulation. The main conclusion is that the optimum way of determining the storage capacity of the rainwater collection system is not the same from the viewpoint of the users than from the viewpoint of the water suppliers. Indeed, water suppliers tend to require bigger tanks in order to take into account the rainwater collection systems in their management plan.

  1. Collective action and participation in irrigation water management: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This calls for strengthening of local water management systems and institutional ... ment support among smallholder irrigation farmers, accompa- nied by weak ... METHODOLOGY ... individual decisions result in collective loss/tragedy. This.

  2. Genetic distance sampling: a novel sampling method for obtaining core collections using genetic distances with an application to cultivated lettuce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.; Hintum, van T.J.L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel sampling method for obtaining core collections, entitled genetic distance sampling. The method incorporates information about distances between individual accessions into a random sampling procedure. A basic feature of the method is that automatically larger samples are

  3. Isolation of Arcobacter butzleri in environmental and food samples collected in industrial and artisanal dairy plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Giacometti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the presence of Arcobacter species in two cheese factories; a total of 22 environmental samples and 10 food samples were collected from an artisanal and an industrial cheese factory; Arcobacter species were isolated after enrichment, and isolates were identified at species level by multiplex-polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay. In the artisanal cheese factory, Arcobacter spp. were isolated from several environmental samples, cow and water buffalo raw milk and ricotta cheese. In the industrial plant, Arcobacter spp. were isolated from surfaces not in contact with food and from a cleaned surface in contact with food; no Arcobacter spp. was isolated from food. All isolates were identified as A. butzleri. We report of the presence of A. butzleri in a ready-to-eat cheese produced for retail. In addition, the isolation of A. butzleri in food processing surfaces in the two cheese factories could be assessed as a source of potential contamination for cheeses

  4. Technical Evaluation of Sample-Processing, Collection, and Preservation Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    this study included both filter-based and bead-based DNA isolation technologies. In addition to this initial evaluation, soil samples ( clay and...precipitation. The resultant DNA pellet was resuspended in 35 µL of TE buffer. 8. Epicentre SoilMaster DNA Extraction Kit; Epicentre Biotechnologies...precipitated DNA was pelleted and resuspended in 35 µL TE buffer. 9. IT 1-2-3 Platinum Path Sample-Purification Kit; BioFire Diagnostics, Inc

  5. Evaluation of standard methods for collecting and processing fuel moisture samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sally M. Haase; José Sánchez; David R. Weise

    2016-01-01

    A variety of techniques for collecting and processing samples to determine moisture content of wildland fuels in support of fire management activities were evaluated. The effects of using a chainsaw or handsaw to collect samples of largediameter wood, containers for storing and transporting collected samples, and quick-response ovens for estimating moisture content...

  6. A Protocol for Collecting Environmental DNA Samples From Streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Environmental DNA (eDNA) is DNA that has been released by an organism into its environment, such that the DNA can be found in air, water, or soil. In aquatic...

  7. MINERALOGICAL PRESERVATION OF SOLID SAMPLES COLLECTED FROM ANOXIC SUBSURFACE ENVIRONMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remedial technologies utilized at hazardous waste sites for the treatment of metal and metalloid contaminants often take advantage of reduction-oxidation (redox) processes to reach ground water clean up goals. This is because redox reactions, in many cases, govern the biogeochem...

  8. 40 CFR 761.283 - Determination of the number of samples to collect and sample collection locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sites at this example location: a loading dock, a transformer storage lot, and a disposal pit. The... (three samples). The non-liquid PCB remediation wastes present at the transformer storage lot are oily... north and one meter in the direction east of magnetic north. (2) Mark out a series of sampling points...

  9. Coliform and Vibrio cholerae Analysis of Drinking Water Collected from Cholera Outbreak Region of Bhaktapur Municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upendra Thapa Shrestha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Water borne infections in Nepal, especially in Kathmandu valley is one the major public health problems, causing thousands of deaths every year. Among three cities in the valley, the water borne infection including cholera is most predominant in Bhaktapur district. So the study was carried out to know the microbial drinking water quality in the city and to determine the prevalence of water borne infections in the specified region of the district in 2012. Altogether eighty (two samples from a single site at different interval-2/3 days water samples were collected from Bhaktapur Municipality, one of the most vulnerable regions for water borne diseases, following standard methods as described by APHA, 2010. All samples were transferred to Microbiology laboratory of Khwopa College, Dekocha, Bhaktapur and preceded immediately for Microbial analysis. The coliform density in the water samples were determined by Most Probable Number (MPN method followed by microscopy, colonial morphology and biochemical characterization. Subsequently, the presence of Vibrio cholerae, a causative agent of Cholera was analyzed in the same samples by enrichment in alkaline peptone water followed by culture on Thiosulphate citrate bile-salt sucrose (TCBS agar, a selective media for Vibrio spp. The biochemical tests were then performed to identify V. cholerae. Among eighty water samples, 87.5 percent water samples contained coliforms and half of which (45% contained feacal coliforms, Escherichia coli and remaining 12.5 percent water samples contained no coliforms. Vibrio cholerae were isolated from four water samples (5%. The drinking water quality in the region was found to be very poor. Therefore, the people in the region were suggested to treat the drinking water by using any of physical or chemical disinfection methods prior to drinking. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i3.11073 International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3 2014: 139-145

  10. 40 CFR 761.310 - Collecting the sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... standard wipe test as defined in § 761.123 to sample one 10 centimeter by 10 centimeter square (100 cm2) area to represent surface area PCB concentrations of each square meter or fraction of a square meter of a nearly flat, non-porous surface. For small surfaces, use the same procedure as for the...

  11. Acceptability of self-collected versus provider-collected sampling for HPV DNA testing among women in rural El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Alan J; Gage, Julia C; Alfaro, Karla M; Ditzian, Lauren R; Maza, Mauricio; Scarinci, Isabel C; Felix, Juan C; Castle, Philip E; Villalta, Sofia; Miranda, Esmeralda; Cremer, Miriam L

    2014-08-01

    To determine the acceptability of self-collected versus provider-collected sampling among women participating in public sector HPV-based cervical cancer screening in El Salvador. Two thousand women aged 30-49 years underwent self-collected and provider-collected sampling with careHPV between October 2012 and March 2013 (Qiagen, Gaithersburg, MD, USA). After sample collection, a random sample of women (n=518) were asked about their experience. Participants were questioned regarding sampling method preference, previous cervical cancer screening, HPV and cervical cancer knowledge, HPV risk factors, and demographic information. All 518 women approached to participate in this questionnaire study agreed and were enrolled, 27.8% (142 of 511 responding) of whom had not received cervical cancer screening within the past 3 years and were considered under-screened. Overall, 38.8% (n=201) preferred self-collection and 31.9% (n=165) preferred provider collection. Self-collection preference was associated with prior tubal ligation, HPV knowledge, future self-sampling preference, and future home-screening preference (P<0.05). Reasons for self-collection preference included privacy/embarrassment, ease, and less pain; reasons cited for provider-collection preference were result accuracy and provider knowledge/experience. Self-sampling was found to be acceptable, therefore screening programs could consider offering this option either in the clinic or at home. Self-sampling at home may increase coverage in low-resource countries and reduce the burden that screening places upon clinical infrastructure. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. All rights reserved.

  12. CHAPTER 6. Biomimetic Materials for Efficient Atmospheric Water Collection

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Lianbin

    2016-02-23

    Water scarcity is a severe problem in semi-arid desert regions, land-scarce countries and in countries with high levels of economic activity. In these regions, the collection of atmospheric water - for example, fog - is recognized as an important method of providing water. In nature, through millions of year evolution, some animals and plants in many of the arid regions have developed unique and highly efficient systems with delicate microstructures and composition for the purpose of fog collection to survive the harsh conditions. With the unique ability of fog collection, these creatures could readily cope with insufficient access to fresh water or lack of precipitation. These natural examples have inspired the design and fabrication of artificial fog collection materials and devices. In this chapter, we will first introduce some natural examples for their unique fog collection capability, and then give some examples of the bioinspired materials and devices that are fabricated artificially to mimic these natural creatures for the purpose of fog collection. We believe that the biomimetic strategy is one of the most promising routes for the design and fabrication of functional materials and devices for the solution of the global water crisis.

  13. Summary of Inorganic Compositional Data for Groundwater, Soil-Water, and Surface-Water Samples at the Headgate Draw Subsurface Drip Irrigation Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geboy, Nicholas J.; Engle, Mark A.; Schroeder, Karl T.; Zupanic, John W.

    2007-01-01

    As part of a 5-year project on the impact of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) application of coalbed-methane (CBM) produced waters, water samples were collected from the Headgate Draw SDI site in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA. This research is part of a larger study to understand short- and long-term impacts on both soil and water quality from the beneficial use of CBM waters to grow forage crops through use of SDI. This document provides a summary of the context, sampling methodology, and quality assurance and quality control documentation of samples collected prior to and over the first year of SDI operation at the site (May 2008-October 2009). This report contains an associated database containing inorganic compositional data, water-quality criteria parameters, and calculated geochemical parameters for samples of groundwater, soil water, surface water, treated CBM waters, and as-received CBM waters collected at the Headgate Draw SDI site.

  14. Water-quality data collected at Lake Anne, Reston, Virginia, 1997-1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conko, Kathryn M.; Kennedy, Margaret M.; Rice, Karen C.

    2000-01-01

    Samples from the Lake Anne watershed were collected and analyzed to assess the water quality from December 1997 through January 1999. Lake Anne is a stream impoundment in suburban Northern Virginia and its outflow is a sub-tributary of the Potomac River. Samples of wet deposition (precipitation), lake water, and streamwater that drain into and from Lake Anne were collected and analyzed. Trace-element clean sampling and analysis protocols were followed throughout the project. This report is a compilation of the precipitation, lake-water, and streamwater data collected in the Lake Anne watershed and the associated quality assurance/quality control data. Concentrations of the trace elements arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, manganese, nickel, strontium, vanadium, and zinc, and of the major inorganic ions, aluminum, bicarbonate, calcium, chloride, hydrogen ion, iron, magnesium, potassium, nitrate, sodium, and sulfate are reported.

  15. Application of the BMWP-Costa Rica biotic index in aquatic biomonitoring: sensitivity to collection method and sampling intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Fonseca, Pablo E; Lorion, Christopher M

    2014-04-01

    The use of aquatic macroinvertebrates as bio-indicators in water quality studies has increased considerably over the last decade in Costa Rica, and standard biomonitoring methods have now been formulated at the national level. Nevertheless, questions remain about the effectiveness of different methods of sampling freshwater benthic assemblages, and how sampling intensity may influence biomonitoring results. In this study, we compared the results of qualitative sampling using commonly applied methods with a more intensive quantitative approach at 12 sites in small, lowland streams on the southern Caribbean slope of Costa Rica. Qualitative samples were collected following the official protocol using a strainer during a set time period and macroinvertebrates were field-picked. Quantitative sampling involved collecting ten replicate Surber samples and picking out macroinvertebrates in the laboratory with a stereomicroscope. The strainer sampling method consistently yielded fewer individuals and families than quantitative samples. As a result, site scores calculated using the Biological Monitoring Working Party-Costa Rica (BMWP-CR) biotic index often differed greatly depending on the sampling method. Site water quality classifications using the BMWP-CR index differed between the two sampling methods for 11 of the 12 sites in 2005, and for 9 of the 12 sites in 2006. Sampling intensity clearly had a strong influence on BMWP-CR index scores, as well as perceived differences between reference and impacted sites. Achieving reliable and consistent biomonitoring results for lowland Costa Rican streams may demand intensive sampling and requires careful consideration of sampling methods.

  16. Monitoring of fluoride in water samples using a smartphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Saurabh; Krishnan, Sunderrajan; Rajkumar, Samuel; Halery, Nischal; Balkunde, Pradeep

    2016-05-01

    In several parts of India, groundwater is the only reliable, year round source for drinking water. Prevention of fluorosis, a chronic disease resulting from excess intake of fluoride, requires the screening of all groundwater sources for fluoride in endemic areas. In this paper, the authors present a field deployable colorimetric analyzer based on an inexpensive smartphone embedded with digital camera for taking photograph of the colored solution as well as an easy-fit, and compact sample chamber (Akvo Caddisfly). Phones marketed by different smartphone makers were used. Commercially available zirconium xylenol orange reagent was used for determining fluoride concentration. A software program was developed to use with the phone for recording and analyzing the RGB color of the picture. Linear range for fluoride estimation was 0-2mgl(-1). Around 200 samples, which consisted of laboratory prepared as well as field samples collected from different locations in Karnataka, India, were tested with Akvo Caddisfly. The results showed a significant positive correlation between Ion Selective Electrode (ISE) method and Akvo Caddisfly (Phones A, B and C), with correlation coefficient ranging between 0.9952 and 1.000. In addition, there was no significant difference in the mean fluoride content values between ISE and Phone B and C except for Phone A. Thus the smartphone method is economical and suited for groundwater fluoride analysis in the field.

  17. ANALYSIS OF SELECTED FLUORIDE WATER SAMPLES OF DIFFERENT AREAS OF JAIPUR, RAJASTHAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Dhingra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess the fluoride concentration in groundwater in some rural areas of Jaipur city (Rajasthan, India, where groundwater is the main source of drinking water. Due to increased population, urbanization, industrialization, use of fertilizers water is highly polluted with different harmful contaminants. In present analysis a review of fluoride toxicity in drinking water along with the various deflouridation processes has been analyzed. Drinking water quality of 11 different places of Jaipur District was analyzed to identify the fluoride content in water. The drinking water samples were collected in clean polythene one liter cans and subjected for analysis in laboratory.

  18. Sampling vadose-zone water for a volatile organic compound at Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James A.; Cho, H. Jean; Jaffe, Peter R.; MacLeod, Cecilia L.; Koehnlein, Susan A.

    1992-01-01

    A new method of collecting samples of unsaturated-zone water for quantitative analysis for a volatile organic compound, trichloroethene (TCE), was compared to three other, previously described sampling methodologies in the laboratory and in the field. In the laboratory, prepared water samples containing TCE in a known concentration (20 µg/L) were sampled repeatedly by using each of the four methods to quantify method precision and accuracy. To compare the four methods in the field, unsaturated-zone water above a TCE-contaminated water-table aquifer was transferred from a depth of 2 m to land surface with 0.15-m-long suction lysimeters attached to 1.85-m lengths of stainless-steel tubing. Statistical analyses of the laboratory and field data indicate that the new method, which involves collecting the water samples in gas-tight glass syringes, is superior to the other three methods for the quantitative sampling and analysis of TCE on the basis of its high precision and accuracy and ease of use. This method was used to collect additional samples from the field site to quantify the spatial variability of TCE concentrations in the unsaturated-zone water. Results of analysis of variance of the data indicate that the spatial concentration variability is important, and that differences in TCE concentration are statistically significant for horizontal distances less than 3.6 m.

  19. Microbial Condition of Water Samples from Foreign Fuel Storage Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, C.J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Fliermans, C.B.; Santo Domingo, J.

    1997-10-30

    In order to assess the microbial condition of foreign nuclear fuel storage facilities, fourteen different water samples were received from facilities outside the United States that have sent spent nuclear fuel to SRS for wet storage. Each water sample was analyzed for microbial content and activity as determined by total bacteria, viable aerobic bacteria, viable anaerobic bacteria, viable sulfate- reducing bacteria, viable acid-producing bacteria and enzyme diversity. The results for each water sample were then compared to other foreign samples and to data from the receiving basin for off- site fuel (RBOF) at SRS.

  20. Handbook: Collecting Groundwater Samples from Monitoring Wells in Frenchman Flat, CAU 98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Jenny [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Lyles, Brad [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Cooper, Clay [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Hershey, Ron [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Healey, John [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Frenchman Flat basin on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) contains Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 98, which is comprised of ten underground nuclear test locations. Environmental management of these test locations is part of the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Activity conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (1996, as amended) with the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) and the State of Nevada. A Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Corrective Action Plan (CAP) has been approved for CAU 98 (DOE, 2011). The CADD/CAP reports on the Corrective Action Investigation that was conducted for the CAU, which included characterization and modeling. It also presents the recommended corrective actions to address the objective of protecting human health and the environment. The recommended corrective action alternative is “Closure in Place with Modeling, Monitoring, and Institutional Controls.” The role of monitoring is to verify that Contaminants of Concern (COCs) have not exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) limits (Code of Federal Regulations, 2014) at the regulatory boundary, to ensure that institutional controls are adequate, and to monitor for changed conditions that could affect the closure conditions. The long-term closure monitoring program will be planned and implemented as part of the Closure Report stage after activities specified in the CADD/CAP are complete. Groundwater at the NNSS has been monitored for decades through a variety of programs. Current activities were recently consolidated in an NNSS Integrated Sampling Plan (DOE, 2014). Although monitoring directed by the plan is not intended to meet the FFACO long-term monitoring requirements for a CAU (which will be defined in the Closure Report), the objective to ensure public health protection is similar. It is expected that data collected in accordance with the plan will support the transition to long-term monitoring at each

  1. Water-quality sampling by the U.S. Geological Survey-Standard protocols and procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Franceska D.

    2010-01-01

    Thumbnail of and link to report PDF (1.0 MB) The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) develops the sampling procedures and collects the data necessary for the accurate assessment and wise management of our Nation's surface-water and groundwater resources. Federal and State agencies, water-resource regulators and managers, and many organizations and interested parties in the public and private sectors depend on the reliability, timeliness, and integrity of the data we collect and the scientific soundness and impartiality of our data assessments and analysis. The standard data-collection methods uniformly used by USGS water-quality personnel are peer reviewed, kept up-to-date, and published in the National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data (http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/twri9A/).

  2. Connecting Humans and Water: The Case for Coordinated Data Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braden, J. B.; Brown, D. G.; Jolejole-Foreman, C.; Maidment, D. R.; Marquart-Pyatt, S. T.; Schneider, D. W.

    2012-12-01

    "Water problems" are fundamentally human problems -- aligning water quality and quantity with human aspirations. In the U.S., however, the few ongoing efforts to repeatedly observe humans in relation to water at large scale are disjointed both with each other and with observing systems for water quality and quantity. This presentation argues for the systematic, coordinated, and on-going collection of primary data on humans, spanning beliefs, perceptions, behaviors, and institutions, alongside the water environments in which they are embedded. Such an enterprise would advance not only water science and related policy and management decisions, but also generate basic insights into human cognition, decision making, and institutional development as they relate to the science of sustainability. In support of this argument, two types of original analyses are presented. First, two case studies using existing data sets illustrate methodological issues involved in integrating natural system data with social data at large scale: one concerns the influence of water quality conditions on personal efforts to conserve water and contribute financially to environmental protection; the other explores relationships between recreation behavior and water quality. Both case studies show how methodological differences between data programs seriously undercut the potential to draw inference about human responses to water quality while also illustrating the scientific potential that could be realized from linking human and scientific surveys of the water environment. Second, the results of a survey of water scientists concerning important scientific and policy questions around humans and water provide insight into data collection priorities for a coordinated program of observation.

  3. POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON CONTAMINATION LEVELS IN COLLECTED SAMPLES FROM VICINITY OF A HIGHWAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Samimi ، R. Akbari Rad ، F. Ghanizadeh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Tehran as the biggest city of Iran with a population of more than 10 millions has potentially high pollutant exposures of gas oil and gasoline combustion from vehicles that are commuting in the highways every day. The vehicle exhausts contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which are produced by incomplete combustion and can be directly deposited in the environment. In the present study, the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contamination in the collected samples of a western highway in Tehran was investigated. The studied location was a busy highway in Tehran. High performance liquid chromatography equipped with florescence detector was used for determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations in the studied samples. Total concentration of the ten studied polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons compounds ranged from 11107 to 24342 ng/g dry weight in the dust samples and increased from 164 to 2886 ng/g dry weight in the soil samples taken from 300 m and middle of the highway, respectively. Also the average of Σ PAHs was 1759 ng/L in the water samples of pools in parks near the highway. The obtained results indicated that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contamination levels were very high in the vicinity of the highway.

  4. Development of sampling for quantification of glyphosate in natural waters

    OpenAIRE

    Tzaskos,Danilla Fernanda; Marcovicz,Crislaine; Dias,Nivea Maria Piccolomini; Rosso,Neiva Deliberali

    2012-01-01

    Glyphosate is a systemic, post-emergent, non-selective herbicide widely used in agriculture. The objective of this study was to develop a method for sample preparation, to partially purified natural water samples contaminated with residues of glyphosate, and to quantify them by derivation and spectroscopically. To assess the accuracy of the method, samples of water from an artesian well and from a stream were fortified with known amounts of glyphosate. The concentration of glyphosate was dete...

  5. Water-quality and ground-water-level trends, 1990-99, and data collected from 1995 through 1999, East Mountain area, Bernalillo County, central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, D.R.

    2000-01-01

    Bernalillo County officials recognize the importance of monitoring water quality and ground-water levels in rapidly developing areas. For this reason, water-quality and ground-water- level data were collected from 87 wells, 3 springs, and the Ojo Grande Acequia in the east mountain area of Bernalillo County between January 1990 and June 1999. The water samples were analyzed for selected nutrient species; total organic carbon; major dissolved constituents; methylene blue active substances; and dissolved arsenic. Analytical results were used to compute hardness, sodium adsorption ratio, and dissolved solids. Specific conductance, pH, air and water temperature, alkalinity, and dissolved oxygen were measured in the field at the time of sample collection. Ground-water levels were measured at the time of sample collection. From January 1990 through June 1993, water-quality and ground- water-level data were collected monthly from an initial set of 20 wells; these data were published in a 1995 report. During 1995, water samples and ground-water-level data were collected and analyzed from the initial set of 20 wells and from an additional 31 wells, 2 springs, and the Ojo Grande Acequia; these data were published in a 1996 report. Additional water-quality and ground-water-level data have been collected from sites in the east mountain area: 34 wells and the acequia during 1997, 14 wells and 1 spring during 1998, and 6 wells during 1999. Water-quality and ground- water-level data collected in the east mountain area during 1995 through 1999 are presented in tables. In addition, temporal trends for ground-water levels, concentrations of total and dissolved nitrite plus nitrate, concentrations of dissolved chloride, and specific conductance are presented for 20 selected wells in water-quality and water- level hydrographs.

  6. Modeling and analysis of collective management of water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmant, A.; van der Zaag, P.; Fortemps, P.

    2007-01-01

    Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) recommends, among other things, that the management of water resources systems be carried out at the lowest appropriate level in order to increase the transparency, acceptability and efficiency of the decision-making process. Empowering water users and stakeholders transforms the decision-making process by enlarging the number of point of views that must be considered as well as the set of rules through which decisions are taken. This paper investigates the impact of different group decision-making approaches on the operating policies of a water resource. To achieve this, the water resource allocation problem is formulated as an optimization problem which seeks to maximize the aggregated satisfaction of various water users corresponding to different approaches to collective choice, namely the utilitarian and the egalitarian ones. The optimal operating policies are then used in simulation and compared. The concepts are illustrated with a multipurpose reservoir in Chile. The analysis of simulation results reveals that if this reservoir were to be managed by its water users, both approaches to collective choice would yield significantly different operating policies. The paper concludes that the transfer of management to water users must be carefully implemented if a reasonable trade-off between equity and efficiency is to be achieved.

  7. Modeling and analysis of collective management of water resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tilmant

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM recommends, among other things, that the management of water resources systems be carried out at the lowest appropriate level in order to increase the transparency, acceptability and efficiency of the decision-making process. Empowering water users and stakeholders transforms the decision-making process by enlarging the number of point of views that must be considered as well as the set of rules through which decisions are taken. This paper investigates the impact of different group decision-making approaches on the operating policies of a water resource. To achieve this, the water resource allocation problem is formulated as an optimization problem which seeks to maximize the aggregated satisfaction of various water users corresponding to different approaches to collective choice, namely the utilitarian and the egalitarian ones. The optimal operating policies are then used in simulation and compared. The concepts are illustrated with a multipurpose reservoir in Chile. The analysis of simulation results reveals that if this reservoir were to be managed by its water users, both approaches to collective choice would yield significantly different operating policies. The paper concludes that the transfer of management to water users must be carefully implemented if a reasonable trade-off between equity and efficiency is to be achieved.

  8. Stability of urinary fractionated metanephrines and catecholamines during collection, shipment, and storage of samples.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, J.J.; Ross, H.A.; Lenders, J.W.M.; Sweep, C.G.J.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Measurements of 24-h fractionated urinary metanephrines and catecholamines are used for the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma, but adequate information is needed regarding collection, storage, and shipment conditions. METHODS: Spot urine samples were collected from 8 healthy volunteers. Aliq

  9. Collecting household water usage data: telephone questionnaire or diary?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinclair Martha I

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA, a modelling approach, is used to assess health risks. Inputs into the QMRA process include data that characterise the intensity, frequency and duration of exposure to risk(s. Data gaps for water exposure assessment include the duration and frequency of urban non-potable (non-drinking water use. The primary objective of this study was to compare household water usage results obtained using two data collection tools, a computer assisted telephone interview (CATI and a 7-day water activity diary, in order to assess the effect of different methodological survey approaches on derived exposure estimates. Costs and logistical aspects of each data collection tool were also examined. Methods A total of 232 households in an Australian dual reticulation scheme (where households are supplied with two grades of water through separate pipe networks were surveyed about their water usage using both a CATI and a 7-day diary. Householders were questioned about their use of recycled water for toilet flushing, garden watering and other outdoor activities. Householders were also questioned about their water use in the laundry. Agreement between reported CATI and diary water usage responses was assessed. Results Results of this study showed that the level of agreement between CATI and diary responses was greater for more frequent water-related activities except toilet flushing and for those activities where standard durations or settings were employed. In addition, this study showed that the unit cost of diary administration was greater than for the CATI, excluding consideration of the initial selection and recruitment steps. Conclusion This study showed that it is possible to successfully 'remotely' coordinate diary completion providing that adequate instructions are given and that diary recording forms are well designed. In addition, good diary return rates can be achieved using a monetary incentive

  10. High-frequency isotopic analysis of liquid water samples in the field - initial results from continuous water sampling and cavity ring-down spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Freyberg, Jana; Studer, Bjørn; Kirchner, James

    2016-04-01

    Studying rapidly changing hydrochemical signals in catchments can help to improve our mechanistic understanding of their water flow pathways and travel times. For these purposes, stable water isotopes (18O and 2H) are commonly used as natural tracers. However, high-frequency isotopic analyses of liquid water samples are challenging. One must capture highly dynamic behavior with high precision and accuracy, but the lab workload (and sample storage artifacts) involved in collecting and analyzing thousands of bottled samples should also be avoided. Therefore, we have tested Picarro, Inc.'s newly developed Continuous Water Sampler Module (CoWS), which is coupled to their L2130-i Cavity Ring-Down Spectrometer to enable real-time on-line measurements of 18O and 2H in liquid water samples. We coupled this isotope analysis system to a dual-channel ion chomatograph (Metrohm AG, Herisau, Switzerland) for analysis of major cations and anions, as well as a UV-Vis spectroscopy system (s::can Messtechnik GmbH, Vienna, Austria) and electrochemical probes for characterization of basic water quality parameters. The system was run unattended for up to a week at a time in the laboratory and at a small catchment. At the field site, stream-water and precipitation samples were analyzed, alternating at sub-hourly intervals. We observed that measured isotope ratios were highly sensitive to the liquid water flow rate in the CoWS, and thus to the hydraulic head difference between the CoWS and the samples from which water was drawn. We used a programmable high-precision dosing pump to control the injection flow rate and eliminate this flow-rate artifact. Our experiments showed that the precision of the CoWS-L2130-i-system for 2-minute average values was typically better than 0.06‰ for δ18O and 0.16‰ for δ2H. Carryover effects were 1% or less between isotopically contrasting water samples for 30-minute sampling intervals. Instrument drift could be minimized through periodic analysis of

  11. Sediment samples collected by the USGS within Red Brook Harbor, MA, 2009 (RB_SedimentSamples)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected under a cooperative agreement with the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Coastal...

  12. Tritium activity levels in environmental water samples from different origins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomo, M.; Penalver, A.; Aguilar, C. [Unitat de Radioquimica Ambiental i Sanitaria, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Edifici CTT-FURV, Av. Paisos Catalans 18, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Borrull, F. [Unitat de Radioquimica Ambiental i Sanitaria, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Edifici CTT-FURV, Av. Paisos Catalans 18, 43007 Tarragona (Spain)], E-mail: francesc.borrull@urv.cat

    2007-09-15

    Tritium activity was determined in environmental waters from different areas of Catalonia, using a distillation procedure before liquid scintillation counting. The developed method was validated by analysing two samples from proficiency tests. In most of water samples (from rivers, rain, mineral bottled waters and tap waters) analysed, the activity values were lower or close to the minimum detectable activity (MDA) for our method which has a value of 0.6 Bq/l. However, the Ebro river samples had a mean activity around 3.6{+-}0.6Bq/l. The nuclear power station of Asco, which is located on the banks of this river, can be a source of tritium production and introduction into the environment, so a more exhaustive study of these waters was carried out. Tritium activities in this river were a long way above the normative limit in Spain for waters intended for human consumption, which is 100 Bq/l.

  13. Macroinvertebrate and algal community sample collection methods and data collected at selected sites in the Eagle River watershed, Colorado, 2000-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuellig, Robert E.; Bruce, James F.

    2010-01-01

    State and local agencies are concerned about the effects of increasing urban development and human population growth on water quality and the biological condition of regional streams in the Eagle River watershed. In response to these needs, the U.S. Geological Survey initiated a study in cooperation with the Colorado River Water Conservation District, Eagle County, Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority, Colorado Department of Transportation, City of Aurora, Town of Eagle, Town of Gypsum, Town of Minturn, Town of Vail, Vail Resorts, Colorado Springs Utilities, Denver Water, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service. As part of this study, previously collected macroinvertebrate and algal data from the Eagle River watershed were compiled. This report includes macroinvertebrate data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and(or) the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service from 73 sites from 2000 to 2007 and algal data collected from up to 26 sites between 2000 and 2001 in the Eagle River watershed. Additionally, a brief description of the sample collection methods and data processing procedures are presented.

  14. Isolation and Identification of Parasitic Protozoa in Sampled Water From the Southwest of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiei

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background In spite of promotion of people’s hygiene in the recent years, parasitic infection problems are present in many parts of the world especially in tropical and subtropical areas. Water is one of the major sources for acquiring parasitic infections, especially protozoan parasites. Objectives This study was conducted to evaluate the present parasitic agents in river, tap water and filtrated water in the western part of Ahvaz city. Materials and Methods Forty-four water samples were collected from different sources of the studied area. The samples were examined by routine parasitology methods using light microscopy. Results Twenty-eight out of 44 water samples were positive for parasitic contamination with cysts and oocysts of four parasitic protozoa including: 50% Entamoeba spp (22 out of 44 samples, 27.27% Cryptosporidium spp (12 out of 44 samples, 13.63% Blastocystis spp (6 out of 44 samples and 9.09% Giardia spp (4 out of 44 samples. Conclusions The parasite infection rate in water is high and deficits of water quality should be solved by water organization responders. It is strongly recommended to use home filtration systems for consumption of safe water.

  15. Temporal and spatial trends of chemical composition of wet deposition samples collected in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, Elisabeth; Kasper-Giebl, Anne; Lohninger, Hans

    2016-04-01

    Triggered by the occurrence of acid rain a sampling network for the collection of wet deposition samples was initiated in Austria in the early 1980s. Now the data set covers a time period of slightly more than 30 years for the stations being operable since the beginning. Sampling of rain water and snow was and is performed with Wet and Dry Only Samplers (WADOS) on a daily basis. Chemical analysis of rain water and snow samples comprised anions (chloride, nitrate, sulfate) and cations (sodium, ammonium, potassium, calcium and magnesium) as well as pH and electrical conductivity. Here we evaluate and discuss temporal trends of both, ion concentrations and wet deposition data for twelve sampling stations, which were operable for most of the observation period of 30 years. As expected concentrations and wet deposition loads of sulfate and acidity decreased significantly during the last three decades - which is also reflected by a strong decrease of sulfur emissions in Austria and neighboring countries. Regarding nitrate the decrease of concentrations and wet deposition loads is less pronounced. Again this is in accordance with changes in emission data. In case of ammonium even less stations showed a significant decrease of annual average concentrations and depositions. Reasons for that might be twofold. On one hand emissions of ammonia did not decrease as strongly as e.g. sulfur emissions. Furthermore local sources will be more dominant and can influence the year to year variability. Seasonality of ion concentrations and deposition loads were investigated using Fourier analysis. Sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, acidity and also precipitation amount showed characteristic seasonal patterns for most of the sites and for concentrations as well as deposition loads. However the maxima in ion concentrations and deposition loads were observed during different times of the year. Concentrations of basic cations and chloride, on the contrary, hardly showed any seasonality. However, as

  16. UMTRA water sampling and analysis plan, Lakeview, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-29

    The purpose of this document is to provide background, guidance, and justification for water sampling activities for the Lakeview, Oregon, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) processing and disposal sites. This water sampling and analysis plan will form the basis for groundwater sampling and analysis work orders (WSAWO) to be implemented during 1993. Monitoring at the former Lakeview processing site is for characterization purposes and in preparation for the risk assessment, scheduled for the fall of 1993. Compliance monitoring was conducted at the disposal site. Details of the sampling plan are discussed in Section 5.0.

  17. Idaho's surface-water-quality monitoring program: results from five sites sampled during water years 1990-93

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1994-01-01

    In 1990, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Health and Welfare, Division of Environmental Quality, implemented a statewide water-quality monitoring program in response to Idaho's antidegradation policy as required by the Clean Water Act. The program objective is to provide water-quality managers with a coordinated statewide network to detect trends in surface-water quality. The monitoring program includes the collection and analysis of samples from 56 sites on the Bear, Clearwater, Kootenai, Pend Oreille, Salmon, Snake, and Spokane Rivers and their tributaries (fig. 1). Samples are collected every year at 5 sites (annual sites) in drainage basins where long-term water-quality management is practiced, every other year at 19 sites (biennial sites) in basins where land and water uses change slowly, and every third year at 32 sites (triennial sites) where future development may affect water quality. Each year, 25 of the 56 sites are sampled. This report discusses results of sampling at five annual sites. During water years 1990-93 (October 1, 1989, through September 30, 1993), samples were collected six times per year at the five annual sites (fig. 1). Onsite analyses were made for discharge, specific conductance, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, bacteria (fecal coliform and fecal streptococci), and alkalinity. Laboratory analyses were made for major ions, nutrients, trace elements, and suspended sediment. Suspended sediment, nitrate, fecal coliform, trace elements, and specific conductance were used to characterize surface-water quality. Because concentrations of all trace elements except zinc were near detection limits, only zinc is discussed.

  18. Bio-optical properties of Porsnagerfjorden (Norway) waters based on data collected in 2014 and 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białogrodzka, Jagoda; Stramska, Małgorzata; Burska, Dorota; Ficek, Dariusz; Stoń-Egiert, Joanna; Winogradow, Aleksandra

    2016-04-01

    Oceanographic data collected in the Arctic are valuable in view of the role of this region in the studies on global climate change and the fact that historically the number of in situ measurements is relatively low. Porsangerfjorden, Norway, is an example of oceanic basin with case 2 water according to the optical classification. Optical data from coastal seas are difficult in interpretation because the concentrations of optically important components can be high, variable, and not covarying with each other. Porsanger Fjord can be divided into three basins: inner, middle and outer, where physical and bio-optical properties of water masses differ. We collected optical data and water samples for phytoplankton pigments, dissolved organic matter, particulate (POC) and dissolved (DOC) organic carbon, and particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) during our two summer expeditions in 2014 and 2015. In this presentation we focus on data collected with WETLabs' ac-9 and ac-s spectrophotometers and ECO-Triplet and ECO-Triplet-w fluorometers. Concurrently with in situ optical measurements water samples were collected in situ and soon afterwards they were filtered in the laboratory at the station, stored and transported for further processing in Poland. Our analysis includes 146 of in situ measurements and discrete water samples: 62 of POC, 52 of PIC, 33 of DOC, 68 of dissolved organic matter and 89 of phytoplankton pigments. During our analysis we compare chlorophyll (Chl_a), dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and carbon concentrations with in situ collected inherent optical properties of sea water to find empirical proxies allowing to estimate various water component concentrations from optical data. Application of these proxies to available bio-optical data allowed us to derive spatial distribution of these water constituents and their variability. This work was funded by the Norway Grants (NCBR contract No. 201985, project NORDFLUX).

  19. A simple device for the collection of water and dissolved gases at defined depths

    Science.gov (United States)

    A device, consisting of a jar fitted with an inlet comprised of a gas-tight check valve and 2-way ball valve outlet connected via tubing to a portable peristaltic pump, was constructed to collect water samples without atmospheric contamination or loss of dissolved gases. A headspace void for dissol...

  20. PIXE analysis of heavy metals in water samples from a mining area in Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolormaa, Oyuntsetseg; Baasansuren, Jamsranjav; Kawasaki, Katsunori; Watanabe, Makiko; Hattori, Toshiyuki

    2006-01-01

    The affect of mining activity on the environment has been long of public concern. The present paper deals with chemical analysis of the Boroo River water samples collected in mining area of Mongolia focusing the determination of heavy metal contents by particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique. The samples were prepared by preconcentration method (water samples treated to form metal-dibenzyldithiocarbamate (DBDTC) complexes and collected on a nuclepore track-etch membrane filter) and irradiated by 2.5 MeV proton beam from the single-end type Van de Graaff accelerator. The accuracy of the results was proved by using certified river water samples. The total dispersions of experimental procedure were evaluated by variance analysis.

  1. PIXE analysis of heavy metals in water samples from a mining area in Mongolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolormaa, Oyuntsetseg [Department of Environment Science and Technology, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan)]. E-mail: bolormaa@n.cc.titech.ac.jp; Baasansuren, Jamsranjav [Department of Environment Science and Technology, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Kawasaki, Katsunori [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Watanabe, Makiko [Department of Environment Science and Technology, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Hattori, Toshiyuki [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

    2006-01-15

    The affect of mining activity on the environment has been long of public concern. The present paper deals with chemical analysis of the Boroo River water samples collected in mining area of Mongolia focusing the determination of heavy metal contents by particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique. The samples were prepared by preconcentration method (water samples treated to form metal-dibenzyldithiocarbamate (DBDTC) complexes and collected on a nuclepore track-etch membrane filter) and irradiated by 2.5 MeV proton beam from the single-end type Van de Graaff accelerator. The accuracy of the results was proved by using certified river water samples. The total dispersions of experimental procedure were evaluated by variance analysis.

  2. Monitoring water quality in Toronto's urban stormwater ponds: Assessing participation rates and data quality of water sampling by citizen scientists in the FreshWater Watch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Andrew B; Frost, Paul C

    2017-08-15

    From 2013 to 2015, citizen scientist volunteers in Toronto, Canada were trained to collect and analyze water quality in urban stormwater ponds. This volunteer sampling was part of the research program, FreshWater Watch (FWW), which aimed to standardize urban water sampling efforts from around the globe. We held training sessions for new volunteers twice yearly and trained a total of 111 volunteers. Over the course of project, ~30% of volunteers participated by collecting water quality data after the training session with 124 individual sampling events at 29 unique locations in Toronto, Canada. A few highly engaged volunteers were most active, with 50% of the samples collected by 5% of trainees. Stormwater ponds generally have poor water quality demonstrated by elevated phosphate concentrations (~30μg/L), nitrate (~427μg/L), and turbidity relative to Canadian water quality standards. Compared to other urban waterbodies in the global program, nutrient concentrations in Toronto's urban stormwater ponds were lower, while turbidity was not markedly different. Toronto FWW (FWW-TO) data was comparable to that measured by standard lab analyses and matched results from previous studies of stormwater ponds in Toronto. Combining observational and chemical data acquired by citizen scientists, macrophyte dominated ponds had lower phosphate concentrations while phytoplankton dominated ponds had lower nitrate concentrations, which indicates a potentially important and unstudied role of internal biogeochemical processes on pond nutrient dynamics. This experience in the FWW demonstrates the capabilities and constraints of citizen science when applied to water quality sampling. While analytical limits on in-field analyses produce higher uncertainty in water quality measurements of individual sites, rapid data collection is possible but depends on the motivation and engagement of the group of volunteers. Ongoing efforts in citizen science will thus need to address sampling effort

  3. Extracting samples of high diversity from thematic collections of large gene banks using a genetic-distance based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa-Filho, Marco; Rangel, Paulo H N; Ferreira, Marcio E

    2010-06-24

    sample size from a larger thematic collection. As an example, we used the development of a thematic core collection for drought tolerance in rice. It is expected that such thematic collections increase the use of germplasm by breeding programs and facilitate the study of the traits under consideration. The definition of a core collection to study drought resistance is a valuable contribution towards the understanding of the genetic control and the physiological mechanisms involved in water use efficiency in plants.

  4. Extracting samples of high diversity from thematic collections of large gene banks using a genetic-distance based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangel Paulo HN

    2010-06-01

    potentially reflects the maximum allele richness with the smallest sample size from a larger thematic collection. As an example, we used the development of a thematic core collection for drought tolerance in rice. It is expected that such thematic collections increase the use of germplasm by breeding programs and facilitate the study of the traits under consideration. The definition of a core collection to study drought resistance is a valuable contribution towards the understanding of the genetic control and the physiological mechanisms involved in water use efficiency in plants.

  5. Optimization of enrichment processes of pentachlorophenol (PCP) from water samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ping; LIU Jun-xin

    2004-01-01

    The method of enriching PCP (pentachlorophenol) from aquatic environment by solid phase extraction (SPE) was studied.Several factors affecting the recoveries of PCP, including sample pH, eluting solvent, eluting volume and flow rate of water sample, were optimized by orthogonal array design(OAD). The optimized results were sample pH 4; eluting solvent, 100% methanol; eluting solvent volume, 2 mi and flow rate of water sample, 4 mi/min. A comparison is made between SPE and liquid-liquid extraction(LLE) method. The recoveries of PCP were in the range of 87.6 % 133.6 % and 79 %- 120.3 % for S PE and LLE, respectively. Important advantages of the SPE compared with the LLE include the short extraction time and reduced consumption of organic solvents. SPE can replace LLE for isolating and concentrating PCP from water samples.

  6. Synoptic Bi-monthly and storm response water quality sampling in Southern Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii, from November 2007 - April 2009 (NODC Accession 0062644)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Synoptic sampling including water column profiles and collected surface water samples was conducted on a bi-monthly basis throughout the rainy season (October-May)...

  7. Synoptic Bi-monthly and Storm Response Water Quality Sampling in Southern Kaneohe Bay, HI 2005-2007 (NODC Accession 0060061)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Synoptic sampling including water column profiles and collected surface water samples was conducted on a bi-monthly basis throughout the rainy season(October-May)...

  8. Contamination of Ground Water Samples from Well Installations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn, Christian; Madsen, Jørgen Øgaard; Simonsen, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Leaching of a plasticizer, N-butylbenzenesulfonamide, from ground water multilevel sampling installations in nylon has been demonstrated. The leaching resulted in concentrations of DOC and apparent AOX, both comparable with those observed in landfill contaminated ground waters. It is concluded th...

  9. Monitoring the aftermath of Flint drinking water contamination crisis: Another case of sampling bias?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goovaerts, Pierre

    2017-07-15

    The delay in reporting high levels of lead in Flint drinking water, following the city's switch to the Flint River as its water supply, was partially caused by the biased selection of sampling sites away from the lead pipe network. Since Flint returned to its pre-crisis source of drinking water, the State has been monitoring water lead levels (WLL) at selected "sentinel" sites. In a first phase that lasted two months, 739 residences were sampled, most of them bi-weekly, to determine the general health of the distribution system and to track temporal changes in lead levels. During the same period, water samples were also collected through a voluntary program whereby concerned citizens received free testing kits and conducted sampling on their own. State officials relied on the former data to demonstrate the steady improvement in water quality. A recent analysis of data collected by voluntary sampling revealed, however, an opposite trend with lead levels increasing over time. This paper looks at potential sampling bias to explain such differences. Although houses with higher WLL were more likely to be sampled repeatedly, voluntary sampling turned out to reproduce fairly well the main characteristics (i.e. presence of lead service lines (LSL), construction year) of Flint housing stock. State-controlled sampling was less representative; e.g., sentinel sites with LSL were mostly built between 1935 and 1950 in lower poverty areas, which might hamper our ability to disentangle the effects of LSL and premise plumbing (lead fixtures and pipes present within old houses) on WLL. Also, there was no sentinel site with LSL in two of the most impoverished wards, including where the percentage of children with elevated blood lead levels tripled following the switch in water supply. Correcting for sampling bias narrowed the gap between sampling programs, yet overall temporal trends are still opposite.

  10. Effect of different sample collection methods on the results of raw milk analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cabral, Jakeline Fernandes; Silva, Marco Antônio Pereira da; Brasil, Rafaella Belchior; Carvalho, Thiago Soares; Giovannini, Cristiane Isabô; Nicolau, Edmar Soares

    2013-01-01

    The collection of samples of raw milk shall be careful to reflect their actual composition, and different methods of collection, may lead to variations in levels of milk components. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different methods of milk sampling on the chemical composition and somatic cell count. Milk samples were taken from 492 cows in a dairy farm of Rio Verde, state of Goiás, Brazil. Two sampling methodologies were used: a pool-sample and a complete sample (40 mL) of...

  11. Theorical and practical bases for blood sample collection from the heel of newborns for neonatal screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Vela-Amieva

    2014-07-01

    collected in a special filter paper (Guthrie’s card. Despite its apparent simplicity, NBS laboratories commonly receive a large number of samples collected incorrectly and technically unsuitable for perfor4ming biochemical determinations. The aim of the present paper is to offer recommendations based on scientific evidence, for the properly blood collection on filter paper for NBS programs.

  12. Atrazine, triketone herbicides, and their degradation products in sediment, soil and surface water samples in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchanska, Hanna; Sajdak, Marcin; Szczypka, Kornelia; Swientek, Angelika; Tworek, Martyna; Kurek, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor the sediment, soil and surface water contamination with selected popular triketone herbicides (mesotrione (MES) and sulcotrione(SUL)), atrazine (ATR) classified as a possible carcinogen and endocrine disrupting chemical, as well as their degradation products, in Silesia (Poland). Seventeen sediment samples, 24 soil samples, and 64 surface water samples collected in 2014 were studied. After solid-liquid extraction (SLE) and solid phase extraction (SPE), analytes were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode array detection (DAD). Ten years after the withdrawal from the use, ATR was not detected in any of the collected samples; however, its degradation products are still present in 41 % of sediment, 71 % of soil, and 8 % of surface water samples. SUL was determined in 85 % of soil samples; its degradation product (2-chloro-4-(methylosulfonyl) benzoic acid (CMBA)) was present in 43 % of soil samples. In 17 % of sediment samples, CMBA was detected. Triketones were detected occasionally in surface water samples. The chemometric analysis (clustering analysis (CA), single-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA), N-Way ANOVA) was applied to find relations between selected soil and sediment parameters and herbicides concentration. In neither of the studied cases a statistically significant relationship between the concentrations of examined herbicides, their degradation products and soil parameters (organic carbon (OC), pH) was observed.

  13. RAPID DETERMINATION OF {sup 210} PO IN WATER SAMPLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, S.

    2013-05-22

    A new rapid method for the determination of {sup 210}Po in water samples has been developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) that can be used for emergency response or routine water analyses. If a radiological dispersive device (RDD) event or a radiological attack associated with drinking water supplies occurs, there will be an urgent need for rapid analyses of water samples, including drinking water, ground water and other water effluents. Current analytical methods for the assay of {sup 210}Po in water samples have typically involved spontaneous auto-deposition of {sup 210}Po onto silver or other metal disks followed by counting by alpha spectrometry. The auto-deposition times range from 90 minutes to 24 hours or more, at times with yields that may be less than desirable. If sample interferences are present, decreased yields and degraded alpha spectrums can occur due to unpredictable thickening in the deposited layer. Separation methods have focused on the use of Sr Resin, often in combination with 210Pb analysis. A new rapid method for {sup 210}Po in water samples has been developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) that utilizes a rapid calcium phosphate co-precipitation method, separation using DGA Resin (N,N,N,N-tetraoctyldiglycolamide extractant-coated resin, Eichrom Technologies or Triskem-International), followed by rapid microprecipitation of {sup 210}Po using bismuth phosphate for counting by alpha spectrometry. This new method can be performed quickly with excellent removal of interferences, high chemical yields and very good alpha peak resolution, eliminating any potential problems with the alpha source preparation for emergency or routine samples. A rapid sequential separation method to separate {sup 210} Po and actinide isotopes was also developed. This new approach, rapid separation with DGA Resin plus microprecipitation for alpha source preparation, is a significant advance in radiochemistry for the rapid

  14. Bioinspired materials for water supply and management: water collection, water purification and separation of water from oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Philip S; Bhushan, Bharat

    2016-08-06

    Access to a safe supply of water is a human right. However, with growing populations, global warming and contamination due to human activity, it is one that is increasingly under threat. It is hoped that nature can inspire the creation of materials to aid in the supply and management of water, from water collection and purification to water source clean-up and rehabilitation from oil contamination. Many species thrive in even the driest places, with some surviving on water harvested from fog. By studying these species, new materials can be developed to provide a source of fresh water from fog for communities across the globe. The vast majority of water on the Earth is in the oceans. However, current desalination processes are energy-intensive. Systems in our own bodies have evolved to transport water efficiently while blocking other molecules and ions. Inspiration can be taken from such to improve the efficiency of desalination and help purify water containing other contaminants. Finally, oil contamination of water from spills or the fracking technique can be a devastating environmental disaster. By studying how natural surfaces interact with liquids, new techniques can be developed to clean up oil spills and further protect our most precious resource.This article is part of the themed issue 'Bioinspired hierarchically structured surfaces for green science'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  15. ENHANCED DAPI STAINING FOR CRYPTOSPORIDIUM IN WATER SAMPLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Method 1623 is used to detect and quantify the presence of {ital Cryptosporidium} spp. oocysts in water. The protocol consists of concentrating a sample, staining this concentrate with a fluorescent antibody, and examining the sample mi...

  16. Presence of Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia in water samples from Southeast Asia: towards an integrated water detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Thulasi; Abd Majid, Mohamad Azlan; Onichandran, Subashini; Jaturas, Narong; Andiappan, Hemah; Salibay, Cristina C; Tabo, Hazel A L; Tabo, Norbel; Dungca, Julieta Z; Tangpong, Jitbanjong; Phiriyasamith, Sucheep; Yuttayong, Boonyaorn; Polseela, Raxsina; Do, Binh Nhu; Sawangjaroen, Nongyao; Tan, Tian-Chye; Lim, Yvonne A L; Nissapatorn, Veeranoot

    2016-01-13

    Access to clean and safe drinking water that is free from pathogenic protozoan parasites, especially Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia that cause gastrointestinal illness in humans, is still an issue in Southeast Asia (SEA). This study is the first attempt to detect the aforementioned protozoan parasites in water samples from countries in SEA, using real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays. A total of 221 water samples of 10 l each were collected between April and October 2013 from Malaysia (53), Thailand (120), the Philippines (33), and Vietnam (15). A physicochemical analysis was conducted. The water samples were processed in accordance with the US Environmental Protection Agency's methods 1622/1623.1, microscopically observed and subsequently screened using qPCR assays. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in treated water samples from the Philippines (1/10), with a concentration of 0.06 ± 0.19 oocyst/L, and untreated water samples from Thailand (25/93), Malaysia (17/44), and the Philippines (11/23), with concentrations ranging from 0.13 ± 0.18 to 0.57 ± 1.41 oocyst/L. Giardia cysts were found in treated water samples from the Philippines (1/10), with a concentration of 0.02 ± 0.06 cyst/L, and in untreated water samples from Thailand (20/93), Vietnam (5/10), Malaysia (22/44), and the Philippines (16/23), with concentrations ranging from 0.12 ± 0.3 to 8.90 ± 19.65 cyst/L. The pathogens C. parvum and G. lamblia were detected using using qPCR assays by targeting the 138-bp fragment and the small subunit gene, respectively. C. parvum was detected in untreated water samples from the Philippines (1/23) and Malaysia (2/44), whilst, G. lamblia detected was detected in treated water samples from the Philippines (1/10) and in untreated water samples from Thailand (21/93), Malaysia (12/44), and the Philippines (17/23). Nitrate concentration was found to have a high positive correlation with (oo)cyst (0.993). The presence of

  17. Adaptive Sampling-Based Information Collection for Wireless Body Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaobin; Zhao, Fang; Wang, Wendong; Tian, Hui

    2016-08-31

    To collect important health information, WBAN applications typically sense data at a high frequency. However, limited by the quality of wireless link, the uploading of sensed data has an upper frequency. To reduce upload frequency, most of the existing WBAN data collection approaches collect data with a tolerable error. These approaches can guarantee precision of the collected data, but they are not able to ensure that the upload frequency is within the upper frequency. Some traditional sampling based approaches can control upload frequency directly, however, they usually have a high loss of information. Since the core task of WBAN applications is to collect health information, this paper aims to collect optimized information under the limitation of upload frequency. The importance of sensed data is defined according to information theory for the first time. Information-aware adaptive sampling is proposed to collect uniformly distributed data. Then we propose Adaptive Sampling-based Information Collection (ASIC) which consists of two algorithms. An adaptive sampling probability algorithm is proposed to compute sampling probabilities of different sensed values. A multiple uniform sampling algorithm provides uniform samplings for values in different intervals. Experiments based on a real dataset show that the proposed approach has higher performance in terms of data coverage and information quantity. The parameter analysis shows the optimized parameter settings and the discussion shows the underlying reason of high performance in the proposed approach.

  18. Resistivity tomography study on samples with water-bearing structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The apparent resistivity of the samples with water-bearing configuration was measured by an electrode-array and 2-D resistivity images of these samples were reconstructed then. The obtained series of tomograms reveal the distribution and its variation of true resistivity within the samples caused by the changes of crack and liquid distribution. Applying this method to the simulation experiment on the electrical properties of rocks, the fracturing and water filling process, which produces the electrical changes, can be brought to light clearly.

  19. Adaptive Sampling-Based Information Collection for Wireless Body Area Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaobin Xu; Fang Zhao; Wendong Wang; Hui Tian

    2016-01-01

    To collect important health information, WBAN applications typically sense data at a high frequency. However, limited by the quality of wireless link, the uploading of sensed data has an upper frequency. To reduce upload frequency, most of the existing WBAN data collection approaches collect data with a tolerable error. These approaches can guarantee precision of the collected data, but they are not able to ensure that the upload frequency is within the upper frequency. Some traditional sampl...

  20. Data Validation Package - April and July 2015 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Gunnison, Colorado, Processing Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linard, Joshua [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington, DC (United States). Office of Legacy Management; Campbell, Sam [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This event included annual sampling of groundwater and surface water locations at the Gunnison, Colorado, Processing Site. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites. Samples were collected from 28 monitoring wells, three domestic wells, and six surface locations in April at the processing site as specified in the 2010 Ground Water Compliance Action Plan for the Gunnison, Colorado, Processing Site. Domestic wells 0476 and 0477 were sampled in July because the homes were unoccupied in April, and the wells were not in use. Duplicate samples were collected from locations 0113, 0248, and 0477. One equipment blank was collected during this sampling event. Water levels were measured at all monitoring wells that were sampled. No issues were identified during the data validation process that requires additional action or follow-up.

  1. Difficulties in obtaining representative samples for compliance with the Ballast Water Management Convention

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Carney, K.J.; Basurko, O.C.; Pazouki, K.; Marsham, S.; Delany, J.E.; Desai, D.V.; Anil, A.C.; Mesbahi, E.

    ). This study has shown the effect that low sampling frequency has on the accuracy of data obtained from a 1 tonne storage tank. In reality ships can carry between 100 and 100,000 tonnes of ballast water and discharge at flow rates of 100 to over 3000 m3hr-1... and uncertainty in the accuracy of data obtained from collecting only three replicate samples at three sampling points on discharge of ballast water will, in reality, be much greater than that seen in this study. Previous studies have used different...

  2. Screening and Quantification of Aliphatic Primary Alkyl Corrosion Inhibitor Amines in Water Samples by Paper Spray Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jjunju, Fred P M; Maher, Simon; Damon, Deidre E; Barrett, Richard M; Syed, S U; Heeren, Ron M A; Taylor, Stephen; Badu-Tawiah, Abraham K

    2016-01-19

    Direct analysis and identification of long chain aliphatic primary diamine Duomeen O (n-oleyl-1,3-diaminopropane), corrosion inhibitor in raw water samples taken from a large medium pressure water tube boiler plant water samples at low LODs (corrosion inhibitors in an industrial water boiler plant and other related samples in the water treatment industry. This approach was applied for the analysis of three complex water samples including feedwater, condensate water, and boiler water, all collected from large medium pressure (MP) water tube boiler plants, known to be dosed with varying amounts of polyamine and amine corrosion inhibitor components. Polyamine chemistry is widely used for example in large high pressure (HP) boilers operating in municipal waste and recycling facilities to prevent corrosion of metals. The samples used in this study are from such a facility in Coventry waste treatment facility, U.K., which has 3 × 40 tonne/hour boilers operating at 17.5 bar.

  3. Pathogenic Vibrio Strains Isolated from Human Stool and Water Samples from Western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roselida Achieng Owuor

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Investigate the type of pathogenic Vibrio strains from water and stool samples collected from Migori, SonduMiriu, Nyando and Yala regions in Western Kenya. Methods: A total of 811 samples (596 water and 215 stool samples were collected during the study periods of May to December 2013 and August to September 2014. Pathogenic Vibrio strains were identified through culturing in TCBS Agar, followed by oxidation, string and serological (polyvalent tests, respectively. The PCR analysis was done using combined primers targeting Vibrionaceae 16SrRNA and species specific primers for V. vulnificus and V. cholerae. Results: The results showed the presence of V. vulnificus and V. cholerae. However, V. parahaemolyticus was not found in any of the samples. The PCR results for 16SrRNA, Vib 1, and Vib 2 showed polymorphism in the genes, this was an indication of cross combination of genes from more than one strain in one isolate. Conclusion: The study showed the presence of V. cholerae (Ogawa and Inaba in water and human stool samples. Type B V. vulnificus was detected in the water sample collected from River Migori. This information is of essence in controlling and managing cholera in the western part of Kenya. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2016;6(1: 1-7

  4. Sampling tritiated water vapor from the atmosphere by an active system using silica gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herranz, M. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Fluid Mechanics, E.T.S.I. de Bilbao, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo, s/n 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Alegria, N., E-mail: natalia.alegria@ehu.es [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Fluid Mechanics, E.T.S.I. de Bilbao, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo, s/n 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Idoeta, R.; Legarda, F. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Fluid Mechanics, E.T.S.I. de Bilbao, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo, s/n 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2011-11-15

    Among the different methods used to collect the tritiated water vapor (HTO) contained in the atmosphere, one of the most worldwide used is its collection using an air pump, which forces the air to pass through a dry silica gel trap. The silica gel is then distilled to remove the water collected, which is measured in a liquid scintillation counting system. In this paper, an analysis of the water collection efficiency of the silica gel has been done as a function of the temperatures involved, the dimensions of the pipe driving the air into the silica gel traps, the air volume passing through the trap and the flow rates used. Among the obtained conclusions, it can be pointed out that placing the traps inside a cooled container, the amount of silica gel needed to collect all the water contained in the air passing through these traps can be estimated using a weather forecast and a psychometric chart. To do this, and as thermal equilibrium between incoming and open air should be established, a suitable design of the sampling system is proposed. - Highlights: > To recollect the atmosphere air tritiated water vapor, an active system was used. > The system is an air pump and three traps with silica gel connected by a rubber pipe. > The silica gel retention depends on the meteorological conditions and the flow rate. > The amount of water collected and the mass of silica gel need were calculated, F.

  5. The Influence of Pumping on Observed Bacterial Counts in Groundwater Samples: Implications for Sampling Protocol and Water Quality Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozuskanich, J.; Novakowski, K.; Anderson, B.

    2008-12-01

    Drinking water quality has become an important issue in Ontario following the events in Walkerton in 2000. Many rural communities are reliant on private groundwater wells for drinking water, and it is the responsibility of the owner to have the water tested to make sure it is safe for human consumption. Homeowners can usually take a sample to the local health unit for total coliform and E. Coli analysis at no charge to determine if the water supply is being tainted by surface water or fecal matter, both of which could indicate the potential for negative impacts on human health. However, is the sample coming out of the tap representative of what is going on the aquifer? The goal of this study is to observe how bacterial counts may vary during the course of well pumping, and how those changing results influence the assessment of water quality. Multiple tests were conducted in bedrock monitoring wells to examine the influence of pumping rate and pumped volume on observed counts of total coliform, E. Coli, fecal streptococcus, fecal coliform and heterotrophic plate count. Bacterial samples were collected frequently during the course of continuous purging events lasting up to 8 hours. Typical field parameters (temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen and ORP) were also continuously monitored during the course of each test. Common practice in groundwater studies is to wait until these parameters have stabilized or three well volumes have been removed prior to sampling, to ensure the sample is taken from new water entering the well from the aquifer, rather than the original water stored in the borehole prior to the test. In general, most bacterial counts were low, but did go above the drinking water standard of 0 counts/100mL (total coliform and E. Coli) at times during the tests. Results show the greatest variability in the observed bacterial counts at the onset of pumping prior to the removal of three well volumes. Samples taken after the removal of three well

  6. DETERMINATION OF ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES IN DRINKING WATERS SAMPLED FROM CLUJ AND HUNEDOARA COUNTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA-ELISABETA LOVÁSZ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Determination of organochlorine pesticides in drinking waterssampled from Cluj and Hunedoara counties. Pesticides are found scattered indifferent environmental factors (water, air, soil wherefrom they are drawn off byvegetal and animal organisms. Water pollution by pesticides results from the plantprotection products industry and also from massive application of these resourcesin agriculture and other branches of economy. Pesticides can reach surface wateralong with dripping waters and by infiltration may reach the groundwater layers,organochlorine pesticides are most often found in the water sources (dieldrin,endrin, DDT, aldrin, lindane, heptachlor, etc. due to their increased persistence inthe external environment. This study followed up the determination oforganochlorine pesticides in 14 drinking water samples collected from the outputof water treatment plants in Cluj and Hunedoara counties that process surfacewater and deep-water sources. For identification of organochlorine pesticides, thegas chromatographic method after liquid-liquid extraction was used, by a gascromatograph Shimadzu GC 2010 with detector ECD (Electron CaptureDetection. There were not detected higher values than the method detection limit(0.01 μg/l in the drinking water samples collected and analyzed for both totalorganochlorine pesticides and components, which were well below the maximumconcentration admitted by Law 452/2002 regarding drinking water quality. Resultsare correlated with the sanitary protection areas for water sources and with the useof agricultural lands in the area. The solution to reduce risk of pesticides use isecological agriculture , which gains increasingly more ground in Romania too.

  7. Effects of post-sampling analysis time, type of blood samples and collection tubes on values of blood gas testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smajić, Jasmina; Kadić, Damira; Hasić, Sabaheta; Serdarević, Nafija

    2015-08-01

    To investigate effects of post-sampling analysis time, a type of blood samples and collection tubes on blood gas testing. This study included 100 patients at the Clinic for Pulmonary Diseases, Clinical Centre Sarajevo. The partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) and carbon dioxide (pCO2), and the oxygen saturation level of hemoglobin (sO2) were analyzed in the arterial blood samples (ABS) and capillary blood samples (CBS) by a potentiometric method using a blood gas analyzer ABL 555 (Radiometer, Copenhagen, Denmark). Paired measurements of ABS were performed within 15 minutes and after 60 minutes from sampling and compared. The results of CBS obtained within 15 minutes were compared with matching ABS results, as well as the results obtained from CBS within 15 minutes taken into glass and plastic tubes. pO2 and sO2 values were significantly lower after 60 minutes compared to those within 15 minutes in ABS (9.20±1.89 vs. 9.51±1.95 and 91.25±5.03 vs. 92.40±4.5; pblood values were not influenced significantly (p>0.05). The length of post-sampling analysis time, a type of blood samples and collection tubes have significant impact on blood oxygen parameters. Analysis within 15 minutes after blood sampling is considered as appropriate. Copyright© by the Medical Assotiation of Zenica-Doboj Canton.

  8. DISTRIBUTION COEFICIENTS (KD) GENERATED FROM A CORE SAMPLE COLLECTED FROM THE SALTSTONE DISPOSAL FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almond, P.; Kaplan, D.

    2011-04-25

    Core samples originating from Vault 4, Cell E of the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) were collected in September of 2008 (Hansen and Crawford 2009, Smith 2008) and sent to SRNL to measure chemical and physical properties of the material including visual uniformity, mineralogy, microstructure, density, porosity, distribution coefficients (K{sub d}), and chemical composition. Some data from these experiments have been reported (Cozzi and Duncan 2010). In this study, leaching experiments were conducted with a single core sample under conditions that are representative of saltstone performance. In separate experiments, reducing and oxidizing environments were targeted to obtain solubility and Kd values from the measurable species identified in the solid and aqueous leachate. This study was designed to provide insight into how readily species immobilized in saltstone will leach from the saltstone under oxidizing conditions simulating the edge of a saltstone monolith and under reducing conditions, targeting conditions within the saltstone monolith. Core samples were taken from saltstone poured in December of 2007 giving a cure time of nine months in the cell and a total of thirty months before leaching experiments began in June 2010. The saltstone from Vault 4, Cell E is comprised of blast furnace slag, class F fly ash, portland cement, and Deliquification, Dissolution, and Adjustment (DDA) Batch 2 salt solution. The salt solution was previously analyzed from a sample of Tank 50 salt solution and characterized in the 4QCY07 Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) report (Zeigler and Bibler 2009). Subsequent to Tank 50 analysis, additional solution was added to the tank solution from the Effluent Treatment Project as well as from inleakage from Tank 50 pump bearings (Cozzi and Duncan 2010). Core samples were taken from three locations and at three depths at each location using a two-inch diameter concrete coring bit (1-1, 1-2, 1-3; 2-1, 2-2, 2-3; 3-1, 3-2, 3-3) (Hansen and

  9. DISTRIBUTION COEFICIENTS (KD) GENERATED FROM A CORE SAMPLE COLLECTED FROM THE SALTSTONE DISPOSAL FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almond, P.; Kaplan, D.

    2011-04-25

    Core samples originating from Vault 4, Cell E of the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) were collected in September of 2008 (Hansen and Crawford 2009, Smith 2008) and sent to SRNL to measure chemical and physical properties of the material including visual uniformity, mineralogy, microstructure, density, porosity, distribution coefficients (K{sub d}), and chemical composition. Some data from these experiments have been reported (Cozzi and Duncan 2010). In this study, leaching experiments were conducted with a single core sample under conditions that are representative of saltstone performance. In separate experiments, reducing and oxidizing environments were targeted to obtain solubility and Kd values from the measurable species identified in the solid and aqueous leachate. This study was designed to provide insight into how readily species immobilized in saltstone will leach from the saltstone under oxidizing conditions simulating the edge of a saltstone monolith and under reducing conditions, targeting conditions within the saltstone monolith. Core samples were taken from saltstone poured in December of 2007 giving a cure time of nine months in the cell and a total of thirty months before leaching experiments began in June 2010. The saltstone from Vault 4, Cell E is comprised of blast furnace slag, class F fly ash, portland cement, and Deliquification, Dissolution, and Adjustment (DDA) Batch 2 salt solution. The salt solution was previously analyzed from a sample of Tank 50 salt solution and characterized in the 4QCY07 Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) report (Zeigler and Bibler 2009). Subsequent to Tank 50 analysis, additional solution was added to the tank solution from the Effluent Treatment Project as well as from inleakage from Tank 50 pump bearings (Cozzi and Duncan 2010). Core samples were taken from three locations and at three depths at each location using a two-inch diameter concrete coring bit (1-1, 1-2, 1-3; 2-1, 2-2, 2-3; 3-1, 3-2, 3-3) (Hansen and

  10. Analytical techniques for steroid estrogens in water samples - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ting Yien; Praveena, Sarva Mangala; deBurbure, Claire; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Ismail, Sharifah Norkhadijah Syed; Rasdi, Irniza

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, environmental concerns over ultra-trace levels of steroid estrogens concentrations in water samples have increased because of their adverse effects on human and animal life. Special attention to the analytical techniques used to quantify steroid estrogens in water samples is therefore increasingly important. The objective of this review was to present an overview of both instrumental and non-instrumental analytical techniques available for the determination of steroid estrogens in water samples, evidencing their respective potential advantages and limitations using the Need, Approach, Benefit, and Competition (NABC) approach. The analytical techniques highlighted in this review were instrumental and non-instrumental analytical techniques namely gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS), enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA), radio immuno assay (RIA), yeast estrogen screen (YES) assay, and human breast cancer cell line proliferation (E-screen) assay. The complexity of water samples and their low estrogenic concentrations necessitates the use of highly sensitive instrumental analytical techniques (GC-MS and LC-MS) and non-instrumental analytical techniques (ELISA, RIA, YES assay and E-screen assay) to quantify steroid estrogens. Both instrumental and non-instrumental analytical techniques have their own advantages and limitations. However, the non-instrumental ELISA analytical techniques, thanks to its lower detection limit and simplicity, its rapidity and cost-effectiveness, currently appears to be the most reliable for determining steroid estrogens in water samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Sample port design for ballast water sampling: Refinement of guidance regarding the isokinetic diameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wier, Timothy P; Moser, Cameron S; Grant, Jonathan F; First, Matthew R; Riley, Scott C; Robbins-Wamsley, Stephanie H; Drake, Lisa A

    2015-09-15

    By using an appropriate in-line sampling system, it is possible to obtain representative samples of ballast water from the main ballast line. An important parameter of the sampling port is its "isokinetic diameter" (DISO), which is the diameter calculated to determine the velocity of water in the sample port relative to the velocity of the water in the main ballast line. The guidance in the U.S. Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program protocol suggests increasing the diameter from 1.0× DISO (in which velocity in the sample port is equivalent to velocity in the main line) to 1.5-2.0× DISO. In this manner, flow velocity is slowed-and mortality of organisms is theoretically minimized-as water enters the sample port. This report describes field and laboratory trials, as well as computational fluid dynamics modeling, to refine this guidance. From this work, a DISO of 1.0-2.0× (smaller diameter sample ports) is recommended. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Qualilty, isotopes, and radiochemistry of water sampled from the Upper Moenkopi Village water-supply wells, Coconino County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruth, Rob; Beisner, Kimberly; Smith, Greg

    2013-01-01

    The Hopi Tribe Water Resources Program has granted contracts for studies to evaluate water supply conditions for the Moenkopi villages in Coconino County, Arizona. The Moenkopi villages include Upper Moenkopi Village and the village of Lower Moencopi, both on the Hopi Indian Reservation south of the Navajo community of Tuba City. These investigations have determined that water supplies are limited and vulnerable to several potential sources of contamination, including the Tuba City Landfill and a former uranium processing facility known as the Rare Metals Mill. Studies are ongoing to determine if uranium and other metals in groundwater beneath the landfill are greater than regional groundwater concentrations. The source of water supply for the Upper Moenkopi Village is three public-supply wells. The wells are referred to as MSW-1, MSW-2, and MSW-3 and all three wells obtain water from the regionally extensive N aquifer. The N aquifer is the principal aquifer in this region of northern Arizona and consists of thick beds of sandstone between less permeable layers of siltstone and mudstone. The relatively fine-grained character of the N aquifer inhibits rapid movement of water and large yields to wells. In recent years, water levels have declined in the three public-supply wells, causing concern that the current water supply will not be able to accommodate peak demand and allow for residential and economic growth. Analyses of major ions, nutrients, selected trace metals, stable and radioactive isotopes, and radiochemistry were performed on the groundwater samples from the three public-supply wells to describe general water-quality conditions and groundwater ages in and immediately surrounding the Upper Moenkopi Village area. None of the water samples collected from the public-supply wells exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency primary drinking water standards. The ratios of the major dissolved ions from the samples collected from MSW-1 and MSW-2 indicate

  13. Pediatric blood sample collection from a pre-existing peripheral intravenous (PIV) catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braniff, Heather; DeCarlo, Ann; Haskamp, Amy Corey; Broome, Marion E

    2014-01-01

    Aiming to minimize pain in a hospitalized child, the purpose of this observational study was to describe characteristics of blood samples collected from pre-existing peripheral intravenous (PIV) catheters in pediatric patients. One hundred and fifty blood samples were reviewed for number of unusable samples requiring a specimen to be re-drawn. Success of the blood draw and prevalence of the loss of the PIV following blood collection was also measured. Findings included one clotted specimen, success rate of 91.3%, and 1.3% of PIVs becoming non-functional after collection. Obtaining blood specimens from a pre-existing PIV should be considered in a pediatric patient.

  14. Detection of Acanthamoeba and Toxoplasma in River Water Samples by Molecular Methods in Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Mahmoudi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Free-living amoebae such as Acanthamoeba species may act as carriers of Cryptosporidium and Toxoplasma oocysts, thus, may play an important role in the water-borne transmission of these parasites. In the present study, a loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP method for detection of Toxoplasma and a PCR assay were developed for investigation of Acanthamoeba in environmental water samples.A total of 34 samples were collected from the surface water in Guilan Province. Water samples were filtrated with membrane filters and followed by DNA extraction. PCR and LAMP methods used for detection of the protozoan parasites Acanthamoeba and Toxoplasma respectively.Totally 30 and 2 of 34 samples were positive for Acanthamoeba and Toxoplasma oocysts respectively. Two samples were positive for both investigated parasites.The investigated water supplies, are contaminated by Toxoplasma and Acanthamoeba (oocystes. Acanthamoeba may play an important role in water-borne transmission of Toxoplasma in the study area. For the first time in Iran, protocol of LAMP method was used effectively for the detection of Toxoplasma in surface water samples in Iran.

  15. Identification and quantification of pesticide residues in water samples of Dhamrai Upazila, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanuzzaman, M.; Rahman, M. A.; Salam, M. A.

    2016-10-01

    Being agricultural country, different types of pesticides are widely used in Bangladesh to prevent the crop losses due to pest attack which are ultimately drain to the water bodies. The present study was conducted to identify and quantify the organochlorine (DDT, DDE and DDD), organophosphorus (malathion, diazinon and chloropyrifos) and carbamate (carbaryl) residues in water samples of different sources from Dhamrai upazila of Bangladesh using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with ultra violate (UV) detector. Thirty water samples from fish pond, cultivated land and tube-well were collected in winter season to analyze the pesticide residues. Among the organophosphorus pesticides, malathion was present in seven water samples ranging from 42.58 to 922.8 μg/L, whereas diazinon was detected in water sample-8 (WS-8) and the concentration was 31.5 μg/L. None of the tested water samples was found to be contaminated with chlorpyrifos, carbaryl or DDT and its metabolites (DDE and DDD). Except for a tube-well water sample, concentrations of the detected residues are above the acceptable limit for human body as assigned by different organizations. To avoid the possible health hazards, the indiscriminate application of pesticides should be restricted and various substitute products like bio-pesticide should be introduced in a broad scale as soon as possible.

  16. NITRATE + NITRITE CONTENT (CONCENTRATION), SILICATE, WATER TEMPERATURE, AMMONIUM and other profile and discrete sample data collected in the North Pacific Ocean on the NEW HORIZON cruise NH0007 as part of the NEP project from 2000-07-28 to 2000-08-12 (NODC Accession 0113254)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113254 includes profile, discrete sample, biological, physical and chemical data collected aboard the NEW HORIZON during cruise NH0007 in the North...

  17. NITRATE + NITRITE CONTENT (CONCENTRATION), DISSOLVED OXYGEN, SILICATE, WATER TEMPERATURE and other profile and discrete sample data collected in the North Pacific Ocean on the NEW HORIZON and WECOMA cruises NH0207 and W0205A as part of the NEP project from 2002-05-29 to 2002-08-19 (NODC Accession 0113339)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113339 includes profile, discrete sample, biological, chemical and physical data collected aboard the NEW HORIZON and WECOMA during cruises NH0207...

  18. NITRATE + NITRITE CONTENT (CONCENTRATION), SILICATE, WATER TEMPERATURE, AMMONIUM and other profile and discrete sample data collected in the North Pacific Ocean on the ATLANTIS, NEW HORIZON and WECOMA cruises AT7-21, NH0307A and others as part of the NEP project from 1997-09-19 to 2004-09-02 (NODC Accession 0114239)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0114239 includes profile, discrete sample, biological, chemical and physical data collected aboard the ATLANTIS, NEW HORIZON and WECOMA during cruises...

  19. SALINITY, Total nitrogen, WATER TEMPERATURE, PARTICULATE ORGANIC CARBON and other profile and discrete sample data collected in the North Pacific Ocean on the ATLANTIS, NEW HORIZON and WECOMA cruises AT7-21, NH0307A and others as part of the NEP project from 1997-09-19 to 2004-09-02 (NODC Accession 0115198)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115198 includes profile, discrete sample, physical and chemical data collected aboard the ATLANTIS, NEW HORIZON and WECOMA during cruises AT7-21,...

  20. SILICATE, WATER TEMPERATURE, FLUORESCENCE, PHOTOSYNTHETIC ACTIVE RADIATION (PAR) and other profile and discrete sample data collected in the Gulf of Alaska on the ALPHA HELIX cruises HX242, HX244 and others as part of the NEP project from 2001-04-18 to 2003-08-11 (NODC Accession 0113348)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113348 includes profile, discrete sample, biological, chemical and physical data collected aboard the ALPHA HELIX during cruises HX242, HX244, HX247,...

  1. Standardized Method for Measuring Collection Efficiency from Wipe-sampling of Trace Explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkouteren, Jennifer R; Lawrence, Jeffrey A; Staymates, Matthew E; Sisco, Edward

    2017-04-10

    One of the limiting steps to detecting traces of explosives at screening venues is effective collection of the sample. Wipe-sampling is the most common procedure for collecting traces of explosives, and standardized measurements of collection efficiency are needed to evaluate and optimize sampling protocols. The approach described here is designed to provide this measurement infrastructure, and controls most of the factors known to be relevant to wipe-sampling. Three critical factors (the applied force, travel distance, and travel speed) are controlled using an automated device. Test surfaces are chosen based on similarity to the screening environment, and the wipes can be made from any material considered for use in wipe-sampling. Particle samples of the explosive 1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) are applied in a fixed location on the surface using a dry-transfer technique. The particle samples, recently developed to simulate residues made after handling explosives, are produced by inkjet printing of RDX solutions onto polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) substrates. Collection efficiency is measured by extracting collected explosive from the wipe, and then related to critical sampling factors and the selection of wipe material and test surface. These measurements are meant to guide the development of sampling protocols at screening venues, where speed and throughput are primary considerations.

  2. Determination of natural radioactivity by gross alpha and beta measurements in ground water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turhan, S; Ozçitak, E; Taşkin, H; Varinlioğlu, A

    2013-06-01

    In this study, the activity concentrations of the gross α and β in ground water samples collected from the different drilled wells in Nevşehir province were measured to assess annual effective dose due to the ingestion of the water samples. Nevşehir province is one of the major cities of Cappadocia Region which is a popular tourist destination as it has many areas with unique geological, historic, and cultural features. Sampling and measurements were carried out in the autumn of 2011 and the spring of 2012. The values of the activity concentrations of the gross α and β measured in the water samples ranged from 80 to 380 mBq L(-1) with a mean of 192 mBq L(-1) and 120-3470 mBq L(-1) with a mean of 579 mBq L(-1) respectively. All values of the gross α were lower than the limit value of 500 mBq L(-1) while two ground water samples were found to have gross β activity concentrations of greater than 1000 mBq L(-1). Therefore two water samples were the subject of further radioisotope-specific analysis. The obtained result indicated that the elevated activity concentrations of the gross β in these water samples are dominated by (40)K activity. Annual effective doses ranged from 0.04 to 0.20 mSv y(-1).

  3. Genotypic Characterization of Cryptosporidium hominis from Water Samples in São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Ronalda S.; Dropa, Milena; Fernandes, Licia N.; Carvalho, Terezinha T.; Sato, Maria Inês Z.; Soares, Rodrigo M.; Matté, Glavur R.; Matté, Maria Helena

    2011-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium has emerged as one of the most important water contaminants, causing waterborne outbreaks of diarrheal diseases worldwide. The small size of oocysts under the microscope and the possibility of changes in characteristics of oocysts, mainly in environmental samples, make the taxonomy of the genus difficult if morphologic characteristics are considered. This limitation encouraged the application of molecular methods to identify this microorganism. The aim of this study was to detect and identify by nested-polymerase chain reaction oocysts of Cryptosporidium present in water samples in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Water samples were concentrated through a membrane filter, DNA was extracted by using a standard technique, and both amplification reactions used forward and reverse oligonucleotides that were complementary to Cryptosporidium 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequences. Thirty water samples from different sites of collection in the state of São Paulo were evaluated. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in 30% of the samples. By genoptyping, C. hominis and Cryptosporidium sp. were identified in recreational water and C. meleagridis was identified in surface water samples. This is the first report of C. hominis in environmental samples in Brazil. Although identification of Cryptosporidium is still a difficult task, molecular methods are essential for specific identification and are a helpful tool to aid to understand the epidemiology of this parasite in Brazil. PMID:22049036

  4. Solid phase microextraction (SPME) sampling under turbulent conditions and for the simultaneous collecting of tracer gases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Underwood Susanne W.; Jong Edmund C.; Luxbacher Kray D.; Sarver Emily A.; Ripepi Nino S.; McNair Harold M.

    2015-01-01

    Solid phase microextraction (SPME) is a solvent-free method of sample collection. SPME is an appealing method for sample collection because it is designed for the sampling of trace level analytes with short sampling times in a variety of environments. Additionally, SPME can be used to directly deliver a sample to a gas chromatograph (GC) for analysis by means of thermal desorption. In this paper, the performance of SPME under dynamic conditions was investigated. Additionally, the competence of SPME sampling for the simultaneous analysis of multiple trace analytes was also evaluated. This work is discussed in the context of underground mine ventilation surveys but is applicable to any industry in which ventilation circuits must be evaluated. The results of this paper showed that the performance of the 100 lm PDMS SPME fiber was both precise and rapid under dynamic conditions. This SPME fiber was also able to simultaneously collect sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and perfluoromethylcyclohexane (PMCH) with adequate sensitivity.

  5. A simple and novel method for retrieval of Pasteurellaceae from swab samples collected in the field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mie J; Bertelsen, Mads F; Dietz, Rune

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally it has been difficult or impossible to collect and preserve bacterial samples of especially fastidious bacteria in mixed primary cultures, unless the samples could be transported to a laboratory within approximately 24 h. Therefore, a simple novel method for preserving swab samples...... until bacterial isolation can be completed in the laboratory was developed and evaluated. Pasteurellaceae bacteria were used as a representative for fastidious bacteria. A 7.5% glucose serum medium was used as freeze medium. Swab samples were soaked in the medium a maximum of 2 h after collection...... and 30 days prior to plating. From a field setting in Greenland, eight polar bear samples were collected and subsequently stored for 240 to 259 days at -20°C before incubation. Pasteurellaceae bacteria were isolated and genotyped from all samples stored in the freeze medium, indicating that the medium...

  6. The U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Collections Management System (GCMS)—A master catalog and collections management plan for U.S. Geological Survey geologic samples and sample collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is widely recognized in the earth science community as possessing extensive collections of earth materials collected by research personnel over the course of its history. In 2006, a Geologic Collections Inventory was conducted within the USGS Geology Discipline to determine the extent and nature of its sample collections, and in 2008, a working group was convened by the USGS National Geologic and Geophysical Data Preservation Program to examine ways in which these collections could be coordinated, cataloged, and made available to researchers both inside and outside the USGS. The charge to this working group was to evaluate the proposition of creating a Geologic Collections Management System (GCMS), a centralized database that would (1) identify all existing USGS geologic collections, regardless of size, (2) create a virtual link among the collections, and (3) provide a way for scientists and other researchers to obtain access to the samples and data in which they are interested. Additionally, the group was instructed to develop criteria for evaluating current collections and to establish an operating plan and set of standard practices for handling, identifying, and managing future sample collections. Policies and procedures promoted by the GCMS would be based on extant best practices established by the National Science Foundation and the Smithsonian Institution. The resulting report—USGS Circular 1410, “The U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Collections Management System (GCMS): A Master Catalog and Collections Management Plan for U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Samples and Sample Collections”—has been developed for sample repositories to be a guide to establishing common practices in the collection, retention, and disposal of geologic research materials throughout the USGS.

  7. Handbook: Collecting Groundwater Samples from Monitoring Wells in Frenchman Flat, CAU 98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Jenny [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Lyles, Brad [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Cooper, Clay [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Hershey, Ron [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Healey, John [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Frenchman Flat basin on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) contains Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 98, which is comprised of ten underground nuclear test locations. Environmental management of these test locations is part of the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Activity conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (1996, as amended) with the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) and the State of Nevada. A Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Corrective Action Plan (CAP) has been approved for CAU 98 (DOE, 2011). The CADD/CAP reports on the Corrective Action Investigation that was conducted for the CAU, which included characterization and modeling. It also presents the recommended corrective actions to address the objective of protecting human health and the environment. The recommended corrective action alternative is “Closure in Place with Modeling, Monitoring, and Institutional Controls.” The role of monitoring is to verify that Contaminants of Concern (COCs) have not exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) limits (Code of Federal Regulations, 2014) at the regulatory boundary, to ensure that institutional controls are adequate, and to monitor for changed conditions that could affect the closure conditions. The long-term closure monitoring program will be planned and implemented as part of the Closure Report stage after activities specified in the CADD/CAP are complete. Groundwater at the NNSS has been monitored for decades through a variety of programs. Current activities were recently consolidated in an NNSS Integrated Sampling Plan (DOE, 2014). Although monitoring directed by the plan is not intended to meet the FFACO long-term monitoring requirements for a CAU (which will be defined in the Closure Report), the objective to ensure public health protection is similar. It is expected that data collected in accordance with the plan will support the transition to long-term monitoring at each

  8. Comparison of streamflow and water-quality data collection techniques for the Saginaw River, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoard, C.J.; Holtschlag, D.J.; Duris, J.W.; James, D.A.; Obenauer, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality and the U.S. Geological Survey developed a plan to compare the effect of various streamgaging and water-quality collection techniques on streamflow and stream water-quality data for the Saginaw River, Michigan. The Saginaw River is the primary contributor of surface runoff to Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron, draining approximately 70 percent of the Saginaw Bay watershed. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has listed the Saginaw Bay system as an "Area of Concern" due to many factors, including excessive sediment and nutrient concentrations in the water. Current efforts to estimate loading of sediment and nutrients to Saginaw Bay utilize water-quality samples collected using a surface-grab technique and flow data that are uncertain during specific conditions. Comparisons of current flow and water-quality sampling techniques to alternative techniques were assessed between April 2009 and September 2009 at two locations in the Saginaw River. Streamflow estimated using acoustic Doppler current profiling technology was compared to a traditional stage-discharge technique. Complex conditions resulting from the influence of Saginaw Bay on the Saginaw River were able to be captured using the acoustic technology, while the traditional stage-discharge technique failed to quantify these effects. Water-quality samples were collected at two locations and on eight different dates, utilizing both surface-grab and depth-integrating multiple-vertical techniques. Sixteen paired samples were collected and analyzed for suspended sediment, turbidity, total phosphorus, total nitrogen, orthophosphate, nitrite, nitrate, and ammonia. Results indicate that concentrations of constituents associated with suspended material, such as suspended sediment, turbidity, and total phosphorus, are underestimated when samples are collected using the surface-grab technique. The median magnitude of the relative percent difference in concentration based

  9. Comparison of sampling strategies for monitoring water quality in mesoscale Canadian Prairie watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Cody; Petzold, Halya; Penner, Amber; Ali, Genevieve

    2015-07-01

    The Canadian Prairies are subject to cold winter dynamics, spring snowmelt runoff, and summer storms; a process variability that makes it difficult to identify an adequate sampling strategy for capturing representative water quality data. Hence, our research objective was to compare multiple water quality sampling strategies for Prairie watersheds and rank them based on operational and statistical criteria. The focus was on the Catfish Creek Watershed (Manitoba, Canada), which drains into the hypereutrophic Lake Winnipeg. Water samples were collected every 7 h during the 2013 open-water season and notably analyzed for nitrate and orthophosphate. The original high-frequency dataset (7 h) was then deconstructed into lower-frequency datasets to mimic strategies involving sample collection on a daily, weekly, bi-weekly, monthly, and seasonal basis. A comparison and decision matrix was also built to assess the ability of the lower-frequency datasets to retain the statistical properties of the original (7 h) dataset. Results indicate that nutrient concentrations vary significantly over short timescales and are affected by both sampling time (day versus night) and water level fluctuations. The decision matrix revealed that seasonal sampling is sufficient when the goal is only to capture mean water quality conditions; however, sub-daily to daily sampling is required for accurate process signal representation. While we acknowledge that sampling programs designed by researchers and public agencies are often driven by different goals, we found daily sampling to be the most parsimonious strategy for the study watershed and suggest that it would help to better quantify nutrient loads to Lake Winnipeg.

  10. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Durango, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    Surface remedial action has been completed at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project in Durango, Colorado. Contaminated soil and debris have been removed from the former processing site and placed in the Bodo Canyon disposal cell. Ground water at the former uranium mill/tailings site and raffinate pond area has been contaminated by the former milling operations. The ground water at the disposal site was not impacted by the former milling operations at the time of the cell`s construction. Activities for fiscal 1994 involve ground water sampling and site characterization of the disposal site.

  11. Water erosion tests on a tantalum sample: A short communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caretta, O.; Davenne, T.; Densham, C. J.

    2017-08-01

    This paper reports results from an experiment exposing the hot isostatic pressed tantalum cladding of a tungsten spallation target sample to a 34 m/s water jet. The unpolished tantalum surface was placed under the jet for 4.5 months with a view to quantifying pitting and erosion. Micrographs and laser profilometry records of the sample surface taken before and after the experiment are reported here.

  12. Water and steam sampling systems; Provtagningssystem foer vatten och aanga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellman, Mats

    2009-10-15

    The supervision of cycle chemistry can be divided into two parts, the sampling system and the chemical analysis. In modern steam generating plants most of the chemical analyses are carried out on-line. The detection limits of these analyzers are pushed downward to the ppt-range (parts per trillion), however the analyses are not more correct than the accuracy of the sampling system. A lot of attention has been put to the analyzers and the statistics to interpret the results but the sampling procedures has gained much less attention. This report aims to give guidance of the considerations to be made regarding sampling systems. Sampling is necessary since most analysis of interesting parameters cannot be carried out in- situ on-line in the steam cycle. Today's on-line instruments for pH, conductivity, silica etc. are designed to meet a water sample at a temperature of 10-30 deg C. This means that the sampling system has to extract a representative sample from the process, transport and cool it down to room temperature without changing the characteristics of the fluid. In the literature research work, standards and other reports can be found. Although giving similar recommendations in most aspects there are some discrepancies that may be confusing. This report covers all parts in the sampling system: Sample points and nozzles; Sample lines; Valves, regulating and on-off; Sample coolers; Temperature, pressure and flow rate control; Cooling water; and Water recovery. On-line analyzers connecting to the sampling system are not covered. This report aims to clarify what guidelines are most appropriate amongst the existing ones. The report should also give guidance to the design of the sampling system in order to achieve representative samples. In addition to this the report gives an overview of the fluid mechanics involved in sampling. The target group of this report is owners and operators of steam generators, vendors of power plant equipment, consultants working in

  13. Comparison of indoor air sampling and dust collection methods for fungal exposure assessment using quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Jennie; Indugula, Reshmi; Vesper, Stephen; Zhu, Zheng; Jandarov, Roman; Reponen, Tiina

    2017-08-31

    Evaluating fungal contamination indoors is complicated because of the many different sampling methods utilized. In this study, fungal contamination was evaluated using five sampling methods and four matrices for results. The five sampling methods were a 48 hour indoor air sample collected with a Button™ inhalable aerosol sampler and four types of dust samples: a vacuumed floor dust sample, newly settled dust collected for four weeks onto two types of electrostatic dust cloths (EDCs) in trays, and a wipe sample of dust from above floor surfaces. The samples were obtained in the bedrooms of asthmatic children (n = 14). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to analyze the dust and air samples for the 36 fungal species that make up the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI). The results from the samples were compared by four matrices: total concentration of fungal cells, concentration of fungal species associated with indoor environments, concentration of fungal species associated with outdoor environments, and ERMI values (or ERMI-like values for air samples). The ERMI values for the dust samples and the ERMI-like values for the 48 hour air samples were not significantly different. The total cell concentrations of the 36 species obtained with the four dust collection methods correlated significantly (r = 0.64-0.79, p sampling methods (r = 0.68-0.86, p samples primarily because of differences in concentrations of Cladosporium cladosporioides Type 1 and Epicoccum nigrum. A representative type of dust sample and a 48 hour air sample might both provide useful information about fungal exposures.

  14. OSIRIS-REx Touch-and-Go (TAG) Mission Design for Asteroid Sample Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Alexander; Sutter, Brian; Linn, Timothy; Bierhaus, Beau; Berry, Kevin; Mink, Ron

    2014-01-01

    The Origins Spectral Interpretation Resource Identification Security Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) mission is a NASA New Frontiers mission launching in September 2016 to rendezvous with the near-Earth asteroid Bennu in October 2018. After several months of proximity operations to characterize the asteroid, OSIRIS-REx flies a Touch-And-Go (TAG) trajectory to the asteroid's surface to collect at least 60 g of pristine regolith sample for Earth return. This paper provides mission and flight system overviews, with more details on the TAG mission design and key events that occur to safely and successfully collect the sample. An overview of the navigation performed relative to a chosen sample site, along with the maneuvers to reach the desired site is described. Safety monitoring during descent is performed with onboard sensors providing an option to abort, troubleshoot, and try again if necessary. Sample collection occurs using a collection device at the end of an articulating robotic arm during a brief five second contact period, while a constant force spring mechanism in the arm assists to rebound the spacecraft away from the surface. Finally, the sample is measured quantitatively utilizing the law of conservation of angular momentum, along with qualitative data from imagery of the sampling device. Upon sample mass verification, the arm places the sample into the Stardust-heritage Sample Return Capsule (SRC) for return to Earth in September 2023.

  15. Natural radioactivity in various water samples and radiation dose estimations in Bolu province, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorur, F Korkmaz; Camgoz, H

    2014-10-01

    The level of natural radioactivity for Bolu province of north-western Turkey was assessed in this study. There is no information about radioactivity measurement reported in water samples in the Bolu province so far. For this reason, gross α and β activities of 55 different water samples collected from tap, spring, mineral, river and lake waters in Bolu were determined. The mean activity concentrations were 68.11 mBq L(-1), 169.44 mBq L(-1) for gross α and β in tap water. For all samples the gross β activity is always higher than the gross α activity. All value of the gross α were lower than the limit value of 500 mBq L(-1) while two spring and one mineral water samples were found to have gross β activity concentrations of greater than 1000 mBq L(-1). The associated age-dependent dose from all water ingestion in Bolu was estimated. The total dose for adults had an average value exceeds the WHO recommended limit value. The risk levels from the direct ingestion of the natural radionuclides in tap and mineral water in Bolu were determinated. The mean (210)Po and (228)Ra risk the value of tap and mineral waters slightly exceeds what some consider on acceptable risk of 10(-4) or less.

  16. ASSESSMENT OF COLLECTIVE DOSE FOR TRAVELLERS BY WATERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳清宇; 姜萍; 等

    1995-01-01

    People travelling by air will receive more exposure dose and by water will receive less one.According to statistic data from the Ministry of Communications in 1988,the turnover in that year was about 2×1010 man.km.The total number of fishermen for inshore fishing was nearly two million reported by Ministry of Agriculture,Animal Husbandry and Fishery.Based on measured data on 212 points in six typical shipping lines of inshore lines and inland rivers,and the total voyage is 5625km,the average natural radiation dose rate received by travellers was calculated.From that assessment of collective effective dose for passengers by water and fishermen was derived.The value is 32.7man.Sv for passengers and 265.3man.Sv for fishermen.

  17. Determination of estrogenic potential in waste water without sample extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avberšek, Miha; Žegura, Bojana; Filipič, Metka; Uranjek-Ževart, Nataša; Heath, Ester

    2013-09-15

    This study describes the modification of the ER-Calux assay for testing water samples without sample extraction (NE-(ER-Calux) assay). The results are compared to those obtained with ER-Calux assay and a theoretical estrogenic potential obtained by GC-MSD. For spiked tap and waste water samples there was no statistical difference between estrogenic potentials obtained by the three methods. Application of NE-(ER-Calux) to "real" influent and effluents from municipal waste water treatment plants and receiving surface waters found that the NE-(ER-Calux) assay gave higher values compared to ER-Calux assay and GC-MSD. This is explained by the presence of water soluble endocrine agonists that are usually removed during extraction. Intraday dynamics of the estrogenic potential of a WWTP influent and effluent revealed an increase in the estrogenic potential of the influent from 12.9 ng(EEQ)/L in the morning to a peak value of 40.0 ng(EEQ)/L in the afternoon. The estrogenic potential of the effluent was

  18. In situ sampling of interstitial water from lake sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkman, Albertus G.; van Raaphorst, Wim; Lijklema, Lambertus

    1982-01-01

    A sampler with a relatively high resolution has been developed, which allows interstitial water to be obtained from lake sediments at well defined depths, without serious disturbance of sediment structure. Oxidation effects are excluded. Sampling time is in the order of a day. Installation requires

  19. determination of lead at nanogram level in water samples by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    concentration of Pb(II) in the range of 0.04–1.8 μg/mL for the system with a low ... storage battery, drainage from lead ore mines, paints, munitions, and ... Water samples were immediately filtered through cellulose nitrate (0.45 μm pore size, 47.

  20. Genotoxicity and Mutagenicity of Suspended Particulate Matter of River Water and Waste Water Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Reifferscheid

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Suspended particulate matter of samples of river water and waste water treatment plants was tested for genotoxicity and mutagenicity using the standardized umu assay and two versions of the Ames microsuspension assay. The study tries to determine the entire DNA-damaging potential of the water samples and the distribution of DNA-damaging substances among the liquid phase and solid phase. Responsiveness and sensitivity of the bioassays are compared.

  1. Water exchange at a hydrated platinum electrode is rare and collective

    CERN Document Server

    Limmer, David T; Madden, Paul A; Chandler, David

    2015-01-01

    We use molecular dynamics simulations to study the exchange kinetics of water molecules at a model metal electrode surface -- exchange between water molecules in the bulk liquid and water molecules bound to the metal. This process is a rare event, with a mean residence time of a bound water of about 40 ns for the model we consider. With analysis borrowed from the techniques of rare-event sampling, we show how this exchange or desorption is controlled by (1) reorganization of the hydrogen bond network within the adlayer of bound water molecules, and by (2) interfacial density fluctuations of the bulk liquid adjacent to the adlayer. We define collective coordinates that describe the desorption mechanism. Spatial and temporal correlations associated with a single event extend over nanometers and tens of picoseconds.

  2. Exploring the Legionella pneumophila positivity rate in hotel water samples from Antalya, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepin Özen, Nevgün; Tuğlu Ataman, Şenay; Emek, Mestan

    2017-03-29

    The genus Legionella is a fastidious Gram-negative bacteria widely distributed in natural waters and man made water supply systems. Legionella pneumophila is the aetiological agent of approximately 90% of reported Legionellosis cases, and serogroup 1 is the most frequent cause of infections. Legionnaires' disease is often associated with travel and continues to be a public health concern at present. The correct water management quality practices and rapid methods for analyzing Legionella species in environmental water is a key point for the prevention of Legionnaires' disease outbreaks. This study aimed to evaluate the positivity rates and serotyping of Legionella species from water samples in the region of Antalya, Turkey, which is an important tourism center. During January-December 2010, a total of 1403 samples of water that were collected from various hotels (n = 56) located in Antalya were investigated for Legionella pneumophila. All samples were screened for L. pneumophila by culture method according to "ISO 11731-2" criteria. The culture positive Legionella strains were serologically identified by latex agglutination test. A total of 142 Legionella pneumophila isolates were recovered from 21 (37.5%) of 56 hotels. The total frequency of L. pneumophila isolation from water samples was found as 10.1%. Serological typing of 142 Legionella isolates by latex agglutination test revealed that strains belonging to L. pneumophila serogroups 2-14 predominated in the examined samples (85%), while strains of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 were less numerous (15%). According to our knowledge, our study with the greatest number of water samples from Turkey demonstrates that L. pneumophila serogroups 2-14 is the most common isolate. Rapid isolation of L. pneumophila from environmental water samples is essential for the investigation of travel related outbreaks and the possible resources. Further studies are needed to have epidemiological data and to determine the types of L

  3. An international study of the performance of sample collection from patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dzik, WH; Murphy, MF; Andreu, G; Heddle, N; Hogman, C; Kekomaki, R; Murphy, S; Shimizu, M; Smit-Sibinga, CT

    2003-01-01

    Background and Objectives Collection of a blood sample from the correct patient is the first step in the process of safe transfusion. The aim of this international collaborative study was to assess the frequency of mislabelled and miscollected samples drawn for blood grouping. Materials and Methods

  4. Arsenic-related water quality with depth and water quality of well-head samples from production wells, Oklahoma, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Carol J.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Greer, James R.; Smith, Kevin A.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey well profiler was used to describe arsenic-related water quality with well depth and identify zones yielding water with high arsenic concentrations in two production wells in central and western Oklahoma that yield water from the Permian-aged Garber-Wellington and Rush Springs aquifers, respectively. In addition, well-head samples were collected from 12 production wells yielding water with historically large concentrations of arsenic (greater than 10 micrograms per liter) from the Garber-Wellington aquifer, Rush Springs aquifer, and two minor aquifers: the Arbuckle-Timbered Hills aquifer in southern Oklahoma and a Permian-aged undefined aquifer in north-central Oklahoma. Three depth-dependent samples from a production well in the Rush Springs aquifer had similar water-quality characteristics to the well-head sample and did not show any substantial changes with depth. However, slightly larger arsenic concentrations in the two deepest depth-dependent samples indicate the zones yielding noncompliant arsenic concentrations are below the shallowest sampled depth. Five depth-dependent samples from a production well in the Garber-Wellington aquifer showed increases in arsenic concentrations with depth. Well-bore travel-time information and water-quality data from depth-dependent and well-head samples showed that most arsenic contaminated water (about 63 percent) was entering the borehole from perforations adjacent to or below the shroud that overlaid the pump. Arsenic concentrations ranged from 10.4 to 124 micrograms per liter in 11 of the 12 production wells sampled at the well head, exceeding the maximum contaminant level of 10 micrograms per liter for drinking water. pH values of the 12 well-head samples ranged from 6.9 to 9. Seven production wells in the Garber-Wellington aquifer had the largest arsenic concentrations ranging from 18.5 to 124 micrograms per liter. Large arsenic concentrations (10.4-18.5) and near neutral to slightly alkaline

  5. Airborne fungi isolated from rain water collected in Mexico City

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    A rcsearch was carried out on the lungi present in tlir atmosphere of Mexico City, through the analysis of rain watcr collected from June to Septcmber of 1982. To obtain data ori a wide range oí fungi, isolations were made on Sabouraud dextrosc agar and potatc) dcxtrosc agar plates incubated at the rnom tcmperaturc of 20-26QC for 48- 72 hours. During tlic sampling period 600 to GOOO colonies per m1 were rccorded. The most frequent fungi were Cladosporium, Alternaria, Penicillium and yeasts. T...

  6. Field sampling of soil pore water to evaluate trace element mobility and associated environmental risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno-Jimenez, Eduardo, E-mail: eduardo.moreno@uam.es [Departamento de Quimica Agricola, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Beesley, Luke [James Hutton Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB15 8QH (United Kingdom); Lepp, Nicholas W. [35, Victoria Road, Formby, Liverpool L37 7DH (United Kingdom); Dickinson, Nicholas M. [Department of Ecology, Lincoln University, Lincoln 7647, PO Box 84 (New Zealand); Hartley, William [School of Computing, Science and Engineering, University of Salford, Cockcroft Building, Salford, M5 4WT (United Kingdom); Clemente, Rafael [Dep. of Soil and Water Conservation and Organic Waste Management, CEBAS-CSIC, Campus Universitario de Espinardo, PO Box 164, 30100 Espinardo, Murcia (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    Monitoring soil pollution is a key aspect in sustainable management of contaminated land but there is often debate over what should be monitored to assess ecological risk. Soil pore water, containing the most labile pollutant fraction in soils, can be easily collected in situ offering a routine way to monitor this risk. We present a compilation of data on concentration of trace elements (As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) in soil pore water collected in field conditions from a range of polluted and non-polluted soils in Spain and the UK during single and repeated monitoring, and propose a simple eco-toxicity test using this media. Sufficient pore water could be extracted for analysis both under semi-arid and temperate conditions, and eco-toxicity comparisons could be effectively made between polluted and non-polluted soils. We propose that in-situ pore water extraction could enhance the realism of risk assessment at some contaminated sites. - Highlights: > In situ pore water sampling successfully evaluates trace elements mobility in soils. > Field sampling proved robust for different soils, sites and climatic regimes. > Measurements may be directly related to ecotoxicological assays. > Both short and long-term monitoring of polluted lands may be achieved. > This method complements other widely used assays for environmental risk assessment. - In situ pore water sampling from a wide variety of soils proves to be a beneficial application to monitor the stability of pollutants in soils and subsequent risk through mobility.

  7. Water Condensation Growth Cells for Ultrafine Particle Collection Onto Concentrated Spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, G. S.; Hering, S. V.; Kreisberg, N.

    2007-12-01

    A laminar flow, condensation method, analogous to that employed in the water-based condensation particle counters, is utilized to provide concentrated, low-pressure drop collection of fine and ultrafine particles. With the laminar flow water condensation approach, the aerosol flow is first chilled by a cold walled conditioner, and then introduced into a hot wet-walled condenser. Because water vapor diffuses more rapidly then heat, the air vapor is supersaturated resulting in particles large enough to be collected by impaction. Several types of collectors have been designed and tested. A compact system utilizing a single TED as a heat pump to provide a ~ 25 ° C temperature difference provides collection at 0.4 L/min with a lower cutpoint of 10 nm, a pressure drop of 1 kPa, and a power consumption of 1 Watt. A larger, parallel plate system samples at 10 L/min, and yields a cutpoint of 20 nm. The design of these systems was guided by numeric modeling of the saturation ratios, particle activation and growth. The model includes the heat release from condensation, and the associated warming of the flow that reduces the supersaturation and particle growth at high particle number concentrations. By controlling the system geometry (either plate separation or tube diameter), we are able to activate at small particle sizes while minimizing concentration effects. Our method of particle collection provides a number of other advantages. Particle bounce off the impaction surface can be eliminated by controlling the temperature of the impaction surface so as to maintain a thin film of water on the surface. Particles can also be collected into a small liquid vial containing less then 1 ml of fluid, which eliminates the need for particle extraction from filters or resuspension from surface, it minimizes the total volume of the sample, and it allows for continuous automated collection and analysis.

  8. JSC Advanced Curation: Research and Development for Current Collections and Future Sample Return Mission Demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, M. D.; Allen, C. C.; Calaway, M. J.; Evans, C. A.; Stansbery, E. K.

    2015-01-01

    Curation of NASA's astromaterials sample collections is a demanding and evolving activity that supports valuable science from NASA missions for generations, long after the samples are returned to Earth. For example, NASA continues to loan hundreds of Apollo program samples to investigators every year and those samples are often analyzed using instruments that did not exist at the time of the Apollo missions themselves. The samples are curated in a manner that minimizes overall contamination, enabling clean, new high-sensitivity measurements and new science results over 40 years after their return to Earth. As our exploration of the Solar System progresses, upcoming and future NASA sample return missions will return new samples with stringent contamination control, sample environmental control, and Planetary Protection requirements. Therefore, an essential element of a healthy astromaterials curation program is a research and development (R&D) effort that characterizes and employs new technologies to maintain current collections and enable new missions - an Advanced Curation effort. JSC's Astromaterials Acquisition & Curation Office is continually performing Advanced Curation research, identifying and defining knowledge gaps about research, development, and validation/verification topics that are critical to support current and future NASA astromaterials sample collections. The following are highlighted knowledge gaps and research opportunities.

  9. Concentrations of some heavy metals in underground water samples from a Nigerian crude oil producing community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejike, Chukwunonso E C C; Eferibe, Chinedu O; Okonkwo, Francis O

    2017-03-01

    Pollution due to oil exploration activities in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria and government under-investments in potable water infrastructure has led to the dependence of the population on personal boreholes. Yet, there are little quality or surveillance reports on such waters. The concentrations of heavy metals in underground water samples from an oil producing area, Umuebulu, in the Niger Delta were therefore investigated. Water samples were collected from three test points, each approximately 300 m from (1) wellhead area (WHA), (2) flare area (FA) and (3) effluent discharge area (EDA), and one control point located 10 km away from any oil-related activity. The concentrations of lead, arsenic and cadmium were determined in the samples using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. All three heavy metals were present in the test, and control water samples at concentrations significantly (P  FA > WHA > Control. Appropriate water treatment and surveillance is warranted and therefore recommended for underground water resources of the studied community.

  10. Simultaneous quantification of stevioside and rebaudioside A in different stevia samples collected from the Indian subcontinent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karishma Chester

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A high performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC method was developed for simultaneous estimation of stevioside and rebaudioside A in Stevia rebaudiana samples collected from different regions of Indian subcontinent. Materials and Methods: The separation was achieved by using acetone: ethyl acetate: water (5:4:1, v/v/v as the solvent system on precoated silica gel 60 F 254 TLC plates. The densitometric quantification of stevia glycosides was carried out at wavelength 360 nm in absorption mode after spraying with anisaldehyde sulphuric acid as detecting reagent. Results: The well resolved peaks for stevioside and rebaudioside A were observed at R f values 0.31± 0.02 and 0.21± 0.02 respectively. The calibration curves were found linear with a wide range of concentration 100 - 2000 ng spot -1 with good correlation coefficient 0.996 and 0.991 for stevioside and rebaudioside A, respectively. Conclusions: The proposed method was validated as per the ICH (International Conferences on Harmonization guidelines and found simple, sensitive, economic, reproducible, robust and accurate for quantitative analysis of stevia glycosides, which can be applied for quality control of stevia as well as to check.

  11. Simultaneous quantification of stevioside and rebaudioside A in different stevia samples collected from the Indian subcontinent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, Karishma; Tamboli, Ennus T.; Singh, Mhaveer; Ahmad, Sayeed

    2012-01-01

    Background: A high performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method was developed for simultaneous estimation of stevioside and rebaudioside A in Stevia rebaudiana samples collected from different regions of Indian subcontinent. Materials and Methods: The separation was achieved by using acetone: ethyl acetate: water (5:4:1, v/v/v) as the solvent system on precoated silica gel 60 F254 TLC plates. The densitometric quantification of stevia glycosides was carried out at wavelength 360 nm in absorption mode after spraying with anisaldehyde sulphuric acid as detecting reagent. Results: The well resolved peaks for stevioside and rebaudioside A were observed at Rf values 0.31± 0.02 and 0.21± 0.02 respectively. The calibration curves were found linear with a wide range of concentration 100 - 2000 ng spot-1 with good correlation coefficient 0.996 and 0.991 for stevioside and rebaudioside A, respectively. Conclusions: The proposed method was validated as per the ICH (International Conferences on Harmonization) guidelines and found simple, sensitive, economic, reproducible, robust and accurate for quantitative analysis of stevia glycosides, which can be applied for quality control of stevia as well as to check. PMID:23248559

  12. Collection and processing of plant, animal and soil samples from Bikini, Enewetak and Rongelap Atolls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart, M.L.

    1995-09-01

    The United States used the Marshall Islands for its nuclear weapons program testing site from 1946 to 1958. The BRAVO test was detonated at Bikini Atoll on March 1, 1954. Due to shifting wind conditions at the time of the nuclear detonation, many of the surrounding Atolls became contaminated with fallout (radionuclides carried by the wind currents). Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL) Marshall Islands Project has been responsible for the collecting, processing, and analyzing of food crops, vegetation, soil, water, animals, and marine species to characterize the radionuclides in the environment, and to estimate dose at atolls that may have been contaminated. Tropical agriculture experiments reducing the uptake of {sup 137}Cs have been conducted on Bikini Atoll. The Marshall Islands field team and laboratory processing team play an important role in the overall scheme of the Marshall Islands Dose Assessment and Radioecology Project. This report gives a general description of the Marshall Islands field sampling and laboratory processing procedures currently used by our staff.

  13. Concentration comparison of selected constituents between groundwater samples collected within the Missouri River alluvial aquifer using purge and pump and grab-sampling methods, near the city of Independence, Missouri, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krempa, Heather M.

    2015-10-29

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Independence, Missouri, Water Department, has historically collected water-quality samples using the purge and pump method (hereafter referred to as pump method) to identify potential contamination in groundwater supply wells within the Independence well field. If grab sample results are comparable to the pump method, grab samplers may reduce time, labor, and overall cost. This study was designed to compare constituent concentrations between samples collected within the Independence well field using the pump method and the grab method.

  14. Study of dew water collection in humid tropical islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clus, O.; Ortega, P.; Muselli, M.; Milimouk, I.; Beysens, D.

    2008-10-01

    SummaryAn assessment of the potential for dew water to serve as a potable water source during a rainless season in a humid tropical climate was carried out in the Pacific islands of French Polynesia. The climate of these islands, in terms of diurnal and seasonal variations, wind and energy balance, is representative of the climate of the tropical Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Measurements were obtained at two characteristic sites of this region; a mountainous island (Punaauia, Tahiti Island) and an atoll (Tikehau, Tuamotu Archipelago). Dew was measured daily on a 30° tilted, 1 m 2 plane collector equipped with a thermally insulated radiative foil. In addition, an electronic balance placed at 1 m above the ground with a horizontal 0.16 m 2 condensing plate made of PolyTetraFluoroEthylene (Teflon) was used in Tahiti. Dew volume data, taken during the dry season from 16/5/2005 to 14/10/2005, were correlated with air temperature and relative humidity, wind speed, cloud cover and visible plus infrared radiometer measurements. The data were also fitted to a model. Dew formation in such a tropical climate is characterized by high absolute humidity, weak nocturnal temperature drop and strong Trade winds. These winds prevent dew from forming unless protected e.g. by natural vegetal windbreaks. In protected areas, dew can then form with winds as large as 7 m/s. Such strong winds also hamper at night the formation near the ground of a calm and cold air layer with high relative humidity. As the cooling power is lower than in the Mediterranean islands because of the high absolute humidity of the atmosphere, both effects combine to generate modest dew yields. However, dew events are frequent and provide accumulated amounts of water attractive for dew water harvesting. Slight modifications of existing rain collection devices on roofs can enhance dew formation and collection. Dew harvesting thus appears as an attractive possibility to provide the local population with a

  15. Planning Considerations Related to Collecting and Analyzing Samples of the Martian Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Mellon, Mike T.; Ming, Douglas W.; Morris, Richard V.; Noble, Sarah K.; Sullivan, Robert J.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Beaty, David W.

    2014-01-01

    The Mars Sample Return (MSR) End-to-End International Science Analysis Group (E2E-iSAG [1]) established scientific objectives associ-ated with Mars returned-sample science that require the return and investigation of one or more soil samples. Soil is defined here as loose, unconsolidated materials with no implication for the presence or absence of or-ganic components. The proposed Mars 2020 (M-2020) rover is likely to collect and cache soil in addition to rock samples [2], which could be followed by future sample retrieval and return missions. Here we discuss key scientific consid-erations for sampling and caching soil samples on the proposed M-2020 rover, as well as the state in which samples would need to be preserved when received by analysts on Earth. We are seeking feedback on these draft plans as input to mission requirement formulation. A related planning exercise on rocks is reported in an accompanying abstract [3].

  16. An improved method for concentrating rotavirus from water samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittigul Leera

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A modified adsorption-elution method for the concentration of seeded rotavirus from water samples was used to determine various factors which affected the virus recovery. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect the rotavirus antigen after concentration. Of the various eluents compared, 0.05M glycine, pH 11.5 gave the highest rotavirus antigen recovery using negatively charged membrane filtration whereas 2.9% tryptose phosphate broth containing 6% glycine; pH 9.0 was found to give the greatest elution efficiency when a positively charged membrane was used. Reconcentration of water samples by a speedVac concentrator showed significantly higher rotavirus recovery than polyethylene glycol precipitation through both negatively and positively charged filters (p-value 1,800 MPN/100 ml were observed but rotavirus was not detected in any sample. This study suggests that the speedVac reconcentration method gives the most efficient rotavirus recovery from water samples.

  17. Sample collection of virulent and non-virulent B. anthracis and Y. pestis for bioforensics analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong-geller, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Valdez, Yolanda E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shou, Yulin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yoshida, Thomas M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Marrone, Babetta L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dunbar, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Validated sample collection methods are needed for recovery of microbial evidence in the event of accidental or intentional release of biological agents into the environment. To address this need, we evaluated the sample recovery efficiencies of two collection methods -- swabs and wipes -- for both non-virulent and virulent strains of B. anthracis and Y. pestis from four types of non-porous surfaces: two hydrophilic surfaces, stainless steel and glass, and two hydrophobic surfaces, vinyl and plastic. Sample recovery was quantified using Real-time qPCR to assay for intact DNA signatures. We found no consistent difference in collection efficiency between swabs or wipes. Furthermore, collection efficiency was more surface-dependent for virulent strains than non-virulent strains. For the two non-virulent strains, B. anthracis Sterne and Y. pestis A1122, collection efficiency was approximately 100% and 1 %, respectively, from all four surfaces. In contrast, recovery of B. anthracis Ames spores and Y. pestis C092 from vinyl and plastic was generally lower compared to collection from glass or stainless steel, suggesting that surface hydrophobicity may playa role in the strength of pathogen adhesion. The surface-dependent collection efficiencies observed with the virulent strains may arise from strain-specific expression of capsular material or other cell surface receptors that alter cell adhesion to specific surfaces. These findings contribute to validation of standard bioforensics procedures and emphasize the importance of specific strain and surface interactions in pathogen detection.

  18. Genotoxicity assessment of water sampled from R-11 reservoir by means of allium test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bukatich, E.; Pryakhin, E. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine (Russian Federation); Geraskin, S. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    The Mayak PA was the first enterprise for the production of weapon-grade plutonium in Russia and it incorporates uranium-graphite reactors for plutonium production and radiochemical facilities for its separation. Radiochemical processing resulted in huge volumes of liquid radioactive wastes of different specific activities. To reduce the radionuclides release into the environment, a system of bypasses and ponds (the Techa Cascade Reservoirs system) to store low-activity liquid wastes has been constructed in the upper reaches of the Techa River. Currently, industrial reservoirs of Mayak PA contain over 350 million m{sup 3} of low-level radioactive liquid wastes with total activity over 7.4 x 10{sup 15} Bq. Reservoir R-11 is the final reservoir in the Techa Cascade Reservoirs system. The average specific activity of main radionuclides in the water of R-11 are: {sup 90}Sr - 1.4x10{sup 3} Bq/l; {sup 137}Cs - 3 Bq/l; {sup 3}H - 7x10{sup 2} Bq/l; α-emitting radionuclides - 2.6 x 10{sup -1} Bq/l. In our study the Allium-test was employed to estimate reservoir R-11 water genotoxic effects. In 2012, 3 water samples were collected in different parts of reservoir R-11. Water samples from the Shershnevskoye reservoir (artificial reservoir on the Miass River designed for Chelyabinsk city water supply) were used as natural control. Samples of distilled and bottled water were used as an additional laboratory control. The common onion, Allium cepa L. (Stuttgarter Riesen) was used. Healthy equal-sized bulbs were soaked for 24 hours at +4±2 deg. C to synchronize cell division. The bulbs were maintained in distilled water at +23 deg. C until roots have grown up to 2±1 mm length and then plunged into water samples. Control samples remained in distilled and bottled water as well as in water samples from the Shershnevskoye reservoir (natural control). Roots of the 18±3 mm length were randomly sampled and fixed in an alcohol/acetic acid mixture. For microscopic analysis, squashed

  19. Geochemical Data for Samples Collected in 2007 Near the Concealed Pebble Porphyry Cu-Au-Mo Deposit, Southwest Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fey, David L.; Granitto, Matthew; Giles, Stuart A.; Smith, Steven M.; Eppinger, Robert G.; Kelley, Karen D.

    2008-01-01

    relatively subdued topographic relief with an elevation of around 300 m (1000 ft). This portion of Alaska is part of the subarctic regime mountains division, Yukon intermontane plateaus-tayga-meadow province ecoregion, as defined by Bailey (U.S. Forest Service, 2007). Between June 28th and July 12th, 2007, scientists from the USGS collected soil, water, stream sediment, vegetation, heavy-mineral concentrate, till, and rock samples from the deposit area. This report contains analytical results for soil, water, stream sediment, and vegetation samples. Analyses for the heavy-mineral concentrate, till, and rock samples are still in progress. The sampling was undertaken during relatively dry and stable weather conditions. Only minor scattered rain showers occurred during the sampling period, so surface conditions were largely unaffected by weather. The predominant sample media collected were soils and surface waters. Soil and water (mostly from ponds and springs, some from small creeks) samples were collected along a single 7.8 km-long (4.8 mi) east-west traverse across the Pebble East and Pebble West zones and from more distal background areas around Koktuli and Kaskanak Mountains. Sample sites are shown on figure 2 and plate 1, and locality coordinates are provided in the accompanying Access and Excel files named FieldSite. Water samples were analyzed by USGS laboratories with one subset analyzed by Activation Laboratories (Actlabs), as indicated below. Soils and stream sediments were analyzed for their total content by SGS Minerals Services under a contract with the USGS. Soil samples were also leached by selected partial-extraction leaching procedures and then analyzed by several commercial laboratories, as described below. Vegetation samples were analyzed as indicated below.

  20. Macroinvertebrate community sample collection methods and data collected from Sand Creek and Medano Creek, Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, Colorado, 2005–07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Morgan A.; Zuellig, Robert E.; Walters, David M.; Bruce, James F.

    2016-08-11

    This report provides a table of site descriptions, sample information, and semiquantitative aquatic macroinvertebrate data from 105 samples collected between 2005 and 2007 from 7 stream sites within the Sand Creek and Medano Creek watersheds in Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, Saguache County, Colorado. Additionally, a short description of sample collection methods and laboratory sample processing procedures is presented. These data were collected in anticipation of assessing the potential effects of fish toxicants on macroinvertebrates.

  1. Molecular characterization of viable Legionella spp. in cooling tower water samples by combined use of ethidium monoazide and PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Hiroaki; Fujimura, Reiko; Agata, Kunio; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Viable Legionella spp. in environmental water samples were characterized phylogenetically by a clone library analysis combining the use of ethidium monoazide and quantitative PCR. To examine the diversity of Legionella spp., six cooling tower water samples and three bath water samples were collected and analyzed. A total of 617 clones were analyzed for their 16S rRNA gene sequences and classified into 99 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The majority of OTUs were not clustered with currently described Legionella spp., suggesting the wide diversity of not-yet-cultured Legionella groups harbored in cooling tower water environments.

  2. Advanced Curation Activities at NASA: Implications for Astrobiological Studies of Future Sample Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, F. M.; Evans, C. A.; Fries, M. D.; Harrington, A. D.; Regberg, A. B.; Snead, C. J.; Zeigler, R. A.

    2017-01-01

    The Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office (henceforth referred to herein as NASA Curation Office) at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) is responsible for curating all of NASA's extraterrestrial samples. Under the governing document, NASA Policy Directive (NPD) 7100.10F JSC is charged with curation of all extraterrestrial material under NASA control, including future NASA missions. The Directive goes on to define Curation as including documentation, preservation, preparation, and distribution of samples for re-search, education, and public outreach. Here we briefly describe NASA's astromaterials collections and our ongoing efforts related to enhancing the utility of our current collections as well as our efforts to prepare for future sample return missions. We collectively refer to these efforts as advanced curation.

  3. Calcium Hardness Analysis of Water Samples Using EDXRF Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanan Deep

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Calcium hardness of water samples has been determined using a method based upon the Energy Dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF technique for elemental analysis. The minimum detection limit for Ca has been found in the range 0.1-100ppm. The experimental approach and analytical method for calcium studies seem satisfactory for the purpose and can be utilized for similar investigations.

  4. Spectrophotometric Determination of Fenpropathrin in its Formulations and Water Samples

    OpenAIRE

    B. Krishna Priya; Subrahmanyam, P.; Dakshayani, K.; P. Chiranjeevi

    2007-01-01

    Novel spectrophotometric methods were developed for the determination of fenpropathrin in insecticidal formulations and water samples. The methods were based on the hydrolysis of fenpropathrin with ethanolic KOH to form 3-phenoxy benzaldehyde. The resultant aldehyde group was condensed with anthranilic acid in presence of basic medium to form yellowish red color product having λmax of 485 nm or condensed with 2-chloro phenyl hydrazine to form pink color product having λmax of 557 nm. The colo...

  5. An opacity-sampled treatment of water vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, David R.; Augason, Gordon C.; Johnson, Hollis R.

    1989-01-01

    Although the bands of H2O are strong in the spectra of cool stars and calculations have repeatedly demonstrated their significance as opacity sources, only approximate opacities are currently available, due both to the difficulty of accounting for the millions of lines involved and to the inadequacy of laboratory and theoretical data. To overcome these obstacles, a new treatment is presented, based upon a statistical representation of the water vapor spectrum derived from available laboratory data. This statistical spectrum of water vapor employs an exponential distribution of line strengths and random positions of lines whose overall properties are forced to reproduce the mean opacities observed in the laboratory. The resultant data set is then treated by the opacity-sampling method exactly as are all other lines, both molecular and atomic. Significant differences are found between the results of this improved treatment and the results obtained with previous treatments of water-vapor opacity.

  6. Chemical characterization of fog and rain water collected at the eastern Andes cordillera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Beiderwieden

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available During a three month period in 2003 and 2004, the chemistry of fog and rainwater were studied at the 'El Tiro' site in a tropical mountain forest ecosystem in Ecuador, South America. The fogwater samples were collected using a passive fog collector, and for the rain water, a standard rain sampler was employed. For all samples, electric conductivity, pH, and the concentrations of NH4+, K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl−, NO3−, PO43−, and SO42− were measured. For each fog sample, a 5 day back trajectory was calculated by the use of the HYSPLIT model. Two types of trajectories occurred. One type was characterized by advection of air masses from the East over the Amazonian basin, the other trajectory arrived one from the West after significant travel time over the Pacific Ocean. We found considerably higher ion concentrations in fogwater samples than in rain samples. Median pH values are 4.58 for fog water, and 5.26 for the rain samples, respectively. The median electric conductivity was 23 μS cm−1 for the fog and 6 μS cm−1 for the rain. The continent samples exhibit higher concentrations of most ions as compared to the pacific samples, but these differences could not be detected statistically.

  7. Active Collection of Land Cover Sample Data from Geo-Tagged Web Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongyang Hou

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Sample data plays an important role in land cover (LC map validation. Traditionally, they are collected through field survey or image interpretation, either of which is costly, labor-intensive and time-consuming. In recent years, massive geo-tagged texts are emerging on the web and they contain valuable information for LC map validation. However, this kind of special textual data has seldom been analyzed and used for supporting LC map validation. This paper examines the potential of geo-tagged web texts as a new cost-free sample data source to assist LC map validation and proposes an active data collection approach. The proposed approach uses a customized deep web crawler to search for geo-tagged web texts based on land cover-related keywords and string-based rules matching. A data transformation based on buffer analysis is then performed to convert the collected web texts into LC sample data. Using three provinces and three municipalities directly under the Central Government in China as study areas, geo-tagged web texts were collected to validate artificial surface class of China’s 30-meter global land cover datasets (GlobeLand30-2010. A total of 6283 geo-tagged web texts were collected at a speed of 0.58 texts per second. The collected texts about built-up areas were transformed into sample data. User’s accuracy of 82.2% was achieved, which is close to that derived from formal expert validation. The preliminary results show that geo-tagged web texts are valuable ancillary data for LC map validation and the proposed approach can improve the efficiency of sample data collection.

  8. Recovery of a fish pathogenic bacterium, Aeromonas salmonicida, from ebonyshell mussels Fusconaia ebena using nondestructive sample collection procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starliper, C.E.

    2008-01-01

    Refugia are increasingly being used to maintain and propagate imperiled freshwater mussels for future population augmentations. Success for this endeavor is dependent on good husbandry, including a holistic program of resource health management. A significant aspect to optimal health is the prevention or control of infectious diseases. Describing and monitoring pathogens and diseases in mussels involves examination of tissues or samples collected from an appropriate number of individuals that satisfies a certain confidence level for expected prevalences of infections. In the present study, ebonyshell mussels Fusconaia ebena were infected with a fish pathogenic bacterium, Aeromonas salmonicida, through their cohabitation with diseased brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis. At a 100% prevalence of infection, the F. ebena were removed from the cohabitation tank to clean tanks that were supplied with pathogen-free water, which initiated their depuration of A. salmonicida. Three samples (nondestructive fluid, mantle, hemolymph) collected using nondestructive procedures were compared with fluids and soft tissue homogenates collected after sacrificing the mussels for recovery of the bacterium during this period of depuration. Nondestructive sample collections, especially ND fluid, provide a comparable alternative to sacrificing mussels to determine pathogen status.

  9. Water isotopic ratios from a continuously melted ice core sample

    CERN Document Server

    Gkinis, V; Blunier, T; Bigler, M; Schüpbach, S; Kettner, E; Johnsen, S J

    2014-01-01

    A new technique for on-line high resolution isotopic analysis of liquid water, tailored for ice core studies is presented. We built an interface between a Wavelength Scanned Cavity Ring Down Spectrometer (WS-CRDS) purchased from Picarro Inc. and a Continuous Flow Analysis (CFA) system. The system offers the possibility to perform simultaneous water isotopic analysis of $\\delta^{18}$O and $\\delta$D on a continuous stream of liquid water as generated from a continuously melted ice rod. Injection of sub ${\\mu}$l amounts of liquid water is achieved by pumping sample through a fused silica capillary and instantaneously vaporizing it with 100% efficiency in a home made oven. A calibration procedure allows for proper reporting of the data on the VSMOW--SLAP scale. Application of spectral methods yields the combined uncertainty of the system at below 0.1 permil and 0.5 permil for $\\delta^{18}$O and $\\delta$D, respectively. This performance is comparable to that achieved with mass spectrometry. Dispersion of the sampl...

  10. The natural and artificial radionuclides in drinking water samples and consequent population doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydan Altıkulaç

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Concentration levels of 226Ra, 228Ra, 40K and 137Cs were determined in 52 drinking water samples collected from the different supplies in Samsun province to evaluate annual effective dose due to the ingestion of the drinking water samples. The activity concentrations of 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K natural radionuclides in the drinking water samples varied from <27 to 2431 mBq L−1, <36 to 270 mBq L−1 and <47 to 2880 mBq L−1 respectively. The activity concentrations of the artificial radionuclide 137Cs in the drinking water samples were lower than minimum detectable activity except in one drinking water sample (DW14 with an associated activity concentration of 2576 mBq L−1. Contributions of the consumed water samples to annual effective dose from 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K varied from 1.6 to 33.4 μSv y−1 with a mean of 6.1 μSv y−1, 2.2 to 46.8 μSv y−1 with a mean of 8.6 μSv y−1, 4.7 to 97.5 μSv y−1 with a mean of 17.9 μSv y−1 for infants, children and adults, respectively. The results showed that all values of the annual effective dose of ingestion of these water samples were below the individual dose criterion of 100 μSv y−1 reported by World Health Organization (WHO.

  11. Multi-element composition of historical lichen collections and bark samples, indicators of changing atmospheric conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis, O. W.; Chimonides, P. D. J.; Jeffries, T. E.; Jones, G. C.; Rusu, A.-M.; Read, H.

    Thirty six element signatures were compared in historical Parmelia sulcata samples from the Natural History Museum herbarium collected over the period 1797-1967 with those recorded in the same species and tree bark sampled in 2000 from Burnham Beeches, lying 40 km west of London. Nineteen elements reached highest concentrations in herbarium samples, consistent with a pollution legacy and dust contamination in the herbarium. Healthy Parmelia sampled east and down-wind of London at a farm during peak SO 2 emissions in 1967 contained highest V, Ni, Zn, Cd, Se, Ge contents, supporting derivation from fuel combustion; the same sample was previously determined as having a low δ34S and high S and N contents. Lowest V, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sn, Ba, Pb, Mo, Sb, Li, B, Cs, U, Th, Ga contents were recorded in a sample with a high δ34S and low S content collected in 1887 from a remote region from Ross-shire, Scotland. Se and Cd enrichment, never-the-less suggest a transboundary pollution influence. Lichen Pb concentrations from Burnham Beeches were amongst the lowest recorded in spite of lichens being collected close to roads. Herbarium samples help interpret changes in element deposition where few data exist, in spite of dust contamination.

  12. Archival policies and collections database for the Woods Hole Science Center's marine sediment samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczkowski, Brian J.; Kelsey, Sarah A.

    2007-01-01

    The Woods Hole Science Center of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been an active member of the Woods Hole research community, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, for over 40 years. In that time there have been many projects that involved the collection of sediment samples conducted by USGS scientists and technicians for the research and study of seabed environments and processes. These samples were collected at sea or near shore and then brought back to the Woods Hole Science Center (WHSC) for analysis. While at the center, samples are stored in ambient temperature, refrigerated and freezing conditions ranging from +2º Celsius to -18º Celsius, depending on the best mode of preparation for the study being conducted or the duration of storage planned for the samples. Recently, storage methods and available storage space have become a major concern at the WHSC. The core and sediment archive program described herein has been initiated to set standards for the management, methods, and duration of sample storage. A need has arisen to maintain organizational consistency and define storage protocol. This handbook serves as a reference and guide to all parties interested in using and accessing the WHSC's sample archive and also defines all the steps necessary to construct and maintain an organized collection of geological samples. It answers many questions as to the way in which the archive functions.

  13. Results of soil, ground-water, surface-water, and streambed-sediment sampling at Air Force Plane 85, Columbus, Ohio, 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Aeronautical Systems Center, Environmental Management Directorate, Restoration Division, prepared the Surface- and Ground- Water Monitoring Work Plan for Air Force Plant 85 (AFP 85 or Plant), Columbus, Ohio, under the Air Force Installation Restoration Program to characterize any ground-water, surface-water, and soil contamination that may exist at AFP 85. The USGS began the study in November 1996. The Plant was divided into nine sampling areas, which included some previously investi gated study sites. The investigation activities included the collection and presentation of data taken during drilling and water-quality sampling. Data collection focused on the saturated and unsatur ated zones and surface water. Twenty-three soil borings were completed. Ten monitoring wells (six existing wells and four newly constructed monitoring wells) were selected for water-quality sam pling. Surface-water and streambed-sediment sampling locations were chosen to monitor flow onto and off of the Plant. Seven sites were sampled for both surface-water and streambed-sediment quality. This report presents data on the selected inorganic and organic constituents in soil, ground water, surface water, and streambed sediments at AFP 85. The methods of data collection and anal ysis also are included. Knowledge of the geologic and hydrologic setting could aid Aeronautical Systems Center, Environmental Management Directorate, Restoration Division, and its governing regulatory agencies in future remediation studies.

  14. Cyto- and genotoxic potential of water samples from polluted areas in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alija, Avdulla J; Bajraktari, Ismet D; Bresgen, Nikolaus; Bojaxhi, Ekramije; Krenn, Margit; Asllani, Fisnik; Eckl, Peter M

    2016-09-01

    Reports on the state of the environment in Kosovo have emphasized that river and ground water quality is affected by pollution from untreated urban water as well as the waste water from the industry. One of the main contributors to this pollution is located in Obiliq (coal power plants). Prishtina-the capital city of Kosovo-is heavily influenced too. Furthermore, the pollutants combined together with those from heavy traffic are dissolved in Prishtina runoff water, which is discharged into the creek entering the river Sitnica together with urban waste water. The available data show the complex pollution with excessive quantities of nitrites, suspended materials, organic compounds, detergents, heavy metals, polychlorinated biphenyls, etc. In this study, the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of water samples taken at these sites was tested in primary rat hepatocytes. The results obtained indicate that water samples collected in Prishtina and Obiliq had a significant cytotoxic potential in primary rat hepatocyte cultures even when diluted to 1 %. The increased cytotoxicity, however, was not accompanied by an increased genotoxicity as measured by the percentage of micronucleated cells. Further investigations addressing the chemical composition of the samples and the identification of the toxicants responsible for the cytotoxic effects found will be carried out in a next step.

  15. Satisfaction survey with DNA cards method to collect genetic samples for pharmacogenetics studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Taboada, Jose M; Cucala, Mercedes; Mas Herrero, Sergio; Lafuente, Amalia; Cobos, Albert

    2006-01-01

    Background Pharmacogenetic studies are essential in understanding the interindividual variability of drug responses. DNA sample collection for genotyping is a critical step in genetic studies. A method using dried blood samples from finger-puncture, collected on DNA-cards, has been described as an alternative to the usual venepuncture technique. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the implementation of the DNA cards method in a multicentre clinical trial, and to assess the degree of investigators' satisfaction and the acceptance of the patients perceived by the investigators. Methods Blood samples were collected on DNA-cards. The quality and quantity of DNA recovered were analyzed. Investigators were questioned regarding their general interest, previous experience, safety issues, preferences and perceived patient satisfaction. Results 151 patients' blood samples were collected. Genotyping of GST polymorphisms was achieved in all samples (100%). 28 investigators completed the survey. Investigators perceived patient satisfaction as very good (60.7%) or good (39.3%), without reluctance to finger puncture. Investigators preferred this method, which was considered safer and better than the usual methods. All investigators would recommend using it in future genetic studies. Conclusion Within the clinical trial setting, the DNA-cards method was very well accepted by investigators and patients (in perception of investigators), and was preferred to conventional methods due to its ease of use and safety. PMID:16681846

  16. Satisfaction survey with DNA cards method to collect genetic samples for pharmacogenetics studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mas Herrero Sergio

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pharmacogenetic studies are essential in understanding the interindividual variability of drug responses. DNA sample collection for genotyping is a critical step in genetic studies. A method using dried blood samples from finger-puncture, collected on DNA-cards, has been described as an alternative to the usual venepuncture technique. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the implementation of the DNA cards method in a multicentre clinical trial, and to assess the degree of investigators' satisfaction and the acceptance of the patients perceived by the investigators. Methods Blood samples were collected on DNA-cards. The quality and quantity of DNA recovered were analyzed. Investigators were questioned regarding their general interest, previous experience, safety issues, preferences and perceived patient satisfaction. Results 151 patients' blood samples were collected. Genotyping of GST polymorphisms was achieved in all samples (100%. 28 investigators completed the survey. Investigators perceived patient satisfaction as very good (60.7% or good (39.3%, without reluctance to finger puncture. Investigators preferred this method, which was considered safer and better than the usual methods. All investigators would recommend using it in future genetic studies. Conclusion Within the clinical trial setting, the DNA-cards method was very well accepted by investigators and patients (in perception of investigators, and was preferred to conventional methods due to its ease of use and safety.

  17. Effects of holding time and measurement error on culturing Legionella in environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanders, W Dana; Kirkland, Kimberly H; Shelton, Brian G

    2014-10-01

    Outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease require environmental testing of water samples from potentially implicated building water systems to identify the source of exposure. A previous study reports a large impact on Legionella sample results due to shipping and delays in sample processing. Specifically, this same study, without accounting for measurement error, reports more than half of shipped samples tested had Legionella levels that arbitrarily changed up or down by one or more logs, and the authors attribute this result to shipping time. Accordingly, we conducted a study to determine the effects of sample holding/shipping time on Legionella sample results while taking into account measurement error, which has previously not been addressed. We analyzed 159 samples, each split into 16 aliquots, of which one-half (8) were processed promptly after collection. The remaining half (8) were processed the following day to assess impact of holding/shipping time. A total of 2544 samples were analyzed including replicates. After accounting for inherent measurement error, we found that the effect of holding time on observed Legionella counts was small and should have no practical impact on interpretation of results. Holding samples increased the root mean squared error by only about 3-8%. Notably, for only one of 159 samples, did the average of the 8 replicate counts change by 1 log. Thus, our findings do not support the hypothesis of frequent, significant (≥= 1 log10 unit) Legionella colony count changes due to holding.

  18. Contamination Knowledge Strategy for the Mars 2020 Sample-Collecting Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, K. A.; Williford, K.; Beaty, D W.; McSween, H. Y.; Czaja, A. D.; Goreva, Y. S.; Hausrath, E.; Herd, C. D. K.; Humayun, M.; McCubbin, F. M.; McLennan, S. M.; Pratt, L. M.; Sephton, M. A.; Steele, A.; Weiss, B. P.; Hays, L. E.

    2017-01-01

    The Mars 2020 rover will collect carefully selected samples of rock and regolith as it explores a potentially habitable ancient environment on Mars. Using the drill, rock cores and regolith will be collected directly into ultraclean sample tubes that are hermetically sealed and, later, deposited on the surface of Mars for potential return to Earth by a subsequent mission. Thorough characterization of any contamination of the samples at the time of their analysis will be essential for achieving the objectives of Mars returned sample science (RSS). We refer to this characterization as contamination knowledge (CK), which is distinct from contamination control (CC). CC is the set of activities that limits the input of contaminating species into a sample, and is specified by requirement thresholds. CK consists of identifying and characterizing both potential and realized contamination to better inform scientific investigations of the returned samples. Based on lessons learned by other sample return missions with contamination-sensitive scientific objectives, CC needs to be "owned" by engineering, but CK needs to be "owned" by science. Contamination present at the time of sample analysis will reflect the sum of contributions from all contamination vectors up to that point in time. For this reason, understanding the integrated history of contamination may be crucial for deciphering potentially confusing contaminant-sensitive observations. Thus, CK collected during the Mars sample return (MSR) campaign must cover the time period from the initiation of hardware construction through analysis of returned samples in labs on Earth. Because of the disciplinary breadth of the scientific objectives of MSR, CK must include a broad spectrum of contaminants covering inorganic (i.e., major, minor, and trace elements), organic, and biological molecules and materials.

  19. Frequency of Adenoviruses, Rotaviruses and Noroviruses Among Diarrhea Samples Collected From Infants of Zabol, Southeastern Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Sharifi-Rad, Javad; Hoseini Alfatemi, Seyedeh Mahsan; Sharifi-Rad, Mehdi; Miri, Abdolhossein

    2015-01-01

    Background: Viruses are one of the major reasons of gastrointestinal disease worldwide, and commonly infect children less than five years of age in developing countries. Objectives: The current study aimed to determine the frequency of adenoviruses, rotaviruses and noroviruses among diarrhea samples collected from infants of Zabol, south-east of Iran. This study is the first investigation of adenoviruses, rotaviruses and noroviruses among diarrhea samples in Zabol. Patients and Methods: In th...

  20. Chest physiotherapy for collecting sputum samples from HIV-positive patients suspected of having tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza Pinto, V; Bammann, R H

    2007-12-01

    A public referral hospital in Sao Paulo, Brazil. To evaluate chest physiotherapy as a means of obtaining sputum samples from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive in-patients suspected of having pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). A prospective study. Five consecutive samples were collected from 132 patients using the 'spontaneous' technique (ST) on day 1, slow expiration with the glottis open in a lateral posture ('expiration lente totale glotte ouverte en infralatéral', ELTGOL) on day 2, ST on day 3, sputum induction with hypertonic saline (SIHS) on day 4 and ST on day 5. Samples were processed for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear and seeded onto Löwenstein-Jensen medium. Mycobacteria were recovered from 34 patients (25.8%). Nine (26.5%) of the strains were identified as mycobacteria other than Mycobacterium tuberculosis. AFB smear sensitivity was higher in ELTGOL samples than in ST or SIHS samples (52.9% vs. 32.4% and 29.4%), although the difference among the three was not significant (P = 0.098). In culture, the three ST samples proved significantly more sensitive (P = 0.05). Physiotherapy shows promise as a technique for obtaining sputum from HIV-positive patients, and AFB testing of a single sample presents high sensitivity. However, this does not preclude the routine collection of three samples, as TB cannot be ruled out before the culture results are known.

  1. Using high frequency water quality data to assess sampling strategies for the EU Water Framework Directive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeffington, R. A.; Halliday, S. J.; Wade, A. J.; Bowes, M. J.; Loewenthal, M.

    2015-01-01

    The EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires that the ecological and chemical status of water bodies in Europe should be assessed, and action taken where possible to ensure that at least "good" quality is attained in each case by 2015. This paper is concerned with the accuracy and precision with which chemical status in rivers can be measured given certain sampling strategies, and how this can be improved. High frequency (hourly) chemical data from four rivers in southern England were subsampled to simulate different sampling strategies for four parameters used for WFD classification: dissolved phosphorus, dissolved oxygen, pH and water temperature. These data sub-sets were then used to calculate the WFD classification for each site. Monthly sampling was less precise than weekly sampling, but the effect on WFD classification depended on the closeness of the range of concentrations to the class boundaries. In some cases, monthly sampling for a year could result in the same water body being assigned to one of 3 or 4 WFD classes with 95% confidence, whereas with weekly sampling this was 1 or 2 classes for the same cases. In the most extreme case, random sampling effects could result in the same water body being assigned to any of the 5 WFD quality classes. The width of the weekly sampled confidence intervals was about 33% that of the monthly for P species and pH, about 50% for dissolved oxygen, and about 67% for water temperature. For water temperature, which is assessed as the 98th percentile in the UK, monthly sampling biases the mean downwards by about 1 °C compared to the true value, due to problems of assessing high percentiles with limited data. Confining sampling to the working week compared to all seven days made little difference, but a modest improvement in precision could be obtained by sampling at the same time of day within a 3 h time window, and this is recommended. For parameters with a strong diel variation, such as dissolved oxygen, the value

  2. Pushpoint sampling for defining spatial and temporal variations in contaminant concentrations in sediment pore water near the ground-water / surface-water interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Marc J.; Massey, Andrew J.; Campo, Kimberly W.

    2005-01-01

    During four periods from April 2002 to June 2003, pore-water samples were taken from river sediment within a gaining reach (Mill Pond) of the Sudbury River in Ashland, Massachusetts, with a temporary pushpoint sampler to determine whether this device is an effective tool for measuring small-scale spatial variations in concentrations of volatile organic compounds and selected field parameters (specific conductance and dissolved oxygen concentration). The pore waters sampled were within a subsurface plume of volatile organic compounds extending from the nearby Nyanza Chemical Waste Dump Superfund site to the river. Samples were collected from depths of 10, 30, and 60 centimeters below the sediment surface along two 10-meter-long, parallel transects extending into the river. Twenty-five volatile organic compounds were detected at concentrations ranging from less than 1 microgram per liter to hundreds of micrograms per liter (for example, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, 490 micrograms per liter; cis-1,2-dichloroethene, 290 micrograms per liter). The most frequently detected compounds were either chlorobenzenes or chlorinated ethenes. Many of the compounds were detected only infrequently. Quality-control sampling indicated a low incidence of trace concentrations of contaminants. Additional samples collected with passive-water-diffusion-bag samplers yielded results comparable to those collected with the pushpoint sampler and to samples collected in previous studies at the site. The results demonstrate that the pushpoint sampler can yield distinct samples from sites in close proximity; in this case, sampling sites were 1 meter apart horizontally and 20 or 30 centimeters apart vertically. Moreover, the pushpoint sampler was able to draw pore water when inserted to depths as shallow as 10 centimeters below the sediment surface without entraining surface water. The simplicity of collecting numerous samples in a short time period (routinely, 20 to 30 per day) validates the use of a

  3. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF SELECTED GROUND WATER SAMPLES OF RURAL AREAS OF JAIPUR, RAJASTHAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Dhingra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to assess the status of the groundwater in rural areas of Jaipur city. People on globe are under tremendous threat due to undesired changes in the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of air, water and soil. Due to increased population, urbanization, industrialization, use of fertilizers water is highly polluted with different harmful contaminants Natural water resources are being contaminated due to weathering of rocks and leaching of soil, mining processing etc. It is necessary that quality of drinking water should be checked at regular time interval to prevent various water born diseases. In present analysis physico-chemical parameter of drinking water viz. pH, hardness, TDS, residual chlorine, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity, Free CO2 have been analyzed. Drinking water quality of 8 villages of Amber District Jaipur, Rajasthan was analyzed to identify the nature and quality of water. The drinking water samples were collected in clean polythene one liter cans and subjected for analysis in laboratory. The main objective of the present paper is to aware people of concerned area about the water quality and concerned health hazards.

  4. Setting Up a Special Collection on Water Pollution in a University Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Janet

    1974-01-01

    The establishment of a special collection within the university library, the complexities of identifying and collecting reports in the environmental area, locating agencies concerned with water pollution, and recording the location of other local collections of data are described. (Author)

  5. Setting Up a Special Collection on Water Pollution in a University Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Janet

    1974-01-01

    The establishment of a special collection within the university library, the complexities of identifying and collecting reports in the environmental area, locating agencies concerned with water pollution, and recording the location of other local collections of data are described. (Author)

  6. Comparison of POCIS passive samplers vs. composite water sampling: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criquet, Justine; Dumoulin, David; Howsam, Michael; Mondamert, Leslie; Goossens, Jean-François; Prygiel, Jean; Billon, Gabriel

    2017-12-31

    The relevance of Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers (POCIS) was evaluated for the assessment of concentrations of 46 pesticides and 19 pharmaceuticals in a small, peri-urban river with multi-origin inputs. Throughout the period of POCIS deployment, 24h-average water samples were collected automatically, and showed the rapid temporal evolution of concentrations of several micropollutants, as well as permitting the calculation of average concentrations in the water phase for comparison with those estimated from POCIS passive samplers. In the daily water samples, cyproconazol, epoxyconazol and imidacloprid showed high temporal variations with concentrations ranging from under the limit of detection up to several hundreds of ngL(-1). Erythromycin, cyprofloxacin and iopromide also increased rapidly up to tens of ngL(-1) within a few days. Conversely, atrazine, caffeine, diclofenac, and to a lesser extent carbamazepine and sucralose, were systematically present in the water samples and showed limited variation in concentrations. For most of the substances studied here, the passive samplers gave reliable average concentrations between the minimal and maximal daily concentrations during the time of deployment. For pesticides, a relatively good correlation was clearly established (R(2)=0.89) between the concentrations obtained by POCIS and those gained from average water samples. A slight underestimation of the concentration by POCIS can be attributed to inappropriate sampling rates extracted from the literature and for our system, and new values are proposed. Considering the all data set, 75% of the results indicate a relatively good agreement between the POCIS and the average water samples concentration (values of the ratio ranging between 0,33 and 3). Note further that this agreement between these concentrations remains valid considering different sampling rates extracted from the literature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Ion Chromatographic Analyses of Sea Waters, Brines and Related Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Gros

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on the ion chromatographic methods for the analyses of natural waters with high ionic strength. At the beginning a natural diversity in ionic composition of waters is highlighted and terminology clarified. In continuation a brief overview of other review articles of potential interest is given. A review of ion chromatographic methods is organized in four sections. The first section comprises articles focused on the determination of ionic composition of water samples as completely as possible. The sections—Selected Anions, Selected Cations and Metals—follow. The most essential experimental conditions used in different methods are summarized in tables for a rapid comparison. Techniques encountered in the reviewed articles comprise: direct determinations of ions in untreated samples with ion- or ion-exclusion chromatography, or electrostatic ion chromatography; matrix elimination with column-switching; pre-concentration with a chelation ion chromatography and purge-and-trap pre-concentration. Different detection methods were used: non-suppressed conductometric or suppressed conductometric, direct spectrometric or spectrometric after a post-column derivetization, and inductively coupled plasma in combination with optical emission or mass spectrometry.

  8. Gene banking: A quality control perspective on collection, and analysis of samples for a national repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Animal Germplasm Program (NAGP) is developing a national repository for germplasm (semen, oocytes, embryos, blood, DNA, tissue) for all agricultural species in the United States. Currently, the swine collection consists of 127,479 samples from 886 boars representing 20 major, minor and...

  9. Data Validation Package October 2016 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Monticello, Utah, Disposal and Processing Sites January 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Jason [USDOE Office of Legacy Management (LM), Washington, DC (United States); Smith, Fred [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Grand Junction, CO (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Sampling Period: October 10–12, 2016. This semiannual event includes sampling groundwater and surface water at the Monticello Disposal and Processing Sites. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated) and Program Directive MNT-2016-01. Samples were collected from 54 of 64 planned locations (16 of 17 former mill site wells, 15 of 18 downgradient wells, 7 of 9 downgradient permeable reactive barrier wells, 3 of 3 bedrock wells, 4 of 7 seeps and wetlands, and 9 of 10 surface water locations).

  10. 78 FR 57378 - Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Annual Public Water System Compliance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... AGENCY Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Annual Public Water System Compliance... Protection Agency is planning to submit an information collection request (ICR), ``Annual Public Water System... primary drinking water regulations in the state. These Annual State Public Water System Compliance...

  11. 76 FR 58462 - Information Collection; Qualified Products List for Water Enhancers (Gels) for Wildland Firefighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ... Forest Service Information Collection; Qualified Products List for Water Enhancers (Gels) for Wildland... Products List for Water Enhancers (Gels) for Wildland Firefighting. DATES: Comments must be received in.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Qualified Products List for Water Enhancers (Gels) for Wildland...

  12. Salmonella Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Among Dairy Farm Environmental Samples Collected in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Rivera, Lorraine D; Cummings, Kevin J; Loneragan, Guy H; Rankin, Shelley C; Hanson, Devin L; Leone, William M; Edrington, Thomas S

    2016-04-01

    Dairy cattle are a reservoir of several Salmonella serovars that are leading causes of human salmonellosis. The objectives of this study were to estimate the environmental prevalence of Salmonella on dairy farms in Texas and to characterize the antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates. Eleven dairy farms throughout Texas were sampled from August through October 2013, using a cross-sectional approach. Samples were collected from four locations within each farm (hospital pen, maternity pen, cow housing area, and calf housing area), and feces were collected from cull cows as available. Environmental and fecal samples were processed for Salmonella, and isolates were tested for susceptibility to 15 antimicrobial agents. Serovar characterization was performed on a subset of these isolates. Salmonella was isolated from 67.0% (236/352) of the environmental samples and 64.2% (43/67) of the cull cow fecal samples. Environmental samples from the maternity pen were significantly more likely to be Salmonella positive than samples from the cow and calf housing areas. Multidrug resistance was evident in 11.9% (27/226) of environmental isolates and 19.5% (8/41) of fecal isolates. Salmonella isolates from the calf housing area and maternity pen were significantly more likely to be multidrug resistant (MDR) than isolates from the cow housing area. The most common serovars found among the MDR isolates were Newport, Muenchen, and Typhimurium. These results help provide a focus for efforts to mitigate the burden of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella at the preharvest level.

  13. Water Sample Analysis With the Integrated Virus Detection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ultrafiltered to reduce and concentrate the volume from 1 L to 1.2 mL. This ultrafiltration (UF) was accomplished in -60 min. The remaining volume was...collected and analyzed with the IVDS. In general, the samples were concentrated with the tangential flow ( ultrafiltration ) filter system before IVDS...Biological Center: Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, 1999; UNCLASSIFIED Report (AD-A368 535). 2. Wick, C.H.; McCubbin, P.E. Removing Complex Growth Media from MS2

  14. Factors Influencing Sample Size for Internal Audit Evidence Collection in the Public Sector in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamau Charles Guandaru

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The internal audit department has a role of providing objective assurance and consulting services designed to add value and improve an organization’s operations. In performing this role the internal auditors are required to provide an auditor’s opinion which is supported by sufficient and reliable audit evidence. Since auditors are not in a position to examine 100% of the records and transactions, they are required to sample a few and make conclusions on the basis of the sample selected. The literature suggests several factors which affects the sample size for audit purposes of the internal auditors in the public sector in Kenya. This research collected data from 32 public sector internal auditors. The research carried out simple regression and correlation analysis on the data collected so as to test hypotheses and make conclusions on the factors affecting the sample size for audit purposes of the internal auditors in the public sector in Kenya. The study found out that that materiality of audit issue, type of information available, source of information, degree of risk of misstatement and auditor skills and independence are some of the factors influencing the sample size determination for the purposes of internal audit evidence collection in public sector in Kenya.

  15. Evaluation of sampling devices for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface microlayer coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitart, C; García-Flor, N; Dachs, J; Bayona, J M; Albaigés, J

    2004-05-01

    The sea surface microlayer (SML) may play an important role on the transport and fate of persistent organic pollutants in the marine environment. In order to evaluate the appropriateness of a number of sampling devices for the analysis of 14 parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (3-5 aromatic rings), marine SML waters were sampled using a glass plate, a rotating drum/roller, a metal screen and a surface slick sampler. The underlying waters were also sampled for the determination of the corresponding enrichment factors (EF = [C](microlayer)/[C](underlying water)). The EFs were phase dependent, ranging from 1 to 3 for the dissolved phase and between 4 and 7 for the particulate phase. In order to better assess the performance of the different sampling methods, in terms of phase partitioning, the truly dissolved and colloidal phases were also estimated. Generally, no significant differences were found for the enrichment factors provided by the different methods, due to the observed large variability in concentrations that can be attributed to small-scale coastal processes. However, the metal screen is recommended as the most efficient sampling method for the study of PAHs taking into account the amount of water collected versus time.

  16. Improved Explosive Collection and Detection with Rationally Assembled Surface Sampling Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chouyyok, Wilaiwan; Bays, J. Timothy; Gerasimenko, Aleksandr A.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Ewing, Robert G.; Atkinson, David A.; Addleman, Raymond S.

    2016-09-21

    Sampling and detection of trace explosives is a key analytical process in modern transportation safety. In this work we have explored some of the fundamental analytical processes for collection and detection of trace level explosive on surfaces with the most widely utilized system, thermal desorption IMS. The performance of the standard muslin swipe material was compared with chemically modified fiberglass cloth. The fiberglass surface was modified to include phenyl functional groups. When compared to standard muslin, the phenyl functionalized fiberglass sampling material showed better analyte release from the sampling material as well as improved response and repeatability from multiple uses of the same swipe. The improved sample release of the functionalized fiberglass swipes resulted in a significant increase in sensitivity. Various physical and chemical properties were systematically explored to determine optimal performance. The results herein have relevance to improving the detection of other explosive compounds and potentially to a wide range of other chemical sampling and field detection challenges.

  17. Combining qualitative and quantitative sampling, data collection, and analysis techniques in mixed-method studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandelowski, M

    2000-06-01

    Researchers have increasingly turned to mixed-method techniques to expand the scope and improve the analytic power of their studies. Yet there is still relatively little direction on and much confusion about how to combine qualitative and quantitative techniques. These techniques are neither paradigm- nor method-linked; researchers' orientations to inquiry and their methodological commitments will influence how they use them. Examples of sampling combinations include criterion sampling from instrument scores, random purposeful sampling, and stratified purposeful sampling. Examples of data collection combinations include the use of instruments for fuller qualitative description, for validation, as guides for purposeful sampling, and as elicitation devices in interviews. Examples of data analysis combinations include interpretively linking qualitative and quantitative data sets and the transformation processes of qualitizing and quantitizing.

  18. Comparison of blood chemistry values for samples collected from juvenile chinook salmon by three methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congleton, J.L.; LaVoie, W.J.

    2001-01-01

    Thirteen blood chemistry indices were compared for samples collected by three commonly used methods: caudal transection, heart puncture, and caudal vessel puncture. Apparent biases in blood chemistry values for samples obtained by caudal transection were consistent with dilution with tissue fluids: alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), triglyceride, and K+ were increased and Na+ and Cl- were decreased relative to values for samples obtained by caudal vessel puncture. Some enzyme activities (ALT, AST, LDH) and K+ concentrations were also greater in samples taken by heart puncture than in samples taken by caudal vessel puncture. Of the methods tested, caudal vessel puncture had the least effect on blood chemistry values and should be preferred for blood chemistry studies on juvenile salmonids.

  19. Atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations derived from flask samples collected at USSR-operated sampling sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boden, T.A. [comp.] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center; Brounshtein, A.M.; Faber, E.V.; Shashkov, A.A. [Glavnaya Geofizicheskaya Observatoriya, St. Petersburg (USSR)

    1991-12-01

    This document presents daily atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations from four USSR-operated sampling sites (Teriberka Station, Ocean Station Charlie, Bering Island, and Kotelny Island). The period of record varies by station with the earliest measurements dating back to 1983 and recent estimates from early 1991. These CO{sub 2} concentrations are derived from air samples collected in 1.5-L stainless steel electropolished flasks and later analyzed at the Main Geophysical Observatory (St. Petersburg, USSR) using a nondispersive infrared gas analyzer. Measurements not meeting wind direction, wind speed, inter-flask agreement, and climate condition criteria were either discarded or flagged. All measurements have been corrected for drift biases introduced during flask storage. These atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations are considered indicative of regional background air conditions and are directly traceable to the World Meteorological Organization`s primary CO{sub 2} standards. These measurements support the rising trend in atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations measured at other monitoring sites around the world and may be compared with similar measurements made by various monitoring programs at other northern latitude sites. The document presents the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations in graphical and tabular form, describes the sampling methods, defines limitations and restrictions of the data, and describes the information on the magnetic media.

  20. UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Salt Lake City, Utah. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This water sampling and analysis plan describes planned, routine ground water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site in Salt Lake City, Utah. This plan identifies and justifies sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequencies for routine monitoring of ground water, sediments, and surface waters at monitoring stations on the site.

  1. Water isotopic ratios from a continuously melted ice core sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Gkinis

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A new technique for on-line high resolution isotopic analysis of liquid water, tailored for ice core studies is presented. We built an interface between a Wavelength Scanned Cavity Ring Down Spectrometer (WS-CRDS purchased from Picarro Inc. and a Continuous Flow Analysis (CFA system. The system offers the possibility to perform simultaneuous water isotopic analysis of δ18O and δD on a continuous stream of liquid water as generated from a continuously melted ice rod. Injection of sub μl amounts of liquid water is achieved by pumping sample through a fused silica capillary and instantaneously vaporizing it with 100% efficiency in a~home made oven at a temperature of 170 °C. A calibration procedure allows for proper reporting of the data on the VSMOW–SLAP scale. We apply the necessary corrections based on the assessed performance of the system regarding instrumental drifts and dependance on the water concentration in the optical cavity. The melt rates are monitored in order to assign a depth scale to the measured isotopic profiles. Application of spectral methods yields the combined uncertainty of the system at below 0.1‰ and 0.5‰ for δ18O and δD, respectively. This performance is comparable to that achieved with mass spectrometry. Dispersion of the sample in the transfer lines limits the temporal resolution of the technique. In this work we investigate and assess these dispersion effects. By using an optimal filtering method we show how the measured profiles can be corrected for the smoothing effects resulting from the sample dispersion. Considering the significant advantages the technique offers, i.e. simultaneuous measurement of δ18O and δD, potentially in combination with chemical components that are traditionally measured on CFA systems, notable reduction on analysis time and power consumption, we consider it as an alternative to traditional isotope ratio mass spectrometry with the possibility to

  2. Application of environmental DNA analysis for the detection of Opisthorchis viverrini DNA in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashizume, Hiroki; Sato, Megumi; Sato, Marcello Otake; Ikeda, Sumire; Yoonuan, Tippayarat; Sanguankiat, Surapol; Pongvongsa, Tiengkham; Moji, Kazuhiko; Minamoto, Toshifumi

    2017-05-01

    Opisthorchiasis, which can lead to cholangiocarcinoma in cases of chronic infection, is a major public health problem in Southeast Asian countries. The trematode, Opisthorchis viverrini, is the causative agent of the disease. Accurate and rapid monitoring of O. viverrini is crucial for disease prevention and containment. Therefore, in this study we sought to develop a novel species-specific real-time PCR assay for detecting O. viverrini using environmental DNA (eDNA). The diagnostic sensitivity of the newly developed real-time PCR assay was similar to that of the traditional PCR assay for 50 fecal samples collected in Lao PDR (21 and 19 samples were positive by real-time PCR and traditional PCR, respectively). The efficacy of eDNA analysis and its applicability in the field were tested using a total of 94 environmental water samples collected from 44 sites in Savannakhet, Lao PDR during May and October 2015 and February 2016. O. viverrini eDNA was detected in five samples by real-time PCR, indicating the presence of the fluke in the area and the risk of infection for individuals consuming fish from these water sources. The application of eDNA analysis would facilitate the identification of O. viverrini endemic hotspots and contribute to the ecological control of opisthorchiasis, and this strategy can be applied to other eukaryotic water pathogens.

  3. Hydrogeology and Physical Characteristics of Water Samples at the Red River Aluminum Site, Stamps, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecki, J. B.; Stanton, G. P.; Freiwald, D. A.

    2001-12-01

    The Red River Aluminum site near Stamps, Arkansas, contains waste piles of salt cake and metal byproducts from the smelting of aluminum. The waste piles are subjected to about 50 inches of rainfall a year, resulting in the dissolution of the salts and metal. To assess the potential threat to underlying ground-water resources at the site, its hydrogeology was characterized by measuring water levels and field parameters of water quality in 23 wells and at 2 surface-water sites. Seventeen of these monitor wells were constructed at various depths for this study to allow for the separate characterization of the shallow and deep ground-water systems, the calculation of vertical gradients, and the collection of water samples at different depths within the flow system. Lithologic descriptions from drill-hole cuttings and geophysical logs indicate the presence of interbedded sands, gravels, silts, and clays to depths of 65 feet. The regionally important Sparta aquifer underlies the site. Water levels in shallow wells indicate radial flow away from the salt-cake pile located near the center of the site. Flow in the deep system is to the west and southwest toward Bodcau Creek. Water-level data from eight piezometer nests indicate a downward hydraulic gradient from the shallow to deep systems across the site. Values of specific conductance (an indicator of dissolved salts) ranged from 215 to 196,200 microsiemens per centimeter and indicate that saline waters are being transported horizontally and vertically downward away from the site.

  4. Metal quantification in water and sediment samples of billings reservoir by SR-TXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampaio, Sergio Arnaud; Moreira, Silvana [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mails: silvana@fec.unicamp.br; sergioarnaud@hotmail.com; Vives, Ana Elisa Sirito de [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br

    2007-07-01

    Billings is the largest reservoir water of the metropolitan Sao Paulo area, with approximately 100km{sup 2} of water. Its basin hydrographic occupies more than 500km{sup 2} in six cities. It concentrates the largest industrial park of South America and only its margins are busy for almost a million inhabitants. The quality of its waters is, therefore, constant of concern of the whole society. In this work the Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X Ray Fluorescence (SR-TXRF) is applied for the identification and quantification of metals in waters and sediments of the Billings dam. A comparison of the levels of metals found with the maximum permissive limits established by the Brazilian legislation was made. The purpose of social context is to contribute for the preservation of the local springs and the rational use of its waters. For the field work they were chosen 19 collection points, included the margins and the central portion of the dam, in agreement with similar approaches the those adopted by the Company of Technology of Environmental Sanitation of Sao Paulo State (CETESB).The water and sediment samples, as well as the certified and standard samples, were analyzed at Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), Campinas, SP, Brazil. Results indicate that the water and the sediments of the reservoir have concentrations above the legal limits. (author)

  5. The correlation of arsenic levels in drinking water with the biological samples of skin disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazi, Tasneem Gul [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan)], E-mail: tgkazi@yahoo.com; Arain, Muhammad Balal [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan)], E-mail: bilal_ku2004@yahoo.com; Baig, Jameel Ahmed [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan)], E-mail: jab_mughal@yahoo.com; Jamali, Muhammad Khan [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan)], E-mail: mkhanjamali@yahoo.com; Afridi, Hassan Imran [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan)], E-mail: hassanimranafridi@yahoo.com; Jalbani, Nusrat [Pakistan Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, University Road Karachi-75280 (Pakistan)], E-mail: nusratjalbani_21@yahoo.com; Sarfraz, Raja Adil [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan)], E-mail: rajaadilsarfraz@gmail.com; Shah, Abdul Qadir [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan)], E-mail: aqshah07@yahoo.com; Niaz, Abdul [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan)], E-mail: niazchemist2k6@yahoo.com

    2009-01-15

    Arsenic (As) poisoning has become a worldwide public health concern. The skin is quite sensitive to As and skin lesions are the most common and earliest nonmalignant effects associated to chronic As exposure. In 2005-2007, a survey was carried out on surface and groundwater arsenic contamination and relationships between As exposure via the drinking water and related adverse health effects (melanosis and keratosis) on villagers resides on the banks of Manchar lake, southern part of Sindh, Pakistan. We screened the population from arsenic-affected villages, 61 to 73% population were identified patients suffering from chronic arsenic toxicity. The effects of As toxicity via drinking water were estimated by biological samples (scalp hair and blood) of adults (males and females), have or have not skin problem (n = 187). The referent samples of both genders were also collected from the areas having low level of As (< 10 {mu}g/L) in drinking water (n = 121). Arsenic concentration in drinking water and biological samples were analyzed using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The range of arsenic concentrations in lake surface water was 35.2-158 {mu}g/L, which is 3-15 folds higher than World Health Organization [WHO, 2004. Guidelines for drinking-water quality third ed., WHO Geneva Switzerland.]. It was observed that As concentration in the scalp hair and blood samples were above the range of permissible values 0.034-0.319 {mu}g As/g for hair and < 0.5-4.2 {mu}g/L for blood. The linear regressions showed good correlations between arsenic concentrations in water versus hair and blood samples of exposed skin diseased subjects (R{sup 2} = 0.852 and 0.718) as compared to non-diseased subjects (R{sup 2} = 0.573 and 0.351), respectively.

  6. Transient thermal envelope for rovers and sample collecting devices on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, P. B.; Parzinger, S.; Haarmann, R.; Walter, U.

    2015-03-01

    The requirements for the design of rovers and sample collecting devices for the Moon are driven by the harsh and diverse thermal lunar environment. Local lunar surface temperatures are governed by boulders and craters. The present work quantifies the changes in solar and infrared heat fluxes q˙Sol and q˙IR impinging on a rover or a sample collecting device, on the surface of the Moon, by combining lunar surface models, spacecraft and manipulator models, and transient thermal calculations. The interaction between a rover, boulders, and craters was simulated for three solar elevation angles (θ = 2°, 10°, and 90°), resembling lunar surface temperatures of Treg = 170, 248, and 392 K, respectively. Infrared and solar heat fluxes for paths in the vicinity of a single boulder, a field of five boulders, and a single crater were compared to a path on an unobstructed surface. The same heat fluxes were applied to closed and open sample collecting devices to investigate the temperature development of the transported regolith sample. The results show how total received infrared heat on a rover may increase by up to 331%, over the course of a transit in front of sunlit boulders compared to the same transit over an unobstructed plane. Temporary this leads to a 12-fold increased infrared heat flux at closest distance to the obstacle. A transit through a small bowl shaped crater on the other hand may decrease total received solar heat by as much as 86%. Relative as well as absolute influence of surface features on received heat fluxes increases significantly towards smaller solar elevation angles. The temperature of pristine samples, transported in closed or open sample collecting devices, increase from 120 to 150 K within 1 to 1.3 h if exposed to direct solar illumination and infrared heat. Protection from solar illumination yields in 8-fold and 5-fold increased transport times for closed and open sample devices, respectively. Closed sample transporters dampen short exposure

  7. A Prototype Ice-Melting Probe for Collecting Biological Samples from Cryogenic Ice at Low Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Ashley

    2017-08-01

    In the Solar System, the surface of an icy moon is composed of irregular ice formations at cryogenic temperatures (ice, must contain a device that collects samples without refreezing liquid and without sublimation of ice. In addition, if the samples are biological in nature, then precautions must be taken to ensure the samples do not overheat or mix with the oxidized layer. To achieve these conditions, the collector must maintain temperatures close to maintenance or growth conditions of the organism (ice and directs the meltwater upward into a reservoir. The force on the probe is proportional to the height of meltwater (pressure) obtained in the system and allows regulation of the melt rate and temperature of the sample. The device can collect 5-50 mL of meltwater from the surface of an ice block at 233-208 K with an environmental pressure of less than 10-2 atm while maintaining a sample temperature between 273 and 293 K. These conditions maintain most biological samples in a pristine state and maintain the integrity of most organisms' structure and function.

  8. Monitoring the Presence of 13 Active Compounds in Surface Water Collected from Rural Areas in Northwestern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Iglesias

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Drug residues are considered environmental contaminants, and their occurrence has recently become a matter of concern. Analytical methods and monitoring systems are therefore required to control the continuous input of these drug residues into the environment. This article presents a suitable HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method for the simultaneous extraction, detection and quantification of residues of 13 drugs (antimicrobials, glucocorticosteroids, anti-inflammatories, anti-hypertensives, anti-cancer drugs and triphenylmethane dyes in surface water. A monitoring study with 549 water samples was carried out in northwestern Spain to detect the presence of drug residues over two sampling periods during 2010, 2011 and 2012. Samples were collected from rural areas with and without farming activity and from urban areas. The 13 analytes were detected, and 18% of the samples collected showed positive results for the presence of at least one analyte. More collection sites were located in rural areas than in urban areas. However, more positive samples with higher concentrations and a larger number of analytes were detected in samples collected from sites located after the discharge of a WWTP. Results indicated that the WWTPs seems to act as a concentration point. Positive samples were also detected at a site located near a drinking water treatment plant.

  9. Monitoring the Presence of 13 Active Compounds in Surface Water Collected from Rural Areas in Northwestern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Alejandra; Nebot, Carolina; Vázquez, Beatriz I.; Coronel-Olivares, Claudia; Franco Abuín, Carlos M.; Cepeda, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Drug residues are considered environmental contaminants, and their occurrence has recently become a matter of concern. Analytical methods and monitoring systems are therefore required to control the continuous input of these drug residues into the environment. This article presents a suitable HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method for the simultaneous extraction, detection and quantification of residues of 13 drugs (antimicrobials, glucocorticosteroids, anti-inflammatories, anti-hypertensives, anti-cancer drugs and triphenylmethane dyes) in surface water. A monitoring study with 549 water samples was carried out in northwestern Spain to detect the presence of drug residues over two sampling periods during 2010, 2011 and 2012. Samples were collected from rural areas with and without farming activity and from urban areas. The 13 analytes were detected, and 18% of the samples collected showed positive results for the presence of at least one analyte. More collection sites were located in rural areas than in urban areas. However, more positive samples with higher concentrations and a larger number of analytes were detected in samples collected from sites located after the discharge of a WWTP. Results indicated that the WWTPs seems to act as a concentration point. Positive samples were also detected at a site located near a drinking water treatment plant. PMID:24837665

  10. Validation of a Sampling Method to Collect Exposure Data for Central-Line-Associated Bloodstream Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammami, Naïma; Mertens, Karl; Overholser, Rosanna; Goetghebeur, Els; Catry, Boudewijn; Lambert, Marie-Laurence

    2016-05-01

    Surveillance of central-line-associated bloodstream infections requires the labor-intensive counting of central-line days (CLDs). This workload could be reduced by sampling. Our objective was to evaluate the accuracy of various sampling strategies in the estimation of CLDs in intensive care units (ICUs) and to establish a set of rules to identify optimal sampling strategies depending on ICU characteristics. Analyses of existing data collected according to the European protocol for patient-based surveillance of ICU-acquired infections in Belgium between 2004 and 2012. CLD data were reported by 56 ICUs in 39 hospitals during 364 trimesters. We compared estimated CLD data obtained from weekly and monthly sampling schemes with the observed exhaustive CLD data over the trimester by assessing the CLD percentage error (ie, observed CLDs - estimated CLDs/observed CLDs). We identified predictors of improved accuracy using linear mixed models. When sampling once per week or 3 times per month, 80% of ICU trimesters had a CLD percentage error within 10%. When sampling twice per week, this was >90% of ICU trimesters. Sampling on Tuesdays provided the best estimations. In the linear mixed model, the observed CLD count was the best predictor for a smaller percentage error. The following sampling strategies provided an estimate within 10% of the actual CLD for 97% of the ICU trimesters with 90% confidence: 3 times per month in an ICU with >650 CLDs per trimester or each Tuesday in an ICU with >480 CLDs per trimester. Sampling of CLDs provides an acceptable alternative to daily collection of CLD data.

  11. Curating NASA's future extraterrestrial sample collections: How do we achieve maximum proficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, Francis; Evans, Cynthia; Allton, Judith; Fries, Marc; Righter, Kevin; Zolensky, Michael; Zeigler, Ryan

    2016-07-01

    Introduction: The Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office (henceforth referred to herein as NASA Curation Office) at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) is responsible for curating all of NASA's extraterrestrial samples. Under the governing document, NASA Policy Directive (NPD) 7100.10E "Curation of Extraterrestrial Materials", JSC is charged with "The curation of all extraterrestrial material under NASA control, including future NASA missions." The Directive goes on to define Curation as including "…documentation, preservation, preparation, and distribution of samples for research, education, and public outreach." Here we describe some of the ongoing efforts to ensure that the future activities of the NASA Curation Office are working to-wards a state of maximum proficiency. Founding Principle: Curatorial activities began at JSC (Manned Spacecraft Center before 1973) as soon as design and construction planning for the Lunar Receiving Laboratory (LRL) began in 1964 [1], not with the return of the Apollo samples in 1969, nor with the completion of the LRL in 1967. This practice has since proven that curation begins as soon as a sample return mission is conceived, and this founding principle continues to return dividends today [e.g., 2]. The Next Decade: Part of the curation process is planning for the future, and we refer to these planning efforts as "advanced curation" [3]. Advanced Curation is tasked with developing procedures, technology, and data sets necessary for curating new types of collections as envisioned by NASA exploration goals. We are (and have been) planning for future curation, including cold curation, extended curation of ices and volatiles, curation of samples with special chemical considerations such as perchlorate-rich samples, curation of organically- and biologically-sensitive samples, and the use of minimally invasive analytical techniques (e.g., micro-CT, [4]) to characterize samples. These efforts will be useful for Mars Sample Return

  12. Water isotopic ratios from a continuously melted ice core sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Gkinis

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A new technique for on-line high resolution isotopic analysis of liquid water, tailored for ice core studies is presented. We build an interface between an Infra Red Cavity Ring Down Spectrometer (IR-CRDS and a Continuous Flow Analysis (CFA system. The system offers the possibility to perform simultaneuous water isotopic analysis of δ18O and δD on a continuous stream of liquid water as generated from a continuously melted ice rod. Injection of sub μl amounts of liquid water is achieved by pumping sample through a fused silica capillary and instantaneously vaporizing it with 100 % efficiency in a home made oven at a temperature of 170 °C. A calibration procedure allows for proper reporting of the data on the VSMOW scale. We apply the necessary corrections based on the assessed performance of the system regarding instrumental drifts and dependance on humidity levels. The melt rates are monitored in order to assign a depth scale to the measured isotopic profiles. Application of spectral methods yields the combined uncertainty of the system at below 0.1 ‰ and 0.5 ‰ for δ18O and δD, respectively. This performance is comparable to that achieved with mass spectrometry. Dispersion of the sample in the transfer lines limits the resolution of the technique. In this work we investigate and assess these dispersion effects. By using an optimal filtering method we show how the measured profiles can be corrected for the smoothing effects resulting from the sample dispersion. Considering the significant advantages the technique offers, i.e. simultaneuous measurement of δ18O and δD, potentially in combination with chemical components that are traditionally measured on CFA systems, notable reduction on analysis time and power consumption, we consider it as an alternative to traditional isotope ratio mass spectrometry with the possibility to be deployed for field ice core studies. We present data acquired in the

  13. Comparison of the stable-isotopic composition of soil water collected from suction lysimeters, wick samplers, and cores in a sandy unsaturated zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, M. K.; Delin, G. N.; Komor, S. C.; Regan, C. P.

    1999-10-01

    Soil water collected from suction lysimeters and wick samplers buried in the unsaturated zone of a sand and gravel aquifer and extracted from soil cores were analyzed for stable oxygen and hydrogen isotope values. Soil water isotopic values differed among the three sampling methods in most cases. However, because each sampling method collected different fractions of the total soil-water reservoir, the isotopic differences indicated that the soil water at a given depth and time was isotopically heterogeneous. This heterogeneity reflects the presence of relatively more and less mobile components of soil water. Isotopic results from three field tests indicated that 95-100% of the water collected from wick samplers was mobile soil water while samples from suction lysimeters and cores were mixtures of more and less mobile soil water. Suction lysimeter samples contained a higher proportion of more mobile water (15-95%) than samples from cores (5-80%) at the same depth. The results of this study indicate that, during infiltration events, soil water collected with wick samplers is more representative of the mobile soil water that is likely to recharge ground water during or soon after the event than soil water from suction lysimeters or cores.

  14. Sample size for collecting germplasms – a polyploid model with mixed mating system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R L Sapra; Prem Narain; S V S Chauhan; S K Lal; B B Singh

    2003-03-01

    The present paper discusses a general expression for determining the minimum sample size (plants) for a given number of seeds or vice versa for capturing multiple allelic diversity. The model considers sampling from a large 2 k-ploid population under a broad range of mating systems. Numerous expressions/results developed for germplasm collection/regeneration for diploid populations by earlier workers can be directly deduced from our general expression by assigning appropriate values of the corresponding parameters. A seed factor which influences the plant sample size has also been isolated to aid the collectors in selecting the appropriate combination of number of plants and seeds per plant. When genotypic multiplicity of seeds is taken into consideration, a sample size of even less than 172 plants can conserve diversity of 20 alleles from 50,000 polymorphic loci with a very large probability of conservation (0.9999) in most of the cases.

  15. Persistent organic pollutants in biota samples collected during the Ymer-80 expedition to the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Kylin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available During the 1980 expedition to the Arctic with the icebreaker Ymer, a number of vertebrate species were sampled for determination of persistent organic pollutants. Samples of Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus, n=34, glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus, n=8, common eider (Somateria mollissima, n=10, Brünnich's guillemot (Uria lomvia, n=9, ringed seal (Pusa hispida, n=2 and polar bear (Ursus maritimus, n=2 were collected. With the exception of Brünnich's guillemot, there was a marked contamination difference of birds from western as compared to eastern/northern Svalbard. Samples in the west contained a larger number of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB congeners and also polychlorinated terphenyls, indicating local sources. Brünnich's guillemots had similar pollutant concentrations in the west and east/north; possibly younger birds were sampled in the west. In Arctic char, pollutant profiles from lake Linnévatn (n=5, the lake closest to the main economic activities in Svalbard, were similar to profiles in Arctic char from the Shetland Islands (n=5, but differed from lakes to the north and east in Svalbard (n=30. Arctic char samples had higher concentrations of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs than the marine species of birds and mammals, possibly due to accumulation via snowmelt. Compared to the Baltic Sea, comparable species collected in Svalbard had lower concentrations of PCB and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT, but similar concentrations indicating long-range transport of hexachlorobenzene, HCHs and cyclodiene pesticides. In samples collected in Svalbard in 1971, the concentrations of PCB and DDT in Brünnich's guillemot (n=7, glaucous gull (n=2 and polar bear (n=2 were similar to the concentrations found in 1980.

  16. Spectroscopic Characterization of Dust-Fall Samples Collected from Greater Cairo, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaltout, Abdallah A; Allam, Mousa A; Mostafa, Nasser Y; Heiba, Zein K

    2016-04-01

    This work aimed to characterize dust-fall samples collected from street's trees in Greater Cairo (GC), Egypt, and its surroundings by different spectroscopic techniques, namely; X-ray diffraction (XRD), attenuated total-reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR), particle-size analyzer, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with energy dispersive X-ray measurements. Samples were collected from 19 different locations inside and outside of GC. Quantitative phase analysis of the dust-fall samples was performed using the Rietveld method. Results showed that the most frequently observed phases in the dust-fall samples were calcite (CaCO3), dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2), gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O), and quartz (SiO2) with average concentrations of 39 ± 16, 8 ± 7, 22 ± 13, and 33 ± 14 wt%, respectively. The occurrence of these constituents referred to a combination of different anthropogenic and natural sources. The ATR-FTIR results are in good agreements with XRD data of the different observed phases. Based on the SEM and particle-size measurements, quantitative determination of the particle-size distribution was described. It was found that not only the large-sized particles are deposited but also the small-sized ones (PM10 and PM2.5). In addition, the particle size of the collected dust-fall samples varied from 0.1 to 200 µm with an average particle size of 17.36 µm; however, the particle size ranged from 2.5 to 40 µm predominated in all of the dust-fall samples.

  17. Study Design and Percent Recoveries of Anthropogenic Organic Compounds With and Without the Addition of Ascorbic Acid to Preserve Water Samples Containing Free Chlorine, 2004-06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valder, Joshua F.; Delzer, Gregory C.; Price, Curtis V.; Sandstrom, Mark W.

    2008-01-01

    The National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began implementing Source Water-Quality Assessments (SWQAs) in 2002 that focus on characterizing the quality of source water and finished water of aquifers and major rivers used by some of the larger community water systems in the United States. As used for SWQA studies, source water is the raw (ambient) water collected at the supply well prior to water treatment (for ground water) or the raw (ambient) water collected from the river near the intake (for surface water). Finished water is the water that is treated, which typically involves, in part, the addition of chlorine or other disinfection chemicals to remove pathogens, and is ready to be delivered to consumers. Finished water is collected before the water enters the distribution system. This report describes the study design and percent recoveries of anthropogenic organic compounds (AOCs) with and without the addition of ascorbic acid to preserve water samples containing free chlorine. The percent recoveries were determined by using analytical results from a laboratory study conducted in 2004 by the USGS's National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL) and from data collected during 2004-06 for a field study currently (2008) being conducted by the USGS's NAWQA Program. The laboratory study was designed to determine if preserving samples with ascorbic acid (quenching samples) adversely affects analytical performance under controlled conditions. During the laboratory study, eight samples of reagent water were spiked for each of five analytical schedules evaluated. Percent recoveries from these samples were then compared in two ways: (1) four quenched reagent spiked samples analyzed on day 0 were compared with four quenched reagent spiked samples analyzed on day 7 or 14, and (2) the combined eight quenched reagent spiked samples analyzed on day 0, 7, or 14 were compared with eight laboratory reagent spikes (LRSs). Percent

  18. Efficient Genome-Wide Sequencing and Low-Coverage Pedigree Analysis from Noninvasively Collected Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder-Mackler, Noah; Majoros, William H; Yuan, Michael L; Shaver, Amanda O; Gordon, Jacob B; Kopp, Gisela H; Schlebusch, Stephen A; Wall, Jeffrey D; Alberts, Susan C; Mukherjee, Sayan; Zhou, Xiang; Tung, Jenny

    2016-06-01

    Research on the genetics of natural populations was revolutionized in the 1990s by methods for genotyping noninvasively collected samples. However, these methods have remained largely unchanged for the past 20 years and lag far behind the genomics era. To close this gap, here we report an optimized laboratory protocol for genome-wide capture of endogenous DNA from noninvasively collected samples, coupled with a novel computational approach to reconstruct pedigree links from the resulting low-coverage data. We validated both methods using fecal samples from 62 wild baboons, including 48 from an independently constructed extended pedigree. We enriched fecal-derived DNA samples up to 40-fold for endogenous baboon DNA and reconstructed near-perfect pedigree relationships even with extremely low-coverage sequencing. We anticipate that these methods will be broadly applicable to the many research systems for which only noninvasive samples are available. The lab protocol and software ("WHODAD") are freely available at www.tung-lab.org/protocols-and-software.html and www.xzlab.org/software.html, respectively. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  19. Characterization Data Package for Containerized Sludge Samples Collected from Engineered Container SCS-CON-210

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fountain, Matthew S.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Baldwin, David L.; Daniel, Richard C.; Bos, Stanley J.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Carlson, Clark D.; Coffey, Deborah S.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Neiner, Doinita; Oliver, Brian M.; Pool, Karl N.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Snow, Lanee A.; Soderquist, Chuck Z.; Thompson, Christopher J.; Trang-Le, Truc LT; Urie, Michael W.

    2013-09-10

    This data package contains the K Basin sludge characterization results obtained by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory during processing and analysis of four sludge core samples collected from Engineered Container SCS-CON-210 in 2010 as requested by CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company. Sample processing requirements, analytes of interest, detection limits, and quality control sample requirements are defined in the KBC-33786, Rev. 2. The core processing scope included reconstitution of a sludge core sample distributed among four to six 4-L polypropylene bottles into a single container. The reconstituted core sample was then mixed and subsampled to support a variety of characterization activities. Additional core sludge subsamples were combined to prepare a container composite. The container composite was fractionated by wet sieving through a 2,000 micron mesh and a 500-micron mesh sieve. Each sieve fraction was sampled to support a suite of analyses. The core composite analysis scope included density determination, radioisotope analysis, and metals analysis, including the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Hazardous Waste Facility Permit metals (with the exception of mercury). The container composite analysis included most of the core composite analysis scope plus particle size distribution, particle density, rheology, and crystalline phase identification. A summary of the received samples, core sample reconstitution and subsampling activities, container composite preparation and subsampling activities, physical properties, and analytical results are presented. Supporting data and documentation are provided in the appendices. There were no cases of sample or data loss and all of the available samples and data are reported as required by the Quality Assurance Project Plan/Sampling and Analysis Plan.

  20. Optimizing stream water mercury sampling for calculation of fish bioaccumulation factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva-Murray, Karen; Bradley, Paul M.; Journey, Celeste A.; Brigham, Mark E.; Scudder Eikenberry, Barbara C.; Knightes, Christopher; Button, Daniel T.

    2013-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) for game fishes are widely employed for monitoring, assessment, and regulatory purposes. Mercury BAFs are calculated as the fish Hg concentration (Hgfish) divided by the water Hg concentration (Hgwater) and, consequently, are sensitive to sampling and analysis artifacts for fish and water. We evaluated the influence of water sample timing, filtration, and mercury species on the modeled relation between game fish and water mercury concentrations across 11 streams and rivers in five states in order to identify optimum Hgwater sampling approaches. Each model included fish trophic position, to account for a wide range of species collected among sites, and flow-weighted Hgwater estimates. Models were evaluated for parsimony, using Akaike’s Information Criterion. Better models included filtered water methylmercury (FMeHg) or unfiltered water methylmercury (UMeHg), whereas filtered total mercury did not meet parsimony requirements. Models including mean annual FMeHg were superior to those with mean FMeHg calculated over shorter time periods throughout the year. FMeHg models including metrics of high concentrations (80th percentile and above) observed during the year performed better, in general. These higher concentrations occurred most often during the growing season at all sites. Streamflow was significantly related to the probability of achieving higher concentrations during the growing season at six sites, but the direction of influence varied among sites. These findings indicate that streamwater Hg collection can be optimized by evaluating site-specific FMeHg - UMeHg relations, intra-annual temporal variation in their concentrations, and streamflow-Hg dynamics.

  1. Enhanced Conformational Sampling using Replica Exchange with Collective-Variable Tempering

    CERN Document Server

    Gil-Ley, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The computational study of conformational transitions in RNA and proteins with atomistic molecular dynamics often requires suitable enhanced sampling techniques. We here introduce a novel method where concurrent metadynamics are integrated in a Hamiltonian replica-exchange scheme. The ladder of replicas is built with different strength of the bias potential exploiting the tunability of well-tempered metadynamics. Using this method, free-energy barriers of individual collective variables are significantly reduced compared with simple force-field scaling. The introduced methodology is flexible and allows adaptive bias potentials to be self-consistently constructed for a large number of simple collective variables, such as distances and dihedral angles. The method is tested on alanine dipeptide and applied to the difficult problem of conformational sampling in a tetranucleotide.

  2. Data Validation Package April 2016 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Monticello, Utah, Disposal and Processing Sites August 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Jason [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Smith, Fred [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This semiannual event includes sampling groundwater and surface water at the Monticello Disposal and Processing Sites. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated) and Program Directive MNT-2016-01. Complete sample sets were collected from 42 of 48 planned locations (9 of 9 former mill site wells, 13 of 13 downgradient wells, 7 of 9 downgradient permeable reactive barrier wells, 4 of 7 seeps and wetlands, and 9 of 10 surface water locations). Planned monitoring locations are shown in Attachment 1, Sampling and Analysis Work Order. Locations R6-M3, SW00-01, Seep 1, Seep 2, and Seep 5 were not sampled due to insufficient water availability. A partial sample was collected at location R4-M3 due to insufficient water. All samples from the permeable reactive barrier wells were filtered as specified in the program directive. Duplicate samples were collected from surface water location Sorenson and from monitoring wells 92-07 and RlO-Ml. Water levels were measured at all sampled wells and an additional set of wells. See Attachment2, Trip Report for additional details. The contaminants of concern (COCs) for the Monticello sites are arsenic, manganese, molybdenum, nitrate+ nitrite as nitrogen (nitrate+ nitrite as N), selenium, uranium, and vanadium. Locations with COCs that exceeded remediation goals are listed in Table 1 and Table 2. Time-concentration graphs of the COCs for all groundwater and surface water locations are included in Attachment 3, Data Presentation. An assessment of anomalous data is included in Attachment 4.

  3. Faecal contamination of drinking water during collection and household storage: the need to extend protection to the point of use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clasen, Thomas F; Bastable, Andrew

    2003-09-01

    Paired water samples were collected and analysed for thermotolerant coliforms (TTC) from 20 sources (17 developed or rehabilitated by Oxfam and 3 others) and from the stored household water supplies of 100 households (5 from each source) in 13 towns and villages in the Kailahun District of Sierra Leone. In addition, the female head of the 85 households drawing water from Oxfam improved sources was interviewed and information recorded on demographics, hygiene instruction and practices, sanitation facilities and water collection and storage practices. At the non-improved sources, the arithmetic mean TTC load was 407/100 ml at the point of distribution, rising to a mean count of 882/100 ml at the household level. Water from the improved sources met WHO guidelines, with no faecal contamination. At the household level, however, even this safe water was subject to frequent and extensive faecal contamination; 92.9% of stored household samples contained some level of TTC, 76.5% contained more than the 10 TTC per 100 ml threshold set by the Sphere Project for emergency conditions. The arithmetic mean TTC count for all samples from the sampled households was 244 TTC per 100 ml (geometric mean was 77). These results are consistent with other studies that demonstrate substantial levels of faecal contamination of even safe water during collection, storage and access in the home. They point to the need to extend drinking water quality beyond the point of distribution to the point of consumption. The options for such extended protection, including improved collection and storage methods and household-based water treatment, are discussed.

  4. A rapid method for the sampling of atmospheric water vapour for isotopic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Leon I; Yakir, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of the stable isotopic composition of atmospheric moisture is widely applied in the environmental sciences. Traditional methods for obtaining isotopic compositional data from ambient moisture have required complicated sampling procedures, expensive and sophisticated distillation lines, hazardous consumables, and lengthy treatments prior to analysis. Newer laser-based techniques are expensive and usually not suitable for large-scale field campaigns, especially in cases where access to mains power is not feasible or high spatial coverage is required. Here we outline the construction and usage of a novel vapour-sampling system based on a battery-operated Stirling cycle cooler, which is simple to operate, does not require any consumables, or post-collection distillation, and is light-weight and highly portable. We demonstrate the ability of this system to reproduce delta(18)O isotopic compositions of ambient water vapour, with samples taken simultaneously by a traditional cryogenic collection technique. Samples were collected over 1 h directly into autosampler vials and were analysed by mass spectrometry after pyrolysis of 1 microL aliquots to CO. This yielded an average error of system provides a rapid and reliable alternative to conventional cryogenic techniques, particularly in cases requiring high sample throughput or where access to distillation lines, slurry maintenance or mains power is not feasible.

  5. Effect of preservation method on the assessment of bacterial community structure in soil and water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatangelo, Valeria; Franzetti, Andrea; Gandolfi, Isabella; Bestetti, Giuseppina; Ambrosini, Roberto

    2014-07-01

    The methods used in sample preservation may affect the description of the microbial community structure by DNA-based techniques. This study aims at evaluating the effect of different storage conditions, including freezing, adding two liquid-based preservatives or simply storing samples with no preservative, on the structure of the microbial communities in aliquots of organic-rich soil and water samples as revealed by a terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms. The results showed that the number of terminal restriction fragments (TRFs) detected in soil aliquots stored with LifeGuard(™) solution was significantly lower than that of samples analyzed immediately after sampling. Moreover, cluster and PCA analyses showed that soil aliquots stored using LifeGuard(™) clustered separately from those stored with the other methods. Conversely, soil and water aliquots stored with DMSO-EDTA-salt solution did not show either significant reduction in the number of TRFs or any change in the structure of the microbial community. Finally, the number of TRFs and the structure of microbial communities from soil aliquots stored with no preservative did not differ from those of aliquots analyzed immediately after sampling. Preservation methods should therefore be accurately evaluated before collecting samples that have to be stored for long time before DNA extraction.

  6. Manual on sample-based data collection for fisheries assessment : Examples from Viet Nam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Per Johan

    with through both detailed discussion and by using simple examples. These examples are mostly based on situations in tropical fisheries and, in particular, experience has been drawn from developing a data collection programme in Viet Nam. The main questions addressed in the manual are which fisheries data...... (artisanal) vessels and a few large (industrial) vessels. The methodology is the "sample-based approach" - the manual does not deal with a methodology that assumes complete enumeration. The data collection methodology presented attempts to utilize whatever information can be obtained in practice......This manual deals with the practical implementation of a routine data collection programme. This programme is developed through a top-down approach, from the identification of the objectives down to the practical recording and management of data obtained from the fishery. The issues are dealt...

  7. Water Quality Sampling Locations Along the Shoreline of the Columbia River, Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Robert E.; Patton, Gregory W.

    2009-12-14

    As environmental monitoring evolved on the Hanford Site, several different conventions were used to name or describe location information for various sampling sites along the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. These methods range from handwritten descriptions in field notebooks to the use of modern electronic surveying equipment, such as Global Positioning System receivers. These diverse methods resulted in inconsistent archiving of analytical results in various electronic databases and published reports because of multiple names being used for the same site and inaccurate position data. This document provides listings of sampling sites that are associated with groundwater and river water sampling. The report identifies names and locations for sites associated with sampling: (a) near-river groundwater using aquifer sampling tubes; (b) riverbank springs and springs areas; (c) pore water collected from riverbed sediment; and (d) Columbia River water. Included in the listings are historical names used for a particular site and the best available geographic coordinates for the site, as of 2009. In an effort to create more consistency in the descriptive names used for water quality sampling sites, a naming convention is proposed in this document. The convention assumes that a unique identifier is assigned to each site that is monitored and that this identifier serves electronic database management requirements. The descriptive name is assigned for the convenience of the subsequent data user. As the historical database is used more intensively, this document may be revised as a consequence of discovering potential errors and also because of a need to gain consensus on the proposed naming convention for some water quality monitoring sites.

  8. Water-chemistry data collected in and near Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park, Hawaii, 2012–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Fred D; Oki, Delwyn S.; Johnson, Adam G.

    2014-01-01

    Kaloko-Honokōhau National Historical Park (KAHO) on western Hawaiʻi was established in 1978 to preserve, interpret, and perpetuate traditional Native Hawaiian culture and activities, including the preservation of a variety of culturally and ecologically significant water resources that are vital to this mission. KAHO water bodies provide habitat for 1 threatened, 11 endangered, and 3 candidate threatened or endangered species. These habitats are sustained by, and in the case of ʻAimakapā Fishpond and the anchialine pools, entirely dependent on, groundwater from the Keauhou aquifer system. Development of inland impounded groundwater in the Keauhou aquifer system may affect the coastal freshwater-lens system on which KAHO depends, if the inland impounded-groundwater and coastal freshwater-lens systems are hydrologically connected. This report documents water-chemistry results from a U.S. Geological Survey study that collected and analyzed water samples from 2012 to 2014 from 25 sites in and near KAHO to investigate potential geochemical indicators in water that might indicate the presence or absence of a hydrologic connection between the inland impounded-groundwater and coastal freshwater-lens systems in the area. Samples were collected under high-tide and low-tide conditions for KAHO sites, and in dry-season and wet-season conditions for all sites. Samples were collected from two ocean sites, two fishponds, three anchialine pools, and three monitoring wells within KAHO. Two additional nearshore wells were sampled on property adjacent to and north of KAHO. Additional samples from the freshwater-lens system were collected from six inland wells located upslope from KAHO, including three production wells. Seven production wells in the inland impounded-groundwater system also were sampled. Water samples were analyzed for major ions, selected trace elements, rare-earth elements, strontium-isotope ratio, and stable isotopes of water. Precipitation samples from five

  9. Urine concentrations of oral salbutamol in samples collected after intense exercise in endurance athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostrup, Morten; Kalsen, Anders; Auchenberg, Michael; Rzeppa, Sebastian; Hemmersbach, Peter; Bangsbo, Jens; Backer, Vibeke

    2014-06-01

    Our objective was to investigate urine concentrations of 8 mg oral salbutamol in samples collected after intense exercise in endurance athletes. Nine male endurance athletes with a VO2max of 70.2 ± 5.9 mL/min/kg (mean ± SD) took part in the study. Two hours after administration of 8 mg oral salbutamol, subjects performed submaximal exercise for 15 min followed by two, 2-min exercise bouts at an intensity corresponding to 110% of VO2max and a bout to exhaustion at same intensity. Urine samples were collected 4, 8, and 12 h following administration of salbutamol. Samples were analyzed by the Norwegian World Anti-doping Agency (WADA) laboratory. Adjustment of urine concentrations of salbutamol to a urine specific gravity (USG) of 1.020 g/mL was compared with no adjustment according to WADA's technical documents. We observed greater (P = 0.01) urine concentrations of salbutamol 4 h after administration when samples were adjusted to a USG of 1.020 g/mL compared with no adjustment (3089 ± 911 vs. 1918 ± 1081 ng/mL). With the current urine decision limit of 1200 ng/mL for salbutamol on WADA's 2013 list of prohibited substances, fewer false negative urine samples were observed when adjusted to a USG of 1.020 g/mL compared with no adjustment. In conclusion, adjustment of urine samples to a USG of 1.020 g/mL decreases risk of false negative doping tests after administration of oral salbutamol. Adjusting urine samples for USG might be useful when evaluating urine concentrations of salbutamol in doping cases.

  10. The determination of the linear alkylbenzene sulfonate isomers in water samples by gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldovan, Zaharie; Avram, Veronica; Marincas, Olivian; Petrov, Plamen; Ternes, Thomas

    2011-01-14

    A number of 20 compounds of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LASs) family were identified by electron impact mass spectrometry (EI-MS) in water samples collected from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). This paper presents the mass spectra of 20 compounds, the proposed mechanism of formation of the diagnostic ions obtained by EI-MS and the distribution of individual isomers in water samples collected from compartments of WWTP. The individual isomers from four homolog series C(10)-, C(11)-, C(12)- and C(13)-LAS were analyzed as methyl derivatives.

  11. Sampling and Selection Factors that Enhance the Diversity of Microbial Collections: Application to Biopesticide Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Kyung Park

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Diverse bacteria are known to colonize plants. However, only a small fraction of that diversity has been evaluated for their biopesticide potential. To date, the criteria for sampling and selection in such bioprospecting endeavors have not been systematically evaluated in terms of the relative amount of diversity they provide for analysis. The present study aimed to enhance the success of bio-prospecting efforts by increasing the diversity while removing the genotypic redundancy often present in large collections of bacteria. We developed a multivariate sampling and marker-based selection strategy that significantly increase the diversity of bacteria recovered from plants. In doing so, we quantified the effects of varying sampling intensity, media composition, incubation conditions, plant species, and soil source on the diversity of recovered isolates. Subsequent sequencing and high-throughput phenotypic analyses of a small fraction of the collected isolates revealed that this approach led to the recovery of over a dozen rare and, to date, poorly characterized genera of plant-associated bacteria with significant biopesticide activities. Overall, the sampling and selection approach described led to an approximately 5-fold improvement in efficiency and the recovery of several novel strains of bacteria with significant biopesticide potential.

  12. Optimized sample preparation of endoscopic collected pancreatic fluid for SDS-PAGE analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulo, Joao A; Lee, Linda S; Wu, Bechien; Repas, Kathryn; Banks, Peter A; Conwell, Darwin L; Steen, Hanno

    2010-07-01

    The standardization of methods for human body fluid protein isolation is a critical initial step for proteomic analyses aimed to discover clinically relevant biomarkers. Several caveats have hindered pancreatic fluid proteomics, including the heterogeneity of samples and protein degradation. We aim to optimize sample handling of pancreatic fluid that has been collected using a safe and effective endoscopic collection method (endoscopic pancreatic function test). Using SDS-PAGE protein profiling, we investigate (i) precipitation techniques to maximize protein extraction, (ii) auto-digestion of pancreatic fluid following prolonged exposure to a range of temperatures, (iii) effects of multiple freeze-thaw cycles on protein stability, and (iv) the utility of protease inhibitors. Our experiments revealed that TCA precipitation resulted in the most efficient extraction of protein from pancreatic fluid of the eight methods we investigated. In addition, our data reveal that although auto-digestion of proteins is prevalent at 23 and 37 degrees C, incubation on ice significantly slows such degradation. Similarly, when the sample is maintained on ice, proteolysis is minimal during multiple freeze-thaw cycles. We have also determined the addition of protease inhibitors to be assay-dependent. Our optimized sample preparation strategy can be applied to future proteomic analyses of pancreatic fluid.

  13. Evidence of microplastics in samples of zooplankton from Portuguese coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frias, J P G L; Otero, V; Sobral, P

    2014-04-01

    Records of high concentrations of plastic and microplastic marine debris floating in the ocean have led to investigate the presence of microplastics in samples of zooplankton from Portuguese coastal waters. Zooplankton samples collected at four offshore sites, in surveys conducted between 2002 and 2008, with three different sampling methods, were used in this preliminary study. A total of 152 samples were processed and microplastics were identified in 93 of them, corresponding to 61% of the total. Costa Vicentina, followed by Lisboa, were the regions with higher microplastic concentrations (0.036 and 0.033 no. m⁻³) and abundances (0.07 and 0.06 cm³ m⁻³), respectively. Microplastic: zooplankton ratios were also higher in these two regions, which is probably related to the proximity of densely populated areas and inputs from the Tejo and Sado river estuaries. Microplastics polymers were identified using Micro Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (μ-FTIR), as polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP) and polyacrylates (PA). The present work is the first report on the composition of microplastic particles collected with plankton nets in Portuguese coastal waters. Plankton surveys from regular monitoring campaigns conducted worldwide may be used to monitor plastic particles in the oceans and constitute an important and low cost tool to address marine litter within the scope of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (2008/56/EC).

  14. Liquid Water from First Principles: Validation of Different Sampling Approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mundy, C J; Kuo, W; Siepmann, J; McGrath, M J; Vondevondele, J; Sprik, M; Hutter, J; Parrinello, M; Mohamed, F; Krack, M; Chen, B; Klein, M

    2004-05-20

    A series of first principles molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations were carried out for liquid water to assess the validity and reproducibility of different sampling approaches. These simulations include Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations using the program CPMD with different values of the fictitious electron mass in the microcanonical and canonical ensembles, Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics using the programs CPMD and CP2K in the microcanonical ensemble, and Metropolis Monte Carlo using CP2K in the canonical ensemble. With the exception of one simulation for 128 water molecules, all other simulations were carried out for systems consisting of 64 molecules. It is found that the structural and thermodynamic properties of these simulations are in excellent agreement with each other as long as adiabatic sampling is maintained in the Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations either by choosing a sufficiently small fictitious mass in the microcanonical ensemble or by Nos{acute e}-Hoover thermostats in the canonical ensemble. Using the Becke-Lee-Yang-Parr exchange and correlation energy functionals and norm-conserving Troullier-Martins or Goedecker-Teter-Hutter pseudopotentials, simulations at a fixed density of 1.0 g/cm{sup 3} and a temperature close to 315 K yield a height of the first peak in the oxygen-oxygen radial distribution function of about 3.0, a classical constant-volume heat capacity of about 70 J K{sup -1} mol{sup -1}, and a self-diffusion constant of about 0.1 Angstroms{sup 2}/ps.

  15. Radioactivity measurements in soil samples collected in the Republic of Srpska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jankovic, Marija [Institute Vinca, Radiation and Environmental Protection Department, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)], E-mail: marijam@vin.bg.ac.yu; Todorovic, Dragana [Institute Vinca, Radiation and Environmental Protection Department, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Savanovic, Milovan [Faculty of Sciences, Department of Physics, Mladena Stojanovica 2, 78000 Banjaluka, Republic of Srpska (Bosnia and Herzegowina)

    2008-09-15

    During 2005 and 2006, soil samples were collected from different regions in the Republic of Srpska, in order to evaluate their radioactivity. During the war that lasted from 1994 to 1995, it is known that some locations in the Republic of Srpska were imposed upon by NATO forces. Sampled locations were chosen far away from the bombed places in order to check whether the depleted uranium was dispersed over long distances. The activity concentrations of radionuclides in soil samples were determined by gamma spectrometry (HPGe detector, relative efficiency 23%). Results showed the presence of natural radionuclides {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, {sup 40}K, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U as well as the produced radionuclide {sup 137}Cs (from the Chernobyl accident and nuclear probes). In order to evaluate the radiological hazard of the natural radioactivity, the radium equivalent activity, the gamma-absorbed dose rate, the annual effective dose rate and the external hazard index have been calculated.

  16. Electronic Wave Packet Interferometry of Gas Phase Samples: High Resolution Spectra and Collective Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stienkemeier, Frank

    2017-06-01

    Time-resolved coherent spectroscopy has opened many new directions to study ultrafast dynamics in complex quantum systems. While most applications have been achieved in the condensed phase, we are focusing on dilute gas phase samples, in particular, on doped helium droplet beams. Isolation in such droplets at millikelvin temperatures provides unique opportunities to synthesize well-defined complexes, to prepare specific ro-vibronic states, and study their dynamics. To account for the small densities in our samples, we apply a phase modulation technique in order to reach enough sensitivity and a high spectral resolution in electronic wave packet interferometry experiments. The combination with mass-resolved ion detection enabled us e.g. to characterize vibrational structures of excimer molecules. By extending this technique we have observed collective resonances in samples of very low density (10^8 cm^{-3}). With a variant of this method, we are currently elaborating the implementation of nonlinear all-XUV spectroscopy.

  17. Streamflow characterization and summary of water-quality data collection during the Mississippi River flood, April through July 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Heather L.; Barnes, Kimberlee K.

    2013-01-01

    From April through July 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey collected surface-water samples from 69 water-quality stations and 3 flood-control structures in 4 major subbasins of the Mississippi River Basin to characterize the water quality during the 2011 Mississippi River flood. Most stations were sampled at least monthly for field parameters suspended sediment, nutrients, and selected pesticides. Samples were collected at daily to biweekly frequencies at selected sites in the case of suspended sediment. Hydro-carbon analysis was performed on samples collected at two sites in the Atchafalaya River Basin to assess the water-quality implications of opening the Morganza Floodway. Water-quality samples obtained during the flood period were collected at flows well above normal streamflow conditions at the majority of the stations throughout the Mississippi River Basin and its subbasins. Heavy rainfall and snowmelt resulted in high streamflow in the Mississippi River Basin from April through July 2011. The Ohio River Subbasin contributed to most of the flow in the lower Mississippi-Atchafalaya River Subbasin during the months of April and May because of widespread rainfall, whereas snowmelt and precipitation from the Missouri River Subbasin and the upper Mississippi River Subbasin contributed to most of the flow in the lower Mississippi-Atchafalaya River Subbasin during June and July. Peak streamflows from the 2011 flood were higher than peak streamflow during previous historic floods at most the selected streamgages in the Mississippi River Basin. In the Missouri River Subbasin, the volume of water moved during the 1952 flood was greater than the amount move during the 2011 flood. Median concentrations of suspended sediment and total phosphorus were higher in the Missouri River Subbasin during the flood when compared to the other three subbasins. Surface water in the upper Mississippi River Subbasin contained higher median concentrations of total nitrogen, nitrate

  18. Evaluation of selected information on splitting devices for water samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capel, P.D.; Larson, S.J.

    1996-01-01

    Four devices for splitting water samples into representative aliquots are used by the U.S. Geological Survey's Water Resources Division. A thorough evaluation of these devices (14-liter churn, 8-liter churn, plastic cone, and Teflon cone) encompasses a wide variety of concerns, based on both chemical and physical considerations. This report surveys the existing data (as of April 1994) on cleaning efficiency and splitting capability of these devices and presents the data in a systematic framework for evaluation. From the existing data, some of these concerns are adequately or partially addressed, but the majority of concerns could not be addressed because of the lack of data. In general, the existing cleaning and transport protocols are adequate at the milligram per liter level, but the adequacy is largely unknown for trace elements and organic chemicals at lower concen- trations. The existing data indicate that better results are obtained when the splitters are cleaned in the laboratory rather than in the field. Two conclusions that can be reached on the splitting capability of solids are that more work must be done with all four devices to characterize and quantify their limitations and range of usefulness, and that the 14-liter churn (and by association, the 8-liter churn) is not useful in obtaining representative splits of sand-sized particles.

  19. Voltammetric Determination of Ni and Co in Water Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Melian, Jose Alberto; Dona-Rodriguez, Jose Miguel; Hernandez-Brito, Joaquin; Perez Pena, Jesus

    1997-12-01

    Stripping voltammetry has attracted considerable attention for the determination of trace and ultratrace metals. This is mainly due to its high sensitivity and low cost of instrumentation. In adsorptive stripping voltammetry an organometallic complex is formed by the addition of a suitable ligand to the sample. The complex is adsorbed onto the Hg-drop by the application of the proper adsorption potential (more positive than E1/2) and solution stirring. After an adsorption period a cathodic (negative going) potential scan is applied and the metal concentration is calculated by the standard addition method. Nickel is found in natural waters at nM levels and is closely related with phosphates and silicates. Cobalt is a component of vitamin B12 and occurs in natural waters at concentration about 0.1 nM. We propose the voltammetric analysis of these elements by adsorptive stripping voltammetry as an introductory laboratory experiment for advanced chemistry or for chemical or environmental engineering students. The experiment has been proven to be very suitable for the laboratory part of the instrumental analysis course at the University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain). In general, about 70% of the students have obtained good agreement (less than 10% of difference) between their results and the expected ones. Two hours is enough for the overall instrumental performance and the preparation of Ni and Co standards.

  20. Comparative Evaluation of Drug Deposition in Hair Samples Collected from Different Anatomical Body Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzatzarakis, Manolis N; Alegakis, Athanasios K; Kavvalakis, Matthaios P; Vakonaki, Elena; Stivaktakis, Polychronis D; Kanaki, Katerina; Vardavas, Alexander I; Barbounis, Emmanouil G; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we focused on the validation of a method for the simultaneous detection and quantification of cannabinoids, cocaine and opiates in hair as well as on the distribution of the drugs deposition in hair collected from different anatomical body sites. The proposed analytical procedure was validated for various parameters such as selectivity, linearity, limit of quantification, precision, accuracy, matrix effect and recovery. Four hundred and eighty-one samples were collected during 2010-2015 from 231 drug abusers. A 6-h ultrasonic-assisted methanolic extraction was applied for the isolation of the drugs. The analysis was performed in an liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry system for the opiates and cocaine and in a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry system for the cannabinoids. Cocaine was the most frequent detected drug (68.8-80.5%) followed by cannabinoids (47.6-63.3%) and opiates (34.7-46.7%) depending on the body site that the samples were collected. The mean concentrations of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) were 0.63 ± 2.11 for head, 0.54 ± 1.03 for pubic, 0.34 ± 0.51 for axillary and 0.18 ± 0.18 ng/mg for chest hair samples. The values of cocaine were 6.52 ± 15.98, 4.64 ± 10.77, 6.96 ± 38.21 and 3.94 ± 6.35 ng/mg, while the values of 6-monoacetylmorphine (MAM) were 3.33 ± 5.89, 3.06 ± 9.33, 1.37 ± 1.37 and 16.4 ± 1.77 ng/mg for head, pubic, axillary and chest samples, respectively. Differences between the detected concentrations of cocaine and opiates between the hair samples of different anatomical sites, as well as the ratio of drug metabolites to the parent compounds were observed in some cases. Statistically significant differences in the mean detected levels were noticed for morphine and heroin between head and pubic hair and also for cocaine and benzoylecgonine, between head and axillary hair samples. Moreover, the ratio of MAM to morphine and THC to cannabinol seems to correlate statistically with the total opiate or

  1. Recovery data for surface water, groundwater and lab reagent samples analyzed by the USGS National Water Quality Laboratory schedule 2437, water years 2013-15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoda, Megan E.; Nowell, Lisa H.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Sandstrom, Mark W.; Stone, Wesley W.

    2017-01-01

    Analytical recovery is the concentration of an analyte measured in a water-quality sample expressed as a percentage of the known concentration added to the sample (Mueller and others, 2015). Analytical recovery (hereafter referred to as “recovery”) can be used to understand method bias and variability and to assess the temporal changes in a method over time (Martin and others, 2009). This data set includes two tables: one table of field spike recovery data and one table of lab reagent spike recovery data. The table of field spike recovery data includes results from paired environmental and spike samples collected by the National Water Quality Program, National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Project in surface water and groundwater. These samples were collected as part of the NAWQA Project’s National Water Quality Network: Rivers and Streams assessment, Regional Stream Quality Assessment studies and in multiple groundwater networks following standard practices (Mueller and others, 1997).  This table includes environmental and spike water-quality sample data stored in the USGS National Water Information System (NWIS) database (https://dx.doi.org/10.5066/F7P55KJN). Concentrations of pesticides in spike samples, while stored in the NWIS database, are not publically available. The calculation of recovery based on these field sample data is outlined in Mueller and others (2015). Lab reagent spikes are pesticide-free reagent water spiked with a known concentration of pesticide. Lab reagent spikes are prepared in the lab and their recovery can be directly measured. The table of lab reagent spike data contains quality control sample information stored in the USGS National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL) database. Both tables include fields for data-quality indicators that are described in the data processing steps of this metadata file. These tables were developed in order to support a USGS Scientific Investigations Report with the working title

  2. A fast method to prepare water samples for 15N analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖化云; 刘丛强

    2001-01-01

    Automatic element analyser is often used to prepare organic matters tor 15N analysis. It is seldom used to prepare water samples. Water samples are conventionally dealt with by Kjeldahl-Rittenberg technique. But it requires tedious and labor-intensive sample preparation. A fast and reliable method is proposed in this paper to prepare water samples for 15N analysis.

  3. Pesticide residues in beeswax samples collected from honey bee colonies (Apis mellifera L.) in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauzat, Marie-Pierre; Faucon, Jean-Paul

    2007-11-01

    In 2002 a field survey was initiated in French apiaries in order to monitor the health of honey bee colonies (Apis mellifera L.). Studied apiaries were evenly distributed across five sites located in continental France. Beeswax samples were collected once a year over 2 years from a total of 125 honey bee colonies. Multiresidue analyses were performed on these samples in order to identify residues of 16 insecticides and acaricides and two fungicides. Residues of 14 of the searched-for compounds were found in samples. Tau-fluvalinate, coumaphos and endosulfan residues were the most frequently occurring residues (61.9, 52.2 and 23.4% of samples respectively). Coumaphos was found in the highest average quantities (792.6 microg kg(-1)). Residues of cypermethrin, lindane and deltamethrin were found in 21.9, 4.3 and 2.4% of samples respectively. Statistical tests showed no difference between years of sampling, with the exception of the frequency of pyrethroid residues. Beeswax contamination was the result of both in-hive acaricide treatments and, to a much lesser extent, environmental pollution.

  4. Assessment of exhaust emissions from carbon nanotube production and particle collection by sampling filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Candace Su-Jung; Hofmann, Mario; Hallock, Marilyn; Ellenbecker, Michael; Kong, Jing

    2015-11-01

    This study performed a workplace evaluation of emission control using available air sampling filters and characterized the emitted particles captured in filters. Characterized particles were contained in the exhaust gas released from carbon nanotube (CNT) synthesis using chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Emitted nanoparticles were collected on grids to be analyzed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). CNT clusters in the exhaust gas were collected on filters for investigation. Three types of filters, including Nalgene surfactant-free cellulose acetate (SFCA), Pall A/E glass fiber, and Whatman QMA quartz filters, were evaluated as emission control measures, and particles deposited in the filters were characterized using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) to further understand the nature of particles emitted from this CNT production. STEM analysis for collected particles on filters found that particles deposited on filter fibers had a similar morphology on all three filters, that is, hydrophobic agglomerates forming circular beaded clusters on hydrophilic filter fibers on the collecting side of the filter. CNT agglomerates were found trapped underneath the filter surface. The particle agglomerates consisted mostly of elemental carbon regardless of the shapes. Most particles were trapped in filters and no particles were found in the exhaust downstream from A/E and quartz filters, while a few nanometer-sized and submicrometer-sized individual particles and filament agglomerates were found downstream from the SFCA filter. The number concentration of particles with diameters from 5 nm to 20 µm was measured while collecting particles on grids at the exhaust piping. Total number concentration was reduced from an average of 88,500 to 700 particle/cm(3) for the lowest found for all filters used. Overall, the quartz filter showed the most consistent and highest particle reduction control, and exhaust particles containing nanotubes were successfully

  5. The Quality of Fog Water Collected for Domestic and Agricultural Use in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schemenauer, Robert S.; Cereceda, Pilar

    1992-03-01

    One exciting new application of meteorology is the prospect of using high-elevation fogs as an and land's water resource. This has now become reality in northern Chile where a pilot project has used 50 fog collectors to generate an average of 7200 1 of water per day during three drought years. The chemical composition of the fog water is of primary importance and is examined in this paper.A small, carefully cleaned fog-water collector was used at the site (elevation 780 m) to study the incoming fog (cloud). The ion and trace-element concentrations met Chilean and the World Health Organization's (WHO) drinking-water standards. The pH values, however, were at times extremely low. Samples from 1987 and 1988 were consistent with those from the larger dataset in 1989. The lowest observed pH was 3.46. The acidity was associated with high concentrations (89%) of excess sulfate in the 15 fog-water samples (based on Cl as the seawater tracer element). The NO3/SO4 equivalents ratio for the fog samples was 0.18, showing the dominance of SO4 in determining the acidity of the fog samples. The relative abundances of ions and trace elements in the dry deposition are very similar to those in the fog water, suggesting that the aerosols originate primarily from evaporated cloud droplets over the ocean. Based on enrichment-factor calculations (with Cl as the indicator element for seawater and A1 for the earth's crust), sea salts were the main source of Na+, Mg++, and Cl in the fog water; soil dust was the main source of Fe, Al and Ti; and other sources provided Ca++, K+, NH4+, Br SO4NO3 As,Cd,Pb,V,Mn,Ni,Cu,SrSb,and Ba in the fog water.The use of enrichment factors based on the relative abundances in soil extracts suggests that As, V, Cu, and Sr may be available from wetted soil dust.The output from the large (48 m2) fog collectors was also acceptable, except for several of the 24 trace elements, which exceeded the maximum allowable values in the first flush of water after a dry

  6. Levels of organochlorine pesticide residues in butter samples collected from the Black Sea Region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Abdurrahman; Dervisoglu, Muhammed; Guvenc, Dilek; Gul, Osman; Yazici, Fehmi; Atmaca, Enes

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the levels of 9 organochlorine compounds (aldrin, hexachlorobenzene, 2,4-DDE, 4,4-DDE, 2,4-DDT, 4,4-DDT, and α-, β-, and γ-HCH) in butter samples collected in the Eastern, Middle and Western Black Sea Regions of Turkey between October 2009 and June 2010. The liquid-liquid extraction method was used to extract the organochlorine compounds from the samples and the measurements were performed by using a gas chromatograph-electron capture detector system. DDT metabolites, aldrin, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and α-, and γ-HCH were not detected in the samples but β-HCH was detected in 3 of a total of 88 samples. In the first period, only one sample from the West Black Sea Region was β-HCH positive (0.014 mg kg(-1)). The other β-HCH positive samples collected in Middle and West Black Sea Regions in the second period had a concentration of 0.066 and 0.019 mg kg(-1), respectively. All concentrations of the detected compounds exceeded the legal limits of 0.003 mg kg(-1) for β-HCH, as prescribed by the Turkish Food Codex, and therefore pose a potential health risk for consumers. The contamination detected is most likely due to the past usage of β-HCH in agriculture and its long term persistence in the environment. These results strongly suggest that further research should be focused on the detection of pesticide residues in agricultural areas across the nation.

  7. Data Validation Package - June 2016 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Green River, Utah, Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linard, Joshua [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Price, Jeffrey [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2016-10-10

    This event included annual sampling of groundwater and surface water locations at the Green River, Utah, Disposal Site. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for US. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated, http://energy.gov/lrnldownloads/sampling-and- analysis-plan-us-department-energy-office-legacy-management-sites). Samples were collected from 15 monitoring wells and two surface locations at the disposal site as specified in the draft 2011 Ground Water Compliance Action Plan for the Green River, Utah, Disposal Site. Planned monitoring locations are shown in Attachment 1, Sampling and Analysis Work Order. A duplicate sample was collected from location 0179. One equipment blank was collected during this sampling event. Water levels were measured at all monitoring wells that were sampled. See Attachment 2, Trip Reports for additional details. The analytical data and associated qualifiers can be viewed in environmental database reports and are also available for viewing with dynamic mapping via the GEMS (Geospatial Environmental Mapping System) website at http://gems.lm.doe.gov/#. No issues were identified during the data validation process that requires additional action or follow-up.

  8. Gross-beta activity in ground water: natural sources and artifacts of sampling and laboratory analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Alan H.

    1995-01-01

    Gross-beta activity has been used as an indicator of beta-emitting isotopes in water since at least the early 1950s. Originally designed for detection of radioactive releases from nuclear facilities and weapons tests, analysis of gross-beta activity is widely used in studies of naturally occurring radioactivity in ground water. Analyses of about 800 samples from 5 ground-water regions of the United States provide a basis for evaluating the utility of this measurement. The data suggest that measured gross-beta activities are due to (1) long-lived radionuclides in ground water, and (2) ingrowth of beta-emitting radionuclides during holding times between collection of samples and laboratory measurements.Although40K and228Ra appear to be the primary sources of beta activity in ground water, the sum of40K plus228Ra appears to be less than the measured gross-beta activity in most ground-water samples. The difference between the contribution from these radionuclides and gross-beta activity is most pronounced in ground water with gross-beta activities > 10 pCi/L, where these 2 radionuclides account for less than one-half the measured ross-beta activity. One exception is groundwater from the Coastal Plain of New Jersey, where40K plus228Ra generally contribute most of the gross-beta activity. In contrast,40K and228Ra generally contribute most of beta activity in ground water with gross-beta activities measure all beta activity in ground water. Although3H contributes beta activity to some ground water, it is driven from the sample before counting and therefore is not detected by gross-beta measurements. Beta-emitting radionuclides with half-lives shorter than a few days can decay to low values between sampling and counting. Although little is known about concentrations of most short-lived beta-emitting radionuclides in environmental ground water (water unaffected by direct releases from nuclear facilities and weapons tests), their activities are expected to be low.Ingrowth of

  9. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; in-bottle acid digestion of whole-water samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, G.L.; Fishman, M. J.; Garbarino, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    Water samples for trace-metal determinations routinely have been prepared in open laboratories. For example, the U.S. Geological Survey method I-3485-85 (Extraction Procedure, for Water- Suspended Sediment) is performed in a laboratory hood on a laboratory bench without any special precautions to control airborne contamination. This method tends to be contamination prone for several trace metals primarily because the samples are transferred, acidified, digested, and filtered in an open laboratory environment. To reduce trace-metal contamination of digested water samples, procedures were established that rely on minimizing sample-transfer steps and using a class-100 clean bench during sample filtration. This new procedure involves the following steps: 1. The sample is acidified with HCl directly in the original water-sample bottle. 2. The water-sample bottle with the cap secured is heated in a laboratory oven. 3. The digestate is filtered in a class-100 laminar-flow clean bench. The exact conditions used (that is, oven temperature, time of heating, and filtration methods) for this digestion procedure are described. Comparisons between the previous U.S Geological Survey open-beaker method I-3485-85 and the new in-bottle procedure for synthetic and field-collected water samples are given. When the new procedure is used, blank concentrations for most trace metals determined are reduced significantly.

  10. Surface Sampling Collection and Culture Methods for Escherichia coli in Household Environments with High Fecal Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exum, Natalie G; Kosek, Margaret N; Davis, Meghan F; Schwab, Kellogg J

    2017-08-22

    Empiric quantification of environmental fecal contamination is an important step toward understanding the impact that water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions have on reducing enteric infections. There is a need to standardize the methods used for surface sampling in field studies that examine fecal contamination in low-income settings. The dry cloth method presented in this manuscript improves upon the more commonly used swabbing technique that has been shown in the literature to have a low sampling efficiency. The recovery efficiency of a dry electrostatic cloth sampling method was evaluated using Escherichia coli and then applied to household surfaces in Iquitos, Peru, where there is high fecal contamination and enteric infection. Side-by-side measurements were taken from various floor locations within a household at the same time over a three-month period to compare for consistency of quantification of E. coli bacteria. The dry cloth sampling method in the laboratory setting showed 105% (95% Confidence Interval: 98%, 113%) E. coli recovery efficiency off of the cloths. The field application demonstrated strong agreement of side-by-side results (Pearson correlation coefficient for dirt surfaces was 0.83 (p samples (Pearson (0.53, p method can be utilized in households with high bacterial loads using either continuous (quantitative) or categorical (semi-quantitative) data. The standardization of this low-cost, dry electrostatic cloth sampling method can be used to measure differences between households in intervention and non-intervention arms of randomized trials.

  11. Critical review and meta-analysis of spurious hemolysis in blood samples collected from intravenous catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Cervellin, Gianfranco; Mattiuzzi, Camilla

    2013-01-01

    A number of preanalytical activities strongly influence sample quality, especially those related to sample collection. Since blood drawing through intravenous catheters is reported as a potential source of erythrocyte injury, we performed a critical review and meta-analysis about the risk of catheter-related hemolysis. We performed a systematic search on PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus to estimate the risk of spurious hemolysis in blood samples collected from intravenous catheters. A meta-analysis with calculation of Odds ratio (OR) and Relative risk (RR) along with 95% Confidence interval (95% CI) was carried out using random effect mode. Fifteen articles including 17 studies were finally selected. The total number of patients was 14,796 in 13 studies assessing catheter and evacuated tubes versus straight needle and evacuated tubes, and 1251 in 4 studies assessing catheter and evacuated tubes versus catheter and manual aspiration. A significant risk of hemolysis was found in studies assessing catheter and evacuated tubes versus straight needle and evacuated tubes (random effect OR 3.4; 95% CI = 2.9-3.9 and random effect RR 1.07; 95% CI = 1.06-1.08), as well as in studies assessing catheter and evacuated tubes versus catheter and manual aspiration of blood (OR 3.7; 95% CI = 2.7-5.1 and RR 1.32; 95% CI = 1.24-1.40). Sample collection through intravenous catheters is associated with significant higher risk of spurious hemolysis as compared with standard blood drawn by straight needle, and this risk is further amplified when intravenous catheter are associated with primary evacuated blood tubes as compared with manual aspiration.

  12. Determination of trihalomethanes in water samples: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Pavon, Jose Luis [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad de Salamanca, 37008 Salamanca (Spain)], E-mail: jlpp@usal.es; Herrero Martin, Sara; Garcia Pinto, Carmelo; Moreno Cordero, Bernardo [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad de Salamanca, 37008 Salamanca (Spain)

    2008-11-23

    This article reviews the most recent literature addressing the analytical methods applied for trihalomethanes (THMs) determination in water samples. This analysis is usually performed with gas chromatography (GC) combined with a preconcentration step. The detectors most widely used in this type of analyses are mass spectrometers (MS) and electron capture detectors (ECD). Here, we review the analytical characteristics, the time required for analysis, and the simplicity of the optimised methods. The main difference between these methods lies in the sample pretreatment step; therefore, special emphasis is placed on this aspect. The techniques covered are direct aqueous injection (DAI), liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), headspace (HS), and membrane-based techniques. We also review the main chromatographic columns employed and consider novel aspects of chromatographic analysis, such as the use of fast gas chromatography (FGC). Concerning the detection step, besides the common techniques, the use of uncommon detectors such as fluorescence detector, pulsed discharge photoionization detector (PDPID), dry electrolytic conductivity detector (DELCD), atomic emission detector (AED) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for this type of analysis is described.

  13. STUDIES ON PROPERTY OF SAMPLE SIZE AND DIFFERENT TRAITS FOR CORE COLLECTIONS BASED ON GENOTYPIC VALUES OF COTTON

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Studies were conducted on specific core collections constructedon the basis of different traits and sample size by the method of stepwise cluster with three sampling strategies based on genotypic values of cotton.A total of 21 traits (11 agronomy traits,5 fiber traits and 5 seed traits) were used to construct main core collections.Specific core collections,as representative of the initial collection,were constructed by agronomy,fiber or seed trait,respectively.As compared with the main core collection,specific core collections tended to have similar property for maintaining genetic diversity of agronomy,seed or fiber traits.Core collections developed by about sample size of 17% (P2=0.17) and 24% (P1= 0.24) with three sampling strategies could be quite representative of the initial collection.

  14. A simplified sample train for collection of chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans from incinerator gaseous emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamparski, L. [Dow Chemical Co., Analytical Sciences Laboratory, Midland, MI (United States); Dunn, J. [Dow Chemical Co., Toxicology and Environemental Research, Midland, MI (United States); Nestrick, T.

    2004-09-15

    Because of the complexity of the sample collection procedures for stack gas emissions samples and the limited resources available to meet the ever-increasing sample analysis demands, steps were initiated by Dow Analytical Sciences Lab to reduce the complexity of EPA-defined procedures while not adversely affecting data quality of analytical results. The modified stack gas collection train has been in use for the collection of data to document process improvements undertaken to reduce dioxin emissions from incinerators. This document is intended to 1) describe a simplified stack gas sample collection train which has been used for a number of years at The Dow Chemical Company for the collection of research samples of gaseous emissions from incinerators; 2) explain the procedural differences compared to standard methods; 3) compare data generated by the techniques; and 4) discuss any potential biases in samples collected by this method.

  15. Collective Molecular Dynamics of a Floating Water Bridge

    CERN Document Server

    Del Giudice, Emilio; Vitiello, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    When a high voltage is applied to pure water filling two beakers kept close to each other, a connection forms spontaneously, giving the impression of a floating water bridge. This phenomenon is of special interest, since it comprises a number of phenomena currently tackled in modern water science. The formation and the main properties of this floating water bridge are analyzed in the conceptual framework of quantum electrodynamics. The necessary conditions for the formation are investigated as well as the time evolution of the dynamics. The predictions are found in agreement with the observations.

  16. Sampling and analysis for radon-222 dissolved in ground water and surface water

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWayne, Cecil L.; Gesell, T.F.

    1992-01-01

    Radon-222 is a naturally occurring radioactive gas in the uranium-238 decay series that has traditionally been called, simply, radon. The lung cancer risks associated with the inhalation of radon decay products have been well documented by epidemiological studies on populations of uranium miners. The realization that radon is a public health hazard has raised the need for sampling and analytical guidelines for field personnel. Several sampling and analytical methods are being used to document radon concentrations in ground water and surface water worldwide but no convenient, single set of guidelines is available. Three different sampling and analytical methods - bubbler, liquid scintillation, and field screening - are discussed in this paper. The bubbler and liquid scintillation methods have high accuracy and precision, and small analytical method detection limits of 0.2 and 10 pCi/l (picocuries per liter), respectively. The field screening method generally is used as a qualitative reconnaissance tool.

  17. Continuous and discrete water-quality data collected at five sites on Lake Houston near Houston, Texas, 2006-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beussink, Amy M.; Burnich, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    Lake Houston, a reservoir impounded in 1954 by the City of Houston, Texas, is a primary source of drinking water for Houston and surrounding areas. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Houston, developed a continuous water-quality monitoring network to track daily changes in water quality in the southwestern quadrant of Lake Houston beginning in 2006. Continuous water-quality data (the physiochemical properties water temperature, specific conductance, pH, dissolved oxygen concentration, and turbidity) were collected from Lake Houston to characterize the in-lake processes that affect water quality. Continuous data were collected hourly from mobile, multi-depth monitoring stations developed and constructed by the U.S. Geological Survey. Multi-depth monitoring stations were installed at five sites in three general locations in the southwestern quadrant of the lake. Discrete water-quality data (samples) were collected routinely (once or twice each month) at all sites to characterize the chemical and biological (phytoplankton and bacteria) response to changes in the continuous water-quality properties. Physiochemical properties (the five continuously monitored plus transparency) were measured in the field when samples were collected. In addition to the routine samples, discrete water-quality samples were collected synoptically (one or two times during the study period) at all sites to determine the presence and levels of selected constituents not analyzed in routine samples. Routine samples were measured or analyzed for acid neutralizing capacity; selected major ions and trace elements (calcium, silica, and manganese); nutrients (filtered and total ammonia nitrogen, filtered nitrate plus nitrite nitrogen, total nitrate nitrogen, filtered and total nitrite nitrogen, filtered and total orthophosphate phosphorus, total phosphorus, total nitrogen, total organic carbon); fecal indicator bacteria (total coliform and Escherichia coli); sediment

  18. CHARACTERISTIC OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER SAMPLES COLLECTED FROM TWO SEMI INDUSTRIAL SITES IN BANDUNG, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Dwiana Lestiani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Air particulate matter concentrations, black carbon as well as elemental concentrations in two semi industrial sites were investigated as a preliminary study for evaluation of air quality in these areas. Sampling of airborne particulate matter was conducted in July 2009 using a Gent stacked filter unit sampler and a total of 18 pairs of samples were collected. Black carbon was determined by reflectance measurement and elemental analysis was performed using particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE. Elements Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and As were detected. Twenty four hour PM2.5 concentration at semi industrial sites Kiaracondong and Holis ranged from 4.0 to 22.2 µg m-3, while the PM10 concentration ranged from 24.5 to 77.1 µg m-3. High concentration of crustal elements, sulphur and zinc were identified in fine and coarse fractions for both sites. The fine fraction data from both sites were analyzed using a multivariate principal component analysis and for Kiaracondong site, identified factors are attributed to sea-salt with soil dust, vehicular emissions and biomass burning, non ferrous smelter, and iron/steel work industry, while for Holis site identified factors are attributed to soil dust, industrial emissions, vehicular emissions with biomass burning, and sea-salt. Although particulate samples were collected from semi industrial sites, vehicular emissions constituted with S, Zn and BC were identified in both sites.

  19. Diffraction cartography: applying microbeams to macromolecular crystallography sample evaluation and data collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, Matthew W; Guijarro, Matias; Petitdemange, Sebastien; Baker, Isabel; Svensson, Olof; Burghammer, Manfred; Mueller-Dieckmann, Christoph; Gordon, Elspeth J; Flot, David; McSweeney, Sean M; Leonard, Gordon A

    2010-08-01

    Crystals of biological macromolecules often exhibit considerable inter-crystal and intra-crystal variation in diffraction quality. This requires the evaluation of many samples prior to data collection, a practice that is already widespread in macromolecular crystallography. As structural biologists move towards tackling ever more ambitious projects, new automated methods of sample evaluation will become crucial to the success of many projects, as will the availability of synchrotron-based facilities optimized for high-throughput evaluation of the diffraction characteristics of samples. Here, two examples of the types of advanced sample evaluation that will be required are presented: searching within a sample-containing loop for microcrystals using an X-ray beam of 5 microm diameter and selecting the most ordered regions of relatively large crystals using X-ray beams of 5-50 microm in diameter. A graphical user interface developed to assist with these screening methods is also presented. For the case in which the diffraction quality of a relatively large crystal is probed using a microbeam, the usefulness and implications of mapping diffraction-quality heterogeneity (diffraction cartography) are discussed. The implementation of these techniques in the context of planned upgrades to the ESRF's structural biology beamlines is also presented.

  20. Methods for collection and analysis of geopressured geothermal and oil field waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lico, Michael S.; Kharaka, Yousif K.; Carothers, William W.; Wright, Victoria A.

    1982-01-01

    Present methods are described for the collection, preservation, and chemical analysis of waters produced from geopressured geothermal and petroleum wells. Detailed procedures for collection include precautions and equipment necessary to ensure that the sample is representative of the water produced. Procedures for sample preservation include filtration, acidification, dilution for silica, methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) extraction of aluminum, addition of potassium permanganate to preserve mercury, and precipitation of carbonate species as strontium carbonate for stable carbon isotopes and total dissolved carbonate analysis. Characteristics determined at the well site are sulfide, pH, ammonia, and conductivity. Laboratory procedures are given for the analysis of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, iron, manganese, zinc, lead, aluminum, .and mercury by atomic absorption and flame emission spectroscopy. Chloride is determined by silver nitrate titration and fluoride by ion-specific electrode. Bromide and iodide concentrations are determined by the hypochlorite oxidation method. Sulfate is analyzed by titration using barium chloride with thorin indicator after pretreatment with alumina. Boron and silica are determined colorimetrically by the carmine and molybdate-blue methods, respectively. Aliphatic acid anions (C2 through C5) are determined by gas chromatography after separation and concentration in a chloroform-butanol mixture.

  1. The heavy metal content of wild edible mushroom samples collected in canakkale province, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayir, Akin; Coşkun, Münevver; Coşkun, Mahmut

    2010-05-01

    In this study, concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn) were determined in three edible mushroom species (Lactarius deliciosus, Russula delica, and Rhizopogon roseolus) collected in five sampling sites in Canakkale province, Turkey. Mean values of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn were 0.72, 0.26, 28.34, 1.53, and 64.62 mg/kg, respectively. The highest concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn were determined in species R. delica, while Cr was observed in L. deliciosus. In terms of the nutritional aspect, taking into account the concentration of Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake recommended by FAO/WHO, the maximum concentration of Cd is a restrictive factor for consumption of the collected mushroom species. The concentrations of the other elements have no health risks when consumed at optimal levels.

  2. 75 FR 27575 - Agency Information Collection Activities: State Water Resources Research Institute Program Annual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... Geological Survey Agency Information Collection Activities: State Water Resources Research Institute Program... report on its activities under the grant. The State Water Resources Research Institute Program issues an... Water Resources Research Act of 1984, as amended (42 U.S.C. 10301 et seq.), authorizes a water resources...

  3. Effects of aerosol collection and extraction procedures on the optical properties of water-soluble organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladenov, N.; Alados-Arboledas, L.; Olmo Reyes, F. J.; Reche, I.

    2009-12-01

    Water-soluble organic compounds (WSOC) are routinely collected using active and passive aerosol samplers and, after extraction in water, analyzed using UV-vis absorbance and fluorescence techniques. These analyses provide important information regarding the chemical character and sources of aerosols worldwide. To evaluate the effects of various aerosol collection and processing methods on the optical properties of WSOC, two-dimensional absorption spectra from 200 to 900 nm and three-dimensional fluorescence excitation-emission spectra (EEMs) from 240 to 450 nm excitation and 300 to 560 nm emission were analyzed in samples obtained simultaneously with different procedures. Samples included: milli-Q purified water passed through 140 mm diameter glass fiber and quartz fiber filters used in high volume PM10 aerosol samplers, 47 mm glass fiber filters used for organic matter analyses, and mixed cellulose 0.2 micron and 0.015 micron filters used for bacterial and viral filtration, respectively; milli-Q purified water rinsed in plastic buckets used for passive wet and dry deposition collection; and WSOC samples extracted from filters by soaking, sonication, and agitation. Parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) modeling of WSOC was performed to quantify the influence of various collection and extraction procedures on fluorescence signatures. All filters examined were found to leach some amount of fluorescent compounds (Figure 1). Mixed cellulose filters, especially those with small pore size, leached substantially more amino acid-like and humic-like material than other filters, whereas leaching from quartz fiber filters used for high volume aerosol collection was minimal (Figure 1). Fluorescence intensities of filter leachates decreased with increased rinsing of filters, indicating that rinsing with purified water prior to filtration is advisable, even for pre-combusted filters. Dissolved organic carbon concentrations of WSOC extracted from filters by sonication, agitation

  4. Efficient isolation of multiphoton processes and detection of collective states in dilute samples

    CERN Document Server

    Bruder, Lukas; Stienkemeier, Frank

    2015-01-01

    A novel technique to sensitively and selectively isolate multiple-quantum coherences in a femtosecond pump-probe setup is presented. Detecting incoherent observables and imparting lock-in amplification, even weak signals of highly dilute samples can be acquired. Applying this method, efficient isolation of one- and two-photon transitions in a rubidium-doped helium droplet beam experiment is demonstrated and collective resonances up to fourth order are observed in a potassium vapor for the first time. Our approach provides new perspectives for coherent experiments in the deep UV and novel multidimensional spectroscopy schemes, in particular when selective detection of particles in dilute gas-phase targets is possible.

  5. A suspended-particle rosette multi-sampler for discrete biogeochemical sampling in low-particle-density waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breier, J. A.; Rauch, C. G.; McCartney, K.; Toner, B. M.; Fakra, S. C.; White, S. N.; German, C. R.

    2010-06-22

    To enable detailed investigations of early stage hydrothermal plume formation and abiotic and biotic plume processes we developed a new oceanographic tool. The Suspended Particulate Rosette sampling system has been designed to collect geochemical and microbial samples from the rising portion of deep-sea hydrothermal plumes. It can be deployed on a remotely operated vehicle for sampling rising plumes, on a wire-deployed water rosette for spatially discrete sampling of non-buoyant hydrothermal plumes, or on a fixed mooring in a hydrothermal vent field for time series sampling. It has performed successfully during both its first mooring deployment at the East Pacific Rise and its first remotely-operated vehicle deployments along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. It is currently capable of rapidly filtering 24 discrete large-water-volume samples (30-100 L per sample) for suspended particles during a single deployment (e.g. >90 L per sample at 4-7 L per minute through 1 {mu}m pore diameter polycarbonate filters). The Suspended Particulate Rosette sampler has been designed with a long-term goal of seafloor observatory deployments, where it can be used to collect samples in response to tectonic or other events. It is compatible with in situ optical sensors, such as laser Raman or visible reflectance spectroscopy systems, enabling in situ particle analysis immediately after sample collection and before the particles alter or degrade.

  6. Solid-phase extraction and field-amplified sample injection-capillary zone electrophoresis for the analysis of benzophenone UV filters in environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purrà, Miquel; Cinca, Roser; Legaz, Jessica; Núñez, Oscar

    2014-10-01

    A field-amplified sample injection-capillary zone electrophoresis (FASI-CZE) method for the analysis of benzophenone (BP) UV filters in environmental water samples was developed, allowing the separation of all compounds in less than 8 min. A 9- to 25-fold sensitivity enhancement was obtained with FASI-CZE, achieving limits of detection down to 21-59 μg/L for most of the analyzed BPs, with acceptable run-to-run and day-to-day precisions (relative standard deviations lower than 17%). In order to remove water sample salinity and to enhance FASI sensitivity, an off-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure using a Strata X polymeric reversed-phase sorbent was used and afforded recoveries up to 72-90% for most BPs. With the combination of off-line SPE and FASI-CZE, limits of detection in the range 0.06-0.6 μg/L in a river water matrix, representing a 2,400- to 6,500-fold enhancement, were obtained. Method performance was evaluated by quantifying a blank river water sample spiked at 1 μg/L. For a 95% confidence level, no statistical differences were observed between found concentrations and spiked concentrations (probability at the confidence level, p value, of 0.60), showing that the proposed off-line SPE-FASI-CZE method is suitable for the analysis of BP UV filters in environmental water samples at low microgram per liter levels. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of BPs in river water samples collected up- and downstream of industrialized and urban areas, and in some drinking water samples.

  7. Evaluation of the toxicological properties of ground- and surface-water samples from the Aral Sea Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosch, K. [University of Salzburg, Department of Cell Biology, Hellbrunnerstr. 34, A-5020 Salzburg (Austria); Erdinger, L. [University of Heidelberg, Department for Hygiene and Medical Microbiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Ingel, F. [Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, A.N.Sysin Institute of Human Ecology and Environmental Hygiene, Moscow (Russian Federation); Khussainova, S. [Scientific Center of Pediatrics and Chrildren' s Surgery, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Utegenova, E. [Kazakh Sanitary-Epidemiological Station, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Bresgen, N. [University of Salzburg, Department of Cell Biology, Hellbrunnerstr. 34, A-5020 Salzburg (Austria); Eckl, P.M. [University of Salzburg, Department of Cell Biology, Hellbrunnerstr. 34, A-5020 Salzburg (Austria)]. E-mail: peter.eckl@sbg.ac.at

    2007-03-01

    In order to determine whether there is a potential health risk associated with the water supply in the Aral Sea Basin, ground- and surface-water samples were collected in and around Aralsk and from the Aral Sea in 2002. Water samples from Akchi, a small town close to Almaty, served as controls. Bioassays with different toxicological endpoints were employed to assess the general toxicological status. Additionally, the samples were analysed for microbial contamination. The samples were tested in the primary hepatocyte assay for their potential to induce micronuclei and chromosomal aberrations as cumulative indicators for genotoxicity. In parallel, the effects on cell proliferation evidenced by mitotic index and cytotoxicity such as the appearance of necrotic and apoptotic cells, were determined. Furthermore, samples were examined using the Microtox assay for general toxicity. Chemical analysis according to European regulations was performed and soil and water samples were analysed for DDT and DDE. The results obtained indicated no increased cyto- or genotoxic potential of the water samples, nor levels of DDT or DDE exceeding the thresholds levels suggested by WHO. Our data therefore do not support the hypothesis that the contamination of the drinking water in and around Aralsk is responsible for the health effects previously described such as increased rates of liver disease and in particular liver cancer. Microbiological analysis, however, revealed the presence of contamination in most samples analysed.

  8. Artificial Neural Networks-Based Software for Measuring Heat Collection Rate and Heat Loss Coefficient of Water-in-Glass Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhijian; Liu, Kejun; Li, Hao; Zhang, Xinyu; Jin, Guangya; Cheng, Kewei

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient are crucial for the evaluation of in service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. However, conventional measurement requires expensive detection devices and undergoes a series of complicated procedures. To simplify the measurement and reduce the cost, software based on artificial neural networks for measuring heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters was developed. Using multilayer feed-forward neural networks with back-propagation algorithm, we developed and tested our program on the basis of 915 measured samples of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. This artificial neural networks-based software program automatically obtained accurate heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient using simply "portable test instruments" acquired parameters, including tube length, number of tubes, tube center distance, heat water mass in tank, collector area, angle between tubes and ground and final temperature. Our results show that this software (on both personal computer and Android platforms) is efficient and convenient to predict the heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient due to it slow root mean square errors in prediction. The software now can be downloaded from http://t.cn/RLPKF08.

  9. Iron analysis in atmospheric water samples by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) in water-methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofikitis, A M; Colin, J L; Desboeufs, K V; Losno, R

    2004-01-01

    To distinguish between Fe(II) and Fe(III) species in atmospheric water samples, we have adapted an analytical procedure based on the formation of a specific complex between Fe(II) and ferrozine (FZ) on a chromatographic column. After elution of Fe(III), the Fe(II) complex is recovered with water-methanol (4:1). The possibility of trace iron measurements in this complex medium by graphite-furnace atomic-absorption spectrometry has been investigated. A simplex optimization routine was required to complete the development of the analytical method.

  10. Compilation of surface-water and water-quality data-collection sites on selected streams in Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prugh, Byron; Humphrey, C.G.

    1993-01-01

    This report presents a listing of about 8,900 selected surface-water and water-quality data sites in Virginia where hydrologic and water-quality measurements have been made for the past 100 yr. The listing includes the agency station/site identification number and name, drainage area, datum, source agency, type of data collected, period of record for data collection, latitude and longitude, county, and name of the 7.5-minute topographic quadrangle containing the site location

  11. Determination of atrazine in surface waters by combination of POCIS passive sampling and ELISA detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernoch, Ivo; Fránek, Milan; Diblíková, Iva; Hilscherová, Klára; Randák, Tomáš; Ocelka, Tomáš; Bláha, Luděk

    2011-09-01

    Polar organic compound integrative samplers (POCIS) in combination with instrumental techniques such as LC-MS-MS were previously used to monitor environmental pollutants but the performance of alternative immunochemical methods such as ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) has been explored less. In the present study, POCIS technology was applied to surface water sampling in the Czech Republic, and ELISA was used as a detection technique for the herbicide atrazine. In the first study, 28 samples from streams around small municipal waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) were collected using two different devices (POCISpest and POCISpharm) over the course of 21 days. Elevated atrazine concentrations (up to 25 ng per POCIS) were found in samples down-stream of WWTPs. This observation was also confirmed in another two year study (4 sampling periods) investigating 7 river sites around a major city of Brno as well as the inlet and outlet of the city's WWTP. High atrazine levels were systematically determined at the outlet from the WWTPs (120-605 ng per POCIS). A decreasing trend in the atrazine concentrations in rivers around the city of Brno has been observed, with the highest levels observed within the first sampling period in spring 2007 (100-600 ng per POCIS, with an extreme value of 2760 ng per POCIS). Results of the atrazine ELISA were closely correlated with LC-MS/MS, which confirmed good applicability of ELISA as a cost-effective screening tool.

  12. TRITIUM UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS FOR SURFACE WATER SAMPLES AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, R.

    2012-07-31

    Radiochemical analyses of surface water samples, in the framework of Environmental Monitoring, have associated uncertainties for the radioisotopic results reported. These uncertainty analyses pertain to the tritium results from surface water samples collected at five locations on the Savannah River near the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS). Uncertainties can result from the field-sampling routine, can be incurred during transport due to the physical properties of the sample, from equipment limitations, and from the measurement instrumentation used. The uncertainty reported by the SRS in their Annual Site Environmental Report currently considers only the counting uncertainty in the measurements, which is the standard reporting protocol for radioanalytical chemistry results. The focus of this work is to provide an overview of all uncertainty components associated with SRS tritium measurements, estimate the total uncertainty according to ISO 17025, and to propose additional experiments to verify some of the estimated uncertainties. The main uncertainty components discovered and investigated in this paper are tritium absorption or desorption in the sample container, HTO/H{sub 2}O isotopic effect during distillation, pipette volume, and tritium standard uncertainty. The goal is to quantify these uncertainties and to establish a combined uncertainty in order to increase the scientific depth of the SRS Annual Site Environmental Report.

  13. Ram-air sample collection device for a chemical warfare agent sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megerle, Clifford A.; Adkins, Douglas R.; Frye-Mason, Gregory C.

    2002-01-01

    In a surface acoustic wave sensor mounted within a body, the sensor having a surface acoustic wave array detector and a micro-fabricated sample preconcentrator exposed on a surface of the body, an apparatus for collecting air for the sensor, comprising a housing operatively arranged to mount atop the body, the housing including a multi-stage channel having an inlet and an outlet, the channel having a first stage having a first height and width proximate the inlet, a second stage having a second lower height and width proximate the micro-fabricated sample preconcentrator, a third stage having a still lower third height and width proximate the surface acoustic wave array detector, and a fourth stage having a fourth height and width proximate the outlet, where the fourth height and width are substantially the same as the first height and width.

  14. Oxygen and hydrogen stable isotope content in daily-collected precipitation samples at Dome C, East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreossi, Giuliano; Stenni, Barbara; Del Guasta, Massimo; Bonazza, Mattia; Grigioni, Paolo; Karlicek, Daniele; Mognato, Riccardo; Scarchilli, Claudio; Turchetti, Filippo; Zannoni, Daniele

    2016-04-01

    Antarctic ice cores allow to obtain exceptional past climate records, thanks to their water stable isotope content, which provides integrated tracers of the atmospheric water cycle and local climate. Low accumulation sites of the East Antarctic plateau provide the oldest ice core records, with the record-breaking EPICA Dome C drilling covering the last eight climate cycles. However, the isotope-temperature relationship, commonly used to derive the temperature, may be characterized by significant geographical and temporal variations. Moreover, post-depositional effects may further complicate the climate interpretation. A continuous series of precipitation data is needed in order to gain a better understanding of the factors affecting the water stable isotopes in Antarctic precipitation at a specific site. In this study, we use the first and so-far only multi-year series of daily precipitation sampling and isotope measurements from the French-Italian Concordia Station, located at Dome C in East Antarctica (75°06'S 123°21'E; elevation: 3233 m a.s.l.; mean annual temperature: -54.5°C; snow accumulation rate: 25 kg m-2 yr-1), where the oldest deep Antarctic ice core has been retrieved. Surface air temperature data have been provided by the US automatic weather station (AWS), placed 1.5 km away from the base, while tropospheric temperature profiles are obtained by means of a radiosonde, launched once per day by the IPEV/Italian Antarctic Meteo-climatological Observatory. The new dataset also enables us for the first time to study the isotope-temperature relationship distinguishing between different types of precipitation, namely diamond dust, hoar frost and snowfall, identified by the observations carried out by the winter-over personnel collecting the snow samples. Here we present the complete data series of water stable isotopes in precipitation at Dome C spanning the time period from 2008 to 2014, in the framework of the PNRA PRE-REC project.

  15. EX1601 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1601: Transit and Mission Patch Test...

  16. EX1604 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1604: CAPSTONE Wake Island PRIMNM...

  17. EX1301 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1301: Ship Shakedown and Patch Test...

  18. EX0902 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX0902: ROV Harbor Trials between 20090425...

  19. EX1401 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1401: Ship Shakedown and Patch Test...

  20. EX1101 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1101: Ship Shakedown and Patch Tests...

  1. EX1104 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1104: Mid-Cayman Rise Exploration...

  2. EX1602 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1602: Mission System Shakedown/CAPSTONE...

  3. EX1102 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1102: ROV and Camera Sled Integration...

  4. EX1005 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1005: Guam to Honolulu, HI Transit...

  5. EX1105 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1105: Field Trials of EM302 Multibeam...

  6. EX1006 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1006: Hawaii to San Francisco Transit...

  7. EX1603 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1603: Hohonu Moana: Exploring the Deep...

  8. EX0802 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX0802: Operation Halloween Shakedown...

  9. EX1303 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1303: New England Seamount Chain...

  10. EX0905 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX0905: Mapping Field Trials II Mendocino...

  11. Forsmark site investigation. Hydrochemical monitoring of groundwaters and surface waters. Results from water sampling in the Forsmark area, January-December 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Ann-Chatrin (ed.); Berg, Cecilia; Harrstroem, Johan; Joensson, Stig; Thur, Pernilla (Geosigma AB (Sweden)); Borgiel, Micke; Qvarfordt, Susanne (Sveriges Vattenekologer AB (Sweden))

    2010-09-15

    The fifth year (2009) of hydrochemical monitoring of groundwaters, surface waters and precipitation in Forsmark is documented in the report. The hydrochemical monitoring programme 2009 included water sampling from: - percussion- and core boreholes equipped with installations for long-term pressure monitoring, tracer tests and water sampling in packed off borehole sections, sampling and analysis performed twice (spring and autumn), - near surface groundwaters (sampling four times a year), - private wells (once per year in October), - surface waters (eleven sampling occasions per year). Due to the somewhat different performance of the hydrogeochemical monitoring of the deep groundwaters during the autumn 2009 compared to previous years, some new findings and knowledge were obtained: 1) Removal of water volumes corresponding to three to five times the volume of the borehole section (the routine procedure) is seldom enough to obtain a complete exchange of the water present in the borehole section when the pumping starts. 2) It is likely that the elevated sulphide concentrations observed in the monitoring programme /1/ is due to contamination from initial water present in the borehole sections when the pumping starts. This water may have a very high sulphide concentration. Dirty water in tubes and in stand pipes may also contribute to the enhanced sulphide concentration. 3) Plug flow calculations will be introduced in the future as a new routine procedure to estimate the water volumes to be removed, in order to exchange the section water volume, prior to groundwater sampling in delimited borehole sections. During the autumn sampling, sample series of five samples per sampling location were collected during continuous pumping in thirteen selected borehole sections. Furthermore, special efforts were put on cleaning of stand pipes and exchange of water prior to sampling. The analytical protocol was rather extensive and included sulphide and uranium analyses for each sample

  12. Screening of pesticide residues in soil and water samples from agricultural settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djouaka Rousseau F

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of agricultural practices in the selection of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors has so far been hypothesized without clear evidence. Many mosquito species, Anopheles gambiae in particular, lay their eggs in breeding sites located around agricultural settings. There is a probability that, as a result of farming activities, insecticide residues may be found in soil and water, where they exercise a selection pressure on the larval stage of various populations of mosquitoes. To confirm this hypothesis, a study was conducted in the Republic of Benin to assess the environmental hazards which can be generated from massive use of pesticides in agricultural settings. Methods Lacking an HPLC machine for direct quantification of insecticide residues in samples, this investigation was performed using indirect bioassays focussed on the study of factors inhibiting the normal growth of mosquito larvae in breeding sites. The speed of development was monitored as well as the yield of rearing An. gambiae larvae in breeding sites reconstituted with water and soil samples collected in agricultural areas known to be under pesticide pressure. Two strains of An. gambiae were used in this indirect bioassay: the pyrethroid-susceptible Kisumu strain and the resistant Ladji strain. The key approach in this methodology is based on comparison of the growth of larvae in test and in control breeding sites, the test samples having been collected from two vegetable farms. Results Results obtained clearly show the presence of inhibiting factors on test samples. A normal growth of larvae was observed in control samples. In breeding sites simulated by using a few grams of soil samples from the two vegetable farms under constant insecticide treatments (test samples, a poor hatching rate of Anopheles eggs coupled with a retarded growth of larvae and a low yield of adult mosquitoes from hatched eggs, was noticed. Conclusion Toxic factors

  13. Radon exhalation rate from the soil, sand and brick samples collected from NWFP and FATA, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Said; Mati, N; Matiullah; Ghauri, Badar

    2007-01-01

    In order to characterise the building materials as an indoor radon source, knowledge of the radon exhalation rate from these materials is very important. In this regard, soil, sand and brick samples were collected from different places of the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) and Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA), Pakistan. The samples were processed and placed in plastic containers. NRPB radon dosemeters were installed in it at heights of 25 cm above the surface of the samples and containers were then hermetically sealed. After 40-80 d of exposure to radon, CR-39 detectors were removed from the dosemeter holders and etched in 25% NaOH at 80 degrees C for 16 h. From the measured radon concentration values, (222)Rn exhalation rates were determined. Exhalation rate form soil, sand and brick samples was found to vary from 114 +/- 11 to 416 +/- 9 mBq m(-2) h(-1), 205 +/- 16 to 291 +/- 13 mBq m(-2) h(-1) and 245 +/- 12 to 365 +/- 11 mBq m(-2) h(-1), respectively.

  14. Physicochemical Properties and Antioxidant Activity of Milk Samples Collected from Five Goat Breeds in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saif Alyaqoubi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Five different goat breeds (Saanen, Kacang, Jamnapari, Boer and a crossbred of Jamnapari and Saanen were obtained from one farm in Bandar Baru Bangi. The aim of this study was to determine the physicochemical properties and antioxidant capacity based on TPC, FRAP and DPPH. Goat milk samples were collected during the same lactation period (middle lactation and were subsequently compared with cow milk. The results of the study showed that goat milk exhibited a significantly higher (p<0.05 antioxidant capacity than cow milk. Jamnapari milk exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity in Total Phenol Content (TPC, Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assays with values of 544.08 mg GA/100 g FW, 481.69 mg TE/100 g FW and 67.44%, respectively. By contrast, the milk samples obtained from the Boer exhibited the lowest corresponding values of 460.00 mg GA/100 g FW, 386.06 mg TE/100 g FW and 59.68%, respectively. Results showed that physicochemical properties were significantly different (p<0.05 among the milk samples, with some samples more superior compared with others in one or more aspects. Jamnapari milk was superior in terms of ash, total soluble solid and protein with values of 0.96%, 13.02 Brix and 5.11%, respectively and this milk also showed the lowest moisture (81.28% among all milk samples. Cow milk exhibited the highest fat (4.43% and Kacang milk had the lowest titratable acidity (0.06% than the other milk samples. Thus, goat milk can be considered as an excellence source of antioxidants.

  15. Preliminary Analytical Results for a Mud Sample Collected from the LUSI Mud Volcano, Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Casadevall, Thomas J.; Wibowo, Handoko T.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Johnson, Craig A.; Breit, George N.; Lowers, Heather; Wolf, Ruth E.; Hageman, Philip L.; Goldstein, Harland L.; Anthony, Michael W.; Berry, Cyrus J.; Fey, David L.; Meeker, Gregory P.; Morman, Suzette A.

    2008-01-01

    On May 29, 2006, mud and gases began erupting unexpectedly from a vent 150 meters away from a hydrocarbon exploration well near Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia. The eruption, called the LUSI (Lumpur 'mud'-Sidoarjo) mud volcano, has continued since then at rates as high as 160,000 m3 per day. At the request of the United States Department of State, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been providing technical assistance to the Indonesian Government on the geological and geochemical aspects of the mud eruption. This report presents initial characterization results of a sample of the mud collected on September 22, 2007, as well as inerpretive findings based on the analytical results. The focus is on characteristics of the mud sample (including the solid and water components of the mud) that may be of potential environmental or human health concern. Characteristics that provide insights into the possible origins of the mud and its contained solids and waters have also been evaluated.

  16. Using Lagrangian sampling to study water quality during downstream transport in the San Luis Drain, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkmar, E.C.; Dahlgren, R.A.; Stringfellow, W.T.; Henson, S.S.; Borglin, S.E.; Kendall, C.; Van Nieuwenhuyse, E. E.

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the mechanism for diel (24h) changes commonly observed at fixed sampling locations and how these diel changes relate to downstream transport in hypereutrophic surface waters, we studied a parcel of agricultural drainage water as it traveled for 84h in a concrete-lined channel having no additional water inputs or outputs. Algal fluorescence, dissolved oxygen, temperature, pH, conductivity, and turbidity were measured every 30min. Grab samples were collected every 2h for water quality analyses, including nutrients, suspended sediment, and chlorophyll/pheophytin. Strong diel patterns were observed for dissolved oxygen, pH, and temperature within the parcel of water. In contrast, algal pigments and nitrate did not exhibit diel patterns within the parcel of water, but did exhibit strong diel patterns for samples collected at a fixed sampling location. The diel patterns observed at fixed sampling locations for these constituents can be attributed to algal growth during the day and downstream transport (washout) of algae at night. Algal pigments showed a rapid daytime increase during the first 48h followed by a general decrease for the remainder of the study, possibly due to sedimentation and photobleaching. Algal growth (primarily diatoms) was apparent each day during the study, as measured by increasing dissolved oxygen concentrations, despite low phosphate concentrations (Elsevier B.V.

  17. Dispersion and toxicity of selected manufactured nanomaterials in natural river water samples: effects of water chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jie; Youn, Sejin; Hovsepyan, Anna; Llaneza, Veronica L; Wang, Yu; Bitton, Gabriel; Bonzongo, Jean-Claude J

    2009-05-01

    Experimental conditions that mimic likely scenarios of manufactured nanomaterials (MNs) introduction to aquatic systems were used to assessthe effect of nanoparticle dispersion/solubility and water chemical composition on MN-toxicity. Aqueous suspensions of fullerenes (C60), nanosilver (nAg), and nanocopper (nCu) were prepared in both deionized water and filtered (0.45 microm) natural river water samples collected from the Suwannee River basin, to emphasize differences in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and solution ionic strengths (I). Two toxicity tests, the Ceriodaphnia dubia and MetPLATE bioassays were used. Results obtained from exposure studies show that water chemistry affects the suspension/solubility of MNs as well as the particle size distribution, resulting in a wide range of biological responses depending on the type of toxicity test used. Under experimental conditions used in this study, C60 exhibited no toxicity even when suspended concentrations exceeded 3 mg L(-1). MetPLATE results showed that the toxicity of aqueous suspensions of nCu tends to increase with increasing DOC concentrations, while increasing I reduces nCu toxicity. The use of the aquatic invertebrate C. dubia on the other hand showed a tendency for decreased mortality with increasing DOC and I. MetPLATE results for nAg showed decreasing trends in toxicity with increasing DOC concentrations and I. However, C. dubia exhibited contrasting biological responses, in that increasing DOC concentrations reduced toxicity, while the latter increased with increasing I. Overall, our results show that laboratory experiments that use DI-water and drastic MN-suspension methods may not be realistic as MN-dispersion and suspension in natural waters vary significantly with water chemistry and the reactivity of MNs.

  18. Comparison of Different Blood Collection, Sample Matrix, and Immunoassay Methods in a Prenatal Screening Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen L. A. Pennings

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We compared how measurements of pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A and the free beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (fβ-hCG in maternal blood are influenced by different methods for blood collection, sample matrix, and immunoassay platform. Serum and dried blood spots (DBS were obtained by venipuncture and by finger prick of 19 pregnant women. PAPP-A and fβ-hCG from serum and from DBS were measured by conventional indirect immunoassay on an AutoDELFIA platform and by antibody microarray. We compared methods based on the recoveries for both markers as well as marker levels correlations across samples. All method comparisons showed high correlations for both marker concentrations. Recovery levels of PAPP-A from DBS were 30% lower, while those of fβ-hCG from DBS were 50% higher compared to conventional venipuncture serum. The recoveries were not affected by blood collection or immunoassay method. The high correlation coefficients for both markers indicate that DBS from finger prick can be used reliably in a prenatal screening setting, as a less costly and minimally invasive alternative for venipuncture serum, with great logistical advantages. Additionally, the use of antibody arrays will allow for extending the number of first trimester screening markers on maternal and fetal health.

  19. Tracer techniques for urine volume determination and urine collection and sampling back-up system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, R. V.

    1971-01-01

    The feasibility, functionality, and overall accuracy of the use of lithium were investigated as a chemical tracer in urine for providing a means of indirect determination of total urine volume by the atomic absorption spectrophotometry method. Experiments were conducted to investigate the parameters of instrumentation, tracer concentration, mixing times, and methods for incorporating the tracer material in the urine collection bag, and to refine and optimize the urine tracer technique to comply with the Skylab scheme and operational parameters of + or - 2% of volume error and + or - 1% accuracy of amount of tracer added to each container. In addition, a back-up method for urine collection and sampling system was developed and evaluated. This back-up method incorporates the tracer technique for volume determination in event of failure of the primary urine collection and preservation system. One chemical preservative was selected and evaluated as a contingency chemical preservative for the storage of urine in event of failure of the urine cooling system.

  20. Pumping time required to obtain tube well water samples with aquifer characteristic radon concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricardo, Carla Pereira; Oliveira, Arno Heeren de, E-mail: heeren@nuclear.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear; Rocha, Zildete; Palmieri, Helena E.L.; Linhares, Maria G.M.; Menezes, Maria Angela B.C., E-mail: rochaz@cdtn.br, E-mail: help@cdtn.br, E-mail: mgml@cdtn.br, E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Radon is an inert noble gas, which comes from the natural radioactive decay of uranium and thorium in soil, rock and water. Radon isotopes emanated from radium-bearing grains of a rock or soil are released into the pore space. Radon that reaches the pore space is partitioned between the gaseous and aqueous phases. Thus, the groundwater presents a radon signature from the rock that is characteristic of the aquifer. The characteristic radon concentration of an aquifer, which is mainly related to the emanation, is also influenced by the degree of subsurface degassing, especially in the vicinity of a tube well, where the radon concentration is strongly reduced. Looking for the required pumping time to take a tube well water sample that presents the characteristic radon concentration of the aquifer, an experiment was conducted in an 80 m deep tube well. In this experiment, after twenty-four hours without extraction, water samples were collected periodically, about ten minutes intervals, during two hours of pumping time. The radon concentrations of the samples were determined by using the RAD7 Electronic Radon Detector from Durridge Company, a solid state alpha spectrometric detector. It was realized that the necessary time to reach the maximum radon concentration, that means the characteristic radon concentration of the aquifer, is about sixty minutes. (author)

  1. SPME GC/MS determination of organochlorine pesticides in water samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yerbolat Sailaukhanuly

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME in combination with gas chromatography and mass-spectrometry (GC/MS was studied for analysis of water samples. The organochlorine pesticides (OCPs, p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD, and p,p'-DDE were collected and analyzed by GC/MS. To select of effective fiber coatings four types of SPME fibers were examined and compared. The parameters effecting the efficiency of HS-SPME such as extraction and pre-incubation time and extraction temperature, effect of solvent nature, ionic strength were studied to obtain optimal parameters. The method was developed using spiked water samples in a concentration range  10 - 500 ng/L. The calibration curve was linear over the studied concentration range with r≥0.9925. The detection limits varied from 1.57 to 2.08 ng/L. An authentic water samples from contaminated lake with OCPs were analyzed by developed method.

  2. Evaluation of sample hemolysis in blood collected by S-Monovette using vacuum or aspiration mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Avanzini, Paola; Musa, Roberta; Sandei, Franca; Aloe, Rosalia; Cervellin, Gianfranco

    2013-01-01

    In vitro hemolysis can be induced by several biological and technical sources, and may be worsened by forced aspiration of blood in vacuum tubes. This study was aimed to compare the probability of hemolysis by drawing blood with a commercial evacuated blood collection tube, and S-Monovette used either in the "vacuum" or "aspiration" mode. The study population consisted in 20 healthy volunteers. A sample was drawn into 4.0 mL BD Vacutainer serum tube from a vein of one upper arm. Two other samples were drawn with a second venipuncture from a vein of the opposite arm, into 4.0 mL S-Monovette serum tubes, by both vacuum an aspiration modes. After separation, serum potassium, lactate dehydrogenase (LD) and hemolysis index (HI) were tested on Beckman Coulter DxC. In no case the HI exceed the limit of significant hemolysis. As compared with BD Vacutainer, no significant differences were observed for potassium and LD using S-Monovette with vacuum method. Significant increased values of both parameters were however found in serum collected into BD Vacutainer and S-Monovette by vacuum mode, compared to serum drawn by S-Monovette in aspiration mode. The mean potassium bias was 2.2% versus BD Vacutainer and 2.4% versus S-Monovette in vacuum mode, that of LD was 2.7% versus BD Vacutainer and 2.1% versus S-Monovette in vacuum mode. None of these variations exceeded the allowable total error. Although no significant macro-hemolysis was observed with any collection system, the less chance of producing micro-hemolysis by S-Monovette in aspiration mode suggest that this device may be used when a difficult venipuncture combined with the vacuum may increase the probability of spurious hemolysis.

  3. Measurement of drinking water contaminants by solid phase microextraction initially quantified in source water samples by the USGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, Robert; Yang, Ill; Lippincott, Robert Lee; Murphy, Eileen; Buckley, Brian

    2008-04-15

    Two adsorbent solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibers, 70 microm Carbowax divinylbenzene (CW/DVB) and 65 microm polydimethylsiloxane divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB), were selected for the analysis of several target analytes (phenols, phosphates, phthalates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and chlorinated pesticides) identified by the USGS in surface waters. Detection limits for standards ranged from 0.1 to 1 ng/mL for the CW/ DVB fiber and 0.1 to 2 ng/mL for the PDMS/DVB fiber for 20 of the analytes. The remaining analytes were not extracted because their polarity precluded their partition to the solid phase of the SPMEfiber. Groundwater and treated water samples collected from wells in northern New Jersey were then sampled for the USGS analytes by the SPME method as well as a modified version of EPA 525.5 using C-18 bonded solid phase extraction columns. Nine of the USGS analytes-bisphenol A, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, butylated hydroxytoluene, butlyated hydroxyanisole, diethyltoulamide, diethyl phthalate, bis(2-ethylhexyl) adipate, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, and triphenyl phosphate-were detected in groundwater samples using the CW/ DVB fiber.

  4. Neuston Trawl and Whole Water Samples: A Comparison of Microplastic Sampling Techniques in The Gulf of Maine and Their Application to Citizen-Driven Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautz, M.

    2016-12-01

    Microplastic research in aquatic environments has quickly evolved over the last decade. To have meaningful inter-study comparisons, it is necessary to define methodological criteria for both the sampling and sorting of microplastics. The most common sampling method used for sea surface samples has traditionally been a neuston net (NN) tow. Originally designed for plankton collection, neuston tows allow for a large volume of water to be sampled and can be coupled with phytoplankton monitoring. The widespread use of surface nets allows for easy comparison between data sets, but the units of measurement for calculating microplastic concentration vary, from surface area m2 and Km2, to volume of water sampled, m3. Contamination by the air, equipment, or sampler is a constant concern in microplastic research. Significant in-field contamination concerns for neuston tow sampling include air exposure time, microplastics in rinse water, sampler contact, and plastic net material. Seeking to overcome the lack of contamination control and the intrinsic instrumental size limitation associated with surface tow nets, we developed an alternative sampling method. The whole water (WW) method is a one-liter grab sample of surface water adapted from College of the Atlantic and Sea Education Association (SEA) student, Marina Garland. This is the only WW method that we are aware of being used to sample microplastic. The method addresses the increasing need to explore smaller size domains, to reduce potential contamination and to incorporate citizen scientists into data collection. Less water is analyzed using the WW method, but it allows for targeted sampling of point-source pollution, intertidal, and shallow areas. The WW methodology can easily be integrated into long-term or citizen science monitoring initiatives due to its simplicity and low equipment demands. The aim of our study was to demonstrate a practical and economically feasible method for sampling microplastic abundance at

  5. Journal: A Review of Some Tracer-Test Design Equations for Tracer-Mass Estimation and Sample Collection Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determination of necessary tracer mass, initial sample-collection time, and subsequent sample-collection frequency are the three most difficult aspects to estimate for a proposed tracer test prior to conducting the tracer test. To facilitate tracer-mass estimation, 33 mass-estima...

  6. Journal: A Review of Some Tracer-Test Design Equations for Tracer-Mass Estimation and Sample Collection Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determination of necessary tracer mass, initial sample-collection time, and subsequent sample-collection frequency are the three most difficult aspects to estimate for a proposed tracer test prior to conducting the tracer test. To facilitate tracer-mass estimation, 33 mass-estima...

  7. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION OF DISLODGEABLE RESIDUES -- PUF ROLLER SAMPLES FOR PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-2.18)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This SOP describes the method to collect transferable residues from indoor floor surfaces. The sampling procedures described are applicable to bare floors or covered floor surfaces, e.g., carpeting and vinyl flooring. The samples will be collected only in the day care centers o...

  8. 78 FR 23288 - Proposed Information Collection: State Water Resources Research Institute Program; Annual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... Geological Survey Proposed Information Collection: State Water Resources Research Institute Program; Annual...: eagreene@usgs.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract The Water Resources Research Act of 1984, as... extension of an information collection (1028- 0097); request for comments. SUMMARY: To comply with...

  9. 75 FR 51751 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; User Engagement Survey for Water Resources...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ... Information Collection; Comment Request; User Engagement Survey for Water Resources Forecasts and Climate Information AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... workshops related to water resources and/or climate. This information collection will be conducted by...

  10. Uranium and radium activities measurements and calculation of effective doses in some drinking water samples in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oum Keltoum Hakam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: As a way of prevention, we have measured the activities of uranium and radium isotopes (234U, 238U, 226Ra, 228Ra for 30 drinking water samples collected from 11 wells, 9 springs (6 hot and 3 cold, 3 commercialised mineral water, and 7 tap water samples. Methods: Activities of the Ra isotopes were measured by ultra-gamma spectrometry using a low background and high efficiency well type germanium detector. The U isotopes were counted in an alpha spectrometer.Results: The measured Uranium and radium activities are similar to those published for other non-polluting regions of the world. Except in one commercialised gaseous water sample, and in two hot spring water samples, the calculated effective doses during one year are inferior to the reference level of 0.1 mSv/year recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Conclusion: These activities don't present any risk for public health in Morocco. The sparkling water of Oulmes is occasionally consumed as table water and waters of warm springs are not used as main sources of drinking water.  

  11. Prevalence of Streptococcus spp. collected from vaginal samples and their antibiotic resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Mazzone

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Streptococci are a heterogeneous group Gram positive bacteria, predominantly anaerobes. They are classified by growth characteristics, hemolysis on blood and antigenic composition.Among the most pathogenic streptococci are ß-hemolytic Streptococcus group B (GBS responsible for pneumonia, meningitis and sepsis in newborn. In order to prevent infections that might involve not only the female but also but also the future newborn, a bacterial culture have to be performed during pregnancy. Objectives. This study aims to assess the prevalence of GBS and their resistance to antibiotics among bacteria collected from vaginal samples. Methods. During the considered period of study: May 2008 - May 2009, 384 vaginal samples from young women were microbiologically investigated. Swabs were sown on CNA (bioMérieux plates and incubated under CO2 environment for 24-48 hours. For the identification of group and the evaluation of their susceptibility to antibiotics the kit Slidex streptococcal Plus (bioMérieux and the ATB Strep (bioMéieux respectively were used. Breakpoint values were as suggested by CLSI. Results. GBS was the most frequently pathogen found with 59.5% (69 on a total of 116 positive samples, followed by Group D streptococci with 34.5% (40, and Group A with 4.3% (5, Group C and F, accounted for 0.8% (1. Moreover, all the isolates, with the exception of group D, resulted susceptible to penicillin, amoxicillin, vancomycin and cefotaxime, 45% to erythromycin, 47% to clindamycin, 75% to cotrimoxazole. Conclusions. The data from this survey show that GBS is the prevalent pathogen, among Streptococcus spp collected from the vagina.The percentage of antibiotic resistant strains found confirms the importance of the Clinical Pathology Laboratory in the surveillance of streptococcal infections for the control and prevention.

  12. Comparison of noninvasive sample collection procedures for canine leishmaniasis diagnosis by PCR-hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Sidney de Almeida; Andrade, Antero Silva Ribeiro de [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: vidasnino@yahoo.com.br; antero@cdtn.br; Ituassu, Leonardo Trindade; Melo, Maria Norma de [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: melo@mono.icb.ufmg.br; ltituassu@yahoo.com.br

    2007-07-01

    The dogs are the main reservoir of the visceral leishmaniasis etiological agent Leishmania chagasi and these animals have to be systematically monitored. The aim of present work was to standardize a method for canine leishmaniasis diagnosis using DNA samples obtained by a noninvasive ways. Two kind of samples were compared: conjunctival swab and blood. The samples were analyzed by the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) associated with the hybridization of {sup 32}P labeled DNA probes. An in vitro test was carried out using cotton swabs seeded with L. chagasi parasites at different cell numbers. After that, the PCR and hybridization sensitivity was evaluated in two groups of 23 seropositive dogs. Conjunctival swabs and 1,0 mL of blood were collected from each animal. 90 {mu}L of these blood were spotted onto filter paper and the remaining used to prepare the buffy coat. The DNA purification from cotton swabs was carried out through the phenol-chloroform (group 1) or boiling (group 2). The Wizard kit was used to DNA extraction from buffy coat. The filters were treated according to Dialab protocol. The analysis of the seeded samples showed that the PCR was able to identify until ten parasites while the following hybridization of the PCR products allows the detection of until one parasite. The PCR positivity for the conjunctival swabs were 73.9% and 52.2% respectively to the groups 1 and 2. For buffy coat the positivities were 43.5% and 56.5% respectively. The filters presented the lowest positivity. The hybridization step was not accomplished yet for these samples. (author)

  13. Data Validation Package, December 2015, Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Monument Valley, Arizona, Processing Site March 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyrrell, Evan [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, NV (United States); Denny, Angelita [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-03-23

    Fifty-two groundwater samples and one surface water sample were collected at the Monument Valley, Arizona, Processing Site to monitor groundwater contaminants for evaluating the effectiveness of the proposed compliance strategy as specified in the 1999 Final Site Observational Work Plan for the UMTRA Project Site at Monument Valley, Arizona. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated, http://energy.gov/lm/downloads/sampling-and-analysis-plan-us-department- energy-office-legacy-management-sites). Samples were collected for metals, anions, nitrate + nitrite as N, and ammonia as N analyses at all locations.

  14. Real-time analysis of water movement in plant sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokota, Harumi; Furukawa, Jun; Tanoi, Keitaro [Graduate School, Tokyo Univ. (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    To know the effect of drought stress on two cultivars of cowpea, drought tolerant (DT) and drought sensitive (DS), and to estimate vanadium treatment on plant activity, we performed real time{sup 18}F labeled water uptake measurement by PETIS. Fluoride-18 was produced by bombarding a cubic ice target with 50 MeV protons using TIARA AVF cyclotron. Then {sup 18}F labeled water was applied to investigate water movement in a cowpea plant. Real time water uptake manner could be monitored by PETIS. After the analysis by PETIS, we also measured the distribution of {sup 18}F in a whole plant by BAS. When a cowpea plant was treated with drought stress, there was a difference in water uptake manner between DT and DS cultivar. When a cowpea plant was treated with V for 20 hours before the water uptake experiment, the total amount of {sup 18}F labeled water absorption was found to be drastically decreased. (author)

  15. Preparation of polyethylene sacks for collection of precipitation samples for chemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroder, L.J.; Bricker, A.W.

    1985-01-01

    Polyethylene sacks are used to collect precipitation samples. Washing polyethylene with acetone, hexane, methanol, or nitric acid can change the adsorptive characteristics of the polyethylene. In this study, simulated precipitation at pH 4.5 was in contact with the polyethylene sacks for 21 days; subsamples were removed for chemical analysis at 7, 14, and 21 days after intitial contact. Sacks washed with acetone adsorbed iron and lithium; sacks washed with hexane adsorbed barium, iron , and lithium; sacks washed with methanol adsorbed calcium and iron; and sacks washed with 0.30 N nitric acid adsorbed iron. Leaching the plastic sacks with 0.15 N nitric acid did not result in 100-percent recovery of any of the adsorbed metals. Washing polyethylene sacks with dilute nitric acid caused the pH of the simulated precipitation to be decreased by 0.2 pH unit after 1 week of contact with the polyethylene. The specific conductance increased by 10 microsiemens per centimeter. Contamination of precipitation samples by lead was determined to be about 0.1 microgram per liter from contact with precleaned polyethylene sacks. No measurable contamination of precipitation samples by zinc occurred. (USGS)

  16. Analytical results from samples collected during coal-bed methane exploration drilling in Caldwell Parish, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Peter D.; Breland, F. Clayton; Hackley, Paul C.; Dulong, Frank T.; Nichols, Douglas J.; Karlsen, Alexander W.; Bustin, R. Marc; Barker, Charles E.; Willett, Jason C.; Trippi, Michael H.

    2006-01-01

    In 2001, and 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Louisiana Geological Survey (LGS), through a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with Devon SFS Operating, Inc. (Devon), participated in an exploratory drilling and coring program for coal-bed methane in north-central Louisiana. The USGS and LGS collected 25 coal core and cuttings samples from two coal-bed methane test wells that were drilled in west-central Caldwell Parish, Louisiana. The purpose of this report is to provide the results of the analytical program conducted on the USGS/LGS samples. The data generated from this project are summarized in various topical sections that include: 1. molecular and isotopic data from coal gas samples; 2. results of low-temperature ashing and X-ray analysis; 3. palynological data; 4. down-hole temperature data; 5. detailed core descriptions and selected core photographs; 6. coal physical and chemical analytical data; 7. coal gas desorption results; 8. methane and carbon dioxide coal sorption data; 9. coal petrographic results; and 10. geophysical logs.

  17. CO2 isotope analyses using large air samples collected on intercontinental flights by the CARIBIC Boeing 767.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assonov, S S; Brenninkmeijer, C A M; Koeppel, C; Röckmann, T

    2009-03-01

    Analytical details for 13C and 18O isotope analyses of atmospheric CO2 in large air samples are given. The large air samples of nominally 300 L were collected during the passenger aircraft-based atmospheric chemistry research project CARIBIC and analyzed for a large number of trace gases and isotopic composition. In the laboratory, an ultra-pure and high efficiency extraction system and high-quality isotope ratio mass spectrometry were used. Because direct comparison with other laboratories was practically impossible, the extraction and measurement procedures were tested in considerable detail. Extracted CO2 was measured twice vs. two different working reference CO2 gases of different isotopic composition. The two data sets agree well and their distributions can be used to evaluate analytical errors due to isotope measurement, ion corrections, internal calibration consistency, etc. The calibration itself is based on NBS-19 and also verified using isotope analyses on pure CO2 gases (NIST Reference Materials (RMs) and NARCIS CO2 gases). The major problem encountered could be attributed to CO2-water exchange in the air sampling cylinders. This exchange decreased over the years. To exclude artefacts due to such isotopic exchange, the data were filtered to reject negative delta18O(CO2) values. Examples of the results are given.

  18. Temephos Removal From Water Samples by Silver Modified Zero-Valent Iron Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiralipour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Temephos is an organophosphate pesticide used as larvicide in the environment. Although not extremely hazardous, it can be risky for human health in the moderate concentrations. Objectives This study investigated the quantitative removal efficiency of temephos, an organophosphate pesticide, from contaminated water by silver-modified ZVINPs. In addition, the operational parameters affected on removal process were optimized. Materials and Methods In the current study, three water samples from different parts of Iran such as Ahvaz tap water, the Karoon River passing through Khoramshahr city, and the Caspian Sea were collected. A new method for effective removal of temephos from the sample solutions by silver modified zero-valent iron nanoparticles as an efficient adsorbent was introduced. Results For a typical solution in which temephos was removed about 21% by iron zero-valent nanoparticles, modification by silver improved removal method was up to about 99%. The required time for the complete removal of temephos was about eight minutes. Variation of pH and concentration of KNO3 as an electrolyte was considerably ineffective on the efficient temephos removal. Adsorption studies of the method were followed by Langmuir isotherm. Maximum temephos adsorption amount was 12.65 mg/g under optimal conditions. The proposed method was simple, fast and safe to treat temephos polluted waters. Preparation of the adsorbent was easy and removal time was short. Conclusions Briefly, the current study represents a novel method to eliminate temephos as an organophosphate compound from water samples with modified zero-valent iron nanoparticles.

  19. Sampling and Analysis for Lead in Water and Soil Samples on a University Campus: A Student Research Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butala, Steven J.; Zarrabi, Kaveh

    1995-01-01

    Describes a student research project that determined concentrations of lead in water drawn from selected drinking fountains and in selected soil samples on the campus of the University of Nevada, Las Vegas. (18 references) (DDR)

  20. Representation of solid and nutrient concentrations in irrigation water from tailwater recovery systems by surface water grab samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tailwater recovery (TWR) systems are being implemented on agricultural landscapes to create an additional source of irrigation water. Existing studies have sampled TWR systems using grab samples; however, the applicability of solids and nutrient concentrations in these samples to water being irrigat...

  1. Data Validation Package October 2015 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Monticello, Utah, Processing Site January 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Jason [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Legacy Management; Smith, Fred [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-01-21

    Sampling Period: October 12–14, 2015. This semiannual event includes sampling groundwater and surface water at the Monticello Mill Tailings Site. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the 2004 Monticello Mill Tailings Site Operable Unit III Post-Record of Decision Monitoring Plan, Draft Final and Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). Samples were collected from 52 of 61 planned locations (15 of 17 former mill site wells, 17 of 18 downgradient wells, 9 of 9 downgradient permeable reactive barrier wells, 2 of 7 seeps and wetlands, and 9 of 10 surface water locations). Locations MW00-07, Seep 1, Seep 2, Seep 3, Seep 5, Seep 6, SW00-01, T01-13, and T01-19 were not sampled because of insufficient water availability. All samples were filtered as specified in the monitoring plan. Duplicate samples were collected from surface water location W3-04 and from monitoring wells 82-08, 92-09, and 92-10. Water levels were measured at all but one sampled well and an additional set of wells. The contaminants of concern (COCs) for the Monticello Mill Tailings Site are arsenic, manganese, molybdenum, nitrate + nitrite as nitrogen (nitrate + nitrite as N), selenium, uranium, and vanadium. Time-concentration graphs of the COCs for all groundwater and surface water locations are included in this report. Locations with COCs that exceeded remediation goals are listed.

  2. The measurement of tritium in water samples with electrolytic enrichment using liquid scintillation counter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Marija M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tritium (3H present in the environment decreased in the last decades and nowadays it has low activity concentrations. Measurement of low-level tritium activities in natural waters, e. g. in precipitation, groundwater, and river water requires special techniques for water pretreatment and detection of low-level radioactivity. In order to increase the tritium concentration to an easily measurable level, electrolytic enrichment must be applied. This paper presents the enrichment method performed by electrolysis in a battery of 18 cells, giving an enrichment factor of 5.84 (calculated from 59 electrolyses. The calculated mean values of the separation factor and enrichment parameter were 4.10 and 0.84, respectively. Results for tritium activity in precipitation and surface water collected in Belgrade during 2008 and 2009 are presented. The Radiation and Environmental Protection Department of the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, participated in the IAEA TRIC2008 international intercomparison exercise. The participation in the intercomparisons for any laboratory doing low-level 3H measurements in the waters is very important and useful. It is considered the best way to check the entire procedure and methods of the measurements and the reliability of the standard used. The analysis of the reported 3H activity results showed that all results for five intercomparison samples, for which electrolytic enrichment were applied prior to the 3H measurement, are acceptable.

  3. Dynamics and Kinetics Study of "In-Water" Chemical Reactions by Enhanced Sampling of Reactive Trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Yang, Y Isaac; Yang, Lijiang; Gao, Yi Qin

    2015-11-12

    High potential energy barriers and engagement of solvent coordinates set challenges for in silico studies of chemical reactions, and one is quite commonly limited to study reactions along predefined reaction coordinate(s). A systematic protocol, QM/MM MD simulations using enhanced sampling of reactive trajectories (ESoRT), is established to quantitatively study chemical transitions in complex systems. A number of trajectories for Claisen rearrangement in water and toluene were collected and analyzed, respectively. Evidence was found that the bond making and breaking during this reaction are concerted processes in solutions, preferentially through a chairlike configuration. Water plays an important dynamic role that helps stabilize the transition sate, and the dipole-dipole interaction between water and the solute also lowers the transition barrier. The calculated rate coefficient is consistent with the experimental measurement. Compared with water, the reaction pathway in toluene is "narrower" and the reaction rate is slower by almost three orders of magnitude due to the absence of proper interactions to stabilize the transition state. This study suggests that the "in-water" nature of the Claisen rearrangement in aqueous solution influences its thermodynamics, kinetics, as well as dynamics.

  4. Measuring experimental cyclohexane-water distribution coefficients for the SAMPL5 challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustenburg, Ariën S.; Dancer, Justin; Lin, Baiwei; Feng, Jianwen A.; Ortwine, Daniel F.; Mobley, David L.; Chodera, John D.

    2016-11-01

    Small molecule distribution coefficients between immiscible nonaqueuous and aqueous phases—such as cyclohexane and water—measure the degree to which small molecules prefer one phase over another at a given pH. As distribution coefficients capture both thermodynamic effects (the free energy of transfer between phases) and chemical effects (protonation state and tautomer effects in aqueous solution), they provide an exacting test of the thermodynamic and chemical accuracy of physical models without the long correlation times inherent to the prediction of more complex properties of relevance to drug discovery, such as protein-ligand binding affinities. For the SAMPL5 challenge, we carried out a blind prediction exercise in which participants were tasked with the prediction of distribution coefficients to assess its potential as a new route for the evaluation and systematic improvement of predictive physical models. These measurements are typically performed for octanol-water, but we opted to utilize cyclohexane for the nonpolar phase. Cyclohexane was suggested to avoid issues with the high water content and persistent heterogeneous structure of water-saturated octanol phases, since it has greatly reduced water content and a homogeneous liquid structure. Using a modified shake-flask LC-MS/MS protocol, we collected cyclohexane/water distribution coefficients for a set of 53 druglike compounds at pH 7.4. These measurements were used as the basis for the SAMPL5 Distribution Coefficient Challenge, where 18 research groups predicted these measurements before the experimental values reported here were released. In this work, we describe the experimental protocol we utilized for measurement of cyclohexane-water distribution coefficients, report the measured data, propose a new bootstrap-based data analysis procedure to incorporate multiple sources of experimental error, and provide insights to help guide future iterations of this valuable exercise in predictive modeling.

  5. Examination of Microbial Proteome Preservation Techniques Applicable to Autonomous Environmental Sample Collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mak A. Saito

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Improvements in temporal and spatial sampling frequency have the potential to open new windows into the understanding of marine microbial dynamics. In recent years, efforts have been made to allow automated samplers to collect microbial biomass for DNA/RNA analyses from moored observatories and autonomous underwater vehicles. Measurements of microbial proteins are also of significant interest given their biogeochemical importance as enzymes that catalyze reactions and transporters that interface with the environment. We examined the influence of five preservatives solutions (SDS-extraction buffer, ethanol, trichloroacetic acid, B-PER, and RNAlater on the proteome integrity of the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus WH8102 after four weeks of storage at room temperature. Four approaches were used to assess degradation: total protein recovery, band integrity on an SDS-PAGE gel, and number of protein identifications and relative abundances by 1D LC-MS/MS proteomic analyses. Total protein recoveries from the preserved samples were lower than the frozen control due to processing losses, which could be corrected for with internal standardization. The trichloroacetic acid preserved sample showed significant loss of protein band integrity on the SDS-PAGE gel. The RNAlater preserved sample showed the highest number of protein identifications (103% relative to the control; 520 + 31 identifications in RNAlater versus 504 + 4 in the control, equivalent to the frozen control. Relative abundances of individual proteins in the RNAlater treatment were quite similar to that of the frozen control (average ratio of 1.01 + 0.27 for the 50 most abundant proteins, while the SDS-extraction buffer, ethanol, and B-PER all showed significant decreases in both number of identifications and relative abundances of individual proteins. Based on these findings, RNAlater was an effective proteome preservative, although further study is warranted on additional marine microbes.

  6. Examination of microbial proteome preservation techniques applicable to autonomous environmental sample collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Mak A; Bulygin, Vladimir V; Moran, Dawn M; Taylor, Craig; Scholin, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Improvements in temporal and spatial sampling frequency have the potential to open new windows into the understanding of marine microbial dynamics. In recent years, efforts have been made to allow automated samplers to collect microbial biomass for DNA/RNA analyses from moored observatories and autonomous underwater vehicles. Measurements of microbial proteins are also of significant interest given their biogeochemical importance as enzymes that catalyze reactions and transporters that interface with the environment. We examined the influence of five preservatives solutions (SDS-extraction buffer, ethanol, trichloroacetic acid, B-PER, and RNAlater) on the proteome integrity of the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus WH8102 after 4 weeks of storage at room temperature. Four approaches were used to assess degradation: total protein recovery, band integrity on an SDS detergent polyacrylamide electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) gel, and number of protein identifications and relative abundances by 1-dimensional LC-MS/MS proteomic analyses. Total protein recoveries from the preserved samples were lower than the frozen control due to processing losses, which could be corrected for with internal standardization. The trichloroacetic acid preserved sample showed significant loss of protein band integrity on the SDS-PAGE gel. The RNAlater preserved sample showed the highest number of protein identifications (103% relative to the control; 520 ± 31 identifications in RNAlater versus 504 ± 4 in the control), equivalent to the frozen control. Relative abundances of individual proteins in the RNAlater treatment were quite similar to that of the frozen control (average ratio of 1.01 ± 0.27 for the 50 most abundant proteins), while the SDS-extraction buffer, ethanol, and B-PER all showed significant decreases in both number of identifications and relative abundances of individual proteins. Based on these findings, RNAlater was an effective proteome preservative, although

  7. The Consistency of Isotopologues of Ambient Atmospheric Nitric Acid in Passively Collected Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, M. D.; Sickman, J. O.; Bytnerowicz, A.; Padgett, P.; Allen, E. B.

    2012-12-01

    Anthropogenic sources of nitrogen oxides have previously been shown to have distinctive isotopic signatures of oxygen and nitrogen. Nylon filters are currently used in passive sampling arrays to measure ambient atmospheric nitric acid concentrations and estimate deposition rates. This experiment measured the ability of nylon filters to consistently collect isotopologues of atmospheric nitric acid in the same ratios as they are present in the atmosphere. Samplers were deployed in continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) and at field sites across a nitrogen deposition gradient in Southern California. Filters were exposed over a four week period with individual filters being subjected to 1-4 week exposure times. Extracted nitric acid were measured for δ18O and δ15N ratios and compared for consistency based on length of exposure and amount of HNO3 collected. Filters within the CSTRs collected HNO3 at a consistent rate in both high and low concentration chambers. After two weeks of exposure, the mean δ18O values were within 0.5‰ of the δ18O of the source HNO3 solution. The mean of all weekly exposures were within 0.5‰ of the δ15N of the source solution, but after three weeks, the mean δ15N of adsorbed HNO3 was within 0.2‰. As the length of the exposure increased, the variability of measured delta values decreased for both elements. The field samplers collected HNO3 consistent with previously measured values along a deposition gradient. The mean δ18O at high deposition sites was 52.2‰ compared to 35.7‰ at the low deposition sites. Mean δ15N values were similar at all sites across the deposition gradient. Due to precipitation events occurring during the exposure period, the δ15N and δ18O of nitric acid were highly variable at all field sites. At single sites, changes in δ15N and δ18O were negatively correlated, consistent with two-sourcing mixing dynamics, but the slope of the regressions differed between high and low deposition sites. Anthropogenic

  8. Strategies on Sample Size Determination and Qualitative and Quantitative Traits Integration to Construct Core Collection of Rice (Oryza sativa)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-ling; LU Yong-gen; LI Jin-quan; Xu Hai-ming; Muhammad Qasim SHAHID

    2011-01-01

    The development of a core collection could enhance the utilization of germplasm collections in crop improvement programs and simplify their management.Selection of an appropriate sampling strategy is an important prerequisite to construct a core collection with appropriate size in order to adequately represent the genetic spectrum and maximally capture the genetic diversity in available crop collections.The present study was initiated to construct nested core collections to determine the appropriate sample size to represent the genetic diversity of rice landrace collection based on 15 quantitative traits and 34 qualitative traits of 2 262 rice accessions.The results showed that 50-225 nested core collections,whose sampling rate was 2.2%-9.9%,were sufficient to maintain the maximum genetic diversity of the initial collections.Of these,150 accessions (6.6%) could capture the maximal genetic diversity of the initial collection.Three data types,i.e.qualitative traits (QT1),quantitative traits (QT2) and integrated qualitative and quantitative traits (QTT),were compared for their efficiency in constructing core collections based on the weighted pair-group average method combined with stepwise clustering and preferred sampling on adjusted Euclidean distances.Every combining scheme constructed eight rice core collections (225,200,175,150,125,100,75 and 50).The results showed that the QTT data was the best in constructing a core collection as indicated by the genetic diversity of core collections.A core collection constructed only on the information of QT1 could not represent the initial collection effectively.QTT should be used together to construct a productive core collection.

  9. Morphological feature's variability of the watermelon's collectional samples in the film hothouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    З. Д. Сич

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available It was revealed perspective for further selective work and fast-ripening watermelon's varieties such as "Severnoye siyaniye", "Krimson svit", "Gyuj Bao", "Chernogorets", "Kitaiskaya skorospelka", "Borisfen",  "Kahovsky", Linii No 139", "Kitaj No132-4-1" among the watermelon's sample’s collection under conditions of film hothouses. The watermelon’s plants in the film hothouses are more affected by fusarial fading among the diseases. There were revealed the samples such as "Golopristanskij", "Legin", "Foton", "Fabiola", "Kitaj No132-4-1", "Panoniya No 12-Г', which are relatively resistible to that disease. There were selected the fast - ripening and resistible to diseases new heterodyne hybrids F1 51x62 and F1 53x69 of the Dnepropetrovsk Experimental Research Center EOB under the film hothouse’s conditions.

  10. Efficient isolation of multiphoton processes and detection of collective resonances in dilute samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruder, Lukas; Binz, Marcel; Stienkemeier, Frank

    2015-11-01

    A phase modulation technique to sensitively and selectively isolate multiple-quantum coherences in a femtosecond pump-probe setup is presented. By detecting incoherent observables and incorporating lock-in amplification, even weak signals of highly dilute samples can be acquired. Applying this method, efficient isolation of one- and two-photon quantum beats in a rubidium-doped helium droplet beam experiment is demonstrated and collective resonances are observed in a potassium vapor for the first time up to fourth order. Our approach provides promising perspectives for coherent time-resolved experiments in the deep UV and multidimensional spectroscopy schemes, in particular when mass-selective detection of particles in dilute gas-phase targets is possible.

  11. Chemical fingerprinting of petroleum biomarkers in Deepwater Horizon oil spill samples collected from Alabama shoreline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulabagal, V; Yin, F; John, G F; Hayworth, J S; Clement, T P

    2013-05-15

    We compare the chromatographic signatures of petroleum biomarkers in Deepwater Horizon (DH) source oil, three other reference crude oils, DH emulsified mousse that arrived on Alabama's shoreline in June 2010, and seven tar balls collected from Alabama beaches from 2011 to 2012. Characteristic hopane and sterane fingerprints show that all the tar ball samples originated from DH oil. In addition, the diagnostic ratios of various hopanes indicate an excellent match. Quantitation data for C₃₀αβ-hopane concentration levels show that most of the weathering observed in DH-related tar balls found on Alabama's beaches is likely the result of natural evaporation and dissolution that occurred during transport across the Gulf of Mexico prior to beach deposition. Based on the physical and biomarker characterization data presented in this study we conclude that virtually all fragile, sticky, brownish tar balls currently found on Alabama shoreline originated from the DH oil spill.

  12. Traces of Radioactive 131I in Rain Water Samples in Romania

    CERN Document Server

    Margineanu, Romul; Apostu, Ana; Gomoiu, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of I-131 (T1/2 = 8.04 days) have been performed in IFIN-HH's underground laboratory situated in Unirea salt mine from Slanic-Prahova, Romania. The rain water samples were collected in March 27th in Brasov and March 27th and 29th in Slanic. The samples were measured using a high resolution gamma-ray spectrometer equipped with a GeHP detector having a FWHM = 1.80 keV at 1332.48 keV at the second Co-60 gammaray, and a relative efficiency of 22.8 %. The results show a specific activity of I-131 of 0.35 \\pm 0.04 Bq/dm^3 in Brasov and 0.39 \\pm 0.04 Bq/dm^3, 0.13 \\pm 0.03 Bq/dm^3 and 0.71 \\pm 0.06 Bq/dm^3 in Slanic.

  13. UTILIZING INFORMATION COLLECTED UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT FOR PUBLIC HEALTH ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Clean Water Act was established to "restore and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Nation's waters". Under Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act, the U.S.Environmental Protection Agency collects information from each state regarding the intended ...

  14. 78 FR 46597 - Agency Information Collection Activities: State Water Resources Research Institute Program Annual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ....S. Geological Survey Agency Information Collection Activities: State Water Resources Research... Water Resources (NIWR) USGS Competitive Grant Program. As required by the Paperwork Reduction Act (PRA... also find information about this ICR at www.reginfo.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: State Water...

  15. 78 FR 12349 - Proposed Information Collection; Land and Water Conservation Fund State Assistance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... National Park Service Proposed Information Collection; Land and Water Conservation Fund State Assistance... INFORMATION: I. Abstract The Land and Water Conservation Fund Act of 1965 (LWCF Act) (16 U.S.C. 460l-4 et seq... discussed in detail in the Land and Water Conservation Fund State Assistance Program Federal...

  16. 77 FR 43822 - Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Valuing Improved Water Quality in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    ... AGENCY Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Valuing Improved Water Quality in the... request (ICR), ``Valuing Improved Water Quality in the Chesapeake Bay Using Stated Preference Methods (New... Act (CWA) directs EPA to coordinate Federal and State efforts to improve water quality in the...

  17. Comparison of glucose determinations on blood samples collected in three types of tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Geling; Cabanero, Michael; Wang, Zhenglong; Wang, Huiying; Huang, Tao; Alexis, Herol; Eid, Ikram; Muth, Gilad; Pincus, Matthew R

    2013-01-01

    Because of the metabolism of serum glucose in collection tubes containing blood samples, serum glucose levels may be found to decrease over time. Several types of collection tubes have been designed to, at least partially, block glucose metabolism by red blood cells in blood collection tubes that may not be analyzed immediately after blood collection. These include red-top collection tubes with serum separator, grey-top tubes with a fluoride glycolysis inhibitor, and heparin-containing green-top tubes which prevent clot formation. As part of a quality assurance project, we investigated whether glucose levels differed in the three tube types from each of 18 volunteers on a prolonged standing of 4 hours. We then determined the glucose concentrations of all three tubes from each of the 18 volunteers. We used refrigerated samples over a five-day period to determine if the initial values were reproducible. Surprisingly, after standing for four hours at room temperature, we found that the glucose levels in the three tubes from each volunteer were statistically indistinguishable from one another using the two-tailed paired t-test. Also, a linear regression analysis showed that the values of glucose for the three pairs of two tube types were closely correlated with one another, with correlation coefficients of >0.97, slopes close to 1, and Y-intercepts close to 0. These results suggest that blood collection in any of these tubes will render similar values for serum glucose even after standing for four hours. The tubes were then refrigerated at 4°C and re-analyzed after another six hours and then once per day for the next four days. Beginning at the first day at the six-hour determination, the glucose levels in the red- and grey-top tubes were statistically indistinguishable from one another but not in the red- and green-top tubes and in the grey- and green-top tubes. This was due to a steady decrease in the glucose levels in the green-top tubes. The glucose levels in the

  18. The effects of water sample treatment, preparation, and storage prior to cyanotoxin analysis for cylindrospermopsin, microcystin and saxitoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamp, Lisa; Church, Jennifer L; Carpino, Justin; Faltin-Mara, Erin; Rubio, Fernando

    2016-02-25

    Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms occur in freshwater lakes, ponds, rivers, and reservoirs, and in brackish waters throughout the world. The wide variety of cyanotoxins and their congeners can lead to frequent exposure of humans through consumption of meat, fish, seafood, blue-green algal products and water, accidental ingestion of contaminated water and cyanobacterial scum during recreational activities, and inhalation of cyanobacterial aerosols. Cyanotoxins can also occur in the drinking water supply. In order to monitor human exposure, sensitive analytical methods such as enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry are often used. Regardless of the analytical method of choice, some problems regularly occur during sample collection, treatment, storage, and preparation which cause toxin loss and therefore underestimation of the true concentration. To evaluate the potential influence of sample treatment, storage and preparation materials on surface and drinking water samples, the effects of different types of materials on toxin recovery were compared. Collection and storage materials included glass and various types of plastics. It was found that microcystin congeners LA and LF adsorbed to polystyrene, polypropylene, high density polyethylene and polycarbonate storage containers, leading to low recoveries (microcystins, and saxitoxin. This study also demonstrated that after 15 min chlorine decreased the concentration of microcystin LR to microcystin LA and saxitoxin to <15%, therefore quenching of drinking water samples immediately upon sample collection is critical for accurate analysis. In addition, the effect of various drinking water treatment chemicals on toxin recovery and the behavior of those chemicals in the enzyme linked immunosorbent assays were also studied and are summarized.

  19. Analysis of sediment, water, and biological samples from the Bay Farm Borrow Area, San Francisco Bay, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thom, R.M.; Lefkovitz, L.F. (Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States))

    1991-08-01

    The Bay Farm Borrow Area (BFBA) of San Francisco Bay, California, is under consideration as a dredged-material disposal site by the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). As part of the analysis of the site, information is required on the quality of benthic biota, sediment, and water in the BFBA. The objective of this report was to provide data on infauna communities, sediment, and water chemistry from samples collected from the BFBA. The samples were collected, and the data will be analyzed by Science Applications International (SAIC). A total of four samples for sediment chemistry, four samples for water chemistry, and 7 samples for infauna communities were analyzed by the Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL). Water analyses included tests for dissolved organic carbon, total suspended solids, four metals, butyltins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorinated pesticides, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), four phenols, and total phenol. Sediment samples were analyzed for percent solids, total organic carbon, total oil and grease, total petroleum hydrocarbons, grain size, 10 metals, butyltins, PCBs, chlorinated pesticides, PAHs, four phenols, and total phenol. The data along with controls and spike recovery analyses, are presented in tables, and the results are discussed in the text. The quality assurance/quality control criteria were met for the analyses as were the detection limits specified by the sponsor.

  20. Occurrence of pesticides in water and sediment collected from amphibian habitats located throughout the United States, 2009-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalling, Kelly L.; Orlando, James L.; Calhoun, Daniel; Battaglin, William A.; Kuivila, Kathryn M.

    2012-01-01

    Water and bed-sediment samples were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 2009 and 2010 from 11 sites within California and 18 sites total in Colorado, Georgia, Idaho, Louisiana, Maine, and Oregon, and were analyzed for a suite of pesticides by the USGS. Water samples and bed-sediment samples were collected from perennial or seasonal ponds located in amphibian habitats in conjunction with research conducted by the USGS Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative and the USGS Toxic Substances Hydrology Program. Sites selected for this study in three of the states (California, Colorado, and Orgeon) have no direct pesticide application and are considered undeveloped and remote. Sites selected in Georgia, Idaho, Louisiana, and Maine were in close proximity to either agricultural or suburban areas. Water and sediment samples were collected once in 2009 during amphibian breeding seasons. In 2010, water samples were collected twice. The first sampling event coincided with the beginning of the frog breeding season for the species of interest, and the second event occurred 10-12 weeks later when pesticides were being applied to the surrounding areas. Additionally, water was collected during each sampling event to measure dissolved organic carbon, nutrients, and the fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, which has been linked to amphibian declines worldwide. Bed-sediment samples were collected once during the beginning of the frog breeding season, when the amphibians are thought to be most at risk to pesticides. Results of this study are reported for the following two geographic scales: (1) for a national scale, by using data from the 29 sites that were sampled from seven states, and (2) for California, by using data from the 11 sampled sites in that state. Water samples were analyzed for 96 pesticides by using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. A total of 24 pesticides were detected in one or more of the 54 water samples, including 7 fungicides, 10

  1. Quality Sample Collection, Handling, and Preservation for an Effective Microbial Forensics Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The collection and preservation of microbial forensic evidence are paramount to effeceint and successful investigation and attribution. If evidence, when available, is not collected, degrades, or is contaminated during collection, handling, transport, or storage, the downstream characterization and...

  2. H02 WETLAND TREATMENT SYSTEM WATER CHEMISTRY SAMPLING AND RESULTS REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bach, M; Michael Serrato, M; Eric Nelson, E

    2008-02-15

    inorganic chemistry influence on pH. In addition, alternative methods to alleviate or mitigate the pH increase were evaluated. This study documents the results of sampling activities undertaken and conveys the analytical results along with suggestions for operation of the H-02 Wetland Treatment System. The water samples collected and the water quality data generated from this activity are for analytical purposes only, and as such, were not collected in support of compliance activities.

  3. Chemical Characterization of Dew Water Collected in Different Geographic Regions of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Namieśnik

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of a dew monitoring program performed in Poland with the aim to outline the chemical composition of dew water in meteorological context are presented. Dew samples were collected from eight measurement stations from August 2004 to November 2006. Taking into account the type of land use and characteristics of pollutant emission, sampling sites were divided into the following categories: rural, coastal urban and inland urban stations. Selected anions and cations as well as formaldehyde and sum of phenols were determined. The average TIC (Total Inorganic Ionic Content values in dew samples ranged from 0.83 to 3.93 between individual stations with 10.9 meq/L as the highest daily value of TIC measured. The average TIC values observed in dew at all stations were at a similar level (2.46 meq/L when compared with hoarfrost (2.86 meq/L. However, these values were much higher in comparison with other kinds of atmospheric water like precipitation (wet only; 0.37 meq/L or fog/cloud (1.01 meq/L. The pH values of dew water ranged from 5.22 to 7.35 for urban coastal stations, from 5.67 to 8.02 for urban inland stations and from 4.16 to 8.76 for dew samples collected in the rural area. HCHO was found in 97 % of dew samples, with concentrations ranging from 0.010 to 5.40 meq/L. Excluding stations near the seashore, where the contribution of Na+ and Cl- increased, the most important ions were sulphates. A very low contribution of NO3- and noticeable increase of Ca2+ which were not observed in the case of precipitation and fog water, were typical in all stations. The contribution of ammonium ion was two times higher at rural stations as a result of agricultural ammonia emissions. The strongest correlations were noticed between the sum of acidifying anions SO42- + NO3- and Ca2+ ion for all urban and rural stations. A very strong correlation was also observed for Na+ and Cl- ions in urban coastal stations, as a natural consequence of the location of these

  4. High-Resolution Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Water- Soluble Organic Aerosols Collected with a Particle into Liquid Sampler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bateman, Adam P.; Nizkorodov, Serguei; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander

    2010-10-01

    This work demonstrates the utility of a particle-into-liquid sampler (PILS) a technique traditionally used for identification of inorganic ions present in ambient or laboratory aerosols for the analysis of water soluble organic aerosol (OA) using high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HR ESI-MS). Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) was produced from 0.5 ppm mixing ratios of limonene and ozone in a 5 m3 Teflon chamber. SOA was collected simultaneously using a traditional filter sampler and a PILS. The filter samples were later extracted with either water or acetonitrile, while the aqueous PILS samples were analyzed directly. In terms of peak intensities, types of detectable compounds, average O:C ratios, and organic mass to organic carbon ratios, the resulting high resolution mass spectra were essentially identical for the PILS and filter based samples. SOA compounds extracted from both filter/acetonitrile extraction and PILS/water extraction accounted for >95% of the total ion current in ESI mass spectra. This similarity was attributed to high solubility of limonene SOA in water. In contrast, significant differences in detected ions and peak abundances were observed for pine needle biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA) collected with PILS and filter sampling. The water soluble fraction of BBOA is considerably smaller than for SOA, and a number of unique peaks were detectable only by the filter/acetonitrile method. The combination of PILS collection with HR-ESI-MS analysis offers a new approach for molecular analysis of the water-soluble organic fraction in biogenic SOA, aged photochemical smog, and BBOA.

  5. Control of the positional relationship between a sample collection instrument and a surface to be analyzed during a sampling procedure using a laser sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Berkel, Gary J.; Kertesz, Vilmos

    2012-02-21

    A system and method utilizes distance-measuring equipment including a laser sensor for controlling the collection instrument-to-surface distance during a sample collection process for use, for example, with mass spectrometric detection. The laser sensor is arranged in a fixed positional relationship with the collection instrument, and a signal is generated by way of the laser sensor which corresponds to the actual distance between the laser sensor and the surface. The actual distance between the laser sensor and the surface is compared to a target distance between the laser sensor and the surface when the collection instrument is arranged at a desired distance from the surface for sample collecting purposes, and adjustments are made, if necessary, so that the actual distance approaches the target distance.

  6. A microfluidic cigarette smoke collecting platform for simultaneous sample extraction and multiplex analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shan-Wen; Xu, Bi-Yi; Qiao, Shu; Zhao, Ge; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan; Xie, Fu-Wei

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we report a novel microfluidic gas collecting platform aiming at simultaneous sample extraction and multiplex mass spectrometry (MS) analysis. An alveolar-mimicking elastic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) structures was designed to move dynamically driven by external pressure. The movement was well tuned both by its amplitude and rhythm following the natural process of human respiration. By integrating the alveolar units into arrays and assembling them to gas channels, a cyclic contraction/expansion system for gas inhale and exhale was successfully constructed. Upon equipping this system with a droplet array on the alveolar array surface, we were able to get information of inhaled smoke in a new strategy. Here, with cigarette smoke as an example, analysis of accumulation for target molecules during passive smoking is taken. Relationships between the breathing times, distances away from smokers and inhaled content of nicotine are clarified. Further, by applying different types of extraction solvent droplets on different locations of the droplet array, simultaneous extraction of nicotine, formaldehyde and caproic acid in sidestream smoke (SS) are realized. Since the extract droplets are spatially separated, they can be directly analyzed by MS which is fast and can rid us of all complex sample separation and purification steps. Combining all these merits, this small, cheap and portable platform might find wide application in inhaled air pollutant analysis both in and outdoors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of filters for concentrating microbial indicators and pathogens in lake water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francy, Donna S; Stelzer, Erin A; Brady, Amie M G; Huitger, Carrie; Bushon, Rebecca N; Ip, Hon S; Ware, Michael W; Villegas, Eric N; Gallardo, Vicente; Lindquist, H D Alan

    2013-02-01

    Bacterial indicators are used to indicate increased health risk from pathogens and to make beach closure and advisory decisions; however, beaches are seldom monitored for the pathogens themselves. Studies of sources and types of pathogens at beaches are needed to improve estimates of swimming-associated health risks. It would be advantageous and cost-effective, especially for studies conducted on a regional scale, to use a method that can simultaneously filter and concentrate all classes of pathogens from the large volumes of water needed to detect pathogens. In seven recovery experiments, stock cultures of viruses and protozoa were seeded into 10-liter lake water samples, and concentrations of naturally occurring bacterial indicators were used to determine recoveries. For the five filtration methods tested, the highest median recoveries were as follows: glass wool for adenovirus (4.7%); NanoCeram for enterovirus (14.5%) and MS2 coliphage (84%); continuous-flow centrifugation (CFC) plus Virocap (CFC+ViroCap) for Escherichia coli (68.3%) and Cryptosporidium (54%); automatic ultrafiltration (UF) for norovirus GII (2.4%); and dead-end UF for Enterococcus faecalis (80.5%), avian influenza virus (0.02%), and Giardia (57%). In evaluating filter performance in terms of both recovery and variability, the automatic UF resulted in the highest recovery while maintaining low variability for all nine microorganisms. The automatic UF was used to demonstrate that filtration can be scaled up to field deployment and the collection of 200-liter lake water samples.

  8. Comparison of filters for concentrating microbial indicators and pathogens in lake-water samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francy, Donna S.; Stelzer, Erin A.; Brady, Amie M.G.; Huitger, Carrie; Bushon, Rebecca N.; Ip, Hon S.; Ware, Michael W.; Villegas, Eric N.; Gallardo, Vincent; Lindquist, H.D. Alan

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial indicators are used to indicate increased health risk from pathogens and to make beach closure and advisory decisions; however, beaches are seldom monitored for the pathogens themselves. Studies of sources and types of pathogens at beaches are needed to improve estimates of swimming-associated health risks. It would be advantageous and cost-effective, especially for studies conducted on a regional scale, to use a method that can simultaneously filter and concentrate all classes of pathogens from the large volumes of water needed to detect pathogens. In seven recovery experiments, stock cultures of viruses and protozoa were seeded into 10-liter lake water samples, and concentrations of naturally occurring bacterial indicators were used to determine recoveries. For the five filtration methods tested, the highest median recoveries were as follows: glass wool for adenovirus (4.7%); NanoCeram for enterovirus (14.5%) and MS2 coliphage (84%); continuous-flow centrifugation (CFC) plus Virocap (CFC+ViroCap) for Escherichia coli (68.3%) and Cryptosporidium (54%); automatic ultrafiltration (UF) for norovirus GII (2.4%); and dead-end UF for Enterococcus faecalis (80.5%), avian influenza virus (0.02%), and Giardia (57%). In evaluating filter performance in terms of both recovery and variability, the automatic UF resulted in the highest recovery while maintaining low variability for all nine microorganisms. The automatic UF was used to demonstrate that filtration can be scaled up to field deployment and the collection of 200-liter lake water samples.

  9. Enrichment-ELISA for Detection of Salmonella typhi From Food and Water Samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.KUMAR; K.BALAKRISHNA; HV.BATRA

    2008-01-01

    Objective Development of monoclonal antibody based sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbant assay(sELISA)for rapid detection of Salmonella enterica serovar typhi(S.typhi) from food and water samples and optimization of enrichment procedures for use with the developed sELISA to increase the detection Sensitivity of the assay. Methods Spleen cells from BALB/c mice immunized with flagellin(H=d)antigen of S.typhi were fused with Sp2/0 myeloma cells.The hybridoma cell line specific to H=d antigen was established.characterized and ascites raised against one of these clones.The hypefimmune serum to flagellin antigen was raised in New Zealand White rabbits.An sELISA was developed using polyclonalantibody as capture and monoelonal antibody as detection antibody.To design the efficient culture sUrategies for use with the sELISA.different pre-enrichment and enrichment brothswere evaluated.The mediaincluded buffered peptonewater(BPW)and brain heart infusion broth for pre-enrichment and selenite F broth and Rappaport-Vassiliadis broth as enrichment broths.The developed sELISA with preceding enrichment step in BPW(Enrichment-ELISA)was evaluated in various food samples artificially inoculated with S. typhi bacteria.Various food(30)and water(35)samples collected from field were also tested by Enrichment-ELISA and culture method. Results Out of four specific clones to H=d antigen,one clone(#2/56.IgG2a isotype)was usedin sELISA.The sELISA had the detectionlimit of 104-105 cfu of S.typhi.Of the various broths used with sELISA,BPW was found to yield maximum ELISA values.Enrichment-ELISA,when tested in artificially inoculated food samples,generally,could detect 102S.typhi cfu/mL within 10 h from variousfood rinses(meat,vegetable)and milk samples.After overnight enrichment in BPW,as less as 2 bacteria per 10 mL of milk,meat rinse.and chicken rinse could be detected.Only one of the field samples(water)gave false positive result by Enrichment-ELISA.Conclusion In comparison to culture

  10. Genotoxicity testing of samples generated during UV/H2O2 treatment of surface water for the production of drinking water using the Ames test in vitro and the Comet assay and the SCE test in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penders, E.J.M.; Martijn, A.J.; Spenkelink, A.; Alink, G.M.; Rietjens, I.; Hoogenboezem, W.

    2012-01-01

    UV/H2O2 treatment can be part of the process converting surface water to drinking water, but would pose a potential problem when resulting in genotoxicity. This study investigates the genotoxicity of samples collected from the water treatment plant Andijk, applying UV/H2O2 treatment with an electric

  11. Development and Testing of Harpoon-Based Approaches for Collecting Comet Samples (Video Supplement)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, Lloyd (Compiler); Nuth, Joseph (Compiler); Amatucci, Edward (Compiler); Wegel, Donald; Smith, Walter; Leary, James; Kee, Lake; Hill, Stuart; Grebenstein, Markus; Voelk, Stefan; hide

    2017-01-01

    This video supplement contains a set of videos created during the approximately 10-year-long course of developing and testing the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) harpoon-based approach for collecting comet samples. The purpose of the videos is to illustrate various design concepts used in this method of acquiring samples of comet material, the testing used to verify the concepts, and the evolution of designs and testing. To play the videos this PDF needs to be opened in the freeware Adobe Reader. They do not seem to play while within a browser. While this supplement can be used as a stand-alone document, it is intended to augment its parent document of the same title, Development and Testing of Harpoon-Based Approaches for Collecting Comet Samples (NASA/CR-2017-219018; this document is accessible from the website: https://ssed.gsfc.nasa.gov/harpoon/SAS_Paper-V1.pdf). The parent document, which only contains text and figures, describes the overall development and testing effort and contains references to each of the videos in this supplement. Thus, the videos are primarily intended to augment the information provided by the text and figures in the parent document. This approach was followed to allow the file size of the parent document to remain small enough to facilitate downloading and storage. Some of the videos were created by other organizations, Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU APL) and the German Aerospace Center called, the Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), who are partnering with GSFC on developing this technology. Each video is accompanied by text that provides a summary description of its nature and purpose, as well as the identity of the authors. All videos have been edited to only show key parts of the testing. Although not all videos have sound, the sound has been retained in those that have it. Also, each video has been given one or more title screens to clarify what is going in different phases of the video.

  12. Uranium and radium in water samples around the Nikola Tesla B lignite-fired power plant - Obrenovac, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žunić Zora S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the analysis of natural radionuclide content in 23 water samples collected in the vicinity of the Nikola Tesla B thermal power plant, Serbia. All samples were analyzed for 226Ra and uranium isotopes (238U, 234U activity using radiochemical methods and alpha spectrometry. Obtained results show that the activity concentrations for uranium and radium in the water around the thermal power plant are low when compared to those from areas across Serbia with their enhanced natural uranium and radium content. No important radiological hazard related to uranium and radium activity stored in heap was found.

  13. Insights into explosion dynamics at Stromboli in 2009 from ash samples collected in real-time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddeucci, J.; Lautze, N.; Andronico, D.; D'Auria, L.; Niemeijer, A.; Houghton, B.; Scarlato, P.

    2012-04-01

    Rapid characterization of tephra during explosive eruptions can provide valuable insights into eruptive mechanisms, also integrating other monitoring systems. Here we reveal a perspective on Stromboli's conduit processes by linking ash textures to geophysical estimates of eruption parameters of observed explosions. A three day campaign at Stromboli was undertaken by Italy's Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) in October 2009. At this time activity was moderately intense, with an average 4 to 5, both ash-rich and ash-poor, explosions per hour at each the SW and NE vents. A total of fifteen ash samples were collected in real time. We used binocular and scanning electron microscopes to analyze the components, grain size and morphology distributions, and surface chemistry of ash particles within eight selected samples. In addition, the INGV monitoring network provided visual, thermal, and seismic information on the explosions that generated the sampled ash. In each sample, the proportion of fluidal, glassy sideromelane (as opposed to blocky, microcrystalline tachylite plus lithics), the degree of "chemical freshness" (as opposed to chemical alteration), and the average size of particles appear to correlate directly with the maximum height and the seismic amplitude of the corresponding explosion, and inversely correlate with the amount of ash erupted, as estimated by monitoring videos. These observations suggest that more violent explosions (i.e., those driven by the release of larger and more pressurized gas volumes) produce ash via the fragmentation of hotter, more fluid magma, while weaker ones mostly erupt ash-sized particles derived by the fragmentation of colder magma and incorporation of conduit wall debris. The formation of fluidal ash particles (up to Pele's hairs) requires aerodynamic deformation of a relatively low-viscosity magma, in agreement with the strong acceleration imposed upon fragmented magma clots by the rapid expansion of

  14. Analysis of non-methane hydrocarbons in air samples collected aboard the CARIBIC passenger aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Baker

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The CARIBIC project (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container is a long-term monitoring program making regular atmospheric measurements from an instrument container installed monthly aboard a passenger aircraft. Typical cruising altitudes of the aircraft allow for the study of the free troposphere and the extra-tropical upper troposphere as well as the lowermost stratosphere. CARIBIC measurements include a number of real time analyses as well as the collection of aerosol and whole air samples. These whole air samples are analyzed post-flight for a suite of trace gases, which includes non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC.

    The NMHC measurement system and its analytical performance are described here. Precision was found to vary slightly by compound, and is less than 2% for the C2–C6 alkanes and ethyne, and between 1 and 6% for C7–C8 alkanes and aromatic compounds. Preliminary results from participation in a Global Atmospheric Watch (WMO VOC audit indicate accuracies within the precision of the system. Limits of detection are 1 pptv for most compounds, and up to 3 pptv for some aromatics. These are sufficiently low to measure mixing ratios typically observed in the upper troposphere and lowermost stratosphere for the longer-lived NMHC, however, in air samples from these regions many of the compounds with shorter lifetimes (<5 d were frequently below the detection limit. Observed NMHC concentrations span many orders of magnitude, dependent on atmospheric region and air mass history, with concentrations typically decreasing with shorter chemical lifetimes.

  15. The measurement of radioactivity in water and soil samples from Republic of Srpska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todorovic, D.J.; Jankovic, M.M.

    2008-07-01

    During 2005 and 2006 water and soil samples were collected from different regions in Republic of Srpska, in order to evaluate their radioactivity. During the War lasted from 1994 to 1995, it is known that some locations in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Republic of Srpska belongs territorially to Bosnia and Herzegovina) were imposed by NATO forces and targeted by depleted uranium. For investigation we chose locations which are far away from the bombed places in order to check whether the depleted uranium was dispersed on long distances. The activity concentrations of radio-nuclides in water and soil samples were determined by gamma spectrometry (HPGe detector, relative efficiency 23%). Results showed the presence of natural radio-nuclides 226Ra, 232Th, 40K, 235U, 238U as well as the produced radionuclide 137Cs. In order to evaluate the radiological hazard of the natural radioactivity, the radium equivalent activity, the gamma-absorbed dose rate, the annual effective dose rate and the external hazard index have been calculated for soil samples. (author)(tk)

  16. Data Validation Package, April and June 2016 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Gunnison, Colorado, Processing Site, October 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linard, Joshua [U. S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Legacy Management; Campbell, Sam [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-10-01

    This event included annual sampling of groundwater and surface water locations at the Gunnison, Colorado, Processing Site. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for US Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated, http://energy.gov/lm/downloads/sampling-and­ analysis-plan-us-department-energy-office-legacy-management-sites). Samples were collected from 28 monitoring wells, three domestic wells, and six surface locations in April at the processing site as specified in the draft 2010 Ground Water Compliance Action Plan for the Gunnison, Colorado, Processing Site. Planned monitoring locations are shown in Attachment 1, Sampling and Analysis Work Order. Domestic wells 0476 and 0477 were sampled in June because the homes were unoccupied in April, and the wells were not in use. Duplicate samples were collected from locations 0126, 0477, and 0780. One equipment blank was collected during this sampling event. Water levels were measured at all monitoring wells that were sampled. See Attachment 2, Trip Reports for additional details. The analytical data and associated qualifiers can be viewed in environmental database reports and are also available for viewing with dynamic mapping via the GEMS (Geospatial Environmental Mapping System) website at http://gems.lm.doe.gov/#. No issues were identified during the data validation process that requires additional action or follow-up. An assessment of anomalous data is included in Attachment 3. Interpretation and presentation of results, including an assessment ofthe natural flushing compliance strategy, will be reported in the upcoming 2016 Verification Monitoring Report. U.S.

  17. Sampling effort of periphytic diatoms for bioassessment research using taxonomic distinctness in marine ecosystems: A case study in coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lu; Xu, Yuping; Yang, Zhongwen; Xu, Guanjian; Wang, Zheng; Xu, Henglong

    2016-11-15

    The sampling effort for detecting taxonomic distinctness of periphytic diatom communities was studied in coastal waters of the Yellow Sea, northern China, from May to June 2014. Samples with different sizes (microscopy glass slides) were collected at two depths of 1m and 3m. To obtain the communities with dissimilarities of <10%, 2 slide replicates were sufficient for sampling at a depth of 1m, while 4 were required for the those at a depth of 3m. The values of four taxonomic distinctness indices represented a low sensitivity to sample sizes over all exposure period ages: at a coefficient of variation of <10%, 2 and 9 slide replicates were required at a depth of 1m and 3m, respectively. We suggest that the sampling strategy of the diatoms for detecting taxonomic distinctness might be better at 1m than at a deeper layer in coastal waters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 40 CFR 258.53 - Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....53 Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements. (a) The ground-water monitoring program must... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements. 258.53 Section 258.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

  19. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample, profile and underway - surface observations using CTD, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from the THOMAS G. THOMPSON in the Coastal Waters of SE Alaska, Gulf of Alaska and North Pacific Ocean from 1993-05-15 to 1993-06-26 (NODC Accession 0115172)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115172 includes chemical, discrete sample, meteorological, physical, profile and underway - surface data collected from THOMAS G. THOMPSON in the...

  20. bacteriological analysis of well water samples in sagamu.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Oboro VO

    Due to increasing cases of water-borne diseases in recent times, this study was carried out ... are not safe microbiologically for drinking without additional treatment such as boiling ... fever and Cholera. .... The spread of diseases through faecal.

  1. Automation of high-frequency sampling of environmental waters for reactive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.; Bishop, J. K.; Wood, T.; Fung, I.; Fong, M.

    2011-12-01

    Trace metals, particularly iron and manganese, play a critical role in some ecosystems as a limiting factor to determine primary productivity, in geochemistry, especially redox chemistry as important electron donors and acceptors, and in aquatic environments as carriers of contaminant transport. Dynamics of trace metals are closely related to various hydrologic events such as rainfall. Storm flow triggers dramatic changes of both dissolved and particulate trace metals concentrations and affects other important environmental parameters linked to trace metal behavior such as dissolved organic carbon (DOC). To improve our understanding of behaviors of trace metals and underlying processes, water chemistry information must be collected for an adequately long period of time at higher frequency than conventional manual sampling (e.g. weekly, biweekly). In this study, we developed an automated sampling system to document the dynamics of trace metals, focusing on Fe and Mn, and DOC for a multiple-year high-frequency geochemistry time series in a small catchment, called Rivendell located at Angelo Coast Range Reserve, California. We are sampling ground and streamwater using the automated sampling system in daily-frequency and the condition of the site is substantially variable from season to season. The ranges of pH of ground and streamwater are pH 5 - 7 and pH 7.8 - 8.3, respectively. DOC is usually sub-ppm, but during rain events, it increases by an order of magnitude. The automated sampling system focuses on two aspects- 1) a modified design of sampler to improve sample integrity for trace metals and DOC and 2) remote controlling system to update sampling volume and timing according to hydrological conditions. To maintain sample integrity, the developed method employed gravity filtering using large volume syringes (140mL) and syringe filters connected to a set of polypropylene bottles and a borosilicate bottle via Teflon tubing. Without filtration, in a few days, the

  2. Sampling strategies and post-processing methods for increasing the time resolution of organic aerosol measurements requiring long sample-collection times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modini, Rob L.; Takahama, Satoshi

    2016-07-01

    The composition and properties of atmospheric organic aerosols (OAs) change on timescales of minutes to hours. However, some important OA characterization techniques typically require greater than a few hours of sample-collection time (e.g., Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy). In this study we have performed numerical modeling to investigate and compare sample-collection strategies and post-processing methods for increasing the time resolution of OA measurements requiring long sample-collection times. Specifically, we modeled the measurement of hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) and oxygenated OA (OOA) concentrations at a polluted urban site in Mexico City, and investigated how to construct hourly resolved time series from samples collected for 4, 6, and 8 h. We modeled two sampling strategies - sequential and staggered sampling - and a range of post-processing methods including interpolation and deconvolution. The results indicated that relative to the more sophisticated and costly staggered sampling methods, linear interpolation between sequential measurements is a surprisingly effective method for increasing time resolution. Additional error can be added to a time series constructed in this manner if a suboptimal sequential sampling schedule is chosen. Staggering measurements is one way to avoid this effect. There is little to be gained from deconvolving staggered measurements, except at very low values of random measurement error (< 5 %). Assuming 20 % random measurement error, one can expect average recovery errors of 1.33-2.81 µg m-3 when using 4-8 h-long sequential and staggered samples to measure time series of concentration values ranging from 0.13-29.16 µg m-3. For 4 h samples, 19-47 % of this total error can be attributed to the process of increasing time resolution alone, depending on the method used, meaning that measurement precision would only be improved by 0.30-0.75 µg m-3 if samples could be collected over 1 h instead of 4 h. Devising a

  3. Analysis And Assessment Of The Security Method Against Incidental Contamination In The Collective Water Supply System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szpak Dawid

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the main types of surface water incidental contaminations and the security method against incidental contamination in water sources. Analysis and assessment the collective water supply system (CWSS protection against incidental contamination was conducted. Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA was used. The FMEA method allow to use the product or process analysis, identification of weak points, and implementation the corrections and new solutions for eliminating the source of undesirable events. The developed methodology was shown in application case. It was found that the risk of water contamination in water-pipe network of the analyzed CWSS caused by water source incidental contamination is at controlled level.

  4. A Direct-Push Sample-Freezing Drive Shoe for Collecting Sediment Cores with Intact Pore Fluid, Microbial, and Sediment Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekins, B. A.; Trost, J.; Christy, T. M.; Mason, B.

    2015-12-01

    Abiotic and biological reactions in shallow groundwater and bottom sediments are central to understanding groundwater contaminant attenuation and biogeochemical cycles. The laminar flow regime in unconsolidated surficial aquifers creates narrow reaction zones. Studying these reaction zones requires fine-scale sampling of water together with adjacent sediment in a manner that preserves in situ redox conditions. Collecting representative samples of these narrow zones with traditional subsurface sampling equipment is challenging. For example, use of a basket type core catcher for saturated, non-cohesive sediments results in loss of fluid and sediments during retrieval. A sample-freezing drive shoe designed for a wire line piston core sampler allowed collection of cores with intact sediment, microbial, and pore fluid distributions and has been the basis for studies documenting centimeter-scale variations in aquifer microbial populations (Murphy and Herkelrath, 1996). However, this freezing drive shoe design is not compatible with modern-day direct push sampling rigs. A re-designed sample-freezing drive shoe compatible with a direct-push dual-tube coring system was developed and field-tested. The freezing drive shoe retained sediment and fluid distributions in saturated sediment core samples by freezing a 10 centimeter plug below the core sample with liquid CO­2. Core samples collected across the smear zone at a crude oil spill site near Bemidji, Minnesota, were successfully extracted without loss of fluid or sediment. Multiple core sections from different depths in the aquifer were retrieved from a single hole. This new design makes a highly effective sampling technology available on modern-day direct push sampling equipment to inform myriad questions about subsurface biogeochemistry processes. The re-design of the freezing drive shoe was supported by the USGS Innovation Center for Earth Sciences. References: Murphy, Fred, and W. N. Herkelrath. "A sample

  5. [Protozoans in superficial waters and faecal samples of individuals of rural populations of the Montes municipality, Sucre state, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Leonor; Martínez, Indira; Figuera, Lourdes; Segura, Merlyn; Del Valle, Guilarte

    2010-12-01

    In Sucre state, the Manzanares river is threatened by domestic, agricultural and industrial activities, becoming an environmental risk factor for its inhabitants. In this sense, the presence of protozoans in superficial waters of tributaries of the Manzanares river (Orinoco river, Quebrada Seca, San Juan river), Montes municipality, Sucre state, as well as the analysis of faecal samples from inhabitants of towns bordering these tributaries were evaluated. We collected faecal and water samples from may 2006 through april 2007. The superficial water samples were processed after centrifugation by the direct examination and floculation, using lugol, modified Kinyoun and trichromic colorations. Fecal samples where analyzed by direct examination with physiological saline solution and the modified Ritchie concentration method and using the other colorations techniques above mentioned. The most frequently observed protozoans in superficial waters in the three tributaries were: Amoebas, Blastocystis sp, Endolimax sp., Chilomastix sp. and Giardia sp. Whereas in faecal samples, Blastocystis hominis, Endolimax nana and Entaomeba coli had the greatest frequencies in the three communities. The inhabitants of Orinoco La Peña turned out to be most susceptible to these parasitic infections (77.60%), followed by San Juan River (46.63%) and Quebrada Seca (39.49%). The presence of pathogenic and nonpathogenic protozoans in superficial waters demonstrates the faecal contamination of the tributaries, representing a constant focus of infection for their inhabitants, inferred by the observation of the same species in both types of samples.

  6. Adaptive free energy sampling in multidimensional collective variable space using boxed molecular dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Mike; Paci, Emanuele; McIntosh-Smith, Simon; Glowacki, David R

    2016-12-22

    The past decade has seen the development of a new class of rare event methods in which molecular configuration space is divided into a set of boundaries/interfaces, and then short trajectories are run between boundaries. For all these methods, an important concern is how to generate boundaries. In this paper, we outline an algorithm for adaptively generating boundaries along a free energy surface in multi-dimensional collective variable (CV) space, building on the boxed molecular dynamics (BXD) rare event algorithm. BXD is a simple technique for accelerating the simulation of rare events and free energy sampling which has proven useful for calculating kinetics and free energy profiles in reactive and non-reactive molecular dynamics (MD) simulations across a range of systems, in both NVT and NVE ensembles. Two key developments outlined in this paper make it possible to automate BXD, and to adaptively map free energy and kinetics in complex systems. First, we have generalized BXD to multidimensional CV space. Using strategies from rigid-body dynamics, we have derived a simple and general velocity-reflection procedure that conserves energy for arbitrary collective variable definitions in multiple dimensions, and show that it is straightforward to apply BXD to sampling in multidimensional CV space so long as the Cartesian gradients ∇CV are available. Second, we have modified BXD to undertake on-the-fly statistical analysis during a trajectory, harnessing the information content latent in the dynamics to automatically determine boundary locations. Such automation not only makes BXD considerably easier to use; it also guarantees optimal boundaries, speeding up convergence. We have tested the multidimensional adaptive BXD procedure by calculating the potential of mean force for a chemical reaction recently investigated using both experimental and computational approaches - i.e., F + CD3CN → DF + D2CN in both the gas phase and a strongly coupled explicit CD3CN solvent

  7. Chemical analyses of ground-water samples from the Rio Grande Valley in the vicinity of Albuquerque, New Mexico, October 1993 through January 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, D.W.; Schlottmann, J.L.; Ferree, D.M.

    1996-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate general ground-water- quality conditions and contaminant locations in the Rio Grande Valley in the vicinity of Albuquerque, New Mexico. Water samples from 36 observation wells in 12 well nests were analyzed. The well nests are located along three roads near the Rio Grande--two well nests near Paseo del Norte, five well nests near Monta?o Road, and five well nests near Rio Bravo Boulevard. The water samples were collected from October 19, 1993, through January 18, 1994. Water-quality types by major-ion composition were calcium bicarbonate (found in most samples), sodium sulfate, calcium sulfate, and calcium sulfate chloride. Nutrients were detected in all but one sample. Ammonia was detected in 34 samples, nitrite in 4 samples, and nitrate in 17 samples. Orthophosphate was detected in 31 samples. Organic carbon was detected in all samples collected. The trace elements arsenic and barium were detected in all samples and zinc in 31 samples. Fourteen samples contained detectable copper. Cadmium was detected in one sample, chromium in two samples, lead in four samples, and selenium in two samples. Mercury and silver were not detected.

  8. Gasbuggy, New Mexico, Natural Gas and Produced Water Sampling Results for 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management conducted annual natural gas sampling for the Gasbuggy, New Mexico, Site on June 20 and 21, 2012. This long-term monitoring of natural gas includes samples of produced water from gas production wells that are located near the site. Water samples from gas production wells were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides, gross alpha, gross beta, and tritium. Natural gas samples were analyzed for tritium and carbon-14. ALS Laboratory Group in Fort Collins, Colorado, analyzed water samples. Isotech Laboratories in Champaign, Illinois, analyzed natural gas samples.

  9. Concentrations of environmental contaminants in blood samples collected from Sharp-shinned hawks (Accipiter striatus) from the Eastern Flyway

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Table 1 provides the results of organochlorine and mercury analysis on plasma and whole blood samples (respectively) collected from 20 sharp-shinned hawks at HMS...

  10. The Constitutive Content of the Crime of Refusal or Evasion from Collecting Biological Samples in the Romanian Criminal Law

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Minodora-Ioana BĂLAN-RUSU

    2015-01-01

    In the paper we have examined the constitutive content of the offense of refusal or evasion from collecting biological samples, with elements of similarity and differences between the current and the old law...

  11. Radiocarbon sample data and calibrated ages of sediment cores collected in 2009 offshore from Palos Verdes, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of the data release is a spreadsheet including radiocarbon sample information and calibrated ages of sediment cores collected in 2009 offshore of Palos...

  12. Towards sustainable urban water governance in Denmark: collective building of capabilities in local authorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Jensen, Marina Bergen

    2016-01-01

    managers to take part in a dialogue about sustainable urban water projects, while collectively exploring new design solutions; 2) it facilitates an appreciative communication between several disciplines; 3) it promotes careful planning in the early stages of an urban water construction project.......To address the climate adaptation of cities, today’s water managers need more than technical skills to drive sustainable urban water projects, which also stimulate demand for post-graduate education so that professionalisation of integrated sustainable water management in the public sector can...... be achieved. The ‘urban water platform’ was tested and is hereby presented as a course concept for building collective capabilities for integrated sustainable water design among local authorities in Denmark. The course is an innovation because: 1) it invites urban planners, road and park managers and sewage...

  13. Occurrence and behaviour of 105 active pharmaceutical ingredients in sewage waters of a municipal sewer collection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Richard H; Östman, Marcus; Olofsson, Ulrika; Grabic, Roman; Fick, Jerker

    2014-07-01

    The concentrations and behaviour of 105 different active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in the aqueous phase of sewage water within a municipal sewer collection system have been investigated. Sewage water samples were gathered from seven pump stations (one of which was located within a university hospital) and from sewage water treatment influent and effluent. The targeted APIs were quantified using a multi-residue method based on online solid phase extraction liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The method was thoroughly validated and complies with EU regulations on sample handling, limits of quantification, quality control and selectivity. 51 APIs, including antibiotics, antidepressants, hypertension drugs, analgesics, NSAIDs and psycholeptics, were found frequently within the sewer collection system. API concentrations and mass flows were evaluated in terms of their frequency of detection, daily variation, median/minimum/maximum/average concentrations, demographic dissimilarities, removal efficiencies, and mass flow profiles relative to municipal sales data. Our results suggest that some APIs are removed from, or introduced to, the aqueous phase of sewage waters within the studied municipal collection system.