WorldWideScience

Sample records for water rights

  1. Drought Water Right Curtailment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, W.; Tweet, A.; Magnuson-Skeels, B.; Whittington, C.; Arnold, B.; Lund, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    California's water rights system allocates water based on priority, where lower priority, "junior" rights are curtailed first in a drought. The Drought Water Rights Allocation Tool (DWRAT) was developed to integrate water right allocation models with legal objectives to suggest water rights curtailments during drought. DWRAT incorporates water right use and priorities with a flow-forecasting model to mathematically represent water law and hydrology and suggest water allocations among water rights holders. DWRAT is compiled within an Excel workbook, with an interface and an open-source solver. By implementing California water rights law as an algorithm, DWRAT provides a precise and transparent framework for the complicated and often controversial technical aspects of curtailing water rights use during drought. DWRAT models have been developed for use in the Eel, Russian, and Sacramento river basins. In this study, an initial DWRAT model has been developed for the San Joaquin watershed, which incorporates all water rights holders in the basin and reference gage flows for major tributaries. The San Joaquin DWRAT can assess water allocation reliability by determining probability of rights holders' curtailment for a range of hydrologic conditions. Forecasted flow values can be input to the model to provide decision makers with the ability to make curtailment and water supply strategy decisions. Environmental flow allocations will be further integrated into the model to protect and improve ecosystem water reliability.

  2. Child rights, right to water and sanitation, and human security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pink, Ross

    2012-06-15

    The article explores the intersection between child rights, water scarcity, sanitation, and the human security paradigm. The recognition of child rights has been advanced through the 1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child and other international legal instruments, while water rights are increasingly affirmed in international law and through the historic July 2010 United Nations General Assembly resolution that strengthened the legal foundation for water security and human rights. Yet there remains a development gap in terms of child access to clean and secure water sources for basic human development needs. The human security paradigm provides a legal and humanitarian foundation for the extension of child rights related to water and sanitation. Copyright © 2012 Pink.

  3. 50 CFR 35.12 - Water rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water rights. 35.12 Section 35.12 Wildlife... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM WILDERNESS PRESERVATION AND MANAGEMENT General Rules § 35.12 Water rights... the Department of the Interior as to exemption from State water laws....

  4. 36 CFR 293.11 - Water rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water rights. 293.11 Section...-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.11 Water rights. Nothing in the regulations in this part constitutes an expressed or implied claim or denial on the part of the Department of Agriculture as to exemption from State water laws....

  5. Defect and Innovation of Water Rights System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Bin

    2008-01-01

    The rare deposition of water resources conflicts with its limitless demand. This determined the existence of the water rights transaction system. The implementation of the water rights transaction system requires clarifying the definition of water re-source fight above all distinctly. At present, it is a kind of common right system arrangement which needs the Chinese government to dispose of water resources. Though a series of management sys-tems guaranteed the government's supply of water resource, it hindered the development of the water market seriously and caused the utilization of water resources to stay in the inefficient or low efficient state for a long time. Thus, we should change the government's leading role in the resource distribution and really rely on the market to carry on the water rights trade and transac-tion. In this way, the water rights could become a kind of private property right relatively, and circulate freely in the market. As a result of this, we should overcome the defects of common right, make its external performance internalized maximally and achieve the optimized water resource disposition and use it more effec-tively.

  6. Human right to water and conventionality control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana N. Martínez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Humanity faces the challenge of achieving the sustainability of water resources supply for the satisfaction of human needs and ofensuring the sustainability of the natural ecosystems for the achievement of sustainable human development and the quality of life of present and future generations. For this reason the recognition of access to water as a Human Right has fundamental significance. We proceed to analyze the international instruments that provide content and legal basis to the human right to water and the obligations of States. In this context, we deal with the constitutional reception of human right to water in Argentina in the constitutional reform of 1994 and the control of conventionality as guarantor of access to water, which has led to different domestic courts to consider cases in which a violation ofthe right to water was proved.

  7. Safe water: an enquiry into water entitlements and human rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaay Fortman, B. de

    2006-01-01

    Privatisation of water delivery is a human rights issue in two distinct ways. Firstly, it implies an institutional change that will tend to impinge on existing access to water. While basic water entitlements are supposed to be protected by human rights law, this is likely to influence

  8. Safe water: an enquiry into water entitlements and human rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaay Fortman, B. de

    2006-01-01

    Privatisation of water delivery is a human rights issue in two distinct ways. Firstly, it implies an institutional change that will tend to impinge on existing access to water. While basic water entitlements are supposed to be protected by human rights law, this is likely to influence implementation

  9. PUBLIC PARTICIPATION AND WATER USE RIGHTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillipa King

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The conservation and protection of water resources is paramount in the safeguarding of environmental rights and the attainment of sustainable development in South Africa. Although the National Water Act 36 of 1998 (the NWA seeks to provide a framework for ensuring the sustainable use of water resources, its application has been hindered by capacity and enforcement constraints, a legacy of water pollution (primarily as a result of mining and industrial activities, and poor resource management. To aggravate this situation, the difficulties in effectively implementing the NWA are exacerbated by inadequate public participation in water use licensing processes. Public participation in environmental decision-making has increasingly received recognition for its role in ensuring administrative justice and the protection of environmental rights. While environmental legislation (in many cases sets out procedures for ensuring that public views are taken into account in environmental decision-making processes, the judiciary has also recognised the pivotal role of public engagement in ensuring administrative justice where environmental rights are at stake. Sound public participation practices play an important role in identifying issues requiring consideration in the context of environmental assessment processes, as well as in ensuring that communities are empowered to monitor, identify and report on potential contraventions of environmental legislation. Water is a vital natural resource which is under significant pressure in South Africa. In the circumstances, effective public participation is crucial to ensuring the protection and equitable use of water resources. It follows that provision for comprehensive public engagement in water use licensing processes is integral to ensuring the sustainable management of water resources. While provision is made in the NWA for public engagement in the context of water use licensing processes, such participation is

  10. The human right to water: the importance of domestic and productive water rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Ralph P; Van Koppen, Barbara; Van Houweling, Emily

    2014-12-01

    The United Nations (UN) Universal Declaration of Human Rights engenders important state commitments to respect, fulfill, and protect a broad range of socio-economic rights. In 2010, a milestone was reached when the UN General Assembly recognized the human right to safe and clean drinking water and sanitation. However, water plays an important role in realizing other human rights such as the right to food and livelihoods, and in realizing the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. These broader water-related rights have been recognized but have not yet been operationalized. This paper unravels these broader water-related rights in a more holistic interpretation of existing international human rights law. By focusing on an emerging approach to water services provision--known as 'domestic-plus' services--the paper argues how this approach operationalizes a comprehensive range of socio-economic rights in rural and peri-urban areas. Domestic-plus services provide water for domestic and productive uses around homesteads, which challenges the widespread practice in the public sector of planning and designing water infrastructure for a single-use. Evidence is presented to show that people in rural communities are already using their water supplies planned for domestic uses to support a wide range of productive activities. Domestic-plus services recognize and plan for these multiple-uses, while respecting the priority for clean and safe drinking water. The paper concludes that domestic-plus services operationalize the obligation to progressively fulfill a comprehensive range of indivisible socio-economic rights in rural and peri-urban areas.

  11. Water Rights for Wetlands in the Bear River Delta

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This fact sheet explains the basic premise and functioning of water rights in Utah and how water rights affect wetlands, specifically those in the northern region of the state. It includes the history of Utah water rights and the basic components of prior appropriation doctrine, and gives an example of using water rights for wetlands by explaining how the Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge works with neighboring water users to secure water for its wetlands.

  12. Alternative Structures for Water Rights Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eheart, J. Wayland; Lyon, Randolph M.

    1983-08-01

    This paper examines the design of systems of marketable permits for water consumption from natural watercourses. The most important considerations for the work reported upon here are those associated with (1) uncertainty of future streamflows and economic conditions, (2) locational issues, and (3) efficient and effective functioning of the markets. Particular attention is given to the problem of implementing marketable rights systems in regions presently following the riparian doctorine. In these regions the most important design decisions include the basis of definition of permits, the means for initially distributing them, the type of market mechanism used for their transfer after they are issued, and the restrictions placed on their use and transfer. These design decisions are examined here with respect to program objectives, including economic efficiency, equity, ease of administration and implementation, and maintenance of instream flows. Alternative approaches to the design problems are discussed, and trade-offs implied by the decisions are identified.

  13. The right of access to sufficient water in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LAW

    interrelatedness of socio-economic rights, the right to water is regarded as implicitly ..... in Latin America and the Caribbean', conference organised by the Pan – American Health ..... databases and currently receive free basic water.120.

  14. International Human Rights Law and the Right to water: a Brazilian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Yip

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the recognition of the right to water in international human rights law and its implications. After demonstrating the disputes with respect to the interpretation of this right, it outlines the Brazilian contribution in regard to its incorporation in domestic law. Jurisprudence on the suspension of water supply due to non-payment is taken as a case study of the question of access to water and sanitation.

  15. 78 FR 21343 - New Ski Area Water Rights Clause

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... Forest Service New Ski Area Water Rights Clause AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting... rights clause for ski area permits issued by the Forest Service. There will be several stations at the... Service will consider in developing a new ski area water rights clause. There will be another...

  16. Klamath Basin Water Rights Place of Use

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hydrological Information Products for the Off-Project Water Program of the Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2012-1199 U.S....

  17. On the Law Right of the Gas Water of Water Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Shujun

    2007-01-01

    With the development of science and technology,there searches and application of water resources including the gas water have been constantly developed.Through an analysis on the flaws of the water right theory,and by executing reconstruction and renewal of the theory and system of water fight in modern society,the water right position of the gas water will be established,leading to the maturity of the whole law effectiveness and substantial results of water right.

  18. Some comments on water rights in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Gabru

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Human life, as with all animal and plant life on the planet, is dependent upon fresh water. Water is not only needed to grow food, generate power and run industries, but it is also needed as a basic part of human life. Human dependency upon water is evident through history, which illustrates that human settlements have been closely linked to the availability and supply of fresh water. Access to the limited water resources in South Africa has been historically dominated by those with access to land and economic power, as a result of which the majority of South Africans have struggled to secure the right to water. Apartheid era legislation governing water did not discriminate directly on the grounds of race, but the racial imbalance in ownership of land resulted in the disproportionate denial to black people of the right to water. Beyond racial categorisations, the rural and poor urban populations were traditionally especially vulnerable in terms of the access to the right. The enactment of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa 1996, brought the South African legal system into a new era, by including a bill of fundamental human rights (Bill of Rights. The Bill of Rights makes provision for limited socio-economic rights. Besides making provision for these human rights, the Constitution also makes provision for the establishment of state institutions supporting constitutional democracy. The Constitution has been in operation since May 1996. At this stage, it is important to take stock and measure the success of the implementation of these socio-economic rights. This assessment is important in more ways than one, especially in the light of the fact that many lawyers argued strongly against the inclusion of the second and third generation of human rights in a Bill of Rights. The argument was that these rights are not enforceable in a court of law and that they would create unnecessary expectations of food, shelter, health, water and the

  19. The trade of virtual water: do property rights matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ankai

    2016-04-01

    My paper examines the determinants of the virtual water trade - embodied in the trade of agriculture products - by estimating a structural gravity model. In particular, it tests the relationship between property rights and the export of water-intensive agricultural products based on water footprint data in Mekonnen and Hoekstra (2011, 2012). Using two different measures of property rights protection, I show that countries with weaker property rights have an apparent comparative advantage in the trade of water-intensive products. After controlling for the economic size, natural resource endowments, and possible effects of reverse causality, the trade flow of virtual water is negatively and significantly correlated with the property rights index of the exporting country. Holding other factors constant, one point increase in the property rights index of a country is associated with a 24% - 36% decrease in its virtual water export, whereas a 1% increase in the natural resource protection index of a country is associated with a 16% decrease in its virtual water export. This paper is the first empirical work that tests the relationship between property rights and trade of water-intensive products, offering a new perceptive in the debate of virtual water trade. The findings provide a possible explanation on the paradoxical evidence that some countries with scarce water resources export water-intensive products. The result is important not only in terms of its theoretical relevance, but also its policy implications. As prescribed by the model of trade and property rights, when countries with weaker property rights open to international trade, they are more likely to over-exploit and thus expedite the depletion of natural resources.

  20. Out of the Mainstream. Water Rights, Politics and Identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelens, R.A.; Getches, D.; Guevara-Gil, A.

    2010-01-01

    Water is not only a source of life and culture. It is also a source of power, conflicting interests and identity battles. Rights to materially access, culturally organize and politically control water resources are poorly understood by mainstream scientific approaches and hardly addressed by current

  1. Out of the Mainstream. Water Rights, Politics and Identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelens, R.A.; Getches, D.; Guevara-Gil, A.

    2010-01-01

    Water is not only a source of life and culture. It is also a source of power, conflicting interests and identity battles. Rights to materially access, culturally organize and politically control water resources are poorly understood by mainstream scientific approaches and hardly addressed by current

  2. Water Rights Arenas in the Andes: Upscaling Networks to Strengthen Local Water Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutgerd Boelens

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The threats that Andean water user collectives face are ever-growing in a globalising society. Water is power and engenders social struggle. In the Andean region, water rights struggles involve not only disputes over the access to water, infrastructure and related resources, but also over the contents of water rules and rights, the recognition of legitimate authority, and the discourses that are mobilised to sustain water governance structures and rights orders. While open and large-scale water battles such as Bolivia’s 'Water Wars' or nationwide mobilisations in Ecuador get the most public attention, low-profile and more localised water rights encounters, ingrained in local territories, are far more widespread and have an enormous impact on the Andean waterscapes. This paper highlights both water arenas and the ways they operate between the legal and the extralegal. It shows how local collectives build on their own water rights foundations to manage internal water affairs but which simultaneously offer an important home-base for strategising wider water defence manoeuvres. Hand-in-hand with inwardly reinforcing their rights bases, water user groups aim for horizontal and vertical linkages thereby creating strategic alliances. Sheltering an internal school for rights and identity development, reflection and organisation, these local community foundations, through open and subsurface linkages and fluxes, provide the groundwork for upscaling their water rights defence networks to national and transnational arenas.

  3. Climate change effects on water allocations with season dependent water rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Null, Sarah E; Prudencio, Liana

    2016-11-15

    Appropriative water rights allocate surface water to competing users based on seniority. Often water rights vary seasonally with spring runoff, irrigation schedules, or other non-uniform supply and demand. Downscaled monthly Coupled Model Intercomparison Project multi-model, multi-emissions scenario hydroclimate data evaluate water allocation reliability and variability with anticipated hydroclimate change. California's Tuolumne watershed is a study basin, chosen because water rights are well-defined, simple, and include competing environmental, agricultural, and urban water uses representative of most basins. We assume that dedicated environmental flows receive first priority when mandated by federal law like the Endangered Species Act or hydropower relicensing, followed by senior agricultural water rights, and finally junior urban water rights. Environmental flows vary by water year and include April pulse flows, and senior agricultural water rights are 68% larger during historical spring runoff from April through June. Results show that senior water right holders receive the largest climate-driven reductions in allocated water when peak streamflow shifts from snowmelt-dominated spring runoff to mixed snowmelt- and rainfall-dominated winter runoff. Junior water right holders have higher uncertainty from inter-annual variability. These findings challenge conventional wisdom that water shortages are absorbed by junior water users and suggest that aquatic ecosystems may be disproportionally impaired by hydroclimate change, even when environmental flows receive priority.

  4. The Right to Water in the Case-Law of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimena Murillo Chávarro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The human right to water is nowadays more broadly recognised, mainly due to the essential societal function that this resource plays; likewise, because of the present water scarcity is generating conflicts between its different uses. Thus, this right aims at protecting human beings by guaranteeing access to clean water that is essential to satisfy vital human needs. Similarly, access to clean water is an important element to guarantee other rights including the right to life and health. The recognition of the right to water is mainly achieved in two ways: as a new and independent right and as a subordinate or derivative right. Concerning the latter, the right to water can emanate from civil and political rights, such as the right to life; or can be derived from economic, social and cultural rights, including the right to health, the right to an adequate standard of living, and the right to housing. This contribution explores the position of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights regarding the right to water, and analyses whether the Court has recognised the right to water and, if so, in which manner.

  5. Simulating Water Markets to Help Design Water Rights Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harou, J. J.; Erfani, T.; Huskova, I.; Binions, O.

    2012-12-01

    In many catchments in England no further licenses are available from the Environmental regulator that provides them. The possibility of trading water between license holders has been recognized as a potentially effective and economically efficient strategy to mitigate increasing scarcity. Although trading licenses has been possible since several years, it very rarely happens (roughly 50 trades in 8 years). Several barriers to trade exist including lack of sufficient and prolonged scarcity, license-holder unwillingness to risk future renewal, likelihood license will be downgraded during a trade, duration of time required for approving a trade, etc. Regulators seek to make policy changes so that their inability to grant new licenses will not harm the local and national economy. What policy changes will most cost-effectively increase trading and allow it to effectively reduce the economic cost of scarcity events? A screening tool that could help evaluate problems and advantages of different regulatory solutions, and that could serve to test, assuming transaction costs can be quantified, their effect on trading under specific conditions would be useful. We propose such a water market simulator that predicts economically efficient pair-wise trade (between willing buyers and sellers) and represents the interaction of trades with natural hydrological flows, engineered infrastructure and a particular regulatory regime. The model emulates license-holders' willingness to engage in short-term trade transactions. In their initial form different 'agents' (license holders) are represented using an economic benefit function of water use which is supplemented by rules to represent behavioral or other characteristics of realistic system behavior. A case study based on the river Ouse basin (UK) is made to test the model. The model simulates the catchment weekly over several years considering reservoirs and pair-wise specific transaction costs. Several regulatory policies are tested

  6. The Human Right to Water in Law and Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Brunner

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent concerns about alleged insufficient water provision to the poor in Detroit, USA, has put the Human Right to Water (HRW into the international discussion. The paper asks: “To what extent did international human rights treaties make HRW judiciable?” and “How did government policies implement it?” In a cross-country comparison of performance indicators, merely accepting HRW has not been helpful in promoting affordable access to potable water or sanitation facilities close to the home, amongst the reasons being deficiencies in water-governance. Case-law confirmed that with respect to affordable access HRW obliges governments to a “progressive realization” only, also in countries accepting HRW (India, South Africa. The paper focuses on the resulting positive state obligation to establish funding programs for better water and sanitation services and analyzes funding policies by a mathematical model of policy goals. It identifies two viable goals namely the successful support for the poor, as in developing countries, and the most economic use of public funds, as in industrialized countries. Other goals conceivable for the model have been tried in the past and failed.

  7. Modoc National Wildlife Refuge : a summary of the water rights and associated information for water management

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The appropriated water rights for this refuge are defined in three separate instruments; namely, the NORTH FORK PIT RIVER JUDGEMENT AND DECREE NO 4074 dated...

  8. Local water rights and local water user entities: the unsung heroines of water resource management in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokile, Charles S.; Koppen, Barbara van

    When considering water management, formal institutions tend to overshadow the local informal ones although the latter guide day-to-day interactions on water use. Conversely, Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) has demonstrated a bias toward the formal state-based institutions for water management. A study was carried out to examine how local water rights and local informal institutional arrangements influence water management in the Great Ruaha River catchment in the Rufiji basin in Tanzania. Participatory appraisals were carried out, supplemented by focus group discussions, interviews, and a stakeholders’ workshop. It was found that local water rights, local water rotations and local water user groups are widely in use and are more influential than the formal water rights, water fees and water user associations (WUAs). Water allocation at the driest period depends on local informal relations among irrigators. More than 70% of water users surveyed choose to settle disputes over water via informal channels and the latter are more effective in resolving water conflicts and reconciling the antagonists compared to the formal routes. It was also found that although much emphasis and many resources have been expended in transforming local water rights and water related organisations to formal registered ones, the former have remained popular and water users feel more affiliated to local arrangements. The paper concludes that local informal water management can offer the best lessons for the formal management arrangements and should not be simply overlooked. Finally, the paper recommends that the formal and informal institutions should be amalgamated to bring forth a real Integrated Water Resource Management framework.

  9. Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Moli

    2007-01-01

    This article provides an overview of different types of rights to aid consideration of, and debate about, children and young people's rights in the context of paediatrics and child health. It demonstrates how children's rights may or may not differ from adult rights and the implications for practice. It shows that applying a children's rights framework can be more helpful in pursuing a public child health agenda than in reducing ethical or legal conflicts when interacting with child patients and their families. PMID:17642486

  10. Pueblo Indian water rights: who will get the water, New Mexico v. Aamodt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maynez, A.P.

    1978-07-01

    Background information on court decisions over Pueblo Indian water rights is examined. The U.S. District Court for New Mexico determined in 1966 that the Pueblo water rights are not subject to the 1924 and 1933 state law of prior appropriation, but are not technically reserved rights. The history of this litigation requires documentation back to Mexican and Spanish jurisdiction over the area when land titles were given by treaty for both Indian and non-Indian rights. Several court decisions have defined the limits of these rights and have denied the state's efforts to manipulate the law. The court did not make a clear decision on whether the rights are reserved, however, because the case was not consistent with precedents. This leads to the conclusion that a land reservation is not required to have a reserved right as long as the land is held in trust by the Federal government with the intent to reserve waters that were not previously appropriated.

  11. South Africa and the Human Right to Water: Equity, Ecology and the Public Trust Doctrine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    David Takacs

    2016-01-01

    ...: "Everyone has the right to have access to sufficient food and water." In this paper, I analyze South Africa's revolutionary legal vision for marrying social equity to ecology in fulfilling the right to water...

  12. Mechanisms for water allocation and water rights in Europe and the Netherlands : lessons from a general public law perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijswick, Marleen

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the allocation and regulation of water rights. Although there is a general concern about the allocation and restriction of the right to use scarce water resources, there is also a debate regarding the implementation of a public right to water in general and, in particular, th

  13. Two-stage seasonal streamflow forecasts to guide water resources decisions and water rights allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, P. J.; Gonzalez, E.; Bonnafous, L.

    2011-12-01

    Decision-making in water resources is inherently uncertain producing copious risks, ranging from operational (present) to planning (season-ahead) to design/adaptation (decadal) time-scales. These risks include human activity and climate variability/change. As the risks in designing and operating water systems and allocating available supplies vary systematically in time, prospects for predicting and managing such risks become increasingly attractive. Considerable effort has been undertaken to improve seasonal forecast skill and advocate for integration to reduce risk, however only minimal adoption is evident. Impediments are well defined, yet tailoring forecast products and allowing for flexible adoption assist in overcoming some obstacles. The semi-arid Elqui River basin in Chile is contending with increasing levels of water stress and demand coupled with insufficient investment in infrastructure, taxing its ability to meet agriculture, hydropower, and environmental requirements. The basin is fed from a retreating glacier, with allocation principles founded on a system of water rights and markets. A two-stage seasonal streamflow forecast at leads of one and two seasons prescribes the probability of reductions in the value of each water right, allowing water managers to inform their constituents in advance. A tool linking the streamflow forecast to a simple reservoir decision model also allows water managers to select a level of confidence in the forecast information.

  14. Research on Coupling Method of Watershed Initial Water Rights Allocation in Daling River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Fengping, W.

    2016-12-01

    Water scarcity is now a common occurrence in many countries. The situation of watershed initial water rights allocation has caused many benefit conflicts among regions and regional water sectors of domestic and ecology environment and industries in China. This study aims to investigate the method of watershed initial water rights allocation in the perspective of coupling in Daling River Watershed taking provincial initial water rights and watershed-level governmental reserved water as objects. First of all, regarding the allocation subsystem of initial water rights among provinces, this research calculates initial water rights of different provinces by establishing the coupling model of water quantity and quality on the principle of "rewarding efficiency and penalizing inefficiency" based on the two control objectives of water quantity and quality. Secondly, regarding the allocation subsystem of watershed-level governmental reserved water rights, the study forecasts the demand of watershed-level governmental reserved water rights by the combination of case-based reasoning and water supply quotas. Then, the bilaterally coupled allocation model on water supply and demand is designed after supply analysis to get watershed-level governmental reserved water rights. The results of research method applied to Daling River Watershed reveal the recommended scheme of watershed initial water rights allocation based on coordinated degree criterion. It's found that the feasibility of the iteration coupling model and put forward related policies and suggestions. This study owns the advantages of complying with watershed initial water rights allocation mechanism and meeting the control requirements of water quantity, water quality and water utilization efficiency, which help to achieve the effective allocation of water resources.

  15. Summary of Researches on Water Rights and Initial Water Rights Allocation%水权与初始水权分配研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新; 常福宣; 陈进

    2011-01-01

    Water right is currently a hot topic in the field of water resource allocation, and the definition of water rights is getting more and more attention. The authors studied the various interpretations of water rights at home and abroad as well as the concept of initial water rights. Initial water right allocation system and its characteristic, which complied with the principle of riparian rights and priority occupation, are introduced. Moreover, the advantages, disadvantages and prospects of initial water right allocation system adopted in China at present, an executiveled with a core principle of water intake licensing, is also described. Then the principles of the initial water rights allocation system are constructed. At last, the authors summarize the allocation and practice of initial water rights in some basins and regions, and accordingly, put forward the future research targets.%对当前国内外的关于水权的各种解释以及初始水权的概念进行了研究,讲述了以河岸权为原则和以先占用为原则的初始水权分配体系及其特点,分析了我国当前实行的以取水许可制度为核心的行政主导的初始水权分配体系的优缺点及发展前景,构建了我国初始水权分配体系建设的原则.通过对我国部分流域和区域内初始水权分配和实践状况的总结,在此基础上提出了研究展望.

  16. Principal-subordinate hierarchical multi-objective programming model of initial water rights allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan WU

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The principal-subordinate hierarchical multi-objective programming model of initial water rights allocation was developed based on the principle of coordinated and sustainable development of different regions and water sectors within a basin. With the precondition of strictly controlling maximum emissions rights, initial water rights were allocated between the first and the second levels of the hierarchy in order to promote fair and coordinated development across different regions of the basin and coordinated and efficient water use across different water sectors, realize the maximum comprehensive benefits to the basin, promote the unity of quantity and quality of initial water rights allocation, and eliminate water conflict across different regions and water sectors. According to interactive decision-making theory, a principal-subordinate hierarchical interactive iterative algorithm based on the satisfaction degree was developed and used to solve the initial water rights allocation model. A case study verified the validity of the model.

  17. Principal-subordinate hierarchical multi-objective programming model of initial water rights allocation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan WU; Feng-ping WU; Yan-ping CHEN

    2009-01-01

    The principal-subordinate hierarchical multi-objective programming model of initial water rights allocation was developed based on the principle of coordinated and sustainable development of different regions and water sectors within a basin. With the precondition of strictly controlling maximum emissions rights, initial water rights were allocated between the first and the second levels of the hierarchy in order to promote fair and coordinated development across different regions of the basin and coordinated and efficient water use across different water sectors, realize the maximum comprehensive benefits to the basin, promote the unity of quantity and quality of initial water rights allocation, and eliminate water conflict across different regions and water sectors. According to interactive decision-making theory, a principal-subordinate hierarchical interactive iterative algorithm based on the satisfaction degree was developed and used to solve the initial water rights allocation model. A case study verified the validity of the model.

  18. Translating the human right to water and sanitation into public policy reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; Kayser, Georgia Lyn; Kestenbaum, Jocelyn Getgen; Amjad, Urooj Quezon; Dalcanale, Fernanda; Bartram, Jamie

    2014-12-01

    The development of a human right to water and sanitation under international law has created an imperative to implement human rights in water and sanitation policy. Through forty-three interviews with informants in international institutions, national governments, and non-governmental organizations, this research examines interpretations of this new human right in global governance, national policy, and local practice. Exploring obstacles to the implementation of rights-based water and sanitation policy, the authors analyze the limitations of translating international human rights into local water and sanitation practice, concluding that system operators, utilities, and management boards remain largely unaffected by the changing public policy landscape for human rights realization. To understand the relevance of human rights standards to water and sanitation practitioners, this article frames a research agenda to ensure that human rights aspirations lead to public policy reforms and public health outcomes.

  19. Willingness to pay for water and water rights definition: study among smallholder irrigators in Limpopo Province, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speelman, S.; Haese, D' M.F.C.; Frija, A.; Farolfi, S.; Haese, D' L.

    2009-01-01

    Internationally there is growing understanding that water rights are important and that a lack of effective water rights systems creates major problems for the management of increasingly scarce water supplies. In South Africa the smallholder irrigation sector faces two major challenges. Firstly

  20. Willingness to pay for water and water rights definition: study among smallholder irrigators in Limpopo Province, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speelman, S.; Haese, D' M.F.C.; Frija, A.; Farolfi, S.; Haese, D' L.

    2009-01-01

    Internationally there is growing understanding that water rights are important and that a lack of effective water rights systems creates major problems for the management of increasingly scarce water supplies. In South Africa the smallholder irrigation sector faces two major challenges. Firstly wate

  1. The impact of the water rights definition on smallholder irrigators' willingness to pay for water in Limpopo province, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speelman, S.; Farolfi, S.; Haese, D' M.F.C.; Frija, A.; Haese, D' L.

    2010-01-01

    Water rights are currently receiving increased attention from scholars and policymakers due to the growing understanding that ill-defined water rights impair efficient use. In South Africa, smallholder irrigation faces problems of low water use efficiency and cost recovery of government investments.

  2. Final Environmental Impact Statement : Water rights acquisition for Lahontan Valley Wetlands : Volume 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Truckee-Carson-Pyramid Lake Water Rights Settlement Act (Public Law 1 0 1-618) directs the Secretary of the Interior to acquire enough water and water rights to...

  3. Passage Rights in Indonesian National Waters: Some Notable Cases

    OpenAIRE

    SYAMSUDDIN M NOOR, SYAMSUDDIN M NOOR

    2016-01-01

    - Maritime States maintain that archipelagic State will interfere with the fluency of international navigation, since the waters, which were formerly territorial seas and high seas, have been redefined as being archipelagic waters. However, Profesor Hasjim Djalal opines that holding sovereignty over waters between islands is critical to attaining national unity for large archipelagic States.1 An extension of the jurisdiction by a State may be regarded as undermining the free...

  4. Indigenous Communities: Analyzing their Right to Water under Different International Legal Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphina Misiedjan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous communities around the globe, totalling about 370 million people, are faced with the challenge of protecting their access and customary rights to ancestral lands and water resources. This challenge has several causes. Climate change, increased pollution, contamination and depletion of freshwater and groundwater resources worldwide can be identified as causes. In addition, the demand for water will become greater as consumption patterns lead to greater investment in the water-intensive industry and agriculture such as those resulting from the growing demand for biofuels, as well as demographic-related production and consumption patterns that lead to greater demand for fresh water. These developments create challenges for overall water consumption by the general population. With water already being scarce in some places and becoming scarcer in the future, protection of access to water for vulnerable groups such as indigenous peoples has been becoming more relevant. This study takes indigenous peoples as the subject for investigating the human right to water. It reaches several conclusions, including that the human right to water applies to indigenous peoples, but more as individuals than as a group, and that the human right to water is just one part of a larger bundle of water rights which differ in content, legal bindingness and complaint mechanisms.  This makes it difficult for this minority and marginalized community to actually assert these rights and shows that for effective protection of the rights of indigenous peoples, it is necessary to create a comprehensive and consistent system of rights.

  5. Indigenous Communities: Analyzing their Right to Water under Different International Legal Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphina Misiedjan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous communities around the globe, totalling about 370 million people, are faced with the challenge of protecting their access and customary rights to ancestral lands and water resources. This challenge has several causes. Climate change, increased pollution, contamination and depletion of freshwater and groundwater resources worldwide can be identified as causes. In addition, the demand for water will become greater as consumption patterns lead to greater investment in the water-intensive industry and agriculture such as those resulting from the growing demand for biofuels, as well as demographic-related production and consumption patterns that lead to greater demand for fresh water. These developments create challenges for overall water consumption by the general population. With water already being scarce in some places and becoming scarcer in the future, protection of access to water for vulnerable groups such as indigenous peoples has been becoming more relevant. This study takes indigenous peoples as the subject for investigating the human right to water. It reaches several conclusions, including that the human right to water applies to indigenous peoples, but more as individuals than as a group, and that the human right to water is just one part of a larger bundle of water rights which differ in content, legal bindingness and complaint mechanisms.  This makes it difficult for this minority and marginalized community to actually assert these rights and shows that for effective protection of the rights of indigenous peoples, it is necessary to create a comprehensive and consistent system of rights.

  6. Analysis and Discussion on Property Right of Rural Drinking Water Projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenlu; GAO; Jianjun; ZENG

    2014-01-01

    Since rural drinking water projects have diversified investment subjects,complex form,and lacks property right system and policy at national level,there are many difficulties in determining property right of projects in many areas.This not only puzzles competent authorities and specific management institution,but also is unfavorable for long-term full play of project benefit.Combining related laws,regulations,and policies,this paper analyzed and discussed property right of rural drinking water projects.It proposed establishing usufructuary right to replace division of property right,in the hope of helping improve management of rural drinking water projects.

  7. Season-ahead streamflow forecast informed tax strategies for semi-arid water rights markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delorit, J. D.; Block, P. J.

    2016-12-01

    In many semi-arid regions multisectoral demands stress available water supplies. The Elqui River valley of north central Chile, which draws on limited capacity reservoirs supplied largely by annually variable snowmelt, is one of these cases. This variability forces water managers to develop demand-based allocation strategies which have typically resulted in water right volume reductions, applied equally per right. Compounding this issue is often deferred or delayed infrastructure investments, which has been linked Chile's Coasian approach to water markets, under which rights holders do not pay direct procurement costs, non-use fees, nor taxes. Here we build upon our previous research using forecasts of likely water rights reductions, informed by season-ahead prediction models of October-January (austral growing season) streamflow, to construct annual, forecast-sensitive, per right tax. We believe this tax, to be borne by right holders, will improve the beneficial use of water resources by stimulating water rights trading and improving system efficiency by generating funds for infrastructure investment, thereby reducing free-ridership and conflict between rights holders. Research outputs will include sectoral per right tax assessments, tax revenue generation, Elqui River valley economic output, and water rights trading activity.

  8. [La Dore Reservoir water rights priority decree : Rocky Mountain Arsenal : 1919

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Issued in November of 1924, this decree sets forth the adjudication of priorities of water rights and usage for irrigation and other beneficial uses in Water...

  9. Disputes over land and water rights in gold mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoltenborg, Didi; Boelens, Rutgerd

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes different visions and positions in a conflict between the developer of an open-pit mine in Mexico and project opponents using the echelons of rights analysis framework, distinguishing four layers of dispute: contested resources; contents of rules and regulations; decision-ma

  10. Sustainable Development and the Right to Water in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz-Pulido, Angélica-Paola; Chingaté-Hernández, Nathalie; Muñoz-Moreno, Diana-Paola; Olaya-González, Wilmar-Rolando; Perilla-Castro, Carolina; Sánchez-Ojeda, Federico; Sánchez-González, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Water, considered as an environmental resource and as an economic and social good, should be part of the Colombian public agenda, not only not only in terms of the use and preservation of hydro resources, but also in terms of the social implications of its possession and use. The world wide preoccupation with the diminution of natural resources, species extinction and water shortage has its origins in the seventies. One of the results was the establishment of international conventions and agr...

  11. Economic efficiency of short-term versus long-term water rights buyouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because of the decline of the Ogallala Aquifer, water districts, regional water managers, and state water officers are becoming increasingly interested in conservation policies. This study evaluates both short-term and long-term water rights buyout policies. This research develops dynamic production...

  12. Coupling biophysical processes and water rights to simulate spatially distributed water use in an intensively managed hydrologic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bangshuai; Benner, Shawn G.; Bolte, John P.; Vache, Kellie B.; Flores, Alejandro N.

    2017-07-01

    Humans have significantly altered the redistribution of water in intensively managed hydrologic systems, shifting the spatiotemporal patterns of surface water. Evaluating water availability requires integration of hydrologic processes and associated human influences. In this study, we summarize the development and evaluation of an extensible hydrologic model that explicitly integrates water rights to spatially distribute irrigation waters in a semi-arid agricultural region in the western US, using the Envision integrated modeling platform. The model captures both human and biophysical systems, particularly the diversion of water from the Boise River, which is the main water source that supports irrigated agriculture in this region. In agricultural areas, water demand is estimated as a function of crop type and local environmental conditions. Surface water to meet crop demand is diverted from the stream reaches, constrained by the amount of water available in the stream, the water-rights-appropriated amount, and the priority dates associated with particular places of use. Results, measured by flow rates at gaged stream and canal locations within the study area, suggest that the impacts of irrigation activities on the magnitude and timing of flows through this intensively managed system are well captured. The multi-year averaged diverted water from the Boise River matches observations well, reflecting the appropriation of water according to the water rights database. Because of the spatially explicit implementation of surface water diversion, the model can help diagnose places and times where water resources are likely insufficient to meet agricultural water demands, and inform future water management decisions.

  13. Institutional reform in the Andean irrigation sector: enabling policies for strengthening local rights and water management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, L.; Ooijevaar, M.; Boelens, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    For centuries, local and indigenous water rights and rules in the Andean region have been largely neglected and discriminated against. The process of undermining local communities' water access and control rights continues up to today and not only is it headed by powerful local, national and

  14. Indigenous people's right to water under international law : A legal pluralism perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, Joyeeta; Hildering, Antoinette; Misiedjan, Daphina

    2014-01-01

    There are many sources of law, including international law, which support claims to water rights. This article looks at the different sources within international law and analyses the possibilities they have for substantiating the traditional rights of indigenous people to water and how states deal

  15. Institutional reform in the Andean irrigation sector: enabling policies for strengthening local rights and water management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, L.; Ooijevaar, M.; Boelens, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    For centuries, local and indigenous water rights and rules in the Andean region have been largely neglected and discriminated against. The process of undermining local communities' water access and control rights continues up to today and not only is it headed by powerful local, national and interna

  16. Indigenous people's right to water under international law: a legal pluralism perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, J.; Hildering, A.; Misiedjan, D.

    2014-01-01

    There are many sources of law, including international law, which support claims to water rights. This article looks at the different sources within international law and analyses the possibilities they have for substantiating the traditional rights of indigenous people to water and how states deal

  17. Indigenous people's right to water under international law : A legal pluralism perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, Joyeeta; Hildering, Antoinette; Misiedjan, Daphina

    2014-01-01

    There are many sources of law, including international law, which support claims to water rights. This article looks at the different sources within international law and analyses the possibilities they have for substantiating the traditional rights of indigenous people to water and how states deal

  18. Implications of transfer of Navy water rights to Pyramid Lake

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary of the water needs of the Naval Air Station and the Lahontan Valley Wetlands area. Section 206(c) of Public Law 101-618, requires the Secretary of...

  19. The evolution of the right to water and sanitation: differentiating the implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obani, P.; Gupta, J.

    2015-01-01

    Since 1980, the right to water has been seen mainly as implicitly subsumed under other social human and political rights. The global recognition of the need for access to sanitation services has led to formulations of a right to sanitation that emphasizes both the responsibilities of States and the

  20. Choosing the right green roof media for water quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, W.F.; Hathaway, A.M.; Smith, J.T.; Calabria, J. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Biological and Agricultural Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Due to the large concentrations of a variety of contaminants entering streams and rivers, stormwater is a significant contributor to the impairment of North Carolina (NC) waters. Pollutants range from pesticides and nutrients to oils and petroleum products to construction chemicals and sediment which are evident in fish kills, contamination of drinking water supplies, and deterioration of wildlife habitats. One of the major tools to improve storm water quality are stormwater best management practices (BMPs). BMPs include bioretention areas, wet and dry detention ponds, constructed wetlands, and sand filters. One option for urban BMPs is the green roof which uses rooftop square footage that would not otherwise be available on the ground. A research project was conducted that tests two field green roofs in Raleigh and Asheville, NC. In addition, a laboratory test was conducted in 2004 and a plot study of three designer media was conducted in 2005 on the NC State University Campus in Raleigh, NC. The objectives of the research were to examine how different green roof media reduce concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus, if the leaching rate of nitrogen and phosphorus from soil media of field green roofs decrease with time, and to determine whether green roofs can be used as nutrient reduction BMPs. This paper provided background information on previous green roof stormwater research, discussed each of the sites chosen for the study in detail and presented the field monitoring process and laboratory study methodology. This was followed by a detailed examination of the results. It was concluded that an optimal soil media can be established that balances plant growth with water quality and quantity control. 16 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.

  1. Wòch nan Soley: the denial of the right to water in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Monika Kalra; Satterthwaite, Margaret L; Klasing, Amanda M; Shoranick, Tammy; Jean, Jude; Barry, Donna; Fawzi, Mary C Smith; McKeever, James; Lyon, Evan

    2008-01-01

    This article combines health and water research results, evidence from confidential documents released under the Freedom of Information Act, legal analysis, and discussion of historical context to demonstrate that actions taken by the international community through the Inter-American Development Bank are directly related to a lack of access to clean water in Haiti. The article demonstrates that these actions constitute a clear violation of Haitians' right to water under both domestic and international law. The article exposes the United States governments role in blocking the disbursal of millions of dollars in international bank loans that would have had life-saving consequences for the Haitian people. The loans were derailed in 2001 by politically-motivated interventions on behalf of the US and other members of the international community in direct violation of the Inter-American Development Bank charter. To demonstrate the impact of these interventions, the article presents data gathered in a study that employed human rights and public health methodologies to assess the right to water in Haiti. The data reveal that Haitians experience obstacles concerning every aspect of the right to water: diffculties with water availability, limited physical and economic accessibility, and poor water quality. The article provides a framework of concrete duties and obligations that should be followed by all actors involved in Haiti in order to realize Haitians' human right to water. In response to the undeniable link between the international community's political interference and the intolerably poor state of potable water in Haiti, the article concludes with a recommendation that all actors in Haiti follow a rights-based approach to the development and implementation of water projects in Haiti. The full report of Wòch nan Soley: The Denial of the Right to Water in Haiti is available online at http://www.pih.org/inforesources/Reports/Hait_Report_FINAL.pdf.

  2. Evolving Groundwater Rights and Management in Metropolitan Los Angeles: Implications for Water Supply and Stormwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porse, E.; Pincetl, S.; Glickfeld, M.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater supports many aspects of human life. In cities, groundwater can provide a cost-effective source of water for drinking and industrial uses, while groundwater basins provide storage. The role of groundwater in a city's water supply tends to change over time. In the Los Angeles metropolitan area, groundwater is critical. Over decades, users in the region's many basins allocated annual pumping rights to groundwater among users through adjudications. These rights were determined through collective processes over decades, which contributed to the complex array of public and private organizations involved in water management. The rights also continue to evolve. We analyzed changes in the distribution of groundwater rights over time for adjudicated basins in Southern Los Angeles County. Results indicate that groundwater rights are increasingly: 1) controlled or regulated by public institutions and municipalities, and 2) consolidated among larger users. Yet, both the percentage of total supplies provided by groundwater, as well as the distribution of groundwater rights, varies widely among cities and communities throughout Los Angeles. As metropolitan Los Angeles faces reduced water imports and emphasizes local water reliance, access to pumping rights and storage capacity in groundwater basins will become even more vital. We discuss implications of our results for future urban water management.

  3. Smallholder Irrigators, Water Rights and Investments in Agriculture: Three Cases from Rural Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Jan Veldwisch

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the prevalent neo-liberal discourse on rural development through improved markets, involvement of companies and a strong reliance on foreign investors this article examines the vulnerable position of smallholder irrigators and their water rights. Through the parallel analysis of three contrasting cases of smallholder irrigation in Mozambique and a comparison with formal Mozambican law, it is shown that a big gap exists between formal water rights and water rights in practice. For each case, it is shown how land and water rights are connected and how a successful defence of land rights provides a good basis for a defence of smallholder water rights. Furthermore, as productivity and efficiency arguments are prominent and influential, those smallholders who are able to turn their use into the production of economic value manage best to materialise their claims on both land and water. The paper concludes with recommendations to strengthen the position of smallholders in response to increasing threats of land and water grabbing.

  4. Record of Decision for the Final Environmental Impact Statement : Water rights acquisition for Lahontan Valley Wetlands

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Record of Decision (ROD) documents the decision and rationale for selecting a water rights acquisition strategy to sustain a long-term average of 25,000 acres...

  5. Irrigation Wells from the Utah Division of Water Rights Point of Diversion Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data are derived from a point shapefile created nightly from data in the Utah Division of Water Rights Database. The source data were acquired on October 26,...

  6. Water Distribution in the Public Interest and the Human Right to Water: Swiss, South African and International Law Compared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Rüegger

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The legal norms governing the distribution of water are integral to how access to water is determined. This paper analyses the idea that water should be used in the interest of the public from a legal point of view. Taking Swiss and South African law as examples it examines what the notion of 'public interest' actually means. A close look at the notion of 'water distribution in the public interest' reveals important insights: water distribution in the public interest balances a variety of different economic, ecological and social interests. In this process the human right to water is attributed the role as protective shield. Hence its effective implementation is crucial in order to safeguard water for basic human needs. After analysing how Swiss and South African water regimes are currently structured and the role of the public interest clause therein, the paper examines whether the human right to water as conceived in Swiss, South African and international law effectively ensures protection of domestic water users. The paper concludes that this is the case under some, but not all circumstances. Especially the interests of those users whose access to water is not yet sufficient do not always receive adequate legal protection by the respective legal orders. The paper concludes by stressing the necessity to evolve the concept of the human right to water to reach comprehensive protection of basic human needs. Consciousness of the social risks associated with using the human right to water as general placeholder for basic human needs despite its shortcomings will hopefully encourage efforts to establish substantive legal protection.

  7. The Quest for Standard Tests in Prioritizing Water Use Rights in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zbelo Haileslassie

    (2011), 'Water Futures: Assessing pathways, synergies & trade offs ... defined and applied as “the right to use or enjoy the flowing water in a stream”.5 ..... problems, economic factors, including protection of business investments, .... Powerful actors like investors use legal means as well as ...... It was open to interpretation.

  8. The human right to water and sanitation: reflections on making the system effective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Obani; J. Gupta

    2014-01-01

    The Millenium Development Goal (MDG) on water has been more successful than the MDG on sanitation. Does this have implications for the human right to sanitation? This chapter argues that there are key differences between access to water and sanitation in terms of the legal content of both, the physi

  9. Legal pluralism in the area of human rights: water and sanitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Obani; J. Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Access to clean drinking water and adequate sanitation and hygiene facilities is crucial to achieving social and environmental sustainability. We examine the global human water and sanitation right from a legal pluralism perspective to see if it is indifferent to, competes with, accommodates, or is

  10. Legal pluralism in the area of human rights: water and sanitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obani, P.; Gupta, J.

    2014-01-01

    Access to clean drinking water and adequate sanitation and hygiene facilities is crucial to achieving social and environmental sustainability. We examine the global human water and sanitation right from a legal pluralism perspective to see if it is indifferent to, competes with, accommodates, or is

  11. 36 CFR 251.19 - Exercise of water rights reserved by the grantor of lands conveyed to the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exercise of water rights... Grantors § 251.19 Exercise of water rights reserved by the grantor of lands conveyed to the United States. This section governs the exercise of water and related rights reserved by the grantor of lands conveyed...

  12. A Human Rights Approach for Access to Clean Drinking Water: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaaneh; McKay; Sims

    1995-01-01

    In northern and central Israel are some 70 villages that are not recognized by the state of Israel. At least half of these villages are not connected to the national drinking water networks and lack sufficient quality and quantity of water. Outbreaks of diseases associated with contaminated water supply have occurred, as well as substantial environmental distress. An outbreak of hepatitis A led to the cooperation of a public health physician, a nurse, an environmental engineer, and a human rights lawyer in successfully taking a case to the International Water Tribunal to get access to safe drinking water for these communities. This case study provides a model for cooperation between proponents and practitioners of health and human rights.

  13. 再生水利用的水权管理研究%Reclaimed Water Utilization and Water Rights Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴丹

    2011-01-01

    通过再生水利用的现状剖析,对再生水利用的社会经济以及环境效益优势进行总结,从基础设施建设、再生水水质管理、政策法规、市场管理体制机制等角度系统剖析再生水利用存在的问题;在此基础上,针对再生水利用现状,基于水权理论,提出再生水利用的水权管理理念,对再生水水权的概念进行界定,从再生水分散式利用、再生水集中式利用以及再生水集蓄利用3种利用形式进行再生水水权分析,从基础设施建设、再生水水质管理、再生水利用的相关政策法规、市场管理体制机制、再生水利用产业化等角度阐述再生水和用的水权管理作用与意义,综合政府行政管制模式、用水户参与模式、水权市场交易模式等3种水权管理的基本模式,探讨再生水利用的水权管理模式.%According to the status analysis of reclaimed water utilization, the benefit superiority of reclaimed water utilization between socio-economy and eco-environment are summarized. Hie problems of reclaimed water utilization are analyzed systematically from the angles of infrastructure construction, reclaimed water quality management, policies and regulations, system and mechanism of market management. Then according to the status of reclaimed water utilization, based on the water rights theory, the idea of reclaimed water rights management is given. The concept of reclaimed water rights is defined. Three forms of reclaimed water utilization and its water rights such as dispersed, centralized and collecting-storage reclaimed water are analyzed. The effect and significance of reclaimed water rights management is described from the angles of infrastructure construction, reclaimed water quality management, policies and regulations, system and mechanism of market management and industrialization of reclaimed water utilization. According to the basic mode of water rights management of administrative regulation

  14. Property rights and water markets in Australia: An evolutionary process toward institutional reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigram, John J.

    1993-04-01

    In the past decade far-reaching reforms have taken place in the Australian water industry. Extensive restructuring of water administration has been accompanied by increased evidence of willingness by public agencies to consider alternative institutional arrangements to the traditional regulatory approach to water allocation and use. In irrigated agriculture, a market-based system linked to enforceable property rights to water is seen as preferable to rule-based management of water resources. However, significant social and economic considerations and political realities constrain the unfettered operation of water markets. The challenge facing the irrigation industry in Australia is to put in place institutional arrangements which reflect the most appropriate mix of incentive-based and regulatory mechanisms for water management.

  15. Enclosed waters : property rights, technology and ecology in the management of water resources in Palakkad, Kerala

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krishnan, J.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis is an enquiry into the persistent problem of water scarcity in the paddy growing regions in the southeastern part of Palakkad district, in the state of Kerala, in South India. It views the problem of scarcity as an outcome of the existing unsustainable and inequitable mode of water resou

  16. AVOIDING MAZIBUKO: WATER SECURITY AND CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS IN SOUTHERN AFRICAN CASE LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ed Couzens

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The 2009 judgment by the Constitutional Court of South Africa in Mazibuko v City of Johannesburg is seen by many as a watershed in the interpretation of the fundamental constitutional right of access to water. The Constitutional Court ruled that the right of access to sufficient water does not require that the state provide every person upon demand and without more with sufficient water. Nor does the obligation confer on any person a right to claim "sufficient water" from the state immediately. Reactions to the judgment have been consistently negative, with criticisms largely focusing on the Court's apparent lack of appreciation for the situation of the very poor. It is not easy, however, to overturn a decision of the Constitutional Court and South Africa will need to work within the constraints of the precedent for many years to come. It is suggested in this article that two subsequent, recent judgments (one of the Supreme Court of Appeal in South Africa, City of Cape Town v Strümpher, 2012, and one of the High Court in Zimbabwe, Mushoriwa v City of Harare, 2014 show how it might be possible for courts to avoid the Mazibuko precedent and yet give special attention to water-related rights. Both cases concerned spoliation applications in common law, but both were decided as though access to water supply and water-related rights allow a court to give weight to factors other than the traditional grounds for a spoliation order. It can be argued that in both cases the unlawfulness necessary for a spoliation order arose from a combination of dispossession and breach of rights in respect of a very particular and special kind of property. In the arid and potentially water-stressed Southern African region, and in the context of extreme and apparently increasing poverty, there will undoubtedly be more court cases to come involving access to water. Conclusions are drawn as to how the two judgments considered might offer a way to ameliorate the harsh

  17. Farmers' Laws and Irrigation, Water Rights and Dispute Management in the Hills of Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poudel, R.

    2000-01-01

    The title of my Thesis is "Farmers' Laws and Irrigation: Water Rights and Dispute Management in the Hills of Nepal". This is based on a research I conducted in the Thulotar Kulo irrigation system in Nepal, during 1997 and 1998. Thulotar Kulo is a farmer-managed irrigation system.Although this is a c

  18. Composition and possible function of social groupings of southern right whales in South African waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Best, PB; Schaeff, CM; Reeb, D; Palsboll, PJ

    2003-01-01

    We collected behavioural data and skin samples for molecular sex determination from 327 right whales (Eubalaena australis) in the coastal waters of South Africa between July and October, 1995 and 1996, as well as from 147 cows with calves-of-the-year between August and October 1996, September and No

  19. Constitutional Court of South Africa overturns lower court's decision on the right to "sufficient water".

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    On 8 October 2009, the Constitutional Court of South Africa overturned the judgment of the Supreme Court of Appeal, which addressed the proper interpretation of Section 27(1)(b) of the Constitution of South Africa (Constitution)--namely, everyone's right to have access to sufficient water.

  20. Indigenous communities: Analyzing their right to water under different international legal regimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Misiedjan, D.; Gupta, J.

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous communities around the globe, totalling about 370 million people, are faced with the challenge of protecting their access and customary rights to ancestral lands and water resources. This challenge has several causes. Climate change, increased pollution, contamination and depletion of

  1. Role of lateral parabrachial nucleus in the inhibition of water intake produced by right atrial stretch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohman, Lynne E.

    1995-01-01

    Rats with either bilateral electrolytic or sham lesions of the ventrolateral portion of the lateral parabrachial nucleus (VLLPBN) were implanted with latex balloons that lay at the right superior vena cava/atrial junction (RSVC/AJ). Water intake in response to isoproterenol was measured both with and without inflation of the balloon. Water intake of the sham-lesioned rats was significantly depressed by balloon inflation during the first hour of the experiment. In contrast, water intake in the VLLPBN-lesioned rats was unaffected by balloon inflation. These results suggest that the VLLPBN is involved in the processing of afferent input from stretch-activated RSVC/AJ receptors.

  2. Initial Provincial Water Rights Dynamic Projection Pursuit Allocation Based on the Most Stringent Water Resources Management: A Case Study of Taihu Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Ge

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Clarification of initial water rights is the basis and prerequisite for a water rights trade-off market and also an effective solution to the problem of water scarcity and water conflicts. According to the new requirements for the most stringent water resources management in China, an initial provincial water rights allocation model is proposed. Firstly, based on analysis of multiple principles for initial provincial water rights allocation including total water use, water use efficiency, water quality of water function zones, regional coordination and sharing, an index system of initial provincial water rights allocation is designed. Secondly, according to dynamic projection pursuit technique, an initial provincial water rights allocation model with the total water use control is set up. Moreover, the self-adaptive chaotic optimization algorithm is applied to tackle the model. Finally, a case study of Taihu Basin is adopted. Considering the multiple scenarios of three different water frequencies (50%, 75% and 90% and planning year 2030, the empirical results show Jiangsu Province always obtains the most initial water rights. When the developing situation of provinces are given more consideration, Shanghai should acquire more initial water rights than Zhejiang Province; but when the dynamic increment evolving trend of provinces is taken more into account, Shanghai should obtain less initial water rights than Zhejiang Province. The case about Taihu Lake further verifies the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed model and provides a multiple-scenarios decision making support for entitling the initial water rights with the most stringent water resources management constrains in Taihu Basin.

  3. Human rights and the challenges of science and technology: Commentary on Meier et al. "Translating the human right to water and sanitation into public policy reform" and Hall et al. "The human right to water: the importance of domestic and productive water rights".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Stephen P

    2014-12-01

    The expansion of the corpus of international human rights to include the right to water and sanitation has implications both for the process of recognizing human rights and for future developments in the relationships between technology, engineering and human rights. Concerns with threats to human rights resulting from developments in science and technology were expressed in the early days of the United Nations (UN), along with the recognition of the ambitious human right of everyone "to enjoy the benefits of scientific progress and its applications." This comment explores the hypothesis that the emerging concepts most likely to follow recognition of the human right to water primarily involve issues of science and technology, such as access to medicines or clean and healthy environment. Many threats to human rights from advances in science, which were identified in the past as potential, have become real today, such as invasion of privacy from electronic recording, deprivation of health and livelihood as a result of climate change, or control over individual autonomy through advances in genetics and neuroscience. This comment concludes by urging greater engagement of scientists and engineers, in partnership with human rights specialists, in translating normative pronouncements into defining policy and planning interventions.

  4. European colonization and water property rights: the case of the Canary Islands, 1480-1525

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio M. Macías Hernández

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Colonization of the Canary Islands, driven by the sugar industry, was completed by the first quarter of the 16th century. The documents concerning cession of land and water ownership rights (datas to the settlers for cane plantations reveal that this distribution took place on the basis of the legal environment affecting the main irrigation holdings of peninsular Spain at that time. Sugar production, which was stimulated by external demand, grew rapidly and soon formed a single «sugarocracy» that went on to control the hydraulic institutions and local politics. As there would have been no sugar industry without water, this “sugarocracy” concentrated hard on eliminating all obstacles that might have prevented the exercise of private initiative in the capitalization of water resources. This process led to a new legal environment that differed from its original pattern based around the concept of a hydraulic system characterized by private ownership and management of water resources.

  5. The right to water in rural Punjab: assessing equitable access to water in the context of the ongoing Punjab Rural Water Supply Proejct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samra, Shamsher; Crowley, Julia; Smith Fawzi, Mary C

    2011-12-15

    Although India is poised to meet its Millennium Development Goal for providing access to safe drinking water, there remains a worrying discrepancy in access between urban and rural areas. In 2006, 96% of the urban population versus 86% of the rural population obtained their drinking water from an improved water source. To increase access to potable water in rural areas, the World Bank and the state of Punjab have implemented the Punjab Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Project (PRWSS) to improve or construct water supply systems in 3,000 villages deemed to have inadequate access to clean drinking water. This study aimed to examine whether the right to water was fulfilled in six towns in rural Punjab during implementation of the PRWSS. The normative content of the right to water requires that water be of adequate quantity, safety, accessibility, affordability, and acceptability in terms of quality. While our findings suggest that the PRWSS improved water quality, they also indicate that access to water was limited due to affordability and the low socioeconomic status of some people living in the target communities.

  6. Aguas Diversas. Derechos de agua y pluralidad legal en las comunidades andinas = Diverse Waters. Water rights and legal pluralism in Andean communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelens, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    Water rights and property relations have become pivotal issues in water debates, reforms and intervention programs. Governments, development agencies and expert centers tend to consider 'water rights' as merely standard black boxes that juxtapose the frameworks of positivist technical and economist

  7. Drinking water public right-to-know requirements in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blette, Veronica

    2008-01-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency implements a national drinking-water program under the authority of the Federal Safe Drinking Water Act. Amendments to the Act in 1996 added new provisions to enhance consumer understanding of drinking-water issues. Notification requirements associated with annual consumer confidence reports, source water assessments and state compliance reports are intended to enhance the public's knowledge of the quality of their drinking water. Water utilities are also subject to public notification requirements to provide more timely information to consumers in response to violations of health standards. These right-to-know requirements are intended to build the public's confidence, but communicating with consumers can be challenging for both utility managers and government leaders. This paper discusses the need for timely communication, the challenge of providing information when there is uncertainty in the science and the importance of preparing to respond to critical incidents. Because surveys have shown that other members of the community may have better access to consumers or are more trusted, it is important for water utilities to establish relationships with the media and the local public health community.

  8. Assessing the Effects of Water Rights Purchases on Dissolved Oxygen, Stream Temperatures, and Fish Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouzon, N. R.; Null, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    Human impacts from land and water development have degraded water quality and altered the physical, chemical, and biological integrity of Nevada's Walker River. Reduced instream flows and increased nutrient concentrations affect native fish populations through warm daily stream temperatures and low nightly dissolved oxygen concentrations. Water rights purchases are being considered to maintain instream flows, improve water quality, and enhance habitat for native fish species, such as Lahontan cutthroat trout. This study uses the River Modeling System (RMSv4), an hourly, physically-based hydrodynamic and water quality model, to estimate streamflows, temperatures, and dissolved oxygen concentrations in the Walker River. We simulate thermal and dissolved oxygen changes from increased streamflow to prioritize the time periods and locations that water purchases most enhance native trout habitat. Stream temperatures and dissolved oxygen concentrations are proxies for trout habitat. Monitoring results indicate stream temperature and dissolved oxygen limitations generally exist in the 115 kilometers upstream of Walker Lake (about 37% of the study area) from approximately May through September, and this reach currently acts as a water quality barrier for fish passage.

  9. EU Water Governance: Striking the Right Balance between Regulatory Flexibility and Enforcement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia O. Green

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering the challenges and threats currently facing water management and the exacerbation of uncertainty by climate change, the need for flexible yet robust and legitimate environmental regulation is evident. The European Union took a novel approach toward sustainable water resource management with the passage of the EU Water Framework Directive in 2000. The Directive promotes sustainable water use through long-term protection of available water resources, progressively reduces discharges of hazardous substances in ground and surface waters, and mitigates the effects of floods and droughts. The lofty goal of achieving good status of all waters requires strong adaptive capacity, given the large amounts of uncertainty in water management. Striking the right balance between flexibility in local implementation and robust and enforceable standards is essential to promoting adaptive capacity in water governance, yet achieving these goals simultaneously poses unique difficulty. Applied resilience science reveals a conceptual framework for analyzing the adaptive capacity of governance structures that includes multiple overlapping levels of control or coordination, information flow horizontally and vertically, meaningful public participation, local capacity building, authority to respond to changed circumstances, and robust monitoring, system feedback, and enforcement. Analyzing the Directive through the lens of resilience science, we highlight key elements of modern European water management and their contribution to the resilience of the system and conclude that the potential lack of enforcement and adequate feedback of monitoring results does not promote managing for resilience. However, the scale-appropriate governance aspects of the EU approach promotes adaptive capacity by enabling vertical and horizontal information flow, building local capacity, and delegating control at multiple relevant scales.

  10. The human right to water and sanitation: a new perspective for public policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Brown

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The recognition of the human right to water and sanitation (HRtWS by the United Nations General Assembly and Human Rights Council in 2010 constituted a significant political measure whose direct consequences are still being assessed. Previous to this date, the HRtWS and its link to a healthy life and adequate standard of living had been recognised in diverse legal and judicial spheres worldwide, in some cases under the pressure of the initiatives of strong social movements. However, while the HRtWS is recognised by the UN State Members, it constitutes a concept in construction that has not been approached and interpreted in consensual ways by all concerned stakeholders. The present article presents a formal definition of this right with a base in human rights regulation. It attempts to dialogue with the different existing perspectives regarding the impact of its international recognition as a human right. It then elucidates the progressive development of the HRtWS in law and jurisprudence. Finally, it considers the urgency and challenge of monitoring the HRtWS and discusses important implications for public policies.

  11. The human right to water and sanitation: a new perspective for public policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Colin; Neves-Silva, Priscila; Heller, Léo

    2016-03-01

    The recognition of the human right to water and sanitation (HRtWS) by the United Nations General Assembly and Human Rights Council in 2010 constituted a significant political measure whose direct consequences are still being assessed. Previous to this date, the HRtWS and its link to a healthy life and adequate standard of living had been recognised in diverse legal and judicial spheres worldwide, in some cases under the pressure of the initiatives of strong social movements. However, while the HRtWS is recognised by the UN State Members, it constitutes a concept in construction that has not been approached and interpreted in consensual ways by all concerned stakeholders. The present article presents a formal definition of this right with a base in human rights regulation. It attempts to dialogue with the different existing perspectives regarding the impact of its international recognition as a human right. It then elucidates the progressive development of the HRtWS in law and jurisprudence. Finally, it considers the urgency and challenge of monitoring the HRtWS and discusses important implications for public policies.

  12. Development cooperation in water and sanitation: is it based on the human rights framework?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Colin; Heller, Léo

    2017-07-01

    The water and sanitation sector is verifiably receiving increased attention and funding through international development cooperation. Not least because of the way that it affects incentives and institutions in partner countries, development cooperation can have either positive or negative effects on human rights though. The consolidated frameworks for the human rights to water and sanitation is becoming linked to the international community's coordinated development efforts, as evidenced notably in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. However, a review of major funders' official policies for development cooperation in the sector suggests that many only partially endorse the frameworks for the human rights to water and sanitation. An observation of development cooperation flows to the sector allows the hypothesis to be advanced that worldwide inequalities in access to these services may be reduced through a full and clear application of the human rights framework in development cooperation activities. The article presents findings of this research and explores key stakes for development cooperation in the water and sanitation sector that are relevant for their ability to either negatively or positively contribute to the realization of human rights. Resumen El sector de agua y saneamiento ha recibido creciente atención y financiación a través de la cooperación internacional para el desarrollo. La cooperación para el desarrollo puede tener efectos tanto positivos cuanto negativos sobre los derechos humanos. El hito que consolida los derechos humanos al agua y al saneamiento están articulados a esfuerzos de cooperación para el desarrollo promovidos por la comunidad internacional, como se evidencia en la Agenda 2030 para el Desarrollo Sostenible. Sin embargo, una revisión de las políticas oficiales de los principales financiadores del sector sugiere que muchos de ellos aprueban solo parcialmente los hitos de los derechos humanos al agua y el

  13. Rooted Rights Systems in Turbulent Water: The Dynamics of Collective Fishing Rights in La Albufera, Valencia, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelens, R.A.; Claudin, V.

    2015-01-01

    Valencia's Albufera Lake is a wetlands area where different sociolegal systems interact. Its El Palmar community is governed by customary laws for fishing and territorial control. These exist alongside, yet in tension with, governmental laws. This article examines the dynamics of fishing rights, foc

  14. Legal disputes as a proxy for regional conflicts over water rights in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Diego; Godoy-Faúndez, Alex; Lillo, Mario; Alvez, Amaya; Delgado, Verónica; Gonzalo-Martín, Consuelo; Menasalvas, Ernestina; Costumero, Roberto; García-Pedrero, Ángel

    2016-04-01

    Water demand and climate variability increases competition and tension between water users -agricultural, industrial, mining, hydropower- and local communities. Since 1981, the Water Code has regulated water allocation through private individual property rights, fostering markets as the distribution mechanism among users. When legal conflicts occur between parties, it is the responsibility of the courts to settle the conflict. The aim of this research is twofold: first, to apply a geographical approach by mapping water conflicts using legal disputes reaching the higher courts as a proxy for conflict intensity and second, to explain the diversity of water disputes and how they vary regionally. We built a representative database with a sample of 1000 legal records corresponding to decisions issued by the Supreme Court and 17 courts of appeal throughout the country from 1981 to 2014. For geo-tagging, all records were transformed to plain text and analyzed to find words matching the entries of a geographical thesaurus, allowing records to be linked to geographical locations. The geo-tagging algorithm is capable of automatically populating a searchable database. Several maps were constructed using a color scale to visualize conflict intensity. Legal disputes represent different types of conflicts among water users, such as competition between agriculture and hydropower. Processed data allowed the identification of the regional variation of conflicts. The spatial pattern for the intensity of conflicts related to specific sections of the Water Code is explained in terms of the main geographical, climatic and productive characteristics of Chile. Geo-tagging legal records shows a strong potential to understand and define regional variation of water conflicts. However, data availability would become a barrier if measures to improve data management were not taken. Regarding the institutional framework, the same regulations for water management rules are applied throughout the

  15. Water Rights Transfer of Binhai New Area under the Framework of Water Rights System%水权制度框架下的滨海新区水权运营

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沃耘

    2011-01-01

    Binhai New Area has a very special strategic position,and demands much water.Integrity and development of water rights system is directly related to the building process of Binhai New Area.In order to avoid failure or alienation of water rights market,limited government intervention is essential.In the legal system of water rights within the basic framework,Binhai New Area should establish water allocation,the initial configuration of water rights,water rights transfer and water rights compensation.%滨海新区经济发展战略地位特殊、水资源需求量大,水权制度的健全和发展直接关系到滨海新区的建设进程。为避免水权市场失效或发生异化,有限度的政府干预必不可少。在水权法律制度基本框架内,应构建以水量分配、水权初始配置、水权转让和水权运营补偿机制为主要内容的滨海新区水权运营具体模式。

  16. 中国水权制度特点及水权改革探索%The Characteristics of Water Rights System and the Exploration of Water Rights Reform in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘世庆; 郭时君; 林睿; 巨栋

    2016-01-01

    中国水权改革以渐进式和试点方式逐步推进。试点区域水权交易模式主要有行业间水权交易、用水户间水权交易、集体水权交易、跨区域水权交易、跨流域水权交易、上下游水权交易等。水权交易关键环节是:初始水权明晰、有计量和监测条件、水权交易规则体系、交易平台和制度保障。我国水权改革和水权制度建设,在坚持社会主义市场经济体制的制度背景下,具有五大特点:一是水资源所有权实行国家所有;二是使用权实行行政分配权和先占者优先权制度;三是行政区为单元的总量控制管理;四是行政分配管理与水权可交易制度并存;五是政府发挥主导作用并充分发挥市场机制优化水资源配置的作用。%The reform of water rights in China is gradually advancing in progressive and pilot mode. There are mainly 6 kinds of modes of water right transaction in pilot area that are between industries, between water us-ers, collective water right transaction, cross-regional, inter-basin, upstream and downstream, etc. The key links of water right transaction include initial right to water clarity, measurement and monitoring conditions, water right trading rule system, trading platform and institutional guarantee. Under the institutional background of the system of socialist market economy, the reform of water rights and water rights system development in China possess the 5 characteristic. First, the ownership of water resources is state-owned. Second, the water use right is administra-tive distribution and priority appropriation right. Third, total water withdrawal control in an administrative area. Fourth, the administration systems and tradable water rights exist side by side. Fifth, under the leading role of the government market plays a more and more important role.

  17. Discussion about the protection of farmers' rights for water in the process of the water rights transfer%试论水权转让过程中农民用水权益的保护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李燕茹

    2014-01-01

    The basic situation of serious shortage of water resources in China so that the contradiction between water supply and consumption in rural areas is more and more prominent,plus the city of industry and increasing demand for water,agricultural water right transfer has become a trend.In the process of agricultural water rights transfer of water rights,the protection of farmers has become a serious.At present,agricultural water rights transfer system in China is not perfect,the agricultural water rights in the transfer to other areas emerged in the course of damage to farmers' water rights phenomenon.Therefore,the analysis of agricultural water rights in the process of transfer effect on Farmers' water rights factors,thus brings forward protection countermeasures,and provides a basis for perfecting the guarantee mechanism of farmers' water rights.%我国水资源严重短缺的基本国情使农村的供水与用水的矛盾越来越突出,加上城市和工业对水的需求日益扩大,农业水权的转让逐渐成为一种趋势。在农业水权转让的过程中,农民用水权益的保护成为了亟须重视的问题。目前我国农业水权转让制度不健全,使农业水权在向其他领域转让过程中出现了损害农民用水权益的现象。因而,分析农业水权在转让过程中对农民用水权益的影响因素,从而提出保护对策,为完善农民用水权益保障机制提供基础。

  18. Ecology and Equity in Rights to Land and Water: A Study in South-Eastern Palakkad in Kerala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyothi Krishnan

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the impact of the existing property rights regime over land and water on the sustainable and equitable management and use of these resources, in the context of changing irrigation practices in a paddy-growing area in the south-eastern part of the Palakkad district in Kerala, India. Since land rights determine rights to water in the area, the article discusses the changing rights regime over land, primarily after the implementation of land reforms in 1970. It shows how the implementation of land reforms and nationalization of private forests have paid little attention to the ecological context in which redistribution was taking place. As a result, while an agricultural-cum-forested landscape was divided into privately owned and government owned parcels, the ecological relationships between these different land use categories were ignored. In the same vein, land and water were treated as separate entities, with redistribution of land rights overlooking the distribution of water rights. The compartmentalized view of resources coupled with the consolidation of the private property regime has resulted in a situation where landowners exploit the resource without any consideration for its ecological characteristics and inter-resource linkages. The failure to view land and water in integration has precipitated inequitable access and unsustainable use of water. In addition, the availability of external water supplies and the introduction of energised pumping facilitate the enclosure of water within privately owned land parcels. The article concludes that a re-envisioning of rights to resources within the concerned ecological context is necessary if sustainable and equitable resource use and management are to be achieved.

  19. 再生水资源的水权问题探讨%Discussion of water right of reclaimed water resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏庆亮; 孙少丽

    2011-01-01

    The proprietary rights and right of using reclaimed water were discussed. It was recognized that the reclaimed water resources was a special type of water resources, and its proprietary rights was owned by nation. The right of using reclaimed water could be acquired through transaction of water permission from the water administration departments, and the process of water utilization should be under the monitor and instructions of water administration departments.%探讨再生水资源的所有权、使用权问题,认为再生水资源是水资源的一种特殊形式,其所有权归国家所有,其使用权可以通过向水行政主管部门办理取水许可手续后获得,其用水过程应接受水行政主管部门的监督和指导.

  20. Evaluation of simplified stream-aquifer depletion models for water rights administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sophocleous, Marios; Koussis, Antonis; Martin, J.L.; Perkins, S.P.

    1995-01-01

    We assess the predictive accuracy of Glover's (1974) stream-aquifer analytical solutions, which are commonly used in administering water rights, and evaluate the impact of the assumed idealizations on administrative and management decisions. To achieve these objectives, we evaluate the predictive capabilities of the Glover stream-aquifer depletion model against the MODFLOW numerical standard, which, unlike the analytical model, can handle increasing hydrogeologic complexity. We rank-order and quantify the relative importance of the various assumptions on which the analytical model is based, the three most important being: (1) streambed clogging as quantified by streambed-aquifer hydraulic conductivity contrast; (2) degree of stream partial penetration; and (3) aquifer heterogeneity. These three factors relate directly to the multidimensional nature of the aquifer flow conditions. From these considerations, future efforts to reduce the uncertainty in stream depletion-related administrative decisions should primarily address these three factors in characterizing the stream-aquifer process. We also investigate the impact of progressively coarser model grid size on numerically estimating stream leakage and conclude that grid size effects are relatively minor. Therefore, when modeling is required, coarser model grids could be used thus minimizing the input data requirements.

  1. The Human Right to Water--Market Allocations and Subsistence in a World of Scarcity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdam, Kevin C.

    2005-01-01

    More than one billion people do not have access to an adequate water supply. In Gambia and Haiti, people live on less than 4 liters of water per day. By contrast, most toilets in the West use several times that amount of water for a single flush. The global distribution of water is making it increasingly difficult for poor people to access it, and…

  2. Forced Engagements: Water Security and Local Rights Formalization in Yanque, Colca Valley, Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelens, R.A.; Seemann, M.

    2014-01-01

    For vulnerable groups in society, water insecurity and deficient water availability for food production commonly reflect unequal distribution of water volumes, quality, and services within unequal power structures. Water security is necessarily a political dilemma. Policy debates, however, tend to n

  3. Forced engagements: water security and local rights formalization in Yanque, Colca Valley, Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelens, R.; Seemann, M.

    2014-01-01

    For vulnerable groups in society, water insecurity and deficient water availability for food production commonly reflect unequal distribution of water volumes, quality, and services within unequal power structures. Water security is neessarily a political dilemma. Policy debates, however, tend to na

  4. 干旱区流域水权结构体系研究%Study on Water Right Structural System of River Basin in Arid Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马永仁; 朱美玲; 王新

    2012-01-01

    Reasonable water right structure can ensure the reasonable distribution of the initial water right.In this paper,the structural system of water right of bureaucratic organization was constructed.Four levels were formulated as follow: the river basins,the regions,the industries and the terminal water bodies.The priority of the department water right was determined as follow: life water right,agricultural water right,industrial water right,service industries water,ecological water right and social water right.Life water right,agricultural water right,industrial water right and service industries water were given the validity of five years that is steady.Ecological water right and social water right were given the validity of one year that is temporary.Finally,the water body,the priority of water right,term water right and proportional water right were defined.%合理的水权结构是保证初始水权进行合理分配的基础。构建了科层式水权结构体系,制定了流域、区域、行业部门和终端用水主体4个层级,并明确了行业部门水权的优先序:生活水权、农业水权、工业水权及服务行业水权、生态水权和社会水权。其中,生活水权、农业水权、工业水权和服务行是为期5年的稳定性水权,生态水权和社会水权是为期1年的临时性水权。最后,从用水主体、优先水权、期限水权和比例水权4个角度对各层级进行了界定。

  5. 区域再生水水权分配制度探讨%Discussion of water rights allocation of regional reclaimed water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴丹; 王亚华

    2013-01-01

    在对区域再生水水权内涵进行界定的基础上,从再生水资源的利用途径、利用形式以及利用期限3个角度阐述区域再生水水权的表现形式,明确区域再生水公共水权分配的社会、经济和生态目标以及区域再生水私有水权的分配目标,确定区域再生水水权分配的影响因素,提出区域再生水水权分配原则,从公共水权与私有水权两方面,研究区域再生水水权分配供求主体的利益关系.初步探讨了区域再生水水权分配制度,建立了再生水公共水权分配模型,为区域再生水资源的合理开发、高效利用与优化配置提供决策依据.%Based on the connotation of regional reclaimed water rights,its manifestations were discussed in terms of utilization modes,utilization forms,and utilization deadlines of reclaimed water resources in order to determine social,economic,and environment objectives of public water rights,and to determine the allocation objectives of private water rights.The influencing factors and principles of regional reclaimed water rights allocation were analyzed.The interest relationship between supplier and demander was studied as it relates to public and private water rights.The water rights allocation of regional reclaimed water was investigated preliminarily and an allocation model of published reclaimed water rights was developed to provide a basis for reclaimed rational development,effective utilization,and optimal allocation of regional reclaimed water.

  6. [Water rights and use on Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge and Benton Lake Wetland Management District: 2004 water year

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The tables and graphs provided in this Excel Workbook summarize water use, water balance, gauge readings, pumping data, and marsh unit elevations on Benton Lake NWR...

  7. [Water rights and use on Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge and Benton Lake Wetland Management District: 2003 water year

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The tables and graphs provided in this Excel Workbook summarize water use, water balance, gauge readings, pumping data, and marsh unit elevations on Benton Lake NWR...

  8. Ecology and Equity in Rights to Land and Water: A Study in South-Eastern Palakkad in Kerala

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krishnan, J.; George, A.

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the impact of the existing property rights regime over land and water on the sustainable and equitable management and use of these resources, in the context of changing irrigation practices in a paddy-growing area in the south-eastern part of the Palakkad district in Kerala, In

  9. EU Water Governance: Striking the Right Balance between Regulatory Flexibility and Enforcement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considering the challenges and threats currently facing water management and the exacerbation of uncertainty by climate change, the need for flexible yet robust and legitimate environmental regulation is evident. The European Union took a novel approach toward sustainable water r...

  10. When private water rights become a public asset: Stakeholder perspectives on the fairness of environmental water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukasiewicz, Anna; Dare, Melanie (Lain)

    2016-05-01

    This paper explores environmental water management as a social process of navigating conflicting interests through a distributive justice lens. Environmental water management can achieve substantial ecological outcomes and address ongoing river degradation caused by past management and climate change; however it also causes specific and substantial burdens and benefits to different groups of stakeholders. Given that in most developed countries the majority of land is under private tenure, environmental watering must have active cooperation of private landholders to achieve its ecological outcomes and thus it must effectively deal with an array of vested interests. Australia's reforms aimed at reallocating water from production to the environment have resulted in significant considerable volumes of environmental water. In the state of New South Wales, this water is managed by the state and national governments with the help of five Environmental Water Advisory Groups made up of a wide representation of interests. In this paper, we explore the perceptions of environmental, government, irrigator and grazing representatives, which demonstrate conflicting principles over how environmental water should be distributed. We detail how government water managers reconcile competing distributive principles of equity (ensuring that no one is disproportionally affected or benefits unduly), need (achieving environmental outcomes) and efficiency (prioritizing operational feasibility) in order to maintain the social acceptability of environmental water.

  11. Water right and water resources protection based on property law%物权法视野下的水权与水资源保护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李园园; 田义文

    2012-01-01

    水资源具有经济、生态和社会等多重价值.以物权法为切入点,提出对取水权进行细化,扩大水资源用益物权范围、做好不同法律的衔接与分工、设立水资源担保物权制度等措施以求促进水资源节约和高效利用,倒逼主体合理配置和使用水资源,并最终实现保护水资源的目的.%Water resources have multiple values of economy,ecology and society.Based on the property law,some measures are proposed so as to save and efficiently utilize the water resources,that is,to specify water-drawing right,to enlarge usufructuary right range of water resources,to improve cooperation among various laws and to establish guarantee system of water resources, etc.Accordingly,they will promote and force water subjects to rationally allocate and utilize water resources and to achieve the purpose of protection of water resources.

  12. 14 CFR 91.113 - Right-of-way rules: Except water operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... airship, powered parachute, weight-shift-control aircraft, airplane, or rotorcraft. (3) An airship has the right-of-way over a powered parachute, weight-shift-control aircraft, airplane, or rotorcraft....

  13. Water Management, Partnerships, Rights, and Market Trends: An Overview for Army Installation Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    the world and contain nine-tenths of the country’s fresh surface water . One hundred and forty-four coal-fired power plants around the lakes emit many...Conservation, and World Resources Institute, In it Together: A How-to Reference for Building Point-Nonpoint Water Quality Trading Programs, July 2012...because of regulatory requirements on those with whom they trade. The World Resources Institute has been reviewing water quality trading programs within

  14. A Human right to water while the well runs dry: analyzing the legal and regulatory framework of Yemen water law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijswick, H.F.M.W.; Misiedjan, D.J.E.; Tjen A Kwoei, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Yemen is currently in the midst of great unrest. Amongst many different conflicts there is one that receives less attention than others, that of water. Yemen is expected to be the first country in the world to run out of water. By 2025 the estimated 4.2 million inhabitants of Yemen’s capital, Sana’a

  15. Contested water rights in post-apartheid South Africa: The struggle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-03-25

    Mar 25, 2010 ... The National Water Act (1998) of South Africa provides strong tools to redress ..... The creation of homelands was a central element of this strategy. .... The cattle mainly drink from creeks and natural springs and ... in hydraulic infrastructure. ..... involved in the maintenance and future planning of the water.

  16. 1/33 SOME COMMENTS ON WATER RIGHTS IN SOUTH AFRICA N ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    1 The human body needs to ingest water daily to continue functioning. ... 4 Constitution of the Republic of South Africa 200 of 1993, which came into effect on ...... water law as it had developed during the history of colonial expansion and sets.

  17. Economic feasibility, cost and issues related to acquiring water right options to secure drought water supplies for Lahontan Valley Wetlands

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The focus of this study, prepared for The Nature Conservancy, is on the economic feasibility and issues related to implementing water supply option contracts to...

  18. Analysis on the Features and Demand Management of Water Right Market%关于水权市场特征及需求管理的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单以红

    2011-01-01

    One of the ways to realize the harmonious water use competition through economic means is to establish the mechanism of water right, water right trade and water right market. Based on fully understanding the features of water right market, the selection of demand management strategies of water right market during the short term is discussed, it is deemed that the macroeconomic management of the water right market consists of supply management and demand management, and the only choice is the latter for the time being, which is enforced by adjusting water right demand and demanded water right quantity.%运用经济手段实现竞争用水的和谐,其方法之一是建立水权、水权交易和水权市场机制.在充分分析水权市场特征的基础上,探究了水权市场短期内需求管理策略选择,并最终认为水权市场的宏观管理措施分为供给管理和需求管理,短期内只能选择需求管理的方法,即调控水权需求和需求量的变动来使市场实现供需均衡.

  19. Stuttered swallowing: Electric stimulation of the right insula interferes with water swallowing. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoemaker J

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various functional resonance imaging, magnetoencephalographic and lesion studies suggest the involvement of the insular cortex in the control of swallowing. However, the exact location of insular activation during swallowing and its functional significance remain unclear. Case presentation Invasive electroencephalographic monitoring was performed in a 24-year-old man with medically intractable stereotyped nocturnal hypermotor seizures due to a ganglioglioma. During stimulation of the right inferior posterior insular cortex with depth electrodes the patient spontaneously reported a perception of a "stutter in swallowing". Stimulation of the inferior posterior insular cortex at highest intensity (4 mA was also associated with irregular and delayed swallows. Swallowing was not impaired during stimulation of the superior posterior insular cortex, regardless of stimulation intensity. Conclusions These results indicate that the right inferior posterior insular cortex is involved in the neural circuitry underlying the control of swallowing.

  20. Do Water Rights Affect Technical Efficiency and Social Disparities of Crop Production in the Mediterranean? The Spanish Ebro Basin Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Quiroga

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The coming agenda for the European Common Agricultural Policy includes more incentives for the environmental compliance of farmer’s activities. This will be particularly important in the case of water risk management in Mediterranean countries. Among the new challenges is the need to evaluate some of the instruments necessary to comply with the Water Framework Directive requirements that emphasize the management of water demand to achieve the environmental targets. Here we analyze the implications of changing water rights as a policy response to these challenges. We analyze two important aspects of the decision: (i the effects on the crop productivity and efficiency and (ii the effects on the rural income distribution. We provide the empirical estimations for the marginal effects on the two considered aspects. First, we calculate a stochastic frontier production function for five representative crops using historical data to estimate technical efficiency. Second, we use a decomposition of the Gini coefficient to estimate the impact of irrigation rights changes on yield disparity. In our estimates, we consider both bio-physical and socio-economic aspects to conclude that there are long term implications on both efficiency and social disparities. We find disparities in the adaptation strategies depending on the crop and the region analyzed.

  1. Are participants in markets for water rights more efficient in the use of water than non-participants? A case study for Limarí Valley (Chile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinos-Senante, María; Donoso, Guillermo; Sala-Garrido, Ramon

    2016-06-01

    The need to increase water productivity in agriculture has been stressed as one of the most important factors to achieve greater agricultural productivity and sustainability. The main aim of this paper is to investigate whether there are differences in water use efficiency (WUE) between farmers who participate in water markets and farmers who do not participate in them. Moreover, the use of a non-radial data envelopment analysis model allows to compute global efficiency (GE), WUE as well the efficiency in the use of other inputs such as fertilizers, pesticides, energy, and labor. In a second stage, external factors that may affect GE and WUE are explored. The empirical application focuses on a sample of farmers located in Limarí Valley (Chile) where regulated permanent water rights (WR) markets for surface water have a long tradition. Results illustrate that WR sellers are the most efficient in the use of water while non-traders are the farmers that present the lowest WUE. From a policy perspective, significant conclusions are drawn from the assessment of agricultural water productivity in the framework of water markets.

  2. 白洋淀流域湿地生态水权的实证研究%An Empirical Study on Ecological Water Right in Baiyangdian Wetland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹学章; 董文君; 黄强; 杨超; 池明茹; 张赶年

    2011-01-01

    湿地生态水权是分配给湿地生态系统使用水资源的权利。明确湿地生态水权对于建立湿地补水机制具有重要意义。进行湿地生态水权分析时,应遵循以下原则:①基本生活用水保障原则;②生产与生态、上游与下游统筹协调原则;③尊重现状用水原则;④合理用水原则。以此为基础,提出了湿地生态水权的计算方法,并选取白洋淀湿地进行了实例分析。结果显示,白洋淀湿地50%保证率的年生态水权量为13130×104m3,大于湿地适宜生态需水量;75%保证率的年生态水权量为8585×104m3,大于湿地最小生态需水量;而95%保证率的年生态水权量%Water right of wetlands is the right of water consumption allocated to the wetland system. Quantitative allocation of water right to wetlands is important to the establishment of wetland water supply mechanisms. When allocating water right to a wetland, socio-economic water demands and water resources status quo of the whole watershed in which the wetland is situated should be considered properly in addition to the water demand of the wetland. Based on this concept and general principles of water rights allocation, four principles for estimating the water right of wetlands are proposed, involving 1) ensuring the essential domestic water, 2) coordinating production water and ecological water, and water use in the upper reaches and that in the lower reaches, 3) taking into account the current situation of water utilization, and 4) rationally using water. Based on these principles, the method for estimating the water right of wetlands is proposed. A case study was conducted in the Baiyangdian wetland, which is the largest freshwater lake in North China. Results show that the annual water right of the Baiyangdian wetland with an assuring rate of 50% is 131.30×106 m3, which is more than the appropriate quantity of its water demand (101.08×106 m3). The annual water right with an

  3. Successful water quality monitoring: The right combination of intent, measurement, interpretation, and a cooperating ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soballe, D.M.

    1998-01-01

    Water quality monitoring is invaluable to ensure compliance with regulations, detect trends or patterns, and advance ecological understanding. However, monitoring typically measures only a few characteristics in a small fraction of a large and complex system, and thus the information contained in monitoring data depends upon which features of the ecosystem are actually captured by the measurements. Difficulties arise when these data contain something other than intended, but this can be minimized if the purpose of the sampling is clear, and the sampling design, measurements, and data interpretations are all compatible with this purpose. The monitoring program and data interpretation must also be properly matched to the structure and functioning of the system. Obtaining this match is sometimes an iterative process that demands a close link between research and monitoring. This paper focuses on water quality monitoring that is intended to track trends in aquatic resources and advance ecological understanding. It includes examples from three monitoring programs and a simulation exercise that illustrate problems that arise when the information content of monitoring data differs from expectation. The examples show (1) how inconsistencies among, or lack of information about, the basic elements of a monitoring program (intent, design, measurement, interpretation, and the monitored system) can produce a systematic difference (bias) between monitoring measurements and sampling intent or interpretation, and (2) that bias is not just a statistical consideration, but an insidious problem that can undermine the scientific integrity of a monitoring program. Some general suggestions are provided and hopefully these examples will help those engaged in water quality monitoring to enhance and protect the value of their monitoring investment.

  4. Water-quality trading: Can we get the prices of pollution right?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Yoshifumi; Coggins, Jay S.; Wang, Bin

    2015-05-01

    Water-quality trading requires inducing permit prices that account properly for spatially explicit damage relationships. We compare recent work by Hung and Shaw (2005) and Farrow et al. (2005) for river systems exhibiting branching and nonlinear damages. The Hung-Shaw scheme is robust to nonlinear damages, but not to hot spots occurring at the confluence of two branches. The Farrow et al. (2005) scheme is robust to branching, but not to nonlinear damages. We also compare the two schemes to each other. Neither dominates from a welfare perspective, but the comparison appears to tilt in favor of the Farrow et al. scheme.

  5. 我国水权交易模式探析%Analysis of Water Right Transaction Mode in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾玉珊; 陆素艮

    2015-01-01

    水权交易是指用水户之间的水权转让,我国立法并未规定水权交易模式,但是各地纷纷开展水权交易实践,可以总结为商品水交易模式、水票制交易模式、取水许可证交易模式。但是这三种交易模式分别存在交易客体错位、交易主体积极性不足、交易前提条件不具备等弊端,不适合全国范围内推广。国外水权交易由来已久,比较典型的是美国的水银行交易模式和澳大利亚的水市场交易模式。美国加州的水资源时空分布不均匀,与我国较一致,且水银行模式具有企业化管理、用水效率高、不损害第三者利益等特点。结合其成功经验,建议从水权交易方式、水权交易原则以及政府与水银行的关系三方面对我国水权交易模式进行完善。%Water right transaction refers to the water transfer between water users .Although its mode is not regulated by legislation ,its practice has carried out all over the country and can be concluded as the three modes ,that is ,commodity patterns ,water‐tickets patterns and water‐certificate patterns .But these three trading patterns are not suitable for the nationwide promotion due to the deficiencies of the disloca‐tion of the dealing objects and subjects and lacking of transactional preconditions .Water right transaction abroad has a long history ,among which the water bank transaction modes of the United States and Aus‐tralia are typical .Similar to our country ,water resources in California is also distributed unevenly in time and space .The water bank mode there has characteristics of enterprises management ,high efficiency of water usage without damage the interests of a third party .Concluded successful experience abroad ,this pa‐per suggested that domestic water right transaction can be improved from three aspects as the trading methods ,trading principles and relationships between the government and the water bank .

  6. On the Definition Mechanism of Initial Water Rights%初始水权界定机制的比较与选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丙毅

    2015-01-01

    水权界定即水权的初次分配及其权利主体的清晰化,是水权配置过程中的首要环节,也是水权交易和水市场形成的基础和前提。水权配置机制主要包括行政机制、市场机制和自主协商机制。利用完全信息静态博弈模型和动态重复博弈模型对水权界定机制进行分析所得出的结论是:私人之间以竞争的方式来界定初始水权,会造成“公地悲剧”,甚至分水冲突的发生;自主协商机制虽然能够在小规模人群之间实现初始水权的分配,但其分水协议不具有强制性约束力,特别是在人数较多的情况下,分水协议更不具有约束力。唯有民主协商基础上的政府行政机制才是水权界定的最佳选择。%To definite the initial water rights means the first allocation of water rights and the clear of water rights owner witch is not only the first step in the process of water rights allocation, but also the basis and premise of water rights trading and water market.The mechanisms of allocation of Water rights generally include administrative mechanism, market mechanism and independent negotiation mechanism.Through the analysis by u-sing the complete information static game model and dynamic game model for water rights distribution mechanism , we concluded that:the competi-tion between private to the way to define the initial water rights , will cause the"tragedy of the commons", even the water conflict;autonomous ne-gotiation mechanism can realize the initial allocation of water rights in small groups , but the water diversion agreement is not mandatory and bind-ing, especially in a large number of cases, the water protocol is not binding.Only on the basis of deliberative democracy, government administrative mechanism is the best choice of the definition of water rights .

  7. 水资源利用市场化下的水权及其类型化探讨%Discussion on Water Rights and Their Classification with Background of Market Use of Water Resource

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄萍

    2012-01-01

    水资源利用市场化的前提是建立水权制度.水权是单位或个人对一定之水的使用收益权.水资源具有多用性,对水资源利用的目的和方式不同,水权内容也就存在差异.水权类型化不仅便于明确各类水权主体的权利和义务,而且便于国家对水资源开发利用的管理,促进水资源的合理利用.%Water rights system is prerequisite of water resource market use. Water rights is the rights to use and return on particular water of units and persons. Water resource has many using, so water rights are different. Water rights' classification not only can clarity rights and obligations of different water rights' subjects, but also advantage state's management of development and use of water resources, and promote the rational use of water resources.

  8. Water rights system construction and management for Shiyang River Basin%石羊河流域水权管理制度框架研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永明; 王鹏全; 曹进军; 李常亮

    2014-01-01

    石羊河流域地处内陆干旱区,是典型的资源性缺水地区。水权制度建设是优化水资源配置的基础工作,将区域水权分配与行业取水许可管理有机结合,对高效配置水资源,建立和完善流域水市场,实现流域水资源的可持续利用和经济社会的发展有重要的现实意义。本文以石羊河流域水资源开发利用现状为依据,尊重历史,承认现实,统筹生产、生活和生态用水,提出流域的水权内涵、界定原则和初始水权分配方案;并对开展流域水权交易和水权管理的制度体系建设提出了相关建议,为石羊河流域水资源合理配置,确定水权分配方案,开展水权交易,建设水权管理制度等提供理论依据。%Shiyang River Basin is a typical water resources shortage area, located in the inland arid areas. Water rights system is a foundational work to optimize the allocation of water resources, which combines the regional water rights allocation with water permit management of industry. Water rights system has an important practical significance for providing efficiency of water allocation, establishing and perfecting the basin water market and achieving sustainable use of water resources in river basin and social development. This paper proposes water rights connotation, defining principles and initial water rights allocation frame-works and schemes according to the actual situation of water resources of Shiyang river and respecting histo-ry, recognizing the reality and coordinating life, ecology, agricultural as well as industrial water. The paper also puts relevant schemes and proposals for water rights trading and water rights management system, hop-ing to provide a theoretical basis for the rational allocation of water resources and water rights system con-struction in the Shiyang river basin.

  9. Swim speed, behavior, and movement of North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis in coastal waters of northeastern Florida, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H W Hain

    Full Text Available In a portion of the coastal waters of northeastern Florida, North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis occur close to shore from December through March. These waters are included within the designated critical habitat for right whales. Data on swim speed, behavior, and direction of movement--with photo-identification of individual whales--were gathered by a volunteer sighting network working alongside experienced scientists and supplemented by aerial observations. In seven years (2001-2007, 109 tracking periods or "follows" were conducted on right whales during 600 hours of observation from shore-based observers. The whales were categorized as mother-calf pairs, singles and non-mother-calf pairs, and groups of 3 or more individuals. Sample size and amount of information obtained was largest for mother-calf pairs. Swim speeds varied within and across observation periods, individuals, and categories. One category, singles and non mother-calf pairs, was significantly different from the other two--and had the largest variability and the fastest swim speeds. Median swim speed for all categories was 1.3 km/h (0.7 kn, with examples that suggest swim speeds differ between within-habitat movement and migration-mode travel. Within-habitat right whales often travel back-and-forth in a north-south, along-coast, direction, which may cause an individual to pass by a given point on several occasions, potentially increasing anthropogenic risk exposure (e.g., vessel collision, fishing gear entanglement, harassment. At times, mothers and calves engaged in lengthy stationary periods (up to 7.5 h that included rest, nursing, and play. These mother-calf interactions have implications for communication, learning, and survival. Overall, these behaviors are relevant to population status, distribution, calving success, correlation to environmental parameters, survey efficacy, and human-impacts mitigation. These observations contribute important parameters to

  10. Swim speed, behavior, and movement of North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) in coastal waters of northeastern Florida, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hain, James H W; Hampp, Joy D; McKenney, Sheila A; Albert, Julie A; Kenney, Robert D

    2013-01-01

    In a portion of the coastal waters of northeastern Florida, North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) occur close to shore from December through March. These waters are included within the designated critical habitat for right whales. Data on swim speed, behavior, and direction of movement--with photo-identification of individual whales--were gathered by a volunteer sighting network working alongside experienced scientists and supplemented by aerial observations. In seven years (2001-2007), 109 tracking periods or "follows" were conducted on right whales during 600 hours of observation from shore-based observers. The whales were categorized as mother-calf pairs, singles and non-mother-calf pairs, and groups of 3 or more individuals. Sample size and amount of information obtained was largest for mother-calf pairs. Swim speeds varied within and across observation periods, individuals, and categories. One category, singles and non mother-calf pairs, was significantly different from the other two--and had the largest variability and the fastest swim speeds. Median swim speed for all categories was 1.3 km/h (0.7 kn), with examples that suggest swim speeds differ between within-habitat movement and migration-mode travel. Within-habitat right whales often travel back-and-forth in a north-south, along-coast, direction, which may cause an individual to pass by a given point on several occasions, potentially increasing anthropogenic risk exposure (e.g., vessel collision, fishing gear entanglement, harassment). At times, mothers and calves engaged in lengthy stationary periods (up to 7.5 h) that included rest, nursing, and play. These mother-calf interactions have implications for communication, learning, and survival. Overall, these behaviors are relevant to population status, distribution, calving success, correlation to environmental parameters, survey efficacy, and human-impacts mitigation. These observations contribute important parameters to conservation biology

  11. Study on the Transaction Cost and Water Rights Institution Innovation%论交易费用与水权制度创新

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜威漩

    2012-01-01

    The internal defects of current institution of water rights lead to high transaction costs.It shows that excessively administrative configuration of water rights leads to high information cost and "tragedy of the commons",the weak liquidity of the using right of the water resources leads to the market failure of the configuration of water rights,and the division of the management right of water resources leas to high cost for coordination.It is necessary for the institution of water rights to be innovated: further definite clearly the role positioning of the government as a "referee"——the configuration subject of the initial water rights,the supplier of institution of water rights,the regulator of water matter activity,constructing tradable institution of water rights and constructing the water rights management institution in which the unified management of water resources is the core.%现行水权制度的内在缺陷导致了高昂的交易费用,表现在水权配置的过度行政性导致高昂的信息成本和"公用地悲剧",水资源使用权的弱流动性导致水权配置的市场失灵,水资源管理权的分割性导致高昂的协调成本。需要创新水权制度,进一步明确政府作为"裁判员"的角色定位——初始水权的配置者、水权制度的供给者、水事活动的监督者,构建可交易的水权制度,建立以水资源统一管理为核心的水权管理制度。

  12. Collective rights in a modernizing North - on institutionalizing Sámi and local rights to land and water in northern Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audun Sandberg

    2008-07-01

    and constitutional changes in the modern world. The way such changes take place is nowadays more often through the incorporation of various forms of treaties and international charters into national legislation rather than direct negotiations between sovereign states and indigenous ‘tribes’, ‘clans’ or ethnic minority groups. However, when it comes to acknowledging the rights of ownership and possession of the peoples concerned over the lands which they traditionally occupy, these seem to be among the most difficult constitutional processes modern states can undertake. Thus they not only take much longer time than the granting of civil and political rights, but they also involve complex analytical exercises in order to understand the processes connected to the settling of indigenous land claims. This article analyses one such process in a nested and multi-tier system with parallel initiatives for institutional change.

  13. 引汉济渭水权置换的管理制度创新研究%Study on Management System Innovation of Water Rights Replacement of Water Diversion from Hanjiang River to Weihe River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄建水; 殷会娟; 乔钰

    2014-01-01

    Taking the Hanjiang River to the weihe River water rights as the object of study,through the exploratory analysis method,this paper solved the replacement of the Hanjiang River to the Weihe River water rights and the Yellow River water rights whether replacement of the theoreti-cal basis and the legal basis. The essence of the Hanjiang River to the Weihe River water rights replacement is increasing the total amount of water resources in the Yellow River after drawing water from the Hanjiang River to the Weihe River,increasing the area of the Yellow River water index though replacing the water index from the Weihe River water to northern area of Shaanxi Province. Through the innovation of the Yellow River water rights management system,it can realize the replacement of the Hanjiang River to the Weihe River water rights and the Yellow River water rights. The exchange management system of the Hanjiang River to the Weihe River water rights is not only the basis of increasing the Yellow River water consumption after guiding the Hanjiang River to the Weihe River water,but also is the implementation basis of replacement of water rights,and is the guiding regulation of replacing the two water rights as well.%以引汉济渭水权为研究对象,通过探索性分析方法解决了引汉济渭水权与黄河水权置换是否有理论依据和法律依据问题。引汉济渭水权置换的实质是从汉江流域调水补充渭河后使黄河水资源总量增加,把陕西省的渭河取水指标置换给陕北地区,增加该地区黄河取水指标。通过黄河水权管理制度的创新,可以实现引汉济渭水权与黄河水权的置换。引汉济渭水权置换管理制度既是引汉济渭后陕北地区增加黄河用水量的依据,又是两个水权实行置换的依据,也是两个水权实施置换的指导规范。

  14. Water Right Transaction Mode Design Based on Land Transactions Practice%基于土地交易实践的水权交易模式设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜梦娇; 田贵良

    2016-01-01

    在我国,市场机制在水资源配置中的作用不足导致其效率低下的同时也加剧了水资源短缺,用水浪费和水生态恶化的矛盾,如何让市场在水资源配置中起决定性作用是水权交易模式研究所面临的重要问题。土地资源配置的市场交易为水权提供有益借鉴。分析了土地、水2种资源属性,比较其异同,根据水资源的特性,有选择地借鉴土地交易方式,设计了水权招标、拍卖、挂牌交易的程序,并结合水权交易中受让方的特点,提出水权交易的综合模式。当交易中只有一个受让方时,采用协议转让,涉及多个受让方时可采用竞价方式完成转让。最后,对完善水权交易提出相关建议,为促进我国水权交易提供决策参考。%In China,the deficiency of market mechanism in the allocation of water resources not only leads to inefficiency,but also exacerbates water shortage,water waste and deterioration of water ecological contradictions.So how to make the market plays a de-cisive role in the allocation of water resources is an important problem for the study on the water right transaction mode.The market of land resource allocation has provides a useful reference to water right.This paper analyzes the properties of land and water re-sources.Through selectively learning from land transactions,a water right transaction mode through bidding,auction and listing procedure is designed,and an integrated water right transaction mode combining the characteristics of water right trade is proposed;water right can be transferred through agreement mode when there is only one transferee and through auction mode when there is several transferees.Finally,some suggestions are proposed to improve water right trade and provide decision-making reference for promoting China's water property transaction.

  15. 我国海域使用权抵押客体范围研究%On the Scope of Mortgaging the Rights to Use Maritime Waters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王仰光

    2012-01-01

    The scope of mortgaging the rights to use maritime waters in China should be clearly provided and classified. In cases where the ownership of the rights to use of maritime waters together with that of buildings, structures and other facilities on it is in a state of controversy pending settlement, or in cases where the premium for any use of maritime waters has not been paid as stipulated, the rights to use maritime waters fall within the category of deferred registration for use of maritime waters. In cases where the rights to use of maritime waters are for services of public welfare, where there are unclosed lawsuits concerning illegitimate use of maritime waters pending investigation, where such rights have been closed down, or where such rights concern prospecting and exploitation of oil, gas, and other maritime mineral resources, the rights to use maritime waters fall within the category of non-mortgageable above mentioned restrictions rights to use of maritime waters. Then the rights to use maritime waters free of the can eflter the process of mortgage registration.%我国海域使用权抵押客体的范围应予以分类规范:海域使用权权属及该海域上的建筑物、构筑物及其他设施存在争议尚未解决的和未按规定缴纳海域使用金的海域使用权为暂缓登记的海域使用权抵押类型:公益性用海的、有违法用海行为正在立案查处尚未结案的、被查封的和涉及油气及其他海洋矿产资源勘察开采的海域使用权为不得抵押的海域使用权类型;除此之外海域使用权,均可以设立抵押登记。

  16. Streamflow monitoring and statistics for development of water rights claims for Wild and Scenic Rivers, Owyhee Canyonlands Wilderness, Idaho, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Molly S.; Fosness, Ryan L.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), collected streamflow data in 2012 and estimated streamflow statistics for stream segments designated "Wild," "Scenic," or "Recreational" under the National Wild and Scenic Rivers System in the Owyhee Canyonlands Wilderness in southwestern Idaho. The streamflow statistics were used by BLM to develop and file a draft, federal reserved water right claim in autumn 2012 to protect federally designated "outstanding remarkable values" in the stream segments. BLM determined that the daily mean streamflow equaled or exceeded 20 and 80 percent of the time during bimonthly periods (two periods per month) and the bankfull streamflow are important streamflow thresholds for maintaining outstanding remarkable values. Prior to this study, streamflow statistics estimated using available datasets and tools for the Owyhee Canyonlands Wilderness were inaccurate for use in the water rights claim. Streamflow measurements were made at varying intervals during February–September 2012 at 14 monitoring sites; 2 of the monitoring sites were equipped with telemetered streamgaging equipment. Synthetic streamflow records were created for 11 of the 14 monitoring sites using a partial‑record method or a drainage-area-ratio method. Streamflow records were obtained directly from an operating, long-term streamgage at one monitoring site, and from discontinued streamgages at two monitoring sites. For 10 sites analyzed using the partial-record method, discrete measurements were related to daily mean streamflow at a nearby, telemetered “index” streamgage. Resulting regression equations were used to estimate daily mean and annual peak streamflow at the monitoring sites during the full period of record for the index sites. A synthetic streamflow record for Sheep Creek was developed using a drainage-area-ratio method, because measured streamflows did not relate well to any index site to allow use of the partial

  17. Review of water right allocation in Colorado River and its enlightenment%科罗拉多河水权分配历程及其启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周婷; 郑航

    2015-01-01

    为把握和吸取科罗拉多河近百年来水权分配的规律及经验,对科罗拉多河在美国境内及美国和墨西哥之间的水权分配历程进行了全面梳理和归纳,重点阐述了各条约及措施的背景、目的、内容及相互联系。从科罗拉多河水权分配历程可以看出,流域水权的保障是工程措施和非工程措施协同发展的结果,同时应考虑自然条件、区域社会经济发展、生态环境和国际环境等综合因素;在水权条约的框架下,灵活的市场机制能够提高水资源利用效率,是应对水资源供需变化的有效方式。科罗拉多河水权分配历程对于中国国际河流水权维护及国内水资源优化配置具有重要的借鉴价值。%This study comprehensively concluded the water right allocation course of the Colorado River in America and America—Mexico to seize and learn the century⁃long water right law and the situation of the Colorado River. Each water law focuses remarks on the background, purpose, content, and their relationships. The water right allocation course of the Colorado River demonstrates that the persistence of the water right is assured by the cooperative develop⁃ment of both engineering and non⁃engineering measures. Meanwhile, natural resources, regional socio⁃economic devel⁃opment, ecology, and international environment should also be considered. Under the water right treaty framework, flexible market mechanisms can improve water resource efficiency, which is an effective manner in addressing changes in the demand and supply of water resources. The water right allocation of the Colorado River has an important refer⁃ence value for China in both claiming transboundary river water right and optimizing local water resource management.

  18. 农业用水权有偿转让经济技术措施研究%Economic Technology of Agricultural Water Right Compensable Transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荣四海

    2009-01-01

    从经济学角度出发,探讨了农业用水权转让的经济管理集成技术,研究内容包括农业初始水权的界定与水权分配、国家政策环境对农业用水权有偿转让的影响、农业用水权有偿转让主要内容、程序步骤等,最后结合河南省群库灌区调查,计算分析了灌区用水量转让、农业用水转移的供水价格与供水年限以及农业用水量转让后对当地工农业经济和农民收入的影响等.研究成果对我国农业用水权有偿转让以及工农业经济发展具有一定的参考价值.%Starting from economic viewpoints, the systematic economic management technology of agricul-tural water right transfer were studied, which include water right initial allocaltion, national policy influ-ence, water right trading, water right trading system, etc. Finally, based on investigation for Qunku Irri-gaiton District, calculation and analysis were carried out for water transfer, water price, water supply pe-riod, industrial and agricultural economic influence. The present fingdings should be an important refer-ence value for agricultural water right compensable transfer and related economic development.

  19. A Game Playing Analysis of Water Rights and Water Resources Taxes Based on Water Markets%基于水市场的水权水资源税博弈分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜国辉; 张如强; 李玉清; 周雪梅; 夏彦龙

    2012-01-01

    我国水资源紧缺日益严重,这就要求我们对有限的水资源量进行合理配置。以博弈论为基本理论框架,建立序贯博弈模型,在水市场存在的条件下对初始水权和水资源税进行博弈分析,运用倒推法求解子博弈精炼纳什均衡,从而得出如何分配初始水权分配和水资源税征收数额,实现对流域水资源的优化配置。同时对建模思路和解决方法进行阐述,并给出算例予以解释。%The scarcity of water in China is increasingly serious every day, which requires us to allocate our limited water in a more reasonable way. Based on the game theory, under the condition of water markets, this research tries to establish a model of sequen- tial games, which gives game playing analysis to the initial water right and water resource taxes, and then calculates the model by means of backward induction to the result of subgame perfect nash equilibrium,whose conclution is how to allocate the initial water right and makes out the quantity of the water resources taxes collection. Finally, a case study is used to show the construction of the model and its solution, which gives an optimal strategy for water allocation.

  20. Analysis of the Efficiency of Water Rights Distribution in China%中国水权配置效率分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈洁; 许长新; 田贵良

    2011-01-01

    The efficiency of water rights distribution is discussed in the paper based on the whole society, which lays a foundation for further study of water rights trade.Firstly the assumption is made for the analysis, and the efficiency of water rights distribution is defined.The efficiency is proved to satisfy the axiom of completeness and transitivity.Secondly the rule of marginal value descending is proposed, in the context of the definition of marginal value and total value of water rights.Thirdly the definition and theorem of Pareto-optimality are put forward and it is proved that the Pareto-optimality distribution can reach a stable state.According to limit theorem,furthermore, convergence is defined on the serials of water rights distribution.In the context of information asymmetry in water rights,the paper demonstrates that the Pareto-optimality is approached by the water rights trade, while the administration deployment does not work.In the end, the theories advanced in the paper are applied to analyze the water rights trades in China.At present the distribution of water rights can not reach the Pareto-optimality state due to the low speed of approach aroused by the high transaction cost.With the improvement of the system of water rights trade in China, the Pareto-optimality will be realized in the distribution of water rights and the water resource will be fully utilized.%基于整个社会的视角,对水权交易效率进行公理化分析,为水权交易的深入研究奠定基础.首先,提出分析的假设条件,定义水权配置效率,该效率满足完备性、传递性公理.其次,定义水权边际价值、总价值,提出水权边际价值递减规律.再次,给出水权配置的帕累托最优定义,提出帕累托最优时水权配置状态的定理,并论证水权的帕累托配置是稳定的水权配置状态.根据极限理论,给出水权配置序列收敛于帕累托最优配置的定义,论证了在现实水权信息不对称的情况下,

  1. The Right to Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Heather-jane

    2001-01-01

    When Canada signed the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child in 1990, all government levels became responsible for adopting and implementing a set of entitlements considered too radical for Americans. Critics claim the Convention subverts absolute parental and institutional authority over children. Implementation problems and progress are…

  2. Environmental Assessment : Acquisition of water rights for Stillwater Wildlife Management Area and Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge : Fiscal Years 1991-1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) proposes to acquire up to 20,000 acre-feet of water rights from Newlands Project facilities/Carson Division for the...

  3. Analysis of Evolution of Water Withdrawal Governance and Its Relation with Water Rights Institution%格尔木市取水管理制度发展演变及其与水权制度关系分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建平; 贾绍凤; 吕爱锋; 刘志明

    2012-01-01

    There was no water withdrawal governance at the beginning when Golmud City was firstly constructed as Aerdunquke Kazakh Autonomous District in 1954. Before 1977, the main task of wa- ter management was to construct water supply and hydropower engineering projects for supplying water and electricity for the city. From 1978 - 1990, there was still no water permission regulation under the administration of city construction department of the government. In 1990, Golmud city took the lead to enforced water withdrawal permission regulation in Qinghai province. Now almost all water us- ers, except military units and small irrigation districts, applied and got water withdrawal permission. Although the initial water right distribution approved by the city Government in 2010 inherited water permission licensed before, and clear water use right can give support to future water permission trea- ting, there are radical difference between water permission and water right. Water permission is a kind of administration tool of the government, while water right is a kind of asset of users. Water permission regulation should be substituted by water right institution for the long term.%取水许可是目前中国水资源管理的主要落实手段。取水许可制度的实际运行情况是未来水权制度建设的基础。以格尔木市为典型,分析了取水管理的发展演变历程:工程管理阶段、城市部门主管阶段、水利部门主管阶段和取水许可初步完善阶段。目前面临的主要问题是已有的取水许可制度与正在建设的水权制度的冲突:取水许可属于行政管理行为,而水权属于产权。取水许可可以根据政府政策进行调整,而水权必须作为财产,根据民法来切实保护,不能由政府随意变动或剥夺。水权初始分配可以继承过去的取水许可作为初始水权,但取水许可制度代替不了水权制度,而必须为水权制度让路。

  4. THE RIGHT TO ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Viorica Paraschivescu; Carmen Elena Radu

    2011-01-01

    This study refers to the fundamental right of the human being to have a healthy, ecologically balanced environment as well as to the necessity of recognizing and guaranteeing this right. We analyze the major components of the human being environment protection, the right to water, the right to fresh air, the right to the environment of the human settlements, the relationship: health – environment. A special attention is given to the integration of the sustainable development in the EU policie...

  5. A study of benefits compensation mechanism for agricultural water rights trading under the restriction of ecological reconstruction: case study of Shiyang River basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Agricultural water allocation system based on priority rights has caused regional conJtiets and downstream ecological degradation.It is the urgent need to introduce the concept of the initial water rights and establish benefits compensation mechanism to resolve such problems.This paper takes the Shivang River basin as an example to calculate the opportunity cost of 0.97×108m3 of agricultural water encroached by the middle reach based on initial water right allocation system under which water is allocated in accordance with the ratio between agricultural population of two different regions concerning the downstream ecological reconstruction needs with Bio-economic model (BEM).The results suggest that the total economic loss of Minqin County for ecological econstruction amounts to 2.57×108 yuan,of which 1.68×108 yuan is ecological compensation,representing the economic loss Minqin suffered for ecological reconstruction which should burden beneficial groups of eeological reconstruction and 0.89×108 yuan is the economic loss Minqin suffered due to Liangzhou's encroachment behavior which should be compensated by Liangzhou.

  6. 巢湖流域取水权出让制度的应用研究%Application of water right transfer system in Chaohu Lake basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万马

    2015-01-01

    As one of China's five largest freshwater lakes, Chaohu is an important water reserve and has an important strategic position.But the sound water right market has not been formed yet in Chaohu Lake basin, the waste and pollution of water resources has been serious.Rational use of water resources in the basin is very important to the sustainable development of local economy and society.Based on analyzing the relevant theoretical basis of water right transfer and the status of water resources in Chaohu Lake ba-sin, the article proposed the concrete measures of water right transfer undertaken in the basin,which can provide a new way for resolution of the basin's water crisis.%巢湖作为我国五大淡水湖之一,是我国重要的水资源储备,具有重要的战略地位。但是,目前在巢湖流域还没有形成健全的水权市场,水资源浪费、污染严重。合理利用巢湖流域水资源对流域内经济社会可持续发展至关重要。文章在剖析了取水权出让的相关理论基础以及巢湖流域水资源现状的基础上,提出在巢湖流域开展的取水权出让的具体措施,为尝试解决流域水危机提供一种新途径。

  7. Water Rights Transactions Mechanism Adapting the Demand of the Strictest Water Resources Management%最严格水资源管理需求下的水权交易机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李胚; 窦明; 赵培培

    2014-01-01

    Taking the actual demand of water resources management system as the starting point,this paper analyzed the characteristics of water rights transactions mechanism construction in the new period. Making the demand of the strictest water resources management system the guidance, the subject and object of water rights transactions were defined. Meanwhile,the transactions principles and scopes were also standardized. In addi-tion,the transaction procedures were determined and the trade methods among the actual water users were considered to build the trading pattern of“user-basin-inter-basin”. Based on the pattern,the key technologies and methods were put forward,which consisted of the methods of the trad-able water rights calculation,the whole cost of the water and the water rights transaction optimization model aiming at realizing the maximization of regional economy. At last,the key technologies and methods involved in the water rights trading pattern and transactions were explained to construct the water rights transactions mechanism adapting the demand of the strictest water resources management,which could provide reference for building of the water right system in China.%从我国水资源管理制度的实际需求出发,分析了新时期水权交易机制建设的特点。以最严格水资源管理制度需求为导向,从水权交易的主客体界定、交易原则和交易范围的规范、交易程序确定以及基于实际用水户的交易方式选择等方面入手,构建了“用户-流域-跨流域”层级水权交易模式;在此基础上,提出由可交易水权计算方法、全成本水价方法以及基于目标区域经济最大化的水权交易优选模型组成水权交易关键技术方法。通过对水权交易模式和交易中涉及的关键技术解答,构建了一种适应最严格水资源管理需求的水权交易机制。

  8. 基于初始二维水权的流域水资源调控框架初析%Preliminary theoretical framework of water resources operation based on initial two-dimensional water rights in a basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宗志; 张玲玲; 王银堂; 金菊良; 程亮

    2012-01-01

    The initial basin water rights assignment is not only the important premise that realize the reasonable water rights circulation and play a fundamental role in market allocation water resources, it is also the important content under the China socialist market economy condition to realize the basin water resources integrated dispatch and to alleviate water resources supply and demand contradiction. To provide technical support for promoting the construction process of China 's water rights system and implementing the most stringent water resources management system, based on existing research results of two-dimensional water rights concept and connotation, and considering the research progress of the initial water rights allocation at home and abroad, the theoretical framework is put forward including the initial two dimensional water rights allocation (simplified initial allocation) , the basin water resources optimal regulation based on the initial two-dimensional water rights (simplified as optimal regulation) and three-part real-time control, and further elaborated on the modeling process and support technology and its work relation of the above three elements.%为推动中国水权制度建设进程与落实最严格水资源管理制度提供技术支撑,基于二维水权概念与内涵等现有研究成果,结合对国内外初始水权分配相关研究进展与需求实践的系统梳理,从供水管理视角提出了包括“初始分配”、“优化调控”和“实时调控”3项内容在内的基于初始二维水权的流域水资源调控理论框架,详细阐述了各组成部分的实现途径、支撑技术、建模步骤及其之间的工作关系.

  9. 二次供水设施运行管理权探讨%Discussion on Operation Management Right of Secondary Water Supply Facilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶涛; 信昆仑

    2013-01-01

    加强二次供水管理已成为饮用水安全保障的一个重要举措,为此各地都在修订新的城市二次供水管理办法,在有关产权、资金筹措、技术方案、运行管理等方面制定了相应规定,但是针对二次供水设施的运行管理权属问题,各地的情况各有不同.在对我国多地的二次供水管理办法调研分析的基础上,就二次供水设施的运行管理权属问题进行了探讨,分析了不同权属的利弊,提出了建议,供有关供水主管部门参考.%It has been an important measure for drinking water safety to strengthen the secondary water supply management.For this reason,the new urban secondary water supply management method is being revised in each region.The corresponding stipulations concerning related property rights,fund raising,technical programs,operation management and other aspects were defined.But the attribution of operation management right of secondary water supply facilities is different in each region.The secondary water supply management methods in some regions of China were investigated and analyzed.The attribution of operation management right of secondary water supply facilities was discussed,the advantages and disadvantages of different right attributions were analyzed,and several recommendations were proposed for reference.

  10. Research on the Initial Water Rights Allocation in Luoyang City%洛阳市初始水权配置研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周振民; 肖焕焕

    2014-01-01

    Based on the multi-objective programming theory and characteristics of water users in Luoyang City ,the multi-objective programming model of water rights allocation is established .It can be tested by surface water ,ground water .Threshold value of wa-ter rights can be got by stochastic simulation genetic algorithm and MATLAB .It turned out that the present water rights allocation is reasonable ,and the balance between water supply and demand is realized in 2015 .Resident water use depends mainly on local sur-face and ground water .Agriculture and industry water depends mainly on local surface water .The underground water exploitation can be appropriately controlled .It is proved that the present findings can play an important role in reasonable water resources devel-opment of Luoyang City .%基于多目标规划理论,以2015年为规划年,根据洛阳市所属区域用水特点建立了多目标规划初始水权配置模型,并利用地表水、地下水数据进行模型验证。模型计算采用随机模拟遗传算法,应用MATLAB计算初始水权分配,给出各区域水权配置的界定值。结果表明,洛阳市初始水权配置合理,实现了水量供需平衡。居民生活主要水源是地下水,水质安全可靠;农业灌溉和工业用水主要依靠当地地表水和地下水,适当控制农业灌溉对地下水的开采。研究成果对洛阳市的初始水权配置具有一定的参考价值。

  11. 南水北调东线工程水期权交易及其定价模型%Water rights option transaction and pricing model for Eastern Route of South-to-North Water Diversion Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周进梅; 吴凤平

    2014-01-01

    提出将美式看跌水期权模式应用于南水北调东线工程水权交易市场,农业用水户运用二叉树定价模型对美式看跌期权各个阶段水价的波动以及期权价值进行分析,以做出对自身有益的决策。结果表明,南水北调东线工程水期权交易及其定价模型有利于激励节水灌溉技术的推广。%The American water rights put option model was applied to the water rights transaction market of the Eastern Route of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project .Agricultural water users used the binary tree pricing model to analyze the fluctuations of water price at various stages and the value of the American put option , in order to make decisions for their own benefit .This study shows that the water rights option transaction of the Eastern Route of South-to-North Water Diversion Project and the pricing model can contribute to the promotion of water-saving irrigation technology .

  12. Study on institution construction of tradable water rights: a case study of reform of tradable water rights in Australia%可交易水权制度构建探析——以澳大利亚水权制度改革为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海嵩

    2011-01-01

    以澳大利亚水权制度改革为例,探析了可交易水权制度的构建.认为:澳大利亚可交易水权基本制度框架的缺陷是忽视了水权交易中的外部性问题;我国可交易水权制度的构建应以市场机制和协商机制弥补区域水权在排他性上的缺失,并制定取水权优先规则和取水权征收补偿制度.%The construction of tradable water rights was analyzed using the reform of tradable water rights in Australia as an example. It was found that the defect of basic frame of Australia water fights reform was the neglect of third-party effects in water fights trade. This provided a reference to the institution construction of tradable water rights in China,and the principle of water taking risk was the key in constructing the institution of tradable water rights in China.

  13. 基于水权理论的农业节水措施探讨%Discussion on the Measures of Agricultural Water Saving based on Water Right Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿布都艾尼·肉扎洪

    2015-01-01

    With the development of social economy and population increasing, the contradiction between the shortage of water resource and the demand of water is getting more prominent. In the article, according to the problem of water resource shortage in some parts, based on the theory of water right, it discussed the key links of clearing water right, building up water system, setting up water price mechanism and water market growing etc., and the important function in agricultural water saving. It provided a reference for promoting the sustainable development of agricultural water saving in irrigation area.%随着经济社会的不断发展和人口的增加,水资源短缺和供需矛盾更加突出。针对部分地区的水资源紧缺问题,基于水权理论,探讨明晰水权、建立用水体系、构建水价格机制与水市场培育等关键环节,在农业节水中发挥的重要作用,为促进灌区农业节水可持续发展提供参考。

  14. Human Right in Perspective: Inequalities in Access to Water in a Rural Community of the Brazilian Northeast

    OpenAIRE

    Aleixo, Bernardo; Rezende,Sonaly; Pena,João Luiz; Zapata,Gisela; Léo HELLER

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This paper aims to contribute to the debate on the increasing inequalities in access to water and the concentration of the deficit among certain population groups. In particular, it seeks a better understanding of the multiple inequalities of access to water that can exist within a community that lacks a water supply system. Data collection took place in the community of Cristais (Ceará) and included the application of 232 questionnaires to all of the community's heads of household b...

  15. 以节水和水资源优化配置为目标的水权交易机制设计%Water rights transactions mechanism design based on water resources optimization deployment and water conservation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆文聪; 覃琼霞

    2012-01-01

    This article gives a multiple comparison of deployment efficiency and water conservation among water rights transactions with non-trading mechanism and market-driven trading mechanism and government-led water trading mechanisms,based on the theoretical model analysis.It is found that government-led mechanism for water transaction are more efficient than that of market-oriented and also give rise to water-saving,but market-orient mechanism is just more efficient on resource deployment than non-mechanism and no water conservation.This conclusion is confirmed by data analysis on the data obtained from the water rights transactions in California and Texas,U.S.A.%对无交易机制、市场交易机制和政府主导交易机制3种状态下水权交易的资源配置效率和节水效果进行了分析与比较。首先运用简单的个体决策模型来分析比较无交易机制状态和市场交易机制状态下的资源配置效率和节水效果;其次运用两阶段博弈模型分析政府主导交易机制下的个体最优决策所导致的资源配置效率和节水效果。分析结果表明在参与人目标收益最大化约束前提下,市场交易机制只能实现水资源的优化配置却不能促进节水,而政府主导交易机制在实现水资源优化配置上更有效率,而且在一定条件下可能促进节水。最后通过数值模拟演示了上述分析结构,并运用美国加州和德州的水权交易数据进一步验证了本文结论。

  16. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Luna Bergere; Baldwin, Helene L.

    1962-01-01

    What do you use water for?If someone asked you this question you would probably think right away of water for drinking. Then you would think of water for bathing, brushing teeth, flushing the toilet. Your list would get longer as you thought of water for cooking, washing the dishes, running the garbage grinder. Water for lawn watering, for play pools, for swimming pools, for washing the car and the dog. Water for washing machines and for air conditioning. You can hardly do without water for fun and pleasure—water for swimming, boating, fishing, water-skiing, and skin diving. In school or the public library, you need water to wash your hands, or to have a drink. If your home or school bursts into flames, quantities of water are needed to put it out.In fact, life to Americans is unthinkable without large supplies of fresh, clean water. If you give the matter a little thought, you will realize that people in many countries, even in our own, may suffer from disease and dirt simply because their homes are not equipped with running water. Imagine your own town if for some reason - an explosion, perhaps - water service were cut off for a week or several weeks. You would have to drive or walk to a neighboring town and bring water back in pails. Certainly if people had to carry water themselves they might not be inclined to bathe very often; washing clothes would be a real chore.Nothing can live without water. The earth is covered by water over three-fourths of its surface - water as a liquid in rivers, lakes and oceans, and water as ice and snow on the tops of high mountains and in the polar regions. Only one-quarter of our bodies is bone and muscle; the other three-fourths is made of water. We need water to live, and so do plants and animals. People and animals can live a long time without food, but without water they die in a few days. Without water, everything would die, and the world would turn into a huge desert.

  17. A Study on Water Right Auction under Government Regulations%政府规制下的水权拍卖问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐润; 王慧敏; 王海燕

    2011-01-01

    The shortage of water resources has become a bottleneck in social and economic development in China. It is necessary to improve the revenue of water resources allocation through the water market trade. Auction is an effective mechanism to determine the price of the water right trade. Governments should regulate the market of the water right trade because of particular attributes of water resources, such as the attribute of quasi-public goods and externalities. The bid strategy and seller’s revenue of the first price auction (FPA) and second price auction (SPA) under government regulations were analyzed when the bidders belong to different risk-preference. Some important conclusions were drawn. The regulation of governments to the market of the water right trade includes auction price regulation and bid price allowance. First, it was proposed that the government should provide bid price allowance to the users of agriculture. Then the users of agriculture can compete with the users of industry fairly in the water right auction market. The effectiveness and efficiency of different industries can be improved to varying degrees. Second, a model of sealed price auction was constructed in a water right auction market, which is composed of a seller and n-buyers. If the buyers of water right are risk-neutral and the auction is very frequent to the seller, it is not important to choose FPA or SPA. From the perspective of long-term revenue, it is the same to the seller. But if the auction is just one time, the risk of revenue of choosing FPA is smaller than choosing SPA to the seller. So the seller of one time water right trade prefers to choose FPA. If the bidders of water right are risk aversion, the bid price of buyers will be higher than it in the risk-neutral situation if the seller chooses FPA. It means that the revenue of the seller will be improved. But if SPA is adopted, the bid price will be the same to it in the risk-neutral situation. The revenue of the

  18. The Legal System Building of the Transfer of Water Rights in Datong%大同市水权转让法律制度的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄红霞

    2012-01-01

    水是我们生存的物质基础,也是工业和农业发展的一项重要资源。大同市的水问题十分突出,如时空分布的不均匀、水资源的缺乏和污染等,已经严重影响了本地区的经济发展。因此,应建立一种以市场经济为指导、以水资源可持续发展为目标的水权转让法律制度。%Water is the survival of human's basic material.It also is the strategic resources of industrial and agricultural production.Datong is a serious lackofwater area,the time and space are not uniform distribution,water pollution is serious and water environmental degradation.This has seriously affected the development of local economic.Therefore,this paper focuses on how to establish water rights transfer law Institution,which is guided by the water market theory,and targeted by water resources sustainable development.

  19. Searching for the right problem - a case study in water management on the relation between information and decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolkman, M.J.; Kok, M.; Veen, van der A.; Douben, N.; Os, van A.G.

    2004-01-01

    The solution of complex, unstructured problems in integrated water management is faced with policy controversy and dispute, unused and misused knowledge, project delay and failure, and decline of public trust in governmental decisions. Concept mapping is a technique to analyse these difficulties on

  20. Getting the basic rights - the role of water, sanitation and hygiene in maternal and reproductive health: a conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Oona M R; Benova, Lenka; Gon, Giorgia; Afsana, Kaosar; Cumming, Oliver

    2015-03-01

    To explore linkages between water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) and maternal and perinatal health via a conceptual approach and a scoping review. We developed a conceptual framework iteratively, amalgamating three literature-based lenses. We then searched literature and identified risk factors potentially linked to maternal and perinatal health. We conducted a systematic scoping review for all chemical and biological WASH risk factors identified using text and MeSH terms, limiting results to systematic reviews or meta-analyses. The remaining 10 complex behavioural associations were not reviewed systematically. The main ways poor WASH could lead to adverse outcomes are via two non-exclusive categories: 1. 'In-water' associations: (a) Inorganic contaminants, and (b) 'water-system' related infections, (c) 'water-based' infections, and (d) 'water borne' infections. 2. 'Behaviour' associations: (e) Behaviours leading to water-washed infections, (f) Water-related insect-vector infections, and (g-i) Behaviours leading to non-infectious diseases/conditions. We added a gender inequality and a life course lens to the above framework to identify whether WASH affected health of mothers in particular, and acted beyond the immediate effects. This framework led us to identifying 77 risk mechanisms (67 chemical or biological factors and 10 complex behavioural factors) linking WASH to maternal and perinatal health outcomes. WASH affects the risk of adverse maternal and perinatal health outcomes; these exposures are multiple and overlapping and may be distant from the immediate health outcome. Much of the evidence is weak, based on observational studies and anecdotal evidence, with relatively few systematic reviews. New systematic reviews are required to assess the quality of existing evidence more rigorously, and primary research is required to investigate the magnitude of effects of particular WASH exposures on specific maternal and perinatal outcomes. Whilst major gaps exist

  1. Getting the basic rights – the role of water, sanitation and hygiene in maternal and reproductive health: a conceptual framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Oona M R; Benova, Lenka; Gon, Giorgia; Afsana, Kaosar; Cumming, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore linkages between water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) and maternal and perinatal health via a conceptual approach and a scoping review. Methods We developed a conceptual framework iteratively, amalgamating three literature-based lenses. We then searched literature and identified risk factors potentially linked to maternal and perinatal health. We conducted a systematic scoping review for all chemical and biological WASH risk factors identified using text and MeSH terms, limiting results to systematic reviews or meta-analyses. The remaining 10 complex behavioural associations were not reviewed systematically. Results The main ways poor WASH could lead to adverse outcomes are via two non-exclusive categories: 1. ‘In-water’ associations: (a) Inorganic contaminants, and (b) ‘water-system’ related infections, (c) ‘water-based’ infections, and (d) ‘water borne’ infections. 2. ‘Behaviour’ associations: (e) Behaviours leading to water-washed infections, (f) Water-related insect-vector infections, and (g-i) Behaviours leading to non-infectious diseases/conditions. We added a gender inequality and a life course lens to the above framework to identify whether WASH affected health of mothers in particular, and acted beyond the immediate effects. This framework led us to identifying 77 risk mechanisms (67 chemical or biological factors and 10 complex behavioural factors) linking WASH to maternal and perinatal health outcomes. Conclusion WASH affects the risk of adverse maternal and perinatal health outcomes; these exposures are multiple and overlapping and may be distant from the immediate health outcome. Much of the evidence is weak, based on observational studies and anecdotal evidence, with relatively few systematic reviews. New systematic reviews are required to assess the quality of existing evidence more rigorously, and primary research is required to investigate the magnitude of effects of particular WASH exposures on specific

  2. A proteção do direito fundamental à água em perspectiva internacional e comparada / The Protection of the Fundamental Right to Water in International and Comparative Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Bernal Pulido

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Analyzing the adjudication of the constitutional right to water in comparative law and its theoretical and practical implications. Methodology/approach/design – A theoretical and jurisprudential analysis of the standards of reasonableness, the minimum core and proportionality, used in different jurisdictions for adjudicating claims grounded in the constitutional right to water. Findings – The advantages and disadvantages of reasonableness, the minimum core and proportionality as standards for adjudicating the constitutional right to water. Practical implications – The article shows that the adjudication of the employment of the principle of proportionality is the best comparative practice concerning the adjudication of the constitutional right to water. Originality/value – The text fills a gap on the topic, especially in light of the problems arising out of localized water crises or economic, social or legal disputes over water use in scenarios of scarcity.

  3. 生态环境用水权的界定和分配%Study on the Definition and Allocation of the Rights to Water Utilization in the Ecological Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢永刚; 李云玲

    2005-01-01

    With the rapid development of population and economy, the conflict between the supply and demand of water resources is becoming outstanding increasingly. In China, many people concern about the problems of ecological environment water expenditure. However, owningto the shortage of water resources and indefinite water rights, "the hustle effect" of per capita water resource is appeared. Moreover, it caused a series of environment problems. This article differentiates and analyzes the relevant concepts about the ecological environment, and puts forward the defined concept of the rights to the ecological environment water utilization. In addition, it points out the characteristic of those rights, and does elementary study on the allocation principle, methods, and steps on the rights.

  4. Patient Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a patient, you have certain rights. Some are guaranteed by federal law, such as the right to get a copy ... them private. Many states have additional laws protecting patients, and healthcare facilities often have a patient bill ...

  5. Water rights of the head reach farmers in view of a water supply scenario at the extension area of the Babai Irrigation Project, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, B.; Verhoeven, R.; Troch, P.

    The farmer managed irrigation systems (FMIS) represent those systems which are constructed and operated solely by the farmers applying their indigenous technology. The FMIS generally outperform the modern irrigation systems constructed and operated by the government agencies with regard to the water delivery effectiveness, agricultural productivity etc., and the presence of a sound organization responsible to run the FMIS, often referred to as the ‘social capital’, is the key to this success. This paper studies another important aspect residing in the FMIS: potentials to expand the irrigation area by means of their proper rehabilitation and modernization. Taking the case study of the Babai Irrigation Project in Nepal, it is demonstrated that the flow, which in the past was used to irrigate the 5400 ha area covered by three FMIS, can provide irrigation to an additional 8100 ha in the summer, 4180 ha vegetables in the winter and 1100 ha maize in the spring season after the FMIS rehabilitation. The “priority water rights” of the FMIS part have been evaluated based on relevant crop water requirement calculations and is found to be equal to 85.4 million m 3 per year. Consequently, the dry season irrigation strategy at the extension area could be worked out based on the remaining flow. By storing the surplus discharge of the monsoon and autumn in local ponds, and by consuming them in dry period combined with nominal partial irrigation practice, wheat and mustard can be cultivated over about 4000 ha of the extension area. Furthermore, storage and surface irrigation both contribute to the groundwater recharge. The conjunctive use of ground, surface and harvested water might be the mainstream in the future for a sustainable irrigation water management in the region.

  6. 'Swa'-jal-dhara or 'Pay'-jal-dhara-Sector Reform and the Right to Drinking Water in Rajasthan and Maharashtra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Sampat

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the ascent of economic liberalisation in the 1990s, Washington Consensus policies - exemplified by structural adjustment and reform - have become the norm across the globe. As a result the State redefines its role from that of a provider of basic services to a 'facilitator' that enables access to these services. Resources like water, energy, health and education are now called socio-economic goods that people must own and maintain on their own. Increasingly in all service sectors - energy, health, education or water-'demand-driven' projects formulated and executed by 'user committees' that are supposed to establish 'community ownership' through initial cost-sharing with all operations and maintenance costs borne by the users. Added to this, establishment of independent regulatory commissions, like those witnessed in the power sector, mean that citizens can no longer hold the State accountable for securing basic services for citizens. Reforms in the rural drinking water sector in India were adopted in 1999 through the Sector Reform Project (SRP on a pilot basis and have been scaled up throughout the country in the form of Swajaldhara launched on 25th December 2002. It is premised on a demand-responsive approach where the community initially mobilises 10 per cent of the cost of the project demanded by it and the rest of the funds are contributed by Government of India (GoI. So far five phases of Swajaldhara have commenced on the official understanding that these would achieve a high degree of participation and community control that would meet the needs of water for all. Very often, the socio-political dynamic of a context alters significantly how policies and schemes are implemented and what they achieve for their intended beneficiaries. A survey of 28 villages in Rajsamand and and Bhilwara districts of Rajasthan and 7 villages in Osmanabad and Latur districts of Maharashtra raises questions that need to be investigated if the right to

  7. 以法律规制为视角谈水权交易的困境与解决%Dilemm a and Solution of Water Rights Trading in Perspective of Legal Regulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙子慧

    2016-01-01

    The quasi-property of water rights and the separability of the ownership and usufruct of water rights in legislation make the waters right possesses alien-capacity.But from the inspection of existing institutional arrangement, problems such as the lack of legal rules for water rights, the ambiguity of the original water rights and the lack of legal rules for transaction itself still ex-isted,therefore , suggested to improve relevant regulations of water rights and water trade in legislation gradually, developed the register of confirmation of real right in practical and cleared the initial water rights in order to provide legislation guarantee for healthy and well-organized water rights trade.%水权的准物权定性及立法上水资源所有权与用益权的可分离性使水权具备了可让与性。通过考察现有水权制度,发现仍然存在涉及水权的法律规定缺失、初始水权不明确、交易本身缺少法律规制等一系列问题,因此,提出了今后应在立法上逐步完善水权及交易方面的相关规定,在实践中开展水权确权登记工作,明确初始水权,为水权交易的健康、有序发展提供法律制度上的保障。

  8. Righting wrongs and reforming rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, Laurie C

    2014-03-01

    Discusses issues faced by LGBT people, such as a lack of equal civil rights and the need for extra legal and financial protection for families because partners cannot be married. The author notes that, in our society, it is no longer acceptable to be racist, but it is still okay to be homophobic. The many campaigns against gay marriage and efforts in the legislature to prevent change toward equal civil rights and protections are prime examples. In our current political climate, two things are very clear: (a) homophobia is freely tolerated and (b) the times are changing as we inch closer to equal rights every day. We are "righting wrongs and reforming rights."

  9. Whose Rights?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aktor, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    The debate over ritual infant male circumcision has increasingly been thematized as a Human Rights issue. But the claims on such rights seem highly conflicting. In particular, the rights of the child seems to conflict with the freedom of religion of parents, the rights of religious and ethnic...... minorities, and the rights of family and privacy. This disagreement is also present among scholars of religion. A reading of public statements by scholars of religion in the ongoing Danish (and Norwegian) debate reveals the lack of consensus of the study of religion when it comes to matters that are of great...... concern both for religious minorities and for individual citizens. This chapter examines the Law and Human Rights documents behind these conflicting claims and discusses the role of the scholar of religion in the debate....

  10. 农业水权和排污权相互置换的探讨%Explore the substitution between agricultural water right and pollution emission permit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严冬; 周建中; 王学敏; 刘晨

    2014-01-01

    在当前用水和排污限额几乎耗尽的情况下,水权和排污权交易能够提供的水资源或水环境调控空间相当有限。为此,本文以水环境裕量为置换出发点,探讨了农业水权和排污权相互置换的思路,根据置换参与方和置换效果确定了不同的置换方式,并针对水权排污权分别定价方式无法确定置换中第三方正效应购回费用的缺陷,提出了基于水体污染物浓度变化的水权排污权集成定价方法。算例分析表明,水权排污权相互置换可行域显著大于水权和排污权单独交易可行域,能适应更严格的水环境要求。%In the current situation that the quotas of water abstraction and pollution emission are nearly ex⁃hausted, and the function of water trade and pollution emission permit trade is rather limited. For this rea⁃son,this article discusses the substitution between agriculturral water right and emission permit from the as⁃pect of water environment allowance, identifies different types of substitution according to the participant and effects. To overcome the weakness that the buyback cost for positive third-party effects can not be iden⁃tified using separate pricing about water and pollution emission permits in substitution, the integrated pric⁃ing basing on the change of water pollutant concentration is put forward. The example analysis shows that, the feasible region of substitution is significantly greater than the feasible regions of separate trade of water or pollution emission permit,and the substitution is able to adapt to more stringent water environmental re⁃quirements.

  11. Water Right and Water Market——Economic Measures to Realize Optimal Configuration of Water Resources%水权和水市场——谈实现水资源优化配置的经济手段

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪恕诚

    2001-01-01

    Water resources property right, usage right and water market arediscussed from the macroscopic point of view. The conclusion is as follows: clarification of property right and water right are the premise for optimal configuratin of water resources; paid water right is the theoretical base of water market establishment; price of water resource is most important and vital component of water price; water price adjustment and water market establishment are the important means for optimal configurattion of water resources; the combination of macroscopic control by government, democratic consultation and water market regulation is the guarantee for realization of optimal configuration of water resources.%从宏观决策角度,论述了水资源所有权、使用权和水市场问题.结论是:明晰产权和水权是实现水资源优化配置的前提;有偿水权的提出是建立水市场的理论基础;资源水价是水价组成中最重要、最活跃的部分;水价的调整和水市场的建立是水资源优化配置的重要手段;政府宏观调控、民主协商、水市场调节三者有机结合是实现水资源优化配置的体制保证.

  12. [Studies on the quality of water of the right side tributaries of the Po River; Trebbia and Nure, in 1971-1973].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellelli, E; Bracchi, U; Sansebastiano, G

    1976-01-01

    In the period 1971-73 samplings were taken out monthly at the mouths of the two right side tributaries of the river Po, Trebbia and Nure. The aim of the research was to value the water quality, the polluted load conveyed to the river Po and to compare the real load with the one estimated on the basis of inhabitants and the basin area. Both the water courses are torrent-like rivers with highflow values in the winter and low flow values in the summer (July and August). There are no important industries in the basins studied and the high polluted effluents, mainly domestic and agricultural discharges, are placed in the plain tracts of the rivers at few kilometers from the mouths. As far as the water quality of both rivers is concerned, most of the chemical parameters maintain suitable levels for fish life and drinking purposes; on the contrary the microniological indexes exceed the limits for bathing fixed by the Italian Ministry of Health by 100 E.coli 100/ml. and by 1000 total coliforms 100/ml. in about 90 and 70-80% of samplings. The comparison between real and calculated loads has shown a good agreement for BOD and chloride in Trebbia and for BOD and phosphates in Nure.

  13. 基于收益法的水权交易价值评估模型研究%Research on Value Assessment Model of Water Right Transaction Based on Profit Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘庆华; 李山梅

    2011-01-01

    结合我国水权和水权交易的特点,基于资产评估收益法的理论提出了水权交易价值评估的收益法模型,并对收益额、折现率和收益期限等重要参数进行了说明,为水权交易价值评估提供了一种新思路、新方法.%Taking characters of water right and water right transaction of China into consideration, on the basis of theory of property appraisal profit law, the profit law model was put forward for value assessment model of water right transaction and its important parameters, such as profit amount, discount rate and profit deadline, were explained. This model provided a new train of thought and method for value assessment of water right transaction.

  14. 宁夏卫宁灌区水权转让节水工程节水量计算方法探讨%A Discussion on Calculation Method of Water-saving Quantity of Water Rights Transfer and Water Saving Projects of Weining Irrigation Area In Ningxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马鹏霖; 张万宝; 王丽君

    2015-01-01

    In Ningxia the local water resources are scarce; the economic and social development relies mainly on Yellow River transit water. In recent years, by water rights transfer, the problem of water usage of the new industrial projects has been relieved. The water right transfer mainly is to realize water saving by channel lining to save channel leaking water. In order to accurately check and ratify the water-saving quantity of the water rights transfer projects, aiming at the calculation method of the water-saving quantity by channel lining in the water rights transfer and water-saving improvement projects, based on the calculation principle of water-saving quantity, by an analysis of the long-term monitoring data, the method for determining the parameters is put forward to provide a reference for analysis and calculation of the water-saving quantity.%宁夏当地水资源十分匮乏,经济社会发展主要依赖于过境黄河水。近年来通过水权转让,缓解了新上工业项目用水问题。水权转让主要是通过引黄灌区渠道衬砌,节约渠道渗漏水量来实现节水。为了准确核定水权转让工程节水量,针对水权转让节水改造工程中渠道衬砌节水量的计算方法,根据节水量的计算原理,通过灌区长期监测资料分析并提出参数的确定方法,为节水量的分析计算提供参考依据。

  15. Development of water facilities in the Santa Ana River Basin, California, 1810-1968: a compilation of historical notes derived from many sources describing ditch and canal companies, diversions, and water rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, M.B.

    1977-01-01

    its tributaries for irrigation. The Santa Ana River had been a perennial stream, except in years of extreme drought, from its source in the mountains nearly to the Pacific Ocean. With the great increase in population and the accompanying use of water for irrigation, the river was no longer a perennial stream, and it was necessary to supplement the surface-water supply with ground water. Many wells were dug or drilled in the artesian areas of the upper basin; of those wells many originally flowed, but as ground-water pressures and levels declined, an increasing amount of pumping was required. Conservation measures were taken to store some of the surplus winter runoff for use during low runoff years and during summer periods of heavy demand. Conservation facilities included surface-storage reservoirs and water-spreading grounds or percolation basins for utilization of underground storage. The competition for water in the Santa Ana River basin has been accompanied by frequent litigation over water tights, and over the years these water rights have generally been established by court decree. Although the demand for water still increases, the water demand for agricultural use has declined since the mid-1940's in response to the rapid urbanization of agricultural areas. Since that date the continued expansion of communities has encroached significantly into the agricultural areas causing a decrease in water use for agriculture, a more than compensating increase in water use for municipal purposes, and a rapid change in the ownership of water rights. The urbanization of flood plains made floods potentially more damaging than they previously had been when the flood plains were used for agriculture. In recognition of this increased hazard, flood-control facilities such as reservoirs, debris basins, flood-conveyance channels, and levees have been constructed to reduce potential damage. Most of the construction has occurred since the devastating flood of March 1938. By the mid

  16. Women's Rights Are Human Rights!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaam, Kalamu Ya

    1979-01-01

    This article emphasizes that the women's rights movement must be viewed as a vital part of the human rights struggle. It is argued that both men and women should speak out against sexism and support the struggles of women to defend and develop themselves. (Author/EB)

  17. Bodily rights and property rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkman, B; Hansson, S O

    2006-04-01

    Whereas previous discussions on ownership of biological material have been much informed by the natural rights tradition, insufficient attention has been paid to the strand in liberal political theory represented by Felix Cohen, Tony Honoré, and others, which treats property relations as socially constructed bundles of rights. In accordance with that tradition, we propose that the primary normative issue is what combination of rights a person should have to a particular item of biological material. Whether that bundle qualifies to be called "property" or "ownership" is a secondary, terminological issue. We suggest five principles of bodily rights and show how they can be applied to the construction of ethically appropriate bundles of rights to biological material.

  18. THE TREATMENT WITH WATER SEAL CHEST DRAIN (PDU IN TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS PATIENT WITH RIGHT HYDROPNEUMOTHORAX OF TUBERCULAR AETIOLOGY WITH PERSISTENT RIGHT PNEUMOTHORAX WITH BPF AFTER FAILURE OF DECORTICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudeena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A male patient, D. Sanjeev Rao, aged 50 years, lorry driver by occupation, residing at Vijayawada, AP, presented with Rt. sided chest pain, cough, severe breathlessness, low-grade fever since one day. He was admitted in the casualty under emergency condition and was resuscitated with oxygen inhalation. On inspection, trachea was deviated to right side. Chest was bilaterally asymmetrical. Intercostal tube with underwater seal drainage on right side was found. Right side of chest shows loss of lung volume with wasting of muscles, drooping of shoulder, narrowing of intercostal spaces with crowding of ribs. Apical impulse appears to be shifted to right side. On palpation respiratory movements diminished all over the right chest with increased vocal fremitus over the middle of chest and decreased in base. On percussion dull note was present in base, resonant in middle of the chest. On auscultation, amphoric breathing with metallic quality were heard on right side. CVS-S1, S2 present. On percussion, heart borders were in normal limits. ICD tube column moving continuously. CX-Ray PA view with right pneumothorax encysted with thickened pleural margins with right upper lobe collapse. Patient underwent right decortication on 30th June 2015. Since then lung was not expanded, but landed into continuous air leakage with bronchopleural fistula with persistent right pneumothorax pocket. Patient was diagnosed as hydropneumothorax. 1 on 1-6-15, treated with intercostal tube. 2 drainage, but was failed with occurrence of bronchopleural fistula.3 Later, he underwent decortication. 1 and presented with persistent pneumothorax. 4 Patient is a known case of type-2 diabetic, on medication with Human Mixtard insulin for the past 5years. Diabetes was under control. Pus from ICD bag sent for culture for AFB- not detected by culture, confirmed by “MycoReal” real time PCR by SRL diagnostic test.

  19. Research and application of the visualization system for the initial allocation of water rights%初始水权分配可视化系统研究与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄俊铭; 解建仓; 阮宏勋; 张建龙; 王伟

    2009-01-01

    To use the MVC design pattern, AAF framework technology, knowledge map and components reuse techniques,researched the visualization system for the distribution of water rights. Taken the economic development and water resources in Wudinghe River Basin as the research object, combined with information technology, from the initial allocation of water rights needs, the paper formulated the visualization application system for the initial allocation of water rights. The results shown that the system can be quickly carried out the initial water right allocation and dynamical adjustment and provide a convenient, fast distribution system of water rights for the management department.%采用MVC设计模式、AAF框架技术、知识图以及组件复用技术研究水权分配的可视化应用系统.以无定河流域的经济发展和水资源概况为研究对象,结合信息化技术,从初始水权分配需求出发,制订流域初始水权分配的可视化应用系统.结果表明该系统的建立能够快速地对初始水权进行分配和动态调整,可为管理部门提供一种方便、快捷的水权分配系统.

  20. The research process of the method of initial water rights allocation in river basin%流域初始水权配置方法研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴丹

    2012-01-01

    针对流域初始水权配置这一多区域、多用水行业参与的半结构性、多层次、多目标复杂系统决策问题,总结已有研究成果,在对流域初始水权配置内涵进行界定的基础上,系统剖析流域初始水权的配置机制及其优缺点.结合流域初始水权配置机制,对流域初始水权配置原则、不同配置机制下配置模型的研究进行系统综述,并进一步探讨了流域初始水权配置中有待解决的相关问题.%Basin initial water rights allocation is the basis of water rights system construction, and it refers to the factors of policy, technology, population, economy, society, resource and environment. It's complex and systematical decision problem of half-structure, multi-hierarchy, multi-objectives among multi-regions and multi-industries. According to the related research results of basin initial water rights allocation, based on defining the connotation of basin initial water rights, the paper analyzes systematically the allocation mechanism of basin initial water rights and its advantages and disadvantages. The paper reviewed the research of initial water rights allocation principle and the model of different allocation mechanisms in Basin systematically, and some main problems to be solved in the allocation process of basin initial water rights are then further put forward.

  1. Employee Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, Steen

    2016-01-01

    , on the one hand, and what is considered as equitable (in accordance with employment rights) by employees, on the other. Since equality in reward counts for more among a considerable fraction of employees, while equity in contribution counts more for most employers, this is an inherent dilemma, constantly...

  2. Human rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaay Fortman, B. de

    2006-01-01

    Human rights reflect a determined effort to protect the dignity of each and every human being against abuse of power. This endeavour is as old as human history. What is relatively new is the international venture for the protection of human dignity through internationally accepted legal standards an

  3. Duration-based water rights and its volumatic cap in Taolaihe River Basin%讨赖河流域时间水权制度及其水量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑航; 王忠静; 刘强; 齐桂花

    2011-01-01

    Through the analysis made on the time-based water allocation system of Taolaihe River, the concept, characteristics and applicable conditions of the duration-based water rights are expatiated herein, and then the controllable water quantity, actual water consumption and water shortage under the condition of duration-based water using of all the regions therein are analyzed by introduction of the hydrological series-based statistical analysis; from which not only the connotation of the duration-based water rights system for Taolaihe River is revealed, but the specific boundary condition for the water allocation based on the volumetric water rights in accordance with the duration-based water rights is also presented for the river, so as to provide a scientific basis for the total water consumption control in Taolaihe River Basin.%通过对讨赖河以时分水制度的分析,阐述了时间水权的概念、特性及适用条件,并引入水文序列的统计分析,分析了"依时取水"下各区域的可支配水量、实际用水量及缺水量,揭示了讨赖河时间水权制度的水量内涵,给出了讨赖河基于时间水权进行水量水权明晰的边界条件,为流域总量控制提供了科学基础.

  4. Research on Measurement of Price of Oases Ecological Water Rights in Tarim River Basin%塔里木河流域绿洲生态水权价格计量研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩桂兰; 孙建光

    2015-01-01

    缺少绿洲生态水权价格成为塔河流域制约绿洲生态水权分配、挤占绿洲生态水权归还及其经济补偿的重要原因,为此,需要首先明确塔河流域绿洲生态水权价格的内涵,然后确定其计量方法和模型。塔河流域绿洲生态水权价格计量结果表明:基于生态服务功能价值的绿洲生态水权价格计量可作为塔河流域绿洲生态水权价格直接计量的一种方法。塔河流域绿洲维持生态水权价格为1.16元/m3,绿洲维持恢复生态水权价格为2.61元/m3,三源流和干流上中下游绿洲生态水权价格呈现一定差异。这成为塔河流域绿洲生态水权价格与挤占绿洲生态水权经济补偿确定的参考依据。%It is the important factor for no price of oases ecological water rights to affect the return and economical compensation of ecological water rights occupied;so firstly the paper gives the definition of the price of oases ecological water rights ,and determines the principle ,content and method of its measurement;then the price of oases ecological water rights is calculated in Tarim river basin;the results are as follows:the method of price of oases ecological water rights based on the value of oases ecological service function ,is the direct one of its measurement;and the price of oases ecological water rights in the target of ecological maintenance is 1 .16 yuan/m3 ,the price of oases ecological water rights in the target of ecological restoration is 2 .61 yuan/m3 in Tarim river basin;it is the reference basis to help confirm price of oases ecological water rights and the economical compensation that oases ecological water rights is occupied in the future .

  5. Children's rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Demartini

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The theme of children's rights is of paramount importance in the face of social and economic context in which it is the Brazilian society and as a result of childhood. Speaking in childhood can not think of a single child, because it reflects the variations of human culture and in the same society are built different childhoods. The variation of social conditions the children live is the main factor of heterogeneity in the constitution of childhood.

  6. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Nutrition Nutrition basics Water Water Did you know that water makes up more ... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ...

  7. Doing the right things right

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Pernille Hammar; Hussmann, Peter Munkebo; Jensen, Helge Elbrønd

    2009-01-01

    Are we doing the right things and are we doing them right? These questions should be subject to constant attention within Higher Education Institutions in pursuit of high quality educations and attracting students nationally as well as internationally. And due to the international development...... in Higher Education (HE), external quality assurance and improved accountability is becoming increasingly important. At the Technical University of Denmark (DTU), an internal quality enhancement system has been developed in order to evaluate and further develop the education programs. The overall objective...... is to ensure that the students receive education of excellent quality when they choose to study at DTU. Furthermore, the aim is to generate feedback on the implementation and apparent success of the three plus two degree structure adopted some years ago, in accordance with the objectives of the Bologna Process...

  8. Right Place,Right Time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Few hotels have captured as much attention before their opening as Mandarin Oriental, Beijing. Mandarin Oriental, Beijing has attracted extensive publicity for its spectacular appearance, and it also stands right beside China Central Television’s (CCTV) breathtaking structure, with two tall .leaning towers joined by a horizontal section suspended in mid-air. The building has been described by Time magazine as an architectural wonder. The stunning pair of buildings advertise engineering excellence, avant-garde style and adventurous spirit.

  9. Women's rights are human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalala, D E

    1998-09-01

    The US Secretary of Health and Human Services, Donna Shalala, challenged the world to live up to the affirmation made in Cairo: that women's rights are human rights. The US has responded to this affirmation with vigor by recognizing that when given knowledge, education, opportunity, and power, women can be heroines; they can move mountains to help themselves and the others whom they are destined to nurture. The US Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) has implemented numerous programs that will support these heroic acts. These programs include the Girl Power campaign (designed to help girls through the critical period of pre-adolescence), the National Strategy to Prevent Teen Pregnancy (promotes education to encourage abstinence), the National Plan on Breast Cancer, the Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening Program (protects the health of low-income women), the Women's Health Initiative at the National Institutes of Health (designed to increase our knowledge about hormone replacement therapy, dietary patterns, and exercise), and a national 24-hour toll-free Violence Against Women hotline (1-800-799-SAFE). Although DHHS has done much in 5 years, the US has a long way to go in dealing with the interconnecting issues of the human rights of women everywhere.

  10. Perinatal rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, A E

    1984-01-01

    The history of perinatal rights is traced to determine how far the law has settled with reasonable certainty and principles can be drawn from decided cases, where the law remains uncertain. It is unlikely that there will be legislation in the near future to bring the law up to date in these matters. The right to prevent conception is accepted these day by practically all shades of opinion. Opinions on methods may differ, but the dividing line between what is contraception and what amounts to abortion is sometimes difficult to determine. The object of the offense of abortion is to protect human life. Briefly, Section 58 of the British Offences Against the Person Act 1861 makes it an offense for a pregnant woman to try unlawfully to procure her own miscarriage and for any person to try to procure unlawfully the miscarriage of a woman, whether she is pregnant or not. The precise time from which the developing ovum is protected has not been legislatively or judicially determined. In 1962 a report commissioned by the British Council of Churches suggested that for legal purposes conception should be taken to commence with implantation, i.e., about 2 weeks after fertilization. It is possible to argue that human life begins at fertilization but that is not a very convincing arugument these days. A better view seens to be that so long as the postcoital pill is taken before the fertilized egg is implanted in the womb it is contraception rather than abortion. The matter will not be totally free from question until Parliament of the courts determine the issue. The Attorney General's view that this form of postcoital treatment does not constitute a criminal offenses within either Section 58 or 59 of the Offences Against the Person Act 1860 goes a long way towards clarifying the position. Opinions begin to divide again when considering the next step after conception. Regarding abortion, the doctor should ensure that be keeps within the Abortion Act 1967 by acting with a

  11. Reflection and Beyond:the Contribution of Dimensions of Citizen Participation in Water Rights Trade%反思与超越:水权交易中公民参与维度的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭柯星

    2011-01-01

    The efforts of increase intensity of citizens participatation of The trade of water rights means to fit the needs of democratic society and to promote the optimal allocation of water resources.Interests of balance is the main motivation of citizen participation in water rights trade.The loss of social information interactions and the legal protection system and the public spirit is the current constraints of citizen participation in water rights trade now.So in the future we should focus on the multi-building in citizen participation,specifically introduce the concept of public participation in water right trade and the system construction.From both legal and spiritual aspects,we can build an overall system construction model to consummate citizen participation.%在水权交易中提高公民参与的力度,契合民主社会发展之需要,促进水资源的优化配置。利益博弈是公民参与水权交易主要动因,社会讯息互动、法律制度保障、公民参与精神等的缺失是当前制约公民参与水权交易的现实困境,因而今后应着力进行公民参与的多重建构,具体可在水权交易中引入公共参与的概念并对之进行具体体系构建,从法律和精神两个层面出发,通过全局体系构建模式完善公民参与制度。

  12. Research on construction of water right system for Qaidam circular economy pilot area%柴达木盆地循环经济试验区水权制度建设研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳

    2014-01-01

    随着柴达木盆地循环经济试验区优势资源开发力度的加大和工业化进程的加快,水资源供需矛盾日益凸显,已严重影响了当地经济社会的持续发展,调整循环经济试验区水资源配置结构,提高水资源科学有效的利用水平已刻不容缓。从建设节水型社会出发,探讨了以水权、水市场理论为基础的柴达木盆地水资源管理体制建设问题。对柴达木盆地水权转让的范围、转让模式、转让价格、转让客体进行了研究。柴达木盆地内的格尔木河和巴音河的初始水权分配工作已初步完成,为建设柴达木盆地节水型社会打下了良好的基础。%With the process of industrialization and the development intensity increment of superior resources in the Qaidam circular economy pilot area of Qinghai Province, the contradiction between water supply and demand is increasingly prominent and water scarcity has become a serious constraint factor to the economic and social sustainable development of Qaidam circular e-conomy pilot area. Adjusting water resources allocation structure and improving scientific and effective water-use level has been of a great urgent problem to be solved. In the view of building water-saving society, the water resources management system based on water rights, water market theories is explored and the transfer range, transfer mode, transfer price, transfer object of water right are researched. The initial water right allocation of Golmud River and Bayin River in Qaidam Basin has been prelimi-narily completed, laying a good foundation for water-saving society building in Qaidam Basin.

  13. Construction of Agricultural Water Rights Configuration Program Based on the Perspective of Legal Procedure%基于法律程序视野中的农业水权配置程序构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭莉

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural water rights is paid enough attention to in recent years,while relevant theoretical study was thin.Besides keeping a substantive and technical eye on agricultural water rights,it is essential to focus on the procedure.Based on the perspective of legal procedure,the author conducted a theoretical analysis on agricultural water rights configuration and proposed the procedural design.And reviewed from the following three aspects:1) the program frame of agricultural water rights configuration should guard right restriction power,promote the communication of power and rights,so as to achieve benign interaction of them.The agricultural water rights configuration should include three fundamental philosophies,which are dialogue,restriction and trust; 2) Legal protection procedure in various stages should be designed according to the agricultural water rights configuration; 3) Several problems are needed to recognize deeply.Agricultural water rights configuration is a long-term complex systems engineering,need various domain experts' cooperation and track management in the whole lifecycle from links of systematic planning,periodical program implementation,post-evaluation and revise.In this process,legal procedure guard is also needed.%农业水权制度近年来倍受国家重视,而相关理论研究较为薄弱.除了给予实体性、技术性的关注之外,必须加以程序性的关注.基于法律程序的视角,对农业水权配置进行了理论分析,并提出了程序性的设计.从三方面进行了论述:1)农业水权配置的程序框架应当是保障权利制约权力、促进权力与权利的对话并由此达成二者之间共信的良性互动的模式,农业水权配置应包括对话、制约、共信三个基本理念;2)根据农业水权配置的不同阶段,设计各个阶段的法律保障程序;3)提出今后需深化认识的几个问题.农业水权配置是一项长期、复杂的系统工程,需各领域专家

  14. Special Issue: Labour Rights, Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Labour Review, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Includes "Introduction"; "International Labour Standards and Human Rights" (Valticos); "The Origins of Convention No. 87 on Freedom of Association and the Right to Organize" (Dunning); "Human Rights Law and Freedom of Association" (Swepston); "Freedom of Association" (von Potobsky); "The ILO…

  15. 初始水权分配中的弱势群体初步评价%Preliminary study on evaluation of vulnerable groups in initial water rights allocation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晔; 陈艳萍; 吴凤平

    2011-01-01

    Aimed at the phenomena of existence of vulnerable groups caused by initial basin water rights allocation, the connotation of ‘vulnerable groups’ in initial basin water rights allocation was defined and a set of evaluation indexes of vulnerable groups was constructed based on their characteristics and water rights allocation principles. On the basis of AHP, the weights of every index were calculated and the vulnerability grade was divided into five ranks: very vulnerable,vulnerable, general, powerful, and very powerful. Based on a multilevel fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model, the vulnerability rank of each area was determined during initial basin water rights allocation. Policy and suggestions of compensation for vulnerable groups are proposed.%针对流域初始水权分配极易导致弱势群体存在这一现象,对初始水权分配中的"弱势群体"进行了界定,分析形成原因,并根据其特征以及初始水权配置原则,建立初始水权分配中的弱势群体评价指标体系.基于层次分析法确定各指标的权重,并将各指标的弱势等级划分为"非常弱势、弱势、一般、强势、非常强势"5个等级,基于多级模糊综合评判模型,确定初始水权分配中各区域的弱势等级,最后提出对弱势群体进行补偿等政策建议.

  16. Harmony diagnosis on the initial water right allocation scheme based on two dimensions%基于二维判别的初始水权配置方案的和谐性诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈艳萍; 吴凤平; 周晔

    2011-01-01

    基于和谐管理理论,对"流域初始水权和谐配置"进行了界定。为实现流域初始水权和谐配置,减少流域内区域间的用水冲突和矛盾,文中基于定量方法对初始水权配置方案进行和谐性诊断。选取人口数量、耕地面积、GDP、现状供水量等四项指标作为和谐性诊断指标,分别从方向维和程度维构建了方向性判别准则和程度性判别准则,两个维度的和谐性判别均通过的配置方案即是流域初始水权和谐配置方案,是令流域各区域基本满意的配置方案。结合大凌河流域进行实证分析,根据和谐性诊断结果调整各区域的水权量,实现大凌河流域初始水权的和谐配置。%The definition of initial water right harmonious allocation in river basin is given based on harmonious management theory.To achieve initial water right harmonious allocation and reduce the conflicts and contradiction between regions,we put forward a quantitative method to diagnose the harmoniousness of initial water right allocation scheme.Firstly,selecting population,land area,GDP,water supply status as harmonious diagnostic indicators.Then,building two harmony judgment criterions,which is criterion of direction and criterion of degree.If allocation scheme passes both criterions,it is a harmonious allocation scheme and it will be accepted by all regions.Finally,validating the feasibility of initial water right Harmony Diagnosis model with the fact of Daling River,and achieving the initial water right harmonious allocation scheme of Daling River.

  17. Protected Areas, Waters with Public Rights Features designations (PRF), Published in 2009, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Wisconsin DNR Bureau of Watershed Management.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Protected Areas dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2009. It is described as 'Waters...

  18. 塔里木河流域可转让农用水权价格研究%Research on Price of Agricultural Water Rights Being Transferred in Tarim River Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩桂兰; 孙建光

    2015-01-01

    缺少可转让农用水权价格不仅制约了流域可转让农用水权的优化配置,而且影响了农业种植结构的调整、发展转型与农民收入的提高。为此,首先从理论上确定了塔河流域未来可转让农用水权价格内涵、价格构成与价格形成的准市场机制,进一步明确了可转让农用水权价格的计量依据、计量内容与计量方法,构建了可转让农用水权价格模型,计算了可转让农用水权价格。结果表明:塔河流域粮食作物可转让农用水权价格平均为0.53元/m3,经济作物可转让农用水权价格为0.60元/m3,经济作物完全可转让农用水权价格为0.85元/m3;水资源稀缺度高的叶尔羌河流域和塔河干流下游可转让农用水权价格较高。%Absence of price of agricultural water rights being transferred has not only limited the optimization arrangement of agricultural wa-ter rights being transferred,but also affected the adjustment of agricultural plant structure and the transformation of agricultural development and the increment of farmer’s income. Firstly the paper theoretically gave the definition of price of agricultural water rights being transferred, its price composition and pricing mechanism of the Para-market;and further determined the basis,content,method and model of its meas-urement;then price of agricultural water rights being transferred was calculated in Tarim River basin. The results show that the price of agri-cultural water rights being transferred of food crops is 0. 53 RMB Yuan per cube meter;one of economical crop is 0. 60 RMB Yuan per cube meter;the complete price of agricultural water rights being transferred of economical crop is 0. 85 RMB Yuan per cube meter;the price of ag-ricultural water rights being transferred is very high in the Yerqiang River basin and the lower reach of Tarim River basin where water re-source is scared very much,which is the basis of its differential price

  19. Positive rights, negative rights and health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Andrew

    2010-12-01

    In the current debate about healthcare reform in the USA, advocates for government-ensured universal coverage assume that health care is a right. Although this position is politically popular, it is sometimes challenged by a restricted view of rights popular with libertarians and individualists. The restricted view of rights only accepts 'negative' rights as legitimate rights. Negative rights, the argument goes, place no obligations on you to provide goods to other people and thus respect your right to keep the fruits of your labour. A classic enumeration of negative rights includes life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. Positive rights, by contrast, obligate you either to provide goods to others, or pay taxes that are used for redistributive purposes. Health care falls into the category of positive rights since its provision by the government requires taxation and therefore redistribution. Therefore, the libertarian or individualist might argue that health care cannot be a true right. This paper rejects the distinction between positive and negative rights. In fact, the protection of both positive and negative rights can place obligations on others. Furthermore, because of its role in helping protect equality of opportunity, health care can be tied to the rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. There is, therefore, good reason to believe that health care is a human right and that universal access should be guaranteed. The practical application, by governments and non-governmental organisations, of several of the arguments presented in this paper is also discussed.

  20. The Legionella ''killer'' was right: Hot water increases safety; Legionella-''doedaren'' fikk rett: varmt vann oeker sikkerheten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brekke, Ragnar

    2003-07-01

    In Norway the last years there have been some outbreaks of the Legionnaires' Disease. This has taken many by surprise, although in the 1990s the water heater manufacturer referred to in this article had warned against it. The heater temperature should not be subject to energy conservation experiments. ''Legionnaires' Desease'' and ''Pontiac Fever'' are caused by bacteria from the Legionella family. Legionnaires' Disease is a kind of pneumonia and Pontiac Fever is an influenza-like illness. The Legionella bacteria spread via small water particles (aerosols) in the air from showers, whirl pools, cooling towers etc. The bacteria thrive in stagnant water in the temperature range 20 - 45 {sup o}C, where they can multiply to dangerous concentrations. In water heaters that have low temperatures around 40 {sup o}C, populations of Legionella bacteria can grow to become a problem. The article recommends that the heater temperature should be kept at 75{sup o}C.

  1. Right heart ventriculography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angiography - right heart ... The catheter will be moved forward into the right side of the heart. As the catheter is advanced, the doctor can record pressures from the right atrium and right ventricle. Contrast material ("dye") is ...

  2. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lead Poisoning Prevention Training Center (HHLPPTC) Training Tracks Water Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir For information about lead in water in Flint, MI, please visit http://www.phe. ...

  3. Ecological improvements to hydroelectric power plants under EEG. Guidance to environmental verifiers and water rights authorities; Oekologische Verbesserungsmassnahmen an Wasserkraftanlagen gemaess EEG. Leitfaden fuer Umweltgutachter und Wasserrechtsbehoerden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyr, Christoph; Pfeifer, Hansjoerg [EVIT GmbH Ingenieurbuero Unternehmensberatung, Muenchen (Germany); Schnell, Johannes; Hanfland, Sebastian [Landesfischereiverband Bayern e.V., Muenchen (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    The use of hydropower as a renewable form of energy is experiencing a renaissance due to the energy transition in Bavaria. The fishery evaluate not uncritically this development, because hydroelectric plants generally normally represent a considerable intervention in water and therefore in the habitat of the fish. In this case it should be noted that just often not even the minimum requirements of ecology are fulfilled at existing plants according to the Federal Water Act. [German] Die Nutzung der Wasserkraft als regenerative Energieform erlebt aufgrund der Energiewende in Bayern derzeit eine Art Renaissance. Die Fischerei bewertet diese Entwicklung nicht unkritisch, stellen Wasserkraftanlagen in der Regel doch einen erheblichen Eingriff in Gewaesser und somit den Lebensraum der Fische dar. Dabei ist festzustellen, dass gerade an bestehenden Anlagen haeufig nicht einmal die Mindestanforderungen der Oekologie erfuellt werden, wie sie das Wasserhaushaltsgesetz vorschreibt.

  4. Final joint environmental assessment for the construction and routine operation of a 12-kilovolt (KV) overhead powerline right-of-way, and formal authorization for a 10-inch and 8-inch fresh water pipeline right-of-way, Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Kern County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    The purpose and need of the proposed action, which is the installation of an overhead powerline extension from an Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1) power source to the WKWD Station A, is to significantly reduce NPR-1`s overall utility costs. While the proposed action is independently justified on its own merits and is not tied to the proposed NPR-1 Cogeneration Facility, the proposed action would enable DOE to tie the NPR-1 fresh water pumps at Station A into the existing NPR-1 electrical distribution system. With the completion of the cogeneration facility in late 1994 or early 1995, the proposed action would save additional utility costs. This report deals with the environmental impacts of the construction of the powerline and the water pipeline. In addition, information is given about property rights and attaining permission to cross the property of proposed affected owners.

  5. Special Issue: Labour Rights, Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Labour Review, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Includes "Introduction"; "International Labour Standards and Human Rights" (Valticos); "The Origins of Convention No. 87 on Freedom of Association and the Right to Organize" (Dunning); "Human Rights Law and Freedom of Association" (Swepston); "Freedom of Association" (von Potobsky); "The ILO [International Labour Organization] Declaration of 1998…

  6. Construction of water rights trading system in China to promote the water resources information management%科技信息时代下构建我国水权交易制度推进水资源信息化管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵欣童

    2013-01-01

      当前,我国水资源管理基础设施薄弱,监控手段缺乏,远不能满足水资源管理工作的需要,必须以各级水资源管理系统建设为抓手,全面推进水资源信息化,提高水资源管理能力与水平,落实最严格的水资源管理制度。为提高水资源利用效率、实现水资源经济价值,建立水权交易体系尤为必要。水权交易制度是以市场对水资源的使用权进行配置的制度,建立健全水权交易制度是实现水资源高效和持续利用的最佳途径。鉴于我国目前的水权制度的不足之处,建立水权交易制度应当遵循环境保护和可持续发展原则、宏观调控与市场调节相结合原则、平等自愿等原则。%  In order to improve the implementation of the economic value of water resource use efficiency and realized the value of water resources, it is necessary to establish water right transaction system. The system of water rights trading is configured to market system of the use right of water resources. In order to realize the efficient and sustainable utilization of water resources, it is the best way that establishing and perfecting the system of water rights trading. In view of the shortage of the water rights system, water rights trading system should follow the principles of environment protection, the principle of sustainable development and the principle of equality and voluntary.

  7. Minority Language Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O Riagain, Padraig; Shuibhne, Niamh Nic

    1997-01-01

    A survey of literature since 1990 on minority languages and language rights focuses on five issues: definition of minorities; individual vs. collective rights; legal bases for minority linguistic rights; applications and interpretations of minority language rights; and assessments of the impact of minority rights legislation. A nine-item annotated…

  8. ECONOMIC RIGHTS OF THE NEIGHBORING RIGHTS OWNERS PERFORMERS’ RIGHTS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIANA SAVU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The scientific research theme aims to deepen a topical issue, i.e. to examine the legal requirements of performers’ rights from Romania, by collective management, to do a critical analysis of the regulation in our country and to contribute thereby to the correction of the law, to its harmonization with the EU countries. Intellectual creation has some amazing features: it is invisible, it can be passed across borders, it can be multiplied to infinity and its value increases steadily over time. Any country that cares about its traditions and seeks to make progress in the field of culture, of science and education, must recognize, encourage and protect intellectual creation. The copyright neighboring rights or "les droits voisins" as they were called in doctrine and jurisprudence, have been regulated for the first time in the Romanian law by the Law no.8 /1996 on copyright and neighboring rights. The neighboring rights are intellectual property rights, other than the copyright, granted to performers for their own performances or executions, to sound recordings producers and audiovisual recordings producers for their own recordings, and to broadcasting organizations (radio and television for their own transmissions and program services. Performers’ rights can be managed mandatory or optionally by the collective management societies. The collective management of copyright and neighboring rights is a necessary step for implementation of certain rights in comparison with various ways of exploitation. Since the beginning, some of performers’ economic rights proved difficult to assess individually. The technical progress and widespread mass exploitation have made individual control virtually impossible. Collective management primarily involves the collection of remuneration payable by users/importers and its distribution to those entitled to it, proportional to the actual use of each repertory, within 6 months from collection date.

  9. Water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity is without a doubt on of the greatest threats to the human species and has all the potential to destabilise world peace. Falling water tables are a new phenomenon. Up until the development of steam and electric motors, deep groudwater...

  10. A review of selected inorganic surface water quality-monitoring practices: are we really measuring what we think, and if so, are we doing it right?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Arthur J.

    2013-01-01

    Successful environmental/water quality-monitoring programs usually require a balance between analytical capabilities, the collection and preservation of representative samples, and available financial/personnel resources. Due to current economic conditions, monitoring programs are under increasing pressure to do more with less. Hence, a review of current sampling and analytical methodologies, and some of the underlying assumptions that form the bases for these programs seems appropriate, to see if they are achieving their intended objectives within acceptable error limits and/or measurement uncertainty, in a cost-effective manner. That evaluation appears to indicate that several common sampling/processing/analytical procedures (e.g., dip (point) samples/measurements, nitrogen determinations, total recoverable analytical procedures) are generating biased or nonrepresentative data, and that some of the underlying assumptions relative to current programs, such as calendar-based sampling and stationarity are no longer defensible. The extensive use of statistical models as well as surrogates (e.g., turbidity) also needs to be re-examined because the hydrologic interrelationships that support their use tend to be dynamic rather than static. As a result, a number of monitoring programs may need redesigning, some sampling and analytical procedures may need to be updated, and model/surrogate interrelationships may require recalibration.

  11. Study on the Role of Government Water Rights Trading from the Perspective of Incomplete Information Dynamic Game%政府在水权交易中的经济政策探究--基于不完全信息动态博弈的视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建斌; 刘清华

    2014-01-01

    通过水权交易促进水资源的优化配置和合理利用已经逐渐成为我国水资源配置体制改革的方向。但我国公共水权体制下的水权市场实质上是准市场体制,需要政府适度参与。本文以不完全信息动态博弈为视角,探讨了政府在水权交易中应当采取的经济政策,主要包括强化水资源费的征收管理、健全水权储备政策、完善水权政府采购政策和建立水权交易差别价格政策。%Through the transfer mechanism of water rights market , the way of promoting the optimal allo-cation of water resources and rational utilization of water resources has gradually become the reform direc -tion of water resources allocation system .However , water rights market in our country ’ s public water rights system is quasi marketing system actually .It needs the government ’ s moderate participation .The paper discusses the government ’ s function in water rights trading from the Perspective of Incomplete In-formation Dynamic Game , including strengthening the management of water resources fee collection , im-proving the water rights reserve policy , perfecting the government procurement policy about water rights , and establishing differential pricing policy about water rights trading .

  12. Streamflow statistics for development of water rights claims for the Jarbidge Wild and Scenic River, Owyhee Canyonlands Wilderness, Idaho, 2013-14: a supplement to Scientific Investigations Report 2013-5212

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Molly S.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), estimated streamflow statistics for stream segments designated “Wild,” “Scenic,” or “Recreational” under the National Wild and Scenic Rivers System in the Owyhee Canyonlands Wilderness in southwestern Idaho. The streamflow statistics were used by the BLM to develop and file a draft, federal reserved water right claim to protect federally designated “outstanding remarkable values” in the Jarbidge River. The BLM determined that the daily mean streamflow equaled or exceeded 20, 50, and 80 percent of the time during bimonthly periods (two periods per month) and the bankfull (66.7-percent annual exceedance probability) streamflow are important thresholds for maintaining outstanding remarkable values. Although streamflow statistics for the Jarbidge River below Jarbidge, Nevada (USGS 13162225) were published previously in 2013 and used for the draft water right claim, the BLM and USGS have since recognized the need to refine streamflow statistics given the approximate 40 river mile distance and intervening tributaries between the original point of estimation (USGS 13162225) and at the mouth of the Jarbidge River, which is the downstream end of the Wild and Scenic River segment. A drainage-area-ratio method was used in 2013 to estimate bimonthly exceedance probability streamflow statistics at the mouth of the Jarbidge River based on available streamgage data on the Jarbidge and East Fork Jarbidge Rivers. The resulting bimonthly streamflow statistics were further adjusted using a scaling factor calculated from a water balance on streamflow statistics calculated for the Bruneau and East Fork Bruneau Rivers and Sheep Creek. The final, adjusted bimonthly exceedance probability and bankfull streamflow statistics compared well with available verification datasets (including discrete streamflow measurements made at the mouth of the Jarbidge River) and are considered the

  13. Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sanmuga Priya

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation through aquatic macrophytes treatment system (AMATS for the removal of pollutants and contaminants from various natural sources is a well established environmental protection technique. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes, a worst invasive aquatic weed has been utilised for various research activities over the last few decades. The biosorption capacity of the water hyacinth in minimising various contaminants present in the industrial wastewater is well studied. The present review quotes the literatures related to the biosorption capacity of the water hyacinth in reducing the concentration of dyestuffs, heavy metals and minimising certain other physiochemical parameters like TSS (total suspended solids, TDS (total dissolved solids, COD (chemical oxygen demand and BOD (biological oxygen demand in textile wastewater. Sorption kinetics through various models, factors influencing the biosorption capacity, and role of physical and chemical modifications in the water hyacinth are also discussed.

  14. Human Rights, History of

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Baets, Antoon; Wright, James

    2015-01-01

    In this article, six basic debates about human rights are clarified from a historical perspective: the origin of human rights as moral rights connected to the natural law doctrine and opposed to positive rights; the wave of criticism of their abstract and absolute character by nineteenth-century

  15. The Forgotten Property Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas; Tarp, Finn; Van Den Broeck, Katleen

    2011-01-01

    Studies of land property rights usually focus on tenure security and transfer rights. Rights to determine how to use the land are regularly ignored. However, user rights are often limited. Relying on a unique Vietnamese panel data set at both household and plot levels, we show that crop choice...

  16. The Forgotten Property Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas; Tarp, Finn; Van Den Broeck, Katleen

    Studies of land property rights usually focus on tenure security and transfer rights. Rights to determine how to use the land are regularly ignored. However, in transition economies such as Vietnam and China, user rights are often limited. Relying on a unique Vietnamese panel data set at both...

  17. The Forgotten Property Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas; Tarp, Finn; Van Den Broeck, Katleen

    2011-01-01

    Studies of land property rights usually focus on tenure security and transfer rights. Rights to determine how to use the land are regularly ignored. However, user rights are often limited. Relying on a unique Vietnamese panel data set at both household and plot levels, we show that crop choice re...

  18. A right to reproduce?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Muireann

    2010-10-01

    How should we conceive of a right to reproduce? And, morally speaking, what might be said to justify such a right? These are just two questions of interest that are raised by the technologies of assisted reproduction. This paper analyses the possible legitimate grounds for a right to reproduce within the two main theories of rights; interest theory and choice theory.

  19. Human Rights, History of

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Baets, Antoon; Wright, James

    2015-01-01

    In this article, six basic debates about human rights are clarified from a historical perspective: the origin of human rights as moral rights connected to the natural law doctrine and opposed to positive rights; the wave of criticism of their abstract and absolute character by nineteenth-century lib

  20. Entre el mercado y el Derecho Humano: la regulación de las aguas desde la autogestión y desde el proceso administrativo en Chile / Between Market and Human Right: Water Resources Regulation from the perspective of Self-Management and Chilean Administrative Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Aranda Ortega

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – This paper aims to review the regulation of the water market in Chile, which is based on a market for buying and selling water rights, together with the criticisms that have recently been made on that matter. Methodology/approach/design – The pro market positions seeking moderate transformations will be studied on par with the more reformist ones flourishing in social activism. This paper compares these two strands. In order to find similarities among them, this paper tackles Ostrom's ideas about self-management of common goods and Croley's administrative process theory. Findings – From these theoretical approaches, it is drawn the conclusion that they converge in the institutional improvement of the Directorate General of Water and the regulation of legal bodies, alongside ideal representations of waters rights market and the human right to water.

  1. Determination of stability constant of ternary surface complexes at liquid-solid interface in sea water by the rule of left-right shifts of S-shaped curve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张正斌; 刘莲生; 刘国盛; 俞志明

    1996-01-01

    A new method is suggested for determining the stability constant of ternary surface complexes (TSC) at liquid-solid interfaces in natural water. Its basic principle is based on the rule of left-right shift (RLRS) of S-shaped curve, from which the peak-type curve of E(%) with the concentration of organic matter is obtained. The peak-type curve is further used to obtain the (ksAM/kSM) values by using respectively the method of equality of E(%) when [H2A] = [H2A]0 (1) and the method of [H2A]max (2). From the known KSM,the stability constant KSAM of liquid-solid interfacial ternary surface complexes can be obtained.

  2. Human rights and bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barilan, Y M; Brusa, M

    2008-05-01

    In the first part of this article we survey the concept of human rights from a philosophical perspective and especially in relation to the "right to healthcare". It is argued that regardless of meta-ethical debates on the nature of rights, the ethos and language of moral deliberation associated with human rights is indispensable to any ethics that places the victim and the sufferer in its centre. In the second part we discuss the rise of the "right to privacy", particularly in the USA, as an attempt to make the element of personal free will dominate over the element of basic human interest within the structure of rights and when different rights seem to conflict. We conclude by discussing the relationship of human rights with moral values beyond the realm of rights, mainly human dignity, free will, human rationality and response to basic human needs.

  3. “两层次三阶段”的流域初始水权和谐配置内涵与理念%Concept and implications of three-stage and two-level basin initial water rights harmonious allocation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈艳萍; 周晔; 吴凤平

    2012-01-01

    A method of three-stage and two-level basin initial water rights harmonious allocation is proposed, in order to solve the problems of lack of operability and high consultation costs when using current initial water rights allocation methods. The implications of the initial water rights harmonious allocation are described first. Then, the core concept, essential features, forms, and practice ideas of the three-stage and two-level initial water rights harmonious allocation method are proposed for the purpose of alleviating conflicts during water rights allocation. This method provides theoretical support for protecting water resources and the ecological environment, properly coordinating water rights of upstream and downstream areas and right and left banks, promoting water resources harmonious allocation, and constructing a harmonious society.%针对现有流域初始水权配置方法在实践过程中缺乏可操作性、协商成本过高的现实,提出“两层次三阶段”的流域初始水权和谐配置方法.首先介绍流域初始水权和谐配置的内涵,然后探讨流域初始水权和谐配置的核心思想、本质特征、表现形态,以及实践理念,旨在有效缓解水权分配过程中的冲突与矛盾,为保护流域水资源和生态环境,协调上下游和左右岸区域的正当用水权益,促进人水和谐,构建和谐社会提供理论支撑.

  4. Consumer rights and responsibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... which included the Consumer Bill of Rights and Responsibilities. The Commission was appointed by President Bill Clinton, ... role in making sure they have rights and responsibilities with regard to health improvement. The Consumer Bill ...

  5. Double outlet right ventricle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007328.htm Double outlet right ventricle To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Double outlet right ventricle (DORV) is a heart disease that is ...

  6. [Right ovarian vein syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvis, G

    1985-01-01

    Right ovarian vein syndrome is revealed in pregnancy by right lumbar pains, and even by nephritic colics. It results from a congenital malposition of the right ovarian vein, which presses the right ureter on the external iliac artery. Diagnosis is by intravenous urography and retrograde ureteral pyelography. If pain persists despite treatment by analgesics, it may be necessary to place a double-J catheter, and to operate after delivery to ligate the ovarian vein.

  7. Special Section: Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydenlund, Knut; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Eleven articles examine human rights in Europe. Topics include unemployment, human rights legislation, role of the Council of Europe in promoting human rights, labor unions, migrant workers, human dignity in industralized societies, and international violence. Journal available from Council of Europe, Directorate of Press and Information, 67006…

  8. Reforming Rights Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    For China, the recently established UN Human Rights Council is a victory of multilateralism This spring witnessed a significant reform in the United Nations human rights protection mechanism. On March 15, the UN General Assembly approved a draft resolution, with a 170 to 4 vote and 3 abstentions, to create a Human Rights Council (HRC). Then, March 23, the UN Economic and

  9. Human Rights Improving

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China issues a white paper on its human rights,highlighting freedom of speech on the Interne The Chinese Government released a white paper on its human rights in 2009 on September 26,highlighting the role of Internet freedom and the country’s efforts in safeguarding citizens’legitimate civil and political rights.

  10. 水权交易第三方效应的实证分析--基于东阳-义乌水权交易的案例%An Empirical Analysis on 3rd-party Effects of Water Right Trading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋剑勇

    2015-01-01

    在概述东阳—义乌水权交易情况、交易对第三方影响的基础上,运用产权经济学阐述了造成该第三方效应的原因:水资源使用权和收入权的界定不清是造成争议和第三方效应的关键。据此提出可以考虑在维持水资源国家所有的前提下,当产权界定收益高于成本时,可以明确界定水资源的使用权、收入权和转让权,并通过市场交易提升其租值,实现水资源的有效配置。%The water right exchanging between Dongyang andYiwu causes a lot of debate .Some scholars argue that it has a negative impact on the third party .Based on the overview of Dongyang-Yiwu water right trading and its effects on the third-party, the causes of third-party effects are analyzed in this paper in the perspective of property-rights economics .The key cause is that the definition of the right to use water resources and income rights is not clear .In the premise of maintaining the water resources to the state , the right to use the water resources , as well as the income right and transfer right are clear-ly defined, therefore, to enhance the rental value through market transactions and to realize the effective allocation of water resources.

  11. Children's rights in pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streuli, Jürg C; Michel, Margot; Vayena, Effy

    2011-01-01

    The United Nations Convention of Children's Rights (UNCRC) introduced in 1989 has generated a global movement for the protection of children's rights and has brought about a paradigm change in how children are perceived. Pediatric healthcare professionals are interacting with children and therefore with children's rights on a daily basis. However, although at least 18 of the 54 articles are relevant for pediatric practice, there is limited systematic training on how pediatricians can support children's rights in the clinical setting. This article discusses the principles and aims of the UNCRC and proposes a comprehensive checklist of rights vis-à-vis issues that arise in clinical practice.

  12. Getting To Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerrigan, Fergus

    This study takes its point of departure in human rights, equality and personal freedom, including support for the rights of LGBTI persons. Its intention is to combine these principles with respect for African communities, cultures, and the fortitude with which Africans face many challenges. Human...... together. African societies and the deeply human values they embody contain resources to face challenges, including in this sensitive domain.......This study takes its point of departure in human rights, equality and personal freedom, including support for the rights of LGBTI persons. Its intention is to combine these principles with respect for African communities, cultures, and the fortitude with which Africans face many challenges. Human...... rights law demands that people be protected against human rights violations committed by private actors. The Human Rights Based Approach to Development (HRBA) looks at the potential of non-state actors as partners. In contexts where many public services are delivered by non-state actors, many areas...

  13. 黄河流域宁蒙地区二期水权转让模式研究%Research on Pattern of Water Rights Transfer in the Second Stage in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of Yellow River Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯峰; 荣晓明; 殷会娟; 何宏谋

    2014-01-01

    Aiming at the issue of single pattern,limited water quantity of water rights transfer in the Yellow River basin,the paper proposed four new patterns in the second stage based on the status analysis of the first stage water rights transfer in the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region and the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region,and the four patterns were as following,modern agriculture water-saving of water rights transfer,trans-regional water rights transfer,national investment in water conservation projects of water right transfer and pumping irrigation area in the Yellow River basin of water right transfer. Through the feasibility analysis for four water right transfer patterns,the author considers that the two patterns of modern ag-riculture water-saving and trans-regional have higher feasibility,the pattern of national investment in water conservation projects suits to repay the regional water consumption,and the pattern of pumping irrigation area in the Yellow River basin needs further study.%针对黄河流域水权转让模式单一、转让水量有限的问题,在对宁蒙地区一期水权转让现状分析的基础上,提出了二期水权转让4种新的模式:现代农业节水水权转让、跨地市水权转让、国家投资节水项目水权转让和扬黄灌区水权转让。通过对4种水权转让模式的可行性分析,认为现代农业节水水权转让和跨地市水权转让的可行性较高,国家投资节水项目水权转让适宜于偿还区域超用水量,扬黄灌区的水权转让建议进一步讨论后再实施。

  14. [Human rights and procreation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, F

    1990-04-01

    The impact of procreation on freedom, health and welfare of human beings, is considerable. This relationship, however, is not mirrored in texts devoted to Human Rights. This omission obviously implies a neglect of women's and children's rights. The history of anticonceptive methods exemplifies the struggle for these rights. This conquest, which has lasted two hundred years, is far from completed. Because of the demographic outbreak in Third World countries, an ideological conflict has appeared between first generation Human Rights concerned with individual freedom ("rights of") and those of second generation aiming at social fairness ("rights to"). Adequate political and economic adjustment between North and South is a prerequisite to any balanced compromise that would resolve this conflict through democratic, albeit intensive, birth control.

  15. Advancing Human Rights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The National Human Rights Action Plan of China (2012-2015) was initiated after the successful conclusion of the National Human Rights Action Plan of China (2009-2010).The Chinese government in late July published an assessment report on the implementation of the plan,elaborating on the full implementation of China's first-ever national program on human rights development,which was drafted in April 2009.

  16. The right to information

    OpenAIRE

    Strava, Ondřej

    2014-01-01

    The text deals with the question of defining what exactly right to information is. As the public debate concerning different institutes of the right to information and transparency goes on intensively and extensively in the Czech republic as well as worldwide, it has become the aim of the author to search for the roots of the right, of both its restrictive and extensive scope and its guiding principles. Such a research should be useful for the interpretation and the aplication of the relevant...

  17. Getting an Answer Right

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John W.

    1999-07-01

    really is.) Or we could ask students to make careful observations as an experiment is being carried out and then decide whether the proposed interpretation was correct. (If the only effect of burning a candle in a beaker inverted in a water bath is to use up the oxygen, then the water should rise slowly and steadily into the beaker as long as the candle burns; it does not.) Getting the right answer is not nearly as important as getting an answer right- exploring and experimenting to eliminate alternative hypotheses and finding the best-supported explanation. Diffusion and the fraction of oxygen in air can be studied with simple, inexpensive equipment, and it is easy for students to experiment with them. If we use them appropriately, these two subjects have great potential for enhancing students' skills in critical thinking and experimental design. Many other phenomena reported in these pages provide similar opportunities. Let's apply our ingenuity and effort to making the most of them. Literature Cited 1. Parsons, L. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 898. 2. Birk, J. P.; Lawson, A. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 914. 3. Mason, E. A.; Kronstadt, B. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 740. Kirk, A. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 745. 4. Davis, L. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 824. 5. Westbrook, S.; Marek, E. A. J. Res. Sci. Teach. 1991, 28, 649-660 6. Birk, J. P.; McGrath, L.; Gunter, S. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 804.

  18. The Forgotten Property Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas; Tarp, Finn; Van Den Broeck, Katleen

    Studies of land property rights usually focus on tenure security and transfer rights. Rights to determine how to use the land are regularly ignored. However, in transition economies such as Vietnam and China, user rights are often limited. Relying on a unique Vietnamese panel data set at both hou...... with the view that the Vietnamese government has managed to intervene effectively in agricultural (rice) production to promote output and food security. At the same time, it is now time to carefully consider the potential benefits of a more diversified crop pattern....

  19. Extraterritorial Human Rights Obligations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amsinck Boie, Hans Nikolaj; Torp, Kristian

    adequately be addressed without including the approach to the problem taken in practice; Corporate Social Responsibility, CSR. The book therefore draws upon the concept of CSR and the approaches developed here and discusses whether states may utilize the CSR-based concept of human rights due diligence...... to fulfil their possible obligations to protect against human rights violations by corporations.......The book addresses the issue of corporate respect for human rights by examining if and how states are obligated to ensure that corporations originating from their jurisdiction respect human rights when they operate abroad. The existence of such a duty is much debated by academics at national...

  20. The Forgotten Property Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas; Tarp, Finn; Van Den Broeck, Katleen

    2011-01-01

    Studies of land property rights usually focus on tenure security and transfer rights. Rights to determine how to use the land are regularly ignored. However, user rights are often limited. Relying on a unique Vietnamese panel data set at both household and plot levels, we show that crop choice...... restrictions are widespread and prevent crop diversification. Restrictions do not decrease household income, but restricted households work harder, and there are indications that they are supplied with higher quality inputs. Our findings are consistent with the view that it is possible to intervene effectively...

  1. On Stock Right

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘雯

    2008-01-01

    The Company Law of 1993 is important in protecting the interests of both companies and shareholders. But on stock right, it always arouses heated debate among scholars. Before the promulgation of New Company Law of 2006, varieties of theories of this issue have been formed. Through analyzing and refuting those theories, I try to clear the ambiguous definition by explaining the essence of right and comparing related right, so as to reach the conclusion that the stock right is only the changeable form of the ownership of shareholders.

  2. Is "the right stuff" the right stuff?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, J M

    1989-05-01

    In 1979 the author Tom Wolfe likened US astronauts to sacrificial gladiators characterized by competitiveness, independence, self-sufficiency, extroversion and a sense of moral righteousness and superiority--in short, 'the right stuff'. But are these the qualities needed for long-duration international missions? The author's hunch is that they are on the whole still necessary but not sufficient, but he emphasizes that systematic study of past behavioural reactions and analogous environments is needed if vital questions of interpersonal dynamics are to be answered correctly.

  3. Women's rights to health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Women's rights and health are threatened by cultural, religious, and social biases against women that create barriers in women's ability to access health information, education, and services. The fact that women's basic human rights include a right to health has been incorporated in international rights covenants, but violations occur in the form of 1) direct state actions, such as coercive abortion; 2) failure of states to meet health needs; 3) discrimination that denies health care to specific groups; and 4) failure of states to protect women from violence, child marriage, female infanticide, and other forms of health- and life-threatening discrimination. In order to improve this situation, a basic set of indicators must be developed to monitor implementation of agreements to protect women. Health professionals must continue to incorporate women's rights into the ethics or charters of health practices, to improve service to women, and to increase governmental advocacy on behalf of women. Governments must acknowledge the benefits of applying a rights approach to women's health status and must develop plans to implement recommendations arising from international conferences on women's rights. Women-centered nongovernmental organizations must create a clear framework on women's rights to health and develop advocacy and networking strategies.

  4. Dynamic Right Triangles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyunkaya, Melike Yigit; Kastberg, Signe; Quinlan, James; Edwards, Michael Todd; Keiser, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Right triangles play a significant role in mathematics. In this favorite lesson, the authors help students understand variant and invariant properties by considering relationships among angle measures and side lengths in right triangles. Students explore these relationships using interactive mathematics software, changing one angle and observing…

  5. Race, Rights and Rebels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suárez-Krabbe, Julia

    An analysis of the evolution of the overlapping histories of human rights and development, and an exploration of the alternatives, through the lens of indigenous and other southern theories and epistemologies......An analysis of the evolution of the overlapping histories of human rights and development, and an exploration of the alternatives, through the lens of indigenous and other southern theories and epistemologies...

  6. Human Rights Guaranteed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Report says China’s human rights plan successfully implemented According to a detailed assessment report published by China’s State Council Information Office (SCIO),all the measures outlined in the National Human Rights Action Plan of China (2009-10) had been successfully put into place by the end of 2010.

  7. Left or Right

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常厚飞

    2007-01-01

    In Europe people hold the fork in the left hand and the knife in the right throughout the meal, a system that is generally agreed to be more efficient than the American zigzag method. Americans hold both the fork and the knife in their right hands throughout the meal,

  8. Getting the Requirements Right

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    27 Defense AT&L: July–August 2015 Getting the Requirements Right Sean J. Stackley, USN Stackley is Assistant Secretary of the Navy for Research...getting the requirements right . The author can be contacted through brian.a.metcalf@navy.mil. We’re Looking for a Few Good Authors Got opinions to

  9. The right to life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Stavri Sinjari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The right to life constitutes one of the main human rights and freedoms, foreseen by article 21 of the Albanian Constitution and article 2 of European Human Rights Convention. No democratic or totalitarian society can function without guarantees and protection of the human right to life We intend to address these issues on our article: What is life. What we legally understand with life. When the life starts and finish. How this right has evolved. Which is the state interest on protecting the life. Should we consider that the life is the same for all. Should the state interfere at any cost to protect the life. Is there any criminal charge for responsible persons to the violation of this right. Is this issue treated by European Human Rights Court. What are the Albanian legal provisions on protection of this right. This research is performed mainly according to a comparative and analytical methodology. Comperative analysis will be present almost throughout the paper. Treatment of issues of this research will be achieved through a system comparable with international standards in particular and the most advanced legislation in this area. At the same time, this research is conducted by analytical and statistical data processing. We believe that our research will make a modest contribution, not only to the legal literature, but also to criminal policy makers, law makers, lawyers and attorneys.

  10. Right to Information

    OpenAIRE

    Mendel, Toby

    2014-01-01

    In the last 20 years, there has been a massive growth in the number of national laws giving individuals the right to access information held by public bodies (right to information or RTI laws). The number of countries with such laws has grown from 19 mostly Western democracies i

  11. The Right to Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varvara Coman

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we set ourselves to analyze a subject, which, due to its importance andextreme complexity, generated many discussions and controversies both at national and international level:the right to life. The great evolution of the contemporary society and the progress registered in various fieldsbrought into the attention of the states, international organizations, specialists in the field and public opinionthe pressing problem of interpreting the content and limits of the human fundamental rights and liberties. Weset ourselves to analyze the main international instruments regulating the right to life and to identify thesituations where determining the content of this fundamental right in necessary. Without the intent of acomplete work, we understand, throughout this study, to highline the great importance of the right to liferespecting for the entire humanity.

  12. Abortion and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Dorothy

    2010-10-01

    Abortion has been a reality in women's lives since the beginning of recorded history, typically with a high risk of fatal consequences, until the last century when evolutions in the field of medicine, including techniques of safe abortion and effective methods of family planning, could have ended the need to seek unsafe abortion. The context of women's lives globally is an important but often ignored variable, increasingly recognised in evolving human rights especially related to gender and reproduction. International and regional human rights instruments are being invoked where national laws result in violations of human rights such as health and life. The individual right to conscientious objection must be respected and better understood, and is not absolute. Health professional organisations have a role to play in clarifying responsibilities consistent with national laws and respecting reproductive rights. Seeking common ground using evidence rather than polarised opinion can assist the future focus.

  13. Bioethics and "Rightness".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Arthur W

    2017-03-01

    If bioethics seeks to affect what people do and don't do as they respond to the practical issues that confront them, then it is useful to take seriously people's sense of rightness. Rightness emerges from the fabric of a life-including the economy of its geography, the events of its times, its popular culture-to be what the sociologist Pierre Bourdieu calls a predisposition. It is the product of a way of life and presupposes continuing to live that way. Rightness is local and communal, holding in relationship those who share the same predisposing sense of how to experience. Rightness is an embodied way of evaluating what is known to matter and choosing among possible responses. Bioethics spends considerable time on what people should do and on the arguments that support recommended actions. It might spend more time on what shapes people's sense of the rightness of what they feel called to do.

  14. The Rights Issue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN LIXIN

    2006-01-01

    @@ Farmers in Chengde, Hebei Province,used to dam the Chao River in order to divert enough water for the irrigation of their rice fields. However, the river also contributes 40 percent of the water of Miyun Reservoir, one of the major sources of Beijing's water supply. To ensure that the capital has enough water supply, officials at city and county levels have to resort to persuasion, and when this fails, they are forced to have the dams pulled down.

  15. Autonomy and minority rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barten, Ulrike

    2008-01-01

    to a specific group. The question never posed is, if there is a point and in that case at what point the group can actually talk about being autonomous. Is there a minimum in the number of special rights and procedures that has to be reached in order for the package of rights to qualify as ‘granting autonomy...... in the cultural, educational, religious and social sectors which have of course are exercised in a limited territory; however, do not threaten the state's sovereignty in the same way as independent political decisions could do. How far minority rights have the same dimensions, will be another issue. Minorities...

  16. Right Hemisphere Brain Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or hemispheres. Each hemisphere is responsible for different body functions and skills. In most people, the left side of the brain contains the person's language functions. The right side contributes to a number ...

  17. Pupils have rights too

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banjanin-Đuričić Nada

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The text points out the delicate problem of inadequate treatment of pupils by teachers. Such treatment may include insults, verbal aggression, sarcasm, but also the double meaning of the message in which it is hard to prove violation of pupils’ personality. Although characteristics of desirable relationship of teachers toward children are specified by the Convention on the Rights of the Child, Law on Foundations of the Education and Upbringing System, as well as by the Protocol for Protection of Children and Students from Violence, Abuse and Neglect in Educational Institutions, verbal aggression is still present, but often unrecognized as a form of violation of pupils’ rights - right to respect of personality and right to development. The text describes an attempt, almost an experiment, in the form of workshop model that can contribute to recognition of this problem and help in finding constructive ways to overcome it.

  18. Territory, Rights and Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chenchen

    2014-01-01

    attention to the excessive forms of mobility that challenge and break with the official formulation of free movement rights. Thus we turn to the intricate relationship between mobility and citizenship in Europe following our dialogical approach: focusing on the rationalities implied in the government...... of free movement on one hand, and the paths through which to redefine the right to mobility on the other. In the light of Rancière’s reconceptualisation of rights and democracy, I present two examples each employing different strategies to politicise and mobilise mobility: one is through appealing......The overarching objective of this dissertation is to conceptualise the spatiality of citizenship through an exposure to its various others – especially to mobile subjectivity. In particular, it examines the changing patterns of territorialising space, distributing rights and regulating mobility...

  19. The "Children's Rights" Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Bruce A.

    1981-01-01

    The author argues that the "children's rights" movement is an attack on the authority of parents and teachers and that it is undermining school discipline and traditional family roles. Condensed from "American Educator," Spring 1981, pp30-33. (SJL)

  20. Right Whale Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the critical habitat for Right Whale as designated by Federal Register Vol. 59, No. 28805, May 19, 1993, Rules and Regulations.

  1. Refugees’ rights to work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily E Arnold-Fernández

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Host economies benefit when refugees work. Nations seeking economic growth and political stability should allow refugees to access employment and to enjoy employment-related rights.

  2. Equal Love Rights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou; Mingyang

    2015-01-01

    Recently,the LGBT community(including Lesbians,Gays,Bisexuals,Transgenders)has won big.In terms of their marriage rights,on July 2015,the Supreme Court of the United States has passed judegment to recognize same-sex marriage and grant most of their rights,which means one’s marriage with same sex is not only legal from then on,but also equal to that of opposite sex.

  3. Congenital right hemidiaphragmatic agenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Bilal Mirza; Zahid Bashir; Afzal Sheikh

    2012-01-01

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia is a congenital defect of the diaphragm through which intestine and other viscera herniate into the chest. In extreme form of diaphragmatic maldevelopment, there might be a complete agenesis of diaphragm. A 45-day old male infant was presented with fever, cough and respiratory distress for a week. Chest radiograph showed right-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia. The patient underwent surgical exploration and found to have an unusual and large defect of right...

  4. Children's rights: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peens, B J; Louw, D A

    2000-01-01

    The issue of children's rights has become very prominent over the past few decades during which attempts were being made to formulate an international agreement about the person status of children world-wide. These attempts have brought together and formalised a trend that has evolved over at least 400 years to broaden and develop society's understanding and acceptance of children as unique, necessary valuable societal assets. The ensuing social evolution in the realm of children's rights has led most countries to the understanding that by investing in and protecting children's best interests, a solid foundation is laid for healthy nation-building. This review article focuses on a variety of documented aspects pertaining to the topic of children's rights. Definitions and descriptions of various types of children's rights are given as well as the arguments posed for and against. Finally the various proposals and motivations for the inclusion of certain types of children's rights as they presently occur in the 1989 UN Convention on the Rights of the Child are noted and discussed.

  5. Land Rights at Last!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Norman

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In 1978 the Wran Government announced an Inquiry to investigate a range of issues including Aboriginal land rights recognition, the causes of Aboriginal social and economic disadvantage, heritage protection and commonwealth and state relations. The Select Committee, chaired by state member Maurie Keane, in its ‘First Report’ that focused on land rights, not only fundamentally changed the way Government’s liaise and consult with Aboriginal people, the Committee unanimously endorsed far-reaching recommendations including the ability to recover land, compensation for cultural loss and three-tier community driven administrative structure. All of this was set in the context of Aboriginal rights to self-determination and fundamental attachment to land as a cultural relationship and historical reality. The movement for land rights was the culmination of many years of land justice activism, shifting policy at the Commonwealth level and wider international movements contesting colonial rule and racism. More specifically the land rights movement in NSW was galvanised in response to the previous Government’s renewed efforts to assimilate Aboriginal people and revoke reserve lands and the limited land rights recognition made possible through the Aboriginal Lands Trust (herein ‘the Trust’. This paper argues a more focused and pronounced campaign emerged in the mid 1970s whereby land rights ‘time had come’ as a result of Aboriginal political activism and the alliances formed with and among left social movements. This movement created the political climate for the Wran Government’s announcement of the Select Committee Inquiry in 1978.

  6. Coupling Relationship between Watershed Ecology and Economy of Jiangxi Province under Water Right Trade Mode%水权交易模式下江西流域生态与经济耦合关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄新建; 朱越浦

    2014-01-01

    Insufficient compensation funds,difficulties in making compensation standard and other problems result in great development gaps between different areas in the watershed ,which has become the widely known as the phenomenon of upstream areas develop slowly and downstream areas benefit freely.This paper places water right trade as compensation mode into the ecological compensation mechanism,and establishes the coupling rela-tionship between watershed ecology and economy of Jiangxi Province,aiming to balance the economic develop-ment of different administrative regions in watershed and provide methods for comprehensive planning between watershed ecological construction and economic development of Jiangxi Province.A watershed eco-compensation model is constructed for Jiangxi Province based on opportunity-cost method and the adoption of such concepts as coefficient of water quality( 1/IP综合) ,coefficient of efficiency of GDP produce amount per cubic meter wa-ter use(1/E)and coefficient of negotiation(β).Taking the section of Ganjiang River from Nanchang to Yichun as example,the compensation standard of year 2012 could be 2.0890 3×βbillion RMB.With the consideration of economic development levels of these two places, reasonable data range of coefficient of negotiation (β) could be set.Finally,the compensation standard of practical operation significance and applying value could be confirmed.%由于生态补偿资金不足、补偿标准难以确定等问题,导致流域内发展两极分化较为严重,普遍存在“上游保护地区发展缓慢,下游地区免费受益”现象。通过引入以水权交易为补偿模式的生态补偿机制,构建江西流域生态与经济耦合关系,有效实现下游地区对上游地区因流域生态保护失去发展权的补偿,平衡流域内不同行政区经济发展,为江西省统筹生态建设与经济发展提供方向。在机会成本法的基础上,引入水质系数1/IP综合、

  7. [Advances in women's rights].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Colombia's Constitutional Court has frequently dealt with the theme of women's rights in its pursuit of the inalienable human rights recognized in the Colombian Constitution of 1991. Equality remains a goal, as inequalities persist. The Constitutional proposal to end the historic situation of inferiority suffered by women authorizes the adoption of positive measures to correct de facto inequalities, compensate past abuses, and promote true economic and social equality. The Court has decried the invisibility and lack of social and economic recognition of domestic work. It has declared that the right to health carries the right to medical protection of reproduction and to necessary treatment. The reproductive autonomy of women has been supported with the declaration that prison regulations cannot impose the requirement to control fertility as a condition of conjugal visits, because it constitutes an arbitrary intrusion into private life and a disregard of the social functions of motherhood. The Court has also ordered the reintegration of pregnant adolescents expelled from educational establishments. It has ordered immediate protection for women suffering from aggression and abuse at the hands of their husbands or partners. These pronouncements are unprecedented in Colombian jurisprudence. The high court merits recognition by women, whose basic rights it has begun to protect.

  8. CONSUMER'S RIGHT TO WITHDRAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANCA NICOLETA GHEORGHE

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The right of withdrawal (of a contract belongs to the consumer, and is an essential means for the improvement of regulations that protect the consumer.. Right of withdrawal is not a recent creation and is not even specific to the consumer field. He was previously recognized in civil and commercial law (without special regulation. The right to withdraw may even have as ground the parties will. Thus, based on the contractual freedom, the parties may agree that one of them has the right to terminate the contract unilaterally The possibility of unilateral denunciation of the contract, gives the consumer, added protection by being able to reflect the decision and to check how the trader fulfil its obligations. In this context, through its effects, the right of denunciation, forces the professional parties to conduct themselves as fair as possible to the consumer and to execute the contract properly. In the study of the consumer protection, the time of conclusion is essential because in this stage is manifested, the inequality between the consumer and professional. Thus, the lack of information, the major of products and activities, commercial practices, influence the formation of consumer will, preventing the expression of a freely and knowingly consent.

  9. On partitions avoiding right crossings

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Sherry H F

    2011-01-01

    Recently, Chen et al. derived the generating function for partitions avoiding right nestings and posed the problem of finding the generating function for partitions avoiding right crossings. In this paper, we derive the generating function for partitions avoiding right crossings via an intermediate structure of partial matchings avoiding 2-right crossings and right nestings. We show that there is a bijection between partial matchings avoiding 2-right crossing and right nestings and partitions avoiding right crossings.

  10. Scientists and Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makdisi, Yousef

    2012-02-01

    The American Physical Society has a long history of involvement in defense of human rights. The Committee on International Freedom of Scientists was formed in the mid seventies as a subcommittee within the Panel On Public Affairs ``to deal with matters of an international nature that endangers the abilities of scientists to function as scientists'' and by 1980 it was established as an independent committee. In this presentation I will describe some aspects of the early history and the impetus that led to such an advocacy, the methods employed then and how they evolved to the present CIFS responsibility ``for monitoring concerns regarding human rights for scientists throughout the world''. I will also describe the current approach and some sample cases the committee has pursued recently, the interaction with other human rights organizations, and touch upon some venues through which the community can engage to help in this noble cause.

  11. Rail passengers rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurđev Dušanka J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The legal framework of rail passengers rights is set out in a combination of international and European law: an international measure, the rather unwieldy Uniform Rules concerning the Contract for International Carriage of Passengers and Luggage by Rail, forming part of the Convention concerning International Carriage by Rail of 9 May 1980 (as amended by the Vilnius Protocol of 3 June 1999 ['CIV'], lays down a basic framework which is then fleshed out by more recent EU legislation, Regulation (EC No 1371/2007 on Rail Passengers ' Rights and Obligations. Regulation 1371/2007/EC on rail passenger rights and obligations sets out minimum quality standards that have to be guaranteed to all passengers on all lines. .

  12. Congenital right hemidiaphragmatic agenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Mirza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital diaphragmatic hernia is a congenital defect of the diaphragm through which intestine and other viscera herniate into the chest. In extreme form of diaphragmatic maldevelopment, there might be a complete agenesis of diaphragm. A 45-day old male infant was presented with fever, cough and respiratory distress for a week. Chest radiograph showed right-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia. The patient underwent surgical exploration and found to have an unusual and large defect of right hemidiaphragm. The diaphragm was absent on anterior and lateral aspects of the chest wall and only a small rim of diaphragm was present on posterior aspect. The defect was identified as agenesis of right hemidiaphragm and successfully managed by suturing the posterior rim of diaphragm to the intercostal muscles and ribs. This report describes successful management of hemidiaphragmatic agenesis without incorporating a prosthetic material.

  13. Congenital right hemidiaphragmatic agenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Bilal; Bashir, Zahid; Sheikh, Afzal

    2012-01-01

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia is a congenital defect of the diaphragm through which intestine and other viscera herniate into the chest. In extreme form of diaphragmatic maldevelopment, there might be a complete agenesis of diaphragm. A 45-day old male infant was presented with fever, cough and respiratory distress for a week. Chest radiograph showed right-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia. The patient underwent surgical exploration and found to have an unusual and large defect of right hemidiaphragm. The diaphragm was absent on anterior and lateral aspects of the chest wall and only a small rim of diaphragm was present on posterior aspect. The defect was identified as agenesis of right hemidiaphragm and successfully managed by suturing the posterior rim of diaphragm to the intercostal muscles and ribs. This report describes successful management of hemidiaphragmatic agenesis without incorporating a prosthetic material.

  14. Right bundle branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bussink, Barbara E; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Jespersen, Lasse

    2013-01-01

    AimsTo determine the prevalence, predictors of newly acquired, and the prognostic value of right bundle branch block (RBBB) and incomplete RBBB (IRBBB) on a resting 12-lead electrocardiogram in men and women from the general population.Methods and resultsWe followed 18 441 participants included.......5%/2.3% in women, P Right bundle branch block was associated with significantly...... increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in both genders with age-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of 1.31 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-1.54] and 1.87 (95% CI, 1.48-2.36) in the gender pooled analysis with little attenuation after multiple adjustment. Right bundle branch block was associated...

  15. Rights to Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillipson, Robert

    language and power issues. Drawn from all parts of the world, the contributors are active in a range of scientific and professional areas including bilingual education; sociolinguistics; the sociology of education, law and language; economics and language; linguistics; sign language; racism; communication......This work brings together cutting-edge scholarship in language, education and society from all parts of the world. Celebrating the 60th birthday of Tove Skutnabb-Kangas, it is inspired by her work in minority, indigenous and immigrant education; multilingualism; linguistic human rights; and global......; discourse analysis; language policy; minority issues; and language pedagogy. The book situates issues of minorities and bilingual education in broader perspectives of human rights, power and the ecology of language. It aims at a distillation of themes that are central to an understanding of language rights...

  16. Finding the right balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Toke Haunstrup

    2011-01-01

    and their considerations about the possibility of moving together with a partner (again). The interviews suggest a widespread ambiguity among solo-livers as they emphasize the positive qualities of living alone at the same time as they express a hope of meeting “the right one” to move together with and share their life...... of individual independence while at the same time sharing the daily life with their partner. In order to secure the “right balance”, they consider different “strategies” such as having “one’s own room” in the shared dwelling or living-apart-together as a permanent solution....

  17. Eating right during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Making a baby is hard work for a woman's body. Eating right is one of the best things you can do to help your baby grow and develop normally. Eating a ... Poor healing An early birth of the baby A low birth-weight baby

  18. Work and Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Amartya

    2000-01-01

    Examines four conceptual features of decent work essential to its achievement in a context of globalization: (1) an inclusive approach, (2) rights-based thinking, (3) placing work within a broad economic, political, and social context, and (4) extension of thinking from international to truly global. Contains 17 references. (JOW)

  19. Women's Rights Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Helen; Weigel, Margaret

    Designed for use in the intermediate grades, this interdisciplinary unit helps students examine traditional and modern roles of women. Fourteen lessons focus on women's activities in colonial America, reasons for women's discontent, the women's rights movement of the 1800's, changes in the roles of women, enfranchisement of women, women's role…

  20. The Rights of Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, Jennifer Truran

    1998-01-01

    Traces the development of the idea of refugees as distinct from other immigrants. Elaborates on the evolution of a definition of "refugee;" the impact of World War I, World War II, and subsequent population movements; codification of refugee rights by the United Nations; and the process of seeking asylum. (DSK)

  1. No Right Answer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spetz, Steven N.

    1989-01-01

    Argues that the emphasis in law courses on memorizing facts fails to teach the desired concepts of reasoning and problem-solving. Recommends the use of open-book tests. Suggests that because law is an imprecise subject, and there are no right or wrong answers, it should be taught in an open format. (LS)

  2. Collective Rights Management Directive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Guibault

    2014-01-01

    Collective management organisations play an essential role in enabling the mass dissemination of content that is protected by copyright and related rights within Europe and beyond, especially when such dissemination takes place over the internet. Whether it is through commercial content delivery ser

  3. The Right Administrative Stuff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustin, Dan; McDonald, Cary; Harper, Jack; Lamke, Gene; Murphy, James

    2014-01-01

    This article is intended to provoke thought and discussion about what it takes to be a department chair and what it feels like to be a department chair. To accomplish our purpose, we draw an analogy between test pilots and department chairs based on Tom Wolfe's "The Right Stuff" (1979). We reason that test pilots and department…

  4. The Community of Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgård, Jonas Ross

    2012-01-01

    The article presents the argument that in order to have human rights in the years of the French Revolution it was necessary to be and act in accordance with an ambiguous concept of the natural. While the idea of the natural or of human nature could be an inclusive and universal one, it could also...

  5. The Rights of Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, Jennifer Truran

    1998-01-01

    Traces the development of the idea of refugees as distinct from other immigrants. Elaborates on the evolution of a definition of "refugee;" the impact of World War I, World War II, and subsequent population movements; codification of refugee rights by the United Nations; and the process of seeking asylum. (DSK)

  6. Patient's Bill of Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in medical writing. Along with the American Cancer Society, other sources of information and support include: US Department of Health and Human Services Website: www.healthcare.gov/how-does-the-health-care-law-protect-me This site explains patient rights with ...

  7. 75 FR 78147 - Human Rights Day, Bill of Rights Day, and Human Rights Week, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ... Proclamation 8616--Human Rights Day, Bill of Rights Day, and Human Rights Week, 2010 #0; #0; #0; Presidential... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation Human Rights Day, Bill of Rights Day, and... Declaration of Independence, our Constitution, and our Bill of Rights. It is a belief that, while every nation...

  8. Foundations of Collective Cultural Rights in International Human Rights Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donders, Y.; Jakubowski, A.

    2016-01-01

    Although collective cultural rights are included in international human rights law, their place and their nature and significance are not well-explored or understood. This chapter aims to classify collective cultural rights in international human rights instruments and to explore how these rights

  9. Speaking Truth to Power: Women's Rights as Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocco, Margaret Smith

    2007-01-01

    The author considers the treatment of women's rights as human rights in the social studies curriculum. She discusses the role of the United Nations in promoting women's rights since the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948. She also reviews the treatment of women's rights within social studies curriculum today through a…

  10. Speaking Truth to Power: Women's Rights as Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocco, Margaret Smith

    2007-01-01

    The author considers the treatment of women's rights as human rights in the social studies curriculum. She discusses the role of the United Nations in promoting women's rights since the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948. She also reviews the treatment of women's rights within social studies curriculum today through a…

  11. 33 CFR 1.07-70 - Right to appeal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Right to appeal. 1.07-70 Section 1.07-70 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL GENERAL PROVISIONS Enforcement; Civil and Criminal Penalty Proceedings § 1.07-70 Right to appeal. (a) Any appeal...

  12. 18 CFR 1b.18 - Right to submit statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Right to submit statements. 1b.18 Section 1b.18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.18 Right to...

  13. The Right to Wander: Politics and Recreational Land Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donelly, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Growing privatization of land and restrictions within parks have led to a limited "right to wander" (the right to be on land or water for the purposes of sport, leisure, or pleasure with minimal limitations). Right wing political economies of the 1980s have placed further limits on access to wilderness. Presents alternatives that may reestablish…

  14. The Right to Wander: Politics and Recreational Land Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donelly, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Growing privatization of land and restrictions within parks have led to a limited "right to wander" (the right to be on land or water for the purposes of sport, leisure, or pleasure with minimal limitations). Right wing political economies of the 1980s have placed further limits on access to wilderness. Presents alternatives that may reestablish…

  15. 40 CFR 35.925-9 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil rights. 35.925-9 Section 35.925-9... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-9 Civil rights. That if the... the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and part 7 of this chapter have been met....

  16. Human rights literacy: Moving towards rights-based education and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hennie

    Keywords: democracy; dignity; equality; freedom; human rights; human rights education; human ... realisation of children's rights to education and .... implementations, could impact the holistic ... iation (Section 18); movement and residence.

  17. Crisis, Conspiracy and Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mylonas, Yiannis

    2007-01-01

    ' are contextualized in the aftermath of a terrorist attack.  The case study is a documentary produced shortly after a terrorist event that embraces the question ‘why bomb London?' regarding the London public transport attacks of 7/7/2005.   The analytical paradigm used is based on Critical Discourse Analysis which......The dispersed character of terrorism as a practice became more coherent to the Western realm through the operationalisation of counter terrorist discourses.    The media played a major role in that in the sense that they provided public ‘visibility' upon the potentiality of terrorist threat.  What...... this essay would like to discuss is the way such representations of threat negotiate a number of issues evolving around ‘civil rights'; discrimination, intensification of surveillance or militarization legitimacy of a state of emergency; and how public discourses of broader issues of ‘rights...

  18. Business and Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses the United Nations (UN) Guidelines on Business and Human Rights adopted in 2011 by the UN Human Rights Council from the perspective of transnational business governance interactions (TBGI) analytical framework.1 The article identifies and discusses dimensions of interaction...... and components of regulatory governance which characterize the Guiding Principles, focusing in particular on rule formation and implementation. The article notes that the Guiding Principles actively enrolled other actors for the rule-making process, ensuring support in a politically and legally volatile field...... in several areas of relevance to transnational business governance interaction and indicates the relevance of the TBGI approach to public regulatory transnational business governance initiatives. The analysis of the Guiding Principles as interactional transnational business governance suggests that this form...

  19. Business and Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    This article analyses the United Nations (UN) Guidelines on Business and Human Rights adopted in 2011 by the UN Human Rights Council from the perspective of Transnational Business Governance Interactions (TBGI) analytical framework (Eberlein et al. 2014). The article identifies and discusses...... dimensions of interaction and components of regulatory governance which characterise the Guiding Principles, focusing in particular on the rule formation and implementation. The article notes that the Guiding Principles actively enrolled other actors for the rule-making process ensuring support...... that the UN Guiding Principles are unique in several respects of relevance to transnational business governance interaction and indicate the relevance of the TBGI approach to public regulatory transnational business governance initiatives. The analysis of the Guiding Principles as interactional transnational...

  20. The right patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howrigon, Ron

    2012-01-01

    This article offers professional opinions and advice on how physicians should prepare in order to protect themselves and their practices during this turbulent time in healthcare reform. This article presents real-life scenarios to help physicians understand what they may face and what actions they should take in anticipation of the future in healthcare. The article focuses on the concept of "the right patient," defining the characteristics of patients that benefit the financial aspect of a practice and those who do not. Its purpose is not to encourage physicians to deny care to patients who are poorly insured or uninsured, but to guide in the establishment of a smart and safe balance between the two. Strategies are discussed on how to attract the right patient and what these patients mean to the practice. The importance of practice marketing is also highlighted, along with an emphasis on the necessity of change in order to survive in the future healthcare environment.

  1. The Community of Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgård, Jonas Ross

    2012-01-01

    The article presents the argument that in order to have human rights in the years of the French Revolution it was necessary to be and act in accordance with an ambiguous concept of the natural. While the idea of the natural or of human nature could be an inclusive and universal one, it could also...... be used in a particularistic and excluding way which was the case in the legislation of Maximilien de Robespierre’s Terror Regime. Situated somewhere between inclusion in and exclusion from the community of rights, the playwright and political activist Olympe de Gouges sought to propagate an understanding...... of the natural that could better accommodate women and nonmarital children. Her attempts were futile, however, and in 1793 she was sentenced to death according to a newly written law meant to prosecute enemies of the Republic’s natural community....

  2. Choosing the right technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milan, Christian; Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Bojesen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    The use of renewable energy sources (RES) has continuously increased throughout the last decade. In the residential building sector the trend goes towards energy supply systems based on multiple RES. This is mainly due to political requirements, governmental subsidies and fuel price development....... These systems not only require an optimal design with respect to the installed capacities but also the right choice in combining the available technologies assuring a cost-effective solution. e aim of this paper is to present an optimization methodology for residential on-site energy supply systems based...... on mixed integer linear programming. The methodology chooses the right combination of technologies and sizes the components based on on-site weather data and expected consumption profiles. Through this approach the fluctuations of RES as well as the user behavior are taken into account already during...

  3. Intellectual Property Rights Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkærsig, Lars; Beukel, Karin; Reichstein, Toke

    Intellectual Property Rights Management explores how the entire toolbox of intellectual property (IP) protection and management are successfully combined and how firms generate value from IP. In particular, this book provides a framework of archetypes which firms will be able to self...... to large organization but also reflect the practices and operations that reside in SMEs. This volume also utilizes labor market and firm data to determine whether there is a definitive relationship between IP and economic performance on the firm level....

  4. Intellectual property rights management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkærsig, Lars; Beukel, Karin; Reichstein, Toke

    Intellectual Property Rights Management explores how the entire toolbox of intellectual property (IP) protection and management are successfully combined and how firms generate value from IP. In particular, this book provides a framework of archetypes which firms will be able to self...... to large organization but also reflect the practices and operations that reside in SMEs. This volume also utilizes labor market and firm data to determine whether there is a definitive relationship between IP and economic performance on the firm level....

  5. Right about time?

    CERN Document Server

    Gryb, Sean

    2013-01-01

    Have our fundamental theories got time right? Does size really matter? Or is physics all in the eyes of the beholder? In this essay, we question the origin of time and scale by reevaluating the nature of measurement. We then argue for a radical scenario, supported by a suggestive calculation, where the flow of time is inseparable from the measurement process. Our scenario breaks the bond of time and space and builds a new one: the marriage of time and scale.

  6. The Globalisation of (Educational) Language Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove

    2001-01-01

    Argues that global English usage is triggering linguistic genocide in many areas of the world. Equates globalization with war and colonization, and with power structures taking control of natural resources--including land, water, and humans. Asserts that education in a mother tongue must be a human right. (Contains 50 references.) (NB)

  7. Treat Yourself Right

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文洁

    2011-01-01

    What belongs to ourselves for the whole life? Indisputably, only ourselves. We can not expect that anything or anyone may stay with us a lifetime long. Time passes away second and second which just likes the flowing water that never stops.

  8. Philosophical foundations of human rights

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Matthew S

    2015-01-01

    What makes something a human right? What is the relationship between the moral foundations of human rights and human rights law? What are the difficulties of appealing to human rights? This book offers the first comprehensive survey of current thinking on the philosophical foundations of human rights. Divided into four parts, this book focusses firstly on the moral grounds of human rights, for example in our dignity, agency, interests or needs. 'Secondly, it looks at the implications that different moral perspectives on human rights bear for human rights law and politics. Thirdly, it discusses specific and topical human rights including freedom of expression and religion, security, health and more controversial rights such as a human right to subsistence. The final part discusses nuanced critical and reformative views on human rights from feminist, Kantian and relativist perspectives among others. The essays represent new and canonical research by leading scholars in the field. Each part is comprised of a set...

  9. WOMEN'S RIGHTS AND FISCAL JUSTICE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chiara Capraro

    2016-01-01

    ... for the full realisation of human rights. In particular, given the gendered consequences of lack of funding to realise human rights, tax policy is of particular importance to women's rights advocates and feminists globally...

  10. Testing SDRT's Right Frontier

    CERN Document Server

    Afantenos, Stergos

    2010-01-01

    The Right Frontier Constraint (RFC), as a constraint on the attachment of new constituents to an existing discourse structure, has important implications for the interpretation of anaphoric elements in discourse and for Machine Learning (ML) approaches to learning discourse structures. In this paper we provide strong empirical support for SDRT's version of RFC. The analysis of about 100 doubly annotated documents by five different naive annotators shows that SDRT's RFC is respected about 95% of the time. The qualitative analysis of presumed violations that we have performed shows that they are either click-errors or structural misconceptions.

  11. Linear right ideal nearrings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth D. Magill

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We determine, up to isomorphism, all those topological nearrings n whose additive groups are the n-dimensional Euclidean groups, n>1, and which contain n one-dimensional linear subspaces {Ji}i=1n which are also right ideals of the nearring satisfying several additional properties. Specifically, for each w∈n, we require that there exist wi∈Ji, 1≤i≤n, such that w=w1+w2+⋯+wn and multiplication on the left of w yields the same result as multiplication by the same element on the left of wn. That is, vw=vwn for each v∈n.

  12. Einstein was right!

    CERN Document Server

    Hess, Karl

    2014-01-01

    All modern books on Einstein emphasize the genius of his relativity theory and the corresponding corrections and extensions of the ancient space-time concept. However, Einstein's opposition to the use of probability in the laws of nature and particularly in the laws of quantum mechanics is criticized and often portrayed as outdated. The author of Einstein Was Right! takes a unique view and shows that Einstein created a ""Trojan horse"" ready to unleash forces against the use of probability as a basis for the laws of nature. Einstein warned that the use of probability would, in the final analys

  13. Right lung agenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar B

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital pulmonary agenesis or aplasia is extremely rare. Although more than fifty percent of patients die before first five years of age, some individuals may remain asymptomatic throughout their life. A three-month-old female child with right pulmonary agenesis presented to us with severe respiratory distress. She was misdiagnosed as a case of foreign body bronchus at the peripheral health centre. Bronchoscopy confirmed the diagnosis and relieved the symptoms. It is recommended that invasive diagnostic procedures and prophylactic surgery should not be done in asymptomatic cases.

  14. Postpartal right ventricular thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velicki, Lazar; Milosavljević, Aleksandar; Majin, Marijan; Vujin, Bojan; Kovacević, Pavle

    2008-11-01

    The discovery of an intracardial mass in patients presents a serious diagnostic dilemma. The differential diagnosis of this condition may seem abundant, but myxomas and intracardial thrombosis are the most frequent diagnoses. A connection between pregnancy and the presence of thrombosis has been documented frequently. Normal pregnancy leads to changes of the coagulative and fibrinolytic status toward a hypercoagulable condition which has its own physiological justification (the risk of blood loss decreases during labor). The case of a patient suffering from postpartal right ventricular thrombosis, which was successfully resolved by surgery as described in this contribution, demonstrates the value of a multidisciplinary approach.

  15. Territory, Rights and Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chenchen

    2014-01-01

    looks at two different notions of territory – a statist one and a networked one – that are visible in the official discourses, yet it highlights the fact that the technologies that are supposed to produce each type of territoriality often converge. Thus I read the politics of Eurostar and the Channel...... attention to the excessive forms of mobility that challenge and break with the official formulation of free movement rights. Thus we turn to the intricate relationship between mobility and citizenship in Europe following our dialogical approach: focusing on the rationalities implied in the government...

  16. Protecting indigenous rights. Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Guatemala's recent ratification of the International Labor Organization (ILO) Convention regarding indigenous and tribal peoples (1989, No. 169) represents a commitment to guarantee the rights of the country's majority Mayan population. Ratifying governments are obligated to respect the traditional values and land rights of tribal and indigenous peoples and to consult with them on any decisions affecting their economic or social development. Ratification of this Convention was a key element in an eight-part UN-sponsored negotiation aimed at ending the civil war in Guatemala. Efforts are underway to promote dialogue between organized civil society and government. Negotiations in May 1996, conducted with ILO assistance, resulted in a socioeconomic agreement under which Guatemala will increase social investment in education, undertake agrarian reform, and institute tripartite consultation on all major social and economic issues. However, two key issues in the peace negotiations--the role of the army in civil society and constitutional reform--remain unresolved. The final global peace accord is expected to be signed in September 1996. UN organizations are already working to mobilize international support for transforming these agreements into political and social realities for the Guatemalan people.

  17. River and Human Rights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIE WUGANG; MENG JIA

    2011-01-01

    @@ Nothing is like a river.It seems coming from nowhere, far back into antiquity.It is originated from drops of water and converged into a long stream that flows ceaselessly.It benefits the vast expanse of land and nourishes all the living on it.It stretches and undulates,forming ponds and lakes of different depths.It is moving or motionless,overflowing with vigor and vitality.

  18. Philanthropy and Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Øjvind

    2013-01-01

    written about philanthropy from a political, sociological, anthropological and managerial perspective. However, an essential question remains: what does philanthropy mean? In a Greek context, philanthropy is connected to a friendly act towards one’s owns close connections such as family or fellow citizens......, and normally utilized to promote one’s own prestige in the city-state. In Roman context, universal humanism, humanitas, was invented. This universal perspective was also supported by Christianity. It is this universal concept of philanthropy which is the foundation for the different philanthropic traditions...... in Germany, England, France and USA. In each tradition is developed special features of the concept of philanthropy. The four traditions are summarized in the UN universal human rights, which has become the common normative reference for global philanthropy. In this way philanthropy has become, in a modern...

  19. Women's Rights Network (WRN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slote, K; Cuthbert, C

    1997-02-01

    The Massachusetts-based Women's Rights Network (WRN) was founded in 1995 in response to the need to develop collaborative, crosscultural, and international strategies to eliminate domestic violence. The WRN initiated meetings with local advocates to identify the most pressing issues facing the US battered women's movement and then began to contact advocates for battered women throughout the world. To date, the WRN offers a resource center documenting strategies used around the world to end domestic violence, gives workshops and presentations to increase public education and awareness about domestic violence, organizes international strategy sessions between women's advocates in Massachusetts and those in other countries, facilitates one-on-one partnerships between groups for battered women in Massachusetts and sister organizations in other countries, and participates in the annual "16 Days of Activism Against Gender Violence." The WRN also plans to publish a biannual journal.

  20. Right colonic diverticulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, In Kyu

    2010-08-01

    Although right colonic diverticultis (RCD) has been reported to be a rare disease in Western countries, RCD is a common diagnosis, with an incidence per 2.9-17 case of appendicitis, in Korea. Many Western studies have reported that it is difficult to differentiate the presenting symptoms of RCD from those of appendicitis before surgery because the signs and symptoms are similar. However, performing a computed tomography scan after the application of the diagnostic criteria for RCD has increased the preoperative RCD diagnostic rate. Treatment strategies have been difficult to define for this condition due to its low preoperative diagnosis rate. However, recent reports have shown that conservative medical treatment of uncomplicated RCD can be recommended and that such treatment is effective due to the benign and self-limited natural history of RCD. Therefore, in this review, we discuss the controversies surrounding RCD management.

  1. Asking the Right Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Line

    are part of everyday life, children are often the most vulnerable. The project was carried out to shed light on mainly two types of diseases - malaria and diarrheal diseases - that strike children. In practice the academic backgrounds of the researchers played a role in the methodological approach...... to the field. By emphasizing the logos in methodology this paper wishes to underscore that where anthropology sets itself apart from public health is, among other, in the way anthropologists think about method and how this affects fieldwork practices as well as analyses. By tracing two concepts, hygiene......, is the ability to move beyond even the best hidden assumptions and question our own questions, thereby enabling us to ask the right questions....

  2. Experiment, right or wrong

    CERN Document Server

    Franklin, Allan

    2008-01-01

    In Experiment, Right or Wrong, Allan Franklin continues his investigation of the history and philosophy of experiment presented in his previous book, The Neglect of Experiment. In this new study, Franklin considers the fallibility and corrigibility of experimental results and presents detailed histories of two such episodes: 1) the experiment and the development of the theory of weak interactions from Fermi's theory in 1934 to the V-A theory of 1957 and 2) atomic parity violation experiments and the Weinberg-Salam unified theory of electroweak interactions of the 1970s and 1980s. In these episodes Franklin demonstrates not only that experimental results can be wrong, but also that theoretical calculations and the comparison between experiment and theory can also be incorrect. In the second episode, Franklin contrasts his view of an "evidence model" of science in which questions of theory choice, confirmation, and refutation are decided on the basis of reliable experimental evidence, with that proposed by the ...

  3. Choosing the right technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milan, Christian; Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Bojesen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    The use of renewable energy sources (RES) has continuously increased throughout the last decade. In the residential building sector the trend goes towards energy supply systems based on multiple RES. This is mainly due to political requirements, governmental subsidies and fuel price development....... These systems not only require an optimal design with respect to the installed capacities but also the right choice in combining the available technologies assuring a cost-effective solution. e aim of this paper is to present an optimization methodology for residential on-site energy supply systems based...... costs including system installation and operating expenses. The approach is applied to a case study of a residential single family house under Danish conditions. It delivers rapidly site-specific solutions and can easily be used as an extension for common building energy simulation software. In the case...

  4. Teachers and Human Rights Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osler, Audrey; Starkey, Hugh

    2010-01-01

    Why do teachers need to be familiar with human rights? In multicultural societies, whose values take precedence? How do schools resolve tensions between children's rights and teachers' rights? Campaigners, politicians and the media cite human rights to justify or challenge anything from peaceful protest to military action. The phrase "human…

  5. Customary Rights: Holding the Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Ellison

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the nature, history and significance of Maori customary rights in the New Zealand context, and argues there is a need for a New Zealand constitution which embodies human rights which recognise and uphold the customary rights of the indigenous peoples of this land and protects those rights from oppressive and discriminatory political acts of expediency by government.

  6. Teachers and Human Rights Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osler, Audrey; Starkey, Hugh

    2010-01-01

    Why do teachers need to be familiar with human rights? In multicultural societies, whose values take precedence? How do schools resolve tensions between children's rights and teachers' rights? Campaigners, politicians and the media cite human rights to justify or challenge anything from peaceful protest to military action. The phrase "human…

  7. The Nature of Language Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xabier Arzoz

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The discussion on language rights is affected by some confusion on the nature and status of rights. In this paper, a rigorous characterisation of language rights is proposed. It is argued that the general assimilation or equation between language rights and human rights is not only erroneous as far as it is inaccurate, but it leads to a distorted image of the relationship between law and politics. While human rights do limit (at least, ideally state behaviour, language rights are, more often than not, an issue devolved to the political process. The point being made in this paper is that recognition of language rights (as such or as part of minority rights is based primarily on contingent historical reasons. Some tentative explanations on the poor status or unequal recognition of language rights in international and domestic law will also be offered throughout the paper.

  8. Pragmatic Challenges to Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaumburg-Müller, Sten

    2007-01-01

    Pragmatism offers a platform for posing relevant questions. This article uses a pragmatic point of departure to question a natural law conception of human rights and to take a closer look at three pressing human rights problems: The human rights situation in states with little or no state capacity......; the revision and adaptation of human rights law; and the not straightforward relationship betweemn human rights and democracy....

  9. Raz on rights: human rights, fundamental rights and balancing\\ud

    OpenAIRE

    Zanghellini, Aleardo

    2017-01-01

    After clarifying the outlines of Raz’s interest theory of rights and its relationship to aspects of the principles theory of rights, I consider how his recent observations on human rights fit (or fail to fit) into the interest theory. I then address two questions. First, I elaborate on Raz’s definition of morally fundamental rights, arguing that he is right in claiming that there are no such rights. I then show that the interest theory accommodates the notion that rights may take qualitative ...

  10. The right balance

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Over the course of her career as a physicist, Felicitas Pauss, currently responsible for CERN's External Relations, has often been the sole woman in an environment dominated by men. While she freely admits that being a woman physicist can have as many advantages as disadvantages, she thinks the best strategy is to maintain the right balance.   From a very early age, Felicitas Pauss always wanted to be involved in projects that interested and fascinated her. That's how she came to study physics. When she was a first-year university student in Austria in 1970, it was still fairly uncommon for women to go into physics research. "I grew up in Salzburg with a background in music. At that time, it was certainly considered more ‘normal’ for a woman to study music than to do research in physics. But already in high school I was interested in physics and technical instruments and wanted to know how things work and what they are made of”. At the beginning of her care...

  11. Patient's rights charter in Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Parsapoor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the importance of patient's rights in healthcare, special attention has been given to the concept of patient's rights by the Ministry of Health and Medical Education in Iran. Iranian patient's rights charter has been compiled with a novel and comprehensive approach. This charter aims to elucidate rights of recipients of health services as well as observing ethical standards in medicine. This paper presents the Iranian patient's rights charter. Based on a study done from 2007 to 2009, the charter has been finalized through an extensive consultation involving all stakeholders, patients, physicians, nurses, lawyers, patient associations and health policy makers. The developed charter was adopted by the Ministry of Health in December 2009. Iranian patient's rights charter has been formulated in the framework of 5 chapters and 37 articles including vision and an explanatory note. The five chapters concern right to receiving appropriate services, right to access desired and enough information, right to choose and decide freely about receiving healthcare, right to privacy and confidentiality, and finally right to access an efficient system of dealing with complaints which have been explained in 14, 9, 7, 4 and 3 articles, respectively.  The paper concludes that, adopting the patient's rights charter is a valuable measure to meet patient's rights; however, a serious challenge is how to implement and acculturate observing patient's rights in practice in our healthcare system in Iran.

  12. consumer rights as constitutional rights-a comparative analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mofasony

    1984-07-24

    Jul 24, 1984 ... A consumer right is the hallmark of consumer protection law. .... The Legislative and Institutional Framework of Environmental Protection in the Oil … 186 ... O. Okpara; Human Rights Law & Practice in Nigeria 2005, Enugu ...

  13. Congenital right sided ureteropelvic junction obstruction in right ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    V. Singh

    Congenital right sided ureteropelvic junction obstruction in right crossed ... Peer review under responsibility of Pan African Urological Surgeons' Asso- ciation. ... There was large gap between the UPJ and the .... relationship to renal disease.

  14. Entrepreneurship and property right: de Soto'r right

    OpenAIRE

    Kodila-Tedika, Oasis

    2012-01-01

    Using cross-sectional analysis with new data on entrepreneurship and entrepreneurship, we test the hypothesis of de Soto (1994, 2005) that the right of property is required for hatching entrepreneurship. Given our econometric estimates and our sensitivity tests, the right to property is essential to entrepreneurship. Countries with a higher entrepreneurship are those who respect property rights..

  15. get rights right in the interests of security of tenure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nicola Smit

    preparation for litigation that challenges the constitutionality of the former Act by alleging ... understood concept of real rights and, in principle, rights in land that do not meet the ... Indigenous land rights are not inferior to, just different from common law ..... their role and function are not clearly articulated, except to say that.

  16. Getting offshoring right.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron, Ravi; Singh, Jitendra V

    2005-12-01

    The prospect of offshoring and outsourcing business processes has captured the imagination of CEOs everywhere. In the past five years, a rising number of companies in North America and Europe have experimented with this strategy, hoping to reduce costs and gain strategic advantage. But many businesses have had mixed results. According to several studies, half the organizations that have shifted processes offshore have failed to generate the expected financial benefits. What's more, many of them have faced employee resistance and consumer dissatisfaction. Clearly, companies have to rethink how they formulate their offshoring strategies. A three-part methodology can help. First, companies need to prioritize their processes, ranking each based on two criteria: the value it creates for customers and the degree to which the company can capture some of that value. Companies will want to keep their core (highest-priority) processes in-house and consider outsourcing their commodity (low-priority) processes; critical (moderate-priority) processes are up for debate and must be considered carefully. Second, businesses should analyze all the risks that accompany offshoring and look systematically at their critical and commodity processes in terms of operational risk (the risk that processes won't operate smoothly after being offshored) and structural risk (the risk that relationships with service providers may not work as expected). Finally, companies should determine possible locations for their offshore efforts, as well as the organizational forms--such as captive centers and joint ventures--that those efforts might take. They can do so by examining each process's operational and structural risks side by side. This article outlines the tools that will help companies choose the right processes to offshore. It also describes a new organizational structure called the extended organization, in which companies specify the quality of services they want and work alongside providers

  17. CRM done right.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Darrell K; Ledingham, Dianne

    2004-11-01

    Disappointed by the high costs and elusive benefits, early adopters of customer relationship management systems came, in the post dot-com era, to view the technology as just another overhyped IT investment whose initial promise would never be fulfilled. But this year, something unexpected is happening. System sales are rising, and executives are reporting satisfaction with their CRM investments. What's changed? A wide range of companies are successfully taking a pragmatic, disciplined approach to CRM. Rather than use it to transform entire businesses, they've directed their investments toward solving clearly defined problems within their customer relationship cycle. The authors have distilled the experiences of these CRM leaders into four questions that all companies should ask themselves as they launch their own CRM initiatives: Is the problem strategic? Is the system focused on the pain point? Do we need perfect data? What's the right way to expand an initial implementation? The questions reflect a new realism about when and how to deploy CRM to best advantage. Understanding that highly accurate and timely data are not required everywhere in their businesses, CRM leaders have tailored their real-time initiatives to those customer relationships that can be significantly enhanced by "perfect" information. Once they've succeeded with their first targeted CRM project, they can use it as a springboard for solving additional problems. CRM, in other words, is coming to resemble any other valuable management tool, and the keys to successful implementation are also becoming familiar: strong executive and business-unit leadership, careful strategic planning, clear performance measures, and a coordinated program that combines organizational and process changes with the application of new technology.

  18. Branding water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolnicar, Sara; Hurlimann, Anna; Grün, Bettina

    2014-06-15

    Branding is a key strategy widely used in commercial marketing to make products more attractive to consumers. With the exception of bottled water, branding has largely not been adopted in the water context although public acceptance is critical to the implementation of water augmentation projects. Based on responses from 6247 study participants collected between 2009 and 2012, this study shows that (1) different kinds of water - specifically recycled water, desalinated water, tap water and rainwater from personal rainwater tanks - are each perceived very differently by the public, (2) external events out of the control of water managers, such as serious droughts or floods, had a minimal effect on people's perceptions of water, (3) perceptions of water were stable over time, and (4) certain water attributes are anticipated to be more effective to use in public communication campaigns aiming at increasing public acceptance for drinking purposes. The results from this study can be used by a diverse range of water stakeholders to increase public acceptance and adoption of water from alternative sources. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Right Handed Quark Mixing in Left-Right Symmetric Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Senjanović, Goran

    2014-01-01

    We give exact formulas for the right-handed analog of the CKM matrix in the minimal Left-Right symmetric theory, for the case when the Left-Right symmetry is generalised Parity as in the original version of the theory. We derive its explicit form and give a physical reason for the known and surprising fact that the right-handed mixing angles are close to the CKM ones, in spite of the Left-Right symmetry being badly broken in nature.

  20. Right Handed Quark Mixing in Left-Right Symmetric Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Senjanović, Goran; Tello, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    We give exact formulas for the right-handed analog of the CKM matrix in the minimal Left-Right symmetric theory, for the case when the Left-Right symmetry is generalized Parity as in the original version of the theory. We derive its explicit form and give a physical reason for the known and surprising fact that the right-handed mixing angles are close in value to the CKM ones, in spite of the Left-Right symmetry being badly broken in nature. We exemplify our results on the production of the r...

  1. Australia: Abortion and Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sifris, Ronli; Belton, Suzanne

    2017-06-01

    This article adopts a human rights lens to consider Australian law and practice regarding elective abortion. As such, it considers Australian laws within the context of the right to equality, right to privacy, right to health, and right to life. After setting out the human rights framework and noting the connected nature of many of the rights (and their corresponding violations), the article shifts its focus to analyzing Australian law and practice within the framework of these rights. It considers the importance of decriminalizing abortion and regulating it as a standard medical procedure. It discusses the need to remove legal and practical restrictions on access to abortion, including financial obstacles and anti-abortion protestors. Further, it comments on the importance of facilitating access; for example, by keeping accurate health data, securing continuity of health care, increasing the availability of medical abortion, and ensuring appropriate care is provided to the most marginalized and vulnerable women.

  2. Eating Right for Kidney Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eating Right for Kidney Health Tips for People with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) National Kidney Disease Education Program hat ... eat healthier. These tips will help you eat right as you manage your CKD. The First Steps ...

  3. Customary Rights: Holding the Line

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Edward Ellison

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the nature, history and significance of Maori customary rights in the New Zealand context, and argues there is a need for a New Zealand constitution which embodies human rights...

  4. [Respecting rights of hospitalized children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroczek, Bozena

    2004-01-01

    Children's rights are nowadays an important social, pedagogic, legal and moral problem. Practical respecting of resolutions included in the Convention on the Rights of the Child is far from perfect and requires changing social way of thinking. To attain this, the contents and essence of children's rights have to be disseminated and consequently enforced. The aim of my research was to answer the question: "What are the conditions for upholding children's right to respect at children wards?". The subject of my analysis was nurses' value hierarchy and individual conditions influencing respecting children rights. Research procedures were directed towards finding the answer to the following question: "What is the range of upholding children's right to respect?". I defined children's right to respect on the basis of analysis of Janusz Korczak's scientific output and the provisions of the Convention on the Rights of the Child. The rights being the subject of my research are classified either as "soft" or "hard" rights. "Soft" rights are defined in articles no. 12-16 and 31. Rights defined in articles no. 6, 7, 9 and 24 are referred to as "hard" rights. The synthesis of research results leads to the following solution of the research problem: The assumption of a strong influence of the most important values on mental life-thinking, perception, emotional-motivation processes, attitude and behavior of questioned nurses did not have proper empirical confirmation. Nurses' value hierarchy does not ensure upholding of children's right to respect in hospitals. Nurses' awareness of children rights reaches average level, while their knowledge and activity are at low level, and understanding of essence of children's rights and valuation of the rights--at average level. Average level of awareness of respecting children's rights makes children's existence in hospital imperiled by intuitive, often routine activities of nurses. The level of nurses' awareness is differentiated by age

  5. Discursive Framings of Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and social contexts. Historical as well as contemporary declarations of rights have stressed both the protective and political aspects of human rights. But in concrete situations and conflictual moments, the high moral legitimacy of human rights rhetoric has often clouded the actual character of specific......, it thus establishes a relationship between these different genres and the political, economic, and legal dimensions of human rights discourse....

  6. Human Rights and Public Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowring, Bill

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts a contrast to the contribution by Hugh Starkey. Rather than his account of the inexorable rise of human rights discourse, and of the implementation of human rights standards, human rights are here presented as always and necessarily scandalous and highly contested. First, I explain why the UK has lagged so far behind its…

  7. Human Rights and the Statistician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirer, Herbert F.

    Statisticians can help to improve human rights reporting. The statistician's approach to measurement, summary, and interpretation is needed to understand and help reduce human rights violations. Statistical problems in the measurement and analysis of human rights violations include: lack of agreement on the definition; great difficulties in…

  8. Human Rights and Public Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowring, Bill

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts a contrast to the contribution by Hugh Starkey. Rather than his account of the inexorable rise of human rights discourse, and of the implementation of human rights standards, human rights are here presented as always and necessarily scandalous and highly contested. First, I explain why the UK has lagged so far behind its…

  9. Human Rights/Human Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, Cynthia

    1978-01-01

    The faculty of Holy Names High School developed an interdisciplinary human rights program with school-wide activities focusing on three selected themes: the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in conjunction with Human Rights Week; Food; and Women. This article outlines major program activities. (SJL)

  10. Children's rights in EU law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mak, C.; de Graaf, J.H.; Mak, C.; Montanus, P.J.; van Wijk, F.K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of how EU rights of children should be interpreted and applied in the light of international children’s rights principles, in particular dignity. In other words, what normative framework should inform the enforcement of children’s rights in Europe? The analysis of

  11. The Citizen's Right to Effective Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, Michael

    Right to information, Charter of Fundamental Rights, European Citizenship, effevtice protection of EU rights......Right to information, Charter of Fundamental Rights, European Citizenship, effevtice protection of EU rights...

  12. The 'right' not to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ost, D E

    1984-08-01

    There is a common view in medical ethics that the patient's right to be informed entails, as well, a correlative right not to be informed, i.e., to waive one's right to information. This paper argues, from a consideration of the concept of autonomy as the foundation for rights, that there can be no such 'right' to refuse relevant information, and that the claims for such a right are inconsistent with both deontological and utilitarian ethics. Further, the right to be informed is shown to be a mandatory right (though not a welfare right); persons are thus seen to have both a right and a duty to be informed. Finally, the consequences of this view are addressed: since the way in which we conceptualize our problems tends to determine the actions we take to resolve them, it is important properly to conceptualize patients' requests not to be informed. There may be many reasons for acting in accord with such a request, but it is a mistake to conceptualize one's act as 'respecting a right possessed by persons'.

  13. A Culture Of Health And Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariner, Wendy K; Annas, George J

    2016-11-01

    A culture of health can be seen as a social norm that values health as the nation's priority or as an appeal to improve the social determinants of health. Better population health will require changing social and economic policies. Effective changes are unlikely unless health advocates can leverage a framework broader than health to mobilize political action in collaboration with non-health sector advocates. We suggest that human rights-the dominant international source of norms for government responsibilities-provides this broader framework. Human rights, as expressed in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and enforceable treaties, require governments to assure their populations nondiscriminatory access to food, water, education, work, social security, and a standard of living adequate for health and well-being. The policies needed to realize human rights also improve population health, well-being, and equity. Aspirations for human rights are strong enough to endure beyond inevitable setbacks to specific causes. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  14. The nature of human rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krivokapić Boris

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the first part of the paper, the author points out that, unlike in the past, in our time human rights developed into a fair legal institution, and even a special system. They are formulated and protected both internally and internationally. The second part deals with the approach according to which human rights are part of the so-called. natural law. The author notes that the theory of natural law can not be accepted for many reasons. It is pure construction, which is far from reality, and besides it is unnecessary. Law and thus human rights as a part of it, is a social creation, developing along with the society itself, whereby, in the longer term, advanced norms in the matter of human rights replace obsolete ones. Life and human needs are the ones who impose such development. In the third part the writer notes that since under human rights one can have in mind various things, at least such a special concept and, on the other hand, specific rights, it is not possible to give a single answer to what is the nature of human rights. It is even harder as human rights, have a variety of dimensions - legal, philosophical, ideological, political, economic, social, educational, etc. However, he gives his view of the main characteristics of the modern concept of human rights. In the fourth part, the author notes that, speaking not about the concept, but human rights as such, their main characteristics are that they are: 1 source - belong to anyone on the grounds that he is a human being (general rights or a member specific vulnerable groups (special rights; 2 universal - belong to everyone or all members of vulnerable groups, without any discrimination based on personal characteristics, and on the other hand, the most important such rights shall be recognized in all states; 3 inalienable - one can not give up or else share his basic human rights, such as the right to life, the right to vote, etc.; 4 somewhat different - although, in principle, all

  15. Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Rights: A Human Rights Perspective. Human Rights Education Series, Topic Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, David M.

    This curriculum is intended to further thoughtful examination and responsible action among high school students about lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) issues. Unlike other curricula this discussion is not in the context of civil or political rights but in the broader context of human rights. These rights, as defined in the Universal…

  16. The Environmental Right as a Human Right: Scientific Development and the Protection of Rights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN ZHONGLE

    2011-01-01

    @@ As environmental issues are attracting domestic and international attention,protection of environmental rights is becoming increasingly important in human rights affairs.Environmental protection involves economic development and social harmony, influences the maintenance and complete realization of people's rights to health, property and life, and is even related to the future existence of the whole human society.

  17. The right to be loved

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Matthew S

    2015-01-01

    S. Matthew Liao argues here that children have a right to be loved. To do so he investigates questions such as whether children are rightholders; what grounds a child's right to beloved; whether love is an appropriate object of a right; and other philosophical and practical issues. His proposal is that all human beings have rights to the fundamental conditions for pursuing a good life; therefore, as human beings, children have human rights to the fundamental conditions for pursuing a good life. Since being loved is one of those fundamental conditions, children thus have a right to be loved. Liao shows that this claim need not be merely empty rhetoric, and that the arguments for this right can hang together as a coherent whole. This is the first book to make a sustained philosophical case for the right of children to be loved. It makes a unique contribution to the fast-growing literature on family ethics, in particular, on children's rights and parental rights and responsibilities, and to the emerging field of...

  18. Climate Change, Human Rights, and Social Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Barry S; Patz, Jonathan A

    2015-01-01

    The environmental and health consequences of climate change, which disproportionately affect low-income countries and poor people in high-income countries, profoundly affect human rights and social justice. Environmental consequences include increased temperature, excess precipitation in some areas and droughts in others, extreme weather events, and increased sea level. These consequences adversely affect agricultural production, access to safe water, and worker productivity, and, by inundating land or making land uninhabitable and uncultivatable, will force many people to become environmental refugees. Adverse health effects caused by climate change include heat-related disorders, vector-borne diseases, foodborne and waterborne diseases, respiratory and allergic disorders, malnutrition, collective violence, and mental health problems. These environmental and health consequences threaten civil and political rights and economic, social, and cultural rights, including rights to life, access to safe food and water, health, security, shelter, and culture. On a national or local level, those people who are most vulnerable to the adverse environmental and health consequences of climate change include poor people, members of minority groups, women, children, older people, people with chronic diseases and disabilities, those residing in areas with a high prevalence of climate-related diseases, and workers exposed to extreme heat or increased weather variability. On a global level, there is much inequity, with low-income countries, which produce the least greenhouse gases (GHGs), being more adversely affected by climate change than high-income countries, which produce substantially higher amounts of GHGs yet are less immediately affected. In addition, low-income countries have far less capability to adapt to climate change than high-income countries. Adaptation and mitigation measures to address climate change needed to protect human society must also be planned to protect

  19. Exclusive Rights and State Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard

    2017-01-01

    kinds of terms are regulated under State aid law which requires market terms. The granting of exclusive rights as compensation is analysed on the basis of the Eventech judgment, and it is found that when no financial transaction is included in the grant, it resembles a decision to organise a market......Exclusive rights are granted in order to regulate markets as one of several possible tools of public intervention. The article considers the role of State aid law in the regulation of exclusive rights. Whereas the right of Member States to organise markets as monopolies and the choice of provider...... are regulated by free movement rules and Article 106 TFEU, State aid law regulates the terms of the right to ensure that the beneficiary is not granted an economic advantage. Exclusive rights may be granted on various terms: for a payment, in combination with compensation or as compensation. The two former...

  20. Human Rights and Cultural Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John-Stewart Gordon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Universal human rights and particular cultural identities, which are relativistic by nature, seem to stand in conflict with each other. It is commonly suggested that the relativistic natures of cultural identities undermine universal human rights and that human rights might compromise particular cultural identities in a globalised world. This article examines this supposed clash and suggests that it is possible to frame a human rights approach in such a way that it becomes the starting point and constraining framework for all non-deficient cultural identities. In other words, it is possible to depict human rights in a culturally sensitive way so that universal human rights can meet the demands of a moderate version of meta-ethical relativism which acknowledges a small universal core of objectively true or false moral statements and avers that, beyond that small core, all other moral statements are neither objectively true nor false.

  1. Right heart on multidetector CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, D

    2011-01-01

    Right ventricular function plays an integral role in the pathogenesis and outcome of many cardiovascular diseases. Imaging the right ventricle has long been a challenge because of its complex geometry. In recent years there has been a tremendous expansion in multidetector row CT (MDCT) and its cardiac applications. By judicious modification of contrast medium protocol, it is possible to achieve good opacification of the right-sided cardiac chambers, thereby paving the way for exploring the overshadowed right heart. This article will describe the key features of right heart anatomy, review MDCT acquisition techniques, elaborate the various morphological and functional information that can be obtained, and illustrate some important clinical conditions associated with an abnormal right heart. PMID:22723537

  2. The right hepatic artery syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kazumi Miyashita; Katsuya Shiraki; Takeshi Ito; Hiroki Taoka; Takeshi Nakano

    2005-01-01

    Various benign and malignant conditions could cause biliary obstruction. Compression of extrahepatic bile duct (EBD) by right hepatic artery was reported as a right hepatic artery syndrome but all cases were compressed EBD from stomach side. Our case compressed from dorsum was not yet reported, so it was thought to be a very rare case. We present here the first case of bile duct obstruction due to the compression of EBD from dorsum by right hepatic artery.

  3. Human Rights and Human Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Possenti

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available There seems to be two different versions of human rights in Western tradition: say Rationalistic and Christian; the former adopted in revolutionary France, the latter highly developed in Renaissance Spain. Current relativistic criticisms attempt to deny the universality of human rights alleging that this theory has been created in Western countries or it has no strong justification, and therefore cannot have universal approach; but this objection can be dismissed with an alternative justification of human rights.

  4. Property Rights, Restrictions and Responsibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    Land Administration Systems are the basis for conceptualizing rights, restrictions and responsibilities related to people, policies and places. Property rights are normally concerned with ownership and tenure whereas restrictions usually control use and activities on land. Responsibilities relate...... more to a social, ethical commitment or attitude to environmental sustainability and good husbandry. This paper provides an overall understanding of the concept of land administration systems for dealing with rights, restrictions and responsibilities in future spatially enabled government. Finally...

  5. Women's rights are human rights -- why development has failed women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Oxfam UK/I believes that all women have the right to a livelihood, reproductive choice, health care, education, and employment. Access to resources, decision-making, political and religious freedom of expression, and freedom from all forms of violence are also equally important. Oxfam UK/I recognizes that women worldwide from a diversity of cultures and religions are arguing for similar rights, but continuing efforts to create women's equality and empowerment have had only limited success. There has been no significant improvement in women's lifestyles, the feminization of poverty is increasing, growing religious fundamentalism threatens advances made toward equality, and there has been an increasing violation of women's individual human rights to development in the last decade. Human rights instruments to tackle gender inequality exist, but they are not implemented. The rights approach to development recognizes that unless inequalities at local, national, and international levels are seen and challenged, women will continue to face poverty, inadequate representation of their needs and views, and policies which are contrary to their interests. The rights approach encompasses all aspects of women's lives, recognizing that women's rights in the civil, political, social, economic, and cultural spheres are indivisible from one another in the realities of daily life. Oxfam UK/I acknowledges the complexity of the rights debate.

  6. Misconceptions about Human Rights and Women's Rights in Islam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Khalida Tanvir

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to clarify three current misconceptions about the Islamic faith and issues of human rights and women's rights in the West. The first misconception is that Muslims are terrorists because they believe in Jihad. It is factually the case that Islamic teachings stress the value of peace and prosperity for all human beings. The second…

  7. Citizens' Rights and the Right to Be a Citizen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Hirsch Ballin

    2014-01-01

    Ernst Hirsch Ballin discusses the significance of citizens’ rights against the backdrop of ongoing migration and urbanization in the beginning of the 21st century. The traditional view that each state has the sovereign power to give or withhold citizenship, puts the full enjoyment of human rights at

  8. Choosing the Right Assessment for the Right Purpose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliasson, Ann-Christin

    2012-01-01

    Assessments used for both clinical practice and research should show evidence of validity and reliability for the target group of people. It is easy to agree with this statement, but it is not always easy to choose the right assessment for the right purpose. Recently there have been increasing numbers of studies which investigate further the…

  9. Citizens' Rights and the Right to Be a Citizen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirsch Ballin, E.

    2014-01-01

    Ernst Hirsch Ballin discusses the significance of citizens’ rights against the backdrop of ongoing migration and urbanization in the beginning of the 21st century. The traditional view that each state has the sovereign power to give or withhold citizenship, puts the full enjoyment of human rights at

  10. Misconceptions about Human Rights and Women's Rights in Islam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Khalida Tanvir

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to clarify three current misconceptions about the Islamic faith and issues of human rights and women's rights in the West. The first misconception is that Muslims are terrorists because they believe in Jihad. It is factually the case that Islamic teachings stress the value of peace and prosperity for all human beings. The second…

  11. Torsion of right middle lobe after a right upper lobectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Tung-Ying

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Lobar torsion after lung resection is a quite rare complication. A 50-year-old woman presented typical features on chest radiographs and CT(computed tomography scan of lobar torsion after a right upper lobectomy. After emergency lobectomy of right middle lobe, the patient recovered well and discharged 10 days after the second operation.

  12. The Human Right to Peace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Villán Durán

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The international codification of the human right to peace was brought to the United Nations by civil society organizations. The draft declaration submitted to the States has a holistic nature, is very rooted in the international human rights law, and considers peace as the absence of all forms of violence (Santiago Declaration on the Human Right to Peace of 10 December 2010. A working group appointed by the UN Human Rights Council should achieve a new and consensual text to bridge the existing gap between developed and developing States in this field, the former being more supportive of the thesis maintained by civil society.

  13. Rights and responsibilities in Darfur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Reyes

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A combined UN-military-police-humanitarian initiative hasbeen promoting civic rights and responsibilities among IDPsin order to increase security throughout Kalma camp and itssurroundings.

  14. 水污染物初始排污权定价策略研究---以河南省为例%Initial pricing of emission rights of water pollution:Take Henan province as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张茜; 于鲁冀; 王燕鹏; 张培

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of t he study w as to explore the method that combines bot h theory and utilit y. On the basis of pricing the-ory of paid use of emission right s, by exploring the resources and value of the environmental capacity, the contingent value pri-cing met hod and the rent allocation pricing model were established. Then, the init ial distribution prices of em ission rights in Henan province were calculated using above two methods. Results showed that the emission price of COD and ammonia w as re-spect ively 3 463 and 4 329 yuan per ton when using the contingent value pricing method, w hich were 4 499 and 9 122 yuan per ton when using the rent allocation pricing model. The two models are both feasible. By comparing the tw o models, our findings indicate that the theory and results of the rent allocation pricing model are more reasonable. Therefore, rent allocation pricing model may be recommended as a main method, and the contingent value pricing model can be used as an auxiliary means.%为了探索理论和实用性兼顾的水污染物排污权初始分配价格的定价方法,在对现有排污权定价模型分析的基础上,通过对环境容量的资源性和价值性的探讨,建立了支付意愿定价模型和租金分配定价模型。以河南省为例,水污染物(以 COD 和氨氮为例)排污权初始分配价格计算结果为:支付意愿定价模型核算出的 COD 排污权价格为3463元/ t,氨氮排污权价格为4329元/ t;租金分配定价模型核算出的 COD 排污权价格为4499元/ t,氨氮排污权价格为9122元/ t。两种定价模型均具有一定可行性,但租金分配定价模型的定价理论更为合理,定价结果更为可靠,因此推荐以租金分配定价模型为主,以支付意愿定价模型为辅来进行水污染物初始排污权的价格制定。

  15. ARTICLE 21 OF CONSTITUTION OF INDIA AND RIGHT TO LIVELIHOOD

    OpenAIRE

    Neepa Jani

    2013-01-01

    In any organized society, right to live as a human being is not ensured by meeting only the animal needs of man. It is secured only when he is assured of all facilities to develop himself and is freed from restrictions which inhibit his growth. All human rights are designed to achieve this object. Right to live guaranteed in any civilized society implies the right to food, water, decent environment, education, medical care and shelter. The word 'life' as employed by Article 21 takes in its sw...

  16. Who Says Teachers Have Rights?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Louis

    1980-01-01

    Reviews various legal decisions regarding teachers' rights to freedom of expression as guaranteed in the First Amendment. Findings indicate that, although courts continue to hold that the educational process may be jeopardized by some kinds of speech by teachers, they seem to be giving more weight to teachers' rights to speak out. (DB)

  17. Effort rights-based management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Squires, Dale; Maunder, Mark; Allen, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Effort rights-based fisheries management (RBM) is less widely used than catch rights, whether for groups or individuals. Because RBM on catch or effort necessarily requires a total allowable catch (TAC) or total allowable effort (TAE), RBM is discussed in conjunction with issues in assessing fish...

  18. Human Rights and the Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Manta, Claudiu

    2009-01-01

    The current work wants to present the human right in a healthy environment, regarded as the individual’s fundamental right. Also, it presents the consequences of the disrespect of the environment norms by the states as committing the state responsibility in case of serious pollution with trans-frontier effects.

  19. The Right to be Forgotten

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Meg Leta; Jones, Elisabeth; Zeide, Elena

    The right to be forgotten gained international attention in May 2014, when the European Court of Justice ruled that Google was obligated to recognize European citizens’ data protection rights to address inadequate, irrelevant, or excessive personal information. As of April 14, 2015, Google received...

  20. The Right to Mothertongue Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horst, Christian

    2005-01-01

    The article examines how the right to mothertongue education is situated between political pluralism and cultural monism related to different value systems within the construction of the nation state......The article examines how the right to mothertongue education is situated between political pluralism and cultural monism related to different value systems within the construction of the nation state...

  1. Making and Breaking Property Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Mogens Kamp

    2015-01-01

    governments accountable to large groups in society are particularly important, whereas division of powers between veto players is hypothesized to have more ambiguous effects on property rights. Empirical analyses of panel data support the proposition that coalition institutions matter for property......-rights protection, whereas veto-player institutions have no particular effect....

  2. Transformation of Rights to Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Tarik GÜMÜŞ

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Everyone has the right to education from birth, and this right should be available equally to everyone by the state. Basically, the state imposes important responsibilities in regard to providing education services in respect to the right to life in a manner worthy of human dignity towards individuals directly connected to the right to education.The right to education in the classification of fundamental rights and freedoms found in the second generation or the social and economic rights. After World War II, this right significantly institutionalized andmany new constitutions were enacted. Social and economic rights in constitutions of these states had important responsibilities installed as a constitutional assignment.Usually social and economic rights in constitutions in respect to the criteria "the means of economic dependence" is limited. Yet during this period the states were strongly willing to spend strongly in order to implement the right to education. However, since the mid-1970s, states have fallen into economic crisis. In order to adopt a solution to solve this crisis, there has been an emphasis on neo-liberal ideas. So that states a different approach from that period have led to enter into. In the new era that has survived from this, the process of globalization has accelerated and world-wide, neo-liberal shaped ideas, within the framework have led to the establishment of a new order.During this period globalization is taking shape as a process of international exchange that is characterized by a growing interconnectedness between political, social, cultural and economic systems beyond national borders. Thus in this process, important changes are taking place regarding the right to education. This change process is especially the case with respect to economic globalization. In this context economic globalization refers to a related process: the integration of world financial markets. In this process, as national economies open to

  3. Portability of supplementary pension rights in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guardiancich, Igor

    2015-01-01

    In its effort to guarantee the free movement of workers, the European Union devised an advanced system of coordination of social security rights. Since 1958, statutory pensions are being aggregated for workers moving across the Member States. However, until mid-2014, the portability of supplement......In its effort to guarantee the free movement of workers, the European Union devised an advanced system of coordination of social security rights. Since 1958, statutory pensions are being aggregated for workers moving across the Member States. However, until mid-2014, the portability...... a slowly recovering Europe. After nine years of negotiations, the EU has finally passed a Portability Directive, which is, however, a watered down version of the 2005 original proposal. Given such state of affairs, this study has three aims. First, it explains why portability of supplementary pensions...

  4. Rights

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    poverty due to shortage of land and unemployment, and uneasiness about what ... Malawi and suggest a theoretical perspective with which to conceptualise the .... Now she was entirely on her own since her relatives were not in a position to help her ..... The second marriage hindered a Christian blessing of Lisa's marriage.

  5. Researching Human Rights in Prisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwyn Naylor

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines two issues: the author’s recent research on the capacity of prisons to incorporate human rights considerations into their routine management; and the methods employed in this research in prisons in two Australian jurisdictions. The first element examines the impact of formal human rights instruments on prison management and on the lived experiences of prisoners, and the potential for the practical application of human rights obligations in this environment. The second gives closer analysis to the specific use of qualitative methodologies in carrying out this research, and the potential implications of methodology for subsequent acceptance of research findings by governments.

  6. Why Workers’ Rights Are Not Women’s Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Gottfried

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available “Why workers’ rights are not women’s rights” is an argument whose purpose is to make clear why workers’ rights rest on a masculine embodiment of the labor subject and it is this masculine embodiment which is at the center of employment contracts and employment relations systems. By excavating the gender subjects implicit to and explicit in regulations of labor, the paper reveals the opposition of paired terms, masculinity and femininity privileging production over reproduction and naturalizing gender-based power relations. The paper identifies various laboring activities associated with differential rights and responsibilities. An examination of the treatment of part-time employment and waged caring labor, framed in labor, welfare, immigration, and citizenship policies and practices, locates exclusions from labor standards and exemptions from entitlements due to eligibility requirements and thresholds that assume the masculine embodiment of the worker-citizen. Gendering the analysis illustrates how contemporary labor laws and conventions grant rights on the basis of, and to, a rather abstract conception of the prototypical worker-citizen. Its origins lie in what classical political economy labeled a capitalist logic, as well as the historical practices in which free class agents entered into contracts for continuous, full-time work free of care responsibilities outside of the wage/labor nexus. Thus, it is this particular abstract construction of the proto-typical worker which instantiates the separation of “rights to” from “responsibilities for”, and it is this separation that allows the masculine embodiment of the labor subject. Modes of regulation privileging rights over responsibilities will valorize the masculine worker-citizen whose rights derive from their participation in wage labor and simultaneously devalue the feminine worker who is directly connected to caring labor.

  7. Accessing social rights in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacqueson, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this report is to give an overview of the Danish system relating to immigration and welfare rights in order to identify the various barriers to the free movement of Union citizens and their family members. This report addresses the legal and cultural framework, how it works in practice...... 2014. The reason for that is the government’s change of practice in administrating family benefits, granting them to all Union citizens lawfully residing in Denmark without any requirement of prior residence in the country. This change was the result of a request from the European Commission...... be the successful attempt of the Eurosceptic right wing party, The Danish People’s Party, to draw attention to migrant Union citizens and circumvent their social rights (like it did in the case of family benefits). Finally, while the Danish system is at the outset protective of the social rights of non...

  8. Natural disasters and IDPs’ rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Kälin

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available In the understandable rush to provide assistance to the survivors of the tsunami, insufficient attention has been devoted to protecting the human rights of those forcibly displaced by the disaster.

  9. Human Rights in the West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorgen S. Nielsen

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the areas of conflict between Islam and the West in today’s world is the concern for human rights. This has sometimes been criticized in the Muslim world as a form of neo-imperialism. It is therefore necessary to understand the various dimensions of human rights, and the various phases through which this concern has grown. In the earliest form, it was an assertion of the rights of the landed aristocracy against those of the monarch. The French revolution, with its emphasis on "liberty, equality and fraternity," for all individuals, provided another dimension. There were many occasions on which individual and organized religion came into conflict during the Middle Ages. The experience of World War II, particularly the atrocities of the Nazis, led to the internationalization of individual rights.

  10. Respecting the right to strike

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    Since two years the representatives of the employers in the ILO, a tripartite multilateral body responsible for guaranteeing the correct application of an international labour code, try to weaken the global work regulations. On the occasion of the Global Day of Action for the right to strike at the invitation of the Geneva community of Union action (Communauté genevoise d’action syndicale) and the Swiss Trade Union Association (Union syndicale suisse) around noon on Wednesday 18th February some fifty staff representatives of international organizations gathered on the place des Nations in Geneva to reaffirm the importance of this fundamental right, too often flouted. A delegation of the CERN Staff Association was also present. In a short speech, the Staff Association said that, while being one of the fundamental human rights, to be efficient the right to strike must be used intelligently. It must be implemented taking into account the sensitivities of the professional environment and r...

  11. Patients Bill of Rights Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Reducing Costs, Protecting Consumers - The Affordable Care Act on the One Year Anniversary of the Patients Bill of Rights For too long, too many hard working...

  12. RETHINKING FUNDING FOR WOMEN'S RIGHTS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ellen Sprenger

    2016-01-01

    ...), as well as from her current role consulting internationally for the sector and assisting CSOs to become financially resilient, Ellen Sprenger discusses the key trends affecting women's rights organisations (WROs...

  13. Urban water recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, T

    2005-01-01

    Increasing urbanization has resulted in an uneven distribution of population, industries, and water in urban areas; thus, imposing unprecedented pressures on water supplies and water pollution control. These pressures are exacerbated during the periods of drought and climatic uncertainties. The purpose of this paper is to summarize emergence of water reclamation, recycling and reuse as a vital component of sustainable water resources in the context of integrated water resources management in urban and rural areas. Water quality requirements and health and public acceptance issues related to water reuse are also discussed. Reclaimed water is a locally controllable water resource that exists right at the doorstep of the urban environment, where water is needed the most and priced the highest. Closing the water cycle loop not only is technically feasible in agriculture, industries, and municipalities but also makes economic sense. Society no longer has the luxury of using water only once.

  14. Idiopathic giant right atrial aneurysm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppu, Santosh C; Sachdeva, Ritu; Imamura, Michiaki

    2013-01-01

    A 2-year-old boy with an incidental finding of massive cardiomegaly on a chest X-ray was diagnosed with a giant right atrial aneurysm upon further investigation with echocardiography. The patient underwent successful surgical reduction of the right atrium and closure of the patent foramen ovale to prevent thromboembolic complications and to lower the risk of atrial arrhythmias. The resected atrium had paper-thin walls and pathological features of interstitial fibrosis with endocardial thickening. PMID:23626440

  15. Idiopathic giant right atrial aneurysm

    OpenAIRE

    Uppu, Santosh C; Ritu Sachdeva; Michiaki Imamura

    2013-01-01

    A 2-year-old boy with an incidental finding of massive cardiomegaly on a chest X-ray was diagnosed with a giant right atrial aneurysm upon further investigation with echocardiography. The patient underwent successful surgical reduction of the right atrium and closure of the patent foramen ovale to prevent thromboembolic complications and to lower the risk of atrial arrhythmias. The resected atrium had paper-thin walls and pathological features of interstitial fibrosis with endocardial thicken...

  16. Idiopathic giant right atrial aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh C Uppu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 2-year-old boy with an incidental finding of massive cardiomegaly on a chest X-ray was diagnosed with a giant right atrial aneurysm upon further investigation with echocardiography. The patient underwent successful surgical reduction of the right atrium and closure of the patent foramen ovale to prevent thromboembolic complications and to lower the risk of atrial arrhythmias. The resected atrium had paper-thin walls and pathological features of interstitial fibrosis with endocardial thickening.

  17. Human Rights and Cultural Identity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gordon John-Stewart

    2015-01-01

    ...-deficient cultural identities. In other words, it is possible to depict human rights in a culturally sensitive way so that universal human rights can meet the demands of a moderate version of meta-ethical relativism which acknowledges a small universal core of objectively true or false moral statements and avers that, beyond that small core, all other moral statements are neither objectively true nor false.

  18. Debates on Intellectual Property Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula – Angela VIDRAŞCU

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper supports the understanding of the definition of intellectual property rights and strong connection with intangible assets and, on the other hand, provides a brief presentation of the organizations supporting the protection of such rights. The essential aim of this article is represented by the detailed information obtained as a result of research carried out in order to define, identify and study the application of IPR in general and especially in our country. At the end of the paper I mentioned what involves protecting intellectual property rights and brought little concerned how our country is perceived to protect such rights. Most often, intellectual property is defined as a formal document of title, like a lease, which means that the property is a legal concept distinct from real property that are actually good without concrete material form. Constitute a special category of assets being perceived as an original creation, derived from creative ideas; has or may have a commercial value due to its contribution to earnings for its owner. The need for protection of intellectual property rights has emerged because of the changes in the contemporary society. The aim and purpose of which is to protect human intelligence product and, at the same time, ensuring that consumers benefit from the use of the attributes of this product. Always remember that the violation of intellectual property rights, causes injury to major economic, signifying a strong threat to the consumers health and safety.

  19. Rand, Rothbard, and Rights Reconsidered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Touchstone

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines rights and the protection of rights from both the minarchist and the anarchist perspectives. The former relies on Objectivist (and Neo-Objectivist perspectives and the latter relies primarily on Murray Rothbard’s views. My view is that government protection as put forth by Objectivists is coercive, as are all methods of financing. However, under anarcho-capitalism, children (and those with diminished capacity who have been killed or abused by their caregivers do not have equal (or any protection under the law. The principle of equal protection is one with which both Objectivists and Rothbard agree. A case is made for government protection of rights under those circumstances. In addition, a case is made for positive rights to parental care for children, and also for government protection of those rights if they have been violated by their caregivers. I also argue for government oversight in instances when the rights of children (and those with diminished capacity have been violated and as a consequence the children (and those with diminished capacity have no alternative means of care.

  20. The Bioethics of Children's Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solnit, Albert J

    2004-01-01

    The Bioethics of Children's Rights are not only embedded in child development knowledge and in the laws of a particular nation or society, but also in the values, customs and practices of the culture in which they are formulated and practiced. The Bioethics of Children's Rights reflect the changing values assigned to children by adults in our society and are determined by the parents or parental adults responsible for the care and safety of children. The Bioethics of Children's Rights reflect the role of children of different ages in a particular society and community. It is difficult to conceptualize and define. It is fundamental to realize that you cannot refer to children's rights without taking into account the adults who provide them with the continuity of their affectionate, safe-guarding care. It is the parent(s) or their surrogates who have the capacity, authority and responsibility for defining those rights, and for asserting and assuring they are in the service of their children's needs and priorities. This paper, using case vignettes, is intended to heighten our consciousness that by and large children are unable to speak effectively for their rights alone. Through the voices of their parents, care-providers and the society in which they live, we can examine the voice of the child, with the child's needs and potentialities being paramount.

  1. Ezekiel 18 and Human rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.F. van Rooy

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa the debate on Human Rights gained new impetus after the implementation of the interim constitution in 1994, followed by the new constitution in 1996, containing a charter of fundamental Human Rights. The question to be answered by this paper is whether Ezekiel 18 can contribute to this debate. This paper firstly discusses the question whether the Old Testament can be used in the debate on Human Rights. This is followed by a discussion of Ezekiel 18, with emphasis on the transgressions listed in this chapter in their Israelite context. Many of these injunctions are related to the laws of Deuteronomy, the Book of the Covenant and the Holiness Code. These injunctions are studied against the background of Israelite law in general and the three codes mentioned above in particular. Finally, the implications of Ezekiel 18 for the issue of Human Rights are discussed. The violation of rights of people guaranteed by divine law is seen as one of the major causes of divine punishment. God's law was meant to create a society found on justice. An unjust society is in contradiction to the will of God, according to Ezekiel 18. The implications of this view for the debate on Human Rights in South Africa need to be taken into consideration.

  2. Children's rights and school psychology: children's right to participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansdown, Gerison; Jimerson, Shane R; Shahroozi, Reza

    2014-02-01

    The Convention on the Rights of the Child detailed an international imperative to fulfilling, protecting, and respecting the rights of every child. In particular, the Convention set out a clear mandate for guaranteeing opportunities for children to be heard on all matters of concern to them. The attainment of these goals involves respecting and valuing children as active participants in the educational process. If fully implemented, the right of children to express views and have them taken seriously, throughout the school environment, would represent one of the most profound transformations in moving towards a culture of respect for children's rights, for their dignity and citizenship, and for their capacities to contribute significantly towards their own well-being. These values and principles are consistent with those of the school psychology profession, thus, school psychologists are encouraged to be at the Center of the process advocating and actualizing the Convention in schools throughout the world. Copyright © 2014 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Property Rights And Traditional Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JT Cross

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available For the past several decades, there has been a push to provide some sort of right akin to an intellectual property right in traditional knowledge and traditional cultural expression. This push has encountered staunch resistance from a number of different quarters. Many of the objections are practical. However, underlying these practical concerns is a core philosophical concern. A system of traditional knowledge rights, this argument suggests, simply does not satisfy the basic rationale for granting property rights in intangibles like inventions and expressive works. Intellectual property is meant to encourage innovation and creative activity. Most traditional knowledge, by contrast, is not innovative, at least in the same sense as the inventions and works that qualify for patents and copyrights. At present, the "anti-property" camp seems to have the better of the argument, as even the World Intellectual Property Organisation has abandoned the notion of true property rights. This article seeks to refute this philosophical objection to a property model for traditional knowledge. It argues that the classic philosophical argument justifying intellectual "property" namely, that property rights are justified only as a way to spur innovation and other creative activity is incorrect in two ways. First, the argument misstates the main goal of an intellectual property system. While intellectual property may serve as an incentive for innovation, society's primary concern is not the innovation per se, but instead the dissemination of knowledge. Second, there may be policy reasons other than the development of knowledge that can justify intellectual property-like rights. The article then applies these observations to the particular question of traditional knowledge and cultural expression. It demonstrates that a system of property rights could be useful in helping to encourage the dissemination of traditional knowledge, even if that knowledge is not "new" in

  4. Right hemispatial ipsilesional neglect with chronic right hemisphere strokes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, John B; Lamb, Damon G; Burtis, D Brandon; Haque, Salsabil; Zilli, Eduardo M; Kesayan, Tigran; Harciarek, Michal; Heilman, Kenneth M

    2017-08-16

    Patients who present with spatial neglect after stroke often perform normally on tests for neglect after a few weeks. Whereas tests for neglect are often performed directly in front of a patient, in their actual environments many important stimuli may be present within their left or right hemispace. The presence and severity of neglect often depends on the hemisphere injured. It is possible, in chronic stroke, for spatial judgments to be influenced by an interaction of stroke laterality and the spatial location of stimuli. The objective of this study was to learn if unilateral hemispheric chronic strokes contribute to a spatial bias with laterally presented stimuli. There were 70 participants, 62 with unilateral chronic strokes (>6 months post onset) including 35 with left hemisphere damage (LHD), 27 with right hemisphere damage (RHD), and 8 demographically similar people without history of stroke. Participants were asked to bisect 300 lines presented with distractors on the left, right, or both sides of the line, or no distractor, on a touch-screen monitor in right, center or left hemispace. There was a significant interaction between the side of the hemispheric lesion and the side of the body where these lines were presented. Specifically, in right space, patients with RHD deviated leftward in comparison to the other groups. Furthermore, there was an interaction between group and distractor induced bias. All three groups approached the left distractor, and the patients with LHD also approached the right distractor. Although spatial neglect is more severe in contralesional than ipsilesional hemispace in the period immediately following a stroke, over time patients with RHD may develop ipsilesional neglect that is more severe in ipsilesional than contralesional space. The mechanism underlying this bias is not known and may be related to attempted compensation or the development of a contralateral attentional/intentional grasp.

  5. Stealth Radicalism: Teaching Refugee Rights as Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Jones

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this essay, I describe a Human Rights course in which I focused on refugee rights through a service-learning project with a refugee resettlement agency. I will summarize my own approach to “radical teaching,” my objectives for the course, the course itself, and the impact of the course on the students. Ideally, I would describe the impact on the refugees with whom the students interacted, but I was not able to collect narratives in that regard.

  6. "Taking the human out of human rights" human rights or group rights?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojanić Petar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available What interest me are the reasons why “human” or “human rights” could be important or possibly most important in constituting a group (hence the introduction of the complicated word “group” and “group right(s” in the subtitle. If I had to justify the existence of the latest debates on nature, justification and universality of human rights, on their distinction from other normative standards, on the philosophy and (legal foundation of human rights, on “Human Rights without (or with Foundations” (Raz, Tasioulas, Besson, then I would immediately conclude that this “process of grandiose concretization” of a complete fabrication is far from over. Despite the innumerable pacts and international conventions established after World War II, the slew of obligations to which states have agreed in the last few decades, the establishment of rights to secession or humanitarian intervention it is as if the constitution of classification of basic human rights and their universality is far from over. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43007

  7. MAKING LEGAL SENSE OF HUMAN RIGHTS: Introduction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eliasn

    Middle East. .... nature of these rights and freedoms is beyond question. ... tended to be biased towards the individual right to freedom from undue state .... liberal rights such as “free speech, voting rights, protection against the abuse of the.

  8. The right choice. Two approaches to determining right and wrong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, C J; Cederblom, J

    1990-01-01

    What if your superior sent you on a recruiting trip and told you to misrepresent the institution, if necessary, to get more nursing staff? What would you do? Finding ways to do what is right is a challenge. But determining what is right is a prior and often a more difficult task, involving a choice of ethical perspectives. One perspective is utilitarianism--a form of consequentialism, whereby acts are right or wrong depending on their consequences. A second ethical approach is a respect-for-persons position, a form of deontology which holds that we have a duty to refrain from certain acts that are inherently disrespectful of persons. The utilitarian way to determine right from wrong is to look at an action's implications for people's happiness or unhappiness. Lies might be justified on a case-by-case basis if they tend to produce more happiness than any other option. An ethical alternative is a respect-for-persons view. Three broad tests can be applied to judge whether an action is respectful of persons: the tests of autonomy, promise keeping, and reciprocity.

  9. Human rights concepts in EU Human Rights Dialogues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, A.S.H.; Sosa, Lorena; Majtényi, Balázs

    2016-01-01

    This report presents five case studies on EU Human Rights Dialogues (HRDs). The case studies concern the HRDs with the African Union, China, India, Morocco and Peru. Building on the findings of the previous reports in Work Package 3 of the FRAME project, the aim of this report is to explore how

  10. Human rights and the right to abortion in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Zúñiga-Fajuri

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this study is to question the fact that in some countries in Latin America (Chile, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Honduras and the Dominican Republic abortion is still forbidden in all situations. Even after all the debate on this thorny issue, the theory of human rights is not often used in the defense of abortion. This is clearly related to the pervasive, albeit unspoken belief that, due to their condition, pregnant women inherently lose their full human rights and should surrender and even give up their lives in favor of the unborn child. This article seeks to show that an adequate reading of the theory of human rights should include abortion rights through the first two trimesters of pregnancy, based on the fact that basic liberties can only be limited for the sake of liberty itself. It also seeks to respond to those who maintain that the abortion issue cannot be resolved since the exact point in the development of the embryo that distinguishes legitimate from illegitimate abortion cannot be determined. There are strong moral and scientific arguments for an approach capable of reducing uncertainty and establishing the basis for criminal law reforms that focus on the moral importance of trimester laws.

  11. Physician alignment: the right strategy, the right mind-set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmiston, Gary; Wofford, David

    2010-12-01

    Developing the right mind-set for collaboration involves consideration of: The organization's market position and customer base The type of structure that best complements the hospital's culture The incentives needed to drive alignment. The tools to share credible data related to utilization, cost, and quality. The need for shared control.

  12. Eco-compensation of drinking water source protection region in eastern Lake Taihu based on development right valuation%基于发展权价值评估的太湖东部水源保护区生态补偿标准

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈江龙; 姚佳; 徐梦月; 陈雯

    2012-01-01

    生态补偿是协调环境保护与区域发展机会公平的重要手段.太湖东部湖区是苏州市、嘉兴市和上海市重要饮用水源供给地.本文分析了苏州市滨湖地区水源地水质保护行为与发展权价值损失的关系.应用区域比较法,在地理要素修正的基础上评价了太湖东部水源保护区发展权价值损失,以此作为生态补偿的标准.研究表明,2009年太湖东部地区水质保护行为的发展权损失为42.39亿元,地方财政收入损失占75.88%;农民收入损失占13.58%;城镇居民收入损失占10.53%.为了缩小城乡居民的收入差距,应优先对农民实施生态补偿.水质保护行为产生的外部收益超出了水源供给价值,需要在更大范围内统筹生态补偿问题.%Ecological compensation is an important means to coordinate the contradiction between environmental protection and regional development fairness. Eastern Lake Taihu is an important source of drinking water for Suzhou, Jiaxing and Shanghai cities. This paper analyzes the connection between water quality protection behavior and loss of development right value in Suzhou city. Based on geographic factor correction, the paper applies regional comparison method to evaluate the loss of development right in drinking water source protection region in eastern Lake Taihu, as the standard of eco-compensation. It shows that the loss of development right in eastern Lake Taihu in 2009 is 4.239 billion yuan, while the loss of local fiscal revenue, farmers' income and urban residents' income accounting for 75.88% , 13.58% and 10.53% , respectively. In order to narrow the income gap between urban and rural residents, fanners should be given priority on the implementation of eco-compensation. The external benefit from water protection behavior has beyond the value of water supply, so overall the eco-compensation police in a greater region is needed.

  13. The Right for Deducting VAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Sergiu-Bogdan Constantin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Romania must comply with the VAT Directive, the judgments of the Court of Justice of theEuropean Union and the European Court of Human Rights on VAT matter, that includes the matterof VAT deduction. The right to deduct VAT, in principle, cannot be limited for a taxable person andit is an abuse of law made by tax authorities when refusing this right. There are exceptions though,when the substantive and/or formal requirements are not met, the taxable person was involved in aVAT fraud or its supplier incorrectly drawn-up the invoice. The substantive requirements are: thepurchases must be from a taxable person and must be used for taxable activities. The formalrequirements are the obligations relating to accounting, invoicing and tax declarations. If taxauthorities discover a VAT fraud or/and that a VAT liability has not been declared they must takeimmediate measures, impose compliance and collect the corresponding sums from the responsibleperson.

  14. Composing Europe's Fundamental Rights Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, Louise Halleskov

    2015-01-01

    The article offers a perspective on how the objective of a strong and coherent European protection standard pursued by the fundamental rights amendments of the Lisbon Treaty can be achieved, as it proposes a discursive pluralistic framework to understand and guide the relationship between the EU...... Court of Justice and the European Court of Human Rights. It is argued that this framework – which is suggested as an alternative to the EU law approach to the Strasbourg system applied by the CJEU in Opinion 2/13 and its Charter-based case law – has a firm doctrinal, case law and normative basis....... The article ends by addressing three of the most pertinent challenges to European fundamental rights protection through the prism of the proposed framework....

  15. Coyotes, Concessions and Construction Companies: Illegal Water Markets and Legally Constructed Water Scarcity in Central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Reis

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Many regions of (semiarid Mexico, such as the Valley of Toluca, face challenges due to rapid growth and the simultaneous overexploitation of groundwater. The water reform of the 1990s introduced individual water rights concessions granted through the National Water Commission (Comisión Nacional del Agua, or CONAGUA. Since then, acquiring new water rights in officially 'water-scarce' aquifers is only possible through official rights transmissions from users ceding their rights. With the law prohibiting the sale of water rights, a profitable illegal market for these rights has emerged. The key actor in the water rights allocation network is the coyote, functioning as a broker between a people wanting to cede water rights and those needing them, and b the formal and informal spheres of water rights allocation. Actors benefitting from water rights trading include the coyote and his 'working brigades', water users selling surplus rights, and (senior and lower-level staff in the water bureaucracy. The paper concludes that legally constructed water scarcity is key to the reproduction of illegal water rights trading. This has important implications regarding the current push for expanding regularisation of groundwater extraction in Mexico. Currently, regularisation does not counter overexploitation, while possibly leading to a de facto privatisation of groundwater.

  16. Enforcing women's rights through law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, R J

    1995-06-01

    Because women have to be equal partners in development to insure its sustainability, the human rights of women must be foremost on development agendas. Ratification of and adherence to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (the Women's Convention) would be a powerful international tool in this regard. In various countries, progress towards legalizing rights for women is passing through a first stage which focusses on the protection of specific rights to a second stage in which sex is included as a prohibited ground of discrimination to a third stage which addresses the pervasive and structural nature of the violation of women's rights. It is expected that governments will renew their commitment to the Women's Convention at the Fourth World Conference on Women (WCW) and, thus, take more seriously their obligations to report progress and remove reservations. Regional initiatives, such as the Organization of American States' 1994 Convention on the Prevention, Punishment, and Eradication of Violence Against Women, can also be used to protect women's rights, and the application of national constitutions and domestic laws remains the first line of defence for women. Particular attention must be paid to laws which apply to property rights, nationality, equality within the family, reproductive and other health issues, and violence against women. The Draft Plan of Action prepared for the WCW challenges states to specify their plans to eliminate discrimination. While this Plan may prove to lack vision, women's nongovernmental organizations are playing a major role in accelerating the movement of international and domestic law towards justice for women.

  17. Animal rights and environmental terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Cooke

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Many paradigmatic forms of animal rights and environmental activism have been classed as terrorism both in popular discourse and in law. This paper argues that the labelling of many violent forms of direct action carried out in the name of animal rights or environmentalism as ‘terrorism’ is incorrect. Furthermore, the claim is also made that even those acts which are correctly termed as terrorism are not necessarily wrongful acts. The result of this analysis is to call into question the terms of public debate and the legitimacy of anti-terrorism laws targeting and punishing radical activism.

  18. Patient bill of rights 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, G C

    2001-01-01

    Breaking gridlock on managed care reform, a bipartisan coalition in Congress introduced the newest version of a patient bill of rights. Unlike last year's ill-fated Norwood-Dingell bill, the Bipartisan Patient Protection Act of 2001 has strong bipartisan support; concern remains, however, on the provisions that allow patients to sue their managed care plan. The debate now focuses on the type of liability reform that Congress and the White House can agree on. If they are able to agree, a patient bill of rights may soon become law.

  19. The quantification of instream flow rights to water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milhous, Robert T.

    1990-01-01

    Energy development of all types continues to grow in the Rocky Mountain Region of the western United States. Federal resource managers increasingly need to balance energy demands, their effects on the natural and human landscape, and public perceptions towards these issues. The Western Energy Citation Clearinghouse (WECC v.1.0), part of a suite of data and information management tools developed and managed by the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI), provides resource managers with a searchable online database of citations that covers a broad spectrum of energy and landscape related topics relevant to resource managers, such as energy sources, natural and human landscape effects, and new research, methods and models. Based on the 2011 USGS Open-file Report "Abbreviated bibliography on energy development" (Montag, et al. 2011), WECC is an extensive collection of energy-related citations, as well as categorized lists of additional online resources related to oil and gas development, best practices, energy companies and Federal agencies. WECC incorporates the powerful web services of Sciencebase 2.0, the enterprise data and information platform for USGS scientists and partners, to provide secure, role-based data management features. For example, public/unauthenticated WECC users have full search and read access to the entire energy citation collection, while authenticated WLCI data stewards can manage WECC's citation collection using Sciencebase data management forms.

  20. The right to drinking water and sanitation in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baaner, Lasse; Edinger, Wieke Willemijn Huizing; Anker, Helle Tegner

    2012-01-01

    I Danmark er retten til adgang til vand og sanitet ikke absolut, i den forstand at der er ret til fri adgang til vand og sanitet. Danmark har ratificeret, men ikke indarbejdet i ICESCR, og national ret anses for at være i overensstemmelse med konventionen. Alligevel kan man argumentere for, at de...

  1. Defendants' Rights in Criminal Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ralph C., II; Keeley, Elizabeth

    1997-01-01

    Reviews the protections afforded by the Constitution for defendants in criminal trials. These include the right to a jury trial (in cases of possible incarceration), an impartial jury, and the requirement of a unanimous verdict. Defends the use of plea bargaining as essential to an efficient criminal justice system. (MJP)

  2. Human Rights in the Humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpham, Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    Human rights are rapidly entering the academic curriculum, with programs appearing all over the country--including at Duke, Harvard, Northeastern, and Stanford Universities; the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; the Universities of Chicago, of Connecticut, of California at Berkeley, and of Minnesota; and Trinity College. Most of these…

  3. Every Woman's Right to Learn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Jane; Turner, Cheryl; Watts, Jane; Eldred, Jan

    2011-01-01

    As people celebrate the 100th anniversary of International Women's Day this year, NIACE has organised an event, "Every woman's right to learn," that will offer an opportunity for educators and learners to celebrate women's progress and achievements in and through learning, to find one's hopes and aspirations for the future and work…

  4. Supporting rights and nurturing networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Fiona

    2006-01-01

    The article explores how a bilateral aid donor (British DFID) managed their organizational and relational work when the local office (in Peru) put rights at the centre of their policy. Taking the example of DFID support to alternative thinking in the health sector, critical questions are raised...... about the way donors engage with local networks....

  5. Supporting Right-Brained Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mescolotto, Lee M.

    2010-01-01

    In his book, "A Whole New Mind", Daniel Pink champions the benefits of right-brained thinking: creativity, flexibility, empathy, and meaning. He stresses the need to not only be logical, but also aware of emotion; to not only be sequential, but also conceptual; and to not only be calculating, but also recognize value. The project described in this…

  6. The Right to be Forgotten

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Meg Leta; Jones, Elisabeth; Zeide, Elena

    239,337 requests to eliminate 867,930 URLs from search results and has removed 305,095 URLs, a rate of 41.5 percent. The right to be forgotten is intended to legally address digital information that lingers and threatens to shackle individuals to their past by exposing the information to opaque data...

  7. The right to be forgotten

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Meg Leta; Zeide, Elana; Mai, Jens Erik

    2015-01-01

    239,337 requests to eliminate 867,930 URLs from search results and has removed 305,095 URLs, a rate of 41.5 percent. The right to be forgotten is intended to legally address digital information that lingers and threatens to shackle individuals to their past by exposing the information to opaque data...

  8. Human Rights in the Humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpham, Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    Human rights are rapidly entering the academic curriculum, with programs appearing all over the country--including at Duke, Harvard, Northeastern, and Stanford Universities; the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; the Universities of Chicago, of Connecticut, of California at Berkeley, and of Minnesota; and Trinity College. Most of these…

  9. The Individual's Right to Choose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, Steen

    2008-01-01

    in collective agrements. This kind of innovation has been highly controversial in the union movement, but in 2007, the bargaining parties in manufacturing decided to take something of a leap ahead with respect to opportunities of individual choice by employees. The paper will describe the novel employee rights...

  10. The Natural Rights of Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Block

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available What does libertarian theory, Murray Rothbard’s theory in particular, tell us about the rights of children? The two foundational principles of Rothbardian libertarianism are the sanctity of private property and the rule of non-aggression. Persons, including children, are “self-owners”. Yet children, at a young age, are not yet capable of functioning fully as “self-owners.” They must be cared for, and the caring will necessarily involve some degree of aggression in the form of supervision and restraint. Parents and other caregivers play the role of trustees; and just as the beneficiary of a trust has the right to petition a court to change trustees or terminate the trustee relationship, so a child, able to express his preferences when it comes to the nature and degree of supervision and restraint to which he will be subjected, should equally enjoy that right while, in terms of property rights, a biological caregiver may have better “title” than an adoptive caregiver to be the child’s “trustee” given the child’s inability to express a preference for one or the other. What may seem to a contemporary sensibility as an extreme degree of childhood independence in the choice of caregivers and other freedom from supervision and restraint was common in pre-industrial America and continues to be the rule in some native cultures.

  11. Supporting rights and nurturing networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Fiona

    2006-01-01

    The article explores how a bilateral aid donor (British DFID) managed their organizational and relational work when the local office (in Peru) put rights at the centre of their policy. Taking the example of DFID support to alternative thinking in the health sector, critical questions are raised...

  12. Supporting networks for realizing rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Fiona

    2005-01-01

    The chapter explores how DFID, the British bi-lateral aid donor, adopted an innovative rights' based approach that rested on supporting in existing networks in Peru. Focus is put on the history and challenges of DFID's engagement with three networks in particular: in the fields of health, local...

  13. Populist parties of the Right

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fennema, M.

    2004-01-01

    Many people consider the contemporary extreme right as if it were political pornography: it is difficult to define but you immediately recognize it when you see it and then it should be prohibited. Yet, the political scientist cannot accept such simplistic view. He has the painful task of

  14. Looking for the "Right Stuff"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, Thomas S.; Newman, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    Life can be especially tough for those who always seem to manifest the "wrong stuff." However, things seem to go much better for those who employ the "right stuff" instead. So we must be sure to avoid the former and stick to the latter, if we really wish to make our lives happier, rather than sadder. To achieve this end this brief paper is…

  15. Nutrition, health and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brundtland, G H

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents the speech delivered by Gro Harlem Brundtland, Director-General of WHO, on issues related to nutrition from a health and a human rights perspective. According to Brundtland, nutrition is a universal factor that both affects and defines the health of all people. It affects not only growth and physical development of a child, but also his cognitive and social development. However, inequity, poverty, underdevelopment, as well as inadequate access to food, health and care still exist which have resulted to the deaths of millions of children and left many more suffering from diseases. Poverty has also been identified as the main obstacle to the attainment of health. The existence of structural poverty and ill health eventually leads to poor development, which includes poor nutrition, poor health, and poor human rights. The impact of poverty on health is further worsened by discrimination on the basis of race, color, sex, language, or religion. To address this issue, the WHO will renew their focus on the political and legal links between health and human rights. A human rights perspective provides the international community with an opportunity to support the development of public health policies and practices that promote healthy nutrition as a center of all social and economic development.

  16. Measuring the Right to Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friboulet, Jean-Jacques, Ed.; Niamego, Anatole, Ed.; Liechti, Valerie, Ed.; Dalbera, Claude, Ed.; Meyer-Bisch, Patrice, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Amartya Sen defined development as the creation of capabilities or capacities. One of the crucial capacities is basic education. With no access to writing, reading and numeracy, people are unable to fight against poverty and to build their lives in the current global environment. In this perspective, the right to education cannot be conceived only…

  17. Bioethics, Human Rights, and Childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdman, Joanna

    2015-06-11

    The global reproductive justice community has turned its attention to the abuse and disrespect that many women suffer during facility-based childbirth. In 2014, the World Health Organization released a statement on the issue, endorsed by more than 80 civil society and health professional organizations worldwide.The statement acknowledges a growing body of research that shows widespread patterns of women's mistreatment during labor and delivery-physical and verbal abuse, neglect and abandonment, humiliation and punishment, coerced and forced care-in a range of health facilities from basic rural health centers to tertiary care hospitals. Moreover, the statement characterizes this mistreatment as a human rights violation. It affirms: "Every woman has the right to the highest attainable standard of health, which includes the right to dignified, respectful health care throughout pregnancy and childbirth."The WHO statement and the strong endorsement of it mark a critical turn in global maternal rights advocacy. It is a turn from the public health world of systems and resources in preventing mortality to the intimate clinical setting of patient and provider in ensuring respectful care.

  18. Student Rights and the Courts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management, Eugene, OR.

    This chapter of "The Best of the Best of ERIC" contains 17 annotations of documents and journal articles on student rights and the courts, all of which are indexed in the ERIC system. Materials on sex discrimination, suspension and expulsion, due process, mainstreaming, school publications, and other topics are annotated. (DS)

  19. Right ventricular metastasis of leiomyosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stagmo Martin

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Metastatic presentation of leiomyosarcoma in the heart is very rare. We present transthoracic echocardiography and combined PET/CT images of a case with a large right ventricular metastasis of leiomyosarcoma. The patient was placed on cytostatic drugs for palliative purposes, but passed away one month later because of an untreatable ventricular tackycardia.

  20. Getting the Civil War Right

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewen, James W.

    2011-01-01

    William Faulkner famously wrote, "The past is never dead. It's not even past." He would not be surprised to learn that Americans, 150 years after the Civil War began, are still getting it wrong. Did America's most divisive war start over slavery or states' rights? The author says that too many people--including educators--get it wrong. The author…

  1. CONCEPTUAL FOUNDATIONS OF PROPERTY RIGHTS:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eliasn

    law either does not adequately recognize the collective land rights of ... “no individual could possibly care much for any particular spot of ground”.2. Hunters ... “the husbanding of fur-bearing animals” and this “requires the ability to prevent ...... neighbourly behaviour,49 social and environmental compliance standards, etc.

  2. Judicial Dialogue and Human Rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, A.; Kjos, H.E.

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive analysis of the extent, method, purpose and effects of domestic and international courts' judicial dialogue on human rights. The analysis covers national courts' judicial dialogue from different regions of the world, including Eastern Europe, Latin America, Canada,

  3. What's Wrong with "Animal Rights"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Adrian R.

    1992-01-01

    School leaders must withstand the pressures of the animal rights movement to disrupt the science curriculum. It would be tragic if this movement succeeded in turning a large number of students against the legitimate use of animals and, ultimately, against biomedical research. (MLF)

  4. The diffusion of constitutional rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goderis, B.V.G.; Versteeg, M.

    2014-01-01

    Constitutions are commonly regarded as uniquely national products, shaped by domestic ideals and politics. This paper develops and empirically investigates a novel hypothesis, which is that constitutions are also shaped by transnational influence, or “diffusion.” Constitutional rights can diffuse th

  5. Bioethics and international human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomasma, D C

    1997-01-01

    Noting how the spread of medical technology is creating clashes with traditional values and within cultures, the author addresses the clash between Western rights-based incentives, as used by the United Nations to guarantee respect for life and dignity, and communitarian traditions. He proposes a mean between wholesale cultural relativism and international absolutism.

  6. PROPERTY. ABSOLUT RIGHT. SOCIAL FUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Maria COŞTIUG

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the opinion according to which today we can speak rather of a relative character of ownership, while the social function of it is ever more present and the rights of the owner are subject to multiple legal requirements and limited in order to meet general interests of the community.

  7. The Individual's Right to Choose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, Steen

    2008-01-01

    in collective agrements. This kind of innovation has been highly controversial in the union movement, but in 2007, the bargaining parties in manufacturing decided to take something of a leap ahead with respect to opportunities of individual choice by employees. The paper will describe the novel employee rights...

  8. A right to health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleftheriadis, Pavlos

    2012-01-01

    What does it mean to say that there is a right to health care? Health care is part of a cooperative project that organizes finite resources. How are these resources to be distributed? This essay discusses three rival theories. The first two, a utilitarian theory and an interst theory, are both instrumental, in that they collapse rights to good states of affairs. A third theory, offered by Thomas Pogge, locates the question within an institutional legal context and distinguishes between a right to health care that results in claimable duties and other dimensions of health policy that do not. Pogge's argument relies on a list of "basic needs," which itself, however, relies on some kind of instrumental reasoning. The essay offers a reconstruction of Pogge's argument to bring it in line with a political conception of a right to health care. Health is a matter of equal liberty and equal citizenship, given our common human vulnerability. If we are to live as equal members in a political community, then our institutions need to create processes by which we are protected from the kinds of suffering that would make it impossible for us to live as equal members.

  9. Populist parties of the Right

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fennema, M.

    2004-01-01

    Many people consider the contemporary extreme right as if it were political pornography: it is difficult to define but you immediately recognize it when you see it and then it should be prohibited. Yet, the political scientist cannot accept such simplistic view. He has the painful task of identifyin

  10. Human Rights Training for Officials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUR STAFF REPORTER

    2011-01-01

    The 9th workshop on human rights held by the State Council Information Office (SCIO) opened in Nanjing,in east China's Jiangsu Province,on August 23.More than 60 officials from across the country and central government agencies participated in the training course,which lasted four days.SCIO Vice Minister Dong Yunhu attended the opening ceremony and gave a speech.

  11. Indigenous rights, performativity and protest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanna, Philippe; Langdon, Esther Jean; Vanclay, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Protests to claim rights are a common practice among Indigenous peoples of the world, especially when their interests conflict with those of nation states and/or multinational corporations regarding the use of their lands and resources. Drawing on a case study of the National Indigenous Mobilization

  12. Educational Quality Bill of Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Law and Education (NJ3), 2009

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents two forms of the Educational Quality Bill of Rights (EQBR). The first is a "one-page version", with a very brief single sentence identification of a key element of quality education in response to each of the key questions about the school (covering standards/learning goals, curriculum, instruction, etc.). The second is a "much…

  13. The natural rights of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Walter E; Smith, Ed; Reel, Jordan

    2014-02-01

    What does libertarian theory, Murray Rothbard's theory in particular, tell us about the rights of children? The two foundational principles of Rothbardian libertarianism are the sanctity of private property and the rule of non-aggression. Persons, including children, are "self-owners". Yet children, at a young age, are not yet capable of functioning fully as "self-owners." They must be cared for, and the caring will necessarily involve some degree of aggression in the form of supervision and restraint. Parents and other caregivers play the role of trustees; and just as the beneficiary of a trust has the right to petition a court to change trustees or terminate the trustee relationship, so a child, able to express his preferences when it comes to the nature and degree of supervision and restraint to which he will be subjected, should equally enjoy that right while, in terms of property rights, a biological caregiver may have better "title" than an adoptive caregiver to be the child's "trustee" given the child's inability to express a preference for one or the other. What may seem to a contemporary sensibility as an extreme degree of childhood independence in the choice of caregivers and other freedom from supervision and restraint was common in pre-industrial America and continues to be the rule in some native cultures.

  14. Low scale left-right-right-left symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Abbas, Gauhar

    2016-01-01

    We propose an effective left-right-right-left model with a parity breaking scale around a few TeV. One of the main achievements of the model is that the mirror fermions as well as the mirror gauge sector simultaneously could be at TeV scale. It is shown that the most dangerous quadratic divergence of the SM Higgs boson involving the top quark in the loop is naturally suppressed atleast up to approximately $10$ TeV. This could lead to a sufficient parameter space in the scalar potential to make the SM Higgs mass natural even up to the Planck scale. An elegant symmetry breaking pattern is also proposed.

  15. Right-right-left extension of the standard model

    CERN Document Server

    Abbas, Gauhar

    2016-01-01

    A right-right-left extension of the standard model is proposed. In this model, the standard model gauge group $SU(2)_L \\otimes U(1)_Y $ is extended to $SU(2)_L \\otimes SU(2)_R \\otimes SU(2)^{\\prime}_R \\otimes SU(2)^{\\prime}_L \\otimes U(1)_{Y}$. The gauge symmetries $SU(2)^{\\prime}_R$, $SU(2)^{\\prime}_L$ are the mirror counter-parts of the $SU(2)_L$ and $SU(2)_R$ respectively. Parity is spontaneously broken when the scalar Higgs fields acquire vacuum-expectation values in a certain pattern. Parity is restored at the scale of $SU(2)^{\\prime}_L$. The gauge sector has a unique scale-symmetric pattern. The scalar sector of the model is optimum, elegant and scale symmetric.

  16. Child feeding and human rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent George

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human right to adequate food needs to be interpreted for the special case of young children because they are vulnerable, others make the choices for them, and their diets are not diverse. There are many public policy issues relating to child feeding. Discussion The core of the debate lies in differences in views on the merits of infant formula. In contexts in which there is strong evidence and a clear consensus that the use of formula would be seriously dangerous, it might be sensible to adopt rules limiting its use. However, until there is broad consensus on this point, the best universal rule would be to rely on informed choice by mothers, with their having a clearly recognized right to objective and consistent information on the risks of using different feeding methods in their particular local circumstances. Summary The obligation of the state to assure that mothers are well informed should be viewed as part of its broader obligation to establish social conditions that facilitate sound child feeding practices. This means that mothers should not be compelled to feed in particular ways by the state, but rather the state should assure that mothers are supported and enabled to make good feeding choices. Thus, children should be viewed as having the right to be breastfed, not in the sense that the mother is obligated to breastfeed the child, but in the sense that no one may interfere with the mother's right to breastfeed the child. Breastfeeding should be viewed as the right of the mother and child together.

  17. 3 CFR 8464 - Proclamation 8464 of December 9, 2009. Human Rights Day, Bill of Rights Day, And Human Rights...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Day, Bill of Rights Day, And Human Rights Week, 2009 8464 Proclamation 8464 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8464 of December 9, 2009 Proc. 8464 Human Rights Day, Bill of Rights Day, And Human... are the core of our Declaration of Independence, our Constitution, and our Bill of Rights. They are...

  18. All-in-Auctions for water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zetland, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel mechanism for reallocating temporary water flows or permanent water rights. The All-in-Auction (AiA) increases efficiency and social welfare by reallocating water without harming water rights holders. AiAs can be used to allocate variable or diminished flows among

  19. WOMEN'S RIGHTS VIOLATION: HONOUR KILLINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINA OTOVESCU FRASIE

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study I have presented the domestic violence concept and the situation regarding the observing of woman’s rights in Syria. We have also evidenced the juridical aspects regarding the honor killing directed against women after the modification of the article 548 from the Penal Code changed by the President al-Asad on July the 1st 2009. The data offered by NGOs have been of great help for the elaboration of the study as also the statistic data presented in Thara E-Magazine regarding the cities where had been done the honor killings and their number, the instrument of the murder, the age of the victim, and the motives for the murders. It must be noticed that, lately, the Government fought for the observing of the woman’s rights and promoted he gender equality by appointing women in leading positions, including the vice-president one.

  20. The Right to be Dead

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabra, Jakob Borrits; Troyer, John Eric

    2017-01-01

    of argument by simultaneously examining how dead body disposal and digital data disposal increasingly overlaps. In November 2015 the Future Cemetery announced its first international design competition: Future Dead: Designing Disposal for Both Dead Bodies and Digital Data (www.futurecemetery.org) and we...... illustrate our essay design arguments through the competition’s history and results. In our paper we argue that designing future cemeteries should focus on how spaces such as Arnos Vale represent a transitional hybrid space. A merger of the Victorian past with the digital present, in order to create a new......-mortem handling of their exponentially increased digital data. The European Union Court of Justice ruled that a person has a Right to be Forgotten on the world wide web. The Future Cemetery asks: Does a person have the Right to be Dead on this information superhighway? Our essay pursues these specific lines...

  1. Human Rights and Health Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skitsou, Alexandra; Bekos, Christos; Charalambous, George

    2016-01-01

    , ongoing education of health professionals along with relevant education of the community and the broad application of triage in the emergency departments will all contribute to delivering health services more effectively. Keywords: Cyprus, health services, patient rights...... and their families to be essential. Conclusions: The paper concludes that implementing guidelines in accordance with international best practices, the establishment of at-home treatment and nursing facilities, counseling the mentally ill in a way that promotes their social integration and occupational rehabilitation......Background: It has been observed that health services provided to certain patients in Cyprus do not fully meet their human rights. Objective: This study was conducted to identify the main shortcomings of the Health System in Cyprus. Methodology: The relevant administrative decisions...

  2. Hypnosis in the right hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihlstrom, John F; Glisky, Martha L; McGovern, Susan; Rapcsak, Steven Z; Mennemeier, Mark S

    2013-02-01

    Speculations about the neural substrates of hypnosis have often focused on the right hemisphere (RH), implying that RH damage should impair hypnotic responsiveness more than left-hemisphere (LH) damage. The present study examined the performance of a patient who suffered a stroke destroying most of his LH, on slightly modified versions of two hypnotizability scales. This patient was at least modestly hypnotizable, as indicated in particular by the arm rigidity and age regression items, suggesting that hypnosis can be mediated by the RH alone - provided that the language capacities normally found in the LH remain available. A further study of 16 patients with unilateral strokes of the LH or RH found no substantial differences in hypnotizability between the two groups. Future neuropsychological studies of hypnosis might explore the dorsal/ventral or anterior/posterior dichotomies, with special emphasis on the role of prefrontal cortex. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Legal Rights for Criminal Minors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    IN a theft case cracked in Guiyang City, Guizhou Province, the seven juvenile delinquents involved were mainly junior middle school students around 13 to 14 years old. What are the legal rights they can enjoy when brought to trial? It is clearly defined in the Law of the People's Republic of China for the Protection of Minors enforced on September 4, 1991. Minors refers to citizens below the age of 18.

  4. From humanitarianism to human rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Fiona

    2006-01-01

    The chapter is a critical enquiry into 'aid models' as currently used by donor agencies and the implications for local aid workers and beneficiaries when the aid model, together with concepts and buzz words, are changed by 'top' management. The chapter examines the particular case of an aid progr...... programme in Ethiopia that incorporates seven NGOs, is funded by the Danish bilateral agency (Danida), and has moved from a focus on food security to livelihoods and then to human rights....

  5. Individual breakdown of pension rights

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    You should have recently received, via email, your “Individual breakdown of pension rights”.   Please note that: the calculation was based on data as at 1st July 2016, as at 1st September 2016, CERN will introduce a new career structure; the salary position will now be expressed as a percentage of a midpoint of a grade.   We would like to draw your attention to the fact that your pension rights will remain unchanged. Benefits Service CERN Pension Fund

  6. The right to lesbian parenthood.

    OpenAIRE

    Kottow, M

    1984-01-01

    The author argues that the minority homosexual section of our population--a larger minority than, for example, the ethnic minorities section--is more often than not excluded by the 'helping professions' from the right to be parents. The author appeals to the lack of scientific data supporting such exclusion and asks that homosexual parents and their children receive the same care from our institutions as other parents and children. Some instances of lack of care are cited. The paper was prese...

  7. IP Rights and Technological Platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Robert P. Merges

    2008-01-01

    This paper is about intellectual property rights (IPRs) and platform technologies. After a brief introduction explaining some basics of networks, standards and platforms, I turn to three policy issues. The first is the role of IP in what might be termed platform policies, the decisions by courts and regulators concerning whether and how to promote multi-party access to important digital platforms such as media player hardware, cell phones, PCs, and the like. I argue that for the most part the...

  8. Trauma patients' rights during resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Bruce

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Doctors and nurses working in hospital emergency departments face ethical and moral conflicts more so than in other health care units. Traditional curricular approaches to health professional education have been embedded in a discriminatory societal context and as such have not prepared health professionals adequately for the ethical realities of their practice. Furthermore, the discourse on ethical theories and ethical principles do not provide clear-cut solutions to ethical dilemmas but rather serve as a guide to ethical decision- making. Within the arena of trauma and resuscitation, fundamental ethical principles such as respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice cannot be taken as absolutes as these may in themselves create moral conflict. Resuscitation room activities require a balance between what is “ ethically" correct and what is “pragmatically required” . Because of the urgent nature of a resuscitation event, this balance is often under threat, with resultant transgression of patients’ rights. This article explores the sources of ethical and moral issues in trauma care and proposes a culture of human rights to provide a context for preserving and protecting trauma patients’ rights during resuscitation. Recommendations for education and research are alluded to in concluding the article.

  9. Smart Markets for Transferable Pumping Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozovic, N.; Young, R.

    2016-12-01

    While no national policy on groundwater use exists in the United States, local groundwater management is emerging across the country in response to concerns and conflicts over declining well yields, land subsidence, and the depletion of hydrologically connected surface waters. Management strategies include well drilling moratoria, pumping restrictions, and restrictions on the expansion of irrigated land. To provide flexibility to groundwater users, local regulatory authorities increasingly have begun to allow the transfer of groundwater rights as a cost-effective management tool. Markets can be a versatile risk management tool, helping communities to cope with scarcity, to meet goals for sustainability, and to grow resilient local economies. For example, active groundwater rights transfers exist in the High Plains region of the United States. Yet, several barriers to trade exist: high search costs for interested parties, complicated requirements for regulatory compliance, and reluctance to share sensitive financial information. Additionally, groundwater pumping leads to several kinds of spatial and intertemporal externalities such as stream depletion. Indeed, groundwater management schemes that reallocate water between alternate pumping locations are often explicitly designed to change the distribution and magnitude of pumping externalities. Reallocation may be designed to minimize unwanted impacts on third parties or to encourage trades that reduce the magnitude of externalities. We discuss how smart markets can deal with complex biophysical constraints while also encouraging active trading, therefore ensuring local goals for aquifer sustainability while growing local economies. Smart markets address these issues by providing a centralized hub for trading, automating the process of regulatory compliance by only matching buyers and sellers eligible to trade as specified in the regulations, and maintaining anonymous, confidential bidding.

  10. Medicine Lake NWR Water Use Report- 1958

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Medicine Lake NWR for 1958. Water rights are summarized, along with a detailed outline on the water management of the...

  11. Property Rights for Natural Resources Management in Indonesia: Have They Been Ruled Unconstitutional?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Waddell

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A new property right known as the coastal waters commercial use right (Hak Pengusahaan Pengairan Pesisir (HP-3 introduced by Law No. 27 of 2007 regarding the Management of Coastal and Small Island Areas has been ruled inoperative by the Constitutional Court. The decision raises a question as to whether the door has been closed to marketbased instruments that rely on property rights as a policy tool in natural resources management. This concern is relevant as legal developments in natural resources law internationally have moved away from traditional forms of regulation to focus on the creation of new statutory property rights such as fisheries rights, water use rights and rights associated with carbon sequestration. An exploration of theConstitutional Court’s decisionsuggests that a similar line of reasoning would not, and should not,arise in relation to other forms of property rights that the Government of Indonesia may seek to introduce in the future.

  12. Human Rights and the Rights of Aliens. Working Paper NB-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, James W.

    This paper examines the issue of human rights and the rights of aliens. Contemporary ideas of human rights and contractarian alternatives to universal rights are reviewed. The obligations of governments to admit refugees and to honor the rights of aliens within their borders are discussed. The right to political participation and right to welfare…

  13. Fertility Awareness Counseling for Adolescent Girls; Guiding Conception: The Right Time, Right Weight, and Right Way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudesia, Rashmi; Talib, Hina J; Pollack, Staci E

    2017-02-01

    To provide a detailed summary of fertility awareness counseling pearls for healthy teens and those with fertility-relevant comorbidities, and to assist providers in offering such counseling to adolescents and young adult women. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, INTERVENTIONS, AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Comprehensive literature review of English-language studies relating to fertility in pediatric and adolescent female patients (ages 13-21 years), and evidence-based dialogue guide. The literature indicates that although adolescents are interested in discussing sexuality and reproduction, this is commonly overlooked during the standard office medical visit. As a result, adolescents often turn to less reliable sources and hold a variety of reproductive misconceptions and a sense of lack of control over future fertility. We found no studies that examined the routine provision of fertility awareness counseling with healthy adolescents. There are a multitude of specific gynecologic and medical conditions that have ramifications for fertility. We detail these comprehensively, and provide a dialogue guide to assist with fertility awareness counseling for the female adolescent, containing specific information and indications for referral. Providers caring for adolescent girls have the opportunity to enhance fertility awareness as part of a larger reproductive health conversation that adolescents desire, and from which they might benefit. Identifying potential future fertility issues, understanding age-related fertility decline, and aiding in health optimization before future conception might empower the adolescent to make informed reproductive decisions. We provide an algorithm to use with adolescents to discuss the "right time, right weight, right way" to pursue childbearing. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Rights and the role of family engagement in child welfare: an international treaties perspective on families' rights, parents' rights, and children's rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzer, Gertrud; Gran, Brian

    2011-01-01

    According to international human rights treaties, what rights do family members, parents, and children have in family engagement in child welfare decision-making? A socio-legal analytical approach produces a typology of rights, then applies the typology to eight countries' approaches to family engagement to show that strong bundles of rights are available in some countries, but not in others. This study reveals international treaties have articulated many rights necessary to family engagement, but some rights are missing.

  15. Human Rights Training for Central Government Officials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUR STAFF REPORTER

    2007-01-01

    @@ More than 50 officials from central government departments attended a human rights training class held in Nanchang,Jiangxi Province, on May 29-June 2. The class was sponsored by the State Council Information Office, during which the trainees attended lectures given on China's human rights concepts and the current human rights conditions in the country,human rights theories and international human rights instruments and protection of human rights under the rule of law.

  16. 25 CFR 169.18 - Tenure of approved right-of-way grants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tenure of approved right-of-way grants. 169.18 Section 169.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER RIGHTS-OF-WAY OVER INDIAN LANDS § 169.18 Tenure of approved right-of-way grants. All rights-of-way granted under...

  17. Editors' Introduction: Justice, Rights, Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joxerramon Bengoetxea

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The articles gathered in this issue are the result of papers presented at the workshop held at the Oñati International Institute for the Sociology of Law on 20-21 May 2013 on Perspectives of Justice in Literature: Perspectives from Justice and Fundamental Rights in Literature: an Approach from Legal Culture in a European context. Literature and literary fiction can act as a thread that helps different disciplines to communicate with each other and can thus help go beyond the strictly legal field opening up to questions of justice and rights. These papers deal with issues of justice - mainly Fundamental Rights, but also procedural aspects of justice and its administration, philosophical perspectives of justice - and of legal culture - local, European, Universal - as reflected through and by literature. Los artículos que conforman este número son el resultado de las ponencias presentadas en el workshop celebrado en el Instituto Internacional de Sociología Jurídica de Oñati el 20 y 21 mayo de 2013 sobre las perspectivas de la justicia en la literatura: Perspectivas desde la Justicia y los Derechos Fundamentales en la Literatura: un Enfoque de Cultura Jurídica en el Contexto Europeo. La literatura y la ficción literaria pueden ser un hilo que favorece que diferentes disciplinas se comuniquen entre sí y pueden de esta forma ayudar a ir más allá del campo jurídico estricto, planteando cuestiones sobre justicia y derechos. Estos artículos tratan sobre aspectos de la justicia (principalmente derechos fundamentales, pero también sobre procedimiento judicial y administración de la justicia, perspectivas filosóficas de la justicia y de cultura jurídica (local, europea, universal, de la forma en la que se han reflejado en la literatura.DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2543450

  18. "We hustle for our rights"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordt Jørgensen, Nanna

    2014-01-01

    by a phenomenological interest in the everyday life experiences of young people, the field work aimed to explore ethnographically how youth engage with the environment and environmental education in conditions where both social and natural landscapes and livelihoods are under pressure and in transition. This paper...... discussed the notion of hustling and its use by youth involved in “informal” economic activities in African cities (e.g. Munive, 2010; Thieme, 2010), I will elaborate analytically on the empirical term of hustling. An exploration of the meanings of hustling for one’s rights illuminates, I argue, that young...

  19. Local distribution and franchising rights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penick, V. [McInnes, Cooper and Robertson, Halifax, NS (Canada); Grant, R.; McKelvey, S. [Stirling Scales, NB (Canada); Cramm, K. [Maritimes NRG, Halifax, NS (Canada)

    1998-12-31

    A summary of local distribution and franchising rights in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick is presented. The Gas Distribution Act calls for two distinct sets of regulations : broad regulations to be made by the provinces, and more technical procedural regulations to be made by the Utility and Review Board. The focus of this paper is on how municipalities will be affected by the regulations and how franchising within a local area will work. The overall objective is to ensure free competition in gas sales.

  20. Children's Rights with Endogenous Fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad R. Taylor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses hypothetical contractarianism to consider the value of children's rights laws as a means of protecting children. Laws protecting children from their parents have the unintended but predictable consequence of making child-rearing less desirable for some parents and thereby reducing the number of children born. Such laws therefore produce a trade-off between the expected wellbeing of actual and possible persons. I show that a possible child behind an appropriate veil of ignorance may rationally oppose laws which benefit some and harm no actual children.

  1. Individual rights versus societal duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeersch, E

    1999-10-29

    In 'bioethics', the rights to self-determination and to informed consent of the patient are prerequisites to every medical decision: paternalism is no longer a justifiable attitude. Hence, it seems that compulsory vaccination is an unacceptable praxis. Even John Stuart Mill. however, took into account other values: e.g. the duty not to harm others. This article is dedicated to the analysis of the historical development of these values and to their relevance for the ethics of vaccination. The acceptability of coercion is upheld, but no clear-cut answers are given in general: in every case the pros and cons of coercion are to be weighed carefully against each other.

  2. Update on the Alberta Surface Rights Board

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purves, C.J. [Surface Rights Board, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    1996-10-01

    The difference between surface and mineral rights in Alberta was defined. Surface rights give ownership of the surface of the land and the right to work it. Mineral rights, on the other hand, give ownership and the right to explore and develop or extract minerals beneath the surface. Oil and gas are the most common minerals in Alberta, however, gold, silver, uranium and salt are also included under mineral rights. Sand, gravel, clay, marl and peat, are excluded. The conditions which apply to the mineral owner`s right to explore and develop were summarized. Some case studies of appeals to the court regarding mineral and surface right were presented as illustrations.

  3. Nation Makes Impressive Advances in Human Rights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Chen

    2012-01-01

    In this beautiful autumn season,the 4th Beijing Forum on Human Rights.co-sponsored by the China Society for Human Rights Studies and the China Foundation for Human Rights Development,is opened.This is an important event in the realm of international human rights,and it offers a great opportunity for China to cooperate and exchange ideas with other countries on human rights.Human rights experts,personages and government officials from all over the world gather here to discuss the topic of "cultural traditions,values and human rights",and jointly explore and advance the development of global human rights theory and practice.

  4. HIV, prisoners, and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenstein, Leonard S; Amon, Joseph J; McLemore, Megan; Eba, Patrick; Dolan, Kate; Lines, Rick; Beyrer, Chris

    2016-09-17

    Worldwide, a disproportionate burden of HIV, tuberculosis, and hepatitis is present among current and former prisoners. This problem results from laws, policies, and policing practices that unjustly and discriminatorily detain individuals and fail to ensure continuity of prevention, care, and treatment upon detention, throughout imprisonment, and upon release. These government actions, and the failure to ensure humane prison conditions, constitute violations of human rights to be free of discrimination and cruel and inhuman treatment, to due process of law, and to health. Although interventions to prevent and treat HIV, tuberculosis, hepatitis, and drug dependence have proven successful in prisons and are required by international law, they commonly are not available. Prison health services are often not governed by ministries responsible for national public health programmes, and prison officials are often unwilling to implement effective prevention measures such as needle exchange, condom distribution, and opioid substitution therapy in custodial settings, often based on mistaken ideas about their incompatibility with prison security. In nearly all countries, prisoners face stigma and social marginalisation upon release and frequently are unable to access health and social support services. Reforms in criminal law, policing practices, and justice systems to reduce imprisonment, reforms in the organisation and management of prisons and their health services, and greater investment of resources are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Territorial Rights and Carbon Sinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderheiden, Steve

    2016-11-29

    Scholars concerned with abuses of the "resource privilege" by the governments of developing states sometimes call for national sovereignty over the natural resources that lie within its borders. While such claims may resist a key driver of the "resource curse" when applied to mineral resources in the ground, and are often recognized as among a people's territorial rights, their implications differ in the context of climate change, where they are invoked on behalf of a right to extract and combust fossil fuels that is set in opposition to global climate change mitigation imperatives. Moreover, granting full national sovereignty over territorial carbon sinks may conflict with commitments to equity in the sharing of national mitigation burdens, since much of the planet's carbon sink capacity lies within territorial borders to which peoples have widely disparate access. In this paper, I shall explore this tension between a global justice principle that is often applied to mineral resources and its tension with contrary principles that are often applied to carbon sink access, developing an analysis that seeks to reconcile what would otherwise appear to be fundamentally incompatible aims.

  6. The right to public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, James

    2016-06-01

    Much work in public health ethics is shaped by an 'autonomy first' view, which takes it to be axiomatic that it is difficult to justify state interference in the lives of competent adults unless the behaviours interfered with are compromised in terms of their autonomy, or would wrongfully infringe on the autonomy of others. However, such an approach is difficult to square with much of traditional public heath practice. Recent years have seen running battles between those who assume that an 'autonomy first' approach is basically sound (and so much the worse for public health practice) and those who assume that public health practice is basically sound (and so much the worse for the 'autonomy first' approach). This paper aims to reconcile in a normatively satisfying way what is best about the 'autonomy first' approach with what is best about a standard public health approach. It develops a positive case for state action to promote and protect health as a duty that is owed to each individual. According to this view, the state violates individuals' rights if it fails to take cost-effective and proportionate measures to remove health threats from the environment. It is thus a mistake to approach public health in the way that 'autonomy first' accounts do, as primarily a matter of individual entitlements versus the common good. Too little state intervention in the cause of improving population health can violate individuals' rights, just as too much can.

  7. The equal right to drink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Laura A

    2014-11-01

    The starting place for this essay is Knupfer and Room's insight that more restrictive norms around drinking and intoxication tend to be selectively applied to the economically dependent segments of society, such as women. However, since these authors wrote in 1964, women in the US and many other societies around the globe have experienced rising economic independence. The essay considers how the moral categories of acceptable drinking and drunkenness may have shifted alongside women's rising economic independence, and looks at evidence on the potential consequences for women's health and wellbeing. I argue that, as women have gained economic independence, changes in drinking norms have produced two different kinds of negative unintended consequences for women at high and low extremes of economic spectrum. As liberated women of the middle and upper classes have become more economically equal to men, they have enjoyed the right to drink with less restraint. For them, alongside the equal right to drink has come greater equality in exposure to alcohol-attributable harms, abuse and dependence. I further suggest that, as societies become more liberated, the economic dependency of low-income women is brought into greater question. Under such conditions, women in poverty-particularly those economically dependent on the state, such as welfare mothers-have become subject to more restrictive norms around drinking and intoxication, and more punitive social controls.

  8. Maximal right smooth extension chains

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Yun Bao

    2010-01-01

    If $w=u\\alpha$ for $\\alpha\\in \\Sigma=\\{1,2\\}$ and $u\\in \\Sigma^*$, then $w$ is said to be a \\textit{simple right extension}of $u$ and denoted by $u\\prec w$. Let $k$ be a positive integer and $P^k(\\epsilon)$ denote the set of all $C^\\infty$-words of height $k$. Set $u_{1},\\,u_{2},..., u_{m}\\in P^{k}(\\epsilon)$, if $u_{1}\\prec u_{2}\\prec ...\\prec u_{m}$ and there is no element $v$ of $P^{k}(\\epsilon)$ such that $v\\prec u_{1}\\text{or} u_{m}\\prec v$, then $u_{1}\\prec u_{2}\\prec...\\prec u_{m}$ is said to be a \\textit{maximal right smooth extension (MRSE) chains}of height $k$. In this paper, we show that \\textit{MRSE} chains of height $k$ constitutes a partition of smooth words of height $k$ and give the formula of the number of \\textit{MRSE} chains of height $k$ for each positive integer $k$. Moreover, since there exist the minimal height $h_1$ and maximal height $h_2$ of smooth words of length $n$ for each positive integer $n$, we find that \\textit{MRSE} chains of heights $h_1-1$ and $h_2+1$ are good candidates t...

  9. Protecting women's rights to land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adoko, J

    2000-07-01

    This article examines the efficacy of the 1998 Land Act in protecting women's right to land in Uganda. The Land Act introduced individual ownership to encourage a more productive use of land, based on the principles of economic liberalization. It converted customary ownership through the creation of written deeds. Traditionally, women's land use was protected under customary law, in which elders assumed the role of protectors, however, the passage of the Land Act changed this. It did not recognize the role of elders as protectors. To this effect, men automatically assumed that role because of the presumption that women did not own the land making them individual owners of the land. Therefore, because of the law's limitations, women have lost ownership, and are more disadvantaged by the higher incidences of divorce and the fact that wives rarely inherit. It is for this reason that the Oxfam worked with the Uganda Land Alliance to lobby the government to ensure that the Act protected women's right as much as possible.

  10. Water, Water Everywhere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeler, Rusty

    2009-01-01

    Everybody knows that children love water and how great water play is for children. The author discusses ways to add water to one's playscape that fully comply with health and safety regulations and are still fun for children. He stresses the importance of creating water play that provides children with the opportunity to interact with water.

  11. Water, Water Everywhere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeler, Rusty

    2009-01-01

    Everybody knows that children love water and how great water play is for children. The author discusses ways to add water to one's playscape that fully comply with health and safety regulations and are still fun for children. He stresses the importance of creating water play that provides children with the opportunity to interact with water.

  12. Water resources of the Milford area, Utah, with emphasis on ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mower, R.W.; Cordova, R.M.

    1974-01-01

    The investigation of the water resources of the Milford area was made as part of a cooperative program with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Rights, to investigate the water resources of the State. The primary purpose of this report is to provide basic hydrologic information needed for the effective administration and adjudication of water rights in the valley.

  13. Children's rights in clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragadóttir, H

    2000-01-01

    To address the use of children and children's genetic information in research, analyze Icelandic laws as an example, review existing literature on children in clinical research, and describe nurses' actions as children's advocates. An integrated literature review was conducted using theoretical and empirical literature on children as human subjects in clinical research. Five Icelandic laws were analyzed. Legal protection of children as human subjects is an international issue and is lacking in Icelandic legislation. In spite of an identified need to protect children as human subjects, research on children's rights in clinical research is scarce. Nurses have not taken an active stance in protecting children as human subjects. The recently passed Bill on Health Sector Database in Iceland raises questions about protection of human subjects regardless of age and stature. The effects of this Icelandic case could have international implications regarding centralized health care databases, ownership of data, and related ethical and legal decisions.

  14. [Pigeon sport and animal rights].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warzecha, M

    2007-03-01

    To begin, a short overview of the organization and the realization of the racing pigeon sport. Some physiological facts, relevant to racing pigeons, will be touched on. Lastly, a focus on the flights, their completion and the problems involved with the, in some cases, high number of lost pigeons. The German Club of Pigeon Breeders, has made improvements but, it is certainly not enough. The topic of "City Pigeons" will be briefed. The final part deals with pertinent animal rights issues, causes of mishaps, and some rectifying possibilities, which are available to the government veterinarian. Special emphasis will be placed on the international uniformity of this issue. The lecture should prove that there is a need for every government veterinarian to become actively involved, because the described problematic has a major effect on a very large number of animals.

  15. The Right to the City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri Lefebvre

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article provides a new proposition of thinking about such categoriesas a city, the urban, urban strategy and social practices connected with analyticalscience of the city, which is only at the outline stage, but also projected by Lefebvrehimself. This turn seems necessary due to the death of traditional city and oldhumanism. The article is also a passionate and utopian (in positive sense of termmanifesto for democratization of right to the city consisting of cry and demand ofthe dispossessed from such a prerogative. The author argues that an urban strategybased on a new science of the city needs social support and political force. They willbe provided by the working class, putting an end to the urban segregation.

  16. Right wing populism in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte; Meret, Susi

    2016-01-01

    Peoples’ Party managed to mobilise the Danish voters. But while scholarly literature mostly focussed on political parties we propose that an important contribution to the ideological development of populism also comes from movements, such as The Association for Freedom of Speech (Trykkefrihedsselskabet......, TF), by means of a discourse and rhetoric mobilizing national sentiments and consensus through the superior role played by Liberal Western democracies in the fight for freedom and liberty (e.g. freedom of speech). Here Danish exceptionalism is embedded in a culturalist ideology giving priority...... to what are designated as ‘our’ values, principles and rights against the threat represented by Islam and Muslim immigration. Finally we look at the role of civil organisations in combating hate speech and crime against the ‘other’....

  17. Artificial Wombs and Abortion Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, I Glenn

    2017-07-01

    In a study published in late April in Nature Communications, the authors were able to sustain 105- to 115-day-old premature lamb fetuses-whose level of development was comparable to that of a twenty-three-week-old human fetus-for four weeks in an artificial womb, enabling the lambs to develop in a way that paralleled age-matched controls. The oldest lamb of the set, more than a year old at the time the paper came out, appeared completely normal. This kind of research brings us one step closer to providing excellent quality of life for premature newborns, but it also portends major legal and ethical questions, especially for abortion rights in America. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  18. [Patients' rights--doctors' duties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, L; Bertram, E; Grate, S; Mischkowsky, T; Paul, D; Probst, J; Scala, E; Wbllenweber, H D

    2015-06-01

    On 26 February 2013 the new "Law on Patients' Rights" (hereinafter also the "Law") became effective. This Law strengthens patients' rights vis-à-vis the insurdnce company and also regulates patients' rights regarding their relation to the doctor. This has consequences for the laws on medical liability all doctors must consider. The doctor's performance is and remains a service and such service does not hold any guarantee of success. Nevertheless, this Law primarily reads as a "law on the duties of physicians". To duly take into account these duties and to avoid mistakes and misinterpretation of the Law, the Ethics Committee of the Consortium of Osteosynthesis Trauma Germany (AOTRAUMA-D) has drafted comments on the Law. Brief summaries of its effects are to be found at the end of the respective comment under the heading "Consequences for Practice". The text of the law was influenced particularly by case law, as continuously developed by the German Federal Court of Justice ("BGH"). The implementation of the Law on Patients' Rights was effected by the newly inserted sections 630a to 630h of the German Civil Code (the "BGB"), which are analysed below. The following comments are addressed to physicians only and do not deal with the specific requirements and particularities of the other medical professions such as physiotherapy, midwifery and others so on. Special attention should be paid to the comments on the newly inserted Duty to inform, which has to be fullfilled prior to any diagnostic or therapeutic procedure (sec. 630c para 2 sentence 1 BGB). Under certain conditions the doctor also has to inform the patient about the circumstances that lead to the presumed occurance of a therapeutic or diagnostic malpractice (sec. 630c para. 2 sentence 2 BGB), based on the manifestation of an undesired event or an undesired outcome. As before, the patient's valid consent to any procedure (sec. 630d BGB) is directly linked to the comprehensive and timely provision of information

  19. Transfer of Rights and Obligations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beale, Hugh; Ringe, Wolf-Georg

    2013-01-01

    This chapter compares the law on transfer of rights (i.e., assignment) in the Draft Common Frame of Reference (DCFR), English law, and German law. It first considers cases in which the three systems produce similar results before concentrating on situations in which the results and the interactions...... with other areas of law differ. It then deals with the transfer of obligations. In their basic aspects, the laws of England, Germany, and the DCFR provide for functionally similar systems of assignment, but there are some differences in the mechanisms involved. Should the current provisions of the DCFR...... on assignment be included in a later version of an optional instrument, there will be a number of interactions with both English and German law in the sense that it will matter which system governs the agreements, particularly the agreement for assignment. Key differences include, inter alia, the proprietary...

  20. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landorf, Hilary

    2012-01-01

    A study of human rights prepares students for their role as global citizens and their study of practices in the world's countries that relate to the rights of human beings. Today, when one talks of human rights it is usually with reference to the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). It is the task of teachers to give students the…