WorldWideScience

Sample records for water reservoir facility

  1. NRHP Eligibility of the Fort Huachuca, Arizona, Elevated Water Tank (Facility 49001) and Reservoir (Facility 22020)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    historic district. DISCLAIMER: The contents of this report are not to be used for advertising , publication, or promotional purposes. Citation of trade...district, Fort Huachuca Historic District, nestled in a valley overlooking the San Pedro River valley (Figure 1). The Army established Camp Huachuca in...designs serve a secondary advertising purpose (e.g., the water tower at the G. S. Suppiger catsup bottling plant in Collinsville, Illinois, Figure

  2. Seismic evaluation of a cooling water reservoir facility including fluid-structure and soil-structure interaction effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabir, A.F.; Maryak, M.E.

    1991-01-01

    Seismic analyses and structural evaluations were performed for a cooling water reservoir of a nuclear reactor facility. The horizontal input seismic motion was the NRC Reg. guide 1.60 spectrum shape anchored at 0.20g zero period acceleration. Vertical input was taken as two-thirds of the horizontal input. Soil structure interaction and hydrodynamic effects were addressed in the seismic analyses. Uncertainties in the soil properties were accounted for by considering three soil profiles. Two 2-dimensional SSI models and a 3-dimensional static model. Representing different areas of the reservoir structures were developed and analyzed to obtain seismic forces and moments, and accelerations at various locations. The results included in this paper indicated that both hydrodynamic and soil-structure interaction effects are significant contributors to the seismic responses of the water-retaining walls of the reservoir

  3. Determination of dilution factors for discharge of aluminum-containing wastes by public water-supply treatment facilities into lakes and reservoirs in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, John A.; Massey, Andrew J.; Brandt, Sara L.

    2011-09-16

    Dilution of aluminum discharged to reservoirs in filter-backwash effluents at water-treatment facilities in Massachusetts was investigated by a field study and computer simulation. Determination of dilution is needed so that permits for discharge ensure compliance with water-quality standards for aquatic life. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency chronic standard for aluminum, 87 micrograms per liter (μg/L), rather than the acute standard, 750 μg/L, was used in this investigation because the time scales of chronic exposure (days) more nearly match rates of change in reservoir concentrations than do the time scales of acute exposure (hours).Whereas dilution factors are routinely computed for effluents discharged to streams solely on the basis of flow of the effluent and flow of the receiving stream, dilution determination for effluents discharged to reservoirs is more complex because (1), compared to streams, additional water is available for dilution in reservoirs during low flows as a result of reservoir flushing and storage during higher flows, and (2) aluminum removal in reservoirs occurs by aluminum sedimentation during the residence time of water in the reservoir. Possible resuspension of settled aluminum was not considered in this investigation. An additional concern for setting discharge standards is the substantial concentration of aluminum that can be naturally present in ambient surface waters, usually in association with dissolved organic carbon (DOC), which can bind aluminum and keep it in solution.A method for dilution determination was developed using a mass-balance equation for aluminum and considering sources of aluminum from groundwater, surface water, and filter-backwash effluents and losses caused by sedimentation, water withdrawal, and spill discharge from the reservoir. The method was applied to 13 reservoirs. Data on aluminum and DOC concentrations in reservoirs and influent water were collected during the fall of 2009. Complete

  4. Monitoring programme of water reservoir Grliste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuckovic, M; Milenkovic, P.; Lukic, D.

    2002-01-01

    The quality of surface waters is a very important problem incorporated in the environment protection, especially in water resources. The Timok border-land hasn't got sufficient underground and surface waters. This is certificated by the International Association for Water Resource. That was reason for building the water reservoir 'Grliste'. Drinking water from water reservoir 'Grliste' supplies Zajecar and the surroundings. (author)

  5. Analysis of Drinking Water Supply System Encompassing The Catchment, The Reservoir and The Treatment Facility (A Case Study of Osman Sagar Drinking Water Supply System, Hyderabad, India)

    OpenAIRE

    Balijepalli, Valli Priya

    2009-01-01

    Unregulated urban growth and unscientific approach towards source protection led to the degradation and loss of fresh water lakes in Hyderabad. Osman Sagar is one of the few lakes that still retains its fresh water status. In recent times it witnessed drastic fluctuations in its inflows resulting in reduced drinking water supply. The study emphasizes the need to improve the overall water management based on the integration of scientific assessment and appropriate management strategies.

  6. Frameworks for amending reservoir water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mower, Ethan; Miranda, Leandro E.

    2013-01-01

    Managing water storage and withdrawals in many reservoirs requires establishing seasonal targets for water levels (i.e., rule curves) that are influenced by regional precipitation and diverse water demands. Rule curves are established as an attempt to balance various water needs such as flood control, irrigation, and environmental benefits such as fish and wildlife management. The processes and challenges associated with amending rule curves to balance multiuse needs are complicated and mostly unfamiliar to non-US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) natural resource managers and to the public. To inform natural resource managers and the public we describe the policies and process involved in amending rule curves in USACE reservoirs, including 3 frameworks: a general investigation, a continuing authority program, and the water control plan. Our review suggests that water management in reservoirs can be amended, but generally a multitude of constraints and competing demands must be addressed before such a change can be realized.

  7. Water in chalk reservoirs: 'friend or foe?'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjuler, Morten Leth

    2004-01-01

    Most of the petroleum fields in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea are sandstone reservoirs; the oil and gas are trapped in different species of sandstone. But the Ekofisk Field is a chalk reservoir, which really challenges the operator companies. When oil is produced from chalk reservoirs, water usually gets in and the reservoir subsides. The subsidence may be expensive for the oil companies or be used to advantage by increasing the recovery rate. Since 60 per cent of the world's petroleum reserves are located in carbonate reservoirs, it is important to understand what happens as oil and gas are pumped out. Comprehensive studies at the Department of Petroleum Technology and Applied Geophysics at Stavanger University College in Norway show that the mechanical properties of chalk are considerably altered when the pores in the rock become saturated with oil/gas or water under different stress conditions. The processes are extremely complex. The article also maintains that the effects of injecting carbon dioxide from gas power plants into petroleum reservoirs should be carefully studied before this is done extensively

  8. Water Tunnel Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NETL’s High-Pressure Water Tunnel Facility in Pittsburgh, PA, re-creates the conditions found 3,000 meters beneath the ocean’s surface, allowing scientists to study...

  9. Parallel Numerical Simulations of Water Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Pedro; Mangiavacchi, Norberto

    2010-11-01

    The study of the water flow and scalar transport in water reservoirs is important for the determination of the water quality during the initial stages of the reservoir filling and during the life of the reservoir. For this scope, a parallel 2D finite element code for solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations coupled with scalar transport was implemented using the message-passing programming model, in order to perform simulations of hidropower water reservoirs in a computer cluster environment. The spatial discretization is based on the MINI element that satisfies the Babuska-Brezzi (BB) condition, which provides sufficient conditions for a stable mixed formulation. All the distributed data structures needed in the different stages of the code, such as preprocessing, solving and post processing, were implemented using the PETSc library. The resulting linear systems for the velocity and the pressure fields were solved using the projection method, implemented by an approximate block LU factorization. In order to increase the parallel performance in the solution of the linear systems, we employ the static condensation method for solving the intermediate velocity at vertex and centroid nodes separately. We compare performance results of the static condensation method with the approach of solving the complete system. In our tests the static condensation method shows better performance for large problems, at the cost of an increased memory usage. Performance results for other intensive parts of the code in a computer cluster are also presented.

  10. Feasibility study of an aeration treatment system in a raw water storage reservoir used as a potable water source

    OpenAIRE

    Fronk, Robert Charles

    1996-01-01

    The systems engineering process has been utilized to determine the feasibility of an aeration treatment system for a raw water storage reservoir used as a potable water source. This system will be used to ensure a consistently high quality of raw water by the addition of dissolved oxygen into the reservoir. A needs analysis establishes the importance and requirements for a consistently high quality of raw water used as a source for a potable water treatment facility. This s...

  11. Upper Hiwassee River Basin reservoirs 1989 water quality assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehring, J.P.

    1991-08-01

    The water in the Upper Hiwassee River Basin is slightly acidic and low in conductivity. The four major reservoirs in the Upper Hiwassee River Basin (Apalachia, Hiwassee, Chatuge, and Nottely) are not threatened by acidity, although Nottely Reservoir has more sulfates than the other reservoirs. Nottely also has the highest organic and nutrient concentrations of the four reservoirs. This results in Nottely having the poorest water clarity and the most algal productivity, although clarity as measured by color and secchi depths does not indicate any problem with most water use. However, chlorophyll concentrations indicate taste and odor problems would be likely if the upstream end of Nottely Reservoir were used for domestic water supply. Hiwassee Reservoir is clearer and has less organic and nutrient loading than either of the two upstream reservoirs. All four reservoirs have sufficient algal activity to produce supersaturated dissolved oxygen conditions and relatively high pH values at the surface. All four reservoirs are thermally stratified during the summer, and all but Apalachia have bottom waters depleted in oxygen. The very short residence time of Apalachia Reservoir, less than ten days as compared to over 100 days for the other three reservoirs, results in it being more riverine than the other three reservoirs. Hiwassee Reservoir actually develops three distinct water temperature strata due to the location of the turbine intake. The water quality of all of the reservoirs supports designated uses, but water quality complaints are being received regarding both Chatuge and Nottely Reservoirs and their tailwaters

  12. Radionuclide migration in water reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodionova, L.F.

    1983-01-01

    Toxicity degree and radiation effect of different radionuclides depend on multiple factors, whose interaction can strengthen or weaken the effects through the mechanism of nuclide accumulation by hydrobiontes. Stage of development of an aquatic organism, its age, mass and sex as well as lifetime and residence time of the organism in the given medium are of importance. The radionuclide build up depends on illumination, locale of the bioobject residence, on the residence nature. The concentration of radionuclides in aquatic organisms and bionts survival depend on a season, temperature of the residence medium, as well as salinity and mineral composition of water influence

  13. Pool water cleaning facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Kazuhiro; Kinoshita, Shoichiro [Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Asano, Takashi

    1998-05-29

    Only one system comprising a suppression poor water cleaning system (SPCU) and a filtration desalting tower (F/D) is connected for a plurality of nuclear power plants. Pipelines/valves for connecting the one system of the SPCU pump, the F/D and the plurality of nuclear power plants are disposed, and the system is used in common with the plurality of nuclear power plants. Pipelines/valves for connecting a pipeline for passing SP water to the commonly used SPCU pump and a skimmer surge tank are disposed, and fuel pool water is cooled and cleaned by the commonly used SPCU pump and the commonly used F/D. The number of SPCU pumps and the F/D facilities can be reduced, and a fuel pool water cooling operation mode and a fuel pool water cleaning operation mode which were conducted by an FPC pump so far are conducted by the SPCU pump. (N.H.)

  14. Phytoplankton and water quality in a Mediterranean drinking-water reservoir (Marathonas Reservoir, Greece).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsiapi, Matina; Moustaka-Gouni, Maria; Michaloudi, Evangelia; Kormas, Konstantinos Ar

    2011-10-01

    Phytoplankton and water quality of Marathonas drinking-water Reservoir were examined for the first time. During the study period (July-September 2007), phytoplankton composition was indicative of eutrophic conditions although phytoplankton biovolume was low (max. 2.7 mm³ l⁻¹). Phytoplankton was dominated by cyanobacteria and diatoms, whereas desmids and dinoflagellates contributed with lower biovolume values. Changing flushing rate in the reservoir (up to 0.7% of reservoir's water volume per day) driven by water withdrawal and occurring in pulses for a period of 15-25 days was associated with phytoplankton dynamics. Under flushing pulses: (1) biovolume was low and (2) both 'good' quality species and the tolerant to flushing 'nuisance' cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa dominated. According to the Water Framework Directive, the metrics of phytoplankton biovolume and cyanobacterial percentage (%) contribution indicated a moderate ecological water quality. In addition, the total biovolume of cyanobacteria as well as the dominance of the known toxin-producing M. aeruginosa in the reservoir's phytoplankton indicated a potential hazard for human health according to the World Health Organization.

  15. Reservoirs operation and water resources utilization coordination in Hongshuihe basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chonghao; Chi, Kaige; Pang, Bo; Tang, Hongbin

    2018-06-01

    In the recent decade, the demand for water resources has been increasing with the economic development. The reservoirs of cascade hydropower stations in Hongshuihe basin, which are constructed with a main purpose of power generation, are facing more integrated water resources utilization problem. The conflict between power generation of cascade reservoirs and flood control, shipping, environmental protection and water supply has become increasingly prominent. This paper introduces the general situation and integrated water demand of cascade reservoirs in Hongshuihe basin, and it analyses the impact of various types of integrated water demand on power generation and supply. It establishes mathematic models, constrained by various types of integrated water demand, to guide the operation and water resources utilization management of cascade reservoirs in Hongshuihe basin. Integrated water coordination mechanism of Hongshuihe basin is also introduced. It provides a technical and management guide and demonstration for cascade reservoirs operation and integrated water management at home and abroad.

  16. Biofouling on Reservoir in Sea Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, H.; Eom, C.; Kong, M.; Park, Y.; Chung, K.; Kim, B.

    2011-12-01

    The organisms which take part in marine biofouling are primarily the attached or sessile forms occurring naturally in the shallower water along the coast [1]. This is mainly because only those organisms with the ability to adapt to the new situations created by man can adhere firmly enough to avoid being washed off. Chemical and microbiological characteristics of the fouling biofilms developed on various surfaces in contact with the seawater were made. The microbial compositions of the biofilm communities formed on the reservoir polymer surfaces were tested for. The quantities of the diverse microorganisms in the biofilm samples developed on the prohibiting polymer reservoir surface were larger when there was no concern about materials for special selection for fouling. To confirm microbial and formation of biofilm on adsorbents was done CLSM (Multi-photon Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope system) analysis. Microbial identified using 16S rRNA. Experiment results, five species which are Vibrio sp., Pseudoalteromonas, Marinomonas, Sulfitobacter, and Alteromonas discovered to reservoir formed biofouling. There are some microorganism cause fouling and there are the others control fouling. The experimental results offered new specific information, concerning the problems in the application of new material as well as surface coating such as anti-fouling coatings. They showed the important role microbial activity in fouling and corrosion of the surfaces in contact with the any seawater. Acknowledgement : This research was supported by the national research project titled "The Development of Technology for Extraction of Resources Dissolved in Seawater" of the Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) funded by the Ministry of Land, Transport and Maritime Affairs. References [1] M. Y. Diego, K. Soren, and D. J. Kim. Prog. Org. Coat. 50, (2004) p.75-104.

  17. High Pressure Industrial Water Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    In conjunction with Space Shuttle Main Engine testing at Stennis, the Nordberg Water Pumps at the High Pressure Industrial Water Facility provide water for cooling the flame deflectors at the test stands during test firings.

  18. 77 FR 12227 - Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule: Uncovered Finished Water Reservoirs; Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... Water Treatment Rule: Uncovered Finished Water Reservoirs; Public Meeting AGENCY: Environmental... review of the uncovered finished water reservoir requirement in the Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water... uncovered finished water reservoir requirement and the agency's Six Year Review process. EPA also plans to...

  19. Sudden water pollution accidents and reservoir emergency operations: impact analysis at Danjiangkou Reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hezhen; Lei, Xiaohui; Shang, Yizi; Duan, Yang; Kong, Lingzhong; Jiang, Yunzhong; Wang, Hao

    2018-03-01

    Danjiangkou Reservoir is the source reservoir of the Middle Route of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project (MRP). Any sudden water pollution accident in the reservoir would threaten the water supply of the MRP. We established a 3-D hydrodynamic and water quality model for the Danjiangkou Reservoir, and proposed scientific suggestions on the prevention and emergency management for sudden water pollution accidents based on simulated results. Simulations were performed on 20 hypothetical pollutant discharge locations and 3 assumed amounts, in order to model the effect of pollutant spreading under different reservoir operation types. The results showed that both the location and mass of pollution affected water quality; however, different reservoir operation types had little effect. Five joint regulation scenarios, which altered the hydrodynamic processes of water conveyance for the Danjiangkou and Taocha dams, were considered for controlling pollution dispersion. The results showed that the spread of a pollutant could be effectively controlled through the joint regulation of the two dams and that the collaborative operation of the Danjiangkou and Taocha dams is critical for ensuring the security of water quality along the MRP.

  20. Effects of water-supply reservoirs on streamflow in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Sara B.

    2016-10-06

    State and local water-resource managers need modeling tools to help them manage and protect water-supply resources for both human consumption and ecological needs. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, has developed a decision-support tool to estimate the effects of reservoirs on natural streamflow. The Massachusetts Reservoir Simulation Tool is a model that simulates the daily water balance of a reservoir. The reservoir simulation tool provides estimates of daily outflows from reservoirs and compares the frequency, duration, and magnitude of the volume of outflows from reservoirs with estimates of the unaltered streamflow that would occur if no dam were present. This tool will help environmental managers understand the complex interactions and tradeoffs between water withdrawals, reservoir operational practices, and reservoir outflows needed for aquatic habitats.A sensitivity analysis of the daily water balance equation was performed to identify physical and operational features of reservoirs that could have the greatest effect on reservoir outflows. For the purpose of this report, uncontrolled releases of water (spills or spillage) over the reservoir spillway were considered to be a proxy for reservoir outflows directly below the dam. The ratio of average withdrawals to the average inflows had the largest effect on spillage patterns, with the highest withdrawals leading to the lowest spillage. The size of the surface area relative to the drainage area of the reservoir also had an effect on spillage; reservoirs with large surface areas have high evaporation rates during the summer, which can contribute to frequent and long periods without spillage, even in the absence of water withdrawals. Other reservoir characteristics, such as variability of inflows, groundwater interactions, and seasonal demand patterns, had low to moderate effects on the frequency, duration, and magnitude of spillage. The

  1. High-pressure water facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    NASA Test Operations Group employees, from left, Todd Pearson, Tim Delcuze and Rodney Wilkinson maintain a water pump in Stennis Space Center's high-pressure water facility. The three were part of a group of employees who rode out Hurricane Katrina at the facility and helped protect NASA's rocket engine test complex.

  2. Beyond peak reservoir storage? A global estimate of declining water storage capacity in large reservoirs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisser, D.; Frolking, S.; Hagen, Stephen; Bierkens, M.F.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/125022794

    2013-01-01

    Water storage is an important way to cope with temporal variation in water supply anddemand. The storage capacity and the lifetime of water storage reservoirs can besignificantly reduced by the inflow of sediments. A global, spatially explicit assessment ofreservoir storage loss in conjunction with

  3. Optimizing withdrawal from drinking water reservoirs to reduce downstream temperature pollution and reservoir hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, M; Rinke, K; Hipsey, M R; Boehrer, B

    2017-07-15

    Sustainable management of drinking water reservoirs requires balancing the demands of water supply whilst minimizing environmental impact. This study numerically simulates the effect of an improved withdrawal scheme designed to alleviate the temperature pollution downstream of a reservoir. The aim was to identify an optimal withdrawal strategy such that water of a desirable discharge temperature can be supplied downstream without leading to unacceptably low oxygen concentrations within the reservoir. First, we calibrated a one-dimensional numerical model for hydrodynamics and oxygen dynamics (GLM-AED2), verifying that the model reproduced water temperatures and hypolimnetic dissolved oxygen concentrations accurately over a 5 year period. Second, the model was extended to include an adaptive withdrawal functionality, allowing for a prescribed withdrawal temperature to be found, with the potential constraint of hypolimnetic oxygen concentration. Scenario simulations on epi-/metalimnetic withdrawal demonstrate that the model is able to autonomously determine the best withdrawal height depending on the thermal structure and the hypolimnetic oxygen concentration thereby optimizing the ability to supply a desirable discharge temperature to the downstream river during summer. This new withdrawal strategy also increased the hypolimnetic raw water volume to be used for drinking water supply, but reduced the dissolved oxygen concentrations in the deep and cold water layers (hypolimnion). Implications of the results for reservoir management are discussed and the numerical model is provided for operators as a simple and efficient tool for optimizing the withdrawal strategy within different reservoir contexts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. PHOSPHORUS CONTAMINATION AS A BARRIER TO WATER QUALITY OF SMALL RETENTION RESERVOIRS IN PODLASIE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Ewa Szczykowska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dam retention reservoirs created on the rivers play a special role as an environmentally friendly forms of stopping and slowing of water runoff. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of water flowing into small retention reservoirs in terms of the concentration of total phosphorus and phosphates. The study involved three small retention reservoirs located in the municipalities of: Bransk, Dubicze Cerkiewne and Kleszczele in Podlasie region. Selection of the research facilities was made due to the similarity in the soil management type within catchment of the flowing watercourse, retained water utilization ways, and a small surface of reservoirs. Watercourse reaching the reservoir provides biogens along with water, which directly affect the water quality resulting in high concentrations in water, either indirectly by initiating or accelerating the process of degradation of the reservoir and the loss of its usability. Given the concentration of total phosphorus, it can be said that only in the case of 20.8% of water samples from Nurzec river feeding the Otapy-Kiersnówek reservoir, about 25% of water samples of Orlanka river feeding Bachmaty reservoir, and 17% of samples taken from the watercourse supplying Repczyce reservoir, corresponded to values specified for the second class in the current Regulation of the Minister of the Environment [Regulation 2014]. It can be assumed that this situation is caused by a long-term fertilization using manure, which in consequence led to the oversaturation of soils and phosphorus compounds penetration into the river waters in areas used for agricultural purposes. Especially in the early spring periods, rising temperature together with rainfall caused soil thawing resulting in increasing concentrations of contaminants carried along with the washed soil particles during the surface and subsurface runoff. Values of TSI(TP calculated for Otapy-Kiersnówek reservoir amounted to 112.4 in hydrological

  5. Wind effect on water surface of water reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Pelikán

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary research of wind-water interactions was focused on coastal areas along the shores of world oceans and seas because a basic understanding of coastal meteorology is an important component in coastal and offshore design and planning. Over time the research showed the most important meteorological consideration relates to the dominant role of winds in wave generation. The rapid growth of building-up of dams in 20th century caused spreading of the water wave mechanics research to the inland water bodies. The attention was paid to the influence of waterwork on its vicinity, wave regime respectively, due to the shoreline deterioration, predominantly caused by wind waves. Consequently the similar principles of water wave mechanics are considered in conditions of water reservoirs. The paper deals with the fundamental factors associated with initial wind-water interactions resulting in the wave origination and growth. The aim of the paper is thepresentation of utilization of piece of knowledge from a part of sea hydrodynamics and new approach in its application in the conditions of inland water bodies with respect to actual state of the art. The authors compared foreign and national approach to the solved problems and worked out graphical interpretation and overview of related wind-water interaction factors.

  6. Maqalika Reservoir: utilisation and sustainability of Maqalika Reservoir as a source of potable water supply for Maseru in Lesotho

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Letsie, M

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The storage of water in the Maqalika reservoir is gradually decreasing as sediment, carried by the natural catchment run-off, accumulates in the reservoir. Moreover, water pumped into the reservoir from the Caledon River (which is heavily sedimented...

  7. Improved water management with the development of Snake Lake Reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, P.; Miller, D.; Webber, J.

    1998-01-01

    The $10.3 million Snake Lake Reservoir which is located south of the TransCanada Highway between Bassano and Brooks, in Alberta, was completed in 1997. It provides 19.1 million cubic meters of storage to improve the water supply for the irrigation of 29,000 hectares of agricultural land in the Eastern Irrigation District. One of challenges that engineers faced during the construction of the reservoir was the extremely soft dam foundation conditions. The resolution of this and other challenges are discussed. In addition to water storage, the reservoir also provides wildlife, recreation and aquaculture opportunities. 8 refs., 5 figs

  8. Water levels shape fishing participation in flood-control reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Meals, K. O.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the relationship between fishing effort (hours fished) and average March–May water level in 3 flood control reservoirs in Mississippi. Fishing effort increased as water level rose, peaked at intermediate water levels, and decreased at high water levels. We suggest that the observed arched-shaped relationship is driven by the shifting influence of fishability (adequacy of the fishing circumstances from an angler's perspective) and catch rate along a water level continuum. Fishability reduces fishing effort during low water, despite the potential for higher catch rates. Conversely, reduced catch rates and fishability at high water also curtail effort. Thus, both high and low water levels seem to discourage fishing effort, whereas anglers seem to favor intermediate water levels. Our results have implications for water level management in reservoirs with large water level fluctuations.

  9. Identification and assessment of potential water quality impact factors for drinking-water reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qing; Deng, Jinsong; Wang, Ke; Lin, Yi; Li, Jun; Gan, Muye; Ma, Ligang; Hong, Yang

    2014-06-10

    Various reservoirs have been serving as the most important drinking water sources in Zhejiang Province, China, due to the uneven distribution of precipitation and severe river pollution. Unfortunately, rapid urbanization and industrialization have been continuously challenging the water quality of the drinking-water reservoirs. The identification and assessment of potential impacts is indispensable in water resource management and protection. This study investigates the drinking water reservoirs in Zhejiang Province to better understand the potential impact on water quality. Altogether seventy-three typical drinking reservoirs in Zhejiang Province encompassing various water storage levels were selected and evaluated. Using fifty-two reservoirs as training samples, the classification and regression tree (CART) method and sixteen comprehensive variables, including six sub-sets (land use, population, socio-economy, geographical features, inherent characteristics, and climate), were adopted to establish a decision-making model for identifying and assessing their potential impacts on drinking-water quality. The water quality class of the remaining twenty-one reservoirs was then predicted and tested based on the decision-making model, resulting in a water quality class attribution accuracy of 81.0%. Based on the decision rules and quantitative importance of the independent variables, industrial emissions was identified as the most important factor influencing the water quality of reservoirs; land use and human habitation also had a substantial impact on water quality. The results of this study provide insights into the factors impacting the water quality of reservoirs as well as basic information for protecting reservoir water resources.

  10. Radiation monitoring on shores of Kayrakum water reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boboev, B.D.; Khakimov, N.; Nazarov, Kh.M.; Abdulloev, Sh.; Barotov, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Complex investigation results of radiological situation of Kayrakum water reservoir's fauna and flora are provided in this article. The field radiometric and dosimetric measurements, sampling for analysis by sampler from bottom sedimentation and water are carried out. It is determined that total hardness of water in Kayrakum water reservoir in the course of season (from April till December) fluctuated from 5.78 till 9.6 mg-eq/l. The maximum indicators were during the spring period. Ion sums in average per year was 791.2 mg-eq/l.

  11. Genotoxicity assessment of water sampled from R-11 reservoir by means of allium test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bukatich, E.; Pryakhin, E. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine (Russian Federation); Geraskin, S. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    The Mayak PA was the first enterprise for the production of weapon-grade plutonium in Russia and it incorporates uranium-graphite reactors for plutonium production and radiochemical facilities for its separation. Radiochemical processing resulted in huge volumes of liquid radioactive wastes of different specific activities. To reduce the radionuclides release into the environment, a system of bypasses and ponds (the Techa Cascade Reservoirs system) to store low-activity liquid wastes has been constructed in the upper reaches of the Techa River. Currently, industrial reservoirs of Mayak PA contain over 350 million m{sup 3} of low-level radioactive liquid wastes with total activity over 7.4 x 10{sup 15} Bq. Reservoir R-11 is the final reservoir in the Techa Cascade Reservoirs system. The average specific activity of main radionuclides in the water of R-11 are: {sup 90}Sr - 1.4x10{sup 3} Bq/l; {sup 137}Cs - 3 Bq/l; {sup 3}H - 7x10{sup 2} Bq/l; α-emitting radionuclides - 2.6 x 10{sup -1} Bq/l. In our study the Allium-test was employed to estimate reservoir R-11 water genotoxic effects. In 2012, 3 water samples were collected in different parts of reservoir R-11. Water samples from the Shershnevskoye reservoir (artificial reservoir on the Miass River designed for Chelyabinsk city water supply) were used as natural control. Samples of distilled and bottled water were used as an additional laboratory control. The common onion, Allium cepa L. (Stuttgarter Riesen) was used. Healthy equal-sized bulbs were soaked for 24 hours at +4±2 deg. C to synchronize cell division. The bulbs were maintained in distilled water at +23 deg. C until roots have grown up to 2±1 mm length and then plunged into water samples. Control samples remained in distilled and bottled water as well as in water samples from the Shershnevskoye reservoir (natural control). Roots of the 18±3 mm length were randomly sampled and fixed in an alcohol/acetic acid mixture. For microscopic analysis, squashed

  12. Reactor water injection facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Kazuhiro; Kinoshita, Shoichiro

    1997-05-02

    A steam turbine and an electric generator are connected by way of a speed convertor. The speed convertor is controlled so that the number of rotation of the electric generator is constant irrespective of the speed change of the steam turbine. A shaft coupler is disposed between the turbine and the electric generator or between the turbine and a water injection pump. With such a constitution, the steam turbine and the electric generator are connected by way of the speed convertor, and since the number of revolution of the electric generator is controlled to be constant, the change of the number of rotation of the turbine can be controlled irrespective of the change of the number of rotation of the electric generator. Accordingly, the flow rate of the injection water from the water injection pump to a reactor pressure vessel can be controlled freely thereby enabling to supply stable electric power. (T.M.)

  13. Simulation of water-energy fluxes through small-scale reservoir systems under limited data availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoulakos, Konstantinos; Pollakis, Giorgos; Moustakis, Yiannis; Markopoulos, Apostolis; Iliopoulou, Theano; Dimitriadis, Panayiotis; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris; Efstratiadis, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Small islands are regarded as promising areas for developing hybrid water-energy systems that combine multiple sources of renewable energy with pumped-storage facilities. Essential element of such systems is the water storage component (reservoir), which implements both flow and energy regulations. Apparently, the representation of the overall water-energy management problem requires the simulation of the operation of the reservoir system, which in turn requires a faithful estimation of water inflows and demands of water and energy. Yet, in small-scale reservoir systems, this task in far from straightforward, since both the availability and accuracy of associated information is generally very poor. For, in contrast to large-scale reservoir systems, for which it is quite easy to find systematic and reliable hydrological data, in the case of small systems such data may be minor or even totally missing. The stochastic approach is the unique means to account for input data uncertainties within the combined water-energy management problem. Using as example the Livadi reservoir, which is the pumped storage component of the small Aegean island of Astypalaia, Greece, we provide a simulation framework, comprising: (a) a stochastic model for generating synthetic rainfall and temperature time series; (b) a stochastic rainfall-runoff model, whose parameters cannot be inferred through calibration and, thus, they are represented as correlated random variables; (c) a stochastic model for estimating water supply and irrigation demands, based on simulated temperature and soil moisture, and (d) a daily operation model of the reservoir system, providing stochastic forecasts of water and energy outflows. Acknowledgement: This research is conducted within the frame of the undergraduate course "Stochastic Methods in Water Resources" of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA). The School of Civil Engineering of NTUA provided moral support for the participation of the students

  14. Reservoir water level forecasting using group method of data handling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaji, Amir Hossein; Bonakdari, Hossein; Gharabaghi, Bahram

    2018-06-01

    Accurately forecasted reservoir water level is among the most vital data for efficient reservoir structure design and management. In this study, the group method of data handling is combined with the minimum description length method to develop a very practical and functional model for predicting reservoir water levels. The models' performance is evaluated using two groups of input combinations based on recent days and recent weeks. Four different input combinations are considered in total. The data collected from Chahnimeh#1 Reservoir in eastern Iran are used for model training and validation. To assess the models' applicability in practical situations, the models are made to predict a non-observed dataset for the nearby Chahnimeh#4 Reservoir. According to the results, input combinations (L, L -1) and (L, L -1, L -12) for recent days with root-mean-squared error (RMSE) of 0.3478 and 0.3767, respectively, outperform input combinations (L, L -7) and (L, L -7, L -14) for recent weeks with RMSE of 0.3866 and 0.4378, respectively, with the dataset from https://www.typingclub.com/st. Accordingly, (L, L -1) is selected as the best input combination for making 7-day ahead predictions of reservoir water levels.

  15. Differences in microbial community composition between injection and production water samples of water flooding petroleum reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Gao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Microbial communities in injected water are expected to have significant influence on those of reservoir strata in long-term water flooding petroleum reservoirs. To investigate the similarities and differences in microbial communities in injected water and reservoir strata, high-throughput sequencing of microbial partial 16S rRNA of the water samples collected from the wellhead and downhole of injection wells, and from production wells in a homogeneous sandstone reservoir and a heterogeneous conglomerate reservoir were performed. The results indicate that a small number of microbial populations are shared between the water samples from the injection and production wells in the sandstone reservoir, whereas a large number of microbial populations are shared in the conglomerate reservoir. The bacterial and archaeal communities in the reservoir strata have high concentrations, which are similar to those in the injected water. However, microbial population abundance exhibited large differences between the water samples from the injection and production wells. The number of shared populations reflects the influence of microbial communities in injected water on those in reservoir strata to some extent, and show strong association with the unique variation of reservoir environments.

  16. WATER LOSS OF KOKA RESERVOIR, ETHIOPIA: COMMENTS ON

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to be used for Awash River simulation model. Key words/phrases: Ethiopia, Koka Reservoir water loss, leakage rate, subsurface inflow, water balance. INTRODUCTION. Koka Dam was built on Awash River, Ethiopia, in 1960 for hydropower and irrigation purposes. It is located at 8°24'N latitude and 39°05'E longitude (Fig.

  17. A global water supply reservoir yield model with uncertainty analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuria, Faith W; Vogel, Richard M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the reliability and uncertainty associated with water supply yields derived from surface water reservoirs is central for planning purposes. Using a global dataset of monthly river discharge, we introduce a generalized model for estimating the mean and variance of water supply yield, Y, expected from a reservoir for a prespecified reliability, R, and storage capacity, S assuming a flow record of length n. The generalized storage–reliability–yield (SRY) relationships reported here have numerous water resource applications ranging from preliminary water supply investigations, to economic and climate change impact assessments. An example indicates how our generalized SRY relationship can be combined with a hydroclimatic model to determine the impact of climate change on surface reservoir water supply yields. We also document that the variability of estimates of water supply yield are invariant to characteristics of the reservoir system, including its storage capacity and reliability. Standardized metrics of the variability of water supply yields are shown to depend only on the sample size of the inflows and the statistical characteristics of the inflow series. (paper)

  18. Successful flow testing of a gas reservoir in 3,500 feet of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaughnessy, J.M.; Carpenter, R.S.; Coleman, R.A.; Jackson, C.W.

    1992-01-01

    The test of Viosca Knoll Block 957 Well No. 1 Sidetrack No. 2 was Amoco Production Co.'s deepest test from a floating rig. Viosca Knoll 957 is 115 miles southeast of New Orleans in 3,500 ft of water. The test, at a record water depth for the Gulf of Mexico, also set a world water-depth record for testing a gas reservoir. Safety to crew and the environmental were top priorities during the planning. A team consisting of drilling, completion, reservoir, and facilities engineers and a foreman were assigned to plan and implement the test. Early planning involved field, service company, and engineering groups. Every effort was made to identify potential problems and to design the system to handle them. This paper reports that the goals of the test were to determine reservoir properties and reservoir limits. Several significant challenges were involved in the well test. The reservoir was gas with a potentially significant condensate yield. The ability to dispose of the large volumes of produced fluids safely without polluting was critical to maintaining uninterrupted flow. Potential shut-in surface pressure was 6,500 psi. Seafloor temperature in 3,500 ft of water was 39 degrees F

  19. Chemical composition and water quality of Tashlyk Water-cooling reservoir of South-Ukraine NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosheleva, S.I.; Gajdar, E.M.

    1995-01-01

    Information about water quality in Tashlyk water reservoir (cooler of South-Ukrainian NPP) during 9 years (1980-1992) is presented. Comparative data about Water Quality of South Bug (its source of water nutrition) and this reservoir point on the periodical pollution by surface waters and industrial wastes with a great contain of sulphates and chlorides. The class of water has been changed from hydrocarbonat calcium to sulfur-chlorine-magnesium or chlorine-natrium. The contain of biogenic and organic components in reservoir's water has been corresponded to the main class of waters satisfactory cleanliness

  20. Mercury in water and bottom sediments from a mexican reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila Perez, P.; Zarazua Ortega, G.; Barcelo Quintal, D.; Rosas, P.; Diazdelgado, C.

    2001-01-01

    The Lerma-Santiago river's source is located in the State of Mexico. Its drainage basin occupies an area of 129,632 km2. The river receives urban wastewater discharges from 29 municipalities, as well as industrial water discharges, both treated and untreated, mainly from the industrial zones of Toluca, Lerma, Ocoyoacac, Santiago Tianguistengo, Pasteje and Atlacomulco. It is estimated that during a year, the stream receives 536 x 106 m3 of waste waters, which carries 350,946 ton of organic load; 33% of these waste waters come from urban discharges, and 67% originate from industrial discharges. The Jose Antonio Alzate Reservoir fed by the Lerma river is the first significant water reservoir downstream of the main industrial areas in the State of Mexico and both are considered the most contaminated water bodies in the State of Mexico. Mercury concentrations in water and bottom sediments in the Jose Antonio Alzate Reservoir were determined in 6 different sampling zones over a 1-year period. Mercury was measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and irradiated with a thermal neutron flux of 9 x 1012 n. cm-2 s-1 for a period of 26 hours. High variations of mercury concentrations in water in both, soluble and suspended forms, were observed to depend on the sampling season. During the rainy season, rain events contribute with a substantial water volume to modify physicochemical parameters like pH, which dilute chemical species in the Alzate Reservoir. There are evidence that in the Jose Antonio Alzate reservoir, sedimentation and adsorption act as a natural cleaning process, decreasing the dissolved concentrations and increasing the metallic content of the sediments. A negative gradient was identified for mercury concentrations, from the Lerma river inlet to Alzate Reservoir dam, which demonstrates the considerable influence of the Lerma river inlet. This gradient also proves the existence of a metal recycling process between water and sediment, while the

  1. Hydroeconomic optimization of reservoir management under downstream water quality constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Claus; Liu, Suxia; Mo, Xingguo

    2015-01-01

    water quantity and water quality management and minimizes the total costs over a planning period assuming stochastic future runoff. The outcome includes cost-optimal reservoir releases, groundwater pumping, water allocation, wastewater treatments and water curtailments. The optimization model uses......), and the resulting minimum dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration is computed with the Streeter-Phelps equation and constrained to match Chinese water quality targets. The baseline water scarcity and operational costs are estimated to 15.6. billion. CNY/year. Compliance to water quality grade III causes a relatively...

  2. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - Water Pollution Control Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Water Pollution Control Facility is a DEP primary facility type related to the Water Pollution Control Program. The sub-facility types related to Water Pollution...

  3. Report on water quality, sediment and water chemistry data for water and sediment samples collected from source areas to Melton Hill and Watts Bar reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomaszewski, T.M.; Bruggink, D.J.; Nunn, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    Contamination of surface water and sediments in the Clinch River and Watts Bar Reservoir (CR/WBR) system as a result of past and present activities by the US Department of Energy (DOE) on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and also activities by non-ORR facilities are being studied by the Clinch River Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP). Previous studies have documented the presence of heavy metals, organics, and radionuclides in the sediments of reservoirs in the vicinity. In support of the CR-ERP, during the summer of 1991, TVA collected and evaluated water and sediment samples from swimming areas and municipal water intakes on Watts Bar Reservoir, Melton Hill Reservoir and Norris Reservoir, which was considered a source of less-contaminated reference or background data. Despite the numerous studies, until the current work documented by this report, relatively few sediment or water samples had been collected by the CR-ERP in the immediate vicinity of contaminant point sources. This work focused on water and sediment samples taken from points immediately downstream from suspected effluent point sources both on and off the ORR. In August and September, 1994, TVA sampled surface water and sediment at twelve locations in melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs

  4. Determining water reservoir characteristics with global elevation data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bemmelen, C. W T; Mann, M.; de Ridder, M.P.; Rutten, M.M.; van de Giesen, N.C.

    2016-01-01

    Quantification of human impact on water, sediment, and nutrient fluxes at the global scale demands characterization of reservoirs with an accuracy that is presently unavailable. This letter presents a new method, based on virtual dam placement, to make accurate estimations of area-volume

  5. Aerial view of the water reservoirs for Lab II

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    Two large reservoirs (5000 m3 each) were built on the Swiss part of the site (Lab I is on the left). The water was drawn from the pumping station at Le Vengeron on Lac Léman, through a 10 km long pipe to be distributed over all Lab II.

  6. Climate-water quality relationships in Texas reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelca, Rodica; Hayhoe, Katharine; Scott-Fleming, Ian; Crow, Caleb; Dawson, D.; Patino, Reynaldo

    2015-01-01

    Water temperature, dissolved oxygen, and concentrations of salts in surface water bodies can be affected by the natural environment, local human activities such as surface and ground water withdrawals, land use, and energy extraction, and variability and long-term trends in atmospheric conditions including temperature and precipitation. Here, we quantify the relationship between 121 indicators of mean and extreme temperature and precipitation and 24 water quality parameters in 57 Texas reservoirs using observational data records covering the period 1960 to 2010. We find that water temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, specific conductance, chloride, sulfate, and phosphorus all show consistent correlations with atmospheric predictors, including high and low temperature extremes, dry days, heavy precipitation events, and mean temperature and precipitation over time scales ranging from one week to two years. Based on this analysis and published future projections for this region, we expect climate change to increase water temperatures, decrease dissolved oxygen levels, decrease pH, increase specific conductance, and increase levels of sulfate, chloride in Texas reservoirs. Over decadal time scales, this may affect aquatic ecosystems in the reservoirs, including altering the risk of conditions conducive to algae occurrence, as well as affecting the quality of water available for human consumption and recreation.

  7. Change the number of water reservoirs in the selected cities of the Upper Silesian Agglomeration over the period 1993-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dąbrowska Dominika

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Upper Silesian Agglomeration is the most industrialized area in Poland and one of the most in Europe. It is situated in the eastern part of the Upper Silesia and covers nearly 1500 km2. This region is highly diverse in terms of the spatial structure. There are lots of water reservoirs besides built-up areas and industrial facilities. Many of them have also significance for nature. Water reservoirs in the Upper Silesian Agglomeration function under anthropogenic conditions. Water reservoirs have a different size and the genesis. This kind of occurrence conditions influences the water reservoirs` state. There are mainly water reservoirs of anthropogenic character in a study area. A lot of water reservoirs are strictly connected with coal exploitation in this region. Unfortunately, the number of water reservoirs in the cities of the Upper Silesian Agglomeration has lately decreased. Reservoirs are eliminated as a result of changes in industry, progressive land development, changes in environmental conditions. In this paper we present the results of the number of water reservoirs analysis in Katowice, Sosnowiec and Chorzów over the period 1993-2014. Field studies and analysis of topographic maps show a decrease in the number of water reservoirs in this region by tens of percent.

  8. Strontium 90 in silts of the Dnieper cascade water reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanenko, V.D.; Kuz'menko, M.I.; Matvienko, L.P.; Klenus, V.G.; Nasvit, O.I.

    1989-01-01

    The change of strontium-90 content in water and silts of the Dnieper cascade water reservoirs was analyzed. It was shown, that decrease of strontium-90 content in water in time connected basically with ion exchange adsorption of strontium-90 by residues. A high sorption ability of residues made it possible for radioisotopes to reduce sharply their concentration along depth of soils. The highest concentration of radioisotopes was in the upper layers, enriched by silt. It was ascertained, that strontium-90 migration along depth of residues took place rapidly in the Kiev's water reservoir. Down the cascade strontium-90 content reduced in lower layers of residues as well as in upper layers. 4 tabs

  9. The multipurpose water use of hydropower reservoir: the SHARE concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branche, E.

    2017-01-01

    Multipurpose hydropower reservoirs are designed and/or operated to provide services beyond electricity generation, such as water supply, flood and drought management, irrigation, navigation, fisheries, environmental services and recreational activities, etc. While these objectives (renewable and power services, water quantity management, ecosystem services, economic growth and local livelihoods) can conflict at times, they are also often complementary. Although there are no universal solutions, there are principles that can be shared and adapted to local contexts. Indeed the development and/or operation of such multipurpose hydropower reservoirs to reach sustainable water management should rely on the following principles: shared vision, shared resource, shared responsibilities, shared rights and risks, shared costs and benefits. These principles and acknowledgement of joint sharing among all the stakeholders are essential to successful development and management of multipurpose hydropower reservoirs, and should frame all phases from early stage to operation. The SHARE concept also gives guidance. Based on 12 worldwide case studies of multipurpose hydropower reservoirs, the SHARE concept was developed and proposed as a solution to address this issue. A special focus will be presented on the Durance-Verdon Rivers in France. (author)

  10. Reservoir operation schemes for water pollution accidents in Yangtze River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-kang Xin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available After the Three Gorges Reservoir starts running, it can not only take into consideration the interest of departments such as flood control, power generation, water supply, and shipping, but also reduce or eliminate the adverse effects of pollutants by discharge regulation. The evolution of pollutant plumes under different operation schemes of the Three Gorges Reservoir and three kinds of pollutant discharge types were calculated with the MIKE 21 AD software. The feasibility and effectiveness of the reservoir emergency operation when pollution accidents occur were investigated. The results indicate that the emergency operation produces significant effects on the instantaneous discharge type with lesser effects on the constant discharge type, the impact time is shortened, and the concentration of pollutant is reduced. Meanwhile, the results show that the larger the discharge is and the shorter the operation duration is, the more favorable the result is.

  11. Effects of reservoirs water level variations on fish recruitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíula T. de Lima

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The construction of hydroelectric power plants has many social and environmental impacts. Among them, the impacts on fish communities, which habitats are drastically modified by dams, with consequences across the ecosystem. This study aimed to assess the influence of water level (WL variations in the reservoirs of the Itá and Machadinho hydroelectric plants on the recruitment of fish species from the upper Uruguay River in southern Brazil. The data analyzed resulted from the WL variation produced exclusively by the hydroelectric plants generation and were collected between the years 2001 and 2012. The results showed significant correlations between the abundance of juvenile fish and the hydrological parameters only for some reproductive guilds. The species that spawn in nests showed, in general, a clear preference for the stability in the WL of the reservoirs, while the species that spawn in macrophytes or that release demersal eggs showed no significant correlation between the abundance of juvenile fish and hydrological parameters. A divergence of results between the two reservoirs was observed between the species that release semi-dense eggs; a positive correlation with a more stable WL was only observed in the Machadinho reservoir. This result can be driven by a wider range of WL variation in Machadinho reservoir.

  12. An Analysis Model for Water Cone Subsidence in Bottom Water Drive Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianjun; Xu, Hui; Wu, Shucheng; Yang, Chao; Kong, lingxiao; Zeng, Baoquan; Xu, Haixia; Qu, Tailai

    2017-12-01

    Water coning in bottom water drive reservoirs, which will result in earlier water breakthrough, rapid increase in water cut and low recovery level, has drawn tremendous attention in petroleum engineering field. As one simple and effective method to inhibit bottom water coning, shut-in coning control is usually preferred in oilfield to control the water cone and furthermore to enhance economic performance. However, most of the water coning researchers just have been done on investigation of the coning behavior as it grows up, the reported studies for water cone subsidence are very scarce. The goal of this work is to present an analytical model for water cone subsidence to analyze the subsidence of water cone when the well shut in. Based on Dupuit critical oil production rate formula, an analytical model is developed to estimate the initial water cone shape at the point of critical drawdown. Then, with the initial water cone shape equation, we propose an analysis model for water cone subsidence in bottom water reservoir reservoirs. Model analysis and several sensitivity studies are conducted. This work presents accurate and fast analytical model to perform the water cone subsidence in bottom water drive reservoirs. To consider the recent interests in development of bottom drive reservoirs, our approach provides a promising technique for better understanding the subsidence of water cone.

  13. Security of water treatment facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsha, C.A. [Univ. of Pittsburgh at Johnstown, Johnstowne, PA (United States)

    2002-06-15

    The safety of the nation's water supply is at risk. Although harm may or may not be done to water sources, the fear is definitely a factor. No matter what size system supplies water, the community will expect increased security. Decisions must be made as to how much will be spent on security and what measures will be taken with the money. Small systems often have a difficult time in finding a direction to focus on. Physical and electronic protection is less involved because of the scale of service. Biological contamination is difficult to prevent if the assailants are determined. Small-scale water storage and low magnitudes of flow increase a contamination threat. Large systems have a size advantage when dealing with biological contamination because of the dilution factor, but physical and electronic protection is more involved. Large-scale systems are more likely to overlook components. A balance is maintained through anything dealing with the public. Having greater assurance that water quality will be maintained comes at the cost of knowing less about how water is protected and treated, and being banned from public land within watersheds that supply drinking water. Whether good or bad ideas are being implemented, security of water treatment facilities is changing. (author)

  14. Security of water treatment facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsha, C.A.

    2002-01-01

    The safety of the nation's water supply is at risk. Although harm may or may not be done to water sources, the fear is definitely a factor. No matter what size system supplies water, the community will expect increased security. Decisions must be made as to how much will be spent on security and what measures will be taken with the money. Small systems often have a difficult time in finding a direction to focus on. Physical and electronic protection is less involved because of the scale of service. Biological contamination is difficult to prevent if the assailants are determined. Small-scale water storage and low magnitudes of flow increase a contamination threat. Large systems have a size advantage when dealing with biological contamination because of the dilution factor, but physical and electronic protection is more involved. Large-scale systems are more likely to overlook components. A balance is maintained through anything dealing with the public. Having greater assurance that water quality will be maintained comes at the cost of knowing less about how water is protected and treated, and being banned from public land within watersheds that supply drinking water. Whether good or bad ideas are being implemented, security of water treatment facilities is changing. (author)

  15. Rock Physics of Reservoir Rocks with Varying Pore Water Saturation and Pore Water Salinity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katika, Konstantina

    experiments, the rock is subjected to high external stresses that resemble the reservoir stresses; 2) the fluid distribution within the pore space changes during the flow through experiments and wettability alterations may occur; 3) different ions, present in the salt water injected in the core, interact......Advanced waterflooding (injection of water with selective ions in reservoirs) is a method of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) that has attracted the interest of oil and gas companies that exploit the Danish oil and gas reservoirs. This method has been applied successfully in oil reservoirs...... and in the Smart Water project performed in a laboratory scale in order to evaluate the EOR processes in selected core plugs. A major step towards this evaluation is to identify the composition of the injected water that leads to increased oil recovery in reservoirs and to define changes in the petrophysical...

  16. Biological effects of water reservoir radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashneva, N.I.

    1983-01-01

    Radiation damage to fresh water fishes at early stages of ontogenesis is revealed only during the spawn incubation in a solution with 10 -5 to 10 -3 Cu/l radioactivity and at relatively high dosages exceeding 500-1000 rad. Damaging effect of a fission product mixture of 9, 30 and 100 day age as well as of several separate radionuclides on embryogenesis of freshwater fishes depends mainly on fish species, concentration, toxicity, chemical form of radionuclides in the residence medium, on peculiarities of metabolism between the aqueous medium and an organism, stage of the embryo development by the moment of radiation effect and duration of this effect

  17. On the water saturation calculation in hydrocarbon sandstone reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stalheim, Stein Ottar

    2002-07-01

    The main goal of this work was to identify the most important uncertainty sources in water saturation calculation and examine the possibility for developing new S{sub w} - equations or possibility to develop methods to remove weaknesses and uncertainties in existing S{sub w} - equations. Due to the need for industrial applicability of the equations we aimed for results with the following properties: The accuracy in S{sub w} should increase compared with existing S{sub w} - equations. The equations should be simple to use in petrophysical evaluations. The equations should be based on conventional logs and use as few as possible input parameters. The equations should be numerical stable. This thesis includes an uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of the most common S{sub w} equations. The results are addressed in chapter 3 and were intended to find the most important uncertainty sources in water saturation calculation. To increase the knowledge of the relationship between R{sub t} and S{sub w} in hydrocarbon sandstone reservoirs and to understand how the pore geometry affects the conductivity (n and m) of the rock a theoretical study was done. It was also an aim to examine the possibility for developing new S{sub w} - equations (or investigation an effective medium model) valid inhydrocarbon sandstone reservoirs. The results are presented in paper 1. A new equation for water saturation calculation in clean sandstone oil reservoirs is addressed in paper 2. A recommendation for best practice of water saturation calculation in non water wet formation is addressed in paper 3. Finally a new equation for water saturation calculation in thinly interbedded sandstone/mudstone reservoirs is presented in paper 4. The papers are titled: 1) Is the saturation exponent n a constant. 2) A New Model for Calculating Water Saturation In 3) Influence of wettability on water saturation modeling. 4) Water Saturation Calculations in Thinly Interbedded Sandstone/mudstone Reservoirs. A

  18. Sustainability of small reservoirs and large scale water availability under current conditions and climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krol, Martinus S.; de Vries, Marjella J.; van Oel, Pieter R.; Carlos de Araújo, José

    2011-01-01

    Semi-arid river basins often rely on reservoirs for water supply. Small reservoirs may impact on large-scale water availability both by enhancing availability in a distributed sense and by subtracting water for large downstream user communities, e.g. served by large reservoirs. Both of these impacts

  19. 2-D Water Quality Modelling of a Drinking Water Reservoir

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Růžička, Martin; Hejzlar, J.; Mikešová, P.; Cole, T. M.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 3 (2002), s. 258-272 ISSN 0042-790X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/98/0281; GA AV ČR IAA3042903 Grant - others:USARGD-UK(USA) N68171-99-M-6754 Keywords : CE-QUAL-W2 * Dimictic stratified reservoir * Sensitivity analysis Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology

  20. Multipurpose Water Reservoir Management: An Evolutionary Multiobjective Optimization Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís A. Scola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The reservoirs that feed large hydropower plants should be managed in order to provide other uses for the water resources. Those uses include, for instance, flood control and avoidance, irrigation, navigability in the rivers, and other ones. This work presents an evolutionary multiobjective optimization approach for the study of multiple water usages in multiple interlinked reservoirs, including both power generation objectives and other objectives not related to energy generation. The classical evolutionary algorithm NSGA-II is employed as the basic multiobjective optimization machinery, being modified in order to cope with specific problem features. The case studies, which include the analysis of a problem which involves an objective of navigability on the river, are tailored in order to illustrate the usefulness of the data generated by the proposed methodology for decision-making on the problem of operation planning of multiple reservoirs with multiple usages. It is shown that it is even possible to use the generated data in order to determine the cost of any new usage of the water, in terms of the opportunity cost that can be measured on the revenues related to electric energy sales.

  1. Origin of late pleistocene formation water in Mexican oil reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkle, P. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    Brine water invasion into petroleum reservoirs, especially in sedimentary basins, are known from a variety of global oil field, such as the Western Canada sedimentary basin and, the central Mississippi Salt Dome basin (Kharaka et al., 1987). The majority of oil wells, especially in the more mature North American fields, produce more water than they do oil (Peachey et al., 1998). In the case of Mexican oil fields, increasing volumes of invading water into the petroleum wells were detected during the past few years. Major oil reserves in the SE-part of the Gulf of Mexico are economically affected due to decreases in production rate, pipeline corrosion and well closure. The origin of deep formation water in many sedimentary basins is still controversial: Former hypothesis mainly in the 60's, explained the formation of formation water by entrapment of seawater during sediment deposition. Subsequent water-rock interaction processes explain the chemical evolution of hydrostatic connate water. More recent hydrodynamic models, mainly based on isotopic data, suggest the partial migration of connate fluids, whereas the subsequent invasion of surface water causes mixing processes (Carpenter 1978). As part of the presented study, a total of 90 oil production wells were sampled from 1998 to 2004 to obtain chemical (Major and trace elements) and isotopic composition ({sup 2}H, {sup 13}C, {sup 14}C, {sup 18}O {sup 36}Cl, {sup 37}Cl, {sup 87}Sr, {sup 129}I, tritium) of deep formation water at the Mexican Gulf coast. Samples were extracted from carbonate-type reservoirs of the oil fields Luna, Samaria-Sitio Grande, Jujo-Tecominoac (on-shore), and Pol-Chuc (off-shore, including Abkatun, Batab, Caan, and Taratunich) at a depth between 2,900 m b.s.l. and 6,100 m b.s.l. During the field work, the influence of atmospheric contamination e.g. by CO{sub 2}-atmospheric input was avoided by using an interval sampler to get in-situ samples from the extraction zone of selected bore holes

  2. Characterization of water quality in Bushy Park Reservoir, South Carolina, 2013–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrads, Paul A.; Journey, Celeste A.; Petkewich, Matthew D.; Lanier, Timothy H.; Clark, Jimmy M.

    2018-04-25

    community structure. These seasonal phytoplankton communities appeared to be explained by seasonal changes in water chemistry and may be responsible for episodes of taste-and-odor occurrence, especially geosmin. The most probable source of geosmin identified during the study was D. planctonicum.In a synoptic sampling event during a taste-and-odor episode in April 2015, cyanobacteria, not acinomycetes, also was indicated to be the more prevalent source of the geosmin. Although the Edisto River intake and its associated supply tunnel to the treatment facility had relatively high actinomycetes concentrations (130 and 140 colonies per milliliter, respectively) compared to the Bushy Park intake and tunnel (2 colonies per milliliter), corresponding geosmin concentrations were below 5 nanograms per liter for source water from the Edisto River intake and tunnel. Elevated geosmin concentrations above the Charleston Water System treatment threshold were identified in source waters from the Bushy Park Reservoir. The cyanobacteria community at the sampled sites in April 2015 was statistically similar to the community in the Bushy Park Reservoir in April 2014, when geosmin concentrations also were elevated. The only geosmin-producing genus identified at the Bushy Park intake, however, was D. planctonicum.

  3. Evaluation of the bottom water reservoir VAPEX process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frauenfeld, T.W.J.; Jossy, C.; Kissel, G.A. [Alberta Research Council, Devon, AB (Canada); Rispler, K. [Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    The mobilization of viscous heavy oil requires the dissolution of solvent vapour into the oil as well as the diffusion of the dissolved solvent into the virgin oil. Vapour extraction (VAPEX) is an enhanced oil recovery (EOR) process which involves injecting a solvent into the reservoir to reduce the viscosity of hydrocarbons. This paper describes the contribution of the Alberta Research Council to solvent-assisted oil recovery technology. The bottom water process was also modelled to determine its feasibility for a field-scale oil recovery scheme. Several experiments were conducted in an acrylic visual model in which Pujol and Boberg scaling were used to produce a lab model scaling a field process. The model simulated a slice of a 30 metre thick reservoir, with a 10 metre thick bottom water zone, containing two horizontal wells (25 metres apart) at the oil water interface. The experimental rates were found to be negatively affected by continuous low permeability layers and by oil with an initial gas content. In order to achieve commercial oil recovery rates, the bottom water process must be used to increase the surface area exposed to solvents. A large oil water interface between the wells provides contact for solvent when injecting gas at the interface. High production rates are therefore possible with appropriate well spacing. 11 refs., 4 tabs., 16 figs.

  4. Seismic Evaluation of Hydrocarbon Saturation in Deep-Water Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Batzle

    2006-04-30

    During this last period of the ''Seismic Evaluation of Hydrocarbon Saturation in Deep-Water Reservoirs'' project (Grant/Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT15342), we finalized integration of rock physics, well log analysis, seismic processing, and forward modeling techniques. Most of the last quarter was spent combining the results from the principal investigators and come to some final conclusions about the project. Also much of the effort was directed towards technology transfer through the Direct Hydrocarbon Indicators mini-symposium at UH and through publications. As a result we have: (1) Tested a new method to directly invert reservoir properties, water saturation, Sw, and porosity from seismic AVO attributes; (2) Constrained the seismic response based on fluid and rock property correlations; (3) Reprocessed seismic data from Ursa field; (4) Compared thin layer property distributions and averaging on AVO response; (5) Related pressures and sorting effects on porosity and their influence on DHI's; (6) Examined and compared gas saturation effects for deep and shallow reservoirs; (7) Performed forward modeling using geobodies from deepwater outcrops; (8) Documented velocities for deepwater sediments; (9) Continued incorporating outcrop descriptive models in seismic forward models; (10) Held an open DHI symposium to present the final results of the project; (11) Relations between Sw, porosity, and AVO attributes; (12) Models of Complex, Layered Reservoirs; and (14) Technology transfer Several factors can contribute to limit our ability to extract accurate hydrocarbon saturations in deep water environments. Rock and fluid properties are one factor, since, for example, hydrocarbon properties will be considerably different with great depths (high pressure) when compared to shallow properties. Significant over pressure, on the other hand will make the rocks behave as if they were shallower. In addition to the physical properties, the scale and

  5. Peculiarities of plant contamination in the right-bank area of the Kyiv water reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirokaya, Z.O.; Klenus, V.G.; Kaglyan, A.E.; Gudkov, D.I.; Yurchuk, L.P.

    2008-01-01

    Paper contains the results of study the peculiarities of radionuclide accumulation by higher aquatic plants of the Kyiv water reservoir from 1991 to 2008. Content of the Cs 137 radionuclide in higher aquatic plants of the right-bank area of Kyiv water reservoir were analyzed. The modern state of vegetation coverage of Kyiv reservoir are estimated. (authors)

  6. Quantification of Libby Reservoir Water Levels Needed to Maintain or Enhance Reservoir Fisheries, 1988-1996 Methods and Data Summary.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalbey, Steven Ray

    1998-03-01

    The Libby Reservoir study is part of the Northwest Power Planning Council's resident fish and wildlife program. The program was mandated by the Northwest Planning Act of 1980, and is responsible for mitigating for damages to fish and wildlife caused by hydroelectric development in the Columbia River Basin. The objective of Phase I of the project (1983 through 1987) was to maintain or enhance the Libby Reservoir fishery by quantifying seasonal water levels and developing ecologically sound operational guidelines. The objective of Phase II of the project (1988 through 1996) was to determine the biological effects of reservoir operations combined with biotic changes associated with an aging reservoir. This report summarizes the data collected from Libby Reservoir during 1988 through 1996.

  7. Refurbishment of JMTR pure water facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Norikazu; Hanakawa, Hiroki; Kusunoki, Hidehiko; Satou, Shinichi

    2012-05-01

    In the refurbishment of JMTR, facilities were classified into which (1) were all updated, (2) were partly updated, and (3) were continuance used by the considerations of the maintenance history, the change parts availability and the latest technology. The JMTR pure water facility was classified into all updated facility based on the consideration. The Update construction was conducted in between FY2007 and FY2008. The refurbishment of JMTR pure water facility is summarized in this report. (author)

  8. Assessing water reservoirs management and development in Northern Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Castelletti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In many developing countries water is a key renewable resource to complement carbon-emitting energy production and support food security in the face of demand pressure from fast-growing industrial production and urbanization. To cope with undergoing changes, water resources development and management have to be reconsidered by enlarging their scope across sectors and adopting effective tools to analyze current and projected infrastructure potential and operation strategies. In this paper we use multi-objective deterministic and stochastic optimization to assess the current reservoir operation and planned capacity expansion in the Red River Basin (Northern Vietnam, and to evaluate the potential improvement by the adoption of a more sophisticated information system. To reach this goal we analyze the historical operation of the major controllable infrastructure in the basin, the HoaBinh reservoir on the Da River, explore re-operation options corresponding to different tradeoffs among the three main objectives (hydropower production, flood control and water supply, using multi-objective optimization techniques, namely Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm. Finally, we assess the structural system potential and the need for capacity expansion by application of Deterministic Dynamic Programming. Results show that the current operation can only be relatively improved by advanced optimization techniques, while investment should be put into enlarging the system storage capacity and exploiting additional information to inform the operation.

  9. Proactive modeling of water quality impacts of extreme precipitation events in a drinking water reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeznach, Lillian C; Hagemann, Mark; Park, Mi-Hyun; Tobiason, John E

    2017-10-01

    Extreme precipitation events are of concern to managers of drinking water sources because these occurrences can affect both water supply quantity and quality. However, little is known about how these low probability events impact organic matter and nutrient loads to surface water sources and how these loads may impact raw water quality. This study describes a method for evaluating the sensitivity of a water body of interest from watershed input simulations under extreme precipitation events. An example application of the method is illustrated using the Wachusett Reservoir, an oligo-mesotrophic surface water reservoir in central Massachusetts and a major drinking water supply to metropolitan Boston. Extreme precipitation event simulations during the spring and summer resulted in total organic carbon, UV-254 (a surrogate measurement for reactive organic matter), and total algae concentrations at the drinking water intake that exceeded recorded maximums. Nutrient concentrations after storm events were less likely to exceed recorded historical maximums. For this particular reservoir, increasing inter-reservoir transfers of water with lower organic matter content after a large precipitation event has been shown in practice and in model simulations to decrease organic matter levels at the drinking water intake, therefore decreasing treatment associated oxidant demand, energy for UV disinfection, and the potential for formation of disinfection byproducts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of Coordinated Operation of Weirs and Reservoirs on the Water Quality of the Geum River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Min Ahn

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Multifunctional weirs can be used to maintain water supply during dry seasons and to improve downstream water quality during drought conditions through discharge based on retained flux. Sixteen multifunctional weirs were recently constructed in four river systems as part of the Four Rivers Restoration Project. In this study, three multifunctional weirs in the Geum River Basin were investigated to analyze the environmental effects of multifunctional weir operation on downstream flow. To determine seasonal vulnerability to drought, the basin was evaluated using the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI. Furthermore, the downstream flow regime and the effect on water quality improvement of a coordinated dam–multifunctional weir operation controlled by: (a a rainfall–runoff model; (b a reservoir optimization model; and (c a water quality model, were examined. A runoff estimate at each major location in the Geum River Basin was performed using the water quality model, and examined variation in downstream water quality depending on the operational scenario of each irrigation facility such as dams and weirs. Although the water quality was improved by the coordinated operation of the dams and weirs, when the discharged water quality is poor, the downstream water quality is not improved. Therefore, it is necessary to first improve the discharged water quality on the lower Geum River. Improvement of the water quality of main stream in the Geum River is important, but water quality from tributaries should also be improved. By applying the estimated runoff data to the reservoir optimization model, these scenarios will be utilized as basic parameters for assessing the optimal operation of the river.

  11. Environmental and Water Quality Operational Studies. General Guidelines for Monitoring Contaminants in Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    espacially trte for the topics of sampling and analytical methods, statistical considerations, and the design of general water quality monitoring networks. For...and to the establishment and habitat differentiation of biological populations within reservoirs. Reservoir operatirn, esp- cially the timing...8217 % - - % properties of bottom sediments, as well as specific habitat associations of biological populations of reservoirs. Thus, such heterogeneities

  12. Comparative water quality assessment between a young and a stabilized hydroelectric reservoir in Aliakmon River, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiotis, Georgios; Trikoilidou, Eleni; Tsikritzis, Lazaros; Amanatidou, Elisavet

    2018-03-20

    In this work, a comparative study on the water quality characteristics of two in-line water reservoirs (artificial lakes) in Aliakmon River (Western Macedonia, Greece) is performed. Polyfytos Reservoir and Ilarion Reservoir were created in 1975 and 2012 respectively, in order to serve the homonymous hydroelectric stations. In young artificial lakes, severe deterioration of water quality may occur; thus, the monitoring and assessment of their water quality characteristics and their statistical interpretation are of great importance. In order to evaluate any temporal or spatial variations and to characterize water quality of these two in-line water reservoirs, water quality data from measurements conducted from 2012 to 2015 were statistically processed and interpreted by using a modified National Sanitation Foundation water quality index (WQI). The water physicochemical characteristics of the two reservoirs were found to be generally within the legislation limits, with relatively small temporal and spatial variations. Although Polyfytos Reservoir showed no significant deviations of its water quality, Ilarion Reservoir exhibited deviations in total Kjeldahl nitrogen, nitrite nitrogen, total suspended solids, and turbidity due to the inundated vegetation decomposition. The conducted measurements and the use of the modified NSFWQI revealed that during the inundation period of Ilarion Reservoir, its water quality was "moderate" and that the deviations were softened through time, leading to "good" water quality during its maturation period. Three years since the creation of Ilarion Reservoir, water quality does not match that of Aliakmon River (feeding water) or that of the stabilized reservoir (Polyfytos Reservoir), whose quality is characterized as "high." The use of a WQI, such as the proposed modified NSFWQI, for evaluating water quality of each sampling site and of an entire water system proved to be a rapid and relatively accurate assessment tool.

  13. Application of remote sensing methods for detection of water pollution degree in rivers and water reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krzyworzeka, M.; Piasek, Z.

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents non-contact registration methods of the electromagnetic radiation which can be used for the detection of water pollution in rivers and water reservoirs. These methods include aerial photographs, satellite images and thermograms. The satellite images need reprocessing to obtain the mutual comparability of the images from various multispectral scanners (TM and MSS)

  14. Radioecological investigations of phytocommunities higher water plant in upper Kiev water reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan'kov, I.V.; Volkova, E.N.; Shirokaya, Z.O.; Karapish, V.A.; Dremlyuga, S.V.

    1997-01-01

    The dose loads of the highest water plants it determined and ecological role of phytocommunities in radionuclides distribution and migration in water reservoir is shown. The ' critical zones ' for characteristic types of phytocommunities are determined. It is marked that radionuclides accumulation by macrophits depends on species and ecological group

  15. Monitoring pharmaceuticals and personal care products in reservoir water used for drinking water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristizabal-Ciro, Carolina; Botero-Coy, Ana María; López, Francisco J; Peñuela, Gustavo A

    2017-03-01

    In this work, the presence of selected emerging contaminants has been investigated in two reservoirs, La Fe (LF) and Rio Grande (RG), which supply water to two drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) of Medellin, one of the most populated cities of Colombia. An analytical method based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) of the sample followed by measurement by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed and validated for this purpose. Five monitoring campaigns were performed in each reservoir, collecting samples from 7 sites (LF) and 10 sites (RG) at 3 different depths of the water column. In addition, water samples entering in the DWTPs and treated water samples from these plans were also analysed for the selected compounds. Data from this work showed that parabens, UV filters and the pharmaceutical ibuprofen were commonly present in most of the reservoir samples. Thus, methyl paraben was detected in around 90% of the samples collected, while ibuprofen was found in around 60% of the samples. Water samples feeding the DWTPs also contained these two compounds, as well as benzophenone at low concentrations, which was in general agreement with the results from the reservoir samples. After treatment in the DWTPs, these three compounds were still present in the samples although at low concentrations (treatment applied. The potential effects of the presence of these compounds at the ppt levels in drinking water are still unknown. Further research is needed to evaluate the effect of chronic exposure to these compounds via consumption of drinking water.

  16. Modeling of Turbidity Variation in Two Reservoirs Connected by a Water Transfer Tunnel in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Chung Park

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Andong and Imha reservoirs in South Korea are connected by a water transfer tunnel. The turbidity of the Imha reservoir is much higher than that of the Andong reservoir. Thus, it is necessary to examine the movement of turbidity between the two reservoirs via the water transfer tunnel. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the water transfer tunnel on the turbidity behavior of the two connecting reservoirs and to further understand the effect of reservoir turbidity distribution as a function of the selective withdrawal depth. This study applied the CE-QUAL-W2, a water quality and 2-dimensional hydrodynamic model, for simulating the hydrodynamic processes of the two reservoirs. Results indicate that, in the Andong reservoir, the turbidity of the released water with the water transfer tunnel was similar to that without the tunnel. However, in the Imha reservoir, the turbidity of the released water with the water transfer tunnel was lower than that without the tunnel. This can be attributed to the higher capacity of the Andong reservoir, which has double the storage of the Imha reservoir. Withdrawal turbidity in the Imha reservoir was investigated using the water transfer tunnel. This study applied three withdrawal selections as elevation (EL. 141.0 m, 146.5 m, and 152.0 m. The highest withdrawal turbidity resulted in EL. 141.0 m, which indicates that the high turbidity current is located at a vertical depth of about 20–30 m because of the density difference. These results will be helpful for understanding the release and selective withdrawal turbidity behaviors for a water transfer tunnel between two reservoirs.

  17. PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF QUALITY STUDY OF WATER FROM SMALL MICHALICE RESERVOIR ON WIDAWA RIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Wiatkowski

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of water quality of the small Michalice reservoir. A preliminary assessment of the reservoir water quality and its usability was made. The quality of water in the reservoir is particularly important as the main functions of the reservoir are agricultural irrigation, recreation and flood protection . The following physico-chemical parameters of the Widawa River were analyzed: NO3 -, NO2 -, NH4 +, PO4 3-, COD, water temperature, pH and electrolytic conductivity. Main descriptive statistical data were presented for the analyzed water quality indicators. The research results indicate that the reservoir contributed to the reduced concentrations of the following water quality indicators: nitrates, nitrites, phosphates, electrolytic conductivity and COD (in the outflowing water – St.3 in comparison to the water flowing into the reservoir – St.1. In the water flowing out of the Psurów reservoir higher values of the remaining indicators were observed if compared with the inflowing water. It was stated, as well, that analised waters are not vulnerable to nitrogen compounds pollution coming from the agricultural sources and are eutrophic. For purpose obtaining of the précised information about condition of Michalice reservoir water purity as well as river Widawa it becomes to continue the hydrological monitoring and water quality studies.

  18. Estimating irrigation water demand using an improved method and optimizing reservoir operation for water supply and hydropower generation: a case study of the Xinfengjiang reservoir in southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiping; Chen, Ji

    2013-01-01

    The ever-increasing demand for water due to growth of population and socioeconomic development in the past several decades has posed a worldwide threat to water supply security and to the environmental health of rivers. This study aims to derive reservoir operating rules through establishing a multi-objective optimization model for the Xinfengjiang (XFJ) reservoir in the East River Basin in southern China to minimize water supply deficit and maximize hydropower generation. Additionally, to enhance the estimation of irrigation water demand from the downstream agricultural area of the XFJ reservoir, a conventional method for calculating crop water demand is improved using hydrological model simulation results. Although the optimal reservoir operating rules are derived for the XFJ reservoir with three priority scenarios (water supply only, hydropower generation only, and equal priority), the river environmental health is set as the basic demand no matter which scenario is adopted. The results show that the new rules derived under the three scenarios can improve the reservoir operation for both water supply and hydropower generation when comparing to the historical performance. Moreover, these alternative reservoir operating policies provide the flexibility for the reservoir authority to choose the most appropriate one. Although changing the current operating rules may influence its hydropower-oriented functions, the new rules can be significant to cope with the increasingly prominent water shortage and degradation in the aquatic environment. Overall, our results and methods (improved estimation of irrigation water demand and formulation of the reservoir optimization model) can be useful for local watershed managers and valuable for other researchers worldwide.

  19. Water reservoirs - aquatic ecosystems subject to eutrophication processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionita, Veronica

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents some aspects relating to eutrophication of Batca Doamnei and Reconstructia hydropower lakes situated near Piatra Neamt town. The presence of phosphorus salts in the two water reservoirs (ten times the admissible content) is responsible for excessive growth of plants. In Reconstructia lake the diversity of species is also explained by the existence of large amounts of nitrogen salts. The general characteristic of aquatic macrophyte is the resistance to large variations of environmental factors (water level, currents, temperature, turbidity, organic material content), adaptation to water pollution conditions and development of adverse condition resistant forms. Besides Cladophora, a harmful species in fishing waters when growing excessively, others species are favorable to aquatic life and help to the consolidation of complex lake biocenoses, providing support, food and habitation for many small animal species which also favor other species economically valuable. The aquatic macrophytes are true biological filters which maintain the natural auto-purging potential of the waters. Taking into consideration these facts, the direct and indirect effects of plant destruction on the whole ecosystem should be carefully analyzed

  20. Sustainability of small reservoirs and large scale water availability under current conditions and climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Krol, Martinus S.; de Vries, Marjella J.; van Oel, P.R.; Carlos de Araújo, José

    2011-01-01

    Semi-arid river basins often rely on reservoirs for water supply. Small reservoirs may impact on large-scale water availability both by enhancing availability in a distributed sense and by subtracting water for large downstream user communities, e.g. served by large reservoirs. Both of these impacts of small reservoirs are subject to climate change. Using a case-study on North-East Brazil, this paper shows that climate change impacts on water availability may be severe, and impacts on distrib...

  1. Effects of Water Level Increase on Phytoplankton Assemblages in a Drinking Water Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangdong Pan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Excessive water level fluctuation may affect physico-chemical characteristics, and consequently ecosystem function, in lakes and reservoirs. In this study, we assessed the changes of phytoplankton assemblages in response to water level increase in Danjiangkou Reservoir, one of the largest drinking water reservoirs in Asia. The water level increased from a low of 137 m to 161 m in 2014 as a part of the South–North Water Diversion Project. Phytoplankton assemblages were sampled four times per year before, during and after the water level increase, at 10 sites. Environmental variables such as total nitrogen as well as phytoplankton biomass decreased after the water level increase. Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling analysis indicated that before the water level increase, phytoplankton assemblages showed distinct seasonal variation with diatom dominance in both early and late seasons while such seasonal variation was much less evident after the water level increase. Month and year (before and after explained 13% and 6% of variance in phytoplankton assemblages (PERMANOVA, p < 0.001 respectively, and phytoplankton assemblages were significantly different before and after the water level increase. Both chlorophytes and cyanobacteria became more abundant in 2015. Phytoplankton compositional change may largely reflect the environmental changes, such as hydrodynamics mediated by the water level increase.

  2. Quality of water and bottom material in Breckenridge Reservoir, Virginia, September 2008 through August 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotspeich, Russell

    2012-01-01

    Breckenridge Reservoir is located within the U.S. Marine Corps Base in Quantico, which is in the Potomac River basin and the Piedmont Physiographic Province of northern Virginia. Because it serves as the principal water supply for the U.S. Marine Corps Base in Quantico, an assessment of the water-quality of Breckenridge Reservoir was initiated. Water samples were collected and physical properties were measured by the U.S. Geological Survey at three sites in Breckenridge Reservoir, and physical properties were measured at six additional reservoir sites from September 2008 through August 2009. Water samples were also collected and physical properties were measured in each of the three major tributaries to Breckenridge Reservoir: North Branch Chopawamsic Creek, Middle Branch Chopawamsic Creek, and South Branch Chopawamsic Creek. One site on each tributary was sampled at least five times during the study. Monthly profiles were conducted for water temperature, dissolved-oxygen concentrations, specific conductance, pH, and turbidity measured at 2-foot intervals throughout the water column of the reservoir. These profiles were conducted at nine sites in the reservoir, and data values were measured at these sites from the water surface to the bottom of the reservoir. These profiles were conducted along three cross sections and were used to define the characteristics of the entire water column of the reservoir. The analytical results of reservoir and tributary samples collected and physical properties measured during this study were compared to ambient water-quality standards of the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality and Virginia State Water Control Board. Water temperature, dissolved-oxygen concentration, specific conductance, pH, and turbidity measured in Breckenridge Reservoir generally indicated a lack of stratification in the water column of the reservoir throughout the study period. This is unlike most other reservoirs in the region and may be influenced by

  3. POLLUTION OF SMALL RESERVOIRS OF WATER IN BIALYSTOK AGGLOMERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Piekutin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study work was to evaluate the impact of the emissions of heavy metals of roads and streets in the surface water in reservoirs located near the main roads of the Bialystok City. The analysis was conducted for a period of six weeks from March to April 2014. During the study five reservoirs were selected. Two of them, the first and the forth of them are located in Parks. One of them – the third one is a public bathing beach. The second is located near the crossroads in the center of the city and last one – the fifth object is situated within buildings and parking of trucks. Study includes an analysis of indicators such as total suspended solids, BOD5, CODCr, selected heavy metal such as, lead, nickel, copper, cobalt and chromium. All determinations were made in accordance to given methodology, and the evaluation was performed by comparing achieved results to a limit values presented in the Decree of Environment Ministry.

  4. Legal regime of water management facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Jožef

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the legal regime of water management facilities in the light of Serbian, foreign and European law. Different divisions of water management facilities are carried out (to public and private ones, natural and artificial ones, etc., with determination of their legal relevance. Account is taken of the issue of protection from harmful effects of waters to such facilities, as well. The paper points also to rules on the water management facilities, from acts of planning, to individual administrative acts and measures for maintenance of required qualitative and quantitative condition of waters, depending on their purpose (general use or special, commercial use o waters. Albeit special rules on water management facilities exist, due to the natural interlocking between all the components of the environment (water, air and soil, a comprehensive approach is required. A reference is made to other basic principles of protection of water management facilities as well, such as the principle of prevention, principle of sustainable development and the principle "polluter pays". The last one represents the achievement of contemporary law, which deviates from the idea accepted in the second half of 20th century that supported the socialization of risk from harmful effects of waters.

  5. Spatial and Temporal Variations of Water Quality and Trophic Status in Sembrong Reservoir, Johor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intan Najla Syed Hashim, Syarifah; Hidayah Abu Talib, Siti; Salleh Abustan, Muhammad

    2018-03-01

    A study of spatial and temporal variations on water quality and trophic status was conducted to determine the temporal (average reading by month) and spatial variations of water quality in Sembrong reservoir and to evaluate the trophic status of the reservoir. Water samples were collected once a month from November 2016 to June 2017 in seventeen (17) sampling stations at Sembrong Reservoir. Results obtained on the concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO), water temperature, pH and secchi depth had no significant differences compared to Total Phosphorus (TP) and chlorophyll-a. The water level has significantly decreased the value of the water temperature, pH and TP. The water quality of Sembrong reservoir is classified in Class II which is suitable for recreational uses and required conventional treatment while TSI indicates that sembrong reservoir was in lower boundary of classical eutrophic (TSI > 50).

  6. Spatial and Temporal Variations of Water Quality and Trophic Status in Sembrong Reservoir, Johor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashim Syarifah Intan Najla Syed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of spatial and temporal variations on water quality and trophic status was conducted to determine the temporal (average reading by month and spatial variations of water quality in Sembrong reservoir and to evaluate the trophic status of the reservoir. Water samples were collected once a month from November 2016 to June 2017 in seventeen (17 sampling stations at Sembrong Reservoir. Results obtained on the concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO, water temperature, pH and secchi depth had no significant differences compared to Total Phosphorus (TP and chlorophyll-a. The water level has significantly decreased the value of the water temperature, pH and TP. The water quality of Sembrong reservoir is classified in Class II which is suitable for recreational uses and required conventional treatment while TSI indicates that sembrong reservoir was in lower boundary of classical eutrophic (TSI > 50.

  7. The Coupling Effect of Rainfall and Reservoir Water Level Decline on the Baijiabao Landslide in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenghao Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall and reservoir level fluctuation are two of the main factors contributing to reservoir landslides. However, in China’s Three Gorges Reservoir Area, when the reservoir water level fluctuates significantly, it comes at a time of abundant rainfall, which makes it difficult to distinguish which factor dominates the deformation of the landslide. This study focuses on how rainfall and reservoir water level decline affect the seepage and displacement field of Baijiabao landslide spatially and temporally during drawdown of reservoir water level in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, thus exploring its movement mechanism. The monitoring data of the landslide in the past 10 years were analyzed, and the correlation between rainfall, reservoir water level decline, and landslide displacement was clarified. By the numerical simulation method, the deformation evolution mechanism of this landslide during drawdown of reservoir water level was revealed, respectively, under three conditions, namely, rainfall, reservoir water level decline, and coupling of the above two conditions. The results showed that the deformation of the Baijiabao landslide was the coupling effect of rainfall and reservoir water level decline, while the latter effect is more pronounced.

  8. Spatial and Temporal Variations of Water Quality and Trophic Status in Xili Reservoir: a Subtropics Drinking Water Reservoir of Southeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunlong, Song; Zhang, Jinsong; Zhu, Jia; Li, Wang; Chang, Aimin; Yi, Tao

    2017-12-01

    Controlling of water quality pollution and eutrophication of reservoirs has become a very important research topic in urban drinking water field. Xili reservoir is an important water source of drinking water in Shenzhen. And its water quality has played an important role to the city’s drinking water security. A fifteen-month’s field observation was conducted from April 2013 to June 2014 in Xili reservoir, in order to analyze the temporal and spatial distribution of water quality factors and seasonal variation of trophic states. Xili reservoir was seriously polluted by nitrogen. Judged by TN most of the samples were no better than grade VI. Other water quality factor including WT, SD, pH, DO, COD, TOC, TP, Fe, silicate, turbidity, chlorophyll-a were pretty good. One-way ANOVA showed that significant difference was found in water quality factors on month (p Latter rainy period > High temperature and rain free period > Temperature jump period > Winter drought period. Two-way ANOVA showed that months rather than locations were the key influencing factors of water quality factors succession.TLI (Σ) were about 35~52, suggesting Xili reservoir was in mycotrophic trophic states. As a result of runoff pollution, water quality at sampling sites 1 and 10 was poor. In the rainy season, near sampling sites 1 and 10, water appeared to be Light-eutrophic. The phytoplankton biomass of Xili reservoir was low. Water temperature was the main driving factor of phytoplankton succession.The 14 water quality factors were divided into five groups by factor analysis. The total interpretation rate was about 70.82%. F1 represents the climatic change represented by water temperature and organic pollution. F2 represents the concentration of nitrogen. F3 represents the phytoplankton biomass. F4 represents the sensory indexes of water body, such as turbidity, transparency.

  9. Analysis of the influence of reservoirs utilization to water quality profiles in Indonesia (Saguling - Jatiluhur) and Malaysia (Temengor - Chenderoh) with special references to cascade reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subehi, Luki; Norasikin Ismail, Siti; Ridwansyah, Iwan; Hamid, Muzzalifah Abd; Mansor, Mashhor

    2018-02-01

    Tropical reservoir is the one ecosystem which is functioning in both ecological and economical services. As the settling of water volume, it harbors many species of fish. The objective of this study is to analyze the utilization and management of reservoirs related to their water quality conditions, represent by tropical reservoirs from Indonesia and Malaysia. Survey at Jatiluhur and Saguling (Indonesia) was conducted in March 2014 and September 2015, respectively while in Temengor and Chenderoh (Malaysia), the survey was done in January 2014 and April 2017, respectively. Based on elevation, Saguling and Temengor are upstream reservoirs. On the contrary, Jatiluhur and Chenderoh are downstream reservoirs. The results of the surveys in Jatiluhur and Saguling reservoirs showed that the average depths are 32.9m and 17.9m, respectively. On the other hand, Temengor and Chenderoh reservoirs are 100m and 16.2m, respectively. All of them play multi-functional roles including as a source of power plant, fisheries and tourism, as well as water sources for irrigation. In addition, Saguling and Temengor reservoirs are relatively dendritic in shape. In Indonesia, there are three consecutive reservoirs along Citarum River, whereas in Malaysia there are four consecutive reservoirs along Perak River. The results showed the potential impact of fish cages as pollutant, especially at Indonesian reservoirs. In addition, these tropical reservoirs have become famous tourism getaway. The capabilities of economic values of these reservoirs and ecosystem should be balanced. Basic ecological information is necessary for the next study.

  10. Impacts of water quality variation and rainfall runoff on Jinpen Reservoir, in Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi-zhen Zhou

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The seasonal variation characteristics of the water quality of the Jinpen Reservoir and the impacts of rainfall runoff on the reservoir were investigated. Water quality monitoring results indicated that, during the stable stratification period, the maximum concentrations of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, ammonia nitrogen, total organic carbon, iron ion, and manganese ion in the water at the reservoir bottom on September 6 reached 2.5 mg/L, 0.12 mg/L, 0.58 mg/L, 3.2 mg/L, 0.97 mg/L, and 0.32 mg/L, respectively. Only heavy storm runoff can affect the main reservoir and cause the water quality to seriously deteriorate. During heavy storms, the stratification of the reservoir was destroyed, and the reservoir water quality consequently deteriorated due to the high-turbidity particulate phosphorus and organic matter in runoff. The turbidity and concentrations of total phosphorus and total organic carbon in the main reservoir increased to 265 NTU, 0.224 mg/L, and 3.9 mg/L, respectively. Potential methods of dealing with the water problems in the Jinpen Reservoir are proposed. Both in stratification and in storm periods, the use of measures such as adjusting intake height, storing clean water, and releasing turbid flow can be helpful to safeguarding the quality of water supplied to the water treatment plants.

  11. Occupational radon expositions during cleaning processes of water reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hingmann, H.; Ehret, V.; Hegenbart, L.; Krieg, K.

    2002-01-01

    According to the new German ''Strahlenschutzverordnung'' (Radiation Protection Directive) the annual dose due to the exposition to radon has to be estimated for employees of water works. This includes employees of service companies. While the job of employees of water works usually covers a broad spectrum of different activities, employees of service companies may spend a considerable amount of time of their total working hours cleaning water reservoirs. This investigation is concerned with this type of employees. The radon exposition of one or more cleaning processes were determined by passive dosimeters. The mean radon concentration was calculated for the duration of the cleaning process. In some cases, members of the project team accompanied cleaning processes and performed stationary radon measurements on site. Sometimes, parallel to the passive dosimeters, electronic dosimeters were used to measure personal exposure. The results - and results from additional laboratory reference measurements - are compared. All results until January 2002 are considered. The project still goes on and will end in summer of 2002. Experiences made during this investigation are described in the end of this report. (orig.)

  12. Management of complex multi-reservoir water distribution systems using advanced control theoretic tools and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Chmielowski, Wojciech Z

    2013-01-01

    This study discusses issues of optimal water management in a complex distribution system. The main elements of the water-management system under consideration are retention reservoirs, among which water transfers are possible, and a network of connections between these reservoirs and water treatment plants (WTPs). System operation optimisation involves determining the proper water transport routes and their flow volumes from the retention reservoirs to the WTPs, and the volumes of possible transfers among the reservoirs, taking into account transport-related delays for inflows, outflows and water transfers in the system. Total system operation costs defined by an assumed quality coefficient should be minimal. An analytical solution of the optimisation task so formulated has been obtained as a result of using Pontriagin’s maximum principle with reference to the quality coefficient assumed. Stable start and end conditions in reservoir state trajectories have been assumed. The researchers have taken into accou...

  13. Hanford facilities tracer study report (315 Water Treatment Facility)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambalam, T.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the results and findings of a tracer study to determine contact time for the disinfection process of 315 Water Treatment Facility that supplies sanitary water for the 300 Area. The study utilized fluoride as the tracer and contact times were determined for two flow rates. Interpolation of data and short circuiting effects are also discussed. The 315 Water Treatment Facility supplies sanitary water for the 300 Area to various process and domestic users. The Surface Water Treatment Rule (SWTR), outlined in the 1986 Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments enacted by the EPA in 1989 and regulated by the Washington State Department of Health (DOH) in Section 246-290-600 of the Washington Administrative Code (WAC), stipulates filtration and disinfection requirements for public water systems under the direct influence of surface water. The SWTR disinfection guidelines require that each treatment system achieves predetermined inactivation ratios. The inactivation by disinfection is approximated with a measure called CxT, where C is the disinfectant residual concentration and T is the effective contact time of the water with the disinfectant. The CxT calculations for the Hanford water treatment plants were derived from the total volume of the contact basin(s). In the absence of empirical data to support CxT calculations, the DOH determined that the CxT values used in the monthly reports for the water treatment plants on the Hanford site were invalid and required the performance of a tracer study at each plant. In response to that determination, a tracer study will be performed to determine the actual contact times of the facilities for the CxT calculations

  14. Water Quality Assessment of Danjiangkou Reservoir and its Tributaries in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Linghua; Peng, Wenqi; Wu, Leixiang; Liu, Laisheng

    2018-01-01

    Danjiangkou Reservoir is an important water source for the middle route of the South to North Water Diversion Project in China, and water quality of Danjiangkou Reservoir and its tributaries is crucial for the project. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the water quality of Daniiangkou Reservoir and its tributaries based on Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment Water Quality Index (CCMEWQI). 22 water quality parameters from 25 sampling sites were analyzed to calculate WQI. The results indicate that water quality in Danjiangkou Reservoir area, Hanjiang River and Danjiang River is excellent. And the seriously polluted tributary rivers were Shending River, Jianghe River, Sihe River, Tianhe River, Jianhe River and Jiangjun River. Water quality parameters that cannot meet the standard limit for drinking water source were fecal coliform bacteria, CODcr, CODMn, BOD5, NH3-N, TP, DO, anionic surfactant and petroleum. Fecal coliform bacteria, TP, ammonia nitrogen, CODMn were the most common parameters to fail.

  15. Estimating Water Balance Components of Lakes and Reservoirs Using Various Open Access Satellite Databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duan, Z.

    2014-01-01

    There are millions of lakes and ten thousands of reservoirs in the world. The number of reservoirs is still increasing through the construction of large dams to meet the growing demand for water resources, hydroelectricity and economic development. Accurate information on the water balance

  16. Possibility of predicting the water drive mechanism of oil bearing reservoirs before its exploitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cubric, S

    1971-10-01

    The study deals with the application of Van Everdingen and Hurst's method to prediction of water influx from aquifer into an oil-bearing part of a reservoir. The examples show an influence of the factors affecting the water influx (time, permeability, ratio of radii of the aquifer, and oil-bearing part of reservoir.)

  17. Getting "boater" all the time: managing fishing by boat on New York city water supply reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer A. Cairo

    2007-01-01

    In 2003 the New York City Department of Environmental Protection Bureau of Water Supply undertook a five-year initiative to improve fishing by boat on its Water Supply reservoirs and controlled lakes in upstate New York. The project includes cleanup of administrative procedures and boat fishing areas on reservoir shores; improving two-way communication with anglers;...

  18. Fishing for improvements: managing fishing by boat on New York City water supply reservoirs and lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole L. Green; Jennifer A. Cairo

    2008-01-01

    In 2003, the New York City Department of Environmental Protection Bureau of Water Supply undertook a 5-year initiative to improve fishing by boat on its water supply reservoirs and controlled lakes in upstate New York. The project includes: revising administrative procedures; cleaning up boat fishing areas on reservoir shores; improving two-way communication with...

  19. Nitrogen and phosphorus in cascade multi-system tropical reservoirs: water and sediment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pompêo Marcelo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to analyze the horizontal spatial heterogeneity of both water and superficial sediment quality among and within the reservoirs of the Cantareira System (CS, focusing on concentrations of N and P, attributed to the dumping of raw domestic sewage into water bodies, which is the main cause of water pollution in São Paulo State (Brazil. The CS is a multi-system complex composed of five interconnected reservoirs, with water transported by gravity through 48 km of tunnels and channels. From the last reservoir of the CS, with an output of 33 m3 s−1, the water is conducted to a water treatment plant, producing half of the water consumed by 19 million people inhabiting São Paulo city. The upstream reservoirs are more eutrophic than the downstream ones. Data also suggest that the low phytoplankton biomass (ranging from 0.9 to 14.4 μg dm−3 is regulated by the low nutrient availability, mainly of phosphorus (TP ranging from below the detection limit, <9.0 μg dm−3, to 47.3 μg dm−3. For water, the DIN/TP ratios values range from 19 to 380. The upstream reservoirs function as nutrient accumulators and the sediment is the main compartment in which P and N are stored. Although the reservoirs are located in different river basins and are not in sequence along the same river, the results suggest a marked gradient between the reservoirs, with features similar to those of cascade reservoirs. The large volumes flowing through the canals and tunnels could explain the observed pattern. The CS reservoirs can therefore be considered multi-system reservoirs in cascade, constituting a particular case of multi-system reservoirs.

  20. Characterization of dynamic change of Fan-delta reservoir properties in water-drive development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Shenghe; Xiong Qihua; Liu Yuhong [Univ. of Petroleum Changping, Beijing (China)

    1997-08-01

    Fan-delta reservoir in Huzhuangji oil field of east China, is a typical highly heterogeneous reservoir. The oil field has been developed by water-drive for 10 years, but the oil recovery is less than 12%, and water cut is over 90%, resulting from high heterogeneity and serious dynamic change of reservoir properties. This paper aims at the study of dynamic change of reservoir properties in water-drive development. Through quantitative imaging analysis and mercury injection analysis of cores from inspection wells, the dynamic change of reservoir pore structure in water-drive development was studied. The results show that the {open_quotes}large pore channels{close_quotes} develop in distributary channel sandstone and become larger in water-drive development, resulting in more serious pore heterogeneity. Through reservoir sensitivity experiments, the rock-fluid reaction in water-drive development is studied. The results show the permeability of some distal bar sandstone and deserted channel sandstone becomes lower due to swelling of I/S clay minerals in pore throats. OD the other hand, the permeability of distributary channel and mouth bar sandstone become larger because the authigenic Koalinites in pore throats are flushed away with the increase of flow rate of injection water. Well-logging analysis of flooded reservoirs are used to study the dynamic change of reservoir properties in various flow units. The distribution of remaining oil is closely related to the types and distribution of flow units.

  1. Nuclear register applications and pressure tests to foresee reservoirs exploitation with water drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osorio F, X.; Redosado G, V.

    1994-01-01

    This paper illustrates how the pulsed neutron log and well test analysis aid proper reservoir management in strong water reservoirs. These techniques have been applied to Cetico reservoir which belongs to Corrientes Field which is located in the Peruvian Jungle. Corrientes is the most important field operated by PETROPERU S.A. As a result of the analysis we current know the present areal water saturation distribution and also have improve the reservoir characterization al of which is being used for increasing the oil production and reserves. (author). 4 refs, 7 figs, 3 tabs

  2. Membrane technology water treatment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruzdev, E. N.; Starikov, E.N.

    2009-01-01

    The suggested technical solution, in contrast with the traditional treatment methods using pressure filtration and sorption cleaning, can be applied with minimal used for equipment, stable production and the use of reagents, prevention of the formation of waste water with high mineral content and avoid the need for neutralization of the main stream of waste water

  3. Water quality and trend analysis of Colorado--Big Thompson system reservoirs and related conveyances, 1969 through 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Michael R.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in an ongoing cooperative monitoring program with the Northern Colorado Water Conservancy District, Bureau of Reclamation, and City of Fort Collins, has collected water-quality data in north-central Colorado since 1969 in reservoirs and conveyances, such as canals and tunnels, related to the Colorado?Big Thompson Project, a water-storage, collection, and distribution system. Ongoing changes in water use among agricultural and municipal users on the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado, changing land use in reservoir watersheds, and other water-quality issues among Northern Colorado Water Conservancy District customers necessitated a reexamination of water-quality trends in the Colorado?Big Thompson system reservoirs and related conveyances. The sampling sites are on reservoirs, canals, and tunnels in the headwaters of the Colorado River (on the western side of the transcontinental diversion operations) and the headwaters of the Big Thompson River (on the eastern side of the transcontinental diversion operations). Carter Lake Reservoir and Horsetooth Reservoir are off-channel water-storage facilities, located in the foothills of the northern Colorado Front Range, for water supplied from the Colorado?Big Thompson Project. The length of water-quality record ranges from approximately 3 to 30 years depending on the site and the type of measurement or constituent. Changes in sampling frequency, analytical methods, and minimum reporting limits have occurred repeatedly over the period of record. The objective of this report was to complete a retrospective water-quality and trend analysis of reservoir profiles, nutrients, major ions, selected trace elements, chlorophyll-a, and hypolimnetic oxygen data from 1969 through 2000 in Lake Granby, Shadow Mountain Lake, and the Granby Pump Canal in Grand County, Colorado, and Horsetooth Reservoir, Carter Lake, Lake Estes, Alva B. Adams Tunnel, and Olympus Tunnel in Larimer County, Colorado

  4. Water geochemistry to estimate reservoir temperature of Stabio springs, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pera, Sebastian; Soma, Linda

    2017-04-01

    The Mendrisiotto region located in Southern Switzerland and close to the Italian border, is characterized by the presence of a thick sequence of Mesozoic limestones and dolostones above a volcanic rocks from Permian (Bernoulli, 1964). Within the carbonates, fractures and dissolution processes increased limestone permeability and favored the widespread presence of springs. The presence of few localized H2S and CH4 bearing springs is known from historical times in Stabio. Its localization is related to the faulting affecting the area (Balderer et Al., 2007). These waters were classified by Greber et Al. (1997) as Na-(Ca)-(Mg)-HCO3-Cl-(SO4) type with having a total dissolved solid content in the range of 0.8 and 1.2 gl-1. According with Balderer et Al. (2007) the stable isotopic composition deviates from the global meteoric water line (IAEA, 1984) being the values of δ18O and δ2H respectively 0.8 ‰ and 5‰ lower than the normal shallow groundwater of the area. The values of δ13C of TDIC (-1.54‰ 1.44 ) indicate exchange with CO2 of thermo - metamorphic or even Mantle origin. While 14C in TDIC (7.95, 26.0 pMC) and 3H (1.1 ±0.7, 3.1±0.7 TU) indicates uprising of deep water along faults with some mixing. To estimate reservoir temperature, a new sampling was conducted in 2015 for chemical and isotopic analysis. The sampling was carried out from the only source that allows getting water directly from the dolostone in order to avoid mixing. Although some differences are noticed respect to previous studies, the results show a substantial agreement for stable isotopic composition of water, δ13C and 14C of TDIC. Reservoir temperature was calculated by using several geothermometers. The results show a great variability ranging from 60 ˚ C using Silica to more than 500 ˚ C using cationic ( Na - Ca) geothermometers; indicating that besides mixing, exchange processes and chemical reactions along flow path affect results. This study was partially funded by Azienda

  5. Impacts of operation of CVP regulating reservoirs on water temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vail, L.W.

    1996-01-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets and transmits electric power throughout 15 western states. Western's Sierra Nevada Customer Service Region (Sierra Nevada Region) markets approximately 1,480 megawatts (MW) of firm power (and 100 MW of seasonal peaking capacity) from the Central Valley Project (CVP) and other sources and markets available nonfirm power from the Washoe Project. Western's mission is to sell and deliver electricity generated from CVP powerplants. The hydroelectric facilities of the CVP are operated by the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation). Reclamation manages and releases water in accordance with the various acts authorizing specific projects and with enabling legislation. Western's capacity and energy sales must be in conformance with the laws that govern its sale of electrical power. Further, Western's hydropower operations at each facility must comply with minimum and maximum flows and other constraints set by Reclamation, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, or other agencies, acting in accord with law or policy

  6. How well will the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission observe global reservoirs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solander, Kurt C.; Reager, John T.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2016-03-01

    Accurate observations of global reservoir storage are critical to understand the availability of managed water resources. By enabling estimates of surface water area and height for reservoir sizes exceeding 250 m2 at a maximum repeat orbit of up to 21 days, the NASA Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission (anticipated launch date 2020) is expected to greatly improve upon existing reservoir monitoring capabilities. It is thus essential that spatial and temporal measurement uncertainty for water bodies is known a priori to maximize the utility of SWOT observations as the data are acquired. In this study, we evaluate SWOT reservoir observations using a three-pronged approach that assesses temporal aliasing, errors due to specific reservoir spatial properties, and SWOT performance over actual reservoirs using a combination of in situ and simulated reservoir observations from the SWOTsim instrument simulator. Results indicate temporal errors to be less than 5% for the smallest reservoir sizes (100 km2). Surface area and height errors were found to be minimal (area SWOT, this study will be have important implications for future applications of SWOT reservoir measurements in global monitoring systems and models.

  7. Forecast on Water Locking Damage of Low Permeable Reservoir with Quantum Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jingyuan; Sun, Yuxue; Feng, Fuping; Zhao, Fulei; Sui, Dianjie; Xu, Jianjun

    2018-01-01

    It is of great importance in oil-gas reservoir protection to timely and correctly forecast the water locking damage, the greatest damage for low permeable reservoir. An analysis is conducted on the production mechanism and various influence factors of water locking damage, based on which a quantum neuron is constructed based on the information processing manner of a biological neuron and the principle of quantum neural algorithm, besides, the quantum neural network model forecasting the water locking of the reservoir is established and related software is also made to forecast the water locking damage of the gas reservoir. This method has overcome the defects of grey correlation analysis that requires evaluation matrix analysis and complicated operation. According to the practice in Longxi Area of Daqing Oilfield, this method is characterized by fast operation, few system parameters and high accuracy rate (the general incidence rate may reach 90%), which can provide reliable support for the protection technique of low permeable reservoir.

  8. Spatially pooled depth-dependent reservoir storage, elevation, and water-quality data for selected reservoirs in Texas, January 1965-January 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, Thomas E.; Asquith, William H.; Brooks, Donald L.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Texas Tech University, constructed a dataset of selected reservoir storage (daily and instantaneous values), reservoir elevation (daily and instantaneous values), and water-quality data from 59 reservoirs throughout Texas. The period of record for the data is as large as January 1965-January 2010. Data were acquired from existing databases, spreadsheets, delimited text files, and hard-copy reports. The goal was to obtain as much data as possible; therefore, no data acquisition restrictions specifying a particular time window were used. Primary data sources include the USGS National Water Information System, the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality Surface Water-Quality Management Information System, and the Texas Water Development Board monthly Texas Water Condition Reports. Additional water-quality data for six reservoirs were obtained from USGS Texas Annual Water Data Reports. Data were combined from the multiple sources to create as complete a set of properties and constituents as the disparate databases allowed. By devising a unique per-reservoir short name to represent all sites on a reservoir regardless of their source, all sampling sites at a reservoir were spatially pooled by reservoir and temporally combined by date. Reservoir selection was based on various criteria including the availability of water-quality properties and constituents that might affect the trophic status of the reservoir and could also be important for understanding possible effects of climate change in the future. Other considerations in the selection of reservoirs included the general reservoir-specific period of record, the availability of concurrent reservoir storage or elevation data to match with water-quality data, and the availability of sample depth measurements. Additional separate selection criteria included historic information pertaining to blooms of golden algae. Physical properties and constituents were water

  9. Prediction of radionuclide accumulation in main ecosystem components of NPP cooling water reservoirs and assessment of acceptable radionuclide disposal into water reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, Yu.A.; Kazakov, S.V.

    1987-01-01

    The problems of prediction of radionuclide accumulation in ecosystem main components of NPP cooling water-reservoirs (CWR) and assessment of radionuclide acceptable disposal into water reservoir are considered. Two models are nessecary for the calculation technique: model of radionuclide migration and accumulation in CWR ecosystem components and calculation model of population dose commitment due to water consumption (at the public health approach to the normalization of the NPP radioactive effect on CWC) or calculation model of dose commitment on hydrocenosis components (at the ecological approach to the normalization). Analytical calculations and numerical calculation results in the model CWC, located in the USSR middle region, are presented

  10. Organic and weed control in water supply reservoirs of power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eswaran, M.S.

    2000-01-01

    Aquatic weeds and algal control in water supply reservoirs used for multipurpose use need specific attention, since they pose a lot of problem for the operating plants by affecting (a) the water quality of boiler and feed waters, (b) the performance of DM plants by reducing the efficiency of Anion beds, (c) the performance of Activated Carbon Filters (ACF) and (d) fouling induced corrosion problems in cooling water systems (Heat Exchangers and Piping materials) causing plant outages leading to production losses. The photosynthetic activity of planktonic plants which are growing abundantly in the open reservoir, sustained by the relatively high inorganic phosphate levels shoots up the pH of the reservoir water to very high levels. High pH, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) and depleted plants can increase corrosion problems affecting plant performance. This paper focuses on the type of weeds prominent in the water supply reservoir at Kalpakkam and the associated problems in the Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). (author)

  11. Effective water influx control in gas reservoir development: Problems and countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Feng

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Because of the diversity of geological characteristics and the complexity of percolation rules, many problems are found ineffective water influx control in gas reservoir development. The problems mainly focus on how to understand water influx rules, to establish appropriate countermeasures, and to ensure the effectiveness of technical measures. It is hard to obtain a complete applicable understanding through the isolated analysis of an individual gas reservoir due to many factors such as actual gas reservoir development phase, research work, pertinence and timeliness of measures, and so on. Over the past four decades, the exploration, practicing and tracking research have been conducted on water control in gas reservoir development in the Sichuan Basin, and a series of comprehensive water control technologies were developed integrating advanced concepts, successful experiences, specific theories and mature technologies. Though the development of most water-drive gas reservoirs was significantly improved, water control effects were quite different. Based on this background, from the perspective of the early-phase requirements of water influx control, the influencing factors of a water influx activity, the dynamic analysis method of water influx performance, the optimizing strategy of a water control, and the water control experience of typical gas reservoirs, this paper analyzed the key problems of water control, evaluated the influencing factors of water control effect, explored the practical water control strategies, and proposed that it should be inappropriate to apply the previous water control technological model to actual work but the pertinence should be improved according to actual circumstances. The research results in the paper provide technical reference for the optimization of water-invasion gas reservoir development.

  12. Sediment accumulation and water volume in Loch Raven Reservoir, Baltimore County, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, William S.L.; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    1999-01-01

    Baltimore City and its metropolitan area are supplied with water from three reservoirs, Liberty Reservoir, Prettyboy Reservoir, and Loch Raven Reservoir. Prettyboy and Loch Raven Reservoirs are located on the Gunpowder Falls (figure 1). The many uses of the reservoir system necessitate coordination and communication among resource managers. The 1996 Amendment to the Safe Drinking Water Act require States to complete source-water assessments for public drinking-water supplies. As part of an ongoing effort to provide safe drinking water and as a direct result of these laws, the City of Baltimore and the Maryland Department of the Environment (MDE), in cooperation with other State and local agencies, are studying the Gunpowder Falls Basin and its role as a source of water supply to the Baltimore area. As a part of this study, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Maryland Geological Survey (MGS), with funding provided by the City of Baltimore and MDE, is examining sediment accumulation in Loch Raven Reservoir. The Baltimore City Department of Public Works periodically determines the amount of water that can be stored in its reservoirs. To make this determination, field crews measure the water depth along predetermined transects or ranges. These transects provide consistent locations where water depth, or bathymetric, measurements can be made. Range surveys are repeated to provide a record of the change in storage capacity due to sediment accumulation over time. Previous bathymetric surveys of Loch Raven Reservoir were performed in 1943, 1961, 1972, and 1985. Errors in data-collection and analysis methods have been assessed and documented (Baltimore City Department of Public Works, 1989). Few comparisons can be made among survey results because of changing data-collection techniques and analysis methods.

  13. Bioaccumulation of selected metals in bivalves (Unionidae) and Phragmites australis inhabiting a municipal water reservoir

    OpenAIRE

    Rzymski, Piotr; Niedzielski, Przemysław; Klimaszyk, Piotr; Poniedziałek, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Urbanization can considerably affect water reservoirs by, inter alia, input, and accumulation of contaminants including metals. Located in the course of River Cybina, Maltański Reservoir (Western Poland) is an artificial shallow water body built for recreation and sport purposes which undergoes restoration treatment (drainage) every 4 years. In the present study, we demonstrate an accumulation of nine metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) in water, sediment, three bivalve species (Anodo...

  14. Risk management in oil reservoir water-flooding under economic uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siraj, Muhammad; Van den Hof, Paul; Jansen, Jan Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Model-based economic optimization of the water-flooding process in oil reservoirs suffers from high levels of uncertainty. The achievable economic objective is highly uncertain due to the varying economic conditions and the limited knowledge of the reservoir model parameters. For improving

  15. Water intaking facility of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Kazuhito; Iwata, Nobukatsu; Ochiai, Kanehiro.

    1994-01-01

    In a water intaking facility of a nuclear power plant, a dam is disposed at a position near a sea shore for preventing sea water introduced in open conduit from flowing to the outer sea upon ebbing of tsunamis. The upper end of the dam is set lower than the lower end of a water-intake pipe of a sea water pump of an ordinary system. A water-intake pipe is disposed to such a length that a sea water pump of an emergency system continues to suck the sea water when the water level of the introduced sea water is lowered than the upper end of the dam during the ebb tide. In addition, a means for stopping the operation of the sea water pump of the ordinary system upon starting of the ebb is disposed. Upon reactor scram for occurrence of earthquakes and the like, either the sea water pump in the ordinary system or the seawater pump in the emergency system operates to ensure required amount of sea water for cooling the reactor. In addition, even if the level of the sea water is lowered than the upper end of the dam, since the sea water pump in the emergency system continues to suck sea water, unnecessary suction for sea water by the ordinary sea water pumps can be eliminated. (N.H.)

  16. Management of Water Quantity and Quality Based on Copula for a Tributary to Miyun Reservoir, Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, N.; Wang, X.; Liang, P.

    2017-12-01

    Due to the complex mutual influence between water quantity and water quality of river, it is difficult to reflect the actual characters of the tributaries to reservoir. In this study, the acceptable marginal probability distributions for water quantity and quality of reservoir inflow were calculated. A bivariate Archimedean copula was further applied to establish the joint distribution function of them. Then multiple combination scenarios of water quantity and water quality were designed to analyze their coexistence relationship and reservoir management strategies. Taking Bai river, an important tributary into the Miyun Reservoir, as a study case. The results showed that it is feasible to apply Frank copula function to describe the jointed distribution function of water quality and water quantity for Bai river. Furthermore, the monitoring of TP concentration needs to be strengthen in Bai river. This methodology can be extended to larger dimensions and is transferable to other reservoirs via establishment of models with relevant data for a particular area. Our findings help better analyzing the coexistence relationship and influence degree of the water quantity and quality of the tributary to reservoir for the purpose of water resources protection.

  17. Effect of a reservoir in the water quality of the Reconquista River, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigacci, Laura N; Giorgi, Adonis D N; Vilches, Carolina S; Ossana, Natalia Alejandra; Salibián, Alfredo

    2013-11-01

    The lower portion of the Reconquista River is highly polluted. However, little is known about the state of the high and middle basins. The aims of this work were to assess the water quality on the high and middle Reconquista River basins and to determinate if the presence of a reservoir in the river has a positive effect on the water quality. We conducted a seasonal study between August 2009 and November 2010 at the mouth of La Choza, Durazno, and La Horqueta streams at the Roggero reservoir--which receives the water from the former streams--at the origin of the Reconquista River and 17 km downstream from the reservoir. We measured 25 physical and chemical parameters, including six heavy metal concentrations, and performed a multivariate statistical analysis to summarize the information and allow the interpretation of the whole data set. We found that the Durazno and La Horqueta streams had better water quality than La Choza, and the presence of the reservoir contributed to the improvement of the water quality, allowing oxygenation of the water body and processing of organic matter and ammonia. The water quality of the Reconquista River at its origin is good and similar to the reservoir, but a few kilometers downstream, the water quality declines as a consequence of the presence of industries and human settlements. Therefore, the Roggero reservoir produces a significant improvement of water quality of the river, but the discharge of contaminants downstream quickly reverses this effect.

  18. Influence of Extreme Strength in Water Quality of the Jucazinho Reservoir, Northeastern Brazil, PE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Roney Camara de Melo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Jucazinho reservoir was built in the State of Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil, to water supply in a great part of the population that live in the semi-arid of Pernambuco. This reservoir controls the high part of Capibaribe river basin, area affected several actions that can compromise the reservoir water quality such as disposal of domestic sewage, industrial wastewater and agriculture with use of fertilizers. This study aimed to identify the factors that lead to water quality of the Jucazinho reservoir using a database containing information of nine years of reservoir water quality monitoring in line with a multivariate statistical technique known as Principal Component Analysis (PCA. To use this technique, it was selected two components which determine the quality of the reservoir water. The first principal component, ranging from an annual basis, explained the relationship between the development of cyanobacteria, the concentration of dissolved solids and electrical conductivity, comparing it with the variation in the dam volume, total phosphorus levels and turbidity. The second principal component, ranging from a mensal basis, explained the photosynthetic activity performed by cyanobacteria confronting with the variation in the dam volume. It observed the relationship between water quality parameters with rainfall, featuring an annual and seasonal pattern that can be used as reference to behaviour studies of this reservoir.

  19. Analysis of change of retention capacity of a small water reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Výleta, R.; Danáčová, M.; Valent, P.

    2017-10-01

    This study is focused on the analysis of the changes of retention capacity of a small water reservoir induced by intensive erosion and sedimentation processes. The water reservoir is situated near the village of Vrbovce in the Western part of Slovakia, and the analysis is carried out for a period 2008-2017. The data used to build a digital elevation model (DEM) of the reservoir’s bed came from a terrain measurement, utilizing an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) to measure the water depth in the reservoir. The DEM was used to quantify the soil loss from agricultural land situated within the basin of the reservoir. The ability of the water reservoir to transform a design flood with a return period of 100 years is evaluated for both design (2008) and current conditions (2017). The results show that the small water reservoir is a subject to siltation, with sediments comprised of fine soil particles transported from nearby agricultural land. The ability of the water reservoir to transform a 100-year flood has not changed significantly. The reduction of the reservoir’s retention capacity should be systematically and regularly monitored in order to adjust its operational manual and improve its efficiency.

  20. Managing hydroclimatological risk to water supply with option contracts and reservoir index insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Casey; Carriquiry, Miguel

    2007-11-01

    This paper explores the performance of a system of economic instruments designed to facilitate the reduction of hydroclimatologic variability-induced impacts on stakeholders of shared water supply. The system is composed of bulk water option contracts between urban water suppliers and agricultural users and insurance indexed on reservoir inflows. The insurance is designed to cover the financial needs of the water supplier in situations where the option is likely to be exercised. Insurance provides the irregularly needed funds for exercising the water options. The combined option contract - reservoir index insurance system creates risk sharing between sectors that is currently lacking in many shared water situations. Contracts are designed for a shared agriculture - urban water system in Metro Manila, Philippines, using optimization and Monte Carlo analysis. Observed reservoir inflows are used to simulate contract performance. Results indicate the option - insurance design effectively smooths water supply costs of hydrologic variability for both agriculture and urban water.

  1. Importance of water Influx and waterflooding in Gas condensate reservoir

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Faizan

    2014-01-01

    The possibility of losing valuable liquid and lower gas well deliverability have made gas condensate reservoirs very important and extra emphasizes are made to optimize hydrocarbon recovery from a gas condensate reservoir. Methods like methanol treatments, wettability alteration and hydraulic fracturing are done to restore the well deliverability by removing or by passing the condensate blockage region. The above mentioned methods are applied in the near wellbore region and only improve the w...

  2. Assessment of water quality from water harvesting using small farm reservoir for irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, W. S.; Komariah; Samsuri, I. Y.; Senge, M.

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to assess the quality of rainfall-runoff water harvesting using small farm reservoir (SFR) for irrigation. Water quality assessment criteria based on RI Government Regulation number 82 the year 2001 on Water Quality Management and Pollution Control, and FAO Irrigation Water Quality Guidelines 1985. The experiment was conducted in the dry land of Wonosari Village, Gondangrejo District, Karanganyar Regency. SFR size was 10 m x 3 m x 2 m. Water quality measurements are done every week, ten times. Water samples were taken at 6 points, namely: distance of 2.5 m, 5 m, and 7.5 m from the inlet, at depth 25 cm and 175 cm from surface water. In each sampling point replicated three times. Water quality parameters include dissolved oxygen (DO), Turbidity (TSS), water pH, Nitrate (NO3), and Phosphate. The results show that water harvesting that collected in SFR meets both standards quality used, so the water is feasible for agricultural irrigation. The average value of harvested water was DO 2.6 mg/l, TSS 62.7 mg/l, pH 6.6, P 5.3 mg/l and NO3 0.16 mg/l. Rainfall-runoff water harvesting using SFR prospectus for increasing save water availability for irrigation.

  3. Water coning in porous media reservoirs for compressed air energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiles, L.E.; McCann, R.A.

    1981-06-01

    The general purpose of this work is to define the hydrodynamic and thermodynamic response of a CAES porous media reservoir subjected to simulated air mass cycling. This research will assist in providing design guidelines for the efficient and stable operation of the air storage reservoir. This report presents the analysis and results for the two-phase (air-water), two-dimensional, numerical modeling of CAES porous media reservoirs. The effects of capillary pressure and relative permeability were included. The fluids were considered to be immisicible; there was no phase change; and the system was isothermal. The specific purpose of this analysis was to evaluate the reservoir parameters that were believed to be important to water coning. This phenomenon may occur in reservoirs in which water underlies the air storage zone. It involves the possible intrusion of water into the wellbore or near-wellbore region. The water movement is in response to pressure gradients created during a reservoir discharge cycle. Potential adverse effects due to this water movement are associated with the pressure response of the reservoir and the geochemical stability of the near-wellbore region. The results obtained for the simulated operation of a CAES reservoir suggest that water coning should not be a severe problem, due to the slow response of the water to the pressure gradients and the relatively short duration in which those gradients exist. However, water coning will depend on site-specific conditions, particularly the fluid distributions following bubble development, and, therefore, a water coning analysis should be included as part of site evaluation.

  4. determination of verticality of reservoir engineering structure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    applications is 3D survey and management of oil and gas facilities and other engineering structures. This recent .... also affect ground water contamination. 2. VERTICALITY ...... The soil, water and concrete in a Reservoir at the foundation bed ...

  5. [Summer Greenhouse Gases Exchange Flux Across Water-air Interface in Three Water Reservoirs Located in Different Geologic Setting in Guangxi, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-hong; Pu, Jun-bing; Sun, Ping-an; Yuan, Dao-xian; Liu, Wen; Zhang, Tao; Mo, Xue

    2015-11-01

    Due to special hydrogeochemical characteristics of calcium-rich, alkaline and DIC-rich ( dissolved inorganic carbon) environment controlled by the weathering products from carbonate rock, the exchange characteristics, processes and controlling factors of greenhouse gas (CO2 and CH4) across water-air interface in karst water reservoir show obvious differences from those of non-karst water reservoir. Three water reservoirs (Dalongdong reservoir-karst reservoir, Wulixia reservoir--semi karst reservoir, Si'anjiang reservoir-non-karst reservoir) located in different geologic setting in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China were chosen to reveal characteristics and controlling factors of greenhouse gas exchange flux across water-air interface. Two common approaches, floating chamber (FC) and thin boundary layer models (TBL), were employed to research and contrast greenhouse gas exchange flux across water-air interface from three reservoirs. The results showed that: (1) surface-layer water in reservoir area and discharging water under dam in Dalongdong water reservoir were the source of atmospheric CO2 and CH4. Surface-layer water in reservoir area in Wulixia water reservoir was the sink of atmospheric CO2 and the source of atmospheric CH4, while discharging water under dam was the source of atmospheric CO2 and CH4. Surface-layer water in Si'anjiang water reservoir was the sink of atmospheric CO2 and source of atmospheric CH4. (2) CO2 and CH4 effluxes in discharging water under dam were much more than those in surface-layer water in reservoir area regardless of karst reservoir or non karst reservoir. Accordingly, more attention should be paid to the CO2 and CH4 emission from discharging water under dam. (3) In the absence of submerged soil organic matters and plants, the difference of CH4 effluxes between karst groundwater-fed reservoir ( Dalongdong water reservoir) and non-karst area ( Wulixia water reservoir and Si'anjiang water reservoir) was less. However, CO2

  6. Numerical simulation of three-dimensional fields of Chernobyl's radionuclides in the Kiev water reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheleznyak, M.I.; Margvelashvili, N.Yu.

    1997-01-01

    On the base of the three-dimensional numerical model of water circulation and radionuclide transport, the high flood water influence on the radionuclide dispersion in the Kiev water reservoir is studied. The model was verified on the base of data of the measurements of moderate flood phenomena in April-May 1987. Redistribution of the bottom sediment contamination is demonstrated. It is shown that even an extremely high flood water discharge does not change drastically the 137 Cs concentration in the water body of the Kiev water reservoir

  7. Analysis on the spatiotemporal characteristics of water quality and trophic states in Tiegang Reservoir: A public drinking water supply reservoir in South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yun-long; Zhu, Jia; Li, Wang; Tao, Yi; Zhang, Jin-song

    2017-08-01

    Shenzhen is the most densely populated city in China and with a severe shortage of water. The per capita water resource is less than 200 m3, which is approximately 1/12 of the national average level. In 2016, nearly 90% of Shenzhen’s drinking water needed to be imported from the Pearl River. After arrived at Shenzhen, overseas water was firstly stockpiled in local reservoirs and then was supplied to nearby water works. Tiegang Reservoir is the largest drinking water supply reservoir and its water quality has played an important role to the city’s drinking water security. A fifteen-month’s field observation was conducted from April 2013 to June 2014 in Tiegang Reservoir, in order to analyze the temporal and spatial distribution of water quality factors and seasonal variation of trophic states. One-way ANOVA showed that significant difference was found in water quality factors on month (p latter rainy period > high temperature and rain free period > temperature jump period > winter drought period, while SD showed the contrary. Two-way ANOVA showed that months rather than locations were the key influencing factors of water quality factors succession. Tiegang reservoir was seriously polluted by TN, as a result WQI were at IV∼V level. If TN was not taken into account, WQI were atI∼III level. TLI (Σ) were about 35∼60, suggesting Tiegang reservoir was in mesotrophic and light-eutrophic trophic states. The WQI and TLI (Σ) in sampling sites 9 and 10 were poorer than that of other sites. The 14 water quality factors were divided into 5 groups by factor analysis (FA). The total interpretation rate was 73.54%. F1 represents the climatic change represented by water temperature. F2 and F4 represent the concentration of nutrients. F3 and F5 represent the sensory indexes of water body, such as turbidity, transparency. The FA results indicated that water quality potential risk factors was total nitrogen (TN), and potential risk factors also include chlorophyll-a and

  8. Monitoring Vertical Crustal Deformation and Gravity Variations during Water Level Changes at the Three Gorges Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Wei

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring vertical crustal deformation and gravity changes during water level changes at the Three Gorges reservoir is important for the safe operation of the Three Gorges Dam and for the monitoring and prevention of a regional geological disaster. In this study, we determined vertical crustal deformation and gravity changes during water level variations of the Three Gorges reservoir from direct calculations and actual measurements and a comprehensive solution. We used water areas extracted image data from the ZY-3 satellite and water level data to calculate gravity changes and vertical crustal deformation caused by every 5 m change in the water level due to storage and drainage of the Three Gorges reservoir from 145 m to 175 m. The vertical crustal deformation was up to 30 mm. The location of gravity change above 20 μ Gal(1 Gal=10-2 m/s2 was less than 2 km from the centerline of the Yangtze River. The CORS ES13 in Badong, near the reservoir, measured the vertical crustal deformation during water level changes. Because of the small number of CORS and gravity stations in the Three Gorges reservoir area, monitoring deformation and gravity related to changes in the Three Gorges reservoir water level cannot be closely followed. Using 26 CORS and some of the gravity stations in the Three Gorges area and based on loading deformation and the spherical harmonic analysis method, an integrated solution of vertical deformation and gravity variations during water level changes of the reservoir was determined, which is consistent with the actual CORS monitoring results. By comparison, we found that an integrated solution based on a CORS network can effectively enhance the capability of monitoring vertical crustal deformation and gravity changes during water level variations of the reservoir.

  9. Conjunctive operation of river facilities for integrated water resources management in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kim

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing trend of water-related disasters such as floods and droughts resulting from climate change, the integrated management of water resources is gaining importance recently. Korea has worked towards preventing disasters caused by floods and droughts, managing water resources efficiently through the coordinated operation of river facilities such as dams, weirs, and agricultural reservoirs. This has been pursued to enable everyone to enjoy the benefits inherent to the utilization of water resources, by preserving functional rivers, improving their utility and reducing the degradation of water quality caused by floods and droughts. At the same time, coordinated activities are being conducted in multi-purpose dams, hydro-power dams, weirs, agricultural reservoirs and water use facilities (featuring a daily water intake of over 100 000 m3 day−1 with the purpose of monitoring the management of such facilities. This is being done to ensure the protection of public interest without acting as an obstacle to sound water management practices. During Flood Season, each facilities contain flood control capacity by limited operating level which determined by the Regulation Council in advance. Dam flood discharge decisions are approved through the flood forecasting and management of Flood Control Office due to minimize flood damage for both upstream and downstream. The operational plan is implemented through the council's predetermination while dry season for adequate quantity and distribution of water.

  10. Role of algae in water quality regulation in NPP water reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klenus, V.G.; Kuz'menko, M.I.; Nasvit, O.I.

    1985-01-01

    Investigations, carried out in Chernobyl NPP water reservoir, show that sewage water inflow, being not sufficiently purified, enriched by mineral and organic substances, is accompanied by a considerable increase of algae productivity. The algae play a determining role in accumulation of radionuclides and their transformation into bottom depositions. Comparative investigation of accumulation intensity in alga cells 12 C and 14 C gives evidence that the rate of radioactive nuclide inclusions is practically adequate to the rate of inclusions of their stable analogues. Bacterial destruction of organic contaminations occurs more intensively under aerobic conditions, which are mainly provided due to photosynthetizing activity of algae

  11. Response of littoral macrophytes to water level fluctuations in a storage reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krolová M.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Lakes and reservoirs that are used for water supply and/or flow regulations have usually poorly developed littoral macrophyte communities, which impairs ecological potential in terms of the EU Water Framework Directive. The aim of our study was to reveal controlling factors for the growth of littoral macrophytes in a storage reservoir with fluctuating water level (Lipno Reservoir, Czech Republic. Macrophytes occurred in this reservoir only in the eulittoral zone i.e., the shoreline region between the highest and the lowest seasonal water levels. Three eulittoral sub-zones could be distinguished: the upper eulittoral with a stable community of perennial species with high cover, the middle eulittoral with relatively high richness of emergent and amphibious species present at low cover values, and the lower eulittoral devoid of permanent vegetation. Cover and species composition in particular sub-zones were primarily influenced by the duration and timing of flooding, followed by nutrient limitation and strongly reducing conditions in the flooded organic sediment. Our results stress the ecological importance of eulittoral zone in reservoirs with fluctuating water levels where macrophyte growth can be supported by targeted management of water level, thus helping reservoir managers in improving the ecological potential of this type of water bodies.

  12. Legal study on water environmental protection of Three Gorges Reservoir Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG He

    2007-01-01

    Water environment security of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area has become a more extensive concern since the impoundment of the reservoir. This paper describes the existing water environmental hazards and defects in current legal system for water environmental protection in this area, and also discusses their possible causes and potential problems in the future based on first hand materials and other literature. According to the theories of integrated river basin management and environmental equity principle, legal proposals are put forward, which include building an unitary legal system dedicated to the Reservoir Area, setting up a basin authority of the Yangtze River to preside over the resources protection and development, using interests' compensation system to solve interest conflicts among different reaches, and making concrete regulations to direct public participation in water environmental security protection of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

  13. Diversity patterns and freshwater molluscs similarities in small water reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Čejka

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The survey presents the molluscan fauna from six impoundment systems of two sides (NW and SE of the Small Carpathians. Altogether 25 species (15 gastropod and 10 bivalve species were identified in reservoirs and their subsystems (inflows and outlets. The number of species per site ranged from 2 to 12, the mean number of species per site was 7. The mean number of individuals per site ranged from 15 to 905 (mean 174 ind/m2. Radix auricularia, R. ovata, Gyraulus albus, Gyraulus parvus/laevis, Hippeutis complanatus and Pisidium casertanum were present in more than 50% of reservoirs. The most abundant and frequent species in the entire area and all subsystems were Pisidium casertanum, Pisidium subtruncatum and Gyraulus parvus/laevis. Faunistic similarity indices indicate moderate degree of beta diversity i.e., differentiation among the sites; good separation of sites by cluster analysis indicates a different composition among inflows/outlets and littoral molluscan faunas of reservoirs.

  14. Water Age Responses to Weather Conditions in a Hyper-Eutrophic Channel Reservoir in Southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Du

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Channel reservoirs have the characteristics of both rivers and lakes, in which hydrodynamic conditions and the factors affecting the eutrophication process are complex and highly affected by weather conditions. Water age at any location in the reservoir is used as an indicator for describing the spatial and temporal variations of water exchange and nutrient transport. The hyper-eutrophic Changtan Reservoir (CTR in Southern China was investigated. Three weather conditions including wet, normal, and dry years were considered for assessing the response of water age by using the coupled watershed model Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT and the three-dimensional hydrodynamic model Environmental Fluid Hydrodynamic Code (EFDC. The results showed that the water age in CTR varied tremendously under different weather conditions. The averaged water ages at the downstream of CTR were 3 d, 60 d, and 110 d, respectively in the three typical wet, normal, and dry years. The highest water ages at the main tributary were >70 d, >100 d, and >200 d, respectively. The spatial distribution of water ages in the tributaries and the reservoir were mainly affected by precipitation. This paper provides useful information on water exchange and transport pathways in channel reservoir, which will be helpful in understanding nutrient dynamics for controlling algal blooms.

  15. Water Supply and Sanitation Facility Accessibility in Off-Campus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water Supply and Sanitation Facility Accessibility in Off-Campus Houses ... on drinking water source, rate of illness, type and usage of sanitation facilities. ... wells, unprotected dug wells; while others during the wet season harvest rain water.

  16. Liquid–liquid equilibria for reservoir fluids+monoethylene glycol and reservoir fluids+monoethylene glycol+water: Experimental measurements and modeling using the CPA EoS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Michael; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2013-01-01

    for critical temperature, pressure and acentric factor.This work presents new phase equilibrium data for binary MEG/reservoir fluid and ternary MEG/water/reservoir fluid systems, where two reservoir fluids from Statoil operated fields are used. The solubility data are reported over a range of temperatures......The complex phase equilibrium between reservoir fluids and associating compounds like water and glycols has become more and more important as the increasing global energy demand pushes the oil industry to use advanced methods to increase oil recovery, such as increasing the use of various chemicals...... to ensure a constant and safe production. The CPA equation of state has been successfully applied in the past to well defined systems and gas condensates, containing associating compounds. It has also been extended to reservoir fluids in presence of water and polar chemicals using modified correlations...

  17. Sediment pollution characteristics and in situ control in a deep drinking water reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zizhen; Huang, Tinglin; Li, Yang; Ma, Weixing; Zhou, Shilei; Long, Shenghai

    2017-02-01

    Sediment pollution characteristics, in situ sediment release potential, and in situ inhibition of sediment release were investigated in a drinking water reservoir. Results showed that organic carbon (OC), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) in sediments increased from the reservoir mouth to the main reservoir. Fraction analysis indicated that nitrogen in ion exchangeable form and NaOH-extractable P (Fe/Al-P) accounted for 43% and 26% of TN and TP in sediments of the main reservoir. The Risk Assessment Code for metal elements showed that Fe and Mn posed high to very high risk. The results of the in situ reactor experiment in the main reservoir showed the same trends as those observed in the natural state of the reservoir in 2011 and 2012; the maximum concentrations of total OC, TN, TP, Fe, and Mn reached 4.42mg/L, 3.33mg/L, 0.22mg/L, 2.56mg/L, and 0.61mg/L, respectively. An in situ sediment release inhibition technology, the water-lifting aerator, was utilized in the reservoir. The results of operating the water-lifting aerator indicated that sediment release was successfully inhibited and that OC, TN, TP, Fe, and Mn in surface sediment could be reduced by 13.25%, 15.23%, 14.10%, 5.32%, and 3.94%, respectively. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Seasonal assessment, treatment and removal of heavy metal concentrations in a tropical drinking water reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapha Moshood Keke

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are present in low concentrations in reservoirs, but seasonal anthropogenic activities usually elevate the concentrations to a level that could become a health hazard. The dry season concentrations of cadmium, copper, iron, lead, mercury, nickel and zinc were assessed from three sites for 12 weeks in Oyun reservoir, Offa, Nigeria. Triplicate surface water samples were collected and analysed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The trend in the level of concentrations in the three sites is site C > B > A, while the trend in the levels of the concentrations in the reservoir is Ni > Fe > Zn > Pb > Cd > Cu > Hg. Ni, Cd, Pb and Hg were found to be higher than the WHO guidelines for the metals in drinking water. The high concentration of these metals was from anthropogenic watershed run-off of industrial effluents, domestic sewages and agricultural materials into the reservoir coming from several human activities such as washing, bathing, fish smoking, especially in site C. The health effects of high concentration of these metals in the reservoir were highlighted. Methods for the treatment and removal of the heavy metals from the reservoir during water purification such as active carbon adsorption, coagulation-flocculation, oxidation-filtration, softening treatment and reverse osmosis process were highlighted. Other methods that could be used include phytoremediation, rhizofiltration, bisorption and bioremediation. Watershed best management practices (BMP remains the best solution to reduce the intrusion of the heavy metals from the watershed into the reservoir.

  19. Water quality in four reservoirs of the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Amazonas Pires

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim: This paper describes some limnological variables of four reservoirs with different trophic status (Billings, Guarapiranga, Jundiaí and Paiva Castro of the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo, Brazil, aiming to characterize the water quality in these reservoirs. Methods Water sampling occurred between October 2011 and September 2012, on subsurface, at the pelagic compartment. Physical and chemical characteristics of water were evaluated, and the Trophic State Index (TSI was calculated. Multivariate Principal Components Analysis (PCA was used to ordinate sampling sites and periods in relation to environmental data. Results Two reservoirs were classified as eutrophic (Billings and Guarapiranga, one as mesotrophic (Jundiaí and one as oligotrophic (Paiva Castro. The highest concentrations of total phosphorus, nitrogen and chlorophyll a were recorded in the eutrophic reservoirs. The lowest values of dissolved oxygen concentration were registered at Guarapiranga reservoir. Residence time in Paiva Castro reservoir was very low (one day; on the other hand, the highest value was recorded in Billings reservoir: 428 days.

  20. Modelling CO2 emissions from water surface of a boreal hydroelectric reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weifeng; Roulet, Nigel T; Kim, Youngil; Strachan, Ian B; Del Giorgio, Paul; Prairie, Yves T; Tremblay, Alain

    2018-01-15

    To quantify CO 2 emissions from water surface of a reservoir that was shaped by flooding the boreal landscape, we developed a daily time-step reservoir biogeochemistry model. We calibrated the model using the measured concentrations of dissolved organic and inorganic carbon (C) in a young boreal hydroelectric reservoir, Eastmain-1 (EM-1), in northern Quebec, Canada. We validated the model against observed CO 2 fluxes from an eddy covariance tower in the middle of EM-1. The model predicted the variability of CO 2 emissions reasonably well compared to the observations (root mean square error: 0.4-1.3gCm -2 day -1 , revised Willmott index: 0.16-0.55). In particular, we demonstrated that the annual reservoir surface effluxes were initially high, steeply declined in the first three years, and then steadily decreased to ~115gCm -2 yr -1 with increasing reservoir age over the estimated "engineering" reservoir lifetime (i.e., 100years). Sensitivity analyses revealed that increasing air temperature stimulated CO 2 emissions by enhancing CO 2 production in the water column and sediment, and extending the duration of open water period over which emissions occur. Increasing the amount of terrestrial organic C flooded can enhance benthic CO 2 fluxes and CO 2 emissions from the reservoir water surface, but the effects were not significant over the simulation period. The model is useful for the understanding of the mechanism of C dynamics in reservoirs and could be used to assist the hydro-power industry and others interested in the role of boreal hydroelectric reservoirs as sources of greenhouse gas emissions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Spatio-Temporal Trends and Identification of Correlated Variables with Water Quality for Drinking-Water Reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qing; Wang, Ke; Li, Jiadan; Ma, Ligang; Deng, Jinsong; Zheng, Kefeng; Zhang, Xiaobin; Sheng, Li

    2015-10-20

    It is widely accepted that characterizing the spatio-temporal trends of water quality parameters and identifying correlated variables with water quality are indispensable for the management and protection of water resources. In this study, cluster analysis was used to classify 56 typical drinking water reservoirs in Zhejiang Province into three groups representing different water quality levels, using data of four water quality parameters for the period 2006-2010. Then, the spatio-temporal trends in water quality were analyzed, assisted by geographic information systems (GIS) technology and statistical analysis. The results indicated that the water quality showed a trend of degradation from southwest to northeast, and the overall water quality level was exacerbated during the study period. Correlation analysis was used to evaluate the relationships between water quality parameters and ten independent variables grouped into four categories (land use, socio-economic factors, geographical features, and reservoir attributes). According to the correlation coefficients, land use and socio-economic indicators were identified as the most significant factors related to reservoir water quality. The results offer insights into the spatio-temporal variations of water quality parameters and factors impacting the water quality of drinking water reservoirs in Zhejiang Province, and they could assist managers in making effective strategies to better protect water resources.

  2. Spatio-Temporal Trends and Identification of Correlated Variables with Water Quality for Drinking-Water Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Gu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that characterizing the spatio-temporal trends of water quality parameters and identifying correlated variables with water quality are indispensable for the management and protection of water resources. In this study, cluster analysis was used to classify 56 typical drinking water reservoirs in Zhejiang Province into three groups representing different water quality levels, using data of four water quality parameters for the period 2006–2010. Then, the spatio-temporal trends in water quality were analyzed, assisted by geographic information systems (GIS technology and statistical analysis. The results indicated that the water quality showed a trend of degradation from southwest to northeast, and the overall water quality level was exacerbated during the study period. Correlation analysis was used to evaluate the relationships between water quality parameters and ten independent variables grouped into four categories (land use, socio-economic factors, geographical features, and reservoir attributes. According to the correlation coefficients, land use and socio-economic indicators were identified as the most significant factors related to reservoir water quality. The results offer insights into the spatio-temporal variations of water quality parameters and factors impacting the water quality of drinking water reservoirs in Zhejiang Province, and they could assist managers in making effective strategies to better protect water resources.

  3. Occurrence and distribution of antibiotic resistance genes in water supply reservoirs in Jingjinji area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Niu, Zhi-Guang; Lv, Zhiwei; Zhang, Ying

    2017-11-01

    Jingjinji area occupies important position in developing of the Chinese economy, while there exists a sharp conflict between economic growth and limited water resources in this area. To ensure the safety of water consumption of cities in Jingjinji area, we investigated the abundance of three classes of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in water and sediment of six water supply reservoirs in this area. The results showed that the detection frequency of sul1, tetM and ermB were 100%. However, the content ranges of these genes were different (10 -5 to 10 -2 /16S gene copies for sul1, 10 -5 to 10 -3 /16S gene copies for ermB, and 10 -5 to 10 -3 /16S gene copies for tetM). The content of ribosome protection proteins (RPP) genes were the highest in all selected tet genes. The highest abundance of ARGs in water and sediment samples was sampled from Panjiakou reservoir and Guanting reservoir, respectively. Except COD, chla and tetM, there are no significant correlation between water quality parameters and ARGs. Overall, this study provides integrated profiles of the three types of ARGs in water supply reservoirs of Jingjinji area and thus helps to re-evaluate the effects of human activities to water supply reservoirs.

  4. Region 9 NPDES Facilities 2012- Waste Water Treatment Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Point geospatial dataset representing locations of NPDES Waste Water Treatment Plant Facilities. NPDES (National Pollution Discharge Elimination System) is an EPA permit program that regulates direct discharges from facilities that discharge treated waste water into waters of the US. Facilities are issued NPDES permits regulating their discharge as required by the Clean Water Act. A facility may have one or more outfalls (dischargers). The location represents the facility or operating plant.

  5. Region 9 NPDES Facilities - Waste Water Treatment Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Point geospatial dataset representing locations of NPDES Waste Water Treatment Plant Facilities. NPDES (National Pollution Discharge Elimination System) is an EPA permit program that regulates direct discharges from facilities that discharge treated waste water into waters of the US. Facilities are issued NPDES permits regulating their discharge as required by the Clean Water Act. A facility may have one or more outfalls (dischargers). The location represents the facility or operating plant.

  6. Water Pollution Prediction in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area and Countermeasures for Sustainable Development of the Water Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinghui Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Three Gorges Project was implemented in 1994 to promote sustainable water resource use and development of the water environment in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (hereafter “Reservoir Area”. However, massive discharge of wastewater along the river threatens these goals; therefore, this study employs a grey prediction model (GM to predict the annual emissions of primary pollution sources, including industrial wastewater, domestic wastewater, and oily and domestic wastewater from ships, that influence the Three Gorges Reservoir Area water environment. First, we optimize the initial values of a traditional GM (1,1 model, and build a new GM (1,1 model that minimizes the sum of squares of the relative simulation errors. Second, we use the new GM (1,1 model to simulate historical annual emissions data for the four pollution sources and thereby test the effectiveness of the model. Third, we predict the annual emissions of the four pollution sources in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area for a future period. The prediction results reveal the annual emission trends for the major wastewater types, and indicate the primary sources of water pollution in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. Based on our predictions, we suggest several countermeasures against water pollution and towards the sustainable development of the water environment in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

  7. Water Pollution Prediction in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area and Countermeasures for Sustainable Development of the Water Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shuaijin; Qu, Xuexin

    2017-01-01

    The Three Gorges Project was implemented in 1994 to promote sustainable water resource use and development of the water environment in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (hereafter “Reservoir Area”). However, massive discharge of wastewater along the river threatens these goals; therefore, this study employs a grey prediction model (GM) to predict the annual emissions of primary pollution sources, including industrial wastewater, domestic wastewater, and oily and domestic wastewater from ships, that influence the Three Gorges Reservoir Area water environment. First, we optimize the initial values of a traditional GM (1,1) model, and build a new GM (1,1) model that minimizes the sum of squares of the relative simulation errors. Second, we use the new GM (1,1) model to simulate historical annual emissions data for the four pollution sources and thereby test the effectiveness of the model. Third, we predict the annual emissions of the four pollution sources in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area for a future period. The prediction results reveal the annual emission trends for the major wastewater types, and indicate the primary sources of water pollution in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. Based on our predictions, we suggest several countermeasures against water pollution and towards the sustainable development of the water environment in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. PMID:29077006

  8. Water Pollution Prediction in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area and Countermeasures for Sustainable Development of the Water Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yinghui; Huang, Shuaijin; Qu, Xuexin

    2017-10-27

    The Three Gorges Project was implemented in 1994 to promote sustainable water resource use and development of the water environment in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (hereafter "Reservoir Area"). However, massive discharge of wastewater along the river threatens these goals; therefore, this study employs a grey prediction model (GM) to predict the annual emissions of primary pollution sources, including industrial wastewater, domestic wastewater, and oily and domestic wastewater from ships, that influence the Three Gorges Reservoir Area water environment. First, we optimize the initial values of a traditional GM (1,1) model, and build a new GM (1,1) model that minimizes the sum of squares of the relative simulation errors. Second, we use the new GM (1,1) model to simulate historical annual emissions data for the four pollution sources and thereby test the effectiveness of the model. Third, we predict the annual emissions of the four pollution sources in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area for a future period. The prediction results reveal the annual emission trends for the major wastewater types, and indicate the primary sources of water pollution in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. Based on our predictions, we suggest several countermeasures against water pollution and towards the sustainable development of the water environment in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

  9. Towards an Improved Represenation of Reservoirs and Water Management in a Land Surface-Hydrology Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassin, F.; Anis, M. R.; Razavi, S.; Wheater, H. S.

    2017-12-01

    Water management through reservoirs, diversions, and irrigation have significantly changed river flow regimes and basin-wide energy and water balance cycles. Failure to represent these effects limits the performance of land surface-hydrology models not only for streamflow prediction but also for the estimation of soil moisture, evapotranspiration, and feedbacks to the atmosphere. Despite recent research to improve the representation of water management in land surface models, there remains a need to develop improved modeling approaches that work in complex and highly regulated basins such as the 406,000 km2 Saskatchewan River Basin (SaskRB). A particular challenge for regional and global application is a lack of local information on reservoir operational management. To this end, we implemented a reservoir operation, water abstraction, and irrigation algorithm in the MESH land surface-hydrology model and tested it over the SaskRB. MESH is Environment Canada's Land Surface-hydrology modeling system that couples Canadian Land Surface Scheme (CLASS) with hydrological routing model. The implemented reservoir algorithm uses an inflow-outflow relationship that accounts for the physical characteristics of reservoirs (e.g., storage-area-elevation relationships) and includes simplified operational characteristics based on local information (e.g., monthly target volume and release under limited, normal, and flood storage zone). The irrigation algorithm uses the difference between actual and potential evapotranspiration to estimate irrigation water demand. This irrigation demand is supplied from the neighboring reservoirs/diversion in the river system. We calibrated the model enabled with the new reservoir and irrigation modules in a multi-objective optimization setting. Results showed that the reservoir and irrigation modules significantly improved the MESH model performance in generating streamflow and evapotranspiration across the SaskRB and that this our approach provides

  10. Assessing ways to combat eutrophication in a Chinese drinking water reservoir using SWAT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders; Trolle, Dennis; Me, W

    2013-01-01

    Across China, nutrient losses associated with agricultural production and domestic sewage have triggered eutrophication, and local managers are challenged to comply with drinking water quality requirements. Evidently, the improvement of water quality should be targeted holistically and encompass...... in land and livestock management and sewage treatment on nutrient export and derived consequences for water quality in the Chinese subtropical Kaiping (Dashahe) drinking water reservoir (supplying 0.4 million people). The critical load of TP was estimated to 13.5 tonnes yr–1 in order to comply...... both point sources and surface activities within the watershed of a reservoir. We expanded the ordinary Soil Water Assessment Tool – (SWAT) with a widely used empirical equation to estimate total phosphorus (TP) concentrations in lakes and reservoirs. Subsequently, we examined the effects of changes...

  11. Evaluation, prediction, and protection of water quality in Danjiangkou Reservoir, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-kang Xin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The water quality in the Danjiangkou Reservoir has attracted considerable attention from the Chinese public and government since the announcement of the Middle Route of the South to North Water Diversion Project (SNWDP, which commenced transferring water in 2014. Integrated research on the evaluation, prediction, and protection of water quality in the Danjiangkou Reservoir was carried out in this study in order to improve environmental management. Based on 120 water samples, wherein 17 water quality indices were measured at 20 monitoring sites, a single factor evaluation method was used to evaluate the current status of water quality. The results show that the main indices influencing the water quality in the Danjiangkou Reservoir are total phosphorus (TP, permanganate index (CODMn, dissolved oxygen (DO, and five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5, and the concentrations of TP, BOD5, ammonia nitrogen (NH3–N, CODMn, DO, and anionic surfactant (Surfa do not reach the specified standard levels in the tributaries. Seasonal Mann–Kendall tests indicated that the CODMn concentration shows a highly significant increasing trend, and the TP concentration shows a significant increasing trend in the Danjiangkou Reservoir. The distribution of the main water quality indices in the Danjiangkou Reservoir was predicted using a two-dimensional water quality numerical model, and showed that the sphere of influence from the tributaries can spread across half of the Han Reservoir if the pollutants are not controlled. Cluster analysis (CA results suggest that the Shending River is heavily polluted, that the Jianghe, Sihe, and Jianhe rivers are moderately polluted, and that they should be the focus of environmental remediation.

  12. Evaluating changes to reservoir rule curves using historical water-level data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mower, Ethan; Miranda, Leandro E.

    2013-01-01

    Flood control reservoirs are typically managed through rule curves (i.e. target water levels) which control the storage and release timing of flood waters. Changes to rule curves are often contemplated and requested by various user groups and management agencies with no information available about the actual flood risk of such requests. Methods of estimating flood risk in reservoirs are not easily available to those unfamiliar with hydrological models that track water movement through a river basin. We developed a quantile regression model that uses readily available daily water-level data to estimate risk of spilling. Our model provided a relatively simple process for estimating the maximum applicable water level under a specific flood risk for any day of the year. This water level represents an upper-limit umbrella under which water levels can be operated in a variety of ways. Our model allows the visualization of water-level management under a user-specified flood risk and provides a framework for incorporating the effect of a changing environment on water-level management in reservoirs, but is not designed to replace existing hydrological models. The model can improve communication and collaboration among agencies responsible for managing natural resources dependent on reservoir water levels.

  13. Ichthyofaunal Diversity and Water Quality in the Kangsabati Reservoir, West Bengal, India

    OpenAIRE

    Amalesh Bera; Manojit Bhattacharya; Bidhan Chandra Patra; Utpal Kumar Sar

    2014-01-01

    The ichthyofauna in relation to water quality was studied on monthly basis from March, 2010 to February, 2011 in the Kangsabati Reservoir, West Bengal. The study revealed that physicochemical parameters of Kangsabati Reservoir were congenial for 39 fish species of commercial importance, belonging to 7 orders, 15 families, and 26 genera. The Cypriniformes were dominant with 17 species, followed by Siluriformes and Perciformes, with 7 species each, Channiformes with 3 species, Osteoglossifor...

  14. Strontium isotopic signatures of oil-field waters: Applications for reservoir characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnaby, R.J.; Oetting, G.C.; Gao, G.

    2004-01-01

    The 87Sr/86Sr compositions of formation waters that were collected from 71 wells producing from a Pennsylvanian carbonate reservoir in New Mexico display a well-defined distribution, with radiogenic waters (up to 0.710129) at the updip western part of the reservoir, grading downdip to less radiogenic waters (as low as 0.708903 to the east. Salinity (2800-50,000 mg/L) displays a parallel trend; saline waters to the west pass downdip to brackish waters. Elemental and isotopic data indicate that the waters originated as meteoric precipitation and acquired their salinity and radiogenic 87Sr through dissolution of Upper Permian evaporites. These meteoric-derived waters descended, perhaps along deeply penetrating faults, driven by gravity and density, to depths of more than 7000 ft (2100 m). The 87 Sr/86Sr and salinity trends record influx of these waters along the western field margin and downdip flow across the field, consistent with the strong water drive, potentiometric gradient, and tilted gas-oil-water contacts. The formation water 87Sr/86Sr composition can be useful to evaluate subsurface flow and reservoir behavior, especially in immature fields with scarce pressure and production data. In mature reservoirs, Sr Sr isotopes can be used to differentiate original formation water from injected water for waterflood surveillance. Strontium isotopes thus provide a valuable tool for both static and dynamic reservoir characterization in conjunction with conventional studies using seismic, log, core, engineering, and production data. Copyright ??2004. The American Association of Petroleum Geologist. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of watershed activities on the water quality and fish assemblages of a tropical African reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Moshood K

    2009-09-01

    Agricultural and fisheries activities around the watershed of an African tropical reservoir (Oyun reservoir, Offa, Nigeria) were found to contribute significantly to water quality deterioration of the dam axis of the reservoir, leading to eutrophication of that part of the reservoir. This is evident from the high amount of nitrate (6.4 mg/l), phosphate (2.2 mg/l) and sulphate (16.9 mg/l) in the water body which was higher than most other reservoirs in Nigeria. These nutrients originate in fertilizer run-offs from nearby farmlands and were found in higher concentrations in the rainy season which is usually the peak of agricultural activities in the locality. The eutrophication was more pronounced on the dam axis because it is the point of greatest human contact where pressure and run-off of sediments were high. The eutrophication altered the food web cycle which consequently affected the fish species composition and abundance with the dominance of cichlids (planktivorous group) and decline of some species in the fish population. Best management practices (BMP) to control and reduce the eutrophication and improve water quality and fish assemblages should be adopted and adapted to suit the situation in the reservoir.

  16. Changes in water chemistry and primary productivity of a reactor cooling reservoir (Par Pond)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilly, L.J.

    1975-01-01

    Water chemistry and primary productivity of a reactor cooling reservoir have been studied for 8 years. Initially the primary productivity increased sixfold, and the dissolved solids doubled. The dissolved-solids increase appears to have been caused by additions of makeup water from the Savannah River and by evaporative concentration during the cooling process. As the dissolved-solids concentrations and the conductivity of makeup water leveled off, the primary productivity stabilized. Major cation and anion concentrations generally followed total dissolved solids through the increase and plateau; however, silica concentrations declined steadily during the initial period of increased plankton productivity. Standing crops of net seston and centrifuge seston did not increase during this initial period. The collective data show the effects of thermal input to a cooling reservoir, illustrate the need for limnological studies before reactor siting, and suggest the possibility of using makeup-water additions to power reactor cooling basins as a reservoir management tool

  17. EUTROPHICATION OF WATER RESERVOIRS AND ROLE OF MACROPHYTES IN THIS PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Jadwiga Sender

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the problem related with the process of eutrophication, with special emphasis on dam reservoirs. Eutrophication is a global process, threatening the water ecosystem on every continent. It often leads to their degradation. Particularly vulnerable to eutrophication are artificial reservoirs which are dam reservoirs. This paper describes the mechanisms of eutrophication. We also pointed to the importance of aquatic plants in the process of water purification, as well as the possibility of multilateral use. Recently, in the world and in Poland there is a tendency to pay attention to the natural or semi-natural method of water purification (including constructed wetland. On the one hand, the presence of macrophytes in water bodies is a guarantor of good ecological status, on the other hand, the undeniable aesthetic value.

  18. Will building new reservoirs always help increase the water supply reliability? - insight from a modeling-based global study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Y.; Tian, F.; Yigzaw, W.; Hejazi, M. I.; Li, H. Y.; Turner, S. W. D.; Vernon, C. R.

    2017-12-01

    More and more reservoirs are being build or planned in order to help meet the increasing water demand all over the world. However, is building new reservoirs always helpful to water supply? To address this question, the river routing module of Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) has been extended with a simple yet physical-based reservoir scheme accounting for irrigation, flood control and hydropower operations at each individual reservoir. The new GCAM river routing model has been applied over the global domain with the runoff inputs from the Variable Infiltration Capacity Model. The simulated streamflow is validated at 150 global river basins where the observed streamflow data are available. The model performance has been significantly improved at 77 basins and worsened at 35 basins. To facilitate the analysis of additional reservoir storage impacts at the basin level, a lumped version of GCAM reservoir model has been developed, representing a single lumped reservoir at each river basin which has the regulation capacity of all reservoir combined. A Sequent Peak Analysis is used to estimate how much additional reservoir storage is required to satisfy the current water demand. For basins with water deficit, the water supply reliability can be improved with additional storage. However, there is a threshold storage value at each basin beyond which the reliability stops increasing, suggesting that building new reservoirs will not help better relieve the water stress. Findings in the research can be helpful to the future planning and management of new reservoirs.

  19. Bathymetric maps and water-quality profiles of Table Rock and North Saluda Reservoirs, Greenville County, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jimmy M.; Journey, Celeste A.; Nagle, Doug D.; Lanier, Timothy H.

    2014-01-01

    Lakes and reservoirs are the water-supply source for many communities. As such, water-resource managers that oversee these water supplies require monitoring of the quantity and quality of the resource. Monitoring information can be used to assess the basic conditions within the reservoir and to establish a reliable estimate of storage capacity. In April and May 2013, a global navigation satellite system receiver and fathometer were used to collect bathymetric data, and an autonomous underwater vehicle was used to collect water-quality and bathymetric data at Table Rock Reservoir and North Saluda Reservoir in Greenville County, South Carolina. These bathymetric data were used to create a bathymetric contour map and stage-area and stage-volume relation tables for each reservoir. Additionally, statistical summaries of the water-quality data were used to provide a general description of water-quality conditions in the reservoirs.

  20. REMOVING BIOMASS FROM WATER PONDS AND SMALL WATER RESERVOIRS BY USING NON-WOVEN FILTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Nieć

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Small water bodies, for example garden ponds, play many functions in the environment, including biocenotic, hydrological, climatic, sozological, landfill-creative, and aesthetic. Due to their small size, these reservoirs are sensitive to external and internal factors, they are also a common natural contaminants receivers. Nonwoven filters have been investigated for several years as a useful device for treatment of domestic wastewater pre-treated in a septic tank. The aim of this study was to verify the possibility of using this type of filters for water originating from small water body purification. The effectiveness of filters were tested on the water originating from the garden pond, contained high levels of nutrients and intensive algal bloom. Research was carried out on three filters (each filter consisted of four geotextile TS 20 layers. Basic water quality indicators: total suspended solids, turbidity, COD and BOD5, temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen were measured. The research results can be considered as satisfactory in terms of mechanical treatment (removal of turbidity and total suspended solids. An important positive effect of the filters was the oxygenation of the treated water, which is especially important for fish.

  1. An adaptive robust optimization scheme for water-flooding optimization in oil reservoirs using residual analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siraj, M.M.; Van den Hof, P.M.J.; Jansen, J.D.

    2017-01-01

    Model-based dynamic optimization of the water-flooding process in oil reservoirs is a computationally complex problem and suffers from high levels of uncertainty. A traditional way of quantifying uncertainty in robust water-flooding optimization is by considering an ensemble of uncertain model

  2. modelling for optimal number of line storage reservoirs in a water

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    RESERVOIRS IN A WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM. By. B.U. Anyata. Department ... water distribution systems, in order to balance the ... distribution line storage systems to meet peak demands at .... Evaluation Method. The criteria ... Pipe + Energy Cost (N). 191, 772 ... Economic Planning Model for Distributed information ...

  3. Applicability of adapted reservoir operation for water stress mitigation under dry year conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olsson, O.; Ikramova, M.; Bauer, M.; Froebrich, J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces the conjunctive use of a deterministic water quality model and water balance criteria for supporting the assessment of simulation and to evaluate the effectiveness of proposed operation strategies. By this, the applicability of enhanced reservoir operation strategies addressing

  4. PCBs in Rain Water, Streams and a Reservoir in a Small Catchment of NW Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Martín, Jordi; Cereijo-Arango, José Luis; García-Morrondo, David; Juncosa-Rivera, Ricardo; Cillero-Castro, Carmen; Muñoz-Ibáñez, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) constitute a significant environmental concern due to its persistence, tendency to bio-accumulate, acknowledged toxicity and ubiquity. In the present study, a small water catchment (~100 km2) inclusive of a two-tailed water supply reservoir (Abegondo-Cecebre) has been monitored between 2009 and 2014. Sampling stations include: a) one precipitation gauge used to collect monthly-integrated bulk precipitation (25 samples); b) seven streams (95 samples); c) five surface and one bottom points within the reservoir (104 samples); d) five points for sediment sampling in two surveys (spring and summer; 10 samples). All the water samples as well as the leachates of sediment washing have been analyzed for their concentration in 6 marker PCB (congeners 28, 52, 101, 138, 153 and 180) and 12 dioxin-like PCB (congeners 77, 81, 105, 114, 118, 123, 126, 156, 157, 167, 169 and 189) compounds. The average concentration of PCBtot in the bulk precipitation during the sampling period is ~406 pg/L although a very significant decrease has occurred since the end of 2011 (~800 pg/L) to the end of 2014 (~60 pg/L). Likewise, the mean concentration of PCBtot in the stream water samples is 174 pg/L and a similar reduction in the concentration of PCBtot is also acknowledged for the same period of time (~250 pg/L before the end of 2011 and ~30 pg/L after then). Reservoir surface water has a PCBtot concentration of ~234 pg/L which, according to its sampling time (2010-2011) is consistent with the measured stream waters. However, deep reservoir water reveals an average concentration which is higher than the corresponding top water (~330 pg/L) but significantly smaller than the water-leached sediments (~860 pg/L). The available data suggest that up to a 30% of PCBs associated with precipitation becomes sequestered by the soil/sediment system while no significant change takes place during the transfer of water from the stream to the reservoir system, at least in

  5. Water demand characteristics of shared water and sanitation facilities

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The provision of communal water and sanitation facilities has been mandated by the South African Government as an interim measure for informal settlement upgrading. These services form the first step in the upgrading process and are essential in meeting the basic needs of the community. The eThekwini municipality is ...

  6. Remote Sensing of Water Quality in Multipurpose Reservoirs: Case Study Applications in Indonesia, Mexico, and Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miralles-Wilhelm, F.; Serrat-Capdevila, A.; Rodriguez, D.

    2017-12-01

    This research is focused on development of remote sensing methods to assess surface water pollution issues, particularly in multipurpose reservoirs. Three case study applications are presented to comparatively analyze remote sensing techniquesforo detection of nutrient related pollution, i.e., Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Chlorophyll, as this is a major water quality issue that has been identified in terms of pollution of major water sources around the country. This assessment will contribute to a better understanding of options for nutrient remote sensing capabilities and needs and assist water agencies in identifying the appropriate remote sensing tools and devise an application strategy to provide information needed to support decision-making regarding the targeting and monitoring of nutrient pollution prevention and mitigation measures. A detailed review of the water quality data available from ground based measurements was conducted in order to determine their suitability for a case study application of remote sensing. In the first case study, the Valle de Bravo reservoir in Mexico City reservoir offers a larger database of water quality which may be used to better calibrate and validate the algorithms required to obtain water quality data from remote sensing raw data. In the second case study application, the relatively data scarce Lake Toba in Indonesia can be useful to illustrate the value added of remote sensing data in locations where water quality data is deficient or inexistent. The third case study in the Paso Severino reservoir in Uruguay offers a combination of data scarcity and persistent development of harmful algae blooms. Landsat-TM data was obteined for the 3 study sites and algorithms for three key water quality parameters that are related to nutrient pollution: Chlorophyll-a, Total Nitrogen, and Total Phosphorus were calibrated and validated at the study sites. The three case study applications were developed into capacity building/training workshops

  7. Mutual Solubility of MEG, Water and Reservoir Fluid: Experimental Measurements and Modeling using the CPA Equation of State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riaz, Muhammad; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2011-01-01

    This work presents new experimental phase equilibrium data of binary MEG-reservoir fluid and ternary MEG-water-reservoir fluid systems at temperatures 275-326 K and at atmospheric pressure. The reservoir fluid consists of a natural gas condensate from a Statoil operated gas field in the North Sea...... compounds. It has also been extended to reservoir fluids in presence of water and polar chemicals using a Pedersen like characterization method with modified correlations for critical temperature, pressure and acentric factor. In this work CPA is applied to the prediction of mutual solubility of reservoir...

  8. Impact of Catchment Area Activities on Water Quality in Small Retention Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oszczapińska Katarzyna

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate catchment area impact on small water reservoirs condition in Podlasie. The researches were conducted in two different catchment areas. Topiło reservoir, located in Podlasie area in the south-east of Białowieża Forest, has typical sylvan catchment. Second reservoir, Dojlidy, is located also in Podlasie, in the south-east of Białystok as a part of Dojlidy Ponds. In contrast to Topiło, Dojlidy has agricultural catchment. Water samples collected from five sites along each reservoir were analysed for the presence of total nitrogen and phosphorus, chlorophyll “a”, reaction, turbidity and conductivity. Researches took place in spring, summer and autumn 2013 (Topiło Lake and 2014/2015 (Dojlidy. The lowest trophic state was observed in autumn and the highest in summer. Because of the high loads of phosphorus received by the reservoirs, this element did not limit primary production. Calculated TSI values based on total phosphorus were always markedly higher than calculated on chlorophyll-a and total nitrogen. Both reservoirs demonstrated TSI indexes specific to hypertrophic lakes due to large amount of total phosphorus.

  9. Impact of Catchment Area Activities on Water Quality in Small Retention Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oszczapińska, Katarzyna; Skoczko, Iwona; Szczykowska, Joanna

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate catchment area impact on small water reservoirs condition in Podlasie. The researches were conducted in two different catchment areas. Topiło reservoir, located in Podlasie area in the south-east of Białowieża Forest, has typical sylvan catchment. Second reservoir, Dojlidy, is located also in Podlasie, in the south-east of Białystok as a part of Dojlidy Ponds. In contrast to Topiło, Dojlidy has agricultural catchment. Water samples collected from five sites along each reservoir were analysed for the presence of total nitrogen and phosphorus, chlorophyll "a", reaction, turbidity and conductivity. Researches took place in spring, summer and autumn 2013 (Topiło Lake) and 2014/2015 (Dojlidy). The lowest trophic state was observed in autumn and the highest in summer. Because of the high loads of phosphorus received by the reservoirs, this element did not limit primary production. Calculated TSI values based on total phosphorus were always markedly higher than calculated on chlorophyll-a and total nitrogen. Both reservoirs demonstrated TSI indexes specific to hypertrophic lakes due to large amount of total phosphorus.

  10. Water level influences on body condition of Geophagus brasiliensis (Perciformes: Cichlidae in a Brazilian oligotrophic reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Filippo Gonzalez Neves dos Santos

    Full Text Available Effects of water level fluctuations on body condition of Geophagus brasiliensis were studied in a 30 km² Brazilian oligotrophic reservoir. Physiological condition (K and gonadosomatic index (GSI were compared according to water level (low and high. Females' best conditions were associated to higher resources availability during high water, since gonad development did not change between low and high water. Males' condition did not change between water levels, while the highest gonad development occurred in low water. Females presented higher reproductive investment than males, which allocated most of energy for somatic development. This strategy could be a mechanism to undergo the stress caused by oligotrophic characteristics of the reservoir enhanced during low water level.

  11. Associations between water physicochemistry and Prymnesium parvum presence, abundance, and toxicity in west Texas reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanLandeghem, Matthew M.; Farooqi, Mukhtar; Southard, Greg M.; Patino, Reynaldo

    2015-01-01

    Toxic blooms of golden alga (Prymnesium parvum) have caused substantial ecological and economic harm in freshwater and marine systems throughout the world. In North America, toxic blooms have impacted freshwater systems including large reservoirs. Management of water chemistry is one proposed option for golden alga control in these systems. The main objective of this study was to assess physicochemical characteristics of water that influence golden alga presence, abundance, and toxicity in the Upper Colorado River basin (UCR) in Texas. The UCR contains reservoirs that have experienced repeated blooms and other reservoirs where golden alga is present but has not been toxic. We quantified golden alga abundance (hemocytometer counts), ichthyotoxicity (bioassay), and water chemistry (surface grab samples) at three impacted reservoirs on the Colorado River; two reference reservoirs on the Concho River; and three sites at the confluence of these rivers. Sampling occurred monthly from January 2010 to July 2011. Impacted sites were characterized by higher specific conductance, calcium and magnesium hardness, and fluoride than reference and confluence sites. At impacted sites, golden alga abundance and toxicity were positively associated with salinity-related variables and blooms peaked at ~10°C and generally did not occur above 20°C. Overall, these findings suggest management of land and water use to reduce hardness or salinity could produce unfavorable conditions for golden alga.

  12. The quality of surface waters of the dam reservoir Mexa, Northeast of Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahroun Sofia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we have conducted a physicochemical study that assesses the impact of agricultural activities and urban domestic wastewater on the surface water quality of the dam reservoir Mexa in the area of El-Taref, which is located in the eastern coastal basin of Constantine. 36 samplings have been conducted for three years (2010, 2011 and 2012, at the rate of one sampling per month on the dam reservoir water; 36 samples have been analysed. The samples taken have been subjected to an in situ measurement of physicochemical parameters (temperature, hydrogen potential, electric conductivity and dissolved oxygen and laboratory analysis (anions, cations, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, organic matter, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite and ammonium. Concentrations of various organic and inorganic pollutants varied from one month to another and from one year to another. From a temporal point of view, the contamination of water of the dam reservoir Mexa varies according to climatic conditions, being generally low during the winter period and high during the low-flow periods. The results obtained reveal that water of the dam reservoir Mexa is fairly contaminated. It is certain that the dam reservoir is subject to pollution of agricultural and urban origin.

  13. Size of age-0 crappies (Pomoxis spp.) relative to reservoir habitats and water levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczka, Levi J.; Miranda, Leandro E.

    2014-01-01

    Variable year-class strength is common in crappie Pomoxis spp. populations in many reservoirs, yet the mechanisms behind this variability are poorly understood. Size-dependent mortality of age-0 fishes has long been recognized in the population ecology literature; however, investigations about the effects of environmental factors on age-0 crappie size are lacking. The objective of this study was to determine if differences existed in total length of age-0 crappies between embayment and floodplain habitats in reservoirs, while accounting for potential confounding effects of water level and crappie species. To this end, we examined size of age-0 crappies in four flood-control reservoirs in northwest Mississippi over 4years. Age-0 crappies inhabiting uplake floodplain habitats grew to a larger size than fish in downlake embayments, but this trend depended on species, length of time a reservoir was dewatered in the months preceding spawning, and reservoir water level in the months following spawning. The results from our study indicate that water-level management may focus not only on allowing access to quality nursery habitat, but that alternating water levels on a multiyear schedule could increase the quality of degraded littoral habitats.

  14. MIB-producing cyanobacteria (Planktothrix sp.) in a drinking water reservoir: distribution and odor producing potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ming; Yu, Jianwei; Zhang, Junzhi; Chen, Hui; An, Wei; Vogt, Rolf D; Andersen, Tom; Jia, Dongmin; Wang, Jingshi; Yang, Min

    2015-01-01

    The production of odorant 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) in water bodies by Planktothrix sp. have not been understood very well. Through a four-year investigation in Miyun Reservoir, a huge mesotrophic drinking water reservoir known to have the MIB episodes, we found that the Planktothrix sp. bloomed during September and October causing the high levels of MIB in the reservoir. The concentration of MIB and the biomass of MIB-producing cyanobacteria Planktothrix were measured (n = 887) at different sites and depths during different seasons. The results indicated that the shallow region of the reservoir is the major habitat for Planktothrix sp. due to that the light is able to penetrate down to the relatively high concentrations of nutrients close to the sediments. Quantile regression analysis between Planktothrix biomass and MIB concentration shows that the risk of MIB exceeding the odor threshold (15 ng L⁻¹) in water was as high as 90% when the Planktothrix density was more than 4.0 × 10⁵ cells L⁻¹, while the risk was reduced to 10% when the Planktothrix density remained below 1.6 × 10⁴ cells L⁻¹. This study will improve the understanding of the environmental behaviors of Planktothrix sp., and can provide useful information for better management of drinking water lakes/reservoirs experiencing the taste and odor (T&O) problems caused by deep living cyanobacterial species.

  15. Effect of hypolimnetic oxygenation on oxygen depletion rates in two water-supply reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantzer, Paul A; Bryant, Lee D; Little, John C

    2009-04-01

    Oxygenation systems, such as bubble-plume diffusers, are used to improve water quality by replenishing dissolved oxygen (DO) in the hypolimnia of water-supply reservoirs. The diffusers induce circulation and mixing, which helps distribute DO throughout the hypolimnion. Mixing, however, has also been observed to increase hypolimnetic oxygen demand (HOD) during system operation, thus accelerating oxygen depletion. Two water-supply reservoirs (Spring Hollow Reservoir (SHR) and Carvins Cove Reservoir (CCR)) that employ linear bubble-plume diffusers were studied to quantify diffuser effects on HOD. A recently validated plume model was used to predict oxygen addition rates. The results were used together with observed oxygen accumulation rates to evaluate HOD over a wide range of applied gas flow rates. Plume-induced mixing correlated well with applied gas flow rate and was observed to increase HOD. Linear relationships between applied gas flow rate and HOD were found for both SHR and CCR. HOD was also observed to be independent of bulk hypolimnion oxygen concentration, indicating that HOD is controlled by induced mixing. Despite transient increases in HOD, oxygenation caused an overall decrease in background HOD, as well as a decrease in induced HOD during diffuser operation, over several years. This suggests that the residual or background oxygen demand decreases from one year to the next. Despite diffuser-induced increases in HOD, hypolimnetic oxygenation remains a viable method for replenishing DO in thermally-stratified water-supply reservoirs such as SHR and CCR.

  16. Aquatic ecology of the Kadra reservoir, the source of cooling water for Kaiga nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, T.K.; Zargar, S.; Dhopte, R.; Kulkarni, A.; Kaul, S.N.

    2002-01-01

    The study is being conducted since July 2000 to evaluate impact of cooling water discharges from Kaiga Nuclear Power Plant on physicochemical and biological characteristics of Kadra reservoir. Besides marginal decrease of DO, sulfate, nitrate and potassium near discharge point at surface water, abiotic features of the water samples collected from three layers, viz. surface, 3-m depth and bottom at nine locations of the reservoir, did not show remarkable differences with reference to pH, phosphate, conductivity, suspended solids, sodium, hardness, chloride, alkalinity and heavy metals (Cu, Fe, Ni, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr and Mn). The DT varied between 5 and 8.5 degC at surface water during the study. The abiotic characteristics of the reservoir water meet the specification of drinking water standard of Bureau of Indian Standards. While the counts of phytoplankton and zooplankton were reduced near discharge point, their population at 500 m off the discharge point was comparable to those near dam site at about 11 km down stream from plant site. Plamer's index (0-15) and Shannon's diversity index values (1.39-2.44) of the plankton at different sampling points indicate oligotrophic and semi productive nature of the water body. The total coliform (TC), staphylococcus and heterotrophic counts were, in general, less near discharge point. Based on TC count, the reservoir water, during most of the period, is categorized as 'B' following CPCB classification of surface waters. Generation of data needs to be continued till 2-3 years for statistical interpretation and drawing conclusions pertaining to extent of impact of cooling water discharges on Kadra reservoir ecology. (author)

  17. Modelling of Salt Solubilities for Smart Water flooding in Carbonate Reservoirs using Extended UNIQUAC Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakravarty, Krishna Hara

    recovery can increase that capture up to 25-30% of original oil in place (OOIP). But cost effective Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) techniques if implemented correctly canbe used to produce another 10-15% of the initially available hydrocarbons. Advanced water flooding (i.e. altering injection brine...... compositions by varying concentration of selected ions) is an enhanced oil recovery method which in alow cost, non-toxic manner increases oil recovery from various carbonate reservoirs. Dan and Halfdan are chalk reservoirs from the Danish North Sea, which are matured oil fields that have been flooded......For most oil reservoirs which were drilled with conventional methods, the expected initial recovery of available hydrocarbons maybe as low as 15% – thusleaving 85+% of hydrocarbons in the reservoir. Implementation of mechanical methods including pump jacks and initial gas injection or thermal...

  18. Factors affecting reservoir and stream-water quality in the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area and implications for source-water protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Marcus C.; Bent, Gardner C.

    2001-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Cambridge, Massachusetts, Water Department, to assess reservoir and tributary-stream quality in the Cambridge drinking-water source area, and to use the information gained to help guide the design of a comprehensive water-quality monitoring program for the source area. Assessments of the quality and trophic state of the three primary storage reservoirs, Hobbs Brook Reservoir, Stony Brook Reservoir, and Fresh Pond, were conducted (September 1997-November 1998) to provide baseline information on the state of these resources and to determine the vulnerability of the reservoirs to increased loads of nutrients and other contaminants. The effects of land use, land cover, and other drainage-basin characteristics on sources, transport, and fate of fecal-indicator bacteria, highway deicing chemicals, nutrients, selected metals, and naturally occurring organic compounds in 11 subbasins that contribute water to the reservoirs also was investigated, and the data used to select sampling stations for incorporation into a water-quality monitoring network for the source area. All three reservoirs exhibited thermal and chemical stratification, despite artificial mixing by air hoses in Stony Brook Reservoir and Fresh Pond. The stratification produced anoxic or hypoxic conditions in the deepest parts of the reservoirs and these conditions resulted in the release of ammonia nitrogen orthophosphate phosphorus, and dissolved iron and manganese from the reservoir bed sediments. Concentrations of sodium and chloride in the reservoirs usually were higher than the amounts recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection agency for drinking-water sources (20 milligrams per liter for sodium and 250 milligrams per liter for chloride). Maximum measured sodium concentrations were highest in Hobbs Brook Reservoir (113 milligrams per liter), intermediate in Stony Brook Reservoir (62

  19. Peculiarities of the hydrological regime of the fishery water reservoirs at the basin of the Southern Bug of Vinnytsia region

    OpenAIRE

    V. Baban; I. Gamaliy.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with analysis of hydrological regime of the fishery water reservoirs at the basin of the Southern Bug of Vinnytsia region. Systematization of the investigated water bodies was performed by the authors on the basis of previously developed classification and typing of water reservoirs.

  20. On the substantion of permissible concentrations of plutonium isotopes in the water of fresh water and sea water NPP cooling reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grachev, M.I.; Gusev, D.I.; Stepanova, V.D.

    1985-01-01

    Substantiation of maximum permissible concentration (PC) of plutonium isotopes ( 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 240 Pu) in fresh and sea water cooling reservoirs of NPP with fast neutron reactors is given. The main criterion when calculating permissible plutonium content in water of surface reservoirs is the requirement not to exceed the established limits for radiation doses to persons resulted from water use. Data on coefficients of plutonium concentration in sea and fresh water hydrobionts are presented as well as on plutonium PC in water of fresh and sea water cooling reservoirs and bottom sediments of sea water cooling reservoirs. It is shown that doses to critical groups of population doesn't exceed potentially hazardous levels due to plutonium intake through food chains. But the calculation being carried out further should be corrected

  1. Neurotoxins in a water supply reservoir: An alert to environmental and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calado, Sabrina Loise de Morais; Wojciechowski, Juliana; Santos, Gustavo Souza; Magalhães, Valéria Freitas de; Padial, André Andrian; Cestari, Marta Margarete; Silva de Assis, Helena Cristina da

    2017-02-01

    Reservoirs are important source of power generation, recreation, and water supply. Nevertheless, human activities have favored the bloom of toxic cyanobacteria in many reservoirs, which has resulted in environmental, social, and economic problems. This study aims to evaluate the water quality of a reservoir in South Brazil through the analysis of cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins PSTs (Paralytic Shellfish Toxins) and biomarkers of environmental contamination in fish. For this purpose, water samples and fish (Geophagus brasiliensis) (Perciformes: Cichlidae) were collected from September 2013 to May 2014. The fish G. brasiliensis were separated in two groups. The first one "site group" was euthanized after the sampling and their weight and length were measured. The blood, brain, muscle and liver were collected for chemical, biochemical and genetics biomarkers analysis. The second group "depuration group" was submitted to depuration experiment for 40 days in clean water. After that, the same procedures as for the first group were carried out. Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii was the dominant cyanobacteria found in the reservoir, and it showed a density above the recommended limit by Brazilian legislation of 20,000 cells/mL. Results showed that the fish accumulate PSTs in the Reservoir and these were not eliminated after 40 days. The biochemical and genotoxic biomarkers showed a significant difference between "site groups" and "depuration groups", which suggests a recovery of the antioxidant system and a reduction of cellular damage after 40 days in clean water. In conjunction with results reported earlier by others, Alagados Reservoir, in South Brazil, appears to have a persistent contamination of cyanotoxins. Moreover, the mixture of contaminants which may be present in the water body can explain the seasonal differences in fish at the sampled points. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Adaptive Regulation of the Northern California Reservoir System for Water, Energy, and Environmental Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakakos, A. P.; Kistenmacher, M.; Yao, H.; Georgakakos, K. P.

    2014-12-01

    The 2014 National Climate Assessment of the US Global Change Research Program emphasizes that water resources managers and planners in most US regions will have to cope with new risks, vulnerabilities, and opportunities, and recommends the development of adaptive capacity to effectively respond to the new water resources planning and management challenges. In the face of these challenges, adaptive reservoir regulation is becoming all the more ncessary. Water resources management in Northern California relies on the coordinated operation of several multi-objective reservoirs on the Trinity, Sacramento, American, Feather, and San Joaquin Rivers. To be effective, reservoir regulation must be able to (a) account for forecast uncertainty; (b) assess changing tradeoffs among water uses and regions; and (c) adjust management policies as conditions change; and (d) evaluate the socio-economic and environmental benefits and risks of forecasts and policies for each region and for the system as a whole. The Integrated Forecast and Reservoir Management (INFORM) prototype demonstration project operated in Northern California through the collaboration of several forecast and management agencies has shown that decision support systems (DSS) with these attributes add value to stakeholder decision processes compared to current, less flexible management practices. Key features of the INFORM DSS include: (a) dynamically downscaled operational forecasts and climate projections that maintain the spatio-temporal coherence of the downscaled land surface forcing fields within synoptic scales; (b) use of ensemble forecast methodologies for reservoir inflows; (c) assessment of relevant tradeoffs among water uses on regional and local scales; (d) development and evaluation of dynamic reservoir policies with explicit consideration of hydro-climatic forecast uncertainties; and (e) focus on stakeholder information needs.This article discusses the INFORM integrated design concept, underlying

  3. Information retrieval system: impacts of water-level changes on uses of federal storage reservoirs of the Columbia River.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fickeisen, D.H.; Cowley, P.J.; Neitzel, D.A.; Simmons, M.A.

    1982-09-01

    A project undertaken to provide the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) with information needed to conduct environmental assessments and meet requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act (Regional Act) is described. Access to information on environmental effects would help BPA fulfill its responsibilities to coordinate power generation on the Columbia River system, protect uses of the river system (e.g., irrigation, recreation, navigation), and enhance fish and wildlife production. Staff members at BPA identified the need to compile and index information resources that would help answer environmental impact questions. A computer retrieval system that would provide ready access to the information was envisioned. This project was supported by BPA to provide an initial step toward a compilation of environmental impact information. Scientists at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) identified, gathered, and evaluated information related to environmental effects of water level on uses of five study reservoirs and developed and implemented and environmental data retrieval system, which provides for automated storage and retrieval of annotated citations to published and unpublished information. The data retrieval system is operating on BPA's computer facility and includes the reservoir water-level environmental data. This project was divided into several tasks, some of which were conducted simultaneously to meet project deadlines. The tasks were to identify uses of the five study reservoirs, compile and evaluate reservoir information, develop a data entry and retrieval system, identify and analyze research needs, and document the data retrieval system and train users. Additional details of the project are described in several appendixes.

  4. Characterization of water reservoirs affected by acid mine drainage: geochemical, mineralogical, and biological (diatoms) properties of the water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, T; Rivera, M J; Almeida, S F P; Delgado, C; Gomes, P; Grande, J A; de la Torre, M L; Santisteban, M

    2016-04-01

    This work presents a combination of geochemical, mineralogical, and biological data obtained in water reservoirs located in one of the most paradigmatic mining regions, suffering from acid mine drainage (AMD) problems: the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB). Four water reservoirs located in the Spanish sector of the IBP, storing water for different purposes, were selected to achieve an environmental classification based on the effects of AMD: two mining dams (Gossan and Águas Ácidas), a reservoir for industrial use (Sancho), and one with water used for human supply (Andévalo). The results indicated that the four reservoirs are subject to the effect of metallic loads from polluted rivers, although with different levels: Águas Ácidas > Gossan > Sancho ≥ Andévalo. In accordance, epipsammic diatom communities have differences in the respective composition and dominant taxa. The dominant diatoms in each reservoir indicated acid water: Pinnularia acidophila and Pinnularia aljustrelica were found in the most acidic dams (Gossan and Águas Ácidas, with pH <3), Pinnularia subcapitata in Sancho (pH 2.48-5.82), and Eunotia exigua in Andévalo (pH 2.34-6.15).

  5. Diagnosis and analysis of water quality and trophic state of Barra Bonita reservoir, SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Moreti Buzelli

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of the intensification of environmental degradation, we observed a decrease in water availability and a change in water quality. Therefore, the integrated management of watersheds is an issue of extreme importance. Limnological monitoring is an important tool for environmental management, providing information on the quality of inland waters and indicating the main factors responsible for the degradation of water resources. The Barra Bonita reservoir is located in the central region of São Paulo State, in the Superior Middle Tietê Basin, and the adjacent areas of the reservoir are subject to several human activities potentially impacting the environment. In this context, there is a need to determine the nature of negative human impacts on water resources. The present study aimed to analyze and diagnose the water quality of Barra Bonita reservoir using the water quality index (WQI and the trophic state index (TSI. To this end, measurements of specific limnological variables were made in situ and laboratory and an analysis of data from CETESB annual reports was conducted. The results found that the waters of the reservoir were relatively healthy, but hyper eutrophic for the period from2007 to 2012, indicating the importance of environmental management for the restoration and preservation of natural resources in this region. The estimated indices and the land use map of adjacent areas of the Barra Bonita reservoir showed that agriculture was the largest category of land use and that it contributes directly to the degradation of water quality due to contamination by run-off from fertilizers.

  6. Observations of mechanical-hydraulic-geochemical interactions due to drainage of a surface water reservoir in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunn, R. J.; Kinali, M.; Pytharouli, S.; Shipton, Z.; Stillings, M.; Lord, R.

    2016-12-01

    The drainage and refilling of a surface water reservoir beside the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) underground rock laboratory in Switzerland, has provided a unique opportunity to study in-situ rock mechanical, hydraulic and chemical interactions under large-scale stress changes. The reservoir was drained in October/November 2014 to enable dam maintenance and extension of the regional hydropower tunnel system. Reservoir drainage will have caused rapid unloading of the surrounding rock mass. The GTS sits 37m below the top of the reservoir and 200-600m away laterally within the mountainside on the eastern bank of the reservoir. Gradual refilling of the reservoir, via natural snowmelt and runoff, commenced in February 2015. As part of the European LASMO Project, researchers at Strathclyde, funded by Radioactive Waste Management Ltd., have been investigating mechanical-chemical-hydraulic coupling within the rock mass as an analogue for glacial unloading and loading of a future Geological Disposal Facility. We have deployed three 3-component and 6 single-component micro-seismometers within the GTS and surrounding hydropower tunnel network. In parallel, we have implemented a groundwater sampling programme, using boreholes within the GTS, for temporal determination of geochemistry and flow rate. Preliminary data analyses show geochemical anomalies during unloading, as well as detection of microseismic events. The signal-to-noise ratio of the micro-seismic data is extremely poor. Noise amplitude, and frequency content, variy throughout each day, between days, and from month-to-month on a highly unpredictable basis. This is probably due to the multitude of hydropower turbines and pump-storage systems within the surrounding mountains. To discriminate micro-seismic events, we have developed a new methodology for characterizing background noise within the seismic signal and combined this with cross-correlations techniques generally applied in microseismic analysis of hydraulic

  7. Comparative Analysis of Water Quality between the Runoff Entrance and Middle of Recycling Irrigation Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibo Zhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Recycling irrigation reservoirs (RIRs are an emerging aquatic ecosystem of critical importance, for conserving and protecting increasingly scarce water resources. Here, we compare water quality between runoff entrance and middle of four RIRs in nurseries in Virginia (VA and Maryland (MD. Surface water temperature (T and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP were lower in the middle than at the entrance, while the trend was opposite for dissolved oxygen (DO, pH and chlorophyll a (Chla. The magnitude of these differences between the entrance and middle decreased with increasing depth. These differences were magnified by water stratification from April to October. Minimum differences were observed for electrical conductivity (EC, total dissolved solids (TDS and turbidity (TUR. Cluster analyses were performed on water quality difference data to evaluate whether the differences vary with respect to reservoirs. Two clusters were formed with one consisting primarily of VA reservoirs, and the other consisting mostly of MD reservoirs in both years. Water quality in the middle and at the entrance of RIRs was expected to vary greatly because of runoff inflow. The two-point water quality differences observed here, although statistically significant, are not large enough to cause significant impact on crop health and productivity for most water quality parameters except pH. Additional analysis of outlet data shows that the range and magnitude of water quality difference between the middle and the outlet are comparable to those between the middle and entrance of RIRs. These results indicate that monitoring at a single point is sufficient to obtain reliable water quality estimates for most water quality parameters in RIRs except pH. This is important when considering the cost of labor and equipment necessary for documenting water quality in agricultural production systems. However, additional pH measurements are still necessary to make practical water quality

  8. Quantification and Multi-purpose Allocation of Water Resources in a Dual-reservoir System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salami, Y. D.

    2017-12-01

    Transboundary rivers that run through separate water management jurisdictions sometimes experience competitive water usage. Where the river has multiple existing or planned dams along its course, quantification and efficient allocation of water for such purposes as hydropower generation, irrigation for agriculture, and water supply can be a challenge. This problem is even more pronounced when large parts of the river basin are located in semi-arid regions known for water insecurity, poor crop yields from irrigation scheme failures, and human population displacement arising from water-related conflict. This study seeks to mitigate the impacts of such factors on the Kainji-Jebba dual-reservoir system located along the Niger River in Africa by seasonally quantifying and efficiently apportioning water to all stipulated uses of both dams thereby improving operational policy and long-term water security. Historical storage fluctuations (18 km3 to 5 km3) and flows into and out of both reservoirs were analyzed for relationships to such things as surrounding catchment contribution, dam operational policies, irrigation and hydropower requirements, etc. Optimum values of the aforementioned parameters were then determined by simulations based upon hydrological contributions and withdrawals and worst case scenarios of natural and anthropogenic conditions (like annual probability of reservoir depletion) affecting water availability and allocation. Finally, quantification and optimized allocation of water was done based on needs for hydropower, irrigation for agriculture, water supply, and storage evacuation for flood control. Results revealed that water supply potential increased by 69%, average agricultural yield improved by 36%, and hydropower generation increased by 54% and 66% at the upstream and downstream dams respectively. Lessons learned from this study may help provide a robust and practical means of water resources management in similar river basins and multi-reservoir

  9. Dry Stream Reaches in Carbonate Terranes: Surface Indicators of Ground-Water Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahana, J.V.; Hollyday, E.F.

    1988-01-01

    In areas where dry stream reaches occur, subsurface drainage successfully competes with surface drainage, and sheet-like dissolution openings have developed parallel to bedding creating the ground-water reservoir. Union Hollow in south-central Tennessee is the setting for a case study that illustrates the application of the dry stream reach technique. In this technique, dry stream reach identification is based on two types of readily acquired information: remotely sensed black and white infrared aerial photography; and surface reconnaissance of stream channel characteristics. Test drilling in Union Hollow subsequent to identification of the dry reach proved that a localized ground-water reservoir was present.

  10. Arsenic in freshwater fish in the Chihuahua County water reservoirs (Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevárez, Myrna; Moreno, Myriam Verónica; Sosa, Manuel; Bundschuh, Jochen

    2011-01-01

    Water reservoirs in Chihuahua County, Mexico, are affected by some punctual and non-punctual geogenic and anthropogenic pollution sources; fish are located at the top of the food chain and are good indicators for the ecosystems pollution. The study goal was to: (i) determine arsenic concentration in fish collected from the Chuviscar, Chihuahua, San Marcos and El Rejon water reservoirs; (ii) to assess if the fishes are suitable for human consumption and (iii) link the arsenic contents in fish with those in sediment and water reported in studies made the same year for these water reservoirs. Sampling was done in summer, fall and winter. The highest arsenic concentration in the species varied through the sampling periods: Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) with 0.22 ± 0.15 mg/kg dw in winter and Green sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus) with 2.00 ± 0.15 mg/kg dw in summer in El Rejon water reservoir. A positive correlation of arsenic contents was found through all sampling seasons in fish samples and the samples of sediment and water. The contribution of the weekly intake of inorganic arsenic, based on the consumption of 0.245 kg fish muscles/body weight/week was found lower than the acceptable weekly intake of 0.015 mg/kg/body weight for inorganic arsenic suggested by FAO/WHO.

  11. Fine-Scale Spatial Heterogeneity in the Distribution of Waterborne Protozoa in a Drinking Water Reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnet, Jean-Baptiste; Ogorzaly, Leslie; Penny, Christian; Cauchie, Henry-Michel

    2015-09-23

    The occurrence of faecal pathogens in drinking water resources constitutes a threat to the supply of safe drinking water, even in industrialized nations. To efficiently assess and monitor the risk posed by these pathogens, sampling deserves careful design, based on preliminary knowledge on their distribution dynamics in water. For the protozoan pathogens Cryptosporidium and Giardia, only little is known about their spatial distribution within drinking water supplies, especially at fine scale. Two-dimensional distribution maps were generated by sampling cross-sections at meter resolution in two different zones of a drinking water reservoir. Samples were analysed for protozoan pathogens as well as for E. coli, turbidity and physico-chemical parameters. Parasites displayed heterogeneous distribution patterns, as reflected by significant (oo)cyst density gradients along reservoir depth. Spatial correlations between parasites and E. coli were observed near the reservoir inlet but were absent in the downstream lacustrine zone. Measurements of surface and subsurface flow velocities suggest a role of local hydrodynamics on these spatial patterns. This fine-scale spatial study emphasizes the importance of sampling design (site, depth and position on the reservoir) for the acquisition of representative parasite data and for optimization of microbial risk assessment and monitoring. Such spatial information should prove useful to the modelling of pathogen transport dynamics in drinking water supplies.

  12. The role of dissolved organic substance in radionuclide migration in river water of the Kiev's water reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domin, V.V.; Bondarenko, G.N.; Zheldakov, Yu.A.

    1989-01-01

    The role of organic substance dissolved (DOS) in radionuclide migration in the river water of the Kiev's water reservoir was considered. It was ascertained, that metal complexes with fulvic acids were stable and complexing properties of fulvic acids affected radionuclide migration. When DOS content increased sharply during the freshet period, radionuclide migration also increased. 8 refs.; 4 figs.; 3 tabs

  13. Impacts of forest to urban land conversion and ENSO phase on water quality of a public water supply reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    We used coupled watershed and reservoir models to evaluate the impacts of deforestation and ENSO phase on drinking water quality. Source water total organic carbon (TOC) is especially important due to the potential for production of carcinogenic disinfection byproducts (DBPs). The Environmental Flui...

  14. Artificial intelligent techniques for optimizing water allocation in a reservoir watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fi-John; Chang, Li-Chiu; Wang, Yu-Chung

    2014-05-01

    This study proposes a systematical water allocation scheme that integrates system analysis with artificial intelligence techniques for reservoir operation in consideration of the great uncertainty upon hydrometeorology for mitigating droughts impacts on public and irrigation sectors. The AI techniques mainly include a genetic algorithm and adaptive-network based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). We first derive evaluation diagrams through systematic interactive evaluations on long-term hydrological data to provide a clear simulation perspective of all possible drought conditions tagged with their corresponding water shortages; then search the optimal reservoir operating histogram using genetic algorithm (GA) based on given demands and hydrological conditions that can be recognized as the optimal base of input-output training patterns for modelling; and finally build a suitable water allocation scheme through constructing an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) model with a learning of the mechanism between designed inputs (water discount rates and hydrological conditions) and outputs (two scenarios: simulated and optimized water deficiency levels). The effectiveness of the proposed approach is tested on the operation of the Shihmen Reservoir in northern Taiwan for the first paddy crop in the study area to assess the water allocation mechanism during drought periods. We demonstrate that the proposed water allocation scheme significantly and substantially avails water managers of reliably determining a suitable discount rate on water supply for both irrigation and public sectors, and thus can reduce the drought risk and the compensation amount induced by making restrictions on agricultural use water.

  15. Small reservoir effects on headwater water quality in the rural-urban fringe, Georgia Piedmont, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.. Amber R. Ignatius, Geographer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Small reservoirs are prevalent landscape features that affect the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of headwater streams. Tens of thousands of small reservoirs, often less than a hectare in size, were constructed over the past century within the United States. While remote-sensing and geographic-mapping technologies assist in identifying and quantifying these features, their localized influence on water quality is uncertain. We report a year-long physicochemical study of nine small reservoirs (0.15–2.17 ha within the Oconee and Broad River Watersheds in the Georgia Piedmont. Study sites were selected along an urban-rural gradient with differing amounts of agricultural, forested, and developed land covers. Sites were sampled monthly for discharge and inflow/outflow water quality parameters (temperature, specific conductance, pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, alkalinity, total phosphorus, total nitrogen, nitrate, ammonium. While the proportion of developed land cover within watersheds had positive correlations with reservoir specific conductivity values, agricultural and forested land covers showed correlations (positive and negative, respectively with reservoir alkalinity, total nitrogen, nitrate, and specific conductivity. The majority of outflow temperatures were warmer than inflows for all land uses throughout the year, especially in the summer. Outflows had lower nitrate concentrations, but higher ammonium. The type of outflow structure was also influential; top-release dams showed higher dissolved oxygen and pH than bottom-release dams. Water quality effects were still evident 250 m below the dam, albeit reduced.

  16. Investigation on Reservoir Operation of Agricultural Water Resources Management for Drought Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    Investigation on Reservoir Operation of Agricultural Water Resources Management for Drought Mitigation Chung-Lien Cheng, Wen-Ping Tsai, Fi-John Chang* Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, Da-An District, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, ROC.Corresponding author: Fi-John Chang (changfj@ntu.edu.tw) AbstractIn Taiwan, the population growth and economic development has led to considerable and increasing demands for natural water resources in the last decades. Under such condition, water shortage problems have frequently occurred in northern Taiwan in recent years such that water is usually transferred from irrigation sectors to public sectors during drought periods. Facing the uneven spatial and temporal distribution of water resources and the problems of increasing water shortages, it is a primary and critical issue to simultaneously satisfy multiple water uses through adequate reservoir operations for sustainable water resources management. Therefore, we intend to build an intelligent reservoir operation system for the assessment of agricultural water resources management strategy in response to food security during drought periods. This study first uses the grey system to forecast the agricultural water demand during February and April for assessing future agricultural water demands. In the second part, we build an intelligent water resources system by using the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II), an optimization tool, for searching the water allocation series based on different water demand scenarios created from the first part to optimize the water supply operation for different water sectors. The results can be a reference guide for adequate agricultural water resources management during drought periods. Keywords: Non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II); Grey System; Optimization; Agricultural Water Resources Management.

  17. Investigation on water quality of zabol chahnimeh reservoirs from drinking water and agricultural viewpoint with focus on schuler & vilcoks diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homayoonnezhad, I.; Amirian, P.; Piri, I.

    2016-01-01

    Because of the water deficiency, people's requirements and high costs of refining especially in urban zones, water resources management is very essential. Zabol Chahnimeh reservoirs are three natural and big cavities in the south of Sistan Plain Located in South-Eastern Iran and It Includes 50 Millions square meter extent. Stored Water In These Cavities Are Used To Sistan Earth And For Providing Drink Water of Zabol And Zahedan Cities. Because of the drink and agricultural usage and for investigation of water quality of chah-nimeh reservoirs, this research has been done in one year. Methods: In this research density of Na"+ ,Mg"2"+, Ca"2"+ ,Cl"-, SO_4"2"- and EC, TDS,TH parameters have been analyzed in 9 stations, then results have been rebounded on schuler & vilcoks diagrams. Results: Results showed the quality of water in reservoirs viewpoint of drinking sited in acceptable stage and viewpoint of agricultural sited in C_3S_1 (average quality) stage. Discussion & conclusion: finally, if the texture of soil be light, we can use water of these reservoirs for agricultural activities.

  18. Water-quality trends in the Scituate reservoir drainage area, Rhode Island, 1983-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2015-01-01

    The Scituate Reservoir is the primary source of drinking water for more than 60 percent of the population of Rhode Island. Water-quality and streamflow data collected at 37 surface-water monitoring stations in the Scituate Reservoir drainage area, Rhode Island, from October 2001 through September 2012, water years (WYs) 2002-12, were analyzed to determine water-quality conditions and constituent loads in the drainage area. Trends in water quality, including physical properties and concentrations of constituents, were investigated for the same period and for a longer period from October 1982 through September 2012 (WYs 1983-2012). Water samples were collected and analyzed by the Providence Water Supply Board, the agency that manages the Scituate Reservoir. Streamflow data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey. Median values and other summary statistics for pH, color, turbidity, alkalinity, chloride, nitrite, nitrate, total coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli (E. coli), and orthophosphate were calculated for WYs 2003-12 for all 37 monitoring stations. Instantaneous loads and yields (loads per unit area) of total coliform bacteria and E. coli, chloride, nitrite, nitrate, and orthophosphate were calculated for all sampling dates during WYs 2003-12 for 23 monitoring stations with streamflow data. Values of physical properties and concentrations of constituents were compared with State and Federal water-quality standards and guidelines and were related to streamflow, land-use characteristics, varying classes of timber operations, and impervious surface areas.

  19. Bioassessment of a Drinking Water Reservoir Using Plankton: High Throughput Sequencing vs. Traditional Morphological Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanli Gao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Drinking water safety is increasingly perceived as one of the top global environmental issues. Plankton has been commonly used as a bioindicator for water quality in lakes and reservoirs. Recently, DNA sequencing technology has been applied to bioassessment. In this study, we compared the effectiveness of the 16S and 18S rRNA high throughput sequencing method (HTS and the traditional optical microscopy method (TOM in the bioassessment of drinking water quality. Five stations reflecting different habitats and hydrological conditions in Danjiangkou Reservoir, one of the largest drinking water reservoirs in Asia, were sampled May 2016. Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling (NMDS analysis showed that plankton assemblages varied among the stations and the spatial patterns revealed by the two methods were consistent. The correlation between TOM and HTS in a symmetric Procrustes analysis was 0.61, revealing overall good concordance between the two methods. Procrustes analysis also showed that site-specific differences between the two methods varied among the stations. Station Heijizui (H, a site heavily influenced by two tributaries, had the largest difference while station Qushou (Q, a confluence site close to the outlet dam, had the smallest difference between the two methods. Our results show that DNA sequencing has the potential to provide consistent identification of taxa, and reliable bioassessment in a long-term biomonitoring and assessment program for drinking water reservoirs.

  20. Modeling and Analysis of Integrated Bathymetric and Geodetic Data for Inventory Surveys of Mining Water Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochałek Agnieszka

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The significant part of the hydrography is bathymetry, which is the empirical part of it. Bathymetry is the study of underwater depth of waterways and reservoirs, and graphic presentation of measured data in form of bathymetric maps, cross-sections and three-dimensional bottom models. The bathymetric measurements are based on using Global Positioning System and devices for hydrographic measurements – an echo sounder and a side sonar scanner. In this research authors focused on introducing the case of obtaining and processing the bathymetrical data, building numerical bottom models of two post-mining reclaimed water reservoirs: Dwudniaki Lake in Wierzchosławice and flooded quarry in Zabierzów. The report includes also analysing data from still operating mining water reservoirs located in Poland to depict how bathymetry can be used in mining industry. The significant issue is an integration of bathymetrical data and geodetic data from tachymetry, terrestrial laser scanning measurements.

  1. Modeling and Analysis of Integrated Bathymetric and Geodetic Data for Inventory Surveys of Mining Water Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochałek, Agnieszka; Lipecki, Tomasz; Jaśkowski, Wojciech; Jabłoński, Mateusz

    2018-03-01

    The significant part of the hydrography is bathymetry, which is the empirical part of it. Bathymetry is the study of underwater depth of waterways and reservoirs, and graphic presentation of measured data in form of bathymetric maps, cross-sections and three-dimensional bottom models. The bathymetric measurements are based on using Global Positioning System and devices for hydrographic measurements - an echo sounder and a side sonar scanner. In this research authors focused on introducing the case of obtaining and processing the bathymetrical data, building numerical bottom models of two post-mining reclaimed water reservoirs: Dwudniaki Lake in Wierzchosławice and flooded quarry in Zabierzów. The report includes also analysing data from still operating mining water reservoirs located in Poland to depict how bathymetry can be used in mining industry. The significant issue is an integration of bathymetrical data and geodetic data from tachymetry, terrestrial laser scanning measurements.

  2. Experimental studies of low salinity water flooding in carbonate reservoirs: A new promising approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahid, Adeel; Shapiro, Alexander; Skauge, Arne

    2012-01-01

    Low salinity water flooding is well studied for sandstone reservoirs, both laboratory and field tests have showed improvement in the oil recovery in many cases. Up to very recently, the low salinity effect has been indeterminated for carbonates. Most recently, Saudi Aramco reported that substantial...... additional oil recovery can be achieved when successively flooding composite carbonate core plugs with various diluted versions of seawater. The experimental data on carbonates is very limited, so more data and better understanding of the mechanisms involved is needed to utilize this method for carbonate...... reservoirs. In this paper, we have experimentally investigated the oil recovery potential of low salinity water flooding for carbonate rocks. We used both reservoir carbonate and outcrop chalk core plugs. The flooding experiments were carried out initially with the seawater, and afterwards additional oil...

  3. How reservoirs alter drinking water quality: Organic matter sources, sinks, and transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Tamara E.C.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.; Hernes, Peter J.; Doctor, Daniel H.; Kendall, Carol; Downing, Bryan D.; Losee, Richard F.

    2011-01-01

    Within reservoirs, production, transformation, and loss of dissolved organic matter (DOM) occur simultaneously. While the balance between production and loss determines whether a reservoir is a net sink or source of DOM, changes in chemical composition are also important because they affect DOM reactivity with respect to disinfection by-product (DBP) formation. The composition of the DOM pool also provides insight into DOM sources and processing, which can inform reservoir management. We examined the concentration and composition of DOM in San Luis Reservoir, a large off-stream impoundment of the California State Water Project. We used a wide array of DOM chemical tracers including dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration, trihalomethane and haloacetic acid formation potentials (THMFP and HAAFP, respectively), absorbance properties, isotopic composition, lignin phenol content, and structural groupings determined by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). There were periods when the reservoir was a net source of DOC due to the predominance of algal production (summer), a net sink due to the predominance of degradation (fall–winter), and balanced between production and consumption (spring). Despite only moderate variation in bulk DOC concentration (3.0–3.6 mg C/L), changes in DOM composition indicated that terrestrial-derived material entering the reservoir was being degraded and replaced by aquatic-derived DOM produced within the reservoir. Substantial changes in the propensity of the DOM pool to form THMs and HAAs illustrate that the DBP precursor pool was not directly coupled to bulk DOC concentration and indicate that algal production is an important source of DBP precursors. Results suggest reservoirs have the potential to attenuate DOM amount and reactivity with respect to DBP precursors via degradative processes; however, these benefits can be decreased or even negated by the production of algal-derived DOM.

  4. Identification of nitrate sources in groundwater and potential impact on drinking water reservoir (Goczałkowice reservoir, Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czekaj, Joanna; Jakóbczyk-Karpierz, Sabina; Rubin, Hanna; Sitek, Sławomir; Witkowski, Andrzej J.

    2016-08-01

    Goczałkowice dammed reservoir (area - 26 km2) is a strategic object for flood control in the Upper Vistula River catchment and one of the most important source of drinking water in the Upper Silesian Industrial Region (Southern Poland). Main aims of the investigation were identification of sources of nitrate and assessment of their significance in potential risk to groundwater quality. In the catchment area monitoring network of 22 piezometers, included 14 nested, have been installed. The significant spatial and seasonal differences in chemical composition between northern and southern part of the catchment were indicated based on the groundwater sampling conducted twice - in autumn 2011 and spring 2012. Maximum observed concentrations of nitrate were identified in northern part of the study area 255 mg/L as a results of inappropriate sewage management and agriculture activity. Results, based on the combines multi-scale hydrogeological and hydrochemical field studies, groundwater flow and transport modelling, dual stable isotope approach and geochemical modelling indicate mainly agriculture and inappropriate sewage water management as a sources of NO3- contamination of groundwater which moreover is affected by geochemical processes. In general, contaminated groundwater does not impact surface water quality. However, due to high concentration of nitrate in northern part a continues measurements of nitrogen compounds should be continued and used for reducing uncertainty of the predictive scenarios of the mass transport modelling in the study area.

  5. Effects of water inlet configuration in a service reservoir applying CFD modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Montoya Pachongo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the state of a service reservoir of a drinking water distribution network. Numerical simulation was applied to establish its flow pattern, mixing conditions, and free residual chlorine decay. The influence of the change in the water inlet configuration on these characteristics was evaluated. Four scenarios were established with different water level and flow rate as the differences between the first three scenarios. The fourth scenario was evaluated to assess the influence of the inlet configuration, momentum flow and water level on hydrodynamic conditions within the service reservoir. The distribution of four nozzles of 152.4mm diameter was identified as a viable measure to preserve the water quality in this type of hydraulic structures.

  6. Metal cycling during sediment early diagenesis in a water reservoir affected by acid mine drainage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres, Ester; Ayora, Carlos; Canovas, C. R.

    2013-01-01

    The discharge of acid mine drainage (AMD) into a reservoir may seriously affect the water quality. To investigate the metal transfer between the water and the sediment, three cores were collected from the Sancho Reservoir (Iberian Pyrite Belt, SW Spain) during different seasons: turnover event......; oxic, stratified period; anoxic and under shallow perennially oxic conditions. The cores were sliced in an oxygen-free atmosphere, after which pore water was extracted by centrifugation and analyzed. A sequential extraction was then applied to the sediments to extract the water-soluble, monosulfide......, low crystallinity Fe(III)-oxyhydroxide, crystalline Fe(III)-oxide, organic, pyrite and residual phases. The results showed that, despite the acidic chemistry of the water column (pH

  7. Development of a Reservoir System Operation Model for Water Sustainability in the Yaqui River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounir, A.; Che, D.; Robles-Morua, A.; Kauneckis, D.

    2017-12-01

    The arid state of Sonora, Mexico underwent the Sonora SI project to provide additional water supply to the capital of Hermosillo. The main component of the project involves an interbasin transfer from the Yaqui River Basin (YRB) to the Sonora River Basin via the Independencia aqueduct. This project has generated conflicts over water among different social sectors in the YRB. To improve the management of the Yaqui reservoir system, we developed a daily watershed model. This model allowed us to predict the amount of water available in different regions of the basin. We integrated this simulation to an optimization model which calculates the best water allocation according to water rights established in Mexico's National Water Law. We compared different precipitation forcing scenarios: (1) a network of ground observations from Mexican water agencies during the historical period of 1980-2013, (2) gridded fields from the North America Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) at 12 km resolution, and (3) we will be studying a future forecast scenario. The simulation results were compared to historical observations at the three reservoirs existing in the YRB to generate confidence in the simulation tools. Our results are presented in the form of flow duration, reliability and exceedance frequency curves that are commonly used in the water management agencies. Through this effort, we anticipate building confidence among regional stakeholders in utilizing hydrological models in the development of reservoir operation policies.

  8. Assessment of ecologically relevant hydrological change in China due to water use and reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zhang

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available As China's economy booms, increasing water use has significantly affected hydro-geomorphic processes and thus the ecology of surface waters. A large variety of hydrological changes arising from human activities such as reservoir construction and management, water abstraction, water diversion and agricultural land expansion have been sustained throughout China. Using the global scale hydrological and water use model WaterGAP, natural and anthropogenically altered flow conditions are calculated, taking into account flow alterations due to human water consumption and 580 large reservoirs. The impacts resulting from water consumption and reservoirs have been analyzed separately. A modified "Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration" approach is used to describe the human pressures on aquatic ecosystems due to anthropogenic alterations in river flow regimes. The changes in long-term average river discharge, average monthly mean discharge and coefficients of variation of monthly river discharges under natural and impacted conditions are compared and analyzed. The indicators show very significant alterations of natural river flow regimes in a large part of northern China and only minor alterations in most of southern China. The detected large alterations in long-term average river discharge, the seasonality of flows and the inter-annual variability in the northern half of China are very likely to have caused significant ecological impacts.

  9. Modelling spatial and temporal variations in the water quality of an artificial water reservoir in the semiarid Midwest of Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cid, Fabricio D., E-mail: fabricio.cid@gmail.com [Laboratory of Biology ' Prof. E. Caviedes Codelia' , Facultad de Ciencias Humanas, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, San Luis (Argentina); Laboratory of Integrative Biology, Institute for Multidisciplinary Research in Biology (IMIBIO-SL), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, San Luis (Argentina); Department of Biochemistry and Biological Sciences, Facultad de Quimica, Bioquimica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, San Luis (Argentina); Anton, Rosa I. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Facultad de Quimica, Bioquimica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, San Luis (Argentina); Pardo, Rafael; Vega, Marisol [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid (Spain); Caviedes-Vidal, Enrique [Laboratory of Biology ' Prof. E. Caviedes Codelia' , Facultad de Ciencias Humanas, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, San Luis (Argentina); Laboratory of Integrative Biology, Institute for Multidisciplinary Research in Biology (IMIBIO-SL), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, San Luis (Argentina); Department of Biochemistry and Biological Sciences, Facultad de Quimica, Bioquimica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, San Luis (Argentina)

    2011-10-31

    Highlights: {yields} Water quality of an Argentinean reservoir has been investigated by N-way PCA. {yields} PARAFAC mode modelled spatial and seasonal variations of water composition. {yields} Two factors related with organic and lead pollution have been identified. {yields} The most polluted areas of the reservoir were located, and polluting sources identified. - Abstract: Temporal and spatial patterns of water quality of an important artificial water reservoir located in the semiarid Midwest of Argentina were investigated using chemometric techniques. Surface water samples were collected at 38 points of the water reservoir during eleven sampling campaigns between October 1998 and June 2000, covering the warm wet season and the cold dry season, and analyzed for dissolved oxygen (DO), conductivity, pH, ammonium, nitrate, nitrite, total dissolved solids (TDS), alkalinity, hardness, bicarbonate, chloride, sulfate, calcium, magnesium, fluoride, sodium, potassium, iron, aluminum, silica, phosphate, sulfide, arsenic, chromium, lead, cadmium, chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), viable aerobic bacteria (VAB) and total coliform bacteria (TC). Concentrations of lead, ammonium, nitrite and coliforms were higher than the maximum allowable limits for drinking water in a large proportion of the water samples. To obtain a general representation of the spatial and temporal trends of the water quality parameters at the reservoir, the three-dimensional dataset (sampling sites x parameters x sampling campaigns) has been analyzed by matrix augmentation principal component analysis (MA-PCA) and N-way principal component analysis (N-PCA) using Tucker3 and PARAFAC (Parallel Factor Analysis) models. MA-PCA produced a component accounting for the general behavior of parameters associated with organic pollution. The Tucker3 models were not appropriate for modelling the water quality dataset. The two-factor PARAFAC model provided the best picture to understand the

  10. Modelling spatial and temporal variations in the water quality of an artificial water reservoir in the semiarid Midwest of Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cid, Fabricio D.; Anton, Rosa I.; Pardo, Rafael; Vega, Marisol; Caviedes-Vidal, Enrique

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Water quality of an Argentinean reservoir has been investigated by N-way PCA. → PARAFAC mode modelled spatial and seasonal variations of water composition. → Two factors related with organic and lead pollution have been identified. → The most polluted areas of the reservoir were located, and polluting sources identified. - Abstract: Temporal and spatial patterns of water quality of an important artificial water reservoir located in the semiarid Midwest of Argentina were investigated using chemometric techniques. Surface water samples were collected at 38 points of the water reservoir during eleven sampling campaigns between October 1998 and June 2000, covering the warm wet season and the cold dry season, and analyzed for dissolved oxygen (DO), conductivity, pH, ammonium, nitrate, nitrite, total dissolved solids (TDS), alkalinity, hardness, bicarbonate, chloride, sulfate, calcium, magnesium, fluoride, sodium, potassium, iron, aluminum, silica, phosphate, sulfide, arsenic, chromium, lead, cadmium, chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), viable aerobic bacteria (VAB) and total coliform bacteria (TC). Concentrations of lead, ammonium, nitrite and coliforms were higher than the maximum allowable limits for drinking water in a large proportion of the water samples. To obtain a general representation of the spatial and temporal trends of the water quality parameters at the reservoir, the three-dimensional dataset (sampling sites x parameters x sampling campaigns) has been analyzed by matrix augmentation principal component analysis (MA-PCA) and N-way principal component analysis (N-PCA) using Tucker3 and PARAFAC (Parallel Factor Analysis) models. MA-PCA produced a component accounting for the general behavior of parameters associated with organic pollution. The Tucker3 models were not appropriate for modelling the water quality dataset. The two-factor PARAFAC model provided the best picture to understand the spatial and

  11. Integrated hydrologic and hydrodynamic modeling to assess water exchange in a data-scarce reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Binbin; Wang, Guoqiang; Wang, Zhonggen; Liu, Changming; Ma, Jianming

    2017-12-01

    Integrated hydrologic and hydrodynamic modeling is useful in evaluating hydrodynamic characteristics (e.g. water exchange processes) in data-scarce water bodies, however, most studies lack verification of the hydrologic model. Here, water exchange (represented by water age) was investigated through integrated hydrologic and hydrodynamic modeling of the Hongfeng Reservoir, a poorly gauged reservoir in southwest China. The performance of the hydrologic model and parameter replacement among sub-basins with hydrological similarity was verified by historical data. Results showed that hydrological similarity based on the hierarchical cluster analysis and topographic index probability density distribution was reliable with satisfactory performance of parameter replacement. The hydrodynamic model was verified using daily water levels and water temperatures from 2009 and 2010. The water exchange processes in the Hongfeng Reservoir are very complex with temporal, vertical, and spatial variations. The temporal water age was primarily controlled by the variable inflow and outflow, and the maximum and minimum ages for the site near the dam were 406.10 d (15th June) and 90.74 d (3rd August), respectively, in 2010. Distinct vertical differences in water age showed that surface flow, interflow, and underflow appeared alternately, depending on the season and water depth. The worst water exchange situation was found in the central areas of the North Lake with the highest water ages in the bottom on both 15th June and 3rd August, in 2010. Comparison of the spatial water ages revealed that the more favorable hydraulic conditions on 3rd August mainly improved the water exchange in the dam areas and most areas of the South Lake, but had little effect on the bottom layers of the other deepest areas in the South and North Lakes. The presented framework can be applied in other data-scarce waterbodies worldwide to provide better understanding of water exchange processes.

  12. Exploring synergistic benefits of Water-Food-Energy Nexus through multi-objective reservoir optimization schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uen, Tinn-Shuan; Chang, Fi-John; Zhou, Yanlai; Tsai, Wen-Ping

    2018-08-15

    This study proposed a holistic three-fold scheme that synergistically optimizes the benefits of the Water-Food-Energy (WFE) Nexus by integrating the short/long-term joint operation of a multi-objective reservoir with irrigation ponds in response to urbanization. The three-fold scheme was implemented step by step: (1) optimizing short-term (daily scale) reservoir operation for maximizing hydropower output and final reservoir storage during typhoon seasons; (2) simulating long-term (ten-day scale) water shortage rates in consideration of the availability of irrigation ponds for both agricultural and public sectors during non-typhoon seasons; and (3) promoting the synergistic benefits of the WFE Nexus in a year-round perspective by integrating the short-term optimization and long-term simulation of reservoir operations. The pivotal Shihmen Reservoir and 745 irrigation ponds located in Taoyuan City of Taiwan together with the surrounding urban areas formed the study case. The results indicated that the optimal short-term reservoir operation obtained from the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) could largely increase hydropower output but just slightly affected water supply. The simulation results of the reservoir coupled with irrigation ponds indicated that such joint operation could significantly reduce agricultural and public water shortage rates by 22.2% and 23.7% in average, respectively, as compared to those of reservoir operation excluding irrigation ponds. The results of year-round short/long-term joint operation showed that water shortage rates could be reduced by 10% at most, the food production rate could be increased by up to 47%, and the hydropower benefit could increase up to 9.33 million USD per year, respectively, in a wet year. Consequently, the proposed methodology could be a viable approach to promoting the synergistic benefits of the WFE Nexus, and the results provided unique insights for stakeholders and policymakers to pursue

  13. Distribution of elements along the shore of the Kayrakum water reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djuraev, A.A.; Abdushukurov, D.A.; Passell, H.

    2012-01-01

    Soil and sediment samples, selected along the shore of the Kayrakum water reservoir in the Syrdarya River system, have been analyzed using X-Ray Fluorescence. The results obtained show spatial variations in the concentrations of both selected major rock-forming elements as well as of trace elements.

  14. Ensemble seasonal forecast of extreme water inflow into a large reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Gelfan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An approach to seasonal ensemble forecast of unregulated water inflow into a large reservoir was developed. The approach is founded on a physically-based semi-distributed hydrological model ECOMAG driven by Monte-Carlo generated ensembles of weather scenarios for a specified lead-time of the forecast (3 months ahead in this study. Case study was carried out for the Cheboksary reservoir (catchment area is 374 000 km2 located on the middle Volga River. Initial watershed conditions on the forecast date (1 March for spring freshet and 1 June for summer low-water period were simulated by the hydrological model forced by daily meteorological observations several months prior to the forecast date. A spatially distributed stochastic weather generator was used to produce time-series of daily weather scenarios for the forecast lead-time. Ensemble of daily water inflow into the reservoir was obtained by driving the ECOMAG model with the generated weather time-series. The proposed ensemble forecast technique was verified on the basis of the hindcast simulations for 29 spring and summer seasons beginning from 1982 (the year of the reservoir filling to capacity to 2010. The verification criteria were used in order to evaluate an ability of the proposed technique to forecast freshet/low-water events of the pre-assigned severity categories.

  15. Comparison of Mercury in Water, Bottom Sediment, and Zooplankton in Two Front Range Reservoirs in Colorado, 2008-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mast, M. Alisa; Krabbenhoft, David P.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, conducted a study to investigate environmental factors that may contribute to the bioaccumulation of mercury in two Front Range reservoirs. One of the reservoirs, Brush Hollow Reservoir, currently (2009) has a fish-consumption advisory for mercury in walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), and the other, Pueblo Reservoir, which is nearby, does not. Water, bottom sediment, and zooplankton samples were collected during 2008 and 2009, and a sediment-incubation experiment was conducted in 2009. Total mercury concentrations were low in midlake water samples and were not substantially different between the two reservoirs. The only water samples with detectable methylmercury were collected in shallow areas of Brush Hollow Reservoir during spring. Mercury concentrations in reservoir bottom sediments were similar to those reported for stream sediments from unmined basins across the United States. Despite higher concentrations of fish-tissue mercury in Brush Hollow Reservoir, concentrations of methylmercury in sediment were as much as 3 times higher in Pueblo Reservoir. Mercury concentrations in zooplankton were at the low end of concentrations reported for temperate lakes in the Northeastern United States and were similar between sites, which may reflect the seasonal timing of sampling. Factors affecting bioaccumulation of mercury were assessed, including mercury sources, water quality, and reservoir characteristics. Atmospheric deposition was determined to be the dominant source of mercury; however, due to the proximity of the reservoirs, atmospheric inputs likely are similar in both study areas. Water-quality constituents commonly associated with elevated concentrations of mercury in fish (pH, alkalinity, sulfate, nutrients, and dissolved organic carbon) did not appear to explain differences in fish-tissue mercury concentrations between the reservoirs. Low methylmercury

  16. Water Quality Characteristics of Sembrong Dam Reservoir, Johor, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd-Asharuddin, S.; Zayadi, N.; Rasit, W.; Othman, N.

    2016-07-01

    A study of water quality and heavy metal content in Sembrong Dam water was conducted from April - August 2015. A total of 12 water quality parameters and 6 heavy metals were measured and classified based on the Interim National Water Quality Standard of Malaysia (INWQS). The measured and analyzed parameter variables were divided into three main categories which include physical, chemical and heavy metal contents. Physical and chemical parameter variables were temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solid (TSS), turbidity, pH, nitrate, phosphate, ammonium, conductivity and salinity. The heavy metals measured were copper (Cu), lead (Pb), aluminium (Al), chromium (Cr), ferum (Fe) and zinc (Zn). According to INWQS, the water salinity, conductivity, BOD, TSS and nitrate level fall under Class I, while the Ph, DO and turbidity lie under Class IIA. Furthermore, values of COD and ammonium were classified under Class III. The result also indicates that the Sembrong Dam water are not polluted with heavy metals since all heavy metal readings recorded were falls far below Class I.

  17. Air–water CO2 and CH4 fluxes along a river–reservoir continuum: Case study in the Pengxi River, a tributary of the Yangtze River in the Three Gorges Reservoir, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water surface greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in freshwater reservoirs are closely related to limnological processes in the water column. Affected by both reservoir operation and seasonal changes, variations in the hydro-morphological conditions in the river–reservoir continuum will create distinctiv...

  18. Cultivation of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) within their invaded range to improve water quality in reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlan, C; Aldridge, D C

    2013-09-01

    Algal and cyanobacterial blooms in reservoirs are driven by nutrient enrichment and may present economic and conservation challenges for water managers. Current approaches such as suppression of algal growth with barley straw, ferric dosing or manipulation of fish stocks have not yielded long term successes. A possibility that has sparked growing interest is the encouragement and cultivation of natural filter feeders, such as mussels, which remove suspended matter from the water and reduce nutrient levels through biodeposition and assimilation. This review focusses on the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) as a tool for enhancement of water quality in reservoirs. Native to the Ponto-Caspian region, this species has invaded many lakes and reservoirs across North America and Western Europe, where it occurs in very high densities. While purposeful introduction of a non-native species into new sites is socially unacceptable, we investigate the possible benefits of encouraging increased abundance of zebra mussels in sites where the species is already established. We estimate that the annual nitrogen and phosphorus input into a large UK reservoir (Grafham Water) could be assimilated into zebra mussel biomass by encouraging settlement onto 3075 m and 1400 m of commercial mussel ropes, respectively. While zebra mussel cultivation has an incredible capacity to push eutrophic systems towards a clear water state, there are many risks associated with encouraging an invasive species, even within sites where it has already established. The zebra mussel is a prominent biofouler of native unionid mussels and raw water pipes, it changes the physical characteristics of the places it inhabits, in sites low in phosphorus it can be responsible for toxic cyanobacterial blooms, it alters nutrient cycling and community structure and it can have negative impacts on amenity value. Increased propagule pressure from elevated numbers of veliger larvae in the water column may increase the risk

  19. The role of anthropogenic water reservoirs within the landscapes of mining areas – a case study from the western part of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaruchiewicz Ewelina

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A few thousand anthropogenic water reservoirs can be found in the area of the Upper Silesian Coal Basis (USCB located in southern Poland. In this paper the role of such anthropogenic lakes in the landscape of the western part of the USCB was presented and illustrated with the example of Knurów, a mining city, and its immediate surrounding area. The study of landscape changes in this area was carried out on the basis of archival and contemporary cartographic materials, historical sources, and interviews with inhabitants and direct field observations. It was found that the origin of the majority of the water reservoirs is related to hard coal, clay and sand mining. They were created primarily as a result of filling subsidence basins and post-mining excavations with water, as well as being the result of the construction of various hydro-technical facilities (settling ponds, fire protection water reservoirs, etc. In the study area the anthropogenic water reservoirs are of different sizes, shapes and durability and play different roles in the environment. Between 1884 and 2001 their number increased 25-fold, while at the same time their total surface area increased more than 8-fold. The role of the newly created water reservoirs in the landscape primarily involves the transformation of the existing terrestrial ecosystems into wetland ecosystems. The agro-forestry landscape of the late 19th century was transformed into a typically anthropogenic landscape with a dominant share of water reservoirs, settlement ponds and mining waste heaps. The most common species of plants around the water reservoirs are Phragmites australis, Typha latifolia, Ceratophyllum demersum, Elodea canadensis, Potamogeton natans, Lemna sp., Acorus calamus, Myriophyllum verticillatum, Sagittaria sagittifolia, Alisma plantago-aquatica and Glyceria aquatica. The most valuable elements of the flora include Trapa natans and Ruppia maritima, species recognized in Poland as threatened

  20. Comparison of Strategies for Climate Change Adaptation of Water Supply and Flood Control Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, T. L.; Yang, P.; Bhushan, R.

    2016-12-01

    With climate change, streamflows are expected to become more fluctuating, with more frequent and intense floods and droughts. This complicates reservoir operation, which is highly sensitive to inflow variability. We make a comparative evaluation of three strategies for adapting reservoirs to climate-induced shifts in streamflow patterns. Specifically, we examine the effectiveness of (i) expanding the capacities of reservoirs by way of new off-stream reservoirs, (ii) introducing wastewater reclamation to augment supplies, and (iii) improving real-time streamflow forecasts for more optimal decision-making. The first two are hard strategies involving major infrastructure modifications, while the third a soft strategy entailing adjusting the system operation. A comprehensive side-by-side comparison of the three strategies is as yet lacking in the literature despite the many past studies investigating the strategies individually. To this end, we developed an adaptive forward-looking linear program that solves to yield the optimal decisions for the current time as a function of an ensemble forecast of future streamflows. Solving the model repeatedly on a rolling basis with regular updating of the streamflow forecast simulates the system behavior over the entire operating horizon. Results are generated for two hypothetical water supply and flood control reservoirs of differing inflows and demands. Preliminary findings suggest that of the three strategies, improving streamflow forecasts to be most effective in mitigating the effects of climate change. We also found that, in average terms, both additional reservoir capacity and wastewater reclamation have potential to reduce water shortage and downstream flooding. However, in the worst case, the potential of the former to reduce water shortage is limited, and similarly so the potential of the latter to reduce downstream flooding.

  1. Assessment of the water quality in a large reservoir in semiarid region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando B. Lopes

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify spatial and temporal variations in water quality of Orós reservoir, Ceará, Brazil, as well as the sources of contamination. To get this information the Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Cluster Analysis (CA was used. Water samples were collected at seven (geo-referenced points, from April 2008 to March 2011, totalling 4,032 samples. The following attributes of the waters were analysed: temperature, pH, CE, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, Cl-, HCO3-, SO4--, turbidity, colour, Sechi transparency, TS, TVS, TFS, TSS, VSS, FSS, TDS, DO, BO5D, total phosphorus, soluble orthophosphate, EC, TTC, total ammonia, TKN, nitrate, SAR and chlorophyll-a. The PCA promoted the reduction from the 32 initial variables to 14, accounting for 84.39% of the total variance. The major factors responsible for water quality composition are: the natural weathering of geological soil components; the entrainment of suspended solids through surface runoff from agricultural areas; and anthropogenic action in the Upper Jaguaribe basin in Ceará. The similarity of the water of the Orós reservoir allows a reduction in the number of sampling points, which may result in significant cost savings without sacrificing the water quality monitoring. The similarity of the waters was influenced by anthropic activities being carried out near the reservoir and all along the watershed.

  2. Potential impacts of climate change on water quality in a shallow reservoir in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Lai, Shiyu; Gao, Xueping; Xu, Liping

    2015-10-01

    To study the potential effects of climate change on water quality in a shallow reservoir in China, the field data analysis method is applied to data collected over a given monitoring period. Nine water quality parameters (water temperature, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, nitrite nitrogen, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand and dissolved oxygen) and three climate indicators for 20 years (1992-2011) are considered. The annual trends exhibit significant trends with respect to certain water quality and climate parameters. Five parameters exhibit significant seasonality differences in the monthly means between the two decades (1992-2001 and 2002-2011) of the monitoring period. Non-parametric regression of the statistical analyses is performed to explore potential key climate drivers of water quality in the reservoir. The results indicate that seasonal changes in temperature and rainfall may have positive impacts on water quality. However, an extremely cold spring and high wind speed are likely to affect the self-stabilising equilibrium states of the reservoir, which requires attention in the future. The results suggest that land use changes have important impact on nitrogen load. This study provides useful information regarding the potential effects of climate change on water quality in developing countries.

  3. Environmental response nanosilica for reducing the pressure of water injection in ultra-low permeability reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peisong; Niu, Liyong; Li, Xiaohong; Zhang, Zhijun

    2017-12-01

    The super-hydrophobic silica nanoparticles are applied to alter the wettability of rock surface from water-wet to oil-wet. The aim of this is to reduce injection pressure so as to enhance water injection efficiency in low permeability reservoirs. Therefore, a new type of environmentally responsive nanosilica (denote as ERS) is modified with organic compound containing hydrophobic groups and "pinning" groups by covalent bond and then covered with a layer of hydrophilic organic compound by chemical adsorption to achieve excellent water dispersibility. Resultant ERS is homogeneously dispersed in water with a size of about 4-8 nm like a micro-emulsion system and can be easily injected into the macro or nano channels of ultra-low permeability reservoirs. The hydrophobic nanosilica core can be released from the aqueous delivery system owing to its strong dependence on the environmental variation from normal condition to injection wells (such as pH and salinity). Then the exposed silica nanoparticles form a thin layer on the surface of narrow pore throat, leading to the wettability from water-wet to oil-wet. More importantly, the two rock cores with different permeability were surface treated with ERS dispersion with a concentration of 2 g/L, exhibit great reduce of water injection pressure by 57.4 and 39.6%, respectively, which shows great potential for exploitation of crude oil from ultra-low permeability reservoirs during water flooding. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  4. Trophic State and Toxic Cyanobacteria Density in Optimization Modeling of Multi-Reservoir Water Resource Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Sulis

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The definition of a synthetic index for classifying the quality of water bodies is a key aspect in integrated planning and management of water resource systems. In previous works [1,2], a water system optimization modeling approach that requires a single quality index for stored water in reservoirs has been applied to a complex multi-reservoir system. Considering the same modeling field, this paper presents an improved quality index estimated both on the basis of the overall trophic state of the water body and on the basis of the density values of the most potentially toxic Cyanobacteria. The implementation of the index into the optimization model makes it possible to reproduce the conditions limiting water use due to excessive nutrient enrichment in the water body and to the health hazard linked to toxic blooms. The analysis of an extended limnological database (1996–2012 in four reservoirs of the Flumendosa-Campidano system (Sardinia, Italy provides useful insights into the strengths and limitations of the proposed synthetic index.

  5. Trophic state and toxic cyanobacteria density in optimization modeling of multi-reservoir water resource systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulis, Andrea; Buscarinu, Paola; Soru, Oriana; Sechi, Giovanni M

    2014-04-22

    The definition of a synthetic index for classifying the quality of water bodies is a key aspect in integrated planning and management of water resource systems. In previous works [1,2], a water system optimization modeling approach that requires a single quality index for stored water in reservoirs has been applied to a complex multi-reservoir system. Considering the same modeling field, this paper presents an improved quality index estimated both on the basis of the overall trophic state of the water body and on the basis of the density values of the most potentially toxic Cyanobacteria. The implementation of the index into the optimization model makes it possible to reproduce the conditions limiting water use due to excessive nutrient enrichment in the water body and to the health hazard linked to toxic blooms. The analysis of an extended limnological database (1996-2012) in four reservoirs of the Flumendosa-Campidano system (Sardinia, Italy) provides useful insights into the strengths and limitations of the proposed synthetic index.

  6. Cold Vacuum Drying facility deionized water system design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PITKOFF, C.C.

    1999-01-01

    This document describes the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) de-ionized water system. The de-ionized water system is used to provide clean, conditioned water, free from contaminants, chlorides and iron for the CVD Facility. Potable water is supplied to the deionized water system, isolated by a backflow prevention device. After the de-ionization process is complete, via a packaged de-ionization unit, de-ionized water is supplied to the process deionization unit

  7. Application of Nemerow Index Method and Integrated Water Quality Index Method in Water Quality Assessment of Zhangze Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Feng, Minquan; Hao, Xiaoyan

    2018-03-01

    [Objective] Based on the water quality historical data from the Zhangze Reservoir from the last five years, the water quality was assessed by the integrated water quality identification index method and the Nemerow pollution index method. The results of different evaluation methods were analyzed and compared and the characteristics of each method were identified.[Methods] The suitability of the water quality assessment methods were compared and analyzed, based on these results.[Results] the water quality tended to decrease over time with 2016 being the year with the worst water quality. The sections with the worst water quality were the southern and northern sections.[Conclusion] The results produced by the traditional Nemerow index method fluctuated greatly in each section of water quality monitoring and therefore could not effectively reveal the trend of water quality at each section. The combination of qualitative and quantitative measures of the comprehensive pollution index identification method meant it could evaluate the degree of water pollution as well as determine that the river water was black and odorous. However, the evaluation results showed that the water pollution was relatively low.The results from the improved Nemerow index evaluation were better as the single indicators and evaluation results are in strong agreement; therefore the method is able to objectively reflect the water quality of each water quality monitoring section and is more suitable for the water quality evaluation of the reservoir.

  8. Impacts of Forest to Urban Land Conversion and ENSO Phase on Water Quality of a Public Water Supply Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emile Elias

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We used coupled watershed and reservoir models to evaluate the impacts of deforestation and l Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO phase on drinking water quality. Source water total organic carbon (TOC is especially important due to the potential for production of carcinogenic disinfection byproducts (DBPs. The Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC reservoir model is used to evaluate the difference between daily pre- and post- urbanization nutrients and TOC concentration. Post-disturbance (future reservoir total nitrogen (TN, total phosphorus (TP, TOC and chlorophyll-a concentrations were found to be higher than pre-urbanization (base concentrations (p < 0.05. Predicted future median TOC concentration was 1.1 mg·L−1 (41% higher than base TOC concentration at the source water intake. Simulations show that prior to urbanization, additional water treatment was necessary on 47% of the days between May and October. However, following simulated urbanization, additional drinking water treatment might be continuously necessary between May and October. One of six ENSO indices is weakly negatively correlated with the measured reservoir TOC indicating there may be higher TOC concentrations in times of lower streamflow (La Niña. There is a positive significant correlation between simulated TN and TP concentrations with ENSO suggesting higher concentrations during El Niño.

  9. Sediment-water interactions affecting dissolved-mercury distributions in Camp Far West Reservoir, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, James S.; Alpers, Charles N.; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark; Topping, Brent R.; Carter, James L.; Stewart, A. Robin; Fend, Steven V.; Parcheso, Francis; Moon, Gerald E.; Krabbenhoft, David P.

    2003-01-01

    Field and laboratory studies were conducted in April and November 2002 to provide the first direct measurements of the benthic flux of dissolved (0.2-micrometer filtered) mercury species (total and methylated forms) between the bottom sediment and water column at three sampling locations within Camp Far West Reservoir, California: one near the Bear River inlet to the reservoir, a second at a mid-reservoir site of comparable depth to the inlet site, and the third at the deepest position in the reservoir near the dam (herein referred to as the inlet, midreservoir and near-dam sites, respectively; Background, Fig. 1). Because of interest in the effects of historic hydraulic mining and ore processing in the Sierra Nevada foothills just upstream of the reservoir, dissolved-mercury species and predominant ligands that often control the mercury speciation (represented by dissolved organic carbon, and sulfides) were the solutes of primary interest. Benthic flux, sometimes referred to as internal recycling, represents the transport of dissolved chemical species between the water column and the underlying sediment. Because of the affinity of mercury to adsorb onto particle surfaces and to form insoluble precipitates (particularly with sulfides), the mass transport of mercury in mining-affected watersheds is typically particle dominated. As these enriched particles accumulate at depositional sites such as reservoirs, benthic processes facilitate the repartitioning, transformation, and transport of mercury in dissolved, biologically reactive forms (dissolved methylmercury being the most bioavailable for trophic transfer). These are the forms of mercury examined in this study. In contrast to typical scientific manuscripts, this report is formatted in a pyramid-like structure to serve the needs of diverse groups who may be interested in reviewing or acquiring information at various levels of technical detail (Appendix 1). The report enables quick transitions between the initial

  10. Extensive, water-rich magma reservoir beneath southern Montserrat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, M.; Kohn, S. C.; Hauri, E. H.; Humphreys, M. C. S.; Cassidy, M.

    2016-05-01

    South Soufrière Hills and Soufrière Hills volcanoes are 2 km apart at the southern end of the island of Montserrat, West Indies. Their magmas are distinct geochemically, despite these volcanoes having been active contemporaneously at 131-129 ka. We use the water content of pyroxenes and melt inclusion data to reconstruct the bulk water contents of magmas and their depth of storage prior to eruption. Pyroxenes contain up to 281 ppm H2O, with significant variability between crystals and from core to rim in individual crystals. The Al content of the enstatites from Soufrière Hills Volcano (SHV) is used to constrain melt-pyroxene partitioning for H2O. The SHV enstatite cores record melt water contents of 6-9 wt%. Pyroxene and melt inclusion water concentration pairs from South Soufriere Hills basalts independently constrain pyroxene-melt partitioning of water and produces a comparable range in melt water concentrations. Melt inclusions recorded in plagioclase and in pyroxene contain up to 6.3 wt% H2O. When combined with realistic melt CO2 contents, the depth of magma storage for both volcanoes ranges from 5 to 16 km. The data are consistent with a vertically protracted crystal mush in the upper crust beneath the southern part of Montserrat which contains heterogeneous bodies of eruptible magma. The high water contents of the magmas suggest that they contain a high proportion of exsolved fluids, which has implications for the rheology of the mush and timescales for mush reorganisation prior to eruption. A depletion in water in the outer 50-100 μm of a subset of pyroxenes from pumices from a Vulcanian explosion at Soufrière Hills in 2003 is consistent with diffusive loss of hydrogen during magma ascent over 5-13 h. These timescales are similar to the mean time periods between explosions in 1997 and in 2003, raising the possibility that the driving force for this repetitive explosive behaviour lies not in the shallow system, but in the deeper parts of a vertically

  11. Multiunit water resource systems management by decomposition, optimization and emulated evolution : a case study of seven water supply reservoirs in Tunisia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milutin, D.

    1998-01-01

    Being one of the essential elements of almost any water resource system, reservoirs are indispensable in our struggle to harness, utilize and manage natural water resources. Consequently, the derivation of appropriate reservoir operating strategies draws significant attention in water

  12. Evaluation of Major Dike-Impounded Ground-Water Reservoirs, Island of Oahu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasaki, Kiyoshi J.; Mink, John Francis

    1985-01-01

    Ground-water reservoirs impounded by volcanic dikes receive a substantial part of the total recharge to ground water on the island of Oahu because they generally underlie the rainiest areas. These reservoirs accumulate the infiltration from rainfall, store it temporarily, and steadily leak it to abutting basal reservoirs or to streams cutting into them. The dike reservoirs have high hydraulic heads and are mostly isolated from saline water. The most important and productive of the dike-impounded reservoirs are in an area of about 135 square miles in the main fissure zone of the Koolau volcano where the top of the dike-impounded water reaches an altitude of at least 1,000 feet. Water is impounded and stored both above and below sea level. The water stored above sea level in the 135 square mile area has been roughly estimated at 560 billion gallons. In comparison, the water stored above sea level in reservoirs underlying a dike-intruded area of about 53 square miles in the Waianae Range has been roughly estimated at 100 billion gallons. Storage below sea level is indeterminable, owing to uncertainties about the ability of the rock to store water as dike density increases and porosity decreases. Tunnels, by breaching dike controls, have reduced the water stored above sea level by at least 50 billion gallons in the Koolau Range and by 5 1/2 billion gallons in the Waianae Range, only a small part of the total water stored. Total leakage from storage in the Koolau Range has been estimated at about 280 Mgal/d (million gallons per day). This estimated leakage from the dike-impounded reservoirs makes up a significant part of the ground-water yield of the Koolau Range, which has been estimated to range from 450 to 580 Mgal/d. The largest unused surface leakage is in the Kaneohe, Kahana, and Punaluu areas, and the largest unused underflow occurs in the Waialee, Hauula-Laie, Punaluu, and Kahana areas. The unused underflow leakage is small in areas near and east of Waialae, but

  13. Assessment of water management tools for the geothermal reservoir Waiwera (New Zealand)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Michael; Altmannsberger, Charlotte

    2016-04-01

    Water management tools are essential to ensure the conservation of natural resources. The geothermal hot water reservoir below the village of Waiwera, on the Northern Island of New Zealand is used commercially since 1863. The continuous production of 50 °C hot geothermal water, to supply hotels and spas, has a negative impact on the reservoir. Until the year 1969 from all wells drilled the warm water flow was artesian. Due to overproduction the water needs to be pumped up nowadays. Further, within the years 1975 to 1976 the warm water seeps on the beach of Waiwera ran dry. In order to protect the reservoir and the historical and tourist site in the early 1980s a Water Management Plan was deployed. The "Auckland Regional Water Board" today "Auckland Regional Council" established guidelines to enable a sustainable management [1]. The management plan demands that the water level in the official and appropriate observation well of the council is 0.5 m above sea level throughout the year in average. Almost four decades of data (since 1978 until today) are now available [2]. The minimum water level was observed beginning of the 1980s with -1.25 m and the maximum recently with 1.6 m. The higher the production rates from the field, the lower the water level in the observation well. Highest abstraction rates reached almost 1,500 m3/day and lowest were just above 500 m3/day. Several models of varying complexity where used from purely data driven statistical to fully coupled process simulation models. In all cases the available data were used for calibration and the models were then applied for predictive purposes. We used the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency index to quantify their predictive ability. The recommendation for the full implementation of the water management plan is the regular revision of an existing multivariate regression model which is based on the Theis well equation. Further, we suggest improving the underlying geological model of the process simulations to

  14. Estimates the Effects of Benthic Fluxes on the Water Quality of the Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H.; Huh, I. A.; Park, S.; Choi, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    Reservoirs located in highly populated and industrialized regions receive discharges of nutrients and pollutants from the watershed that have great potential to impair water quality and threaten aquatic life. The Euiam reservoir is a multiple-purpose water body used for tourism, fishery, and water supply and has been reported as eutrophic since 1990s. The external nutrients loading is considered to be the main cause of eutrophication of water bodies, and control strategies therefore focus on its reduction. However, algae blooms often continue even after external nutrients loading has been controlled, being benthic nutrient loading the main source of nutrients in the water column. Attempts to quantify benthic nutrients fluxes and their role as a source of nutrients to the water column have produced ambiguous results. Benthic flux is dependent on the upward flow of pore water caused by hydrostatic pressure, molecular diffusion, and mixing of sediment and water. In addition, it is controlled by dissolved oxygen (DO) levels, pH values and temperature in the overlying water. Therefore, linking a benthic flux to a water quality model should give us more insight on the effects of benthic fluxes to better quantify nutrient concentration within an entire reservoir system where physical, chemical, biological properties are variable. To represent temporal and spatial variations in the nutrient concentrations of the reservoir, a three-dimensional time variable model, Generalized Longitudinal-Lateral-Vertical Hydrodynamic and Transport (GLLVHT) was selected. The GLLVHT model is imbedded within the Generalized Environmental Modeling System for Surface waters (GEMSS). The computational grid of the three-dimensional model was developed using the GIS. The horizontal grid is composed of 580 active cells at the surface layer with spacing varies from 54.2 m to 69.8 m. There are 15 vertical layers with uniform thickness of 1.9 m resolution. To calibrate the model, model prediction for

  15. Correlation Analysis of Rainstorm Runoff and Density Current in a Canyon-Shaped Source Water Reservoir: Implications for Reservoir Optimal Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Extreme weather has recently become frequent. Heavy rainfall forms storm runoff, which is usually very turbid and contains a high concentration of organic matter, therefore affecting water quality when it enters reservoirs. The large canyon-shaped Heihe Reservoir is the most important raw water source for the city of Xi’an. During the flood season, storm runoff flows into the reservoir as a density current. We determined the relationship among inflow peak discharge (Q, suspended sediment concentration, inflow water temperature, and undercurrent water density. The relationships between (Q and inflow suspended sediment concentration (CS0 could be described by the equation CS0 = 0.3899 × e0.0025Q, that between CS0 and suspended sediment concentration at the entrance of the main reservoir area S1 (CS1 was determined using CS1 = 0.0346 × e0.2335CS0, and air temperature (Ta and inflow water temperature (Tw based on the meteorological data were related as follows: Tw = 0.7718 × Ta + 1.0979. Then, we calculated the density of the undercurrent layer. Compared to the vertical water density distribution at S1 before rainfall, the undercurrent elevation was determined based on the principle of equivalent density inflow. Based on our results, we proposed schemes for optimizing water intake selection and flood discharge during the flood season.

  16. Storm Water General Permit 1 for Industrial Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — General permit #1 for storm water discharges associated with industrial facilities in Iowa for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) program.

  17. Water volume reduction increases eutrophication risk in tropical semi-arid reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Nascimento da Rocha Junior

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim Global patterns of temperature and precipitation have significantly changed over the last century and nearly all predictions point to even greater changes by the end of 2100. Long periods of drought in semi-arid regions generally reduce reservoirs and lakes water level, increasing the nutrients concentrations in the water. Our principal hypothesis is that water volume reduction, driven by prolonged droughts, will increase reservoirs susceptibility to eutrophication and accordingly an increase in trophic state. To test this hypothesis, we used a comparative analysis of ecosystems in a space-for-time substitution approach, in a Brazilian semi-arid region, to predict the consequences of reservoirs water volume reduction on key limnological variables. Methods We sampled 16 reservoirs located in two sub-basins with contrasting rainfall regimes, inserted on Piranhas-Açu watershed. The Seridó River basin (SB is dry and the Piancó River basin (SB is humid, with annual mean precipitation of 500 and 700 mm, respectively. Linear regressions analyzes were performed to assess whether the percentage of maximum volume stored (%MVS is a good predictor for total phosphorus (TP, total nitrogen (TN and chlorophyll-a (CHLA. In addition, a two factorial analysis of variance (two-way ANOVA was performed to test for period (dry, very dry and extremely dry, basin (SB and PB and their interactions effects on TP, TN, CHLA, conductivity, turbidity, and Secchi depth. Results The results showed a reduction in the reservoirs %MVS both for PB and SB regions. At the extremely dry period, all reservoirs were classified as eutrophic, but TP concentrations reached much higher values in SB than in PB. The linear regressions analyses showed that the TP and TN were negatively related to %MVS during all periods sampled. The two-way ANOVA showed that there were significant basin and period effects on TP, TN, Secchi depth and turbidity, whereas for CHLA and conductivity

  18. Water quality of Cedar Creek reservoir in northeast Texas, 1977 to 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibbrand, Norman F.; Gibbons, Willard J.

    1987-01-01

    Water in Cedar Creek Reservoir in northeast Texas had volume-weighted average concentrations of less than 140 milligrams per liter of dissolved solids, less than 30 milligrams per liter of dissolved sulfate, and less than 25 milligrams per liter of chloride between vh nuary 1977 and August 1984. The water was soft to moderately hard; the total hardness concentrations ranged from 55 to 75 milligrams per liter as calcium carbonate.

  19. Detection of the water reservoir in a forming planetary system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogerheijde, M.R.; Bergin, E.A.; Brinch, C.; Cleeves, L.I.; Fogel, J. K.J.; Blake, G.A.; Dominik, C.; Lis, D.C.; Melnick, G.; Neufeld, D.; Panić, O.; Pearson, J.C.; Kristensen, L.; Yıldız, U.A.; van Dishoeck, E.F.

    2011-01-01

    Icy bodies may have delivered the oceans to the early Earth, yet little is known about water in the ice-dominated regions of extrasolar planet-forming disks. The Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared on board the Herschel Space Observatory has detected emission lines from both spin isomers of

  20. Influence of Land Use and Watershed Characteristics on Protozoa Contamination in a Potential Drinking Water Resources Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relative changes in the microbial quality of Lake Texoma, on the border of Texas and Oklahoma, were investigated by monitoring protozoan pathogens, fecal indicators, and factors influencing the intensity of the microbiological contamination of surface water reservoirs. The waters...

  1. Cold Vacuum Drying facility potable water system design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PITKOFF, C.C.

    1999-01-01

    This document describes the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) potable water (PW) system. The PW system provides potable water to the CVDF for supply to sinks, water closets, urinals, showers, custodial service sinks, drinking fountains, the decontamination shower, supply water to the non-PW systems, and makeup water for the de-ionized water system

  2. Application of the CPA equation of state to reservoir fluids in presence of water and polar chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Wei; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2009-01-01

    to reservoir fluids in presence of water and polar chemical Such as methanol and monoethylene glycol. With a minimum number of adjustable parameters from binary pairs, satisfactory results have been obtained for different types of phase equilibria in reservoir fluid systems and several relevant model......The complex phase equilibrium between reservoir fluids and associating compounds like water, methanol and glycols has become more and more important as the increasing global energy demand pushes the oil industry to target reservoirs with extreme or complicated conditions, such as deep or offshore...

  3. Water quality control in Third River Reservoir (Argentina using geographical information systems and linear regression models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Ledesma

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Water quality is traditionally monitored and evaluated based upon field data collected at limited locations. The storage capacity of reservoirs is reduced by deposits of suspended matter. The major factors affecting surface water quality are suspended sediments, chlorophyll and nutrients. Modeling and monitoring the biogeochemical status of reservoirs can be done through data from remote sensors. Since the improvement of sensors’ spatial and spectral resolutions, satellites have been used to monitor the interior areas of bodies of water. Water quality parameters, such as chlorophyll-a concentration and secchi disk depth, were found to have a high correlation with transformed spectral variables derived from bands 1, 2, 3 and 4 of LANDSAT 5TM satellite. We created models of estimated responses in regard to values of chlorophyll-a. To do so, we used population models of single and multiple linear regression, whose parameters are associated with the reflectance data of bands 2 and 4 of the sub-image of the satellite, as well as the data of chlorophyll-a obtained in 25 selected stations. According to the physico-chemical analyzes performed, the characteristics of the water in the reservoir of Rio Tercero, correspond to somewhat hard freshwater with calcium bicarbonate. The water was classified as usable as a source of plant treatment, excellent for irrigation because of its low salinity and low residual sodium carbonate content, but unsuitable for animal consumption because of its low salt content.

  4. Planning and Corrupting Water Resources Development: The Case of Small Reservoirs in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Venot

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural (water development is once again at the fore of the development agenda of sub-Saharan Africa. Yet, corruption is seen as a major obstacle to the sustainability of future investments in the sector but there is still little empirical evidence on the ways corruption pervades development projects. This paper documents the planning and implementation processes of two specific small reservoir programmes in the north of Ghana. We specifically delve into the dynamics of corruption and interrogate the ways they add to the inherent unpredictability of development planning. We argue that operational limitations of small reservoirs such as poor infrastructure, lack of managerial and organisational capacity at the community level and weak market integration and public support are the symptoms – rather than inherent problems – of wider lapses in the planning processes that govern the development of small reservoirs in Ghana and plausibly worldwide. A suite of petty misconduct and corrupt practices during the planning, tendering, supervision, and administration of contracts for the rehabilitation and construction of small reservoirs results in delays in implementation, poor construction, escalating costs, and ultimately failures of small reservoirs vis-à-vis their intended goals and a widely shared frustration among donor agencies, civil servants, contractors, and communities. Such practices hang on and can only be addressed through a better understanding of the complex web of formal decisions and informal rules that shape the understanding and actions of the state.

  5. Boundary element analysis of earthquake induced hydrodynamic pressures in a water reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jablonski, A.M.

    1988-11-01

    The seismic analysis of concrete gravity and arch dams is affected by the hydrodynamic pressures in the water reservoir. Boundary element method (BEM) formulations are derived for the hydrodynamic pressures arising in a gravity dam-reservoir-foundation system, treating both 2- and 3-dimensional cases. The formulations are based on the respective mathematical models which are governed by two- and three-dimensional Helmholtz equations with appropriate boundary conditions. For infinite reservoirs, loss of energy due to pressure waves moving away toward infinity strongly influence response. Since it is not possible to discretize an infinite extent, the radiation damping due to outgoing waves is accounted for by incorporating special boundary conditions at the far end, and in a similar manner the loss of energy due to absorption of waves by a flexible bottom of reservoir and banks can be accounted for by a special condition along the boundaries. Numerical results are obtained and compared with available classical solutions and convergence of numerical results with the size and number of boundary elements is studied. It is concluded that the direct boundary element method is an effective tool for the evaluation of the hydrodynamic pressures in finite and infinite dam-reservoir-foundation systems subjected to harmonic-type motion, and can easily be extended to any type of random motion with fast Fourier transform techniques. 82 refs., 65 figs., 25 tabs

  6. Oil-water flows in wells with powerful fracture reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, N.P.

    1979-01-01

    The character of two phase liquid flows from powerful layer fractures to bottom holes in Starogrodnen and Malgobek-Voznesenskiy fields in the Chechen-Ingush ASSR found in the late stage of operation. The studies were done with the electrothermometer TEG-36, the manometer MGN-2, the remote control thermal flow meter T-4, the remote control moisture meter VBST-1, the density meter GGP-1M, whose accuracy class is 1.0 and whose working limits are: temperature, up to 150/sup 0/C and pressure, up to 1000 kGs/cm/sup 2/. The breakdown of the linear filtration law and the gravitational division of the water-oil mixture phase occurred during fieldwork. The oil and water, etc., flow intervals were defined. The data from the moisture meter and the gamma density meter coincided.

  7. [Absorption Characteristics of Particulates and CDOM in Waters of Chagan Lake and Xinlicheng Reservoir in Autumn].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Si-jia; Song, Kai-shan; Zhao, Ying; Mu, Guang-yi; Shao, Tian-tian; Ma, Jian-hang

    2016-01-15

    Field surveys and laboratory analysis were carried out in Chagan Lake and Xinlicheng Reservoir under different salinity conditions in September 2012. In the laboratory, the absorption coefficients of particulates and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) were measured, aiming to compare the absorption features, source of optical active substances and relative contribution of optical active constituents over the range of PAR (400-700 nm) in Chagan Lake and Xinlicheng Reservoir. The results showed that the Chagan Lake and Xinlicheng Reservoir were water bodies with medium eutrophication in autumn by TAL nutrient index and the absorption spectra of particulates matters were similar to those of phytoplankton. For the Chagan Lake with high salinity( EC = 988. 87 micro S x cm(-1)), the total particulate absorption was dominated by the nonalgal particles, and the contribution rate was in the order of nonalgal particles > phytoplankton > CDOM. For the Xinlicheng Reservoir with low salinity (EC = 311.67 microS x -cm(-1)), the total particulate absorption was dominated by the phytoplankton, and the contribution rate was ranked as phytoplankton > nonalgal particles > CDOM. Positive correlation was observed between a(p) (440), a(p) (675), a(d) (440) and total suspended matter (TSM), inorganic suspended matter (ISM), organic suspended matter (OSM) and Chl-a respectively in Chagan Lake, with correlation coefficients all above 0.55. Positive correlation was observed between a(p)(440), a(p) (675) and Chl-a (0.77 and 0.85, P CDOM in the Chagan Lake was less than that in the Xinlicheng Reservoir. The Chagan Lake was greatly affected by wind speed and shore collapse to produce suspended mineral and sediment particles. Thereby the total particulate absorption was dominated by the nonalgal particles. The waters in the Xinlicheng Reservoir were greatly impacted by terrestrial inorganic matter, and the growth of phytoplankton was weakened and microbes activities were strengthened

  8. Three-Dimensional Effects of Artificial Mixing in a Shallow Drinking-Water Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shengyang; Little, John C.; Carey, Cayelan C.; McClure, Ryan P.; Lofton, Mary E.; Lei, Chengwang

    2018-01-01

    Studies that examine the effects of artificial mixing for water-quality mitigation in lakes and reservoirs often view a water column with a one-dimensional (1-D) perspective (e.g., homogenized epilimnetic and hypolimnetic layers). Artificial mixing in natural water bodies, however, is inherently three dimensional (3-D). Using a 3-D approach experimentally and numerically, the present study visualizes thermal structure and analyzes constituent transport under the influence of artificial mixing in a shallow drinking-water reservoir. The purpose is to improve the understanding of artificial mixing, which may help to better design and operate mixing systems. In this reservoir, a side-stream supersaturation (SSS) hypolimnetic oxygenation system and an epilimnetic bubble-plume mixing (EM) system were concurrently deployed in the deep region. The present study found that, while the mixing induced by the SSS system does not have a distinct 3-D effect on the thermal structure, epilimnetic mixing by the EM system causes 3-D heterogeneity. In the experiments, epilimnetic mixing deepened the lower metalimnetic boundary near the diffuser by about 1 m, with 55% reduction of the deepening rate at 120 m upstream of the diffuser. In a tracer study using a 3-D hydrodynamic model, the operational flow rate of the EM system is found to be an important short-term driver of constituent transport in the reservoir, whereas the duration of the EM system operation is the dominant long-term driver. The results suggest that artificial mixing substantially alters both 3-D thermal structure and constituent transport, and thus needs to be taken into account for reservoir management.

  9. Prediction in Ungauged Basins (PUB) for estimating water availability during water scarcity conditions: rainfall-runoff modelling of the ungauged diversion inflows to the Ridracoli water supply reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Elena

    2013-04-01

    The Ridracoli reservoir is the main drinking water supply reservoir serving the whole Romagna region, in Northern Italy. Such water supply system has a crucial role in an area where the different characteristics of the communities to be served, their size, the mass tourism and the presence of food industries highlight strong differences in drinking water needs. Its operation allows high quality drinking water supply to a million resident customers, plus a few millions of tourists during the summer of people and it reduces the need for water pumping from underground sources, and this is particularly important since the coastal area is subject also to subsidence and saline ingression into aquifers. The system experienced water shortage conditions thrice in the last decade, in 2002, in 2007 and in autumn-winter 2011-2012, when the reservoir water storage fell below the attention and the pre-emergency thresholds, thus prompting the implementation of a set of mitigation measures, including limitations to the population's water consumption. The reservoir receives water not only from the headwater catchment, closed at the dam, but also from four diversion watersheds, linked to the reservoir through an underground water channel. Such withdrawals are currently undersized, abstracting only a part of the streamflow exceeding the established minimum flows, due to the design of the water intake structures; it is therefore crucial understanding how the reservoir water availability might be increased through a fuller exploitation of the existing diversion catchment area. Since one of the four diversion catchment is currently ungauged (at least at the fine temporal scale needed for keeping into account the minimum flow requirements downstream of the intakes), the study first presents the set up and parameterisation of a continuous rainfall-runoff model at hourly time-step for the three gauged diversion watersheds and for the headwater catchment: a regional parameterisation

  10. Reservoir management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satter, A.; Varnon, J.E.; Hoang, M.T.

    1992-01-01

    A reservoir's life begins with exploration leading to discovery followed by delineation of the reservoir, development of the field, production by primary, secondary and tertiary means, and finally to abandonment. Sound reservoir management is the key to maximizing economic operation of the reservoir throughout its entire life. Technological advances and rapidly increasing computer power are providing tools to better manage reservoirs and are increasing the gap between good and neural reservoir management. The modern reservoir management process involves goal setting, planning, implementing, monitoring, evaluating, and revising plans. Setting a reservoir management strategy requires knowledge of the reservoir, availability of technology, and knowledge of the business, political, and environmental climate. Formulating a comprehensive management plan involves depletion and development strategies, data acquisition and analyses, geological and numerical model studies, production and reserves forecasts, facilities requirements, economic optimization, and management approval. This paper provides management, engineers, geologists, geophysicists, and field operations staff with a better understanding of the practical approach to reservoir management using a multidisciplinary, integrated team approach

  11. Reservoir management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satter, A.; Varnon, J.E.; Hoang, M.T.

    1992-01-01

    A reservoir's life begins with exploration leading to discovery followed by delineation of the reservoir, development of the field, production by primary, secondary and tertiary means, and finally to abandonment. Sound reservoir management is the key to maximizing economic operation of the reservoir throughout its entire life. Technological advances and rapidly increasing computer power are providing tools to better manage reservoirs and are increasing the gap between good and neutral reservoir management. The modern reservoir management process involves goal setting, planning, implementing, monitoring, evaluating, and revising plans. Setting a reservoir management strategy requires knowledge of the reservoir, availability of technology, and knowledge of the business, political, and environmental climate. Formulating a comprehensive management plan involves depletion and development strategies, data acquisition and analyses, geological and numerical model studies, production and reserves forecasts, facilities requirements, economic optimization, and management approval. This paper provides management, engineers geologists, geophysicists, and field operations staff with a better understanding of the practical approach to reservoir management using a multidisciplinary, integrated team approach

  12. Local Water Management of Small Reservoirs: Lessons from Two Case Studies in Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilmy Sally

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Burkina Faso is actively pursuing the implementation of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM in its development plans. Several policy and institutional mechanisms have been put in place, including the adoption of a national IWRM action plan (PAGIRE and the establishment so far of 30 local water management committees (Comités Locaux de l’Eau, or CLE. The stated purpose of the CLE is to take responsibility for managing water at sub-basin level. The two case studies discussed in this paper illustrate gaps between the policy objective of promoting IWRM on the one hand, and the realities associated with its practical on-the-ground implementation on the other. A significant adjustment that occurred in practice is the fact that the two CLE studied have been set up as entities focused on reservoir management, whereas it is envisioned that a CLE would constitute a platform for sub-basin management. This reflects a concern to minimise conflict and optimally manage the country’s primary water resource and illustrates the type of pragmatic actions that have to be taken to make IWRM a reality. It is also observed that the local water management committees have not been able to satisfactorily address questions regarding access to, and allocation of, water, which are crucial for the satisfactory functioning of the reservoirs. Water resources in the reservoirs appear to be controlled by the dominant user. In order to correct this trend, measures to build mutual trust and confidence among water users 'condemned' to work together to manage their common resource are suggested, foremost of which is the need to collect and share reliable data. Awareness of power relationships among water user groups and building on functioning, already existing formal or informal arrangements for water sharing are key determinants for successful implementation of the water reform process underway.

  13. Conjunctively optimizing flash flood control and water quality in urban water reservoirs by model predictive control and dynamic emulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galelli, Stefano; Goedbloed, Albert; Schmitter, Petra; Castelletti, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Urban water reservoirs are a viable adaptation option to account for increasing drinking water demand of urbanized areas as they allow storage and re-use of water that is normally lost. In addition, the direct availability of freshwater reduces pumping costs and diversifies the portfolios of drinking water supply. Yet, these benefits have an associated twofold cost. Firstly, the presence of large, impervious areas increases the hydraulic efficiency of urban catchments, with short time of concentration, increased runoff rates, losses of infiltration and baseflow, and higher risk of flash floods. Secondly, the high concentration of nutrients and sediments characterizing urban discharges is likely to cause water quality problems. In this study we propose a new control scheme combining Model Predictive Control (MPC), hydro-meteorological forecasts and dynamic model emulation to design real-time operating policies that conjunctively optimize water quantity and quality targets. The main advantage of this scheme stands in its capability of exploiting real-time hydro-meteorological forecasts, which are crucial in such fast-varying systems. In addition, the reduced computational requests of the MPC scheme allows coupling it with dynamic emulators of water quality processes. The approach is demonstrated on Marina Reservoir, a multi-purpose reservoir located in the heart of Singapore and characterized by a large, highly urbanized catchment with a short (i.e. approximately one hour) time of concentration. Results show that the MPC scheme, coupled with a water quality emulator, provides a good compromise between different operating objectives, namely flood risk reduction, drinking water supply and salinity control. Finally, the scheme is used to assess the effect of source control measures (e.g. green roofs) aimed at restoring the natural hydrological regime of Marina Reservoir catchment.

  14. Natural and human drivers of salinity in reservoirs and their implications in water supply operation through a Decision Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Eva; Gómez-Beas, Raquel; Linares-Sáez, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Salt can be a problem when is originally in aquifers or when it dissolves in groundwater and comes to the ground surface or flows into streams. The problem increases in lakes hydraulically connected with aquifers affecting water quality. This issue is even more alarming when water resources are used for urban and irrigation supply and water quantity and quality restrict that water demand. This work shows a data based and physical modeling approach in the Guadalhorce reservoir, located in southern Spain. This water body receives salt contribution from mainly groundwater flow, getting salinity values in the reservoir from 3500 to 5500 μScm-1. Moreover, Guadalhorce reservoir is part of a complex system of reservoirs fed from the Guadalhorce River that supplies all urban, irrigation, tourism, energy and ecology water uses, which makes that implementation and validation of methods and tools for smart water management is required. Meteorological, hydrological and water quality data from several monitoring networks and data sources, with both historical and real time data during a 40-years period, were used to analyze the impact salinity. On the other hand, variables that mainly depend on the dam operation, such as reservoir water level and water outflow, were also analyzed to understand how they affect to salinity in depth and time. Finally surface and groundwater inflows to the reservoir were evaluated through a physically based hydrological model to forecast when the major contributions take place. Reservoir water level and surface and groundwater inflows were found to be the main drivers of salinity in the reservoir. When reservoir water level is high, daily water inflow around 0.4 hm3 causes changes in salinity (both drop and rise) up to 500 μScm-1, but no significant changes are found when water level falls 2-3 m. However the gradual water outflows due to dam operation and consequent decrease in reservoir water levels makes that, after dry periods, salinity

  15. Production induced boiling and cold water entry in the Cerro Prieto geothermal reservoir indicated by chemical and physical measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, M.A. (DSIR, Wellington, New Zealand); Truesdell, A.H.; Manon, A.

    1981-01-01

    Chemical and physical data suggest that the relatively shallow western part of the Cerro Prieto reservoir is bounded below by low permeability rocks, and above and at the sides by an interface with cooler water. There is no continuous permeability barrier around or immediately above the reservoir. Permeability within the reservoir is dominantly intergranular. Mixture with cooler water rather than boiling is the dominant cooling process in the natural state, and production causes displacement of hot water by cooler water, not by vapor. Local boiling occurs near most wells in response to pressure decreases, but no general vapor zone has formed.

  16. Hedging Rules for Water Supply Reservoir Based on the Model of Simulation and Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Ji

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a hedging rule model which is composed of a two-period reservior operation model considering the damage depth and hedging rule parameter optimization model. The former solves hedging rules based on a given poriod’s water supply weighting factor and carryover storage target, while the latter optimization model is used to optimize the weighting factor and carryover storage target based on the hedging rules. The coupling model gives the optimal poriod’s water supply weighting factor and carryover storage target to guide release. The conclusions achieved from this study as follows: (1 the water supply weighting factor and carryover storage target have a direct impact on the three elements of the hedging rule; (2 parameters can guide reservoirs to supply water reasonably after optimization of the simulation and optimization model; and (3 in order to verify the utility of the hedging rule, the Heiquan reservoir is used as a case study and particle swarm optimization algorithm with a simulation model is adopted for optimizing the parameter. The results show that the proposed hedging rule can improve the operation performances of the water supply reservoir.

  17. 11-Year change in water chemistry of large freshwater Reservoir Danjiangkou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Siyue; Ye, Chen; Zhang, Quanfa

    2017-08-01

    Danjiangkou Reservoir, an important drinking water source, has become a hot spot internationally due to its draining catchment has been increasingly affected by anthropogenic activities. However, its natural water chemistry (major elements) received little attention though it is crucial for water quality and aquatic ecology. Major ions during 2004-2014 were determined using stoichiometry to explore their shifts and the driving factors in the Danjiangkou Reservoir. Results show significant differences in monthly, spatial and annual concentrations of major ions. Waters are controlled by carbonate weathering with the dominant ions of Ca2+ and HCO3- total contributing 74% to the solutes, which are consistent with regional geography. Carbonate dissolution was produced by sulfuric acid and carbonic acid in particular. The relative abundance of Ca2+ gradually decreases, Na+ + K+ abundance, however, has doubled in the recent 11 years. Population and human activities were the major drivers for several major ions, i.e., Cl- and Na+ concentrations were explained by population and GDP, and SO42- by GDP, industrial sewage and energy consumption. Estimation indicated that domestic salts and atmospheric deposition contributed 56% and 22% to Cl-, respectively. We conclude waters in the Reservoir are naturally controlled by rock weathering whilst some key elements largely contributed by anthropogenic activities.

  18. Effects of bubbling operations on a thermally stratified reservoir: implications for water quality amelioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, R L; Bonansea, M; Cosavella, A; Monarde, F; Ferreyra, M; Bresciano, J

    2012-01-01

    Artificial thermal mixing of the water column is a common method of addressing water quality problems with the most popular method of destratification being the bubble curtain. The air or oxygen distribution along submerged multiport diffusers is based on similar basic principles as those of outfall disposal systems. Moreover, the disposal of sequestered greenhouse gases into the ocean, as recently proposed by several researchers to mitigate the global warming problem, requires analogous design criteria. In this paper, the influence of a bubble-plume is evaluated using full-scale temperature and water quality data collected in San Roque Reservoir, Argentina. A composite system consisting of seven separated diffusers connected to four 500 kPa compressors was installed at this reservoir by the end of 2008. The original purpose of this air bubble system was to reduce the stratification, so that the water body may completely mix under natural phenomena and remain well oxygenated throughout the year. By using a combination of the field measurements and modelling, this work demonstrates that thermal mixing by means of compressed air may improve water quality; however, if improperly sized or operated, such mixing can also cause deterioration. Any disruption in aeration during the destratification process, for example, may result in a reduction of oxygen levels due to the higher hypolimnetic temperatures. Further, the use of artificial destratification appears to have insignificant influence on reducing evaporation rates in relatively shallow impoundments such as San Roque reservoir.

  19. A real-time control framework for urban water reservoirs operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galelli, S.; Goedbloed, A.; Schwanenberg, D.

    2012-04-01

    Drinking water demand in urban areas is growing parallel to the worldwide urban population, and it is acquiring an increasing part of the total water consumption. Since the delivery of sufficient water volumes in urban areas represents a difficult logistic and economical problem, different metropolitan areas are evaluating the opportunity of constructing relatively small reservoirs within urban areas. Singapore, for example, is developing the so-called 'Four National Taps Strategies', which detects the maximization of water yields from local, urban catchments as one of the most important water sources. However, the peculiar location of these reservoirs can provide a certain advantage from the logistical point of view, but it can pose serious difficulties in their daily management. Urban catchments are indeed characterized by large impervious areas: this results in a change of the hydrological cycle, with decreased infiltration and groundwater recharge, and increased patterns of surface and river discharges, with higher peak flows, volumes and concentration time. Moreover, the high concentrations of nutrients and sediments characterizing urban discharges can cause further water quality problems. In this critical hydrological context, the effective operation of urban water reservoirs must rely on real-time control techniques, which can exploit hydro-meteorological information available in real-time from hydrological and nowcasting models. This work proposes a novel framework for the real-time control of combined water quality and quantity objectives in urban reservoirs. The core of this framework is a non-linear Model Predictive Control (MPC) scheme, which employs the current state of the system, the future discharges furnished by a predictive model and a further model describing the internal dynamics of the controlled sub-system to determine an optimal control sequence over a finite prediction horizon. The main advantage of this scheme stands in its reduced

  20. Oil recovery enhancement from fractured, low permeability reservoirs. [Carbonated Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, S.W.

    1991-01-01

    The results of the investigative efforts for this jointly funded DOE-State of Texas research project achieved during the 1990-1991 year may be summarized as follows: Geological Characterization - Detailed maps of the development and hierarchical nature the fracture system exhibited by Austin Chalk outcrops were prepared. The results of these efforts were directly applied to the development of production decline type curves applicable to a dual-fracture-matrix flow system. Analysis of production records obtained from Austin Chalk operators illustrated the utility of these type curves to determine relative fracture/matrix contributions and extent. Well-log response in Austin Chalk wells has been shown to be a reliable indicator of organic maturity. Shear-wave splitting concepts were used to estimate fracture orientations from Vertical Seismic Profile, VSP data. Several programs were written to facilitate analysis of the data. The results of these efforts indicated fractures could be detected with VSP seismic methods.Development of the EOR Imbibition Process - Laboratory displacement as well as Magnetic Resonance Imaging, MRI and Computed Tomography, CT imaging studies have shown the carbonated water-imbibition displacement process significantly accelerates and increases recovery from oil saturated, low permeability rocks.Field Tests - Two operators amenable to conducting a carbonated water flood test on an Austin Chalk well have been identified. Feasibility studies are presently underway.

  1. Oil Recovery Enhancement from Fractured, Low Permeability Reservoirs. [Carbonated Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poston, S. W.

    1991-01-01

    The results of the investigative efforts for this jointly funded DOE-State of Texas research project achieved during the 1990-1991 year may be summarized as follows: Geological Characterization - Detailed maps of the development and hierarchical nature the fracture system exhibited by Austin Chalk outcrops were prepared. The results of these efforts were directly applied to the development of production decline type curves applicable to a dual-fracture-matrix flow system. Analysis of production records obtained from Austin Chalk operators illustrated the utility of these type curves to determine relative fracture/matrix contributions and extent. Well-log response in Austin Chalk wells has been shown to be a reliable indicator of organic maturity. Shear-wave splitting concepts were used to estimate fracture orientations from Vertical Seismic Profile, VSP data. Several programs were written to facilitate analysis of the data. The results of these efforts indicated fractures could be detected with VSP seismic methods. Development of the EOR Imbibition Process - Laboratory displacement as well as Magnetic Resonance Imaging, MRI and Computed Tomography, CT imaging studies have shown the carbonated water-imbibition displacement process significantly accelerates and increases recovery from oil saturated, low permeability rocks. Field Tests - Two operators amenable to conducting a carbonated water flood test on an Austin Chalk well have been identified. Feasibility studies are presently underway.

  2. Ecological aspects of the hydro power industry and possible means to improve ecological conditions of water reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaika, A.

    1997-01-01

    In this report the analyse a hydro power generating structure as a multitask water management scheme and its environmental impact of water users was viewed. It is possible to improve sanitary, biological and hydraulic condition of reservoirs and limit water overgrowing by implementing the following set of measures: 1) limitation of poorly purified and non-organic discharges in these reservoirs by implementing purification structures; 2) construction of accumulation reservoirs for sewage water planted with plants-biological accumulators with consequent periodic removal of these plants; use of purificated water for irrigation; 3) limitation of biogens coming with agricultural drainage water; 4) annual removal of water plants in shallow places of reservoirs; 5) removal of silt (cleaning of the bottom) where technically possible; 6) aeration of reservoirs or their parts, especially shallow areas, including recreation areas; 7) controlled development of flora and fauna of reservoirs and neighbouring territories; it has been discovered that plant-eating fish has useful impact as biological purificatiors; 8) processing of seston (weighted plankton and remains of organisms) and water plants to get different producers (forage additions for animals, albumin-vitamin additions, chlorophyll and carotene paste, pharmaceutical materials and forage yeast). Development of silt removal technology is a very sharp problem especially for particular areas of Kiev reservoir contaminated with radioactive waste

  3. Constructing development and integrated coastal zone management in the conditions of the landslide slopes of Cheboksary water reservoir (Volga River)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikonorova, I. V.

    2018-01-01

    Uncontrolled construction and insufficient accounting of engineering-geological and hydro-geological conditions of the coastal zone, intensified technogenic impact on sloping surfaces and active urbanization led to the emergence of serious problems and emergency situations on the coasts of many Volga reservoirs, including the Cheboksary reservoir, within Cheboksary urban district and adjacent territories of Chuvashia. This article is devoted to substantiation of the possibility of rational construction development of landslide slopes of the Cheboksary water reservoir.

  4. Transport structures and water reservoir for the Mochovce nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.; Klacansky, T.

    1986-01-01

    The projects are described which were implemented by Doprastav Bratislava within the preparation of the site for the Mochovce nuclear power plant. This includes a railway siding in a length of 11.2 kilometres which includes a railway bridge, two other bridges and the reconstruction of the Kalna nad Vahom railway terminal. Also reconstructed or newly built were road communications in a total length of 23.3 km. The said project included the construction of a road flyover over the railway track and the construction of five other smaller bridges. In order to provide the utility water supply to the Mochovce nuclear power plant, a large reservoir is being built at Velke Kozmalovce. The reservoir will have a total capacity of 2.6 mill. m 3 of water, of this the effective capacity will be 2.1 mill. m 3 on a flooded area of some 90 ha. Part of the reservoir will be a small hydro-power plant, the reservoir will also be used for irrigation on the fields of the neighbouring farms. (Z.M.)

  5. Assessing ecosystem effects of reservoir operations using food web-energy transfer and water quality models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, L.; Johnson, B.M.; Bartholow, J.; Hanna, R.B.

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the effects on the reservoir food web of a new temperature control device (TCD) on the dam at Shasta Lake, California. We followed a linked modeling approach that used a specialized reservoir water quality model to forecast operation-induced changes in phytoplankton production. A food web–energy transfer model was also applied to propagate predicted changes in phytoplankton up through the food web to the predators and sport fishes of interest. The food web–energy transfer model employed a 10% trophic transfer efficiency through a food web that was mapped using carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis. Stable isotope analysis provided an efficient and comprehensive means of estimating the structure of the reservoir's food web with minimal sampling and background data. We used an optimization procedure to estimate the diet proportions of all food web components simultaneously from their isotopic signatures. Some consumers were estimated to be much more sensitive than others to perturbations to phytoplankton supply. The linked modeling approach demonstrated that interdisciplinary efforts enhance the value of information obtained from studies of managed ecosystems. The approach exploited the strengths of engineering and ecological modeling methods to address concerns that neither of the models could have addressed alone: (a) the water quality model could not have addressed quantitatively the possible impacts to fish, and (b) the food web model could not have examined how phytoplankton availability might change due to reservoir operations.

  6. Microbiological water quality and its relation to nitrogen and phosphorus at the Pareja limno-reservoir (Guadalajara, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Navarro, E; Martínez-Pérez, S; Sastre-Merlín, A; Soliveri, J; Fernández-Monistrol, I; Copa-Patiño, J L

    2011-03-01

    Bordering on the edge of the Entrepeñas reservoir (Guadalajara, Spain), next to the village of Pareja, a small dam that allows a body of water to develop with a constant level has been built. Initiatives like this (which we have termed "limno-reservoirs") are innovative in Spain and around the world. Earlier reservoirs such as this one were constructed to create a habitat for birds, but the Pareja limno-reservoir is the first to promote socio-economic development. In order to study this limno-reservoir, this research group set up an environmental observatory, analyzing, among other variables, microbiological water quality and nutrient content. After a year and a half of research, it was observed that the concentration of microorganisms is lower in the limno-reservoir than in the river that feeds it, possibly due to the nutrient depletion in the lentic ecosystem. In the limno-reservoir, the total coliforms and enterococci concentrations fall within the European Bathing Water Directive limits, but in the river these concentrations are sometimes higher. The nutrient load in the limno-reservoir is low, with nutrient variations influencing native microorganisms, but not for total coliforms and enterococci. However, the development of special conditions in the bottom has been observed in winter, facilitating coliforms and enterococci survival. This research is very interesting since the creation of limno-reservoirs is rising in Spain and no research is being done on their behaviour. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Surf Zone Hydrodynamics and its Utilization in Biotechnical Stabilization of Water Reservoir Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Pelikán

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The water reservoir banks are eroded mainly by two factors. The first one is wave action (i.e. wave abrasion affecting the bank in direction from the reservoir. The second one is the influence of water flowing downward over the bank surface in direction from land into the reservoir (e.g. rainfall. The determination of regular altitudinal emplacement of proper designed particular biotechnical stabilization elements is the most important factor on which the right functionality of whole construction depends. Surf zone hydrodynamics solves the wave and water level changes inside the region extending from the wave breaking point to the limit of wave up-rush. The paper is focused on the utilization of piece of knowledge from a part of sea coast hydrodynamics and new approach in its application in the conditions of inland water bodies when designing the biotechnical stabilization elements along the shorelines. The “reinforced grass carpets” as a type of biotechnical method of bank stabilization are presented in the paper; whether the growth of grass root system is dependent on presence or absence of geomats in the soil structure and proceeding of their establishment on the shorelines.

  8. Environmental hedging: A theory and method for reconciling reservoir operations for downstream ecology and water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, L. E.; Lund, J. R.; Moyle, P. B.; Quiñones, R. M.; Herman, J. D.; O'Rear, T. A.

    2017-09-01

    Building reservoir release schedules to manage engineered river systems can involve costly trade-offs between storing and releasing water. As a result, the design of release schedules requires metrics that quantify the benefit and damages created by releases to the downstream ecosystem. Such metrics should support making operational decisions under uncertain hydrologic conditions, including drought and flood seasons. This study addresses this need and develops a reservoir operation rule structure and method to maximize downstream environmental benefit while meeting human water demands. The result is a general approach for hedging downstream environmental objectives. A multistage stochastic mixed-integer nonlinear program with Markov Chains, identifies optimal "environmental hedging," releases to maximize environmental benefits subject to probabilistic seasonal hydrologic conditions, current, past, and future environmental demand, human water supply needs, infrastructure limitations, population dynamics, drought storage protection, and the river's carrying capacity. Environmental hedging "hedges bets" for drought by reducing releases for fish, sometimes intentionally killing some fish early to reduce the likelihood of large fish kills and storage crises later. This approach is applied to Folsom reservoir in California to support survival of fall-run Chinook salmon in the lower American River for a range of carryover and initial storage cases. Benefit is measured in terms of fish survival; maintaining self-sustaining native fish populations is a significant indicator of ecosystem function. Environmental hedging meets human demand and outperforms other operating rules, including the current Folsom operating strategy, based on metrics of fish extirpation and water supply reliability.

  9. Geochemical analysis of atlantic rim water, carbon county, wyoming: New applications for characterizing coalbed natural gas reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, J.F.; Frost, C.D.; Sharma, Shruti

    2011-01-01

    Coalbed natural gas (CBNG) production typically requires the extraction of large volumes of water from target formations, thereby influencing any associated reservoir systems. We describe isotopic tracers that provide immediate data on the presence or absence of biogenic natural gas and the identify methane-containing reservoirs are hydrologically confined. Isotopes of dissolved inorganic carbon and strontium, along with water quality data, were used to characterize the CBNG reservoirs and hydrogeologic systems of Wyoming's Atlantic Rim. Water was analyzed from a stream, springs, and CBNG wells. Strontium isotopic composition and major ion geochemistry identify two groups of surface water samples. Muddy Creek and Mesaverde Group spring samples are Ca-Mg-S04-type water with higher 87Sr/86Sr, reflecting relatively young groundwater recharged from precipitation in the Sierra Madre. Groundwaters emitted from the Lewis Shale springs are Na-HCO3-type waters with lower 87Sr/86Sr, reflecting sulfate reduction and more extensive water-rock interaction. To distinguish coalbed waters, methanogenically enriched ??13CDIC wasused from other natural waters. Enriched ??13CDIC, between -3.6 and +13.3???, identified spring water that likely originates from Mesaverde coalbed reservoirs. Strongly positive ??13CDIC, between +12.6 and +22.8???, identified those coalbed reservoirs that are confined, whereas lower ??13CDIC, between +0.0 and +9.9???, identified wells within unconfined reservoir systems. Copyright ?? 2011. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. All rights reserved.

  10. a Stochastic Approach to Multiobjective Optimization of Large-Scale Water Reservoir Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottacin-Busolin, A.; Worman, A. L.

    2013-12-01

    A main challenge for the planning and management of water resources is the development of multiobjective strategies for operation of large-scale water reservoir networks. The optimal sequence of water releases from multiple reservoirs depends on the stochastic variability of correlated hydrologic inflows and on various processes that affect water demand and energy prices. Although several methods have been suggested, large-scale optimization problems arising in water resources management are still plagued by the high dimensional state space and by the stochastic nature of the hydrologic inflows. In this work, the optimization of reservoir operation is approached using approximate dynamic programming (ADP) with policy iteration and function approximators. The method is based on an off-line learning process in which operating policies are evaluated for a number of stochastic inflow scenarios, and the resulting value functions are used to design new, improved policies until convergence is attained. A case study is presented of a multi-reservoir system in the Dalälven River, Sweden, which includes 13 interconnected reservoirs and 36 power stations. Depending on the late spring and summer peak discharges, the lowlands adjacent to Dalälven can often be flooded during the summer period, and the presence of stagnating floodwater during the hottest months of the year is the cause of a large proliferation of mosquitos, which is a major problem for the people living in the surroundings. Chemical pesticides are currently being used as a preventive countermeasure, which do not provide an effective solution to the problem and have adverse environmental impacts. In this study, ADP was used to analyze the feasibility of alternative operating policies for reducing the flood risk at a reasonable economic cost for the hydropower companies. To this end, mid-term operating policies were derived by combining flood risk reduction with hydropower production objectives. The performance

  11. Kansas environmental and resource study: A Great Plains model. Monitoring fresh water resources. [water quality of reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarger, H. L. (Principal Investigator); Mccauley, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Processing and analysis of CCT's for numerous ground truth supported passes over Kansas reservoirs has demonstrated that sun angle and atmospheric conditions are strong influences on water reflectance levels as detected by ERTS-1 and can suppress the contributions of true water quality factors. Band ratios, on the other hand, exhibit very little dependence on sun angle and sky conditions and thus are more directly related to water quality. Band ratio levels can be used to reliably determine suspended load. Other water quality indicators appear to have little or no affect on reflectance levels.

  12. Efficient Operation of a Multi-purpose Reservoir in Chile: Integration of Economic Water Value for Irrigation and Hydropower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, M. A.; Gonzalez Cabrera, J. M., Sr.; Moreno, R.

    2016-12-01

    Operation of hydropower reservoirs in Chile is prescribed by an Independent Power System Operator. This study proposes a methodology that integrates power grid operations planning with basin-scale multi-use reservoir operations planning. The aim is to efficiently manage a multi-purpose reservoir, in which hydroelectric generation is competing with other water uses, most notably irrigation. Hydropower and irrigation are competing water uses due to a seasonality mismatch. Currently, the operation of multi-purpose reservoirs with substantial power capacity is prescribed as the result of a grid-wide cost-minimization model which takes irrigation requirements as constraints. We propose advancing in the economic co-optimization of reservoir water use for irrigation and hydropower at the basin level, by explicitly introducing the economic value of water for irrigation represented by a demand function for irrigation water. The proposed methodology uses the solution of a long-term grid-wide operations planning model, a stochastic dual dynamic program (SDDP), to obtain the marginal benefit function for water use in hydropower. This marginal benefit corresponds to the energy price in the power grid as a function of the water availability in the reservoir and the hydrologic scenarios. This function allows capture technical and economic aspects to the operation of hydropower reservoir in the power grid and is generated with the dual variable of the power-balance constraint, the optimal reservoir operation and the hydrologic scenarios used in SDDP. The economic value of water for irrigation and hydropower are then integrated into a basin scale stochastic dynamic program, from which stored water value functions are derived. These value functions are then used to re-optimize reservoir operations under several inflow scenarios.

  13. Metal quantification in water and sediment samples of billings reservoir by SR-TXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampaio, Sergio Arnaud; Moreira, Silvana; Vives, Ana Elisa Sirito de

    2007-01-01

    Billings is the largest reservoir water of the metropolitan Sao Paulo area, with approximately 100km 2 of water. Its basin hydrographic occupies more than 500km 2 in six cities. It concentrates the largest industrial park of South America and only its margins are busy for almost a million inhabitants. The quality of its waters is, therefore, constant of concern of the whole society. In this work the Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X Ray Fluorescence (SR-TXRF) is applied for the identification and quantification of metals in waters and sediments of the Billings dam. A comparison of the levels of metals found with the maximum permissive limits established by the Brazilian legislation was made. The purpose of social context is to contribute for the preservation of the local springs and the rational use of its waters. For the field work they were chosen 19 collection points, included the margins and the central portion of the dam, in agreement with similar approaches the those adopted by the Company of Technology of Environmental Sanitation of Sao Paulo State (CETESB).The water and sediment samples, as well as the certified and standard samples, were analyzed at Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), Campinas, SP, Brazil. Results indicate that the water and the sediments of the reservoir have concentrations above the legal limits. (author)

  14. Metal quantification in water and sediment samples of billings reservoir by SR-TXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampaio, Sergio Arnaud; Moreira, Silvana [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mails: silvana@fec.unicamp.br; sergioarnaud@hotmail.com; Vives, Ana Elisa Sirito de [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br

    2007-07-01

    Billings is the largest reservoir water of the metropolitan Sao Paulo area, with approximately 100km{sup 2} of water. Its basin hydrographic occupies more than 500km{sup 2} in six cities. It concentrates the largest industrial park of South America and only its margins are busy for almost a million inhabitants. The quality of its waters is, therefore, constant of concern of the whole society. In this work the Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X Ray Fluorescence (SR-TXRF) is applied for the identification and quantification of metals in waters and sediments of the Billings dam. A comparison of the levels of metals found with the maximum permissive limits established by the Brazilian legislation was made. The purpose of social context is to contribute for the preservation of the local springs and the rational use of its waters. For the field work they were chosen 19 collection points, included the margins and the central portion of the dam, in agreement with similar approaches the those adopted by the Company of Technology of Environmental Sanitation of Sao Paulo State (CETESB).The water and sediment samples, as well as the certified and standard samples, were analyzed at Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), Campinas, SP, Brazil. Results indicate that the water and the sediments of the reservoir have concentrations above the legal limits. (author)

  15. Molecular analysis of the microbial community structures in water-flooding petroleum reservoirs with different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.-Y.; Duan, R.-Y.; Liu, J.-F.; Yang, S.-Z.; Gu, J.-D.; Mu, B.-Z.

    2012-04-01

    Temperature is one of the most important environmental factors regulating the activity and determining the composition of the microbial community. Analysis of microbial communities from six water-flooding petroleum reservoirs at temperatures from 20 to 63 °C by 16S rRNA gene clone libraries indicates the presence of physiologically diverse and temperature-dependent microorganisms in these subterrestrial ecosystems. In high-temperature petroleum reservoirs, most of the archaeal sequences belong to the thermophilic archaea including the genera Thermococcus, Methanothermobacter and Thermoplasmatales, most of the bacterial sequences belong to the phyla Firmicutes, Thermotogae and Thermodesulfobacteria; in low-temperature petroleum reservoirs, most of the archaeal sequences are affiliated with the genera Methanobacterium, Methanoculleus and Methanocalculus, most of the bacterial sequences to the phyla Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) revealed that temperature, mineralization, ionic type as well as volatile fatty acids showed correlation with the microbial community structures. These organisms may be adapted to the environmental conditions of these petroleum reservoirs over geologic time by metabolizing buried organic matter from the original deep subsurface environment and became the common inhabitants in subsurface environments.

  16. Preliminary Assessment of Silting and The Quality of Bottom Sediments in A Small Water Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bąk Łukasz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the degree of silting and pollution of bottom sediments in a small water reservoir Lubianka situated in Starachowice, Świętokrzyskie Province, with selected heavy metals (Pb, Cr, Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn, Fe, Mn, Hg. Catchment basin of the reservoir is forested in 92%. Other parts are covered by estates of detached houses, barren lands and green areas. Bathymetric measurements and analyses of trace elements in bottom sediments were made in 2012. After 28 years of exploitation, reservoir's basin accumulated 43 thousand cubic metres of sediments i.e. 4.7% of its initial volume. Mean annual silting rate was 0.17%. Due to the content of copper and chromium, bottom sediments were classified to the II category (sediments of average pollution according to geochemical standards. Concentrations of Pb, Cd and Hg in all analysed samples were below geochemical background. In a sample collected at the inlet to the reservoir, the TEL index for chromium was exceeded by 25.6%. In other samples the threshold values of the TEL and PEL indices were not exceeded.

  17. Responses of Microbial Community Composition to Temperature Gradient and Carbon Steel Corrosion in Production Water of Petroleum Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xiao Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil reservoir production systems are usually associated with a temperature gradient and oil production facilities frequently suffer from pipeline corrosion failures. Both bacteria and archaea potentially contribute to biocorrosion of the oil production equipment. Here the response of microbial populations from the petroleum reservoir to temperature gradient and corrosion of carbon steel coupons were investigated under laboratory condition. Carbon steel coupons were exposed to production water from a depth of 1809 m of Jiangsu petroleum reservoir (China and incubated for periods of 160 and 300 days. The incubation temperatures were set at 37, 55, and 65°C to monitoring mesophilic, thermophilic and hyperthermophilic microorganisms associated with anaerobic carbon steel corrosion. The results showed that corrosion rate at 55°C (0.162 ± 0.013 mm year-1 and 37°C (0.138 ± 0.008 mm year-1 were higher than that at 65°C (0.105 ± 0.007 mm year-1, and a dense biofilm was observed on the surface of coupons under all biotic incubations. The microbial community analysis suggests a high frequency of bacterial taxa associated with families Porphyromonadaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and Spirochaetaceae at all three temperatures. While the majority of known sulfate-reducing bacteria, in particular Desulfotignum, Desulfobulbus and Desulfovibrio spp., were predominantly observed at 37°C; Desulfotomaculum spp., Thermotoga spp. and Thermanaeromonas spp. as well as archaeal members closely related to Thermococcus and Archaeoglobus spp. were substantially enriched at 65°C. Hydrogenotrophic methanogens of the family Methanobacteriaceae were dominant at both 37 and 55°C; acetoclastic Methanosaeta spp. and methyltrophic Methanolobus spp. were enriched at 37°C. These observations show that temperature changes significantly alter the microbial community structure in production fluids and also affected the biocorrosion of carbon steel under anaerobic conditions.

  18. Geology of the Roswell artesian basin, New Mexico, and its relation to the Hondo Reservoir and Effect on artesian aquifer storage of flood water in Hondo Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Robert T.; Theis, Charles V.

    1949-01-01

    In the Roswell Basin in southeastern New Mexico artesian water is produced from cavernous zones in the carbonate rocks of the San Andres formation and the lower part of the Chalk Bluff formation, both of Permian age. The Hondo Reservoir, 9 miles west-southwest of Roswell, was completed by the U. S. Bureau of Reclamation in 1907, to store waters of the Rio Hondo for irrigation. The project was not successful, as the impounded water escaped rapidly through holes in the gypsum and limestone of the San Andres formation constituting its floor. Of 27,000 acre~feet that entered the reservoir between 1908 and 1913, only 1,100 acre-feet was drawn Ollt for use, the remainder escaping through the floor of the reservoir. Since 1939, plans have been drawn up by the State Engineer and by Federal agencies to utilize the reservoir to protect Roswell from floods. It has also been suggested that water from the Pecos River might be diverted into underground storage through the reservoir. Sinkholes in the Roswell Basin are largely clustered in areas where gypsum occurs in the bedrock. Collapse of strata is due to solution of underlying rock commonly containing gypsum. Domes occur in gypsiferous strata near Salt Creek. The Bottomless Lakes, sinkhole lakes in the escarpment on the east side of the Pecos, are believed to have developed in north-south hinge-line fractures opened when the westernmost beds in the escarpment collapsed. Collapse was due to solution and removal of gypsiferous rock by artesian water which now fills the lakes.

  19. Evidence for large reservoirs of water/mud in Utopia and Acidalia Planitiae on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, M. A.; Hiesinger, H.; Erkeling, G.; Reiss, D.

    2015-03-01

    Utopia and Acidalia Planitiae show a set of similar morphologic features indicative of the presence of large reservoirs of water/mud in these regional topographic lows. The most important of these features are: (1) impact crater ejecta morphology that progressively changes from ballistic/rampart at the basins periphery to strongly degraded pancake-like in the central portions of the basins, and (2) etched flows (interpreted as mudflows) that are concentrated in those regions of the central portions of both basins where the pancake-like ejecta prevail. The Vastitas Borealis Formation (VBF) in Utopia and Acidalia Planitiae represents the uppermost stratigraphic limit of possible reservoirs in both basins and has practically the same age in these regions; ∼3.57 (±0.02) Ga in Utopia Planitia and ∼3.61 (+0.05/-0.08) Ga in Acidalia Planitia. The southern contact of the VBF closely follows specific contour lines in Utopia Planitia (∼-3.6 km ± 54 m, over a distance of ∼1500 km) and Acidalia Planitia (∼-3.9 km ± 70 m, over the distance of ∼6000 km). The presence of the large water/mud reservoirs and the age and topographic configuration of the VBF in Utopia and Acidalia Planitiae are consistent with the existence of an extensive single body of water (an ocean) in the northern plains of Mars.

  20. Outbreak of hepatitis A in a college traced to contaminated water reservoir in cafeteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poonawagul, U; Warintrawat, S; Snitbhan, R; Kitisriwarapoj, S; Chaiyakunt, V; Foy, H M

    1995-12-01

    A sharp but short outbreak of hepatitis A occurred in a college during September and October 1992. The epidemic pattern suggested a common source. The attack rate of clinically recognizable hepatitis A was 8% all cases were HAV IgM positive. Among 31 students with minor symptoms but without jaundice 8 (26%) were also HAV IgM positive, as were 8 (10%) of 77 totally asymptomatic students tested. A case control study of eating and drinking habits of the students showed no other significant differences other than that 45 of 56 cases and 18 of 34 controls interviewed had filled their water glasses by dipping them in a overflow water reservoir. This gives an odds ratio of 3.8. The reservoir was heavily contaminated with coliform bacteria and the residual chlorine was at lower than standard concentration, whereas other water resources were clean. It is suggested that the reservoir had been contaminated with hepatitis A virus by somebody with fecally contaminated hands a couple of weeks prior to the beginning of the outbreak.

  1. Temporal variability in water quality parameters--a case study of drinking water reservoir in Florida, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toor, Gurpal S; Han, Lu; Stanley, Craig D

    2013-05-01

    Our objective was to evaluate changes in water quality parameters during 1983-2007 in a subtropical drinking water reservoir (area: 7 km(2)) located in Lake Manatee Watershed (area: 338 km(2)) in Florida, USA. Most water quality parameters (color, turbidity, Secchi depth, pH, EC, dissolved oxygen, total alkalinity, cations, anions, and lead) were below the Florida potable water standards. Concentrations of copper exceeded the potable water standard of water quality threshold of 20 μg l(-1). Concentrations of total N showed significant increase from 1983 to 1994 and a decrease from 1997 to 2007. Total P showed significant increase during 1983-2007. Mean concentrations of total N (n = 215; 1.24 mg l(-1)) were lower, and total P (n = 286; 0.26 mg l(-1)) was much higher than the EPA numeric criteria of 1.27 mg total N l(-1) and 0.05 mg total P l(-1) for Florida's colored lakes, respectively. Seasonal trends were observed for many water quality parameters where concentrations were typically elevated during wet months (June-September). Results suggest that reducing transport of organic N may be one potential option to protect water quality in this drinking water reservoir.

  2. DUSEL Facility Cooling Water Scaling Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daily, W D

    2011-04-05

    oilfield include calcium carbonates (CaCO3, mainly calcite) and alkaline-earth metal sulfates (barite BaSO4, celestite SrSO4, anhydrite CaSO4, hemihydrate CaSO4 1/2H2O, and gypsum CaSO4 2H2O or calcium sulfate). The cause of scaling can be difficult to identify in real oil and gas wells. However, pressure and temperature changes during the flow of fluids are primary reasons for the formation of carbonate scales, because the escape of CO2 and/or H2S gases out of the brine solution, as pressure is lowered, tends to elevate the pH of the brine and result in super-saturation with respect to carbonates. Concerning sulfate scales, the common cause is commingling of different sources of brines either due to breakthrough of injected incompatible waters or mixing of two different brines from different zones of the reservoir formation. A decrease in temperature tends to cause barite to precipitate, opposite of calcite. In addition, pressure drops tend to cause all scale minerals to precipitate due to the pressure dependence of the solubility product. And we can expect that there will be a pressure drop across the heat exchanger. Weather or not this will be offset by the rise in pressure remains to be seen. It's typically left to field testing to prove out. Progress has been made toward the control and treatment of the scale deposits, although most of the reaction mechanisms are still not well understood. Often the most efficient and economic treatment for scale formation is to apply threshold chemical inhibitors. Threshold scale inhibitors are like catalysts and have inhibition efficiency at very low concentrations (commonly less than a few mg/L), far below the stoichiometric concentrations of the crystal lattice ions in solution. There are many chemical classes of inhibitors and even more brands on the market. Based on the water chemistry it is anticipated that there is a high likelihood for sulfate compound precipitation and scaling. This may be dependent on the temperature

  3. Financial Risk Reduction and Management of Water Reservoirs Using Forecasts: A Case for Pernambuco, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, I.; Josset, L.; e Silva, E. C.; Possas, J. M. C.; Asfora, M. C.; Lall, U.

    2017-12-01

    The financial health and sustainability, ensuring adequate supply, and adapting to climate are fundamental challenges faced by water managers. These challenges are worsened in semi-arid regions with socio-economic pressures, seasonal supply of water, and projected increase in intensity and frequency of droughts. Over time, probabilistic rainfall forecasts are improving and for water managers, it could be key in addressing the above challenges. Using forecasts can also help make informed decisions about future infrastructure. The study proposes a model to minimize cost of water supply (including cost of deficit) given ensemble forecasts. The model can be applied to seasonal to annual ensemble forecasts, to determine the least cost solution. The objective of the model is to evaluate the resiliency and cost associated to supplying water. A case study is conducted in one of the largest reservoirs (Jucazinho) in Pernambuco state, Brazil, and four other reservoirs, which provide water to nineteen municipalities in the Jucazinho system. The state has been in drought since 2011, and the Jucazinho reservoir, has been empty since January 2017. The importance of climate adaptation along with risk management and financial sustainability are important to the state as it is extremely vulnerable to droughts, and has seasonal streamflow. The objectives of the case study are first, to check if streamflow forecasts help reduce future supply costs by comparing k-nearest neighbor ensemble forecasts with a fixed release policy. Second, to determine the value of future infrastructure, a new source of supply from Rio São Francisco, considered to mitigate drought conditions. The study concludes that using forecasts improve the supply and financial sustainability of water, by reducing cost of failure. It also concludes that additional infrastructure can help reduce the risks of failure significantly, but does not guarantee supply during prolonged droughts like the one experienced

  4. Storm water permitting for oil and gas facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Blanc, P.C.

    1991-01-01

    After several false starts, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published new federal storm water regulations in the November 16, 1990 Federal Register. These regulations identify facilities which must apply for a storm water permit and detail permit application requirements. The regulations appear at 40 CFR 122 Subpart B and became effective December 17, 1990. An outline of these regulations and their applicability to oil and gas facilities is presented. They are: facilities which require a storm water permit; types of storm water permits; permit application deadlines; permit application forms; facilities with existing storm water permits; storm water permit application data requirements; storm water sampling and analysis requirements; and EPA contacts for additional information

  5. Numerical simulation of the environmental impact of hydraulic fracturing of tight/shale gas reservoirs on near-surface ground water: background, base cases, shallow reservoirs, short-term gas and water transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers examined gas and water transport between a deep tight shale gas reservoir and a shallow overlying aquifer in the two years following hydraulic fracturing, assuming a pre-existing connecting pathway.

  6. Modeling the Influence of Variable Tributary Inflow on Circulation and Contaminant Transport in a Water Supply Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, L. H.; Wildman, R.

    2012-12-01

    This study characterizes quantitatively the flow and mixing regimes of a water supply reservoir, while also conducting numerical tracer experiments on different operation scenarios. We investigate the effects of weather events on water quality via storm water inflows. Our study site the Kensico Reservoir, New York, the penultimate reservoir of New York City's water supply, is never filtered and thus dependent on stringent watershed protection. This reservoir must meet federal drinking water standards under changing conditions such as increased suburban, commercial, and highway developments that are much higher than the rest of the watershed. Impacts from these sources on water quality are magnified by minor tributary flows subject to contaminants from development projects as other tributaries providing >99% of water to this reservoir are exceedingly clean due to management practices upstream. These threats, coupled with possible changes in the frequency/intensity of weather events due to climate change, increase the potential for contaminants to enter the reservoir and drinking water intakes. This situation provides us with the unique ability to study the effects of weather events on water quality via insignificant storm water inflows, without influence from the major tributaries due to their pristine water quality characteristics. The concentration of contaminants at the drinking water intake depends partially on transport from their point of entry in the reservoir. Thus, it is crucial to understand water circulation in this reservoir and to estimate residence times and water ages at different locations and under different hydrologic scenarios. We described water age, residence time, thermal structure, and flow dynamics of tributary plumes in Kensico Reservoir during a 22-year simulation period using a two-dimensional hydrodynamic and water quality model (CE-QUAL-W2). Our estimates of water age can reach a maximum of ~300 days in deep-reservoir-cells, with

  7. Water quality and communities associated with macrophytes in a shallow water-supply reservoir on an aquaculture farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipaúba-Tavares, L H; Dias, S G

    2014-05-01

    Plankton communities and macrofauna associated to aquatic macrophyte stands in a shallow water-supply reservoir (21°14'09″S; 48°18'38″W) on an aquaculture farm were compared to evaluate the relationship between organism densities and some abiotic features of the reservoir. Water and communities associated were sampled at two sites, one in an area with the predominance of Eichhornia azurea (Sw.) Kunth and the other with the predominance of Salvinia auriculata Aublet. Communities associated with macrophytes were sampled with floating quadrants (0.5 m2); the macrophytes were washed and plankton and macrofauna were fixated with 4% formalin and 1% lugol iodine; the specimens were then identified and counted. Plankton and macrofauna communities associated with S. auriculata and E. azurea had a similar diversity of species but different (pmacrophytes presence in the shallow reservoir is a strong predictor of favourable conditions to maintain great diversity plankton community and macrofauna associated with plants. The role of macrophytes is important for not only stabilising the clear-water state and maintaining high diversity of organisms associated, but also it seems to be a good alternative to maintaining desirable water-supply quality for aquaculture farms.

  8. Doomed reservoirs in Kansas, USA? Climate change and groundwater mining on the Great Plains lead to unsustainable surface water storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brikowski, T. H.

    2008-06-01

    SummaryStreamflow declines on the Great Plains of the US are causing many Federal reservoirs to become profoundly inefficient, and will eventually drive them into unsustainability as negative annual reservoir water budgets become more common. The streamflow declines are historically related to groundwater mining, but since the mid-1980s correlate increasingly with climate. This study highlights that progression toward unsustainability, and shows that future climate change will continue streamflow declines at historical rates, with severe consequences for surface water supply. An object lesson is Optima Lake in the Oklahoma Panhandle, where streamflows have declined 99% since the 1960s and the reservoir has never been more than 5% full. Water balances for the four westernmost Federal reservoirs in Kansas (Cedar Bluff, Keith Sebelius, Webster and Kirwin) show similar tendencies. For these four, reservoir inflow has declined by 92%, 73%, 81% and 64% respectively since the 1950s. Since 1990 total evaporated volumes relative to total inflows amounted to 68%, 83%, 24% and 44% respectively. Predictions of streamflow and reservoir performance based on climate change models indicate 70% chance of steady decline after 2007, with a ˜50% chance of failure (releases by gravity flow impossible) of Cedar Bluff Reservoir between 2007 and 2050. Paradoxically, a 30% chance of storage increase prior 2020 is indicated, followed by steady declines through 2100. Within 95% confidence the models predict >50% decline in surface water resources between 2007 and 2050. Ultimately, surface storage of water resources may prove unsustainable in this region, forcing conversion to subsurface storage.

  9. Quantification of Hungry Horse Reservoir Water Levels Needed to Maintain or Enhance Reservoir Fisheries; Methods and Data, 1983-1987 Summary Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Bruce; Michael, Gary; Wachsmuth, John (Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Kalispell, MT)

    1988-06-01

    The Hungry Horse Reservoir study is part of the Northwest Power Planning Council's resident fish and wildlife plan. The plan is responsible for mitigating damages to the fish and wildlife resources caused by hydroelectric development in the Columbia River Basin. The major goal of our study is to quantify seasonal water levels needed to maintain or enhance the reservoir fishery. This study began in May, 1983, and the initial phase will be completed July, 1988. This report summarizes limnological, fish abundance, fish distribution and fish food habits data collected from 1983 to 1988. The effect of reservoir operation upon fish habitat, fish food organisms and fish growth is discussed. 71 refs., 36 figs., 46 tabs.

  10. Evaluation of the return periods of water crises and evaporation in Monte Cotugno reservoir (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copertino, Vito; Lo Vecchio, Giuseppina; Marotta, Lucia; Pastore, Vittoria; Ponzio, Giuseppe; Scavone, Giuseppina; Telesca, Vito; Vita, Michele

    2010-05-01

    In the past water resources management has been dealt and solved increasing water availabilities; today such opportunities have been considerably reduced and the technical-scientific perspectives are addressed above all to improve water system effectiveness and to promote an use of water resources that holds account of the droughts frequency and based on a correct estimate of the hydrologic balance. In this work a study on the water stored in Monte Cotugno reservoir in Sinni river - Basilicata (Southern Italy) - is proposed, estimating water crises return periods and reservoir evaporation. For such purpose the runs method was applied, based on the comparison between the temporal series of the "water volume" hydrological variable and a threshold representative of the "normal" conditions regarding which the availability in excess or defect was estimated. This allowed to individualize the beginning and the end of a water crisis event and to characterize the droughts in terms of duration, sum deficit and intensity. Therefore the return period was evaluated by means of the methodology proposed by Shiau and Shen in 2001, turned out equal approximately to 6 years. Such value was then verified with a frequency analysis of the "water volume" random variable, using the Weibull's distribution. Subsequently, the Fourier's analysis in the last twenty years was carried out, obtaining the same result of the previous methods. Moreover, in proximity of the Monte Cotugno reservoir the weather station of Senise is located, managed by ALSIA (Agenzia Lucana di Sviluppo e Innovazione in Agricultura), that provides in continuous measurements of air temperature and humidity, wind speed and direction, and global solar radiation since 2000. Such parameters allowed to apply five methods for reservoir evaporation estimate selected from those proposed in the literature, of which the first three, the Jensen-Haise's method, Makkink's method and Stephens-Stewart's one are based on solar radiation

  11. Water Quality and Trophic Status Study in Sembrong Reservoir during Monsoon Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, S. I. N. S.; Talib, S. H. A.; Abustan, M. S.; Tajuddin, S. A. M.

    2018-04-01

    Sembrong is one of the reservoirs in Johor that supplies raw water to consumer for daily activities usage. Cleanliness and quality of water must be maintained to ensure that contamination is not applicable. This study is to determine the effects of sedimentation on water quality due to the deposition of sediment in the reservoir and to identify the rate of ammonia based on the location of the study area. There are several parameters required to obtain the data and reading for this study namely the temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH value, ammonia nitrogen and trophic status parameter that are consisting of Chlorophyll, total phosphorus and secchi depth. Seventeen (17) locations along Sembrong reservoir had been identified for sampling activities. From the result obtained, the reading of temperature and pH value has less significant differences between the locations involved. However, for dissolved oxygen, the highest readings were taken at location 6 and 7 which are 9.12 mg/L and 9.05 mg/L respectively compared to other location with the average reading of 8 mg/L. For ammonia nitrogen, the highest reading was at location 1 which is 2.24 mg/L, while the lowest reading at location 13 and 14 with 0.29 mg/L. Chlorophyll readings showed the highest reading of 92.33 μg/L at location 2 which is near to the inlet area while the lowest reading were taken at location 14 with 55.97 μg/L. For total phosphorus, location 1 has the highest reading of 19.50 μg/L compared to location 15 with 9.15 μg/L. The overall result indicates that the reading is high near the inlet and decreasing at the next location. So roughly, the river that connects to the Sembrong reservoir was carrying contaminants.

  12. Application of Ant-Colony-Based Algorithms to Multi-Reservoir Water Resources Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Borhani Darian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the continuous Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm (ACOR is used to investigate the optimum operation of complex multi-reservoir systems. The results are compared with those of the well-known Genetic Algorithm (GA. For this purpose, GA and ACOR are used to solve the long-term operation of a three-reservoir system in Karkheh Basin, southwestern Iran. The solution must determine monthly releases from the three reservoirs and their optimum allocations among the four agricultural demand areas. Meanwhile, a minimum discharge must be maintained within the river reaches for environmental concerns. Review of past research shows that only a few applications of Ant Colony have been generally made in water resources system problems; however, up to the time of initiating this paper, we found no other application of the ACOR in this area. Therefore, unlike GA, application of Ant-Colony-based algorithms in water resources systems has not been thoroughly evaluated and deserves  serious study. In this paper, the ACOR is stuided as the most recent Ant-Colony-based algorithm and its application in a multi-reservoir system is evaluated. The results indicate that with when the number of decision variables increases, a longer computational time is required and the optimum solutions found are inferior. Therefore, the ACOR would be unable to solve complex water resources problems unless some modifications are considered. To overcome a part of these drawbacks, a number of techniques are introduced in this paper that considerably improve the quality of the method by decreasing the required computation time and by enhancing optimum solutions found.

  13. Streamflow, water quality, and constituent loads and yields, Scituate Reservoir drainage area, Rhode Island, water year 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2015-01-01

    Streamflow and concentrations of sodium and chloride estimated from records of specific conductance were used to calculate loads of sodium and chloride during water year (WY) 2013 (October 1, 2012, through September 30, 2013) for tributaries to the Scituate Reservoir, Rhode Island. Streamflow and water-quality data used in the study were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) or the Providence Water Supply Board (PWSB) in the cooperative study. Streamflow was measured or estimated by the USGS following standard methods at 23 streamgages; 14 of these streamgages are equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring water level, specific conductance, and water temperature. Water-quality samples were collected at 37 sampling stations by the PWSB and at 14 continuous-record streamgages by the USGS during WY 2013 as part of a long-term sampling program; all stations are in the Scituate Reservoir drainage area. Water-quality data collected by the PWSB are summarized by using values of central tendency and are used, in combination with measured (or estimated) streamflows, to calculate loads and yields (loads per unit area) of selected water-quality constituents for WY 2013.

  14. Energy optimization through probabilistic annual forecast water release technique for major storage hydroelectric reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Bahari Othman; Mohd Zamri Yusoff

    2006-01-01

    One of the important decisions to be made by the management of hydroelectric power plant associated with major storage reservoir is to determine the best turbine water release decision for the next financial year. The water release decision enables firm energy generated estimation for the coming financial year to be done. This task is usually a simple and straightforward task provided that the amount of turbine water release is known. The more challenging task is to determine the best water release decision that is able to resolve the two conflicting operational objectives which are minimizing the drop of turbine gross head and maximizing upper reserve margin of the reservoir. Most techniques from literature emphasize on utilizing the statistical simulations approach. Markovians models, for example, are a class of statistical model that utilizes the past and the present system states as a basis for predicting the future [1]. This paper illustrates that rigorous solution criterion can be mathematically proven to resolve those two conflicting operational objectives. Thus, best water release decision that maximizes potential energy for the prevailing natural inflow is met. It is shown that the annual water release decision shall be made in such a manner that annual return inflow that has return frequency smaller than critical return frequency (f c ) should not be considered. This criterion enables target turbine gross head to be set to the well-defined elevation. In the other words, upper storage margin of the reservoir shall be made available to capture magnitude of future inflow that has return frequency greater than or equal to f c. A case study is shown to demonstrate practical application of the derived mathematical formulas

  15. Benthic macroinvertebrates as bioindicators of water quality in Billings Reservoir fishing sites (SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Baroldi Ciqueto Gargiulo

    Full Text Available Abastract: Aim The Billings Reservoir is the largest reservoir in the metropolitan region of São Paulo and has multiple uses, including artisanal fishing. Its surroundings present intense occupation, resulting in various environmental impacts. Although the water is degraded, affecting the composition and quality of the fish, this reservoir supports artisanal fishermen who survive through this activity. This study aimed to analyze the water quality in the main sites of artisanal fishing activity, with an emphasis on the benthic community as a bioindicator. Methods Three sampling sites were selected, in which water and zoobenthos samples were collected monthly from April 2012 to March 2013. Water analyses consisted of the determination of pH, temperature, conductivity, turbidity, total dissolved solids, dissolved oxygen, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and trophic state as well as a principal components analysis. The zoobenthos analysis consisted of determining the relative abundance and total density of taxa, the Shannon-Weaver diversity index, taxa richness, uniformity, Simpson’s dominance index, and the benthic community index and conducting a canonical correspondence analysis. The non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test followed by the Student-Newman-Keuls test were used to investigate the existence of significant differences in the abiotic and biotic variables among the sites. Results The studied sites showed a high degree of eutrophication, with nitrogen and phosphorus totals levels above the limits defined by current Brazilian legislation. Taquacetuba (P1 showed the best environmental conditions for the development of fishing activity, with the presence of sensitive organisms (Polymitarcyidae and higher levels of dissolved oxygen. Alvarenga (P2 had the worst water quality, with a predominance of tolerant organisms (Oligochaeta and lower levels of dissolved oxygen. Conclusion In conclusion, the benthic community in association with abiotic

  16. The role of reservoir storage in large-scale surface water availability analysis for Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrote, L. M.; Granados, A.; Martin-Carrasco, F.; Iglesias, A.

    2017-12-01

    A regional assessment of current and future water availability in Europe is presented in this study. The assessment was made using the Water Availability and Adaptation Policy Analysis (WAAPA) model. The model was built on the river network derived from the Hydro1K digital elevation maps, including all major river basins of Europe. Reservoir storage volume was taken from the World Register of Dams of ICOLD, including all dams with storage capacity over 5 hm3. Potential Water Availability is defined as the maximum amount of water that could be supplied at a certain point of the river network to satisfy a regular demand under pre-specified reliability requirements. Water availability is the combined result of hydrological processes, which determine streamflow in natural conditions, and human intervention, which determines the available hydraulic infrastructure to manage water and establishes water supply conditions through operating rules. The WAAPA algorithm estimates the maximum demand that can be supplied at every node of the river network accounting for the regulation capacity of reservoirs under different management scenarios. The model was run for a set of hydrologic scenarios taken from the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISIMIP), where the PCRGLOBWB hydrological model was forced with results from five global climate models. Model results allow the estimation of potential water stress by comparing water availability to projections of water abstractions along the river network under different management alternatives. The set of sensitivity analyses performed showed the effect of policy alternatives on water availability and highlighted the large uncertainties linked to hydrological and anthropological processes.

  17. Direction of rational use of water at livestock facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potseluev, A. A.; Nazarov, I. V.

    2017-05-01

    The article notes the world water shortage problem. Against this background, Russia’s agricultural production is considered, in particular the livestock sector as the main consumer of water resources. The structure of the main technological processes at livestock facilities is given and possible technological damage is indicated in case of the lack of technological processes for servicing animals and poultry with water. The direction of rational use of water based on the introduction of new technical and technological solutions of water supply systems and means is substantiated. Constructive solutions of systems and facilities that help to reduce water consumption are presented, and as well a possible positive effect.

  18. [Aquatic insects and water quality in Peñas Blancas watershed and reservoir].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Meyer Guevara

    2011-06-01

    The aquatic insects have been used to evaluate water quality of aquatic environments. The population of aquatic insects and the water quality of the area were characterized according to the natural and human alterations present in the study site. During the monthly-survey, pH, DO, temperature, water level, DBO, PO4 and NO3 were measured. Biological indexes (abundance, species richness and the BMWP-CR) were used to evaluate the water quality. No relation between environmental and aquatic insects was detected. Temporal and spatial differences attributed to the flow events (temporal) and the presence of Peñas Blancas reservoir (spatial). In the future, the investigations in Peñas Blancas watershed need to be focused on determining the real influence of the flows, sediment release and the possible water quality degradation because of agriculture activities.

  19. Occurrence and distribution of taste and odor compounds in subtropical water supply reservoirs and their fates in water treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xiuzhi; Zhang, Ting; Wang, Chaoyi; Zong, Dongliang; Li, Haipu; Yang, Zhaoguang

    2017-01-01

    Taste and odor (T&O) problems in surface water supplies attract growing environmental and ecological concerns. In this study, 10 T&O compounds, 2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB), geosmin, β-ionone, 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine (IPMP), 2-isobutyl-3-methoxypyrazine (IBMP), 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (2,4,6-TCA), 2,3,6-trichloroanisole (2,3,6-TCA), 2,3,4-trichloroanisole (2,3,4-TCA), 2,4,6-tribromoanisole (2,4,6-TBA), and trans-2,cis-6-nonadienal (NDE) were investigated in 13 water supply reservoirs and 2 water treatment plants (WTPs) in S City of China. 2-MIB, geosmin, and β-ionone were detected in most of the reservoirs and WTPs. The highest concentrations in reservoirs reached 196.0 ng L -1 for 2-MIB, 11.4 ng L -1 for geosmin, and 39.7 ng L -1 for β-ionone. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was used to examine the relationship between the 3 T&O compounds and environmental parameters of the reservoirs. The results showed that TP was strongly positively correlated with 2-MIB in wet season and negatively correlated in dry season. It was suggested that controlling nutrient (TP, TN/TP, and NH 3 -N) inputs was required for better management of drinking water reservoirs. Furthermore, the maximum concentrations in raw water of WTPs was kept at 82.1 ng L -1 for 2-MIB, 5.6 ng L -1 for geosmin, and 66.1 ng L -1 for β-ionone. β-Ionone could not be detected in the post-filtration and finished water of two WTPs, and both 2-MIB and geosmin significantly decreased in the water of XWTP. It was indicated that T&O compounds could be removed partly or completely by the filtration of conventional treatment processes.

  20. Accidental Water Pollution Risk Analysis of Mine Tailings Ponds in Guanting Reservoir Watershed, Zhangjiakou City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Renzhi; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Zhijiao; Borthwick, Alistair; Zhang, Ke

    2015-12-02

    Over the past half century, a surprising number of major pollution incidents occurred due to tailings dam failures. Most previous studies of such incidents comprised forensic analyses of environmental impacts after a tailings dam failure, with few considering the combined pollution risk before incidents occur at a watershed-scale. We therefore propose Watershed-scale Tailings-pond Pollution Risk Analysis (WTPRA), designed for multiple mine tailings ponds, stemming from previous watershed-scale accidental pollution risk assessments. Transferred and combined risk is embedded using risk rankings of multiple routes of the "source-pathway-target" in the WTPRA. The previous approach is modified using multi-criteria analysis, dam failure models, and instantaneous water quality models, which are modified for application to multiple tailings ponds. The study area covers the basin of Gutanting Reservoir (the largest backup drinking water source for Beijing) in Zhangjiakou City, where many mine tailings ponds are located. The resultant map shows that risk is higher downstream of Gutanting Reservoir and in its two tributary basins (i.e., Qingshui River and Longyang River). Conversely, risk is lower in the midstream and upstream reaches. The analysis also indicates that the most hazardous mine tailings ponds are located in Chongli and Xuanhua, and that Guanting Reservoir is the most vulnerable receptor. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses are performed to validate the robustness of the WTPRA method.

  1. Accidental Water Pollution Risk Analysis of Mine Tailings Ponds in Guanting Reservoir Watershed, Zhangjiakou City, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Renzhi; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Zhijiao; Borthwick, Alistair; Zhang, Ke

    2015-01-01

    Over the past half century, a surprising number of major pollution incidents occurred due to tailings dam failures. Most previous studies of such incidents comprised forensic analyses of environmental impacts after a tailings dam failure, with few considering the combined pollution risk before incidents occur at a watershed-scale. We therefore propose Watershed-scale Tailings-pond Pollution Risk Analysis (WTPRA), designed for multiple mine tailings ponds, stemming from previous watershed-scale accidental pollution risk assessments. Transferred and combined risk is embedded using risk rankings of multiple routes of the “source-pathway-target” in the WTPRA. The previous approach is modified using multi-criteria analysis, dam failure models, and instantaneous water quality models, which are modified for application to multiple tailings ponds. The study area covers the basin of Gutanting Reservoir (the largest backup drinking water source for Beijing) in Zhangjiakou City, where many mine tailings ponds are located. The resultant map shows that risk is higher downstream of Gutanting Reservoir and in its two tributary basins (i.e., Qingshui River and Longyang River). Conversely, risk is lower in the midstream and upstream reaches. The analysis also indicates that the most hazardous mine tailings ponds are located in Chongli and Xuanhua, and that Guanting Reservoir is the most vulnerable receptor. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses are performed to validate the robustness of the WTPRA method. PMID:26633450

  2. NH4+ adsorption and adsorption kinetics by sediments in a drinking water reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suna Hongyan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The sorption isotherm and sorption kinetics of NH4+ by the Fen River reservoir sediment were investigated for a better understanding of the NH4+ sorption characteristics and parameters. The results showed that Q (adsorption content increased with the increase of Ceq (equilibrium concentration, sorption isotherms could be described by Freundlich equation (R2 from 0.97 to 0.99. Cation exchange capacity (CEC had a significant correlation with the parameters K and n (R2 was 0.85 and 0.95, respectively. The ENC0 (Ceq as Q was zero of S1, S2, S3 and S4 was 1.25, 0.57, 1.15 and 1.14 mg L-1, respectively, and they were less than the NH4+ concentrations in reservoir water. The sediments released NH4+ to the Fen River reservoir water and acted as a pollution source, in the form of complex and heterogeneous adsorbents. The NH4+ adsorption kinetic process was composed of ‘fast’ and ‘slow’ reaction patterns and could be fitted using both Elovich equation and Pseudo second-equation. More than one-step may be involved in the NH4+ sorption processes, and interior diffusion was not dominant ion action.

  3. Accidental Water Pollution Risk Analysis of Mine Tailings Ponds in Guanting Reservoir Watershed, Zhangjiakou City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renzhi Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past half century, a surprising number of major pollution incidents occurred due to tailings dam failures. Most previous studies of such incidents comprised forensic analyses of environmental impacts after a tailings dam failure, with few considering the combined pollution risk before incidents occur at a watershed-scale. We therefore propose Watershed-scale Tailings-pond Pollution Risk Analysis (WTPRA, designed for multiple mine tailings ponds, stemming from previous watershed-scale accidental pollution risk assessments. Transferred and combined risk is embedded using risk rankings of multiple routes of the “source-pathway-target” in the WTPRA. The previous approach is modified using multi-criteria analysis, dam failure models, and instantaneous water quality models, which are modified for application to multiple tailings ponds. The study area covers the basin of Gutanting Reservoir (the largest backup drinking water source for Beijing in Zhangjiakou City, where many mine tailings ponds are located. The resultant map shows that risk is higher downstream of Gutanting Reservoir and in its two tributary basins (i.e., Qingshui River and Longyang River. Conversely, risk is lower in the midstream and upstream reaches. The analysis also indicates that the most hazardous mine tailings ponds are located in Chongli and Xuanhua, and that Guanting Reservoir is the most vulnerable receptor. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses are performed to validate the robustness of the WTPRA method.

  4. Strategies to diagnose and control microbial souring in natural gas storage reservoirs and produced water systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, E.A.; Derr, R.M.; Pope, D.H.

    1995-12-31

    Hydrogen sulfide production (souring) in natural gas storage reservoirs and produced water systems is a safety and environmental problem that can lead to operational shutdown when local hydrogen sulfide standards are exceeded. Systems affected by microbial souring have historically been treated using biocides that target the general microbial community. However, requirements for more environmentally friendly solutions have led to treatment strategies in which sulfide production can be controlled with minimal impact to the system and environment. Some of these strategies are based on microbial and/or nutritional augmentation of the sour environment. Through research sponsored by the Gas Research Institute (GRI) in Chicago, Illinois, methods have been developed for early detection of microbial souring in natural gas storage reservoirs, and a variety of mitigation strategies have been evaluated. The effectiveness of traditional biocide treatment in gas storage reservoirs was shown to depend heavily on the methods by which the chemical is applied. An innovative strategy using nitrate was tested and proved ideal for produced water and wastewater systems. Another strategy using elemental iodine was effective for sulfide control in evaporation ponds and is currently being tested in microbially sour natural gas storage wells.

  5. Analysis of the relationship between water level fluctuation and seismicity in the Three Gorges Reservoir (China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifen Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Three Gorges Reservoir is a good site for the further researches on reservoir induced seismicity due to decades' seismic monitoring. After the first water impounding in 2003, seismic activity becomes more frequent than that before water impoundment. In order to quantitatively study, the relationship between the water level fluctuation and earthquakes in TGR, we introduced statistical methods to attain the goal. First of all, we relocated the earthquakes in TGR region with double difference method and divided the earthquakes into 5 clusters with clustering analysis method. Secondly, to examine the impacts of water level fluctuation in different water filling stages on the seismic activity in the 5 clusters, a series of statistical analyses are applied. Pearson correlation results show that only the 175 m water level fluctuation has significantly positive impacts on the seismic activity in clusters Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅴ with correlation coefficients of 0.44, 0.38, 0.66 and 0.63. Cross-correlation analysis demonstrates that 0, 1, 0 and 0 month time delay separately for the clusters Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅴ exists. It illustrated the influences of the water loading and pore pressure diffusion on induced earthquakes. Cointegration tests and impulse response analysis denoted that the 175 m water level only had long term and significant effects just on the seismic events in the intersection region of the Fairy Mount Fault and Nine-brook Fault. One standard deviation shock to 175 m water level increased the seismic activity in cluster Ⅴ for the first 3 months, and then the negative influence was shown. After 7 months, the negative impulse response becomes stable. The long-term effect of the 175 m water impoundment also proved the important role of pore pressure diffusion in RIS with time.

  6. Dynamics of Bacterial and Fungal Communities during the Outbreak and Decline of an Algal Bloom in a Drinking Water Reservoir

    OpenAIRE

    Haihan Zhang; Jingyu Jia; Shengnan Chen; Tinglin Huang; Yue Wang; Zhenfang Zhao; Ji Feng; Huiyan Hao; Sulin Li; Xinxin Ma

    2018-01-01

    The microbial communities associated with algal blooms play a pivotal role in organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus cycling in freshwater ecosystems. However, there have been few studies focused on unveiling the dynamics of bacterial and fungal communities during the outbreak and decline of algal blooms in drinking water reservoirs. To address this issue, the compositions of bacterial and fungal communities were assessed in the Zhoucun drinking water reservoir using 16S rRNA and internal tr...

  7. Synthesis of radiolabelled organic compounds for use as water tracers in oil reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksen, D.Oe.; Bjoernstad, V.

    1999-01-01

    Injection of water into oil containing strata to maintain field pressure and to replace oil is usually the primary choice to enhance oil-recovery. Use of tracer methods is becoming an important part of the oil companies' basis for making economical decisions. Such water tracing requires passive tracers, i.e. compounds that behave exactly like the substance studied under the conditions of interest. This implies that a water-tracer in a water-flooded oil-field must fulfil requirements like no absorption to reservoir rock, no partitioning (or distribution) with respect to the other fluids present, long time thermal stability, microbial resistance and high detectability. In addition, the tracer compound has to be environmentally acceptable and available at a reasonable cost. Among the extensive number of compounds tested according to these criteria in the laboratory we have qualified four compounds as tracers for water in oil reservoirs. For three of them we propose radiolabelling syntheses with 14 C as radioactive label to lower detection limits. The compounds are benzene 1,2- and 1,3-dicarboxylic acids and benzene 1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid. (author)

  8. On-farm irrigation reservoirs for surface water storage in eastern Arkansas: Trends in construction in response to aquifer depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaeger, M. A.; Reba, M. L.; Massey, J. H.; Adviento-Borbe, A.

    2017-12-01

    On-farm surface water storage reservoirs have been constructed to address declines in the Mississippi River Valley Alluvial aquifer, the primary source of irrigation for most of the row crops grown in eastern Arkansas. These reservoirs and their associated infrastructure represent significant investments in financial and natural resources, and may cause producers to incur costs associated with foregone crop production and long-term maintenance. Thus, an analysis of reservoir construction trends in the Grand Prairie Critical Groundwater Area (GPCGA) and Cache River Critical Groundwater Area (CRCGA) was conducted to assist future water management decisions. Between 1996 and 2015, on average, 16 and 4 reservoirs were constructed per year, corresponding to cumulative new reservoir surface areas of 161 and 60 ha yr-1, for the GPCGA and the CRCGA, respectively. In terms of reservoir locations relative to aquifer status, after 1996, 84.5% of 309 total reservoirs constructed in the GPCGA and 91.0% of 78 in the CRCGA were located in areas with remaining saturated aquifer thicknesses of 50% or less. The majority of new reservoirs (74% in the GPCGA and 63% in the CRCGA) were constructed on previously productive cropland. The next most common land use, representing 11% and 15% of new reservoirs constructed in the GPCGA and CRCGA, respectively, was the combination of a field edge and a ditch, stream, or other low-lying area. Less than 10% of post-1996 reservoirs were constructed on predominately low-lying land, and the use of such lands decreased in both critical groundwater areas during the past 20 years. These disparities in reservoir construction rates, locations, and prior land uses is likely due to groundwater declines being first observed in the GPCGA as well as the existence of two large-scale river diversion projects under construction in the GPCGA that feature on-farm storage as a means to offset groundwater use.

  9. Conversion of Crude Oil to Methane by a Microbial Consortium Enriched From Oil Reservoir Production Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina eBerdugo-Clavijo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The methanogenic biodegradation of crude oil is an important process occurring in petroleum reservoirs and other oil-containing environments such as contaminated aquifers. In this process, syntrophic bacteria degrade hydrocarbon substrates to products such as acetate, and/or H2 and CO2 that are then used by methanogens to produce methane in a thermodynamically dependent manner. We enriched a methanogenic crude oil-degrading consortium from production waters sampled from a low temperature heavy oil reservoir. Alkylsuccinates indicative of fumarate addition to C5 and C6 n-alkanes were identified in the culture (above levels found in controls, corresponding to the detection of an alkyl succinate synthase gene (assA in the culture. In addition, the enrichment culture was tested for its ability to produce methane from residual oil in a sandstone-packed column system simulating a mature field. Methane production rates of up 5.8 μmol CH4/g of oil/day were measured in the column system. Amounts of produced methane were in relatively good agreement with hydrocarbon loss showing depletion of more than 50% of saturate and aromatic hydrocarbons. Microbial community analysis revealed that the enrichment culture was dominated by members of the genus Smithella, Methanosaeta, and Methanoculleus. However, a shift in microbial community occurred following incubation of the enrichment in the sandstone columns. Here, Methanobacterium sp. were most abundant, as were bacterial members of the genus Pseudomonas and other known biofilm forming organisms. Our findings show that microorganisms enriched from petroleum reservoir waters can bioconvert crude oil components to methane both planktonically and in sandstone-packed columns as test systems. Further, the results suggest that different organisms may contribute to oil biodegradation within different phases (e.g., planktonic versus sessile within a subsurface crude oil reservoir.

  10. Integrating desalination to reservoir operation to increase redundancy for more secure water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, Rashi; Ng, Tze Ling

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the potential of integrating desalination to existing reservoir systems to mitigate supply uncertainty. Desalinated seawater and wastewater are relatively reliable but expensive. Water from natural resources like reservoirs is generally cheaper but climate sensitive. We propose combining the operation of a reservoir and seawater and wastewater desalination plants for an overall system that is less vulnerable to scarcity and uncertainty, while constraining total cost. The joint system is modeled as a multiobjective optimization problem with the double objectives of minimizing risk and vulnerability, subject to a minimum limit on resilience. The joint model is applied to two cases, one based on the climate and demands of a location in India and the other of a location in California. The results for the Indian case indicate that it is possible for the joint system to reduce risk and vulnerability to zero given a budget increase of 20-120% under current climate conditions and 30-150% under projected future conditions. For the Californian case, this would require budget increases of 20-80% and 30-140% under current and future conditions, respectively. Further, our analysis shows a two-way interaction between the reservoir and desalination plants where the optimal operation of the former is just as much affected by the latter as the latter by the former. This highlights the importance of an integrated management approach. This study contributes to a greater quantitative understanding of desalination as a redundancy measure for adapting water supply infrastructures for a future of greater scarcity and uncertainty.

  11. Identification of dissolved organic matter in raw water supply from reservoirs and canals as precursors to trihalomethanes formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musikavong, Charongpun; Wattanachira, Suraphong

    2013-01-01

    The characteristic and quantity of dissolved organic matter (DOM) as trihalomethanes precursors in water from the U-Tapao Basin, Songkhla, Thailand was investigated. The sources of water in the basin consisted of two reservoirs and the U-Tapao canal. The canal receives water discharge from reservoirs, treated and untreated wastewater from agricultural processes, communities and industries. Water downstream of the canal is utilized as a raw water supply. Water samples were collected from two reservoirs, upstream and midstream of the canal, and the raw water supply in the rainy season and summer. The DOM level in the canal water was higher than that of the reservoir water. The highest trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) was formed in the raw water supply. Fourier-transform infrared peaks of the humic acid were detected in the reservoir and canal waters. Aliphatic hydrocarbon and organic nitrogen were the major chemical classes in the reservoir and canal water characterized by a pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometer. The optimal condition of the poly aluminum chloride (PACl) coagulation was obtained at a dosage of 40 mg/L at pH 7. This condition could reduce the average UV-254 to 57%, DOC to 64%, and THMFP to 42%. In the coagulated water, peaks of O-H groups or H-bonded NH, C˭O of cyclic and acyclic compounds, ketones and quinines, aromatic C˭C, C-O of alcohols, ethers, and carbohydrates, deformation of COOH, and carboxylic acid salts were detected. The aliphatic hydrocarbon, organic nitrogen and aldehydes and ketones were the major chemical classes. These DOM could be considered as the prominent DOM for the water supply plant that utilized PACl as a coagulant.

  12. Alternative Intake Station in Saguling Reservoir for The Needs of Raw Water in Bandung Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marselina Mariana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bandung Metropolitan Area (BMA region is the upper watershed of Citarum with an area of ± 2338 km2. The status carried by BMA as a National Strategic Area from the perspective of economic encourage the increasing migration flows to BMA. These circumstances lead to an imbalance between supply and demand, in which on the one hand, demand for clean water is increasing. The potency of Saguling Reservoir as an alternative of raw water of BMA region in terms of quantity in this research was determined based on the determination of mainstay discharge. In this study, the intake site selection 11 monitoring posts will be carried out by reviewing the concentration of all parameters in Government Regulation No. 82 Year 2001 on any division of discharge grade using 5-grade Makov Discrete method (very dry, dry, normal, wet and very wet. In addition, the calculation of the value of Water Quality Index (WQI was done at each monitoring station for each division of discharge grade that has been done. The series of data flow and concentration parameters used in this study start from the year 1999 to 2014. The allocation of raw water discharge calculation for Saguling Reservoir in order to fulfill the needs of raw water in Bandung Metropolitan Area is 46,92m3/second (R5 dry for irrigation raw water supply and 29,53 92 m3/second (R10 dry for drinking water supply. Based on the assessment of the concentration of measured parameters and determination of Water Quality Index, it can be found that around Muara Ciminyak location is the most qualified location to be used as drinking raw water intake for Bandung Metropolitan Area. Based on this study, it also notes that the determination of the concentration of pollutant parameters needs to be done on the each division of discharge grade occurred.

  13. Natural infection of trematodes in Lymnaea (Radix) auricularia rubiginosa in water reservoirs in Amphoe Muang, Khon Kaen Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoenchai, A; Tesana, S; Pholpark, M

    1997-01-01

    Lymnaea (Radix) auricularia rubiginosa (Michelin, 1831) was surveyed in 54 reservoirs of 18 districts in Amphoe Muang, Khon Kaen Province during February to May 1994. Lymnaeid snails were found in the water of 20 reservoirs, of which 16 reservoirs contained clear water and 4 turbid water. Two of the four turbid water reservoirs received drainage water from Khon Kaen Town. Two thousand four hundred and eight L. auricularia rubiginosa were collected and examined by shedding and crushing. Trematode infection occurred in 163 (6.77%) of 2,408 L. auricularia rubiginosa and some snails were infected with more than one cercarial species. Ninety-nine snails (4.11%) were infected with echinostomes, while mixed infection of echinostomes with Fasciola gigantica and with schistosomes was found in 5 snails (0.21%) and 2 snails (0.08%), respectively. Only 1 snail (0.04%), 19 snails (0.79%) and 37 snails (1.54%) were infected with F. gigantica, schistosomes and unidentified species, respectively. The mean size of infected snails was 6.89 +/- 2.02 mm (6.20-22.36) while the mean of sampled snails was 13.46 +/- 3.64 mm (4.00-26.55). The water plants which were found in reservoirs and presented with snails, were creeping water primose (Jusstaea repens), water lily (Nymphaea sp), water hyacinths (Eichornia crassipes) and grass.

  14. Productivity of Stored Water in Some Selected Multiple Use Small Reservoirs in the Upper East Region of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annor, F. O.; Yamoah-Antwi, D.; Odai, S. N.; Adjei, K. A.; van de Giesen, N. C.

    2009-04-01

    The Upper East Region (UER) of Ghana is a water stressed area with agriculture as the main occupation of the inhabitants. The importance of small reservoirs for the sustenance of the livelihood of the people in this part of the country during the dry season cannot be over emphasized. Most of these small reservoirs were constructed, in the 1960s, mainly with the aim of providing water for domestic use and livestock watering during the dry periods of the year. Over the years, however, these small reservoirs have been put to a variety of uses, some of which accelerate the depletion of the stored water. The reservoirs are therefore most times, unable to serve the purposes for which they were constructed. To address this situation, a study was conducted to determine the productivity of stored water in small reservoirs to better inform policy makers and water managers in the allocation of water especially in the dry season. Water productivity can be thought of as the output (product) that can be obtained per unit volume of water used or applied for either crop or livestock production. Data on crops and livestock were obtained through questionnaire administration, interviews, focus group discussions, physical measurements as well as field observations from nine reservoirs in the UER. The research findings show that donkeys have the highest productivity of about US90 followed by cattle with US70. These high productivity values are as a result of the variety of products and services rendered by donkeys and cattle. For crop, tomatoes have the highest productivity value compared with pepper and leafy vegetables. Despite the fact that donkeys had the highest productivity and hence priority over all uses, it is prudent to note that, inhabitants of the study area aside the sale of livestock for money (income) keep livestock for prestige. Therefore in the allocation of stored water in small multiple use reservoirs, the allocation criteria should consider the views, values and

  15. Many-Objective Reservoir Policy Identification and Refinement to Reduce Institutional Myopia in Water Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, M.; Herman, J. D.; Castelletti, A.; Reed, P. M.

    2013-12-01

    Institutional inertia strongly limits our ability to adapt water reservoir operations to better manage growing water demands as well as their associated uncertainties in a changing climate. Although it has long been recognized that these systems are generally framed in heterogeneous socio-economic contexts involving a myriad of conflicting, non-commensurable operating objectives, our broader understanding of the multiobjective consequences of current operating rules as well as their vulnerability to hydroclimatic uncertainties is severely limited. This study proposes a decision analytic framework to overcome policy inertia and myopia in complex river basin management contexts. The framework combines reservoir policy identification and many-objective optimization under uncertainty to characterize current operations and discover key tradeoffs between alternative policies for balancing evolving demands and system uncertainties. The approach is demonstrated on the Conowingo Dam, located within the Lower Susquehanna River, USA. The Lower Susquehanna River is an interstate water body that has been subject to intensive water management efforts due to the system's competing demands from urban water supply, atomic power plant cooling, hydropower production, and federally regulated environmental flows. Initially our proposed framework uses available streamflow observations to implicitly identify the Conowingo Dam's current but unknown operating policy. This baseline policy is identified by fitting radial basis functions to existing system dynamics. Our assumption in the baseline policy is that the dam operator is represented as a rational agent seeking to maximize primary operational objectives (i.e., guaranteeing the public water supply and maximizing the hydropower revenue). The quality of the identified baseline policy is evaluated by its ability to replicate historical release dynamics. Once identified, the historical baseline policy then provides a means of representing

  16. Sedimentary record of water column trophic conditions and sediment carbon fluxes in a tropical water reservoir (Valle de Bravo, Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnero-Bravo, Vladislav; Merino-Ibarra, Martín; Ruiz-Fernández, Ana Carolina; Sanchez-Cabeza, Joan Albert; Ghaleb, Bassam

    2015-03-01

    Valle de Bravo (VB) is the main water reservoir of the Cutzamala hydraulic system, which provides 40% of the drinking water consumed in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area and exhibits symptoms of eutrophication. Nutrient (C, N and P) concentrations were determined in two sediment cores to reconstruct the water column trophic evolution of the reservoir and C fluxes since its creation in 1947. Radiometric methods ((210)Pb and (137)Cs) were used to obtain sediment chronologies, using the presence of pre-reservoir soil layers in one of the cores as an independent chronological marker. Mass accumulation rates ranged from 0.12 to 0.56 g cm(-2) year(-1) and total organic carbon (TOC) fluxes from 122 to 380 g m(-2) year(-1). Total N ranged 4.9-48 g m(-2) year(-1), and total P 0.6-4.2 g m(-2) year(-1). The sedimentary record shows that all three (C, N and P) fluxes increased significantly after 1991, in good agreement with the assessed trophic evolution of VB and with historic and recent real-time measurements. In the recent years (1992-2006), the TOC flux to the bottom of VB (average 250 g m(-2) year(-1), peaks 323 g m(-2) year(-1)) is similar to that found in highly eutrophic reservoirs and impoundments. Over 1/3 of the total C burial since dam construction, circa 70,000 t, has occurred in this recent period. These results highlight the usefulness of the reconstruction of carbon and nutrient fluxes from the sedimentary record to assess carbon burial and its temporal evolution in freshwater ecosystems.

  17. Monitoring water quality in a hypereutrophic reservoir using Landsat ETM+ and OLI sensors: how transferable are the water quality algorithms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Eliza S; Alameddine, Ibrahim; El-Fadel, Mutasem

    2018-02-15

    The launch of the Landsat 8 in February 2013 extended the life of the Landsat program to over 40 years, increasing the value of using Landsat to monitor long-term changes in the water quality of small lakes and reservoirs, particularly in poorly monitored freshwater systems. Landsat-based water quality hindcasting often incorporate several Landsat sensors in an effort to increase the temporal range of observations; yet the transferability of water quality algorithms across sensors remains poorly examined. In this study, several empirical algorithms were developed to quantify chlorophyll-a, total suspended matter (TSM), and Secchi disk depth (SDD) from surface reflectance measured by Landsat 7 ETM+ and Landsat 8 OLI sensors. Sensor-specific multiple linear regression models were developed by correlating in situ water quality measurements collected from a semi-arid eutrophic reservoir with band ratios from Landsat ETM+ and OLI sensors, along with ancillary data (water temperature and seasonality) representing ecological patterns in algae growth. Overall, ETM+-based models outperformed (adjusted R 2 chlorophyll-a = 0.70, TSM = 0.81, SDD = 0.81) their OLI counterparts (adjusted R 2 chlorophyll-a = 0.50, TSM = 0.58, SDD = 0.63). Inter-sensor differences were most apparent for algorithms utilizing the Blue spectral band. The inclusion of water temperature and seasonality improved the power of TSM and SDD models.

  18. The blue water footprint of the world's artificial reservoirs for hydroelectricity, irrigation, residential and industrial water supply, flood protection, fishing and recreation

    OpenAIRE

    Hogeboom, Hendrik Jan; Knook, Luuk; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.

    2018-01-01

    For centuries, humans have resorted to building dams to gain control over freshwater available for human consumption. Although dams and their reservoirs have made many important contributions to human development, they receive negative attention as well, because of the large amounts of water they can consume through evaporation. We estimate the blue water footprint of the world's artificial reservoirs and attribute it to the purposes hydroelectricity generation, irrigation water supply, resid...

  19. Analysis of the impact of water level fluctuations on macrophytes in Miyun Reservoir after receiving water transferred by the South-to-North Water Diversion Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, L.; Gu, H.; Lou, C. H.; Zhang, L.; Meng, Q. Y.

    2016-08-01

    As the main primary producers in aquatic ecosystems, macrophytes affect the structure and function of aquatic ecosystems, and their distribution is controlled by water depth. Miyun Reservoir in Beijing will have to experience substantial changes in water level and surface area as it begins to receive water transferred by the South-to-North Water Diversion Project, which will have an adverse impact on the macrophytes growing there. In this study, a hydrodynamic model was constructed with MIKE21 and then used in a simulation in three scenarios: dry year, normal year and wet year. The results suggest that during water diversion, the annual and interannual water level fluctuations will be too significant for them to adapt and as a result, the original macrophytes in the reservoir tend to die and disappear completely. The area of the zone suitable for macrophyte growth, or suitable growth zone (SGZ), fluctuated. Restricted by the main dam and auxiliary dam to its south, the overall suitable growth zone moved toward the northeast and northwest of the reservoir, with a northeastward movement of its centroid. The distance and path of movement varied between scenarios. After the water diversion was completed, the suitable growth zone shrunk in the three scenarios. It is predicted that the macrophyte species diversity and richness of the reservoir can recover to the levels recorded before water diversion only in dry year. These results suggest that manual interventions should be implemented after water diversion to speed up the natural recovery of aquatic plant communities in Miyun Reservoir and thereby maintain the stability of the aquatic ecosystem.

  20. Assessment of Reservoir Water Quality Using Multivariate Statistical Techniques: A Case Study of Qiandao Lake, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Gu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Qiandao Lake (Xin’an Jiang reservoir plays a significant role in drinking water supply for eastern China, and it is an attractive tourist destination. Three multivariate statistical methods were comprehensively applied to assess the spatial and temporal variations in water quality as well as potential pollution sources in Qiandao Lake. Data sets of nine parameters from 12 monitoring sites during 2010–2013 were obtained for analysis. Cluster analysis (CA was applied to classify the 12 sampling sites into three groups (Groups A, B and C and the 12 monitoring months into two clusters (April-July, and the remaining months. Discriminant analysis (DA identified Secchi disc depth, dissolved oxygen, permanganate index and total phosphorus as the significant variables for distinguishing variations of different years, with 79.9% correct assignments. Dissolved oxygen, pH and chlorophyll-a were determined to discriminate between the two sampling periods classified by CA, with 87.8% correct assignments. For spatial variation, DA identified Secchi disc depth and ammonia nitrogen as the significant discriminating parameters, with 81.6% correct assignments. Principal component analysis (PCA identified organic pollution, nutrient pollution, domestic sewage, and agricultural and surface runoff as the primary pollution sources, explaining 84.58%, 81.61% and 78.68% of the total variance in Groups A, B and C, respectively. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of integrated use of CA, DA and PCA for reservoir water quality evaluation and could assist managers in improving water resources management.

  1. Benthic cyanobacteria: A source of cylindrospermopsin and microcystin in Australian drinking water reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaget, Virginie; Humpage, Andrew R; Huang, Qiong; Monis, Paul; Brookes, Justin D

    2017-11-01

    Cyanobacteria represent a health hazard worldwide due to their production of a range of highly potent toxins in diverse aquatic environments. While planktonic species have been the subject of many investigations in terms of risk assessment, little is known about benthic forms and their impact on water quality or human and animal health. This study aimed to purify isolates from environmental benthic biofilms sampled from three different drinking water reservoirs and to assess their toxin production by using the following methods: Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Microscopic observation of the isolates allowed the identification of various filamentous cyanobacterial genera: Anabaena (benthic form), Calothrix and Nostoc from the Nostocales and Geitlerinema, Leptolyngbya, Limnothrix, Lyngbya, Oxynema, Phormidium and Pseudanabaena representing non-heterocystous filamentous cyanobacteria. The Phormidium ambiguum strain AWQC-PHO021 was found to produce 739 ng/mg of dry weight (d/w) of cylindrospermopsin and 107 ng/mg (d/w) of deoxy-cylindrospermopsin. The Nostoc linckia strain AWQC-NOS001 produced 400 ng/mg (d/w) of a microcystin analogue. This is the first report of hepatotoxin production by benthic cyanobacteria in temperate Australian drinking water reservoirs. These findings indicate that water quality monitoring programs need to consider benthic cyanobacteria as a potential source of toxins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. G-REALM: A lake/reservoir monitoring tool for drought monitoring and water resources management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkett, C. M.; Ricko, M.; Beckley, B. D.; Yang, X.; Tetrault, R. L.

    2017-12-01

    G-REALM is a NASA/USDA funded operational program offering water-level products for lakes and reservoirs and these are currently derived from the NASA/CNES Topex/Jason series of satellite radar altimeters. The main stakeholder is the USDA/Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS) though many other end-users utilize the products for a variety of interdisciplinary science and operational programs. The FAS utilize the products within their CropExplorer Decision Support System (DSS) to help assess irrigation potential, and to monitor both short-term (agricultural) and longer-term (hydrological) drought conditions. There is increasing demand for a more global monitoring service that in particular, captures the variations in the smallest (1 to 100km2) reservoirs and water holdings in arid and semi-arid regions. Here, water resources are critical to both agriculture and regional security. A recent G-REALM 10-day resolution product upgrade and expansion has allowed for more accurate lake level products to be released and for a greater number of water bodies to be monitored. The next program phase focuses on the exploration of the enhanced radar altimeter data sets from the Cryosat-2 and Sentinel-3 missions with their improved spatial resolution, and the expansion of the system to the monitoring of 1,000 water bodies across the globe. In addition, a new element, the monitoring of surface water levels in wetland zones, is also being introduced. This aims to satisfy research and stakeholder requirements with respect to programs examining the links between inland fisheries catch potential and declining water levels, and to those monitoring the delicate balance between water resources, agriculture, and fisheries management in arid basins.

  3. Study of the Effect of Clay Particles on Low Salinity Water Injection in Sandstone Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Rezaei Gomari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The need for optimal recovery of crude oil from sandstone and carbonate reservoirs around the world has never been greater for the petroleum industry. Water-flooding has been applied to the supplement primary depletion process or as a separate secondary recovery method. Low salinity water injection is a relatively new method that involves injecting low salinity brines at high pressure similar to conventional water-flooding techniques, in order to recover crude oil. The effectiveness of low salinity water injection in sandstone reservoirs depends on a number of parameters such as reservoir temperature, pressure, type of clay particle and salinity of injected brine. Clay particles present on reservoir rock surfaces adsorb polar components of oil and modify wettability of sandstone rocks to the oil-wet state, which is accountable for the reduced recovery rates by conventional water-flooding. The extent of wettability alteration caused by three low salinity brines on oil-wet sandstone samples containing varying clay content (15% or 30% and type of clay (kaolinite/montmorillonite were analyzed in the laboratory experiment. Contact angles of mica powder and clay mixture (kaolinite/montmorillonite modified with crude oil were measured before and after injection with three low salinity sodium chloride brines. The effect of temperature was also analyzed for each sample. The results of the experiment indicate that samples with kaolinite clay tend to produce higher contact angles than samples with montmorillonite clay when modified with crude oil. The highest degree or extent of wettability alteration from oil-wet to intermediate-wet state upon injection with low salinity brines was observed for samples injected with brine having salinity concentration of 2000 ppm. The increase in temperature tends to produce contact angles values lying in the higher end of the intermediate-wet range (75°–115° for samples treated at 50 °C, while their corresponding

  4. [Distribution Characteristics and Pollution Status Evaluation of Sediments Nutrients in a Drinking Water Reservoir].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ting-lin; Liu, Fei; Shi, Jian-chao

    2016-01-15

    The main purpose of this paper is to illustrate the influence of nutrients distribution in sediments on the eutrophication of drinking water reservoir. The sediments of three representative locations were field-sampled and analyzed in laboratory in March 2015. The distribution characteristics of TOC, TN and TP were measured, and the pollution status of sediments was evaluated by the comprehensive pollution index and the manual for sediment quality assessment. The content of TOC in sediments decreased with depth, and there was an increasing trend of the nitrogen content. The TP was enriched in surface sediment, implying the nutrients load in Zhoucun Reservoir was aggravating as the result of human activities. Regression analysis indicated that the content of TOC in sediments was positively correlated with contents of TN and TP in sediments. The TOC/TN values reflected that the vascular land plants, which contain cellulose, were the main source of organic matter in sediments. The comprehensive pollution index analysis result showed that the surface sediments in all three sampling sites were heavily polluted. The contents of TN and TP of surface sediments in three sampling sites were 3273-4870 mg x kg(-1) and 653-2969 mg x kg(-1), and the content of TOC was 45.65-83.00 mg x g(-1). According to the manual for sediment quality assessment, the TN, TP and TOC contents in sediments exceed the standard values for the lowest level of ecotoxicity, so there is a risk of eutrophication in Zhoucun Reservoir.

  5. Real-time management of a multipurpose water reservoir with a heteroscedastic inflow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pianosi, F.; Soncini-Sessa, R.

    2009-10-01

    Stochastic dynamic programming has been extensively used as a method for designing optimal regulation policies for water reservoirs. However, the potential of this method is dramatically reduced by its computational burden, which often forces to introduce strong approximations in the model of the system, especially in the description of the reservoir inflow. In this paper, an approach to partially remedy this problem is proposed and applied to a real world case study. It foresees solving the management problem on-line, using a reduced model of the system and the inflow forecast provided by a dynamic model. By doing so, all the hydrometeorological information that is available in real-time is fully exploited. The model here proposed for the inflow forecasting is a nonlinear, heteroscedastic model that provides both the expected value and the standard deviation of the inflow through dynamic relations. The effectiveness of such model for the purpose of the reservoir regulation is evaluated through simulation and comparison with the results provided by conventional homoscedastic inflow models.

  6. WATER HAMMER OSCILLATIONS IN THE IRRIGATION FACILITIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurata, Kouichi; Sasaki, Katsuhito; Makihata, Toshiaki

    In case a gate installed at the end of discharge conduit is vibrating during discharge, or an air valve is vibrating during water-filling operation into the conduit pipe between main gate and auxiliary gate, and vibration period tv is larger than tc (water hammer propagation time) that is equivalent to the phenomenon of slow closure, there is a possibility that water hammer oscillation in the discharge conduit could be induced. In this paper, by using two case examples, vibration phenomena transmitted to each part are analyzed, on the basis of water pressure fluctuation and pressure wave propagation due to occurrence of water hammer oscillation.

  7. The annual cycle of plutonium in the water column of a warm, monomictic reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinder, J.E. III; Alberts, J.J.; Bowling, J.W.; Nelson, D.M.; Orlandini, K.A.

    1992-01-01

    An annual cycle occurs in the 239,240 Pu inventories of the water column of Pond B, an 87-ha warm monomictic reservoir on the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Site in Barnwell Co., South Carolina. The pond has elevated concentrations of 238 Pu and 239,240 Pu in sediments due to releases from former reactor operations and continues to receive additional Pu input from atmospheric deposition. For surface waters, the 239,240 Pu inventory increases following turnover in November to a maximum in March followed by a decline until later summer when minimum inventories occur. For deeper waters, the 239,240 Pu inventories increase rapidly following turnover and reach maximum values in March. The inventories in deeper waters remain large from March until turnover. Maximum inventories for the entire water column occur in March with minimum inventories at turnover in October and November. Turnover results in a redistribution of Pu across water depth but no measurable Pu loss from the water column. Ratios of 238 Pu: 239,240 Pu indicate that the cycle involves primarily Pu from sediment sources with little influence from atmospheric sources. Thus, the cycle represents net remobilization of 239,240 Pu from the sediments to the water column during the oxic, holomictic portion of the year followed by a net loss of Pu from the water column once stratification occurs. (author)

  8. Game theory competition analysis of reservoir water supply and hydropower generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T.

    2013-12-01

    The total installed capacity of the power generation systems in Taiwan is about 41,000 MW. Hydropower is one of the most important renewable energy sources, with hydropower generation capacity of about 4,540 MW. The aim of this research is to analyze competition between water supply and hydropower generation in water-energy systems. The major relationships between water and energy systems include hydropower generation by water, energy consumption for water system operation, and water consumption for energy system. In this research, a game-theoretic Cournot model is formulated to simulate oligopolistic competition between water supply, hydropower generation, and co-fired power generation in water-energy systems. A Nash equilibrium of the competitive market is derived and solved by GAMS with PATH solver. In addition, a case study analyzing the competition among water supply and hydropower generation of De-ji and Ku-Kuan reservoirs, Taipower, Star Energy, and Star-Yuan power companies in central Taiwan is conducted.

  9. Constraints on Water Reservoir Lifetimes From Catchment-Wide 10Be Erosion Rates—A Case Study From Western Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heineke, Caroline; Hetzel, Ralf; Akal, Cüneyt; Christl, Marcus

    2017-11-01

    The functionality and retention capacity of water reservoirs is generally impaired by upstream erosion and reservoir sedimentation, making a reliable assessment of erosion indispensable to estimate reservoir lifetimes. Widely used river gauging methods may underestimate sediment yield, because they do not record rare, high-magnitude events and may underestimate bed load transport. Hence, reservoir lifetimes calculated from short-term erosion rates should be regarded as maximum values. We propose that erosion rates from cosmogenic 10Be, which commonly integrate over hundreds to thousands of years, are useful to complement short-term sediment yield estimates and should be employed to estimate minimum reservoir lifetimes. Here we present 10Be erosion rates for the drainage basins of six water reservoirs in Western Turkey, which are located in a tectonically active region with easily erodible bedrock. Our 10Be erosion rates for these catchments are high, ranging from ˜170 to ˜1,040 t/km2/yr. When linked to reservoir volumes, they yield minimum reservoir lifetimes between 25 ± 5 and 1,650 ± 360 years until complete filling, with four reservoirs having minimum lifespans of ≤110 years. In a neighboring region with more resistant bedrock and less tectonic activity, we obtain much lower catchment-wide 10Be erosion rates of ˜33 to ˜95 t/km2/yr, illustrating that differences in lithology and tectonic boundary conditions can cause substantial variations in erosion even at a spatial scale of only ˜50 km. In conclusion, we suggest that both short-term sediment yield estimates and 10Be erosion rates should be employed to predict the lifetimes of reservoirs.

  10. Increasing Crop Yields in Water Stressed Countries by Combining Operations of Freshwater Reservoir and Wastewater Reclamation Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, R.; Ng, T. L.

    2015-12-01

    Freshwater resources around the world are increasing in scarcity due to population growth, industrialization and climate change. This is a serious concern for water stressed countries, including those in Asia and North Africa where future food production is expected to be negatively affected by this. To address this problem, we investigate the potential of combining freshwater reservoir and wastewater reclamation operations. Reservoir water is the cheaper source of irrigation, but is often limited and climate sensitive. Treated wastewater is a more reliable alternative for irrigation, but often requires extensive further treatment which can be expensive. We propose combining the operations of a reservoir and a wastewater reclamation plant (WWRP) to augment the supply from the reservoir with reclaimed water for increasing crop yields in water stressed regions. The joint system of reservoir and WWRP is modeled as a multi-objective optimization problem with the double objective of maximizing the crop yield and minimizing total cost, subject to constraints on reservoir storage, spill and release, and capacity of the WWRP. We use the crop growth model Aquacrop, supported by The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), to model crop growth in response to water use. Aquacrop considers the effects of water deficit on crop growth stages, and from there estimates crop yield. We generate results comparing total crop yield under irrigation with water from just the reservoir (which is limited and often interrupted), and yield with water from the joint system (which has the potential of higher supply and greater reliability). We will present results for locations in India and Africa to evaluate the potential of the joint operations for improving food security in those areas for different budgets.

  11. The blue water footprint of the world's artificial reservoirs for hydroelectricity, irrigation, residential and industrial water supply, flood protection, fishing and recreation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogeboom, Rick J.; Knook, Luuk; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.

    2018-03-01

    For centuries, humans have resorted to building dams to gain control over freshwater available for human consumption. Although dams and their reservoirs have made many important contributions to human development, they receive negative attention as well, because of the large amounts of water they can consume through evaporation. We estimate the blue water footprint of the world's artificial reservoirs and attribute it to the purposes hydroelectricity generation, irrigation water supply, residential and industrial water supply, flood protection, fishing and recreation, based on their economic value. We estimate that economic benefits from 2235 reservoirs included in this study amount to 265 × 109 US a year, with residential and industrial water supply and hydroelectricity generation as major contributors. The water footprint associated with these benefits is the sum of the water footprint of dam construction (<1% contribution) and evaporation from the reservoir's surface area, and globally adds up to 66 × 109 m3 y-1. The largest share of this water footprint (57%) is located in non-water scarce basins and only 1% in year-round scarce basins. The primary purposes of a reservoir change with increasing water scarcity, from mainly hydroelectricity generation in non-scarce basins, to residential and industrial water supply, irrigation water supply and flood control in scarcer areas.

  12. SILTATION IN RESERVOIRS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: reservoir model, siltation, sediment, catchment, sediment transport. 1. Introduction. Sediment ... rendered water storage structures useless in less than 25 years. ... reservoir, thus reducing the space available for water storage and ...

  13. Assessment of microbiological quality of water in the Nowohucki Reservoir with particular regard to microorganisms potentially dangerous to humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Wolny-Koładka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This study was aimed to assess the microbiological quality of water in the Nowohucki Reservoir (Kraków, Poland as well as to determine whether its waters contain microorganisms potentially dangerous from an epidemiological point of view. Material and methods. Microbiological analyses included the determination of the number of mesophilic and psychrophilic bacteria, coliforms, fecal E. coli, as well as E. faecalis, C. perfringens, Staphylococcus spp. and Salmonella spp.. Water samples were collected 4 times per year on April 27th 2015 (spring, July 10th 2015 (summer, October 12th 2015 (autumn and December 29th 2015 (winter at 5 points within the area of the reservoir. Water and air temperature was measured onsite. Results. It was found that the prevalence of the analyzed microorganisms was affected by changing water and air temperature as well as by using this reservoir during holiday season for swimming purposes by local residents. All analyzed microbiological indicators of poor water quality were found in the analyzed water samples, which may pose a potential health risk to people swimming in the considered reservoir. Conclusions. From an epidemiological point of view, it is reasonable to include the Nowohucki Reservoir into a constant sanitary monitoring programme.

  14. Evaluation of trends for iron and manganese concentrations in wells, reservoirs, and water distribution networks, Qom city, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Fahiminia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to evaluated trends for iron and manganese concentrations in wells, reservoirs, and water distribution networks in Qom city during the summer of 2012. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. The studied scopes consisted of groundwater (60 wells, reservoirs (10 tanks, and water distribution network (33 points. One sample was taken from each source monthly. Statistical tests used included post hoc tests (Tukey HSD. Finally, the results were compared with drinking water standards. Results: The average concentrations of iron in groundwater, reservoirs, and distribution networks were 0.09, 0.07, and 0.07 mg/l, respectively. The average concentrations of manganese in groundwater, reservoirs, and distribution networks were 0.15, 0.09, and 0.1 mg/l, respectively. The turbidity averages in groundwater, reservoirs, and distribution networks were 0.58, 0.6, and 0.52 NTU, respectively. The average concentrations of free chlorine residual in water reservoirs and distribution networks were 1.74 and 1.06 mg/l, respectively. The pH averages in groundwater, reservoirs, and distribution networks were 7.4, 7.7, and 7.5, respectively. The amounts of iron, manganese, turbidity, free chlorine residual, and pH in the investigated resources had no significant differences (P > 0.05. Conclusion: The amounts of iron, manganese, turbidity, free chlorine residual and pH in groundwater, reservoirs, and water distribution networks of Qom are within permissible limits of national standards and EPA guidelines. Only the amount of manganese was higher than the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA permissible limit.

  15. Hybrid Stochastic Forecasting Model for Management of Large Open Water Reservoir with Storage Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozel, Tomas; Stary, Milos

    2017-12-01

    The main advantage of stochastic forecasting is fan of possible value whose deterministic method of forecasting could not give us. Future development of random process is described better by stochastic then deterministic forecasting. Discharge in measurement profile could be categorized as random process. Content of article is construction and application of forecasting model for managed large open water reservoir with supply function. Model is based on neural networks (NS) and zone models, which forecasting values of average monthly flow from inputs values of average monthly flow, learned neural network and random numbers. Part of data was sorted to one moving zone. The zone is created around last measurement average monthly flow. Matrix of correlation was assembled only from data belonging to zone. The model was compiled for forecast of 1 to 12 month with using backward month flows (NS inputs) from 2 to 11 months for model construction. Data was got ridded of asymmetry with help of Box-Cox rule (Box, Cox, 1964), value r was found by optimization. In next step were data transform to standard normal distribution. The data were with monthly step and forecast is not recurring. 90 years long real flow series was used for compile of the model. First 75 years were used for calibration of model (matrix input-output relationship), last 15 years were used only for validation. Outputs of model were compared with real flow series. For comparison between real flow series (100% successfully of forecast) and forecasts, was used application to management of artificially made reservoir. Course of water reservoir management using Genetic algorithm (GE) + real flow series was compared with Fuzzy model (Fuzzy) + forecast made by Moving zone model. During evaluation process was founding the best size of zone. Results show that the highest number of input did not give the best results and ideal size of zone is in interval from 25 to 35, when course of management was almost same for

  16. Streamflow, water quality and constituent loads and yields, Scituate Reservoir drainage area, Rhode Island, water year 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2016-05-03

    Streamflow and concentrations of sodium and chloride estimated from records of specific conductance were used to calculate loads of sodium and chloride during water year (WY) 2014 (October 1, 2013, through September 30, 2014) for tributaries to the Scituate Reservoir, Rhode Island. Streamflow and water-quality data used in the study were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Providence Water Supply Board in the cooperative study. Streamflow was measured or estimated by the U.S. Geological Survey following standard methods at 23 streamgages; 14 of these streamgages are equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring water level, specific conductance, and water temperature. Water-quality samples were collected at 37 sampling stations by the Providence Water Supply Board and at 14 continuous-record streamgages by the U.S. Geological Survey during WY 2014 as part of a long-term sampling program; all stations are in the Scituate Reservoir drainage area. Water-quality data collected by the Providence Water Supply Board are summarized by using values of central tendency and are used, in combination with measured (or estimated) streamflows, to calculate loads and yields (loads per unit area) of selected water-quality constituents for WY 2014.The largest tributary to the reservoir (the Ponaganset River, which was monitored by the U.S. Geological Survey) contributed a mean streamflow of 23 cubic feet per second to the reservoir during WY 2014. For the same time period, annual mean streamflows measured (or estimated) for the other monitoring stations in this study ranged from about 0.35 to about 14 cubic feet per second. Together, tributaries (equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance) transported about 1,200,000 kilograms of sodium and 2,100,000 kilograms of chloride to the Scituate Reservoir during WY 2014; sodium and chloride yields for the tributaries ranged from 7,700 to 45,000 kilograms per year per

  17. Streamflow, water quality, and constituent loads and yields, Scituate Reservoir Drainage Area, Rhode Island, water year 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2018-05-11

    Streamflow and concentrations of sodium and chloride estimated from records of specific conductance were used to calculate loads of sodium and chloride during water year (WY) 2015 (October 1, 2014, through September 30, 2015) for tributaries to the Scituate Reservoir, Rhode Island. Streamflow and water-quality data used in the study were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Providence Water Supply Board. Streamflow was measured or estimated by the U.S. Geological Survey following standard methods at 23 streamgages; 14 of these streamgages are equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring water level, specific conductance, and water temperature. Water-quality samples were collected at 36 sampling stations by the Providence Water Supply Board and at 14 continuous-record streamgages by the U.S. Geological Survey during WY 2015 as part of a long-term sampling program; all stations are in the Scituate Reservoir drainage area. Water-quality data collected by the Providence Water Supply Board are summarized by using values of central tendency and are used, in combination with measured (or estimated) streamflows, to calculate loads and yields (loads per unit area) of selected water-quality constituents for WY 2015.The largest tributary to the reservoir (the Ponaganset River, which was monitored by the U.S. Geological Survey) contributed a mean streamflow of 25 cubic feet per second to the reservoir during WY 2015. For the same time period, annual mean streamflows measured (or estimated) for the other monitoring stations in this study ranged from about 0.38 to about 14 cubic feet per second. Together, tributaries (equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance) transported about 1,500,000 kilograms of sodium and 2,400,000 kilograms of chloride to the Scituate Reservoir during WY 2015; sodium and chloride yields for the tributaries ranged from 8,000 to 54,000 kilograms per square mile and from 12,000 to 91

  18. Disinfection byproduct formation in drinking water sources: A case study of Yuqiao reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Hongyan; He, Xizhen; Zhang, Yan; Du, Tingting; Adeleye, Adeyemi S; Li, Yao

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated the potential formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) during chlorination and chloramination of 20 water samples collected from different points of Yuqiao reservoir in Tianjin, China. The concentrations of dissolved organic matter and ammonia decreased downstream the reservoir, while the specific UV absorbance (SUVA: the ratio of UV 254 to dissolved organic carbon) increased [from 0.67 L/(mg*m) upstream to 3.58 L/(mg*m) downstream]. The raw water quality played an important role in the formation of DBPs. During chlorination, haloacetic acids (HAAs) were the major DBPs formed in most of the water samples, followed by trihalomethanes (THMs). CHCl 3 and CHCl 2 Br were the major THM species, while trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) and dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) were the major HAA species. Chloramination, on the other hand, generally resulted in lower concentrations of THMs (CHCl 3 ), HAAs (TCAA and DCAA), and haloacetonitriles (HANs). All the species of DBPs formed had positive correlations with the SUVA values, and HANs had the highest one (R 2  = 0.8). The correlation coefficients between the analogous DBP yields and the SUVA values in chlorinated samples were close to those in chloraminated samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Seasonal use of shallow water habitat in the Lower Snake River reservoirs by juvenile fall Chinook salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Connor, William P.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE) is preparing a long term management plan for sediments that affect the authorized project purposes of the Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, and Ice Harbor reservoirs (hereafter, the lower Snake River reservoirs), and the area from the mouth of the Snake River to Ice Harbor Dam. We conducted a study from spring 2010 through winter 2011 to describe the habitat use by juvenile Chinook salmon within a selected group of shallow water habitat complexes (spoils to create shallow water habitat, (2) provide evidence for shallow water habitat use by natural subyearlings, (3) provide evidence against large-scale use of shallow water habitat by reservoir-type juveniles, (4) suggest that the depth criterion for defining shallow water habitat (i.e., food web, and intra-specific competition would help to better inform the long-term management plan.

  20. Diversity of Phytoplankton of the Water Reservoir of Betania-Huila and its Importance as Bioindicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAULA MARTINEZ SILVA

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Betania reservoir of water is one of the strategic ecosystems of the Huila department, being of vital importance not only for the generation of electricity but for the production of fish which is the main activity for the last thirty years. Nevertheless, activities such as pisiculture, the dumping of wastewater generated by agricultural activities, have diminished the quality of the water and accelerated the eutrophication process. In this research, phytoplankton samples were taken along one year with the objective to stablish through the use of bioindicators, such as microalgae, the actual state of this water body as well as the spatial – temporal variation of species and genres of algae amongst stations and samplings.

  1. Facility to separate water and steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loesel, G.

    1977-01-01

    The water/steam mixture from the pressure vessel e.g. of a BWR is separated by means of centrifugal separators untilizing the natural separation of steam. The steam is supplied to a steam drying vessel and the water to a water collecting tank. These vessels may be combined to a common vessel or connected through additional pipes. From the water collecting tank, arranged below the steam dryer, a feedwater pipe runs back to the pressure vessel. By construction out of individual components cleaning, decontamination, and operating control are essentially simplified. (RW) 891 RW [de

  2. [Coupling SWAT and CE-QUAL-W2 models to simulate water quantity and quality in Shanmei Reservoir watershed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei-Bing; Chen, Dong-Ping; Chen, Xing-Wei; Chen, Ying

    2013-12-01

    A coupled watershed-reservoir modeling approach consisting of a watershed distributed model (SWAT) and a two-dimensional laterally averaged model (CE-QUAL-W2) was adopted for simulating the impact of non-point source pollution from upland watershed on water quality of Shanmei Reservoir. Using the daily serial output from Shanmei Reservoir watershed by SWAT as the input to Shanmei Reservoir by CE-QUAL-W2, the coupled modeling was calibrated for runoff and outputs of sediment and pollutant at watershed scale and for elevation, temperature, nitrate, ammonium and total nitrogen in Shanmei Reservoir. The results indicated that the simulated values agreed fairly well with the observed data, although the calculation precision of downstream model would be affected by the accumulative errors generated from the simulation of upland model. The SWAT and CE-QUAL-W2 coupled modeling could be used to assess the hydrodynamic and water quality process in complex watershed comprised of upland watershed and downstream reservoir, and might further provide scientific basis for positioning key pollution source area and controlling the reservoir eutrophication.

  3. Developing an integrated 3D-hydrodynamic and emerging contaminant model for assessing water quality in a Yangtze Estuary Reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Cong; Zhang, Jingjie; Bi, Xiaowei; Xu, Zheng; He, Yiliang; Gin, Karina Yew-Hoong

    2017-12-01

    An integrated 3D-hydrodynamic and emerging contaminant model was developed for better understanding of the fate and transport of emerging contaminants in Qingcaosha Reservoir. The reservoir, which supplies drinking water for nearly half of Shanghai's population, is located in Yangtze Delta. The integrated model was built by Delft3D suite, a fully integrated multidimensional modeling software. Atrazine and Bisphenol A (BPA) were selected as two representative emerging contaminants for the study in this reservoir. The hydrodynamic model was calibrated and validated against observations from 2011 to 2015 while the integrated model was calibrated against observations from 2014 to 2015 and then applied to explore the potential risk of high atrazine concentrations in the reservoir driven by agriculture activities. Our results show that the model is capable of describing the spatial and temporal patterns of water temperature, salinity and the dynamic distributions of two representative emerging contaminants (i.e. atrazine and BPA) in the reservoir. The physical and biodegradation processes in this study were found to play a crucial role in determining the fate and transport of atrazine and BPA in the reservoir. The model also provides an insight into the potential risk of emerging contaminants and possible mitigation thresholds. The integrated approach can be a very useful tool to support policy-makers in the future management of Qingcaosha Reservoir. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Aggregating land use quantity and intensity to link water quality in upper catchment of Miyun Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, E.

    2015-12-01

    Land use is closely related to hydrological and biochemical processes influencing the water quality. Quantifying relationship between both of them can help effectively manage land use to improve water quality. Previous studies majorly utilized land use quantity as an indicator to link water quality parameters, which lacked an insight to the influence of land use intensity. Taking upper catchment of Miyun Reservoir as a case study, we proposed a method of aggregating land use quantity and intensity to build a new land use indicator and investigated its explanation empower on water quality. Six nutrient concentrations from 52 sub-watersheds covering the whole catchment were used to characterize spatial distributions of water eutrophication. Based on spatial techniques and empirical conversion coefficients, combined remote sensing with socio-economic statistical data, land use intensity was measured and mapped visually. Then the new land use indicator was calculated and linked to nutrient concentrations by Pearson correlation coefficients. Results demonstrated that our new land use indicator incorporating intensity information can quantify the potential different nutrients exporting abilities from land uses. Comparing to traditional indicators only characterized by land use quantity, most Pearson correlation coefficients between new indicator and water nutrient concentrations increased. New information enhanced the explanatory power of land use on water nutrient concentrations. Then it can help better understand the impact of land use on water quality and guide land use management for supporting decision making.

  5. Quantifying the potential for reservoirs to secure future surface water yields in the world’s largest river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Parkinson, Simon; Gidden, Matthew; Byers, Edward; Satoh, Yusuke; Riahi, Keywan; Forman, Barton

    2018-04-01

    Surface water reservoirs provide us with reliable water supply, hydropower generation, flood control and recreation services. Yet reservoirs also cause flow fragmentation in rivers and lead to flooding of upstream areas, thereby displacing existing land-use activities and ecosystems. Anticipated population growth and development coupled with climate change in many regions of the globe suggests a critical need to assess the potential for future reservoir capacity to help balance rising water demands with long-term water availability. Here, we assess the potential of large-scale reservoirs to provide reliable surface water yields while also considering environmental flows within 235 of the world’s largest river basins. Maps of existing cropland and habitat conservation zones are integrated with spatially-explicit population and urbanization projections from the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways to identify regions unsuitable for increasing water supply by exploiting new reservoir storage. Results show that even when maximizing the global reservoir storage to its potential limit (∼4.3–4.8 times the current capacity), firm yields would only increase by about 50% over current levels. However, there exist large disparities across different basins. The majority of river basins in North America are found to gain relatively little firm yield by increasing storage capacity, whereas basins in Southeast Asia display greater potential for expansion as well as proportional gains in firm yield under multiple uncertainties. Parts of Europe, the United States and South America show relatively low reliability of maintaining current firm yields under future climate change, whereas most of Asia and higher latitude regions display comparatively high reliability. Findings from this study highlight the importance of incorporating different factors, including human development, land-use activities, and climate change, over a time span of multiple decades and across a range of different

  6. Sea water take-up facility for cooling reactor auxiliary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numata, Noriko; Mizutani, Akira; Hirako, Shizuka; Uchiyama, Yuichi; Oda, Atsushi.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides an improvement of a cooling sea water take-up facility for cooling auxiliary equipments of nuclear power plant. Namely, an existent sea water take-up facility for cooling reactor auxiliary equipments has at least two circulation water systems and three independent sea water systems for cooling reactor auxiliary equipments. In this case, a communication water channel is disposed, which connects the three independent sea water systems for cooling reactor auxiliary equipments mutually by an opening/closing operation of a flow channel partitioning device. With such a constitution, even when any combination of two systems among the three circulation water systems is in inspection at the same time, one system for cooling the reactor auxiliary equipments can be kept operated, and one system is kept in a stand-by state by the communication water channel upon periodical inspection of water take-up facility for cooling the auxiliary equipments. As a result, the sea water take-up facility for cooling auxiliary equipments of the present invention have operation efficiency higher than that of a conventional case while keeping the function and safety at the same level as in the conventional case. (I.S.)

  7. Use of ground-water reservoirs for storage of surface water in the San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, G.H.; Lofgren, B.E.; Mack, Seymour

    1964-01-01

    The San Joaquin Valley includes roughly the southern two-thirds of the Central Valley of California, extending 250 miles from Stockton on the north to Grapevine at the foot of the Tehachapi Mountains. The valley floor ranges in width from 25 miles near Bakersfield to about 55 miles near Visalia; it has a surface area of about 10,000 square miles. More than one-quarter of all the ground water pumped for irrigation in the United States is used in this highly productive valley. Withdrawal of ground water from storage by heavy pumping not only provides a needed irrigation water supply, but it also lowers the ground-water level and makes storage space available in which to conserve excess water during periods of heavy runoff. A storage capacity estimated to be 93 million acre-feet to a depth of 200 feet is available in this ground-water reservoir. This is about nine times the combined capacity of the existing and proposed surface-water reservoirs in the San Joaquin Valley under the California Water Plan. The landforms of the San Joaquin Valley include dissected uplands, low plains and fans, river flood plains and channels, and overflow lands and lake bottoms. Below the land surface, unconsolidated sediments derived from the surrounding mountain highlands extend downward for hundreds of feet. These unconsolidated deposits, consisting chiefly of alluvial deposits, but including some widespread lacustrine sediments, are the principal source of ground water in the valley. Ground water occurs under confined and unconfined conditions in the San Joaquin Valley. In much of the western, central, and southeastern parts of the valley, three distinct ground-water reservoirs are present. In downward succession these are 1) a body of unconfined and semiconfined fresh water in alluvial deposits of Recent, Pleistocene, and possibly later Pliocene age, overlying the Corcoran clay member of the Tulare formation; 2) a body of fresh water confined beneath the Corcoran clay member, which

  8. Modelling the impacts of climate change on hydrology and water quality in a mediterranean limno-reservoir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molina-Navarro, Euginio; Trolle, Dennis; Martinez-Pérez, Silvia

    Assessment Tool (SWAT) model developed for a small Mediterranean catchment to quantify the potential effects of various climate change scenarios on catchment hydrology as well as the trophic state of a new kind of waterbody, a limno-reservoir (Pareja Limno-reservoir), created for environmental...... and recreational purposes. Simulations showed a noticeable impact of climate change in the river flow regime and consequently the water level of the limno-reservoir, especially during summer, complicating the fulfillment of its purposes. All the scenarios predicted a deterioration of trophic conditions...

  9. Emergency water supply facility for nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasawa, Toru

    1998-01-01

    Water is stored previously in an equipment storage pit disposed on an operator floor of a reactor building instead of a condensate storage vessel. Upon occurrence of an emergency, water is supplied from the equipment storage pit by way of a sucking pipeline to a pump of a high pressure reactor core water injection circuit and a pump of a reactor-isolation cooling circuit to supply water to a reactor. The equipment storage pit is arranged in a building so that the depth thereof is determined to keep the required amount of water by storing water at a level lower than the lower end of a pool gate during normal operation. Water is also supplied from the equipment storage pit by way of a supply pipeline to a spent fuel storage pool on the operation floor of the reactor building. Namely, water is supplied to the spent fuel storage pool by a pump of a fuel pool cooling and cleaning circuit. This can eliminate a suppression pool cleaning circuit. (I.N.)

  10. Comparison of Particle-Associated Bacteria from a Drinking Water Treatment Plant and Distribution Reservoirs with Different Water Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, G; Ling, F Q; van der Mark, E J; Zhang, X D; Knezev, A; Verberk, J Q J C; van der Meer, W G J; Medema, G J; Liu, W T; van Dijk, J C

    2016-02-02

    This study assessed the characteristics of and changes in the suspended particles and the associated bacteria in an unchlorinated drinking water distribution system and its reservoirs with different water sources. The results show that particle-associated bacteria (PAB) were present at a level of 0.8-4.5 × 10(3) cells ml(-1) with a biological activity of 0.01-0.04 ng l(-1) ATP. Different PAB communities in the waters produced from different sources were revealed by a 16S rRNA-based pyrosequencing analysis. The quantified biomass underestimation due to the multiple cells attached per particle was ≥ 85%. The distribution of the biologically stable water increased the number of cells per particle (from 48 to 90) but had minor effects on the PAB community. Significant changes were observed at the mixing reservoir. Our results show the characteristics of and changes in suspended PAB during distribution, and highlight the significance of suspended PAB in the distribution system, because suspended PAB can lead to a considerable underestimation of biomass, and because they exist as biofilm, which has a greater mobility than pipe-wall biofilm and therefore presents a greater risk, given the higher probability that it will reach the customers' taps and be ingested.

  11. Chemical and physical characteristics of water and sediment in Scofield Reservoir, Carbon County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Kidd M.; Darby, D.W.; Theobald, S.M.

    1985-01-01

    Evaluations based on the nutrient content of the inflow, outflow, water in storage, and the dissolved-oxygen depletion during the summer indicate that the trophic state of Scofield Reservoir is borderline between mesotrophic and eutrophic and may become highly eutrophic unless corrective measures are taken to limit nutrient inflow.Sediment deposition in Scofield Reservoir during 1943-79 is estimated to be 3,000 acre-feet, and has decreased the original storage capacity of the reservoir by 4 percent. The sediment contains some coal, and age dating of those sediments (based on the radioisotope lead-210) indicates that most of the coal was deposited prior to about 1950.Scofield Reservoir is dimictic, with turnovers occurring in the spring and autumn. Water in the reservoir circulates completely to the bottom during turnovers. The concentration of dissolved oxygen decreases with depth except during parts of the turnover periods. Below an altitude of about 7,590 feet, where 20 percent of the water is stored, the concentration of dissolved oxygen was less than 2 milligrams per liter during most of the year. During the summer stratification period, the depletion of dissolved oxygen in the deeper layers is coincident with supersaturated conditions in the shallow layers; this is attributed to plant photosynthesis and bacterial respiration in the reservoir.During October 1,1979-August 31,1980, thedischargeweighted average concentrations of dissolved solids was 195 milligrams per liter in the combined inflow from Fish, Pondtown, and Mud Creeks, and was 175 milligrams per liter in the outflow (and to the Price River). The smaller concentration in the outflow was due primarily to precipitation of calcium carbonate in the reservoir about 80 percent of the decrease can be accounted for through loss as calcium carbonate.The estimated discharge-weighted average concentration of total nitrogen (dissolved plus suspended) in the combined inflow of Fish, Pondtown, and Mud Creeks was 1

  12. The water footprint of human-made reservoirs for hydropower, irrigation, water supply, flood prevention, fishing and recreation on a global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogeboom, Rick; Knook, Luuk; Hoekstra, Arjen

    2017-04-01

    Increasing the availability of freshwater to meet growing and competing demands is on many policy agendas. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) prescribe sustainable management of water for human consumption. For centuries humans have resorted to building dams to store water in periods of excess for use in times of shortage. Although dams and their reservoirs have made important contributions to human development, it is increasingly acknowledged that reservoirs can be substantial water consumers as well. We estimated the water footprint of human-made reservoirs on a global scale and attributed it to the various reservoir purposes (hydropower generation, residential and industrial water supply, irrigation water supply, flood protection, fishing and recreation) based on their economic value. We found that economic benefits from derived products and services from 2235 reservoirs globally, amount to 311 billion US dollar annually, with residential and industrial water supply and hydropower generation as major contributors. The water footprint associated with these benefits is the sum of the water footprint of dam construction (footprint of reservoirs globally adds up to ˜104 km3yr-1. Attribution per purpose shows that, with a global average water footprint of 21,5 m3GJ,-1 hydropower on average is a water intensive form of energy. We contextualized the water footprint of reservoirs and their purposes with regard to the water scarcity level of the river basin in which they occur. We found the lion's share (55%) of the water footprint is located in non-water scarce basins and only 1% in year-round scarce basins. The purpose for which the reservoir is primarily used changes with increasing water scarcity, from mainly hydropower generation in non-scarce basins, to the (more essential) purposes residential and industrial water supply, irrigation and flood control in scarcer areas. The quantitative explication of how the burden of water consumption from reservoirs is

  13. Water, sanitation and hygiene in Jordan's healthcare facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khader, Yousef Saleh

    2017-08-14

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to determine water availability, sanitation and hygiene (WSH) services, and healthcare waste management in Jordan healthcare facilities. Design/methodology/approach In total, 19 hospitals (15 public and four private) were selected. The WSH services were assessed in hospitals using the WSH in health facilities assessment tool developed for this purpose. Findings All hospitals (100 percent) had a safe water source and most (84.2 percent) had functional water sources to provide enough water for users' needs. All hospitals had appropriate and sufficient gender separated toilets in the wards and 84.2 percent had the same in outpatient settings. Overall, 84.2 percent had sufficient and functioning handwashing basins with soap and water, and 79.0 percent had sufficient showers. Healthcare waste management was appropriately practiced in all hospitals. Practical implications Jordan hospital managers achieved major achievements providing access to drinking water and improved sanitation. However, there are still areas that need improvements, such as providing toilets for patients with special needs, establishing handwashing basins with water and soap near toilets, toilet maintenance and providing sufficient trolleys for collecting hazardous waste. Efforts are needed to integrate WSH service policies with existing national policies on environmental health in health facilities, establish national standards and targets for the various healthcare facilities to increase access and improve services. Originality/value There are limited WSH data on healthcare facilities and targets for basic coverage in healthcare facilities are also lacking. A new assessment tool was developed to generate core WSH indicators and to assess WSH services in Jordan's healthcare facilities. This tool can be used by a non-WSH specialist to quickly assess healthcare facility-related WSH services and sanitary hazards in other countries. This tool identified some areas

  14. Characterizing the Water Balance of the Sooke Reservoir, British Columbia over the Last Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arelia T. Werner

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Infrastructure such as dams and reservoirs are critical water-supply features in several regions of the world. However, ongoing population growth, increased demand and climate variability/change necessitate the better understanding of these systems, particularly in terms of their long-term trends. The Sooke Reservoir (SR of British Columbia, Canada is one such reservoir that currently supplies water to ~300,000 people, and is subject to considerable inter and intra-annual climatic variations. The main objectives of this study are to better understand the characteristics of the SR through an in-depth assessment of the contemporary water balance when the basin was intensively monitored (1996–2005, to use standardized runoff to select the best timescale to compute the Standard Precipitation (SPI and Standard Precipitation Evaporation Indices (SPEI to estimate trends in water availability over 1919 to 2005. Estimates of runoff and evaporation were validated by comparing simulated change in storage, computed by adding inputs and subtracting outputs from the known water levels by month, to observed change in storage. Water balance closure was within ±11% of the monthly change in storage on average when excluding months with spill pre-2002. The highest evaporation, dry season (1998 and lowest precipitation, wet season (2000/2001 from the intensively monitored period were used to construct a worst-case scenario to determine the resilience of the SR to drought. Under such conditions, the SR could support Greater Victoria until the start of the third wet season. The SPEI and SPI computed on a three-month timescale had the highest correlation with the standardized runoff, R2 equaled 0.93 and 0.90, respectively. A trend toward drier conditions was shown by SPEI over 1919 to 2005, while moistening over the same period was shown by SPI, although trends were small in magnitude. This study contributes a validated application of SPI and SPEI, giving more

  15. Radioecological impact of effluents from a nuclear facility being decommissioned in the Antas river hydro graphic basin in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Radioecological impact of effluents in the Antas reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronque, Leilane Barbosa; Azevedo, Heliana de; Lopes do Nascimento, Marcos Roberto; Roque, Claudio Vitor; Silva, Nivaldo Carlos da; Rodgher, Suzelei; Regali-Seleghim, Mirna Helena

    2008-01-01

    The Antas reservoir receives the treated effluents which come from acid drainage of uranium ore from the UTM-INB (Ore Treatment Unit - Brazilian Nuclear Industries), located in Caldas, Minas Gerais. This study was conducted in order to determine the possible environmental impact caused by discharge of the treated liquid effluent from the UTM into the Antas reservoir. Biological (ciliated protozoa and Peridinium sp. phytoflagellate) and physicochemical variables (manganese, zinc, sulfate, uranium, dissolved oxygen and temperature), trophic state and saprobity indexes were evaluated. Sampling in reservoir (Cab, P41, P14S, and P14F points) took place during the dry winter season (July 2006). Each day, samples were collected four times (6:00 am, 12:00 pm, 6:00 pm, and 12:00 am). Biological variables analyzed at the Antas reservoir classified it as an oligo trophic and beta-mesosaprobic environment. Chemical parameters indicate failures in the nuclear facility effluent treatment plant, showing that effluents outside of standard limits established by Brazilian current legislation for Class II water are being discharged at point P41. These results agree with biological analyses, since point P41 has the lowest diversity and biomass values for ciliated protozoa organisms, indicating possible environmental impacts on the ecosystem due to effluent discharge by this mining company.(author)

  16. Performance confirmation operation of water environment control facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magome, Hirokatsu; Okada, Yuji; Tomita, Kenji; Iida, Kazuhiro; Ando, Hitoshi; Yonekawa, Akihisa; Ueda, Haruyasu; Hanawa, Hiroshi; Kanno, Masaru; Sakuta, Yoshiyuki

    2015-09-01

    In Japan Atomic Energy Agency, in order to solve the problem in the long-term operation of a light water reactor, preparation which does the irradiation experiment of light-water reactor fuel and material was advanced. JMTR stopped after the 165th operation cycle in August 2006, and is advancing renewal of the irradiation facility towards re-operation. The material irradiation test facility was installed from 2008 fiscal year to 2012 fiscal year in JMTR. The material irradiation test facility is used for IASCC study, and consists of mainly three equipments. This report described performance operating test of the water environmental control facilities for IASCC study carried out 2013 fiscal year. (author)

  17. Streamflow, water quality, and constituent loads and yields, Scituate Reservoir drainage area, Rhode Island, water year 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2014-01-01

    Streamflow and concentrations of sodium and chloride estimated from records of specific conductance were used to calculate loads of sodium and chloride during water year (WY) 2012 (October 1, 2011, through September 30, 2012), for tributaries to the Scituate Reservoir, Rhode Island. Streamflow and water-quality data used in the study were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) or the Providence Water Supply Board (PWSB). Streamflow was measured or estimated by the USGS following standard methods at 23 streamgages; 14 of these streamgages were equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring water level, specific conductance, and water temperature. Water-quality samples were collected at 37 sampling stations by the PWSB and at 14 continuous-record streamgages by the USGS during WY 2012 as part of a long-term sampling program; all stations were in the Scituate Reservoir drainage area. Water-quality data collected by the PWSB were summarized by using values of central tendency and used, in combination with measured (or estimated) streamflows, to calculate loads and yields (loads per unit area) of selected water-quality constituents for WY 2012. The largest tributary to the reservoir (the Ponaganset River, which was monitored by the USGS) contributed a mean streamflow of about 26 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) to the reservoir during WY 2012. For the same time period, annual mean1 streamflows measured (or estimated) for the other monitoring stations in this study ranged from about 0.40 to about 17 ft3/s. Together, tributaries (equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance) transported about 1,100,000 kilograms (kg) of sodium and 1,900,000 kg of chloride to the Scituate Reservoir during WY 2012; sodium and chloride yields for the tributaries ranged from 8,700 to 51,000 kilograms per square mile (kg/mi2) and from 14,000 to 87,000 kg/mi2, respectively. At the stations where water-quality samples were collected

  18. Streamflow, water quality, and constituent loads and yields, Scituate Reservoir drainage area, Rhode Island, water year 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2013-01-01

    Streamflow and concentrations of sodium and chloride estimated from records of specific conductance were used to calculate loads of sodium and chloride during water year (WY) 2011 (October 1, 2010, to September 30, 2011), for tributaries to the Scituate Reservoir, Rhode Island. Streamflow and water-quality data used in the study were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) or the Providence Water Supply Board (PWSB). Streamflow was measured or estimated by the USGS following standard methods at 23 streamgages; 14 of these streamgages were also equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring water level, specific conductance, and water temperature. Water-quality samples also were collected at 37 sampling stations by the PWSB and at 14 continuous-record streamgages by the USGS during WY 2011 as part of a long-term sampling program; all stations were in the Scituate Reservoir drainage area. Water-quality data collected by PWSB are summarized by using values of central tendency and are used, in combination with measured (or estimated) streamflows, to calculate loads and yields (loads per unit area) of selected water-quality constituents for WY 2011. The largest tributary to the reservoir (the Ponaganset River, which was monitored by the USGS) contributed a mean streamflow of about 37 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) to the reservoir during WY 2011. For the same time period, annual mean1 streamflows measured (or estimated) for the other monitoring stations in this study ranged from about 0.5 to about 21 ft3/s. Together, tributaries (equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance) transported about 1,600,000 kg (kilograms) of sodium and 2,600,000 kg of chloride to the Scituate Reservoir during WY 2011; sodium and chloride yields for the tributaries ranged from 9,800 to 53,000 kilograms per square mile (kg/mi2) and from 15,000 to 90,000 kg/mi2, respectively. At the stations where water-quality samples were

  19. Model Studies on the Effectiveness of MBBR Reactors for the Restoration of Small Water Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Agata; Mazur, Robert; Panek, Ewa; Chmist, Joanna

    2018-02-01

    The authors present the Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR) model with a quasi-continuous flow for small water reservoir restoration, characterized by high concentrations of organic pollutants. To determine the efficiency of wastewater treatment the laboratory analysis of physic-chemical parameters were conducted for the model on a semi-technical scale of 1:3. Wastewater treatment process was carried out in 24 h for 1 m3 for raw sewage. The startup period was 2 weeks for all biofilters (biological beds). Approximately 50% reduction in COD and BOD5 was obtained on average for the studied bioreactors. Significant improvements were achieved in theclarity of the treated wastewater, with the reduction of suspension by 60%. The oxygen profile has improved significantly in 7 to 9 hours of the process, and a diametric reduction in the oxidative reduction potential was recorded. A preliminary model of biological treatment effectiveness was determined based on the conducted studies. In final stages, the operation mode was set in real conditions of polluted water reservoirs.

  20. Natural radium and radon tracers to quantify water exchange and movement in reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christopher G.; Baskaran, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Radon and radium isotopes are routinely used to quantify exchange rates between different hydrologic reservoirs. Since their recognition as oceanic tracers in the 1960s, both radon and radium have been used to examine processes such as air-sea exchange, deep oceanic mixing, benthic inputs, and many others. Recently, the application of radon-222 and the radium-quartet (223,224,226,228Ra) as coastal tracers has seen a revelation with the growing interest in coastal groundwater dynamics. The enrichment of these isotopes in benthic fluids including groundwater makes both radium and radon ideal tracers of coastal benthic processes (e.g. submarine groundwater discharge). In this chapter we review traditional and recent advances in the application of radon and radium isotopes to understand mixing and exchange between various hydrologic reservoirs, specifically: (1) atmosphere and ocean, (2) deep and shallow oceanic water masses, (3) coastal groundwater/benthic pore waters and surface ocean, and (4) aquifer-lakes. While the isotopes themselves and their distribution in the environment provide qualitative information about the exchange processes, it is mixing/exchange and transport models for these isotopes that provide specific quantitative information about these processes. Brief introductions of these models and mixing parameters are provided for both historical and more recent studies.

  1. The use of view analyses in shaping a forest landscape in the vicinity of water reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janeczko Emilia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available An increasing importance of the social functions of the forest entails the necessity to modify forestry management in a way which would ensure its social acceptance. This mainly concerns those parts of the forest that are “most visible”, in the surroundings of roads, tourist trails, as well as water bodies. The article discusses the importance of view analyses in forest landscaping. On the basis of the adopted methodological assumptions, the assessment of landscape resources of the forest in the vicinity of a water reservoir in the Kielce Forest District (Radom Regional Forest Directorate has been made. Available ortophotomaps and aerial photographs taken by UAVs were used for view analyses together with elevation data collected through airborne laser scanning. The results obtained allow to make recommendations for the protection of the reservoir exposure as well as engineering forest management and silviculture. Consequently, the inclusion of visual analyses into the planning stage enables verification of the quality of forest management plans.

  2. Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) movement in relation to water temperature, season, and habitat features in Arrowrock Reservoir, Idaho, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maret, Terry R.; Schultz, Justin E.

    2013-01-01

    Acoustic telemetry was used to determine spring to summer (April–August) movement and habitat use of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in Arrowrock Reservoir (hereafter “Arrowrock”), a highly regulated reservoir in the Boise River Basin of southwestern Idaho. Water management practices annually use about 86 percent of the reservoir water volume to satisfy downstream water demands. These practices might be limiting bull trout habitat and movement patterns. Bull trout are among the more thermally sensitive coldwater species in North America, and the species is listed as threatened throughout the contiguous United States under the Endangered Species Act. Biweekly water-temperature and dissolved-oxygen profiles were collected by the Bureau of Reclamation at three locations in Arrowrock to characterize habitat conditions for bull trout. Continuous streamflow and water temperature also were measured immediately upstream of the reservoir on the Middle and South Fork Boise Rivers, which influence habitat conditions in the riverine zones of the reservoir. In spring 2012, 18 bull trout ranging in total length from 306 to 630 millimeters were fitted with acoustic transmitters equipped with temperature and depth sensors. Mobile boat tracking and fixed receivers were used to detect released fish. Fish were tagged from March 28 to April 20 and were tracked through most of August. Most bull trout movements were detected in the Middle Fork Boise River arm of the reservoir. Fifteen individual fish were detected at least once after release. Water surface temperature at each fish detection location ranged from 6.0 to 16.2 degrees Celsius (°C) (mean=10.1°C), whereas bull trout body temperatures were colder, ranging from 4.4 to 11.6°C (mean=7.3°C). Bull trout were detected over deep-water habitat, ranging from 8.0 to 42.6 meters (m) (mean=18.1 m). Actual fish depths were shallower than total water depth, ranging from 0.0 to 24.5 m (mean=6.7 m). The last bull trout was

  3. The Variation Characteristic of Sulfides and VOSc in a Source Water Reservoir and Its Control Using a Water-Lifting Aerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Chao Shi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sulfides and volatile organic sulfur compounds (VOSc in water are not only malodorous but also toxic to humans and aquatic organisms. They cause serious deterioration in the ecological environment and pollute drinking water sources. In the present study, a source water reservoir—Zhoucun Reservoir in East China—was selected as the study site. Through a combination of field monitoring and in situ release experiments of sulfides, the characteristics of seasonal variation and distribution of sulfides and VOSc in the reservoir were studied, and the cause of the sulfide pollution was explained. The results show that sulfide pollution was quite severe in August and September 2014 in the Zhoucun Reservoir, with up to 1.59 mg·L−1 of sulfides in the lower layer water. The main source of sulfides is endogenous pollution. VOSc concentration correlates very well with that of sulfides during the summer, with a peak VOSc concentration of 44.37 μg·L−1. An installed water-lifting aeration system was shown to directly oxygenate the lower layer water, as well as mix water from the lower and the upper layers. Finally, the principle and results of controlling sulfides and VOSc in reservoirs using water-lifting aerators are clarified. Information about sulfides and VOSc fluctuation and control gained in this study may be applicable to similar reservoirs, and useful in practical water quality improvement and pollution prevention.

  4. Risk-weighted optimization for cyclic steam stimulation of water-underlain reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehra, R.K.; Ding, L.Y.; Donnelly, J.K.

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes the procedure that was adopted to develop operating guidelines for the cyclic steam stimulation process in a water underlain oil sands reservoir. The study consisted of three parts: i) The risks associated with fracturing into water sands were quantified by conducting a stochastic simulation; ii) Numerical simulations were conducted to obtain correlations among the cumulative production volumes and six selected operating variables; iii) These correlations were subsequently embodied in the economic model to maximize the profits under different constraints. The study concluded that rather than a unique value, a wide range of operating conditions maximized the project profitability. It recommended that a cautious approach in exploitation of these resources was warranted since the penalty for selecting non-optimal conditions was not high

  5. NORTH PORTAL - WATER HEATER CALCULATION - CHANGE HOUSE FACILITY No.5008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.B. Blackstone

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this design analysis and calculation is to determine the demand for hot water in the Change House Facility and the selection of a water heater of appropriate size in accordance with the Uniform Plumbing Code (Section 4.4.1) and U.S. Department of Energy Order 6430.1A-1540 (Section 4.4.2)

  6. Community management and sustainability of rural water facilities in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandara, C.G.; Butijn, C.A.A.; Niehof, Anke

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of whether community management in water service delivery affects the sustainability of rural water facilities (RWFs) at village level, in terms of their technical and managerial aspects, and what role capacity building of users and providers plays in this process.

  7. Potential of Cellulose-Based Superabsorbent Hydrogels as Water Reservoir in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Demitri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the development of a biodegradable superabsorbent hydrogel, based on cellulose derivatives, for the optimization of water resources in agriculture, horticulture and, more in general, for instilling a wiser and savvier approach to water consumption. The sorption capability of the proposed hydrogel was firstly assessed, with specific regard to two variables that might play a key role in the soil environment, that is, ionic strength and pH. Moreover, a preliminary evaluation of the hydrogel potential as water reservoir in agriculture was performed by using the hydrogel in experimental greenhouses, for the cultivation of tomatoes. The soil-water retention curve, in the presence of different hydrogel amounts, was also analysed. The preliminary results showed that the material allowed an efficient storage and sustained release of water to the soil and the plant roots. Although further investigations should be performed to completely characterize the interaction between the hydrogel and the soil, such findings suggest that the envisaged use of the hydrogel on a large scale might have a revolutionary impact on the optimization of water resources management in agriculture.

  8. Vertical and temporal dynamics of cyanobacteria in the Carpina potable water reservoir in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, A N; Dantas, E W; Oliveira, H S B; Bittencourt-Oliveira, M C

    2011-05-01

    This study analysed vertical and temporal variations of cyanobacteria in a potable water supply in northeastern Brazil. Samples were collected from four reservoir depths in the four months; September and December 2007; and March and June 2008. The water samples for the determination of nutrients and cyanobacteria were collected using a horizontal van Dorn bottle. The samples were preserved in 4% formaldehyde for taxonomic analysis using an optical microscope, and water aliquots were preserved in acetic Lugol solution for determination of density using an inverted microscope. High water temperatures, alkaline pH, low transparency, high phosphorous content and limited nitrogen content were found throughout the study. Dissolved oxygen stratification occurred throughout the study period whereas temperature stratification occurred in all sampling months, with the exception of June. No significant vertical differences were recorded for turbidity or total and dissolved forms of nutrients. There were high levels of biomass arising from Planktothrix agardhii, Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, Geitlerinema amphibium and Pseudanabaena catenata. The study demonstrates that, in a tropical eutrophic environment with high temperatures throughout the water column, perennial multi-species cyanobacterial blooms, formed by species capable of regulating their position in the water column (those that have gas vesicles for buoyancy), are dominant in the photic and aphotic strata.

  9. Vertical and temporal dynamics of cyanobacteria in the Carpina potable water reservoir in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AN Moura

    Full Text Available This study analysed vertical and temporal variations of cyanobacteria in a potable water supply in northeastern Brazil. Samples were collected from four reservoir depths in the four months; September and December 2007; and March and June 2008. The water samples for the determination of nutrients and cyanobacteria were collected using a horizontal van Dorn bottle. The samples were preserved in 4% formaldehyde for taxonomic analysis using an optical microscope, and water aliquots were preserved in acetic Lugol solution for determination of density using an inverted microscope. High water temperatures, alkaline pH, low transparency, high phosphorous content and limited nitrogen content were found throughout the study. Dissolved oxygen stratification occurred throughout the study period whereas temperature stratification occurred in all sampling months, with the exception of June. No significant vertical differences were recorded for turbidity or total and dissolved forms of nutrients. There were high levels of biomass arising from Planktothrix agardhii, Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, Geitlerinema amphibium and Pseudanabaena catenata. The study demonstrates that, in a tropical eutrophic environment with high temperatures throughout the water column, perennial multi-species cyanobacterial blooms, formed by species capable of regulating their position in the water column (those that have gas vesicles for buoyancy, are dominant in the photic and aphotic strata.

  10. Monitoring algal blooms in drinking water reservoirs using the Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Darryl; Rover, Jennifer; Green, Jason; Zalewsky, Brian; Charpentier, Mike; Hursby, Glen; Bishop, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrated that the Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) sensor is a powerful tool that can provide periodic and system-wide information on the condition of drinking water reservoirs. The OLI is a multispectral radiometer (30 m spatial resolution) that allows ecosystem observations at spatial and temporal scales that allow the environmental community and water managers another means to monitor changes in water quality not feasible with field-based monitoring. Using the provisional Land Surface Reflectance product and field-collected chlorophyll-a (chl-a) concentrations from drinking water monitoring programs in North Carolina and Rhode Island, we compared five established approaches for estimating chl-aconcentrations using spectral data. We found that using the three band reflectance approach with a combination of OLI spectral bands 1, 3, and 5 produced the most promising results for accurately estimating chl-a concentrations in lakes (R2 value of 0.66; root mean square error value of 8.9 µg l−1). Using this model, we forecast the spatial and temporal variability of chl-a for Jordan Lake, a recreational and drinking water source in piedmont North Carolina and several small ponds that supply drinking water in southeastern Rhode Island.

  11. A rainfall-runoff model for two small ungauged catchment using the water balance of a reservoir for calibration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hamer, W.; Love, D.; Booij, Martijn J.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2007-01-01

    In semi‐arid regions, small artificial surface reservoirs are important to meet the domestic and agricultural water requirements of smallholder farmers. The research objective of the study was to determine the rainfall‐runoff relation of two ungauged rivers using the measured water levels of the

  12. Thermal pollution of rivers and reservoirs by discharges of heated water from thermal and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarov, I.

    1974-12-01

    The problems are discussed of the thermal pollution of rivers and water reservoirs by discharges of heated water from thermal and nuclear power plants. The problems concerned are quantitative and qualitative changes in biocenoses, the disturbance or extinction of flora and fauna, physiological changes in organisms and changes in the hydrochemical regime. (Z.M.)

  13. Aerodynamic and related hydrodynamic studies using water facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-06-01

    Related problems, experiences and advancements in aeronautical and maritime fluid dynamics through the use of water facilities are reviewed. In recent years there has been an increasing use of water facilities for aerodynamic investigations. These include water tunnels, towing channels, and stationary tanks. Examples include basic research problems as well as flow fields around fighter aircraft, inlet flows, recirculation flow patterns associated with VTOL, ramjet simulation, etc., and, in general, 3-D flows with vortices or separated regimes as prominent features. The Symposium was organized to provide an appropriate forum for the exchange of information within the aeronautical and maritime fluid dynamics community.

  14. Relationships between water and gas chemistry in mature coalbed methane reservoirs of the Black Warrior Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashin, Jack C.; McIntyre-Redden, Marcella R.; Mann, Steven D.; Kopaska-Merkel, David C.; Varonka, Matthew S.; Orem, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Water and gas chemistry in coalbed methane reservoirs of the Black Warrior Basin reflects a complex interplay among burial processes, basin hydrodynamics, thermogenesis, and late-stage microbial methanogenesis. These factors are all important considerations for developing production and water management strategies. Produced water ranges from nearly potable sodium-bicarbonate water to hypersaline sodium-chloride brine. The hydrodynamic framework of the basin is dominated by structurally controlled fresh-water plumes that formed by meteoric recharge along the southeastern margin of the basin. The produced water contains significant quantities of hydrocarbons and nitrogen compounds, and the produced gas appears to be of mixed thermogenic-biogenic origin.Late-stage microbial methanogenesis began following unroofing of the basin, and stable isotopes in the produced gas and in mineral cements indicate that late-stage methanogenesis occurred along a CO2-reduction metabolic pathway. Hydrocarbons, as well as small amounts of nitrate in the formation water, probably helped nourish the microbial consortia, which were apparently active in fresh to hypersaline water. The produced water contains NH4+ and NH3, which correlate strongly with brine concentration and are interpreted to be derived from silicate minerals. Denitrification reactions may have generated some N2, which is the only major impurity in the coalbed gas. Carbon dioxide is a minor component of the produced gas, but significant quantities are dissolved in the formation water. Degradation of organic compounds, augmented by deionization of NH4+, may have been the principal sources of hydrogen facilitating late-stage CO2 reduction.

  15. Occurrence and dominance of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii and dissolved cylindrospermopsin in urban reservoirs used for drinking water supply, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Lamei; Peng, Liang; Huang, Xianghui; Han, Bo-Ping

    2014-05-01

    The tropical cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii is of particular concern for its invasive characteristics and production of the toxin cylindrospermopsin (CYN). The present study represents the first attempt to determine the distribution of C. raciborskii and CYN in tropical China. The presence of C. raciborskii and CYN, as well as the composition of phytoplankton, was determined from a total of 86 samples from 25 urban reservoirs for drinking water supply in Dongguan City of South China. The presence of C. raciborskii was observed in 21 of the 25 reservoirs and confirmed that this species has been widely distributed in the investigated reservoirs. C. raciborskii accounted for between 0.1 and 90.3 % of the total phytoplankton biomass and contributed to the majority of the phytoplankton in some reservoirs such as Tangkengbian and Xiagongyan. Its biomass was negatively correlated with NO3 (-)-N concentration and Secchi depth. Dissolved CYN was detected in more than one-half of the reservoirs with concentrations up to 8.25 μg L(-1), and it positively correlated with C. raciborskii biomass. Dissolved microcystins (MCs) were detected in 12 of the 25 reservoirs with a maximum concentration 1.99 μg L(-1). Our data strongly suggest that C. raciborskii and CYN could be important health hazards in urban reservoirs of South China and that more data are needed for further assessment.

  16. Contrasting cesium dynamics in neighboring deep and shallow warm-water reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinder, John E. [Department of Biology, Texas Christian University, Ft. Worth, TX 76129 (United States); Hinton, T.G., E-mail: thomas.hinton@irsn.f [Institute for Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety, Cadarache, 13115 France (France); Whicker, F.W. [Department of Environmental and Radiological Health Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1618 (United States)

    2010-09-15

    To measure the long term retention and seasonal dynamics of an initial 4 kg addition of {sup 133}Cs into an 11.4-ha, 157,000 m{sup 3} reservoir (Pond 4, near Aiken, South Carolina, USA), the concentrations and inventories of {sup 133}Cs in the water column were measured at periodical intervals for 522 days following the 1 August, 1999 release. After rapid declines in concentrations and inventories during the first 90 days, the {sup 133}Cs concentrations in the water column declined at an average proportional rate of 0.004 d{sup -1}. However, there were periods of less rapid and more rapid rates of declines, and these were correlated with periods of increasing and decreasing K concentrations in the water column. The decline rates were less and the K concentrations greater in the winter than in the summer. In the deeper, neighboring monomictic reservoirs of Par Pond and Pond B, a yearly cycle of increasing and decreasing {sup 137}Cs concentrations in the water column is driven by anoxic remobilization of Cs from the sediments into a persistent summer hypolimnion. In Pond 4, whose mean depth of 1.6 m is too shallow to support a persistent anoxic hypolimnion, the pattern of yearly dynamics for K and Cs appear to be related to the accumulation and release of these elements from the extensive, seasonal macrophyte communities. The contrasting results between Pond 4 and Pond B suggest that a full appreciation of the relative importance of 1) anoxic remobilization and 2) accumulation and release by macrophytes in these systems remains to be established.

  17. Hydrological Drought in the Anthropocene: Impacts of Local Water Extraction and Reservoir Regulation in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Wenhua; Zhao, Jianshi; Li, Hong-Yi; Mishra, Ashok; Ruby Leung, L.; Hejazi, Mohamad; Wang, Wei; Lu, Hui; Deng, Zhiqun; Demissisie, Yonas; Wang, Hao

    2017-11-01

    Hydrological drought is a substantial negative deviation from normal hydrologic conditions and is influenced by climate and human activities such as water management. By perturbing the streamflow regime, climate change and water management may significantly alter drought characteristics in the future. Here we utilize a high-resolution integrated modeling framework that represents water management in terms of both local surface water extraction and reservoir regulation and use the Standardized Streamflow Index to quantify hydrological drought. We explore the impacts of water management on hydrological drought over the contiguous U.S. in a warming climate with and without emissions mitigation. Despite the uncertainty of climate change impacts, local surface water extraction consistently intensifies drought that dominates at the regional to national scale. However, reservoir regulation alleviates drought by enhancing summer flow downstream of reservoirs. The relative dominance of drought intensification or relief is largely determined by the water demand, with drought intensification dominating in regions with intense water demand such as the Great Plains and California, while drought relief dominates in regions with low water demand. At the national level, water management increases the spatial extent of extreme drought despite some alleviations of moderate to severe drought. In an emissions mitigation scenario with increased irrigation demand for bioenergy production, water management intensifies drought more than the business-as-usual scenario at the national level, so the impacts of emissions mitigation must be evaluated by considering its benefit in reducing warming and evapotranspiration against its effects on increasing water demand and intensifying drought.

  18. Impact of sediments resuspension on metal solubilization and water quality during recurrent reservoir sluicing management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frémion, Franck; Courtin-Nomade, Alexandra [Groupement de Recherche Eau Sol Environnement, Université de Limoges, 123 avenue Albert Thomas, 87060 Limoges Cedex (France); Bordas, François, E-mail: francois.bordas@unilim.fr [Groupement de Recherche Eau Sol Environnement, Université de Limoges, 123 avenue Albert Thomas, 87060 Limoges Cedex (France); Lenain, Jean-François [Groupement de Recherche Eau Sol Environnement, Université de Limoges, 123 avenue Albert Thomas, 87060 Limoges Cedex (France); Jugé, Philippe [CETU – ELMIS Ingénieries, Université François Rabelais, , 60 Rue du Plat d' Étain, 37000 Tours (France); Kestens, Tim [EDF – DPIH, Unité de Production Centre, 19 bis avenue de la Révolution, BP 406, 87012 Limoges Cedex (France); Mourier, Brice [Groupement de Recherche Eau Sol Environnement, Université de Limoges, 123 avenue Albert Thomas, 87060 Limoges Cedex (France)

    2016-08-15

    In dam contexts, sluicing operations can be performed to reestablish sediments continuity, as proposed by the EU Water Framework Directive, as well as to preserve the reservoirs' water storage capacity. Such management permits the rapid release of high quantities of reservoir sediments through the opening of dam bottom valves. This work aims to study the impact of such operation on the evolution of environmental physicochemical conditions notably changes in dissolved metallic elements concentrations (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) through field and laboratory investigations. Results were interpreted in terms of concentrations and fluxes, and compared with data collected on an annual basis regarding both suspended matter and metallic elements. The release of high quantities of sediments (4,500 tons dry weight in 24 h), with concentrations representing up to 300 times the inter-annual mean suspended sediments discharge, significantly modified water parameters, notably solid/liquid (S/L) ratio, pH and redox conditions. Despite the fact that they are mainly trapped in stable phases, a clear increase of the solubilized metals content was measured, representing up to 60 times the maximum values of current exploitation. This solubilization is related to desorption phenomena from sediments through changes in chemical equilibriums as highlighted by laboratory characterizations and experiments. These chemical modifications are mainly attributed to S/L ratio variations. Indeed, the low S/L ratios (≤ 1.3 g·L{sup −1}) measured in situ are typically the ones for which metals solubilization is the highest, as shown by laboratory experiments. Additional thermodynamic modeling highlighted that the decrease in pH measured during the operation favors the release of the free forms of metallic elements (Al and Cu), and decreases the OM complexation influence. These changes, either in term of physical conditions or speciation, increasing metals long term

  19. The Tianjin geothermal field (north-eastern China): Water chemistry and possible reservoir permeability reduction phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minissale, Angelo; Montegrossi, Giordano; Orlando, Andrea [Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources, National Research Council of Italy (CNR), Via G. La Pira 4, 50121 Florence (Italy); Borrini, Daniele; Tassi, Franco [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Florence, Via G. La Pira 4, 50121 Florence (Italy); Vaselli, Orlando [Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources, National Research Council of Italy (CNR), Via G. La Pira 4, 50121 Florence (Italy); Department of Earth Sciences, University of Florence, Via G. La Pira 4, 50121 Florence (Italy); Huertas, Antonio Delgado [Estacion Experimental de Zaidin (CSIC), Prof. Albareda 1, 18008 Granada (Spain); Yang, Jincheng; Cheng, Wanquing [Aode Renewable Energy Research Institute, 90 Weijin South Road, Nankai District, 300381 Tianjin (China); Tedesco, Dario [Department of Environmental Sciences, Second University of Naples, Via Vivaldi 43, Caserta 81100 (Italy); Institute of Environmental Geology and Geo Engineering (CNR), Piazzale A. Moro 5, Roma 00100 (Italy); Poreda, Robert [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Rochester, 227 Hutchison Hall, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States)

    2008-08-15

    Injection of spent (cooled) thermal fluids began in the Tianjin geothermal district, north-eastern China, at the end of the 1990s. Well injectivities declined after 3-4 years because of self-sealing processes that reduced reservoir permeability. The study focuses on the factors that may have caused the observed decrease in permeability, using chemical and isotopic data on fluids (water and gas) and mineral phases collected from production and injection wells. The results of data processing and interpretation indicate that (1) it is very unlikely that calcite and silica precipitation is taking place in the reservoir; (2) the Fe- and Zn-rich mineral phases (e.g. sulfides, hydroxides and silicates) show positive saturation indexes; (3) SEM and XRD analyses of filtered material reveal that the latter mineral phases are common; (4) visual observation of casings and surface installations, and of corrosion products, suggests that a poor quality steel was used in their manufacture; (5) significant quantities of solids (e.g. quartz and feldspar crystals) are carried by the geothermal fluid; (6) seasonal changes in fluid composition lead to a reduction in casing corrosion during the summer. It was concluded that the decrease in injectivity in the Tianjin wells is caused only in part by the oxidation of casings, downhole pumps, and surface installations, triggered by free oxygen in the injected fluids; the utilization of better quality steels should drastically reduce this type of corrosion. Self-sealing of pores and fractures by reservoir formation solids and by the Fe-corrosion products suspended in the injected fluids seems to be a more important phenomenon, whose effect could be greatly reduced by installing filtering devices at all sites. (author)

  20. Streamflow, Water Quality, and Constituent Loads and Yields, Scituate Reservoir Drainage Area, Rhode Island, Water Year 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breault, Robert F.; Campbell, Jean P.

    2010-01-01

    Streamflow and water-quality data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) or the Providence Water Supply Board, Rhode Island's largest drinking-water supplier. Streamflow was measured or estimated by the USGS following standard methods at 23 streamgage stations; 10 of these stations were also equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance. Streamflow and concentrations of sodium and chloride estimated from records of specific conductance were used to calculate instantaneous (15-minute) loads of sodium and chloride during water year (WY) 2006 (October 1, 2005, to September 30, 2006). Water-quality samples were also collected at 37 sampling stations in the Scituate Reservoir drainage area by the Providence Water Supply Board during WY 2006 as part of a long-term sampling program. Water-quality data are summarized by using values of central tendency and are used, in combination with measured (or estimated) streamflows, to calculate loads and yields (loads per unit area) of selected water-quality constituents for WY 2006. The largest tributary to the reservoir (the Ponaganset River, which was monitored by the USGS) contributed about 42 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) to the reservoir during WY 2006. For the same time period, annual mean streamflows1 measured (or estimated) for the other monitoring stations in this study ranged from about 0.60 to 26 ft3/s. Together, tributary streams (equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance) transported about 1,600,000 kilograms (kg) of sodium and 2,500,000 kg of chloride to the Scituate Reservoir during WY 2006; sodium and chloride yields for the tributaries ranged from 15,000 to 100,000 kilograms per square mile (kg/mi2) and from 22,000 to 180,000 kg/mi2, respectively. At the stations where water-quality samples were collected by the Providence Water Supply Board, the median of the median chloride concentrations was 24.6 milligrams per liter

  1. Streamflow, water quality, and constituent loads and yields, Scituate Reservoir drainage area, Rhode Island, water year 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breault, Robert F.; Campbell, Jean P.

    2010-01-01

    Streamflow and water-quality data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) or the Providence Water Supply Board, Rhode Island's largest drinking-water supplier. Streamflow was measured or estimated by the USGS following standard methods at 23 streamgage stations; 10 of these stations were also equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance. Streamflow and concentrations of sodium and chloride estimated from records of specific conductance were used to calculate instantaneous (15-minute) loads of sodium and chloride during water year (WY) 2003 (October 1, 2002, to September 30, 2003). Water-quality samples were also collected at 37 sampling stations in the Scituate Reservoir drainage area by the Providence Water Supply Board during WY 2003 as part of a long-term sampling program. Water-quality data are summarized by using values of central tendency and are used, in combination with measured (or estimated) streamflows, to calculate loads and yields (loads per unit area) of selected water-quality constituents for WY 2003. The largest tributary to the reservoir (the Ponaganset River, which was monitored by the USGS) contributed about 31 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) to the reservoir during WY 2003. For the same time period, annual mean streamflows1 measured (or estimated) for the other monitoring stations in this study ranged from about 0.44 to 20 ft3/s. Together, tributary streams (equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance) transported about 1,200,000 kilograms (kg) of sodium and 1,900,000 kg of chloride to the Scituate Reservoir during WY 2003; sodium and chloride yields for the tributaries ranged from 10,000 to 61,000 kilograms per square mile (kg/mi2) and from 15,000 to 100,000 kg/mi2, respectively. At the stations where water-quality samples were collected by the Providence Water Supply Board, the median of the median chloride concentrations was 21.3 milligrams per liter

  2. Streamflow, Water Quality, and Constituent Loads and Yields, Scituate Reservoir Drainage Area, Rhode Island, Water Year 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breault, Robert F.; Campbell, Jean P.

    2010-01-01

    Streamflow and water-quality data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) or the Providence Water Supply Board, Rhode Island’s largest drinking-water supplier. Streamflow was measured or estimated by the USGS following standard methods at 23 streamgage stations; 10 of these stations were also equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance. Streamflow and concentrations of sodium and chloride estimated from records of specific conductance were used to calculate instantaneous (15-minute) loads of sodium and chloride during water year (WY) 2005 (October 1, 2004, to September 30, 2005). Water-quality samples were also collected at 37 sampling stations in the Scituate Reservoir drainage area by the Providence Water Supply Board during WY 2005 as part of a long-term sampling program. Water-quality data are summarized by using values of central tendency and are used, in combination with measured (or estimated) streamflows, to calculate loads and yields (loads per unit area) of selected water-quality constituents for WY 2005. The largest tributary to the reservoir (the Ponaganset River, which was monitored by the USGS) contributed about 30 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) to the reservoir during WY 2005. For the same time period, annual mean streamflows1 measured (or estimated) for the other monitoring stations in this study ranged from about 0.42 to 19 ft3/s. Together, tributary streams (equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance) transported about 1,300,000 kilograms (kg) of sodium and 2,000,000 kg of chloride to the Scituate Reservoir during WY 2005; sodium and chloride yields for the tributaries ranged from 13,000 to 77,000 kilograms per square mile (kg/mi2) and from 19,000 to 130,000 kg/mi2, respectively. At the stations where water-quality samples were collected by the Providence Water Supply Board, the median of the median chloride concentrations was 25.3 milligrams per

  3. Streamflow, water quality, and constituent loads and yields, Scituate Reservoir drainage area, Rhode Island, water year 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breault, Robert F.; Campbell, Jean P.

    2010-01-01

    Streamflow and water-quality data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) or the Providence Water Supply Board, Rhode Island's largest drinking-water supplier. Streamflow was measured or estimated by the USGS following standard methods at 23 streamgage stations; 10 of these stations were also equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance. Streamflow and concentrations of sodium and chloride estimated from records of specific conductance were used to calculate instantaneous (15-minute) loads of sodium and chloride during water year (WY) 2004 (October 1, 2003, to September 30, 2004). Water-quality samples were also collected at 37 sampling stations in the Scituate Reservoir drainage area by the Providence Water Supply Board during WY 2004 as part of a long-term sampling program. Water-quality data are summarized by using values of central tendency and are used, in combination with measured (or estimated) streamflows, to calculate loads and yields (loads per unit area) of selected water-quality constituents for WY 2004. The largest tributary to the reservoir (the Ponaganset River, which was monitored by the USGS) contributed about 27 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) to the reservoir during WY 2004. For the same time period, annual mean1 streamflows measured (or estimated) for the other monitoring stations in this study ranged from about 0.42 to 19 ft3/s. Together, tributary streams (equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance) transported about 1,100,000 kilograms (kg) of sodium and 1,700,000 kg of chloride to the Scituate Reservoir during WY 2004; sodium and chloride yields for the tributaries ranged from 12,000 to 61,000 kilograms per square mile (kg/mi2) and from 17,000 to 100,000 kg/mi2, respectively. At the stations where water-quality samples were collected by the Providence Water Supply Board, the median of the median chloride concentrations was 24.8 milligrams per liter

  4. Reservoir stratification affects methylmercury levels in river water, plankton, and fish downstream from Balbina hydroelectric dam, Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Daniele; Forsberg, Bruce R; Amaral, João H F; Leitão, Rafael P; Py-Daniel, Sarah S; Bastos, Wanderley R; Malm, Olaf

    2014-01-21

    The river downstream from a dam can be more contaminated by mercury than the reservoir itself. However, it is not clear how far the contamination occurs downstream. We investigated the seasonal variation of methylmercury levels in the Balbina reservoir and how they correlated with the levels encountered downstream from the dam. Water, plankton, and fishes were collected upstream and at sites between 0.5 and 250 km downstream from the dam during four expeditions in 2011 and 2012. Variations in thermal stratification of the reservoir influenced the methylmercury levels in the reservoir and in the river downstream. Uniform depth distributions of methylmercury and oxygen encountered in the poorly stratified reservoir during the rainy season collections coincided with uniformly low methylmercury levels along the river downstream from the dam. During dry season collections, the reservoir was strongly stratified, and anoxic hypolimnion water with high methylmercury levels was exported downstream. Methylmercury levels declined gradually to 200 km downstream. In general, the methylmercury levels in plankton and fishes downstream from the dam were higher than those upstream. Higher methylmercury levels observed 200-250 km downstream from the dam during flooding season campaigns may reflect the greater inflow from tributaries and flooding of natural wetlands that occurred at this time.

  5. Effect of stratification on segregation in carbon dioxide miscible flooding in a water-flooded oil reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatti, A.A.; Mahmood, S.M.; Amjad, B.

    2013-01-01

    Oil reservoirs are subjected to tertiary recovery by deploying any enhanced oil recovery (EOR) technique for the recovery of left over oil. Amongst many EOR methods one of the widely applied worldwide is CO/sub 2/ flooding through miscible, near miscible or immiscible displacement processes. CO/sub 2/ flooding process responds to a number of reservoir and fluid characteristics. These characteristics have strong effect on overall efficiency of the displacement process. Better understanding of the effect of different characteristics on displacement process is important to plan an efficient displacement process. In this work, the effect of stratification resulting in gravity segregation of the injected fluid is studied in an oil reservoir which is water-flooded during secondary phase of recovery. Sensitivity analysis is performed through successive simulation on Eclipse 300 (compositional) reservoir simulator. Process involves the continuous CO/sub 2/ injection in an oil reservoir with more than 1/3rd of original oil in place left after water flooding. Reservoir model with four different permeability layers is studied. Four patterns by changing the arrangement of the permeabilities of the layers are analysed. The effect of different arrangement or stratification on segregation of CO/sub 2/ and ultimately on the incremental oil recovery, is investigated. It has been observed that out of four arrangements, upward fining pattern relatively overcame the issue of the segregation of CO/sub 2/ and consequently 33% more oil with half injection volume is recovered when compared with the downward fining pattern. (author)

  6. Sedimentary fractions of phosphorus before and after drainage of an urban water body (Maltański Reservoir, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rzymski Piotr

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Urban reservoirs can receive high loads of chemicals, including persistent contaminants and eutrophication-promoting nutrients. To maintain their economic and recreational use, implementation of various restoration methods is often required. The Maltański Reservoir (Poland, Europe, a small, shallow and dammed urban water body, undergoes complete draining every four years as part of its restoration procedure. Here, we investigated the phosphorus (P content and its fractions just before the reservoir was drained and after it had been completely filled with water again. As demonstrated, the highest accumulation of P occurred at sites through which the main water flow is directed. Calcium-bound and residual P constituted the largest proportion of P fractions. A shift in P fractions after the reservoir was drained and sediments were left without water for at least 4 months was observed. A decrease in phytoplankton utilized NH4Cl-P, Fe-P and NaOH-P fractions was found and followed a simultaneous increase in nearly biologically inaccessible HCl-P and practically biologically inactive residual P fractions. Our study demonstrates that complete drainage of the Maltański Reservoir may additionally decrease the risk of internal P loading through shifts in its fractions.

  7. Good Practices for Water Quality Management in Research Reactors and Spent Fuel Storage Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Water is the most common fluid used to remove the heat produced in a research reactor (RR). It is also the most common media used to store spent fuel elements after being removed from the reactor core. Spent fuel is stored either in the at-reactor pool or in away-from-reactor wet facilities, where the fuel elements are maintained until submission to final disposal, or until the decay heat is low enough to allow migration to a dry storage facility. Maintaining high quality water is the most important factor in preventing degradation of aluminium clad fuel elements, and other structural components in water cooled research reactors. Excellent water quality in spent fuel wet storage facilities is essential to achieve optimum storage performance. Experience shows the remarkable success of many research reactors where the water chemistry has been well controlled. In these cases, aluminium clad fuel elements and aluminium pool liners show few, if any, signs of either localized or general corrosion, even after more than 30 years of exposure to research reactor water. In contrast, when water quality was allowed to degrade, the fuel clad and the structural parts of the reactor have been seriously corroded. The driving force to prepare this publication was the recognition that, even though a great deal of information on research reactor water quality is available in the open literature, no comprehensive report addressing the rationale of water quality management in research reactors has been published to date. This report is designed to provide a comprehensive catalogue of good practices for the management of water quality in research reactors. It also presents a brief description of the corrosion process that affects the components of a research reactor. Further, the report provides a basic understanding of water chemistry and its influence on the corrosion process; specifies requirements and operational limits for water purification systems of RRs; describes good practices

  8. Dynamics of Bacterial and Fungal Communities during the Outbreak and Decline of an Algal Bloom in a Drinking Water Reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haihan; Jia, Jingyu; Chen, Shengnan; Huang, Tinglin; Wang, Yue; Zhao, Zhenfang; Feng, Ji; Hao, Huiyan; Li, Sulin; Ma, Xinxin

    2018-02-18

    The microbial communities associated with algal blooms play a pivotal role in organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus cycling in freshwater ecosystems. However, there have been few studies focused on unveiling the dynamics of bacterial and fungal communities during the outbreak and decline of algal blooms in drinking water reservoirs. To address this issue, the compositions of bacterial and fungal communities were assessed in the Zhoucun drinking water reservoir using 16S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene Illumina MiSeq sequencing techniques. The results showed the algal bloom was dominated by Synechococcus, Microcystis, and Prochlorothrix. The bloom was characterized by a steady decrease of total phosphorus (TP) from the outbreak to the decline period (p Limnobacter sp., Synechococcus sp., and Roseomonas sp. The relative size of the fungal community also changed with algal bloom and its composition mainly contained Ascomycota, Basidiomycota and Chytridiomycota. Heat map profiling indicated that algal bloom had a more consistent effect upon fungal communities at genus level. Redundancy analysis (RDA) also demonstrated that the structure of water bacterial communities was significantly correlated to conductivity and ammonia nitrogen. Meanwhile, water temperature, Fe and ammonia nitrogen drive the dynamics of water fungal communities. The results from this work suggested that water bacterial and fungal communities changed significantly during the outbreak and decline of algal bloom in Zhoucun drinking water reservoir. Our study highlights the potential role of microbial diversity as a driving force for the algal bloom and biogeochemical cycling of reservoir ecology.

  9. Cooling water facilities at a nuclear station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, W.L.; Ghadiali, B.M.; Kanovich, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    The use of ponds for holding a reserve of cooling water obtained as sewage effluent and also for collection of waste water for disposal by evaporation, was made at a nuclear power plant site in southern Arizona. The power output of the plant will be 3,900 MW. Two single cell ponds are 80 acres (30 ha) and 250 acres (100 ha) in size. Excavated materials from the 80-acre (30ha) pond were used for structural backfill as planned, and the 250-acre (100ha) pond was designed for limited dike height with balanced cut and fill and some excess materials used as side berms for additional safety. Both ponds are being lined with a unique combination of linings to provide environmental safeguards and at the same time cost-effectiveness is compared to alternative schemes

  10. Using the example of Istanbul to outline general aspects of protecting reservoirs, rivers and lakes used for drinking water abstraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanik, A

    2000-01-01

    The six main drinking water reservoirs of Istanbul are under the threat of pollution due to rapid population increase, unplanned urbanisation and insufficient infrastructure. In contrast to the present land use profile, the environmental evaluation of the catchment areas reveals that point sources of pollutants, especially of domestic origin, dominate over those from diffuse sources. The water quality studies also support these findings, emphasising that if no substantial precautions are taken, there will be no possibility of obtaining drinking water from them. In this paper, under the light of the present status of the reservoirs, possible and probable short- and long-term protective measures are outlined for reducing the impact of point sources. Immediate precautions mostly depend on reducing the pollution arising from the existing settlements. Long-term measures mainly emphasise the preparation of new land use plans taking into consideration the protection of unoccupied lands. Recommendations on protection and control of the reservoirs are stated.

  11. Spatio-Temporal Variations and Source Apportionment of Water Pollution in Danjiangkou Reservoir Basin, Central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the spatio-temporal variation and the potential source of water pollution could greatly improve our knowledge of human impacts on the environment. In this work, data of 11 water quality indices were collected during 2012–2014 at 10 monitoring sites in the mainstream and major tributaries of the Danjiangkou Reservoir Basin, Central China. The fuzzy comprehensive assessment (FCA, the cluster analysis (CA and the discriminant analysis (DA were used to assess the water pollution status and analyze its spatio-temporal variation. Ten sites were classified by the high pollution (HP region and the low pollution (LP region, while 12 months were divided into the wet season and the dry season. It was found that the HP region was mainly in the small tributaries with small drainage areas and low average annual discharges, and it was also found that most of these rivers went through urban areas with industrial and domestic sewages input into the water body. Principal component analysis/factor analysis (PCA/FA was applied to reveal potential pollution sources, whereas absolute principal component score-multiple linear regression (APCS-MLR was used to identify their contributions to each water quality variable. The study area was found as being generally affected by industrial and domestic sewage. Furthermore, the HP region was polluted by chemical industries, and the LP region was influenced by agricultural and livestock sewage.

  12. Groundwater storage and water security: making better use of our largest reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuinhof, A; Olsthoorn, T; Heederik, J P; de Vries, J

    2005-01-01

    Provision of sufficient storage capacity under growing water demands and increasing climate variability is one the main concerns for water managers in the coming decades. It is expected that 150-300 km3 of additional storage capacity will be needed by 2025 especially in semi-arid and arid regions where changes in climate variability will have most impact on rainfall and drought. Storage of substantial amounts of water can either be above ground, in reservoirs behind dams or underground in aquifers (sub-surface storage). Recharge enhancement through management of aquifer recharge (MAR) and sub-surface storage (SSS) is a known technology and already successfully applied in a number of countries for many years at different scales. MAR-SSS is a flexible and cost-effective means to increase storage capacity both at village level and in modern water management schemes. A dialogue and information exchange between climate experts and water managers can provide an effective contribution to the planning, design and operation of MAR-SSS schemes.

  13. Evaluation of Management of Water Release for Painted Rocks Reservoir, Bitterroot River, Montana, 1984 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lere, Mark E. (Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Missoula, MT)

    1984-11-01

    Baseline fisheries and habitat data were gathered during 1983 and 1984 to evaluate the effectiveness of supplemental water releases from Painted Rocks Reservoir in improving the fisheries resource in the Bitterroot River. Discharge relationships among main stem gaging stations varied annually and seasonally. Flow relationships in the river were dependent upon rainfall events and the timing and duration of the irrigation season. Daily discharge monitored during the summers of 1983 and 1984 was greater than median values derived at the U.S.G.S. station near Darby. Supplemental water released from Painted Rocks Reservoir totaled 14,476 acre feet in 1983 and 13,958 acre feet in 1984. Approximately 63% of a 5.66 m{sup 3}/sec test release of supplemental water conducted during April, 1984 was lost to irrigation withdrawals and natural phenomena before passing Bell Crossing. A similar loss occurred during a 5.66 m{sup 3}/sec test release conducted in August, 1984. Daily maximum temperature monitored during 1984 in the Bitterroot River averaged 11.0, 12.5, 13.9 and 13.6 C at the Darby, Hamilton, Bell and McClay stations, respectively. Chemical parameters measured in the Bitterroot River were favorable to aquatic life. Population estimates conducted in the Fall, 1983 indicated densities of I+ and older rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) were significantly greater in a control section than in a dewatered section (p < 0.20). Numbers of I+ and older brown trout (Salmo trutta) were not significantly different between the control and dewatered sections (p > 0.20). Population and biomass estimates for trout in the control section were 631/km and 154.4 kg/km. In the dewatered section, population and biomass estimates for trout were 253/km and 122.8 kg/km. The growth increments of back-calculated length for rainbow trout averaged 75.6 mm in the control section and 66.9mm in the dewatered section. The growth increments of back-calculated length for brown trout averaged 79.5 mm in the

  14. Facility for generating crew waste water product for ECLSS testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitekant, Alan; Roberts, Barry C.

    1990-01-01

    An End-use Equipment Facility (EEF) has been constructed which is used to simulate water interfaces between the Space Station Freedom Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) and man systems. The EEF is used to generate waste water to be treated by ECLSS water recovery systems. The EEF will also be used to close the water recovery loop by allowing test subjects to use recovered hygiene and potable water during several phases of testing. This paper describes the design and basic operation of the EEF.

  15. A fast complex domain-matching pursuit algorithm and its application to deep-water gas reservoir detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jing; Huang, Handong; Li, Huijie; Miao, Yuxin; Wen, Junxiang; Zhou, Fei

    2017-12-01

    The main emphasis of exploration and development is shifting from simple structural reservoirs to complex reservoirs, which all have the characteristics of complex structure, thin reservoir thickness and large buried depth. Faced with these complex geological features, hydrocarbon detection technology is a direct indication of changes in hydrocarbon reservoirs and a good approach for delimiting the distribution of underground reservoirs. It is common to utilize the time-frequency (TF) features of seismic data in detecting hydrocarbon reservoirs. Therefore, we research the complex domain-matching pursuit (CDMP) method and propose some improvements. First is the introduction of a scale parameter, which corrects the defect that atomic waveforms only change with the frequency parameter. Its introduction not only decomposes seismic signal with high accuracy and high efficiency but also reduces iterations. We also integrate jumping search with ergodic search to improve computational efficiency while maintaining the reasonable accuracy. Then we combine the improved CDMP with the Wigner-Ville distribution to obtain a high-resolution TF spectrum. A one-dimensional modeling experiment has proved the validity of our method. Basing on the low-frequency domain reflection coefficient in fluid-saturated porous media, we finally get an approximation formula for the mobility attributes of reservoir fluid. This approximation formula is used as a hydrocarbon identification factor to predict deep-water gas-bearing sand of the M oil field in the South China Sea. The results are consistent with the actual well test results and our method can help inform the future exploration of deep-water gas reservoirs.

  16. Modeling Alpine hydropower reservoirs management to study the water-energy nexus under change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelletti, A.; Giuliani, M.; Fumagalli, E.; Weber, E.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change and growing population are expected to severely affect freshwater availability by the end of 21th century. Many river basins, especially in the Mediterranean region, are likely to become more prone to periods of reduced water supply, risking considerable impacts on the society, the environment, and the economy, thus emphasizing the need to rethink the way water resources are distributed, managed, and used at the regional and river basin scale. This paradigm shift will be essential to cope with the undergoing global change, characterized by growing water demands and by increasingly uncertain hydrologic regimes. Most of the literature traditionally focused on predicting the impacts of climate change on water resources, while our understanding of the human footprint on the hydrological cycle is limited. For example, changes in the operation of the Alpine hydropower reservoirs induced by socio-economic drivers (e.g., development of renewable energy) were already observed over the last few years and produced relevant impacts on multiple water uses due to the altered distribution of water volumes in time and space. Modeling human decisions as well as the links between society and environmental systems becomes key to develop reliable projections on the co-evolution of the coupled human-water systems and deliver robust adaptation strategies This work contributes a preliminary model-based analysis of the behaviour of hydropower operators under changing energy market and climate conditions. The proposed approach is developed for the San Giacomo-Cancano reservoir system, Italy. The identification of the current operating policy is supported by input variable selection methods to select the most relevant hydrological and market based drivers to explain the observed release time series.. The identified model is then simulated under a set of future scenarios, accounting for both climate and socio-economic change (e.g. expansion of the electric vehicle sector, load

  17. An innovative technique for estimating water saturation from capillary pressure in clastic reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeoti, Lukumon; Ayolabi, Elijah Adebowale; James, Logan

    2017-11-01

    A major drawback of old resistivity tools is the poor vertical resolution and estimation of hydrocarbon when applying water saturation (Sw) from historical resistivity method. In this study, we have provided an alternative method called saturation height function to estimate hydrocarbon in some clastic reservoirs in the Niger Delta. The saturation height function was derived from pseudo capillary pressure curves generated using modern wells with complete log data. Our method was based on the determination of rock type from log derived porosity-permeability relationship, supported by volume of shale for its classification into different zones. Leverette-J functions were derived for each rock type. Our results show good correlation between Sw from resistivity based method and Sw from pseudo capillary pressure curves in wells with modern log data. The resistivity based model overestimates Sw in some wells while Sw from the pseudo capillary pressure curves validates and predicts more accurate Sw. In addition, the result of Sw from pseudo capillary pressure curves replaces that of resistivity based model in a well where the resistivity equipment failed. The plot of hydrocarbon pore volume (HCPV) from J-function against HCPV from Archie shows that wells with high HCPV have high sand qualities and vice versa. This was further used to predict the geometry of stratigraphic units. The model presented here freshly addresses the gap in the estimation of Sw and is applicable to reservoirs of similar rock type in other frontier basins worldwide.

  18. COSTING MODELS FOR WATER SUPPLY DISTRIBUTION: PART III- PUMPS, TANKS, AND RESERVOIRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distribution systems are generally designed to ensure hydraulic reliability. Storage tanks, reservoirs and pumps are critical in maintaining this reliability. Although storage tanks, reservoirs and pumps are necessary for maintaining adequate pressure, they may also have a negati...

  19. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Reservoir Water Surfaces: A New Global Synthesis - journal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collectively, reservoirs are an important anthropogenic source of greenhouse gases (GHGs) to the atmosphere. Attempts to model reservoir GHG fluxes, however, have been limited by inconsistencies in methodological approaches and data availability. An increase in the number of pu...

  20. Impact of upstream river inputs and reservoir operation on phosphorus fractions in water-particulate phases in the Three Gorges Reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chaonan; Zheng, Binghui; Qin, Yanwen; Ma, Yingqun; Yang, Chenchen; Liu, Zhichao; Cao, Wei; Chi, Minghui

    2018-01-01

    The impoundment of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) has changed water-sand transport regime, with inevitable effects on phosphorus transport behavior in the TGR. In this study, we measured phosphorus fractions in water and suspended particles transported from upstream rivers of the TGR (the Yangtze River, the Jialing River and the Wu River) to reservoir inner region over the full operation schedule of the TGR. The aim was to determine how phosphorus fractions in water and particulate phases varied in response to natural hydrological processes and reservoir operations. The results showed that total phosphorus concentration (TP) in water in the TGR inner region was 0.17±0.05mg/L, which was lower than that in the Yangtze River (0.21±0.04mg/L) and the Wu River (0.23±0.03mg/L), but higher than that in the Jialing River (0.12±0.07mg/L). In the TGR inner region, there was no clear trend of total dissolved phosphorus (TDP), but total particulate phosphorus (TPP) showed a decreasing trend from tail area to head area because of particle deposition along the TGR mainstream. In addition, the concentrations of TPP in water and particulate phosphorus in a unit mass of suspended particles (PP) in the TGR inner region were higher in October 2014 and January 2015 (the impounding period and high water level period) than that in July 2015 (the low water level period). The temporal variations of PP and TPP concentrations in the TGR may be linked to the change of particle size distribution of suspended particles in the TGR. The particle size tended to be finer due to large-size particle deposition under stable hydrodynamic conditions in the process of TGR impoundment, resulting in high adsorption capacities of phosphorus in suspended particles. The results implied that phosphorus temporal variations in the TGR could exert different impacts on water quality in the TGR tributaries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. On the effect of operation of the hydropower plant on the water quality of Rapel reservoir, central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossel, V.; De La Fuente, A.

    2013-12-01

    Eutrophication of lakes and reservoirs is a common problem in systems with high incoming loads of nutrients. The consequent algae bloom related to the eutrophication alters the water quality and generates an incompatibility with the tourist and recreational activities. This study is focused on Rapel reservoir: an old, dentritic and monomictic reservoir, located in central Chile (34°S, 71.6°W), that has experienced numerous algae bloom events in the past years produced by high loads of nutrients, sediments and metals. This reservoir was originally constructed in 1968 for hydropower generation without environmental restrictions on its operation. Rapel is part of Chile's Central Interconnected System (SIC), and is controlled by an independent system operator (ISO) that decides the optimal allocation of water by minimizing the SIC's operation cost. As a result of this framework, Rapel reservoir operates based on a hydropeaking scheme, thus producing energy few hours a day while zero outflows are observed the remaining hours, impacting on Rapel river located downstream the reservoir. However, previous research showed that this hydropeaking has important effects on the hydrodynamic of the reservoir as well. Particularly, it enhances vertical mixing nears the dam, and reduces horizontal dispersion. Furthermore, hydropeaking defines the outflows water temperature, and the temperature profile near the dam. As a consequence of this role of hydropeaking on the hydrodynamics and mixing of Rapel reservoir, it is expected to be a link between hydropeaking and water quality. The aim of the study is to evaluate the impact of the operation of hydropower plant on the water quality of Rapel reservoir, for which the reservoir system is modeled using the three dimensional hydrodynamic and water quality model ELCOM-CAEDYM. Field data to validate the results and to define boundary and initial conditions are available for the austral summer period of 2009-2010. Different scenarios of

  2. A Simplified Solution for Calculating the Phreatic Line and Slope Stability during a Sudden Drawdown of the Reservoir Water Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanhua Sun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the Boussinesq unsteady seepage differential equation, a new simplified formula for the phreatic line of slopes under the condition of decreasing reservoir water level is derived by means of the Laplacian matrix and its inverse transform. In this context, the expression of normal stress on the slip surface under seepage forces is deduced, and a procedure for obtaining the safety factors under hydrodynamic forces is proposed. A case study of the Three Gorges Reservoir is used to analyze the influences of the water level, decreasing velocity and the permeability coefficient on slope stability.

  3. 210Pb and 137Cs as tracers of recent sedimentary processes in two water reservoirs in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Asencio, Misael; Corcho-Alvarado, José Antonio; Cartas-Aguila, Héctor; Pulido-Caraballé, Anabell; Betancourt, Carmen; Smoak, Joseph M; Alvarez-Padilla, Elizabeth; Labaut-Betancourt, Yeny; Alonso-Hernández, Carlos; Seisdedo-Losa, Mabel

    2017-10-01

    Hanabanilla and Paso Bonito Reservoirs are the main fresh water sources for about half a million inhabitants in central Cuba. Prior to this investigation precise information about the losses of storage capacity was not available. Sedimentation is the dominant process leading to reduction in water storage capacity. We investigated the sedimentation process in both reservoirs by analyzing environmental radionuclides (e.g. 210 Pb, 226 Ra and 137 Cs) in sediment cores. In the shallow Paso Bonito Reservoir (mean depth of 6.5 m; water volume of 8 × 10 6  m 3 ), we estimated a mean mass accumulation rate (MAR) of 0.4 ± 0.1 g cm -2 y -1 based on 210 Pb chronologies. 137 Cs was detected in the sediments, but due to the recent construction of this reservoir (1975), it was not possible to use it to validate the 210 Pb chronologies. The estimated MAR in this reservoir is higher than the typical values reported in similar shallow fresh water reservoirs worldwide. Our results highlight a significant loss of water storage capacity during the past 30 years. In the deeper and larger Hanabanilla Reservoir (mean depth of 15.5 m; water volume of 292 × 10 6  m 3 ), the MAR was investigated in three different sites of the reservoir. The mean MARs based on the 210 Pb chronologies varied between 0.15 and 0.24 g cm -2 y -1 . The MARs calculated based on the 137 Cs profiles further validated these values. We show that the sediment accumulation did not change significantly over the last 50 years. A simple empirical mixing and sedimentation model that assumes 137 Cs in the water originated from both, direct atmospheric fallout and the catchment area, was applied to interpret the 137 Cs depth profiles. The model consistently reproduced the measured 137 Cs profiles in the three cores (R 2  > 0.9). Mean residence times for 137 Cs in the water and in the catchment area of 1 y and 35-50 y, respectively were estimated. The model identified areas where the catchment component

  4. Changes in the water quality and bacterial community composition of an alkaline and saline oxbow lake used for temporary reservoir of geothermal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsodi, Andrea K; Szirányi, Barbara; Krett, Gergely; Márialigeti, Károly; Janurik, Endre; Pekár, Ferenc

    2016-09-01

    Geothermal waters exploited in the southeastern region of Hungary are alkali-hydrogen-carbonate type, and beside the high amount of dissolved salt, they contain a variety of aromatic, heteroaromatic, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The majority of these geothermal waters used for heating are directed into surface waters following a temporary storage in reservoir lakes. The aim of this study was to gain information about the temporal and spatial changes of the water quality as well as the bacterial community composition of an alkaline and saline oxbow lake operated as reservoir of used geothermal water. On the basis of the water physical and chemical measurements as well as the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) patterns of the bacterial communities, temporal changes were more pronounced than spatial differences. During the storage periods, the inflow, reservoir water, and sediment samples were characterized with different bacterial community structures in both studied years. The 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences of the bacterial strains and molecular clones confirmed the differences among the studied habitats. Thermophilic bacteria were most abundant in the geothermal inflow, whereas the water of the reservoir was dominated by cyanobacteria and various anoxygenic phototrophic prokaryotes. In addition, members of several facultative anaerobic denitrifying, obligate anaerobic sulfate-reducing and syntrophic bacterial species capable of decomposition of different organic compounds including phenols were revealed from the water and sediment of the reservoir. Most of these alkaliphilic and/or halophilic species may participate in the local nitrogen and sulfur cycles and contribute to the bloom of phototrophs manifesting in a characteristic pink-reddish discoloration of the water of the reservoir.

  5. Biofilms in drinking water and their role as reservoir for pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingender, Jost; Flemming, Hans-Curt

    2011-11-01

    Most microorganisms on Earth live in various aggregates which are generally termed "biofilms". They are ubiquitous and represent the most successful form of life. They are the active agent in biofiltration and the carriers of the self-cleaning potential in soils, sediments and water. They are also common on surfaces in technical systems where they sometimes cause biofouling. In recent years it has become evident that biofilms in drinking water distribution networks can become transient or long-term habitats for hygienically relevant microorganisms. Important categories of these organisms include faecal indicator bacteria (e.g., Escherichia coli), obligate bacterial pathogens of faecal origin (e.g., Campylobacter spp.) opportunistic bacteria of environmental origin (e.g., Legionella spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa), enteric viruses (e.g., adenoviruses, rotaviruses, noroviruses) and parasitic protozoa (e.g., Cryptosporidium parvum). These organisms can attach to preexisting biofilms, where they become integrated and survive for days to weeks or even longer, depending on the biology and ecology of the organism and the environmental conditions. There are indications that at least a part of the biofilm populations of pathogenic bacteria persists in a viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state and remains unnoticed by the methods appointed to their detection. Thus, biofilms in drinking water systems can serve as an environmental reservoir for pathogenic microorganisms and represent a potential source of water contamination, resulting in a potential health risk for humans if left unnoticed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Water injection into vapor- and liquid-dominated reservoirs: Modeling of heat transfer and mass transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruess, K.; Oldenburg, C.; Moridis, G.; Finsterle, S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper summarizes recent advances in methods for simulating water and tracer injection, and presents illustrative applications to liquid- and vapor-dominated geothermal reservoirs. High-resolution simulations of water injection into heterogeneous, vertical fractures in superheated vapor zones were performed. Injected water was found to move in dendritic patterns, and to experience stronger lateral flow effects than predicted from homogeneous medium models. Higher-order differencing methods were applied to modeling water and tracer injection into liquid-dominated systems. Conventional upstream weighting techniques were shown to be adequate for predicting the migration of thermal fronts, while higher-order methods give far better accuracy for tracer transport. A new fluid property module for the TOUGH2 simulator is described which allows a more accurate description of geofluids, and includes mineral dissolution and precipitation effects with associated porosity and permeability change. Comparisons between numerical simulation predictions and data for laboratory and field injection experiments are summarized. Enhanced simulation capabilities include a new linear solver package for TOUGH2, and inverse modeling techniques for automatic history matching and optimization.

  7. Evaporation suppression from water reservoirs using floating covers: Lab scale observations and model predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Or, D.; Lehmann, P.; Aminzadeh, M.; Sommer, M.; Wey, H.; Wunderli, H.; Breitenstein, D.

    2016-12-01

    The competition over dwindling fresh water resources is expected to intensify with projected increase in human population in arid regions, expansion of irrigated land and changes in climate and drought patterns. The volume of water stored in reservoirs would also increase to mitigate seasonal shortages due to rainfall variability and to meet irrigation water needs. By some estimates up to half of the stored water is lost to evaporation thereby exacerbating the water scarcity problem. Recently, there is an upsurge in the use of self-assembling floating covers to suppress evaporation, yet the design, and implementation remain largely empirical. Studies have shown that evaporation suppression is highly nonlinear, as also known from a century of research on gas exchange from plant leaves (that often evaporate as free water surfaces through stomata that are only 1% of leaf area). We report a systematic evaluation of different cover types and external drivers (radiation, wind, wind+radiation) on evaporation suppression and energy balance of a 1.4 m2 basin placed in a wind-tunnel. Surprisingly, evaporation suppression by black and white floating covers (balls and plates) were similar despite significantly different energy balance regimes over the cover surfaces. Moreover, the evaporation suppression efficiency was a simple function of the uncovered area (square root of the uncovered fraction) with linear relations with the covered area in some cases. The thermally decoupled floating covers offer an efficient solution to the evaporation suppression with limited influence of the surface energy balance (water temperature for black and white covers was similar and remained nearly constant). The results will be linked with a predictive evaporation-energy balance model and issues of spatial scales and long exposure times will be studied.

  8. Water-quality trends in the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo Basin using sediment cores from reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Mahler, B.J.; Callender, Edward C.

    1997-01-01

    Water-quality trends reflect the relation between water quality and human activities, chronicling changes in concentrations of environmental contaminants, introduction of new contaminants, and successful efforts in environmental pollution remediation. Historical data available for analyzing trends often have severe limitations, from questionable accuracy to unknown sampling and analytic methodologies. Where data are unavailable or have such limitations, water-quality trends sometimes can be reconstructed using sediment cores from lakes and reservoirs.

  9. In the Way of Peacemaker Guide Curve between Water Supply and Flood Control for Short Term Reservoir Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, G.; Sensoy, A.; Yavuz, O.; Sorman, A. A.; Gezgin, T.

    2012-04-01

    Effective management of a controlled reservoir system where it involves multiple and sometimes conflicting objectives is a complex problem especially in real time operations. Yuvacık Dam Reservoir, located in the Marmara region of Turkey, is built to supply annual demand of 142 hm3 water for Kocaeli city requires such a complex management strategy since it has relatively small (51 hm3) effective capacity. On the other hand, the drainage basin is fed by both rainfall and snowmelt since the elevation ranges between 80 - 1548 m. Excessive water must be stored behind the radial gates between February and May in terms of sustainability especially for summer and autumn periods. Moreover, the downstream channel physical conditions constraint the spillway releases up to 100 m3/s although the spillway is large enough to handle major floods. Thus, this situation makes short term release decisions the challenging task. Long term water supply curves, based on historical inflows and annual water demand, are in conflict with flood regulation (control) levels, based on flood attenuation and routing curves, for this reservoir. A guide curve, that is generated using both water supply and flood control of downstream channel, generally corresponds to upper elevation of conservation pool for simulation of a reservoir. However, sometimes current operation necessitates exceeding this target elevation. Since guide curves can be developed as a function of external variables, the water potential of a basin can be an indicator to explain current conditions and decide on the further strategies. Besides, releases with respect to guide curve are managed and restricted by user-defined rules. Although the managers operate the reservoir due to several variable conditions and predictions, still the simulation model using variable guide curve is an urgent need to test alternatives quickly. To that end, using HEC-ResSim, the several variable guide curves are defined to meet the requirements by

  10. The effect of physical water quality and water level changes on the occurrence and density of Anopheles mosquito larvae around the shoreline of the Koka reservoir, central Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kibret

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Entomological studies to determine the effect of the physical characteristics of mosquito larval breeding water bodies and reservoir water level changes on the occurrence of Anopheles mosquito larvae were conducted in two villages at Koka reservoir in central Ethiopia between August and December 2007. Of the two study villages, Ejersa is located close to the reservoir, and Kuma is 5 km away from it. Data on the type, number and physical characteristics of Anopheles larval breeding habitat, species composition and densities of anopheles mosquitoes in and around the study villages were investigated and recorded. Meteorological and reservoir water level data were compared with availability of Anopheles larval breeding sites and densities. Entomological data, derived from weekly larval collections, showed that Anopheles pharoensis Theobald, Anopheles gambiae s.l. Giles, Anopheles coustani Laveran and Anopheles squamosus Theobald were breeding in the study area. The mean larval density of An. gambiae s.l. in this study was higher in slightly turbid and shallow aquatic habitat than in turbid and relatively deep aquatic habitat. The density of An. pharoensis in habitat with floating vegetation and with relatively shady conditions was significantly higher than that of less shaded aquatic habitat and greater emergent vegetation. There was also a positive correlation between the occurrence of Anopheles larvae with the water and daily minimum atmospheric temperature. Similarly at Ejersa, over the sampling period, there was a positive correlation between falling reservoir water levels and the number of positive breeding habitats. These results confirm that physical characteristics of the water bodies play an important role in the species composition, total Anopheles larval count, and the density of Anopheles mosquitoes. Suitable breeding habitat in the vicinity of the reservoir village was strongly associated with the reservoir. This is particularly

  11. Predicting cyanobacterial abundance, microcystin, and geosmin in a eutrophic drinking-water reservoir using a 14-year dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Ted D.; Graham, Jennifer L.

    2017-01-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms degrade water quality in drinking water supply reservoirs by producing toxic and taste-and-odor causing secondary metabolites, which ultimately cause public health concerns and lead to increased treatment costs for water utilities. There have been numerous attempts to create models that predict cyanobacteria and their secondary metabolites, most using linear models; however, linear models are limited by assumptions about the data and have had limited success as predictive tools. Thus, lake and reservoir managers need improved modeling techniques that can accurately predict large bloom events that have the highest impact on recreational activities and drinking-water treatment processes. In this study, we compared 12 unique linear and nonlinear regression modeling techniques to predict cyanobacterial abundance and the cyanobacterial secondary metabolites microcystin and geosmin using 14 years of physiochemical water quality data collected from Cheney Reservoir, Kansas. Support vector machine (SVM), random forest (RF), boosted tree (BT), and Cubist modeling techniques were the most predictive of the compared modeling approaches. SVM, RF, and BT modeling techniques were able to successfully predict cyanobacterial abundance, microcystin, and geosmin concentrations <60,000 cells/mL, 2.5 µg/L, and 20 ng/L, respectively. Only Cubist modeling predicted maxima concentrations of cyanobacteria and geosmin; no modeling technique was able to predict maxima microcystin concentrations. Because maxima concentrations are a primary concern for lake and reservoir managers, Cubist modeling may help predict the largest and most noxious concentrations of cyanobacteria and their secondary metabolites.

  12. Seasonal Changes and Spatial Variation in Water Quality of a Large Young Tropical Reservoir and Its Downstream River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teck-Yee Ling

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the water quality of the large young tropical Bakun hydroelectric reservoir in Sarawak, Malaysia, and the influence of the outflow on the downstream river during wet and dry seasons. Water quality was determined at five stations in the reservoir at three different depths and one downstream station. The results show that seasons impacted the water quality of the Bakun Reservoir, particularly in the deeper water column. Significantly lower turbidity, SRP, and TP were found during the wet season. At 3–6 m, the oxygen content fell below 5 mg/L and hypoxia was also recorded. Low NO2--N, NO3--N, and SRP and high BOD5, OKN, and TP were observed in the reservoir indicating organic pollution. Active logging activities and the dam construction upstream resulted in water quality deterioration. The outflow decreased the temperature, DO, and pH and increased the turbidity and TSS downstream. Elevated organic matter and nutrients downstream are attributable to domestic discharge along the river. This study shows that the downstream river was affected by the discharge through the turbines, the spillway operations, and domestic waste. Therefore, all these factors should be taken into consideration in the downstream river management for the health of the aquatic organisms.

  13. Use of LANDSAT 8 images for depth and water quality assessment of El Guájaro reservoir, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Márquez, Luis Carlos; Torres-Bejarano, Franklin M.; Torregroza-Espinosa, Ana Carolina; Hansen-Rodríguez, Ivette Renée; Rodríguez-Gallegos, Hugo B.

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the viability of using Landsat 8 spectral images to estimate water quality parameters and depth in El Guájaro Reservoir. On February and March 2015, two samplings were carried out in the reservoir, coinciding with the Landsat 8 images. Turbidity, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity, pH and depth were evaluated. Through multiple regression analysis between measured water quality parameters and the reflectance of the pixels corresponding to the sampling stations, statistical models with determination coefficients between 0.6249 and 0.9300 were generated. Results indicate that from a small number of measured parameters we can generate reliable models to estimate the spatial variation of turbidity, dissolved oxygen, pH and depth, as well the temporal variation of electrical conductivity, so models generated from Landsat 8 can be used as a tool to facilitate the environmental, economic and social management of the reservoir.

  14. Reclaimed water as a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes: distribution system and irrigation implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole L Fahrenfeld

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Treated wastewater is increasingly being reused to achieve sustainable water management in arid regions. The objective of this study was to quantify the distribution of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs in recycled water, particularly after it has passed through the distribution system, and to consider point-of-use implications for soil irrigation. Three separate reclaimed wastewater distribution systems in the western U.S. were examined. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR was used to quantify ARGs corresponding to resistance to sulfonamides (sul1, sul2, macrolides (ermF, tetracycline (tet(A, tet(O, glycopeptides (vanA, and methicillin (mecA, in addition to genes present in waterborne pathogens Legionella pneumophila (Lmip, Escherichia coli (gadAB, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ecfx, gyrB. In a parallel lab study, the effect of irrigating an agricultural soil with secondary, chlorinated, or dechlorinated wastewater effluent was examined in batch microcosms. A broader range of ARGs were detected after the reclaimed water passed through the distribution systems, highlighting the importance of considering bacterial re-growth and the overall water quality at the point of use. Screening for pathogens with qPCR indicated presence of Lmip and gadAB genes, but not ecfx or gyrB. In the lab study, chlorination was observed to reduce 16S rRNA and sul2 gene copies in the wastewater effluent, while dechlorination had no apparent effect. ARGs levels did not change with time in soil slurries incubated after a single irrigation event with any of the effluents. However, when irrigated repeatedly with secondary wastewater effluent (not chlorinated or dechlorinated, elevated levels of sul1 and sul2 were observed. This study suggests that reclaimed water may be an important reservoir of ARGs, especially at the point of use, and that attention should be directed towards the fate of ARGs in irrigation water and the implications for human health.

  15. Inferring Anthropogenic Trends from Satellite Data for Water-sustainability of US Cities Near Artificial Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigzaw, W. Y.; Hossain, F.

    2015-12-01

    Impact of anthropogenic activities on water cycle and water supply has different effects at global and regional spatial scales, ensuing the need for a design and water management approach that considers anthropogenic inputs. One of the major inputs in local-to-regional availability of water and the water cycle are land use land cover change as a result of urbanization, artificial reservoirs and irrigation activity. This study employed a multi-factorial approach involving population trends, water use (and demand), streamflow; and various satellite derived water-relevant variables. These variables are: daily precipitation (from TRMM, 3B42.V7), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index-NDVI (from MODIS-MOD13A1), land surface temperature-LST (from MODIS-MOD11A2), and land cover (MODIS-MCD12Q1). Long terms exhibited by such data were used to understand temporal and spatial trends in impounded watersheds hosting a large and growing city in its proximity. The selected cities are: City of Atlanta-Georgia and Buford dam; Columbia-South Carolina and Saluda dam; Columbus-Ohio and Alum Creek dam; Montgomery-Alabama and Jordan dam; Tulsa-Oklahoma and Keystone dam; Tuscaloosa-Alabama and Tuscaloosa dam were selected. our study reveals that daily mean stream flow has been decreasing in all but one (Tulsa) of the areas selected. Satellite data trends between 2000 and 2012 showed a steady decrease in precipitation and NDVI; while LST has gradually increased. We attribute the NDVI (i.e., gradual decrease in vegetation cover) to LST rather than precipitation trends. The results of this research suggested that future temperature projection from climate models can be used in understanding vegetation activity and water availability over the study areas. Cities with larger upstream watershed area are potentially more sustainable and resilient (than those with small watersheds) as a result of spatial variability of water resources' response to climate change. Inter-basin water resources

  16. Hydrological and water quality impact assessment of a Mediterranean limno-reservoir under climate change and land use management scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molina Navarro, Eugenio; Trolle, Dennis; Martínez-Pérez, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Water scarcity and water pollution constitute a big challenge for water managers in the Mediterranean region today and will exacerbate in a projected future warmer world, making a holistic approach for water resources management at the catchment scale essential. We expanded the Soil and Water......-reservoir, especially during summer, complicating the fulfillment of its purposes. Most of the scenarios also predicted a deterioration of trophic conditions in the limno-reservoir. Fertilization and soil erosion were the main factors affecting nitrate and total phosphorus concentrations. Combined climate and land use...... change scenarios showed noticeable synergistic effects on nutrients exports, relative to running the scenarios individually. While the impact of fertilization on nitrate export is projected to be reduced with warming in most cases, an additional 13% increase in the total phosphorus export is expected...

  17. Calculation of Interfacial Tensions of Hydrocarbon-water Systems under Reservoir Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuo, You-Xiang; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    1998-01-01

    Assuming that the number densities of each component in a mixture are linearly distributed across the interface between the coexisting vapor-liquid or liquid-liquid phases, we developed in this research work a linear-gradient-theory (LGT) model for computing the interfacial tension of hydrocarbon......-brine systems. The new model was tested on a number of hydrocarbon-water/brine mixtures and two crude oil-water systems under reservoir conditions. The results show good agreement between the predicted and the experimental interfacial tension data.......Assuming that the number densities of each component in a mixture are linearly distributed across the interface between the coexisting vapor-liquid or liquid-liquid phases, we developed in this research work a linear-gradient-theory (LGT) model for computing the interfacial tension of hydrocarbon-water...... mixtures on the basis of the SRK equation of state. With this model, it is unnecessary to solve the time-consuming density-profile equations of the gradient-theory model. In addition, a correlation was developed for representing the effect of electrolytes on the interfacial tension of hydrocarbon...

  18. Research on the experiment of reservoir water treatment applying ultrafiltration membrane technology of different processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liyong; Zhang, Penghui; Wang, Meng; Yang, Kai; Liu, Junliang

    2016-09-01

    The processes and effects of coagulation-ultrafiltration (C-UF) and coagulation sedimentation-ultrafiltration (CS-UF) process used in the treatment of Dalangdian Reservoir water were compared. The experiment data indicated that 99% of turbidity removal and basically 100% of microorganism and algae removal were achieved in both C-UF and CS-UF process. The organic removal effect of CS-UF? process was slightly better than C-UF process. However, the organic removal effect under different processes was not obvious due to limitation of ultrafiltration membrane aperture. Polyaluminium chloride was taken as a coagulant in water plant. The aluminum ion removal result revealed that coagulant dosage was effectively saved by using membrane technology during megathermal high algae laden period. Within the range of certain reagent concentration and soaking time, air-water backwashing of every filtration cycle of membrane was conducted to effectively reduce membrane pollution. Besides, maintenance cleaning was conducted every 60 min. whether or not restorative cleaning was conducted depends on the pollution extent. After cleaning, recovery of membrane filtration effect was obvious.

  19. Optimization of analitycal control over residues of active ingridients of modern pesticides in reservoirs water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semenenko V.M.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A highly sensitive and selective method of pyraclostrobin, boscalid, tebufenpyrad and prohexadione-calcium determination under their combined presence in water sample, using high-performance liquid chromatography was developed. On the base of mentioned active ingredients (combined fungicide Bellis, insecto-acaricide Masai and plant growth regulator Regalis pesticides may be used in one vegetation season for fruit trees protection. Method of co-determination of these substances is based on the preparation of water samples for extraction, extraction of pyraclostrobin, boscalid, tebufenpyrad and prohexadione-calcium, concentrating of extract of substances mixtures and chromatographic determination with ultraviolet detection. A distinctive feature of this method is changing of ratio of components of mobile phase (mixture of acetonitrile and 0,1 % aqueous solution of phosphoric acid in the process of chromatographic analysis, which allowed to clearly visualize test substances in case of their joint presence in one sample. Implementation of developed and patented method into practice optimizes control over application of pesticides in agriculture and their monitoring in reservoirs water by significant acceleration of analysis and reduction of expenses in its carying out.

  20. The water-quality monitoring program for the Baltimore reservoir system, 1981-2007—Description, review and evaluation, and framework integration for enhanced monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koterba, Michael T.; Waldron, Marcus C.; Kraus, Tamara E.C.

    2011-01-01

    The City of Baltimore, Maryland, and parts of five surrounding counties obtain their water from Loch Raven and Liberty Reservoirs. A third reservoir, Prettyboy, is used to resupply Loch Raven Reservoir. Management of the watershed conditions for each reservoir is a shared responsibility by agreement among City, County, and State jurisdictions. The most recent (2005) Baltimore Reservoir Watershed Management Agreement (RWMA) called for continued and improved water-quality monitoring in the reservoirs and selected watershed tributaries. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a retrospective review of the effectiveness of monitoring data obtained and analyzed by the RWMA jurisdictions from 1981 through 2007 to help identify possible improvements in the monitoring program to address RWMA water-quality concerns. Long-term water-quality concerns include eutrophication and sedimentation in the reservoirs, and elevated concentrations of (a) nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) being transported from the major tributaries to the reservoirs, (b) iron and manganese released from reservoir bed sediments during periods of deep-water anoxia, (c) mercury in higher trophic order game fish in the reservoirs, and (d) bacteria in selected reservoir watershed tributaries. Emerging concerns include elevated concentrations of sodium, chloride, and disinfection by-products (DBPs) in the drinking water from both supply reservoirs. Climate change and variability also could be emerging concerns, affecting seasonal patterns, annual trends, and drought occurrence, which historically have led to declines in reservoir water quality. Monitoring data increasingly have been used to support the development of water-quality models. The most recent (2006) modeling helped establish an annual sediment Total Maximum Daily Load to Loch Raven Reservoir, and instantaneous and 30-day moving average water-quality endpoints for chlorophyll-a (chl-a) and dissolved oxygen (DO) in Loch Raven and Prettyboy

  1. Temporal-spatial distribution of non-point source pollution in a drinking water source reservoir watershed based on SWAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The conservation of drinking water source reservoirs has a close relationship between regional economic development and people’s livelihood. Research on the non-point pollution characteristics in its watershed is crucial for reservoir security. Tang Pu Reservoir watershed was selected as the study area. The non-point pollution model of Tang Pu Reservoir was established based on the SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool model. The model was adjusted to analyse the temporal-spatial distribution patterns of total nitrogen (TN and total phosphorus (TP. The results showed that the loss of TN and TP in the reservoir watershed were related to precipitation in flood season. And the annual changes showed an "M" shape. It was found that the contribution of loss of TN and TP accounted for 84.5% and 85.3% in high flow years, and for 70.3% and 69.7% in low flow years, respectively. The contributions in normal flow years were 62.9% and 63.3%, respectively. The TN and TP mainly arise from Wangtan town, Gulai town, and Wangyuan town, etc. In addition, it was found that the source of TN and TP showed consistency in space.

  2. Potable Water Treatment Facility General Permit (PWTF GP) ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-28

    The Final PWTF GP establishes permit eligibility conditions, Notice of Intent (NOI) requirements, effluent limitations, standards, prohibitions, and best management practices for facilities that discharge to waters in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts (including both Commonwealth and Indian country lands) and the State of New Hampshire.

  3. Evaluation of storm event inputs on levels of gross primary production and respiration in a drinking water reservoir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samal, Nihar; Stæhr, Peter A.; Pierson, Donald C.

    events using vertical profiles of temperature, dissolved oxygen, turbidity and chlorophyll automatically collected at 6 hour intervals in West basin of Ashokan Reservoir, which is a part of the New York City drinking water supply. Using data from before, during and after storm events, we examine how...

  4. Influence of Reservoir Water Level Fluctuations on Sediment Methylmercury Concentrations Downstream of the Historical Black Butte Mercury Mine, OR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercury (Hg) is a pollutant of global concern due to its ability to accumulate as methylmercury (MeHg) in biota. Mercury is methylated by anaerobic microorganisms such as sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) in water and sediment. Throughout North America, reservoirs tend to have e...

  5. The effect of produced water reinjection on reservoir souring in the Statfjord field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoernestad, Eva Oe.; Sunde, Egil; Dinning, Anthony J.

    2006-03-15

    A produced water reinjection (PWRI) pilot test was performed in one well in the Statfjord field in the period 2000-2001. In order to establish the souring parameters and influence of PWRI in the near well area, the well was back flowed prior to PWRI, and at the end of the PWRI test period. Tracer was used for mass balance evaluations. After the PWRI pilot test was finished, the PWRI plant was upgraded at the Statfjord C platform and since 2003; two wells have been re injecting produced water. Nitrate has substituted biocides for corrosion control in the water injection system at the Statfjord B and Statfjord C platforms. Based on experience from other Statoil operated fields, nitrate will improve the corrosion control and in addition reduce the reservoir souring and hence the H2S production. In 2004, three wells were backflowed; a PWRI- injector, a seawater injector and a sea water injector with addition of nitrate. Results from the PWRI pilot test, showed that the sulphide production increased 17 times after PWRI in comparison with seawater injection. In the backflowing studies in 2004, water from the PWRI injector showed considerable higher H2S content (approximately 300 mg/l) than the well injecting only seawater (approximately 3-4 mg/l). The well injecting nitrate showed the lowest sulphide concentration in the backflowed fluids in comparison with the other wells (below 1 mg/l). This illustrates a significant increase in microbiological activity within the near injection area as a result of increased nutrient availability due to PWRI. The impact of PWRI in the lifetime of the Statfjord field has been evaluated and the PWRI strategy may be altered due to increases in souring. (Author)

  6. Evaluating origins and water seepage rates at the subdam A of the Dong Mo reservoir using environmental isotope technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bui Dac Dung; Trinh Van Giap; Dang Anh Minh; Nguyen Van Hoan

    2008-01-01

    Environmental isotope techniques have been world-widely used for investigating origins and the rates of the seepage - leakage water at reservoir dams. We have conducted a research on the use of environmental isotope techniques for evaluating the origin of the seepage water and the seepage rate at the sub dam A of the Dong Mo reservoir. The main works were collecting water samples, analyzing for 18 O/ 16 O, 2 H(D)/ 1 H ratios, analyzing for 3 H(T) and chemical contents. Findings of the project showed that: a) Waters at the piezometers on the top and the 1st roof are not originated from lake water; b) Waters at the piezometers on 1st and 2nd levels, as well as seepage waters at the dam toe are mixed of lake and ground waters, and the old river bed could be the channel for ground water upcoming from beneath the dam body; c) The transit times of water from the lake to the observation points are from 3 to 4 months, and the seepage velocity is of about 1.1x10 -3 cm/s; d) The findings from tritium analyses show that all waters around the Dong Mo area are recent waters recharged regularly by meteoric water. (author)

  7. Artificial Water Reservoir Triggered Earthquakes at Koyna, India: Completion of the 3 km deep Pilot Borehole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, H. K.; Tiwari, V. M.; Satyanarayana, H.; Roy, S.; Arora, K.; Patro, P. K.; Shashidhar, D.; Mallika, K.; Akkiraju, V.; Misra, S.; Goswami, D.; Podugu, N.; Mishra, S.

    2017-12-01

    Koyna, near the west coast of India is the most prominent site of artificial water reservoir triggered seismicity (RTS). Soon after the impoundment of the Koyna Dam in 1962, RTS was observed. It has continued till now. It includes the largest RTS earthquake M 6.3 on December 10, 1967; 22 M≥5.0, and thousands of smaller earthquakes. The entire earthquake activity is limited to an area of about 30 km x 20 km, with most focal depths being within 6 km. There is no other earthquake source within 50 km of the Koyna Dam. An ICDP Workshop held in March 2011 found Koyna to be the most suitable site to investigate reservoir- triggered seismicity (RTS) through deep drilling. Studies carried out in the preparatory phase since 2011 include airborne magnetic and gravity-gradient surveys, MT surveys, drilling of 9 boreholes going to depths of 1500 m and logging, heat flow measurements, seismological investigations including the deployment of six borehole seismometers, and LiDAR. The Second ICDP Workshop held during 16- 18 May 2014, reviewed the progress made and detailed planning of putting the borehole observatory was discussed. The site of a 3 km deep pilot borehole was debated and among the 5 possible location. Based on the seismic activity and logistics the location of the first Pilot Borehole has been finalized and the drilling started on the 21st December 2016. The 3000 m deep borehole was completed on 11th June 2017. The basement was touched at 1247 m depth and there were no sediments below basalt. Several zones with immense fluid losses were encountered. Geophysical Logging has been completed. Cores were recovered from 1269, 1892 and 2091 depths. The cores are 9 m long and with 4 inches diameter. The core recovery is almost 100%. In-situ stress measurements have been conducted at depths of 1600 m onwards.

  8. Iron oxides alter methanogenic pathways of acetate in production water of high-temperature petroleum reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Pan; Hong, Bo; Mbadinga, Serge Maurice; Wang, Li-Ying; Liu, Jin-Feng; Yang, Shi-Zhong; Gu, Ji-Dong; Mu, Bo-Zhong

    2017-09-01

    Acetate is a key intermediate in anaerobic crude oil biodegradation and also a precursor for methanogenesis in petroleum reservoirs. The impact of iron oxides, viz. β-FeOOH (akaganéite) and magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ), on the methanogenic acetate metabolism in production water of a high-temperature petroleum reservoir was investigated. Methane production was observed in all the treatments amended with acetate. In the microcosms amended with acetate solely about 30% of the acetate utilized was converted to methane, whereas methane production was stimulated in the presence of magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) resulting in a 48.34% conversion to methane. Methane production in acetate-amended, β-FeOOH (akaganéite)-supplemented microcosms was much faster and acetate consumption was greatly improved compared to the other conditions in which the stoichiometric expected amounts of methane were not produced. Microbial community analysis showed that Thermacetogenium spp. (known syntrophic acetate oxidizers) and hydrogenotrophic methanogens closely related to Methanothermobacter spp. were enriched in acetate and acetate/magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) microcosms suggesting that methanogenic acetate metabolism was through hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis fueled by syntrophic acetate oxidizers. The acetate/β-FeOOH (akaganéite) microcosms, however, differed by the dominance of archaea closely related to the acetoclastic Methanosaeta thermophila. These observations suggest that supplementation of β-FeOOH (akaganéite) accelerated the production of methane further, driven the alteration of the methanogenic community, and changed the pathway of acetate methanogenesis from hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis fueled by syntrophic acetate oxidizers to acetoclastic.

  9. Impact on Water Quality of Nandoni Water Reservoir Downstream of Municipal Sewage Plants in Vhembe District, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabulani Ray Gumbo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The deterioration of water quality in our freshwater sources is on the increase worldwide and, in South Africa, mostly due to the discharge of municipal sewage effluent. Here we report on the use of principal component analysis, coupled with factor and cluster analysis, to study the similarities and differences between upstream and downstream sampling sites that are downstream of municipal sewage plants. The contribution of climatic variables, air temperature, humidity, and rainfall were also evaluated with respect to variations in water quality at the sampling sites. The physicochemical and microbial values were higher than the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry (DWAF and World Health Organization (WHO guidelines. The cluster analysis showed the presence of two clusters for each of the Mvudi, Dzindi, and Luvuvhu Rivers and Nandoni reservoir sampling sites. The principal component analysis (PCA accounted for 40% of the water quality variation and was associated strongly with pH, electrical conductivity, calcium, magnesium, chloride, bromide, nitrate, and total coliform, and negatively with rainfall, which represented Mvudi downstream and was attributed to the Thohoyandou sewage plant. The PCA accounted for 54% of the variation and was associated strongly with electrical conductivity, sulfate; total dissolved solids, fluoride, turbidity, nitrate, manganese, alkalinity, magnesium, and total coliform represented Dzindi downstream, with inflows from the Vuwani sewage plant and agriculture. The PCA accounted for 30% of the variation and was associated strongly with total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, magnesium, fluoride, nitrate, sulfate, total coliform average air temperature, and total rainfall, and negatively associated with manganese and bromide represented Luvuvhu upstream and was associated with commercial agriculture. The PCA accounted for 21% of the variation and was associated strongly with turbidity, alkalinity, magnesium

  10. Content of short-lived radionuclides in the Kanevskoe water reservoir and its coastal ecosystems after the Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarubin, O.L.

    2008-01-01

    The content of Te 132, Np 239, Ba 140, I 131 in components of ecosystem of Kanevskoe reservoir of river Dnepr and adjoining to it surface ecosystems studied in 1986. The maximal content of investigated radionuclides was registered in water and surface vegetation. Contamination of hydrobionts by Ba 140 and I 131 has been generated practically at once after fall-out of these radionuclides directly on a mirror of the reservoir during the period from 30.04.1986 to 02.05.1986. Cancers Astacus Leptodactilus Eichw. and fishes intensively accumulated Ba 140 and I 131. (authors)

  11. Aeromonas presence in drinking water from collective reservoirs and wells in peri-urban area in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tereza Pepe Razzolini

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas genus is considered an emerging pathogen and its presence in drinking water supplies is a reason to public health concern. This study investigated the occurrence of Aeromonas in samples from collective reservoirs and wells used as drinking water sources in a peri-urban area. A total of 35 water samples were collected from collective reservoirs and 32 from wells bimonthly, from September 2007 to September 2008. Aeromonas spp determination was carried out using a Multiple-Tube Technique. Samples were inoculated into alkaline peptone water and the superficial film formed was transferred to blood agar plates amended with ampicillin. Typical Aeromonas colonies were submitted to a biochemical screening and then to biochemical tests for species differentiation. Aeromonas was detected in 13 (19% of the 69 samples examined (6 from collective reservoirs and 7 from wells. Concentrations of Aeromonas in collective reservoirs ranged from <0.3 to 1.2 x10²MPN/100mL and, in wells, from <0.3 to 2.4 x10²MPN/100mL. The most frequent specie in the collective reservoir samples was Aeromonas spp (68%, followed by A. encheleia (14% and A. allosaccharophila (8% and A. hydrophila (8%. Aeromonas spp (87% was the most frequent specie isolated from well samples, followed by A. allosacchariphila (8%, A. encheleia (2% and A. jandaei (5%. These data show the presence and diversity of Aeromonas genus in the samples analyzed and highlight that its presence in drinking water poses a significant public health concern.

  12. [Dynamics of soil water reservoir of wheat field in rain-fed area of the Loess Tableland, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng Zhan; Wang, Li; Wang, Di

    2017-11-01

    Soil reservoir is the basis of stable grain production and sustainable development in dry farming area. Based on the long-term field experiment, this paper investigated the changes of soil moisture in wheat field located in the rain-fed Changwu Tableland, and analyzed the interannual and annual variation characteristics and dynamics trends of soil reservoir from 2012 to 2015. The results showed that the vertical distribution curves of average soil water content were double peaks and double valleys: first peak and valley occurred in the 10-20 and 50 cm soil layer, respectively, while for the second peak and valley, the corresponding soil layer was the 100 and 280 cm soil layer. Soil reservoir did not coincide with precipitation for all yearly precipitation patterns but lagged behind. Yearly precipitation patterns had a great influence on the interannual and annual dynamic changes of soil reservoir. Compared with rainy year, the depth of soil moisture consumption decreased and supplementary effect of precipitation on soil moisture became obvious under effects of drought year and normal year. In rainy year, soil reservoir had a large surplus (84.2 mm), water balance was compensated; in normal year, it had a slight surplus (9.5 mm), water balance was compensated; while in drought year, it was slightly deficient (1.5 mm), water balance was negatively compensated. The dynamics of soil water in winter wheat field in the rain-fed Changwu Tableland could be divided into four periods: seedling period, slow consumption period, large consumption period, and harvest period, the order of evapotranspiration was large consumption period> seedling period> harvest period> slow consumption period.

  13. Improving recovery efficiency of water-drive channel sandstone reservoir by drilling wells laterally

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhiguo, F.; Quinglong, D.; Pingshi, Z.; Bingyu, J.; Weigang, L. [Research Institute of Exploration and Development, Daqing (China)

    1998-12-31

    Example of drilling a horizontal well in reservoir rock of only four meter thick by using existing casing pipe of low efficiency vertical wells to induce production in the top remaining reservoir is described. The experience shows that drilling horizontal wells laterally in thin bodies of sandstone reservoirs and improve their productivity is a feasible proposition. Productivity will still be low, but it can be improved by well stimulation. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Multi variate regression model of the water level and production rate time series of the geothermal reservoir Waiwera (New Zealand)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Michael; Schöne, Tim

    2017-04-01

    Water management tools are essential to ensure the conservation of natural resources. The geothermal hot water reservoir below the village of Waiwera, on the Northern Island of New Zealand is used commercially since 1863. The continuous production of 50 °C hot geothermal water, to supply hotels and spas, has a negative impact on the reservoir. Until the year 1969 from all wells drilled the warm water flow was artesian. Due to overproduction the water needs to be pumped up nowadays. Further, within the years 1975 to 1976 the warm water seeps on the beach of Waiwera ran dry. In order to protect the reservoir and the historical and tourist site in the early 1980s a water management plan was deployed. The "Auckland Council" established guidelines to enable a sustainable management of the resource [1]. The management plan demands that the water level in the official and appropriate observation well of the council is 0.5 m above sea level throughout the year in average. Almost four decades of data (since 1978 until today) are now available [2]. For a sustainable water management, it is necessary to be able to forecast the water level as a function of the production rates in the production wells. The best predictions are provided by a multivariate regression model of the water level and production rate time series, which takes into account the production rates of individual wells. It is based on the inversely proportional relationship between the independent variable (production rate) and the dependent variable (measured water level). In production scenarios, a maximum total production rate of approx. 1,100 m3 / day is determined in order to comply with the guidelines of the "Auckland Council". [1] Kühn M., Stöfen H. (2005) A reactive flow model of the geothermal reservoir Waiwera, New Zealand. Hydrogeology Journal 13, 606-626, doi: 10.1007/s10040-004-0377-6 [2] Kühn M., Altmannsberger C. (2016) Assessment of data driven and process based water management tools for

  15. Scenario-based fitted Q-iteration for adaptive control of water reservoir systems under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoni, Federica; Giuliani, Matteo; Castelletti, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Over recent years, mathematical models have largely been used to support planning and management of water resources systems. Yet, the increasing uncertainties in their inputs - due to increased variability in the hydrological regimes - are a major challenge to the optimal operations of these systems. Such uncertainty, boosted by projected changing climate, violates the stationarity principle generally used for describing hydro-meteorological processes, which assumes time persisting statistical characteristics of a given variable as inferred by historical data. As this principle is unlikely to be valid in the future, the probability density function used for modeling stochastic disturbances (e.g., inflows) becomes an additional uncertain parameter of the problem, which can be described in a deterministic and set-membership based fashion. This study contributes a novel method for designing optimal, adaptive policies for controlling water reservoir systems under climate-related uncertainty. The proposed method, called scenario-based Fitted Q-Iteration (sFQI), extends the original Fitted Q-Iteration algorithm by enlarging the state space to include the space of the uncertain system's parameters (i.e., the uncertain climate scenarios). As a result, sFQI embeds the set-membership uncertainty of the future inflow scenarios in the action-value function and is able to approximate, with a single learning process, the optimal control policy associated to any scenario included in the uncertainty set. The method is demonstrated on a synthetic water system, consisting of a regulated lake operated for ensuring reliable water supply to downstream users. Numerical results show that the sFQI algorithm successfully identifies adaptive solutions to operate the system under different inflow scenarios, which outperform the control policy designed under historical conditions. Moreover, the sFQI policy generalizes over inflow scenarios not directly experienced during the policy design

  16. Hydrological and water quality impact assessment of a Mediterranean limno-reservoir under climate change and land use management scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Navarro, Eugenio; Trolle, Dennis; Martínez-Pérez, Silvia; Sastre-Merlín, Antonio; Jeppesen, Erik

    2014-02-01

    Water scarcity and water pollution constitute a big challenge for water managers in the Mediterranean region today and will exacerbate in a projected future warmer world, making a holistic approach for water resources management at the catchment scale essential. We expanded the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model developed for a small Mediterranean catchment to quantify the potential effects of various climate and land use change scenarios on catchment hydrology as well as the trophic state of a new kind of waterbody, a limno-reservoir (Pareja Limno-reservoir), created for environmental and recreational purposes. We also checked for the possible synergistic effects of changes in climate and land use on water flow and nutrient exports from the catchment. Simulations showed a noticeable impact of climate change in the river flow regime and consequently the water level of the limno-reservoir, especially during summer, complicating the fulfillment of its purposes. Most of the scenarios also predicted a deterioration of trophic conditions in the limno-reservoir. Fertilization and soil erosion were the main factors affecting nitrate and total phosphorus concentrations. Combined climate and land use change scenarios showed noticeable synergistic effects on nutrients exports, relative to running the scenarios individually. While the impact of fertilization on nitrate export is projected to be reduced with warming in most cases, an additional 13% increase in the total phosphorus export is expected in the worst-case combined scenario compared to the sum of individual scenarios. Our model framework may help water managers to assess and manage how these multiple environmental stressors interact and ultimately affect aquatic ecosystems.

  17. Impact of treated wastewater reuse and floods on water quality and fish health within a water reservoir in an arid climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaibel, Inbal; Zilberg, Dina; Groisman, Ludmila; Arnon, Shai

    2016-07-15

    Treated wastewater (TWW) reuse for agricultural irrigation is a well-established approach to coping with water shortages in semi-arid and arid environments. Recently, additional uses of TWW have emerged, including streamflow augmentation and aquatic ecosystem restoration. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the water quality and fish health, in an artificial reservoir located in an arid climate (the Yeruham Reservoir, Israel), which regularly receives TWW and sporadic winter floods. The temporal distribution of water levels, nutrients and organic micropollutants (OMPs) were measured during the years 2013-2014. OMPs were also measured in sediment and fish tissues. Finally, the status of fish health was evaluated by histopathology. Water levels and quality were mainly influenced by seasonal processes such as floods and evaporation, and not by the discharge of TWW. Out of 16 tested OMPs, estrone, carbamazepine, diclofenac and bezafibrate were found in the reservoir water, but mostly at concentrations below the predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) for fish. Concentrations of PCBs and dioxins in fish muscle and liver were much lower than the EU maximal permitted concentrations, and similar to concentrations that were found in food fish in Israel and Europe. In the histopathological analysis, there were no evident tissue abnormalities, and low to moderate infection levels of fish parasites were recorded. The results from the Yeruham Reservoir demonstrated a unique model for the mixture effect between TWW reuse and natural floods to support a unique stable and thriving ecosystem in a water reservoir located in an arid region. This type of reservoir can be widely used for recreation, education, and the social and economic development of a rural environment, such as has occurred in the Yeruham region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Safety distance between underground natural gas and water pipeline facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohsin, R.; Majid, Z.A.; Yusof, M.Z.

    2014-01-01

    A leaking water pipe bursting high pressure water jet in the soil will create slurry erosion which will eventually erode the adjacent natural gas pipe, thus causing its failure. The standard 300 mm safety distance used to place natural gas pipe away from water pipeline facilities needs to be reviewed to consider accidental damage and provide safety cushion to the natural gas pipe. This paper presents a study on underground natural gas pipeline safety distance via experimental and numerical approaches. The pressure–distance characteristic curve obtained from this experimental study showed that the pressure was inversely proportional to the square of the separation distance. Experimental testing using water-to-water pipeline system environment was used to represent the worst case environment, and could be used as a guide to estimate appropriate safety distance. Dynamic pressures obtained from the experimental measurement and simulation prediction mutually agreed along the high-pressure water jetting path. From the experimental and simulation exercises, zero effect distance for water-to-water medium was obtained at an estimated horizontal distance at a minimum of 1500 mm, while for the water-to-sand medium, the distance was estimated at a minimum of 1200 mm. - Highlights: • Safe separation distance of underground natural gas pipes was determined. • Pressure curve is inversely proportional to separation distance. • Water-to-water system represents the worst case environment. • Measured dynamic pressures mutually agreed with simulation results. • Safe separation distance of more than 1200 mm should be applied

  19. Early warning of limit-exceeding concentrations of cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins in drinking water reservoirs by inferential modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recknagel, Friedrich; Orr, Philip T; Bartkow, Michael; Swanepoel, Annelie; Cao, Hongqing

    2017-11-01

    An early warning scheme is proposed that runs ensembles of inferential models for predicting the cyanobacterial population dynamics and cyanotoxin concentrations in drinking water reservoirs on a diel basis driven by in situ sonde water quality data. When the 10- to 30-day-ahead predicted concentrations of cyanobacteria cells or cyanotoxins exceed pre-defined limit values, an early warning automatically activates an action plan considering in-lake control, e.g. intermittent mixing and ad hoc water treatment in water works, respectively. Case studies of the sub-tropical Lake Wivenhoe (Australia) and the Mediterranean Vaal Reservoir (South Africa) demonstrate that ensembles of inferential models developed by the hybrid evolutionary algorithm HEA are capable of up to 30days forecasts of cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins using data collected in situ. The resulting models for Dolicospermum circinale displayed validity for up to 10days ahead, whilst concentrations of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii and microcystins were successfully predicted up to 30days ahead. Implementing the proposed scheme for drinking water reservoirs enhances current water quality monitoring practices by solely utilising in situ monitoring data, in addition to cyanobacteria and cyanotoxin measurements. Access to routinely measured cyanotoxin data allows for development of models that predict explicitly cyanotoxin concentrations that avoid to inadvertently model and predict non-toxic cyanobacterial strains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Numerical simulation of the environmental impact of hydraulic fracturing of tight/shale gas reservoirs on near-surface groundwater: Background, base cases, shallow reservoirs, short-term gas, and water transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagan, Matthew T; Moridis, George J; Keen, Noel D; Johnson, Jeffrey N

    2015-01-01

    Hydrocarbon production from unconventional resources and the use of reservoir stimulation techniques, such as hydraulic fracturing, has grown explosively over the last decade. However, concerns have arisen that reservoir stimulation creates significant environmental threats through the creation of permeable pathways connecting the stimulated reservoir with shallower freshwater aquifers, thus resulting in the contamination of potable groundwater by escaping hydrocarbons or other reservoir fluids. This study investigates, by numerical simulation, gas and water transport between a shallow tight-gas reservoir and a shallower overlying freshwater aquifer following hydraulic fracturing operations, if such a connecting pathway has been created. We focus on two general failure scenarios: (1) communication between the reservoir and aquifer via a connecting fracture or fault and (2) communication via a deteriorated, preexisting nearby well. We conclude that the key factors driving short-term transport of gas include high permeability for the connecting pathway and the overall volume of the connecting feature. Production from the reservoir is likely to mitigate release through reduction of available free gas and lowering of reservoir pressure, and not producing may increase the potential for release. We also find that hydrostatic tight-gas reservoirs are unlikely to act as a continuing source of migrating gas, as gas contained within the newly formed hydraulic fracture is the primary source for potential contamination. Such incidents of gas escape are likely to be limited in duration and scope for hydrostatic reservoirs. Reliable field and laboratory data must be acquired to constrain the factors and determine the likelihood of these outcomes. Key Points: Short-term leakage fractured reservoirs requires high-permeability pathways Production strategy affects the likelihood and magnitude of gas release Gas release is likely short-term, without additional driving forces PMID

  1. Atmospheric electrical field measurements near a fresh water reservoir and the formation of the lake breeze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Lopes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to access the effect of the lakes in the atmospheric electrical field, measurements have been carried out near a large man-made lake in southern Portugal, the Alqueva reservoir, during the ALqueva hydro-meteorological EXperiment 2014. The purpose of these conjoint experiments was to study the impact of the Alqueva reservoir on the atmosphere, in particular on the local atmospheric electric environment by comparing measurements taken in the proximity of the lake. Two stations 10 km apart were used,