WorldWideScience

Sample records for water quality studies

  1. Purified water quality study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinka, H.; Jackowski, P.

    2000-04-03

    Argonne National Laboratory (HEP) is examining the use of purified water for the detection medium in cosmic ray sensors. These sensors are to be deployed in a remote location in Argentina. The purpose of this study is to provide information and preliminary analysis of available water treatment options and associated costs. This information, along with the technical requirements of the sensors, will allow the project team to determine the required water quality to meet the overall project goals.

  2. Preimpoundment Water Quality Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    Passiflora incarnara No Camin N,-tn P. lutea Crossvixe Anisosticus capreolata Climbing hydrangea Decumaria barbara PJapanese Honeysuckle Lonicera japonica...Impatiens, Balsam Impatiens balsandina Curly Dock Rumex Plantain Plantago virginica Water Hemlock Cicuta maculata Violet Viola floridana Ironweied Sida acuta

  3. ORD Studies of Water Quality in Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presentation descibes results from two studies of water quality and pathogen occurrence in water and biofilm samples from two area hospitals. Includes data on the effectiveness of copper/silver ionization as a disinfectant.

  4. CORRELATION STUDY AMONG WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-09-01

    Sep 1, 2015 ... CORRELATION STUDY AMONG WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS OF. GROUNDWATER OF VALSAD DISTRICT OF SOUTH GUJARAT (INDIA). P. Shroff. 1. , R. T. Vashi. 1,*. , V. A. Champaneri. 2 and K. K. Patel. 1. 1Department of Chemistry, Navyug Science College, Surat-395009, (Gujarat), India. 2.

  5. GKI water quality studies. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, D L

    1980-01-01

    GKI water quality data collected in 1978 and early 1979 was evaluated with the objective of developing preliminary characterizations of native groundwater and retort water at Kamp Kerogen, Uintah County, Utah. Restrictive analytical definitions were developed to describe native groundwater and GKI retort water in an effort to eliminate from the sample population both groundwater samples affected by retorting and retort water samples diluted by groundwater. Native groundwater and retort water sample analyses were subjected to statistical manipulation and testing to summarize the data to determine the statistical validity of characterizations based on the data available, and to identify probable differences between groundwater and retort water based on available data. An evaluation of GKI water quality data related to developing characterizations of native groundwater and retort water at Kamp Kerogen was conducted. GKI retort water and the local native groundwater both appeared to be of very poor quality. Statistical testing indicated that the data available is generally insufficient for conclusive characterizations of native groundwater and retort water. Statistical testing indicated some probable significant differences between native groundwater and retort water that could be determined with available data. Certain parameters should be added to and others deleted from future laboratory analyses suites of water samples.

  6. General survey and conclusions with regard to the connection of water quantity and water quality studies of surface waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijtema, P.E.

    1979-01-01

    Publikatie die bestaat uit twee delen: 1. General survey of the relation between water quantity and water quality; 2. Conclusions with regard to the connection of water quantity and water quality studies of surface waters

  7. Water Quality Index for measuring drinking water quality in rural Bangladesh: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, Tahera; Jhohura, Fatema Tuz; Akter, Fahmida; Chowdhury, Tridib Roy; Mistry, Sabuj Kanti; Dey, Digbijoy; Barua, Milan Kanti; Islam, Md Akramul; Rahman, Mahfuzar

    2016-02-09

    Public health is at risk due to chemical contaminants in drinking water which may have immediate health consequences. Drinking water sources are susceptible to pollutants depending on geological conditions and agricultural, industrial, and other man-made activities. Ensuring the safety of drinking water is, therefore, a growing problem. To assess drinking water quality, we measured multiple chemical parameters in drinking water samples from across Bangladesh with the aim of improving public health interventions. In this cross-sectional study conducted in 24 randomly selected upazilas, arsenic was measured in drinking water in the field using an arsenic testing kit and a sub-sample was validated in the laboratory. Water samples were collected to test water pH in the laboratory as well as a sub-sample of collected drinking water was tested for water pH using a portable pH meter. For laboratory testing of other chemical parameters, iron, manganese, and salinity, drinking water samples were collected from 12 out of 24 upazilas. Drinking water at sample sites was slightly alkaline (pH 7.4 ± 0.4) but within acceptable limits. Manganese concentrations varied from 0.1 to 5.5 mg/L with a median value of 0.2 mg/L. The median iron concentrations in water exceeded WHO standards (0.3 mg/L) at most of the sample sites and exceeded Bangladesh standards (1.0 mg/L) at a few sample sites. Salinity was relatively higher in coastal districts. After laboratory confirmation, arsenic concentrations were found higher in Shibchar (Madaripur) and Alfadanga (Faridpur) compared to other sample sites exceeding WHO standard (0.01 mg/L). Of the total sampling sites, 33 % had good-quality water for drinking based on the Water Quality Index (WQI). However, the majority of the households (67 %) used poor-quality drinking water. Higher values of iron, manganese, and arsenic reduced drinking water quality. Awareness raising on chemical contents in drinking water at household level is required to

  8. Study on water quality around mangrove ecosystem for coastal rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guntur, G.; Sambah, A. B.; Arisandi, D. M.; Jauhari, A.; Jaziri, A. A.

    2018-01-01

    Coastal ecosystems are vulnerable to environmental degradation including the declining water quality in the coastal environment due to the influence of human activities where the river becomes one of the input channels. Some areas in the coastal regions of East Java directly facing the Madura Strait indicate having experienced the environmental degradation, especially regarding the water quality. This research was conducted in the coastal area of Probolinggo Regency, East Java, aiming to analyze the water quality as the basis for coastal rehabilitation planning. This study was carried out using survey and observation methods. Water quality measurement results were analyzed conforming to predetermined quality standards. The coastal area rehabilitation planning as a means to restore the degraded water quality parameters is presumably implemented through mangrove planting. Thus, the mangrove mapping was also devised in this research. Based on 40 sampling points, the results illustrate that according to the quality standard, the water quality in the study area is likely to be deteriorated. On account of the mapping analysis of mangrove distribution in the study area, the rehabilitation of the coastal zone can be done through planning the mangrove forest plantation. The recommended coastal area maintenance is a periodic water quality observation planning in the river region which is divided into three zones to monitor the impact of fluctuating changes in land use or human activities on the coastal water quality.

  9. Water quality assessments: A case study of plankton and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aspects of physico-chemical characteristics, plankton and macro invertebrates of Porto-Novo and Gulf of Guinea were studied in September 2012 with a view to determine the quality of water using plankton indices. Standard methods were used to determine the physico-chemical parameters. The mean water quality ...

  10. Primary Datasets for Case Studies of River-Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulder, Raymond

    2008-01-01

    Level 6 (final-year BSc) students undertook case studies on between-site and temporal variation in river-water quality. They used professionally-collected datasets supplied by the Environment Agency. The exercise gave students the experience of working with large, real-world datasets and led to their understanding how the quality of river water is…

  11. Water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquatic animals are healthiest and grow best when environmental conditions are within certain ranges that define, for a particular species, “good” water quality. From the outset, successful aquaculture requires a high-quality water supply. Water quality in aquaculture systems also deteriorates as an...

  12. CORRELATION STUDY AMONG WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-09-01

    Sep 1, 2015 ... washed twice with the water to be analyzed. The physico-chemical parameters like pH, EC, color, Total Hardness(TH), Calcium, Magnesium, Total Alkalinity(TA), Total Dissolved Solids. (TDS), Silica, Chloride, Sulphate, Fluoride, Sodium, COD and metals like Copper (Cu) and. Manganese (Mn) were ...

  13. Commencement Bay Study. Volume V. Water Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-31

    source discharges also reflect local rainfall activity (e.g., storm drains , sewer plant outfalls). The body of literature available to -55- support...water.* There were higher concentrations noted in some storm drains , bank seepage, and effluent samples. The amount of discharge at these points was...either storm drains or bank seepage and of low volume. Purgeable Halocarbons None of the waterway stations had concentrations in excess of

  14. BIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF WATER QUALITY: A STUDY OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    ABSTRACT. This study was carried out to survey the biotic community of Challawa river water in Kano, Nigeria, using Biological Monitoring Working Party Score (BMWP) and Average Score Per Taxa (ASPT) assessment tools to evaluate the water quality in the field. Using standardized sampling technique insects, insects' ...

  15. CASE STUDY ON WATER QUALITY CONTROL IN AN AQUAPONIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Mihai Filep

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aquaponic systems are integrated systems that combine fish farming and different types of plants. It involves a dynamic interaction between fish plants and bacteria. Fish and plants are dependent the equilibrium of dissolved nutrients and water quality. Only by striking a balance between dissolved nutrients and water quality we can achieve a large production of plants and healthy fish. Thus, control of water quality in an aquaponic system is essential in order to obtain performance in raising fish and plants. The experiment was conducted in the laboratory of Fisheries and Aquaculture of the Faculty of Animal Science of the University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Bucharest within a period of 30 days. The system used for the experiment was designed and developed in the laboratory mentioned above. The plant used for water treatment in the system was basil (Ocimum basilicum. Fish species grown in the system was culture carp (Cyprinus carpio. Indicators measured to assess water quality in the system were: temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, total ammonia, nitrites, nitrates and phosphates. The values determined pH 7.4-7.6, dissolved oxygen 8-10 mg / l, NH4 0.05-05 mg/ l, NO2 0.1-3.2 mg / l, NO3 0-80 mg / l, 0.02-0.3 mg, PO4 0.02-0.3 mg/l were not too high. In conclusion it was demonstrated that water quality in the aquaponic system studied is propitious to the growth and welfare of fish the registered values are not to be harmful.

  16. Establishment of water quality classification scheme: a case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The variables considered include water temperature, pH. Eh, DO, DO saturation, BOD5, COD, TSS, turbidity, NH4-N and electrical conductivity. Classification of water source is performed by reference to mathematically derived Quality index and Quality classification tables. The derivation and application of these models as ...

  17. Studies on urban drinking water quality in a tropical zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudiam, Mohana Krishna Reddy; Pathak, S P; Gopal, K; Murthy, R C

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic activities associated with industrialization, agriculture and urbanization have led to the deterioration in water quality due to various contaminants. To assess the status of urban drinking water quality, samples were collected from the piped supplies as well as groundwater sources from different localities of residential, commercial and industrial areas of Lucknow City in a tropical zone of India during pre-monsoon for estimation of coliform and faecal coliform bacteria, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and heavy metals. Bacterial contamination was found to be more in the samples from commercial areas than residential and industrial areas. OCPs like α,γ-hexachlorocyclohexane and 1,1 p,p-DDE {dichloro-2, 2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethene)} were found to be present in most of the samples from study area. The total organochlorine pesticide levels were found to be within the European Union limit (0.5 μg/L) in most of the samples. Most of the heavy metals estimated in the samples were also found to be within the permissible limits as prescribed by World Health Organization for drinking water. Thus, these observations show that contamination of drinking water in urban areas may be mainly due to municipal, industrial and agricultural activities along with improper disposal of solid waste. This is an alarm to safety of public health and aquatic environment in tropics.

  18. Water-Quality Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Water Quality? [1.7MB PDF] Past featured science... Water Quality Data Today's Water Conditions Get continuous real- ... list of USGS water-quality data resources . USGS Water Science Areas Water Resources Groundwater Surface Water Water ...

  19. Case study: Fixture water use and drinking water quality in a new residential green building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Maryam; Abouali, Mohammad; Wang, Mian; Zhou, Zhi; Nejadhashemi, Amir Pouyan; Mitchell, Jade; Caskey, Stephen; Whelton, Andrew J

    2018-03-01

    Residential plumbing is critical for the health and safety of populations worldwide. A case study was conducted to understand fixture water use, drinking water quality and their possible link, in a newly plumbed residential green building. Water use and water quality were monitored at four in-building locations from September 2015 through December 2015. Once the home was fully inhabited average water stagnation periods were shortest at the 2nd floor hot fixture (90 percentile of 0.6-1.2 h). The maximum water stagnation time was 72.0 h. Bacteria and organic carbon levels increased inside the plumbing system compared to the municipal tap water entering the building. A greater amount of bacteria was detected in hot water samples (6-74,002 gene copy number/mL) compared to cold water (2-597 gene copy number/mL). This suggested that hot water plumbing promoted greater microbial growth. The basement fixture brass needle valve may have caused maximum Zn (5.9 mg/L), Fe (4.1 mg/L), and Pb (23 μg/L) levels compared to other fixture water samples (Zn ≤ 2.1 mg/L, Fe ≤ 0.5 mg/L and Pb ≤ 8 μg/L). At the basement fixture, where the least amount of water use events occurred (cold: 60-105, hot: 21-69 event/month) compared to the other fixtures in the building (cold: 145-856, hot: 326-2230 event/month), greater organic carbon, bacteria, and heavy metal levels were detected. Different fixture use patterns resulted in disparate water quality within a single-family home. The greatest drinking water quality changes were detected at the least frequently used fixture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. National Water-Quality Assessment Program: Great Salt Lake basins study unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Kidd M.

    1999-01-01

    The Great Salt Lake Basins NAWQA study will increase the scientific understanding of the factors that influence surface- and ground-water quality. This information will benefit water-resources managers that need, but often lack, the data required to implement effective water-quality management actions and evaluate long-term changes in water quality.

  1. Biological Water Quality Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page contains links to Technical Documents pertaining to Biological Water Quality Criteria, including, technical assistance documents for states, tribes and territories, program overviews, and case studies.

  2. Drinking water treatment plant costs and source water quality: An updated case study (2013-2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watershed protection can play an important role in producing safe drinking water. However, many municipalities and drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) lack the information on the potential benefits of watershed protection as an approach to improving source water quality. This...

  3. Role of Service Learning in Water Quality Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Wilfred Sugumar

    2009-01-01

    Background: Chemistry students often complain that they are unmotivated because they see no applications of chemical principles in "real life." It was thus decided to put into use the knowledge gained during the course on water quality and analysis. Learning the principles of quantitative chemical analysis requires innovative, hands-on…

  4. Costs of water treatment due to diminished water quality: A case study in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearmont, David; McCarl, Bruce A.; Tolman, Deborah A.

    1998-04-01

    The cost of municipal water treatment due to diminished water quality represents an important component of the societal costs of water pollution. Here the chemical costs of municipal water treatment are expressed as a function of raw surface water quality. Data are used for a 3-year period for 12 water treatment plants in Texas. Results show that when regional raw water contamination is present, the chemical cost of water treatment is increased by 95 per million gallons (per 3785 m3) from a base of 75. A 1% increase in turbidity is shown to increase chemical costs by 0.25%.

  5. [Study of long-term water quality of stocked drinking water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Hiromi; Kanaoka, Miki; Yamamura, Sayo; Mine, Takanori; Nishikawa, Jun-ichi; Semma, Masanori

    2013-01-01

    We examined changes in the quality of drinking water stockpiled under various conditions for emergency use. The results indicated that the change in the quality of the stocked water was influenced mainly by the preservation period and not by the amount of water in the bottle. To maintain water quality, the amount of residual chlorine is less important than using sufficiently sterilized water, bottles and caps in the bottling process. Washing the bottles with a small amount of boiling water was not sufficient to ensure complete inhibition of microbial growth.

  6. Water Quality Study on the Hot and Cold Water Supply Systems at Vietnamese Hotels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanako Toyosada

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted as part of the Joint Crediting Mechanism (JCM of the Japanese Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, and the Ministry of the Environment project’s preparation in Vietnam. Samples were taken from hot and cold water supplies from guest rooms’ faucets in 12 hotels in Hanoi city, Vietnam, and 13 hotels in Japan for comparison. A simple water quality measurement and determination of Legionella was carried out. The results showed that residual effective chlorine—which guarantees bactericidal properties—was not detected in tap water supplied in hotel rooms in Vietnam, and nitrite (an indicator of water pollution was detected in 40% of buildings. In the hotels in Japan, the prescribed residual chlorine concentration met the prescribed levels, and nitrite was not detected. Additionally, while there was no Legionella detected in the Japanese cases, it was detected in most of the Vietnamese hotels, which were found to manage the hot water storage tank at low temperatures of 40–50 °C. It was found that there were deficiencies in cold and hot water supply quality, and that there was no effective system in place for building operation maintenance and management.

  7. Introducing a water quality index for assessing water for irrigation purposes: A case study of the Ghezel Ozan River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misaghi, Farhad; Delgosha, Fatemeh; Razzaghmanesh, Mostafa; Myers, Baden

    2017-07-01

    Rivers are one of the main water resources for agricultural, drinking, environmental and industrial use. Water quality indices can and have been used to identify threats to water quality along a stream and contribute to better water resources management. There are many water quality indices for the assessment and use of surface water for drinking purposes. However, there is no well-established index for the assessment and direct use of river water for irrigation purposes. The aim of this study was to adopt the framework of the National Sanitation Foundation Water Quality Index (NSFWQI) and, with adjustments, apply it in a way which will conform to irrigation water quality requirements. To accomplish this, the NSFWQI parameters for drinking water use were amended to include water quality parameters suitable for irrigation. For each selected parameter, an individual weighting chart was generated according to the FAO 29 guideline. The NSFWQI formula was then used to calculate a final index value, and for each parameter an acceptable range in this value was determined. The new index was then applied to the Ghezel Ozan River in Iran as a case study. A forty five year record of water quality data (1966 to 2010) was collected from four hydrometery stations along the river. Water quality parameters including Na + , Cl - , pH, HCO - 3, EC, SAR and TDS were employed for water quality analysis using the adjusted NSFWQI formula. The results of this case study showed variation in water quality from the upstream to downstream ends of the river. Consistent monitoring of the river water quality and the establishment of a long term management plan were recommended for the protection of this valuable water resource. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Studying Drinking Water Quality and its Change During Transportation through Samara Water-Supply Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kichigin, V. I.; Egorova, Y. A.; Nesterenko, O. I.

    2017-11-01

    The paper investigates changes in water physico-chemical composition and its physical indicators through ζ-potential in residential buildings in eight administrative districts of Samara. The results are processed by the methods of mathematical statistics and presented at the 0.05 level of importance. The sampling points for water in the city districts were chosen with the aid of random numbers tables. It was determined that the quality of drinking water was stable and consistent with the existing standards in Zheleznodorozhniy, Samarskiy, Leninskiy, Octyabrskiy, Kirovsliy, Sovetskiy and Promyshlenniy districts of Samara. The following indicators were taken into account: pH, colour, turbidity, alkalinity, general rigidity, content of ions Ca2 +, Mg2 +. It was also established that drinking water in Kuibyshevskiy district (with all other excellent indicators) had increased mineralization due to the natural hydrological conditions of the water inlet. Some change in the size of zeta-potential of the water was detected during its transportation through the existing water-supplying networks of the city. It was shown that the link between zeta-potential and various kinds of contamination in drinking water is underexplored and requires further detailed study.

  9. Water quality assessment in terms of water quality index (WQI): case study of the Kolong River, Assam, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Minakshi; Goswami, Dulal C.

    2017-10-01

    The Kolong River of Nagaon district, Assam has been facing serious degradation leading to its current moribund condition due to a drastic human intervention in the form of an embankment put across it near its take-off point from the Brahmaputra River in the year 1964. The blockage of the river flow was adopted as a flood control measure to protect its riparian areas, especially the Nagaon town, from flood hazard. The river, once a blooming distributary of the mighty Brahmaputra, had high navigability and rich riparian biodiversity with a well established agriculturally productive watershed. However, the present status of Kolong River is highly wretched as a consequence of the post-dam effects thus leaving it as stagnant pools of polluted water with negligible socio-economic and ecological value. The Central Pollution Control Board, in one of its report has placed the Kolong River among 275 most polluted rivers of India. Thus, this study is conducted to analyze the seasonal water quality status of the Kolong River in terms of water quality index (WQI). The WQI scores shows very poor to unsuitable quality of water samples in almost all the seven sampling sites along the Kolong River. The water quality is found to be most deteriorated during monsoon season with an average WQI value of 122.47 as compared to pre-monsoon and post-monsoon season having average WQI value of 85.73 and 80.75, respectively. Out of the seven sampling sites, Hatimura site (S1) and Nagaon Town site (S4) are observed to be the most polluted sites.

  10. A Water Budget and Water Quality Study of the Dismal Swamp Thesis Proposal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The main objective of this project is to determine the change in water quality throughout a section of the Dismal Swamp and to calculate the water budget for the...

  11. Regression study of environmental quality objectives for soil, fresh water, and marine water, derived independently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, M M; Urzelai, A; Angulo, E

    1997-12-01

    A regression study among environmental quality objectives on soil, marine and fresh water is studied, considering toxicity data on ecological representative species of invertebrates. The study was carried out by comparing VIE-C values, as defined by E. Angulo and A. Urzelai (1994, in Plan Director para la Protección del Suelo. Calidad del Suelo. Valores Indicativos de Evaluacion, pp. 121-184. IHOBE, Bilbao). To derive these VIE-C values, no-observed-effect concentrations from chronic single-species assays that consider relevant parameters in population dynamics are used. The calculations follow the method of N. M. van Straalen and C.A.J. Denneman (1989, Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 18, 241-251). Equations relating long-term toxicity data of fresh/marine waters, soil/marine water, and soil/fresh water for five metals (Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn) are calculated, indicating good correlation between environments: 0.85, 0.78, and 0.89, respectively. On the basis of these results this approach may be useful to obtain soil quality criteria values from other environmental compartments, when soil data are not available.

  12. Forest cover correlates with good biological water quality. Insights from a regional study (Wallonia, Belgium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogna, D; Dufrêne, M; Michez, A; Latli, A; Jacobs, S; Vincke, C; Dendoncker, N

    2018-01-22

    Forested catchments are generally assumed to provide higher quality water in opposition to agricultural and urban catchments. However, this should be tested in various ecological contexts and through the study of multiple variables describing water quality. Indeed, interactions between ecological variables, multiple land use and land cover (LULC) types, and water quality variables render the relationship between forest cover and water quality highly complex. Furthermore, the question of the scale at which land use within stream catchments most influences stream water quality and ecosystem health remains only partially answered. This paper quantifies, at the regional scale and across five natural ecoregions of Wallonia (Belgium), the forest cover effect on biological water quality indices (based on diatoms and macroinvertebrates) at the riparian and catchment scales. Main results show that forest cover - considered alone - explains around one third of the biological water quality at the regional scale and from 15 to 70% depending on the ecoregion studied. Forest cover is systematically positively correlated with higher biological water quality. When removing spatial, local morphological variations, or population density effect, forest cover still accounts for over 10% of the total biological water quality variation. Partitioning variance shows that physico-chemical water quality is one of the main drivers of biological water quality and that anthropogenic pressures often explain an important part of it (shared or not with forest cover). The proportion of forest cover in each catchment at the regional scale and across all ecoregions but the Loam region is more positively correlated with high water quality than when considering the proportion of forest cover in the riparian zones only. This suggests that catchment-wide impacts and a fortiori catchment-wide protection measures are the main drivers of river ecological water quality. However, distinctive results from the

  13. STUDY OF SPRINGS WATER QUALITY AS SOURCES OF POTABLE WATER AND FOR IRRIGATION IN REZINA DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sandu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available As sources of water supply in the Republic of Moldova underground waters constitute 15,2% (bore holes, springs and wells. The present work includes water quality investigations and aims to reveal local sources in river Nistru hydrographic basin (Rezina district for drinking water provision in villages. Chemical composition of investigated spring’s water shows that in Rezina district 19% of springs are polluted with nitrogen compounds. Water of only 9% of springs is in conformity with the standard for drinking water. Water from 102 springs meets the requirements of irrigation that doesn’t present the risk of soil salinization (K > 18 – 1 383 L/min.

  14. Water Quality Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Our water quality sampling program is to determine the quality of Moosehorn's lakes and a limited number of streams. Water quality is a measure of the body of water,...

  15. Association between perceptions of public drinking water quality and actual drinking water quality: A community-based exploratory study in Newfoundland (Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoo, Benjamin; Valcour, James; Sarkar, Atanu

    2017-11-01

    Studying public perception on drinking water quality is crucial for managing of water resources, generation of water quality standards, and surveillance of the drinking-water quality. However, in policy discourse, the reliability of public perception concerning drinking water quality and associated health risks is questionable. Does the public perception of water quality equate with the actual water quality? We investigated public perceptions of water quality and the perceived health risks and associated with the actual quality of public water supplies in the same communities. The study was conducted in 45 communities of Newfoundland (Canada) in 2012. First, a telephone survey of 100 households was conducted to examine public perceptions of drinking water quality of their respective public sources. Then we extracted public water quality reports of the same communities (1988-2011) from the provincial government's water resources portal. These reports contained the analysis of 2091 water samples, including levels of Disinfection By-Products (DBPs), nutrients, metals, ions and physical parameters. The reports showed that colour, manganese, total dissolved solids, iron, turbidity, and DBPs were the major detected parameters in the public water. However, the majority of the respondents (>56%) were either completely satisfied or very satisfied with the quality of drinking water. Older, higher educated and high-income group respondents were more satisfied with water quality than the younger, less educated and low-income group respondents. The study showed that there was no association with public satisfaction level and actual water quality of the respective communities. Even, in the communities, supplied by the same water system, the respondents had differences in opinion. Despite the effort by the provincial government to make the water-test results available on its website for years, the study showed existing disconnectedness between public perception of drinking water

  16. Water quality studies of TV station reservoir at Davangere City, Karnataka (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Nafeesa; Purushothama, R; Narayana, J; Kumar, K P Ravindra

    2006-10-01

    Studies were carried out to assess the water quality of TV station reservoir at Davangere City, Karnataka (India). The study revealed that there were variations in physico-chemical concentrations during the rainy season. Except turbidity, all the other physico-chemical characteristics were found within the permissible limits. The results were compared with the standards given by ISI for water quality.

  17. Geographic techniques and recent applications of remote sensing to landscape-water quality studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    This article overviews recent advances in studies of landscape-water quality relationships using remote sensing techniques. With the increasing feasibility of using remotely-sensed data, landscape-water quality studies can now be more easily performed on regional, multi-state scales. The traditional method of relating land use and land cover to water quality has been extended to include landscape pattern and other landscape information derived from satellite data. Three items are focused on in this article: 1) the increasing recognition of the importance of larger-scale studies of regional water quality that require a landscape perspective; 2) the increasing importance of remotely sensed data, such as the imagery-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and vegetation phenological metrics derived from time-series NDVI data; and 3) landscape pattern. In some studies, using landscape pattern metrics explained some of the variation in water quality not explained by land use/cover. However, in some other studies, the NDVI metrics were even more highly correlated to certain water quality parameters than either landscape pattern metrics or land use/cover proportions. Although studies relating landscape pattern metrics to water quality have had mixed results, this recent body of work applying these landscape measures and satellite-derived metrics to water quality analysis has demonstrated their potential usefulness in monitoring watershed conditions across large regions.

  18. PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF QUALITY STUDY OF WATER FROM SMALL MICHALICE RESERVOIR ON WIDAWA RIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Wiatkowski

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of water quality of the small Michalice reservoir. A preliminary assessment of the reservoir water quality and its usability was made. The quality of water in the reservoir is particularly important as the main functions of the reservoir are agricultural irrigation, recreation and flood protection . The following physico-chemical parameters of the Widawa River were analyzed: NO3 -, NO2 -, NH4 +, PO4 3-, COD, water temperature, pH and electrolytic conductivity. Main descriptive statistical data were presented for the analyzed water quality indicators. The research results indicate that the reservoir contributed to the reduced concentrations of the following water quality indicators: nitrates, nitrites, phosphates, electrolytic conductivity and COD (in the outflowing water – St.3 in comparison to the water flowing into the reservoir – St.1. In the water flowing out of the Psurów reservoir higher values of the remaining indicators were observed if compared with the inflowing water. It was stated, as well, that analised waters are not vulnerable to nitrogen compounds pollution coming from the agricultural sources and are eutrophic. For purpose obtaining of the précised information about condition of Michalice reservoir water purity as well as river Widawa it becomes to continue the hydrological monitoring and water quality studies.

  19. Drinking water quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, J; Gautam, B; Sapkota, N

    2012-09-01

    Drinking water quality is the great public health concern because it is a major risk factor for high incidence of diarrheal diseases in Nepal. In the recent years, the prevalence rate of diarrhoea has been found the highest in Myagdi district. This study was carried out to assess the quality of drinking water from different natural sources, reservoirs and collection taps at Arthunge VDC of Myagdi district. A cross-sectional study was carried out using random sampling method in Arthunge VDC of Myagdi district from January to June,2010. 84 water samples representing natural sources, reservoirs and collection taps from the study area were collected. The physico-chemical and microbiological analysis was performed following standards technique set by APHA 1998 and statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS 11.5. The result was also compared with national and WHO guidelines. Out of 84 water samples (from natural source, reservoirs and tap water) analyzed, drinking water quality parameters (except arsenic and total coliform) of all water samples was found to be within the WHO standards and national standards.15.48% of water samples showed pH (13) higher than the WHO permissible guideline values. Similarly, 85.71% of water samples showed higher Arsenic value (72) than WHO value. Further, the statistical analysis showed no significant difference (Pwater for collection taps water samples of winter (January, 2010) and summer (June, 2010). The microbiological examination of water samples revealed the presence of total coliform in 86.90% of water samples. The results obtained from physico-chemical analysis of water samples were within national standard and WHO standards except arsenic. The study also found the coliform contamination to be the key problem with drinking water.

  20. WETLANDS AND WATER QUALITY TRADING: REVIEW OF CURRENT SCIENCE AND ECONOMIC PRACTICES WITH SELECTED CASE STUDIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study evaluates the technical, economic, and administrative aspects of establishing water quality trading (WQT) programs where the nutrient removal capacity of wetlands is used to improve water quality. WQT is a potentially viable approach for wastewater dischargers to cost-e...

  1. Perceived versus actual water quality: Community studies in rural Oaxaca, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowles, Lewis Stetson; Alcalde, Reinaldo; Bogolasky, Francisca; Kum, Soyoon; Diaz-Arriaga, Farith A; Ayres, Craig; Mikelonis, Anne M; Toledo-Flores, Luis Javier; Alonso-Gutiérrez, Manuel Gerardo; Pérez-Flores, Maria Eufemia; Lawler, Desmond F; Ward, Peter M; Lopez-Cruz, Juana Yolanda; Saleh, Navid B

    2017-12-06

    Compromised water quality risks public health, which becomes particularly acute in economically marginalized communities. Although the majority of the clean-water-deprived population resides in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia, a significant portion (32 million) lives in Meso- and Latin-America. Oaxaca is one of the marginalized southern states of Mexico, which has experienced high morbidity from infectious diseases and also has suffered from a high rate of infant mortality. However, there has been a paucity of reports on the status of water quality of culturally diverse rural Oaxaca. This study follows community-based participatory research methods to address the data gap by reporting on water quality (chemical and microbiological) and by exploring social realities and water use practices within and among communities. Surveys and water quality analyses were conducted on 73 households in three rural communities, which were selected based on the choice of water sources (i.e., river water, groundwater, and spring water). Statistically significant variations among communities were observed including the sanitation infrastructure (p-value 0.001), public perception on water quality (p-value 0.007), and actual microbiological quality of water (p-value 0.001). Results indicate a high prevalence of diarrheal diseases, a desire to improve water quality and reduce the cost of water, and a need for education on water quality and health in all the surveyed communities. The complexities among the three studied communities highlight the need for undertaking appropriate policies and water treatment solutions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Studies on kinetics of water quality factors to establish water transparency model in Neijiang River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ronghui; Pan, Wei; Guo, Jinchuan; Pang, Yong; Wu, Jianqiang; Li, Yiping; Pan, Baozhu; Ji, Yong; Ding, Ling

    2014-05-01

    The basis for submerged plant restoration in surface water is to research the complicated dynamic mechanism of water transparency. In this paper, through the impact factor analysis of water transparency, the suspended sediment, dissolved organic matter, algae were determined as three main impactfactors for water transparency of Neijiang River in Eastern China. And the multiple regression equation of water transparency and sediment concentration, permanganate index, chlorophyll-a concentration was developed. Considering the complicated transport and transformation of suspended sediment, dissolved organic matter and algae, numerical model of them were developed respectively for simulating the dynamic process. Water transparency numerical model was finally developed by coupling the sediment, water quality, and algae model. These results showed that suspended sediment was a key factor influencing water transparency of Neijiang River, the influence of water quality indicated by chemical oxygen demand and algal concentration indicated by chlorophyll a were indeterminate when their concentrations were lower, the influence was more obvious when high concentrations are available, such three factors showed direct influence on water transparency.

  3. Temporal water quality response in an urban river: a case study in peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    VishnuRadhan, Renjith; Zainudin, Zaki; Sreekanth, G. B.; Dhiman, Ravinder; Salleh, Mohd. Noor; Vethamony, P.

    2017-05-01

    Ambient water quality is a prerequisite for the health and self-purification capacity of riverine ecosystems. To understand the general water quality situation, the time series data of selected water quality parameters were analyzed in an urban river in Peninsular Malaysia. In this regard, the stations were selected from the main stem of the river as well as from the side channel. The stations located at the main stem of the river are less polluted than that in the side channel. Water Quality Index scores indicated that the side channel station is the most polluted, breaching the Class IV water quality criteria threshold during the monitoring period, followed by stations at the river mouth and the main channel. The effect of immediate anthropogenic waste input is also evident at the side channel station. The Organic Pollution Index of side channel station is (14.99) 3 times higher than at stations at river mouth (4.11) and 6 times higher than at the main channel (2.57). The two-way ANOVA showed significant difference among different stations. Further, the factor analysis on water quality parameters yielded two significant factors. They discriminated the stations into two groups. The land-use land cover classification of the study area shows that the region near the sampling sites is dominated by urban settlements (33.23 %) and this can contribute significantly to the deterioration of ambient river water quality. The present study estimated the water quality condition and response in the river and the study can be an immediate yardstick for base lining river water quality, and a basis for future water quality modeling studies in the region.

  4. Study of water quality improvements during riverbank filtration at three midwestern United States drinking water utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, W.; Bouwer, E.; Ball, W.; O'Melia, C.; Lechevallier, M.; Arora, H.; Aboytes, R.; Speth, T.

    2003-04-01

    Riverbank filtration (RBF) is a process during which surface water is subjected to subsurface flow prior to extraction from wells. During infiltration and soil passage, surface water is subjected to a combination of physical, chemical, and biological processes such as filtration, dilution, sorption, and biodegradation that can significantly improve the raw water quality (Tufenkji et al, 2002; Kuehn and Mueller, 2000; Kivimaki et al, 1998; Stuyfzand, 1998). Transport through alluvial aquifers is associated with a number of water quality benefits, including removal of microbes, pesticides, total and dissolved organic carbon (TOC and DOC), nitrate, and other contaminants (Hiscock and Grischek, 2002; Tufenkji et al., 2002; Ray et al, 2002; Kuehn and Mueller, 2000; Doussan et al, 1997; Cosovic et al, 1996; Juttner, 1995; Miettinen et al, 1994). In comparison to most groundwater sources, alluvial aquifers that are hydraulically connected to rivers are typically easier to exploit (shallow) and more highly productive for drinking water supplies (Doussan et al, 1997). Increased applications of RBF are anticipated as drinking water utilities strive to meet increasingly stringent drinking water regulations, especially with regard to the provision of multiple barriers for protection against microbial pathogens, and with regard to tighter regulations for disinfection by-products (DBPs), such as trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs). In the above context, research was conducted to document the water quality benefits during RBF at three major river sources in the mid-western United States, specifically with regard to DBP precursor organic matter and microbial pathogens. Specific objectives were to: 1. Evaluate the merits of RBF for removing/controlling DBP precursors and certain other drinking water contaminants (e.g. microorganisms). 2. Evaluate whether RBF can improve finished drinking water quality by removing and/or altering natural organic matter (NOM) in a

  5. The role of seasonal water scarcity on water quality: a global analysis with case study in the Magdalena, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Sophia; Mulligan, Mark

    2017-04-01

    Water scarcity is not just a problem of its own right (hydrological drought) but cascades the hydro-economic system to create problems for crop growth and livestock (agricultural drought) and thus for wellbeing and economic productivity (economic drought). One of these cascades is the impact of reduced water quantity on water quality as a result of non-point source pollutant concentration in water bodies such as rivers, lakes and wetlands. This paper investigates the impact of seasonal water shortages on the quality of supplied water to urban centres with a view to better understanding how land use management can reduce dry-season pollutant spikes. We apply a widely used spatial hydrological model (WaterWorld) and its water quality index (the human footprint on water quality, HFWQ) to examine to what extent HFWQ of water flowing into urban water intakes is affected by flow seasonality and by typical "dry year" events. A global analysis shows trends across climatic and land use gradients and is followed by a regional analysis of the Magdalena basin in Colombia: a large basin with 79% of the countries population and a mixture of intensively farmed and protected lands along a seasonality gradient from South to North. The Magdalena is a case study basin of the EartH2Observe project.

  6. Water Quality Analysis Simulation

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Water Quality analysis simulation Program, an enhancement of the original WASP. This model helps users interpret and predict water quality responses to natural...

  7. Water Quality Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA develops water quality criteria based on the latest scientific knowledge to protect human health and aquatic life. This information serves as guidance to states and tribes in adopting water quality standards.

  8. Water Quality Analysis Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Quality analysis simulation Program, an enhancement of the original WASP. This model helps users interpret and predict water quality responses to natural phenomena and man-made pollution for variious pollution management decisions.

  9. Water Quality Monitoring Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Water Quality Monitoring Site identifies locations across the state of Vermont where water quality data has been collected, including habitat, chemistry, fish and/or...

  10. Hyperspectral data modeling for water quality studies in Michigan's inland lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiangwang, Narumon

    Hyperspectral remote sensing imagery has been used to estimate spatial and temporal variation of water quality, such as chlorophyll a, transparency, and suspended solids, primarily for marine and coastal waters. Although physicochemical properties of marine and inland waters differ, hyperspectral data and modeling may provide an alternative tool for inland lake assessment. However, little has been done to identify the most suitable spectral bands for water quality estimation and there is a lack of quantitative relationship between water quality and hyperspectral data. The primary objectives of this study are to identify optimal spectral bands most sensitive to water quality indicators and to develop improved hyperspectral water quality indicators of inland lakes. The secondary objective is to determine the most effective filters for noise removal in hyperspectral data. To address these objectives, a field campaign was conducted on 42 inland lakes in Michigan in 2004. Radiometric spectra, Secchi disk depth, dissolved oxygen, temperature, and light extinction profile data were collected. Water samples were analyzed for chlorophyll a, suspended solid, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, non-purgable organic carbon, and phytoplankton species composition. Spectral radiances were measured with a hand-held spectrometer (LabSpecRTM Pro) and with an airborne Imaging Spectrometer for Applications (AISA) sensor, to correlate the water quality and hyperspectral data. Principal Component Analysis was used to identify the narrow-wavebands, and derivative analysis used to determine the region-wavebands. Statistical spectral water quality indicators were developed to correlate with Secchi depth, chlorophyll a, total suspended solid, non-purgable organic carbon, diatom biomass, green algal biomass, and bluegreen algal biomass. These relations were validated to suggest that high accuracies were achieved for Secchi depth (R2 0.76--0.84), chlorophyll a (R2 0.70--0.76), and bluegreen

  11. Assessment the performance of classification methods in water quality studies, A case study in Karaj River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakizadeh, Mohamad

    2015-09-01

    To show the performance of classification methods in water quality studies, linear discriminant, and Naïve Bayesian classification methods were applied at nine sampling stations with respect to four parameters including COD, nitrite, nitrate, and total coliforms (selected from ten water quality variables) in Karaj River, Iran. To fulfill the goals of this study, the sampling stations were first separated into two groups using cluster analysis. Rural wastewater was the main source of pollution in the first group, whereas the quality of water in the second group has been degraded mainly by organic and agricultural pollution. In order to have an independent group against which the performance of other classification methods is considered, three cross-validation methods including twofold, leave-one-out, and holdout methods were utilized to retain an independent test set. The results of cross-validation for the linear discriminant analysis show that, except for the leave-one-out method with 11.1 % misclassification error, the overall performance has been the same as that of the training data set. Therefore, it has outperformed compared with that of Naïve Bayesian classification method. However, even though in situations where the correlation coefficient among the parameters is low, the latest method can offer the same performance as that of linear discriminant analysis as well. A sensitivity analysis was implemented using ten water quality variables (pH, COD, EC, TDA, turbidity, nitrate, nitrite, sulfate, TC, and FC) to find the most important variables in the classification of Karaj River showing that turbidity, next to COD, pH, nitrate, and sulfate, have had the most contribution in this field.

  12. A STUDY OF THE WATER QUALITY OF THE OSUN RIVER:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    :- for the sampling of May, June and August, respectively, were: Cd, 1.45:0.65. ..... Heidelberg-New York; 1981. Kudesia. VP. Water Pollution, 2nd ed-. Pragati Prakashan: Meerut; 1930,. Cranston. R.E.; Murray, J.W. limnol. Ocean. 1980, 25.

  13. Tsunamis: Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Transmission in Pet Shelters Protect Your Pets Tsunamis: Water Quality Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... about testing should be directed to local authorities. Water for Drinking, Cooking, and Personal Hygiene Safe water ...

  14. Studies on water quality and pathogenic bacteria in coastal water Langkawi, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalal, K C A; Faizul, H N Noor; Naim, M Azrul; John, B Akbar; Kamaruzzaman, B Y

    2012-07-01

    A study on physico-chemical parameters and pathogenic bacterial community was carried out at the coastal waters of Pulau Tuba island, Langkawi. The physico-chemical parameters such as temperature (27.43-28.88 degrees C), dissolved oxygen (3.79-6.49 mg l(-1)), pH (7.72-8.20), salinity (33.10-33.96 ppt), total dissolved solids (32.27-32.77 g l(-1)) and specific conductivity (49.83-51.63 mS cm(-1)) were observed. Station 3 and station 4 showed highest amount of nitrates (26.93 and 14.61 microg at N l(-1)) than station 1 (2.04 microg at N l(-1)) and station 2 (4.18 microg at N l(-1)). The highest concentration (12.4 +/- microg l(-1)) of chlorophyll a was observed in station 4 in October 2005. High phosphorus content (561 microg P l(-1)) was found in the station 2. Thirteen bacterial isolates were successfully identified using API 20E system. The highest amount of bacteria was observed at Station 4 (3400 CFU ml(-1)) and the lowest numberwas at Station 2 (890 CFU ml(-1)). Out of identified 13 Gram-negative bacterial isolates dominant species were Aeromonas hydrophila, Klebsiella oxytoca, Pseudomonas baumannii, Vibrio vulnificus, Proteus mirabilis, Providencia alcalifaciens and Serratia liquefaciens. Apart from this, oil biodegrading Pseudomonas putida were also identified. The study reveals the existing status of water quality is still conducive and the reasonably diverse with Gram-negative bacteria along the Pulau Tuba Langkawi.

  15. Environmental and Water Quality Operational Studies. Reservoir Shoreline Revegetation Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-11-01

    contribute to prob- lems such as shoreline erosion and water turbidity, a lack of or degradation of fish and wildlife habitat, and degraded aesthetics. Bare...include root reinforcement of the soil, restraint and filtering of soil particles, restraint of soil masses on slopes by soil arching effects, interception...signs. 85. Wattling bundles. Wattling bundles are cigar -shaped bundles of live switches of willow or other easy-sprouting woody species that are tied

  16. Study of pollution effect on water quality of Grogol River, DKI Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amira, S.; Astono, W.; Hendrawan, D.

    2018-01-01

    A study has been conducted to identify the incoming pollutants and assess the water quality in Grogol River, DKI Jakarta, Indonesia, which has a length of 13.35 km and consists of two segments. The water quality assessment is determined by pollution index method, referring to Minister of Environment Decree No. 15/2013 on The Guidelines of Water Quality Status. The samples were taken both in rainy and dry seasons at 7 sampling points. Based on the analyses of 10 key parameters and the calculation of pollution index value, it can be concluded that Grogol River is low polluted in rainy season and moderate polluted in dry season. The information obtained from this research can be used for decision making to improve the water quality of Grogol River.

  17. Assessment of river water quality under urban influence: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Shobharam; Joshi, Himanshu

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the water quality status of river Solani in India was assessed under the influence of urbanization. Physico-chemical and biological analysis of water reflected maximum adverse impact during summer low flow season. Variation in river flows during monsoon, post monsoon and low flow seasons was found to substantially affect the river water quality regime. Whereas the monsoon season displayed addition of suspended impurities and provided dilution in the dissolved components, the summer low flow season revealed an anaerobic condition in the river as the entire river flow comprised of only drain effluents. All the drains were observed to carry contaminated water with impurities from various point and non-point sources emanating from diverse human activities. The present study indicated that the drain waste water deserves a prior treatment in order to protect the Solani river water from pollution.

  18. Geospatial Water Quality Analysis of Dilla Town, Gadeo Zone, Ethiopia - A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakhale, G. K.; Wakeyo, T. B.

    2015-12-01

    Dilla is a socio-economically important town in Ethiopia, established on the international highway joining capital cities of Ethiopia and Kenya. It serves as an administrative center of the Gedeo Zone in SNNPR region of Ethiopia accommodating around 65000 inhabitants and also as an important trade centre for coffee. Due to the recent developments and urbanization in town and surrounding area, waste and sewage discharge has been raised significantly into the water resources. Also frequent rainfall in the region worsens the problem of water quality. In this view, present study aims to analyze water quality profile of Dilla town using 12 physico-chemical parameters. 15 Sampling stations are identified amongst the open wells, bore wells and from surface water, which are being extensively used for drinking and other domestic purposes. Spectrophotometer is used to analyze data and Gaussian process regression is used to interpolate the same in GIS environment to represent spatial distribution of parameters. Based on observed and desirable values of parameters, water quality index (WQI); an indicator of weighted estimate of the quantities of various parameters ranging from 1 to 100, is developed in GIS. Higher value of WQI indicates better while low value indicates poor water quality. This geospatial analysis is carried out before and after rainfall to understand temporal variation with reference to rainfall which facilitates in identifying the potential zones of drinking water. WQI indicated that 8 out of 15 locations come under acceptable category indicating the suitability of water for human use, however remaining locations are unfit. For example: the water sample at main_campus_ustream_1 (site name) site has very low WQI after rainfall, making it unfit for human usage. This suggests undertaking of certain measures in town to enhance the water quality. These results are useful for town authorities to take corrective measures and ameliorate the water quality for human

  19. Drinking Water Quality Governance: A Comparative Case Study of Brazil, Ecuador, and Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Georgia L; Amjad, Urooj; Dalcanale, Fernanda; Bartram, Jamie; Bentley, Margaret E

    2015-04-01

    Human health is greatly affected by inadequate access to sufficient and safe drinking water, especially in low and middle-income countries. Drinking water governance improvements may be one way to better drinking water quality. Over the past decade, many projects and international organizations have been dedicated to water governance; however, water governance in the drinking water sector is understudied and how to improve water governance remains unclear. We analyze drinking water governance challenges in three countries-Brazil, Ecuador, and Malawi-as perceived by government, service providers, and civil society organizations. A mixed methods approach was used: a clustering model was used for country selection and qualitative semi-structured interviews were used with direct observation in data collection. The clustering model integrated political, economic, social and environmental variables that impact water sector performance, to group countries. Brazil, Ecuador and Malawi were selected with the model so as to enhance the generalizability of the results. This comparative case study is important because similar challenges are identified in the drinking water sectors of each country; while, the countries represent diverse socio-economic and political contexts, and the selection process provides generalizability to our results. We find that access to safe water could be improved if certain water governance challenges were addressed: coordination and data sharing between ministries that deal with drinking water services; monitoring and enforcement of water quality laws; and sufficient technical capacity to improve administrative and technical management of water services at the local level. From an analysis of our field research, we also developed a conceptual framework that identifies policy levers that could be used to influence governance of drinking water quality on national and sub-national levels, and the relationships between these levers.

  20. [Study on the optimization of monitoring indicators of drinking water quality during health supervision].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Bixiong; E, Xueli; Zhang, Lan

    2015-01-01

    To optimize non-regular drinking water quality indices (except Giardia and Cryptosporidium) of urban drinking water. Several methods including drinking water quality exceed the standard, the risk of exceeding standard, the frequency of detecting concentrations below the detection limit, water quality comprehensive index evaluation method, and attribute reduction algorithm of rough set theory were applied, redundancy factor of water quality indicators were eliminated, control factors that play a leading role in drinking water safety were found. Optimization results showed in 62 unconventional water quality monitoring indicators of urban drinking water, 42 water quality indicators could be optimized reduction by comprehensively evaluation combined with attribute reduction of rough set. Optimization of the water quality monitoring indicators and reduction of monitoring indicators and monitoring frequency could ensure the safety of drinking water quality while lowering monitoring costs and reducing monitoring pressure of the sanitation supervision departments.

  1. An experimental study on the influence of water stagnation and temperature change on water quality in a full-scale domestic drinking water system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlatanović, Lj; van der Hoek, J P; Vreeburg, J H G

    2017-10-15

    The drinking water quality changes during the transport through distribution systems. Domestic drinking water systems (DDWSs), which include the plumbing between the water meter and consumer's taps, are the most critical points in which water quality may be affected. In distribution networks, the drinking water temperature and water residence time are regarded as indicators of the drinking water quality. This paper describes an experimental research on the influence of stagnation time and temperature change on drinking water quality in a full-scale DDWS. Two sets of stagnation experiments, during winter and summer months, with various stagnation intervals (up to 168 h of stagnation) were carried out. Water and biofilms were sampled at two different taps, a kitchen and a shower tap. Results from this study indicate that temperature and water stagnation affect both chemical and microbial quality in DDWSs, whereas microbial parameters in stagnant water appear to be driven by the temperature of fresh water. Biofilm formed in the shower pipe contained more total and intact cells than the kitchen pipe biofilm. Alphaproteobacteria were found to dominate in the shower biofilm (78% of all Proteobacteria), while in the kitchen tap biofilm Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria were evenly distributed. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Twenty years of water-quality studies in the Cheney Reservoir Watershed, Kansas, 1996-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jennifer L.; Foster, Guy M.; Kramer, Ariele R.

    2017-03-31

    Since 1996, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the City of Wichita, has done studies in the Cheney Reservoir watershed to understand environmental effects on water-quality conditions. Early studies (1996–2001) determined subwatershed sources of contaminants, nutrient and sediment loading to Cheney Reservoir, changes in reservoir sediment quality over time, and watershed sources of phosphorus. Later studies (2001–present) focused on nutrient and sediment concentrations and mass transport from the watershed; the presence of cyanobacteria, cyanotoxins, and taste-and-odor compounds in the reservoir; and development of regression models for real-time computations of water-quality constituents of interest that may affect drinking-water treatment. This fact sheet summarizes key results from studies done by the USGS during 1996–2016 in the Cheney Reservoir watershed and Cheney Reservoir.

  3. Water Quality Protection Charges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — The Water Quality Protection Charge (WQPC) is a line item on your property tax bill. WQPC funds many of the County's clean water initiatives including: • Restoration...

  4. Integrated hydrological and water quality model for river management: a case study on Lena River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, André; Botelho, Cidália; Boaventura, Rui A R; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2014-07-01

    The Hydrologic Simulation Program FORTRAN (HSPF) model was used to assess the impact of wastewater discharges on the water quality of a Lis River tributary (Lena River), a 176 km(2) watershed in Leiria region, Portugal. The model parameters obtained in this study, could potentially serve as reference values for the calibration of other watersheds in the area or with similar climatic characteristics, which don't have enough data for calibration. Water quality constituents modeled in this study included temperature, fecal coliforms, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids, nitrates, orthophosphates and pH. The results were found to be close to the average observed values for all parameters studied for both calibration and validation periods with percent bias values between -26% and 23% for calibration and -30% and 51% for validation for all parameters, with fecal coliforms showing the highest deviation. The model revealed a poor water quality in Lena River for the entire simulation period, according to the Council Directive concerning the surface water quality intended for drinking water abstraction in the Member States (75/440/EEC). Fecal coliforms, orthophosphates and nitrates were found to be 99, 82 and 46% above the limit established in the Directive. HSPF was used to predict the impact of point and nonpoint pollution sources on the water quality of Lena River. Winter and summer scenarios were also addressed to evaluate water quality in high and low flow conditions. A maximum daily load was calculated to determine the reduction needed to comply with the Council Directive 75/440/EEC. The study showed that Lena River is fairly polluted calling for awareness at behavioral change of waste management in order to prevent the escalation of these effects with especially attention to fecal coliforms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A Comparative Study of Water Quality Characteristics at East Java River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edijatno Edijatno

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Water is the natural resources have the function of very importance for human life and also as authorized capital in development. Water will influence by the other component. Exploiting of water to support all human life must done with wise action to management so that not result damage at water resource. As place relocation of water hence river have the selected capacities that able to change because natural activity and antropogenik. This research was conducted in nine major rivers in East Java. The objectives of this study were: 1 Identifying the characteristics and concestration range of water quality parameter, 2 Comparison the level of pollution in rivers in East Java. The results of this study indicated that the characteristic of water quality parameter of rivers in East Java were generally physical, chemical and biological. The comparison result of water quality parameter basically showed that in general the pH was still under threshold that had been determined, that was pH from 6 to 9. In general, DO concentration ranged from 0.5 mg/l to 7 mg/l, BOD concentration ranged from 3 mg/l to 11 mg/l and the COD concentration ranged between 0.5 mg/liter to 35 mg/l.

  6. Assessment of water quality: a case study of the Seybouse River (North East of Algeria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guettaf, M.; Maoui, A.; Ihdene, Z.

    2017-03-01

    The assessment of water quality has been carried out to determine the concentrations of different ions present in the surface waters. The Seybouse River constitutes a dump of industrial and domestic rejections which contribute to the degradation of water quality. A total of 48 surface water samples were collected from different stations. The first objective of this study is the use of water quality index (WQI) to evaluate the state of the water in this river. The second aim is to calculate the parameters of the quality of water destined for irrigation such as sodium adsorption ratio , sodium percentage, and residual sodium carbonate. A high mineralization and high concentration of major chemical elements and nutrients indicate inevitably a high value of WQI index. The mean value of electrical conductivity is about 945.25 µs/cm in the station 2 (Bouhamdane) and exceeds 1,400 µs/cm in station 12 of Nador. The concentration of sulfates is above 250 mg/l in the stations 8 (Zimba) and 11 (Helia). A concentration of orthophosphate over 2 mg/l was observed in the station 11. The comparison of the obtained and the WHO standards indicates a before using it use in agricultural purposes.

  7. History of water quality parameters - a study on the Sinos River/Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konzen, G B; Figueiredo, J A S; Quevedo, D M

    2015-05-01

    Water is increasingly becoming a valuable resource, constituting one of the central themes of environmental, economic and social discussions. The Sinos River, located in southern Brazil, is the main river from the Sinos River Basin, representing a source of drinking water supply for a highly populated region. Considering its size and importance, it becomes necessary to conduct a study to follow up the water quality of this river, which is considered by some experts as one of the most polluted rivers in Brazil. As for this study, its great importance lies in the historical analysis of indicators. In this sense, we sought to develop aspects related to the management of water resources by performing a historical analysis of the Water Quality Index (WQI) of the Sinos River, using statistical methods. With regard to the methodological procedures, it should be pointed out that this study performs a time analysis of monitoring data on parameters related to a punctual measurement that is variable in time, using statistical tools. The data used refer to analyses of the water quality of the Sinos River (WQI) from the State Environmental Protection Agency Henrique Luiz Roessler (Fundação Estadual de Proteção Ambiental Henrique Luiz Roessler, FEPAM) covering the period between 2000 and 2008, as well as to a theoretical analysis focusing on the management of water resources. The study of WQI and its parameters by statistical analysis has shown to be effective, ensuring its effectiveness as a tool for the management of water resources. The descriptive analysis of the WQI and its parameters showed that the water quality of the Sinos River is concerning low, which reaffirms that it is one of the most polluted rivers in Brazil. It should be highlighted that there was an overall difficulty in obtaining data with the appropriate periodicity, as well as a long complete series, which limited the conduction of statistical studies such as the present one.

  8. History of water quality parameters – a study on the Sinos River/Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GB Konzen

    Full Text Available Water is increasingly becoming a valuable resource, constituting one of the central themes of environmental, economic and social discussions. The Sinos River, located in southern Brazil, is the main river from the Sinos River Basin, representing a source of drinking water supply for a highly populated region. Considering its size and importance, it becomes necessary to conduct a study to follow up the water quality of this river, which is considered by some experts as one of the most polluted rivers in Brazil. As for this study, its great importance lies in the historical analysis of indicators. In this sense, we sought to develop aspects related to the management of water resources by performing a historical analysis of the Water Quality Index (WQI of the Sinos River, using statistical methods. With regard to the methodological procedures, it should be pointed out that this study performs a time analysis of monitoring data on parameters related to a punctual measurement that is variable in time, using statistical tools. The data used refer to analyses of the water quality of the Sinos River (WQI from the State Environmental Protection Agency Henrique Luiz Roessler (Fundação Estadual de Proteção Ambiental Henrique Luiz Roessler, FEPAM covering the period between 2000 and 2008, as well as to a theoretical analysis focusing on the management of water resources. The study of WQI and its parameters by statistical analysis has shown to be effective, ensuring its effectiveness as a tool for the management of water resources. The descriptive analysis of the WQI and its parameters showed that the water quality of the Sinos River is concerning low, which reaffirms that it is one of the most polluted rivers in Brazil. It should be highlighted that there was an overall difficulty in obtaining data with the appropriate periodicity, as well as a long complete series, which limited the conduction of statistical studies such as the present one.

  9. Integrated hydrological and water quality model for river management: A case study on Lena River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, André, E-mail: andrerd@gmail.com; Botelho, Cidália; Boaventura, Rui A.R.; Vilar, Vítor J.P., E-mail: vilar@fe.up.pt

    2014-07-01

    The Hydrologic Simulation Program FORTRAN (HSPF) model was used to assess the impact of wastewater discharges on the water quality of a Lis River tributary (Lena River), a 176 km{sup 2} watershed in Leiria region, Portugal. The model parameters obtained in this study, could potentially serve as reference values for the calibration of other watersheds in the area or with similar climatic characteristics, which don't have enough data for calibration. Water quality constituents modeled in this study included temperature, fecal coliforms, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids, nitrates, orthophosphates and pH. The results were found to be close to the average observed values for all parameters studied for both calibration and validation periods with percent bias values between − 26% and 23% for calibration and − 30% and 51% for validation for all parameters, with fecal coliforms showing the highest deviation. The model revealed a poor water quality in Lena River for the entire simulation period, according to the Council Directive concerning the surface water quality intended for drinking water abstraction in the Member States (75/440/EEC). Fecal coliforms, orthophosphates and nitrates were found to be 99, 82 and 46% above the limit established in the Directive. HSPF was used to predict the impact of point and nonpoint pollution sources on the water quality of Lena River. Winter and summer scenarios were also addressed to evaluate water quality in high and low flow conditions. A maximum daily load was calculated to determine the reduction needed to comply with the Council Directive 75/440/EEC. The study showed that Lena River is fairly polluted calling for awareness at behavioral change of waste management in order to prevent the escalation of these effects with especially attention to fecal coliforms. - Highlights: • An integrated hydrological and water quality model for river management is presented. • An insight into the

  10. Evaluation of drinking water quality indices (case study: Bushehr province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nematollah Jafarzadeh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Internal corrosion and the formation of scale in water distribution pipes are the most important problems for an urban water distribution system. Physical, chemical, or biological factors can lead to these two processes. Internal corrosion and scale formation can impact health, economy, and aesthetics. This study assessed the physicochemical quality parameters and evaluated the potential for corrosion and scale formation in drinking water at the distribution systems of 5 selected cities in Bushehr province (Kangan, Dashtestan, Dashti, Bushehr, and Ganaveh from 2009-2012. Methods: This study was carried out based on laboratory data collected from monthly samplings of tap water in the Water and Wastewater Company of Bushehr province during the years 2009-2012. Internal corrosion and scale formation rates were calculated using the Ryznar, Langelier, Aggressive, and Puckorius indices. Results: The results of the Ryznar, Puckorius, Aggressive and Langelier indices indicated that the drinking water in the 5 selected cities of Bushehr province was corrosive. Moreover, the majority of parameters used to determine water quality exceeded Iran’s national standards. Conclusion: It is concluded that there is problem of water corrosion and scaling in drinking water of distribution systems in selected cities.

  11. Elevated Bathing-Associated Disease Risks Despite Certified Water Quality: A Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Hadjichristodoulou

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriological water quality criteria have been recommended to ensure bathers’ health. However, this risk-assessment approach is based mainly on routine measurements of fecal pollution indicator bacteria in seawater, and may not be adequate to protect bathers effectively. The aim of this study was to assess the risks of symptoms related to infectious diseases among bathers after exposure to seawater which was of excellent quality according to EU guidelines. This study is a cohort study recruiting bathers and non-bathers. Water samples were collected for estimating bacterial indicators. Univariable and multivariable analysis was performed to compare the risks of developing symptoms/diseases between bathers and non-bathers. A total of 3805 bathers and 572 non-bathers were included in the study. Water analysis results demonstrated excellent quality of bathing water. Significantly increased risks of symptoms related to gastrointestinal infections (OR = 3.60, 95% CI 1.28–10.13, respiratory infections (OR = 1.92, 95% CI 1.00–3.67, eye infections (OR = 2.43, 95% CI 1.27–4.63 and ear infections (OR = 17.21, 95% CI 2.42–122.34 were observed among bathers compared with non-bathers. Increased rates of medical consultation and medication use were also observed among bathers. There was evidence that bathers experienced increased morbidity compared with non-bathers though the bathing waters met bacteriological water quality criteria. These results suggest that risk assessments of recreational seawaters should not only focus on bacteriological water quality criteria.

  12. Drinking water treatment plant costs and source water quality: An updated case study (2013-2016) Abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watershed protection can play an important role in producing safe drinking water. However, many municipalities and drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) lack the information on the potential benefits of watershed protection as an approach to improving source water quality. This...

  13. Assessing ecological water quality with macroinvertebrates and fish: a case study from a small Mediterranean river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheimonopoulou, Maria Th; Bobori, Dimitra C; Theocharopoulos, Ioannis; Lazaridou, Maria

    2011-02-01

    Biological elements, such as benthic macroinvertebrates and fish, have been used in assessing the ecological quality of rivers according to the requirements of the Water Framework Directive. However, the concurrent use of multiple organism groups provides a broader perspective for such evaluations, since each biological element may respond differently to certain environmental variables. In the present study, we assessed the ecological quality of a Greek river (RM4 type), during autumn 2003 and spring 2004 at 10 sites, with benthic macroinvertebrates and fish. Hydromorphological and physicochemical parameters, habitat structure, and riparian vegetation were also considered. Pollution sensitive macroinvertebrate taxa were more abundant at headwaters, which had good/excellent water quality according to the Hellenic Evaluation System (HES). The main river reaches possessed moderate water quality, while downstream sites were mainly characterised as having bad or poor water quality, dominated by pollution-tolerant macroinvertebrate taxa. Macroinvertebrates related strongly to local stressors as chemical degradation (ordination analysis CCA) and riparian quality impairment (bivariate analysis) while fish did not. Fish were absent from the severely impacted lower river reaches. Furthermore, external pathological signs were observed in fish caught at certain sites. A combined use of both macroinvertebrates and fish in biomonitoring programs is proposed for providing a safer assessment of local and regional habitat impairment.

  14. Water quality monitoring using remote sensing in support of the EU water framework directive (WFD): a case study in the Gulf of Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiaoling; Zhang, Yuanzhi; Hallikainen, Martti

    2007-01-01

    Water quality monitoring using remote sensing has been studied in Finland for many years. But there are still few discussions on water quality monitoring using remote sensing technology in support of water policy and legislation in Finland under the WFD. In this study, we present water quality monitoring using remote sensing in the Gulf of Finland, and focus on the spatial distribution of water quality information from satellite-based observations in support of water policy by a case study of nitrate concentrations in surface waters. In addition, we briefly describe instruments using a system of river basin districts (RBD), highlighting the importance of integrated water resources and river-basin management in the WFD, and discuss the role of water quality monitoring using remote sensing in the implementation of water policy in Finland under the WFD.

  15. Water Quality Assessment and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overview of Clean Water Act (CWA) restoration framework including; water quality standards, monitoring/assessment, reporting water quality status, TMDL development, TMDL implementation (point & nonpoint source control)

  16. CORRELATION STUDY AMONG WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS OF GROUNDWATER OF VALSAD DISTRICT OF SOUTH GUJARAT(INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. T. Vashi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater samples were collected from five talukas of Valsad district for one year (from August 2008 to July 2009 and were analyzed for their physicochemical characteristics.  The present investigation is focused on  determination of parameters like pH, Colour, Electrical Conductivity (EC, Total Hardness (TH, Calcium (Ca, Magnesium (Mg, Total Alkalinity (TA, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS, Silica, Chloride, Sulphate, Fluoride, Sodium, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD and metals like Copper (Cu and Manganese (Mn.  Correlation coefficients were determined to identify the highly correlated parameters and interrelated water quality parameters. Correlation matrix of Valsad district suggests that EC of groundwater is found to be significantly correlated with eight out of seventeen water quality parameters studied.  It may be suggested that the quality of Valsad district can be checked very effectively by controlling EC of water.

  17. Impacts of population growth and economic development on water quality of a lake: case study of Lake Victoria Kenya water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juma, Dauglas Wafula; Wang, Hongtao; Li, Fengting

    2014-04-01

    Anthropogenic-induced water quality pollution is a major environmental problem in freshwater ecosystems today. As a result of this, eutrophication of lakes occurs. Population and economic development are key drivers of water resource pollution. To evaluate how growth in the riparian population and in the gross domestic product (GDP) with unplanned development affects the water quality of the lake, this paper evaluates Lake Victoria Kenyan waters basin. Waters quality data between 1990 and 2012 were analyzed along with reviews of published literature, papers, and reports. The nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N), soluble phosphorus (PO4-P), chlorophyll a, and Secchi transparencies were evaluated as they are key water quality indicators. The NO3-N increased from 10 μg l(-1) in 1990 to 98 μg 1(-1) in 2008, while PO4-P increased from 4 μg l(-1) in 1990 to 57 μg l(-1) in 2008. The population and economic growth of Kenya are increasing with both having minimums in 1990 of 24.143 million people and 12.18 billion US dollars, to maximums in 2010 of 39.742 million people and 32.163 billion US dollars, respectively. A Secchi transparency is reducing with time, indicating an increasing pollution. This was confirmed by an increase in aquatic vegetation using an analysis of moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) images of 2000 and 2012 of Kenyan waters. This study found that increasing population and GDP increases pollution discharge thus polluting lakes. One of major factors causing lake water pollution is the unplanned or poor waste management policy and service.

  18. Water quality monitoring: a case study of water pollution in minna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work investigates the level of purity in Minna water and its environs. Water samples were collected from four water sources; Federal University of Technology (FUT), Minna water tank (Treated water), Maikunkele (Borehole), Chanchaga (Water treatment plant) and Tagwai dam (Raw). The following analyses of pH, Total ...

  19. Irrigation water quality assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing demands on fresh water supplies by municipal and industrial users means decreased fresh water availability for irrigated agriculture in semi arid and arid regions. There is potential for agricultural use of treated wastewaters and low quality waters for irrigation but this will require co...

  20. Quality of Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    The quality of drinking water has been gaining a great deal of attention lately, especially as water delivery infrastructure continues to age. Particles of various metals such as lead and copper, and other substances like radon and arsenic could be entering drinking water supplies. Spilled-on-the-ground hydrocarbon-based substances are also…

  1. Control options for river water quality improvement: a case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using a simple conceptual dynamic river water quality model, the effects of different basin-wide water quality management options on downstream water quality improvements in a semi-arid river, the Crocodile River (South Africa) were investigated. When a river is impacted by high rates of freshwater withdrawal (in its ...

  2. A study on the kinetics of ozone decomposition in waters of different quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takić Ljiljana M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of ozone decomposition in waters of different quality, namely distilled water, tap water previously treated with ozone, tap water not treated with ozone and raw water from an accumulation lake, were studied in a batch stirred reactor at different temperatures (18-28°C. The dissolved ozone concentration was measured by the iodometric titration method. It was determined that an empirical kinetic equation of the form: dc(O3/dt= k0 + k1c(O3 fitted the experimental data better than a first-order reaction rate equation. The apparent reaction rate constants in the case of ozone decomposition in distilled water were shown to be a function of temperature in accordance with the Arrhenius equation.

  3. A study of the water quality of the osun river: metal monitoring and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1999-10-27

    A study of the water quality of the osun river: metal monitoring and geochemistry. A.A. Olajire, F.E. Imeokparia. Abstract. Abstract. (Received October 27, 1999; revised March 24, 2000) The concentrations and distributions of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Cr and Zn in Osun river, selected rivers in the region and groundwaters have been ...

  4. Water quality index development using fuzzy logic: A case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of the status of water quality of a river or any other water source is highly indeterminate. It is necessary to have a competent model to predict the status of water quality and to show the type of water treatment that would be used to meet different demands. By exploring the behavior and limitations of ...

  5. Water pipe smoking and health-related quality of life: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavafian, Sedigheh-Sadat; Aghamolaei, Teamur; Zare, Shahram

    2009-05-01

    Water pipe smoking is increasing in Eastern Mediterranean Region. The objective of this study was to investigate any relationship between water pipe smoking and health-related quality of life in the general population of Bandar Abbas, Iran. Using a multistage sampling method, a random sample of 1675 individuals aged 15 years and over was studied from June through July 2007. All eligible participants were interviewed using the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) questionnaire and a short questionnaire containing items regarding socio-demographic characteristics and water pipe smoking status. To compare SF-36 scores between water pipe smokers and nonsmokers, t-test was performed. In addition, multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine the influence of water pipe smoking on SF-36 scores after adjusting for other independent variables. In all, 1675 individuals were studied. The mean age of the respondents was 42.1 (SD=16.5) years. One hundred and seventy-two participants (10.4%) were water pipe smokers. There were statistically significant differences between water pipe smokers and nonsmokers on all scales except for role emotional (Pwater pipe was a risk factor for decreasing Physical Component Summary and Mental Component Summary scores [OR (95% CI): 2.15 (1.56-2.96), Pwater pipe carried a higher risk for poorer health-related quality of life.

  6. Assessment of Water Quality Improvements Using the Hydrodynamic Simulation Approach in Regulated Cascade Reservoirs: A Case Study of Drinking Water Sources of Shenzhen, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruixiang Hua

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Water quality safety is of critical importance in environmental improvement, particularly with respect to drinking water resources worldwide. As the main drinking water sources in Shenzhen, China, the cascade reservoirs comprising the Shiyan, Tiegang, and Xili Reservoirs are highly regulated and have experienced water quality deterioration in recent years. In this study, a three-dimensional hydrodynamic and water quality model was established using the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC for the cascade reservoirs. The relationships between water quality and improvement measures were quantified and the main pollution sources for individual reservoirs were identified. Results showed that the hydrodynamic and water quality model well captured the spatial and temporal variations of water level, the permanganate concentration index (CODMn, and total nitrogen (TN, with high resolution in the cascade reservoirs. The correlation coefficients between simulations and observations were close to 1.00 for water levels, and over 0.50 for CODMn and TN concentrations. The most effective methods for water quality improvement were the reduction of the runoff load for TN and transferred water load for CODMn in the Shiyan Reservoir, reduction of the transferred water load in the Tiegang Reservoir, and an increase in transfer water volume, especially in the flood season, in the Xili Reservoir. Internal pollution sources also played an important role in water pollution, and thus sedimentation should be cleaned up regularly. This study is expected to provide scientific support for drinking water source protection and promote the application of hydrodynamic model in water quality management.

  7. Effect of quality of phreatic aquifer water and water upwelling on constructions. A case study of Ouargla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saggaï, Sofiane; Bachi, Oum Elkheir; Saggaï, Ali

    2016-07-01

    In Ouargla's oasis, which is one of urban conglomerations of Algerian Sahara, the exploitation and/or the overexploitation of the deep aquifers of continental intercalary and of complex terminal that contain waters of mediocre quality (salty and hot), and the rejection of waters of drainage, urban residual waters and non-treated industrial waters are responsible, at the same time, of the degradation of the quality of waters of the groundwater and its upwelling. This situation has led to: (i) the deterioration of the environment and (ii) the deterioration of constructions (houses, roads, etc…). The present paper consists in giving in detail the causes of the water upwelling of phreatic aquifers in our regions, the quality of water of this aquifer and the influence of the quality of phreatic aquifer water on environment and constructions in Ouargla city by analyzing water samples of 10 points of this town.

  8. Water Quality Data (WQX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The STORET (short for STOrage and RETrieval) Data Warehouse is a repository for water quality, biological, and physical data and is used by state environmental agencies, EPA and other federal agencies, universities, private citizens, and many others.

  9. Study of water quality and carbon absorbtion in West Sunter Lake using phytoplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusly, C. M.; Hendrawan, D.; Rinanti, A.

    2018-01-01

    The purposes of this research are to analyze the water quality and measure the carbon absorbtion in water of West Sunter Lake using the phytoplankton community. The sampling and analysis of water quality and phytoplankton using the APHA method. The result show that DO is 1.1-1.4 mg/L),BOD is 10.34 to 27.35 mg/L, COD is 23-130 mg/L, and phosphate is 0.38-0.57 mg/L. The range of index values were at 0,128 to 2,516 for the Diversity Index (H’), 0.003 to 0.924 for the Evenness Index (E), that is waters this medium polluted. The study indicated that the water quality and productivity of West Sunter Lake is impacted by the activities around West Sunter Lake, especially the household activities. The value of chlorophyll-a in the Reservoir was ranging from 3.2-386.9 mg/m3 or 0.89 s/d 105.52 mg C/m3 and carbon which absorbed by phytoplankton are 2×109 to 14×109 ton/year or 9×103 to 50×103 ton/m3. The amount of carbon absorbtion by phytoplankton per year proves that phytoplankton have an important role in reducing CO2 emissions.

  10. An experimental study on the influence of water stagnation and temperature change on water quality in a full-scale domestic drinking water system

    OpenAIRE

    Zlatanović, L.; van der Hoek, J.P.; Vreeburg, J.H.G.

    2017-01-01

    The drinking water quality changes during the transport through distribution systems. Domestic drinking water systems (DDWSs), which include the plumbing between the water meter and consumer's taps, are the most critical points in which water quality may be affected. In distribution networks, the drinking water temperature and water residence time are regarded as indicators of the drinking water quality. This paper describes an experimental research on the influence of stagnation time and tem...

  11. The Use of the Fluorescence to the Study of the Water Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Estebanez

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a work proposal now in course that is based on the study of the fluorescence in cyanobacteria and toxicity, and the possibility of detecting their presence in freshwater environment, with a direct application in water assessment. The proposal is a consequence of a previous study about the fluorescence generated by hydrocarbon residue on the sea surface. In the first part of this work we present a review of results obtained from the analysis of hydrocarbon samples from the "prestige" oil spill accident and other referential hydrocarbons. In the second part we show the capability of this technique for the development of probes to explore the water quality.

  12. The importance of laboratory water quality for studying initial bacterial adhesion during NF filtration processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semião, A J C; Habimana, O; Cao, H; Heffernan, R; Safari, A; Casey, E

    2013-05-15

    Biofouling of nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes for water treatment has been the subject of increased research effort in recent years. A prerequisite for undertaking fundamental experimental investigation on NF and RO processes is a procedure called compaction. This involves an initial phase of clean water permeation at high pressures until a stable permeate flux is reached. However water quality used during the compaction process may vary from one laboratory to another. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of laboratory water quality during compaction of NF membranes. A second objective was to investigate if the water quality used during compaction influences initial bacterial adhesion. Experiments were undertaken with NF 270 membranes at 15 bar for permeate volumes of 0.5 L, 2 L, and 5 L using MilliQ, deionized or tap water. Membrane autopsies were performed at each permeation point for membrane surface characterisation by contact angle measurements, profilometry, and scanning electron microscopy. The biological content of compacted membranes was assessed by direct epi-fluorescence observation following nucleic acid staining. The compacted membranes were also employed as substrata for monitoring the initial adhesion of Ps. fluorescens under dynamic flow conditions for 30 min at 5 min intervals. Compared to MilliQ water, membrane compaction using deionized and tap water led to decreases in permeate flux, increase in surface hydrophobicity and led to significant build-up of a homogeneous fouling layer composed of both living and dead organisms (>10(6) cells cm(-2)). Subsequent measurements of bacterial adhesion resulted in cell loadings of 0.2 × 10(5), 1.0 × 10(5) cells cm(-2) and 2.6 × 10(5) cells cm(-2) for deionized, tap water and MilliQ water, respectively. These differences in initial cell adhesion rates demonstrate that choice of laboratory water can significantly impact the results of bacterial adhesion on NF membranes

  13. STUDY OF WATER QUALITY OF SYLHET CITY AND ITS RESTAURANTS: HEALTH ASSOCIATED RISK ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Alam, J. B. Alam, M. M. Hasan, S. R. Das, K. Rahman, B. K. Banik

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available study of the water quality conditions of Sylhet city of Bangladesh and its restaurants was carried out to assess risks to human health. The investigation was based on questionnaire survey of restaurants and laboratory tests on water samples obtained from the restaurants, tube wells of the city and Surma River the two main sources of water supply to the city. The test parameters were dissolved oxygen; conductance, hardness, pH, temperature, turbidity, essential and trace elements, dissolved and suspended solids and coliform bacteria. The quality of sanitary facilities and handling of food in the restaurants were also examined. It was found that the drinking water of each restaurant was contaminated with fecal coliforms and 25% restaurants had unsafe levels of iron in the water supply. Improper solid waste dumping was found as one of the reasons of groundwater pollution. Statistical analysis based on Pearson’s correlation coefficient revealed significant correlation between the extent of groundwater pollution and dumping of solid waste effluents in the immediate vicinity of ground water (tube wells. It was observed that 75.69% (coefficient of determination r2= 0.7569 variation in the value of groundwater near the dumping place showed association with variation in the value of water quality within the dumping place. Health risk score for coliform bacteria was 1,474.77, indicating high risk. The results of the study help in enhancing awareness of health hazards of contaminated food among the consumers as well as in drawing attention of health regulatory authorities.

  14. Chemical quality of tap water in Madrid: multicase control cancer study in Spain (MCC-Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Navarro, Pablo; Villanueva, Cristina M; García-Pérez, Javier; Boldo, Elena; Goñi-Irigoyen, Fernando; Ulibarrena, Enrique; Rantakokko, Panu; García-Esquinas, Esther; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Pollán, Marina; Aragonés, Nuria

    2017-02-01

    Chronic consumption of water, which contains contaminants, may give rise to adverse health effects. The Madrid region, covered by the population-based multicase-control (MCC-Spain) study, includes two drinking water supply areas. The different sources of the water, coupled together with the possible differences in water management, mean that there may be differences in drinking water quality. In the context of the MCC study, our aims were to describe contaminant concentrations in tap water drawn from various sampling points distributed around the region, assess these concentrations by reference to guideline values and study possible differences between the two supply areas. Tap water samples were collected from 34 sampling points in 7 towns in the Madrid region (19-29 April 2010), and 23 contaminants (metals, nitrates, disinfection by-product and Mutagen X levels) were quantified. We undertook a descriptive analysis of the contaminant concentrations in the water and compared them between the two water supply areas (Wilcoxon test). We created maps representing the distribution of the concentrations observed at water sampling points and assessed the correlations (Spearman's coefficient) between the different parameters measured. The concentrations of the contaminants were below guideline values. There were differences between the two supply areas in concentration of nitrates (p value = 0.0051) and certain disinfection by-products. While there were positive correlations (rho >0.70) among some disinfection by-products, no correlations were found in metals or nitrates. The differences in nitrate levels could be linked to differences in farming/industrial activities in the catchment areas and in disinfection by-products might be related to the existence of different treatment systems or bromine content in source waters.

  15. Mycoflora and Water Quality index Assessment of Water Sources in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mycoflora and Water quality index assessment studies of hand-dug wells and a river in Oproama Community, Niger Delta were studied. Water samples was taken from the ten sampling stations (7 wells and 3 river points) and water quality index using water quality index calculator given by National Sanitation Foundation ...

  16. LANDSAT digital data for water pollution and water quality studies in Southern Scandinavia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellden, U.; Akersten, I.

    1977-01-01

    Spectral diagrams, illustrating the spectral characteristics of different water types, were constructed by means of simple statistical analysis of the various reflectance properties of water areas in Southern Scandinavia as registered by LANDSAT-1. There were indications that water whose spectral reproduction is dominated by chlorophyllous matter (phytoplankton) can be distinguished from water dominated by nonchlorophyllous matter. Differences between lakes, as well as the patchiness of individual lakes, concerning secchi disc transparency could be visualized after classification and reproduction in black and white and in color by means of line printer, calcomp plotter (CRT), and ink jet plotter respectively.

  17. Studies on microbial quality of filtered water in households of a university community in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabi, D A; Adesiyun, A A

    1986-04-01

    Water samples from home filters in nine residential areas of a Nigerian university community were studied. The membrane filter technique was used to determine the total coliform and faecal coliform counts/100 ml of water. Most of the 100 samples studied were grossly contaminated with total coliform counts/100 ml ranging from 0-442, faecal coliform counts/100 ml, 0-216 and the total aerobic plate count per millilitre ranged from 3.0 X 10(3) to 1.9 X 10(9) c.f.u. The source (dams) of water, fitness of filter candles, frequency of cleaning candles and pH of water did not significantly (P greater than 0.05; chi2) affect the microbial quality of either filtered boiled or unboiled tap water. Escherichia coli type I was isolated from 17.9% of the faecal coliforms tested but from only 2.3% of total coliforms. Enterobacter aerogenes was most predominant (38.5%) amongst faecal coliforms isolated while Enterobacter cloacae was the most frequent (37.2%) of the total coliform isolates. The gross contamination of filtered water from all households sampled calls for an enlightenment of residents on the proper use of home water filters.

  18. Water quality and remote sensing: A case study of Lake Naivasha, Kenya

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Majozi, NP

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available and temporal scales, esp. in inaccessible areas ? Study focused on estimating euphotic zone depth (Zeu) from MERIS-derived diffuse attenuation coefficient Kd(490) ?Zeu (euphotic- ?well lit? in Greek) is the depth at which light intensity/ solar radiation..., Chl a, Kd(490), FLH 1999?date/ 2002 -date Table 2: Summary of potential RS datasets for inland water quality monitoring Algorithm Development Fig 2: Algorithm development and data processing chain Results Optically active component N...

  19. Kansas environmental and resource study: A Great Plains model. Monitoring fresh water resources. [water quality of reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarger, H. L. (Principal Investigator); Mccauley, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Processing and analysis of CCT's for numerous ground truth supported passes over Kansas reservoirs has demonstrated that sun angle and atmospheric conditions are strong influences on water reflectance levels as detected by ERTS-1 and can suppress the contributions of true water quality factors. Band ratios, on the other hand, exhibit very little dependence on sun angle and sky conditions and thus are more directly related to water quality. Band ratio levels can be used to reliably determine suspended load. Other water quality indicators appear to have little or no affect on reflectance levels.

  20. Water quality assessment and analysis for rehabilitate and management of wetlands: a case study in Nanhai wetland of Baotou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Jing tian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wetland plays an irreplaceable role in many aspects and waters are important part of wetland, the water quality can easily reflect the situation of Wetland. In this study, water quality was assessed on the basis of 5 parameters (DO, NH4+-N, TN, TP and CODcr that were monitored monthly at 5 sites (N1,N2,N3,N4 and N5from April, 2014 to March, 2015 of the Nanhai Lake in Baotou, China by water pollution index method and comprehensive water quality identification index method. The twelve monitoring months were divided into wet season (Mar., Aug. and Sep., normal season (Jan., Feb., Apr., Nov. and Dec. and dry season (May., Jun. and Jul.. The assessment results determined using the water pollution index method showed that the water quality of all the five monitoring sites were inferior Ⅴ, the main contamination was COD. The comprehensive water quality identification index showed that the water quality of the Nanhai Lake were classesⅤ, except for the N2 in wet season and dry season, the N1 in dry season and the N5 in normal season, which were classes inferiorⅤ. All the five monitoring sites don’t achieving the desired water quality standard. According to the analysis, domestic discharge, industrial activities and developed recreation were major threats to water quality of Nanhai Lake.

  1. Water Quality Evaluation of PET Bottled Water by Mineral Balance in the Northeast Asian Region: A Case Study of South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houri, Daisuke; Koo, Chung Mo

    2015-09-01

    The past few years have seen a demand for drinking water in contemporary society with a focus on safety and taste. Mineral water is now marketed as a popular commercial product and, partly due to health concerns, the production. For the study, a comparison was carried out of water samples from 9 types of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottled water sold in South Korea as well as from tap water in the cities of Seoul and Chuncheon. These were compared with samples of Japanese PET bottled water in order to determine shared commonalities and identify individual characteristics. To evaluate water quality objectively, we quantified the elements contained in the water samples. Samples were assessed not with the usual sensory evaluation but with the evaluation approach advocated by Hashimoto et al. which employs the Water Index of Taste and the Water Index of Health. The levels of water quality obtained were compared with the "Prerequisites for Tasty Water" and the "Standards for Tasty Water" devised for city water. The PET Bottled water varieties analyzed in this study-Seoksu, Icis, Bong Pyong, Soon Soo 100, Dong Won Saem Mul, GI JANG SOO and DIAMOND-showed the Water Index of Taste ≥ 2.0 and the Water Index of Health ≥ 5.2, which we classified as tasty/healthy water. SamDaSoo and NamiNeral can be classified as tasty water due to their values of the Water Index of Taste ≥ 2.0 and the Water Index of Health water studied here fulfills the "Water Index of Taste," "Water Index of Health," "Standard for Tasty Water" and "Prerequisites for Tasty Water" that Japanese people value for city water. We can conclude that bottled water which meets water quality requirements will be considered good-tasting by a majority of people.

  2. High resolution stream water quality assessment in the Vancouver, British Columbia region: a citizen science study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shupe, Scott M

    2017-12-15

    Changing land cover and climate regimes modify water quantity and quality in natural stream systems. In regions undergoing rapid change, it is difficult to effectively monitor and quantify these impacts at local to regional scales. In Vancouver, British Columbia, one of the most rapidly urbanizing areas in Canada, 750 measurements were taken from a total of 81 unique sampling sites representing 49 streams located in urban, forest, and agricultural-dominant watersheds at a frequency of up to 12 times per year between 2013 and 2016. Dissolved nitrate (NO 3 -N) and phosphate (PO 4 -P) concentrations, turbidity, water temperature, pH and conductivity were measured by citizen scientists in addition to observations of hydrology, vegetation, land use, and visible stream impacts. Land cover was mapped at a 15-m resolution using Landsat 8 OLI imagery and used to determine dominant land cover for each watershed in which a sample was recorded. Regional, seasonal, and catchment-type trends in measurements were determined using statistical analyses. The relationships of nutrients to land cover varied seasonally and on a catchment-type basis. Nitrate showed seasonal highs in winter and lows in summer, though phosphate had less seasonal variation. Overall, nitrate concentrations were positively associated to agriculture and deciduous forest and negatively associated with coniferous forest. In contrast, phosphate concentrations were positively associated with agricultural, deciduous forest, and disturbed land cover and negatively associated with urban land cover. Both urban and agricultural land cover were significantly associated with an increase in water conductivity. Increased forest land cover was associated with better water quality, including lower turbidity, conductivity, and water temperature. This study showed the importance of high resolution sampling in understanding seasonal and spatial dynamics of stream water quality, made possible with the large number of

  3. Metropolitan Spokane Region Water Resources Study. Appendix J. Water Quality Simulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Vero composi- ted atd the composite was used for chlorophyll determinations and phycop!..’kton volume-counts by species. A 250 al sample of the...euphotic zone composite was preserved with Lugol’s solution. Cell volumes and counts per unit volume of water were determined for each taxon in the...solution is used to solve the differential equations describing the dynamics of water qual ity behavior. The time Interval used is one hour. The iHydrocomp

  4. Impact of electronic faucets and water quality on the occurrence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in water: a multi-hospital study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charron, Dominique; Bédard, Emilie; Lalancette, Cindy; Laferrière, Céline; Prévost, Michèle

    2015-03-01

    To compare Pseudomonas aeruginosa prevalence in electronic and manual faucets and assess the influence of connecting pipes and water quality. Faucets in 4 healthcare centers in Quebec, Canada. Water samples from 105 electronic, 90 manual, and 14 foot-operated faucets were analyzed for P. aeruginosa by culture and enzymatic detection, and swab samples from drains and aerators were analyzed by culture. Copper and residual chlorine concentrations, temperature, and flow rate were measured. P. aeruginosa concentrations were analyzed in 4 consecutive volumes of cold water and a laboratory study was conducted on copper pipes and flexible hoses. P. aeruginosa contamination was found in drains more frequently (51%) than in aerators (1%) or water (culture: 4%, enzyme detection: 16%). Prevalence in water samples was comparable between manual (14%) and 2 types of electronic faucets (16%) while higher for foot-operated faucets (29%). However, type 2 electronic faucets were more often contaminated (31%) than type 1 (14%), suggesting that faucet architecture and mitigated volume (30 mL vs 10 mL) influence P. aeruginosa growth. Concentrations were 100 times higher in the first 250 mL than after flushing. Flexible hoses were more favorable to P. aeruginosa growth than copper and a temperature of 40°C led to higher counts. The types of faucets and connecting pipes, flow rate, and water quality are important parameters influencing the prevalence and the concentrations of P. aeruginosa in faucets. High concentrations of P. aeruginosa in the first 250 mL suggest increased risk of exposure when using the first flush.

  5. Impact of Mass Bathing and Religious Activities on Water Quality Index of Prominent Water Bodies: A Multilocation Study in Haryana, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Bhatnagar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to assess the impact of mass bathing and religious activities on water quality index (WQI of prominent water bodies (eight in Haryana, India. Water quality characteristics revealed significant increase in the values of nitrate, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, turbidity, total dissolved solids (TDS, conductivity, total hardness, total alkalinity, and MPN count after the religious activities. The computed WQI at all the eight selected sites varied from 47.55 to 211.42. The results revealed that there was a significant increase in the value of WQI after mass bathing or any other ritual performed. Out of eight water bodies studied three (sites 3, 4, and 5 were found under good water quality status; four sites (1, 2, 6, and 7 depicted medium water quality but site 8 was found under poor water quality after the religious activities. The good water quality status of water bodies was correlated with larger size of the water bodies and less number of pilgrims; however, the poor WQI values may be attributed to smaller size of the water body and heavy load of pilgrims on such sites. Therefore, water of these religious water bodies needed to be regularly changed after mass bathing to protect the aquatic component from different contaminations.

  6. Study on the introduction of hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) concept of the water quality management in water supply systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, H; Embutsu, I; Yoda, M; Waseda, K

    2006-01-01

    In the latest revision in 2004, the 3rd edition, the Water Safety Plans (WSP) was newly introduced into the World Health Organization (WHO) Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality. The Hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) is a basic concept that underlies the WSPs, and is also known as the product quality management method in the field of food and the medical manufacturing industries. In the amendments of the Drinking Water Quality Standards in Japan, water suppliers are required to reasonably achieve both safe water and efficient water quality management. Therefore, the HACCP concept is focused as an adequate management method covering a whole process of water supply systems, in a systematic way. The purpose of this study is to investigate a practical procedure in introducing the HACCP into water quality management in Japan. In comparison to conventional applications of the HACCP, unmanageable variations of raw water quality, continuous treatment and supply, and numerous standards of water quality items need to be considered. The HACCP system is expected to achieve a quick response to improvements in water quality, accountability towards consumers and a decrease in accidents.

  7. Study on the quality of ground, spring and river waters in south-east Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Zorica S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with mineral characterization of natural waters from South-East Serbia. The contents of aluminium, arsenic, calcium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, cooper, iron, potassium, magnesium, manganese, sodium, nickel, lead and zinc were analysed in spring, ground and river waters by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES technique. The study area was in the Southern Serbia, and included slopes of Rtanj, Ozren, Bukovik, Vrdenik and Čemernik mountains, and the valley of South Morava. Obtained contents were compared with Serbian regulations on the quality of water for human use, and directive of World Health Organization (WHO for maximum allowed concentrations of chemical substances. High contents of macro-elements, namely calcium, magnesium and potassium, were detected in several spring and ground water samples which are believed to be due to direct influence of rock minerals. Some water samples contained iron, manganese and copper in concentration up to 84.2 μg dm-3, 8.10 μg dm-3 and 14.9 μg dm-3, respectively, but within the permissible limits. Other heavy metals were not detected in analysed samples. Based on the derived results, tested ground and spring water samples have significant potential to be used as sources for the production of bottled water, but further investigations are necessary. Additional investigations have to be focused on complete physical, chemical and microbiological assessments of water resources. Systematic hydrogeological assessment also should be performed in all seasons. In the meantime, precautionary measures should be immediately taken to protect and preserve these water resources. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31014

  8. Water Quality Control, Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington City Board of Education, NC.

    Activities which study how water is used, contaminated, and treated or purified are presented in this curriculum guide, culminating in the investigation of a local water quality problem. Designed as a 12 week mini-course for students in grades eight and nine, the guide first presents a review of the content, objectives, major concepts, and sources…

  9. Experimental forest watershed studies contribution to the effect of disturbances on water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel G. Neary

    2012-01-01

    The most sustainable and best quality fresh water sources in the world originate in forested watersheds (Dissmeyer 2000, Brooks et al. 2003, Barten and Ernst 2004). The biological, chemical, and physical characteristics of forest soils are particularly well suited to delivering high quality water to streams, and moderating the climatic extremes which affect stream...

  10. Environmental and Water Quality Operational Studies. General Guidelines for Monitoring Contaminants in Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    90 Data Summarization and Preliminary Analysis ..... . . . • 93 PART VIII: DATA INTERPRETATION ...... ................ .... 95... espacially trte for the topics of sampling and analytical methods, statistical considerations, and the design of general water quality monitoring networks. For...contaminant monitoring program; and Part VIII considers the analysis and interpretation of contaminants data in relation to water quality criteria and

  11. [Study of the bacteriological quality of water used in the agro-food industry in the North of Morocco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haijoubi, El Houcine; Benyahya, Fatiha; Bendahou, Abdrezzak; Essadqui, Faima Zahra; Behhari, Mohammed El; El Mamoune, Ahmed Fouad; Ghailani, Naima Nourouti; Mechita, Mohcine Bennani; Barakat, Amina

    2017-01-01

    Water is used predominantly in food manufacturing process. Northern morocco agro-food industries use different sources of water, but public water and wells water are the main sources of water used. This water can be the main source of possible food contaminations and alterations. This study aims is to assess the bacteriological quality of water used in the agro-food industries in the Northern region of Morocco, to identify the different types of germs responsible for the pollution of these waters and to establish the main causes of this pollution. Water samples taken from taps or wells were analyzed to detect pollution indicator germs (total coliform (TC), fecal coliform (FC), intestinal enterococci (E), revivable microorganisms (RM), sulphite-reducing anaerobes) and pathogens (Salmonella, Staphylococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The enumeration of the bacteria was performed by filtration technique and incorporation obtained through supercooled solid state. The results showed that public-supply waters were of satisfactory bacteriological quality while 40% of the wells water was non-compliant with water quality standards due to the presence of TC, FC, E and RM pollution indicators. In contrast, pathogens, particularly Salmonellae, were absent in all the wells water analyzed. Well water pollution was generally due to failure to meet hygienic requirements for water pumping. Bacteriological quality of these wells water could be improved by adequate protection.

  12. Environmental and Water Quality Operational Studies. Riverine Influences on the Water Quality Characteristics of West Point Lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    exchanges at the air-water in- terface. The prevention of reaeration and the presence of a large pool . of oxidizable material would lead to the observed...the attainment of anaerobic conditions over a period of only 5 days indicated the presence of a large pool of labile organic material and an active...34 concentrations of oxidizable organic matter to subsurface layers in this highly turbid lake reduces photosynthetic activity and restricts reaera- % tion

  13. Temporal variability in water quality parameters--a case study of drinking water reservoir in Florida, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toor, Gurpal S; Han, Lu; Stanley, Craig D

    2013-05-01

    Our objective was to evaluate changes in water quality parameters during 1983-2007 in a subtropical drinking water reservoir (area: 7 km(2)) located in Lake Manatee Watershed (area: 338 km(2)) in Florida, USA. Most water quality parameters (color, turbidity, Secchi depth, pH, EC, dissolved oxygen, total alkalinity, cations, anions, and lead) were below the Florida potable water standards. Concentrations of copper exceeded the potable water standard of water quality threshold of 20 μg l(-1). Concentrations of total N showed significant increase from 1983 to 1994 and a decrease from 1997 to 2007. Total P showed significant increase during 1983-2007. Mean concentrations of total N (n = 215; 1.24 mg l(-1)) were lower, and total P (n = 286; 0.26 mg l(-1)) was much higher than the EPA numeric criteria of 1.27 mg total N l(-1) and 0.05 mg total P l(-1) for Florida's colored lakes, respectively. Seasonal trends were observed for many water quality parameters where concentrations were typically elevated during wet months (June-September). Results suggest that reducing transport of organic N may be one potential option to protect water quality in this drinking water reservoir.

  14. Assessment of water quality of some swimming pools: a case study in Alexandria, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Salam, Magda Magdy

    2012-12-01

    In spite of the importance and popularity of swimming pools in summer, they have been identified as posing some public health risks to users due to either chemical or microbiological contamination. This study was carried out aiming at assessing the quality of water for some Alexandria's swimming pools in order to determine its compliance with the Egyptian standards no. 418/1995. Five swimming pools were selected randomly from different districts. Physical and chemical parameters, as well as biological examination of a total of 30 samples, were carried out using standard analytical methods. Water samples were collected from the studied swimming pools monthly over 6 months and pool water monitoring was carried out during afternoon of the weekends when the pools were most heavily used. The results indicated overall poor compliance with the standards. Compliance of the pool water to the microbial parameters, residual chlorine, pH, and turbidity were 56.7% (17 samples), 20% (6 samples), 46.7% (14 samples), and 46.7% (14 samples), respectively. Statistical analysis showed significant association between water contamination with microbial indicators and physical-chemical aspects such as residual chlorine, temperature, turbidity, and load of swimmers. Furthermore, Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia lamblia cysts has been found in 10% of samples. It was concluded that there is a need to improve disinfection and cleaning procedures, with consideration given to safety, and size of the pool in relation to bathing load. There is also a need to monitor swimming pool water quality continuously, and to increase bather hygienic practices and awareness of the risks as well as training of governmental inspectors.

  15. An experimental study on the influence of water stagnation and temperature change on water quality in a full-scale domestic drinking water system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zlatanović, L.; van der Hoek, J.P.; Vreeburg, J.H.G.

    2017-01-01

    The drinking water quality changes during the transport through distribution systems. Domestic drinking water systems (DDWSs), which include the plumbing between the water meter and consumer's taps, are the most critical points in which water quality may be affected. In distribution networks, the

  16. Stream Water Quality Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — QUAL2K (or Q2K) is a river and stream water quality model that is intended to represent a modernized version of the QUAL2E (or Q2E) model (Brown and Barnwell 1987).

  17. Year-long metagenomic study of river microbiomes across land use and water quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thea eVan Rossum

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Select bacteria, such as Escherichia coli or coliforms, have been widely used as sentinels of low water quality; however, there are concerns regarding their predictive accuracy for the protection of human and environmental health. To develop improved monitoring systems, a greater understanding of bacterial community structure, function and variability across time is required in the context of different pollution types, such as agricultural and urban contamination. Here, we present a year-long survey of free-living bacterial DNA collected from seven sites along rivers in three watersheds with varying land use in Southwestern Canada. This is the first study to examine the bacterial metagenome in flowing freshwater (lotic environments over such a time span, providing an opportunity to describe bacterial community variability as a function of land use and environmental conditions. Characteristics of the metagenomic data, such as sequence composition and average genome size, vary with sampling site, environmental conditions, and water chemistry. For example, average genome size was correlated with hours of daylight in the agricultural watershed and, across the agriculturally and urban-affected sites, k-mer composition clustering corresponded to nutrient concentrations. In addition to indicating a community shift, this change in average genome size has implications in terms of the normalisation strategies required, and considerations surrounding such strategies in general are discussed. When comparing abundances of gene functional groups between high- and low-quality water samples collected from an agricultural area, the latter had a higher abundance of nutrient metabolism and bacteriophage groups, possibly reflecting an increase in agricultural runoff. This work presents a valuable dataset representing a year of monthly sampling across watersheds and an analysis targeted at establishing a foundational understanding of how bacterial lotic communities

  18. Spatial changes in water quality of urban lakes in Chennai (India)--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raveen, R; Daniel, M

    2010-07-01

    Manifold increase in population of Chennai city (India) has resulted in a rapid decrease in the groundwater level due to its over exploitation. The Government of Tamil Nadu has been exploring various ways and means to combat this problem. The present study was undertaken to assess the quality of water in three important major lakes of Chennai and its suburbs such as Porur lake, Puzhal lake and Chembarambakkam lake which recharge the groundwater as well as these lakes are harnessed by the Tamil Nadu Government to supply potable water to the residents of Chennai. The parameters studied were colour, odour, taste, turbidity, temperature, pH, Dissolved Oxygen, Biological Oxygen Demand, Chemical Oxygen Demand, alkalinity, acidity, chlorides, Total Suspended Solids, Total Dissolved Solids and total hardness. Results indicate that the quality of water from these lakes is within the acceptable values. However, the TDS values were on the higher side in all the three lakes even though within the permissible limit prescribed by BIS. All the three lakes appear to be vulnerable to pollution as they are situated within or in close proximity to heavily populated areas.

  19. Water quality in watershed of the Jaboatão River (Pernambuco, Brazil: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Antonio Donizetti Gonçalves de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present work was to evaluate anthropogenic influences on the water quality and to offer a subsidy to the establishment of water quality goals in the Jaboatão River Basin (Pernambuco State, Brazil. Eight sampling points were established and were sampled monthly during one hydrological cycle (March/98-February/99. The following variables were analyzed: temperature, pH, conductivity, chlorine, alkalinity, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, fecal coliforms, nitrate, total phosphorus and total solids. The most critical variables related to water quality objectives were dissolved oxygen, fecal coliforms and total phosphorus. Maps of land use, legally protected areas, area industries, and water withdrawals were utilized in order to propose division of the watershed into regions and to provide water quality management information.

  20. Study on the Quality of Water in Some Streams of Cauvery River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abida Begum

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality of water in four streams of Cauvery River in Mandya District, where many small scale sugar and brewery distilleries are located, was analysed. Sampling was carried out from four streams designated as station 1 (upstream of effluent discharge point, station 2 (effluent discharge point and station 3 (downstream of effluent discharge station 4 (fresh water stream to assess the impact of effluent on the water quality. The river water composition is increasingly dominated by Na and Cl in the downstream region of the river, indicating the influence of airborne salts with oceanic affinities. Significant spatial variation was observed in water level, transparency, turbidity, depth, dissolved oxygen, colour, biochemical oxygen demand, nitrate, nitrite and total hydrocarbon among the physiochemical parameters of the study stations. A posteriori test revealed that station 2 & 3 were the cause of the significant difference. The dissolved oxygen level in stations 2 & 3 was lower than 5.0mg/L, which is recommended minimum allowable limit for aquatic life. About 7 rotifer species in large amount recorded in this study were encountered in station 1, 7 in station 2 & 3 while 12 species in station 4. The overall density of rotifers in the four stations was significantly different. A posteriori comparison revealed that station 2 & 3 are the cause of the significant difference. The Branchionus angularis rotifers, which dominated the community, were found to tolerate the effluent effect in station 2&3, and showed remarkable recovery in the downstream station 4. Low faunal diversity and negative impact on the biotic and abiotic environment was experienced in station 2 & 3 throughout the duration of sampling because of the brewery effluent discharged directly into these two Streams.

  1. Environmental studies on water quality of the Ismailia Canal/Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahl, Ralph [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Chemie; Ramadan, Abou Bakr [Atomic Energy Authority (AEA), National Centre for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control, Cairo (Egypt)

    2008-08-15

    The inorganic chemical water quality of the Ismailia Canal / Egypt was studies in 2003 and 2004 at seventeen different sites from the main canal between Cairo and Ismailia. Additional samples were taken from selected discharges and groundwater sources. As the Ismailia Canal is fed by water from the Nile some samples were taken from the Nile near Aswan for comparative reasons too. Water samples were analysed for sum parameters, salts, heavy metals and natural radioactivity. Especially in the Greater Cairo Area due to different uncontrolled discharges pH and conductivity changed significantly when proceeding from up to downstream sites. The water temperature increased significantly during the first 20 km. The main reason was the discharge of warm water used to cool machinery in the industrial suburb of Cairo. Iron, Zinc and Manganese were found in low concentrations. Because of dilution effects the amounts of dissolved salts were still below the German ''Trinkwasserverordnung''. A higher total organic carbon level indicated the presence of organic contaminants however. The natural radioactivity level was in the normal range. (orig.)

  2. River Water Quality Zoning: A Case Study of Karoon and Dez River System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Karamouz, N Mahjouri, R Kerachian

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Karoon-Dez River basin, with an area of 67000 square kilometers, is located in southern part of Iran. This river system supplies the water demands of 16 cities, several villages, thousands hectares of agricultural lands, and several hydropower plants. The increasing water demands at the project development stage including agricultural networks, fish hatchery projects, and inter-basin water transfers, have caused a gloomy future for water quality of the Karoon and Dez Rivers. A good part of used agricultural water, which is about 8040 million cubic meters, is returned to the rivers through agricultural drainage systems or as non-point, return flows. River water quality zoning could provide essential information for developing river water quality management policies. In this paper, a methodology is presented for this purpose using methods of -mean crisp classification and a fuzzy clustering scheme. The efficiency of these clustering methods was evaluated using water quality data gathered from the monitoring sampling points along Karoon and Dez Rivers. The results show that the proposed methodology can provide valuable information to support decision-making and to help river water quality management in the region.

  3. Quality matters for water scarcity

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, Michelle T. H.; Flörke, Martina; Wada, Yoshihide

    2017-11-01

    Quality requirements for water differ by intended use. Sustainable management of water resources for different uses will not only need to account for demand in water quantity, but also for water temperature and salinity, nutrient levels and other pollutants.

  4. Flow Cytometry Total Cell Counts: A Field Study Assessing Microbiological Water Quality and Growth in Unchlorinated Drinking Water Distribution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, G.; Van der Mark, E. J.; Verberk, J. Q. J. C.; Van Dijk, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the application of flow cytometry total cell counts (TCCs) as a parameter to assess microbial growth in drinking water distribution systems and to determine the relationships between different parameters describing the biostability of treated water. A one-year sampling program was carried out in two distribution systems in The Netherlands. Results demonstrated that, in both systems, the biomass differences measured by ATP were not significant. TCC differences were also not significant in treatment plant 1, but decreased slightly in treatment plant 2. TCC values were found to be higher at temperatures above 15°C than at temperatures below 15°C. The correlation study of parameters describing biostability found no relationship among TCC, heterotrophic plate counts, and Aeromonas. Also no relationship was found between TCC and ATP. Some correlation was found between the subgroup of high nucleic acid content bacteria and ATP (R 2 = 0.63). Overall, the results demonstrated that TCC is a valuable parameter to assess the drinking water biological quality and regrowth; it can directly and sensitively quantify biomass, detect small changes, and can be used to determine the subgroup of active HNA bacteria that are related to ATP. PMID:23819117

  5. Microbiological water quality monitoring in a resource-limited urban area: a study in Cameroon, Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew W. Nelson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In resource-limited developing nations, such as Cameroon, the expense of modern water-quality monitoring techniques is prohibitive to frequent water testing, as is done in the developed world. Inexpensive, shelf-stable 3M™ Petrifilm™ Escherichia coli/Coliform Count Plates potentially can provide significant opportunity for routine water-quality monitoring in the absence of infrastructure for state-of-the-art testing. We used shelf-stable E. coli/coliform culture plates to assess the water quality at twenty sampling sites in Kumbo, Cameroon. Culture results from treated and untreated sources were compared to modern bacterial DNA pyrosequencing methods using established bioinformatics and statistical tools. Petrifilms were reproducible between replicates and sampling dates. Additionally, cultivation on Petrifilms suggests that treatment by the Kumbo Water Authority (KWA greatly improves water quality as compared with untreated river and rainwater. The majority of sequences detected were representative of common water and soil microbes, with a minority of sequences (<40% identified as belonging to genera common in fecal matter and/or causes of human disease. Water sources had variable DNA sequence counts that correlated significantly with the culture count data and may therefore be a proxy for bacterial load. Although the KWA does not meet Western standards for water quality (less than one coliform per 100 mL, KWA piped water is safer than locally available alternative water sources such as river and rainwater. The culture-based technology described is easily transferrable to resource-limited areas and provides local water authorities with valuable microbiological safety information with potential to protect public health in developing nations.

  6. Studying Effect of Water Quality Parameters on Coagulation Efficiency by Moringa Oleifera Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Parvini

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the performance and efficiency of Moringa seeds from different sources on turbidity. A protein analysis test was done for each source; then two different methods of extraction were compared to examine the coagulation activity for the Moringa's active ingredient. The results of sodium chloride (NaCI extraction in comparison to distilled water extraction of the Moringa olifera seeds showed that the salt solution extraction technique was more efficient than the distilled water for extracting the active coagulant ingredient.  The above mentioned findings were used to examine the effects of other parameters such as pH, calcium and magnesium hardness, bicarbonate-alkalinity, and salinity independently on turbidity removal with an optimum dosage of 1% NaCI extract of dry shelled Moringa seeds. The obtained results showed that the water quality parameters had no significant effect on the coagulation potential of the NaCI extract of the shelled Moringa seeds and was almost amenable to a wide range of water environment condition.

  7. A Corresponding Study of Water Quality Evaluation of the Pasquotank Watershed in Northeastern North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, J.; Walthall, S.; McKenzie, R.; Dixon, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Pasquotank River Watershed covers 450 sq miles in the Coastal Plain of NE North Carolina. It flows from the Great Dismal Swamp at the VA/NC border into the Albemarle Sound. The watershed provides a transition between spawning grounds and waters of the Albemarle Sound. Forested swamp wetlands border much of the waterways. Increased agricultural and urban development has greatly affected water quality during recent years. Test were completed along the tributaries and the river itself, adding to the previously data from 2011, 2013, and 2014. Streams tested were the Newbegun Creek, Knobbs Creek, Areneuse Creek, Mill Dam Creek, and Sawyers Creek. These streams cover a large area of the watershed and provide a wide variety of shore development from swampland and farmland to industrial development. Samples were tested for pH, salinity, total dissolved solids, and conductivity. Air/water temperature, dissolved oxygen, wind speed/direction, and turbidity/clarity measurements were taken in the field. The results were placed into an online database and correlated to the location of the sample using Google Maps®. Analysis tools were developed to compare the data from all years. Excel spreadsheets were developed to look more closely at individual points and tests for each point. This database was connected to a data visualization page utilizing Google Maps®. The results show variations for the individual water quality scores, but the overall water quality score for all the tested water sources remained at a comparable level from previous years. Mill Dam Creek rose above the previous three scores of 48 (2011), 47 (2013), and 49 (2014) and achieved a medium water quality score of 57. Areneuse Creek improved in water quality with a medium water quality score of 60. Sawyers Creek became the lowest scoring waterway tested at 35. Knobbs Creek decreased from previous years with a water quality score of 42. For a fourth consecutive testing year, Newbegun Creek fell within the

  8. Ground Water Quality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water is the next to air as a major support substance to life. Water therefore is important in that it is essential .... potassium (K ), zinc (Zn ), cadmium (Cd ), lead. 2+. 2+. 2+. (Pb ), iron (Fe ) and manganese (Mn ) and .... used storage batteries dumped indiscriminately into the environment as observed in parts of the study area.

  9. Baseline studies of water quality of Okura River in Kogi State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water samples from Okura river in kogi state were analysed for some physicochemical parameters and heavy metals to ascertain the water quality. The samples were collected at six sampling points along the river. Results obtained were compared with WHO and other regulatory standard guidelines. Average nitrate and ...

  10. Economic feasibility study for improving drinking water quality: a case study of arsenic contamination in rural Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinos-Senante, María; Perez Carrera, Alejo; Hernández-Sancho, Francesc; Fernández-Cirelli, Alicia; Sala-Garrido, Ramón

    2014-12-01

    Economic studies are essential in evaluating the potential external investment support and/or internal tariffs available to improve drinking water quality. Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is a useful tool to assess the economic feasibility of such interventions, i.e. to take some form of action to improve the drinking water quality. CBA should involve the market and non-market effects associated with the intervention. An economic framework was proposed in this study, which estimated the health avoided costs and the environmental benefits for the net present value of reducing the pollutant concentrations in drinking water. We conducted an empirical application to assess the economic feasibility of removing arsenic from water in a rural area of Argentina. Four small-scale methods were evaluated in our study. The results indicated that the inclusion of non-market benefits was integral to supporting investment projects. In addition, the application of the proposed framework will provide water authorities with more complete information for the decision-making process.

  11. Drinking Water Quality Assessment Studies for an Urbanized Part of the Nagpur District, Central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varade, Abhay M; Yenkie, Rajshree; Shende, Rahul; Kodate, Jaya

    2014-01-01

    The water quality of Hingna area of Nagpur district, Central India was assessed for its suitability as drinking water. 22 water samples, representing both the surface and groundwater sources, were collected and analysed for different inorganic constituents by using the standard procedures. The result depicted abundance of major ions; Ca2+ > Mg2+ > Na+ > K+ = HCO3- > Cl- > SO4(2-) > NO3-. The concentrations of different elements in water were compared with the drinking water standards defined by World Health Organization (WHO). The hydro-chemical results reveal that most of the samples were within the desirable limits of the drinking water quality. However, few samples of the area, showed higher values of total dissolved solids (TDS), total hardness (TH), and magnesium (Mg) indicating their 'hard water type' nature and found to be unfit for the drinking purpose. Such poor water quality of these samples is found due to the combined effect of urbanization and industrial activities. The potential health risks associated with various water parameters have also been documented in this paper.

  12. Evaluation of water quality and protection strategies of water resources in arid-semiarid climates: a case study in the Yuxi River Valley of Northern Shaanxi Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunfeng, Li; Guohui, Song; Yaoguo, Wu; Weifeng, Wan; Maosheng, Zhang; Yanjuan, Xu

    2009-06-01

    Water resource structure is one of the most important factors that constrain the economic development in arid-semiarid areas. Sustainable use of water requires a thorough understanding of the local geology and hydrology and developing of effective protection strategies. Discussed in this paper is a study on the phreatic water quality of the Yuxi River Valley of Shaanxi Province, China. The Yuxi River Valley passes through the Shaanbei energy base, which demands large quantities of high-quality water. A total of 129 water samples were collected in 4,938 km2 in a recent study to delineate the areas with water suitable for drinking, industrial, and agricultural usage and areas with poor quality. The study indicates that the poor quality of water contains high concentrations of NH4+ and NO{2/-1}, indicating possible contamination by waste disposal in the nearby cities and towns. A series of strategies are proposed to protect the water in the Yuxi River Valley, including proper treatment and recycling of the waste water in the cities and towns, strict control of the waste-water discharge from any new factories and mines, and prevention of groundwater contamination by wastes containing heavy metals.

  13. Water quality laboratories in Colombia: a GIS-based study of urban and rural accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jim; Liu, Jing; Bain, Robert; Perez, Andrea; Crocker, Jonny; Bartram, Jamie; Gundry, Stephen

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify sample transportation times associated with mandated microbiological monitoring of drinking-water in Colombia. World Health Organization Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality recommend that samples spend no more than 6h between collection and analysis in a laboratory. Census data were used to estimate the minimum number of operational and surveillance samples required from piped water supplies under national regulations. Drive-times were then computed from each supply system to the nearest accredited laboratory and translated into sample holding times based on likely daily monitoring patterns. Of 62,502 surveillance samples required annually, 5694 (9.1%) were found to be more than 6 h from the nearest of 278 accredited laboratories. 612 samples (1.0%) were more than 24 hours' drive from the nearest accredited laboratory, the maximum sample holding time recommended by the World Health Organization. An estimated 30% of required rural samples would have to be stored for more than 6 h before reaching a laboratory. The analysis demonstrates the difficulty of undertaking microbiological monitoring in rural areas and small towns from a fixed laboratory network. Our GIS-based approach could be adapted to optimise monitoring strategies and support planning of testing and transportation infra-structure development. It could also be used to estimate sample transport and holding times in other countries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Hydrochemical assessment of water quality for irrigation: a case study of the Medjerda River in Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etteieb, Selma; Cherif, Semia; Tarhouni, Jamila

    2017-03-01

    In order to characterize, classify and evaluate the suitability of Medjerda River water for irrigation, a hydrochemical assessment was conducted. It accounts for 80 % of the total Tunisian surface water. In this paper, hydrographical methods and PHREEQC geochemical program were used to characterize water quality of Medjerda River, whereas its suitability for irrigation was determined in accordance with its electrical conductivity (EC), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and sodium concentrations. It was established that the water samples were undersaturated with calcite, dolomite, aragonite, anhydrite, gypsum and halite except in one water sample which is supersaturated with carbonate minerals. The quality assessment of Medjerda River for irrigation purposes showed that some points belonged to the excellent-to-good and good-to-permissible irrigation water categories, while the remaining ones were classified as doubtful to unsuitable for irrigation making the river water use limited to plants with high salt tolerance. Moreover, based on FAO guidelines, almost all water samples may cause immediate salinity to gradual increasing problem but no soil infiltration problems except for two sampling points. However, immediate development or possible increasing of severe toxicity problems may be caused by the continuous use of this water for irrigation due to troublesome concentrations of chloride and sodium.

  15. Achieving the sustainable development goals: a case study of the complexity of water quality health risks in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Rochelle; Wandschneider, Philip; Felsot, Allan; Msilimba, Golden

    2016-07-15

    Suppose 35 % of the households with children under 5 years of age in a low-income suburban neighborhood in a developing country have diarrhea where improved water sources are available. Clearly, something is amiss-but what? In addition to focusing on the need to examine water quality among water sources that meet the 'improved' category when assessing health risk, the relative importance of the range of transmission routes for diarrhea is unknown. In Malawi, relevant baseline data affecting human health are simply not available, and acquiring data is hampered by a lack of local analytical capacity for characterizing drinking water quality. The objective of this work is to develop a risk communication program with partnership among established regional development professionals for effectively meeting the sustainable development goals. A field study was conducted in the city of Mzuzu, Malawi, to study water quality (total coliform and Escherichia coli) and human dimensions leading to development of a public health risk communication strategy in a peri-urban area. A structured household questionnaire was administered to adult residents of 51 households, encompassing 284 individuals, who were using the 30 monitored shallow wells. The water quality data and human dimension questionnaire results were used to develop a household risk presentation. Sixty-seven percent and 50 % of well water and household drinking water samples, respectively, exceeded the WHO health guideline of zero detections of E. coli. Technology transfer was advanced by providing knowledge through household risk debriefing/education, establishing a water quality laboratory at the local university, and providing training to local technicians. Communicating the science of water quality and health risks in developing countries requires sample collection and analysis by knowledgeable personnel trained in the sciences, compiling baseline data, and, ultimately, an effective risk presentation back to

  16. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Santa Clara River Valley Study Unit, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montrella, Joseph; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 460-square-mile Santa Clara River Valley study unit (SCRV) was investigated from April to June 2007 as part of the statewide Priority Basin project of the Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw ground water used for public water supplies within SCRV, and to facilitate a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Fifty-seven ground-water samples were collected from 53 wells in Ventura and Los Angeles Counties. Forty-two wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells). Eleven wells (understanding wells) were selected to further evaluate water chemistry in particular parts of the study area, and four depth-dependent ground-water samples were collected from one of the eleven understanding wells to help understand the relation between water chemistry and depth. The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], pesticides and pesticide degradates, potential wastewater-indicator compounds, and pharmaceutical compounds), a constituent of special interest (perchlorate), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial constituents. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-13, carbon-14 [abundance], stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water, stable isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen in nitrate, chlorine-37, and bromine-81), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source

  17. Rocky-shore communities as indicators of water quality: a case study in the Northwestern Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinedo, Susana; García, María; Satta, Maria Paola; de Torres, Mariona; Ballesteros, Enric

    2007-01-01

    The collection of 152 samples from the upper sublittoral zone along the rocky coasts of Catalonia (Northwestern Mediterranean) was carried out in 1999 in order to test the suitability of littoral communities to be used as indicators of water quality in the frame of the European Water Framework Directive. Detrended correspondence analysis were performed to distinguish between different communities and to relate communities composition to water quality. Samples collected in reference sites were included in the analysis. Mediterranean rocky shore communities situated in the upper sublittoral zone can be used as indicators of the water quality: there is a gradient from high to bad status that comprises from dense Cystoseira mediterranea forests to green algae dominated communities. The geographical patterns in the distribution of these communities show that the best areas are situated in the Northern coast, where tourism is the main economic resource of the area, and the worst area is situated close to the metropolitan zone of Barcelona with high population and industrial development. Thus, Mediterranean sublittoral rocky shore communities are useful indicators of water quality and multivariate analysis are a suitable statistical tool for the assessment of the ecological status.

  18. Evaluation of water quality in surface water and shallow groundwater: a case study of a rare earth mining area in southern Jiangxi Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xiuzhen; Wang, Dengjun; Wang, Peiran; Wang, Yuxia; Zhou, Dongmei

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the quality of surface water and shallow groundwater near a rare earth mining area in southern Jiangxi Province, China. Water samples from paddy fields, ponds, streams, wells, and springs were collected and analyzed. The results showed that water bodies were characterized by low pH and high concentrations of total nitrogen (total N), ammonium nitrogen (NH4 (+)-N), manganese (Mn), and rare earth elements (REEs), which was likely due to residual chemicals in the soil after mining activity. A comparison with the surface water standard (State Environmental Protection Administration & General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of China GB3838, 2002) and drinking water sanitary standard (Ministry of Health & National Standardization Management Committee of China GB5749, 2006) of China revealed that 88 % of pond and stream water samples investigated were unsuitable for agricultural use and aquaculture water supply, and 50 % of well and spring water samples were unsuitable for drinking water. Moreover, significant cerium (Ce) negative and heavy REEs enrichment was observed after the data were normalized to the Post-Archean Australian Shales (PAAS). Principal component analysis indicated that the mining activity had a more significant impact on local water quality than terrace field farming and poultry breeding activities. Moreover, greater risk of water pollution and adverse effects on local residents' health was observed with closer proximity to mining sites. Overall, these findings indicate that effective measures to prevent contamination of surrounding water bodies from the effects of mining activity are needed.

  19. Use of MODIS Terra Imagery to Estimate Surface Water Quality Standards, Using Lake Thonotosassa, Florida, as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Max J.; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Rickman, Douglas L.

    2010-01-01

    Lake Thonotosassa is a highly eutrophied lake located in an area with rapidly growing population in the Tampa Bay watershed, Florida. The Florida Administrative Code has designated its use for "recreation, propagation and maintenance of a healthy, well-balanced population of fish and wildlife." Although this lake has been the subject of efforts to improve water quality since 1970, overall water quality has remained below the acceptable state standards, and has a high concentration of nutrients. This condition is of great concern to public health since it has favored episodic blooms of Cyanobacteria. Some Cyanobacterial species release toxins that can reach humans through drinking water, fish consumption, and direct contact with contaminated water. The lake has been historically popular for fishing and water sports, and its overflow water drains into the Hillsborough River, the main supply of municipal water for the City of Tampa, this explains why it has being constantly monitored in situ for water quality by the Environmental Protection Commission of Hillsborough County (EPC). Advances in remote sensing technology, however, open the possibility of facilitating similar types of monitoring in this and similar lakes, further contributing to the implementation of surveillance systems that would benefit not just public health, but also tourism and ecosystems. Although traditional application of this technology to water quality has been focused on much larger coastal water bodies like bays and estuaries, this study evaluates the feasibility of its application on a 46.6 km2 freshwater lake. Using surface reflectance products from Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Terra, this study evaluates associations between remotely sensed data and in situ data from the EPC. The parameters analyzed are the surface water quality standards used by the State of Florida and general indicators of trophic status.

  20. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Coastal Los Angeles Basin Study Unit, 2006: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Land, Michael; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 860 square-mile Coastal Los Angeles Basin study unit (CLAB) was investigated from June to November of 2006 as part of the Statewide Basin Assessment Project of the Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment was developed in response to the Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The Coastal Los Angeles Basin study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within CLAB, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 69 wells in Los Angeles and Orange Counties. Fifty-five of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (?grid wells?). Fourteen additional wells were selected to evaluate changes in ground-water chemistry or to gain a greater understanding of the ground-water quality within a specific portion of the Coastal Los Angeles Basin study unit ('understanding wells'). Ground-water samples were analyzed for: a large number of synthetic organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), gasoline oxygenates and their degradates, pesticides, polar pesticides, and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and potential wastewater-indicators]; constituents of special interest [perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), 1,4-dioxane, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP)]; inorganic constituents that can occur naturally [nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements]; radioactive constituents [gross-alpha and gross-beta radiation, radium isotopes, and radon-222]; and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes [stable isotopic ratios of hydrogen and oxygen, and activities of tritium and carbon-14

  1. Constructed wetland for water quality improvement: a case study from Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C Y; Liu, J K; Cheng, S H; Surampalli, D E; Chen, C W; Kao, C M

    2010-01-01

    In Taiwan, more than 20% of the major rivers are mildly to heavily polluted by domestic, industrial, and agricultural wastewaters due to the low percentage of sewers connected to wastewater treatment plants. Thus, constructed or engineered wetlands have been adopted as the major alternatives to clean up polluted rivers. Constructed wetlands are also applied as the tertiary wastewater treatment systems for the wastewater polishment to meet water reuse standards with lower operational costs. The studied Kaoping River Rail Bridge Constructed Wetland (KRRBCW) is the largest constructed wetland in Taiwan. It is a multi-function wetland and is used for polluted creek water purification and secondary wastewater polishment before it is discharged into the Kaoping River. Although constructed wetlands are feasible for contaminated water treatment, wetland sediments are usually the sinks for organics and metals. In this study, water and sediment samples were collected from the major wetland basins in KRRBCW. The investigation results show that more than 97% of total coliforms (TC), 55% of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and 30% of nutrients [e.g. total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP)] were removed via the constructed wetland system. However, results from the sediment analyses show that wetland sediments contained high concentrations of metals (e.g. Cu, Fe, Zn, Cr, and Mn), organic contents (sediment oxygen demand = 1.7 to 7.6 g O(2)/m(2) d), and nutrients (up to 18.7 g/kg of TN and 1.22 g/kg of TN). Thus, sediments should be excavated periodically to prevent the release the pollutants into the wetland system and causing the deterioration of wetland water quality. Results of polymerase chain reaction (PCR), denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and nucleotide sequence analysis reveal that a variation in microbial diversity in the wetland systems was observed. Results from the DGGE analysis indicate that all sediment samples contained significant amounts of

  2. Evaluation of Water Quality in Shallow Lakes, Case Study of Lake Uluabat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadet İLERİ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Lake Uluabat, located 20 km south of the Marmara Sea, between 42° 12' North latitude, 28° 40'East longitude and is located in the province of Bursa. The Lake is one of the richest lakes in terms of aquatic plants besides fish and bird populations in Turkey. In this study, water quality of the Lake was monitored from June 2008 to May 2009 during the 12 month period with the samples taken from 8 points in the lake and spatial and temporal variations of the parameters were examined. pH, temperature (T, electrical conductivity (EC, dissolved oxygen (DO, suspended solids (SS, secchi depth (SD, water level (WL, nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N, total nitrogen (TN, phosphate-phosphorus (PO4-P, total phosphorus (TP, alkalinity, chemical oxygen demand (COD and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a were the monitoring parameters. As a result, concentrations of the parameters were found at high levels especially the 1st, 4th, 5th, and 8th stations and temporally were found at high levels often in the summer. According to the results of analysis of variance, regional and temporal variations of all parameters were found important except SS and NO3-N

  3. EPA Region 7 and Four States Water Quality Standards Review Process Kaizen Event Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    In June, 2007, participants from EPA headquarters, EPA Region 7, and the four States in EPA Region 7 (IA, KS, MO, and NE) conducted a Lean business kaizen event on the EPA–State process for developing and revising water quality standards (WQS).

  4. Water Quality and Pollution. Environmental Studies. 4 Color Transparencies, Reproducibles & Teaching Guide. Grade 3, 4, 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortleb, Edward P.; And Others

    The world is faced with a variety of environmental problems. No country has escaped pollution and resource depletion. Basic ecological principles are often ignored and sometimes this contributes to ecological disasters. This volume is designed to provide basic information about the quality of the earth's water resources. The visual aids,…

  5. Assessing low quality water use policy framework: Case study from Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amponsah, Owusu; Vigre, Håkan; Wilde Schou, Torben

    2015-01-01

    We bought to understand the factors that have undermined the effective implementation of the low quality water reuse provision in Ghana's Irrigation Policy. Two Strategic Environmental Assessment tools (i.e. compatibility matrix and sustainability test) were used for the policy analyses. The anal...

  6. Water quality studies on two irrigation-associated rivers in southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The water quality of two rivers, Ayensu and Okyi-Amisa, associated with irrigation in southern Ghana were assessed in a bid to determine impacts downstream of the irrigated farmlands. Both have man-made reservoirs on their tributaries which flow under gravity into farmlands before entering the main river. A variety of ...

  7. Portable water quality monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizar, N. B.; Ong, N. R.; Aziz, M. H. A.; Alcain, J. B.; Haimi, W. M. W. N.; Sauli, Z.

    2017-09-01

    Portable water quality monitoring system was a developed system that tested varied samples of water by using different sensors and provided the specific readings to the user via short message service (SMS) based on the conditions of the water itself. In this water quality monitoring system, the processing part was based on a microcontroller instead of Lead and Copper Rule (LCR) machines to receive the results. By using four main sensors, this system obtained the readings based on the detection of the sensors, respectively. Therefore, users can receive the readings through SMS because there was a connection between Arduino Uno and GSM Module. This system was designed to be portable so that it would be convenient for users to carry it anywhere and everywhere they wanted to since the processor used is smaller in size compared to the LCR machines. It was also developed to ease the user to monitor and control the water quality. However, the ranges of the sensors' detection still a limitation in this study.

  8. Puget Sound Dissolved Oxygen Modeling Study: Development of an Intermediate Scale Water Quality Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khangaonkar, Tarang; Sackmann, Brandon S.; Long, Wen; Mohamedali, Teizeen; Roberts, Mindy

    2012-10-01

    The Salish Sea, including Puget Sound, is a large estuarine system bounded by over seven thousand miles of complex shorelines, consists of several subbasins and many large inlets with distinct properties of their own. Pacific Ocean water enters Puget Sound through the Strait of Juan de Fuca at depth over the Admiralty Inlet sill. Ocean water mixed with freshwater discharges from runoff, rivers, and wastewater outfalls exits Puget Sound through the brackish surface outflow layer. Nutrient pollution is considered one of the largest threats to Puget Sound. There is considerable interest in understanding the effect of nutrient loads on the water quality and ecological health of Puget Sound in particular and the Salish Sea as a whole. The Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) contracted with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to develop a coupled hydrodynamic and water quality model. The water quality model simulates algae growth, dissolved oxygen, (DO) and nutrient dynamics in Puget Sound to inform potential Puget Sound-wide nutrient management strategies. Specifically, the project is expected to help determine 1) if current and potential future nitrogen loadings from point and non-point sources are significantly impairing water quality at a large scale and 2) what level of nutrient reductions are necessary to reduce or control human impacts to DO levels in the sensitive areas. The project did not include any additional data collection but instead relied on currently available information. This report describes model development effort conducted during the period 2009 to 2012 under a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) cooperative agreement with PNNL, Ecology, and the University of Washington awarded under the National Estuary Program

  9. Contribution of the Danube tributaries in pollution of its water. Case Study: Evaluation of the Eselnita water river quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA VLAD

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Contribution of the Danube tributaries in pollution of its water. Case Study: Evaluation of the Eșelnița water river quality. Developed on the south-eastern side of Almãjului Mountains, Eşelniţa drainage basin neighbours upon the following basins: upon S – SV with Mala, upon SV - V with Mraconia, upon V - NV with Berzasca, upon NV - NNE with Nera and on the NNE – SE direction with Cerna. The basin has a surface of 77 km2 and present a 5th degree hydrographic network according to Horton - Strahler ranking system, tributary to Danube by means of Eşelniţa main collector. Developed in a mountain landscape, the basin presents different levels held between minimum altitude of 64 m at the confluence with the Danube and maximum altitude of 1107 m, thus presenting a difference of 1043 m. Geological formations within the basin belong largely the Danubian Domain, so in central and upper courses, these are represented by a crystalline foundation and by magmatic rocks of intrusive nature. But in the lower course, there are both crystalline and the sedimentary formations, last being integrated to Orşova depression and whose presence is related to the evolution of the Danube. The morphometrical indices of Eşelniţa basin allow to distinguish two different sectors: a higher sector, mountainous high energy relief, under the terms of a early fragmentation and a depresional sector with a low energy relief but with a more intense fragmentation on the basis of sedimentary rocks existence.

  10. Perspectives on impacts of water quality on agriculture and community well-being-a key informant study from Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoradeniya, Bhadranie; Pinto, Uthpala; Maheshwari, Basant

    2017-11-04

    Integrated management of water quality is critical for sustaining food production and achieving overall well-being of a community. Further, understanding people's perceptions and engagement can play an important role in achieving water and food security. The main aim of this study was to investigate the perspectives of community and other stakeholders as to how water quality impacts on agriculture, livelihood and community well-being within rural farming communities of two dry zone districts of Sri Lanka. The study adopted 'key informant interviews' as the methodology to investigate community and other stakeholder perspectives to collect primary data over a period of four months. The interview contents were then examined using a frequency matrix and graphed using an Excel graphing tool. The raw text was also analysed to understand the broader patterns in the text. A fuzzy logic cognitive map (FCM) was developed using the relationships between various concepts and linkages provided by the key informants. All key informants were concerned with the quality of drinking water they consume and the water used for their food preparation. Key informants representing the farming community indicated that the use of poor quality groundwater with higher levels of hardness has made growing crops difficult in the region. The key informants also identified extensive and ongoing use of agro-chemicals and fertilisers as a major source of pollution in water bodies in both spatio-temporal scale. Based on key informant interviews, possible initiatives that can help improve surface water and groundwater qualities for both drinking and agricultural use in the dry zone of Sri Lanka can be categorised into four broader themes, viz., provision of filtering/treatment systems, reduction in the use of agro-chemical and fertilisers, education of community stakeholders and support of alternative options for portable water supplies. The study indicates that in the key informants' view of

  11. Ground-Water Quality Data in the San Francisco Bay Study Unit, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Mary C.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 620-square-mile San Francisco Bay study unit (SFBAY) was investigated from April through June 2007 as part of the Priority Basin project of the Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples in SFBAY were collected from 79 wells in San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Alameda, and Contra Costa Counties. Forty-three of the wells sampled were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells). Thirty-six wells were sampled to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and potential wastewater-indicator compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate and N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, trace elements, chloride and bromide isotopes, and uranium and strontium isotopes), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-14 isotopes, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, boron, and carbon), and dissolved noble gases (noble gases were analyzed in collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blank samples

  12. Riparian buffer design guidelines for water quality and wildlife habitat functions on agricultural landscapes in the Intermountain West: Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig W. Johnson; Susan Buffler

    2008-01-01

    This hypothetical case study illustrates how the riparian buffer planning protocol described in the RB handbook is used to plan a buffer for both water quality and wildlife conservation on a specific project site. The case study site includes riparian buffer characteristics typical of the study area-variable topography and soils, flood plain wetlands, seeps, springs,...

  13. A Synthesis of Sierran Forest Biomass Management Studies and Potential Effects on Water Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Weisberg

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Lake Tahoe basin, located along the California and Nevada border between the Carson and Sierra Nevada mountain ranges, represents a complex forested ecosystem consisting of numerous sub-watersheds and tributaries that discharge directly to Lake Tahoe. This synthesis focuses on historical and current nutrient pools and the effects of biomass management in watersheds of the basin relative to their potential impacts on nutrient (N, P related discharge water quality. An accumulating forest floor as a result of fire suppression has resulted in the build-up of large nutrient pools that now provide a “natural” source of long term nutrient availability to surface waters. As a consequence, stand and forest floor replacing wildfire may cause a large magnitude nutrient mobilization impact on runoff water quality. Hence, mechanical harvest and controlled burning have become popular management strategies. The most ecologically significant long-term effects of controlled fire appear to be the loss of C and N from the forest floor. Although the application of controlled fire may have some initial impact on overland/litter interflow nutrient loading, controlled burning in conjunction with mechanical harvest has the potential to improve runoff water quality by reducing N and P discharge and improving the overall health of forest ecosystems without the danger of a high intensity wildfire.

  14. Flow cytometry total cell counts : A field study assessing microbiological water quality and growth in unchlorinated drinking water distribution systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, G.; Van der Mark, E.J.; Verberk, J.Q.; Van Dijk, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    e objective of this study was to evaluate the application of flow cytometry total cell counts (TCCs) as a parameter to assess microbial growth in drinking water distribution systems and to determine the relationships between different parameters describing the biostability of treated water. A

  15. Water Quality Assessment Tool 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Water Quality Assessment Tool project was developed to assess the potential for water-borne contaminants to adversely affect biota and habitats on Service lands.

  16. Water quality and Sanitation status: A study on Char land of Bhuapur upazila under Tangail district

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, M.S.; Sarker, B.C.; Mahmud, N.A.; Saifullah, A.S.M.

    2013-01-01

    The study was aimed to review the damage of sanitation facilities; since Char land’s dwellers faces manifold challenges concerning sanitation, hygiene and water during flood. It also explored the possibilities of overcoming the negative impacts of floods on sources of safe drinking water and sanitation. The study result shows that, about 54% of the overall latrines were included ring slab with water seal, pit latrine, bush or hanging toilet of the flood affected people during the flood. Aroun...

  17. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Kern County Subbasin Study Unit, 2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jennifer L.; Pimentel, Isabel; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 3,000 square-mile Kern County Subbasin study unit (KERN) was investigated from January to March, 2006, as part of the Priority Basin Assessment Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Kern County Subbasin study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw (untreated) ground-water quality within KERN, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 50 wells within the San Joaquin Valley portion of Kern County. Forty-seven of the wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide a statistical representation of the ground-water resources within the study unit. Three additional wells were sampled to aid in the evaluation of changes in water chemistry along regional ground-water flow paths. The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of man-made organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides, and pesticide degradates), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon) and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and laboratory matrix spikes) were collected and analyzed at approximately 10 percent of

  18. Microbiological quality of natural waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, J J; Figueras, M J

    1997-12-01

    Several aspects of the microbiological quality of natural waters, especially recreational waters, have been reviewed. The importance of the water as a vehicle and/or a reservoir of human pathogenic microorganisms is also discussed. In addition, the concepts, types and techniques of microbial indicator and index microorganisms are established. The most important differences between faecal streptococci and enterococci have been discussed, defining the concept and species included. In addition, we have revised the main alternative indicators used to measure the water quality.

  19. Valuing Water Quality As a Functionof Water Quality Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Egan, Kevin J.; Joseph A. Herriges; Catherine L. Kling; Downing, John A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper incorporates a rich set of physical water quality attributes, as well as site and household characteristics, into a model of recreational lake usage in Iowa. Our analysis shows individuals are responsive to physical water quality measures. Willingness-to-pay estimates are reported based on improvements in these measures.

  20. Alternating irrigation water quality as a method to control solute concentrations and mass fluxes below irrigated fields: A numerical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, David

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present numerical study was to extend the data-driven protocol for the control of soil salinity, to control chloride and nitrate concentrations and mass fluxes below agricultural fields irrigated with treated waste water (TWW). The protocol is based on alternating irrigation water quality between TWW and desalinized water (DSW), guided by solute concentrations at soil depth, zs. Two different schemes, the first requires measurements of soil solution concentrations of chloride and nitrate at zs, while, the second scheme requires only measurements of soil solution EC at zs, were investigated. For this purpose, 3-D numerical simulations of flow and transport were performed for variably saturated, spatially heterogeneous, flow domains located at two different field sites. The sites differ in crop type, irrigation method, and in their lithology; these differences, in turn, considerably affect the performance of the proposed schemes, expressed in terms of their ability to reduce solute concentrations that drained below the root zone. Results of the analyses suggest that the proposed data-driven schemes allow the use of low-quality water for irrigation, while minimizing the consumption of high-quality water to a level, which, for given climate, soil, crop, irrigation method, and water quality, may be determined by the allowable nitrate and chloride concentrations in the groundwater. The results of the present study indicate that with respect to the diminution of groundwater contamination by chloride and nitrate, the more data demanding, first scheme is superior the second scheme.

  1. MHD coal-fired flow facility baseline water-quality study. Woods Reservoir, May 1979-April 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, J.

    1980-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) is located on Woods Reservoir at The University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI). Part of the role of UTSI, as participants in the DOE program, is to document environmental aspects of coal-fired MHD. In early 1979, prior to operation of the CFFF, a water quality program was initiated to establish baseline conditions for the reservoir. The study was designed to provide an accurate assessment of water quality which could be used as a basis for comparison to evaluate the impact, if any, of the plant operation on the aquatic environment. Results of a one year baseline study of water quality on Woods Reservoir are presented in this report. The key findings are that this reservoir is a eutrophic lake. Its predominant ions are calcium and bicarbonate and its pH is circumneutral.

  2. Water-quality, water-level, and discharge data associated with the Mississippi embayment agricultural chemical-transport study, 2006-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Melinda S.; Rose, Claire E.; Coupe, Richard H.

    2010-01-01

    In 2006, the Agricultural Chemicals: Sources, Transport and Fate study team (Agricultural Chemicals Team, ACT) of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program began a study in northwestern Mississippi to evaluate the influence of surface-water recharge on the occurrence of agriculturally related nutrients and pesticides in the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer. The ACT study was composed in the Bogue Phalia Basin, an indicator watershed within the National Water-Quality Assessment Program Mississippi Embayment Study Unit and utilized several small, subbasins within the Bogue Phalia to evaluate surface and groundwater interaction and chemical transport in the Basin. Data collected as part of this ACT study include water-quality data from routine and incident-driven water samples evaluated for major ions, nutrients, organic carbon, physical properties, and commonly used pesticides in the area; discharge, gage height and water-level data for surface-water sites, the shallow alluvial aquifer, and hyporheic zone; additionally, agricultural data and detailed management activities were reported by land managers for farms within two subbasins of the Bogue Phalia Basin—Tommie Bayou at Pace, MS, and an unnamed tributary to Clear Creek near Napanee, MS.

  3. Water quality and agricultural practices: the case study of southern Massaciuccoli reclaimed land (Tuscany, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistocchi, Chiara; Baneschi, Ilaria; Basile, Paolo; Cannavò, Silvia; Guidi, Massimo; Risaliti, Rosalba; Rossetto, Rudy; Sabbatini, Tiziana; Silvestri, Nicola; Bonari, Enrico

    2010-05-01

    Owing to increasing anthropogenic impacts, lagoons and wetlands are being exposed to environmental degradation. Therefore, the sustainable management of these environmental resources is a fundamental issue to maintain either the ecosystems and the human activity. The Massaciuccoli Lake is a coastal lake of fresh to brackish water surrounded by a marsh, which drains a total catchment of about 114 km2. Large part of the basin has been reclaimed since 1930 by means of pumping stations forcing water from the drained areas into the lake. The system is characterized by: high complexity of the hydrological setting; subsidence of the peaty soils in the reclaimed area (2 to 3 m in 70 years), that left the lake perched; reclaimed land currently devoted mainly to conventional agriculture (e.g.: maize monoculture) along with some industrial sites, two sewage treatment plants and some relevant urban settlements; social conflicts among different land users because of the impact on water quality and quantity. The interaction between such a fragile natural system and human activities leads to an altered ecological status mainly due to eutrophication and water salinisation. Hence, the present work aims at identifying and assessing the sources of nutrients (phosphorous in particular) into the lake, and characterising land use and some socio-economic aspects focusing on agricultural systems, in order to set up suitable mitigation measures. Water quantity and quality in the most intensively cultivated sub-catchment, placed 0.5 to 3 m under m.s.l. were monitored in order to underlain the interaction between water and its nutrient load. Questionnaires and interviews to farmers were conducted to obtain information about agricultural practices, farm management, risks and constraints for farming activities. The available information about the natural system and land use were collected and organised in a GIS system: a conceptual model of surface water hydrodinamics was build up and 14

  4. Infectious Disinfection: "Exploring Global Water Quality"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaya, Evans; Tippins, Deborah J.; Mueller, Michael P.; Thomson, Norman

    2009-01-01

    Learning about the water situation in other regions of the world and the devastating effects of floods on drinking water helps students study science while learning about global water quality. This article provides science activities focused on developing cultural awareness and understanding how local water resources are integrally linked to the…

  5. Land Use Land Cover Changes in Detection of Water Quality: A Study Based on Remote Sensing and Multivariate Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ang Kean Hua

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Malacca River water quality is affected due to rapid urbanization development. The present study applied LULC changes towards water quality detection in Malacca River. The method uses LULC, PCA, CCA, HCA, NHCA, and ANOVA. PCA confirmed DS, EC, salinity, turbidity, TSS, DO, BOD, COD, As, Hg, Zn, Fe, E. coli, and total coliform. CCA confirmed 14 variables into two variates; first variate involves residential and industrial activities; and second variate involves agriculture, sewage treatment plant, and animal husbandry. HCA and NHCA emphasize that cluster 1 occurs in urban area with Hg, Fe, total coliform, and DO pollution; cluster 3 occurs in suburban area with salinity, EC, and DS; and cluster 2 occurs in rural area with salinity and EC. ANOVA between LULC and water quality data indicates that built-up area significantly polluted the water quality through E. coli, total coliform, EC, BOD, COD, TSS, Hg, Zn, and Fe, while agriculture activities cause EC, TSS, salinity, E. coli, total coliform, arsenic, and iron pollution; and open space causes contamination of turbidity, salinity, EC, and TSS. Research finding provided useful information in identifying pollution sources and understanding LULC with river water quality as references to policy maker for proper management of Land Use area.

  6. Land Use Land Cover Changes in Detection of Water Quality: A Study Based on Remote Sensing and Multivariate Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Ang Kean

    2017-01-01

    Malacca River water quality is affected due to rapid urbanization development. The present study applied LULC changes towards water quality detection in Malacca River. The method uses LULC, PCA, CCA, HCA, NHCA, and ANOVA. PCA confirmed DS, EC, salinity, turbidity, TSS, DO, BOD, COD, As, Hg, Zn, Fe, E. coli , and total coliform. CCA confirmed 14 variables into two variates; first variate involves residential and industrial activities; and second variate involves agriculture, sewage treatment plant, and animal husbandry. HCA and NHCA emphasize that cluster 1 occurs in urban area with Hg, Fe, total coliform, and DO pollution; cluster 3 occurs in suburban area with salinity, EC, and DS; and cluster 2 occurs in rural area with salinity and EC. ANOVA between LULC and water quality data indicates that built-up area significantly polluted the water quality through E. coli , total coliform, EC, BOD, COD, TSS, Hg, Zn, and Fe, while agriculture activities cause EC, TSS, salinity, E. coli , total coliform, arsenic, and iron pollution; and open space causes contamination of turbidity, salinity, EC, and TSS. Research finding provided useful information in identifying pollution sources and understanding LULC with river water quality as references to policy maker for proper management of Land Use area.

  7. Assessment of Water Quality in a Subtropical Alpine Lake Using Multivariate Statistical Techniques and Geostatistical Mapping: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-En Chung

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about the water quality in Yuan-Yang Lake (YYL, a shallow, subtropical alpine lake located in north-central Taiwan, has been rapidly increasing recently due to the natural and anthropogenic pollution. In order to understand the underlying physical and chemical processes as well as their associated spatial distribution in YYL, this study analyzes fourteen physico-chemical water quality parameters recorded at the eight sampling stations during 2008–2010 by using multivariate statistical techniques and a geostatistical method. Hierarchical clustering analysis (CA is first applied to distinguish the three general water quality patterns among the stations, followed by the use of principle component analysis (PCA and factor analysis (FA to extract and recognize the major underlying factors contributing to the variations among the water quality measures. The spatial distribution of the identified major contributing factors is obtained by using a kriging method. Results show that four principal components i.e., nitrogen nutrients, meteorological factor, turbidity and nitrate factors, account for 65.52% of the total variance among the water quality parameters. The spatial distribution of principal components further confirms that nitrogen sources constitute an important pollutant contribution in the YYL.

  8. Professional Development for Water Quality Control Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Clinton Lewis

    This study investigated the availability of professional development opportunities for water quality control personnel in the midwest. The major objective of the study was to establish a listing of educational opportunities for the professional development of water quality control personnel and to compare these with the opportunities technicians…

  9. Assessment of Reservoir Water Quality Using Multivariate Statistical Techniques: A Case Study of Qiandao Lake, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Gu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Qiandao Lake (Xin’an Jiang reservoir plays a significant role in drinking water supply for eastern China, and it is an attractive tourist destination. Three multivariate statistical methods were comprehensively applied to assess the spatial and temporal variations in water quality as well as potential pollution sources in Qiandao Lake. Data sets of nine parameters from 12 monitoring sites during 2010–2013 were obtained for analysis. Cluster analysis (CA was applied to classify the 12 sampling sites into three groups (Groups A, B and C and the 12 monitoring months into two clusters (April-July, and the remaining months. Discriminant analysis (DA identified Secchi disc depth, dissolved oxygen, permanganate index and total phosphorus as the significant variables for distinguishing variations of different years, with 79.9% correct assignments. Dissolved oxygen, pH and chlorophyll-a were determined to discriminate between the two sampling periods classified by CA, with 87.8% correct assignments. For spatial variation, DA identified Secchi disc depth and ammonia nitrogen as the significant discriminating parameters, with 81.6% correct assignments. Principal component analysis (PCA identified organic pollution, nutrient pollution, domestic sewage, and agricultural and surface runoff as the primary pollution sources, explaining 84.58%, 81.61% and 78.68% of the total variance in Groups A, B and C, respectively. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of integrated use of CA, DA and PCA for reservoir water quality evaluation and could assist managers in improving water resources management.

  10. Climate change impacts on marine water quality: The case study of the Northern Adriatic sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, J; Torresan, S; Critto, A; Zabeo, A; Brigolin, D; Carniel, S; Pastres, R; Marcomini, A

    2016-01-30

    Climate change is posing additional pressures on coastal ecosystems due to variations in water biogeochemical and physico-chemical parameters (e.g., pH, salinity) leading to aquatic ecosystem degradation. With the main aim of analyzing the potential impacts of climate change on marine water quality, a Regional Risk Assessment methodology was developed and applied to coastal marine waters of the North Adriatic. It integrates the outputs of regional biogeochemical and physico-chemical models considering future climate change scenarios (i.e., years 2070 and 2100) with site-specific environmental and socio-economic indicators. Results showed that salinity and temperature will be the main drivers of changes, together with macronutrients, especially in the area of the Po' river delta. The final outputs are exposure, susceptibility and risk maps supporting the communication of the potential consequences of climate change on water quality to decision makers and stakeholders and provide a basis for the definition of adaptation and management strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Soil-plant water status and wine quality: the case study of Aglianico wine (the ZOViSA project)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfante, Antonello; Manna, Piero; Albrizio, Rossella; Basile, Angelo; Agrillo, Antonietta; De Mascellis, Roberto; Caputo, Pellegrina; Delle Cave, Aniello; Gambuti, Angelita; Giorio, Pasquale; Guida, Gianpiero; Minieri, Luciana; Moio, Luigi; Orefice, Nadia; Terribile, Fabio

    2014-05-01

    The terroir analysis, aiming to achieve a better use of environmental features with respect to plant requirement and wine production, needs to be strongly rooted on hydropedology. In fact, the relations between wine quality and soil moisture regime during the cropping season is well established. The ZOViSA Project (Viticultural zoning at farm scale) tests a new physically oriented approach to terroir analysis based on the relations between the soil-plant water status and wine quality. The project is conducted in southern Italy in the farm Quintodecimo of Mirabella Eclano (AV) located in the Campania region, devoted to quality Aglianico red wine production (DOC). The soil spatial distribution of study area (about 3 ha) was recognized by classical soil survey and geophysics scan by EM38DD; then the soil-plant water status was monitored for three years in two experimental plots from two different soils (Cambisol and Calcisol). Daily climate variables (temperature, solar radiation, rainfall, wind), daily soil water variables (through TDR probes and tensiometers), crop development (biometric and physiological parameters), and grape must and wine quality were monitored. The agro-hydrological model SWAP was calibrated and applied in the two experimental plots to estimate soil-plant water status in different crop phenological stages. The effects of crop water status on crop response and wine quality was evaluated in two different pedo-systems, comparing the crop water stress index with both: crop physiological measurements (leaf gas exchange, leaf water potential, chlorophyll content, LAI measurement), grape bunches measurements (berry weight, sugar content, titratable acidity, etc.) and wine quality (aromatic response). Finally a "spatial application" of the model was carried out and different terroirs defined.

  12. Study of the Microbiological Quality of Bulgarian Bottled Water in Terms of Its Contamination with Pseudomonas Aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgieva, Vesela; Dimitrova, Yulia

    2016-12-01

    Due to the widespread use of bottled water, it is important from a hygienic point of view to ensure that these products have good quality and meet the requirements set out in regulations. In the period 2000-2013, a large-scale study (2,500 samples) was carried out on the quality of Bulgarian bottled water as per the microbiological parameters laid down in the European and Bulgarian legislation. Standard microbiological methods were applied. There is strong evidence that the most frequently isolated contaminant in these products was Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This agent was found in 274 samples out of a total of 2,500 analysed bottled waters. Because of the absolute prohibition of the presence of this microorganism in the finished product, the manufacturers should not allow their products with compromised quality to reach the market. They are obliged to check the quality of each batch by conducting an internal monitoring of production. When any inconsistencies are established in microbiological parameters, the producers must detect the critical point and apply more effective decontamination measures of the bottling lines. Given the importance of this fact for the health of consumers, the study also included determination of the antimicrobial resistance of P. aeruginosa strains isolated from Bulgarian bottled water. Ten strains of P. aeruginosa, isolated from bottled water and other water habitats in the environment, were tested for the effect of 13 antimicrobial agents by applying the Kirby-Bauer's method. The investigation found that Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from bottled water are sensitive to Ceftazidime, Amikacin, Ciprofloxacin, and Cefepime and one of them is resistant to Meropenem and Piperacillin. Another important conclusion is that there is no specific behaviour of P. aeruginosa strains originating from different sources to the test antimicrobials. The authors consider that drinking tap water is perhaps a more appropriate way for newborns

  13. Quality of Water and Antibiotic Resistance of Escherichia coli from Water Sources of Hilly Tribal Villages with and without Integrated Watershed Management—A One Year Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerkar, Sandeep S.; Tamhankar, Ashok J.; Khedkar, Smita U.; Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    In many hilly tribal areas of the world, water scarcity is a major problem and diarrhoea is common. Poor quality of water also affects the environment. An integrated watershed management programme (IWMP) aims to increase availability of water and to improve life conditions. Globally, there is a lack of information on water contamination, occurrence of diarrhoea and antibiotic resistance, a serious global concern, in relation to IWMP in hilly tribal areas. Therefore, a prospective observational study was conducted during 2011–2012 in six villages in a hilly tribal belt of India, three with and three without implementation of an IWMP, to explore quality of water, diarrhoeal cases in the community and antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli from water sources. The results showed that physico-chemical quality of water was within limits of safe consumption in all samples. The odds of coliform contamination in water samples was 2.3 times higher in non-watershed management villages (NWMV) compared to integrated watershed management villages (IWMV) (95% CI 0.8–6.45, p = 0.081). The number of diarrhoeal cases (18/663 vs. 42/639, p < 0.05) was lower in IWMV as compared to NWMV. Overall E. coli isolates showed high susceptibility to antibiotics. Resistance to a wider range of antibiotics was observed in NWMV. PMID:24991664

  14. Quality of Water and Antibiotic Resistance of Escherichia coli from Water Sources of Hilly Tribal Villages with and without Integrated Watershed Management—A One Year Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep S. Nerkar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In many hilly tribal areas of the world, water scarcity is a major problem and diarrhoea is common. Poor quality of water also affects the environment. An integrated watershed management programme (IWMP aims to increase availability of water and to improve life conditions. Globally, there is a lack of information on water contamination, occurrence of diarrhoea and antibiotic resistance, a serious global concern, in relation to IWMP in hilly tribal areas. Therefore, a prospective observational study was conducted during 2011–2012 in six villages in a hilly tribal belt of India, three with and three without implementation of an IWMP, to explore quality of water, diarrhoeal cases in the community and antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli from water sources. The results showed that physico-chemical quality of water was within limits of safe consumption in all samples. The odds of coliform contamination in water samples was 2.3 times higher in non-watershed management villages (NWMV compared to integrated watershed management villages (IWMV (95% CI 0.8–6.45, p = 0.081. The number of diarrhoeal cases (18/663 vs. 42/639, p < 0.05 was lower in IWMV as compared to NWMV. Overall E. coli isolates showed high susceptibility to antibiotics. Resistance to a wider range of antibiotics was observed in NWMV.

  15. Quality of water and antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli from water sources of hilly tribal villages with and without integrated watershed management-a one year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerkar, Sandeep S; Tamhankar, Ashok J; Khedkar, Smita U; Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby

    2014-06-01

    In many hilly tribal areas of the world, water scarcity is a major problem and diarrhoea is common. Poor quality of water also affects the environment. An integrated watershed management programme (IWMP) aims to increase availability of water and to improve life conditions. Globally, there is a lack of information on water contamination, occurrence of diarrhoea and antibiotic resistance, a serious global concern, in relation to IWMP in hilly tribal areas. Therefore, a prospective observational study was conducted during 2011–2012 in six villages in a hilly tribal belt of India, three with and three without implementation of an IWMP, to explore quality of water, diarrhoeal cases in the community and antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli from water sources. The results showed that physico-chemical quality of water was within limits of safe consumption in all samples. The odds of coliform contamination in water samples was 2.3 times higher in non-watershed management villages (NWMV) compared to integrated watershed management villages (IWMV) (95% CI 0.8–6.45, p = 0.081). The number of diarrhoeal cases (18/663 vs. 42/639, p < 0.05) was lower in IWMV as compared to NWMV. Overall E. coli isolates showed high susceptibility to antibiotics. Resistance to a wider range of antibiotics was observed in NWMV.

  16. Fertilizer Use and Water Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reneau, Fred; And Others

    This booklet presents informative materials on fertilizer use and water quality, specifically in regard to environmental pollution and protection in Illinois. The five chapters cover these topics: Fertilizer and Water Quality, Fertilizer Use, Fertilizers and the Environment, Safety Practices, and Fertilizer Management Practices. Key questions are…

  17. 5 Water Quality.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    the basins cause an acceleration of the. Water Quality Assessment of Densu, Birim and Ayensu. Rivers in the Okyeman Area. 1. 2. O. D. Ansa-Asare * and C. ... The aim of this paper is to develop an understanding of the spatial water quality throughout the basins and also identify the main sources of contaminants within the ...

  18. Environmental control on water quality; cases studies from Battle Mountain mining district, north-central Nevada. Chapter A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Michele L.W.; Wanty, Richard B.; Berger, Byron R.; Stillings, Lisa M.

    2003-01-01

    The environmental controls on water quality were the focus of our study in a portion of the Battle Mountain mining district, north-central Nevada. Samples representing areas outside known mineralized areas, in undisturbed mineralized areas, and in mined areas were chemically and isotopically analyzed. The results are related to geologic, hydrologic, and climatic data. Streams in background areas outside the mineralized zones reflect normal weathering of volcanically derived rocks. The waters are generally dilute, slightly alkaline in pH, and very low in metals. As these streams flow into mineralized zones, their character changes. In undisturbed mineralized areas, discharge into streams of ground water through hydrologically conductive fractures can be traced with chemistry and, even more effectively, with sulfur isotopic composition of dissolved sulfate. Generally, these tracers are much more subtle than in those areas where mining has produced adits and mine-waste piles. The influence of drainage from these mining relicts on water quality is often dramatic, especially in unusually wet conditions. In one heavily mined area, we were able to show that the unusually wet weather in the winter and spring greatly degraded water quality. Addition of calcite to the acid, metalrich mine drainage raised the stream pH and nearly quantitatively removed the metals through coprecipitation and (or) adsorption onto oxyhydroxides. This paper is divided into four case studies used to demonstrate our results. Each addresses the role of geology, hydrology, mining activity and (or) local climate on water quality. Collectively, they provide a comprehensive look at the important factors affecting water quality in this portion of the Battle Mountain mining district.

  19. Washoe County : Regional water supply and quality study : Phase II final report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The major goal of this study was to help structure a solution to the fragmented responsibilities for conservation, resource management, water supply, wastewater,...

  20. A study of the water quality of the Mhlathuze River, KwaZulu-Natal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chemical parameters of the Mhlathuze River water source were monitored during March 2001 to November 2002 and compared to the previous study conducted during 1998-1999. The results showed that most of the physical and chemical values ...

  1. Space Station Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Charles E. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The manned Space Station will exist as an isolated system for periods of up to 90 days. During this period, safe drinking water and breathable air must be provided for an eight member crew. Because of the large mass involved, it is not practical to consider supplying the Space Station with water from Earth. Therefore, it is necessary to depend upon recycled water to meet both the human and nonhuman water needs on the station. Sources of water that will be recycled include hygiene water, urine, and cabin humidity condensate. A certain amount of fresh water can be produced by CO2 reduction process. Additional fresh water will be introduced into the total pool by way of food, because of the free water contained in food and the water liberated by metabolic oxidation of the food. A panel of scientists and engineers with extensive experience in the various aspects of wastewater reuse was assembled for a 2 day workshop at NASA-Johnson. The panel included individuals with expertise in toxicology, chemistry, microbiology, and sanitary engineering. A review of Space Station water reclamation systems was provided.

  2. Studies on microbial quality of filtered water in households of a university community in Nigeria.

    OpenAIRE

    Alabi, D. A.; Adesiyun, A. A.

    1986-01-01

    Water samples from home filters in nine residential areas of a Nigerian university community were studied. The membrane filter technique was used to determine the total coliform and faecal coliform counts/100 ml of water. Most of the 100 samples studied were grossly contaminated with total coliform counts/100 ml ranging from 0-442, faecal coliform counts/100 ml, 0-216 and the total aerobic plate count per millilitre ranged from 3.0 X 10(3) to 1.9 X 10(9) c.f.u. The source (dams) of water, fit...

  3. Surface water quality assessment using factor analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-01-16

    Jan 16, 2006 ... In this study, the factor analysis technique is applied to surface water quality data sets obtained from the Buyuk Menderes. River Basin, Turkey, during two different hydrological periods. Results show that the indices which changed the quality of water in two seasons and locations differed. During low-flow ...

  4. What's in Your Water? An Educator's Guide to Water Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constabile, Kerry, Comp.; Craig, Heidi, Comp.; O'Laughlin, Laura, Comp.; Reiss, Anne Bei, Comp.; Spencer, Liz, Comp.

    This guide provides basic information on the Clean Water Act, watersheds, and testing for water quality, and presents four science lesson plans on water quality. Activities include: (1) "Introduction to Water Quality"; (2) "Chemical Water Quality Testing"; (3) "Biological Water Quality Testing"; and (4) "What Can We Do?" (YDS)

  5. Parents' perceptions of water safety and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, Lori; Bicking, Cara; Sekhar, Deepa

    2012-02-01

    Every day parents make choices about the source of water their families consume. There are many contributing factors which could affect decisions about water consumption including taste, smell, color, safety, cost, and convenience. However, few studies have investigated what parents with young children think about water quality and safety in the US and how this affects the choices they are making. This study aimed to describe the perceptions of parents with regard to water quality and safety and to compare bottled water and tap water use, as well as to examine motivation for water choices. We conducted an online questionnaire to survey parents living in Pennsylvania about water quality and safety, and preference for bottled versus tap water. Parents were recruited through child care centers, and 143 surveys were returned. The survey results showed high overall scores for perception of tap water quality and safety, and a preference for tap water over bottled water. We found that parents were concerned for the environmental impact that buying bottled water may have but were also concerned about potential contamination of tap water by natural gas drilling processes and nuclear power plants. These findings regarding parental concerns are critical to inform pediatric health care providers, water sellers, and suppliers in order that they may provide parents with the necessary information to make educated choices for their families.

  6. Water quality improvement after shifting of idol immersion site: a case study of Upper Lake, Bhopal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Anju; Bajpai, Avinash; Verma, Neelam

    2008-10-01

    Most of freshwater bodies all over the world are becoming polluted, thus decreasing the portability of the water. In India religious practices have deep relationship with water bodies. They also patronized religious practices and constructed numerous relatively small water bodies along with temples throughout the country. Today, with the rapid pace of urban development, most of these water bodies have become sinks for waste discharge, resulting in deterioration of their water quality. Upper Lake of Bhopal, constructed in the eleventh century, is typical example of urban water bodies and a major source of potable water for the people of Bhopal. Till the middle of the last century, the water of Upper Lake did not require any treatment before supply for drinking purposes. Idol worship is common in India. Idols are usually made up of wood, bamboo, straw, jute ropes, clay, and plaster of Paris and are painted with bright synthetic colors, which often contain heavy metals. Other materials, such as straw, jute ropes, flowers, leaves and germinated grains cause short-term deterioration of water quality on their decay, while heavy metals in the paints pose health hazards in the long-run. Religious issues are extremely sensitive and hence it was felt necessary to use the regard that the citizens had for the lake to build a consensus in support of change. The Bhoj Wetland Project was implemented with the aid of Japanese Bank of International Cooperation (JBIC) to take action for preserving the Upper Lake of Bhopal (called Bhoj Wetlands). Our study is highlighted to water quality parameters like turbidity, total hardness, DO (Dissolved oxygen), BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand), COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) and heavy metals in the year 1999 and 2005 i.e. before implementation of project and completion of project.

  7. Respiratory symptoms among industrial workers exposed to water aerosol. A pilot study of process water and air microbial quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Krogulska

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The frequency of respiratory symptoms in workers exposed to water aerosol was evaluated along with the preliminary assessment of microbiological contamination of air and water used in glass processing plants. Material and Methods: A questionnaire survey was conducted in 131 workers from 9 glass processing plants. Questions focused on working conditions, respiratory symptoms and smoking habits. A pilot study of air and water microbiological contamination in one glass processing plant was performed. Water samples were tested for Legionella in accordance with EN ISO 11731-2:2008 and for total colony count according to PN-EN ISO 6222:2004. Air samples were tested for total numbers of molds and mildews. Results: During the year preceding the survey acute respiratory symptoms occurred in 28.2% of participants, while chronic symptoms were reported by 29% of respondents. Increased risks of cough and acute symptoms suggestive of pneumonia were found among the respondents working at a distance up to 20 m from the source of water aerosol compared to other workers (OR = 2.7, with no difference in the frequency of other symptoms. A microbiological analysis of water samples from selected glass plant revealed the presence of L. pneumophila, exceeding 1000 cfu/100 ml. The number of bacteria and fungi detected in air samples (above 1000 cfu/m3 suggested that water aerosol at workplaces can be one of the sources of the air microbial contamination. Conclusions: The questionnaire survey revealed an increased risk of cough and acute symptoms suggestive of pneumonia in the group working at a shortest distance form the source of water aerosol. Med Pr 2013;64(1:47–55

  8. Survey the Current State of Quality Potable Water Clearing Supplied to the Distribution System and the Role of Water & Wastewater Company And the Distribution of Network and Improve Its Quality Case Study in Shahrood City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakineh Molaei Tvani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available  Background and Purpose: Supply of high-quality water (drinking water quality, is a critical component for sustainable socioeconomic development. This study aimed to assess the current state of water quality supplied to the distribution system and importance of participating water and sewer its distribution network to improve the quality selected. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study in 1394 in both spring and summer, during a systematic search, local information on the quality (microbiological, physical and chemical drinking water distribution systems were evaluated using a questionnaire. The samples for the presence of CL, PH, TDS, sulfates, total hardness, nitrite, nitrate, fluoride, chloride, turbidity and total coliform were analyzed by standard methods and 1053 were compared with the national standard. Results: The average parameters studied a total of 303 water samples collected from amount CL, PH, TDS, sulfates, total hardness, magnesium, calcium, nitrite, nitrate, fluoride, chloride, turbidity and total coliform respectively equal Was reported 0/1 mg/L, 7/66 mg/L, 773/39 mg/L,108/15 mg/L, 287/84 mg/L, 31/59 mg/L, 50/05 mg/L, 0/02 mg/L, 19/56 mg/L, 1/08 mg/L, 80/57 mg/L, 0/6 mg/L, 24/5 MPN/100ML. The role of water and sewage company as well as the effect of the drinking water distribution network respectively physicochemical and microbiological quality of drinking water in the utility had a significant relationship (p <0/005, (p <0/0001. And significant relationship between the quality of water supplied by the technical infrastructure and health, fatigue and corrosion, leakage and pressure was high hydro Leakey (p <0/000. According to the results of the statistical test Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficient also showed a strong correlation between the leak with water quality. Conclusion: The results showed that the water samples tested for microbial and physico-chemical parameters were within the range of Iran

  9. FACTORS AFFECTING WATER QUALITY BEFORE TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Jachimowski

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The article assesses the impact of natural and anthropogenic factors on the quality of surface water grasped by Krakow's water treatment plants. We analyzed the indicators chosen in the physicochemical marked in the raw water in the years 2007–2014. The study shows that the water prior to treatment differed in the number and share of separate factors. These components, in turn, explained 63% to 71% of analyzed chemical composition of water.

  10. FACTORS AFFECTING WATER QUALITY BEFORE TREATMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Artur Jachimowski

    2017-01-01

    The article assesses the impact of natural and anthropogenic factors on the quality of surface water grasped by Krakow's water treatment plants. We analyzed the indicators chosen in the physicochemical marked in the raw water in the years 2007–2014. The study shows that the water prior to treatment differed in the number and share of separate factors. These components, in turn, explained 63% to 71% of analyzed chemical composition of water.

  11. Primer on Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as roots and leaves, and react with algae, bacteria, and other microscopic organisms. Water may also carry plant debris and sand, silt, ... in a few locations. Pathogens can enter our water from leaking septic tanks, wastewater-treatment discharge, and animal wastes. How can I find ...

  12. Prediction and assessment of drought effects on surface water quality using artificial neural networks: case study of Zayandehrud River, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safavi, Hamid R; Malek Ahmadi, Kian

    2015-01-01

    Although drought impacts on water quantity are widely recognized, the impacts on water quality are less known. The Zayandehrud River basin in the west-central part of Iran plateau witnessed an increased contamination during the recent droughts and low flows. The river has been receiving wastewater and effluents from the villages, a number of small and large industries, and irrigation drainage systems along its course. What makes the situation even worse is the drought period the river basin has been going through over the last decade. Therefore, a river quality management model is required to include the adverse effects of industrial development in the region and the destructive effects of droughts which affect the river's water quality and its surrounding environment. Developing such a model naturally presupposes investigations into pollution effects in terms of both quality and quantity to be used in such management tools as mathematical models to predict the water quality of the river and to prevent pollution escalation in the environment. The present study aims to investigate electrical conductivity of the Zayandehrud River as a water quality parameter and to evaluate the effect of this parameter under drought conditions. For this purpose, artificial neural networks are used as a modeling tool to derive the relationship between electrical conductivity and the hydrological parameters of the Zayandehrud River. The models used in this research include multi-layer perceptron and radial basis function. Finally, these two models are compared in terms of their performance using the time series of electrical conductivity at eight monitoring-hydrometric stations during drought periods between the years 1997-2012. Results show that artificial neural networks can be used for modeling the relationship between electrical conductivity and hydrological parameters under drought conditions. It is further shown that radial basis function works better for the upstream stretches

  13. Biological, chemical and physical drinking water quality from shallow wells in Malawi: Case study of Blantyre, Chiradzulu and Mulanje

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, M.; Mkandawire, T.; O'Neill, J. G.

    A study was conducted in Blantyre, Chiradzulu and Mulanje districts in Malawi to determine the biological, chemical and physical drinking water quality from shallow wells. An in situ membrane filtration test kit (Paqualab 50) was used to determine the microbiological quality of water and a photometer was used for the chemical analyses. Water samples were collected from 21 covered/protected and five open/unprotected shallow wells at four different times in a year to determine the change in quality with different seasons. The results of microbiological analysis show that the drinking water quality is very poor, i.e. grossly polluted with faecal matter. Total coliform (TC) and faecal coliform (FC) values in the wet season (February and April, 2006) were much higher than those in the dry season (August and October, 2005). In terms of total coliform, the results show that approximately 80% of the shallow wells tested in the dry season and 100% of the wells in the wet season did not meet the drinking water quality temporary guidelines, set by the Ministry of Water Development - MoWD (2003) [Ministry of Water Development - MoWD, 2003. Government of Malawi, Devolution of functions of assemblies, Guidelines and standards], of a maximum of 50 TC/100 ml for untreated water. Approximately 50% of the wells failed to meet the faecal coliform drinking water guideline of 50 FC/100 ml in the dry season while this figure had increased to 94% of the wells failing to meet the standard in the wet season. Covered wells were not as grossly contaminated as open wells but all of the wells tested failed the MoWD standards in at least one sample. Chemical analyses results were within the drinking water guideline and variations during seasons were insignificant. pH values were within the guidelines in the dry season except for Mulanje district where on average 45% of the wells had pH values below the lower limit of 6.0. In the wet season 50% of the samples had pH values below 6.0. Turbidity

  14. An economic inquisition of water quality trading programs, with a case study of Jordan Lake, NC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motallebi, Marzieh; Hoag, Dana L; Tasdighi, Ali; Arabi, Mazdak; Osmond, Deanna L

    2017-05-15

    A water quality trading (WQT) program was promulgated in North Carolina to address water quality issues related to nutrients in the highly urbanizing Jordan Lake Watershed. Although WQT programs are appealing in theory, the concept has not proved feasible in several attempts between point and nonpoint polluters in the United States. Many application hurdles that create wedges between success and failure have been evaluated in the literature. Most programs, however, face multiple hurdles; eliminating one may not clear a pathway to success. Therefore, we identify and evaluate the combined impact of four different wedges including baseline, transaction cost, trading ratio, and trading cost in the Jordan Lake Watershed program. Unfortunately, when applied to the Jordan Lake program, the analysis clearly shows that a traditional WQT program will not be feasible or address nutrient management needs in a meaningful way. The hurdles individually would be difficult to overcome, but together they appear to be unsurmountable. This analysis shows that there is enough information to pre-identify potential hurdles that could inform policy makers where, and how, the concept might work. It would have saved time, energy, and financial resources if North Carolina had done so before embarking to implement their program in the Jordan Lake Watershed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Drinking water quality and safety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Gutiérrez, Anna; Miralles, Maria Josepa; Corbella, Irene; García, Soledad; Navarro, Sonia; Llebaria, Xavier

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of drinking water legislation is to guarantee the quality and safety of water intended for human consumption. In the European Union, Directive 98/83/EC updated the essential and binding quality criteria and standards, incorporated into Spanish national legislation by Royal Decree 140/2003. This article reviews the main characteristics of the aforementioned drinking water legislation and its impact on the improvement of water quality against empirical data from Catalonia. Analytical data reported in the Spanish national information system (SINAC) indicate that water quality in Catalonia has improved in recent years (from 88% of analytical reports in 2004 finding drinking water to be suitable for human consumption, compared to 95% in 2014). The improvement is fundamentally attributed to parameters concerning the organoleptic characteristics of water and parameters related to the monitoring of the drinking water treatment process. Two management experiences concerning compliance with quality standards for trihalomethanes and lead in Barcelona's water supply are also discussed. Finally, this paper presents some challenges that, in the opinion of the authors, still need to be incorporated into drinking water legislation. It is necessary to update Annex I of Directive 98/83/EC to integrate current scientific knowledge, as well as to improve consumer access to water quality data. Furthermore, a need to define common criteria for some non-resolved topics, such as products and materials in contact with drinking water and domestic conditioning equipment, has also been identified. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Reconnaissance study of water quality in the mining-affected Aries River Basin, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, Michael J.; Tindall, James A.; Sardan, Daniel; Fey, David L.; Poputa, G.L.

    2008-01-01

    The Aries River basin of western Romania has been subject to mining activities as far back as Roman times. Present mining activities are associated with the extraction and processing of various metals including Au, Cu, Pb, and Zn. To understand the effects of these mining activities on the environment, this study focused on three objectives: (1) establish a baseline set of physical parameters, and water- and sediment-associated concentrations of metals in river-valley floors and floodplains; (2) establish a baseline set of physical and chemical measurements of pore water and sediment in tailings; and (3) provide training in sediment and water sampling to personnel in the National Agency for Mineral Resources and the Rosia Poieni Mine. This report summarizes basin findings of physical parameters and chemistry (sediment and water), and ancillary data collected during the low-flow synoptic sampling of May 2006.

  17. Water quality-based real time control of integrated urban drainage: a preliminary study from Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vezzaro, Luca; Lund Christensen, Margit; Thirsing, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Global Real Time Control (RTC) of urban drainage systems is increasingly seen as cost-effective solution for responding to increasing performance demands. This study investigated the potential for including water-quality based RTC into the global control strategy which is under implementation...... in the Lynetten catchment (Copenhagen, Denmark). Two different strategies were simulated, considering: (i) water quality at the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) inlet and (ii) pollution discharge to the bathing areas. These strategies were included in the Dynamic Overflow Risk Assessment (DORA) RTC strategy...... in reducing Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) loads at the WWTP inlet and in an upstream location discharging to sensitive bathing waters for medium CSO events (i.e. those with greater potential for control). Furthermore, when looking at the overall performance across the entire catchment during the simulation...

  18. 43 CFR 414.5 - Water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water quality. 414.5 Section 414.5 Public... APPORTIONMENT IN THE LOWER DIVISION STATES Water Quality and Environmental Compliance § 414.5 Water quality. (a) Water Quality is not guaranteed. The Secretary does not warrant the quality of water released or...

  19. A comparative study of water-steam distillation with water-bubble distillation techniques to increase the quality of patchouli essential oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitri, Noor; Yandi, Nefri; Hermawati, Julianto, Tatang Shabur

    2017-03-01

    A comparative study of the quality of patchouli oil using Water-Steam Distillation (WSD) and Water Bubble Distillation (WBD) techniques has been studied. The raw materials were Patchouli plants from Samigaluh village, Kulon Progo district, Yogyakarta. This study is aimed to compare two distillation techniques in order to find out the optimal distillation technique to increase the content of patchouli alcohol (patchoulol) and the quality of patchouli oil. Pretreatment such as withering, drying, size reduction and light fermentation were intended to increase the yield. One kilogramm of patchouli was moisturized with 500 mL of aquadest. The light fermentation process was carried out for 20 hours in a dark container. Fermented patchouli was extracted for 6 hours using Water-Steam and Water Bubble Distillation techniques. Physical and chemical properties test of patchouli oil were performed using SNI standard No. SNI-06-2385-2006 and the chemical composition of patchouli oil was analysed by GC-MS. As the results, the higher yield oil is obtained using Water-Steam Distillation, i.e. 5.9% versus 2.4%. Spesific gravity, refractive index and acid number of patchouli oil in Water-Steam Distillation results did not meet the SNI standard, i.e. 0.991; 1.623 and 13.19, while the Water Bubble Distillation met the standard, i.e. 0.955; 1.510 and 6.61. The patchoulol content using Water Bubble Distillation technique is 61.53%, significant higher than those using Water-Steam Distillation, i.e. 38.24%. Thus, Water Bubble Distillation promises a potential technique to increase the content of patchoulol in the patchouli oil.

  20. Recreational Water Quality Criteria Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    This set of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) provides an overview of NPDES permitting applicable to continuous dischargers (such as POTWs) based on water quality standards for pathogens and pathogen indicators associated with fecal contamination.

  1. Water quality indicators: bacteria, coliphages, enteric viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Johnson; Ganesh, Atheesha

    2013-12-01

    Water quality through the presence of pathogenic enteric microorganisms may affect human health. Coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli and coliphages are normally used as indicators of water quality. However, the presence of above-mentioned indicators do not always suggest the presence of human enteric viruses. It is important to study human enteric viruses in water. Human enteric viruses can tolerate fluctuating environmental conditions and survive in the environment for long periods of time becoming causal agents of diarrhoeal diseases. Therefore, the potential of human pathogenic viruses as significant indicators of water quality is emerging. Human Adenoviruses and other viruses have been proposed as suitable indices for the effective identification of such organisms of human origin contaminating water systems. This article reports on the recent developments in the management of water quality specifically focusing on human enteric viruses as indicators.

  2. A study of the physico-chemical water quality, hydrology and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed at relating the zooplankton fauna of Opa reservoir catchment area (Rivers Obudu, Opa and Esinmirin) to their physico-chemical water parameters and some aspects of their hydrology. Basin perimeter, basin width, total length, number of streams, river order and discharge showed significant positive ...

  3. Environmental setting and factors that affect water quality in the Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, M.P.; Oaksford, E.T.; Darst, M.R.; Marella, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    , geologic setting, ground-water systems, surface- water systems, climate, floods, droughts, population, land use, and water use. Factors affecting water quality in the study area are land use (primarily urban and agricultural land uses), water use in coastal areas, hydrogeology, ground-water/surface-water interaction, geology, and climate. Surface-water quality problems in urban areas have occurred in the Ogeechee, Canoochee, Ocmulgee, St. Marys, Alapaha, Withlacoochee (north), Santa Fe, Ochlockonee, St. Johns, and Oklawaha Rivers and include nitrogen and phosphorus loading, low dissolved oxygen, elevated bacteria, sediment, and turbidity, and increased concentrations of metals. In agricultural areas, surface-water quality problems include elevated nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations, erosion, and sedimentation and have occurred in the Ocmulgee, St. Marys, Santa Fe, Ochlockonee, St. Johns, Oklawaha, Withlacoochee (South), Hillsborough, and Alafia Rivers. Ground water-quality problems such as saltwater intrusion have occurred mostly in coastal areas and were caused by excessive withdrawals.

  4. Correlation Study on Physico-Chemical Parameters and Quality Assessment of Kosi River Water, Uttarakhand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra Singh Bhandari

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Present work deals with the assessment of physico-chemical parameters of water samples of Kosi river at Kosi sampling station during 2004 and 2005 in pre monsoon, monsoon and post monsoon seasons. Statistical studies have been carried out by calculating correlation coefficients between different pairs of parameters and t- test applied for checking significance. The observed values of various physico-chemical parameters of water samples were compared with standard values recommended by WHO. It is found that an appreciable significant positive correlation holds for chloride with pH, Mg, Na, hardness and total suspended solid; and sodium with hardness, EC and sulphate. A significant negative correlation was found between potassium with turbidity, Cl-, EC and hardness. All the physicochemical parameters of Kosi water are within the highest desirable limit or maximum permissible limit set by WHO except turbidity and BOD which recorded a high value.

  5. South Fork Iowa River watershed selected for a national water-quality study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, M.L.; Kalkhoff, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is studying seven watersheds across the Nation to better understand how natural factors and agricultural management practices (AMPs) affect the transport of water and chemicals. Natural factors include climate and landscape (soil type, topography, geology), and AMPs include practices related to tillage, irrigation, and chemical application. The study approach is similar in each watershed so that we can compare and contrast the results and more accurately predict conditions in other agricultural settings.

  6. Engaging Remote Sensing and Citizen Science into Water Quality Monitoring: A Case Study in Nhue-Day River Basin, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thi Van Le, Khoa; Minkman, Ellen; Nguyen Thi Phuong, Thuy; Rutten, Martine; Bastiaanssen, Wim

    2016-04-01

    Remote sensing and citizen science can be utilized to fulfill the gap of conventional monitoring methods. However, how to engage these techniques, principally taking advantage of local capacities and of globally accessible data for satisfying the continuous data requirements and uncertainties are exciting challenges. Previous studies in Vietnam showed that official documents regulated towards responding the vital need of upgrading national water monitoring infrastructures do not put the huge potentials of free satellite images and crowd-based data collection into account, this factor also limits publications related to these techniques. In this research, a new water monitoring approach will be developed friendly with areas suffering poor quality monitoring works. Particularly, algorithms respecting to the relationship between temperature, total suspended sediment (TSS), chlorophyll and information collected by sensors onboard Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2 MSI satellites are built in the study area in Northern Vietnam; additionally, undergraduate student volunteers were sent to the sites with all the measurement activities are designed to coincide with the time when the study area captured by the satellites to compare the results. While conventional techniques are proving their irreplaceable role in the water monitoring network, the utilization of remote sensing techniques and citizen science in this study will demonstrate highly supportive values, saving monitoring costs and time; advantaging local human resources to science; providing an inclusive assessment of water quality changes along with land-use change in the study area, these approaches are excellent alternatives to meet the demand of real-time, continuous data nationwide.

  7. Optical sensors for water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerin, Brian A.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.

    2014-01-01

    Shifts in land use, population, and climate have altered hydrologic systems in the United States in ways that affect water quality and ecosystem function. Water diversions, detention in reservoirs, increased channelization, and changes in rainfall and snowmelt are major causes, but there are also more subtle causes such as changes in soil temperature, atmospheric deposition, and shifting vegetation patterns. The effects on water quality are complex and interconnected, and occur at timeframes of minutes (e.g., flash floods) to decades (e.g., evolving management practices).

  8. STREAMFLOW AND WATER QUALITY REGRESSION MODELING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STREAMFLOW AND WATER QUALITY REGRESSION MODELING OF IMO RIVER SYSTEM: A CASE STUDY. ... Journal of Modeling, Design and Management of Engineering Systems ... Possible sources of contamination of Imo-river system within Nekede and Obigbo hydrological stations watershed were traced.

  9. Quality of Drinking-water at Source and Point-of-consumption?Drinking Cup As a High Potential Recontamination Risk: A Field Study in Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Rufener, Simonne; M?usezahl, Daniel; Mosler, Hans-Joachim; Weingartner, Rolf

    2010-01-01

    In-house contamination of drinking-water is a persistent problem in developing countries. This study aimed at identifying critical points of contamination and determining the extent of recontamination after water treatment. In total, 81 households were visited, and 347 water samples from their current sources of water, transport vessels, treated water, and drinking vessels were analyzed. The quality of water was assessed using Escherichia coli as an indicator for faecal contamination. The con...

  10. Phosphorus and Water Quality Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, H. K.

    2008-12-01

    Paradoxically, phosphorus (P) is one of the major nutrients for higher agricultural production, as well as it causes eutrophication/algal blooms in aquatic and semi-aquatic systems. Phosphorus loadings from agricultural/urban runoffs into lakes and rivers are becoming a global concern for the protection of water quality. Artificial wetlands are considered as a low cost alternative for treating wastewater including removal of P from sources such as agricultural and urban runoffs. However, the selection of the construction site may well determine the effectiveness of these wetlands. Studies show that P transformations in sediments/ soils are crucial for P sequestration in a wetland rather than the amounts of native P. Using 31Phosphorus Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (31P NMR), previously unreported an active organic P form, phosphoarginine, was identified, and the study indicates that abandonment of P impacted sites may not solve the P loading problem to the water bodies as the organic P compounds would not be as stable as they were thought, thus, can play a detrimental role in eutrophication of water bodies, after all.

  11. Study of the Effect of Material Machinability on Quality of Surface Created by Abrasive Water Jet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klichová, Dagmar; Klich, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 149, č. 149 (2016), s. 177-182 E-ISSN 1877-7058. [International Conference on Manufacturing Engineering and Materials, ICMEM 2016. Nový Smokovec, 06.06.2016-10.06.2016] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1406 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : machinability * surface roughness * abrasive waterjet * study of quality * aluminium alloy * optical profilometer Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877705816311614

  12. Zimbabwean mine dumps and their impacts on river water quality a reconnaissance study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meck, Maideyi; Love, David; Mapani, Benjamin

    Zimbabwe has a substantial number of mines and 67 minerals have been mined in the country since 1900 but at present only 30 different minerals are being mined. Exploitation of a variety of ores, in rocks of diverse composition, provides the potential for a range of pollution problems. The severity and extent of contamination differs with the type of minerals mined. This paper presents part of the results of a broad study, carried out across Zimbabwe, which assessed the potential of different mine tailings dumps to cause environmental problems. The dumps considered in the study were divided into six dump types, namely: gold-mine dumps, base-metal mine dumps (dumps associated with the mining of nickel, zinc, copper and lead), minor-metals mine dumps (dumps associated with mining of antimony, arsenic, and selenium), platinum-group metal mine dumps, chromite and asbestos mine dumps, and sulphur (pyrite) mine dumps. The elemental chemistry of the dumps and physical characteristics (pH, total dissolved solids) of the dumps, tailings’ leachates, and stream waters around the dumps were used to assess the potential of the dumps to pollute water bodies. Samples were collected in both the dry and wet seasons. The dispersion and pollution patterns were derived from Eh-pH conditions around the dumps after considering the mobility of the elements present in these dumps under different Eh-pH conditions. In this paper potential to pollute is considered as the likelihood of the elements to disperse under the prevailing conditions at the dump. The concentrations of elements, type of elements and the potential dispersion and pollution patterns from each dump were used to characterise potential risk of water pollution associated with the different dump types. The results showed a slight increase in concentrations of most elements studied in downstream waters compared to upstream waters. The dump conditions varied from acidic to alkaline, and so the elements studied have different

  13. Long-Term Water Quality Studies in a Eutrophic Lake Catchment: Slapton Ley, SW England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, T. P.; Worrall, F.; Howden, N. J. K.

    2014-12-01

    Monitoring is the process by which we keep the behaviour of the environment in view, an essential way of discovering whether there are significant undesirable changes taking place. Long-term datasets reveal important patterns for scientists to explain and are essential for testing hypotheses undreamt of at the time monitoring scheme was set up. Many environmental processes take place over relatively long periods of time; very often, subtle processes are embedded within highly variable systems so that their weak signal cannot be extracted without a long record. Slapton Ley is a freshwater coastal lagoon in SW England. The Ley is part of a National Nature Reserve, wetland 116 ha in area which is divided into two basins: the Higher Ley (39 ha) is mainly reed swamp; the Lower Ley (77 ha) is open water. In the 1960s it became apparent that the Ley was becoming increasingly eutrophic. In order to gauge water, sediment and nutrient inputs into the lake, measurements began on the main catchments in late 1969. Continuous monitoring of discharge and a weekly water-sampling programme have been maintained by the Slapton Ley Field Centre ever since. The monitoring programme has been supplemented by a number of research projects which have sought to identify the salient hydrological processes operating within the Slapton catchments and to relate these to the delivery of sediment and solute to the stream system. The nitrate issue has been of particular interest at Slapton; although many longer series exist for large rivers like the Thames, the long record of nitrate data for the Slapton catchments is unique in Britain for small rural basins. Other issues to be explored will be the phosphorus legacy in lake sediments and a long-term decline in lake pH. The Slapton water quality record has confirmed that undesirable changes are taking place, revealed evidence of important patterns to be explained, allowed testing of new hypotheses (e.g. links with land-use change) and helped

  14. Land use, salinity and water quality. The case study of a coastal system in central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Canfora

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the evaluation of soil and groundwater quality was coupled with a T-RFLP and real time qPCR analysis of 16S and 18S rRNA genes in order to investigate the soil microbial community structure and diversity in a coastal lagoon system of Central Italy. The main aim of the research was to assess the reciprocal effect of the lagoon salinity and of the different land uses both on the inland groundwater and quality, and on the soil microbial community structure and diversity. Results emphasize for the first time the diversity of the microbial communities in environments with a strong salinity gradient, as affected by land use, depth and spatial location.

  15. BACTERIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF TAP WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Zamorska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The most sensitive method of detecting contamination in water supply networks is microbiological testing. Microbiological water safety is evaluated mainly based on the results of traditional tests that rely on bacteria culturing on the so called bacterial growth mediums. Flow cytometry is a modern technology that has been used in microbiology only recently. The diagnostic method based on flow cytometry is much faster and more versatile. Microbiological quality testing was conducted in rzeszowski district, in the area of water network supplied by surface waters, and in the area of water network supplied by underground waters. The scope of the analysis of the microbiological quality of tap water was based on the determination of selected indicators of the sanitary condition of water ie; the total number of psychrophilic and mesophilic bacteria on nutrient agar (reference called Agar A and additionally called agar supplemented with R, the number of coliforms and faecal streptococci. Determination of the total number of microorganisms by flow cytometry was performed using two dyes SYBR Green and iodide pyridine. Water from underground water intakes, not under the permanent control of microbial had worse microbiological parameters. Used new methods of microbiological assays showed greater amounts of microbiological contamination.

  16. A time series study of gastroenteritis and tap water quality in the Nantes area, France, 2002-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudeau, Pascal; Zeghnoun, Abdelkrim; Corso, Magali; Lefranc, Agnès; Rambaud, Loïc

    2014-01-01

    In the Nantes area, 410,000 inhabitants are supplied with water pumped from the Loire River. The treatment of this water is carried out through a process of complete clarification and disinfection. During the study period (2002-07), the quality of drinking water complied with European microbial standards and mean turbidity in finished water was 0.05 NTU (nephelometric turbidity units). We aimed to characterize the link between produced water turbidity and other operational data and the incidence of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in the Nantes area. The daily number of medical prescriptions for AGE was drawn from the French national health insurance system's drug reimbursement data. We modeled this time series using Poisson regression within the framework of a Generalized Additive Model. We showed that an interquartile range turbidity degradation (0.042-0.056 NTU) was connected to a 4.2% (CI95=(1.5%; 6.9%)) increase in the risk of AGE in children and a 2.9% (CI95=(0.5%; 5.4%)) increase in adults. The slope of the turbidity risk function was higher during both high- and low-water conditions of the river. High values of daily flow of produced water were also associated with higher endemic levels of AGE.

  17. Distribution patterns study of Escherichia coli as an Indicator for ground water quality at Matraman District, East Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisah, U.; Iswanto, B.; Rinanti, A.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the distribution pattern E.coli as indicators of ground water contamination by fecal coliforms at Matraman District, East Jakarta, Indonesia (106049‧35″E 06010‧37″LS) consisting of six sub-districts (Utan Kayu Selatan, Utan Kayu Utara, Kayu Manis, Pal Meriam, Kebon Manggis and Pisangan Baru). The presence of E.coli examined by the method of Most Probable Number (MPN) according to SNI 01-2332.1-2006 about the determination of coliforms and E.coli in fishery products which consists of three stages of tests in a row, the estimation, determination or confirmation and complementary or morphology test. Matraman District is a densely populated area and the distance between septic tank and well is inadequate, both with their own’s septic tank or with neighbors’s septic tank. The result of sample analysis shows that E.coli counts exceeds water quality standards in accordance with regulation Health Ministry No.492/2010 concerning the drinking water quality requirements. The lowest MPN number is 3 MPN/100 ml and the highest number of E. coli is more than1100 MPN/100 ml. The temperature, pH and DO0 on average are 27.520C, 5.59 and 2.24 mg/L. This study is expected to be a reference in the use of ground water for daily activities in the district Matraman.

  18. Assessment of groundwater quality at a MSW landfill site using standard and AHP based water quality index: a case study from Ranchi, Jharkhand, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Shubhrasekhar; Kumar, R Naresh

    2016-06-01

    Landfill leachate generated from open MSW dumpsite can cause groundwater contamination. The impact of open dumping of MSW on the groundwater of adjacent area was studied. To assess the spatial and temporal variations in groundwater quality, samples were collected around an open MSW dumping site in Ranchi city, Jharkhand, India. Groundwater samples were analysed for various physicochemical and bacteriological parameters for 1 year. Results indicated that the groundwater is getting contaminated due to vertical and horizontal migration of landfill leachate. Extent of contamination was higher in areas closer to the landfill as indicated by high alkalinity, total dissolved solids and ammonia concentration. Metals such as lead, iron, and manganese were present at concentrations of 0.097, 0.97 and 0.36 mg/L, respectively exceeding the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) 10,500 for drinking water. Enterobacteriaceae were also detected in several groundwater samples and highest coliform count of 2.1×10(4) CFU/mL was recorded from a dug well. In order to determine the overall groundwater quality, water quality index (WQI) was calculated using weighted arithmetic index method and this index was further modified by coupling with the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) to get specific information. WQI values indicated that the overall groundwater quality of the region came under "poor" category while zone wise classification indicated the extent of impact of landfill leachate on groundwater.

  19. The Pressure of Society on Water Quality: A Land Use Impact Study of Lake Ripley in Oakland, Wisconsin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Whalley

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Eutrophication of lakes occurs naturally over time, but the eutrophication rate can be accelerated by human activities. Agriculture land use can negatively impact water quality of lakes due to nutrient pollution. This research investigates the impacts of agricultural land use on the water quality of Lake Ripley in Oakland, Wisconsin from 1993 to 2011. This study performs a regression analysis which incorporates four years of National Land Cover Database (NLCD data, eight spatial categories based on hydrological flow length across topographic surface, and a weighting technique to calculate land use percentages. The results indicate that the combination of agricultural land use and rainfall variables are significantly related to chlorophyll a and total phosphorus concentrations, while these variables do not appear to affect Secchi depth measurements. Due to the near flat topography of the Lake Ripley watershed, agricultural land use within the two spatial regions closest to Lake Ripley and its inlet stream had the largest impact on Lake Ripley's water quality.

  20. A multivariate analysis of water quality in lake Naivasha, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ndungu, J.N.; Augustijn, Dionysius C.M.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; Fulanda, B.; Kitaka, N.; Mathooko, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Water quality information in aquatic ecosystems is crucial in setting up guidelines for resource management. This study explores the water quality status and pollution sources in Lake Naivasha, Kenya. Analysis of water quality parameters at seven sampling sites was carried out from water samples

  1. Development of a water quality index based on a European ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... water supply rather than general supply, and has been developed by studying the supranational standard, i.e. the European Community Standard. Three classification schemes for water quality are proposed for surface water quality assessment. Water quality determinants of the new index are cadmium, cyanide, mercury, ...

  2. Hydrology and heterogeneneous distribution of water quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out on the hydrology and heterogeneous distribution of water quality characteristics in the Lagoon of Porto-Novo between July 2014 and June 2015. The water body was stratified into 12 strata for sampling. Data and samples were collected based on season and stations. The results were analyzed in the ...

  3. STREAMFLOW AND WATER QUALITY REGRESSION MODELING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The upper reaches of Imo-river system between Nekede and Obigbo hydrological stations (a stretch of 24km) have been studied for the purpose of water quality and streamflow modeling. Model's applications on water supply to Nekede and Obigbo communities were equally explored with the development of mass curves.

  4. Water Quality for Hexachlorethane

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    by microbes and/or abiotic agents. Both aerobic and anoxic conditions existed in the materials, indicating the possible occurrence of anaerobic...conditions) by microbes and/or &biotic agents which are nonuniformly distributed in the aquifer materials, Hexachioroethane is more rapidly biodegraded in...studied the toxicity of hexachloroethane in &ODA ctebiana (bullfrog) tadpoles (2 to 5 g) in 96-hr flow-through acute tests, Tests were conducted in

  5. Ground Water Quality of Selected Wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosher R. Ahmed

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to characterize ground water quality in Zaweta district / Dohuk governorate, eight wells are selected to represent their water quality. Monthly samples are collected from the wells for the period from October 2005 to April 2006. The samples are tested for conductivity, total dissolved solids, pH, total hardness, chloride, alkalinity and nitrate according to the standard methods. The results of statistical analysis showed significant difference among the wells water quality in the measured parameters. Ground water quality of Zaweta district has high dissolved ions due to the nature of studied area rocks. Total dissolved solids of more than 1000 mg/l made the wells Gre-Qassroka, Kora and Swaratoka need to be treated to make taste palatable. Additionally high electrical conductivity and TDS made Zaweta ground water have a slight to moderate restriction to crop growth. The high alkalinity of Zaweta ground water indicated stabilized pH. The water quality of all the wells is found excessively hard. The nitrate concentration of Zaweta ground water ranged between 0.19-42.4 mg/l below the guidelines for WHO and the maximum nitrate concentration is recorded in Kora well .

  6. Pilot study of the effect of biofilms in irrigation pipes on the microbial water quality of irrigation water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irrigation is an essential element in the production of many food crops. Irrigation water is often delivered to fields from surface or subsurface sources via pipe-based systems. Surface waters are known to contain pathogenic microorganisms. Disease outbreaks in crops that are eaten raw (i.e. leafy g...

  7. Water quality assessment using water quality index and geographical information system methods in the coastal waters of Andaman Sea, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Dilip Kumar; Devi, Marimuthu Prashanthi; Vidyalakshmi, Rajendran; Brindha, Balan; Vinithkumar, Nambali Valsalan; Kirubagaran, Ramalingam

    2015-11-15

    Seawater samples at 54 stations in the year 2011-2012 from Chidiyatappu, Port Blair, Rangat and Aerial Bays of Andaman Sea, have been investigated in the present study. Datasets obtained have been converted into simple maps using coastal water quality index (CWQI) and Geographical Information System (GIS) based overlay mapping technique to demarcate healthy and polluted areas. Analysis of multiple parameters revealed poor water quality in Port Blair and Rangat Bays. The anthropogenic activities may be the likely cause for poor water quality. Whereas, good water quality was witnessed at Chidiyatappu Bay. Higher CWQI scores were perceived in the open sea. However, less exploitation of coastal resources owing to minimal anthropogenic activity indicated good water quality index at Chidiyatappu Bay. This study is an attempt to integrate CWQI and GIS based mapping technique to derive a reliable, simple and useful output for water quality monitoring in coastal environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Impacts of Land Use on Surface Water Quality in a Subtropical River Basin: A Case Study of the Dongjiang River Basin, Southeastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao Ding

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the relationship between land use and surface water quality is necessary for effective water management. We estimated the impacts of catchment-wide land use on water quality during the dry and rainy seasons in the Dongjiang River basin, using remote sensing, geographic information systems and multivariate statistical techniques. The results showed that the 83 sites can be divided into three groups representing different land use types: forest, agriculture and urban. Water quality parameters exhibited significant variations between the urban-dominated and forest-dominated sites. The proportion of forested land was positively associated with dissolved oxygen concentration but negatively associated with water temperature, electrical conductivity, permanganate index, total phosphorus, total nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen and chlorophyll-a. The proportion of urban land was strongly positively associated with total nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen concentrations. Forested and urban land use had stronger impacts on water quality in the dry season than in the rainy season. However, agricultural land use did not have a significant impact on water quality. Our study indicates that urban land use was the key factor affecting water quality change, and limiting point-source waste discharge in urban areas during the dry season would be critical for improving water quality in the study area.

  9. 18 CFR 801.7 - Water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water quality. 801.7... POLICIES § 801.7 Water quality. (a) The signatory States have the primary responsibility in the basin for water quality management and control. However, protection of the water resources of the basin from...

  10. 5 Water Quality.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    degraded forested area from the developing world where agricultural-derived revenue ... The water quality assessment conducted in the Densu, Birim and Ayensu Basins of Ghana in the Okyeman area between August 2005 and June 2006 .... Akwadun (Bridge-down) and. Kukurantumi. • Birim River Stations: Bunso Cocoa.

  11. A Paradigm Shift in Water Quality Governance in a Transitional Context: A Critical Study about the Empowerment of Local Governance in Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisira S. Withanachchi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The management of water quality is an important part of natural resource governance. Assurance of water quality therefore requires formulation of the regulatory framework and institutional process. Water quality-related problems and their management are mainly recognized as local responsibilities in Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM. The politics of environmental policy-making should consider the political economic dynamics and socio-ecological patterns. Decentralization by providing more power to the local level and moving to a new spatial management system that is based on water basins are the two strong entreaties in the new water governance paradigm. Transitional countries facing rapid institutional adjustment, restructuring of regulations, and political-economic changes are encountering these demands internally and externally in their policy formulations. In this context, this study critically examines the case of Georgia, a transitional country. In particular, the focus is on how local governance entities can be empowered and what obstacles water quality governance encounters in Georgia. Qualitative research design is the main research method implemented in this study. The key findings from the research analysis are as follows: the existing regulations and governance system do not facilitate the active engagement of local entities in water quality governance. The application of new water polices may fail again if a top-down governance model is put in place that only creates a narrow space for local governance entities to effectively govern water quality.

  12. Linking R&D Activities with Teaching: Water Quality Monitoring in Aquaculture as a Remote Laboratory Proxy for Environmental Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Borges

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a system for on-line study purposes and for demonstrative operation of water quality monitoring based on previous full-scale trials in a commercial aquaculture facility under the scope of a R&D project. This system is still under development, and was designed for sharing resources in R&D activities and later in distance learning blended courses. An application developed in LabVIEW is responsible for receiving information from physical and chemical data (water level, flow, oxygen, temperature, pH, ORP and CO2 through a hardware interface. The acquired data are recorded in a Microsoft Access database that can be locally queried as desired. An IP camera allows students to observe the system in real-time. Students can log into the system and follow the real-time variations of a specific water quality parameter and the synergetic effects of these changes on the levels of other constituents. The water tanks contain no living beings in order to allow free adjustments of the parameters under study. The system description, data and remote access link is integrated in a basic course available in a Moodle® server. The goal of this course is to provide a stimulating interdisciplinary environment to a diverse group of undergraduate students, where critical research questions related to water are addressed. This system, unique in the area concerning with our knowledge, intends to contribute also to students’ training on data monitoring and analysis; and to nourish analytical skills and creativity of future scientists by encouraging potential graduate students to go further. Finally, this system allows the students to be familiar with the use of some new information technologies.

  13. Evaluating an ecosystem management approach for improving water quality in two contrasting study catchments in south-west England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glendell, Miriam; Brazier, Richard

    2014-05-01

    The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) 2000 established a new emphasis for the management of freshwaters by establishing ecologically-based water quality targets that are to be achieved through holistic, catchment-scale, ecosystem management approaches. However, significant knowledge gaps still exist in the understanding of the cumulative effectiveness of multiple mitigation measures on a number of pollutants at a catchment scale. This research furthers the understanding of the effectiveness of an ecosystem management approach to deliver catchment-scale water quality improvements in two contrasting study catchments in south-west England: the lowland agricultural Aller and the upland semi-natural Horner Water. Characterisation of the spatial variability of soil properties (bulk density, total carbon, nitrogen, C:N ratio, stable isotope δ15N, total, organic and inorganic phosphorus) in the two study catchments demonstrated extensive alteration of soil properties in the agricultural catchment, with likely long-term implications for the restoration of ecosystem functioning and water quality management (Glendell et al., 2014b). Further, the agricultural catchment supported a proportionally greater total fluvial carbon (dissolved and particulate) export than the semi-natural catchment. During an eight month period for which a comparable continuous turbidity record was available, the estimated SS yields from the agricultural catchment (25.5-116.2 t km-2) were higher than from the semi-natural catchment (21.7-57.8 t km-2). In addition, the agricultural catchment exported proportionally more TPC (0.51-2.59 kg mm-1) than the semi-natural catchment (0.36-0.97 kg mm-1) and a similar amount of DOC (0.26-0.52 kg mm-1 in the Aller and 0.24-0.32 kg mm-1 in Horner Water), when normalised by catchment area and total discharge, despite the lower total soil carbon pool, thus indicating an enhanced fluvial loss of sediment and carbon (Glendell and Brazier, in review). Whilst

  14. Shallow Water Optical Water Quality Buoy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostater, Charles

    1998-01-01

    This NASA grant was funded as a result of an unsolicited proposal submission to Kennedy Space Center. The proposal proposed the development and testing of a shallow water optical water quality buoy. The buoy is meant to work in shallow aquatic systems (ponds, rivers, lagoons, and semi-enclosed water areas where strong wind wave action is not a major environmental During the project period of three years, a demonstration of the buoy was conducted. The last demonstration during the project period was held in November, 1996 when the buoy was demonstrated as being totally operational with no tethered communications line. During the last year of the project the buoy was made to be solar operated by large gel cell batteries. Fund limitations did not permit the batteries in metal enclosures as hoped for higher wind conditions, however the system used to date has worked continuously for in- situ operation of over 18 months continuous deployment. The system needs to have maintenance and somewhat continuous operational attention since various components have limited lifetime ages. For example, within the last six months the onboard computer has had to be repaired as it did approximately 6 months after deployment. The spectrograph had to be repaired and costs for repairs was covered by KB Science since no ftmds were available for this purpose after the grant expired. Most recently the computer web page server failed and it is currently being repaired by KB Science. In addition, the cell phone operation is currently being ftmded by Dr. Bostater in order to maintain the system's operation. The above points need to be made to allow NASA to understand that like any sophisticated measuring system in a lab or in the field, necessary funding and maintenance is needed to insure the system's operational state and to obtain quality factor. The proposal stated that the project was based upon the integration of a proprietary and confidential sensor and probe design that was developed by

  15. Quality assessment of drinking water in Temeke District (part II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... parameters of drinking water samples from different drinking water sources. The drinking water sources examined included tap water, river water and well water (deep and shallow wells). Water quality studied includes pH, chloride, nitrate and total hardness levels. The concentrations of total hardness in mg CaCO3/L and ...

  16. Drinking water quality monitoring using trend analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomperi, Jani; Juuso, Esko; Eteläniemi, Mira; Leiviskä, Kauko

    2014-06-01

    One of the common quality parameters for drinking water is residual aluminium. High doses of residual aluminium in drinking water or water used in the food industry have been proved to be at least a minor health risk or even to increase the risk of more serious health effects, and cause economic losses to the water treatment plant. In this study, the trend index is developed from scaled measurement data to detect a warning of changes in residual aluminium level in drinking water. The scaling is based on monotonously increasing, non-linear functions, which are generated with generalized norms and moments. Triangular episodes are classified with the trend index and its derivative. The severity of the situations is evaluated by deviation indices. The trend episodes and the deviation indices provide good tools for detecting changes in water quality and for process control.

  17. Water quality assessment of Kavvayi Lake of northern Kerala, India using CCME water quality index and biological water quality criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiji, M; Sabitha, A R; Prabhakar, Kavya; Harikumar, P S

    2016-11-01

    Assessment of water quality status of 7 sites of Kavvayi Wetland in northern Kerala (India) was carried out. The physico-chemical, bacteriological and biological parameters were monitored during pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) water quality index of the Kavvayi Lake samples ranged from 43.99-44.77; indicating that water quality was threatened or impaired. The poor water quality status might be due to dumping of wastes from municipal and domestic sources and agricultural runoff. Biological water quality criteria (BWQC) determined for wetland revealed that stations such as mixing point of Kariangode River into Kavvayi Lake and Kottikkadavu was moderately polluted in pre-monsoon and post- monsoon seasons. Mixing point of Nileswar River into Kavvayi Lake was moderately polluted in pre-monsoon season. Both calculated indices suggest that quality of lake was found to be influenced by anthropogenic activities such as unscientific tourism and infrastructure development, land encroachment, sand mining, pollution etc. The study was carried out as part of a programme, which aimed to conserve Kavvayi wetland because of its unique ecological and environmental characteristics.

  18. Cornell University remote sensing program. [application to waste disposal site selection, study of drainage patterns, and water quality management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, T.; Mcnair, A. J.; Philipson, W. R.

    1977-01-01

    Aircraft and satellite remote sensing technology were applied in the following areas: (1) evaluation of proposed fly ash disposal sites; (2) development of priorities for drainage improvements; (3) state park analysis for rehabilitation and development; (4) watershed study for water quality planning; and (5) assistance project-landfill site selection. Results are briefly summarized. Other projects conducted include: (1) assessment of vineyard-related problems; (2) LANDSAT analysis for pheasant range management; (3) photo-historic evaluation of Revolutionary War sites; and (4) thermal analysis of building insulation. The objectives, expected benefits and actions, and status of these projects are described.

  19. Saline waters and soil quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Dazzi

    Full Text Available The processes of secondary salinization due to anthropic actions are considered one of the most important environmental emergencies owing to their level of dangerousness. The soils of the dry areas of the Mediterranean basin are particularly prone to these processes. In such environments, it is imperative to resort to irrigation that allow for the reduction of risks due to soil moisture deficit and for the stabilization of yields. Frequently, saline waters are used that cause a lowering of the soil quality. If on one hand the presence of salts can benefit the soils mainly improving soil structure, on the other high levels of salts produce negative effects on soils and crops.When sodium prevails problems of soil quality can rise such as structure degradation, low hydraulic conductivity, soil sealing. The processes of secondary soil salinization due to the use of saline waters for irrigation are particularly evident in our Country among others. In Italy, saline soils are mainly distributed in long strips of the coastal belt of the Tyrrhenian sea and Adriatic sea, in the coastal belt of Apulia, Basilicata and Sardinia and in wide areas of Sicily. It is not possible to suggest general actions to combat soil salinization because we must take into consideration that in the relationship soil-water two different quality concept interact: one linked to the soils, the other to the waters.

  20. Saline waters and soil quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Dazzi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The processes of secondary salinization due to anthropic actions are considered one of the most important environmental emergencies owing to their level of dangerousness. The soils of the dry areas of the Mediterranean basin are particularly prone to these processes. In such environments, it is imperative to resort to irrigation that allow for the reduction of risks due to soil moisture deficit and for the stabilization of yields. Frequently, saline waters are used that cause a lowering of the soil quality. If on one hand the presence of salts can benefit the soils mainly improving soil structure, on the other high levels of salts produce negative effects on soils and crops.When sodium prevails problems of soil quality can rise such as structure degradation, low hydraulic conductivity, soil sealing. The processes of secondary soil salinization due to the use of saline waters for irrigation are particularly evident in our Country among others. In Italy, saline soils are mainly distributed in long strips of the coastal belt of the Tyrrhenian sea and Adriatic sea, in the coastal belt of Apulia, Basilicata and Sardinia and in wide areas of Sicily. It is not possible to suggest general actions to combat soil salinization because we must take into consideration that in the relationship soil-water two different quality concept interact: one linked to the soils, the other to the waters.

  1. Spatio-temporal evaluation of Yamchi Dam basin water quality using Canadian water quality index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzadkia, Mahdi; Djahed, Babak; Shahsavani, Esmaeel; Poureshg, Yousef

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, the growth of population and increase of the industries around the tributaries of Yamchi Dam basin have led to deterioration of dam water quality. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of the Yamchi Dam basin water, which is used for drinking and irrigation consumptions using Canadian Water Quality Index (CWQI) model, and to determine the main water pollution sources of this basin. Initially, nine sampling stations were selected in the sensitive locations of the mentioned basin's tributaries, and 12 physico-chemical parameters and 2 biological parameters were measured. The CWQI for drinking consumptions was under 40 at all the stations indicating a poor water quality for drinking consumptions. On the other hand, the CWQI was 62-100 for irrigation at different stations; thus, the water had an excellent to fair quality for irrigation consumptions. Almost in all the stations, the quality of irrigation and drinking water in cold season was better. Besides, for drinking use, total coliform and fecal coliform had the highest frequency of failure, and total coliform had the maximum deviation from the specified objective. For irrigation use, total suspended solids had the highest frequency of failure and deviation from the objective in most of the stations. The pisciculture center, aquaculture center, and the Nir City wastewater discharge were determined as the main pollution sources of the Yamchi Dam basin. Therefore, to improve the water quality in this important surface water resource, urban and industrial wastewater treatment prior to disposal and more stringent environmental legislations are recommended.

  2. Environmental and Water Quality Operational Studies: Limnological Studies at Eau Galle, Lake, Wisconsin. Report 2. Special Studies and Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    an important factor in nutrient cycling in the water column(Bloesch, Stadelmann , and Buhrer 1977; Kim- II mel and Goldman 1977) and subsidizes...Technical Report E-85-2. US Army Engineer Waterways Experi- ment Station, Vicksburg, Miss. Bloesh, J., P. Stadelmann , and H. Buhrer. 1977. Primary

  3. River water quality modelling: II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shanahan, P.; Henze, Mogens; Koncsos, L.

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. EPA QUAL2E model is currently the standard for river water quality modelling. While QUAL2E is adequate for the regulatory situation for which it was developed (the U.S. wasteload allocation process), there is a need for a more comprehensive framework for research and teaching. Moreover......, and to achieve robust model calibration. Mass balance problems arise from failure to account for mass in the sediment as well as in the water column and due to the fundamental imprecision of BOD as a state variable. (C) 1998 IAWQ Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  4. Monitoring water quality by remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A limited study was conducted to determine the applicability of remote sensing for evaluating water quality conditions in the San Francisco Bay and delta. Considerable supporting data were available for the study area from other than overflight sources, but short-term temporal and spatial variability precluded their use. The study results were not sufficient to shed much light on the subject, but it did appear that, with the present state of the art in image analysis and the large amount of ground truth needed, remote sensing has only limited application in monitoring water quality.

  5. North Raccoon River Topeka Shiner Critical Habitat Unit, Iowa Water Quality Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Between 2006 and 2008, we tested surface water in the Buttrick Creek system for nitrogen chemicals (ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate). Buttrick Creek is in the North...

  6. 9 CFR 3.106 - Water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water quality. 3.106 Section 3.106... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.106 Water quality. (a) General. The primary enclosure... additives (e.g. chlorine and copper) that are added to the water to maintain water quality standards...

  7. Water quality management for Lake Mariout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Donia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A hydrodynamic and water quality model was used to study the current status of the Lake Mariout subject to the pollution loadings from the agricultural drains and the point sources discharging directly to the Lake. The basic water quality modelling component simulates the main water quality parameters including the oxygen compounds (BOD, COD, DO, nutrients compounds (NH4, TN, TP, and finally the temperature, salinity and inorganic matter. Many scenarios have been conducted to improve the circulation and the water quality in the lake and to assess the spreading and mixing of the discharge effluents and its impact on the water quality of the main basin. Several pilot interventions were applied through the model in the Lake Mariout together with the upgrades of the East and West Waste Water Treatment Plants in order to achieve at least 5% reduction in the pollution loads entering the Mediterranean Sea through Lake Mariout in order to improve the institutional mechanisms for sustainable coastal zone management in Alexandria in particular to reduce land-based pollution to the Mediterranean Sea.

  8. Integrated Urban Water Quality Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rauch, W.; Harremoës, Poul

    1995-01-01

    system provides useful information for water quality management. It is possible to identify the system parameters that contain engineering significance. Continuous simulation of the system performance indicates that the combined nitrogen loading is dominated by the wastewater treatment plant during dry......The basic features of integrated urban water quality management by means of deterministic modeling are outlined. Procedures for the assessment of the detrimental effects in the recipient are presented as well as the basic concepts of an integrated model. The analysis of a synthetic urban drainage...... weather, while the overflow from the combined sewer system plays a minor role. Oxygen depletion in urban rivers is caused by intermittent discharges from both sewer system and wastewater treatment plant. Neglecting one of them in the evaluation of the environmental impact gives a wrong impression of total...

  9. Hydrologic conditions, stream-water quality, and selected groundwater studies conducted in the Lawrenceville area, Georgia, 2003-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, John S.; Williams, Lester J.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrologic studies conducted during 2003-2008 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey Cooperative Water Program with the City of Lawrenceville, Georgia, provide important data for the management of water resources. The Cooperative Water Program includes (1) hydrologic monitoring (precipitation, streamflow, and groundwater levels) to quantify baseline conditions in anticipation of expanded groundwater development, (2) surface-water-quality monitoring to provide an understanding of how stream quality is affected by natural (such as precipitation) and anthropogenic factors (such as impervious area), and (3) geologic studies to better understand groundwater flow and hydrologic processes in a crystalline rock setting. The hydrologic monitoring network includes each of the two watersheds projected for groundwater development?the Redland-Pew Creek and upper Alcovy River watersheds?and the upper Apalachee River watershed, which serves as a background or control watershed because of its similar hydrologic and geologic characteristics to the other two watersheds. In each watershed, precipitation was generally greater during 2003-2005 than during 2006-2008, and correspondingly streamflow and groundwater levels decreased. In the upper Alcovy River and Redland-Pew Creek watersheds, groundwater level declines during 2003-2008 were mostly between 2 and 7 feet, with maximum observed declines of as much as 28.5 feet in the upper Alcovy River watershed, and 49.1 feet in the Redland-Pew Creek watershed. Synoptic base-flow measurements were used to locate and quantify gains or losses to streamflow resulting from groundwater interaction (groundwater seepage). In September 2006, seepage gains were measured at five of nine reaches evaluated in the upper Alcovy River watershed, with losses in the other four. The four losing reaches were near the confluence of the Alcovy River and Cedar Creek where the stream gradient is low and bedrock is at or near the land surface. In the Redland

  10. National Water-Quality Assessment Program: Island of Oahu, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Stephen S.

    1998-01-01

    During the past 25 years, our Nation has sought to improve its water quality; however, many water-quality issues remain unresolved. To address the need for consistent and scientifically sound information for managing the Nation's water resources, the U.S. Geological Survey began a full-scale National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program in 1991. This program is unique compared with other national water-quality assessment studies in that it integrates the monitoring of the quality of surface and ground waters with the study of aquatic ecosystems. The goals of the NAWQA Program are to (1) describe current water-quality conditions for a large part of the Nation's freshwater streams and aquifers, (2) describe how water quality is changing over time, and (3) improve our understanding of the primary natural and human factors affecting water quality. Assessing the quality of water in every location of the Nation would not be practical; therefore, NAWQA Program studies are conducted within a set of areas called study units. These study units represent the diverse geography, water resources, and land and water uses of the Nation. The island of Oahu, Hawaii, is one such study unit designed to supplement water-quality information collected in other study units across the Nation while addressing issues relevant to the island of Oahu.

  11. Quality assurance and quality control in light stable isotope laboratories: A case study of Rio Grande, Texas, water samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplen, T.B.; Qi, H.

    2009-01-01

    New isotope laboratories can achieve the goal of reporting the same isotopic composition within analytical uncertainty for the same material analysed decades apart by (1) writing their own acceptance testing procedures and putting them into their mass spectrometric or laser-based isotope-ratio equipment procurement contract, (2) requiring a manufacturer to demonstrate acceptable performance using all sample ports provided with the instrumentation, (3) for each medium to be analysed, prepare two local reference materials substantially different in isotopic composition to encompass the range in isotopic composition expected in the laboratory and calibrated them with isotopic reference materials available from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) or the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), (4) using the optimum storage containers (for water samples, sealing in glass ampoules that are sterilised after sealing is satisfactory), (5) interspersing among sample unknowns local laboratory isotopic reference materials daily (internationally distributed isotopic reference materials can be ordered at three-year intervals, and can be used for elemental analyser analyses and other analyses that consume less than 1 mg of material) - this process applies to H, C, N, O, and S isotope ratios, (6) calculating isotopic compositions of unknowns by normalising isotopic data to that of local reference materials, which have been calibrated to internationally distributed isotopic reference materials, (7) reporting results on scales normalised to internationally distributed isotopic reference materials (where they are available) and providing to sample submitters the isotopic compositions of internationally distributed isotopic reference materials of the same substance had they been analysed with unknowns, (8) providing an audit trail in the laboratory for analytical results - this trail commonly will be in electronic format and might include a laboratory

  12. Klang River water quality modelling using music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahari, Nazirul Mubin; Zawawi, Mohd Hafiz; Muda, Zakaria Che; Sidek, Lariyah Mohd; Fauzi, Nurfazila Mohd; Othman, Mohd Edzham Fareez; Ahmad, Zulkepply

    2017-09-01

    Water is an essential resource that sustains life on earth; changes in the natural quality and distribution of water have ecological impacts that can sometimes be devastating. Recently, Malaysia is facing many environmental issues regarding water pollution. The main causes of river pollution are rapid urbanization, arising from the development of residential, commercial, industrial sites, infrastructural facilities and others. The purpose of the study was to predict the water quality of the Connaught Bridge Power Station (CBPS), Klang River. Besides that, affects to the low tide and high tide and. to forecast the pollutant concentrations of the Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Total Suspended Solid (TSS) for existing land use of the catchment area through water quality modeling (by using the MUSIC software). Besides that, to identifying an integrated urban stormwater treatment system (Best Management Practice or BMPs) to achieve optimal performance in improving the water quality of the catchment using the MUSIC software in catchment areas having tropical climates. Result from MUSIC Model such as BOD5 at station 1 can be reduce the concentration from Class IV to become Class III. Whereas, for TSS concentration from Class III to become Class II at the station 1. The model predicted a mean TSS reduction of 0.17%, TP reduction of 0.14%, TN reduction of 0.48% and BOD5 reduction of 0.31% for Station 1 Thus, from the result after purposed BMPs the water quality is safe to use because basically water quality monitoring is important due to threat such as activities are harmful to aquatic organisms and public health.

  13. Apportionment of sources affecting water quality: Case study of Kandla Creek, Gulf of Katchchh

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dalal, S.G.; Shirodkar, P.V.; Verlekar, X.N.; Jagtap, T.G.; Rao, G.S.

    characteristics of the Kandla Creek waters (Figure 1) were car- ried out under the environmental monitoring program of the Kandla Port Trust. The sampling was done during October 2002 to September 2003 and during June 2004 to May 2005 covering each season... of the port, industrial units, and sampling stations during a monitoring program of Kandla Creek, Gulf of Katchchh, India. cargo jetty, off IOC oil jetty and where Sara and Phang Creeks meet Kandla Creek. The water samples were collected from surface, mid...

  14. Assessing river water quality using water quality index in Lake Taihu Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhaoshi; Wang, Xiaolong; Chen, Yuwei; Cai, Yongjiu; Deng, Jiancai

    2018-01-15

    Lake Taihu Basin, one of the most developed regions in China, has received considerable attention due to its severe pollution. Our study provides a clear understanding of the water quality in the rivers of Lake Taihu Basin based on basin-scale monitoring and a water quality index (WQI) method. From September 2014 to January 2016, four samplings across four seasons were conducted at 96 sites along main rivers. Fifteen parameters, including water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), conductivity, turbidity (tur), permanganate index (CODMn), total nitrogen, total phosphorus, ammonium (NH4-N), nitrite, nitrate (NO3-N), calcium, magnesium, chloride, and sulfate, were measured to calculate the WQI. The average WQI value during our study period was 59.33; consequently, the water quality was considered as generally "moderate". Significant differences in WQI values were detected among the 6 river systems, with better water quality in the Tiaoxi and Nanhe systems. The water quality presented distinct seasonal variation, with the highest WQI values in autumn, followed by spring and summer, and the lowest values in winter. The minimum WQI (WQImin), which was developed based on a stepwise linear regression analysis, consisted of five parameters: NH4-N, CODMn, NO3-N, DO, and tur. The model exhibited excellent performance in representing the water quality in Lake Taihu Basin, especially when weights were fully considered. Our results are beneficial for water quality management and could be used for rapid and low-cost water quality evaluation in Lake Taihu Basin. Additionally, we suggest that weights of environmental parameters should be fully considered in water quality assessments when using the WQImin method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A modeling study of the impacts of Mississippi River diversion and sea-level rise on water quality of a deltaic estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongqing; Chen, Qin; Hu, Kelin; LaPeyre, Megan K.

    2017-01-01

    Freshwater and sediment management in estuaries affects water quality, particularly in deltaic estuaries. Furthermore, climate change-induced sea-level rise (SLR) and land subsidence also affect estuarine water quality by changing salinity, circulation, stratification, sedimentation, erosion, residence time, and other physical and ecological processes. However, little is known about how the magnitudes and spatial and temporal patterns in estuarine water quality variables will change in response to freshwater and sediment management in the context of future SLR. In this study, we applied the Delft3D model that couples hydrodynamics and water quality processes to examine the spatial and temporal variations of salinity, total suspended solids, and chlorophyll-α concentration in response to small (142 m3 s−1) and large (7080 m3 s−1) Mississippi River (MR) diversions under low (0.38 m) and high (1.44 m) relative SLR (RSLR = eustatic SLR + subsidence) scenarios in the Breton Sound Estuary, Louisiana, USA. The hydrodynamics and water quality model were calibrated and validated via field observations at multiple stations across the estuary. Model results indicate that the large MR diversion would significantly affect the magnitude and spatial and temporal patterns of the studied water quality variables across the entire estuary, whereas the small diversion tends to influence water quality only in small areas near the diversion. RSLR would also play a significant role on the spatial heterogeneity in estuary water quality by acting as an opposite force to river diversions; however, RSLR plays a greater role than the small-scale diversion on the magnitude and spatial pattern of the water quality parameters in this deltaic estuary.

  16. Applicability of market-based instruments for safeguarding water quality in coastal waterways: Case study for Darwin Harbour, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Romy

    2014-02-01

    Water pollution of coastal waterways is a complex problem due to the cocktail of pollutants and multiplicity of polluters involved and pollution characteristics. Pollution control therefore requires a combination of policy instruments. This paper examines the applicability of market-based instruments to achieve effective and efficient water quality management in Darwin Harbour, Northern Territory, Australia. Potential applicability of instruments is examined in the context of biophysical and economic pollution characteristics, and experience with instruments elsewhere. The paper concludes that there is potential for inclusion of market-based instruments as part of an instrument mix to safeguard water quality in Darwin Harbour. It recommends, in particular, expanding the existing licencing system to include quantitative pollution limits for all significant point polluters; comprehensive and independent pollution monitoring across Darwin Harbour; public disclosure of water quality and emissions data; positive incentives for landholders in the Darwin Harbour catchment to improve land management practices; a stormwater offset program for greenfield urban developments; adoption of performance bonds for developments and operations which pose a substantial risk to water quality, including port expansion and dredging; and detailed consideration of a bubble licensing scheme for nutrient pollution. The paper offers an analytical framework for policy makers and resource managers tasked with water quality management in coastal waterways elsewhere in Australia and globally, and helps to scan for MBIs suitable in any given environmental management situation.

  17. Evaluation of exposure to trihalomethanes in tap water and semen quality: a prospective study in Wuhan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qiang; Chen, Yong-Zhe; Xu, Liang; Chen, Hai-Xia; Luo, Yan; Li, Min; Yue, Jing; Liu, Ai-Lin; Li, Yu-Feng; Lu, Wen-Qing

    2014-07-01

    Trihalomethanes (THMs) have been demonstrated to adversely affect male reproductive health in animals, but the evidence in humans is limited. The study aimed to examine the association between THM exposure and semen quality in a Chinese population. We recruited 324 men from the same water supply district in Wuhan, China between April 2011 and May 2012. Exposure to THMs was evaluated based on their concentrations in tap water measured within 90 days preceding semen collection, the uptake factors of THMs and personal information on ingestion and showering/bathing. We found that TTHM [sum of chloroform (TCM) and brominated THMs (Br-THMs)], TCM and Br-THM uptakes via ingestion were associated with significant or suggestive decreasing trends in sperm concentration (P for trend=0.01, 0.03 and 0.05, respectively) and sperm count (P for trend=0.02, 0.05 and 0.09, respectively). Our results suggest that THM exposure via ingestion may adversely affect semen quality. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. National Water-Quality Assessment Program— Pesticides in the Trinity River Basin study unit, Texas, 1968-91

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulery, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    The Trinity River Basin National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) study-unit staff began assessment activities in 1991, and in 1992, undertook a retrospective review of existing data on pesticides. The main purpose of this review was to aid in the design of a pesticide-sampling network for the study unit. The review consisted of the compilation, screening, and analysis of available pesticide-sample information. In addition, important environmental factors, which influence the occurrence and distribution of pesticides in the study unit, were identified and compiled. A report of this review and analysis will be released in 1995 (Ulery and Brown, in press). This fact sheet provides a brief overview of significant findings.

  19. Quality indexes based on water measurements for low and medium energy x-ray beams: A theoretical study with PENELOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chica, U. [Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada, Spain and FISRAD S.A.S Carrera 64 a No 22-41, Bogotá D.C. (Colombia); Anguiano, M.; Lallena, A. M., E-mail: lallena@ugr.es [Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Vilches, M. [Servicio de Radiofísica, Hospital Universitario “San Cecilio”, Avda. Dr. Olóriz, 16, E-18012 Granada (Spain)

    2014-01-15

    Purpose : To study the use of quality indexes based on ratios of absorbed doses in water at two different depths to characterize x-ray beams of low and medium energies. Methods : A total of 55 x-ray beam spectra were generated with the codes XCOMP5R and SPEKCALC and used as input of a series of Monte Carlo simulations performed with PENELOPE, in which the percentage depth doses in water and thek{sub Q,Q{sub 0}} factors, defined in the TRS-398 protocol, were determined for each beam. Some of these calculations were performed by simulating the ionization chamber PTW 30010. Results : The authors found that the relation betweenk{sub Q,Q{sub 0}} and the ratios of absorbed doses at two depths is almost linear. A set of ratios statistically compatible with that showing the best fit has been determined. Conclusions : The results of this study point out which of these ratios of absorbed doses in water could be used to better characterize x-ray beams of low and medium energies.

  20. Water Quality Management Studies Lake Seminole, April-November 1978. Phase I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    srrulata; speckled alder x Bgetula nigra; river birch x Brasenia schreberi; watershield x Cabomba caroliniana; fanwort x Sphencclea zeylandica; chicken spike...crassipes; water hyacinth P Game Management Area Myipyllum spicatur; Eurasian waterrnilfoil 75 aribras iuiensis; parrotfeather 5 Cbma caroliniana; fanwort 5...splitleaf pennywort P Lemna perpusilla; commion duckweed P Fish Pond Drain Area Hydrilla verticillata; Hydrilla 75 Cabomba caroiniia; fanwort P ajps spp

  1. River water quality in weathered limestone: A case study in upper ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Civil Engineering Department, Kakatiya Institute of Technology and Science, Warangal 550 6015 (A.P), India. 2. Civil Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208 016 (U.P), India. ... diagrams indicate that kaolinite and Ca-smectite are stable in the river water environment, hence they occur in ...

  2. Sampling design for compliance monitoring of surface water quality: A case study in a Polder area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.; Knotters, M.

    2008-01-01

    International agreements such as the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) ask for efficient sampling methods for monitoring natural resources. In this paper a general methodology for designing efficient, statistically sound monitoring schemes is described. An important decision is the choice between a

  3. Validation Study and Quality Assurance of Pharmaceutical Water, Waterborne Microorganisms and Endotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shintani, Hideharu

    2016-01-01

     Water for injection (WFI) and purified water are the most widely used and stringently regulated raw material in pharmaceutical manufacturing. WFI is utilized for a parenteral drug product. Water system is monitored at frequent and routine frequency for demonstrating the overall system control and stability of performance. The critical ports demonstrating systemic control should be monitored more frequently. For reducing the overall risk of microbial contamination or microbial build-up, it is important to develop appropriate alert and action levels. The assignment of alert and action levels should be performance-based, derived from the historic data and well below water specifications. These levels and overall excursion rates should be assessed annually. An action level should not be established at a level equivalent to the specification. Consecutive or multiple alert level excursions and each action level excursion should be comprehensively investigated with appropriate corrective and preventive action. It is important to analyze the efficacy of the corrective and preventive action to reduce the overall excursion rates.

  4. Assessing the Bacteriological Quality of Drinking Water from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 90 water samples from different water sources (-protected and unprotected well; protected and unprotected spring; and tap water) and bacteriological water quality parameters were analyzed using the membrane filtration method. Water analysis demonstrated that all water sources in the study areas were ...

  5. Drainage water management effects on tile discharge and water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen (N) fluxes from tile drained watersheds have been implicated in water quality studies of the Mississippi River Basin, but the contribution of tile drains to N export in headwater watersheds is not well understood. The objective of this study was to ascertain seasonal and annual contribution...

  6. Reduction of Waste Water in Erhai Lake Based on MIKE21 Hydrodynamic and Water Quality Model

    OpenAIRE

    Changjun Zhu; Qinag Liang; Feng Yan; Wenlong Hao

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the ecological water environment in Erhai Lake, different monitoring sections were set to research the change of hydrodynamics and water quality. According to the measured data, MIKE21 Ecolab, the water quality simulation software developed by DHI, is applied to simulate the water quality in Erhai Lake. The hydrodynamics model coupled with water quality is established by MIKE21FM software to simulate the current situation of Erhai Lake. Then through the comparison with the m...

  7. The quality of water in small community supplies of Kingolwira ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water quality is an important aspect in human health, as the majority of infectious diseases that cause morbidity and mortality in population are water related. The present study was undertaken to assess the quality of water in Kingolwira, Morogoro Rural District, Tanzania. Water was collected from different sites in the village ...

  8. Effects of urbanization on water quality variables along urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focuses on water quality of permanent and temporary water bodies along the urban and suburban gradients of Chennai City, South India. Water samples were analyzed for their major elements and nutrients. The results indicated that the response of water quality variables was different when compared to urban ...

  9. 78 FR 20252 - Water Quality Standards; Withdrawal of Certain Federal Water Quality Criteria Applicable to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 131 RIN 2040-AF33 Water Quality Standards; Withdrawal of Certain Federal Water Quality... certain human health and aquatic life water quality criteria applicable to waters of New Jersey, Puerto... establish numeric water quality criteria for 12 states and two Territories, including New Jersey, Puerto...

  10. Case study of odor and indoor air quality assessment in the dewatering building at the Stickney Water Reclamation Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manju; O'Connell, Susan; Garelli, Brett; Sattayatewa, Chakkrid; Moschandreas, Demetrios; Pagilla, Krishna

    2012-01-01

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) and odors were determined using sampling/monitoring, measurement, and modeling methods in a large dewatering building at a very large water reclamation plant. The ultimate goal was to determine control strategies to reduce the sensory impacts on the workforce and achieve odor reduction within the building. Study approaches included: (1) investigation of air mixing by using CO(2) as an indicator, (2) measurement of airflow capacity of ventilation fans, (3) measurement of odors and odorants, (4) development of statistical and IAQ models, and (5) recommendation of control strategies. The results showed that air quality in the building complies with occupational safety and health guidelines; however, nuisance odors that can increase stress and productivity loss still persist. Excess roof fan capacity induced odor dispersion to the upper levels. Lack of a local air exhaust system of sufficient capacity and optimum design was found to be the contributor to occasional less than adequate indoor air quality and odors. Overall, air ventilation rate in the building has less effect on persistence of odors in the building. Odor/odorant emission rates from centrifuge drops were approximately 100 times higher than those from the open conveyors. Based on measurements and modeling, the key control strategies recommended include increasing local air exhaust system capacity and relocation of exhaust hoods closer to the centrifuge drops.

  11. Identification of water quality degradation hotspots in developing countries by applying large scale water quality modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malsy, Marcus; Reder, Klara; Flörke, Martina

    2014-05-01

    Decreasing water quality is one of the main global issues which poses risks to food security, economy, and public health and is consequently crucial for ensuring environmental sustainability. During the last decades access to clean drinking water increased, but 2.5 billion people still do not have access to basic sanitation, especially in Africa and parts of Asia. In this context not only connection to sewage system is of high importance, but also treatment, as an increasing connection rate will lead to higher loadings and therefore higher pressure on water resources. Furthermore, poor people in developing countries use local surface waters for daily activities, e.g. bathing and washing. It is thus clear that water utilization and water sewerage are indispensable connected. In this study, large scale water quality modelling is used to point out hotspots of water pollution to get an insight on potential environmental impacts, in particular, in regions with a low observation density and data gaps in measured water quality parameters. We applied the global water quality model WorldQual to calculate biological oxygen demand (BOD) loadings from point and diffuse sources, as well as in-stream concentrations. Regional focus in this study is on developing countries i.e. Africa, Asia, and South America, as they are most affected by water pollution. Hereby, model runs were conducted for the year 2010 to draw a picture of recent status of surface waters quality and to figure out hotspots and main causes of pollution. First results show that hotspots mainly occur in highly agglomerated regions where population density is high. Large urban areas are initially loading hotspots and pollution prevention and control become increasingly important as point sources are subject to connection rates and treatment levels. Furthermore, river discharge plays a crucial role due to dilution potential, especially in terms of seasonal variability. Highly varying shares of BOD sources across

  12. R2 Water Quality Portal Monitoring Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Water Quality Data Portal (WQP) provides an easy way to access data stored in various large water quality databases. The WQP provides various input parameters on...

  13. HAWQS (Hydrologic and Water Quality System)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A water quantity and quality modeling system to evaluate the impacts of management alternatives, pollution control scenarios, and climate change scenarios on the quantity and quality of water at a national scale.

  14. Water Quality Trading Toolkit for Permit Writers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Quality Trading Toolkit for Permit Writers is EPA’s first “how-to” manual on designing and implementing water quality trading programs. It helps NPDES permitting authorities incorporate trading provisions into permits.

  15. National Water Quality Standards Database (NWQSD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Water Quality Standards Database (WQSDB) provides access to EPA and state water quality standards (WQS) information in text, tables, and maps. This data...

  16. Assessing water quality in Lake Naivasha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ndungu, J.N.

    2014-01-01

    Water quality in aquatic systems is important because it maintains the ecological processes that support biodiversity. However, declining water quality due to environmental perturbations threatens the stability of the biotic integrity and therefore hinders the ecosystem services and functions of

  17. R2 Water Quality Portal Monitoring Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Quality Data Portal (WQP) provides an easy way to access data stored in various large water quality databases. The WQP provides various input parameters on the form including location, site, sampling, and date parameters to filter and customize the returned results. The The Water Quality Portal (WQP) is a cooperative service sponsored by the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Water Quality Monitoring Council (NWQMC) that integrates publicly available water quality data from the USGS National Water Information System (NWIS) the EPA STOrage and RETrieval (STORET) Data Warehouse, and the USDA ARS Sustaining The Earth??s Watersheds - Agricultural Research Database System (STEWARDS).

  18. Study of the quality and quantity of waters of a tributary watershed of Paraíba do Sul river- São Paulo, after environmental preservation actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Andrade

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring programs of water quality and quantity are necessary to provide subsidies to assess the conditions of the watersheds and for decision making regarding to the management of water resources. This study analyzed the quality and quantity of waters of the Macacos stream watershed, a tributary of the Paraíba do Sul river, in São Paulo State, by monitoring the parameters: temperature, pH, conductivity and dissolved oxygen at five sites in the watershed. The measurements of flow and height of water depth during dry and wet seasons of 2010 and 2011 allowed the construction of the "rating curve" in four points of water quality monitoring and to reconstruct the series of water flow in these seasons. The analysis results showed that there is indication of changes in water quality parameters due to the conservation practices adopted. The water temperature parameter was the most influenced by the seasonal variation in runoff. Several physical factors may have influenced the correlation of the other parameters with runoff, especially the different environmental recovery actions implemented in the study to achieve the sustainability of the water resources.

  19. Development of innovative computer software to facilitate the setup and computation of water quality index

    OpenAIRE

    Nabizadeh, Ramin; Valadi Amin, Maryam; Alimohammadi, Mahmood; Naddafi, Kazem; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Yousefzadeh, Samira

    2013-01-01

    Background Developing a water quality index which is used to convert the water quality dataset into a single number is the most important task of most water quality monitoring programmes. As the water quality index setup is based on different local obstacles, it is not feasible to introduce a definite water quality index to reveal the water quality level. Findings In this study, an innovative software application, the Iranian Water Quality Index Software (IWQIS), is presented in order to faci...

  20. Compost improves urban soil and water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Construction in urban zones compacts the soil, which hinders root growth and infiltration and may increase erosion, which may degrade water quality. The purpose of our study was to determine the whether planting prairie grasses and adding compost to urban soils can mitigate these concerns. We simula...

  1. Water quality assessment of bioenergy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocio Diaz-Chavez; Goran Berndes; Dan Neary; Andre Elia Neto; Mamadou Fall

    2011-01-01

    Water quality is a measurement of the biological, chemical, and physical characteristics of water against certain standards set to ensure ecological and/or human health. Biomass production and conversion to fuels and electricity can impact water quality in lakes, rivers, and aquifers with consequences for aquatic ecosystem health and also human water uses. Depending on...

  2. Climate change influence on drinking water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Melinda Haydee; Ristoiu, Dumitru; Voica, Cezara; Moldovan, Zaharie

    2013-11-01

    Although it are quite well known the possible effects of climate changes on surface waters availability and their hydrological risks, their consequences on drinking water quality is not well defined yet. Disinfection agents (as Cl2, O3, etc.) or multiple combinations of them for water treatment and disinfection purposes are applied by water treatment plants at worldwide level. Unfortunately, besides the benefits of these processes were also highlighted some undesirable effects such as formation of several disinfection by-products (DBPs) after reaction of disinfection agent with natural organic matter (NOM) from water body. DBPs formation in drinking water, suspected to posses adverse health effects to humans are strongly regulated in our days. Thus, throughout this study kinetics experiments both the main physicochemical factors that influencing the quality of drinking waters were evaluated as well how they act through possible warming or the consequences of extreme events. Increasing water temperatures with 1 - 5 °C above its normal value has showed that NOMs are presented in higher amount which led to the need for greater amount of disinfectant agent (5 - 15 %). Increasing the amount of disinfecting agent resulted in the formation of DBPs in significantly higher concentrations (between 5 - 30 %).

  3. Optimizing basin-scale coupled water quantity and water quality management with stochastic dynamic programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Claus; Liu, Suxia; Mo, Xingguo

    2015-01-01

    Few studies address water quality in hydro-economic models, which often focus primarily on optimal allocation of water quantities. Water quality and water quantity are closely coupled, and optimal management with focus solely on either quantity or quality may cause large costs in terms of the oth......-er component. In this study, we couple water quality and water quantity in a joint hydro-economic catchment-scale optimization problem. Stochastic dynamic programming (SDP) is used to minimize the basin-wide total costs arising from water allocation, water curtailment and water treatment. The simple water......-economic optimiza-tion model can be used to assess costs of meeting additional constraints such as minimum water qual-ity or to economically prioritize investments in waste water treatment facilities based on economic criteria....

  4. Community perception of water quality in a mining-affected area: a case study for the Certej catchment in the Apuseni Mountains in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogaru, Diana; Zobrist, Jürg; Balteanu, Dan; Popescu, Claudia; Sima, Mihaela; Amini, Manouchehr; Yang, Hong

    2009-06-01

    Mining-contaminated sites and the affected communities at risk are important issues on the agenda of both researchers and policy makers, particularly in the former communist block countries in Eastern Europe. Integrated analyses and expert based assessments concerning mining affected areas are important in providing solid policy guidelines for environmental and social risk management and mitigation. Based on a survey for 103 households conducted in a former mining site in the Certej Catchment of the Apuseni Mountains, western Romania, this study assesses local communities' perceptions on the quality of water in their living area. Logistic regression was used to examine peoples' perception on the quality of the main river water and of the drinking water based on several predictors relating to social and economic conditions. The results from the perception analysis were then compared with the measurements of heavy metal contamination of the main river and drinking water undertaken in the same study area. The findings indicate that perception and measurement results for the water quality in the Certej Catchment are convergent, suggesting an obvious risk that mining activities pose on the surface water. However, the perception on drinking water quality was little predicted by the regression model and does not seem to be so much related to mining as to other explanatory factors, such as special mineralogy of rock and soils or improper water treatment infrastructure, facts suggested by the measurements of the contaminants. Discussion about the implications of these joint findings for risk mitigation policies completes this article.

  5. Community Perception of Water Quality in a Mining-Affected Area: A Case Study for the Certej Catchment in the Apuseni Mountains in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogaru, Diana; Zobrist, Jürg; Balteanu, Dan; Popescu, Claudia; Sima, Mihaela; Amini, Manouchehr; Yang, Hong

    2009-06-01

    Mining-contaminated sites and the affected communities at risk are important issues on the agenda of both researchers and policy makers, particularly in the former communist block countries in Eastern Europe. Integrated analyses and expert based assessments concerning mining affected areas are important in providing solid policy guidelines for environmental and social risk management and mitigation. Based on a survey for 103 households conducted in a former mining site in the Certej Catchment of the Apuseni Mountains, western Romania, this study assesses local communities’ perceptions on the quality of water in their living area. Logistic regression was used to examine peoples’ perception on the quality of the main river water and of the drinking water based on several predictors relating to social and economic conditions. The results from the perception analysis were then compared with the measurements of heavy metal contamination of the main river and drinking water undertaken in the same study area. The findings indicate that perception and measurement results for the water quality in the Certej Catchment are convergent, suggesting an obvious risk that mining activities pose on the surface water. However, the perception on drinking water quality was little predicted by the regression model and does not seem to be so much related to mining as to other explanatory factors, such as special mineralogy of rock and soils or improper water treatment infrastructure, facts suggested by the measurements of the contaminants. Discussion about the implications of these joint findings for risk mitigation policies completes this article.

  6. The effect of drinking water quality on the health and longevity of people-A case study in Mayang, Hunan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, J.; Yuan, F.

    2017-08-01

    Drinking water is an important source for trace elements intake into human body. Thus, the drinking water quality has a great impact on people’s health and longevity. This study aims to study the relationship between drinking water quality and human health and longevity. A longevity county Mayang in Hunan province, China was chosen as the study area. The drinking water and hair of local centenarians were collected and analyzed the chemical composition. The drinking water is weak alkaline and rich in the essential trace elements. The daily intakes of Ca, Cu, Fe, Se, Sr from drinking water for residents in Mayang were much higher than the national average daily intake from beverage and water. There was a positive correlation between Ni and Pb in drinking water and Ni and Pb in hair. There were significant correlations between Cu, K in drinking water and Ba, Ca, Mg, Sr in the hair at the 0.01 level. The concentrations of Mg, Sr, Se in drinking water showed extremely significant positive relation with two centenarian index 100/80% and 100/90% correlation. Essential trace elements in drinking water can be an important factor for local health and longevity.

  7. Water quality (chapter 11). Book chapter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCutcheon, S.C.; Martin, J.L.; Barnwell, T.O.

    1993-01-01

    Water quality is important not only because of its linkage to the availability of water for various uses and its impact on public health, but also because water quality has an intrinsic value. The quality of life is often judged on the availability of pristine water. Contamination of water deprives present and future generations of a birthright. There is also the need to preserve the aquatic habitats of fish, birds, and mammals. To assist the practicing hydrologist in planning for and adapting to limitations on the use of water and to aid in the protection of valuable water resources, the chapter covers the basic concepts of water chemistry, the physical properties of water, and the constituents or impurities of water. To aid in the interpretation of measurements, water quality standards and criteria for various uses are presented.

  8. Evaluating Water Quality in a Suburban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, S. M.; Garza, N.

    2008-12-01

    A water quality analysis and modeling study is currently being conducted on the Martinez Creek, a small catchment within Cibolo watershed, a sub-basin of the San Antonio River, Texas. Several other major creeks, such as Salatrillo, Escondido, and Woman Hollering merge with Martinez Creek. Land use and land cover analysis shows that the major portion of the watershed is dominated by residential development with average impervious cover percentage of approximately 40% along with a some of agricultural areas and brushlands. This catchment is characterized by the presence of three small wastewater treatment plants. Previous site visits and sampling of water quality indicate the presence of algae and fecal coliform bacteria at levels well above state standards at several locations in the catchment throughout the year. Due to the presence of livestock, residential development and wastewater treatment plants, a comprehensive understanding of water quality is important to evaluate the sources and find means to control pollution. As part of the study, a spatial and temporal water quality analyses of conventional parameters as well as emerging contaminants, such as veterinary pharmaceuticals and microbial pathogens is being conducted to identify critical locations and sources. Additionally, the Hydrologic Simulation Program FORTRAN (HSPF) will be used to identify best management practices that can be incorporated given the projected growth and development and feasibility.

  9. Quality of drinking-water at source and point-of-consumption--drinking cup as a high potential recontamination risk: a field study in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufener, Simonne; Mäusezahl, Daniel; Mosler, Hans-Joachim; Weingartner, Rolf

    2010-02-01

    In-house contamination of drinking-water is a persistent problem in developing countries. This study aimed at identifying critical points of contamination and determining the extent of recontamination after water treatment. In total, 81 households were visited, and 347 water samples from their current sources of water, transport vessels, treated water, and drinking vessels were analyzed. The quality of water was assessed using Escherichia coli as an indicator for faecal contamination. The concentration of E. coli increased significantly from the water source [median=0 colony-forming unit (CFU)/100 mL, interquartile range (IQR: 0-13)] to the drinking cup (median=8 CFU/100 mL; IQR: 0-550; n=81, z=-3.7, pSODIS) improved the quality of drinking-water (median=0 CFU/100 mL; IQR: 0-0.05), recontamination at the point-of-consumption significantly reduced the quality of water in the cups (median=8, IQR: 0-500; n=45, z=-2.4, p=0.015). Home-based interventions in disinfection of water may not guarantee health benefits without complementary hygiene education due to the risk of posttreatment contamination.

  10. Quality of Drinking-water at Source and Point-of-consumption—Drinking Cup As a High Potential Recontamination Risk: A Field Study in Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäusezahl, Daniel; Mosler, Hans-Joachim; Weingartner, Rolf

    2010-01-01

    In-house contamination of drinking-water is a persistent problem in developing countries. This study aimed at identifying critical points of contamination and determining the extent of recontamination after water treatment. In total, 81 households were visited, and 347 water samples from their current sources of water, transport vessels, treated water, and drinking vessels were analyzed. The quality of water was assessed using Escherichia coli as an indicator for faecal contamination. The concentration of E. coli increased significantly from the water source [median=0 colony-forming unit (CFU)/100 mL, interquartile range (IQR: 0–13)] to the drinking cup (median=8 CFU/100 mL; IQR: 0–550; n=81, z=−3.7, pSODIS) improved the quality of drinking-water (median=0 CFU/100 mL; IQR: 0–0.05), recontamination at the point-of-consumption significantly reduced the quality of water in the cups (median=8, IQR: 0–500; n=45, z=−2.4, p=0.015). Home-based interventions in disinfection of water may not guarantee health benefits without complementary hygiene education due to the risk of post-treatment contamination. PMID:20214084

  11. Environmental and Water Quality Operational Studies. Environmental Features for Streamside Levee Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    Study of the Vegetation on Levees," S Castanea , Vol 37, No. 2, pp 140-146. Morgan, J. P. 1973. "Impact of Subsidence and Erosion on Louisiana Coastal...PLANTS .- Alder Alnus sp. Alfalfa Medicago sativa Aspen Populus sp. Bitterbrush Purshia tridentata Buffaloberry, Silver Sheperda argnte~a Bulrush

  12. Urban water-quality modelling: implementing an extension to Multi-Hydro platform for real case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yi; Giangola-Murzyn, Agathe; Bonhomme, Celine; Chebbo, Ghassan; Schertzer, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    During the last few years, the physically based and fully distributed numerical platform Multi-Hydro (MH) has been developed to simulate hydrological behaviours in urban/peri-urban areas (El-Tabach et al. , 2009 ; Gires et al., 2013 ; Giangola-Murzyn et al., 2014). This hydro-dynamical platform is open-access and has a modular structure, which is designed to be easily scalable and transportable, in order to simulate the dynamics and complex interactions of the water cycle processes in urban or peri-urban environment (surface hydrology, urban groundwater infrastructures and infiltration). Each hydrological module relies on existing and widely validated open source models, such as TREX model (Velleux, 2005) for the surface module, SWMM model (Rossman, 2010) for the drainage module and VS2DT model (Lappala et al., 1987) for the soil module. In our recent studies, an extension of MH has been set up by connecting the already available water-quality computational components among different modules, to introduce a pollutant transport modelling into the hydro-dynamical platform. As for the surface module in two-dimensions, the concentration of particles in flow is expressed by sediment advection equation, the settling of suspended particles is calculated with a simplified settling velocity formula, while the pollutant wash-off from a given land-use is represented as a mass rate of particle removal from the bottom boundary over time, based on transport capacity, which is computed by a modified form of Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE). Considering that the USLE is originally conceived to predict soil losses caused by runoff in agriculture areas, several adaptations were needed to use it for urban areas, such as the alterations of USLE parameters according to different criterions, the definition of the appropriate initial dust thickness corresponding to various land-uses, etc. Concerning the drainage module, water quality routing within pipes assumes that the conduit

  13. Automatic recognition of diatoms and its application to the study of water quality

    OpenAIRE

    Pedraza Dorado, Aníbal

    2016-01-01

    Computer vision and artificial intelligence are some of the most powerful fields in computer science nowadays. They have the ability to change the world and therefore to develop solutions to some of the greatest challenges in our society. This project is focused in the study and application of image processing, detection and classification techniques, both using traditional and novel methods. Attention has been payed to the last ones. Comprehensive workflows have been developed...

  14. Rapidly measured indicators of recreational water quality and swimming-associated illness at marine beaches: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Love David

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In the United States and elsewhere, recreational water quality is monitored for fecal indicator bacteria to help prevent swimming-associated illnesses. Standard methods to measure these bacteria take at least 24 hours to obtain results. Molecular approaches such as quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR can estimate these bacteria faster, in under 3 hours. Previously, we demonstrated that measurements of the fecal indicator bacteria Enterococcus using qPCR were associated with gastrointestinal (GI illness among swimmers at freshwater beaches. In this paper, we report on results from three marine beach sites. Methods We interviewed beach-goers and collected water samples at marine beaches affected by treated sewage discharges in Mississippi in 2005, and Rhode Island and Alabama in 2007. Ten to twelve days later, we obtained information about gastrointestinal, respiratory, eye, ear and skin symptoms by telephone. We tested water samples for fecal indicator organisms using qPCR and other methods. Results We enrolled 6,350 beach-goers. The occurrence of GI illness among swimmers was associated with a log10-increase in exposure to qPCR-determined estimates of fecal indicator organisms in the genus Enterococcus (AOR = 2.6, 95% CI 1.3-5.1 and order Bacteroidales (AOR = 1.9, 95% CI 1.3-2.9. Estimates of organisms related to Clostridium perfringens and a subgroup of organisms in the genus Bacteroides were also determined by qPCR in 2007, as was F+ coliphage, but relationships between these indicators and illness were not statistically significant. Conclusions This study provides the first evidence of a relationship between gastrointestinal illness and estimates of fecal indicator organisms determined by qPCR at marine beaches.

  15. Determination of water quality index and portability of Iguedo stream ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The parameters that most influenced the WQI as depicted by quality rating values include pH, Mn, Ni, Cd and Pb. Application of WQI in this study has been found functional in assessing the water quality of this stream based on the selected parameters. Key words: Water quality index, physicochemical parameters, Iguedo ...

  16. investigation of factors affecting drinking water quality from source

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    condition (6). The quality of protected water sources can be deteriorated due to poor site selection, in adequate protection and unhygienic management of facilities (7). The result of sanitary and quality monitoring in a pilot water surveillance study in Yogyarkarata, Jaua demonstrated that 65.0-85.0% of public water supplies;.

  17. Assessment of changes in drinking water quality during distribution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality of drinking water at the point of delivery to the consumer is crucial in safeguarding people's health. This study assesses changes in drinking water quality during distribution at Area 25 Township in Lilongwe, Malawi. Water samples were collected from the exit point of the treatment plant, storage tank and taps at ...

  18. Surface water quality assessment using factor analysis | Boyacioglu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the factor analysis technique is applied to surface water quality data sets obtained from the Buyuk Menderes River Basin, Turkey, during two different hydrological periods. Results show that the indices which changed the quality of water in two seasons and locations differed. During low-flow conditions, water ...

  19. Investigation of potential water quality and quantity impacts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A scoping level study was performed to consolidate the existing information on the geohydrology and pre-mining water quantity and quality of water resources associated with the Waterberg coal reserves. New data regarding water quality and acid-base potential for the different geological areas (through field investigations) ...

  20. Assessment of water quality of Obueyinomo River, Ovia North East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to assess the water quality of Obueyinomo River using water quality index. Ambient and water temperatures were determined in-situ while total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), total solids (TS), turbidity, pH, conductivity, hardness, alkalinity, dissolved Oxygen (DO), ...

  1. Assessment of Irrigation Water Quality and Suitability for Irrigation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A number of factors like geology, soil, effluents, sewage disposal and other environmental conditions in which the water stays or moves and interacts are among the factors that affect the quality of irrigation water. This study was conducted to determine the quality and suitability of different water sources for irrigation purpose ...

  2. Coralville Reservoir Water Quality Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    calcium carbonate saturation and stability. Many limnological studies require water temperature as a function of depth to be reported. Discharges of...groundwater, which frequently come into contact with geological formations of limestone or dolomite leading to high concentrations of calcium and magnesium...Location Date Water Diss. pH Carbon Sky Previous Day Temp. Oxygen Dioxide Phenolth. Total Calcium Total Precipitation ○C mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L

  3. Water Quality Index Assessment of Pogradec Water- Supply, in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    , P. Icka; , R. Damo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper is applied for the first time in Albania Water Quality Index (WQI) of the Canadian Council of Ministries of the Environment (CCME) for assessment of water quality of water supply network on Pogradec city. CCME WQI, a technique of rating water quality, is an effective tool to assess spatial and temporal changes on the quality of any water body. Calculations of the index are based on a combination of three factors: scope - the number of variables whose objectives are not met; freq...

  4. A Structural Equation Modeling approach to water quality perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levêque, Jonas G; Burns, Robert C

    2017-07-15

    Researches on water quality perceptions have used various techniques and models to explain relationships between specific variables. Surprisingly, Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) has received little attention in water quality perceptions studies, and reporting has been inconsistent among existing studies. One objective of this article is to provide readers with a methodological example for conducting and reporting SEM. Another objective is to build a model that explains the different relationships among the diverse factors highlighted by previous studies on water quality perceptions. Our study focuses on the factors influencing people's perceptions of water quality in the Appalachian region. As such, researchers have conducted a survey in a mid-sized city in northcentral West Virginia to assess residents' perceptions of water quality for drinking and recreational purposes. Specifically, we aimed to understand the relationships between perceived water quality, health risk perceptions, organoleptic perceptions, environmental concern, area satisfaction and perceptions of surface water quality. Our model provided a good fit that explained about 50% of the variance in health risk perceptions and 43% of the variance in organoleptic perceptions. Environmental concern, area satisfaction and perceived surface water quality are important factors in explaining these variances. Perceived water quality was dismissed in our analysis due to multicollinearity. Our study demonstrates that risk communication needs to be better addressed by local decision-makers and water managers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Improving the Accuracy of Extracting Surface Water Quality Levels (SWQLs) Using Remote Sensing and Artificial Neural Network: a Case Study in the Saint John River, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammartano, G.; Spanò, A.

    2017-09-01

    Delineating accurate surface water quality levels (SWQLs) always presents a great challenge to researchers. Existing methods of assessing surface water quality only provide individual concentrations of monitoring stations without providing the overall SWQLs. Therefore, the results of existing methods are usually difficult to be understood by decision-makers. Conversely, the water quality index (WQI) can simplify surface water quality assessment process to be accessible to decision-makers. However, in most cases, the WQI reflects inaccurate SWQLs due to the lack of representative water samples. It is very challenging to provide representative water samples because this process is costly and time consuming. To solve this problem, we introduce a cost-effective method which combines the Landsat-8 imagery and artificial intelligence to develop models to derive representative water samples by correlating concentrations of ground truth water samples to satellite spectral information. Our method was validated and the correlation between concentrations of ground truth water samples and predicted concentrations from the developed models reached a high level of coefficient of determination (R2) > 0.80, which is trustworthy. Afterwards, the predicted concentrations over each pixel of the study area were used as an input to the WQI developed by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment to extract accurate SWQLs, for drinking purposes, in the Saint John River. The results indicated that SWQL was observed as 67 (Fair) and 59 (Marginal) for the lower and middle basins of the river, respectively. These findings demonstrate the potential of using our approach in surface water quality management.

  6. Hydrologic and Water Quality System (HAWQS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Hydrologic and Water Quality System (HAWQS) is a web-based interactive water quantity and quality modeling system that employs as its core modeling engine the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), an internationally-recognized public domain model. HAWQS provides users with i...

  7. Surface water quality assessment using factor analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-01-16

    Jan 16, 2006 ... surface water by rain and stormwater. On the other hand, run- off water increases pollutant concentrations, thereby decreases quality. To assess the water quality of the Buyuk Menderes. River under high-flow conditions, factor analysis was applied to data sets obtained from 21 monitoring stations between ...

  8. Water Quality Evaluation of Spring Waters in Nsukka, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water qualities of springs in their natural state are supposed to be clean and potable. Although, water quality is not a static condition it depends on the local geology and ecosystem, as well as human activities such as sewage dispersion, industrial pollution, use of water bodies as a heat sink, and overuse. The activities on ...

  9. Assessment of Water Supply Quality in Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The patronage of water of questionable qualities in the study area due to the failure of the Anambra State Water Corporation to provide potable water supply in Awka and environs prompted this research work. Various water sources patronized in the study area were collected and subjected to physical, chemical and ...

  10. Seasonal variations of ground water quality and its agglomerates by water quality index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Water is a unique natural resource among all sources available on earth. It plays an important role in economic development and the general well-being of the country. This study aimed at using the application of water quality index in evaluating the ground water quality innorth-east area of Jaipur in pre and post monsoon for public usage. Total eleven physico–chemical characteristics; total dissolved solids, total hardness,chloride, nitrate, electrical conductance, sodium, fluorideand potassium, pH, turbidity, temperature were analyzed and observed values were compared with standard values recommended by Indian standard and World Health Organization. Most of parameter show higher value than permissible limit in pre and post monsoon. Water quality index study showed that drinking water in Amer (221.58,277.70, Lalawas (362.74,396.67, Jaisinghpura area (286.00,273.78 were found to be highly contaminated due to high value of total dissolved solids, electrical conductance, total hardness, chloride, nitrate and sodium.Saipura (122.52, 131.00, Naila (120.25, 239.86, Galta (160.9, 204.1 were found to be moderately contaminated for both monsoons. People dependent on this water may prone to health hazard. Therefore some effective measures are urgently required to enhance the quality of water in these areas.

  11. Pollution characteristics and water quality in the Visakhapatnam harbour

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, V.V.; Raju, G.R.K.; Babu, T.B.

    The impact of organic pollution on the quality of waters in the Visakhapatnam harbour has been studied over a year at 8 stations. The enrichment of nutrients in these waters enhances the eutrophication. The construction of outer harbour retards...

  12. Comparative study of physical indicators and those of their regime of oxygen, on water quality of the Great ùomuzu River, in the year 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Maxim; Constantin Filote; Dumitru Cojocaru

    2010-01-01

    Water quality is an organic component of the system and economic management of water sources. The experimental data analyzed in this paper are part of a broader study on the assessment of water pollution in the upper basin of the Siret River and refers to the dynamics of physico-chemical and biochemical parameters, of ùomuzu Great River, a tributary of the Siret from Suceava County. To do this, were collected every two months, samples of river water ùomuz from two different locati...

  13. Habitat and water quality variables as predictors of community composition in an Indonesian coral reef: a multi-taxon study in the Spermonde Archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polónia, Ana Rita Moura; Cleary, Daniel Francis Richard; de Voogd, Nicole Joy; Renema, Willem; Hoeksema, Bert W; Martins, Ana; Gomes, Newton Carlos Marcial

    2015-12-15

    Assemblages of corals, sponges, foraminifera, sediment bacteria and sediment archaea were assessed at two depths in the Spermonde Archipelago. Our goal was to assess to what extent variation in composition could be explained by habitat and water quality variables. The habitat variables consisted of depth, substrate type and scleractinian coral cover while water quality variables were derived from ocean color satellite imagery, including the colored dissolved organic matter index (CDOM), chlorophyll-a (Chlor-a) and remote sensing reflectance at 645n m (Rrs_645). Together, habitat and water quality variables explained from 31% (sediment bacteria) to 80% (forams) of the variation in composition. The variation in composition of corals, sponges, forams and sediment archaea was primarily related to habitat variables, while the variation in composition of sediment bacteria was primarily related to water quality variables. Habitat and water quality variables explained similar amounts of variation in the composition of corals and sediment bacteria. CDOM (sponges, sediment bacteria and sediment archaea), Chlor-a (corals and forams) and Rrs_645 (sponges and forams) proved significant predictors of variation in composition for the studied taxa. In addition to water quality variables, all taxa responded to a range of habitat variables including depth and the percentage cover of various benthic life forms including coral cover variables, rubble and sand. Sand cover was the most important habitat variable for corals, sponges, sediment bacteria and sediment archaea. Coral life forms including the cover of branching and tabular corals were important habitat variables for sponges and forams. These results show marked differences in how various taxa respond to variation in habitat and water quality in the Spermonde Archipelago. Moreover, our results indicate that variables estimated from ocean color satellite imagery proved to be better predictors of variation in marine community

  14. Assessment of water supply system and water quality of Lighvan village using water safety plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Pourakbar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Continuous expansion of potable water pollution sources is one of the main concerns of water suppliers, therefore measures such as water safety plan (WSP, have been taken into account to control these sources of pollution. The aim of this study was to identify probable risks and threatening hazards to drinking water quality in Lighvan village along with assessment of bank filtration of the village. Methods: In the present study all risks and probable hazards were identified and ranked. For each of these cases, practical suggestions for removing or controlling them were given. To assess potable water quality in Lighvan village, sampling was done from different parts of the village and physicochemical parameters were measured. To assess the efficiency of bank filtration system of the village, independent t test was used to compare average values of parameters in river and treated water. Results: One of the probable sources of pollution in this study was domestic wastewater which threatens water quality. The results of this study show that bank filtration efficiency in water supply of the village is acceptable. Conclusion: Although Bank filtration imposes fewer expenses on governments, it provides suitable water for drinking and other uses. However, it should be noted that application of these systems should be done after a thorough study of water pollution level, types of water pollutants, soil properties of the area, soil percolation and system distance from pollutant sources.

  15. Michigan lakes: An assessment of water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnerick, R.J.

    2004-01-01

    Michigan has more than 11,000 inland lakes, that provide countless recreational opportunities and are an important resource that makes tourism and recreation a $15-billion-dollar per-year industry in the State (Stynes, 2002). Knowledge of the water-quality characteristics of inland lakes is essential for the current and future management of these resources.Historically the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ) jointly have monitored water quality in Michigan's lakes and rivers. During the 1990's, however, funding for surface-water-quality monitoring was reduced greatly. In 1998, the citizens of Michigan passed the Clean Michigan Initiative to clean up, protect, and enhance Michigan's environmental infrastructure. Because of expanding water-quality-data needs, the MDEQ and the USGS jointly redesigned and implemented the Lake Water-Quality Assessment (LWQA) Monitoring Program (Michigan Department of Environmental Quality, 1997).

  16. Water quality index for assessment of water quality of river ravi at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... as a tool in comparing the water quality of different sources. It gives the public a general idea of the possible problems with water in a particular region. The indices are among the most effective ways to communicate the information on water quality trends to the public or to the policy makers and water quality management.

  17. Ground Water Quality of Selected Wells

    OpenAIRE

    Mosher R. Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    In order to characterize ground water quality in Zaweta district / Dohuk governorate, eight wells are selected to represent their water quality. Monthly samples are collected from the wells for the period from October 2005 to April 2006. The samples are tested for conductivity, total dissolved solids, pH, total hardness, chloride, alkalinity and nitrate according to the standard methods. The results of statistical analysis showed significant difference among the wells water quality in the mea...

  18. Policy Instruments for Water Quality Protection

    OpenAIRE

    James Shortle; Horan, Richard D.

    2013-01-01

    We examine policy instruments for ambient water quality protection. One objective is to illustrate the unique and complex informational challenges that must be addressed in constructing instruments that are effective and efficient for point and nonpoint sources. A second objective is to describe developments in real-world policies. Crucial to solving contemporary water quality challenges and improving the efficiency of water quality protection are reducing nonpoint pollution and efficiently i...

  19. Evaluating a 1D and 2D water quality modeling framework: A case study of the lower Bode River, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Sumit; Rode, Michael; Borchardt, Dietrich

    2014-05-01

    The Bode River catchment in the Harz Mountain area of central Germany is heavily influenced by anthropogenic factors. 70% of the catchment is dominated by agriculture, 23 % by forest and the rest 7% is urban in nature. The area of the catchment is approximately 3300 km2 and is characterized by sharp gradients in temperature, precipitation and land use. In order to acquire better understanding of the hydrological nature of the catchment and biogeochemical characteristics of the Bode River various monitoring stations have been deployed as a part of the larger earth observation network initiative named Terrestrial Environmental Observatories. One of the major issues with the catchment is the problem of eutrophication due to solute inputs from agriculture. The research presented here evaluated the application and development of 1D and 2D hydrodynamic and water quality models in the downstream area of the Bode River. A stretch of 30 kms between Hadmersleeben and Stassfurt in the downstream area of the Bode River was modeled using 1D model HEC-RAS, the focus of the water quality modeling was transport and uptake of nitrate in the aforementioned modeled stretch. Flood events of varying peak magnitude at different times of the year were modeled. As regards to 2D modeling, TELEMAC-2D model was applied for the same reach. The hydrodynamic simulation results were validated with the help of free surface elevation at Athensleben, 8 kms upstream from the downstream end at Stassfurt. Water quality modeling, focusing on the Nitrate removal for the aforementioned stretch, is applied and developed for both 1D and 2D modeling framework. Results from hydrodynamic and water quality modeling were validated with RMSE (Root Mean Square Error) value of 0.074 and 0.36 for the modeled state variables across various events simulated. For the nutrient-rich reach modeled in this research it was found that the nutrient removal capacity of the stream is directly proportional to the incoming

  20. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Upper Santa Ana Watershed Study Unit, November 2006-March 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Robert; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 1,000-square-mile Upper Santa Ana Watershed study unit (USAW) was investigated from November 2006 through March 2007 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The Upper Santa Ana Watershed study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within USAW, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 99 wells in Riverside and San Bernardino Counties. Ninety of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells). Nine wells were selected to provide additional understanding of specific water-quality issues identified within the basin (understanding wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and potential wastewater-indicator compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], 1,4-dioxane, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water) and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify sources and ages of the sampled ground water. Dissolved gases, and isotopes of nitrogen gas and of dissolved nitrate also were measured in order to investigate the sources and occurrence of

  1. A Bayesian approach for evaluation of the effect of water quality model parameter uncertainty on TMDLs: A case study of Miyun Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Shidong, E-mail: emblembl@sina.com [School of Environment, Tsinghua University, 1 Qinghuayuan, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China); Jia, Haifeng, E-mail: jhf@tsinghua.edu.cn [School of Environment, Tsinghua University, 1 Qinghuayuan, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China); Xu, Changqing, E-mail: 2008changqing@163.com [School of Environment, Tsinghua University, 1 Qinghuayuan, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China); Xu, Te, E-mail: xt_lichking@qq.com [School of Environment, Tsinghua University, 1 Qinghuayuan, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China); Melching, Charles, E-mail: steve.melching17@gmail.com [Melching Water Solutions, 4030 W. Edgerton Avenue, Greenfield, WI 53221 (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Facing increasingly serious water pollution, the Chinese government is changing the environmental management strategy from solely pollutant concentration control to a Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) program, and water quality models are increasingly being applied to determine the allowable pollutant load in the TMDL. Despite the frequent use of models, few studies have focused on how parameter uncertainty in water quality models affect the allowable pollutant loads in the TMDL program, particularly for complicated and high-dimension water quality models. Uncertainty analysis for such models is limited by time-consuming simulation and high-dimensionality and nonlinearity in parameter spaces. In this study, an allowable pollutant load calculation platform was established using the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC), which is a widely applied hydrodynamic-water quality model. A Bayesian approach, i.e. the DiffeRential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (DREAM) algorithm, which is a high-efficiency, multi-chain Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method, was applied to assess the effects of parameter uncertainty on the water quality model simulations and its influence on the allowable pollutant load calculation in the TMDL program. Miyun Reservoir, which is the most important surface drinking water source for Beijing, suffers from eutrophication and was selected as a case study. The relations between pollutant loads and water quality indicators are obtained through a graphical method in the simulation platform. Ranges of allowable pollutant loads were obtained according to the results of parameter uncertainty analysis, i.e. Total Organic Carbon (TOC): 581.5–1030.6 t·yr{sup −1}; Total Phosphorus (TP): 23.3–31.0 t·yr{sup −1}; and Total Nitrogen (TN): 480–1918.0 t·yr{sup −1}. The wide ranges of allowable pollutant loads reveal the importance of parameter uncertainty analysis in a TMDL program for allowable pollutant load calculation and margin of safety (MOS

  2. Water quality monitoring using remote sensing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adsavakulchai, Suwannee; Panichayapichet, Paweena

    2003-03-01

    There has been a rapid growth of shrimp farm around Kung Krabaen Bay in the past decade. This has caused enormous rise in generation of domestic and industrial wastes. Most of these wastes are disposed in the Kung Krabaen Bay. There is a serious need to retain this glory by better water quality management of this river. Conventional methods of monitoring of water quality have limitations in collecting information about water quality parameters for a large region in detailed manner due to high cost and time. Satellite based technologies have offered an alternate approach for many environmental monitoring needs. In this study, the high-resolution satellite data (LANDSAT TM) was utilized to develop mathematical models for monitoring of chlorophyll-a. Comparison between empirical relationship of spectral reflectance with chl-a and band ratio between the near infrared (NIR) and red was suggested to detect chlorophyll in water. This concept has been successfully employed for marine zones and big lakes but not for narrow rivers due to constraints of spatial resolution of satellite data. This information will be very useful in locating point and non-point sources of pollution and will help in designing and implementing controlling structures.

  3. Polymer microcantilevers for water quality monitoring

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ojijo, Vincent O

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The microcantilever project aims to develop novel polymer based microcantilevers able to detect E.coli in water samples for use as a rapid diagnostic for on-site water quality monitoring....

  4. Water Quality Criteria for Disperse Red 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-01

    mixture were identified as azobenzene , azoxybenzene, aminobiphenyl, and phenyldiazo- benzene. The second fraction, 73.6 percent of the mixture...antagonistic effects; and genotoxicity, teratogenicity, and carcinogenicity. The data are derived primarily from animal studies, but clinical case histories ...on can be used for calculating a water quality criterion (using the uncertainty factor approach). Also the history of each TLV should be examined to

  5. Study Of The Physico-Chemical Water Quality Of The Companys Pumping Stations Chadian Water And Suburbs Of Manual Drilling Ndjamena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahamat Seid A.M

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Water for consumption requires excellent physical chemical and microbiological quality. This source of life is one of the most controlled food products. It must not only meet the quality requirements but also must comply vis- -vis a set of drinking water standards and must not contain any microorganism no noise and no substance presents a potential danger to human health. This work was performed in the city of Ndjamena and aims to assess the physico-chemical quality of the water pumping stations of the National Water Company in the city center and boreholes in human motor in neighborhoods peripheral devices. A total of 18 samples were collected including 9 in the city center and 9 others in the suburbs. On each sample were determined physico-chemical parameters potential of hydrogen pH temperature T electrical conductivity turbidity and calcium ions magnesium sulphates fluorides and nitrates. The results extend into the water pumping stations of ETS and manual drilling outlying districts respectively temperature 28.0 to 36.1 C and 29.5 to 30.3 C pH 6.5 to 8.5 and 6.3 to 7.6 electrical conductivity 201-671 amp297S cm and 136-533 amp297S cm turbidity NTU from 0.01 to 0.18 and 1.25 to 5 NTU calcium 54 to 268 mg L to 65-443 mg L magnesium 2.18 to 57 mg L and 15 to 90 mg L sulfates 2 to 47 mg L and 2 to 18mg L fluoride 0.0 to 0.61 mg L and 0.12 to 0.98 mg L and nitrate 1.5 to 18 2 mg L and 0.1 to 0.6 mg L. The results show that the contents of the parameters are consistent with the WHO standards for the quality of drinking water except calcium ions which their levels are high. Based on the parameters analyzed the quality of water pumping stations of SNE and manual drilling is acceptable.

  6. West Knox Pond water budget and water quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to analyze the water budget and water quality for West Knox Pond for the May through September period of 2002 and 2003. The...

  7. Preliminary study on the radiological and physicochemical quality of the Umgeni Water catchments and drinking water sources in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manickum, T; John, W; Terry, S; Hodgson, K

    2014-11-01

    Raw and potable water sample sources, from the Umgeni Water catchment areas (rivers, dams, boreholes) in central KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa), were screened for Uranium concentration and alpha and beta radioactivity. Test methods used were gas flow proportional counting for alpha-beta radioactivity, and kinetic phosphorescence analysis (KPA), for Uranium. The uranium levels (median = 0.525 μg/L, range = water quality (≤15 μg/L). The corresponding alpha and beta radioactivity was ≤0.5 Bq/L (median = 0.084, Interquartile Range (IR) = 0.038, range = 0.018-0.094), and ≤1.0 Bq/L (median = 0.114, IR = 0.096, range = 0.024-0.734), respectively, in compliance with the international WHO limits. For uranium radionuclide, the average dose level, at uranium level of ±0.525 μg/L, was 0.06 μSv/a, which complies with the WHO reference dose level for drinking water (water quality classification, with respect to WHO, is "Blue" - ideal; additional physicochemical analyses indicated good water quality. The analytical test methods employed were found to be suitable for preliminary screening for potential radioactive "hot spots". The observed Uranium levels, and the alpha/beta radioactivity, indicate contribution largely from Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM), with no significant health risk to humans, or to the environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The assessment of khorramabad River water quality with National Sanitation Foundation Water Quality Index and Zoning by GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    abdolrahim Yusefzadeh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background : Rivers are a fraction of flowing waters in the worlds and one of the important sources of water for different consumptions such as agricultural, drinking and industrial uses. The aim of this study was to assess water quality of the Khorramrood River in Khorramabad by NSFWQI index. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, quality parameters needed for NASWQI index calculation such as BOD5, dissolved oxygen (DO, total nitrate, fecal coliform, pH, total phosphate, temperature, turbidity and total suspended solids content were measured for six months (from July to December 2012using standard methods at six selected stations. The river zoning conducted by GIS software. Results: According to the results obtained through this study, the highest and the lowest water quality value was observed in stations 1 and 6 with NSFWQI indexes 82 water with good quality, 42 water with bad quality, respectively. With moving toward last station (from 1 to 6 station water pollution increased. Conclusion: Results of the study indicated that water quality index NSFWQI is a good index to identify the effect of polluter sources on the river water. Based on the average of the index NSFWQI, water quality in station one was good, in the second, third and fourth stations were mediocre and the fifth and sixth stations had bad quality. These results allow to make decisions about monitoring and controlling water pollution sources, as well as provide different efficient uses of it by relevant authorities.

  9. Continuous high-frequency monitoring of estuarine water quality as a decision support tool: a Dublin Port case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briciu-Burghina, Ciprian; Sullivan, Timothy; Chapman, James; Regan, Fiona

    2014-09-01

    High-frequency, continuous monitoring using in situ sensors offers a comprehensive and improved insight into the temporal and spatial variability of any water body. In this paper, we describe a 7-month exploratory monitoring programme in Dublin Port, demonstrating the value of high-frequency data in enhancing knowledge of processes, informing discrete sampling, and ultimately increasing the efficiency of port and environmental management. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used to show that shipping operating in Dublin Port has a small-medium effect on turbidity readings collected by in situ sensors. Turbidity events are largely related to vessel activity in Dublin Port, caused by re-suspension of sediments by vessel propulsion systems. The magnitudes of such events are strongly related to water level and tidal state at vessel arrival times. Crucially, measurements of Escherichia coli and enterococci contamination from discrete samples taken at key periods related to detected turbidity events were up to nine times higher after vessel arrival than prior to disturbance. Daily in situ turbidity patterns revealed time-dependent water quality "hot spots" during a 24-h period. We demonstrate conclusively that if representative environmental assessment of water quality is to be performed at such sites, sampling times, informed by continous monitoring data, should take into account these daily variations. This work outlines the potential of sensor technologies and continuous monitoring, to act as a decision support tool in both environmental and port management.

  10. Remote sensing of water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovis, W. A.

    1978-01-01

    Remote sensing from aircraft has been used to determine water content in areas such as the New York Bight. Extension of the techniques developed to satellite sensing of the Chesapeake Bay will begin in 1978 with the launch of Nimbus-G. Remote sensing offers a number of interesting possibilities for investigating a reasonably large body of water, such as the Chesapeake Bay, coupled with some disadvantages. The chief advantage of remote sensing is that it offers the opportunity to cover large areas in relatively short periods of time. Low altitude satellites traveling at about 7 km/s can cover the Chesapeake Bay in about 1 minute so that the entire Bay can be studied under almost identical conditions of solar illumination.

  11. Water quality modelling of Jadro spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margeta, J; Fistanic, I

    2004-01-01

    Management of water quality in karst is a specific problem. Water generally moves very fast by infiltration processes but far more by concentrated flows through fissures and openings in karst. This enables the entire surface pollution to be transferred fast and without filtration into groundwater springs. A typical example is the Jadro spring. Changes in water quality at the spring are sudden, but short. Turbidity as a major water quality problem for the karst springs regularly exceeds allowable standards. Former practice in problem solving has been reduced to intensive water disinfection in periods of great turbidity without analyses of disinfection by-products risks for water users. The main prerequisite for water quality control and an optimization of water disinfection is the knowledge of raw water quality and nature of occurrence. The analysis of monitoring data and their functional relationship with hydrological parameters enables establishment of a stochastic model that will help obtain better information on turbidity in different periods of the year. Using the model a great number of average monthly and extreme daily values are generated. By statistical analyses of these data possibility of occurrence of high turbidity in certain months is obtained. This information can be used for designing expert system for water quality management of karst springs. Thus, the time series model becomes a valuable tool in management of drinking water quality of the Jadro spring.

  12. Water quality of the river Damanganga (Gujarat)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D.; Narvekar, P.V.; Sarma, R.V.; Desai, B.N.

    strong. Quality of water in the discharge zone deteriorated considerably after March (DO decreasing to about 1 mg/litre). High acid content of the effluent lowered pH of water. The discharge in the fresh water zone, presently did not affect the water...

  13. Quantifying and Predicting the Water Quality Associated with Land Cover Change: A Case Study of the Blesbok Spruit Catchment, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja du Plessis

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The integrity of the Blesbok Spruit catchment has been significantly compromised over the past decades, mainly due to the discharge of mining effluent and sewage. This research investigated the hydrological responses, in terms of water quality, in the event of land cover change within the catchment to make predictions on the future sustainability of the region’s water resources with the application of Partial Least Squares (PLS regression analysis. The quantification of hydrological responses in terms of water quality towards land cover changes has not been completed by previous research studies within the catchment. This research established the catchment’s present state of water quality and formulated PLS model equations to enable the prediction of future concentrations of specific water quality parameters in association with future land cover change. A change in land cover was found to have various negative influences. The retransformation of land cover into natural areas is accompanied with unintended and undesirable effects due to the degradation of the catchment’s buffering capabilities and the absence of the enforcement of the decommissioning of mining operations. For the Blesbok Spruit catchment to avoid a future water predicament, systematic and interdisciplinary measures need to be implemented according to these and other related findings, to ensure the future sustainability of the catchment and the region as a whole.

  14. Habitat quality, water quality and otter distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Mason

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In recent decades the otter (Lutra lutra has declined over much of Europe. Good habitat has been shown to be essential to otters. Specific elements of cover have been identified in some studies but the minimum cover requirements to support otter populations are not known. These are likely to vary in relation to other factors, such as disturbance. Habitat destruction has been severe in many areas of Europe. Water quantity is important to otters, especially where low flows destroy the food base, namely fish. However the minimum food requirements to support populations are not known. The main cause of the decline in otter populations is almost certainly bioaccumulating pollutants, especially PCBs. These are likely to be inhibiting recolonization in many areas. In Britain, catchment distribution of otters within regions is negatively correlated to mean PCB levels in otter spraints, and these are indicative of tissue levels. PCBs have been found in all samples studied. Current EC statutory monitoring is inadequate to protect otter populations from bioaccumulating contaminants. Standards are presented here for otter protection. More fundamental research is required to refine our understanding of the requirements of the otter. Riassunto Qualità ambientale, qualità dell'acqua e distribuzione della lontra - Negli ultimi decenni la lontra (Lutra lutra è diminuita su buona parte del suo areale europeo, dove particolarmente pesante è stata la distruzione di ambienti favorevoli. Habitat qualitativamente idonei sono essenziali per la sopravvivenza della specie. In alcuni studi, specifici parametri di copertura vegetale dei corpi idrici sono stati ritenuti importanti per la specie, ma quale sia il valore minimo di copertura riparia in grado di supportare una popolazione resta sconosciuto. I parametri di copertura variano probabilmente in relazione ad altri fattori, quali, ad

  15. Quality and Control of Water Vapor Winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.; Atkinson, Robert J.

    1996-01-01

    Water vapor imagery from the geostationary satellites such as GOES, Meteosat, and GMS provides synoptic views of dynamical events on a continual basis. Because the imagery represents a non-linear combination of mid- and upper-tropospheric thermodynamic parameters (three-dimensional variations in temperature and humidity), video loops of these image products provide enlightening views of regional flow fields, the movement of tropical and extratropical storm systems, the transfer of moisture between hemispheres and from the tropics to the mid- latitudes, and the dominance of high pressure systems over particular regions of the Earth. Despite the obvious larger scale features, the water vapor imagery contains significant image variability down to the single 8 km GOES pixel. These features can be quantitatively identified and tracked from one time to the next using various image processing techniques. Merrill et al. (1991), Hayden and Schmidt (1992), and Laurent (1993) have documented the operational procedures and capabilities of NOAA and ESOC to produce cloud and water vapor winds. These techniques employ standard correlation and template matching approaches to wind tracking and use qualitative and quantitative procedures to eliminate bad wind vectors from the wind data set. Techniques have also been developed to improve the quality of the operational winds though robust editing procedures (Hayden and Veldon 1991). These quality and control approaches have limitations, are often subjective, and constrain wind variability to be consistent with model derived wind fields. This paper describes research focused on the refinement of objective quality and control parameters for water vapor wind vector data sets. New quality and control measures are developed and employed to provide a more robust wind data set for climate analysis, data assimilation studies, as well as operational weather forecasting. The parameters are applicable to cloud-tracked winds as well with minor

  16. Mycoflora and Water Quality index Assessment of Water Sources in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    on this planet. We use water for various purposes and for each purpose we require water of appropriate quality. Consumption of water which has not met internationally acceptable standards could lead to an attack by water-borne such as cholera, typhoid fever and others (Udom et al., 2002). There is increasing awareness ...

  17. Hazardous water: an assessment of water quality and accessibility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Access to potable water supply remains a serious challenge to the local communities in the Likangala River catchment in southern Malawi. The quality of water resources is generally poor and the supply is inadequate. This paper discusses the results of laboratory analysis of water samples collected from selected water ...

  18. Water quantity and quality at the urban-rural interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; B. Graeme Lockaby

    2012-01-01

    Population growth and urban development dramatically alter natural watershed ecosystem structure and functions and stress water resources. We review studies on the impacts of urbanization on hydrologic and biogeochemical processes underlying stream water quantity and water quality issues, as well as water supply challenges in an urban environment. We conclude that...

  19. Surface water quality in Kenya's urban environment: Githurai Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In fact, 50% of all preventable illnesses in Kenya are related to water, sanitation and hygiene. This study was done to establish the level of indicator water quality parameters, and establish water borne disease prevalence in Githurai and adjacent communities. Water samples were collected from 6 points distributed uniformly ...

  20. Assess water scarcity integrating water quantity and quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Zeng, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Water scarcity has become widespread all over the world. Current methods for water scarcity assessment are mainly based on water quantity and seldom consider water quality. Here, we develop an approach for assessing water scarcity considering both water quantity and quality. In this approach, a new water scarcity index is used to describe the severity of water scarcity in the form of a water scarcity meter, which may help to communicate water scarcity to a wider audience. To illustrate the approach, we analyzed the historical trend of water scarcity for Beijing city in China during 1995-2009, as well as the assessment for different river basins in China. The results show that Beijing made a huge progress in mitigating water scarcity, and that from 1999 to 2009 the blue and grey water scarcity index decreased by 59% and 62%, respectively. Despite this progress, we demonstrate that Beijing is still characterized by serious water scarcity due to both water quantity and quality. The water scarcity index remained at a high value of 3.5 with a blue and grey water scarcity index of 1.2 and 2.3 in 2009 (exceeding the thresholds of 0.4 and 1, respectively). As a result of unsustainable water use and pollution, groundwater levels continue to decline, and water quality shows a continuously deteriorating trend. To curb this trend, future water policies should further decrease water withdrawal from local sources (in particular groundwater) within Beijing, and should limit the grey water footprint below the total amount of water resources.

  1. Global modelling of river water quality under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, Michelle T. H.; Franssen, Wietse H. P.; Yearsley, John R.

    2017-04-01

    Climate change will pose challenges on the quality of freshwater resources for human use and ecosystems for instance by changing the dilution capacity and by affecting the rate of chemical processes in rivers. Here we assess the impacts of climate change and induced streamflow changes on a selection of water quality parameters for river basins globally. We used the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model and a newly developed global water quality module for salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand. The modelling framework was validated using observed records of streamflow, water temperature, chloride, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand for 1981-2010. VIC and the water quality module were then forced with an ensemble of bias-corrected General Circulation Model (GCM) output for the representative concentration pathways RCP2.6 and RCP8.5 to study water quality trends and identify critical regions (hotspots) of water quality deterioration for the 21st century.

  2. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Owens and Indian Wells Valleys Study Unit, 2006: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densmore, Jill N.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 1,630 square-mile Owens and Indian Wells Valleys study unit (OWENS) was investigated in September-December 2006 as part of the Priority Basin Project of Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in collaboration with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The Owens and Indian Wells Valleys study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within OWENS study unit, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 74 wells in Inyo, Kern, Mono, and San Bernardino Counties. Fifty-three of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and 21 wells were selected to evaluate changes in water chemistry in areas of interest (understanding wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and potential wastewater- indicator compounds], constituents of special interest [perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), and 1,2,3- trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP)], naturally occurring inorganic constituents [nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements], radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes [tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water], and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. This study evaluated the quality of raw ground water in the aquifer in the OWENS study unit and did not attempt to evaluate the quality of treated water

  3. Hydrology and water quality characteristics of a stressed lotic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hydrology and water quality of Aiba stream were investigated from November 2012 to April 2013 on monthly basis. This was with a view to assessing the status of the stream sequel to its last study which indicated a poor physico-chemical water quality. Four sampling stations were established for the study along the ...

  4. Long-term stability study of Prussian blue-A quality assessment of water content and cyanide release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, A; Yang, Y; Khan, M A; Faustino, P J

    2015-02-01

    Prussian blue, ferric hexacyanoferrate is approved for (oral) treatment of internal contamination with radioisotopes of cesium or thallium. Cyanide makes up 35-40% of Prussian blue's molecular composition; thus, cyanide may be released during transit through the digestive tract under physiological pH conditions. The purpose of this study is to assess the long-term stability of Prussian blue drug products and active pharmaceutical ingredients and its impact on cyanide release. The study involves the determination and comparison of the loss in water content and cyanide released from Prussian blue under pH conditions that bracket human physiological exposure. Test samples of active pharmaceutical ingredient and drug product were stored for 10 years at ambient temperatures that mimic warehouse storage conditions. Water loss from Prussian blue was measured using thermogravimetric analysis. An in vitro physiological pH model that brackets gastric exposure and gastrointestinal transit was utilized for cyanide release. Prussian blue was incubated in situ at pH: 1.0, 5.0, and 7.0 @ 37°C for 1-24 h. Cyanide was measured using a validated colorimetric method by UV-Vis spectroscopy. Although the water content (quality attribute) of Prussian blue active pharmaceutical ingredient and drug product decreased by about 10.5% and 13.8%, respectively, since 2003, the cyanide release remained comparable. At pH of 7.0 for 24 h cyanide released from active pharmaceutical ingredient-1 was 21.33 ± 1.76 μg/g in 2004, and 28.45 ± 3.15 μg/g in 2013; cyanide released from drug product-1 was 21.89 ± 0.56 μg/g in 2004, and 27.31 ± 5.78 μg/g in 2013. At gastric pH of 1.0 and upper gastrointestinal pH of 5.0, the data for active pharmaceutical ingredients and drug products were also comparable in 2013. The cyanide release is still pH-dependent and follows the same trend as observed in 2003 with minimum release at pH of 5.0 and maximal release at pH of 1.0. In summary, this is the long

  5. Drinking Water Quality Status and Contamination in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Daud, M. K.; Muhammad Nafees; Shafaqat Ali; Muhammad Rizwan; Raees Ahmad Bajwa; Muhammad Bilal Shakoor; Muhammad Umair Arshad; Shahzad Ali Shahid Chatha; Farah Deeba; Waheed Murad; Ijaz Malook; Shui Jin Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Due to alarming increase in population and rapid industrialization, drinking water quality is being deteriorated day by day in Pakistan. This review sums up the outcomes of various research studies conducted for drinking water quality status of different areas of Pakistan by taking into account the physicochemical properties of drinking water as well as the presence of various pathogenic microorganisms. About 20% of the whole population of Pakistan has access to safe drinking water. The remai...

  6. Microbiological quality of drinking water from dispensers in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasi Daniela; Amiranda Ciro; Arnese Antonio; Cavallotti Ivan; Liguori Giorgio; Angelillo Italo F

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Water coolers are popular in office buildings and commercial stores and the quality of this source of drinking water has the potential to cause waterborne outbreaks, especially in sensitive and immunocompromised subjects. The aim of this study was to determine the quality of water plumbed in coolers from commercial stores in comparison with tap water in Italy. Methods For each sample, microbial parameters and chemical indicators of contamination were evaluated and informat...

  7. Study of impacts of floods on the water quality in an arid zone: the case of the Tarim River in Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean de la Paix, Mupenzi; Lanhai, Li; Xi, Chen; Varenyam, Achal; Anming, Bao

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the study undertaken at the Tarim River Basin in Northwest China to analyze impacts of flooding on water quality. It was shown that irregular rainfall was the cause of flash floods that affected many ecosystems and eroded soils. Simulation results and the existence of relationships between flood volume and flood peak allowed potential model application that included flood peak estimation. The analysis of water pollution through sample sediment was helped by spectroscopy techniques and it was found that the flood was the main cause of many chemical elements in water. The floods affected the quality of water in the Tarim River where it was slightly basic with pH = 8.1 before flooding and acidic with pH = 6.9 after flooding.

  8. Identification and assessment of potential water quality impact factors for drinking-water reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qing; Deng, Jinsong; Wang, Ke; Lin, Yi; Li, Jun; Gan, Muye; Ma, Ligang; Hong, Yang

    2014-06-10

    Various reservoirs have been serving as the most important drinking water sources in Zhejiang Province, China, due to the uneven distribution of precipitation and severe river pollution. Unfortunately, rapid urbanization and industrialization have been continuously challenging the water quality of the drinking-water reservoirs. The identification and assessment of potential impacts is indispensable in water resource management and protection. This study investigates the drinking water reservoirs in Zhejiang Province to better understand the potential impact on water quality. Altogether seventy-three typical drinking reservoirs in Zhejiang Province encompassing various water storage levels were selected and evaluated. Using fifty-two reservoirs as training samples, the classification and regression tree (CART) method and sixteen comprehensive variables, including six sub-sets (land use, population, socio-economy, geographical features, inherent characteristics, and climate), were adopted to establish a decision-making model for identifying and assessing their potential impacts on drinking-water quality. The water quality class of the remaining twenty-one reservoirs was then predicted and tested based on the decision-making model, resulting in a water quality class attribution accuracy of 81.0%. Based on the decision rules and quantitative importance of the independent variables, industrial emissions was identified as the most important factor influencing the water quality of reservoirs; land use and human habitation also had a substantial impact on water quality. The results of this study provide insights into the factors impacting the water quality of reservoirs as well as basic information for protecting reservoir water resources.

  9. Fuzzy Logic Water Quality Index and Importance of Water Quality Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman Bai. V

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of status of water quality of a river or any other water sources is highly indeterminate. It is necessary to have a competent model to predict the status of water quality and to advice for type of water treatment for meeting different demands. One such model (UNIQ2007 is developed as an application software in water quality engineering. The unit operates in a fuzzy logic mode including a fuzzification engine receiving a plurality of input variables on its input and being adapted to compute membership function parameters. A processor engine connected downstream of the fuzzification unit will produce fuzzy set, based on fuzzy variable viz. DO, BOD, COD, AN, SS and pH. It has a defuzzification unit operative to translate the inference results into a discrete crisp value of WQI. The UNIQ2007 contains a first memory device connected to the fuzzification unit and containing the set of membership functions, a secondary memory device connected to the defuzzification unit and containing the set of crisp value which appear in the THEN part of the fuzzy rules and an additional memory device connected to the defuzzification unit. More advantageously, UINQ2007 is constructed with control elements having dynamic fuzzy logic properties wherein target non-linearity can be input to result in a perfect evaluation of water quality. The development of the fuzzy model with one river system is explained in this paper. Further the model has been evaluated with the data from few rivers in Malaysia, India and Thailand. This water quality assessor probe can provide better quality index or identify the status of river with 90% perfection. Presently, WQI in most of the countries is referring to physic-chemical parameters only due to great efforts needed to quantify the biological parameters. This study ensures a better method to include pathogens into WQI due to superior capabilities of fuzzy logic in dealing with non-linear, complex and uncertain systems.

  10. The effect of phosphorus binding clay (Phoslock) in mitigating cyanobacterial nuisance: A laboratory study on the effects on water quality variables and plankton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhout, J.F.X.; Lurling, M.

    2013-01-01

    This laboratory study examined the lanthanum modified clay Phoslock® for its effectiveness to bind soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), release of nutrients from this modified clay, its influence on water quality variables (pH, oxygen saturation %, conductivity and turbidity), effects on phytoplankton

  11. Physical and chemical quality, biodiversity, and thermodynamic prediction of adhesion of bacterial isolates from a water purification system: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Barbosa Teodoro Alves

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of water purification system and identify the bacteria this system, predict bacterial adherence according to the hydrophobicity of these microorganisms and of the polypropylene distribution loop for purified water. The assessment of drinking water that supplies the purification system allowed good-quality physical, chemical, and microbiological specifications. The physicochemical specifications of the distributed purified water were approved, but the heterotrophic bacteria count was higher than allowed (>2 log CFU mL-1.The sanitation of the storage tank with chlorine decreased the number of bacteria adhered to the surface (4.34 cycles log. By sequencing of the 16SrDNA genes, six species of bacteria were identified. The contact angle was determined and polypropylene surface and all bacteria were considered to be hydrophilic, and adhesion was thermodynamically unfavorable. This case study showed the importance of monitoring the water quality in the purified water systems and the importance of sanitization with chemical agents. The count of heterotrophic bacteria on the polypropylene surface was consistent with the predicted thermodynamics results because the number of adhered cells reached approximate values of 5 log CFU cm-2.

  12. Water quality assessment of Australian ports using water quality evaluation indices

    OpenAIRE

    Jahan, Sayka; Strezov, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Australian ports serve diverse and extensive activities, such as shipping, tourism and fisheries, which may all impact the quality of port water. In this work water quality monitoring at different ports using a range of water quality evaluation indices was applied to assess the port water quality. Seawater samples at 30 stations in the year 2016-2017 from six ports in NSW, Australia, namely Port Jackson, Botany, Kembla, Newcastle, Yamba and Eden, were investigated to determine the physicochem...

  13. Principles and Practices of Water Quality Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.L. Michael

    2001-01-01

    There are many activities in forest management that may affect water quality, i.e., timber harvestine, road building,mechanical and chemical site preparation, release operations, fuel reduction,wildlife opening maintenance, etc. How severely they affect water quality depends on how well the person in charge of the operation understands the activity itself, the...

  14. 40 CFR 240.204 - Water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality. 240.204 Section 240.204 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.204 Water quality. ...

  15. Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (GLWQA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement between the U.S. and Canada addresses critical environmental health issues in the Great Lakes region. It's a model of binational cooperation to protect water quality. It was first signed in 1972 and amended in 2012.

  16. Urban Ethnohydrology: Cultural Knowledge of Water Quality and Water Management in a Desert City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith Gartin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Popular concern over water quality has important implications for public water management because it can both empower water utilities to improve service but also limit their ability to make changes. In the desert city of Phoenix, Arizona, obtaining sufficient high-quality water resources for a growing urban population poses a major challenge. Decision makers and urban hydrologists are aware of these challenges to water sustainability but the range of acceptable policy and management options available to them is constrained by public opinion. Therefore, this study examines cultural models of water quality and water management, termed ethnohydrology, among urban residents. The study yields three key findings. First, urban residents appear to have a shared model of ethnohydrology which holds that a there are significant water quality risks associated with low financial investments in city-wide water treatment and the desert location of Phoenix, and b government monitoring and management combined with household-level water treatment can yield water of an acceptable quality. Second, people with high incomes are more likely to engage in expensive water filtration activities and to agree with the cultural ethnohydrology model found. Third, people living in communities that are highly concerned about water quality are less likely to share high agreement around ethnohydrology. The results have implications for water policy making and planning, particularly in disadvantaged and vulnerable communities where water quality is perceived to be low.

  17. Effects of long-term flooding on biogeochemistry and vegetation development in floodplains; a mesocosm experiment to study interacting effects of land use and water quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. J. H. Peters

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Raising safety levees and reinforcing dykes is not a sufficient and sustainable solution to the intense winter and summer floods occurring with increasing frequency in Eastern Europe. An alternative, creating permanently flooded floodplain wetlands, requires improved understanding of ecological consequences. A 9 month mesocosm study (starting in January, under natural light and temperature conditions, was initiated to understand the role of previous land use (fertility intensity and flooding water quality on soil biogeochemistry and vegetation development. Flooding resulted in severe eutrophication of both sediment pore water and surface water, particularly for more fertilized soil and sulphate pollution. Vegetation development was mainly determined by soil quality, resulting in a strong decline of most species from the highly fertilized location, especially in combination with higher nitrate and sulphate concentrations. Soils from the less fertilized location showed, in contrast, luxurious growth of target Carex species regardless water quality. The observed interacting effects of water quality and agricultural use are important in assessing the consequences of planned measures for ecosystem functioning and biodiversity in river floodplains.

  18. Uncertainty assessment of water quality modeling for a small-scale urban catchment using the GLUE methodology: a case study in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Li, Tian; Dai, Meihong

    2015-06-01

    There is often great uncertainty in water quality modeling for urban drainage systems because water quality variation in systems is complex and affected by many factors. The stormwater management model (SWMM) was applied to a small-scale urban catchment with a simple and well-maintained stormwater drainage system without illicit connections. This was done to assess uncertainty in build-up and wash-off modeling of pollutants within the generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) methodology, based on a well-calibrated water quantity model. The results indicated great uncertainty of water quality modeling within the GLUE methodology. Comparison of uncertainties in various pollutant build-up and wash-off models that were available in SWMM indicated that those uncertainties varied slightly. This may be a consequence of the specific characteristics of rainfall events and experimental sites used in the study. The uncertainty analysis of water quality parameters in SWMM is conducive to effectively evaluating model reliability, and provides an experience base for similar research and applications.

  19. Water Quality Indicators Guide [and Teacher's Handbook]: Surface Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, Charles R.; Perfetti, Patricia Bytnar

    This guide aids in finding water quality solutions to problems from sediment, animal wastes, nutrients, pesticides, and salts. The guide allows users to learn the fundamental concepts of water quality assessment by extracting basic tenets from geology, hydrology, biology, ecology, and wastewater treatment. An introduction and eight chapters are…

  20. Effects of peatland drainage on water quality: a case study of the shallow blanket bogs of Exmoor, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grand-Clement, E.; Luscombe, D.; Le Feuvre, N.; Smith, D.; Anderson, K.; Brazier, R. E.

    2012-04-01

    Peatlands are widely represented in the South West of England (i.e. Exmoor, Dartmoor and Bodmin moors), but their existence is currently under threat due to both climate change and the impact of historical human activities. Peat cutting and intensive drainage for agricultural reclamation in the 19th and 20th century, have modified the hydrological behaviour of these shallow peats and dried out the upper layers, causing oxidation, erosion and vegetation change. Such anthropogenic impacts directly affect the storage of carbon, but also the provision of other ecosystem services, such as the supply of drinking water, and the support of specific and rare habitats. Blocking drainage ditches to restore the hydrological behaviour of peatlands has mostly been undertaken in the North of England, but to date, little is still known about the consequences of such management approaches on the overall Carbon stocks. The need to monitor restoration of peatlands in the South West of England arises due to the specific characteristics of the peat - it is often shallower than more northerly peat and dominated by Purple Moor Grass. In addition, and in part because of the shallowness of the resource, the peat has been damaged differently, often with very dense networks of hand-cut ditches which behave as highly efficient drainage networks. Most importantly, their location at the southernmost margin of the UK peatlands' geographical extent makes them extremely vulnerable to climate change, and so it is hypothesised that monitoring of these peatlands may provide an 'early warning system' for climatic impacts that affect more northerly sites in years to come. This study focuses upon the current impact of peatland degradation on water quality on Exmoor. Our experimental approach employs detailed, high resolution monitoring of selected ditches that are representative of damaged conditions on Exmoor, from small- (30 x 30cm ditches) through medium- (50x50cm), large- (1-2m ditches) and finally

  1. SURFACE WATER QUALITY IN THE RIVER PRUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAELA DUMITRAN

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Water is an increasingly important and why it is important to surfacewater quality, which is given by the analysis of physical - chemical, biological andobserving the investigation of water, biota, environments investigation. Analysis ofthe Prut river in terms of biological and physical elements - chemical. Evaluationof ecological and chemical status of water was done according to order of approvalof the standard classification nr.161/2006 surface water to determine the ecologicalstatus of water bodies

  2. Water quality indexing for predicting variation of water quality over time

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PPoonoosamy

    evaluate the quality of a given water body in such a way that it is easily understood by managers. ... the problem of 'eclipsing' which arises during aggregation process. ... to improve the Water Quality index, mainly to stress on the importance of the ... Thus, since the water quality indexing method yields a single value, it is.

  3. Water-quality assessment of the Connecticut, Housatonic, and Thames river basins study unit; analysis of available data on nutrients, suspended sediments, and pesticides, 1972-92

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Marc James; Grady, S.J.; Trench, E.C.; Flanagan, S.M.; Nielsen, M.G.

    1996-01-01

    This retrospective report examines available nutrient, suspended sediment, and pesticide data in surface and ground water in the Connecticut, Housatonic and Thames Rivers Study Unit of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. The purpose of this study is to improve the under- standing of natural and anthropogenic factors affecting water quality in the study unit. Water-quality data were acquired from various sources, primarily, the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The report examines data for water years 1972-92, focusing on 1980-92, although it also includes additional data from as early as 1905. The study unit lies within the New England Physiographic Province and altitudes range from sea level in coastal Connecticut to 6,288 feet above sea level at Mount Washington, New Hampshire. Two major aquifer types underlie the study unit--unconsolidated glacial deposits and fractured bedrock. The climate generally is temperate and humid, with four distinct seasons. Average annual precipitation ranges from 34 to 65 inches. The study unit has a population of about 4.5 million, which is most highly concentrated in southwestern Connecticut and along the south-central region of the Connecticut River Valley. Surface-water-quality data were screened to provide information about sites with adequate numbers of analyses (50) over sufficiently long periods (1980-90) to enable valid statistical analyses. In order to compare effects of different types of land use on surface-water quality, examination of data required application of several statistical and graphical techniques, including mapping, histograms, boxplots, concentration-discharge plots, trend analysis, and load estimation. Spatial and temporal analysis of surface-water-quality data indicated that, with a single exception, only/stations in the Connecticut water-quality network had sufficient data collected over adequately long time periods to use in detailed analyses. Ground-water

  4. Evaluation of water quality using water quality index (WQI) method and GIS in Aksu River (SW-Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şener, Şehnaz; Şener, Erhan; Davraz, Ayşen

    2017-04-15

    The aim of this study is evaluate water quality of the Aksu River, the main river recharging the Karacaören-1 Dam Lake and flowing approximately 145km from Isparta province to Mediterranean. Due to plan for obtaining drinking water from the Karacaören-1 Dam Lake for Antalya Province, this study has great importance. In this study, physical and chemical analyses of water samples taken from 21 locations (in October 2011 and May 2012, two periods) through flow path of the river were investigated. The analysis results were compared with maximum permissible limit values recommended by World Health Organization and Turkish drinking water standards. The water quality for drinking purpose was evaluated using the water quality index (WQI) method. The computed WQI values are between 35.6133 and 337.5198 in the study. The prepared WQI map shows that Karacaören-1 Dam Lake generally has good water quality. However, water quality is poor and very poor in the north and south of the river basin. The effects of punctual and diffuse pollutants dominate the water quality in these regions. Furthermore, the most effective water quality parameters are COD and Mg on the determination of WQI for the present study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Environmental control technology survey of selected US strip mining sites. Volume 2B. Alabama. Water quality impacts and overburden chemistry of Alabama study site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henricks, J D; Bogner, J E; Olsen, R D; Schubert, J P; Sobek, A A; Johnson, D O

    1980-05-01

    As part of a program to examine the ability of existing control technologies to meet federal guidelines for the quality of aqueous effluents from coal mines, an intensive study of water, coal, and overburden chemistry was conducted at a surface coal mine in Alabama from May 1976 through July 1977. Sampling sites included the pit sump, a stream downgrade from the mine, the discharge from the water treatment facility, and a small stream outside the mine drainage. Water samples were collected every two weeks by Argonne subcontractors at the Alabama Geological Survey and analysed for the following parameters: specific conductance, pH, temperature, acidity, bicarbonate, carbonate, chloride, total dissolved solids, suspended solids, sulfate, and 20 metals. Analysis of the coal and overburden shows that no potential acid problem exists at this mine. Water quality is good in both streams sampled, and high levels of dissolved elements are found only in water collected from the pit sump. The mine effluent is in compliance with Office of Surface Mining water quality standards.

  6. National Water Quality Laboratory, 1994 services catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timme, P.J.

    1994-01-01

    This Services Catalog contains information about field supplies and analytical services available from the National Water Quality Laboratory in Denver, Colo., and field supplies available from the Quality Water Service Unit in Ocala, Fla., to members of the U.S. Geological Survey's Water Resources Division. To assist personnel in the selection of analytical services, this catalog lists sample volume, applicable concentration range, detection level, precision of analysis, and preservation requirements for samples. (USGS)

  7. [Effect of a water-pipe network on the sensory quality of drinking water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatarska, Anna; Smoczyński, Stefan; Wypyska, Marta

    2010-01-01

    Object of studies was aimed at determining the effect of a water-pipe system on the sensory quality of drinking water originating from various intakes. The aim was to be achieved through analyses of the sensory quality (odor and flavor) of drinking water originating from various reception points within the water-pipe system. Based on the analyses carried out in the research, it may be stated that, transport of water through the water-pipe system in Olsztyn in the winter season does not affect deterioration of odor or flavor of water supplied to consumers. Besides worse sensory quality of drinking water at consumers' reception points may be determined by its worse quality immediately after treatment. As a result of water transport through a water-pipe network, it is possible to reduce the intensity of some odor and flavor attributes to an undetectable level.

  8. Trophic state categorisation and assessment of water quality in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study we investigated the water quality, determined the trophic state and assessed the influence of lake zones on the physical-chemical parameters of the Manjirenji Dam, Zimbabwe. Furthermore, we tested the applicability of two customary temperate water quality indices, the Canadian Council of Ministers of the ...

  9. Assessment of Groundwater Quality of Ilorin Metropolis using Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Groundwater as a source of potable water is becoming more important in Nigeria. Therefore, the need to ascertain the continuing potability of the sources cannot be over emphasised. This study is aimed at assessing the quality of selected groundwater samples from Ilorin metropolis, Nigeria, using the water quality index ...

  10. Use of benthic macroinvertebrates as indicators of water quality in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In its middle reaches, the water quality is gradually declining. The study was done in order to determine the water quality in the middle reaches of River Njoro using benthic macroinvertibrates assemblage as an indicator. The assemblage of benthic macroinvertebrates was compared with selected physicochemical variables ...

  11. water quality assessment and mapping using inverse distance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Several researchers have studied the water quality of the upper and lower stretches of River Kaduna with little on the middle stretch of the river. Besides, no work has ever been done on mapping the water quality of the said river. Hence, the middle stretch of River Kaduna was monitored for 12 months starting from June, ...

  12. Physicochemical quality of borehole water in Abonnema and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physicochemical quality of borehole water in Abonnema and its public health importance. Gloria N Wokem, Token Lawson-Jack. Abstract. This study was undertaken to assess potability in relation to physicochemical quality characteristics of borehole water in Abonnema Community of Rivers State. The sampling sites were ...

  13. Impact of upstream industrial effluents on irrigation water quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge of irrigation water quality is critical to predicting, managing and reducing salt affect on soils. The study assessed the effect of industrial effluents on irrigation water quality, soils and plant tissues in Ibadan, Southwest Nigeria. The degree of pollution was evaluated using Sodium adsorption ratio, pH, cations – Cl ...

  14. Development of a water quality index based on a European ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study comprised the development of a new index called the 'universal water quality index (UWQI)'. This index has advantages over pre-existing indices by reflecting the appropriateness of water for specific use, e.g. drinking water supply rather than general supply, and has been developed by studying the ...

  15. Use of geographic information system and water quality index to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on the analysis, most of the area under study falls 70% in poor water class and 30% in good water class. Hence, the result revealed that 70% of the groundwater samples of the study area are hardly suitable for drinking purposes without water quality management activities. Key words: spatial distribution, GIS, WQI, ...

  16. Water quality impacts of forest fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecle Aregai; Daniel Neary

    2015-01-01

    Forest fires have been serious menace, many times resulting in tremendous economic, cultural and ecological damage to many parts of the United States. One particular area that has been significantly affected is the water quality of streams and lakes in the water thirsty southwestern United States. This is because the surface water coming off burned areas has resulted...

  17. Alternative technologies for water quality management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandla A. Tshabalala

    2002-01-01

    Cranberry growers are concerned about the quality of water discharged from cranberry bogs into receiving surface waters. These water discharges may contain traces of pesticides arising from herbicide, insecticide or fungicide applications. They may also contain excess phosphorus from fertilizer application. Some cranberry farms have holding ponds to reduce the amount...

  18. Statistical Framework for Recreational Water Quality Criteria and Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halekoh, Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    Administrators of recreational waters face the basic tasks of surveillance of water quality and decisions on beach closure in case of unacceptable quality. Monitoring and subsequent decisions are based on sampled water probes and fundamental questions are which type of data to extract from...... recreational governmental authorities controlling water quality. The book opens with a historical account of water quality criteria in the USA between 1922 and 2003. Five chapters are related to sampling strategies and decision rules. Chapter 2 discusses the dependence of decision-making rules on short...... as classical random sampling or compound sampling. Chapter 7 discusses the use of regression methods in an empirical study to identify important determinants of water quality variation. Even though improved molecular techniques narrow the time delay between data collection and analysis results, predictive...

  19. DRINKING WATER QUALITY IN WELLS FROM AN AREA AFFECTED BY FLOOD EVENTS: CASE STUDY OF CURVATURE SUB-CARPATHIANS, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ŞENILĂ M.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the chemical parameters (inorganic anions and metals of drinking water of twenty-four wells and the presence of Escherichia coli in ten selected wells located in two villages from Buzau and Prahova Counties, in Curvature Sub-Carpathians, Romania, a rural area frequently affected by flood events. Water samples were collected in July 2014. Concerntrations of fluorides, nitrites, chlorides and phosphates were below the maximum allowable concentrations (MACs for drinking water established by European legislation (Drinking Water Directive 98/83/CE in all the analysed samples. Concentration of nitrates exceeded MAC (50 mg L-1 in five samples, while concentration of sulphates exceeded MAC (250 mg L-1 in two samples. Among the analysed metals, Mn exceeded MAC (50 μg L-1 in two samples, while Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe, Na, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and As concentrations did not exceeded the corresponding MACs. E. coli (over 2000 UFC 100 mL-1 was found in six water samples. The results show that majority of the studied parameters were below the threshold limits, however in some of the studied wells the water was found to be contaminated both by some chemical pollutants and by E. coli, which prepresent a risk for local population health.

  20. Risks associated with the microbiological quality of bodies of fresh and marine water used for recreational purposes: summary estimates based on published epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmirou, Denis; Pena, Laurent; Ledrans, Martine; Letertre, Alain

    2003-11-01

    The current European standards for microbiological quality of bathing water (i.e., all running or still fresh waters or parts thereof and/or sea water [with the exception of water intended for therapeutic purposes and water used in swimming pools]) were issued in 1976 and are currently undergoing revision. In this article, the authors propose parameters for select microorganism indicators to assist in the establishment of public-health-based objectives for fresh and marine water quality. A type-II meta-analysis of the results of 18 published epidemiological studies was implemented in an attempt to characterize the relationship(s) between concentrations of bacterial indicators and rates of acute gastrointestinal diseases among bathers who had used fresh or marine water for recreational purposes. The authors fit multiple linear-regression models, which allowed for random effects across studies, to derive dose-response curves. Several confounders and effect modifiers were controlled for in the analyses. Risks were then estimated for a hypothetical individual who would bathe 20 times/yr in water that contained a given concentration of microorganisms. For fresh-water-associated highly credible gastrointestinal illnesses, a level of 10 fecal coliforms/100 ml water yielded an attributable risk of 0.2 cases/1,000 person-years; a risk of 2 cases/1,000 person-years was found for fecal streptococci. The corresponding yearly attributable risks were 1 and 13 cases/1,000 person-years, respectively, for 100 bacteria/100 ml fresh water. Risks associated with fecal coliforms were found to be lower in marine water than in fresh water. Irrespective of the type of water examined, total coliforms were related only weakly with acute digestive morbidity. Developers of future bathing-water standards should state the level of risk deemed acceptable for public health. The authors of this study maintain that levels of fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci should be used as criteria for

  1. Drinking water quality and formation of biofilms in an office building during its first year of operation, a full scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inkinen, Jenni; Kaunisto, Tuija; Pursiainen, Anna; Miettinen, Ilkka T; Kusnetsov, Jaana; Riihinen, Kalle; Keinänen-Toivola, Minna M

    2014-02-01

    Complex interactions existing between water distribution systems' materials and water can cause a reduction in water quality and unwanted changes in materials, aging or corrosion of materials and formation of biofilms on surfaces. Substances leaching from pipe materials and water fittings, as well as the microbiological quality of water and formation of biofilms were evaluated by applying a Living Lab theme i.e. a research in a real life setting using a full scale system during its first year of operation. The study site was a real office building with one part of the building lined with copper pipes, the other with cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) pipes thus enabling material comparison; also differences within the cold and hot water systems were analysed. It was found that operational conditions, such as flow conditions and temperature affected the amounts of metals leaching from the pipe network. In particular, brass components were considered to be a source of leaching; e. g. the lead concentration was highest during the first few weeks after the commissioning of the pipe network when the water was allowed to stagnate. Assimilable organic carbon (AOC) and microbially available phosphorus (MAP) were found to leach from PEX pipelines with minor effects on biomass of the biofilm. Cultivable and viable biomass (heterotrophic plate count (HPC), and adenosine triphosphate (ATP)) levels in biofilms were higher in the cold than in the hot water system whereas total microbial biomass (total cell count (DAPI)) was similar with both systems. The type of pipeline material was not found to greatly affect the microbial biomass or Alpha-, Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria profiles (16s rRNA gene copies) after the first one year of operation. Also microbiological quality of water was found to deteriorate due to stagnation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A study of a matching pixel by pixel (MPP) algorithm to establish an empirical model of water quality mapping, as based on unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tung-Ching

    2017-06-01

    Linear regression models are a popular choice for the relationships between water quality parameters and bands (or band ratios) of remote sensing data. However, this research regards the phenomena of mixed pixels, specular reflection, and water fluidity as the challenges to establish a robust regression model. Based on the data of measurements in situ and remote sensing data, this study presents an enumeration-based algorithm, called matching pixel by pixel (MPP), and tests its performance in an empirical model of water quality mapping. Four small reservoirs, which cover a mere several hundred-thousand m2, in Kinmen, Taiwan, are selected as the study sites. The multispectral sensors, carried on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), are adopted to acquire remote sensing data regarding water quality parameters, including chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), Secchi disk depth (SDD), and turbidity in the reservoirs. The experimental results indicate that, while MPP can reduce the influence of specular reflection on regression model establishment, specular reflection does hamper the correction of thematic map production. Due to water fluidity, sampling in situ should be followed by UAV imaging as soon as possible. Excluding turbidity, the obtained estimation accuracy can satisfy the national standard.

  3. Diminished disease progression rate in a chronic kidney disease population following the replacement of dietary water source with quality drinking water: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardhana, Edirisinghe Arachchige Ranga Iroshanie Edirisinghe; Perera, Ponnamperuma Aratchige Jayasumana; Sivakanesan, Ramiah; Abeysekara, Tilak; Nugegoda, Danaseela Bandara; Weerakoon, Kosala; Siriwardhana, Dunusingha Asitha Surandika

    2017-03-29

    Environmental toxin/s is alleged to be the contributory factor for the chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) in Sri Lanka. The potential of drinking water as a medium for the nephrotoxic agents in the affected subjects has been comprehensively discoursed in the recent past. The present study was aimed to assess the effect of replacing the habitual drinking water on the kidney function of CKDu patients residing in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka: METHODS: An interventional study was carried out to assess the disease progression rate of a CKDu population whose habitual drinking water was replaced by bottled spring water certified by Sri Lanka Standard (SLS) for a period of 18 month along with a population of CKDu patients who continued with their usual drinking water. Kidney function of subjects in both groups were monitored in terms of blood pressure, serum creatinine, serum calcium, serum phosphorus, hemoglobin, estimated glomerular filtration rate and urinary protein at 6 months intervals during the intervention and follow up periods. Diminished disease progression rate was observed in CKDu patients in the intervention group when compared with the non- intervention group based on serum creatinine, Hb, estimated glomerular filtration rate and urinary protein levels. Extensive interventional studies are required to generalize effect of drinking water on CKDu population. The habitual drinking water is likely to be a contributory factor towards the progression of the disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluating benefits and costs of changes in water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessica Koteen; Susan J. Alexander; John B. Loomis

    2002-01-01

    Water quality affects a variety of uses, such as municipal water consumption and recreation. Changes in water quality can influence the benefits water users receive. The problem is how to define water quality for specific uses. It is not possible to come up with one formal definition of water quality that fits all water uses. There are many parameters that influence...

  5. Two 24-hour Studies of Water Quality in the Ala Wai Canal during March and July, 1994 for the Mamala Bay Study, Pollutant Source Identification Project MB-3, (NODC Accession 0001188)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset focuses on studies of water quality in the Ala Wai Canal in order to determine its role of point and non point source disharge into Mamala Bay. The...

  6. A Bayesian approach for evaluation of the effect of water quality model parameter uncertainty on TMDLs: A case study of Miyun Reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shidong; Jia, Haifeng; Xu, Changqing; Xu, Te; Melching, Charles

    2016-08-01

    Facing increasingly serious water pollution, the Chinese government is changing the environmental management strategy from solely pollutant concentration control to a Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) program, and water quality models are increasingly being applied to determine the allowable pollutant load in the TMDL. Despite the frequent use of models, few studies have focused on how parameter uncertainty in water quality models affect the allowable pollutant loads in the TMDL program, particularly for complicated and high-dimension water quality models. Uncertainty analysis for such models is limited by time-consuming simulation and high-dimensionality and nonlinearity in parameter spaces. In this study, an allowable pollutant load calculation platform was established using the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC), which is a widely applied hydrodynamic-water quality model. A Bayesian approach, i.e. the DiffeRential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (DREAM) algorithm, which is a high-efficiency, multi-chain Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method, was applied to assess the effects of parameter uncertainty on the water quality model simulations and its influence on the allowable pollutant load calculation in the TMDL program. Miyun Reservoir, which is the most important surface drinking water source for Beijing, suffers from eutrophication and was selected as a case study. The relations between pollutant loads and water quality indicators are obtained through a graphical method in the simulation platform. Ranges of allowable pollutant loads were obtained according to the results of parameter uncertainty analysis, i.e. Total Organic Carbon (TOC): 581.5-1030.6t·yr(-1); Total Phosphorus (TP): 23.3-31.0t·yr(-1); and Total Nitrogen (TN): 480-1918.0t·yr(-1). The wide ranges of allowable pollutant loads reveal the importance of parameter uncertainty analysis in a TMDL program for allowable pollutant load calculation and margin of safety (MOS) determination. The sources

  7. Current status of water environment and their microbial biosensor techniques - Part I: Current data of water environment and recent studies on water quality investigations in Japan, and new possibility of microbial biosensor techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Hideaki

    2018-02-22

    In my 2010 review, I addressed conventional water analysis and biosensing of organic pollutants in Japan between 1960s and 2000s. It is now timely to reexamine current analytical and biomonitoring approaches in view of the new challenges in assessing pollution, particularly in closed water bodies, as pollutants tend to accumulate in these endorheic basins. In the present review series, I presented current water environment and its microbial biosensors. In this part, I presented current data of the water quality of these water bodies in Japan and established the need to further develop microbial biosensor technologies to address and monitor water quality here. Graphical Abstract Current water pollution indirectly occurring by anthropogenic eutrophication (Part I).

  8. Drinking-water disinfection by-products and semen quality: a cross-sectional study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qiang; Wang, Yi-Xin; Xie, Shao-Hua; Xu, Liang; Chen, Yong-Zhe; Li, Min; Yue, Jing; Li, Yu-Feng; Liu, Ai-Lin; Lu, Wen-Qing

    2014-07-01

    Exposure to disinfection by-products (DBPs) has been demonstrated to impair male reproductive health in animals, but human evidence is limited and inconsistent. We examined the association between exposure to drinking-water DBPs and semen quality in a Chinese population. We recruited 2,009 men seeking semen analysis from the Reproductive Center of Tongji Hospital in Wuhan, China, between April 2011 and May 2012. Each man provided a semen sample and a urine sample. Semen samples were analyzed for sperm concentration, sperm motility, and sperm count. As a biomarker of exposure to drinking-water DBPs, trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) was measured in the urine samples. The mean (median) urinary TCAA concentration was 9.58 (7.97) μg/L (interquartile range, 6.01-10.96 μg/L). Compared with men with urine TCAA in the lowest quartile, increased adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were estimated for below-reference sperm concentration in men with TCAA in the second and fourth quartiles (OR = 1.79; 95% CI: 1.19, 2.69 and OR = 1.51; 95% CI: 0.98, 2.31, respectively), for below-reference sperm motility in men with TCAA in the second and third quartiles (OR = 1.46; 95% CI: 1.12, 1.90 and OR = 1.30; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.70, respectively), and for below-reference sperm count in men with TCAA in the second quartile (OR 1.62; 95% CI: 1.04, 2.55). Nonmonotonic associations with TCAA quartiles were also estimated for semen parameters modeled as continuous outcomes, although significant negative associations were estimated for all quartiles above the reference level for sperm motility. Our findings suggest that exposure to drinking-water DBPs may contribute to decreased semen quality in humans.

  9. Influence of water quality on the embodied energy of drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Mark V E; Zhang, Qiong; Mihelcic, James R

    2014-01-01

    Urban water treatment plants rely on energy intensive processes to provide safe, reliable water to users. Changes in influent water quality may alter the operation of a water treatment plant and its associated energy use or embodied energy. Therefore the objective of this study is to estimate the effect of influent water quality on the operational embodied energy of drinking water, using the city of Tampa, Florida as a case study. Water quality and water treatment data were obtained from the David L Tippin Water Treatment Facility (Tippin WTF). Life cycle energy analysis (LCEA) was conducted to calculate treatment chemical embodied energy values. Statistical methods including Pearson's correlation, linear regression, and relative importance were used to determine the influence of water quality on treatment plant operation and subsequently, embodied energy. Results showed that influent water quality was responsible for about 14.5% of the total operational embodied energy, mainly due to changes in treatment chemical dosages. The method used in this study can be applied to other urban drinking water contexts to determine if drinking water source quality control or modification of treatment processes will significantly minimize drinking water treatment embodied energy.

  10. Principles of Water Quality Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebbutt, T. H. Y.

    This book is designed as a text for undergraduate civil engineering courses and as preliminary reading for postgraduate courses in public health engineering and water resources technology. It is also intended to be of value to workers already in the field and to students preparing for the examinations of the Institute of Water Pollution Control…

  11. Water Availability--The Connection Between Water Use and Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Robert M.; Hamilton, Pixie A.; Miller, Timothy L.; Myers, Donna N.

    2008-01-01

    Water availability has become a high priority in the United States, in large part because competition for water is becoming more intense across the Nation. Population growth in many areas competes with demands for water to support irrigation and power production. Cities, farms, and power plants compete for water needed by aquatic ecosystems to support their minimum flow requirements. At the same time, naturally occurring and human-related contaminants from chemical use, land use, and wastewater and industrial discharge are introduced into our waters and diminish its quality. The fact that degraded quality limits the availability and suitability of water for critical uses is a well-known reality in many communities. What may be less understood, but equally true, is that our everyday use of water can significantly affect water quality, and thus its availability. Landscape features (such as geology, soils, and vegetation) along with water-use practices (such as ground-water withdrawals and irrigation) govern water availability because, together, they affect the movement of chemical compounds over the land and in the subsurface. Understanding the interactions of human activities with natural sources and the landscape is critical to effectively managing water and sustaining water availability in the future.

  12. Suitability Analysis of Water in an Urban Tropical Lake Using Seasonal Water-Quality Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavi Tiwari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the study of water-quality index (WQI of a tropical, urban water body in Gorakhpur region (India. Water-quality index was determined on the basis of various physico-chemical parameters like pH, temperature, total solids, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand, hardness, calcium, magnesium, etc. Then, on the basis of calculated WQI, the water was correlated for its use for public consumption, recreation, or any other purpose. A number of parameters directly regulate the utility of water for a particular purpose. The water-quality index obtained for the water body in different seasons of study periods, i.e., rainy season, winter season, and summer season are 78.29, 74.01, and 116.94, respectively; this indicates the water quality of the collected samples to be very poor.

  13. Microelectrode array sensor for water quality monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobet, J; Rychen, Ph; Cardot, F; Santoli, E

    2003-01-01

    A versatile microelectrode array sensor for water quality monitoring has been developed. The array fabrication, based on batch microelectronic processes, results in a highly stable passivation of the silicon chip surface and provides the possibility to use a backside contact. Packaging was optimized for on-line water operation at high pressures. Examples of applications include chlorine monitoring in drinking water, ozone monitoring in deionized water, dissolved oxygen in activated sludge and preliminary measurements of trace arsenic.

  14. Groundwater quality data from the National Water Quality Assessment Project, May 2012 through December 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Terri L.; DeSimone, Leslie; Bexfield, Laura M.; Lindsey, Bruce; Barlow, Jeannie R.; Kulongoski, Justin; Musgrove, MaryLynn; Kingsbury, James A.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater-quality data were collected from 748 wells as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Project of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Program from May 2012 through December 2013. The data were collected from four types of well networks: principal aquifer study networks, which assess the quality of groundwater used for public water supply; land-use study networks, which assess land-use effects on shallow groundwater quality; major aquifer study networks, which assess the quality of groundwater used for domestic supply; and enhanced trends networks, which evaluate the time scales during which groundwater quality changes. Groundwater samples were analyzed for a large number of water-quality indicators and constituents, including major ions, nutrients, trace elements, volatile organic compounds, pesticides, and radionuclides. These groundwater quality data are tabulated in a U.S. Geological Survey Data Series Report DS-997 which is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/ds997 and in this data release. Quality-control samples also were collected; data from blank and replicate quality-control samples are included in the related report (DS-997) and this data release. This compressed file contains 28 files of groundwater-quality data in ASCII text tab-delimited format and 28 corresponding metadata in xml format for wells sampled for the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Project, May 2012 through December 2013.

  15. Surface water quality in a water run-off canal system: A case study in Jubail Industrial City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zia Mahmood Siddiqi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Water quality in a run-off canal system in an industrial area was evaluated for a range of physical and chemical properties comprising trace metals (including mercury (Hg, chromium (Cr, iron (Fe, manganese (Mn, salinity, pH, turbidity, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand (COD, and dissolved oxygen. High concentrations of potassium (K (1.260–2.345 mg/l and calcium (Ca (19.170–35510 mg/l demonstrated that the salinity in the water was high, which indicates that industrial effluents from fertilizer manufacturing and Chlor-alkali units are being discharged into the canal system. Almost all the metal concentrations in water and sediment were within the thresholds established by the local regulatory body. Concentrations of Cr (0.0154–0.0184 mg/l, Mn (0.0608–0.199 mg/l, Fe (0.023–0.035 mg/l, COD (807–916 mg/l, and turbidity (633 ± 15–783 ± 22 NTU were high where the canal discharges into the Persian Gulf; these discharges may compromise the health of the aquatic ecosystem. There is concern about the levels of Hg in water (0.00135–0.0084 mg/l, suspended sediment (0.00308–0.0096 mg/l, and bed sediment (0.00172–0.00442 mg/l because of the bio-accumulative nature of Hg. We also compared the total Hg concentrations in fish from Jubail, and two nearby cities. Hg contents were highest in fish tissues from Jubail. This is the first time that heavy metal pollution has been assessed in this water run-off canal system; information about Hg is of particular interest and will form the basis of an Hg database for the area that will be useful for future investigations.

  16. Evaluation on the Quality of Bangkok Tap Water with Other Drinking Purpose Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kordach A.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The concern of drinking purposed water quality in Bangkok, Nonthaburi, and Samutprakarn provinces has been a problem for over fifteen years. Metropolitan Water Works Authority (MWA of Thailand is fully responsible for providing water supply to the mentioned areas. The objective of Drinkable Tap Water Project is to make people realize in quality of tap water. Communities, school, government agencies, hotels, hospitals, department stores, and other organizations are participating in this project. MWA have collected at least 3 samples of water from the corresponding places and the samples have to meet the World Health Organization (WHO guidelines level. This study is to evaluate water quality of tap water, storage water, filtered water, and filtered water dispenser. The water samples from 2,354 attending places are collected and analyzed. From October 2011 to September 2016, MWA analyzed 32,711 samples. The analyzed water parameters are free residual chlorine, appearance color, turbidity, pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS, and pathogenic bacteria; E.coli. The results indicated that a number of tap water samples had the highest number compliance with WHO guidelines levels at 98.40%. The filtered water, filtered water dispenser, and storage water were received 96.71%, 95.63%, and 90.88%, respectively. However, the several samples fail to pass WHO guideline level because they were contaminated by E.coli. The result is that tap water has the highest score among other sources probably because tap water has chlorine for disinfection and always is monitored by professional team round-the-clock services compared to the other water sources with less maintenance or cleaning. Also, water quality reports are continuously sent to customers by mail addresses. Tap water quality data are shown on MWA websites and Facebook. All these steps of work should enhance the confidence of tap water quality.

  17. Effects of selected low-impact-development (LID) techniques on water quality and quantity in the Ipswich River Basin, Massachusetts-Field and modeling studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Marc J.; Barbaro, Jeffrey R.; Sorenson, Jason R.; Waldron, Marcus C.

    2010-01-01

    During the months of August and September, flows in the Ipswich River, Massachusetts, dramatically decrease largely due to groundwater withdrawals needed to meet increased residential and commercial water demands. In the summer, rates of groundwater recharge are lower than during the rest of the year, and water demands are higher. From 2005 to 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey, in a cooperative funding agreement with the Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation, monitored small-scale installations of low-impact-development (LID) enhancements designed to diminish the effects of storm runoff on the quantity and quality of surface water and groundwater. Funding for the studies also was contributed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Targeted Watersheds Grant Program through a financial assistance agreement with Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation. The monitoring studies examined the effects of (1) replacing an impervious parking lot surface with a porous surface on groundwater quality, (2) installing rain gardens and porous pavement in a neighborhood of 3 acres on the quantity and quality of stormwater runoff, and (3) installing a 3,000-square foot (ft2) green roof on the quantity and quality of stormwater runoff. In addition, the effects of broad-scale implementation of LID techniques, reduced water withdrawals, and water-conservation measures on streamflow in large areas of the basin were simulated using the U.S. Geological Survey's Ipswich River Basin model. From June 2005 to 2007, groundwater quality was monitored at the Silver Lake town beach parking lot in Wilmington, MA, prior to and following the replacement of the conventional, impervious-asphalt surface with a porous surface consisting primarily of porous asphalt and porous pavers. Changes in the concentrations of the water-quality constituents, phosphorus, nitrogen, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, zinc, and total petroleum hydrocarbons, were monitored

  18. Microbiological quality of packaged drinking water brands marketed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sale and consumption of packaged water is increasing by the day in Nigeria and this increase is attributed to the fact that there is inadequate supply of portable water in urban areas. This study investigated the bacteriological quality of packaged water at point-of-sale in Minna, North central Nigeria with emphasis on the ...

  19. Surface Water Quality Monitoring Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The MN Department of Agriculture (MDA) is charged with periodically collecting and analyzing water samples from selected locations throughout the state to determine...

  20. Assessing water quality of rural water supply schemes as a measure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted in WondoGenet district, Southern Ethiopia to assess the water quality of rural water supply schemes in relation to the sustainability of their service delivery. 28 functional water points were selected randomly, for their assessments. The assessments included sanitary surveillance of water points and ...

  1. Effect of type of water supply on water quality in a developing community in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Genthe, Bettina

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to provide water to developing communities in South Africa have resulted in various types of water supplies being used. This study examined the relationship between the type of water supply and the quality of water used. Source (communal...

  2. 40 CFR 130.3 - Water quality standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality standards. 130.3 Section... QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.3 Water quality standards. A water quality standard (WQS) defines the water quality goals of a water body, or portion thereof, by designating the use or uses to be made...

  3. Collection of Condensate Water: Global Potential and Water Quality Impacts

    KAUST Repository

    Loveless, Kolin Joseph

    2012-12-28

    Water is a valuable resource throughout the world, especially in hot, dry climates and regions experiencing significant population growth. Supplies of fresh water are complicated by the economic and political conditions in many of these regions. Technologies that can supply fresh water at a reduced cost are therefore becoming increasingly important and the impact of such technologies can be substantial. This paper considers the collection of condensate water from large air conditioning units as a possible method to alleviate water scarcity issues. Using the results of a climate model that tested data collected from 2000 to 2010, we have identified areas in the world with the greatest collection potential. We gave special consideration to areas with known water scarcities, including the coastal regions of the Arabian Peninsula, Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. We found that the quality of the collected water is an important criterion in determining the potential uses for this water. Condensate water samples were collected from a few locations in Saudi Arabia and detailed characterizations were conducted to determine the quality of this water. We found that the quality of condensate water collected from various locations and types of air conditioners was very high with conductivities reaching as low as 18 μS/cm and turbidities of 0. 041 NTU. The quality of the collected condensate was close to that of distilled water and, with low-cost polishing treatments, such as ion exchange resins and electrochemical processes, the condensate quality could easily reach that of potable water. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  4. Water Quality of Emet Stream Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem TOKATLI

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Emet Stream Basin is one of Turkey's most important river systems and one of the two most important branches of Uluabat Lake (Ramsar Area. The system is under an intensive pressure of agricultural and industrial activities and domestic wastes. In this study, water samples were collected seasonally from eight stations (one of them is on the Kınık Stream, one of them is on the Dursunbey Stream and six of them on the Emet Stream on the Emet Stream Basin. Some lymnological parameters (nitrate nitrogen, nitrite nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen, sulfate, orthophosphate, and BOD5 were determined to evaluate the water quality. The data obtained were evaluated statistically and compared with the limit values reported by various national and international organizations. It was determined that, Emet Stream Basin is exposed to a significant organic pollution. 

  5. Microbial (Pathogen)/Recreational Water Quality Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Documents pertaining to Recreational Human Health Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Microbial Organisms (Pathogens). These documents include safe levels for cyanotoxins microcystin and cylindrospermopsin, and Coliphage to protect human health.

  6. Maui Citizen Science Coastal Water Quality Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A network of citizen science volunteers periodically monitors water quality at several beaches across the island of Maui in the State of Hawaii. This community-based...

  7. Mobile Water Quality Information Tool Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Water quality remote sensing has grown to allow for operational monitoring of trophic status, assessment of cyanobacteria blooms, and historical and trend analysis...

  8. Water Quality and Water Borne Diseases in Lowland Ecosystem of Banyuasin, South Sumatra, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Ekawati, Dianita; Malaka, Tan; Susanto, Robiyanto H; Kamaluddin, M. T; Setyawan, Dwi

    2011-01-01

    Water quality and quantity is always an important issue in lowland ecosystem of Banyuasin. Low domestic water supply sanitation is considered as having an important contribution on the high frequency of waterborne diseases in the area. The study aims at recording water borne diseases and the water quality in the lowland area of Banyuasin District. This field research was conducted using a cross-sectional method. Total samples were 210 households in Telang which were observed during July throu...

  9. Data from synoptic water-quality studies on the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon, Arizona, November 1990 and June 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, H.E.; Peart, D.B.; Antweiler, R.C.; Brinton, T.I.; Campbell, W.L.; Barbarino, J.R.; Roth, D.A.; Hart, R.J.; Averett, R.C.

    1996-01-01

    Two water-quality synoptic studies were made on the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Field measurements and the collection of water samples for laboratory analysis were made at 10 mainstem and 6 tributary sites every 6 hours for a 48-hour period on November 5-6, 1990, and again on June 18-20, 1991. Field measurements included discharge, alkalinity, water temperature, light penetration, pH, specific conductance, and dissolved oxygen. Water samples were collected for the laboratory analysis of major and minor ions (calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, strontium, chloride, sulfate, silica as SiO2), trace elements (aluminum, arsenic, boron, barium, beryllium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, lead, lithium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, thallium, uranium, vanadium and zinc), and nutrients (phosphate, nitrate, ammonium, nitrite, total dissolved nitrogen, total dissolved phosphorus and dissolved organic carbon). Biological measurements included drift (benthic invertebrates and detrital material), and benthic invertebrates from the river bottom.

  10. The influence of wastewater discharge on water quality in Hawai'i: A comparative study for Lahaina and Kihei, Maui.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Pierce, Mailea R; Rhoads, Neil A

    2016-02-15

    In Maui, Hawai'i, wastewater reclamation facilities (WWRFs) dispose of partially treated effluent into injection wells connected to the nearshore environment. Hawai'i State Department of Health data from 2004-2015 were assessed for qualitative trends in nutrient, turbidity, and Chlorophyll a water quality (WQ) impairments for fourteen marine sites on Maui Island. We introduce a novel method, the Qualitative Impact Percentage (QIP), to facilitate a qualitative comparison of disparate factors contributing to WQ impairment. Sites near the Lahaina WWRF in West Maui, which was found in violation of the Clean Water Act in 2014, had fewer exceedances and lower geometric means compared to sites near the Kihei WWRF. Our results suggest that WQ impairments may be a greater concern in Kihei than previously acknowledged. This paper attempts to raise the awareness of policymakers and the public and to encourage further research assessing the effects of the Kihei WWRF on the marine environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Modelling the water quality in dams within the Umgeni Water operational area with emphasis on algal relations / Philip Mark Graham

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, Philip Mark

    2007-01-01

    Based on many years of water quality (including algal) and water treatment cost data, available at Umgeni Water, a study was undertaken to better understand the water quality relationships in man made lakes within the company's operational area, and to investigate how water quality affected the cost of treating water from these lakes. The broad aims to the study were to: identify the key environmental variables that were affecting algal populations in lakes; and if these wer...

  12. Impacts of extreme flooding on riverbank filtration water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascott, M J; Lapworth, D J; Gooddy, D C; Sage, R C; Karapanos, I

    2016-06-01

    Riverbank filtration schemes form a significant component of public water treatment processes on a global level. Understanding the resilience and water quality recovery of these systems following severe flooding is critical for effective water resources management under potential future climate change. This paper assesses the impact of floodplain inundation on the water quality of a shallow aquifer riverbank filtration system and how water quality recovers following an extreme (1 in 17 year, duration >70 days, 7 day inundation) flood event. During the inundation event, riverbank filtrate water quality is dominated by rapid direct recharge and floodwater infiltration (high fraction of surface water, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) >140% baseline values, >1 log increase in micro-organic contaminants, microbial detects and turbidity, low specific electrical conductivity (SEC) 400% baseline). A rapid recovery is observed in water quality with most floodwater impacts only observed for 2-3 weeks after the flooding event and a return to normal groundwater conditions within 6 weeks (lower fraction of surface water, higher SEC, lower DOC, organic and microbial detects, DO). Recovery rates are constrained by the hydrogeological site setting, the abstraction regime and the water quality trends at site boundary conditions. In this case, increased abstraction rates and a high transmissivity aquifer facilitate rapid water quality recoveries, with longer term trends controlled by background river and groundwater qualities. Temporary reductions in abstraction rates appear to slow water quality recoveries. Flexible operating regimes such as the one implemented at this study site are likely to be required if shallow aquifer riverbank filtration systems are to be resilient to future inundation events. Development of a conceptual understanding of hydrochemical boundaries and site hydrogeology through monitoring is required to assess the suitability of a prospective riverbank filtration

  13. National Water Quality Laboratory, 1995 services catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timme, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    This Services Catalog contains information about field supplies and analytical services available from the National Water Quality Laboratory in Denver, Colo., and field supplies available from the Quality Water Service Unit in Ocala, Fla., to members of the U.S. Geological Survey. To assist personnel in the selection of analytical services, this catalog lists sample volume, required containers, applicable concentration range, detection level, precision of analysis, and preservation requirements for samples.

  14. Water Quality Management for Sustainable Aquaculture Production in Mekong delta: A Case Study in Thot Not District, Can Tho Province of Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Thi Hai Ninh; NGUYEN Mau, Dung; HO Ngoc, Cuong

    2016-01-01

    Production intensification of semi-intensive and intensive culture system has become a trend in the Mekong delta. However, the practice of these systems by small farm households usually results in water pollution, then placing negative consequences on aquaculture yield and quality. Water quality management is therefore nowadays one of the most important in aquaculture production in the Delta. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the water quality management of aquaculture farm househol...

  15. THE STUDY OF WATER QUALITY USING BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATES AS BIOINDICATORS IN THE CATCHMENT AREAS OF THE RIVERS JIU, OLT AND IALOMIŢA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Daniela MITITELU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The wide distribution of benthic invertebrates and their different sensitivity shown upon modifying the qualitative parameters of aquatic ecosystems led to a frequent use of these group as bioindicators in different studies. The present study aims at presenting a list concerning the different macroinvertebrates identified in the larva stage in three watersheds (Jiu, Olt, Ialomiţa and establishing the water quality of the monitored sections using this benthic macroinvertebrates. The sample collecting points were represented by 23 stations. The abundance and frequency values recorded for benthic communities varied according to the physical-chemical conditions specific to each sample collecting station. There were identified 15 groups in total. The most frequent were Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera, Diptera (Chironomidae and others. The deterioration of water quality is marked by the decrease in the biotic index EPT/Ch value.

  16. Effects of an Alpine Ski Resort on Hydrology and Water Quality in the Northeastern U.S.: Preliminary Findings from a Field Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wemple, B.; Shanley, J.; Denner, J.

    2002-12-01

    High elevation, forested watersheds are particularly vulnerable to stresses from development. Steep slopes and thin soils rapidly transmit water, nutrients and sediment when disturbed by logging, road construction or other activities associated with development. The effects of forest harvesting practices on streamflow and water quality in high-elevation, forested watersheds have been well studied and provide relevant information about the susceptibility of these ecosystems to anthropogenic disturbance. Few studies have directly addressed the hydrologic or water quality effects of ski resort development on mountain streams, and these studies draw almost entirely from western U.S. examples. Ski resorts in the eastern U.S. face particular development pressures. Transient and unpredictable snow conditions generate extensive need for snowmaking. Competitive economic pressure has motivated plans for slope-side village development and summer recreation facilities at many eastern U.S. ski resorts. Here, we report preliminary findings of a recently initiated paired-watershed study to examine the effects of alpine ski area development on water quantity and quality. Our study area is located on the eastern slope of Mt. Mansfield, Vermont, and includes the basins of Ranch Brook (9.6 sq km) and West Branch (11.7 sq km). Ranch Brook is undeveloped, except for a network of cross-country ski trails and unsurfaced access roads, and serves as our control watershed. West Branch encompasses nearly an entire major ski resort, with an extensive network of alpine ski lifts and trails, day lodges, snowmaking facilities, and vacation homes. A major expansion of resort facilities and ski trails has recently received state approval. Our preliminary analysis indicates distinct differences in runoff and water quality between the two basins. Differences in basin hydrographs suggest that ski trails alter the timing and magnitude of runoff, particularly during spring snowmelt. Elevated

  17. Ground-Water Quality Data in the San Fernando-San Gabriel Study Unit, 2005 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Michael; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 460 square mile San Fernando-San Gabriel study unit (SFSG) was investigated between May and July 2005 as part of the Priority Basin Assessment Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Assessment Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The San Fernando-San Gabriel study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within SFSG, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 52 wells in Los Angeles County. Thirty-five of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and seventeen wells were selected to aid in the evaluation of specific water-quality issues or changes in water chemistry along a historic ground-water flow path (understanding wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides and pesticide degradates], constituents of special interest [perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), 1,2,3-trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP), and 1,4-dioxane], naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, samples for matrix spikes) were collected at approximately one-fifth (11 of 52) of the wells, and the results for these

  18. ATP measurements for monitoring microbial drinking water quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, Óluva Karin

    Current standard methods for surveillance of microbial drinking water quality are culture based, which are laborious and time-consuming, where results not are available before one to three days after sampling. This means that the water may have been consumed before results on deteriorated water....... The overall aim of this PhD study was to investigate various methodological features of the ATP assay for a potential implementation on a sensor platform as a real-time parameter for continuous on-line monitoring of microbial drinking water quality. Commercial reagents are commonly used to determine ATP......, microbial quality in distributed water, detection of aftergrowth, biofilm formation etc. This PhD project demonstrated that ATP levels are relatively low and fairly stable in drinking water without chlorine residual despite different sampling locations, different drinking water systems and time of year...

  19. Water quality in the Okavango Delta

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-03-12

    Mar 12, 2010 ... This review will discuss levels of water quality parameters, such as .... have a cascading negative impact on species at higher trophic levels, such as fish, ... into water through photosynthesis by plants and phytoplankton or via diffusion ...... Delta, Botswana, and its contribution to the structure and function.

  20. Bacteriological quality of foods and water sold by vendors and in restaurants in Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria: a comparative study of three microbiological methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkere, Chukwuemeka K; Ibe, Nnenne I; Iroegbu, Christian U

    2011-12-01

    Bacterial count in prepared food or water is a key factor in assessing the quality and safety of food. It also reveals the level of hygiene adopted by food handlers in the course of preparation of such foods. This comparative study evaluated the bacteriological quality of food and water consumed in Nsukka, Enugu state, Nigeria, using three bacteria enumeration methods. Data obtained are assumed to reflect the level of personal and environmental hygiene in the study population. Ten types of foods--beans, yam, abacha, okpa, moimoi, pear, cassava foofoo, rice, agidi, and garri--and 10 water samples were evaluated for bacteriological quality, precisely determining the level of coliform contamination, using the most probable number (MPN), lactose fermentation count (LFC), and Escherichia coli count (ECC) methods. Bacterial counts differed significantly (p or = 50) were above the accepted 10(4) colony-forming unit/g or MPN < or = 10 limits. The results of the study, therefore, call for stringent supervision and implementation of food-safety practices and regular education on food and personal hygiene among food vendors.

  1. Evaluation Of Water Quality At River Bian In Merauke Papua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djaja Irba

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available River Bian in Merauke Regency has been utilized by local people in Papua (the Marind who live along the river for fulfilling their daily needs, such as shower, cloth and dish washing, and even defecation, waste disposal, including domestic waste, as well as for ceremonial activities related to the locally traditional culture. Change in land use for other necessities and domestic activities of the local people have mounted pressures on the status of the River Bian, thus decreasing the quality of the river. This study had objectives to find out and to analyze river water quality and water quality status of the River Bian, and its compliance with water quality standards for ideal use. The study determined sample point by a purposive sampling method, taking the water samples with a grab method. The analysis of the water quality was performed by standard and pollution index methods. The study revealed that the water quality of River Bian, concerning BOD, at the station 3 had exceeded quality threshold. COD parameter for all stations had exceeded the quality threshold for class III. At three stations, there was a decreasing value due to increasing PI, as found at the stations 1, 2, and 3. In other words, River Bian had been lightly contaminated.

  2. Assesment of the water quality and prevalence of water borne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-03

    Sep 3, 2008 ... 1Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Niger Delta University, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. 2Department of .... on water quality. Chemical intoxication in drinking water may either be acute or chronic in nature. The acute health effect may be in form of skin irritation, skin rash, nausea ...

  3. Bacteriological quality of water and water borne diseases in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Monthly water samples were assessed for bacteriological quality from main supply, household storage and morbidity reported houses. The difference in proportion of potable and non potable water at storage points was statistically significant. The overall incidence rate of target diseases was 3.58%,majority were diaarrhoel ...

  4. Impacts of Water Quality on Residential Water Heating Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2013-11-01

    Water heating is a ubiquitous energy use in all residential housing, accounting for 17.7% of residential energy use (EIA 2012). Today, there are many efficient water heating options available for every fuel type, from electric and gas to more unconventional fuel types like propane, solar, and fuel oil. Which water heating option is the best choice for a given household will depend on a number of factors, including average daily hot water use (total gallons per day), hot water draw patterns (close together or spread out), the hot water distribution system (compact or distributed), installation constraints (such as space, electrical service, or venting accommodations) and fuel-type availability and cost. While in general more efficient water heaters are more expensive than conventional water heating technologies, the savings in energy use and, thus, utility bills can recoup the additional upfront investment and make an efficient water heater a good investment over time in most situations, although the specific payback period for a given installation will vary widely. However, the expected lifetime of a water heater in a given installation can dramatically influence the cost effectiveness and savings potential of a water heater and should be considered, along with water use characteristics, fuel availability and cost, and specific home characteristics when selecting the optimum water heating equipment for a particular installation. This report provides recommendations for selecting and maintaining water heating equipment based on local water quality characteristics.

  5. Uses and biases of volunteer water quality data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loperfido, J.V.; Beyer, P.; Just, C.L.; Schnoor, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    State water quality monitoring has been augmented by volunteer monitoring programs throughout the United States. Although a significant effort has been put forth by volunteers, questions remain as to whether volunteer data are accurate and can be used by regulators. In this study, typical volunteer water quality measurements from laboratory and environmental samples in Iowa were analyzed for error and bias. Volunteer measurements of nitrate+nitrite were significantly lower (about 2-fold) than concentrations determined via standard methods in both laboratory-prepared and environmental samples. Total reactive phosphorus concentrations analyzed by volunteers were similar to measurements determined via standard methods in laboratory-prepared samples and environmental samples, but were statistically lower than the actual concentration in four of the five laboratory-prepared samples. Volunteer water quality measurements were successful in identifying and classifying most of the waters which violate United States Environmental Protection Agency recommended water quality criteria for total nitrogen (66%) and for total phosphorus (52%) with the accuracy improving when accounting for error and biases in the volunteer data. An understanding of the error and bias in volunteer water quality measurements can allow regulators to incorporate volunteer water quality data into total maximum daily load planning or state water quality reporting. ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

  6. Water Quality in Madura Strait, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Nugrahadi, M. Saleh; Yanagi, Tetsuo; 柳, 哲雄

    2003-01-01

    Observations on water quality based on physical、chemical and biological properties of sea surface water were conducted on 13-14 September 2000 and on 14-15 May 2001 in Madura Strait, Indonesia. Particular emphasis has been placed on Surabaya and Porong estuaries and its surrounding coastal water, where rivers carry contaminated load from land and debouch. The observation showed that Madura Strait received a lot of pollutant from the rivers.

  7. Water quality in rural Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, R; Faulkner, B; Veal, D; Cramer, G; Meiklejohn, M

    1998-04-01

    Grab samples of drinking water collected from reservoirs and from creeks flowing over pristine land, farmland or land having mixed use were analysed for their physicochemical and microbiological characteristics. A significant difference between sites for conductivity and sites for pH was noted using a two-way ANOVA. No significant interactions were detected between any of the other parameters: Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Escherichia coli, coliforms, plate count, turbidity or rainfall.

  8. Diverse Land Use and the Impact on (Irrigation Water Quality and Need for Measures — A Case Study of a Norwegian River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gro S. Johannessen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Surface water is used for irrigation of food plants all over the World. Such water can be of variable hygienic quality, and can be contaminated from many different sources. The association of contaminated irrigation water with contamination of fresh produce is well established, and many outbreaks of foodborne disease associated with fresh produce consumption have been reported. The objective of the present study was to summarize the data on fecal indicators and selected bacterial pathogens to assess the level of fecal contamination of a Norwegian river used for irrigation in an area which has a high production level of various types of food commodities. Sources for fecal pollution of the river were identified. Measures implemented to reduce discharges from the wastewater sector and agriculture, and potential measures identified for future implementation are presented and discussed in relation to potential benefits and costs. It is important that the users of the water, independent of intended use, are aware of the hygienic quality and the potential interventions that may be applied. Our results suggest that contamination of surface water is a complex web of many factors and that several measures and interventions on different levels are needed to achieve a sound river and safe irrigation.

  9. Effects of aquifer thermal energy storage on groundwater quality and the consequences for drinking water production: a case study from The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonte, M; Stuyfzand, P J; van den Berg, G A; Hijnen, W A M

    2011-01-01

    We used data from an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system located 570 m from a public water supply well field in the south of The Netherlands to investigate the relation between production of renewable energy with an ATES system and the production of drinking water. The data show that the groundwater circulation by the ATES system can impact chemical groundwater quality by introducing shallow groundwater with a different chemical composition at greater depth. However, the observed concentration changes are sufficiently small to keep groundwater suitable for drinking water production. Microbiological results showed that the ATES system introduced faecal bacteria in the groundwater and stimulated the growth of heterotrophic micro-organisms. At the studied site this forms no hygienic risk because of the long distance between the ATES wells and the public supply well field A further degradation of either chemical or microbiological groundwater quality however may necessitate additional water treatment which raises the energy requirements. The additional energy requirements for drinking water treatment may be up the same order of magnitude as the harvested energy by the ATES system.

  10. The National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the United States: Strategies for Monitoring Trends and Results from the First Two Decades of Study: 1991-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, B.; McMahon, P.; Rupert, M.; Tesoriero, J.; Starn, J.; Anning, D.; Green, C.

    2012-04-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program was implemented in 1991 to provide long-term, consistent, and comparable information on the quality of surface and groundwater resources of the United States. Findings are used to support national, regional, state, and local information needs with respect to water quality. The three main goals of the program are to 1) assess the condition of the nation's streams, rivers, groundwater, and aquatic systems; 2) assess how conditions are changing over time; and 3) determine how natural features and human activities affect these conditions, and where those effects are most pronounced. As data collection progressed into the second decade, the emphasis of the interpretation of the data has shifted from primarily understanding status, to evaluation of trends. The program has conducted national and regional evaluations of change in the quality of water in streams, rivers, groundwater, and health of aquatic systems. Evaluating trends in environmental systems requires complex analytical and statistical methods, and a periodic re-evaluation of the monitoring methods used to collect these data. Examples given herein summarize the lessons learned from the evaluation of changes in water quality during the past two decades with an emphasis on the finding with respect to groundwater. The analysis of trends in groundwater is based on 56 well networks located in 22 principal aquifers of the United States. Analysis has focused on 3 approaches: 1) a statistical analysis of results of sampling over various time scales, 2) studies of factors affecting trends in groundwater quality, and 3) use of models to simulate groundwater trends and forecast future trends. Data collection for analysis of changes in groundwater-quality has focused on decadal resampling of wells. Understanding the trends in groundwater quality and the factors affecting those trends has been conducted using quarterly sampling, biennial sampling

  11. Chemical Quality Status of Rivers for the Water Framework Directive: A Case Study of Toxic Metals in North West England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Neal

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides data from two years of monitoring of the chemical quality of rivers and streams in North West England from the clean headwaters to polluted rivers just above the tidal reach and covers 26 sites including the Ribble, Wyre and the tributary rivers of the Calder and Douglas. Across the basins that include areas of rural, urban and industrial typologies, data is presented for three of the priority substances in the Water Framework Directive i.e., nickel (Ni, cadmium (Cd, and lead (Pb. Average concentrations are low and well below the Environmental Quality Standards values for all three of these substances. Cadmium and Pb appear in approximately equal proportions in the dissolved (0.45 µm whilst Ni occurs predominantly in the dissolved form (92%. Regional inputs of these metals arise mostly from diffuse sources as the storm-flow concentrations are generally greater than at base-flow condition. Greater concentrations of Ni are transported at the headwaters and smaller tributary sites under storm flow condition than for the main stream of the Ribble. For Ni, amounts increase as the river proceeds from its headwaters down towards the Ribble and Wyre estuaries, whilst Cd and Pb show consistent values throughout the catchment. There is annual cycling of dissolved concentrations of Cd, Pb and Ni for the clean headwater streams that gives maxima during the latter half of the year when the river flow is greater. For the impacted sites the pattern is less distinct or absent. Our estimates suggest that the Ribble estuary receives 550 t y−1 of dissolved Ni, 16 t y−1 of dissolved Cd and 240 t y−1 of dissolved Pb.

  12. St. Croix, USVI Water Quality Data 2003 - Present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These water quality data are one of many studies being done to assess and monitor coral reef ecosystems. The intent of this work is three fold: (1) to spatially...

  13. St. John, USVI Water Quality Monitoring Data 2003 - Present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These water quality data are one of many studies being done to assess and monitor coral reef ecosystems. The intent of this work is three fold: (1) to spatially...

  14. La Parguera, Puerto Rico Water Quality Monitoring Data 2003 - Present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These water quality data are one of many studies being done to assess and monitor coral reef ecosystems. The intent of this work is three fold: (1) to spatially...

  15. St. Croix, USVI Water Quality Data 2003 - Present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These water quality data are one of many studies being done to assess and monitor coral reef ecosystems.The intent of this work is three fold: (1) to spatially...

  16. On the water quality of selected environments along Bombay coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishnakumari, L.; Nair, V.R.

    Water quality of three stations representing polluted (Sts. B & S) and relatively unpolluted (St. M) areas along the coast of Bombay was studied during March 1981 to May 1982. Stations B & S were characterised by relatively wider fluctuations...

  17. Phytoplankton community and their impact on water quality: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    eutrophic status. At the time of this study, the lake was not susceptible to generating algal blooms. @JASEM. Keywords: phytoplankton, water quality, biomass. Phytoplankton communities are sensitive to changes in their environment and therefore ...

  18. An assessment of drinking-water quality post-Haiyan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magtibay, Bonifacio; Anarna, Maria Sonabel; Fernando, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    Access to safe drinking-water is one of the most important public health concerns in an emergency setting. This descriptive study reports on an assessment of water quality in drinking-water supply systems in areas affected by Typhoon Haiyan immediately following and 10 months after the typhoon. Water quality testing and risk assessments of the drinking-water systems were conducted three weeks and 10 months post-Haiyan. Portable test kits were used to determine the presence of Escherichia coli and the level of residual chlorine in water samples. The level of risk was fed back to the water operators for their action. Of the 121 water samples collected three weeks post-Haiyan, 44% were contaminated, while 65% (244/373) of samples were found positive for E. coli 10 months post-Haiyan. For the three components of drinking-water systems - source, storage and distribution - the proportions of contaminated systems were 70%, 67% and 57%, respectively, 10 months after Haiyan. Vulnerability to faecal contamination was attributed to weak water safety programmes in the drinking-water supply systems. Poor water quality can be prevented or reduced by developing and implementing a water safety plan for the systems. This, in turn, will help prevent waterborne disease outbreaks caused by contaminated water post-disaster.

  19. Diatom diversity and water quality of a suburban stream: a case study of the Rzeszów city in SE Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noga Teresa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the diversity of diatom assemblages developed in the Przyrwa stream, to assess water quality based on benthic diatoms and to make an attempt at the identification of physicochemical factors having the greatest impact on the differentiation of diatom assemblages. Studies were conducted in 2011-2012 on the Przyrwa stream, a left-side tributary of the Wisłok River flowing through the city of Rzeszów and with its spring section located on the borders of the city. A total of 259 diatom taxa were identified in the Przyrwa stream during three studied seasons. At all investigated sites, the most abundant population consisted of Ulnaria ulna (Nitzsch Compère, Cocconeis pediculus Ehrenb., Achnanthidium minutissimum (Kütz. Czarnecki var. minutissimum, Navicula gregaria Donkin, Planothidium frequentissimum (Lange-Bert. Lange-Bert., P. lanceolatum (Brébisson Lange-Bert., Navicula lanceolata (C. Agardh Ehrenb., Amphora pediculus (Kütz. Grunow, Eolimna minima, (Grunow Lange-Bert., Melosira varians C. Agardh and Cyclotella meneghiniana Kütz. Based on IPS (Specific Pollution Sensitivity Index and GDI (Generic Diatom Index indices, the ecological status of the Przyrwa stream was assessed as moderate to poor (mostly III-IV class of water quality, while the TDI (Trophic Diatom Index index indicated a poor to bad ecological status (mainly IV-V class of water quality.

  20. 40 CFR 130.6 - Water quality management plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality management plans. 130.6... QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.6 Water quality management plans. (a) Water quality management (WQM... and certified and approved updates to those plans. Continuing water quality planning shall be based...

  1. Effect of mercury and arsenic from industrial effluents on the drinking water and comparison of the water quality of polluted and non-polluted areas: a case study of Peshawar and Lower Dir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaq, M; Jan, F Akbar; Khan, Murad Ali; Ihsanullah, I; Ahmad, I; Shakirullah, M; Roohullah

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to find out the sources of mercury and arsenic pollution of water in the industrial area of Peshawar, the capital of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Samples of effluents, mud, and water were collected from the target area (industrial area of Peshawar), the area of water supply source, and from the less polluted area, the Lower Dir district, as the control. Hg was determined by the cold vapor generation technique, while arsenic was determined using the electrothermal atomic absorption technique. Data of the water from the industrial area were compared with that of the source area, control area, as well as with the WHO and some international drinking water quality standards. The results show that some parameters, i.e., TDS, DO, pH, and hardness, were more than the permissible limits. Textile and glass industries were found to be the major sources of Hg and As pollution. Downstream dilution of these contaminants was also observed.

  2. quality assessment of sachet and bottled water soldin gboko, benue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    microorganisms in food and other microbial environments. The need to define the quality of water has developed with the increasing demand for water which is suitable for specific uses and conforms to desired quality [2]. Although water quality and water quantity are inextricably linked, water quality deserves special.

  3. A study on the applicability of the ecosystem model on water quality prediction in urban river outer moats of Yedo Castle, Nihonbashi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakinuma, Daiki; Tsushima, Yuki; Ohdaira, Kazunori; Yamada, Tadashi

    2015-04-01

    The objective of the study is to elucidate the waterside environment in the outer moats of Yedo Castle and the downstream of Nihonbashi River in Tokyo. Scince integrated sewage system has been installed in the area around the outer moats of Yedo Castle and the Nihon River basin, when rainfall exceeds more than the sewage treatment capacity, overflowed untreated wastewater is released into the moats and the river. Because the moats is a closed water body, pollutants are deposited to the bottom without outflowing. While reeking offensive odors due to the decomposition, blue-green algae outbreaks affected by the residence time and eluted nutrient causes problems. Scince the Nihonbashi River is a typical tidal river in urban area, the water pollution problems in the river is complicated. This study clarified the characteristics of the water quality in terms of dissolved oxygen saturation through on-site observations. In particular, dissolved oxygen saturation in summer, it is clarified that variations from a supersaturated state due to the variations of horizontal insolation intensity and water temperature up to hypoxic water conditions in the moats. According to previous studies on the water quality of Nihonbashi River, it is clarified that there are three types of variations of dissolved oxygen which desided by rainfall scale. The mean value of dissolved oxygen saturation of all layers has decreased by about 20% at the spring tide after dredging, then it recoveres gradually and become the value before dredging during about a year. Further more, in places where sewage inflows, it is important to developed a ecosystem medel and the applicability of the model. 9 variables including cell quota (intracellular nutrients of phytoplankton) of phosphorus and nitrogen with considerring the nitrification of ammonia nitrogen are used in the model. This model can grasp the sections (such as oxygen production by photosynthesis of phytoplankton, oxygen consumption by respiration of

  4. Water Quality Modeling System for Coastal Archipelagos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomi, L.; Miettunen, E.; Lukkari, K.; Puttonen, I.; Ropponen, J.; Tikka, K.; Piiparinen, J.; Lignell, R.

    2016-02-01

    Coastal seas are encountering pressures from eutrophication, fishing, ship emissions and coastal construction. Sustainable development and use of these areas require science-based guidance with high quality data and efficient tools. Our study area, the Archipelago Sea, is located in the northern part of the semi-enclosed and brackish water Baltic Sea. It is a shallow, topographically heterogeneous and eutrophic sub-basin, covered with thousands of small islands and islets. The catchment area is 8950 km2and has ca. 500 000 inhabitants. We are developing a modeling system that can be used by local authorities and in ministry level decision making to evaluate the environmental impacts that may result from decisions and changes made both in the watershed and in the coastal areas. The modeling system consists of 3D hydrodynamic model COHERENS and water quality model FICOS, both applied to the area with high spatial resolution. Models use river discharge and nutrient loading data supplied by watershed model VEMALA and include loading from multiple point sources located in the Archipelago Sea. An easy-to-use interface made specifically to answer the end-user needs, includes possibility to modify the nutrient loadings and perform model simulations to selected areas and time periods. To ensure the quality and performance of the modeling system, comprehensive measurement dataset including hydrographic, nutrient, chlorophyll-a and bottom sediment data, was gathered based on monitoring and research campaigns previously carried out in the Archipelago Sea. Verification showed that hydrodynamic model was able to simulate surface temperature and salinity fields and their seasonal variation with good accuracy in this complex area. However, the dynamics of the deeper layers need to be improved, especially in areas that have sharp bathymetric gradients. The preliminary analysis of the water quality model results showed that the model was able to reproduce the basic characteristics of

  5. Physico-Chemical Quality Of Drinking Water At Mushait, Aseer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physico-chemical quality study of different drinking water sources used in Khamis Mushait, southwestern, Saudi Arabia (SA) has been studied to evaluate their suitability for potable purposes. A total of 62 drinking water samples were collected randomly from bottled, desalinated and groundwater located around the ...

  6. Does lean muddy the quality improvement waters? A qualitative study of how a hospital management team understands lean in the context of quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Carl; Parke, Louise; von Knorring, Mia; Mazzocato, Pamela

    2016-10-19

    Health care has experimented with many different quality improvement (QI) approaches with greater variation in name than content. This has been dubbed pseudoinnovation. However, it could also be that the subtleties and differences are not clearly understood. To explore this further, the purpose of this study was to explore how hospital managers perceive lean in the context of QI. We used a qualitative study design with semi-structured interviews to explore twelve top managers' perceptions of the relationship between lean and quality improvement (QI) at a university-affiliated hospital. Managers described that QI and lean shared the same overall purpose: focus on patient needs and improve efficiency and effectiveness. Employee involvement was emphasized in both strategies, as well as the support offered by managers of staff initiatives. QI was perceived as a strategy that could support structural changes at the organizational level whereas lean was seen as applicable at the operational level. Moreover, lean carried a negative connotation, lacked the credibility of QI, and was perceived as a management fad. Aspects of QI and lean were misunderstood. In a context where lean remains an abstract term, and staff associate lean with automotive applications and cost reduction, it may be fruitful for managers to invest time and resources to develop a strategy for continual improvement and utilize vocabulary that resonates with health care staff. This could reduce the risk that improvement efforts are rejected out of hand.

  7. Searching for a compromise between ecological quality targets, and social and ecosystem costs for heavily modified water bodies (HMWBs): the Lambro-Seveso-Olona system case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzellino, A; Antonelli, M; Canobbio, S; Cevirgen, S; Mezzanotte, V; Piana, A; Salvetti, R

    2013-01-01

    The Lambro-Seveso-Olona (L-S-O) system derives from the human regulation of the natural hydrology of the territory around Milan city area. The average population density in the L-S-O area is among the highest in Italy and Europe. Industry is also highly developed in this basin: chemical, textile, paper, pulp and food industries being the most important ones. Although, at present, the L-S-O system no longer receives the untreated wastewaters of the Milan urban area, treated wastewaters constitute about half of the streamflow. Biotic communities in this river have a long history of poor quality status, having suffered great damage due to domestic and industrial discharges. Recently, new chemical quality standards for macropollutants have been set by the Italian legislation as support for the good ecological status according to the Water Framework Directive (WFD). This new index is very restrictive, and it makes it extremely challenging to achieve the water quality objectives for the L-S-O system. The aim of this study is to analyse through a modelling exercise the restoration possibilities of the L-S-O system, investigating both the source apportionment of the macropollutants, the discharge limits that should be set to achieve the good quality status and their corresponding cost.

  8. Beyond Flint: National Trends in Drinking Water Quality Violations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaire, M.; Wu, H.; Lall, U.

    2016-12-01

    Ensuring safe water supply for communities across the U.S. represents an emerging challenge. Aging infrastructure, impaired source water, and strained community finances may increase vulnerability of water systems to quality violations. In the aftermath of Flint, there is a great need to assess the current state of U.S. drinking water quality. How widespread are violations? What are the spatial and temporal patterns in water quality? Which types of communities and systems are most vulnerable? This is the first national assessment of trends in drinking water quality violations across several decades. In 2015, 9% of community water systems violated health-related water quality standards. These non-compliant systems served nearly 23 million people. Thus, the challenge of providing safe drinking water extends beyond Flint and represents a nationwide concern. We use a panel dataset that includes every community water system in the United States from 1981 to 2010 to identify factors that lead to regulatory noncompliance. This study focuses on health-related violations of the Safe Drinking Water Act. Lasso regression informed selection of appropriate covariates, while logistic regressions modeled the probability of noncompliance. We find that compliance is positively associated with private ownership, purchased water supply, and greater household income. Yet, greater concentration of utility ownership and violations in prior years are associated with a higher likelihood of violation. The results suggest that purchased water contracts, which are growing among small utilities, could serve as a way to improve regulatory compliance in the future. However, persistence of violations and ownership concentration deserve attention from policymakers. Already, the EPA has begun to prioritize enforcement of persistent violators. Overall, as the revitalization of U.S. water infrastructure becomes a growing priority area, results of this study are intended to inform investment and

  9. Identification and Assessment of Potential Water Quality Impact Factors for Drinking-Water Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Gu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Various reservoirs have been serving as the most important drinking water sources in Zhejiang Province, China, due to the uneven distribution of precipitation and severe river pollution. Unfortunately, rapid urbanization and industrialization have been continuously challenging the water quality of the drinking-water reservoirs. The identification and assessment of potential impacts is indispensable in water resource management and protection. This study investigates the drinking water reservoirs in Zhejiang Province to better understand the potential impact on water quality. Altogether seventy-three typical drinking reservoirs in Zhejiang Province encompassing various water storage levels were selected and evaluated. Using fifty-two reservoirs as training samples, the classification and regression tree (CART method and sixteen comprehensive variables, including six sub-sets (land use, population, socio-economy, geographical features, inherent characteristics, and climate, were adopted to establish a decision-making model for identifying and assessing their potential impacts on drinking-water quality. The water quality class of the remaining twenty-one reservoirs was then predicted and tested based on the decision-making model, resulting in a water quality class attribution accuracy of 81.0%. Based on the decision rules and quantitative importance of the independent variables, industrial emissions was identified as the most important factor influencing the water quality of reservoirs; land use and human habitation also had a substantial impact on water quality. The results of this study provide insights into the factors impacting the water quality of reservoirs as well as basic information for protecting reservoir water resources.

  10. Identification and Assessment of Potential Water Quality Impact Factors for Drinking-Water Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qing; Deng, Jinsong; Wang, Ke; Lin, Yi; Li, Jun; Gan, Muye; Ma, Ligang; Hong, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Various reservoirs have been serving as the most important drinking water sources in Zhejiang Province, China, due to the uneven distribution of precipitation and severe river pollution. Unfortunately, rapid urbanization and industrialization have been continuously challenging the water quality of the drinking-water reservoirs. The identification and assessment of potential impacts is indispensable in water resource management and protection. This study investigates the drinking water reservoirs in Zhejiang Province to better understand the potential impact on water quality. Altogether seventy-three typical drinking reservoirs in Zhejiang Province encompassing various water storage levels were selected and evaluated. Using fifty-two reservoirs as training samples, the classification and regression tree (CART) method and sixteen comprehensive variables, including six sub-sets (land use, population, socio-economy, geographical features, inherent characteristics, and climate), were adopted to establish a decision-making model for identifying and assessing their potential impacts on drinking-water quality. The water quality class of the remaining twenty-one reservoirs was then predicted and tested based on the decision-making model, resulting in a water quality class attribution accuracy of 81.0%. Based on the decision rules and quantitative importance of the independent variables, industrial emissions was identified as the most important factor influencing the water quality of reservoirs; land use and human habitation also had a substantial impact on water quality. The results of this study provide insights into the factors impacting the water quality of reservoirs as well as basic information for protecting reservoir water resources. PMID:24919129

  11. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND QUALITY OF FEED WATERS OF THE EL-OUED CITY STUDY OF CASE (fluorine and Arsenic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Laouini

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In these days, of numerous country through worlds are confronted to an excess of fluor and arsenic in the wake of drink and preoccupy by in to minimize consequences on the consumers health. The arsenic and the fluor are to scale planetary polluted them of geological origin more frequently met in underground waters. In of numerous countries in expansion, waters so contaminated are often consummated without any previous treatment. Effects inorganic reserved salts in the wake of drink, benefic or luckless acting of their concentration, are known since of numerous years today already more 1,5 billion of persons have not attack to a healthy drinking-water. According to the OMS, these are 15 million to be human who die each year after to drink of the water no potable, or for want of not to have not attack to the drinking-water . Of numerous countries being in possession regions where some waters present amounts in fluor and arsenic superior to recommendations of the OMS (0,7-1,5 mg/L for fluor and 10 L/g for the arsenic. The fluor behoves against blights and hardens the teeth enamel ;to better concentration it fragilise the bone or induces points of crystallization favoring the appearance of articular distorting arthrosis : this is her fluorose. Effects ought to the arsenic are numerous: lésions of the peel, canker, illnesses cardiovasculair or pulmonarias, hypertension and cancers.This work has been realized on the water of five boreholes of the town of El-Oued in collaboration with the laboratory of the waters Algerian (ADE.The experimentation was aiming to define them plenty of fluor and arsenic exists in five boreholes to study and in fine to estimate the quality consumptive waters.

  12. Detailed study of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Klamath Basin, California and Oregon, 1990-92

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dileanis, P.D.; Schwarzbach, S.E.; Bennett, Jewel

    1996-01-01

    The effect of irrigation drainage on the water quality and wildlife of the Klamath Basin in California and Oregon was evaluated during 1990-92 as part of the National Irrigation Water Quality Program of the U.S. Department of the Interior. The study focused on land serviced by the Bureau of Reclamation Klamath Project, which supplies irrigation water to agricultural land in the Klamath Basin and the Lost River Basin. The Tule Lake and Lower Klamath National Wildlife Refuges, managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, are in the study area. These refuges provide critical resting and breeding habitat for waterfowl on the Pacific flyway and are dependent on irrigation drainwater from upstream agriculture for most of their water supply. Water-quality characteristics throughout the study area were typical of highly eutrophic systems during the summer months of 1991 and 1992. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations and pH tended to fluctuate each day in response to diurnal patterns of photosynthesis, and frequently exceeded criteria for protection of aquatic organisms. Nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were generally at or above threshold levels characteristic of eutrophic lakes and streams. At most sites the bulk of dissolved nitrogen was organically bound. Elevated ammonia concentrations were common in the study area, especially down- stream of drain inputs. High pH of water increased the toxicity of ammonia, and concentrations exceeded criteria at sites upstream and downstream of irrigated land. Concentrations of ammonia in samples from small drains on the Tule Lake refuge leaseland were higher than those measured in the larger, integrating drains at primary monitoring sites. The mean ammonia concentration in leaseland drains [1.21 milligrams per liter (mg/L)] was significantly higher than the mean concentration in canals delivering water to the leaseland fields (0.065 mg/L) and higher than concentrations reported to be lethal to Daphnia magna (median lethal

  13. In Situ Dynamics of F-Specific RNA Bacteriophages in a Small River: New Way to Assess Viral Propagation in Water Quality Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauvel, Blandine; Gantzer, Christophe; Cauchie, Henry-Michel; Ogorzaly, Leslie

    2017-03-01

    The occurrence and propagation of enteric viruses in rivers constitute a major public health issue. However, little information is available on the in situ transport and spread of viruses in surface water. In this study, an original in situ experimental approach using the residence time of the river water mass was developed to accurately follow the propagation of F-specific RNA bacteriophages (FRNAPHs) along a 3-km studied river. Surface water and sediment of 9 sampling campaigns were collected and analyzed using both infectivity and RT-qPCR assays. In parallel, some physico-chemical variables such as flow rate, water temperature, conductivity and total suspended solids were measured to investigate the impact of environmental conditions on phage propagation. For campaigns with low flow rate and high temperature, the results highlight a decrease of infectious phage concentration along the river, which was successfully modelled according to a first-order negative exponential decay. The monitoring of infectious FRNAPHs belonging mainly to the genogroup II was confirmed with direct phage genotyping and total phage particle quantification. Reported k decay coefficients according to exponential models allowed for the determination of the actual in situ distance and time necessary for removing 90 % of infectious phage particles. This present work provides a new way to assess the true in situ viral propagation along a small river. These findings can be highly useful in water quality and risk assessment studies to determine the viral contamination spread from a point contamination source to the nearest recreational areas.

  14. Water Quality and Sustainable Environmental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setegn, S. G.

    2014-12-01

    Lack of adequate safe water, the pollution of the aquatic environment and the mismanagement of resources are major causes of ill-health and mortality, particularly in the developing countries. In order to accommodate more growth, sustainable fresh water resource management will need to be included in future development plans. One of the major environmental issues of concern to policy-makers is the increased vulnerability of ground water quality. The main challenge for the sustainability of water resources is the control of water pollution. To understand the sustainability of the water resources, one needs to understand the impact of future land use and climate changes on the natural resources. Providing safe water and basic sanitation to meet the Millennium Development Goals will require substantial economic resources, sustainable technological solutions and courageous political will. A balanced approach to water resources exploitation for development, on the one hand, and controls for the protection of health, on the other, is required if the benefits of both are to be realized without avoidable detrimental effects manifesting themselves. Meeting the millennium development goals for water and sanitation in the next decade will require substantial economic resources, sustainable technological solutions and courageous political will. In addition to providing "improved" water and "basic" sanitation services, we must ensure that these services provide: safe drinking water, adequate quantities of water for health, hygiene, agriculture and development and sustainable sanitation approaches to protect health and the environment.

  15. Long Term Resource Monitoring Program Water Quality Component Review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Soballe, David M; Houser, Jeffrey N

    2006-01-01

    ...) adequacy and suitability of the water quality procedures manual, (4) adequacy and efficiency of procedures for quality assurance and quality control in data collection and laboratory analyses, (5...

  16. Risk-based water resources planning: Coupling water allocation and water quality management under extreme droughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi-Naeini, M.; Bussi, G.; Hall, J. W.; Whitehead, P. G.

    2016-12-01

    The main aim of water companies is to have a reliable and safe water supply system. To fulfil their duty the water companies have to consider both water quality and quantity issues and challenges. Climate change and population growth will have an impact on water resources both in terms of available water and river water quality. Traditionally, a distinct separation between water quality and abstraction has existed. However, water quality can be a bottleneck in a system since water treatment works can only treat water if it meets certain standards. For instance, high turbidity and large phytoplankton content can increase sharply the cost of treatment or even make river water unfit for human consumption purposes. It is vital for water companies to be able to characterise the quantity and quality of water under extreme weather events and to consider the occurrence of eventual periods when water abstraction has to cease due to water quality constraints. This will give them opportunity to decide on water resource planning and potential changes to reduce the system failure risk. We present a risk-based approach for incorporating extreme events, based on future climate change scenarios from a large ensemble of climate model realisations, into integrated water resources model through combined use of water allocation (WATHNET) and water quality (INCA) models. The annual frequency of imposed restrictions on demand is considered as measure of reliability. We tested our approach on Thames region, in the UK, with 100 extreme events. The results show increase in frequency of imposed restrictions when water quality constraints were considered. This indicates importance of considering water quality issues in drought management plans.

  17. Water quality monitoring in the Paul do Boquilobo Biosphere Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, C.; Santos, L.

    2016-08-01

    The Paul do Boquilobo is an important wetland ecosystem classified by Unesco as a MAB Biosphere reserve also awarded Ramsar site status, representing one of the most important habitats for the resident nesting colony of Cattle Egret (Bulbucus ibis). Yet owing to its location, it suffers from human induced impacts which include industrial and domestic effluent discharges as well as agricultural land use which have negatively impacted water quality. The current study reports the results obtained from the introductory monitoring programme of surface water quality in the Nature Reserve to emphasize the detrimental impact of the anthropogenic activities in the water quality of such an important ecosystem. The study involved physicochemical and biotic variables, microbial parameters and biological indicators. Results after 3 years of monitoring bring to evidence a poor water quality further impaired by seasonal patterns. Statistical analysis of data attributed water quality variation to 3 main parameters - pH, dissolved oxygen and nitrates, indicating heavy contamination loads from both organic and agricultural sources. Seasonality plays a role in water flow and climatic conditions, where sampling sites presented variable water quality data, suggesting a depurative function of the wetland.

  18. Observations on a Montana water quality proposal.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.; Puder, M. G.

    2006-01-12

    In May 2005, a group of petitioners led by the Northern Plains Resource Council (NPRC) submitted a petition to revise water quality requirements to the Montana Board of Environmental Review (BER). Under Montana law, the BER had to consider the petition and either reject it or propose it as a new regulation. In September 2005, the BER announced proposed changes to the Montana water quality regulations. The proposal, which included almost the exact language found in the petition, was directed toward discharges of water from coal bed natural gas (CBNG) production. The key elements of the proposal included: (1) No discharges of CBNG water are allowed to Montana surface waters unless operators can demonstrate that injection to aquifers with the potential for later recovery of the water is not feasible. (2) When operators can demonstrate the injection is not feasible, the CBNG water to be discharged must meet very strict technology-based limits for multiple parameters. (3) The Montana water quality standards for the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and electrical conductivity (EC) would be evaluated using the 7Q10 flow (lowest 7-consecutive-day flow in a 10-year period) rather than a monthly flow that is currently used. (4) SAR and EC would be reclassified as ''harmful parameters'', thereby greatly restricting the ability for CBNG discharges to be allowed under Montana's nondegradation regulations. The proposed regulations, if adopted in their current form, are likely to substantially reduce the amount of CBNG production in Montana. The impact also extends to Wyoming CBNG production through much greater restrictions on water quality that must be met at the interstate border.

  19. Spatio-Temporal Trends and Identification of Correlated Variables with Water Quality for Drinking-Water Reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qing; Wang, Ke; Li, Jiadan; Ma, Ligang; Deng, Jinsong; Zheng, Kefeng; Zhang, Xiaobin; Sheng, Li

    2015-10-20

    It is widely accepted that characterizing the spatio-temporal trends of water quality parameters and identifying correlated variables with water quality are indispensable for the management and protection of water resources. In this study, cluster analysis was used to classify 56 typical drinking water reservoirs in Zhejiang Province into three groups representing different water quality levels, using data of four water quality parameters for the period 2006-2010. Then, the spatio-temporal trends in water quality were analyzed, assisted by geographic information systems (GIS) technology and statistical analysis. The results indicated that the water quality showed a trend of degradation from southwest to northeast, and the overall water quality level was exacerbated during the study period. Correlation analysis was used to evaluate the relationships between water quality parameters and ten independent variables grouped into four categories (land use, socio-economic factors, geographical features, and reservoir attributes). According to the correlation coefficients, land use and socio-economic indicators were identified as the most significant factors related to reservoir water quality. The results offer insights into the spatio-temporal variations of water quality parameters and factors impacting the water quality of drinking water reservoirs in Zhejiang Province, and they could assist managers in making effective strategies to better protect water resources.

  20. Spatio-Temporal Trends and Identification of Correlated Variables with Water Quality for Drinking-Water Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Gu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that characterizing the spatio-temporal trends of water quality parameters and identifying correlated variables with water quality are indispensable for the management and protection of water resources. In this study, cluster analysis was used to classify 56 typical drinking water reservoirs in Zhejiang Province into three groups representing different water quality levels, using data of four water quality parameters for the period 2006–2010. Then, the spatio-temporal trends in water quality were analyzed, assisted by geographic information systems (GIS technology and statistical analysis. The results indicated that the water quality showed a trend of degradation from southwest to northeast, and the overall water quality level was exacerbated during the study period. Correlation analysis was used to evaluate the relationships between water quality parameters and ten independent variables grouped into four categories (land use, socio-economic factors, geographical features, and reservoir attributes. According to the correlation coefficients, land use and socio-economic indicators were identified as the most significant factors related to reservoir water quality. The results offer insights into the spatio-temporal variations of water quality parameters and factors impacting the water quality of drinking water reservoirs in Zhejiang Province, and they could assist managers in making effective strategies to better protect water resources.

  1. Cross-sectoral conflicts for water under climate change: the need to include water quality impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van M.T.H.; Ludwig, F.; Kabat, P.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is expected to increase pressures on water use between different sectors (e.g. agriculture, energy, industry, domestic uses) and ecosystems. While climate change impacts on water availability have been studied widely, less work has been done to assess impacts on water quality. This

  2. Improving water quality in China: Environmental investment pays dividends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yongqiang; Ma, Jianrong; Zhang, Yunlin; Qin, Boqiang; Jeppesen, Erik; Shi, Kun; Brookes, Justin D; Spencer, Robert G M; Zhu, Guangwei; Gao, Guang

    2017-07-01

    This study highlights how Chinese economic development detrimentally impacted water quality in recent decades and how this has been improved by enormous investment in environmental remediation funded by the Chinese government. To our knowledge, this study is the first to describe the variability of surface water quality in inland waters in China, the affecting drivers behind the changes, and how the government-financed conservation actions have impacted water quality. Water quality was found to be poorest in the North and the Northeast China Plain where there is greater coverage of developed land (cities + cropland), a higher gross domestic product (GDP), and higher population density. There are significant positive relationships between the concentration of the annual mean chemical oxygen demand (COD) and the percentage of developed land use (cities + cropland), GDP, and population density in the individual watersheds (p investments in environmental restoration and reforestation, the water quality of Chinese inland waters has improved markedly, which is particularly evident from the significant and exponentially decreasing GDP-normalized COD and ammonium (NH 4 + -N) concentrations. It is evident that the increasing GDP in China over the past decade did not occur at the continued expense of its inland water ecosystems. This offers hope for the future, also for other industrializing countries, that with appropriate environmental investments a high GDP can be reached and maintained, while simultaneously preserving inland aquatic ecosystems, particularly through management of sewage discharge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. National water-quality assessment program : the Albemarle- Pamlico drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, O.B.; Barnes, C.R.; Woodside, M.D.

    1991-01-01

    In 1991, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began to implement a full-scale National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. Long-term goals of the NAWQA program are to describe the status and trends in the quality of a large, representative part of the Nation's surface- and ground-water resources and to provide a sound, scientific understanding of the primary natural and human factors affecting the quality of these resources. In meeting these goals, the program will produce a wealth of water quality information that will be useful to policy makers and managers at the national, State, and local levels. Study-unit investigations constitute a major component of the NAWQA program, forming the principal building blocks on which national-level assessment activities are based. The 60 study-unit investigations that make up the program are hydrologic systems that include parts of most major river basins and aquifer systems. These study units cover areas of 1,200 to more than 65,000 square miles and incorporate about 60 to 70 percent of the Nation's water use and population served by public water supply. In 1991, the Albemarle-Pamlico drainage was among the first 20 NAWQA study units selected for study under the full-scale implementation plan. The Albemarle-Pamlico drainage study will examine the physical, chemical, and biological aspects of water quality issues in a coordinated investigation of surface water and ground water in the Albemarle-Pamlico drainage basin. The quantity and quality of discharge from the Albemarle-Pamlico drainage basin contribute to some water quality problems in the biologically sensitive waters of Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds. A retrospective analysis of existing water quality data will precede a 3-year period of intensive data-collection and analysis activities. The data resulting from this study and the improved understanding of important processes and issues in the upstream part of the study unit will enhance understanding of the quality of

  4. Urban Runoff and Water Quality Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Tae [Kyonggi University, Suwon (Korea)

    1998-12-31

    The characteristics of storm and water quality are investigated based on the measuring data of the test river, the Hongje. The water quality of the test river is generally good comparing to other urban rivers in Seoul, because of the interception of sewer flow. But this system makes the river dry up for 3-4 months in winter. On the other hand, in rainy period the storm from the combined sewer system causes rapid increasing pollutants loads. In order to simulate the urban storm and water quality of the test basin, the models such as SWMM, ILLUDAS, STORM, HEC-1 were applied and the results are compared in its applicability and accuracy aspects. All models discussed here have shown good results and it seems that SWMM is the most effective model in simulating both quantity and quality. Also, regression relations between the water quantity and quality were derived and their applicabilities were discussed. This regression model is a simple effective tool for estimating the pollutant loads in the rainy period, but if the amount of discharge is bigger than measuring range of raw data, the accuracy becomes poor. This model could be supplemented by expanding the range of collecting data and introducing the river characteristics. The HEC-1 would be another effective model to simulate storm runoff of a river basin including urban area. (author). 15 refs., 13 tabs., 13 figs.

  5. assessment of physicochemical quality of sachet water produced

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    al., 2007). Several studies on the quality of sachet water have reported violation of international quality standards. According to the Insitute of Public Analysts of Nigeria .... acetylene/air. Concentrations of the analytes in mg/ml in the digested samples were obtained by extrapolation from the calibration curve prepared by.

  6. Community exposure and vulnerability to water quality and availability: a case study in the mining-affected Pazña Municipality, Lake Poopó Basin, Bolivian Altiplano

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Megan; Alem, Natalie; Edwards, Stephen J.; Blanco Coariti, Efraín; Cauthin, Helga; Hudson-Edwards, Karen A.; Luyckx, Karen; Quintanilla, Jorge; Sánchez Miranda, Oscar

    2017-10-01

    Assessing water sources for drinking and irrigation along with community vulnerability, especially in developing and rural regions, is important for reducing risk posed by poor water quality and limited water availability and accessibility. We present a case study of rural mining-agricultural communities in the Lake Poopó Basin, one of the poorest regions on the Bolivian Altiplano. Here, relatively low rainfall, high evaporation, salinization and unregulated mining activity have contributed to environmental degradation and water issues, which is a situation facing many Altiplano communities. Social data from 72 households and chemical water quality data from 27 surface water and groundwater sites obtained between August 2013 and July 2014 were used to develop locally relevant vulnerability assessment methodologies and ratings with respect to water availability and quality, and Chemical Water Quality Hazard Ratings to assess water quality status. Levels of natural and mining-related contamination in many waters (CWQHR ≥ 6; 78% of assessed sites) mean that effective remediation would be challenging and require substantial investment. Although waters of fair to good chemical quality (CWQHR ≤ 5; 22% of assessed sites) do exist, treatment may still be required depending on use, and access issues remain problematic. There is a need to comply with water quality legislation, improve and maintain basic water supply and storage infrastructure, build and operate water and wastewater treatment plants, and adequately and safely contain and treat mine waste. This study serves as a framework that could be used elsewhere for assessing and mitigating water contamination and availability affecting vulnerable populations.

  7. Water Quality Management Survey Columbus AFB, Mississippi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-01

    existing outfall provides chlorine contact time, since the WTP does not have a chlorine contact tank. 2. The base anaerobic digestor is operated by... digestor may be sourin;. but the pH and solids may not indicate the impending upset. C. Surface Water 1. According to the State of Mississippi Water Quality...acids to alkalinity ratio should be added as a control indicator for the anaerobic digestor . Changes in the ratio can indicate hydraulic overload, organic

  8. Development of specific water quality index for water supply in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaiwat Prakirake

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the specific water quality index for assessing water quality in terms of water supply (WSI usage has been developed by using Delphi technique and its application in Thai rivers is proposed. The thirteen parameters including turbidity, DO, pH, NO3-N, TDS, FCB, Fe, color, BOD, Mn, NH3-N, hardness, and total PO4-P are employed for the estimation of water quality. The sub-index transformation curves are established for each variable to assess the variation in water quality level. An appropriate function to aggregate overall sub-indices was weighted Solway function that provided reasonableresults for reducing ambiguous and eclipsing effects for high and slightly polluted samples. The developed WSI couldbe applied to measure water quality into 5 levels - very good (85-100; good (80-<85; average (65-<80; poor (40-<65and very poor (<40. The proposed WSI could be used for evaluating water quality in terms of water supply. In addition, it could be used for analyzing long-term trait analysis and comparing water quality among different reaches of rivers or between different watersheds.

  9. Water quality assessment using SVD-based principal component ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SVD) of hydrological data was tested for water quality assessment. Using two case studies of waste- and drinking water, PCA via SVD was able to find latent variables which explain 80.8% and 83.7% of the variance, respectively. By means of ...

  10. Bioassays for coastal water quality: an assessment using the larval ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although these methods are used globally, the potential of such toxicity tests has not been adequately explored for South African coastal waters. This study serves to describe a simple, cost-effective and relatively quick testing procedure using the development of Haliotis midae larvae as a bioassay of coastal water quality.

  11. Performance Evaluation of Produced Water Quality from a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Its negative impacts on the receiving water bodies have become a worrisome environmental issue. The effluent quality of a crude Oil processing and exporting installation located in the coastal area of the Niger Delta was studied for six months to ascertain the efficiency of the company's produced water treatment processes.

  12. Reginol interpretation of river Indus water quality data using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water samples were collected from river Indus over 591 km2 from Kashmor to Keti Bandar/Shah Bandar in the province of Sindh, Pakistan, during 2008 and 2009 on seasonal bases. These samples were analyzed for 12 water quality variables including physical and chemical parameters. Then correlation study was carried ...

  13. Water quality assessment of streams draining the Akwapim Ridge of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surface water samples from seven streams on the Akwapim Ridge were analysed over a period of 1 year for various water quality parameters following standard methods prescribed in APHA, AWWA, WEF and AOAC. The study was carried out in order to assess the suitability of the streams for drinking and other domestic ...

  14. Factors Affecting Drinking Water Quality from Source to Home in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACK GROUND: Water becomes contaminated with faecal material due to inadequate protection of the source, unhygienic practices of the community at the source and poor household handling practices. The objective of this study was to identify the risks associated with the protected source, to determine the water quality ...

  15. Assessment of Groundwater Quality of Ilorin Metropolis using Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akorede

    ABSTRACT: Groundwater as a source of potable water is becoming more important in Nigeria. Therefore, the need to ascertain the continuing potability of the sources cannot be over emphasised. This study is aimed at assessing the quality of selected groundwater samples from Ilorin metropolis, Nigeria, using the water ...

  16. Assessment of microbiological quality of drinking water treated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality of drinking water at the point of delivery to the consumer is crucial in safeguarding consumer's health. The current study was undertaken to assess the changes in residual chlorine content with distance in water distribution system in Gwalior city of Madhya Pradesh and assess its relation with the occurrence of ...

  17. Aspects of Water Quality of Freshwater Systems Harbouring Snail ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of some aspects of water quality of freshwater systems harbouring snail vectors of schistosome parasites was conducted in Jos, Nigeria. Calcium ion concentration of the water bodies was a mean value of 31 mg.l-1. The range of temperature was 15 - 30OC. The occurrence of Biomphalaria pferifferi was attributed to ...

  18. Stream water quality in the western regions of Iran

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-07-18

    Jul 18, 2007 ... Jenkins et al., 1995; Tamasebi and Jafarian, 2006). This study presents the water quality of the some rivers and streams in the west part of Iran. The objective was to characterize the chemical and physical properties of surface water of the geological environments and to determine the anthropogenic im-.

  19. Mining and Metal Pollution: Assessment of Water Quality in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2017-12-02

    Dec 2, 2017 ... The quality of water in mining communities is uncertain since metals associated with acid mine drainage are known to saturate these waters. Previous studies in Tarkwa, an area noted for gold and manganese extraction, have reported large concentrations of aluminium, arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, ...

  20. Seasonal variations of water and sediment quality parameters in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four reed pans were selected and assessed to determine seasonal trends of a variety of water and sediment quality parameters. The study took place over one seasonal cycle from 2008–2009; samples were collected seasonally to account for various hydrological extremes. Water samples were collected and their nutrient ...

  1. Bacteriological and Physicochemical Quality of Drinking Water and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Lack of safe drinking water, basic sanitation, and hygienic practices are associated with high morbidity and mortality from excreta related diseases. The aims of this study were to determine the bacteriological and physico-chemical quality of drinking water and investigate the hygiene and sanitation practices ...

  2. Microbial quality of Jimma water supply | Kifle | Ethiopian Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study on drinking water quality in Jimma town was conducted from February to May 2005. Twelve water samples were collected and analyzed by different microbiological analysis. Microbiological analysis of the samples showed the presence of different microorganisms when the samples were fresh ...

  3. A 5 year longitudinal study of water quality for final rinsing in the single chamber washer-disinfector with a reverse osmosis plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uetera, Yushi; Kishii, Kozue; Yasuhara, Hiroshi; Kumada, Naohito; Moriya, Kyoji; Saito, Ryoichi; Okazaki, Mitsuhiro; Misawa, Yoshiki; Kawamura, Kunio

    2013-01-01

    RO systems or performing maintenance and periodical examination of the equipment. Reverse osmosis (RO) water is used for final rinsing in our washer-disinfector. The authors used the Ishikawa Fishbone diagram to clarify the critical points for optimizing RO water quality. There existed no measures to prevent contamination in the heat-labile RO water system. The storage tank was significantly contaminated and had to be replaced with a new one equipped with a sampling port and water drainage system. Additional filters and an UV treatment lamp were installed. The whole system disinfection started 1.5 years later using a peracetic acid-based compound after confirming the material compatibility. Operator errors occurred when a new water engineer took over the duty from his predecessor. There were neither standard operating procedures (SOPs) nor on-the-job training. The new water engineer had failed to disinfect the sampling port and water drainage system. Rothia mucilaginosa was cultured from the RO water. It is a resident in the oral cavity and upper respiratory tract. This implied the possible failure of sanitary procedures in the system maintenance. The Ishikawa Fishbone diagram was useful for this study. It suggests that water systems should be designed with plans for system maintenance taken into account. It also suggests that SOP and on-the job training are essential in order to avoid operator errors.

  4. An assessment of groundwater quality using water quality index in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nanda Balan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context : Water, the elixir of life, is a prime natural resource. Due to rapid urbanization in India, the availability and quality of groundwater have been affected. According to the Central Groundwater Board, 80% of Chennai′s groundwater has been depleted and any further exploration could lead to salt water ingression. Hence, this study was done to assess the groundwater quality in Chennai city. Aim : To assess the groundwater quality using water quality index in Chennai city. Materials and Methods: Chennai city was divided into three zones based on the legislative constituency and from these three zones three locations were randomly selected and nine groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for physiochemical properties. Results: With the exception of few parameters, most of the water quality assessment parameters showed parameters within the accepted standard values of Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS. Except for pH in a single location of zone 1, none of the parameters exceeded the permissible values for water quality assessment as prescribed by the BIS. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that in general the groundwater quality status of Chennai city ranged from excellent to good and the groundwater is fit for human consumption based on all the nine parameters of water quality index and fluoride content.

  5. 40 CFR 227.31 - Applicable marine water quality criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicable marine water quality... § 227.31 Applicable marine water quality criteria. Applicable marine water quality criteria means the criteria given for marine waters in the EPA publication “Quality Criteria for Water” as published in 1976...

  6. Water quality index for Al-Gharraf River, southern Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salam Hussein Ewaid

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Water Quality Index has been developed mathematically to evaluate the water quality of Al-Gharraf River, the main branch of the Tigris River in the south of Iraq. Water samples were collected monthly from five sampling stations during 2015–2016, and 11 parameters were analyzed: biological oxygen demand, total dissolved solids, the concentration of hydrogen ions, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, phosphates, nitrates, chlorides, as well as turbidity, total hardness, electrical conductivity and alkalinity. The index classified the river water, without including turbidity as a parameter, as good for drinking at the first station, poor at stations 2, 3, 4 and very poor at station 5. When turbidity was included, the index classified the river water as unsuitable for drinking purposes in the entire river. The study highlights the importance of applying the water quality indices which indicate the total effect of the ecological factors on surface water quality and which give a simple interpretation of the monitoring data to help local people in improving water quality.

  7. Drinking Water Quality of Water Vending Machines in Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, N. H.; Yusop, H. M.

    2016-07-01

    An increased in demand from the consumer due to their perceptions on tap water quality is identified as one of the major factor on why they are mentally prepared to pay for the price of the better quality drinking water. The thought that filtered water quality including that are commercially available in the market such as mineral and bottled drinking water and from the drinking water vending machine makes they highly confident on the level of hygiene, safety and the mineral content of this type of drinking water. This study was investigated the vended water quality from the drinking water vending machine in eight locations in Parit Raja are in terms of pH, total dissolve solids (TDS), turbidity, mineral content (chromium, arsenic, cadmium, lead and nickel), total organic carbon (TOC), pH, total colony-forming units (CFU) and total coliform. All experiments were conducted in one month duration in triplicate samples for each sampling event. The results indicated the TDS and all heavy metals in eight vended water machines in Parit Raja area were found to be below the Food Act 1983, Regulation 360C (Standard for Packaged Drinking Water and Vended water, 2012) and Malaysian Drinking Water Quality, Ministry of Health 1983. No coliform was presence in any of the vended water samples. pH was found to be slightly excess the limit provided while turbidity was found to be 45 to 95 times more higher than 0.1 NTU as required by the Malaysian Food Act Regulation. The data obtained in this study would suggest the important of routine maintenance and inspection of vended water provider in order to maintain a good quality, hygienic and safety level of vended water.

  8. Water quality in Una River Basin – Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Silva Tavares

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the water quality of the lower portion of Una River Basin, Pernambuco, by means of analysis of physical, chemical and microbiological parameters. The monitoring was conducted among October 2013 and March 2014. Sampling locations were in the cities of Catende, Palmares and Água Preta, selecting three collection points in each district. Parameters analyzed: temperature, electric conductivity, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, turbidity, potassium, pH, total phosphorus, thermotolerant coliforms, and Escherichia Coli. The results showed the water quality in the Basin Una River is outside of CONAMA standars Resolution 357/2005 for fresh water Class II parameters: dissolved oxygen, pH, phosphorus, thermotolerant coliforms and Escherichia Coli. Potassium concentration shows the discharge of effluents from the processing of sugar cane in the hydrous body did not affect the quality of the water. The main contamination source of water was the release of domestic sewage.

  9. Management of the water balance and quality in mining areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasanen, Antti; Krogerus, Kirsti; Mroueh, Ulla-Maija; Turunen, Kaisa; Backnäs, Soile; Vento, Tiia; Veijalainen, Noora; Hentinen, Kimmo; Korkealaakso, Juhani

    2015-04-01

    Although mining companies have long been conscious of water related risks they still face environmental management problems. These problems mainly emerge because mine sites' water balances have not been adequately assessed in the stage of the planning of mines. More consistent approach is required to help mining companies identify risks and opportunities related to the management of water resources in all stages of mining. This approach requires that the water cycle of a mine site is interconnected with the general hydrologic water cycle. In addition to knowledge on hydrological conditions, the control of the water balance in the mining processes require knowledge of mining processes, the ability to adjust process parameters to variable hydrological conditions, adaptation of suitable water management tools and systems, systematic monitoring of amounts and quality of water, adequate capacity in water management infrastructure to handle the variable water flows, best practices to assess the dispersion, mixing and dilution of mine water and pollutant loading to receiving water bodies, and dewatering and separation of water from tailing and precipitates. WaterSmart project aims to improve the awareness of actual quantities of water, and water balances in mine areas to improve the forecasting and the management of the water volumes. The study is executed through hydrogeological and hydrological surveys and online monitoring procedures. One of the aims is to exploit on-line water quantity and quality monitoring for the better management of the water balances. The target is to develop a practical and end-user-specific on-line input and output procedures. The second objective is to develop mathematical models to calculate combined water balances including the surface, ground and process waters. WSFS, the Hydrological Modeling and Forecasting System of SYKE is being modified for mining areas. New modelling tools are developed on spreadsheet and system dynamics platforms to

  10. Multivariate analysis of drinking water quality parameters in Bhopal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parashar, Charu; Verma, Neelam; Dixit, Savita; Shrivastava, Rajneesh

    2008-05-01

    Pollution of water bodies is one of the areas of major concern to environmentalists. Water quality is an index of health and well being of a society. Industrialization, urbanization and modern agriculture practices have direct impact on the water resources. These factors influence the water resources quantitatively and qualitatively. The study area selected were the Upper lake and Kolar reservoir of Bhopal, the state capital of Madhya Pradesh, India. The Upper lake and Kolar reservoir both are the important sources of potable water supply for the Bhopal city. The physico-chemical parameters like temperature, pH, turbidity, total hardness, alkalinity, BOD, COD, Chloride, nitrate and phosphate were studied to ascertain the drinking water quality.

  11. Sustainable River Water Quality Management in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Al-Mamun

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Ecological status of Malaysia is not as bad as many other developing nations in the world. However, despite the enforcement of the Environmental Quality Act (EQA in 1974, the water quality of Malaysian inland water (especially rivers is following deteriorating trend. The rivers are mainly polluted due to the point and non-point pollution sources. Point sources are monitored and controlled by the Department of Environment (DOE, whereas a significant amount of pollutants is contributed by untreated sullage and storm runoff. Nevertheless, it is not too late to take some bold steps for the effective control of non-point source pollution and untreated sullage discharge, which play significant roles on the status of the rivers. This paper reviews the existing procedures and guidelines related to protection of the river water quality in Malaysia.  There is a good possibility that the sewage and effluent discharge limits in the Environmental Quality Act (EQA may pose hindrance against achieving good quality water in the rivers as required by the National Water Quality Standards (NWQS. For instance, Ammoniacal Nitrogen (NH3-N is identified as one of the main pollutants to render many of the rivers polluted but it was not considered in the EQA as a monitoring parameter until the new regulations published in 2009.  Surprisingly, the new regulation for sewage and industrial effluent limits set allowable NH3-N concentration quite high (5 mg/L, which may result in low Water Quality Index (WQI values for the river water. The water environment is a dynamic system. Periodical review of the monitoring requirements, detecting emerging pollutants in sewage, effluent and runoff, and proper revision of water quality standards are necessary for the management of sustainable water resources in the country. ABSTRAK: Satus ekologi Malaysia tidak seburuk kebanyakan negara membangun lain di dunia. Walaupun Akta Kualiti Alam Sekitar (EQA dikuatkuasakan pada tahun 1974

  12. Drinking Water Quality Status and Contamination in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Daud

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to alarming increase in population and rapid industrialization, drinking water quality is being deteriorated day by day in Pakistan. This review sums up the outcomes of various research studies conducted for drinking water quality status of different areas of Pakistan by taking into account the physicochemical properties of drinking water as well as the presence of various pathogenic microorganisms. About 20% of the whole population of Pakistan has access to safe drinking water. The remaining 80% of population is forced to use unsafe drinking water due to the scarcity of safe and healthy drinking water sources. The primary source of contamination is sewerage (fecal which is extensively discharged into drinking water system supplies. Secondary source of pollution is the disposal of toxic chemicals from industrial effluents, pesticides, and fertilizers from agriculture sources into the water bodies. Anthropogenic activities cause waterborne diseases that constitute about 80% of all diseases and are responsible for 33% of deaths. This review highlights the drinking water quality, contamination sources, sanitation situation, and effects of unsafe drinking water on humans. There is immediate need to take protective measures and treatment technologies to overcome unhygienic condition of drinking water supplies in different areas of Pakistan.

  13. Drinking Water Quality Status and Contamination in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daud, M K; Nafees, Muhammad; Ali, Shafaqat; Rizwan, Muhammad; Bajwa, Raees Ahmad; Shakoor, Muhammad Bilal; Arshad, Muhammad Umair; Chatha, Shahzad Ali Shahid; Deeba, Farah; Murad, Waheed; Malook, Ijaz; Zhu, Shui Jin

    2017-01-01

    Due to alarming increase in population and rapid industrialization, drinking water quality is being deteriorated day by day in Pakistan. This review sums up the outcomes of various research studies conducted for drinking water quality status of different areas of Pakistan by taking into account the physicochemical properties of drinking water as well as the presence of various pathogenic microorganisms. About 20% of the whole population of Pakistan has access to safe drinking water. The remaining 80% of population is forced to use unsafe drinking water due to the scarcity of safe and healthy drinking water sources. The primary source of contamination is sewerage (fecal) which is extensively discharged into drinking water system supplies. Secondary source of pollution is the disposal of toxic chemicals from industrial effluents, pesticides, and fertilizers from agriculture sources into the water bodies. Anthropogenic activities cause waterborne diseases that constitute about 80% of all diseases and are responsible for 33% of deaths. This review highlights the drinking water quality, contamination sources, sanitation situation, and effects of unsafe drinking water on humans. There is immediate need to take protective measures and treatment technologies to overcome unhygienic condition of drinking water supplies in different areas of Pakistan.

  14. Drinking Water Quality Status and Contamination in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafees, Muhammad; Rizwan, Muhammad; Bajwa, Raees Ahmad; Shakoor, Muhammad Bilal; Arshad, Muhammad Umair; Chatha, Shahzad Ali Shahid; Deeba, Farah; Murad, Waheed; Malook, Ijaz

    2017-01-01

    Due to alarming increase in population and rapid industrialization, drinking water quality is being deteriorated day by day in Pakistan. This review sums up the outcomes of various research studies conducted for drinking water quality status of different areas of Pakistan by taking into account the physicochemical properties of drinking water as well as the presence of various pathogenic microorganisms. About 20% of the whole population of Pakistan has access to safe drinking water. The remaining 80% of population is forced to use unsafe drinking water due to the scarcity of safe and healthy drinking water sources. The primary source of contamination is sewerage (fecal) which is extensively discharged into drinking water system supplies. Secondary source of pollution is the disposal of toxic chemicals from industrial effluents, pesticides, and fertilizers from agriculture sources into the water bodies. Anthropogenic activities cause waterborne diseases that constitute about 80% of all diseases and are responsible for 33% of deaths. This review highlights the drinking water quality, contamination sources, sanitation situation, and effects of unsafe drinking water on humans. There is immediate need to take protective measures and treatment technologies to overcome unhygienic condition of drinking water supplies in different areas of Pakistan. PMID:28884130

  15. Interventions to improve water quality for preventing diarrhoea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clasen, Thomas F; Alexander, Kelly T; Sinclair, David; Boisson, Sophie; Peletz, Rachel; Chang, Howard H; Majorin, Fiona; Cairncross, Sandy

    2015-01-01

    Background Diarrhoea is a major cause of death and disease, especially among young children in low-income countries. In these settings, many infectious agents associated with diarrhoea are spread through water contaminated with faeces. In remote and low-income settings, source-based water quality improvement includes providing protected groundwater (springs, wells, and bore holes), or harvested rainwater as an alternative to surface sources (rivers and lakes). Point-of-use water quality improvement interventions include boiling, chlorination, flocculation, filtration, or solar disinfection, mainly conducted at home. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of interventions to improve water quality for preventing diarrhoea. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register (11 November 2014), CENTRAL (the Cochrane Library, 7 November 2014), MEDLINE (1966 to 10 November 2014), EMBASE (1974 to 10 November 2014), and LILACS (1982 to 7 November 2014). We also handsearched relevant conference proceedings, contacted researchers and organizations working in the field, and checked references from identified studies through 11 November 2014. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-RCTs, and controlled before-and-after studies (CBA) comparing interventions aimed at improving the microbiological quality of drinking water with no intervention in children and adults. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We used meta-analyses to estimate pooled measures of effect, where appropriate, and investigated potential sources of heterogeneity using subgroup analyses. We assessed the quality of evidence using the GRADE approach. Main results Forty-five cluster-RCTs, two quasi-RCTs, and eight CBA studies, including over 84,000 participants, met the inclusion criteria. Most included studies were conducted in low- or middle-income countries (LMICs) (50 studies) with

  16. Water Quality and Hydrogeochemical Characteristics of Surface Water and Groundwaters in Aksu (Isparta Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şehnaz Şener

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, geological, hydrological, hydrogeological, hydrogeochemical characteristics of the Aksu (Isparta plain were investigated. In addition, determination of the water quality and availability in current status besides groundwater dynamics were aimed in the scope of work. The study area is located in the southwest Turkey, and lithological units belonging to Beydaglari autochthonous and Antalya nappes are observed. The most important surface water and groundwater reservoirs are Aksu river and alluvial-karst aquifers, respectively. Hydrogeochemical characteristics and quality of the water are important because water is used as drinking water and irrigation water in the plain. For this purpose, in situ measurements and chemical analyzes were carried out in the period of May-2013 on water resources. According to the obtained results, water resources is Mg-HCO3, Ca-HCO3, and Mg-Ca-HCO3 facies. According to the Water Pollution Control Regulation, all surface and groundwaters are determined in 4th water quality class in terms of sulfur owing to water-rock interaction. The assessment of the usage properties of the waters indicate that water sources is suitable for drinking and irrigation water usage in generally.

  17. Improving Water Quality With Conservation Buffers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrance, R.; Dabney, S.; Schultz, R.

    2003-12-01

    Conservation buffer technologies are new approaches that need wider application. In-field buffer practices work best when used in combination with other buffer types and other conservation practices. Vegetative barriers may be used in combination with edge-of-field buffers to protect and improve their function and longevity by dispersing runoff and encouraging sediment deposition upslope of the buffer. It's important to understand how buffers can be managed to help reduce nutrient transport potential for high loading of nutrients from manure land application sites, A restored riparian wetland buffer retained or removed at least 59 percent of the nitrogen and 66 percent of the phosphorus that entered from an adjacent manure land application site. The Bear Creek National Restoration Demonstration Watershed project in Iowa has been the site of riparian forest buffers and filter strips creation; constructed wetlands to capture tile flow; stream-bank bioengineering; in-stream structures; and controlling livestock grazing. We need field studies that test various widths of buffers of different plant community compositions for their efficacy in trapping surface runoff, reducing nonpoint source pollutants in subsurface waters, and enhancing the aquatic ecosystem. Research is needed to evaluate the impact of different riparian grazing strategies on channel morphology, water quality, and the fate of livestock-associated pathogens and antibiotics. Integrating riparian buffers and other conservation buffers into these models is a key objective in future model development.

  18. Water quality as a predictor of gastrointestinal illness following incidental contact water recreation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorevitch, Samuel; DeFlorio-Barker, Stephanie; Jones, Rachael M; Liu, Li

    2015-10-15

    Microbial measures of water quality are predictors of gastrointestinal illness among swimmers in some settings but not in others. Little is known whether water quality measures predict illness among people who engage in popular water recreation activities such as paddling, rowing, fishing, or boating ("incidental contact water recreation"). We sought to evaluate indicator microbes, protozoan pathogens, and turbidity as predictors of gastrointestinal illness following incidental contact water recreation. A cohort study of incidental contact water recreation was conducted in the Chicago, USA area. Recreation took place on inland lakes, rivers, Lake Michigan, and an urban waterway heavily impacted by wastewater effluent. Water samples were analyzed for Escherichia coli, enterococci, somatic coliphages, F+ coliphages, Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. (oo)cysts, and for turbidity. Median enterococci concentrations were 71.0 and 199.8 colony forming units/100  mL at general use and effluent-dominated waters, respectively. Among 4694 study participants with complete covariate data, 193 (4.1%) developed gastrointestinal illness within three days of water recreation. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, water quality metrics did not predict gastrointestinal illness among water recreators. Several variables other than water quality were associated acute gastrointestinal illness. The odds of such illness was increased by approximately two-fold by the presence of a chronic gastrointestinal condition, water exposure to the face, and by approximately 50% among those who fished (as opposed to other incidental contact activities). The odds of illness were reduced by approximately 50% among individuals who frequently used a water body for recreation. Unlike studies of swimmers at wastewater-impacted beaches that observed associations between water quality and illness incidence, this study did not. Public health protections for incidental contact recreation might

  19. Generic E. coli levels in surface and nontraditional irrigation water in the mid Atlantic in relation to FSMA water quality standards: A CONSERVE study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: The use of surface (pond and river) and nontraditional (reclaimed wastewater, produce wash water) irrigation water (SNIW) could reduce stress on ground water resources. However, it is essential to understand how these irrigation sources may influence the microbiological safety of fresh...

  20. Water Quality Considerations and Related Dishwashing Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Nina I.

    A number of the chemical and physical factors which cause dishwashing problems are presented in a series of charts. Water quality considerations are vital, but the importance of good housekeeping and proper operating practices cannot and must not be minimized. Topics discussed include--(1) dissolved minerals, (2) dissolved gases, (3) detergents,…