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Sample records for water quality indicator

  1. Water quality evaluation of Al-Gharraf river by two water quality indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewaid, Salam Hussein

    2017-11-01

    Water quality of Al-Gharraf river, the largest branch of Tigris River south of Iraq, was evaluated by the National Sanitation Foundation Water Quality Index (NFS WQI) and the Heavy Metal Pollution Index (HPI) depending on 13 physical, chemical, and biological parameters of water quality measured monthly at ten stations on the river during 2015. The NSF-WQI range obtained for the sampling sites was 61-70 indicating a medium water quality. The HPI value was 98.6 slightly below the critical value for drinking water of 100, and the water quality in the upstream stations is better than downstream due to decrease in water and the accumulation of contaminants along the river. This study explains the significance of applying the water quality indices that show the aggregate impact of ecological factors in charge of water pollution of surface water and which permits translation of the monitoring data to assist the decision makers.

  2. Irrigation water quality as indicator of sustainable rural development

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    Trajković Slaviša

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable rural development more and more depends on the efficient usage of water resources. Most often, at least in one part of the year, the rain is not sufficient for plant growth and rain plant production significantly depends on the yearly precipitation variation. The increase and stability of the agricultural production is possible in the irrigation conditions. The most part (around 70% of the global water resources is used for food production. Irrigation water quality indicator is used to show if the available water resources have the required quality for application in agriculture. Irrigation is characterised by the complex water-plant-soil relationship, and in that eco-system the man as the end user of the irrigated fields occupies a very important place. That explains the difficulties in producing one universal classification of irrigation water quality. The paper analyses numerous water quality classifications from the aspect of the applicability on the quantifying of this indicator. The adopted classification should possess understandable, qualified and internationally comparable indicator. Thus, local classifications (Neigebauer, Miljkovic cannot be used for this indicator. United Nation Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO and US Salinity Laboratory (USSL classifications are used for the evaluation of the irrigation water quality throughout the world. FAO classification gives the complex picture of the usability of the irrigation water from the point of its influence on the soil and the plants. However, the scope of the analyses is not often suited to the needs of that classification, which makes it difficult to apply. The conclusion is that the USSL (US Salinity Laboratory classification is best suited to this range of chemical water analyses. The evaluation of the irrigation water quality indicator in the Juzna Morava river basin, upstream from the Toplica river estuary is given in this paper. Based on the obtained

  3. Water quality index and eutrophication indices of Caiabi River, MT

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    Grasiane Andrietti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the water quality of the Caiabi River based upon the water quality index (WQI and the trophic state index (TSI, considering seasonal and spatial variations, with the aim of determining the most appropriate monitoring design for this study site. Sampling for water quality monitoring was conducted at five points on the Caiabi River from July 2012 to June 2013. Quality parameters quantified were as follows: pH, temperature, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, total and thermotolerant coliforms, turbidity, Kjeldahl nitrogen, nitrite, nitrate, total phosphorus, biochemical oxygen demand, series of solids, and chlorophyll a. Sampling procedures and analysis followed the methods recommended by the Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. The WQI results showed that the quality of the Caiabi River water is good. TSI results demonstrated the low risk of eutrophication in the Caiabi River, indicating an ultra-oligotrophic lotic environment. Analysis of variance showed that 10 of the 16 monitored quality parameters presented differences of means between the dry and rainy seasons or among the monitored points or in the interaction between seasons and points. These results indicate that two annual sampling collections at two points may be sufficient to describe the water quality behavior in the basin, as long as the conditions of land use are stable.

  4. Sterols indicate water quality and wastewater treatment efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichwaldt, Elke S; Ho, Wei Y; Zhou, Wenxu; Ghadouani, Anas

    2017-01-01

    As the world's population continues to grow, water pollution is presenting one of the biggest challenges worldwide. More wastewater is being generated and the demand for clean water is increasing. To ensure the safety and health of humans and the environment, highly efficient wastewater treatment systems, and a reliable assessment of water quality and pollutants are required. The advance of holistic approaches to water quality management and the increasing use of ecological water treatment technologies, such as constructed wetlands and waste stabilisation ponds (WSPs), challenge the appropriateness of commonly used water quality indicators. Instead, additional indicators, which are direct measures of the processes involved in the stabilisation of human waste, have to be established to provide an in-depth understanding of system performance. In this study we identified the sterol composition of wastewater treated in WSPs and assessed the suitability of human sterol levels as a bioindicator of treatment efficiency of wastewater in WSPs. As treatment progressed in WSPs, the relative abundance of human faecal sterols, such as coprostanol, epicoprostanol, 24-ethylcoprostanol, and sitostanol decreased significantly and the sterol composition in wastewater changed significantly. Furthermore, sterol levels were found to be correlated with commonly used wastewater quality indicators, such as BOD, TSS and E. coli. Three of the seven sterol ratios that have previously been used to track sewage pollution in the environment, detected a faecal signal in the effluent of WSPs, however, the others were influenced by high prevalence of sterols originating from algal and fungal activities. This finding poses a concern for environmental assessment studies, because environmental pollution from waste stabilisation ponds can go unnoticed. In conclusion, faecal sterols and their ratios can be used as reliable indicators of treatment efficiency and water quality during wastewater

  5. Biomarker as an Indicator of River Water Quality Degradation

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    Dwina Roosmini

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Generally physical and chemical methods are use in river water quality monitoring; currently biomarker is developed as alternative biomonitoring method. The aim of this study is to look at the probability using aquatic species in monitoring river water pollutants exposure. This study was done by using Hyposarcus pardalis as biomarker to analyze river water quality in Upstream Citarum River. Hyposarcus pardalis were taken along the river at five sampling point and look at the Cu and Zn concentration. Results from this study show that there was an indication that river water quality has been degrading along the river from upstream to downstream. Zn concentration in Hyposarcus pardalis were increasing as well as Cu concentration. The increase of Zn concentration in Hyposarcus pardalis indicating that the river was polluted by Zn. Secondary data and observation at sampling location shown that textile was the dominant industry which may contribute the Zn concentration in river as they received the effluent. Cu is use in metal coating process, as well as textile industry metal industries were identified at Majalaya, Bantar Panjang, Dayeuh Kolot and Katapang in Bandung-Indonesia. As a receiving water from many activities along the river, upstream Citarum River water quality become degrading as the increasing of heavy metal Zn and Cu concentration in Hyposarcus pardalis.

  6. Using Aquatic Insects as Indicators of Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyche, Steven E.

    1977-01-01

    Described is a science field activity that studies the presence of certain aquatic insects, like stoneflies, as indicators of water quality. Equipment, materials, and methods are listed in detail, including suggestions for building certain supplies. Results of previous studies on the Yellowstone River are included. (MA)

  7. Indices of quality surface water bodies in the planning of water resources

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    Rodríguez-Miranda, Juan Pablo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers a review of the literature major and significant methods of quality indices of water applied in surface water bodies, used and proposed for assessing the significance of parameters of water quality in the assessment of surface water currents and they are usually used in making decisions for intervention and strategic prevention measures for those responsible for the conservation and preservation of watersheds where these water bodies belong. An exploratory methodology was applied to realize the conceptualization of each water quality index. As a result, it is observed that there are several important methods for determining the water quality index applied in surface water bodies.

  8. Water quality of hydrologic bench marks; an indicator of water quality in the natural environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesecker, James E.; Leifeste, Donald K.

    1974-01-01

    Water-quality data, collected at 57 hydrologic bench-mark stations in 37 States, allow the definition of water quality in the 'natural' environment and the comparison of 'natural' water quality with water quality of major streams draining similar water-resources regions. Results indicate that water quality in the 'natural' environment is generally very good. Streams draining hydrologic bench-mark basins generally contain low concentrations of dissolved constituents. Water collected at the hydrologic bench-mark stations was analyzed for the following minor metals: arsenic, barium, cadmium, hexavalent chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, mercury, selenium, silver, and zinc. Of 642 analyses, about 65 percent of the observed concentrations were zero. Only three samples contained metals in excess of U.S. Public Health Service recommended drinking-water standards--two selenium concentrations and one cadmium concentration. A total of 213 samples were analyzed for 11 pesticidal compounds. Widespread but very low-level occurrence of pesticide residues in the 'natural' environment was found--about 30 percent of all samples contained low-level concentrations of pesticidal compounds. The DDT family of pesticides occurred most commonly, accounting for 75 percent of the detected occurrences. The highest observed concentration of DDT was 0.06 microgram per litre, well below the recommended maximum permissible in drinking water. Nitrate concentrations in the 'natural' environment generally varied from 0.2 to 0.5 milligram per litre. The average concentration of nitrate in many major streams is as much as 10 times greater. The relationship between dissolved-solids concentration and discharge per unit area in the 'natural' environment for the various physical divisions in the United States has been shown to be an applicable tool for approximating 'natural' water quality. The relationship between dissolved-solids concentration and discharge per unit area is applicable in all the physical

  9. Application of Water Quality and Ecology Indices of Benthic Macroinvertebrate to Evaluate Water Quality of Tertiary Irrigation in Malang District

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    Desi Kartikasari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to determine the water quality of tertiary irrigation in several subdistricts in Malang, namely Kepanjen, Karangploso, and Tumpang. The water quality depends on the water quality indices (National Sanitation Foundation’s-NSF Indices and O’Connor’s Indices based on variables TSS, TDS, pH, DO, and Nitrate concentrate and ecological indices of benthic macroinvertebrate (Diversity Indices Shannon-Wiener, Hilsenhof Biotic Indices-HBI, Average Score per Taxon-ASPT which is calculated by Biological Monitoring Working Party-BMWP, Ephemeroptera Indices, Plecoptera, Trichoptera-EPT. Observation of the physico-chemical water quality and benthic macroinvertebrate on May 2012 to April 2013. The sampling in each subdistrict was done at two selected stations in tertiary irrigation channel with three plot at each station. The data of physico-chemical quality of water were used to calculate the water quality indices, while the benthic macroinvertebrate data were used to calculate the ecological indices. The research findings showed that 27 taxa of benthic macroinvertebrates belong 10 classes were found in the three subdistrict. The pH, DO, Nitrate, TSS and TDS in six tertiary irrigation channels in Malang still met the water quality standards based on Government Regulation No. 82 of 2001 on Management of Water Quality and Water Pollution Control Class III. Based on NSF-WQI indices and O'Connor's Indices, water qualities in these irrigation channels were categorized into medium or moderate (yellow to good (green category. However, based on benthic macroinvertebrate communities which was used to determine the HBI, the water quality in the irrigation channels were categorized into the fair category (fairly significant organic pollution to fairly poor (significant organic pollution, while based on the value of ASPT, the water were categorized into probable moderate pollution to probable severe pollution. The irrigation water which was

  10. Development of sustainable water treatment technology using scientifically based calculated indexes of source water quality indicators

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    А. С. Трякина

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article describes selection process of sustainable technological process flow chart for water treatment procedure developed on scientifically based calculated indexes of quality indicators for water supplied to water treatment facilities. In accordance with the previously calculated values of the indicators of the source water quality, the main purification facilities are selected. A more sustainable flow chart for the modern water quality of the Seversky Donets-Donbass channel is a two-stage filtering with contact prefilters and high-rate filters. The article proposes a set of measures to reduce such an indicator of water quality as permanganate oxidation. The most suitable for these purposes is sorption purification using granular activated carbon for water filtering. The increased water hardness is also quite topical. The method of ion exchange on sodium cation filters was chosen to reduce the water hardness. We also evaluated the reagents for decontamination of water. As a result, sodium hypochlorite is selected for treatment of water, which has several advantages over chlorine and retains the necessary aftereffect, unlike ozone. A technological flow chart with two-stage purification on contact prefilters and two-layer high-rate filters (granular activated carbon - quartz sand with disinfection of sodium hypochlorite and softening of a part of water on sodium-cation exchangers filters is proposed. This technological flow chart of purification with any fluctuations in the quality of the source water is able to provide purified water that meets the requirements of the current sanitary-hygienic standards. In accordance with the developed flow chart, guidelines and activities for the reconstruction of the existing Makeevka Filtering Station were identified. The recommended flow chart uses more compact and less costly facilities, as well as additional measures to reduce those water quality indicators, the values of which previously were in

  11. [Study on the optimization of monitoring indicators of drinking water quality during health supervision].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Bixiong; E, Xueli; Zhang, Lan

    2015-01-01

    To optimize non-regular drinking water quality indices (except Giardia and Cryptosporidium) of urban drinking water. Several methods including drinking water quality exceed the standard, the risk of exceeding standard, the frequency of detecting concentrations below the detection limit, water quality comprehensive index evaluation method, and attribute reduction algorithm of rough set theory were applied, redundancy factor of water quality indicators were eliminated, control factors that play a leading role in drinking water safety were found. Optimization results showed in 62 unconventional water quality monitoring indicators of urban drinking water, 42 water quality indicators could be optimized reduction by comprehensively evaluation combined with attribute reduction of rough set. Optimization of the water quality monitoring indicators and reduction of monitoring indicators and monitoring frequency could ensure the safety of drinking water quality while lowering monitoring costs and reducing monitoring pressure of the sanitation supervision departments.

  12. CHEMICAL WATER QUALITY INDICATORS IN BASIN FOREST PARCZEW

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    Antoni Grzywna

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the characteristics of the chemistry of surface and ground water in the bottom of the river valley reclaimed Ochoza. Drained grassland accounts for 20% of the total catchment area and are located on organic soils in the valley Tyśmienica classified to the Natura 2000 sites. Analysis of physico-chemical properties of water are to assess the effects of anthropogenic transformation and identify factors that influence water quality in the study area. Water samples were collected in the years 2011–2012 in several points. The walls were characterized by surface water stagnant in the trenches, in July, blueberry plantation. Characterized by the highest quality of surface water runoff river with the test object. Occurring here throughout the growing season water flow reed growing on the bed and temporary impoundment of water contribute to the self-cleaning effect of water. Conducted at different times of the growing season (winter, spring, summer, autumn of water chemistry analysis allows to assess the impact of vegetation on the process of self-purification of water. Based on the survey it was found that the river is reduced by 26% BOD 5, COD by 37%, 12% phosphate and potassium by 13%. Concurrently, an increase in the content of nitrogen compounds – ammonia at 27% and 15% nitrate. The increase in the content of nitrogen compounds is particularly evident in the bottom of the object, which is probably associated with the deep trench causing excessive drying of the soil. The highest values of pollutants were recorded mostly in the spring probably due to the outflow of water from the drans.

  13. Quality indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth-Andersen, Christian

    1991-01-01

    In recent literature it has been suggested that consumers need have no knowledge of product quality as a number of quality indicators (or signals) may be used as substitutes. Very little attention has been paid to the empirical verification of these studies. The present paper is devoted...... to the issue of how well these indicators perform, using market data provided by consumer magazines from 3 countries. The results strongly indicate that price is a poor quality indicator. The paper also presents some evidence which suggests that seller reputation and easily observable characteristics are also...

  14. Detection and persistence of fecal Bacteroidales as water quality indicators in unchlorinated drinking water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saunders, Aaron Marc; Kristiansen, Anja; Lund, Marie Braad

    2009-01-01

    doi:10.1016/j.syapm.2008.11.004 The results of this study support the use of fecal Bacteroidales qPCR as a rapid method to complement traditional, culture dependent, water quality indicators in systems where drinking water is supplied without chlorination or other forms of disinfection. A SYBR...... green based, quantitative PCR assay was developed to determine the concentration of fecal Bacteroidales 16S rRNA gene copies. The persistence of a Bacteroides vulgatus pure culture and fecal Bacteroidales from a wastewater inoculum was determined in unchlorinated drinking water at10°C. B. vulgatus 16S r......RNA gene copies persisted throughout the experimental period (200 days) in sterile drinking water but decayed faster in natural drinking water, indicating that the natural microbiota accelerated decay. In a simulated fecal contamination of unchlorinated drinking water, the decay of fecal Bacteroidales 16S...

  15. Evaluation of multiple water quality indices for drinking and irrigation purposes for the Karoon river, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminiyan, Milad Mirzaei; Aitkenhead-Peterson, Jacqueline; Aminiyan, Farzad Mirzaei

    2018-06-16

    The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the water quality of the Karoon river, which is a main river in Iran country. For this purpose, hydrochemical analyses of a database that maintained by the Water Resources Authority of Khuzestan Province, Iran's Ministry of Energy, were carried out. These data were compared with the maximum permissible limit values recommended by World Health Organization and Food and Agriculture Organization water standards for drinking and agricultural purposes, respectively. Also in this regard, multiple indices of water quality were utilized. However, not all indices gave similar rankings for water quality. According to the USSL diagram and Kelly ratio, Karoon's water quality is not suitable for irrigation purposes due to high salinity and moderate alkalinity. However, the results of the magnesium hazard analysis suggested that water quality for irrigation is acceptable. A Piper diagram illustrated that the most dominant water types during the 15 years of the study were Na-Cl and Na-SO 4 . The mineral saturation index also indicated that Na-Cl is the dominant water type. The water quality for drinking purpose was evaluated using a Schoeller diagram and water quality index (WQI). According to the computed WQI ranging from 111.9 to 194.0, the Karoon's water in the Khuzestan plain can be categorized as "poor water" for drinking purposes. Based on hydrochemical characteristics, years 2000-2007 and 2008-2014 were categorized into two clusters illustrating a decline in water quality between the two time periods.

  16. Water Quality Indicators Data Review | ECHO | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ECHO, Enforcement and Compliance History Online, provides compliance and enforcement information for approximately 800,000 EPA-regulated facilities nationwide. ECHO includes permit, inspection, violation, enforcement action, and penalty information about facilities regulated under the Clean Air Act (CAA) Stationary Source Program, Clean Water Act (CWA) National Pollutant Elimination Discharge System (NPDES), and/or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Information also is provided on surrounding demographics when available.

  17. Biological indicators for monitoring water quality of MTF canals system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, S. L.

    1975-01-01

    Biological models, diversity indexes, were developed to predict environmental effects of NASA's Mississippi test facility (MTF) chemical operations on canal systems in the area. To predict the effects on local streams, a physical model of unpolluted streams was established. The model is fed by artesian well water free of background levels of pollutants. The species diversity and biota composition of unpolluted MTF stream was determined; resulting information will be used to form baseline data for future comparisons. Biological modeling was accomplished by adding controlled quantities or kinds of chemical pollutants and evaluating the effects of these chemicals on the biological life of the stream.

  18. Occurrence, molecular characterization and antibiogram of water quality indicator bacteria in river water serving a water treatment plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okeke, Benedict C., E-mail: bokeke@aum.edu [Department of Biology, Auburn University at Montgomery, P.O. Box 244023, Montgomery, AL 36124 (United States); Thomson, M. Sue [Department of Biology, Auburn University at Montgomery, P.O. Box 244023, Montgomery, AL 36124 (United States); Moss, Elica M. [Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Science, Alabama A and M University, AL 35762 (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Water pollution by microorganisms of fecal origin is a current world-wide public health concern. Total coliforms, fecal coliforms (Escherichia coli) and enterococci are indicators commonly used to assess the microbiological safety of water resources. In this study, influent water samples and treated water were collected seasonally from a water treatment plant and two major water wells in a Black Belt county of Alabama and evaluated for water quality indicator bacteria. Influent river water samples serving the treatment plant were positive for total coliforms, fecal coliforms (E. coli), and enterococci. The highest number of total coliform most probable number (MPN) was observed in the winter (847.5 MPN/100 mL) and the lowest number in the summer (385.6 MPN/100 mL). Similarly E. coli MPN was substantially higher in the winter (62.25 MPN/100 mL). Seasonal variation of E. coli MPN in influent river water samples was strongly correlated with color (R{sup 2} = 0.998) and turbidity (R{sup 2} = 0.992). Neither E. coli nor other coliform type bacteria were detected in effluent potable water from the treatment plant. The MPN of enterococci was the highest in the fall and the lowest in the winter. Approximately 99.7 and 51.5 enterococci MPN/100 mL were recorded in fall and winter seasons respectively. One-way ANOVA tests revealed significant differences in seasonal variation of total coliforms (P < 0.05), fecal coliforms (P < 0.01) and enterococci (P < 0.01). Treated effluent river water samples and well water samples revealed no enterococci contamination. Representative coliform bacteria selected by differential screening on Coliscan Easygel were identified by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence analysis. E. coli isolates were sensitive to gentamicin, trimethoprim/sulfamethazole, ciprofloxacin, vancomycin, tetracycline, ampicillin, cefixime, and nitrofurantoin. Nonetheless, isolate BO-54 displayed decreased sensitivity compared to other E. coli isolates. Antibiotic sensitivity

  19. Occurrence, molecular characterization and antibiogram of water quality indicator bacteria in river water serving a water treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okeke, Benedict C.; Thomson, M. Sue; Moss, Elica M.

    2011-01-01

    Water pollution by microorganisms of fecal origin is a current world-wide public health concern. Total coliforms, fecal coliforms (Escherichia coli) and enterococci are indicators commonly used to assess the microbiological safety of water resources. In this study, influent water samples and treated water were collected seasonally from a water treatment plant and two major water wells in a Black Belt county of Alabama and evaluated for water quality indicator bacteria. Influent river water samples serving the treatment plant were positive for total coliforms, fecal coliforms (E. coli), and enterococci. The highest number of total coliform most probable number (MPN) was observed in the winter (847.5 MPN/100 mL) and the lowest number in the summer (385.6 MPN/100 mL). Similarly E. coli MPN was substantially higher in the winter (62.25 MPN/100 mL). Seasonal variation of E. coli MPN in influent river water samples was strongly correlated with color (R 2 = 0.998) and turbidity (R 2 = 0.992). Neither E. coli nor other coliform type bacteria were detected in effluent potable water from the treatment plant. The MPN of enterococci was the highest in the fall and the lowest in the winter. Approximately 99.7 and 51.5 enterococci MPN/100 mL were recorded in fall and winter seasons respectively. One-way ANOVA tests revealed significant differences in seasonal variation of total coliforms (P < 0.05), fecal coliforms (P < 0.01) and enterococci (P < 0.01). Treated effluent river water samples and well water samples revealed no enterococci contamination. Representative coliform bacteria selected by differential screening on Coliscan Easygel were identified by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence analysis. E. coli isolates were sensitive to gentamicin, trimethoprim/sulfamethazole, ciprofloxacin, vancomycin, tetracycline, ampicillin, cefixime, and nitrofurantoin. Nonetheless, isolate BO-54 displayed decreased sensitivity compared to other E. coli isolates. Antibiotic sensitivity pattern

  20. WATER QUALITY ANALYSIS OF LOTIC ECOSYSTEMS FROM UPPER MUREŞ RIVER CATCHMENT AREA USING DIFFERENT BIOTIC INDICES

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    Milca PETROVICI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Present paper approach the issue of assessing the water quality of tributaries located in the upper basin of the river Mureş, taking into account changes in the value of biotic indices. In this sense, have been selected the next five biotic indices: Ephemeroptera Plecoptera Trichoptera index (EPT, Total Invertebrates index (T, Chironomidae index (Ch, EPT / Total invertebrates index (EPT / T, EPT / Chironomidae index (EPT / Ch and % Chironomidae index (% Chironomidae. Considering all these indices, it was found existence of a medium to best quality water in Mureş tributaries from Harghita Mountains and a good quality water which comes from the Maramureş Mountains and Transylvania Plateau.

  1. Biological indices for classification of water quality around Mae Moh power plant, Thailand

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    Pongsarun Junshum and Siripen Traichaiyaporn

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The algal communities and water quality were monitored at eight sampling sites around Mae Moh power plant during January-December 2003. Three biological indices, viz. algal genus pollution index, saprobic index, and Shannon-Weaver index, were adopted to classify the water quality around the power plant in comparison with the measured physico-chemical water quality. The result shows that the Shannon-Weaver diversity index appears to be much more applicable and interpretable for the classification of water quality around the Mae Moh power plant than the algal genus pollution index and the saprobic index.

  2. Indices of water quality and metal pollution of Nile River, Egypt

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    Amaal M. Abdel-Satar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nile River is the valued natural and exclusive source of fresh water in Egypt, where the drinking water supply is limited to the river. The water quality of 24 sites between Aswan and Cairo along the Nile was investigated. To evaluate the suitability of water for aquatic life and drinking purposes, the indices of water quality (WQI, heavy metal pollution (HPI and contamination (Cd were computed. The water quality variations were mainly related to inorganic nutrients and heavy metals, where, the sites affected by intensive load of urban, agricultural and industrial wastewater showed serious deterioration of water quality compared with other sites. The anthropogenic impact sites showed high HPI and Cd values and associated with high risks, where, most of the studied metals often exceeded the drinking water and aquatic life limits. The aquatic WQI indicated that the Nile water quality deteriorated and extended from poor to marginal, while drinking WQI varied from marginal to good. Accordingly, the river becoming unfit for aquatic life and the situation is getting worse by decreases in the water budget from the Nile in Egypt by building of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam, where the dilution strength of the Nile system will reduce.

  3. Characterization of groundwater quality using water evaluation indices, multivariate statistics and geostatistics in central Bangladesh

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    Md. Bodrud-Doza

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the groundwater quality in the Faridpur district of central Bangladesh based on preselected 60 sample points. Water evaluation indices and a number of statistical approaches such as multivariate statistics and geostatistics are applied to characterize water quality, which is a major factor for controlling the groundwater quality in term of drinking purposes. The study reveal that EC, TDS, Ca2+, total As and Fe values of groundwater samples exceeded Bangladesh and international standards. Ground water quality index (GWQI exhibited that about 47% of the samples were belonging to good quality water for drinking purposes. The heavy metal pollution index (HPI, degree of contamination (Cd, heavy metal evaluation index (HEI reveal that most of the samples belong to low level of pollution. However, Cd provide better alternative than other indices. Principle component analysis (PCA suggests that groundwater quality is mainly related to geogenic (rock–water interaction and anthropogenic source (agrogenic and domestic sewage in the study area. Subsequently, the findings of cluster analysis (CA and correlation matrix (CM are also consistent with the PCA results. The spatial distributions of groundwater quality parameters are determined by geostatistical modeling. The exponential semivariagram model is validated as the best fitted models for most of the indices values. It is expected that outcomes of the study will provide insights for decision makers taking proper measures for groundwater quality management in central Bangladesh.

  4. The macro-invertebrates and their value like indicators of the water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roldan Perez, Gabriel

    1999-01-01

    An analysis of the water pollution problems is presented and some of the more used methods for assessment of its damage degree through bio indicators are discussed. There are biological methods for assessment of water quality widely used in developed countries. Because the aquatic fauna existing there is different from the one here, those methods cannot be applied in the tropics before knowing what kinds of organisms live here and what ecological requirements they have. The adoption of a method for assessment of water quality in tropical mountains ecosystems is proposed, using macro invertebrates as bio indicators

  5. STUDY ON WATER QUALITY INDICATORS AT TAIA TREATMENT PLANT HUNDEDOARA COUNTY

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    Ramona Violeta CAZALBAŞU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Water is consumed in its natural form or in a processed one. It is a well-known fact that enterprises, institutions, energy and agriculture consume it as processed water whereas the population consumes it as drinking water or wastewater. This paper presents the study of water quality indicators from the treatment plant Taia in Hunedoara County. The following quality indicators were determined: turbidity, hardness, alkalinity, chlorine oxide and organic substances. The determined quality indicators revealed that they fall within the limits set by legislation, with some exceptions. In each step of purification of organic substances there has been a continual reduction, this being carried out both biologically because of the biomass deposited on sand grains in the filter bed as well as especially during the oxidation step with active chlorine

  6. Heavy metal contents and other physical quality indices of sewerage, canal and drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, S.; Sattar, A.; Ihsanullash; Atta, S.; Arif, S. University of Engineering and Technology, Peshawar

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of Cd, Pb and Cu in canal, sewerage and drinking water by potentiometric stripping analysis (PSA) is described. Other quality indices of water such as temperature, pH, EC and total solid were also determined. The levels of heavy metal contents of sewerage, canal and drinking water revealed marked differences and wide coefficient of variability (CV). Generally Cd and Pb contents were higher in sewerage than canal and drinking water. However, Cu content of drinking waters was higher than other water tested. The total solids were found to be generally higher in sewerage and canal water than drinking water tested. The total solids were found to be generally higher in sewerage and canal water than drinking water The variations in temperature, pH and EC were marginal to marked depending upon the source and the location. (author)

  7. Evaluation of drinking water quality indices (case study: Bushehr province, Iran

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    Nematollah Jafarzadeh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Internal corrosion and the formation of scale in water distribution pipes are the most important problems for an urban water distribution system. Physical, chemical, or biological factors can lead to these two processes. Internal corrosion and scale formation can impact health, economy, and aesthetics. This study assessed the physicochemical quality parameters and evaluated the potential for corrosion and scale formation in drinking water at the distribution systems of 5 selected cities in Bushehr province (Kangan, Dashtestan, Dashti, Bushehr, and Ganaveh from 2009-2012. Methods: This study was carried out based on laboratory data collected from monthly samplings of tap water in the Water and Wastewater Company of Bushehr province during the years 2009-2012. Internal corrosion and scale formation rates were calculated using the Ryznar, Langelier, Aggressive, and Puckorius indices. Results: The results of the Ryznar, Puckorius, Aggressive and Langelier indices indicated that the drinking water in the 5 selected cities of Bushehr province was corrosive. Moreover, the majority of parameters used to determine water quality exceeded Iran’s national standards. Conclusion: It is concluded that there is problem of water corrosion and scaling in drinking water of distribution systems in selected cities.

  8. Monitoring bacterial indicators of water quality in a tidally influenced delta: A Sisyphean pursuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partyka, Melissa L; Bond, Ronald F; Chase, Jennifer A; Atwill, Edward R

    2017-02-01

    The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Estuary (Delta) is the confluence of two major watersheds draining the Western Sierra Nevada mountains into the Central Valley of California, ultimately terminating into San Francisco Bay. We sampled 88 sites once a month for two years (2006-2008) over 87 separate sampling events for a total of 1740 samples. Water samples were analyzed for fecal indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli, enterococci and fecal coliforms), and 53 other physiochemical, land use, and environmental characteristics. The purpose of the study was to create a baseline of microbial water quality in the Delta and to identify various factors (climatic, land use, tidal, etc.) that were associated with elevated concentrations of indicator bacteria. Fecal indicator bacteria generally had weak to modest relationships to environmental conditions; the strength and direction of which varied for each microbial indicator, drainage region, and across seasons. Measured and unmeasured, site-specific effects accounted for large portions of variance in model predictions (ρ=0.086 to 0.255), indicating that spatial autocorrelation was a major component of water quality outcomes. The effects of tidal cycling and lack of connectivity between waterways and surrounding landscapes likely contributed to the lack of association between local land uses and microbial outcomes, though weak associations may also be indicative of mismatched spatiotemporal scales. The complex nature of this system necessitates continued monitoring and regular updates to statistical models designed to predict microbial water quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessment of water quality based on diatom indices in a small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-04-02

    Apr 2, 2016 ... single metric which is used to indicate the degree of impact. (Taylor et al. ... comparison of diatom-based water quality results, and are an additional reason for ...... establishing a framework for Community action in the field of.

  10. Novel indicators of recreational water quality and swimming-associated illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the United States and elsewhere, recreational water quality is monitored for fecal indicator bacteria to help prevent swimming-associated illnesses. Standard methods to measure these bacteria take at least 24 hours to obtain results. Molecular approaches such as quantitative p...

  11. Environmental Indicator Principium with Case References to Agricultural Soil, Water, and Air Quality and Model-Derived Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, T Q; Zheng, Z M; Lal, R; Lin, Z Q; Sharpley, A N; Shober, A L; Smith, D; Tan, C S; Van Cappellen, P

    2018-03-01

    Environmental indicators are powerful tools for tracking environmental changes, measuring environmental performance, and informing policymakers. Many diverse environmental indicators, including agricultural environmental indicators, are currently in use or being developed. This special collection of technical papers expands on the peer-reviewed literature on environmental indicators and their application to important current issues in the following areas: (i) model-derived indicators to indicate phosphorus losses from arable land to surface runoff and subsurface drainage, (ii) glutathione-ascorbate cycle-related antioxidants as early-warning bioindicators of polybrominated diphenyl ether toxicity in mangroves, and (iii) assessing the effectiveness of using organic matrix biobeds to limit herbicide dissipation from agricultural fields, thereby controlling on-farm point-source pollution. This introductory review also provides an overview of environmental indicators, mainly for agriculture, with examples related to the quality of the agricultural soil-water-air continuum and the application of model-derived indicators. Current knowledge gaps and future lines of investigation are also discussed. It appears that environmental indicators, particularly those for agriculture, work efficiently at the field, catchment, and local scales and serve as valuable metrics of system functioning and response; however, these indicators need to be refined or further developed to comprehensively meet community expectations in terms of providing a consistent picture of relevant issues and/or allowing comparisons to be made nationally or internationally. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  12. Turbidity as an Indicator of Water Quality in Diverse Watersheds of the Upper Pecos River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory M. Huey

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Microbial concentrations, total suspended solids (TSS and turbidity vary with stream hydrology and land use. Turbidity, TSS, and microbial concentrations, loads and yields from four watersheds were assessed: an unburned montane forest, a catastrophically burned montane forest, urban land use and rangeland prairie. Concentrations and loads for most water quality variables were greatest during storm events. Turbidity was an effective indicator of TSS, E. coli and Enterococci spp. The greatest threat to public health from microbial contamination occurs during storm runoff events. Efforts to manage surface runoff and erosion would likely improve water quality of the upper Pecos River basin in New Mexico, USA.

  13. COMPARISON OF WATER RATES IAP RISK INDICES AND THE QUALITY OF DRINKING WATER IRCA USED FOR DETERMINING THE QUALITY OF DRINKING WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Mauricio González Díaz

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This work discusses the results of a technical and operative diagnosis of the urban system of aqueduct of the municipality of Villapinzón. Water quality and public service characteristics were determined assessed against the legal principles of continuity, quality and coverage of the domiciliary public service law. Drinking water quality was evaluated according to the methodology established by Resolution 2115 de 2007 of the Ministerial de la Protection Social de Colombia. In addition, a new methodology is suggested and the calculated indexes are compared to those determined by resolution 2115 de 2007. An analysis of the results indicates the proposed methodology is more reliable than the current methodology for determining water quality criteria.

  14. VARIABILITY OF VALUES OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL WATER QUALITY INDICES ALONG THE LENGTH OF THE IWONICZANKA STREAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Bogdał

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at presentation of the effect of changes in the catchment area management on the value of water quality physicochemical indices along the length of the Iwoniczanka stream, which flows through Iwonicz-Zdrój, one of the oldest health resorts in Poland. Analyses of 14 water quality indices were conducted from November 2013 to May 2014 in five measurement points: two situated in the upper course of the stream – in forest areas, two located in the area of Iwonicz-Zdrój town, and one below the rural built-up area. On the basis of the conducted data analysis it was found that the mean values of pH, electrolytic conductivity, sulphates, calcium, total iron and manganese were increasing with the course of flowing water, as evidenced by the water enrichment in substances which had their sources in built-up areas. On average, the highest values of biogenic indices and chlorides but the lowest values of oxygen indices were registered immediately below the location of drain collector from the closed sewage treatment plant, which resulted in pollution of the analysed stream bed with the substances previously drained from the treatment plant. Water flowing through the forest areas had the maximum ecological potential in the built-up areas and due to phosphate concentrations it was classified to class II and then, due to self-purification, returned to the physicochemical parameters appropriate for class I water. The conducted hydro-chemical tests confirmed a significant negative effect of built-up areas on the quality of the flowing waters.

  15. Is water age a reliable indicator for evaluating water quality effectiveness of water diversion projects in eutrophic lakes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoling; Zou, Rui; Wang, Yilin; Liu, Yong; Zhao, Lei; Zhu, Xiang; Guo, Huaicheng

    2016-11-01

    Water diversion has been applied increasingly to promote the exchange of lake water and to control eutrophication of lakes. The accelerated water exchange and mass transport by water diversion can usually be represented by water age. But the responses of water quality after water diversion is still disputed. The reliability of using water age for evaluating the effectiveness of water diversion projects in eutrophic lakes should be thereby explored further. Lake Dianchi, a semi-closed plateau lake in China, has suffered severe eutrophication since the 1980s, and it is one of the three most eutrophic lakes in China. There was no significant improvement in water quality after an investment of approximately 7.7 billion USD and numerous project efforts from 1996 to 2015. After the approval of the Chinese State Council, water has been transferred to Lake Dianchi to alleviate eutrophication since December 2013. A three-dimensional hydrodynamic and water quality model and eight scenarios were developed in this study to quantity the influence of this water diversion project on water quality in Lake Dianchi. The model results showed that (a) Water quality (TP, TN, and Chla) could be improved by 13.5-32.2%, much lower than the approximate 50% reduction in water age; (b) Water exchange had a strong positive relationship with mean TP, and mean Chla had exactly the same response to water diversion as mean TN; (c) Water level was more beneficial for improving hydrodynamic and nutrient concentrations than variation in the diverted inflowing water volume; (d) The water diversion scenario of doubling the diverted inflow rate in the wet season with the water level of 1886.5 m and 1887 m in the remaining months was the best water diversion mode for mean hydrodynamics and TP, but the scenario of doubling the diverted inflow rate in the wet season with 1887 m throughout the year was optimum for mean TN and Chla; (e) Water age influenced the effectiveness of water diversion on the

  16. Macro Invertebrates As Bio Indicators Of Water Quality In Nzovwe Stream In Mbeya Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrick Ojija

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess the water quality of Nzovwe stream using macroinvertebrates as bioindicators. Biological monitoring working party BMWP scoring system was the index used to assess the ecosystem health of Nzovwe stream. A total of 584 aquatic macroinvertebrates were identified from Nzovwe stream. They belonged to 22 families. The most abundant taxa were Odonata 35.959 Hemiptera 25.514 Coleoptera 18.493 and Diptera 12.842. Whereas the least abundant taxa were Ephemeroptera and Gastropoda each constituting 1.028 of all macroinvertebrates. The most abundant macroinvertebrates were Dragonflies 27.226 Water striders 13.185 and Creeping water bugs 10.274 whereas the least abundant were Giant water bugs 0.514 and Backswimmers 0.514. The BMWP score of Nzovwe stream was 115. Based on this score the water of Nzovwe stream is neither very clean nor significantly altered aquatic environment. Hence the Nzovwe stream is moderately polluted due to non-point source pollution from several sources. Moreover it was found that agricultural activities washing and bathing could alter physico-chemical parameters of the stream and hence changing the abundance of macroinvertebrates as well as the quality of water. This study therefore recommends that the source of pollutants should be controlled and the stream regularly monitored by the relevant authorities. Additionally biological indicators and their indices are suggested to be used in assessing the condition of a stream ecosystem.

  17. Water quality in Atlantic rainforest mountain rivers (South America): quality indices assessment, nutrients distribution, and consumption effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avigliano, Esteban; Schenone, Nahuel

    2016-08-01

    The South American Atlantic rainforest is a one-of-a-kind ecosystem considered as a biodiversity hotspot; however, in the last decades, it was intensively reduced to 7 % of its original surface. Water resources and water quality are one of the main goods and services this system provides to people. For monitoring and management recommendations, the present study is focused on (1) determining the nutrient content (nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, and phosphate) and physiochemical parameters (temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, and total dissolved solids) in surface water from 24 rainforest mountain rivers in Argentina, (2) analyzing the human health risk, (3) assessing the environmental distribution of the determined pollutants, and (4) analyzing water quality indices (WQIobj and WQImin). In addition, for total coliform bacteria, a dataset was used from literature. Turbidity, total dissolved solids, and nitrite (NO2 (-)) exceeded the guideline value recommended by national or international guidelines in several sampling stations. The spatial distribution pattern was analyzed by Principal Component Analysis and Factor Analysis (PCA/FA) showing well-defined groups of rivers. Both WQI showed good adjustment (R (2) = 0.89) and rated water quality as good or excellent in all sampling sites (WQI > 71). Therefore, this study suggests the use of the WQImin for monitoring water quality in the region and also the water treatment of coliform, total dissolved solids, and turbidity.

  18. Hydrodynamic modelling of recreational water quality using Escherichia coli as an indicator of microbial contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eregno, Fasil Ejigu; Tryland, Ingun; Tjomsland, Torulv; Kempa, Magdalena; Heistad, Arve

    2018-06-01

    Microbial contamination of recreational beaches is often at its worst after heavy rainfall events due to storm floods that carry fecal matter and other pollutants from the watershed. Similarly, overflows of untreated sewage from combined sewerage systems may discharge directly into coastal water or via rivers and streams. In order to understand the effect of rainfall events, wind-directions and tides on the recreational water quality, GEMSS, an integrated 3D hydrodynamic model was applied to assess the spreading of Escherichia coli (E. coli) at the Sandvika beaches, located in the Oslo fjord. The model was also used to theoretically investigate the effect of discharges from septic tanks from boats on the water quality at local beaches. The model make use of microbial decay rate as the main input representing the survival of microbial pathogens in the ocean, which vary widely depending on the type of pathogen and environmental stress. The predicted beach water quality was validated against observed data after a heavy rainfall event using Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient (E) and the overall result indicated that the model performed quite well and the simulation was in - good agreement with the observed E. coli concentrations for all beaches. The result of this study indicated that: 1) the bathing water quality was poor according to the EU bathing water directive up to two days after the heavy rainfall event depending on the location of the beach site. 2) The discharge from a boat at 300-meter distance to the beaches slightly increased the E. coli levels at the beaches. 3) The spreading of microbial pathogens from its source to the different beaches depended on the wind speed and the wind direction.

  19. Effects of logging activities on ecological water quality indicators in the Berasau River, Johor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nor Zaiha, A; Mohd Ismid, M S; Salmiati; Shahrul Azri, M S

    2015-08-01

    Influence of deforestation on biodiversity of aquatic organisms was investigated in a stream in the Ulu Sedili Forest Reserve. The stream was monitored five (5) times from December 2011 until December 2012 with 2-month intervals. Sampling of benthic communities was carried out using rectangular dip net while water quality study using a YSI ProPlus meter and the rest were done in the laboratory. Physicochemical parameters and water quality index (WQI) calculation showed no significant difference among the investigated events. WQI classified the Berasau River between Class II (good) to III (moderate) of river water quality. In total, 603 individuals representing 25 taxa that were recorded with Decapods from genus Macrobrabchium were widely distributed. Several intolerant taxa, especially Ephemeroptera and Odonata, were also observed in this river. According to Pearson's correlation analysis, the richness and diversity indices were generally influenced by water quality parameters represented by WQI (P < 0.01). In conclusion, logging activities have strong attributes for variation in benthic macroinvertebrate assemblage.

  20. Macroinvetebrate Assemblages as Indicators of Water Quality of the West Seti River, Bajhang, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohana Matangulu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Water quality of the West Seti River, a tributary of the Karnali in West Nepal was assessed using macroinvertebrates as bioindicators. The main objective of the study was to assess the ecological water quality of the West Seti River and to generate a baseline data on macroinvertebrate assemblages. The sampling was conducted during December 2015 and a total of 11 sampling sites were selected from the West Seti River and its tributaries. Qualitative samples of macroinvertebrates were collected from different habitats. Selected physico-chemical parameters such as pH and temperature were estimated on-site. Dissolved oxygen (DO was estimated by Winkler’s method. The macroinvertebrate samples were enumerated and identified up to Family level following standard literature. Chi-square test was performed to see whether macroinvertebrate taxa varied significantly along the altitudinal gradient and between the West Seti River and its tributaries. An ecological assessment tool Nepalese Biotic Score/ Average Score Per Taxon (NEPBIOS/ASPT was applied to assess the water quality of the sampling sites. The pH value ranged from 7.9 to 8.7 indicating the alkaline nature of the river. A total of 1666 individuals belonging to 34 Families and 7 Orders of macro-invertebrates were observed. The highest diversity of the macroinvertebrate taxa was observed at site T5 with nineteen Families whereas the lowest taxa diversity was observed at R3 with only five Families. The variation in macroinvertebrate assemblages between the sub-tropical and temperate zones; and the West Seti River and its tributaries were not significant. NEPBIOS/ASPT revealed a score of Water Quality Class of III-IV at Site R3 indicating that the site was polluted. This site was characterized by the abundance of red Chironomids which are considered as the indicators of organic pollution.International Journal of EnvironmentVolume-6, Issue-3, Jun-Aug 2017, page: 25-45

  1. Evaluation of polar organic micropollutants as indicators for wastewater-related coastal water quality impairment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nödler, Karsten; Tsakiri, Maria; Aloupi, Maria; Gatidou, Georgia; Stasinakis, Athanasios S.; Licha, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Results from coastal water pollution monitoring (Lesvos Island, Greece) are presented. In total, 53 samples were analyzed for 58 polar organic micropollutants such as selected herbicides, biocides, corrosion inhibitors, stimulants, artificial sweeteners, and pharmaceuticals. Main focus is the application of a proposed wastewater indicator quartet (acesulfame, caffeine, valsartan, and valsartan acid) to detect point sources and contamination hot-spots with untreated and treated wastewater. The derived conclusions are compared with the state of knowledge regarding local land use and infrastructure. The artificial sweetener acesulfame and the stimulant caffeine were used as indicators for treated and untreated wastewater, respectively. In case of a contamination with untreated wastewater the concentration ratio of the antihypertensive valsartan and its transformation product valsartan acid was used to further refine the estimation of the residence time of the contamination. The median/maximum concentrations of acesulfame and caffeine were 5.3/178 ng L"−"1 and 6.1/522 ng L"−"1, respectively. Their detection frequency was 100%. Highest concentrations were detected within the urban area of the capital of the island (Mytilene). The indicator quartet in the gulfs of Gera and Kalloni (two semi-enclosed embayments on the island) demonstrated different concentration patterns. A comparatively higher proportion of untreated wastewater was detected in the gulf of Gera, which is in agreement with data on the wastewater infrastructure. The indicator quality of the micropollutants to detect wastewater was compared with electrical conductivity (EC) data. Due to their anthropogenic nature and low detection limits, the micropollutants are superior to EC regarding both sensitivity and selectivity. The concentrations of atrazine, diuron, and isoproturon did not exceed the annual average of their environmental quality standards (EQS) defined by the European Commission. At two

  2. Extending a Consensus-based Fuzzy Ordered Weighting Average (FOWA Model in New Water Quality Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Baghapour

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In developing a specific WQI (Water Quality Index, many water quality parameters are involved with different levels of importance. The impact of experts’ different opinions and viewpoints, current risks affecting their opinions, and plurality of the involved parameters double the significance of the issue. Hence, the current study tries to apply a consensus-based FOWA (Fuzzy Ordered Weighting Average model as one of the most powerful and well-known Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM techniques to determine the importance of the used parameters in the development of such WQIs which is shown with an example. This operator has provided the capability of modeling the risks in decision-making through applying the optimistic degree of stakeholders and their power coupled with the use of fuzzy numbers. Totally, 22 water quality parameters for drinking purposes are considered in this study. To determine the weight of each parameter, the viewpoints of 4 decision-making groups of experts are taken into account. After determining the final weights, to validate the use of each parameter in a potential WQI, consensus degrees of both the decision makers and the parameters are calculated. All calculations are carried out by using the expertise software called Group Fuzzy Decision Making (GFDM. The highest and the lowest weight values, 0.999 and 0.073 respectively, are related to Hg and temperature. Regarding the type of consumption that is drinking, the parameters’ weights and ranks are consistent with their health impacts. Moreover, the decision makers’ highest and lowest consensus degrees were 0.9905 and 0.9669, respectively. Among the water quality parameters, temperature (with consensus degree of 0.9972 and Pb (with consensus degree of 0.9665, received the highest and lowest agreement from the decision making group. This study indicates that the weight of parameters in determining water quality largely depends on the experts’ opinions and

  3. Monitoring and assessment of water health quality in the Tajan River, Iran using physicochemical, fish and macroinvertebrates indices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aazami, J.; Kosten, S.; Abdoli, A.; Sohrabi, H.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background - Nowadays, aquatic organisms are used as bio-indicators to assess ecological water quality in western regions, but have hardly been used in an Iranian context. We, therefore, evaluated the suitability of several indices to assess the water quality for an Iranian case study. Methods -

  4. Indicators of streamflow alteration, habitat fragmentation, impervious cover, and water quality for Massachusetts stream basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiskel, Peter K.; Brandt, Sara L.; DeSimone, Leslie A.; Ostiguy, Lance J.; Archfield, Stacey A.

    2010-01-01

    Massachusetts streams and stream basins have been subjected to a wide variety of human alterations since colonial times. These alterations include water withdrawals, treated wastewater discharges, construction of onsite septic systems and dams, forest clearing, and urbanization—all of which have the potential to affect streamflow regimes, water quality, and habitat integrity for fish and other aquatic biota. Indicators were developed to characterize these types of potential alteration for subbasins and groundwater contributing areas in Massachusetts. The potential alteration of streamflow by the combined effects of withdrawals and discharges was assessed under two water-use scenarios. Water-use scenario 1 incorporated publicly reported groundwater withdrawals and discharges, direct withdrawals from and discharges to streams, and estimated domestic-well withdrawals and septic-system discharges. Surface-water-reservoir withdrawals were excluded from this scenario. Water-use scenario 2 incorporated all the types of withdrawal and discharge included in scenario 1 as well as withdrawals from surface-water reservoirs—all on a long-term, mean annual basis. All withdrawal and discharge data were previously reported to the State for the 2000–2004 period, except domestic-well withdrawals and septic-system discharges, which were estimated for this study. The majority of the state’s subbasins and groundwater contributing areas were estimated to have relatively minor (less than 10 percent) alteration of streamflow under water-use scenario 1 (seasonally varying water use; no surface-water-reservoir withdrawals). However, about 12 percent of subbasins and groundwater contributing areas were estimated to have extensive alteration of streamflows (greater than 40 percent) in August; most of these basins were concentrated in the outer metropolitan Boston region. Potential surcharging of streamflow in August was most commonly indicated for main-stem river subbasins, although

  5. Performance of biotic indices in comparison to chemical-based Water Quality Index (WQI) in evaluating the water quality of urban river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Abdul Ghani, Wan Mohd Hafezul; Abas Kutty, Ahmad; Mahazar, Mohd Akmal; Al-Shami, Salman Abdo; Ab Hamid, Suhaila

    2018-04-19

    In order to evaluate the water quality of one of the most polluted urban river in Malaysia, the Penchala River, performance of eight biotic indices, Biomonitoring Working Party (BMWP), BMWP Thai , BMWP Viet , Average Score Per Taxon (ASPT), ASPT Thai , BMWP Viet , Family Biotic Index (FBI), and Singapore Biotic Index (SingScore), was compared. The water quality categorization based on these biotic indices was then compared with the categorization of Malaysian Water Quality Index (WQI) derived from measurements of six water physicochemical parameters (pH, BOD, COD, NH 3 -N, DO, and TSS). The river was divided into four sections: upstream section (recreational area), middle stream 1 (residential area), middle stream 2 (commercial area), and downstream. Abundance and diversity of the macroinvertebrates were the highest in the upstream section (407 individual and H' = 1.56, respectively), followed by the middle stream 1 (356 individual and H' = 0.82). The least abundance was recorded in the downstream section (214 individual). Among all biotic indices, BMWP was the most reliable in evaluating the water quality of this urban river as their classifications were comparable to the WQI. BMWPs in this study have strong relationships with dissolved oxygen (DO) content. Our results demonstrated that the biotic indices were more sensitive towards organic pollution than the WQI. BMWP indices especially BMWP Viet were the most reliable and could be adopted along with the WQI for assessment of water quality in urban rivers.

  6. Extending a Consensus-based Fuzzy Ordered Weighting Average (FOWA Model in New Water Quality Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Baghapour

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In developing a specific WQI (Water Quality Index, many quality parameters are involved with different levels of importance. The impact of experts’ different opinions and viewpoints, current risks affecting their opinions, and plurality of the involved parameters double the significance of the issue. Hence, the current study tries to apply a consensus-based FOWA (Fuzzy Ordered Weighting Average model as one of the most powerful and well-known Multi-Criteria Decision- Making (MCDM techniques to determine the importance of the used parameters in the development of such WQIs which is shown with an example. This operator has provided the capability of modeling the risks in decision-making through applying the optimistic degree of stakeholders and their power coupled with the use of fuzzy numbers. Totally, 22 water quality parameters for drinking purposes were considered in this study. To determine the weight of each parameter, the viewpoints of 4 decision-making groups of experts were taken into account. After determining the final weights, to validate the use of each parameter in a potential WQI, consensus degrees of both the decision makers and the parameters are calculated. The highest and the lowest weight values, 0.999 and 0.073 respectively, were related to Hg and temperature. Regarding the type of consumption that was drinking, the parameters’ weights and ranks were consistent with their health impacts. Moreover, the decision makers’ highest and lowest consensus degrees were 0.9905 and 0.9669, respectively. Among the water quality parameters, temperature (with consensus degree of 0.9972 and Pb (with consensus degree of 0.9665, received the highest and lowest agreement with the decision-making group. This study indicated that the weight of parameters in determining water quality largely depends on the experts’ opinions and approaches. Moreover, using the FOWA model provides results accurate and closer- to-reality on the significance of

  7. Assessing Ecological Impacts of Shrimp and Sewage Effluent: Biological Indicators with Standard Water Quality Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. B.; O'Donohue, M. J.; Udy, J.; Dennison, W. C.

    2001-01-01

    Despite evidence linking shrimp farming to several cases of environmental degradation, there remains a lack of ecologically meaningful information about the impacts of effluent on receiving waters. The aim of this study was to determine the biological impact of shrimp farm effluent, and to compare and distinguish its impacts from treated sewage effluent. Analyses included standard water quality/sediment parameters, as well as biological indicators including tissue nitrogen (N) content, stable isotope ratio of nitrogen (δ 15N), and amino acid composition of inhabitant seagrasses, mangroves and macroalgae. The study area consisted of two tidal creeks, one receiving effluent from a sewage treatment plant and the other from an intensive shrimp farm. The creeks discharged into the western side of Moreton Bay, a sub-tropical coastal embayment on the east coast of Australia. Characterization of water quality revealed significant differences between the creeks, and with unimpacted eastern Moreton Bay. The sewage creek had higher concentrations of dissolved nutrients (predominantly NO-3/NO-2 and PO3-4, compared to NH+4 in the shrimp creek). In contrast, the shrimp creek was more turbid and had higher phytoplankton productivity. Beyond 750 m from the creek mouths, water quality parameters were indistinguishable from eastern Moreton Bay values. Biological indicators detected significant impacts up to 4 km beyond the creek mouths (reference site). Elevated plant δ 15N values ranged from 10·4-19·6‰ at the site of sewage discharge to 2·9-4·5‰ at the reference site. The free amino acid concentration and composition of seagrass and macroalgae was used to distinguish between the uptake of sewage and shrimp derived N. Proline (seagrass) and serine (macroalgae) were high in sewage impacted plants and glutamine (seagrass) and alanine (macroalgae) were high in plants impacted by shrimp effluent. The δ 15N isotopic signatures and free amino acid composition of inhabitant

  8. Investigation of Flooding Water Depth Management on Yield and Quality Indices of Rice Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Salemi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Water crisis as a majorlimitation factor for agriculture, like other arid and semiarid regions exists in Isfahan province which is located in the central part of the Zayandehrud River Basin (ZRB. Rice appears to be the far-most profitable crop but at the same time it has a major impact on basin scale water resources, especially affecting downstream farmers. In the study area (ShahidFozveh Research Station, the water resources for agricultural production face heightened competition from other sectors like industry and domestic use. This necessitates considering different crops, altered agricultural systems and innovative methods that can reduce the water requirements for the irrigation of rice. The Alternative Wetting and Drying (AWD seems to be an effective method reducing water use for rice crops and possibly save the water for downstream users. There have been no qualitative evaluations of rice production under deficit irrigation practices in Isfahan area. This study sought to determine, under study area conditions, the quantities of water irrigation used with AWD practices, the resulting water productivity (WP and the effects of alternative irrigation management on yield, quality indices and rice production performance. Materials and Methods: The ZRB (41,500 km2 is a closed basin with no outlet to the sea. The research was conducted in the Qahderijan region of Isfahan province, which is located in the central part of the ZRB. The ShahidFozveh Agricultural Research Station (32°, 36’ N, 51°, 36’ E is located at the altitude of 1612 m above the sea level. In order to improve WP and illustration of the impact of various levels of flooding depth on grain yield and quality indices at rice production, a field experiment (3000 m2 was conducted at ShahidFozveh Research Station for 2 years arranged in a split plot design with three replications. It will be necessary to use different scenario of water flooding depth management to

  9. Emerging contaminants of public health significance as water quality indicator compounds in the urban water cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Amrita; He, Yiliang; Jekel, Martin; Reinhard, Martin; Gin, Karina Yew-Hoong

    2014-10-01

    The contamination of the urban water cycle (UWC) with a wide array of emerging organic compounds (EOCs) increases with urbanization and population density. To produce drinking water from the UWC requires close examination of their sources, occurrence, pathways, and health effects and the efficacy of wastewater treatment and natural attenuation processes that may occur in surface water bodies and groundwater. This paper researches in details the structure of the UWC and investigates the routes by which the water cycle is increasingly contaminated with compounds generated from various anthropogenic activities. Along with a thorough survey of chemicals representing compound classes such as hormones, antibiotics, surfactants, endocrine disruptors, human and veterinary pharmaceuticals, X-ray contrast media, pesticides and metabolites, disinfection-by-products, algal toxins and taste-and-odor compounds, this paper provides a comprehensive and holistic review of the occurrence, fate, transport and potential health impact of the emerging organic contaminants of the UWC. This study also illustrates the widespread distribution of the emerging organic contaminants in the different aortas of the ecosystem and focuses on future research needs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Benthic Foraminifera as ecological indicators for water quality on the Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthicke, Sven; Nobes, Kristie

    2008-07-01

    Benthic foraminifera are established indicators for Water Quality (WQ) in Florida and the Caribbean. However, nearshore coral reefs of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) and other Pacific regions are also subjected to increased nutrient and sediment loads. Here, we investigate the use of benthic foraminifera as indicators to assess status and trends of WQ on GBR reefs. We quantified several sediment parameters and the foraminiferan assemblage composition on 20 reefs in four geographic regions of the GBR, and along a water column nutrient and turbidity gradient. Twenty-seven easily recognisable benthic foraminiferan taxa (>63 μm) were distinguished. All four geographic regions differed significantly ( p turbid inner shelf towards clearer outer shelf reefs. A RDA separated symbiotic and aposymbiotic (heterotrophic) taxa. In addition, total suspended solid and water column chlorophyll a concentrations were negatively correlated, and optical depth and distance to the mainland were positively correlated, with the abundance of symbiont-bearing taxa. Several large foraminifera were identified as indicators for offshore, clear water conditions. In contrast, heterotrophic rotaliids and a species retaining plastids ( Elphidium sp.) where highly characteristic for low light, higher nutrient conditions. Application of the FORAM index to GBR assemblage composition showed a significant increase in the value of this index with increased distance from the mainland in the Whitsunday region ( r2 = 0.75, p < 0.001), and therefore with increasing light and decreased nutrient availability. We conclude that it will be possible to apply this index to GBR and possibly other Pacific reefs after some adaptations and additional experimental work on species-specific limiting factors.

  11. Convergence of EU nitrogen surplus, the RDP indicator of water quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhard, S.; Linderhof, V.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    The EU Water Framework Directive (WFD), EU Nitrate Directive and EU Rural Development Policy (RDP) aim to improve water quality. The nutrient content of water can be decreased by reducing nitrogen emission. In this article a novel approach is applied to the evaluation of the impact of Agri

  12. Indicator value of lotic water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia and their use in macroinvertebrate-based indices for water quality assessment purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miccoli F. P.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Water Framework Directive (WFD of the European Union includes benthic macroinvertebrates for the ecological assessment of running waters. The invertebrate-based Star-ICMi index, adopted in 2010, does not include Hydrachnidia (water mites in its complex formulation. However, Hydrachnidia are associated with many environmental variables and may be useful for stream ecological characterization. We have therefore assessed the bioindicator value of Hydrachnidia in streams of central Italy, and the ability of two mite-containing (the PTH and the newly formulated PTHfam indices and four mite-excluding biotic indices (Star-ICMi, BMWP, ASPT, and IBE to characterize 216 sites ranging from semipristine to impacted. Mite bioindicator value was high at family level. Index reliability was consistently low for the PTH and ASPT indices. Distribution of mite families across quality classes (QCs was fully separated only for the PTHfam index. QC assignment remained reliable at high index values (i.e., at high ecological status for the PTHfam and BMWP indices, while logarithmic correlations between the PTHfam and the other indices suggest that the latter may misrepresent sites in high, good, and moderate ecological status sensu WFD. Further studies on the PTHfam index are warranted in light of its simplicity, high reliability, and low sampling and taxonomic identification effort.

  13. A global scientific literature of research on water quality indices: trends, biases and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tereza Ribeiro Alves

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Water quality has been the subject of many recent studies, moreover, the physical, chemical and biological parameters of water are used to investigate water quality and can be combined into a single index, the Water Quality Index (WQI, for use by water resource managers and the general public. The aim of this study was to use scientometrics to evaluate how water quality has been addressed in the international scientific literature. METHOD: For the quantitative analysis of the publications on WQI, we used the search database SCOPUS (http://www.scopus.com. The search was performed using the words "QUALIT* WATER* INDEX*" in papers published in all databases (through 2011. RESULTS: We found 554 articles that dealt with the use of WQI the number of publications has increased significantly over the last 20 years. India had the most studies, with 177 articles, followed by China, Brazil and the United States. These four countries together published 57% of studies on WQI. We generated 15 linear models to explain the number of publication by study sit (country. According to the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC, the best model to explain the number of publications by country was the model that combined Sanitation and Public Supply. CONCLUSION: Finally, this paper presents the state of scientific literature on WQI and demonstrates the growing interest of the scientific community in this issue, which is certainly due to the importance of the quantity and quality of water for human supply, economics, health and the conservation of water resources.

  14. The variability of surface water quality indicators in relation to watercourse typology, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Langhammer, J.; Hartvich, Filip; Mattas, D.; Rödlová, S.; Zbořil, A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 184, č. 6 (2012), s. 3983-3999 ISSN 0167-6369 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : water framework directive * typology * Surface water quality Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 1.592, year: 2012

  15. Southern Phosphorus Indices, Water Quality Data, and Modeling (APEX, APLE, and TBET) Results: A Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmond, Deanna; Bolster, Carl; Sharpley, Andrew; Cabrera, Miguel; Feagley, Sam; Forsberg, Adam; Mitchell, Charles; Mylavarapu, Rao; Oldham, J Larry; Radcliffe, David E; Ramirez-Avila, John J; Storm, Dan E; Walker, Forbes; Zhang, Hailin

    2017-11-01

    Phosphorus (P) Indices in the southern United States frequently produce different recommendations for similar conditions. We compared risk ratings from 12 southern states (Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Texas) using data collected from benchmark sites in the South (Arkansas, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, and Texas). Phosphorus Index ratings were developed using both measured erosion losses from each benchmark site and Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation 2 predictions; mostly, there was no difference in P Index outcome. The derived loss ratings were then compared with measured P loads at the benchmark sites by using equivalent USDA-NRCS P Index ratings and three water quality models (Annual P Loss Estimator [APLE], Agricultural Policy Environmental eXtender [APEX], and Texas Best Management Practice Evaluation Tool [TBET]). Phosphorus indices were finally compared against each other using USDA-NRCS loss ratings model estimate correspondence with USDA-NRCS loss ratings. Correspondence was 61% for APEX, 48% for APLE, and 52% for TBET, with overall P index correspondence at 55%. Additive P Indices (Alabama and Texas) had the lowest USDA-NRCS loss rating correspondence (31%), while the multiplicative (Arkansas, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina, and Tennessee) and component (Georgia, Kentucky, and North Carolina) indices had similar USDA-NRCS loss rating correspondence-60 and 64%, respectively. Analysis using Kendall's modified Tau suggested that correlations between measured and calculated P-loss ratings were similar or better for most P Indices than the models. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  16. Application of water quality indices NSF, DINIUS and BMWP to Ayura Creek, Antioquia, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Melendez, Viky; Caicedo Quintero, Orlando; Aguirre Ramirez, Nestor

    2013-01-01

    This investigation evaluates the quality of water in the creek The Ayura (municipality of Envigado, Antioquia, Colombia), through application of the National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) and Dinius quality indexes, and the biotic index BMWP/Col. the estimate of these indexes was conducted with data collected in three sites and three moments. Physicochemical and microbiological variables were determinate; we also performed a qualitative and quantitative sampling of aquatic macroinvertebrates. Using this methodology the behavior of physical-chemical and biological community in the different sites was studied. The physicochemical and aquatic macroinvertebrate indexes results showed that site 1 provides a good quality of water and the sites 2 and 3 a middle deteriorated water quality.

  17. Bio indication of water quality in the Bogota Sabane using fuzzy logic sagging and aquatic micro invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, Juan David; Riss Wolfgang; Ospina Rodolfo

    2002-01-01

    An application of the Sagging-type fuzzy logic to calculate biological water quality in Bogota, Colombia is presented 28 sites corresponding to 9 watersheds in the Bogota area were used. The organisms selected were: Leptoceridae and Hidrobiosidae as indicators of clean waters, Planariidae and Amphipoda as indicators of polluted waters and Psychodida and Syrphidae as indicators of highly polluted waters Chironomids were also included. In order to prove the degree of reliability of Sugeno-type fuzzy logic, the results obtained were compared with values for the Cfq index, and a highly significant correlation was obtained

  18. Soil and periphyton indicators of anthropogenic water-quality changes in a rainfall-driven wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, P.V.

    2011-01-01

    Surface soils and periphyton communities were sampled across an oligotrophic, soft-water wetland to document changes associated with pulsed inputs of nutrient- and mineral-rich canal drainage waters. A gradient of canal-water influence was indicated by the surface-water specific conductance, which ranged between 743 and 963 ??S cm-1 in the canals to as low as 60 ??S cm-1 in the rainfall-driven wetland interior. Changes in soil chemistry and periphyton taxonomic composition across this gradient were described using piecewise regressions models. The greatest increase in soil phosphorus (P) concentration occurred at sites closest to the canal while soil mineral (sulfur, calcium) concentrations increased most rapidly at the lower end of the gradient. Multiple periphyton shifts occurred at the lower end of the gradient and included; (1) a decline in desmids and non-desmid filamentous chlorophytes, and their replacement by a diatom-dominated community; (2) the loss of soft-water diatom indicator species and their replacement by hard-water species. Increased dominance by cyanobacteria and eutrophic diatom indicators occurred closer to the canals. Soil and periphyton changes indicated four zones of increasing canal influence across the wetland: (1) a zone of increasing mineral concentrations where soft-water taxa remained dominant; (2) a transition towards hard-water, oligotrophic diatoms as mineral concentrations increased further; (3) a zone of dominance by these hard-water species; (4) a zone of rapidly increasing P concentrations and dominance by eutrophic taxa. In contrast to conclusions drawn from routine water-chemistry monitoring, measures of chemical and biological change presented here indicate that most of this rainfall-driven peatland receives some influence from canal discharges. These changes are multifaceted and induced by shifts in multiple chemical constituents. ?? 2010 US Government.

  19. Conductivity as an indicator of surface water quality in the proximity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-10-05

    Oct 5, 2015 ... FeCr smelting did not significantly impact surface water quality, but that surface run-off and/or groundwater leaching ... (EIAs) were required, or for older FeCr smelters during the .... then used for the determination of conductivity with a Hanna ... significant differences in the conductivity values measured at.

  20. Detecting Long-term Trend of Water Quality Indices of Dong-gang River, Taiwan Using Quantile Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, D.; Shiau, J.

    2013-12-01

    ABSTRACT BODY: Abstract Surface water quality is an essential issue in water-supply for human uses and sustaining healthy ecosystem of rivers. However, water quality of rivers is easily influenced by anthropogenic activities such as urban development and wastewater disposal. Long-term monitoring of water quality can assess whether water quality of rivers deteriorates or not. Taiwan is a population-dense area and heavily depends on surface water for domestic, industrial, and agricultural uses. Dong-gang River is one of major resources in southern Taiwan for agricultural requirements. The water-quality data of four monitoring stations of the Dong-gang River for the period of 2000-2012 are selected for trend analysis. The parameters used to characterize water quality of rivers include biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), dissolved oxygen (DO), suspended solids (SS), and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N). These four water-quality parameters are integrated into an index called river pollution index (RPI) to indicate the pollution level of rivers. Although widely used non-parametric Mann-Kendall test and linear regression exhibit computational efficiency to identify trends of water-quality indices, limitations of such approaches include sensitive to outliers and estimations of conditional mean only. Quantile regression, capable of identifying changes over time of any percentile values, is employed in this study to detect long-term trend of water-quality indices for the Dong-gang River located in southern Taiwan. The results show that Dong-gang River 4 stations from 2000 to 2012 monthly long-term trends in water quality.To analyze s Dong-gang River long-term water quality trends and pollution characteristics. The results showed that the bridge measuring ammonia Long-dong, BOD5 measure in that station on a downward trend, DO, and SS is on the rise, River Pollution Index (RPI) on a downward trend. The results form Chau-Jhou station also ahowed simialar trends .more and more near the

  1. Water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquatic animals are healthiest and grow best when environmental conditions are within certain ranges that define, for a particular species, “good” water quality. From the outset, successful aquaculture requires a high-quality water supply. Water quality in aquaculture systems also deteriorates as an...

  2. Indicator Organisms: Learner's Guide for a Critical Path in Water Quality Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazer, Richard B.; And Others

    This learner's guide on indicator organisms is derived from a water monitoring curriculum developed at Ulster County Community College. There are 37 modules in this guide; each is introduced with a statement of purpose and then broken down into units of instruction. These units contain an objective, learning conditions, and a performance level.…

  3. The influence of fish culture in floating net cages on microbial indicators of water quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Gorlach-Lira

    Full Text Available This work was carried out to analyse the microbiological parameters of the water quality of a reservoir used for the irrigation and culture of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus in floating net cages. The physico-chemical parameters, counts of mesophilic total aerobic bacteria, total and thermotolerant coliforms and fecal streptococci, and the presence of Escherichia coli in samples of water collected in three sites of the reservoir (pre-culture site, culture site, post-culture site were analysed. The levels of ammonia (0.047-0.059 mg/L, nitrite (0.001-0.021 mg/L and total phosphorus (0.050-0.355 mg/L in the water did not show significant differences (p > 0.05 between sampling sites. The levels of total bacteria in the water varied between 1.3 x 104 and 67.3 x 104 CFU/100 mL. The MPN values of thermotolerant coliforms (< 930 MPN/100 mL were within values recommended for water used for fish culture and/or irrigation. The presence of E. coli and fecal streptococci were verified in 48% and 56% of analysed samples, respectively. The site with floating net cages showed more samples contaminated with E. coli and fecal streptococci than other sampling points.

  4. Quality indicators in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cionini, Luca; Gardani, Gianstefano; Gabriele, Pietro; Magri, Secondo; Morosini, Pier Luigi; Rosi, Antonella; Viti, Vincenza

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: There is a widespread and increasing tendency to develop hospital performance indicators in the field of accreditation/certification systems and quality benchmarking. A study has been undertaken to develop a set of performance indicators for a typical radiotherapy Centre and to evaluate their ability to provide a continuous quality improvement. Materials and methods: A working group consisting of radiation oncologists, medical physicists and radiation technologists under the coordination of experts in health technology assessment has elaborated a set of general indicators able to monitor performances and the quality level of a typical radiotherapy Centre. The work has been carried out through four steps: a preliminary set of indicators was selected; data on these indicators were collected in a number of Italian radiotherapy Centres and medical physics Services; problems in collection and analysis of data were discussed; a final set of indicators was developed. Results: A final set of 13 indicators is here presented. They concern general structural and/or operational features, health physics activities and accuracy and technical complexity of the treatment. Conclusions: The indicators tested in a few Italian Centres of radiotherapy and medical physics Services are now ready to be utilized by a larger community

  5. A study of electrical power network of renewable energies and water desalination research center using power quality phenomena and indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segayer, Ali Mehemmed

    2008-08-01

    Renewable energies and water distillation research center (REWDRC) is a very strategic research facility and contains many important and critical industrial and electrical loads that must to be operated as a group to fulfill the requirements and the needs of the center in the operation of the main research facility of the center which a 10 MW reactor. Faults on the electrical or the industrial system can occur on many ways such as a malfunction in the questioned system, power quality related problem, or a failure of any of the loads (such as central ventilation or water circulation system or one of the substations) have a great diverse effect on the operation of the main research facility (reactor). In this research common problems due to power quality phenomena were studied, assessed through a assigning some power quality indices to the electrical network of the center so that the operational condition of the REWDRC electrical and industrial network could be evaluated. power quality indices (PQI) were assigned based on results of real time measurements at the points of common coupling of the network (PCC) and the initial power quality survey report. indices analysis was done using three methods which were the normalization method, method of comparing to the limit value and analysis of measurement data time function profile. As a result of this research a recommendation for safe operation against power quality disturbances was pointed out through a continuous monitoring of assigned power quality indices. (Author)

  6. Air quality indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clench-Aas, Jocelyn; Guerreiro, Cristina; Bartonova, Alena

    1999-06-01

    This report proposes and describes in detail several air quality indicators that may be used to describe population exposure. The suggested indicators account for temporal and spatial patterns of pollution and movements of individuals between different micro-environments. The Air Quality Indicator /AQI) should represent both the spatial and temporal aspects of pollution exposure that may have important effects on health. Two indicators are needed, the Population Air Quality Indicator and the Individual Air Quality Indicator. Mean concentrations, 98th percentile and maximum values are the traditional indicators for estimating exposure. the temporal variability of PM-10 and NO 2 , however, is here described by means of: 1) The rate of change of pollution as the difference between two consecutive hourly values and of 2) episodes, described in terms of number, duration and winter episode period, maximum concentration in the episode and integrated episode exposure (episode AOT50/100). The spatial variation of AQIs can be described in several ways, e.g.: 1) Concentrations in neighbouring grid squares can be compared as an indication of spatial variation and 2) point estimates can be compared to grid values for a description of variation within a grid. Both methods are presented here. A test of the representativity of static point estimates for pollution exposure is to compare them to an estimate of air pollution exposure accounting for movements between different locations, obtained using diaries. The ultimate aim of AQIs is to describe the population exposure to ambient pollution. This is done by estimating the number of people exposed using different characteristics of AQIs. The data used to describe these indicators originates from dispersion modelling of short-term air pollution concentrations in Oslo. Two series of data are used. One represents hour-for hour concentrations in the 1 km 2 grid system covering the city of Oslo, winter 1994/95, calculated by the grid

  7. Ecological attributes of the benthic community and indices of water quality in urban, rural and preserved environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Eiko Yoshida

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Reference streams are pristine streams, untouched or unaltered by man, it being possible to use their environmental characteristics as quality threshold values. Besides the organic impacts measured via water quality biological monitoring programs, it has become necessary to evaluate the relationship between alterations in the landscape of streams and surrounding areas and changes in the structure of the macroinvertebrate community; AIM: The objective of the present study was to correlate the changes in the landscape with the ecological attributes of the community and indices of water quality, and to recommend reference condition values for the integrity of streams in the region of Jundiai (SP; METHODS: The benthic fauna were sampled in three urban streams, three rural streams and three preserved streams during July 2010, using a Surber-type sampler. The characteristics of the landscape were evaluated by means of Diversity of Habitat; the community, analyzed for several biodiversity indices, and; the water quality assessed using the indices River-BCI, BMWP-CETEC (CETEC - Science and Technology Center, ASPT and SOMI (SOMI - Serra dos Órgãos Multimetric Index (Serra dos Órgãos is a mountain range national park in the state of Rio de Janeiro; RESULTS: The structure and the composition of the communities varied according to the stream and this was reflected in the values of the biological and environmental quality indices. The best conditions were found in preserved streams, intermediate streams and rural streams while the worst conditions were found in the urban streams. The significant Pearson correlations (r > 0.73 and P < 0.05 between the diversity of habitat index and the ecological and water quality index attributes in the streams of Jundiai demonstrated that diversity of habitat may be a good predictor of the environmental characteristics evaluated.

  8. Methods and Sources of Data Used to Develop Selected Water-Quality Indicators for Streams and Ground Water for EPA's 2007 Report on the Environment: Science Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Nancy T.; Wilson, John T.; Moran, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) was one of numerous governmental agencies, private organizations, and the academic community that provided data and interpretations for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?s (USEPA) 2007 Report on the Environment: Science Report. This report documents the sources of data and methods used to develop selected water?quality indicators for the 2007 edition of the report compiled by USEPA. Stream and ground?water?quality data collected nationally in a consistent manner as part of the USGS?s National Water?Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) were provided for several water?quality indicators, including Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Streams in Agricultural Watersheds; Pesticides in Streams in Agricultural Watersheds; and Nitrate and Pesticides in Shallow Ground Water in Agricultural Watersheds. In addition, the USGS provided nitrate (nitrate plus nitrite) and phosphorus riverine load estimates calculated from water?quality and streamflow data collected as part of its National Stream Water Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) and its Federal?State Cooperative Program for the Nitrogen and Phosphorus Discharge from Large Rivers indicator.

  9. Studying relations between radionuclide contents and water quality and quantity indices for Rivers Kura-Araks basin, Armenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nalbandyan, A.G.; Saghatelyan, A.K.; Kyureghyan, A.A; Mikayelyan, M.G.

    2008-07-01

    We initiated a research in late 2005 as a constituent and logical expansion of an ongoing NATO Science for Peace/OSCE project 'South Caucasus River Monitoring' which has been performed since 2002 and was initially focused on indication of river water quality and quantity indices and determination of heavy metals. It should be stressed that this radioactivity research is the first ever attempt of this kind and that all the data obtained are unique. This paper is focused on a study of relations between radionuclide contents and water quality and quantity indices for Armenia's section of Rivers Kura-Araks basin and highlights data obtained for the studied period 2006-2007 (author)(tk)

  10. Chironomus larvae (Chironomidae: Diptera as water quality indicators along an environmental gradient in a neotropical urban stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Gomes Machado

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic interference in urban lotic systems is a factor affecting the biota of waterbodies. Aquatic macro invertebrates are an important food source for fish and are valuable indicators of water quality. The objective of this work was to study Chironomus larvae (Chironomidae: Diptera distribution along an environmental gradient in Barbado Stream, Cuiabá, MT, Brazil. No individual Chironomus was found in the springs of Barbado Stream, which may indicate preservation of the area. During the study period, we found 40.3 and 94.4 individuals/m2 at points 3 and 4 (low course, respectively. There is eutrophication in these sites due to domestic sewage discharges, indicating low quality water. The Barbado Stream needs restoration projects that include an awareness of the residents of their neighborhood’s environmental importance, and investments in the sanitation sector to prioritize the collection and treatment of wastewater and solid waste collection.

  11. Studying relations between radionuclide contents and water quality and quantity indices for Rivers Kura-Araks basin, Armenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nalbandyan, A.G.; Saghatelyan, A.K.; Kyureghyan, A.A; Mikayelyan, M.G.

    2008-01-01

    We initiated a research in late 2005 as a constituent and logical expansion of an ongoing NATO Science for Peace/OSCE project 'South Caucasus River Monitoring' which has been performed since 2002 and was initially focused on indication of river water quality and quantity indices and determination of heavy metals. It should be stressed that this radioactivity research is the first ever attempt of this kind and that all the data obtained are unique. This paper is focused on a study of relations between radionuclide contents and water quality and quantity indices for Armenia's section of Rivers Kura-Araks basin and highlights data obtained for the studied period 2006-2007 (author)(tk)

  12. Microbiological indicators of water quality in the Xochimilco canals, Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-Figueroa, Luis Alfredo; Silva-Sánchez, Jesús; Uribe-Salas, Felipe Javier; Cifuentes-García, Enrique

    2003-01-01

    To quantify microbiology indicators of fecal contamination in the effluents of two waste water treatment plants and in samples collected in several canals in Xochimilco. A cross sectional study was performed. Ten sites, 5 from plant effluents and 5 from canals, were selected for sampling during November and December 2001. Fecal coliforms and enterococci were quantified by membrane filtration, male specific (F+) and somatic coliphages by double agar layer technique, and Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts by concentration with Envirocheck filter followed by immunofluorescence microscopy quantification. The average of organisms counts from effluents and canal water were compared with t Student test. Treated water discharge in canals showed a low count of Fecal Coliforms (average 40.4/100 ml), enterococci (average 58.8/100 ml) and Cryptosporidium oocysts (average 13.2/100 l), while coliphages and Giardia cyst rendered higher counts (average 1467.5/100 ml and 1199.8/100 l, respectively) suggesting the water treatment methods could fail to remove these agents. A significant lower count of Giardia cysts (average 45/100 l) and no Cryptosporidium oocysts were found in irrigation canals, which suggests a natural clearance of these pathogens. Strains of Escherichia coli isolated in one of the canals contaminated with sewage had antimicrobial multi-resistance that was transferred by conjugation suggesting that resistance is encoded in a plasmid potentially transferable to other pathogenic bacteria. Cost effective and culturally acceptable waste treatment methods will require careful planning and consultation if they are to be adopted and mantained by local populations.

  13. The effect of water supply, handling and usage on water quality in relation to health indices in a developing community in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genthe, B; Strauss, N; Vundule, C; Maforah, F; Seager, J

    1995-09-01

    This study examined the relationship between the quality of water consumed by people in a developing community in South Africa, and health outcomes for diarrhea. Water sources included no formal water supply, communal taps used by over 100 people, outdoor taps on individual plots, and indoor taps. The aim of this 3-year study was to determine water quality at point of collection, to examine patterns of water usage, and to determine the health consequences. This was a case control study and epidemiological assessment. The sample included over 300 households. Cases included pre-school children with severe diarrhea who visited a health facility in the study area. Interviews were conducted to determine hygiene, sanitation, education, and socioeconomic information. Controls of similar age and type of water supply were obtained from neighborhoods in the study area. Findings indicate that water, based on microbiological assay, was of good quality and complied with the South African Bureau of Standards. Water was significantly more contaminated after handling and storage compared to point of source. Cases and controls had equally poor water quality after collection and storage. Control indoor cases had higher levels of E. coli. There was a strong association between diarrhea and the attendance at a day care center. Increased risk of diarrhea was associated with poor kitchen hygiene and low levels of knowledge about hygiene and diarrhea prevention. Communal tap facilities had lower water quality than private taps.

  14. Trace Elements as Indicators of Quality of Drinking Water in Offa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study involved the determination of trace elements in drinking water in Offa Metropolis. Drinking water samples were collected from tap, well, borehole, stream and sachet water and analysed for Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mg and Mn using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The results obtained show the concentration ranges ...

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF EXPOSURE-RESPONSE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN INDICATORS OF WATER QUALITY AND SWIMMING-ASSOCIATED ILLNESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to contaminated water during recreational swimming has long been associated with adverse health effects. Swimming in rivers, streams and lakes with high levels of fecal contamination are regularly linked to outbreaks of gastrointestinal illness and related infections. Wh...

  16. Quality assessment of pollution indicators in marine water at critical locations of the Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve, Tuticorin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Viji; Nirmaladevi D, Shrinithivihahshini; Srinivasan, Balakrishnan; Rengaraj, Chithradevi; Mariyaselvam, Sheelamary

    2018-01-01

    The present study focused on the shoreline environment of urban and industrial areas, and the aim of this study was to assess the coastal water quality in the Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve. Water samples were collected from five different coastal sites during the premonsoon and monsoon seasons. The samples were analyzed following the standard methods. The results showed that the levels of microbiological indicators in the samples highly exceeded the regional and national standard seawater permissible limits, and environmental parameters such as the total suspended solid and dissolved oxygen were affected significantly (p<0.05). To identify frequent pollution indicators, their levels should be estimated to determine possible pollution in coastal ecosystems due to human interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Application of water quality biological indices using diatoms as bioindicators in the Gravataí river, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SE. Salomoni

    Full Text Available The Gravataí river situated in the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre has an area of approximately 2.020 km² and provides public water supply to about 500,000 inhabitants in 5 municipalities (latitude 29° 45'-30° 12' S; longitude 50° 27'-51° 12' W. The river basin has two regions with distinctive characteristics of occupation: the upper course shows intensive farming and the lower course presents urban and industrial uses. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the water quality in the Gravataí River (RS, Brazil by using physical, chemical and microbiological variables, and the water quality biological indices (WQBI formulated for southern Brazilian rivers based on epilithic diatom communities as indicators. For comparison purposes, a local WQBI, called the Gravataí WQBI, was also used where species were given new saprobic values (s and indicative values (vi according to their occurrence and abundance in the river, using multivariate analytical techniques. The biological samples were taken every three months at six stations along the Gravataí River between September 2000 and August 2002. The results of the physical and chemical analyses of the water indicated a pollution gradient down the river, from the headwaters to the mouth, detected mainly by considering a significant decrease in the concentration of dissolved oxygen and turbidity, as well as a significant increase in BOD5, total nitrogen, ortho-phosphate and thermotolerant coliforms. Comparing the results obtained, differences were found regarding the predominant pollution levels as higher in the Gravataí WQBI, although both corroborated a tendency for the contamination gradient to increase from the headwaters to the mouth. Given the local anthropic changes, it is of great importance to continue the study of diatom species tolerance to organic pollution and eutrophication in different lotic systems of the region.

  18. Distribution patterns study of Escherichia coli as an Indicator for ground water quality at Matraman District, East Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisah, U.; Iswanto, B.; Rinanti, A.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the distribution pattern E.coli as indicators of ground water contamination by fecal coliforms at Matraman District, East Jakarta, Indonesia (106049‧35″E 06010‧37″LS) consisting of six sub-districts (Utan Kayu Selatan, Utan Kayu Utara, Kayu Manis, Pal Meriam, Kebon Manggis and Pisangan Baru). The presence of E.coli examined by the method of Most Probable Number (MPN) according to SNI 01-2332.1-2006 about the determination of coliforms and E.coli in fishery products which consists of three stages of tests in a row, the estimation, determination or confirmation and complementary or morphology test. Matraman District is a densely populated area and the distance between septic tank and well is inadequate, both with their own’s septic tank or with neighbors’s septic tank. The result of sample analysis shows that E.coli counts exceeds water quality standards in accordance with regulation Health Ministry No.492/2010 concerning the drinking water quality requirements. The lowest MPN number is 3 MPN/100 ml and the highest number of E. coli is more than1100 MPN/100 ml. The temperature, pH and DO0 on average are 27.520C, 5.59 and 2.24 mg/L. This study is expected to be a reference in the use of ground water for daily activities in the district Matraman.

  19. Epipelic Diatoms as Indicators of Water Quality in the Lower Part of River Melet (Ordu, Türkiye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beyhan Taş

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Phytobenthos includes bioindicator species and is widely used in water ecology studies. Diatoms constitute one of the most important groups of phytobenthos in streams. In particular, these organisms are good indicators in investigations related with determining of water quality in medium and long time. In this study, the epipelic diatom flora of the lower part of River Melet were investigated, the most important source of drinking water in Ordu city. The examination was performed periodically in March-November 2012 and total of 56 taxa were identified. Cymbellales (14 taxa and Naviculales (16 taxa ordo constituted 54% of diatom diversity. These were followed by Fragilariales (16%, 9 taxa Bacillariales (14%, 8 taxa Surirellales (9%, 5 taxa Achnanthales (3%, 2 taxa Eunotiales (2%, 1 taxa and Melosirales (2%, 1 taxa, respectively. Diatome vulgaris, Melosira varians, Navicula gregaria, N. tripunctata and Nitzschia sigmoidea species were recorded as widespread and intense in the epipelic communities. These species are usually tolerant to organic pollution and are found in β-α- mesosaprobic conditions. According to the obtained results, the lower part of the Melet River has character from pollution towards moderate pollution. In other words, it has II-III. class water quality.

  20. Trail Creek I: Assessing the Water Quality of Streams using Fecal Indicator Bacteria and Microbial Source Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saintil, T.; Radcliffe, D. E.; Rasmussen, T. C.; Kannan, A.

    2017-12-01

    Fecal coliforms are indicators for disease-causing pathogens. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (US. EPA) recommends the use of E. coli and Enterococci because they are highly correlated with pathogenic organisms in recreational waters. This standard method helps to determine the overall water quality and the potential health risks. Studies have shown that it is difficult to estimate the exact sources of fecal contamination because both human and certain animal species contain E. coli and Enterococci in their waste. Certain strains of E. coli and Enterococci are also able to survive outside of their hosts, which should not be the case for an appropriate fecal indicator. As a result, microbial source tracking (MST) studies use gene specific markers to identify the possible contributors to water pollution whether human or animal. Trail Creek is a second-order stream located in Athens-Clarke County, GA. The 33-km2 watershed is approximately 64% forests, 18% pastures and 16% residential communities. Trail Creek is on the TMDL list and an extended study on the relationships between the different factors causing elevated fecal bacteria is needed. Synoptic sampling events were conducted during baseflow conditions at six locations. Storm sampling events (> 8 mm) were captured using automated samplers at two locations. These samplers were equipped with pressure transducers which record stage at 30-minute intervals. The samples were analyzed for fecal coliform, E. Coli and Enterococci. Water quality parameters including temperature, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, pH, and turbidity were also recorded. Relationships between the parameters and fecal indicator bacteria show inconsistent patterns and high variability. Using quantitative PCR and MST techniques, the human specific marker (HF183) and ruminant marker (Rum2Bac) were used to identify the fecal sources in both baseflow and storm samples. The presence and abundance of the different markers at

  1. Investigation of environmental indices from the Earth Resources Technology Satellite. [environmental trends in land use water quality, and air quality in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeley, R. S. (Principal Investigator); Ward, E. A.; Elliott, J. C.; Friedman, E. J.; Riley, E. L.; Stryker, S.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Land use change, water quality, and air quality indices have been calculated from analysis of ERTS-1 multispectral scanning imagery and computer compatible tapes. Specifications have been developed and discussed for an ERTS-1 environmental monitoring system which help to serve the information needs of environmental managers at the Federal, state, regional, and local level. General conclusions of the investigation are that ERTS-1 data is very useful in land use mapping and updating to 10-15 categories, and can provide an overall measure of air and water turbidity; however, more and better ground truth and possibly additional spacecraft sensors will be required if specific air and water pollutants are to be quantified from satellite data.

  2. Field study of the composition of greywater and comparison of microbiological indicators of water quality in on-site systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Margaret; Gilpin, Brent; Robson, Beth; Wall, Katrina

    2016-08-01

    Thirty on-site greywater systems were sampled to determine greywater characteristics and practices in the field. Kitchen greywater was present at eight sites and urine was included at seven sites. These non-traditional sources resulted in significantly higher concentrations of enterococci and 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) in greywater. Even with the removal of these sources, the concentrations of microbial indicators indicated high levels of contamination could occur across all greywater sources, including "light" greywater. Using multiple microbial indicators showed that all samples had the potential for faecal contamination. Bacteroidales markers were confirmed in treated greywater and in each greywater source, highlighting the potential for human faecal contamination. Although Escherichia coli was absent in treated greywater recycled to the house, other microbial indicators were present; hence, caution is required in using E. coli concentrations as the sole indicator of microbiological water quality. High BOD5 or total suspended solid concentrations exceeded the levels recommended for effective disinfection. Subsurface irrigation, which is assumed to provide a five-log reduction in exposure, is a suitable reuse option for non-disinfected greywater. Only half the occupants had a good understanding of their greywater systems and 25 % of systems were poorly maintained. Elevated microbial indicator contamination of greywater sludge is a potential hazard during maintenance.

  3. ASSESSMENT OF RIVER WATER QUALITY USING MACRO-INVERTEBRATES AS INDICATORS: A CASE STUDY OF BHALU KHOLA TRIBUTARY, BUDHIGANDAKI RIVER, GORKHA, NEPAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Rana

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available  Macroinvertebrates are widely considered as indicators of water quality. The present research work was conducted in Bhalu khola, a tributary of Budhigandaki River, Nepal, to identify water quality using macro invertebrates with Nepalese Biotic Score (NEPBIOS, and examine its applicability by comparing with Water Quality Index (WQI.The diversity of macro invertebrates in the studied river was high as depicted by Shannon Wiener Diversity Index. Altogether, 103 macro invertebrates were identified from 11 families and five orders. There were no dominant species, and most of the species were in clumped distribution. According to NEPBIOS index, river water was found to comply with the characteristics of WQ class I-II that means water quality of the river was good. Other indices such as Hilsenhoff and Lincoln quality index (LQI index also supported this result. Similarly, water quality index (WQI also showed similarity with NEPBIOS index, indicating water appropriate for drinking purpose. Thus, it is concluded that the macro invertebrates can be used as economic tools for determining water quality of streams and rivers as efficient water quality indicators.International Journal of Environment Volume-4, Issue-3, June-August 2015Page: 55-68

  4. Water-Quality Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Water Quality? [1.7MB PDF] Past featured science... Water Quality Data Today's Water Conditions Get continuous real- ... list of USGS water-quality data resources . USGS Water Science Areas Water Resources Groundwater Surface Water Water ...

  5. Effectiveness of benthic foraminiferal and coral assemblages as water quality indicators on inshore reefs of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthicke, S.; Thompson, A.; Schaffelke, B.

    2010-03-01

    Although the debate about coral reef decline focuses on global disturbances (e.g., increasing temperatures and acidification), local stressors (nutrient runoff and overfishing) continue to affect reef health and resilience. The effectiveness of foraminiferal and hard-coral assemblages as indicators of changes in water quality was assessed on 27 inshore reefs along the Great Barrier Reef. Environmental variables (i.e., several water quality and sediment parameters) and the composition of both benthic foraminiferal and hard-coral assemblages differed significantly between four regions (Whitsunday, Burdekin, Fitzroy, and the Wet Tropics). Grain size and organic carbon and nitrogen content of sediments, and a composite water column parameter (based on turbidity and concentrations of particulate matter) explained a significant amount of variation in the data (tested by redundancy analyses) in both assemblages. Heterotrophic species of foraminifera were dominant in sediments with high organic content and in localities with low light availability, whereas symbiont-bearing mixotrophic species were dominant elsewhere. A similar suite of parameters explained 89% of the variation in the FORAM index (a Caribbean coral reef health indicator) and 61% in foraminiferal species richness. Coral richness was not related to environmental setting. Coral assemblages varied in response to environmental variables, but were strongly shaped by acute disturbances (e.g., cyclones, Acanthaster planci outbreaks, and bleaching), thus different coral assemblages may be found at sites with the same environmental conditions. Disturbances also affect foraminiferal assemblages, but they appeared to recover more rapidly than corals. Foraminiferal assemblages are effective bioindicators of turbidity/light regimes and organic enrichment of sediments on coral reefs.

  6. Analysis of benthic macroinvertebrates and biotic indices to evaluate water quality in rivers impacted by mining activities in northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvial I.E.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Catchments in the semiarid regions are especially susceptible to environmental perturbation associated with water scarcity, hydrological variations and overuse by anthropogenic activities. Using multivariate analysis to relate environmental and biological data, and diversity and biotic indices (ChBMWP, ChIBF, we analyzed the macroinvertebrate composition of 12 rivers of the semiarid region of northern Chile. A non-metric multidimensional scaling for macroinvertebrate taxa and a principal component analysis for environmental variables strongly separated upstream sites (e.g. Vacas Heladas and Malo Rivers, which presented low pH and high dissolved metal concentrations, from other sites. Effectively, CCA showed that metals and low pH, associated with the altitudinal gradient, determined the distributional patterns of macroinvertebrates in the Elqui catchment. The causes of these particular conditions could be related to geological processes and human impact. The biotic indices applied to the sampling sites corroborated and reflected these characteristics, with La Laguna and Turbio Rivers showing a diverse macroinvertebrate community and moderate to good water quality, and the Claro River showing favorable conditions for the development of aquatic biota, indicating its better quality relative to other stations. To the middle and low part of the basin, a change in the composition of the community was observed, with species that suggest an impact by an increase in organic matter, due to agricultural activities and urban settlements concentrated in this area. Our results suggest that macroinvertebrate taxa in northern Chile may be exceptional species, adapted to unfavorable geochemical conditions, and emphasize the need for protection of the semiarid basins of the region.

  7. Thermocyclops decipiens (Kiefer, 1929 (Copepoda, Cyclopoida as indicator of water quality in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Guimarães Landa

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the possible utilization of Thermocyclops decipiens as indicator of the trophic degree and water quality of some watersheds of the state of Minas Gerais. From the beginning of the decade of 90, T. decipiens was recorded in several water collections of the state, including the basins of the rivers Paranaíba, São Francisco, Doce and Grande, within environments mainly of meso and eutrophics characteristics. Of the 28 places of occurrence of the species and according to the water quality index (WQI used by Environmental Foundation of Minas Gerais (FEAM, 7 of these environments presented WQI good, 16 medium, 4 bad and one very bad. This classification corroborated the hypothesis that T. decipiens could be used as indicator species of eutrophic environments and of low water quality thus constituting an important tool for the biomonitoring of aquatic ecosystems.Thermocyclops decipiens é uma espécie pioneira de grande dispersão e altamente adaptável a colonizar novos ambientes. É comumente encontrada no sudeste do Brasil, em ambientes com características meso e eutróficas. Considerando a dominânciadesta espécie no reservatório da Pampulha e a sua provável relação com o grau de trofia, este trabalho objetivou verificar a possibilidade de utilizar este organismo como indicador do grau de trofia e/ou qualidade de água de algumas bacias hidrográficas do Estado de Minas Gerais. Para isso, foi feita uma revisão sobre a ocorrência da espécie no Estado. A partir dos anos 90, T. decipiens foi registrada em várias coleções de água do Estado, abrangendo as bacias dos rios Paranaíba, São Francisco, Doce e Grande, na sua grande maioria, com características meso e eutróficas. Dos 28 locais de ocorrência da espécie, e conforme o índice de qualidade de água (IQA utilizado pela FEAM, 7 destes ambientes apresentam IQA bom, 16 um IQA médio, 4 um IQA ruim e um IQA muito ruim. Esta classificação reforça a

  8. Primer on Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... water quality. What do we mean by "water quality"? Water quality can be thought of as a measure ... is suitable for a particular use. How is water quality measured? Some aspects of water quality can be ...

  9. Ship-borne measurements of microbial enzymatic activity: A rapid biochemical indicator for microbial water quality monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Philipp; Loken, Luke; Crawford, John; Schramm, Paul; Sorsa, Kirsti; Kuhn, Catherine; Savio, Domenico; Striegl, Rob; Butman, David; Stanley, Emily; Farnleitner, Andreas H.; Zessner, Matthias

    2017-04-01

    Contamination of aquatic ecosystems by human and animal wastes is a global concern for water quality. Disclosing fate and transport processes of fecal indicator organism (FIO) in large water bodies is a big challenge due to material intensive and time consuming methods used in microbiological water quality monitoring. In respect of utilization of large surface water resources there is a dearth of rapid microbiological methods that allow a near-real time health related water quality monitoring to be implemented into early warning systems. The detection of enzymatic activities has been proposed as a rapid surrogate for microbiological pollution monitoring of water and water resources (Cabral, 2010; Farnleitner et al., 2001, 2002). Methods such as the beta-D-Glucuronidase assay (GLUC), targeting FIO such as E. coli, were established. New automated enzymatic assays have been implemented during the last years into on-site monitoring stations, ranging from ground- to surface waters (Ryzinska-Paier et al., 2014; Stadler et al., 2017, 2016). While these automated enzymatic methods cannot completely replace assays for culture-based FIO enumeration, they yielded significant information on pollution events and temporal dynamics on a catchment specific basis, but were restricted to stationary measurements. For the first time we conducted ship-borne and automated measurements of enzymatic GLUC activity on large fresh water bodies, including the Columbia River, the Mississippi River and Lake Mendota. Not only are automated enzymatic assays technically feasible from a mobile vessel, but also can be used to localize point sources of potential microbial fecal contamination, such as tributaries or storm drainages. Spatial and temporal patterns of enzymatic activity were disclosed and the habitat specific correlation with microbiological standard assays for FIO determined due to reference samples. The integration of rapid and automated enzymatic assays into well-established systems

  10. Remote Sensing of Selected Water-Quality Indicators with the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO) Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO) offers the coastal environmental monitoring community an unprecedented opportunity to observe changes in coastal and estuarine water quality across a range of spatial scales not feasible with traditional field-based monitoring...

  11. Quantifying Averted Disability-Adjusted Life Years as a Performance Indicator for Water Quality Interventions: A Review of Current Methodologies and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcy M. Anderson

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable access to safe drinking water protects against infectious disease and promotes overall health. Despite considerable progress toward increasing water access, safe water quality and reliable service delivery remain a challenge. Traditional financing strategies pay implementers based on inputs and activities, with minimal incentives for water quality monitoring and sustained service operation. Pay-for-performance offers an alternative financing strategy that delivers all or a portion of payment based on performance indicators of desired outputs or outcomes. A pay-for-performance approach in the water sector could quantify and incentivize health impact. Averted disability-adjusted life years (ADALYs have been used as a performance indicator to measure the burden of disease averted due to environmental health interventions. Water-related disease burden can be measured for application as an ADALYs performance indicator following either comparative risk assessment or quantitative microbial risk assessment. Comparative risk assessment models disease burden using water source type as a proxy indicator of microbial water quality, while quantitative microbial risk assessment models disease burden using concentrations of indicator pathogens. This paper compares these risk assessment methodologies, and summarizes the limitations of applying these approaches toward quantifying ADALYs as a performance indicator for water quality interventions.

  12. Water quality as an indicator of the health status of agro-pastoral dams' ecosystems in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kpéra, G.N.; Mensah, G.A.; Aarts, M.N.C.; Zijpp, van der A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Based on a study in three agro-pastoral dams in Nikki, Sakabansi and Fombawi in northern Benin, this article aims to characterize their physical, chemical and microbiological water quality. The ecosystem services framework underlies this article. Water of the three dams was sampled in the field and

  13. Effect of Hartha and Najibia power plants on water quality indices of Shatt Al-Arab River, south of Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Aboodi, Ali H.; Abbas, Sarmad A.; Ibrahim, Husham T.

    2018-05-01

    The main object of this research is to assess the water quality of Shatt Al-Arab River and its suitability for various purposes near power plants (Hartha and Najibia) through physical and chemical analysis [temperature, pH, EC, Cl-, Na+, K+, Ca+2, Mg+2, HCO3 -, NO3 -, SO 4 -2 , Fe+, total alkalinity, total hardness, biological oxygen demand (BOD5), NH4 +, and NO2 -] using water quality index (WQI), organic pollution index (OPI), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), and percentage of sodium ion (Na%) during the dry season (August, 2016) and the wet season (January, 2017). WQI of Shatt Al-Arab falls under very poor quality during summer season, while it ranges from very poor quality to unsuitable for drinking purposes during winter season. There is a clear effect of power plants on water quality. Hartha and Najibia power plants contribute to the deterioration of water quality by increasing the percentage ratio of WQI near these plants by 13.22 and 9.69%, respectively, compared to the north sites of these plants during summer season. The percentage ratios of increased WQI near Hartha and Najibia power plants compared to the north sites of these plants are 17.93 and 15.92%, respectively, during winter season. Water quality of Shatt Al-Arab falls under a high level of organic pollution during the summer and winter seasons. There is a slight effect by the power plants on the OPI. Hartha and Najibia power plants contributed to the change of the OPI by 10% compared to the north site of Hartha power plant. According to the comparison between the SAR values which represent the suitability of water for serve irrigation purposes and SAR values of Shatt Al-Arab, all sites lie in the first class (excellent). According to Na+%, the type of surface water in the studied area lies in good class during winter season and permissible class during summer season.

  14. Quality Indicators for Learning Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffel, Maren; Drachsler, Hendrik; Stoyanov, Slavi; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes a framework of quality indicators for learning analytics that aims to standardise the evaluation of learning analytics tools and to provide a mean to capture evidence for the impact of learning analytics on educational practices in a standardised manner. The criteria of the framework and its quality indicators are based on…

  15. Comparative study of enteric viruses, coliphages and indicator bacteria for evaluating water quality in a tropical high-altitude system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Ana C; Arias, Carlos F; Sánchez-Colón, Salvador; Mazari-Hiriart, Marisa

    2009-10-27

    Bacteria used as indicators for pathogenic microorganisms in water are not considered adequate as enteric virus indicators. Surface water from a tropical high-altitude system located in Mexico City that receives rainwater, treated and non-treated wastewater used for irrigation, and groundwater used for drinking, was studied. The presence of enterovirus, rotavirus, astrovirus, coliphage, coliform bacteria, and enterococci was determined during annual cycles in 2001 and 2002. Enteric viruses in concentrated water samples were detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Coliphages were detected using the double agar layer method. Bacteria analyses of the water samples were carried out by membrane filtration. The presence of viruses and bacteria in the water used for irrigation showed no relationship between current bacterial indicator detection and viral presence. Coliphages showed strong association with indicator bacteria and enterovirus, but weak association with other enteric viruses. Enterovirus and rotavirus showed significant seasonal differences in water used for irrigation, although this was not clear for astrovirus. Coliphages proved to be adequate faecal pollution indicators for the irrigation water studied. Viral presence in this tropical high-altitude system showed a similar trend to data previously reported for temperate zones.

  16. Comparative study of enteric viruses, coliphages and indicator bacteria for evaluating water quality in a tropical high-altitude system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazari-Hiriart Marisa

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacteria used as indicators for pathogenic microorganisms in water are not considered adequate as enteric virus indicators. Surface water from a tropical high-altitude system located in Mexico City that receives rainwater, treated and non-treated wastewater used for irrigation, and groundwater used for drinking, was studied. Methods The presence of enterovirus, rotavirus, astrovirus, coliphage, coliform bacteria, and enterococci was determined during annual cycles in 2001 and 2002. Enteric viruses in concentrated water samples were detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Coliphages were detected using the double agar layer method. Bacteria analyses of the water samples were carried out by membrane filtration. Results The presence of viruses and bacteria in the water used for irrigation showed no relationship between current bacterial indicator detection and viral presence. Coliphages showed strong association with indicator bacteria and enterovirus, but weak association with other enteric viruses. Enterovirus and rotavirus showed significant seasonal differences in water used for irrigation, although this was not clear for astrovirus. Conclusion Coliphages proved to be adequate faecal pollution indicators for the irrigation water studied. Viral presence in this tropical high-altitude system showed a similar trend to data previously reported for temperate zones.

  17. Quality Indicators in Radiation Oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, Jeffrey M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Das, Prajnan, E-mail: prajdas@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Oncologic specialty societies and multidisciplinary collaborative groups have dedicated considerable effort to developing evidence-based quality indicators (QIs) to facilitate quality improvement, accreditation, benchmarking, reimbursement, maintenance of certification, and regulatory reporting. In particular, the field of radiation oncology has a long history of organized quality assessment efforts and continues to work toward developing consensus quality standards in the face of continually evolving technologies and standards of care. This report provides a comprehensive review of the current state of quality assessment in radiation oncology. Specifically, this report highlights implications of the healthcare quality movement for radiation oncology and reviews existing efforts to define and measure quality in the field, with focus on dimensions of quality specific to radiation oncology within the “big picture” of oncologic quality assessment efforts.

  18. Quality Indicators in Radiation Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, Jeffrey M.; Das, Prajnan

    2013-01-01

    Oncologic specialty societies and multidisciplinary collaborative groups have dedicated considerable effort to developing evidence-based quality indicators (QIs) to facilitate quality improvement, accreditation, benchmarking, reimbursement, maintenance of certification, and regulatory reporting. In particular, the field of radiation oncology has a long history of organized quality assessment efforts and continues to work toward developing consensus quality standards in the face of continually evolving technologies and standards of care. This report provides a comprehensive review of the current state of quality assessment in radiation oncology. Specifically, this report highlights implications of the healthcare quality movement for radiation oncology and reviews existing efforts to define and measure quality in the field, with focus on dimensions of quality specific to radiation oncology within the “big picture” of oncologic quality assessment efforts

  19. Ecological water quality assessment in the Guapiaçu-Macacu hydrographic complex (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil using multiple indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla S. Pereira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A quick diagnosis of the ecological quality of five sections of the Macacu-Guapiaçu hydrographic complex was performed using visual assessment protocol (VAP, conventional analysis, composition and structure of ciliates and the occurrence of benthic macro invertebrates. Water samples were collected from five sampling stations (A-E in July of 2010. Protists were sampled with aid of artificial substrates, and macro invertebrates were sampled using the multi-habitat method. A total of 22 taxa of protozoa and 51 taxa of macro invertebrates was registered at the five stations. Reference station (A showed greater protist diversity and higher values of BMWP-CETEC and IBE-IOC indices relating to macro invertebrates. The impacted stations (B and E presented lower diversity and higher abundance of protozoa, as well as the lowest values for the rates. The four methods used were convergent to diagnose reference station (A, the impacted stations (B and E and those in intermediate conditions (C and D. Thus, the methods were complementary, as the conventional parameters and ciliate assembly were more sensitive to detecting the increase in organic pollution and VAP and macro invertebrate assembly detected changes in geomorphology and habitat degradation.

  20. Mapping and spatial analysis of the distribution of indicator organisms for water quality in the stream of Ayura (Envigado, Antioquia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra Rojas, Adriana; Aguirre Ramirez, Nestor Jaime; Caicedo Quintero, Orlando

    2011-01-01

    This research evaluates and analyzes the spatial distribution communities of periphyton and aquatic macroinvertebrates used in determining water quality, considering the work done previously by de GAIA group at the University of Antioquia on water stream Ayura. We used the functions of hydrological models preset into GIS tool, which was conducted the layout of the stream netting with. Through the overlay of thematic layers, was obtained a mapping tool that allowed us to determine the relationship between land uses given to near areas where the sampling stations were located and the population of collected organisms, they were identified at each point. The results allow us to say that, both communities of protists and aquatic macroinvertebrates as indexes established, BMWP Colombia, Dinius and INSG, show a good quality of water resources for the station 1, which are coniferous forest, high and low stubbles; in station 2, it has an acceptable quality, and it has been noticed some buildings there, pastures and monocultures; finally at station 3, located in urban areas, the water quality is lower than previous stations

  1. Quality indicators for eye bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Manisha; Biswas, Saurabh; Das, Animesh; Mathur, Umang; Dave, Abhishek; Singh, Ashok; Dubey, Suneeta

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study is to identify quality indicators of the eye bank and validate their effectivity. Adverse reaction rate, discard rate, protocol deviation rate, and compliance rate were defined as Quality Indicators of the eye bank. These were identified based on definition of quality that captures two dimensions - "result quality" and "process quality." The indicators were measured and tracked as part of quality assurance (QA) program of the eye bank. Regular audits were performed to validate alignment of standard operating procedures (SOP) with regulatory and surgeon acceptance standards and alignment of activities performed in the eye bank with the SOP. Prospective study of the indicators was performed by comparing their observed values over the period 2011-2016. Adverse reaction rate decreased more than 8-fold (from 0.61% to 0.07%), discard rate decreased and stabilized at 30%, protocol deviation rate decreased from 1.05% to 0.08%, and compliance rate reported by annual quality audits improved from 59% to 96% at the same time. In effect, adverse reaction rate, discard rate, and protocol deviation rate were leading indicators, and compliance rate was the trailing indicator. These indicators fulfill an important gap in available literature on QA in eye banking. There are two ways in which these findings can be meaningful. First, eye banks which are new to quality measurement can adopt these indicators. Second, eye banks which are already deeply engaged in quality improvement can test these indicators in their eye bank, thereby incorporating them widely and improving them over time.

  2. Evaluation of seasonal variation of water quality using multivariate statistical analysis and irrigation parameter indices in Ajakanga area, Ibadan, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganiyu, S. A.; Badmus, B. S.; Olurin, O. T.; Ojekunle, Z. O.

    2018-03-01

    The variation of groundwater quality across different regions is of great importance in the study of groundwater so as to ascertain the sources of contaminants to available water sources. Geochemical assessment of groundwater samples from hand-dug wells were done within the vicinity of Ajakanga dumpsite, Ibadan, Southwestern, Nigeria, with the aim of assessing their suitability for domestic and irrigation purposes. Ten groundwater samples were collected both in dry and wet seasons for analysis of physicochemical parameters such as: pH, EC, TDS, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, HCO3^{ - } Cl-, SO4^{2 - }, NO3^{2 - } principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) were used to determine probable sources of groundwater contamination. The results of the analyses showed the groundwater samples to be within permissible limits of WHO/NSDWQ, while elevated values of concentrations of most analyzed chemical constituents in water samples were noticed in S1 and S10 due to their nearness to the dumpsite and agricultural overflow, respectively. Groundwater in the study area is of hard, fresh and alkaline nature. There are very strong associations between EC and TDS, HCO3^{ - } and CO3^{2 - } in both seasons. PCA identified five and three major factors accounting for 95.7 and 88.7% of total variation in water quality for dry and wet seasons, respectively. PCA also identified factors influencing water quality as those probably related to mineral dissolution, groundwater-rock interaction, weathering process and anthropogenic activities from the dumpsite. Results of CA show groups based on similar water quality characteristics and on the extent of proximity to the dumpsite. Assessment for irrigation purpose showed that most of the water samples were suitable for agricultural purpose except in a few locations.

  3. Quality indicators for eye bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Acharya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study is to identify quality indicators of the eye bank and validate their effectivity. Methods: Adverse reaction rate, discard rate, protocol deviation rate, and compliance rate were defined as Quality Indicators of the eye bank. These were identified based on definition of quality that captures two dimensions – “result quality” and “process quality.” The indicators were measured and tracked as part of quality assurance (QA program of the eye bank. Regular audits were performed to validate alignment of standard operating procedures (SOP with regulatory and surgeon acceptance standards and alignment of activities performed in the eye bank with the SOP. Prospective study of the indicators was performed by comparing their observed values over the period 2011–2016. Results: Adverse reaction rate decreased more than 8-fold (from 0.61% to 0.07%, discard rate decreased and stabilized at 30%, protocol deviation rate decreased from 1.05% to 0.08%, and compliance rate reported by annual quality audits improved from 59% to 96% at the same time. In effect, adverse reaction rate, discard rate, and protocol deviation rate were leading indicators, and compliance rate was the trailing indicator. Conclusion: These indicators fulfill an important gap in available literature on QA in eye banking. There are two ways in which these findings can be meaningful. First, eye banks which are new to quality measurement can adopt these indicators. Second, eye banks which are already deeply engaged in quality improvement can test these indicators in their eye bank, thereby incorporating them widely and improving them over time.

  4. Website quality indicators for consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Kathleen M; Christensen, Helen

    2005-11-15

    The rating tool DISCERN was designed for use by consumers without content expertise to evaluate the quality of health information. There is some evidence that DISCERN may be a valid indicator of evidence-based website quality when applied by health professionals. However, it is not known if the tool is a valid measure of evidence-based quality when used by consumers. Since it is a lengthy instrument requiring training in its use, DISCERN may prove impractical for use by the typical consumer. It is therefore important to explore the validity of other simpler potential indicators of site quality such as Google PageRank. This study aimed to determine (1) whether the instrument DISCERN is a valid indicator of evidence-based Web content quality for consumers without specific mental health training, and (2) whether Google PageRank is an indicator of website content quality as measured by an evidence-based gold standard. This was a cross-sectional survey of depression websites using consumer and health professional raters. The main outcome measures were (1) site characteristics, (2) evidence-based quality of content as measured by evidence-based depression guidelines, (3) DISCERN scores, (4) Google PageRank, and (5) user satisfaction. There was a significant association between evidence-based quality ratings and average DISCERN ratings both for consumers (r = 0.62, P = .001) and health professionals (r = 0.80, P PageRank (r = 0.59, P = .002). However, the correlation between DISCERN scores and user satisfaction was higher than the correlation between Google PageRank and user satisfaction. DISCERN has potential as an indicator of content quality when used either by experts or by consumers. Google PageRank shows some promise as an automatic indicator of quality.

  5. Urbanization, housing and environmental quality indicators ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urbanization, housing and environmental quality indicators. ... Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences ... Urbanization ideally should also imply an enhancement of housing quality and other components of human settlements such as power supply, portable water, good roads, proper refuse and sewage ...

  6. Water level indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murase, Michio; Araki, Hidefumi.

    1996-01-01

    A difference of pressure between a standard pressure conduit in communication with a gas phase of a reactor pressure vessel and a water level pressure conduit in communication with a liquid phase of the pressure vessel is detected by a pressure difference gage. A communication pipe and a standard level vessel are disposed between the pressure vessel and the standard pressure conduit, and a standard liquid surface on the side of the standard pressure conduit is formed in the standard level vessel. A gas releaser is disposed to the gas phase portion of the standard level vessel. The gas releaser equipment is constituted by a porous material, a permeation membrane and a gas exhaustion hole. The gas phase of the standard level vessel is divided by a partition plate into a first gas phase being in contact with a connection portion with the communication pipe and a second gas phase in contact with the gas releaser. A gas flow channel hole and a condensate descending hole are disposed to the partition plate. Since incondensible gases accumulated to the standard level vessel are effectively exhausted, the incondensible gases are prevented from being dissolved into liquid. (I.N.)

  7. Assessing the spatial pattern of a river water quality in southern Brazil by multivariate analysis of biological and chemical indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. B. Cassanego

    Full Text Available Abstract This study assessed the genotoxicity and chemical quality of the Rio dos Sinos, southern Brazil. During two years, bimonthly, cuttings of Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea with flower buds were exposed to river water samples from Caraá, Santo Antônio da Patrulha, Taquara and Campo Bom, which are municipalities located in the upper, middle and lower stretches of the Rio dos Sinos basin. Simultaneously, chemical parameters were analyzed, rainfall data were surveyed and negative (distilled water and positive (0.1% formaldehyde controls were made. Micronuclei (MCN frequencies were determined in tetrads of pollen grain mother cells. From the upper stretch toward the lower, there was an increase in the frequency of MCN and in concentrations of chemical parameters. Cadmium, lead, copper, total chromium and zinc were present at the four sites and a concentration gradient was not demonstrated along the river. The multivariate analysis revealed that two principal components exist, which accounted for 62.3% of the observed variances. Although genotoxicity was observed in Santo Antônio da Patrulha, the water presented higher mean values for most of the assessed parameters, in the lower stretch, where urbanization and industrialization are greater. The spatial and temporal pattern of water quality observed reinforces the importance of considering the environmental factors and their effects on organisms in an integrated way in watercourse monitoring programs.

  8. Water quality assessment using the AREc32 reporter gene assay indicative of the oxidative stress response pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escher, Beate I; Dutt, Mriga; Maylin, Erin; Tang, Janet Y M; Toze, Simon; Wolf, C Roland; Lang, Matti

    2012-11-01

    The reporter gene assay AREc32 is based on the induction of the Nrf2 mediated oxidative stress response pathway in the human breast cancer cell line MCF7, where eight copies of the antioxidant response element (ARE) are linked to a reporter gene encoding for luciferase. The Nrf2-ARE pathway is responsive to many chemicals that cause oxidative stress, among them a large number of pesticides and skin irritants. We adopted and validated the AREc32 bioassay for water quality testing. tert-Butylhydroquinone served as the positive control, phenol as the negative control and other reactive chemicals were assessed for their specificity. An environmentally relevant reference chemical, benzo(a)pyrene was the most potent inducer of all tested chemicals. The concentration causing an induction ratio (IR) of 1.5 (EC(IR1.5)) was chosen as the effect benchmark value. The assay was applied to 21 water samples ranging from sewage to drinking water, including secondary treatment and various tertiary treatment options (ozonation, biologically activated carbon filtration, membrane filtration, reverse osmosis, advanced oxidation, chlorination, chloramination). The samples were enriched by solid phase extraction. In most samples the oxidative stress response was far more sensitive than cytotoxicity. The primary and secondary treated effluent exceeded the effect threshold IR 1.5 at a relative enrichment factor (REF) of 1, i.e., the native samples were active. All tertiary treated samples were less potent and their EC(IR1.5) lay between REF 1 and 10. The Nrf2 pathway was induced at a REF of approximately 10 for surface waters and drinking water, and above this enrichment cytotoxicity took over in most samples and quenched the induction. The blank (ultrapure water run through the sample enrichment process) was cytotoxic at an REF of 100, which is the limit of concentrations range that can be evaluated. Treatment typically decreased both the cytotoxicity and oxidative stress response apart

  9. Water quality diagnosis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagase, Makoto; Asakura, Yamato; Sakagami, Masaharu

    1989-01-01

    By using a model representing a relationship between the water quality parameter and the dose rate in primary coolant circuits of a water cooled reactor, forecasting for the feature dose rate and abnormality diagnosis for the water quality are conducted. The analysis model for forecasting the reactor water activity or the dose rate receives, as the input, estimated curves for the forecast Fe, Ni, Co concentration in feedwater or reactor water pH, etc. from the water quality data in the post and forecasts the future radioactivity or dose rate in the reactor water. By comparing the result of the forecast and the setting value such as an aimed value, it can be seen whether the water quality at present or estimated to be changed is satisfactory or not. If the quality is not satisfactory, it is possible to take an early countermeasure. Accordingly, the reactor water activity and the dose rate can be kept low. Further, the basic system constitution, diagnosis algorithm, indication, etc. are identical between BWR and PWR reactors, except for only the difference in the mass balance. (K.M.)

  10. Remote Sensing and Water Quality Indicators in the West Flood Canal Semarang City: Spatio-temporal Structures of Lansat-8 Derived Chlorophyll-a and Total Suspended Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subiyanto, Sawitri

    2017-12-01

    One of the waters that has been contaminated by industrial waste and domestic waste is the waters of West Flood Canal in Semarang City which is the estuary of the river system, which passes through the Western City of Semarang which is dense with residential and industrial. So, it is necessary to have information about the assessment of water quality in the estuary of the West Flood Canal. Remote sensing technology can analyze the results of recording the spectral characteristics of water with water quality parameters. One of the parameters for assessing water quality is Chlorophyll-a and Total Suspended Solid, can be estimated through remote sensing technology using multispectral Lansat-8 Satellite images data from April, June, and August, 2017 and there are three selected algorithms. Based on the results of TSS and Chlorophyll-A processing, the TSS shows values greater than or equal to 100 which can be said that West Flood Canal is damaged (hypertrophic). While the chlorophyll-a shows a value less than 100 indicating Eutrophic status (threatened). This is caused by the number of suspended materials in the water surface and also because of the disturbance of water vegetation in the form of weeds that destroy the function of the actual West Canal Flood.

  11. Using of zooplankton indicators in assessing the quality of waters in two lakes in the Gulf of Finland basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulakov Dmitry

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2012–2015 zooplankton studies were carried out and the quality of the waters of the Kopanskoe and the Gorovaldayskoe lakes belonging to the Gulf of Finland basin (Leningrad region was assessed. Under the frame of long-term monitoring studies on these waterbodies, such work has not previously been carried out. The sampling stations were located in the coastal part of the waterbodies. Zooplankton of the lakes included 46 taxons of species and subspecies ranks, it was typical of the North-West of Russia and represented mainly by eurybiontic species with high ecological plasticity. In Gorovaldayskoe lake most affected by the anthropogenic influence, in comparison with the Kopanskoe, showed the lowest species richness and the lowest values of the biodiversity index. Nevertheless, the mass development of Cladocera, which made the main contribution to the population and the biomass of the community, promoted the active development of the processes of biological self-purification of this lake, as evidenced by a decrease by coefficient trophicity. According to the saprobity index in the waters of the studied lakes belonged to the oligosaprobic – β-mesosaprobic zone.

  12. Sediment, water pollution indicators for heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabaleiro, S.; Horn, A.

    2010-01-01

    The complexity of an aquatic system requires consideration of its dynamics: spatial and temporal variations of physical, chemical and biological. Heavy metals have peculiar behavior in the aquatic system and may not be available in the waters, but on sediments.The sub-basin of the Sarandi stream is responsible for the contamination of Pampulha Lake. The Instituto Mineiro das Águas – IGAM - uses tool for monitoring the quality of surface water for developing strategies for conservation, restoration and rational use of water resources. So through the indices: IQA ( Indice de qualidade de águas) Index of water quality, and TC- toxic contamination, reduces conflicts, implements the disciplining of the environmental economy.This study determined the monitoring of sediment and water of Sarandi Stream, so in the samples collected during dry and rainy seasons (2007- 2008) were analyzed heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Cr, Co, Ni, Zn, Pb) and physical-chemical factors (conductivity, solids dissolved, temperature, turbidity). This allowed the determination of Hackanson factors of contamination and Muller Index geoaccumulation, indicating very high contamination in sediments regarding the elements Cr, Cu, and Cd, and high contamination for Pb, Zn, and Mn. The comparison with the indices of water quality- IQA (IGAM - 2006, 2007 and 2008), combined with exploratory data analysis and graphs of correlation between the variables indicated favorable conditions for metals contamination on water and sediment for these metals, besides allowing the identification of its source

  13. Accelerate Water Quality Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is committed to accelerating water quality improvement and minimizing negative impacts to aquatic life from contaminants and other stressors in the Bay Delta Estuary by working with California Water Boards to strengthen water quality improvement plans.

  14. Microbiological quality of natural waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, J J; Figueras, M J

    1997-12-01

    Several aspects of the microbiological quality of natural waters, especially recreational waters, have been reviewed. The importance of the water as a vehicle and/or a reservoir of human pathogenic microorganisms is also discussed. In addition, the concepts, types and techniques of microbial indicator and index microorganisms are established. The most important differences between faecal streptococci and enterococci have been discussed, defining the concept and species included. In addition, we have revised the main alternative indicators used to measure the water quality.

  15. The Nišava river water quality as the indicator of the sustainable development of the city of Niš

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branković Saša

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Nišava river has a great importance for the sustainable development of the city of Niš. From the Mediana spring, which is on the bank of the Nišava, the city of Niš satisfies around 30% of its water demand. The aim of this paper is to, on the basis of the analysis of several tens of parameters of water quality; determine whether the Nišava river is a limiting factor to the sustainable development of the city of Niš. For this purpose the data of Public Utility Company Naissus have been used, as it collects daily samples of the Nišava river water. The number of conducted analyses, depending on the water quality parameters, varies from 1 to 1,240. The obtained results, which have been presented in detail in the paper, indicate that a great majority of analyses, of almost all the water quality parameters, is within predicted range. At the end of the paper, certain measures have been proposed, which should contribute to the sustainable development of Niš in this field. .

  16. Mussels as a bio-indicator of the environmental quality of the coastal water of the Boka Kotorska Bay (Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAJLO JOVIĆ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis was used as a pollution level indicator in the Boka Kotorska Bay of the southeastern Adriatic on the Montenegrin coast. The ever-increasing urbanization and industrialization, combined with a poor sewage system, an increase in both marine and inland traffic, as well as insufficient water circulation in the Bay itself have resulted in some level of pollution. Since heavy metals are extremely toxic and do not easily undergo biodecomposition, the results of this study supply valuable information concerning the metal pollution of the marine environment in Boka Kotorska Bay. The concentrations of the investigated metals and non-metals accumulated in the mussels were determined during the fall of 2007 using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS for Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Cd, Hg, Pb, Sn and V, and Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (ED–XRF to determine the concentrations of Fe, Zn, Si, P, S, Cl, K and Ca. ED–XRF was also used to determine the levels of non-metals and elements present in high concentrations. Comparing the data from this study in relation to data from other regions for Mytilus galloprovincialis, the mussel sampled from the Boka Kotorska Bay showed a moderate level of pollution.

  17. Water Quality Analysis Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Quality analysis simulation Program, an enhancement of the original WASP. This model helps users interpret and predict water quality responses to natural phenomena and man-made pollution for variious pollution management decisions.

  18. Water Quality Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA develops water quality criteria based on the latest scientific knowledge to protect human health and aquatic life. This information serves as guidance to states and tribes in adopting water quality standards.

  19. Water Quality Analysis Simulation

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Water Quality analysis simulation Program, an enhancement of the original WASP. This model helps users interpret and predict water quality responses to natural...

  20. Phytoplankton community: indicator of water quality in the Armando Ribeiro Gonçalves Reservoir and Pataxó Channel, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NT. Chellappa

    Full Text Available The current study analysed spatial-temporal modifications of the phytoplankton community and water quality, during dry and wet seasons. The phytoplankton community was studied in three areas: Armando Ribeiro Gonçalves Reservoir (ARG, which is an important public use reservoir in RN, Pataxó Channel (PC-before water treatment, Itajá, RN, and after the water treatment (WTP. Water samples from the reservoir were collected during both dry (January, February and November, 2006 and wet seasons (March to June, 2006. Quali-quantitative analyses of phytoplankton were carried out. Results indicated a qualitative similarity of the phytoplankton community in the three areas. However, significant differences were registered in these areas in relation to species relative abundance, with dominance of potentially toxic cyanobacteria, such as Planktothrix agardhii Gomont (dry season and Microcystis aeruginosa Kutz (wet season. Ecological indexes obtained higher values before water treatment. Nevertheless, densities of cyanobacteria (organisms/mL gradually reduced in the waters of the reservoir and of the Pataxó Channel before and after water treatment. After the treatment, density values of cyanobacteria were adequate for human consumption, according to the values established by the Health Ministry.

  1. MOLLUSCA' BIODIVERSITY (GASTROPODA AND BIVALVIA AS A BIO INDICATOR OF QUALITY OF WATER IN THE COASTAL ISLAND OF TUNDA ISLAND, BANTEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indria Wahyuni

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The research has been done on Juli 2017 in the coastal region of Tunda Island. This study aims to determine the Biodiversity of Mollusca (Gastropoda and Bivalvia As Bioindicator of Water Quality In Coastal Area of Tunda Island, Banten. Sampling consists of 2 observation stations, namely the mangrove coastal area (3 transects and the seagrass coastal area (2 transects determined by purposive sampling. The observation of each station is done by using the quadratic transect method with 100 m transect line distance, and in each transect line there are 5 observation plots measuring 1m2 x 1m2. The data analysis includes density, biodiversity, bio-indicators of water quality based on diversity index. Result of research on 5 transect found 45 type Mollusca which represent 2 class, that is Gastropoda class of 29 species Gastropoda joined in 14 Family. As for Bivalvia class found 16 species incorporated in 9 families. The total density of Mollusca is 541.2 ind / m2 which consists of 392.4 ind / m2 for Gastropoda class and 148.8 ind / m2 for Bivalvia class. Mollusca diversity was calculated using the diversity index of Shannon-Wienner (H '. The results of diversity index ranged from 3.1356 - 3.3314 with high category. Bioindicator of aquatic quality using diversity index indicates that the coastal area of Tunda Island belongs to a very mildly polluted category.

  2. The Prevalence of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in US Waterways and Their Relationship to Water Quality and Land Use Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in freshwaters are an emerging contaminant of concern. We used 1,747 water samples from the USEPA’s 2013-2014 National Rivers and Streams Assessment and digital-droplet polymerase chain reaction techniques to quantify the concentrations (t...

  3. Soil Quality Indicator: a new concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barão, Lúcia; Basch, Gottlieb

    2017-04-01

    During the last century, cultivated soils have been intensively exploited for food and feed production. This exploitation has compromised the soils' natural functions and many of the soil-mediated ecosystems services, including its production potential for agriculture. Also, soils became increasingly vulnerable and less resilient to a wide range of threats. To overcome this situation, new and better management practices are needed to prevent soil from degradation. However, to adopt the best management practices in a specific location, it is necessary to evaluate the soil quality status first. Different soil quality indicators have been suggested over the last decades in order to evaluate the soil status, and those are often based on the performance of soil chemical, physical and biological properties. However, the direct link between these properties and the associated soil functions or soil vulnerability to threats appears more difficult to be established. This present work is part of the iSQAPER project- Interactive Soil Quality Assessment in Europe and China for Agricultural Productivity and Environmental Resilience, where new soil quality concepts are explored to provide better information regarding the effects of the most promising agricultural management practices on soil quality. We have developed a new conceptual soil quality indicator which determines the soil quality status, regarding its vulnerability towards different threats. First, different indicators were specifically developed for each of the eight threats considered - Erosion, SOM decline, Poor Structure, Poor water holding capacity, Compaction, N-Leaching, Soil-borne pests and diseases and Salinization. As an example for the case of Erosion, the RUSLE equation for the estimate of the soil annual loss was used. Secondly, a reference classification was established for each indicator to integrate all possible results into a Good, Intermediate or Bad classification. Finally, all indicators were

  4. The application of stable carbon isotope ratios as water quality indicators in coastal areas of Karachi, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, R.M.; Mashiatullah, A.; Javed, T.; Tasneem, M.A.; Sajjad, M.I.; Saleem, M.; Khan, S.H.; Rizvi, S.H.N.; Siddiqui, S.A.; Qari, R.

    1998-01-01

    Stable carbon isotope ratios (δ 13 C) of total dissolved inorganic carbon (TDIC), total inorganic and organic carbon in bottom sediments, as well as sea plants in polluted water sources, non-polluted Karachi Sea water and pollution recipients are used to elaborate pollution scenario of shallow marine environment off Karachi coast. These results are supplemented with stable isotope composition of nitrogen (δ 15 N) in seaweeds and mangroves, toxic/trace metal concentration in sea-bottom sediments, total Coliform bacterial population, electrical conductivity, temperature and turbidity. Isotopic data shows that the mangrove ecosystem and the tidal fluctuations play a key role in controlling contamination inventories in shallow sea water off Karachi coast, specifically the Manora Channel. The Karachi harbour zone is found to be the most heavily polluted marine site in Manora channel during high as well as low tide regimes. Significant concentrations of toxic metals such as Pb, Ni, Cr, Zn, V, U are observed in off-shore sediments of Karachi coast. The results show that sewage and industrial wastes are the main sources of heavy metal pollution in Karachi harbour, Manora Channel exit zone and the southeast coast. However, as compared to other coastal areas, the Karachi coast is moderately polluted. Studies suggest incorporation of quick remedial measures to combat pollution in shallow marine environments off Karachi Coast. (author)

  5. Price as indicator for quality?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Hansen, Jørgen Drud

    This paper examines the relation between price differences and quality differences in an oligopoly model with intra-industry trade, where goods are horizontally as well as vertically differentiated. The analysis demonstrates that the ratio of prices is not linked to the ratio of qualities in any...

  6. Age-Related Shifts in the Density and Distribution of Genetic Marker Water Quality Indicators in Cow and Calf Feces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent studies have shown that different adult bovine animal feeding practices dramatically influence fecal indicator bacteria shedding, however very little is known about juvenile milk-fed calves. Calves (≤ 6 months of age) make up about 16% of the current bovine population in ...

  7. Water Quality, Weather and Environmental Factors Associated with Fecal Indicator Organism Density in Beach Sand at Two Recreational Marine Beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent studies showing an association between fecal indicator organisms (FIOs and gastrointestinal (GI) illness among beachgoers wit sand contact have important public health implicatons because of the large numbers of people who recreate at beaches and engage in sand contact act...

  8. Air quality indices : a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewings, J.

    2001-10-01

    Pollution Probe presents some background information that will help in the development of a national Air Quality Index (AQI) in Canada. This report examines the issues that should be addressed in revising the national Index of the Quality of Air (IQUA) or creating a new national Air Quality Index. The IQUA was devised in 1976 and provides Canadians with real-time information on the state of community air quality by including major pollutants and their synergies. It is currently being used for air quality management plans and air quality alert systems. At the same time that the IQUA was devised, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) produced a parallel air quality index known as the Pollution Standard Index (PSI) which incorporated 5 criteria pollutants (particulate matter, sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide and ground level ozone) for which national health-based standards were devised. In 1999, the US EPA renamed their index the Air Quality Index (AQI) and made revisions to the primary health-based national ambient air quality standards for ground-level ozone and particulate matter. Separate values for PM2.5 and PM10 were incorporated and mandatory reporting was required for metropolitan areas with populations of 350,000 or more. Similarly, the IQUA has undergone major developments that affect the validity of the index, including: rejection by the Working Group on Air Quality Objectives and Guidelines of the previous maximum desirable and maximum acceptable air quality criteria, recognition that standards for many of the contaminants are outdated, developing more sensitive instrumentation for real-time monitoring of contaminants. This report also describes the use of the national short term Air Quality Index by provincial, territorial and local authorities in Canada. Pollution Probe recommends setting up a mechanism to review and revise IQUA on a regular basis that would incorporate governments, the medical profession, special

  9. Dispersion and retrievability of water quality indicators during tidal cycles in coastal Salaya, Gulf of Kachchh (West coast of India)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mohandass, C.; Jayakumar, S.; Ramaiah, N.; Vethamony, P.

    were high suggesting that the TFC is an important component of viable fractions in the region. Our observations are quite similar to those of Goyal et al, 1977 and Davies et al, (1995), who suggested that fecal coliform bacteria are often.... 50, 73-79. Goyal, S.M., Gerba, C.P., Melnik, J. L., 1977. Occurrence and distribution of bacterial indicators and pathogens in canal communities along the Texas coast. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 34(2), 139-149. Harder, B (2005). Bacteria ride...

  10. Impacts of Zayandehroud Dam on the Macro-benthic Invertebrate and Water Quality of Zayandehroud River using BMWP and ASPT Biological Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ebrahimi Dastgerdi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Dams provide benefits for human societies, but now they are considered as one of the most important factors influencing habitat degradation and changing the hydrological water flow. In order to study the ecological effects of Zayandehroud Dam on the benthic communities and water quality of Zayandehroud river, six sampling stations were selected on the river substrate using biological indicators such as BMWP (Biological Monitoring Working Party and ASPT(Average Score Per Taxa. Then, a quantitative survey of the macro- benthic invertebrates fauna was conducted with 3 replications at each station, from July to June 2014 with a 45- day interval period. The identified macro-benthic invertebrates belonged to 31 families, 16 orders and 7 classes. The results of BMWP index showed significant differences among sampling stations (p<0.001, and significant difference between seasons in all stations except Overgan station (p<0.05. ASPT index also revealed significant differences among the stations (p<0.01. In addition, the results of Shannon diversity index indicated that Zayanderoud Dam construction, has changed diversity and composition of downstream benthic communities due to alterations in the depth and speed of the water flow, as well as substrate structure.

  11. Water Quality Protection Charges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — The Water Quality Protection Charge (WQPC) is a line item on your property tax bill. WQPC funds many of the County's clean water initiatives including: • Restoration...

  12. Biological Water Quality Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page contains links to Technical Documents pertaining to Biological Water Quality Criteria, including, technical assistance documents for states, tribes and territories, program overviews, and case studies.

  13. [Family physicians attitude towards quality indicator program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shani, Michal; Nakar, Sasson; Azuri, Yossi

    2012-10-01

    Quality indicator programs for primary care are implanted throughout the world improving quality in health care. In this study, we have assessed family physicians attitudes towards the quality indicators program in Israel. Questionnaires were distributed to family physicians in various continuing educational programs. The questionnaire addressed demographics, whether the physician dealt with quality indicators, time devoted by the physician to quality indicators, pressure placed on the physician related to quality indicators, and the working environment. A total of 140 questionnaires were distributed and 91 (65%) were completed. The average physician age was 49 years (range 33-65 years]; the average working experience as a family physician was 17.8 years (range 0.5-42); 58 physicians were family medicine specialist (65.9%). Quality indicators were part of the routine work of 94% of the physicians; 72% of the physicians noted the importance of quality indicators; 84% of the physicians noted that quality indicators demand better team work; 76% of the physicians noted that quality indicators have reduced their professional independence. Pressure to deal with quality indicators was noted by 72% of the family physicians. Pressure to deal with quality indicators was related to reduced loyalty to their employer (P = 0.001), reducing their interest to practice family medicine (p programs, without creating a heavy burden on the work of family physicians.

  14. Quality indicators for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poortmans, Philip; Aznar, Marianne; Bartelink, Harry

    2012-01-01

    Radiation therapy for breast cancer has considerably changed over the years, from simple simulator-based 2-dimensional techniques to sophisticated image-guided individualized treatments, with maximally protected normal structures. This has led to a substantial improvement in the outcome of breast...... cancer patients in terms of disease control, survival, and quality of life. This progress is based on clinical research and paralleled by progress in delivering sophisticated radiation treatment. Clinical trials resulted in identifying patients groups who will benefit from radiation treatment. They also...

  15. Assessment of water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, I.H.

    2002-01-01

    Water is the most essential component of all living things and it supports the life process. Without water, it would not have been possible to sustain life on this planet. The total quantity of water on earth is estimated to be 1.4 trillion cubic meter. Of this, less than 1 % water, present in rivers and ground resources is available to meet our requirement. These resources are being contaminated with toxic substances due to ever increasing environmental pollution. To reduce this contamination, many countries have established standards for the discharge of municipal and industrial waste into water streams. We use water for various purposes and for each purpose we require water of appropriate quality. The quality of water is assessed by evaluating the physical chemical, biological and radiological characteristics of water. Water for drinking and food preparation must be free from turbidity, colour, odour and objectionable tastes, as well as from disease causing organisms and inorganic and organic substances, which may produce adverse physiological effects, Such water is referred to as potable water and is produced by treatment of raw water, involving various unit operations. The effectiveness of the treatment processes is checked by assessing the various parameters of water quality, which involves sampling and analysis of water and comparison with the National Quality Standards or WHO standards. Water which conforms to these standards is considered safe and palatable for human consumption. Periodic assessment of water is necessary, to ensure the quality of water supplied to the public. This requires proper sampling at specified locations and analysis of water, employing reliable analytical techniques. (author)

  16. Biological indicators of radiation quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, M.A.; Wong, R.M.A.

    1982-01-01

    The induction of many biological effects by high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation is strikingly different in one or two respects from the induction by acute low-LET radiation. If the acute low-LET dose-effect curve is of the usual quadratic form, it becomes linear as LET increases. In any case the linear slope increases as LET increases; that is, the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) increases. Both changes might be exploited as biological indicators of whether or not the recent recalculations of dose and of neutron contribution to dose at Hiroshima and Nagasaki seem consistent with the epidemiological observations. The biological end points that have been extensively studied in survivors include acute effects, growth and development after in utero or childhood exposure, genetic and cytogenetic effects in offspring, somatic chromosomal aberrations in survivors, and, of course, cancers, including leukemia. No significant indication among offspring of genetic or cytogenetic effects attributable to parental exposure has been found. Among the remaining end points, only the data on somatic chromosomal aberrations and on cancers appear robust enough to allow one to draw definite inferences by comparing experiences at the two cities

  17. Application of multiple geochemical indicators, including the stable isotopes of water, to differentiate water quality evolution in a region influenced by various agricultural practices and domestic wastewater treatment and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, Thomas W.

    2007-01-01

    Spatial and temporal variations in groundwater chemistry indicate that the use of low TDS lake water for irrigation, on land located just south of the City of Dixon, Solano County, California, is primarily responsible for improving groundwater quality with regards to salts. The stable isotopes of water further support this finding and suggest that TDS concentrations decrease as groundwater evolves to a more highly evaporated state. This seemingly contradictory finding was primarily attributed to infiltration of low TDS Lake Berryessa surface water, which has an isotopic signature indicative of an evaporated source and is used extensively for irrigation in the area, mixing with poorer quality locally recharged shallow groundwater. Geochemical modeling using the program PHREEQC further supports the anthropogenic aquifer freshening hypotheses through computed reductions in the saturation state of carbonate minerals in the vicinity of land irrigated by lake derived water, which is undersaturated with regards to modeled carbonates. Additionally, δ 18 O and δ 2 H were found to be useful in estimating climatic variables such as temperature and humidity, illustrating the potential for applying these models in hydrologic investigations within the area. It was however found that USDA NRCS soils data and measured water chemistry were not well correlated and thus the use of soils classifications to assess potential groundwater quality impacts was of limited utility

  18. Water Quality Assessment and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overview of Clean Water Act (CWA) restoration framework including; water quality standards, monitoring/assessment, reporting water quality status, TMDL development, TMDL implementation (point & nonpoint source control)

  19. Quality of Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    The quality of drinking water has been gaining a great deal of attention lately, especially as water delivery infrastructure continues to age. Particles of various metals such as lead and copper, and other substances like radon and arsenic could be entering drinking water supplies. Spilled-on-the-ground hydrocarbon-based substances are also…

  20. Columbia River water quality monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    Waste water from Hanford activities is discharged at eight points along the Hanford reach of the Columbia River. These discharges consist of backwash water from water intake screens, cooling water, river bank springs, water storage tank overflow, and fish laboratory waste water. Each discharge point is identified in an existing National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued by the EPA. Effluents from each of these outfalls are routinely monitored and reported by the operating contractors as required by their NPDES permits. Measurements of several Columbia River water quality parameters were conducted routinely during 1982 both upstream and downstream of the Hanford Site to monitor any effects on the river that may be attributable to Hanford discharges and to determine compliance with the Class A designation requirements. The measurements indicated that Hanford operations had a minimal, if any, impact on the quality of the Columbia River water

  1. Estimation of Water Quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetrinskaya, N.I.; Manasbayeva, A.B.

    1998-01-01

    Water has a particular ecological function and it is an indicator of the general state of the biosphere. In relation with this summary, the toxicological evaluation of water by biologic testing methods is very actual. The peculiarity of biologic testing information is an integral reflection of all totality properties of examination of the environment in position of its perception by living objects. Rapid integral evaluation of anthropological situation is a base aim of biologic testing. If this evaluation has deviations from normal state, detailed analysis and revelation of dangerous components could be conducted later. The quality of water from the Degelen gallery, where nuclear explosions were conducted, was investigated by bio-testing methods. The micro-organisms (Micrococcus Luteus, Candida crusei, Pseudomonas algaligenes) and water plant elodea (Elodea canadensis Rich) were used as test-objects. It is known that the transporting functions of cell membranes of living organisms are violated the first time in extreme conditions by difference influences. Therefore, ion penetration of elodeas and micro-organisms cells, which contained in the examination water with toxicants, were used as test-function. Alteration of membrane penetration was estimated by measurement of electrolytes electrical conductivity, which gets out from living objects cells to distillate water. Index of water toxic is ratio of electrical conductivity in experience to electrical conductivity in control. Also, observations from common state of plant, which was incubated in toxic water, were made. (Chronic experience conducted for 60 days.) The plants were incubated in water samples, which were picked out from gallery in the years 1996 and 1997. The time of incubation is 1-10 days. The results of investigation showed that ion penetration of elodeas and micro-organisms cells changed very much with influence of radionuclides, which were contained in testing water. Changes are taking place even in

  2. FIELD TEST OF THE FLAME QUALITY INDICATOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudin, Andrew M; Butcher, Thomas; Troost, Henry

    2003-02-04

    The flame quality indicator concept was developed at BNL specifically to monitor the brightness of the flame in a small oil burner and to provide a ''call for service'' notification when the brightness has changed from its setpoint, either high or low. In prior development work BNL has explored the response of this system to operational upsets such as excess air changes, fouled atomizer nozzles, poor fuel quality, etc. Insight Technologies, Inc. and Honeywell, Inc. have licensed this technology from the U.S. Department of Energy and have been cooperating to develop product offerings which meet industry needs with an optimal combination of function and price. Honeywell has recently completed the development of the Flame Quality Monitor (FQM or Honeywell QS7100F). This is a small module which connects via a serial cable to the burners primary operating control. Primary advantages of this approach are simplicity, cost, and ease of installation. Call-for-service conditions are output in the form of front panel indicator lights and contact closure which can trigger a range of external communication options. Under this project a field test was conducted of the FQM in cooperation with service organizations in Virginia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, and Connecticut. At total of 83 field sites were included. At each site the FQM was installed in parallel with another embodiment of this concept--the Insight AFQI. The AFQI incorporates a modem and provides the ability to provide detailed information on the trends in the flame quality over the course of the two year test period. The test site population was comprised of 79.5% boilers, 13.7% warm air furnaces, and 6.8% water heaters. Nearly all were of residential size--with firing rates ranging from 0.6 gallons of oil per hour to 1.25. During the course of the test program the monitoring equipment successfully identified problems including: plugged fuel lines, fouled nozzles, collapsed combustion

  3. Water quality and water rights in Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonnell, L.J.

    1989-07-01

    The report begins with a review of early Colorado water quality law. The present state statutory system of water quality protection is summarized. Special attention is given to those provisions of Colorado's water quality law aimed at protecting water rights. The report then addresses several specific issues which involve the relationship between water quality and water use. Finally, recommendations are made for improving Colorado's approach to integrating quality and quantity concerns

  4. Water Quality Data (WQX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The STORET (short for STOrage and RETrieval) Data Warehouse is a repository for water quality, biological, and physical data and is used by state environmental agencies, EPA and other federal agencies, universities, private citizens, and many others.

  5. Dimensionality reduction of quality of life indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Jindrová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Selecting indicators for assessing the quality of life at the regional level is not unambigous. Currently, there are no precisely defined indicators that would give comprehensive information about the quality of life on a local level. In this paper we focus on the determination (selection of groups of indicators that can be interpreted, on the basis of studied literature, as factors characterizing the quality of life. Furthermore, on the application of methods to reduce the dimensionality of these indicators, from the source of the database CULS KROK, which provides statistics on the regional and districts level. To reduce the number of indicators and the subsequent creation of derived variables that capture the relationships between selected indicators multivariate statistical analysis methods, especially method of principal components and factor analysis were used. This paper also indicates the methodology grant project “Methodological Approaches to assess Subjective Aspects of the life quality in regions of the Czech Republic”.

  6. Water quality assessment of river Rimac in Lima, Peru using the Water Quality Index (WQI); Evaluacion de las aguas del rio Rimac en Lima, Peru, utilizando el Indice de Calidad de Agua (ICA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedregal, Patricia; Mendoza, Pablo; Ubillus, Marco; Montoya, Eduardo; Airas, Rosa [Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Lima (Peru). Direccion de Investigacion y Desarrollo; Baca, Luz; Fajardo, Walter [Direccion General de Salud Ambiental (DIGESA), Area de Proteccion de los Recursos Hidricos, Calle Las Amapolas 350, Lima (Peru)

    2011-10-15

    The Water Quality Index (WQI) are presented and discussed. They has been obtained using the results of the physical-chemical parameters: pH, oxygen (dissolved), conductivity, biochemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids, total phosphorous, nitrate, ammonia; the microbiological parameter: fecal coliforms and the metal analysis of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn and Pb in 09 monitoring sites of the river Rimac High Basin (August-December, 2009), characterized by mining industry exploitation. (orig.)

  7. Water-quality and algal conditions in the North Umpqua River basin, Oregon, 1992-95, and indications for resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Chauncey W.; Carpenter, Kurt D.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the results of a synoptic water-quality and algal investigation during July 1995 at 36 stream sites in a 1,350 square-mile area of the North Umpqua River Basin, Oregon. The study area includes a headwaters hydroelectric project area, a Wild and Scenic reach in the main stem immediately downstream, and the watersheds of several major tributaries. Additional data from previous investigations are reviewed, and impacts on water quality in the Wild and Scenic reach from resource management, including forestry and reservoir operations, are inferred where sufficient data exist.

  8. [Drinking water quality and safety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Gutiérrez, Anna; Miralles, Maria Josepa; Corbella, Irene; García, Soledad; Navarro, Sonia; Llebaria, Xavier

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of drinking water legislation is to guarantee the quality and safety of water intended for human consumption. In the European Union, Directive 98/83/EC updated the essential and binding quality criteria and standards, incorporated into Spanish national legislation by Royal Decree 140/2003. This article reviews the main characteristics of the aforementioned drinking water legislation and its impact on the improvement of water quality against empirical data from Catalonia. Analytical data reported in the Spanish national information system (SINAC) indicate that water quality in Catalonia has improved in recent years (from 88% of analytical reports in 2004 finding drinking water to be suitable for human consumption, compared to 95% in 2014). The improvement is fundamentally attributed to parameters concerning the organoleptic characteristics of water and parameters related to the monitoring of the drinking water treatment process. Two management experiences concerning compliance with quality standards for trihalomethanes and lead in Barcelona's water supply are also discussed. Finally, this paper presents some challenges that, in the opinion of the authors, still need to be incorporated into drinking water legislation. It is necessary to update Annex I of Directive 98/83/EC to integrate current scientific knowledge, as well as to improve consumer access to water quality data. Furthermore, a need to define common criteria for some non-resolved topics, such as products and materials in contact with drinking water and domestic conditioning equipment, has also been identified. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Purified water quality study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinka, H.; Jackowski, P.

    2000-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (HEP) is examining the use of purified water for the detection medium in cosmic ray sensors. These sensors are to be deployed in a remote location in Argentina. The purpose of this study is to provide information and preliminary analysis of available water treatment options and associated costs. This information, along with the technical requirements of the sensors, will allow the project team to determine the required water quality to meet the overall project goals

  10. Drinking water quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, J; Gautam, B; Sapkota, N

    2012-09-01

    Drinking water quality is the great public health concern because it is a major risk factor for high incidence of diarrheal diseases in Nepal. In the recent years, the prevalence rate of diarrhoea has been found the highest in Myagdi district. This study was carried out to assess the quality of drinking water from different natural sources, reservoirs and collection taps at Arthunge VDC of Myagdi district. A cross-sectional study was carried out using random sampling method in Arthunge VDC of Myagdi district from January to June,2010. 84 water samples representing natural sources, reservoirs and collection taps from the study area were collected. The physico-chemical and microbiological analysis was performed following standards technique set by APHA 1998 and statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS 11.5. The result was also compared with national and WHO guidelines. Out of 84 water samples (from natural source, reservoirs and tap water) analyzed, drinking water quality parameters (except arsenic and total coliform) of all water samples was found to be within the WHO standards and national standards.15.48% of water samples showed pH (13) higher than the WHO permissible guideline values. Similarly, 85.71% of water samples showed higher Arsenic value (72) than WHO value. Further, the statistical analysis showed no significant difference (Pwater for collection taps water samples of winter (January, 2010) and summer (June, 2010). The microbiological examination of water samples revealed the presence of total coliform in 86.90% of water samples. The results obtained from physico-chemical analysis of water samples were within national standard and WHO standards except arsenic. The study also found the coliform contamination to be the key problem with drinking water.

  11. Remote sensing and water quality indicators in the Korean West coast: Spatio-temporal structures of MODIS-derived chlorophyll-a and total suspended solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hae-Cheol; Son, Seunghyun; Kim, Yong Hoon; Khim, Jong Seong; Nam, Jungho; Chang, Won Keun; Lee, Jung-Ho; Lee, Chang-Hee; Ryu, Jongseong

    2017-08-15

    The Yellow Sea is a shallow marginal sea with a large tidal range. In this study, ten areas located along the western coast of the Korean Peninsula are investigated with respect to remotely sensed water quality indicators derived from NASA MODIS aboard of the satellite Aqua. We found that there was a strong seasonal trend with spatial heterogeneity. In specific, a strong six-month phase-lag was found between chlorophyll-a and total suspended solid owing to their inversed seasonality, which could be explained by different dynamics and environmental settings. Chlorophyll-a concentration seemed to be dominantly influenced by temperature, while total suspended solid was largely governed by local tidal forcing and bottom topography. This study demonstrated the potential and applicability of satellite products in coastal management, and highlighted find that remote-sensing would be a promising tool in resolving orthogonality of large spatio-temporal scale variabilities when combining with proper time series analyses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Water Quality Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    With the backing of NASA, researchers at Michigan State University, the University of Minnesota, and the University of Wisconsin have begun using satellite data to measure lake water quality and clarity of the lakes in the Upper Midwest. This false color IKONOS image displays the water clarity of the lakes in Eagan, Minnesota. Scientists measure the lake quality in satellite data by observing the ratio of blue to red light in the satellite data. When the amount of blue light reflecting off of the lake is high and the red light is low, a lake generally had high water quality. Lakes loaded with algae and sediments, on the other hand, reflect less blue light and more red light. In this image, scientists used false coloring to depict the level of clarity of the water. Clear lakes are blue, moderately clear lakes are green and yellow, and murky lakes are orange and red. Using images such as these along with data from the Landsat satellites and NASA's Terra satellite, the scientists plan to create a comprehensive water quality map for the entire Great Lakes region in the next few years. For more information, read: Testing the Waters (Image courtesy Upper Great Lakes Regional Earth Science Applications Center, based on data copyright Space Imaging)

  13. Formalising medical quality indicators to improve guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Gendt, Marjolein; Ten Teije, Annette; Serban, Radu; Van Harmelen, Frank

    2005-01-01

    Medical guidelines can significantly improve quality of medical care and reduce costs. But how do we get sound and well-structured guidelines? This paper investigates the use of quality indicators that are formulated by medical institutions to evaluate medical care. The main research questions are

  14. interRAI home care quality indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morris, J.N.; Fries, B.E.; Frijters, D.H.M.; Hirdes, J.P.; Steel, R.K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: This paper describe the development of interRAI's second-generation home care quality indicators (HC-QIs). They are derived from two of interRAI's widely used community assessments: the Community Health Assessment and the Home Care Assessment. In this work the form in which the quality

  15. Ground Water Quality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results showed that Na and K were the most abundant dissolved cations in the groundwater. The. + .... concentration of phosphate (PO ) in the water. 4 samples was ...... The Effect of Copper on Some Laboratory Indices of Clarias.

  16. Linking land-use type and stream water quality using spatial data of fecal indicator bacteria and heavy metals in the Yeongsan river basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Joo-Hyon; Lee, Seung Won; Cho, Kyung Hwa; Ki, Seo Jin; Cha, Sung Min; Kim, Joon Ha

    2010-07-01

    This study reveals land-use factors that explain stream water quality during wet and dry weather conditions in a large river basin using two different linear models-multiple linear regression (MLR) models and constrained least squares (CLS) models. Six land-use types and three topographical parameters (size, slope, and permeability) of the watershed were incorporated into the models as explanatory variables. The suggested models were then demonstrated using a digitized elevation map in conjunction with the land-use and the measured concentration data for Escherichia coli (EC), Enterococci bacteria (ENT), and six heavy metal species collected monthly during 2007-2008 at 50 monitoring sites in the Yeongsan Watershed, Korea. The results showed that the MLR models can be a powerful tool for predicting the average concentrations of pollutants in stream water (the Nash-Sutcliffe (NS) model efficiency coefficients ranged from 0.67 to 0.95). On the other hand, the CLS models, with moderately good prediction performance (the NS coefficients ranged 0.28-0.85), were more suitable for quantifying contributions of respective land-uses to the stream water quality. The CLS models suggested that industrial and urban land-uses are major contributors to the stream concentrations of EC and ENT, whereas agricultural, industrial, and mining areas were significant sources of many heavy metal species. In addition, the slope, size, and permeability of the watershed were found to be important factors determining the extent of the contribution from each land-use type to the stream water quality. The models proposed in this paper can be considered useful tools for developing land cover guidelines and for prioritizing locations for implementing management practices to maintain stream water quality standard in a large river basin. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Remote methods of indicating oil products in natural waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shlyakhova, L A

    1981-01-01

    A survey is made of domestic and foreign publications covering remote methods of monitoring film petroleum products and oil in natural waters. The given methods are realized in practice with the use of different sections of the electromagnetic spectrum. Remote quality control of the natural waters at the modern level may be an indicator of water pollution with film petroleum products.

  18. Selecting clinical quality indicators for laboratory medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Julian H

    2012-05-01

    Quality in laboratory medicine is often described as doing the right test at the right time for the right person. Laboratory processes currently operate under the oversight of an accreditation body which gives confidence that the process is good. However, there are aspects of quality that are not measured by these processes. These are largely focused on ensuring that the most clinically appropriate test is performed and interpreted correctly. Clinical quality indicators were selected through a two-phase process. Firstly, a series of focus groups of clinical scientists were held with the aim of developing a list of quality indicators. These were subsequently ranked in order by an expert panel of primary and secondary care physicians. The 10 top indicators included the communication of critical results, comprehensive education to all users and adequate quality assurance for point-of-care testing. Laboratories should ensure their tests are used to national standards, that they have clinical utility, are calibrated to national standards and have long-term stability for chronic disease management. Laboratories should have error logs and demonstrate evidence of measures introduced to reduce chances of similar future errors. Laboratories should make a formal scientific evaluation of analytical quality. This paper describes the process of selection of quality indicators for laboratory medicine that have been validated sequentially by deliverers and users of the service. They now need to be converted into measureable variables related to outcome and validated in practice.

  19. Evaluation of Bayesian estimation of a hidden continuous-time Markov chain model with application to threshold violation in water-quality indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deviney, Frank A.; Rice, Karen; Brown, Donald E.

    2012-01-01

    Natural resource managers require information concerning  the frequency, duration, and long-term probability of occurrence of water-quality indicator (WQI) violations of defined thresholds. The timing of these threshold crossings often is hidden from the observer, who is restricted to relatively infrequent observations. Here, a model for the hidden process is linked with a model for the observations, and the parameters describing duration, return period, and long-term probability of occurrence are estimated using Bayesian methods. A simulation experiment is performed to evaluate the approach under scenarios based on the equivalent of a total monitoring period of 5-30 years and an observation frequency of 1-50 observations per year. Given constant threshold crossing rate, accuracy and precision of parameter estimates increased with longer total monitoring period and more-frequent observations. Given fixed monitoring period and observation frequency, accuracy and precision of parameter estimates increased with longer times between threshold crossings. For most cases where the long-term probability of being in violation is greater than 0.10, it was determined that at least 600 observations are needed to achieve precise estimates.  An application of the approach is presented using 22 years of quasi-weekly observations of acid-neutralizing capacity from Deep Run, a stream in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia. The time series also was sub-sampled to simulate monthly and semi-monthly sampling protocols. Estimates of the long-term probability of violation were unbiased despite sampling frequency; however, the expected duration and return period were over-estimated using the sub-sampled time series with respect to the full quasi-weekly time series.

  20. Integrated Urban Water Quality Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rauch, W.; Harremoës, Poul

    1995-01-01

    The basic features of integrated urban water quality management by means of deterministic modeling are outlined. Procedures for the assessment of the detrimental effects in the recipient are presented as well as the basic concepts of an integrated model. The analysis of a synthetic urban drainage...... system provides useful information for water quality management. It is possible to identify the system parameters that contain engineering significance. Continuous simulation of the system performance indicates that the combined nitrogen loading is dominated by the wastewater treatment plant during dry...

  1. Effects of backpacker use, pack stock trail use, and pack stock grazing on water-quality indicators, including nutrients, E. coli, hormones, and pharmaceuticals, in Yosemite National Park, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Harrison; Clow, David W.; Roche, James W.; Heyvaert, Alan C.; Battaglin, William A.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated how visitor-use affects water quality in wilderness in Yosemite National Park. During the summers of 2012–2014, we collected and analyzed surface-water samples for water-quality indicators, including fecal indicator bacteria Escherichia coli, nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, carbon), suspended sediment concentration, pharmaceuticals, and hormones. Samples were collected upstream and downstream from different types of visitor use at weekly to biweekly intervals and during summer storms. We conducted a park-wide synoptic sampling campaign during summer 2014, and sampled upstream and downstream from meadows to evaluate the mitigating effect of meadows on water quality. At pack stock stream crossings, Escherichia coli concentrations were greater downstream from crossings than upstream (median downstream increase in Escherichia coli of three colony forming units 100 mL−1), with the greatest increases occurring during storms (median downstream increase in Escherichia coli of 32 CFU 100 mL−1). At backpacker use sites, hormones, and pharmaceuticals (e.g., insect repellent) were detected at downstream sites, and Escherichia coli concentrations were greater at downstream sites (median downstream increase in Escherichia coli of 1 CFU 100 mL−1). Differences in water quality downstream vs. upstream from meadows grazed by pack stock were not detectable for most water-quality indicators, however, Escherichia coli concentrations decreased downstream, suggesting entrapment and die-off of fecal indicator bacteria in meadows. Our results indicate that under current-use levels pack stock trail use and backpacker use are associated with detectable, but relatively minor, effects on water quality, which are most pronounced during storms.

  2. Effects of Backpacker Use, Pack Stock Trail Use, and Pack Stock Grazing on Water-Quality Indicators, Including Nutrients, E. coli, Hormones, and Pharmaceuticals, in Yosemite National Park, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Harrison; Clow, David; Roche, James; Heyvaert, Alan; Battaglin, William

    2017-09-01

    We investigated how visitor-use affects water quality in wilderness in Yosemite National Park. During the summers of 2012-2014, we collected and analyzed surface-water samples for water-quality indicators, including fecal indicator bacteria Escherichia coli, nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, carbon), suspended sediment concentration, pharmaceuticals, and hormones. Samples were collected upstream and downstream from different types of visitor use at weekly to biweekly intervals and during summer storms. We conducted a park-wide synoptic sampling campaign during summer 2014, and sampled upstream and downstream from meadows to evaluate the mitigating effect of meadows on water quality. At pack stock stream crossings, Escherichia coli concentrations were greater downstream from crossings than upstream (median downstream increase in Escherichia coli of three colony forming units 100 mL-1), with the greatest increases occurring during storms (median downstream increase in Escherichia coli of 32 CFU 100 mL-1). At backpacker use sites, hormones, and pharmaceuticals (e.g., insect repellent) were detected at downstream sites, and Escherichia coli concentrations were greater at downstream sites (median downstream increase in Escherichia coli of 1 CFU 100 mL-1). Differences in water quality downstream vs. upstream from meadows grazed by pack stock were not detectable for most water-quality indicators, however, Escherichia coli concentrations decreased downstream, suggesting entrapment and die-off of fecal indicator bacteria in meadows. Our results indicate that under current-use levels pack stock trail use and backpacker use are associated with detectable, but relatively minor, effects on water quality, which are most pronounced during storms.

  3. Utility of pollution indices in assessment of soil quality around ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality of soil in the vicinity of Madaka mining sites were investigated in this study using Environmental Pollution Indices. Geological mapping of the study area indicated that the area was dominated by schist and granite. The static water level measurement revealed a westward groundwater flow direction which also ...

  4. Agricultural drainage water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madani, A.; Gordon, R.

    2002-01-01

    'Full text:' Agricultural drainage systems have been identified as potential contributors of non-point source pollution. Two of the major concerns have been with nitrate-nitrogen (NO3 - -N) concentrations and bacteria levels exceeding the Maximum Acceptable Concentration in drainage water. Heightened public awareness of environmental issues has led to greater pressure to maintain the environmental quality of water systems. In an ongoing field study, three experiment sites, each with own soil properties and characteristics, are divided into drainage plots and being monitored for NO3 - -N and fecal coliforms contamination. The first site is being used to determine the impact of the rate of manure application on subsurface drainage water quality. The second site is being used to determine the difference between hog manure and inorganic fertilizer in relation to fecal coliforms and NO3-N leaching losses under a carrot rotation system. The third site examines the effect of timing of manure application on water quality, and is the only site equipped with a surface drainage system, as well as a subsurface drainage system. Each of the drains from these fields lead to heated outflow buildings to allow for year-round measurements of flow rates and water samples. Tipping buckets wired to data-loggers record the outflow from each outlet pipe on an hourly basis. Water samples, collected from the flowing drains, are analyzed for NO3 - -N concentrations using the colorimetric method, and fecal coliforms using the Most Probable Number (MPN) method. Based on this information, we will be able better positioned to assess agricultural impacts on water resources which will help towards the development on industry accepted farming practices. (author)

  5. Mitochondrial activity in fern spores of Cyathea costaricensis as an indicator of the impact of land use and water quality in rivers running through cloud forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Romero, Alexis Joseph; Rico-Sánchez, Axel Eduardo; Catalá, Myriam; Sedeño-Díaz, Jacinto Elías; López-López, Eugenia

    2017-12-01

    Early-warning biomarkers, such as mitochondrial activity, have become a key tool in ecosystem assessment. This study aims to evaluate the response of mitochondrial activity in spores of the autochthonous fern Cyathea costaricensis as a bioassessment tool concurrently with land use and physicochemical evaluation in 11 sites along Bobos River, Veracruz, Mexico, to assess river water quality. Bobos River is located in the Nautla basin, northeastern Veracruz (Mexico); the upper river runs through a protected natural area (Filobobos River and adjacent areas). The study involved three monitoring periods: February, June and September 2014. In each study site, physicochemical water quality parameters were recorded to calculate the Water Quality Index (WQI); also, study sites were characterized in terms of land use. Water samples were collected to perform bioassays where spores of C. costaricensis were exposed to samples to assess mitochondrial activity; a positive control exposure test was run under controlled conditions to maximize mitochondrial activity. A Principal Component Analysis was performed to correlate land-use attributes with environmental variables and mitochondrial activity. Three river sections were identified: the upper portion was characterized by the dominance of native vegetation, the highest WQI (in September), and the lowest mitochondrial activity (63.87%-77.47%), related to the geological nature of the basin and high hardness levels. Mitochondrial activity peaked in September (98.32% ± 9.01), likely resulting from nutrient enrichment in the rainy season, and was lowest in February (74.54% ± 1.60) (p environmental characteristics such as land use and the geological nature of the basin, as well as with those related to human impacts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Monitoring and Assessment of Youshui River Water Quality in Youyang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-qin; Wen, Juan; Chen, Ping-hua; Liu, Na-na

    2018-02-01

    By monitoring the water quality of Youshui River from January 2016 to December 2016, according to the indicator grading and the assessment standard of water quality, the formulas for 3 types water quality indexes are established. These 3 types water quality indexes, the single indicator index Ai, single moment index Ak and the comprehensive water quality index A, were used to quantitatively evaluate the quality of single indicator, the water quality and the change of water quality with time. The results show that, both total phosphorus and fecal coliform indicators exceeded the standard, while the other 16 indicators measured up to the standard. The water quality index of Youshui River is 0.93 and the grade of water quality comprehensive assessment is level 2, which indicated that the water quality of Youshui River is good, and there is room for further improvement. To this end, several protection measures for Youshui River environmental management and pollution treatment are proposed.

  7. Confirmation of putative stormwater impact on water quality at a Florida beach by microbial source tracking methods and structure of indicator organism populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownell, M J; Harwood, V J; Kurz, R C; McQuaig, S M; Lukasik, J; Scott, T M

    2007-08-01

    The effect of a stormwater conveyance system on indicator bacteria levels at a Florida beach was assessed using microbial source tracking methods, and by investigating indicator bacteria population structure in water and sediments. During a rain event, regulatory standards for both fecal coliforms and Enterococcus spp. were exceeded, contrasting with significantly lower levels under dry conditions. Indicator bacteria levels were high in sediments under all conditions. The involvement of human sewage in the contamination was investigated using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for the esp gene of Enterococcus faecium and for the conserved T antigen of human polyomaviruses, all of which were negative. BOX-PCR subtyping of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus showed higher population diversity during the rain event; and higher population similarity during dry conditions, suggesting that without fresh inputs, only a subset of the population survives the selective pressure of the secondary habitat. These data indicate that high indicator bacteria levels were attributable to a stormwater system that acted as a reservoir and conduit, flushing high levels of indicator bacteria to the beach during a rain event. Such environmental reservoirs of indicator bacteria further complicate the already questionable relationship between indicator organisms and human pathogens, and call for a better understanding of the ecology, fate and persistence of indicator bacteria.

  8. Evaluation of headache service quality indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katsarava, Zaza; Gouveia, Raquel Gil; Jensen, Rigmor

    2015-01-01

    that deficiencies in headache care worldwide might be recognized and rectified. These indicators themselves require evaluation and proof of fitness for purpose. This pilot study begins this process. METHODS: We tested the quality indicators in the tertiary headache centres of the University of Duisburg...... of ensuring equal access to the services); and over protocols for reporting serious adverse events. CONCLUSION: This pilot study to assess feasibility of the methods and acceptability of the instruments of headache service quality evaluation was successful. The project is ready to be taken into its next...

  9. Caffeine As An Indicator Of Estrogenic Activity In Source Water.

    OpenAIRE

    Montagner, C C; Umbuzeiro, G A; Pasquini, C; Jardim, W F

    2015-01-01

    Caffeine has already been used as an indicator of anthropogenic impacts, especially the ones related to the disposal of sewage in water bodies. In this work, the presence of caffeine has been correlated with the estrogenic activity of water samples measured using the BLYES assay. After testing 96 surface water samples, it was concluded that caffeine can be used to prioritize samples to be tested for estrogenic activity in water quality programs evaluating emerging contaminants with endocrine ...

  10. Caffeine as an indicator of estrogenic activity in source water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagner, C C; Umbuzeiro, G A; Pasquini, C; Jardim, W F

    2014-08-01

    Caffeine has already been used as an indicator of anthropogenic impacts, especially the ones related to the disposal of sewage in water bodies. In this work, the presence of caffeine has been correlated with the estrogenic activity of water samples measured using the BLYES assay. After testing 96 surface water samples, it was concluded that caffeine can be used to prioritize samples to be tested for estrogenic activity in water quality programs evaluating emerging contaminants with endocrine disruptor activity.

  11. Adjustment of nursing home quality indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirdes John P

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This manuscript describes a method for adjustment of nursing home quality indicators (QIs defined using the Center for Medicaid & Medicare Services (CMS nursing home resident assessment system, the Minimum Data Set (MDS. QIs are intended to characterize quality of care delivered in a facility. Threats to the validity of the measurement of presumed quality of care include baseline resident health and functional status, pattern of comorbidities, and facility case mix. The goal of obtaining a valid facility-level estimate of true quality of care should include adjustment for resident- and facility-level sources of variability. Methods We present a practical and efficient method to achieve risk adjustment using restriction and indirect and direct standardization. We present information on validity by comparing QIs estimated with the new algorithm to one currently used by CMS. Results More than half of the new QIs achieved a "Moderate" validation level. Conclusions Given the comprehensive approach and the positive findings to date, research using the new quality indicators is warranted to provide further evidence of their validity and utility and to encourage their use in quality improvement activities.

  12. Quality Indicators and Outcomes of Emergency Caesarean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    The objective of this research study is to identify quality indicators of cesarean deliveries and determine their relationship to neonatal ..... (N=39). P value. Mean. Age. 24.8 + 5.8. 25.6 + 5.9. 0.74. Duration of labor. (hours) ... chains must be improved on a national and local ... emergency obstetric care: A handbook, Geneva,.

  13. Summarized water quality criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempster, P.L.; Hattingh, W.H.J.; Van Vliet, H.R.

    1980-08-01

    The available world literature from 27 sources on existing water quality criteria are summarized for the 15 main uses of water. The minimum, median and maximum specified values for 96 different determinands are included. Under each water use the criteria are grouped according to the functional significance of the determinands e.g. aesthetic/physical effects, high toxic potential, low toxic potential etc. A synopsis is included summarizing salient facts for each determinand such as the conditions under which it is toxic and its relationship to other determinands. The significance of the criteria is briefly discussed and the importance of considering functional interactions between determinands emphasized in evaluating the potential for toxic or beneficial effects. From the source literature it appears that the toxic potential, in addition to being determined by concentration, is also affected by the origin of the substance concerned, i.e. whether from natural sources or from anthropogenic pollution

  14. Indicating anthropogenic effectson urban water system - indicators and extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauch, G.; Ufz-Team

    2003-04-01

    Urban water systems are polluted by diffusive and direct contribution of anthropogenic activities. Besides industrial contaminants like aromatic and chlorinated HC and other persistent organic compounds, the urban aquatic environment is increasingly polluted by low concentrated but high eco-toxic compounds as pharmaceuticals, fragrances, plasticizers which most have disrupt endocrine functions, and trace elements carried in by surface and sub-surface waste water and seeping processes. This contamination could have a longtime impact on the urban ecosystem and on the human health. The interdisciplinary project on risk assessment of water pollution was initiated to explore new methodologies for assessing human activities on the urban water system and processes among urban watersheds. In a first assumption we used a flow model concept with in- and output and surface water transport represented by the city of Halle, Germany, and the river Saale. The river Saale acts as surface water system collecting waste water inputs along the city traverse. We investigated the anthropogenic effect on the urban water system using the indicators hydrological parameters, compound specific pattern of complex organic substances and trace elements, isotopic signatures of water (H, O) and dissolved substances (sulfate, DIC, nitrate), pathogens, and microbiota. A first balance modeling showed that main ions are not very sensitive concerning the direct urban input into the river. Depending on the discharge of the river in high and low flood stages the load of dissolved matter has no specific urban effect. However, the concentration pattern of fragrances (tonalid, galaxolid) and endocrine disrupters (t-nonylphenol) point to a different pollution along the city traverse: downstream of the sewage plant a higher load was observed in comparison to the upstream passage. Furthermore, a degradation ability of fungi and bacteria occurred in the bank sediments could be detected in lab experiments

  15. The application and testing of diatom-based indices of stream water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The application and testing of diatom-based indices of stream water quality in Chinhoyi Town, Zimbabwe. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... test the applicability of foreign diatom-based water quality assessment indices to ...

  16. Hemodialysis and water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulliette, Angela D; Arduino, Matthew J

    2013-01-01

    Over 383,900 individuals in the U.S. undergo maintenance hemodialysis that exposes them to water, primarily in the form of dialysate. The quality of water and associated dialysis solutions have been implicated in adverse patient outcomes and is therefore critical. The Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation has published both standards and recommended practices that address both water and the dialyzing solutions. Some of these recommendations have been adopted into Federal Regulations by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services as part of the Conditions for Coverage, which includes limits on specific contaminants within water used for dialysis, dialysate, and substitution fluids. Chemical, bacterial, and endotoxin contaminants are health threats to dialysis patients, as shown by the continued episodic nature of outbreaks since the 1960s causing at least 592 cases and 16 deaths in the U.S. The importance of the dialysis water distribution system, current standards and recommendations, acceptable monitoring methods, a review of chemical, bacterial, and endotoxin outbreaks, and infection control programs are discussed. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  17. National Recommended Water Quality Criteria

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Recommended Water Quality Criteria is a compilation of national recommended water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life and human health...

  18. Rapid ecological assessment of benthic indicators of water quality: a successful capacity-building experience for Brazilian postgraduate students in ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Callisto

    Full Text Available Rapid Ecological Assessment protocols are important tools for the training of postgraduate students, as well as the collection of data on poorly-known and protected areas with the potential for the preservation of water supplies for urban areas. The objective of this study was to perform a survey of water quality and diversity of benthic macroinvertebrates in two sub-basins at the Mata do Junco Wildlife Refuge in the Brazilian state of Sergipe. The collection of data in the field, laboratory processing, and the interpretation and discussion of data were conducted in groups by students from two postgraduate programmes in Ecology and Conservation (UFMG and UFS, personnel of the state environment agency (SEMARH, school teachers from the local town of Capela, and members of the reserve's voluntary fire brigade. The results of the assessment were organised, analysed, and presented at the reserve headquarters in the form of posters, for the development of environmental education activities with pupils from local schools, as well as contributing to a SEMARH seminar. Samples were characterised by distinct taxonomic compositions and diversity, as confirmed by MDS and additive partitioning of diversity analyses. The gravel substrate presented the lower mean taxonomic richness in each sampling unit (a1 = 28%, while the average difference among samples (b1 diversity was elevated for both substrates (39% for leaf litter, 41% for gravel, reflecting the pronounced variation among samples, even adjacent ones within the same stream. Diversity between streams was lower in the case of leaf litter in comparison with gravel (b2 = 21 and 31%, respectively. A total of 57 fish specimens were collected with a predominance of individuals of the orders Characiformes (62% and Perciformes (21%. This rapid ecological assessment confirmed the importance of the conservation unit and emphasised the need for its continuation, given its importance for the maintenance of water

  19. Water quality sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizuka, Keiko; Takahashi, Masanori; Watanabe, Atsushi; Ibe, Hidefumi.

    1994-01-01

    The sensor of the present invention can directly measure oxygen/hydrogen peroxide concentrations in reactor water under radiation irradiation condition, and it has a long life time. Namely, an oxygen sensor comprises electrodes attached on both sides of high temperature/radiation resistant ion conductive material in which ions are sufficiently diffused within a temperature range of from a room temperature to 300degC. It has a performance for measuring electromotive force caused by the difference of a partial pressure between a reference gas and a gas to be measured contained in the high temperature/radiation resistant material. A hydrogen peroxide sensor has the oxygen sensor described above, to which a filter for causing decomposition of hydrogen peroxide is attached. The sensor of the present invention can directly measure oxygen/hydrogen peroxide concentrations in a reactor water of a BWR type reactor under high temperature/radiation irradiation condition. Accordingly, accurate water quality environment in the reactor water can be recognized. As a result, determination of incore corrosion environment is established thereby enabling to attain reactor integrity, safety and long life. (I.S.)

  20. River Quality Investigations, Part 1: Some Diversity and Biotic Indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, G.

    1991-01-01

    The following indices for assessing river water quality are described: Shannon-Weiner Diversity Index, Sorenson Quotient of Similarity, Czekanowski's Index of Similarity, Trent Biotic Index, Chandler Score, and Biological Monitoring Working Party Score. Their advantages and disadvantages are outlined. (Author)

  1. Soil enzymes: health and quality indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E. Cerón Rincón

    2005-01-01

    define sustainability, in other words, the maintenance of their functions inside the limits of an ecosystem. The health and quality indicators are a set of measurements (physical, chemical and biological properties that pretend to establish quality standards for this resource; the enzymatic activity is placed inside this set because of its close relationship with the other properties and because of its sensibleness to the changes due to handling and use. The present review pretends to illustrate how the tracking of the biological catalysis of the soil through uses and alterations that an ecosystem may suffer, may supply information for the understanding of how the processes responsible for the maintenance of functions such as biomass production, pollutant remediation and cycling of nutrients, suffer changes and if these are positive, negative or iterative.

  2. [Indication for mitral valve interventions: Development of a quality indicator for external hospital quality assurance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köster, Christina; Schorbach, Lena; Wrede, Stephanie; Meyer, Sven; Kazmaier, Tonia; Szecsenyi, Joachim

    2017-11-01

    The indication for a mitral valve intervention is an important patient-relevant parameter for the assessment of process quality and the comparison of healthcare providers. In this article, we describe the development of a corresponding quality indicator for an external hospital quality assurance (QA) procedure in Germany. An expert panel was set up by the aQua Institute to assist with the development of a QA procedure for mitral valve interventions and the associated quality indicators. In a comprehensive, systematic literature and evidence research, the American and European guidelines were identified as the best evidence available. Especially the more current American guideline formed the basis on which a quality indicator dealing with the correct indication for a mitral valve intervention was developed. The developed quality indicator assesses the proportion of patients for whom an indication for a mitral valve intervention was determined in compliance with guideline recommendations. The indicator differentiates between surgical and catheter-based procedures. To determine whether or not the indication was correct, different medical parameters are included, such as, for example, type of mitral valve defect, etiology of the disease, severity of symptoms, valve morphology (e. g., mitral valve area), valve hemodynamics and comorbidity, which healthcare providers have to document. The documentation for the developed quality indicator is considerable. Nonetheless, its relevance is undeniable because it allows the user to determine whether a surgical or catheter-based mitral valve intervention was necessary and performed according to guideline recommendations. In the first year of its implementation, this indicator should be evaluated for further improvement and simplification of assessment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  3. CHOICE OF MACROPHYTE SUBSTRATE IN THE USE OF DIATOMS AS INDICATORS OF POND WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT: PRELIMINARY DATA ON THE CASE OF ALALAY POND (COCHABAMBA, BOLIVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A. Morales

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Alalay Pond is a 230-hectare, shallow aquatic ecosystem within Cochabamba, the third largest city in Bolivia. With the aim to determine the suitability of epiphytic diatoms for water quality assessment in the pond and to choose a substrate that would hold a representative bioindicator epiphytic community, the macrophytes Schoenoplectus californicus subsp. tatora (Kunth T. Koyama, Typha dominguensis Pers., Myriophyllum verticillatum L. and Azolla filiculoides Lam. were selected and differences in diatom community composition and structure were tested. Diatoms were collected during four sampling campaigns in the March-September, 2011 period, from three stations contiguous to the pelagic zone and prepared for analysis using standard, internationally used protocols. In all, 27 samples were collected from which 28 taxa characteristic of eutrophic environments were identified and 17 others could not be assigned names from the literature. Although many of the species are shared among sampling sites, the epiphytic communities developing at each station were different in structure and composition. Although, there are marked temporal variations in community features on each of the macrophytes, Shannon-Wiener and Pielou indexes, as well as canonical correspondence analysis, showed no marked differences within a single campaign and station among the 4 macrophytes. Shifts in structure and composition are denoted less commonly by species replacement and more often by changes in percent relative abundance of dominant and rare species. Very few species are restricted to a station or seem to show strong preference for a particular substrate. Taking into account growth, structural and ecological characteristics, as well as some phenological features of the macrophytes, S. californicus subsp. tatora and T. dominguensis are the most suitable substrates for water quality assessments in the pond. As demonstrated by multivariate analyses, among-site and time

  4. Quality indicators for woodwind reed material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glave, Stefan; Pallon, Jan; Bornman, Chris; Bjoern, Lars Olof; Wallen, Rita; Raastam, Jacob; Kristiansson, Per; Elfman, Mikael; Malmqvist, Klas

    1999-01-01

    For the generation of sound, some woodwind musical instruments, e.g. oboe, bassoon, clarinet and saxophone, are provided with mouthpieces made from reeds. These reeds are the culms of Arundo donax, a tall, cane-like perennial grass. A general problem is that the material is of varying quality, yet externally differences cannot be observed. Hence, large proportions of the prepared reeds are unusable. One hypothesis is that the changes in quality are correlated with differences in the chemical and anatomical structure of the tissue. Therefore, a comparison of superior and inferior mouthpieces, used by professional musicians, was undertaken to determinate potential indicators of quality. Nuclear microprobe analysis of reeds was carried out and complemented by scanning electron and light microscopy. The elemental levels of Si, P, S, Cl, K and Ca were compared between good and poor mouthpieces using appropriate statistical tests. No statistically significant differences could be identified. Microscopical observations showed that partial occlusion of vessels by tylose formation was associated with material deemed unusable

  5. Readmission of ICU patients: A quality indicator?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldhek, Annemarie L; Rijkenberg, Saskia; Bosman, Rob J; van der Voort, Peter H J

    2017-04-01

    Readmission rate is frequently proposed as a quality indicator because it is related to both patient outcome and organizational efficiency. Currently available studies are not clear about modifiable factors as tools to reduce readmission rate. In a 14year retrospective cohort study of 19,750 ICU admissions we identified 1378 readmissions (7%). A multivariate logistic regression analysis for determinants of readmission within 24h, 48h, 72h and any time during hospital admission was performed with adjustment for patients' characteristics and initial admission severity scores. In all models with different time points, patients with older age, a medical and emergency surgery initial admission and patients with higher SOFA score have a higher risk of readmission. Immunodeficiency was a predictor only in the at any time model. Confirmed infection was predicted in all models except the 24h model. Last day noradrenaline treatment was predicted in the 24 and 48h model. Mechanical ventilation on admission independently protected for readmission, which can be explained by the large number of cardiac surgery patients. All multivariate models had a moderate performance with the highest AUC of 0.70. Readmission can be predicted with moderate precision and independent variables associated with readmission are age, severity of disease, type of admission, infection, immunodeficiency and last day noradrenaline use. The latter factor is the only one that can be modified and therefore readmission rate does not meet the criteria to be used as a useful quality indicator. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of diet quality indicators in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Fatrcová-Šramková

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available 96 800x600 Normal 0 false false false CS JA X-NONE Several indices evaluate the quality of diet. The indices are based on nutrient requirements and dietary guidelines for the prevention of chronic diseases (to reduce the risk of chronic diseases. The Healthy Eating Index, Healthy Diet Indicator, and Diet Quality Index consist of components, which represent different aspects of a healthy diet. The indicators of diet quality are based on dietary intake data from 24-hour dietary recalls.  The aim of the research was to evaluate the nutrition of adults according to the selected criteria of three diet quality indicators: Healthy Eating Index, Healthy Diet Indicator, Diet Quality Index. 234 nutrition daily records were evaluated (from 78 probands per 3 days. Nutritional intake and blood biochemical parameters were defined in 56 females and 22 men (72% and 28% respectively aged from 24 to 62 years. The nutritional software Alimenta 4.3e (Food Research Institute, Bratislava, Slovakia, 2004 was used to calculate the nutrient intake. The evaluation of nutrition intake was focused on four parameters/recommendations of the Healthy Eating Index (to reduce total fat intake to 30% or less of energy, to reduce saturated fatty acid intake to less than 10% of energy, to reduce cholesterol intake to less than 300 mg daily, to limit total daily intake of sodium to 2400 mg or less, on five parameters/recommendations of the Healthy Diet Indicator (saturated fatty acids 0-10% of energy intake, polyunsaturated fatty acids 3-7% of energy intake, protein 10-15% of energy intake, dietary fiber 27-40 g, cholesterol 0-300 mg, on five parameters/recommendations of the Diet Quality Index (to reduce total fat intake to 30% or less of energy, to reduce saturated fatty acid intake to less than 10% of energy, to reduce cholesterol intake to less than 300 mg daily, to limit total daily intake of sodium to 2400 mg or less, to maintain adequate calcium intake – approximately

  7. Communicating water quality risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherer, C.W.

    1990-01-01

    Technology for detecting and understanding water quality problems and the impacts of activities on long-range groundwater quality has advanced considerably. In the past a technical solution was considered adequate but today one must consider a wide range of both technical and social factors in evaluating technical alternatives that are also acceptable social solutions. Policies developed and implemented with limited local participation generally are resisted and become ineffective if public cooperation is necessary for effective implementation. The public, the experts and the policymakers all must understand and appreciate the different perspectives present in risk policymaking. The typical model used to involve the public in policy decisions is a strategy described as the decide-announce-defend-approach. Much more acceptable to the public, but also more difficult to implement, is a strategy that calls for free flow of information within the community about the problem, policies and potential solutions. Communication about complex issues will be more successful if the communication is substantial; if it takes advantage of existing interpersonal networks and mass media; if it pays particular attention to existing audience knowledge, interest and behaviors; and if it clearly targets messages to various segments of the audience

  8. Water availability, water quality water governance: the future ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tundisi, J. G.; Matsumura-Tundisi, T.; Ciminelli, V. S.; Barbosa, F. A.

    2015-04-01

    The major challenge for achieving a sustainable future for water resources and water security is the integration of water availability, water quality and water governance. Water is unevenly distributed on Planet Earth and these disparities are cause of several economic, ecological and social differences in the societies of many countries and regions. As a consequence of human misuse, growth of urbanization and soil degradation, water quality is deteriorating continuously. Key components for the maintenance of water quantity and water quality are the vegetation cover of watersheds, reduction of the demand and new water governance that includes integrated management, predictive evaluation of impacts, and ecosystem services. Future research needs are discussed.

  9. Real-time water quality monitoring and providing water quality ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have initiated the “Village Blue” research project to provide real-time water quality monitoring data to the Baltimore community and increase public awareness about local water quality in Baltimore Harbor and the Chesapeake Bay. The Village Blue demonstration project complements work that a number of state and local organizations are doing to make Baltimore Harbor “swimmable and fishable” 2 by 2020. Village Blue is designed to build upon EPA’s “Village Green” project which provides real-time air quality information to communities in six locations across the country. The presentation, “Real-time water quality monitoring and providing water quality information to the Baltimore Community”, summarizes the Village Blue real-time water quality monitoring project being developed for the Baltimore Harbor.

  10. Performance Indicators of Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sultan

    environmental framework for the promotion of a healthy and comfortable ... (n.d.) consists of six metrics namely: Indoor air quality (IAQ) ..... Quality. Thermal quality measurement in the hospital ...... article/pii/S036013231300142X. Jensen, K.

  11. Quality Indicators for the Total Testing Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plebani, Mario; Sciacovelli, Laura; Aita, Ada

    2017-03-01

    ISO 15189:2012 requires the use of quality indicators (QIs) to monitor and evaluate all steps of the total testing process, but several difficulties dissuade laboratories from effective and continuous use of QIs in routine practice. An International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine working group addressed this problem and implemented a project to develop a model of QIs to be used in clinical laboratories worldwide to monitor and evaluate all steps of the total testing process, and decrease error rates and improve patient services in laboratory testing. All laboratories are invited, at no cost, to enroll in the project and contribute to harmonized management at the international level. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Echinoderms as biological indicators of the quality of littoral waters in the Mar de Alboran (Western Mediterranean, Andalusia, Spain); Equinodermos como indicadores biologicos de la calidad de las aguas litorales en el Mar de Alboran (Mediterraneo Occidental, Andalucia, Espana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conesa Garcia, M A; Lozano Duran, R; Pozo Camacho, E; Ruiz Arias, R [Colegio Maravillas, Benalmadena. Malaga (Spain)

    1999-07-01

    Since 1985, the European Foundation for Environmental Education (EFEE) has used the widely-known European Blue Flag and its logo as a distinction for beaches that comply with a series of environmental, aesthetic, microbiological and physico-chemical quality criteria. Although the Blue Flag has had a positive effect on the overall quality of bathing waters, its presence has not ensured that the flora and fauna of coastal waters were equally preserved. The results of this study indicate the many of the coastal areas studied, some of them holding the European Blue Flag, have a high level of bacterial pollution, with the associated negative impact on their biological diversity. Two scientific method used in sea ecology have been applied: the Jacard rate and the UPGMA algorithm (grouping according to the mean association). Samples of 20 echinoderms species (sea-urchins, starfish, and holothurian) were collected in 17 clearly defined beach strips along the coast of the Alboran Sea, in the Western Mediterranean Sea. The beach strips were evaluated according to their water pollution level. The results confirm the validity of some echinoderm species as good bio indicators of the quality of coastal fauna and flora. By simply evaluating the presence or absence of those easily identified species it is possible to assess the status of the coastal waters ecosystem. It is proposed to include a new logo that substitutes the laws European Blue Flags, with the shape of an echinoderm, using three different species to indicate the health status of the ecosystem. Seminars should be organized in Schools to present the usefulness of echinoderms as bio indicators in coastal areas, and to teach students the importance of preservation of the sea environment. (Author) 17 refs.

  13. Impact of nutritional strategies on water productivity indicators for pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Pascale Palhares

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The productivity of water is a poorly considered indicator in animal agriculture. This is because water is a resource still believed by persons in the production network to be abundant and of good quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of nutritional strategies in water productivity indicators for growing and slaughtering pigs. Five strategies were evaluated: control diet (T1, with a reduction in the level of crude protein (T2, phytase (T3, organic minerals (T4 and the three nutritional strategies combined (T5. The water productivity indicator is defined as the quantity of product by water used. The following indicators were calculated: total weight (kg L-1, cold carcass (kg L-1 lean carcass (L kg-1, and nutrition (kcal L-1. T5 showed the best productivities for each liter of water used. The total weight productivity in this treatment was 3.0 kg L-1, while in T1 was 2.5 kg L-1. T3 had the lowest productivities. The nutritional water productivities were 2,512, 2,763, 2,657, 2,814, and 3,039 kcal L-1, respectively for T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5. Nutritional strategies reduce the use of drinking water and therefore improve water productivities. The best productivities were observed when combining the strategies.

  14. Analytical quality, performance indices and laboratory service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilden, Jørgen; Magid, Erik

    1999-01-01

    analytical error, bias, cost effectiveness, decision-making, laboratory techniques and procedures, mass screening, models, statistical, quality control......analytical error, bias, cost effectiveness, decision-making, laboratory techniques and procedures, mass screening, models, statistical, quality control...

  15. The effects of nutrient losses from agriculture on ground and surface water quality: the position of science in developing indicators for regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schröder, J.J.; Scholefield, D.; Cabral, F.; Hofmans, G.

    2004-01-01

    The magnitude of current nutrient losses from agriculture to ground and surface water calls for effective environmental policy, including the use of regulation. Nutrient loss is experienced in many countries despite differences in the organisation and intensity of agricultural production. However,

  16. Water Quality Monitoring by Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Chemical Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The availability of abundant water resources in the Upper Midwest of the United States is nullified by their contamination through heavy commercial and industrial activities. Scientists have taken the responsibility of detecting the water quality of these resources through remote-sensing satellites to develop a wide-ranging water purification plan…

  17. What's in Your Water? An Educator's Guide to Water Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constabile, Kerry, Comp.; Craig, Heidi, Comp.; O'Laughlin, Laura, Comp.; Reiss, Anne Bei, Comp.; Spencer, Liz, Comp.

    This guide provides basic information on the Clean Water Act, watersheds, and testing for water quality, and presents four science lesson plans on water quality. Activities include: (1) "Introduction to Water Quality"; (2) "Chemical Water Quality Testing"; (3) "Biological Water Quality Testing"; and (4) "What Can We Do?" (YDS)

  18. GKI water quality studies. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, D L

    1980-01-01

    GKI water quality data collected in 1978 and early 1979 was evaluated with the objective of developing preliminary characterizations of native groundwater and retort water at Kamp Kerogen, Uintah County, Utah. Restrictive analytical definitions were developed to describe native groundwater and GKI retort water in an effort to eliminate from the sample population both groundwater samples affected by retorting and retort water samples diluted by groundwater. Native groundwater and retort water sample analyses were subjected to statistical manipulation and testing to summarize the data to determine the statistical validity of characterizations based on the data available, and to identify probable differences between groundwater and retort water based on available data. An evaluation of GKI water quality data related to developing characterizations of native groundwater and retort water at Kamp Kerogen was conducted. GKI retort water and the local native groundwater both appeared to be of very poor quality. Statistical testing indicated that the data available is generally insufficient for conclusive characterizations of native groundwater and retort water. Statistical testing indicated some probable significant differences between native groundwater and retort water that could be determined with available data. Certain parameters should be added to and others deleted from future laboratory analyses suites of water samples.

  19. Measuring educational quality by means of indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheerens, Jaap; Scheerens, J; Luyten, H.; van Ravens, J.

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter the input-process-outcomes-context framework, introduced in Chapter 1 is used for categorising and describing input indicators, process indicators, outcome indicators and context indicators. The chapter starts out with a review and further illustration of this framework and follows

  20. Quality Indicators and Outcomes of Emergency Caesarean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uterine rupture and cesarean hysterectomy were associated with an outcome of neonatal death (p<0.001). Infrastructure and personnel limitations are major barriers to the improvement of quality of cesarean deliveries. Future endeavors towards quality improvement must address these deficiencies. (Afr J Reprod Health ...

  1. Mechanisms affecting water quality in an intermittent piped water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpel, Emily; Nelson, Kara L

    2014-01-01

    Drinking water distribution systems throughout the world supply water intermittently, leaving pipes without pressure between supply cycles. Understanding the multiple mechanisms that affect contamination in these intermittent water supplies (IWS) can be used to develop strategies to improve water quality. To study these effects, we tested water quality in an IWS system with infrequent and short water delivery periods in Hubli-Dharwad, India. We continuously measured pressure and physicochemical parameters and periodically collected grab samples to test for total coliform and E. coli throughout supply cycles at 11 sites. When the supply was first turned on, water with elevated turbidity and high concentrations of indicator bacteria was flushed out of pipes. At low pressures (water was delivered with a chlorine residual and at pressures >17 psi.

  2. Water Quality Monitoring Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Fred J.; Houdart, Joseph F.

    This manual is designed for students involved in environmental education programs dealing with water pollution problems. By establishing a network of Environmental Monitoring Stations within the educational system, four steps toward the prevention, control, and abatement of water pollution are proposed. (1) Train students to recognize, monitor,…

  3. Quality indicators for hip fracture care, a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voeten, S C; Krijnen, P; Voeten, D M; Hegeman, J H; Wouters, M W J M; Schipper, I B

    2018-05-17

    Quality indicators are used to measure quality of care and enable benchmarking. An overview of all existing hip fracture quality indicators is lacking. The primary aim was to identify quality indicators for hip fracture care reported in literature, hip fracture audits, and guidelines. The secondary aim was to compose a set of methodologically sound quality indicators for the evaluation of hip fracture care in clinical practice. A literature search according to the PRISMA guidelines and an internet search were performed to identify hip fracture quality indicators. The indicators were subdivided into process, structure, and outcome indicators. The methodological quality of the indicators was judged using the Appraisal of Indicators through Research and Evaluation (AIRE) instrument. For structure and process indicators, the construct validity was assessed. Sixteen publications, nine audits and five guidelines were included. In total, 97 unique quality indicators were found: 9 structure, 63 process, and 25 outcome indicators. Since detailed methodological information about the indicators was lacking, the AIRE instrument could not be applied. Seven indicators correlated with an outcome measure. A set of nine quality indicators was extracted from the literature, audits, and guidelines. Many quality indicators are described and used. Not all of them correlate with outcomes of care and have been assessed methodologically. As methodological evidence is lacking, we recommend the extracted set of nine indicators to be used as the starting point for further clinical research. Future research should focus on assessing the clinimetric properties of the existing quality indicators.

  4. Quality Indicators and Outcomes of Emergency Caesarean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    personnel limitations are major barriers to the improvement of quality of cesarean deliveries. Future endeavors towards ..... order to address this problem, medication supply chains must be improved on a national and local level and improved ...

  5. Surface water quality assessment using factor analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-01-16

    Jan 16, 2006 ... Surface water, groundwater quality assessment and environ- .... Urbanisation influences the water cycle through changes in flow and water ..... tion of aquatic life, CCME water quality Index 1, 0. User`s ... Water, Air Soil Pollut.

  6. National trends in drinking water quality violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaire, Maura; Wu, Haowei; Lall, Upmanu

    2018-02-27

    Ensuring safe water supply for communities across the United States is a growing challenge in the face of aging infrastructure, impaired source water, and strained community finances. In the aftermath of the Flint lead crisis, there is an urgent need to assess the current state of US drinking water. However, no nationwide assessment has yet been conducted on trends in drinking water quality violations across several decades. Efforts to reduce violations are of national concern given that, in 2015, nearly 21 million people relied on community water systems that violated health-based quality standards. In this paper, we evaluate spatial and temporal patterns in health-related violations of the Safe Drinking Water Act using a panel dataset of 17,900 community water systems over the period 1982-2015. We also identify vulnerability factors of communities and water systems through probit regression. Increasing time trends and violation hot spots are detected in several states, particularly in the Southwest region. Repeat violations are prevalent in locations of violation hot spots, indicating that water systems in these regions struggle with recurring issues. In terms of vulnerability factors, we find that violation incidence in rural areas is substantially higher than in urbanized areas. Meanwhile, private ownership and purchased water source are associated with compliance. These findings indicate the types of underperforming systems that might benefit from assistance in achieving consistent compliance. We discuss why certain violations might be clustered in some regions and strategies for improving national drinking water quality.

  7. 43 CFR 414.5 - Water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water quality. 414.5 Section 414.5 Public... APPORTIONMENT IN THE LOWER DIVISION STATES Water Quality and Environmental Compliance § 414.5 Water quality. (a) Water Quality is not guaranteed. The Secretary does not warrant the quality of water released or...

  8. 5 Water Quality.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    The water quality assessment conducted in the Densu, Birim and Ayensu Basins of Ghana in the Okyeman area ... All the mean nutrient values for Densu, Birim and Ayensu were not significantly .... variability in the composition of the river.

  9. Water Availability Indices – A Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Hui [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wu, May M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Fresh water is a critical resource for humanity and the ecosystem. In general, water resources can be partitioned into two major categories: blue water and green water (Falkenmark and Rockström 2006). Precipitation that runs off or percolates into the deep aquifer is defined as blue water, and precipitation that filtrates into soil, which eventually returns to the atmosphere as evaporation, is called green water (Hoekstra et al. 2011). For human purposes, green water is almost exclusively used for agricultural production, but blue water can be used for multiple competing sectors, such as irrigation and municipal water.

  10. Water quality. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This International Standard specifies a method for the determination of gross alpha activity in non-saline waters for alpha-emitting radionuclides which are not volatile at 350 o C. It is possible to determine supported volatile radionuclides measured to an extent determined by half-life, matrix retention (of the volatile species) and the duration of measurement (counting time). The method is applicable to raw and potable waters and can be extended to saline or mineralized waters, but with a reduced sensitivity. The range of application depends on the amount of inorganic material in the water and on the performance characteristics (background count rate and counting efficiency) of the counter. The sample is acidified to stabilize it, evaporated almost to dryness, converted to the sulfate form and then ignited at 350 o C. A portion of the residue is transferred to a planchette and the alpha activity measured by counting in an alpha-particle detector or counting system previously calibrated against an alpha-emitting standard. (author)

  11. Water quality issues and status in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahlown, M.A.; Tahir, M. A.; Ashraf, M.

    2005-01-01

    Per capita water availability in Pakistan has dropped drastically during the last fifty years. Recent extended droughts have further aggravated the situation. In order to meet the shortage and crop water requirements, groundwater is being used extensively in the Indus Basin. Groundwater is also the main source of water for drinking and industrial uses. This increased pressure on groundwater has lowered the water table in many cities. It is reported that water table has dropped by more than 3 m in many cities. This excessive use of groundwater has seriously affected the quality of groundwater and has increased the incidences of water-borne diseases many folds. A recent water quality study has shown that out of 560,000 tube wells of Indus Basin, about 70 percent are pumping sodic water. The use of sodic water has in turn affected the soil health and crop yields. This situation is being further aggravated due to changes in climate and rainfall patterns. To monitor changes in surface and groundwater quality and groundwater levels, Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources has undertaken a countrywide programme of water quality monitoring. This programme covers twenty-one cities from the four provinces, five rivers, 10 storage reservoirs and lakes and two main drains of Pakistan. Under this programme a permanent monitoring network is established from where water samples are collected and analyzed once every year. The collected water samples are analyzed for aesthetic, chemical and bacteriological parameters to determine their suitability for agricultural, domestic and industrial uses. The results of the present study indicate serious contamination in many cities. Excessive levels of arsenic, fluoride and sodium have been detected in many cities. This paper highlights the major water quality issues and briefly presents the preliminary results of the groundwater analysis for major cities of Pakistan. (author)

  12. Histological Changes in Gills of Two Fish Species as Indicators of Water Quality in Jansen Lagoon (São Luís, Maranhão State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora M. S. Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Water quality of the Jansen Lagoon (São Luís, Maranhão State, Brazil was assessed through histological biomarkers and microbiological parameters. To this end, 29 fish specimens (11 Centropomus undecimalis and 18 Sardinella sp and eight water samples were collected during the rainy and dry periods of 2013. The lagoon water showed thermotolerant coliform indices above the limit set forth in CONAMA Resolution 357/2005. Histological changes observed in the gills were: lifting of the respiratory epithelium, hyperplasia of the lamellar epithelium, incomplete and complete fusion of several lamellae, disorganization of the lamellae, congestion of blood vessels, aneurysms, hypertrophy of the respiratory epithelium, hemorrhage and rupture of the lamellar epithelium and parasite. The histological alteration index (HAI average value to Sardinella sp was 31.8 and to C. undecimalis was 22.2. The average HAI value in both species corresponds to category 21–50, with tissue injuries being classified from moderate to severe. The presence of histological injuries and the HAI values indicate that the fish sampled from the Jansen Lagoon are reacting to non-specific xenobiotics present at the site.

  13. Water quality criteria for lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagpal, N.K.

    1987-01-01

    This report is one in a series that establishes water quality criteria for British Columbia. The report sets criteria for lead to protect a number of water uses, including drinking water, freshwater and marine aquatic life, wildlife, livestock, irrigation, and recreation. The criteria are set as either maximum concentrations of total lead that should not be exceeded at any time, or average concentrations that should not be exceeded over a 30-day period. Actual values are summarized.

  14. Risk-based water resources planning: Coupling water allocation and water quality management under extreme droughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi-Naeini, M.; Bussi, G.; Hall, J. W.; Whitehead, P. G.

    2016-12-01

    The main aim of water companies is to have a reliable and safe water supply system. To fulfil their duty the water companies have to consider both water quality and quantity issues and challenges. Climate change and population growth will have an impact on water resources both in terms of available water and river water quality. Traditionally, a distinct separation between water quality and abstraction has existed. However, water quality can be a bottleneck in a system since water treatment works can only treat water if it meets certain standards. For instance, high turbidity and large phytoplankton content can increase sharply the cost of treatment or even make river water unfit for human consumption purposes. It is vital for water companies to be able to characterise the quantity and quality of water under extreme weather events and to consider the occurrence of eventual periods when water abstraction has to cease due to water quality constraints. This will give them opportunity to decide on water resource planning and potential changes to reduce the system failure risk. We present a risk-based approach for incorporating extreme events, based on future climate change scenarios from a large ensemble of climate model realisations, into integrated water resources model through combined use of water allocation (WATHNET) and water quality (INCA) models. The annual frequency of imposed restrictions on demand is considered as measure of reliability. We tested our approach on Thames region, in the UK, with 100 extreme events. The results show increase in frequency of imposed restrictions when water quality constraints were considered. This indicates importance of considering water quality issues in drought management plans.

  15. Optical sensors for water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerin, Brian A.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.

    2014-01-01

    Shifts in land use, population, and climate have altered hydrologic systems in the United States in ways that affect water quality and ecosystem function. Water diversions, detention in reservoirs, increased channelization, and changes in rainfall and snowmelt are major causes, but there are also more subtle causes such as changes in soil temperature, atmospheric deposition, and shifting vegetation patterns. The effects on water quality are complex and interconnected, and occur at timeframes of minutes (e.g., flash floods) to decades (e.g., evolving management practices).

  16. Physical soil quality indicators for monitoring British soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corstanje, Ron; Mercer, Theresa G.; Rickson, Jane R.; Deeks, Lynda K.; Newell-Price, Paul; Holman, Ian; Kechavarsi, Cedric; Waine, Toby W.

    2017-09-01

    Soil condition or quality determines its ability to deliver a range of functions that support ecosystem services, human health and wellbeing. The increasing policy imperative to implement successful soil monitoring programmes has resulted in the demand for reliable soil quality indicators (SQIs) for physical, biological and chemical soil properties. The selection of these indicators needs to ensure that they are sensitive and responsive to pressure and change, e.g. they change across space and time in relation to natural perturbations and land management practices. Using a logical sieve approach based on key policy-related soil functions, this research assessed whether physical soil properties can be used to indicate the quality of British soils in terms of their capacity to deliver ecosystem goods and services. The resultant prioritised list of physical SQIs was tested for robustness, spatial and temporal variability, and expected rate of change using statistical analysis and modelling. Seven SQIs were prioritised: soil packing density, soil water retention characteristics, aggregate stability, rate of soil erosion, depth of soil, soil structure (assessed by visual soil evaluation) and soil sealing. These all have direct relevance to current and likely future soil and environmental policy and are appropriate for implementation in soil monitoring programmes.

  17. Physical soil quality indicators for monitoring British soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Corstanje

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil condition or quality determines its ability to deliver a range of functions that support ecosystem services, human health and wellbeing. The increasing policy imperative to implement successful soil monitoring programmes has resulted in the demand for reliable soil quality indicators (SQIs for physical, biological and chemical soil properties. The selection of these indicators needs to ensure that they are sensitive and responsive to pressure and change, e.g. they change across space and time in relation to natural perturbations and land management practices. Using a logical sieve approach based on key policy-related soil functions, this research assessed whether physical soil properties can be used to indicate the quality of British soils in terms of their capacity to deliver ecosystem goods and services. The resultant prioritised list of physical SQIs was tested for robustness, spatial and temporal variability, and expected rate of change using statistical analysis and modelling. Seven SQIs were prioritised: soil packing density, soil water retention characteristics, aggregate stability, rate of soil erosion, depth of soil, soil structure (assessed by visual soil evaluation and soil sealing. These all have direct relevance to current and likely future soil and environmental policy and are appropriate for implementation in soil monitoring programmes.

  18. Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP) model helps users interpret and predict water quality responses to natural phenomena and manmade pollution for various pollution management decisions.

  19. Effects of urbanization on water quality variables along urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focuses on water quality of permanent and temporary water bodies along the urban and suburban gradients of Chennai City, South India. Water samples were analyzed for their major elements and nutrients. The results indicated that the response of water quality variables was different when compared to urban ...

  20. Water-quality effects on phytoplankton species and density and trophic state indices at Big Base and Little Base Lakes, Little Rock Air Force Base, Arkansas, June through August, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, Lucas; Justus, Billy

    2016-01-01

    Big Base and Little Base Lakes are located on Little Rock Air Force Base, Arkansas, and their close proximity to a dense residential population and an active military/aircraft installation make the lakes vulnerable to water-quality degradation. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a study from June through August 2015 to investigate the effects of water quality on phytoplankton species and density and trophic state in Big Base and Little Base Lakes, with particular regard to nutrient concentrations. Nutrient concentrations, trophic-state indices, and the large part of the phytoplankton biovolume composed of cyanobacteria, indicate eutrophic conditions were prevalent for Big Base and Little Base Lakes, particularly in August 2015. Cyanobacteria densities and biovolumes measured in this study likely pose a low to moderate risk of adverse algal toxicity, and the high proportion of filamentous cyanobacteria in the lakes, in relation to other algal groups, is important from a fisheries standpoint because these algae are a poor food source for many aquatic taxa. In both lakes, total nitrogen to total phosphorus (N:P) ratios declined over the sampling period as total phosphorus concentrations increased relative to nitrogen concentrations. The N:P ratios in the August samples (20:1 and 15:1 in Big Base and Little Base Lakes, respectively) and other indications of eutrophic conditions are of concern and suggest that exposure of the two lakes to additional nutrients could cause unfavorable dissolved-oxygen conditions and increase the risk of cyanobacteria blooms and associated cyanotoxin issues.

  1. The Microbial Fecal Indicator Paradigm: Tools in the Toolbox Applications in Recreational Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summary of ORD’s recent research to develop tools for assessing microbial water quality in recreational waters. Methods discussed include the development of health associations between microbial fecal indicators and the development of culture, and molecular methods for fec...

  2. Biological and biochemical soil quality indicators for agricultural management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongiorno, Giulia

    2017-04-01

    which included the sustainable management taken into account. A parametric t-test was used to determine the comprehensive significance of the average SI for a given indicator. Reduced tillage increased DOC and POXC in the 0-10 cm of soil (SI=1.19 and 1.18 respectively) compared to conventional tillage. Organic fertilization increased DOC and POXC in the 0-10 cm compared to mineral fertilization (SI=1.43 and 1.41) and compared to no fertilizer applications (SI=1.27 and 1.17). DOC was slightly more sensitive than POXC, however, the t-test resulted to be significant only for POXC. Preliminary tests revealed a significant correlation between POXC and DOC (Spearman ρ=0.53, p<0.001). POXC was more strongly correlated with TOC (ρ=0.8, p<0.001), soil respiration (ρ=0.5, p<0.001) and total nematode number (ρ=0.25, p<0.001), than DOC (ρ=0.37, p<0.001; ρ=0.28, p<0.001; ρ=0.04, p=0.5, respectively). These preliminary results could indicate the better suitability of POXC as soil quality indicator compared to DOC. Further analyses will be implemented to elucidate these relations (including DOC quality parameters and hot water extractable carbon). In the coming months, nematode community composition and abundance of specific groups will be assessed with molecular techniques (sequencing and qPCR). Together, the results will permit to assess the feasibility of the implementation of novel indicators to monitor the effects of agricultural management on soil functions.

  3. Ciliate protists from Cabiúnas Lagoon (Restinga de Jurubatiba, Macaé, Rio de Janeiro with emphasis on water quality indicator species and description of Oxytricha marcili sp. n.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Paiva

    Full Text Available We found 34 species of ciliate protists in the samples collected by the margins of Cabiúnas Lagoon during 2001. The ciliates were cultivated in the laboratory, where they were examined in vivo and identified through silver impregnation techniques. A new species, Oxytricha marcili (Ciliophora, Oxytrichidae, was found and characterized as follows: in vivo length about 60-80 mum x 30-40 mum wide; on average 22 adoral membranelles; 18 left marginal cirri; 18 right marginal cirri; and 3 small caudal cirri. All specimens analyzed presented 7 frontal cirri (3 anterior + 4 posterior, 1 buccal cirrus, 4 ventral cirri (3 postoral + 1 pre-transverse, and 5 transverse cirri. Among the species found, some are considered as water quality indicators ranging from alpha-mesosaprobity to polysaprobity and isosaprobity.

  4. Ciliate protists from Cabiúnas Lagoon (Restinga de Jurubatiba, Macaé, Rio de Janeiro) with emphasis on water quality indicator Species and description of Oxytricha marcili sp. n.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, T S; Silva-Neto, I D

    2004-08-01

    We found 34 species of ciliate protists in the samples collected by the margins of Cabiúnas Lagoon during 2001. The ciliates were cultivated in the laboratory, where they were examined in vivo and identified through silver impregnation techniques. A new species, Oxytricha marcili (Ciliophora, Oxytrichidae), was found and characterized as follows: in vivo length about 60-80 microm x 30-40 microm wide; on average 22 adoral membranelles; 18 left marginal cirri; 18 right marginal cirri; and 3 small caudal cirri. All specimens analyzed presented 7 frontal cirri (3 anterior + 4 posterior), 1 buccal cirrus, 4 ventral cirri (3 postoral + 1 pre-transverse), and 5 transverse cirri. Among the species found, some are considered as water quality indicators ranging from alpha-mesosaprobity to polysaprobity and isosaprobity.

  5. Coliform bacteria as in indicator of sewerage water mixing with drinking water sources in Rawalpindi city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashiatullah, A.; Qureshi, R.M.; Bibi, S.; Javed, T.; Shah, Z.; Sajjad, M.I.

    1993-12-01

    The coliform group of bacteria are consider to be one of the prominent indicators of surface/groundwater pollution as their presence in drinking water sources shows that water has been in contact with soil, plants, septic tanks or sewerage lines/drains. As a part of surface/groundwater pollution studies in various areas of Rawalpindi city coliform bacteria have been determined in the available drinking sources to evaluate their possible connection with the nearby septic tanks and sewerage lines/drains. Selective water samples were tapped from 72 domestic dug wells, and 98 municipal corporation tube-wells and associated water supply lines in some poorly drained areas of Rawalpindi. These samples were analyzed using membrane filter technique. In general, the sampled areas have indicated poor water quality w.r.t. coliform activity. 52% samples of the collected samples have indicated presence of Ecoli. Of these, 73% samples mostly collected from the poorly drained areas have shown significant counts of Ecoli. These water are rendered unfit for drinking purposes. Thirteen water samples collected indicated toxic levels of Ecoli in the municipal water supply caused due to a known leakage in the main domestic water supply line. The presence of coliform in the tube-well water supply taps are thus attributed to ruptures in the underground water supply lines. Present study reveals that general sanitary condition and water quality in the city are poor and that there is an urgent need of improvement in the water treatment and distribution systems by the concern quaters. (Orig./A.B.)

  6. Part 2: Surface water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In 1996 the surface water quality measurements were performed, according to the Agreement, at 8 profiles on the Hungarian territory and at 15 profiles on the Slovak territory. Basic physical and chemical parameters (as water temperature, pH values, conductivity, suspended solids, cations and anions (nitrates, ammonium ion, nitrites, total nitrogen, phosphates, total phosphorus, oxygen and organic carbon regime parameters), metals (iron, manganese and heavy metals), biological and microbiological parameters (coliform bacteria, chlorophyll-a, saprobity index and other biological parameters) and quality of sediment were measured

  7. Water quality index for assessment of water quality of river ravi at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water quality of River Ravi, a tributary of Indus River System was evaluated by Water Quality Index (WQI) technique. A water quality index provides a single number that expresses overall water quality at a certain location and time based on several water quality parameters. The objective of an index is to turn complex water ...

  8. Application of Nemerow Index Method and Integrated Water Quality Index Method in Water Quality Assessment of Zhangze Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Feng, Minquan; Hao, Xiaoyan

    2018-03-01

    [Objective] Based on the water quality historical data from the Zhangze Reservoir from the last five years, the water quality was assessed by the integrated water quality identification index method and the Nemerow pollution index method. The results of different evaluation methods were analyzed and compared and the characteristics of each method were identified.[Methods] The suitability of the water quality assessment methods were compared and analyzed, based on these results.[Results] the water quality tended to decrease over time with 2016 being the year with the worst water quality. The sections with the worst water quality were the southern and northern sections.[Conclusion] The results produced by the traditional Nemerow index method fluctuated greatly in each section of water quality monitoring and therefore could not effectively reveal the trend of water quality at each section. The combination of qualitative and quantitative measures of the comprehensive pollution index identification method meant it could evaluate the degree of water pollution as well as determine that the river water was black and odorous. However, the evaluation results showed that the water pollution was relatively low.The results from the improved Nemerow index evaluation were better as the single indicators and evaluation results are in strong agreement; therefore the method is able to objectively reflect the water quality of each water quality monitoring section and is more suitable for the water quality evaluation of the reservoir.

  9. Measuring quality of care: considering conceptual approaches to quality indicator development and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelfox, Henry T; Straus, Sharon E

    2013-12-01

    In this article, we describe one approach for developing and evaluating quality indicators. We focus on describing different conceptual approaches to quality indicator development, review one approach for developing quality indicators, outline how to evaluate quality indicators once developed, and discuss quality indicator maintenance. The key steps for developing quality indicators include specifying a clear goal for the indicators; using methodologies to incorporate evidence, expertise, and patient perspectives; and considering contextual factors and logistics of implementation. The Strategic Framework Board and the National Quality Measure Clearinghouse have developed criteria for evaluating quality indicators that complement traditional psychometric evaluations. Optimal strategies for quality indicator maintenance and dissemination have not been determined, but experiences with clinical guideline maintenance may be informative. For quality indicators to effectively guide quality improvement efforts, they must be developed, evaluated, maintained, and implemented using rigorous evidence-informed practices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Solid Wastes and Water Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWalle, F. B.; Chian, E. S. K.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of solid wastes and water quality, covering publications of 1976-77. This review covers areas such as: (1) environmental impacts and health aspects for waste disposal, and (2) processed and hazardous wastes. A list of 80 references is also presented. (HM)

  11. 18 CFR 801.7 - Water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water quality. 801.7... POLICIES § 801.7 Water quality. (a) The signatory States have the primary responsibility in the basin for water quality management and control. However, protection of the water resources of the basin from...

  12. Portable water quality monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizar, N. B.; Ong, N. R.; Aziz, M. H. A.; Alcain, J. B.; Haimi, W. M. W. N.; Sauli, Z.

    2017-09-01

    Portable water quality monitoring system was a developed system that tested varied samples of water by using different sensors and provided the specific readings to the user via short message service (SMS) based on the conditions of the water itself. In this water quality monitoring system, the processing part was based on a microcontroller instead of Lead and Copper Rule (LCR) machines to receive the results. By using four main sensors, this system obtained the readings based on the detection of the sensors, respectively. Therefore, users can receive the readings through SMS because there was a connection between Arduino Uno and GSM Module. This system was designed to be portable so that it would be convenient for users to carry it anywhere and everywhere they wanted to since the processor used is smaller in size compared to the LCR machines. It was also developed to ease the user to monitor and control the water quality. However, the ranges of the sensors' detection still a limitation in this study.

  13. Water quality for liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuniwa, Fumio; Maekoya, Chiaki; Iwasaki, Hitoshi; Yano, Hiroaki; Watahiki, Kazuo.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To facilitate the automation of the operation for a liquid wastes processing system by enabling continuous analysis for the main ingredients in the liquid wastes accurately and rapidly. Constitution: The water quality monitor comprises a sampling pipeway system for taking out sample water for the analysis of liquid wastes from a pipeway introducing liquid wastes to the liquid wastes concentrator, a filter for removing suspended matters in the sample water and absorption photometer as a water quality analyzer. A portion of the liquid wastes is passed through the suspended matter filter by a feedpump. In this case, sulfate ions and chloride ions in the sample are retained in the upper portion of a separation color and, subsequently, the respective ingredients are separated and leached out by eluting solution. Since the leached out ingredients form ferric ions and yellow complexes respectively, their concentrations can be detected by the spectrum photometer. Accordingly, concentration for the sodium sulfate and sodium chloride in the liquid wastes can be analyzed rapidly, accurately and repeatedly by which the water quality can be determined rapidly and accurately. (Yoshino, Y.)

  14. Trace element hydrochemistry indicating water contamination in and around the Yangbajing geothermal field, Tibet, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qinghai; Wang, Yanxin

    2009-10-01

    Thirty-eight water samples were collected at Yangbajing to investigate the water contamination resulting from natural geothermal water discharge and anthropogenic geothermal wastewater drainage. The results indicate that snow or snow melting waters, Yangbajing River waters and cold groundwaters are free from geothermal water-related contamination, whereas Zangbo river waters are contaminated by geothermal wastewaters. Moreover, there may exist geothermal springs under the riverbed of a tributary stream of Zangbo River as shown by its Cd, Li, Mo and Pb concentrations. The efforts made in this study show trace element hydrochemistry can well indicate water quality degradation related to geothermal water exploitation.

  15. THE WATER QUALITY FROM SAINT ANA LAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.VIGH

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Inside the Ciomad Massive appears a unique lake in Romania, with an exclusive precipitations alimentation regime. The lake’s origin and the morphometric elements, together with the touristic activity, determine the water’s quality and characteristics. Water status evaluation was realized using random samples taken between the years 2005 and 2010. Qualitative parameters indicate the existence of a clear water lake, belonging to ultra-oligotrophic faze. This is because the crater is covered with forest and the surface erosion is very poor. Also the aquatic vegetation is rare. From all analyzed indicators, only ammonium and total mineral nitrogen have higher values during last years. In the future, the lake needs a higher protection against water quality degradation.

  16. Spectral Slope as an Indicator of Pasture Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Lugassi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we develop a spectral method for assessment of pasture quality based only on the spectral information obtained with a small number of wavelengths. First, differences in spectral behavior were identified across the near infrared–shortwave infrared spectral range that were indicative of changes in chemical properties. Then, slopes across different spectral ranges were calculated and correlated with the changes in crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and metabolic energy concentration (MEC. Finally, partial least squares (PLS regression analysis was applied to identify the optimal spectral ranges for accurate assessment of CP, NDF and MEC. Six spectral domains and a set of slope criteria for real-time evaluation of pasture quality were suggested. The evaluation of three level categories (low, medium, high for these three parameters showed a success rate of: 73%–96% for CP, 72%–87% for NDF and 60%–85% for MEC. Moreover, only one spectral range, 1748–1764 nm, was needed to provide a good estimation of CP, NDF and MEC. Importantly, five of the six selected spectral regions were not affected by water absorbance. With some modifications, this rationale can be applied to further analyses of pasture quality from airborne sensors.

  17. Quality control on the accuracy of the total Beta activity index in different sample matrices water; Control de calidad en la precision del indice de actividad beta total en diferentes matrices de muestras de aguas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pujol, L.; Pablo, M. A. de; Payeras, J.

    2013-07-01

    The standard ISO/IEC 17025:2005 of general requirements for the technical competence of testing and calibration laboratories, provides that a laboratory shall have quality control procedures for monitoring the validity of tests and calibrations ago. In this paper, the experience of Isotopic Applications Laboratory (CEDEX) in controlling the accuracy rate of total beta activity in samples of drinking water, inland waters and marine waters is presented. (Author)

  18. Shallow Water Optical Water Quality Buoy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostater, Charles

    1998-01-01

    This NASA grant was funded as a result of an unsolicited proposal submission to Kennedy Space Center. The proposal proposed the development and testing of a shallow water optical water quality buoy. The buoy is meant to work in shallow aquatic systems (ponds, rivers, lagoons, and semi-enclosed water areas where strong wind wave action is not a major environmental During the project period of three years, a demonstration of the buoy was conducted. The last demonstration during the project period was held in November, 1996 when the buoy was demonstrated as being totally operational with no tethered communications line. During the last year of the project the buoy was made to be solar operated by large gel cell batteries. Fund limitations did not permit the batteries in metal enclosures as hoped for higher wind conditions, however the system used to date has worked continuously for in- situ operation of over 18 months continuous deployment. The system needs to have maintenance and somewhat continuous operational attention since various components have limited lifetime ages. For example, within the last six months the onboard computer has had to be repaired as it did approximately 6 months after deployment. The spectrograph had to be repaired and costs for repairs was covered by KB Science since no ftmds were available for this purpose after the grant expired. Most recently the computer web page server failed and it is currently being repaired by KB Science. In addition, the cell phone operation is currently being ftmded by Dr. Bostater in order to maintain the system's operation. The above points need to be made to allow NASA to understand that like any sophisticated measuring system in a lab or in the field, necessary funding and maintenance is needed to insure the system's operational state and to obtain quality factor. The proposal stated that the project was based upon the integration of a proprietary and confidential sensor and probe design that was developed by

  19. European Educational Research Quality Indicators (EERQI): A first prototype framework of intrinsic and extrinsic indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ton

    2011-01-01

    Mooij, T. (2011, 15-16 March). European Educational Research Quality Indicators (EERQI): A first prototype framework of intrinsic and extrinsic indicators. Paper presented at the final EERQI conference, Brussels, University Foundation.

  20. In Brief: Improving Mississippi River water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2007-10-01

    If water quality in the Mississippi River and the northern Gulf of Mexico is to improve, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) needs to take a stronger leadership role in implementing the federal Clean Water Act, according to a 16 October report from the U.S. National Research Council. The report notes that EPA has failed to use its authority to coordinate and oversee activities along the river. In addition, river states need to be more proactive and cooperative in efforts to monitor and improve water quality, and the river should be monitored and evaluated as a single system, the report indicates. Currently, the 10 states along the river conduct separate and widely varying water quality monitoring programs. ``The limited attention being given to monitoring and managing the Mississippi's water quality does not match the river's significant economic, ecological, and cultural importance,'' said committee chair David A. Dzombak, director of the Steinbrenner Institute for Environmental Education and Research at Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pa. The report notes that while measures taken under the Clean Water Act have successfully reduced much point source pollution, nutrient and sediment loads from nonpoint sources continue to be significant problems. For more information, visit the Web site: http://books.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=12051.

  1. Development of a Portable Water Quality Analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán COMINA

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A portable water analyzer based on a voltammetric electronic tongue has been developed. The system uses an electrochemical cell with two working electrodes as sensors, a computer controlled potentiostat, and software based on multivariate data analysis for pattern recognition. The system is suitable to differentiate laboratory made and real in-situ river water samples contaminated with different amounts of Escherichia coli. This bacteria is not only one of the main indicators for water quality, but also a main concern for public health, affecting especially people living in high-burden, resource-limiting settings.

  2. Review on water quality sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Peter

    2018-05-01

    Terrestrial life may be carbon-based, but most of its mass is made up of water. Access to clean water is essential to all aspects of maintaining life. Mainly due to human activity, the strain on the water resources of our planet has increased substantially, requiring action in water management and purification. Water quality sensors are needed in order to quantify the problem and verify the success of remedial actions. This review summarizes the most common chemical water quality parameters, and current developments in sensor technology available to monitor them. Particular emphasis is on technologies that lend themselves to reagent-free, low-maintenance, autonomous and continuous monitoring. Chemiresistors and other electrical sensors are discussed in particular detail, while mechanical, optical and electrochemical sensors also find mentioning. The focus here is on the physics of chemical signal transduction in sensor elements that are in direct contact with the analyte. All other sensing methods, and all other elements of sampling, sample pre-treatment as well as the collection, transmission and analysis of the data are not discussed here. Instead, the goal is to highlight the progress and remaining challenges in the development of sensor materials and designs for an audience of physicists and materials scientists.

  3. Assessment of the water quality parameters in relation to fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physicochemical indices of water body changed seasonally and this necessitated an investigation to assess the water quality parameters of Osinmo reservoir in relation to its fish species. The water quality parameters were measured using standard methods. Results obtained show that the reservoir is alkaline in nature with ...

  4. Water quality relationships and evaluation using a new water quality index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Said, A.; Stevens, D.; Sehlke, G.

    2002-01-01

    Water quality is dependent on a variety of measures, including dissolved oxygen, microbial contamination, turbidity, nutrients, temperature, pH, and other constituents. Determining relationships between water quality parameters can improve water quality assessment, and watershed management. In addition, these relationships can be very valuable in case of evaluating water quality in watersheds that have few water quality data. (author)

  5. [Construction and implementation of two quality indicators in nursing services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Gisela Maria Schebela Souto; Juchem, Beatriz Cavalcanti; Falk, Maria Lucia Rodrigues; de Magalhães, Ana Maria Muller; Suzuki, Lyliam Midori

    2009-03-01

    Indicators monitor the quality of services and improve the attention offered to the patients. Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, has been developing strategies to assess its services according to its institutional management policy of quality The present study aims to report the experience at this university hospital with the construction and implementation of quality indicators in its nursing services. In 2006, four indicators were established: incidence of pressure ulcer, with a goal of quality of nursing services, for this is a large hospital.

  6. A set of care quality indicators for stroke management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro Soler, I M; Ignacio García, E; Masjuan Vallejo, J; Gállego Culleré, J; Mira Solves, J J

    2017-06-22

    This study proposes a set of quality indicators for care outcomes in patients with acute cerebral infarction. These indicators are understandable and relevant from a clinical viewpoint, as well as being acceptable and feasible in terms of time required, ease of data capture, and interpretability. The method consisted of reaching consensus among doctors after having reviewed the literature on quality indicators in stroke. We then designed and conducted a field study to assess the understandability and feasibility of the set of indicators. Consensus yielded 8 structural indicators, 5 process indicators, and 12 result indicators. Additionally, standards of reference were established for each indicator. This set of indicators can be used to monitor the quality care for stroke patients, identify strengths, and potentially to identify areas needing improvement. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Water dependency and water exploitation at global scale as indicators of water security

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Roo, A. P. J.; Beck, H.; Burek, P.; Bernard, B.

    2015-12-01

    A water dependency index has been developed indicating the dependency of water consumption from upstream sources of water, sometimes across (multiple) national border. This index is calculated at global scale using the 0.1 global LISFLOOD hydrological modelling system forced by WFDEI meteorological data for the timeframe 1979-2012. The global LISFLOOD model simulates the most important hydrological processes, as well as water abstraction and consumption from various sectors, and flood routing, at daily scale, with sub-timesteps for routing and subgrid parameterization related to elevation and landuse. The model contains also options for water allocation, to allow preferences of water use for particular sectors in water scarce periods. LISFLOOD is also used for the Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS), the European Flood Awareness System (EFAS), continental scale climate change impact studies on floods and droughts. The water dependency indicator is calculated on a monthly basis, and various annual and multiannual indicators are derived from it. In this study, the indicator will be compared against water security areas known from other studies. Other indicators calculated are the Water Exploitation Index (WEI+), which is a commonly use water security indicator in Europe, and freshwater resources per capita indicators at regional, national and river basin scale. Several climate scnearios are run to indicate future trends in water security.

  8. Microbial quality of agricultural water in Central Florida

    OpenAIRE

    Topalcengiz, Zeynal; Strawn, Laura K.; Danyluk, Michelle D.

    2017-01-01

    The microbial quality of water that comes into the edible portion of produce is believed to directly relate to the safety of produce, and metrics describing indicator organisms are commonly used to ensure safety. The US FDA Produce Safety Rule (PSR) sets very specific microbiological water quality metrics for agricultural water that contacts the harvestable portion of produce. Validation of these metrics for agricultural water is essential for produce safety. Water samples (500 mL) from six a...

  9. An environmental scan of quality indicators in critical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiani, Sabira; Rigal, Romain; Stelfox, Henry T; Muscedere, John; Martin, Claudio M; Dodek, Peter; Lamontagne, François; Fowler, Robert; Gheshmy, Afshan; Cook, Deborah J; Forster, Alan J; Hébert, Paul C

    2017-06-21

    We performed a directed environmental scan to identify and categorize quality indicators unique to critical care that are reported by key stakeholder organizations. We convened a panel of experts ( n = 9) to identify key organizations that are focused on quality improvement or critical care, and reviewed their online publications and website content for quality indicators. We identified quality indicators specific to the care of critically ill adult patients and then categorized them according to the Donabedian and the Institute of Medicine frameworks. We also noted the organizations' rationale for selecting these indicators and their reported evidence base. From 28 targeted organizations, we identified 222 quality indicators, 127 of which were unique. Of the 127 indicators, 63 (32.5%) were safety indicators and 61 (31.4%) were effectiveness indicators. The rationale for selecting quality indicators was supported by consensus for 58 (26.1%) of the 222 indicators and by published research evidence for 45 (20.3%); for 119 indicators (53.6%), the rationale was not reported or the reader was referred to other organizations' reports. Of the 127 unique quality indicators, 27 (21.2%) were accompanied by a formal grading of evidence, whereas for 52 (40.9%), no reference to evidence was provided. There are many quality indicators related to critical care that are available in the public domain. However, owing to a paucity of rationale for selection, supporting evidence and results of implementation, it is not clear which indicators should be adopted for use. Copyright 2017, Joule Inc. or its licensors.

  10. Evaluating quality indicators for patients with community-acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhew, D C; Goetz, M B; Shekelle, P G

    2001-11-01

    Several organizations have published evidence-based quality indicators for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). However, there is variability in the types of indicators presented between organizations and the level of supporting evidence for each of the indicators. A systematic review of the literature and relevant Internet Web sites was performed to identify quality indicators for CAP that have been proposed or recommended by organizations, and each of the indicators was then critically appraised, using a well-defined set of criteria. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, Best Evidence, and Cochrane Systematic Review databases and Internet Web sites were searched for articles and guidelines published between January 1980 and May 2001 to identify quality indicators for CAP and relevant evidence. Experts in the area of health services research were contacted to identify additional sources. A well-defined set of criteria was applied to evaluate each of the quality indicators. The systematic review of the literature and Internet Web sites yielded 44 CAP-specific quality indicators. The critical appraisal of these indicators yielded 16 indicators that were supported by a study that identified an association between quality of care and the process of care or outcome measure, were applied to enough patients to be able to detect clinically meaningful differences, were clinically and/or economically relevant, were measurable in a clinical practice setting, and were precise in their specifications. Many organizations recommend indicators for CAP. Indicators may serve as measures of clinical performance for clinicians and hospitals, may help in benchmarking, and may ultimately facilitate improvements in quality of care and cost reductions. However, CAP indicators often vary in their meaningfulness, scientific soundness, and interpretability of results. A set of five critical appraisal questions may assist in the evaluation of which quality indicators are most valid.

  11. Internet quality indicators for health professional agencies and associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Karen L; Alexander, Gregory L; Pack, Beth; Bax, Heather; Adams-Leander, Shelia; Holcomb, Melissa

    2005-01-01

    Building on work within public administration research, five categories of quality indicators are proposed for evaluating World Wide Web (web) sites belonging to state health professional agencies and associations. The five measures include: transparency, transactions, connectivity, personalization and usability. This project describes the construction of each quality indicator index and a calculation of quality scores. This project applies these methods to state Boards of Nursing and nursing association websites.

  12. Measures and Indicators of Vgi Quality: AN Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, V.; Skopeliti, A.

    2015-08-01

    The evaluation of VGI quality has been a very interesting and popular issue amongst academics and researchers. Various metrics and indicators have been proposed for evaluating VGI quality elements. Various efforts have focused on the use of well-established methodologies for the evaluation of VGI quality elements against authoritative data. In this paper, a number of research papers have been reviewed and summarized in a detailed report on measures for each spatial data quality element. Emphasis is given on the methodology followed and the data used in order to assess and evaluate the quality of the VGI datasets. However, as the use of authoritative data is not always possible many researchers have turned their focus on the analysis of new quality indicators that can function as proxies for the understanding of VGI quality. In this paper, the difficulties in using authoritative datasets are briefly presented and new proposed quality indicators are discussed, as recorded through the literature review. We classify theses new indicators in four main categories that relate with: i) data, ii) demographics, iii) socio-economic situation and iv) contributors. This paper presents a dense, yet comprehensive overview of the research on this field and provides the basis for the ongoing academic effort to create a practical quality evaluation method through the use of appropriate quality indicators.

  13. MEASURES AND INDICATORS OF VGI QUALITY: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Antoniou

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of VGI quality has been a very interesting and popular issue amongst academics and researchers. Various metrics and indicators have been proposed for evaluating VGI quality elements. Various efforts have focused on the use of well-established methodologies for the evaluation of VGI quality elements against authoritative data. In this paper, a number of research papers have been reviewed and summarized in a detailed report on measures for each spatial data quality element. Emphasis is given on the methodology followed and the data used in order to assess and evaluate the quality of the VGI datasets. However, as the use of authoritative data is not always possible many researchers have turned their focus on the analysis of new quality indicators that can function as proxies for the understanding of VGI quality. In this paper, the difficulties in using authoritative datasets are briefly presented and new proposed quality indicators are discussed, as recorded through the literature review. We classify theses new indicators in four main categories that relate with: i data, ii demographics, iii socio-economic situation and iv contributors. This paper presents a dense, yet comprehensive overview of the research on this field and provides the basis for the ongoing academic effort to create a practical quality evaluation method through the use of appropriate quality indicators.

  14. Dam water quality study. Report to Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-05-01

    The objective of the report is to identify water quality effects attributable to the impoundment of water by dams as required by Section 524 of the Water Quality Act of 1987. The document presents a study of water quality effects associated with impoundments in the U.S.A

  15. 9 CFR 3.106 - Water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water quality. 3.106 Section 3.106... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.106 Water quality. (a) General. The primary enclosure... additives (e.g. chlorine and copper) that are added to the water to maintain water quality standards...

  16. Water quality assessment of selected domestic water sources in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, lead ion appears higher than the approved WHO and SON standard for water quality in all the sources except that of water vendors which is 0.04mg/l. It is therefore recommended that periodic monitoring of water quality, effective waste management system to improve the general water quality in the town, and ...

  17. Water quality control system and water quality control method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itsumi, Sachio; Ichikawa, Nagayoshi; Uruma, Hiroshi; Yamada, Kazuya; Seki, Shuji

    1998-01-01

    In the water quality control system of the present invention, portions in contact with water comprise a metal material having a controlled content of iron or chromium, and the chromium content on the surface is increased than that of mother material in a state where compression stresses remain on the surface by mechanical polishing to form an uniform corrosion resistant coating film. In addition, equipments and/or pipelines to which a material controlling corrosion potential stably is applied on the surface are used. There are disposed a cleaning device made of a material less forming impurities, and detecting intrusion of impurities and removing them selectively depending on chemical species and/or a cleaning device for recovering drain from various kinds of equipment to feedwater, connecting a feedwater pipeline and a condensate pipeline and removing impurities and corrosion products. Then, water can be kept to neutral purified water, and the concentrations of oxygen and hydrogen in water are controlled within an optimum range to suppress occurrence of corrosion products. (N.H.)

  18. Evaluation of Ravi river water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, K.; Ali, W.

    2000-01-01

    Investigation from 1989 to 1998 on river Ravi pollution was carried out to study the effects of wastewater discharges on its water quality in relation to its various water use. The sources of pollution entering the river between Syphon (20 Km upstream) and Balloki Head works (75 Km downstream) includes Upper Chenab Canal (U.C.) which bring industrial effluents through Deg municipal swage from the city of Lahore. Investigation revealed that the flow in the river are highly variable with time during the year U.C. canal with a capacity of 220 m/sup 3//S at the tail and Qadiarabad (Q.B.) Link canal with a capacity of 410 m3/S are mainly responsible for higher flows during dry season. A desecrating trend has been observed in the D.O. Levels indicating increasing pollution. Over times D.O values are above 4 mg/l indicating recovery due to dilution biodegradation and aeration. An increasing trend has been observed in Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), suspended solids, total dissolved solids and indicator organisms. Even with the discharges of pollutions from U.C. canal, Hudiara Nullah and city sewage, BOD at Balloki was unexpectedly low. It was investigated that because of pollution free Q.B. link canal which joins the river just before Balloki Head works makes the water diluted, which accounted for low BOD. Water of river Ravi meet the chemical water quality requirement for irrigation. However the water quality does not meet the coliform and faecal coliform criteria for most water use. (orig../A.B.)

  19. A qualidade de água como indicador de uso e ocupação do solo: bacia do Gama - Distrito Federal The water quality as an indicator of land use and occupation: Gama basin-DF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Amorim Moura

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The spread of Brasília isn't accompanied by correct support of land occupation, situation that is reflected in water quality. Under the optics of land use and occupation, working with multivariate statistics as main tool, water physical and chemical quality of Gama Catchment were assessed. During two years samples were collected and analyzed for 24 parameters. The statistical analysis showed the influence of civil buildings, agricultural activities and the best statistical parameters to a quickly assessment: nitrate, ammonia, suspended solids and aluminium.

  20. A first-approximation urban-air-quality indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    David M. Paproski; Julian R. Walker

    1977-01-01

    Development of the first-approximation-urban-air-quality indicator was reported by the Economic Council of Canada. The indicator takes account of ambient concentrations of five pollutants: sulfur dioxide, particulate matter, oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and total oxidants. Epidemiological evidence indicating the potential impact of these pollutants on human...

  1. Quality Management and Key Performance Indicators in Oncologic Esophageal Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gockel, Ines; Ahlbrand, Constantin Johannes; Arras, Michael; Schreiber, Elke Maria; Lang, Hauke

    2015-12-01

    Ranking systems and comparisons of quality and performance indicators will be of increasing relevance for complex "high-risk" procedures such as esophageal cancer surgery. The identification of evidence-based standards relevant for key performance indicators in esophageal surgery is essential for establishing monitoring systems and furthermore a requirement to enhance treatment quality. In the course of this review, we analyze the key performance indicators case volume, radicality of resection, and postoperative morbidity and mortality, leading to continuous quality improvement. Ranking systems established on this basis will gain increased relevance in highly complex procedures within the national and international comparison and furthermore improve the treatment of patients with esophageal carcinoma.

  2. 78 FR 20252 - Water Quality Standards; Withdrawal of Certain Federal Water Quality Criteria Applicable to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ... Water Quality Standards; Withdrawal of Certain Federal Water Quality Criteria Applicable to California... aquatic life water quality criteria applicable to waters of New Jersey, Puerto Rico, and California's San Francisco Bay. In 1992, EPA promulgated the National Toxics Rule or NTR to establish numeric water quality...

  3. Evaluating Water Quality in a Suburban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, S. M.; Garza, N.

    2008-12-01

    A water quality analysis and modeling study is currently being conducted on the Martinez Creek, a small catchment within Cibolo watershed, a sub-basin of the San Antonio River, Texas. Several other major creeks, such as Salatrillo, Escondido, and Woman Hollering merge with Martinez Creek. Land use and land cover analysis shows that the major portion of the watershed is dominated by residential development with average impervious cover percentage of approximately 40% along with a some of agricultural areas and brushlands. This catchment is characterized by the presence of three small wastewater treatment plants. Previous site visits and sampling of water quality indicate the presence of algae and fecal coliform bacteria at levels well above state standards at several locations in the catchment throughout the year. Due to the presence of livestock, residential development and wastewater treatment plants, a comprehensive understanding of water quality is important to evaluate the sources and find means to control pollution. As part of the study, a spatial and temporal water quality analyses of conventional parameters as well as emerging contaminants, such as veterinary pharmaceuticals and microbial pathogens is being conducted to identify critical locations and sources. Additionally, the Hydrologic Simulation Program FORTRAN (HSPF) will be used to identify best management practices that can be incorporated given the projected growth and development and feasibility.

  4. San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPAs grant program to protect and restore San Francisco Bay. The San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund (SFBWQIF) has invested in 58 projects along with 70 partners contributing to restore wetlands, water quality, and reduce polluted runoff.,

  5. Assessing water quality in Lake Naivasha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ndungu, J.N.

    2014-01-01

    Water quality in aquatic systems is important because it maintains the ecological processes that support biodiversity. However, declining water quality due to environmental perturbations threatens the stability of the biotic integrity and therefore hinders the ecosystem services and functions of

  6. National Water Quality Standards Database (NWQSD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Water Quality Standards Database (WQSDB) provides access to EPA and state water quality standards (WQS) information in text, tables, and maps. This data...

  7. R2 Water Quality Portal Monitoring Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Water Quality Data Portal (WQP) provides an easy way to access data stored in various large water quality databases. The WQP provides various input parameters on...

  8. R2 Water Quality Portal Monitoring Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Quality Data Portal (WQP) provides an easy way to access data stored in various large water quality databases. The WQP provides various input parameters on the form including location, site, sampling, and date parameters to filter and customize the returned results. The The Water Quality Portal (WQP) is a cooperative service sponsored by the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Water Quality Monitoring Council (NWQMC) that integrates publicly available water quality data from the USGS National Water Information System (NWIS) the EPA STOrage and RETrieval (STORET) Data Warehouse, and the USDA ARS Sustaining The Earth??s Watersheds - Agricultural Research Database System (STEWARDS).

  9. X-ray Computed Tomography Image Quality Indicator (IQI) Development

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Phase one of the program is to identify suitable x-ray Computed Tomography (CT) Image Quality Indicator (IQI) design(s) that can be used to adequately capture CT...

  10. Canadian environmental sustainability indicators : air quality indicator : data sources methods 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    National indicators of freshwater quality, air quality and greenhouse gas emissions were established in 2004 by the Canadian government in recognition that public health and economic well-being are linked to the quality of the environment. These indicators build on a base of an established national monitoring network and are communicated to the public by Environment Canada, Statistics Canada and Health Canada in an effort to provide reliable information on the state of the environment. Each indicator reported in a given year has an associated data sources and methods report to provide technical detail and background information that will help interpret the indicator. This particular report focused on the basic methods and data for the air quality indicator as it was reported in 2005. It approximated public exposure to ground-level ozone, a key component of smog and a harmful pollutant. Since ozone levels are influenced by weather and transboundary flows of pollutants, this report analyzed observed concentrations in relation to where people live. The indicator measures the seasonal average of the highest 8-hour average ground-level ozone concentration for each day. The indicator reflects possible health impacts related to ozone over the entire season. It is population-weighted and assumes that ozone concentrations are constant within a radius of 40 km around each monitoring station. It was noted that future improvements for the air quality indicator will include measures of fine particulate matter and improvements in monitoring methods. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs

  11. Groundwater quality data from the National Water-Quality Assessment Project, May 2012 through December 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Terri L.; Desimone, Leslie A.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Lindsey, Bruce D.; Barlow, Jeannie R.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Musgrove, MaryLynn; Kingsbury, James A.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2016-06-20

    Groundwater-quality data were collected from 748 wells as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Project of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Program from May 2012 through December 2013. The data were collected from four types of well networks: principal aquifer study networks, which assess the quality of groundwater used for public water supply; land-use study networks, which assess land-use effects on shallow groundwater quality; major aquifer study networks, which assess the quality of groundwater used for domestic supply; and enhanced trends networks, which evaluate the time scales during which groundwater quality changes. Groundwater samples were analyzed for a large number of water-quality indicators and constituents, including major ions, nutrients, trace elements, volatile organic compounds, pesticides, and radionuclides. These groundwater quality data are tabulated in this report. Quality-control samples also were collected; data from blank and replicate quality-control samples are included in this report.

  12. Macroinvertebrados bentônicos como indicadores de qualidade de água na Barragem Santa Bárbara, Pelotas, RS, Brasil Zoobenthics as indicators of the water quality in the Santa Bárbara Dam, Pelotas, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Renato Noguez Piedras

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o impacto de dois afluentes da barragem Santa Bárbara sobre o ambiente da mesma, utilizando a ocorrência de invertebrados bentônicos e características químicas da água. Durante nove meses foram realizadas coletas e análises da água e de invertebrados bentônicos nos afluentes Sanga da Barbuda e Sanga do Passo do Cunha e também no interior da bacia de acumulação da barragem. Os resultados mostram que, embora a Sanga da Barbuda e a Sanga do Passo do Cunha apresentem características químicas abaixo do recomendável, no limite aceitável pela legislação que determina os padrões de qualidade da água para abastecimento público, estes afluentes estão, ainda, sendo diluídos de forma satisfatória na bacia de acumulação da barragem. O estudo das relações entre variáveis químicas e invertebrados bentônicos mostra haver correlação significativa entre os baixos níveis de oxigênio dissolvido e a presença de Oligochaeta, sendo que o aumento do número de Oligochaeta indica uma situação de anoxia na barragem Santa Bárbara.The objective of this work was to study the impact of two tributaries from the Santa Bárbara Dam on this environment using the occurrence of zoobenthics and some water chemical characteristics. Monthly gathering and analysis from the water and zoobenthics were done during nine months in the tributaries Sanga da Barbuda and Sanga Passo do Cunha as well as in the inner part of the accumulation basin in the Santa Barbara dam. The results demonstrate that, though Sanga da Barbuda and Sanga Passo do Cunha present chemical characteristics lower than the recommended but still in the limits acceptable by the law that regulates the water quality standards for the supply, these tributaries are being diluted in a satisfactory way in the accumulation basin in the Santa Barbara dam. The study of the relations between chemical variables and zoobenthics show a significant correlation

  13. River water quality modelling: II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shanahan, P.; Henze, Mogens; Koncsos, L.

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. EPA QUAL2E model is currently the standard for river water quality modelling. While QUAL2E is adequate for the regulatory situation for which it was developed (the U.S. wasteload allocation process), there is a need for a more comprehensive framework for research and teaching. Moreover......, QUAL2E and similar models do not address a number of practical problems such as stormwater-flow events, nonpoint source pollution, and transient streamflow. Limitations in model formulation affect the ability to close mass balances, to represent sessile bacteria and other benthic processes......, and to achieve robust model calibration. Mass balance problems arise from failure to account for mass in the sediment as well as in the water column and due to the fundamental imprecision of BOD as a state variable. (C) 1998 IAWQ Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  14. Elements and indicators for identification of quality of primary education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sučević Vlasta M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Education is one of the main pillars of the quality of knowledge, and, in turn, social progress in general. There are numerous positions concerning quality of education, some more, and some less detailed. In order to determine the quality of a primary school, for example as 'poor', 'mediocre' or 'excellent', we use, more or less precisely, a certain idea about the value, and thus identify, again with a certain extent of accuracy, the position of the school in question in relation to other schools. In terms of the quality of education, it is necessary to analyze all segments of educational process. This includes the analysis of objectives of educational process, products of quality education as well as adequate and accessible technical-instrumental, that is, operational-procedural level of quality of educational process. Most authors connect the quality of primary education to results, that is, outcomes of education. In order to achieve quality of education, we need to achieve quality of particular components or elements of the whole of education. This paper deals with theoretical review of elements and indicators of quality of basic education, and provides a review of pedagogical strategies and their effect on certain components of quality with the aim to improve the effects on pedagogical and didactical resources of the quality of education.

  15. Indicators for Research Performance in the Humanities? The Scholars’ View on Research Quality and Indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochsner, M.; Hug, S.E.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we present indicators for research quality in the humanities collected in our previous work (Ochsner, Hug, & Daniel, 2012). We focus on how these indicators are accepted by humanities scholars. We also investigate differences between different subgroups of the humanities scholars we surveyed with regard to their preferences for such indicators. We address the theme of the conference (‘peripheries frontiers and beyond’) regarding two notions of (scientometric) periphery: First, we investigate indicators for research quality in the humanities, a field where there is a lack on knowledge on how to assess or even measure research quality, in fact, there is a quite broad consensus that (evaluative) bibliometrics cannot be readily applied in the humanities (Hicks, 2004; Nederhof, 2006). Second, we fully cover three humanities disciplines at Swiss universities and member universities of the League of European Research Universities (LERU). Scholars are a neglected stakeholder when it comes to the design of research assessment procedures or the selection of research indicators. However, they are directly affected, they know best what research quality in their field is and what impact the use of certain indicators could have on their research practices. The paper is structured as follows: first, we present the background for selecting indicators for research quality. This is followed by a description of our analysis methods and the presentation of the results. We finally discuss the results with regard to their use in research evaluation. (Author)

  16. Soil quality indicator responses to row crop, grazed pasture, and agroforestry buffer management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incorporation of trees and establishment of grass buffers within agroecosystems are management practices shown to enhance soil quality. Soil enzyme activities and water stable aggregates (WSA) have been identified as sensitive soil quality indicators to evaluate early responses to soil management. ...

  17. Water Quality of Hills Water, Supply Water and RO Water Machine at Ulu Yam Selangor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngadiman, N.; ‘I Bahari, N.; Kaamin, M.; Hamid, N. B.; Mokhtar, M.; Sahat, S.

    2016-07-01

    The rapid development resulted in the deterioration of the quality of drinking water in Malaysia. Recognizing the importance of water quality, new alternatives for drinking water such as mineral water processing from reverse osmosis (RO) machine become more popular. Hence, the demand for mineral water, natural spring water or water from the hills or mountains rose lately. More consumers believed the quality of these spring water better than other source of drinking water. However, the quality of all the drinking water sources is to meet the required quality standard. Therefore, this paper aims to measure the quality of the waters from hills, from RO machine and the water supply in Ulu Yam, Selangor Batang Kali, Malaysia. The water quality was determined based on following parameters: ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3), iron (Fe), turbidity (NTU) and pH. The results show that the water from hills has better quality compared to water supply and water from RO machine. The value of NH3 ranged from 0.03 mg/L- 0.67 mg/L; Fe was from 0.03mg/L - 0.12 mg/L, turbidity at 0.42 NTU - 0.88 NTU and pH is at 6.60 - 0.71. Based on the studied parameters, all three types of water are fit for drinking and have met the required national drinking water quality standard.

  18. Air quality as respiratory health indicator: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshammer, Hanns; Wallner, Peter

    2011-09-01

    As part of the European Public Health project IMCA II validity and practicability of "air pollution" as a respiratory health indicator were analyzed. The definitions of air quality as an indicator proposed by the WHO project ECOEHIS and by IMCA I were compared. The public availability of the necessary data was checked through access to web-based data-bases. Practicability and interpretation of the indicator were discussed with project partners and external experts. Air quality serves as a kind of benchmark for the good health-related environmental policy. In this sense, it is a relevant health indicator. Although air quality is not directly in the responsibility of health policy, its vital importance for the population's health should not be neglected. In principle, data is available to calculate this IMCA indicator for any chosen area in Europe. The indicator is relevant and informative, but calculation and interpretation need input from local expert knowledge. The European health policy is well advised to take air quality into account. To that end, an interdisciplinary approach is warranted. The proposed definition of air quality as a (respiratory) health indicator is workable, but correct interpretation depends on expert and local knowledge.

  19. Water quality assessment of bioenergy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocio Diaz-Chavez; Goran Berndes; Dan Neary; Andre Elia Neto; Mamadou Fall

    2011-01-01

    Water quality is a measurement of the biological, chemical, and physical characteristics of water against certain standards set to ensure ecological and/or human health. Biomass production and conversion to fuels and electricity can impact water quality in lakes, rivers, and aquifers with consequences for aquatic ecosystem health and also human water uses. Depending on...

  20. Automated monitoring of recovered water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misselhorn, J. E.; Hartung, W. H.; Witz, S. W.

    1974-01-01

    Laboratory prototype water quality monitoring system provides automatic system for online monitoring of chemical, physical, and bacteriological properties of recovered water and for signaling malfunction in water recovery system. Monitor incorporates whenever possible commercially available sensors suitably modified.

  1. Hydrology and water quality characteristics of a stressed lotic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hydrology and water quality of Aiba stream were investigated from November 2012 to April 2013 on monthly basis. This was with a view to assessing the status of the stream sequel to its last study which indicated a poor physico-chemical water quality. Four sampling stations were established for the study along the ...

  2. Quality Indicators for Global Benchmarking of Localized Prostate Cancer Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampurno, Fanny; Zheng, Jia; Di Stefano, Lydia; Millar, Jeremy L; Foster, Claire; Fuedea, Ferran; Higano, Celestia; Hulan, Hartwig; Mark, Stephen; Moore, Caroline; Richardson, Alison; Sullivan, Frank; Wenger, Neil S; Wittmann, Daniela; Evans, Sue

    2018-03-01

    We sought to develop a core set of clinical indicators to enable international benchmarking of localized prostate cancer management using data available in the TrueNTH (True North) Global Registry. An international expert panel completed an online survey and participated in a face to face meeting. Participants included 3 urologists, 3 radiation oncologists, 2 psychologists, 1 medical oncologist, 1 nurse and 1 epidemiologist with prostate cancer expertise from a total of 7 countries. Current guidelines on prostate cancer treatment and potential quality indicators were identified from a literature review. These potential indicators were refined and developed through a modified Delphi process during which each panelist independently and repeatedly rated each indicator based on importance (satisfying the indicator demonstrated a provision of high quality care) and feasibility (the likelihood that data used to construct the indicator could be collected at a population level). The main outcome measure was items with panel agreement indicted by a disagreement index less 1, median importance 8.5 or greater and median feasibility 9 or greater. The expert panel endorsed 33 indicators. Seven of these 33 prostate cancer quality indicators assessed care relating to diagnosis, 7 assessed primary treatment, 1 assessed salvage treatment and 18 assessed health outcomes. We developed a set of quality indicators to measure prostate cancer care using numerous international evidence-based clinical guidelines. These indicators will be pilot tested in the TrueNTH Global Registry. Reports comparing indicator performance will subsequently be distributed to groups at participating sites with the purpose of improving the consistency and quality of prostate cancer management on a global basis. Copyright © 2018 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Quality Indicators of Primary Health Care Facilities in Austria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semlitsch, Thomas; Abuzahra, Muna; Stigler, Florian; Jeitler, Klaus; Posch, Nicole; Siebenhofer, Andrea

    2017-07-11

    Background The strengthening of primary health care is one major goal of the current national health reform in Austria. In this context, a new interdisciplinary concept was developed in 2014 that defines structures and requirements for future primary health care facilities. Objective The aim of this project was the development of quality indicators for the evaluation of the scheduled primary health care facilities in Austria, which are in accordance with the new Austrian concept. Methods We used the RAND/NPCRDC method for the development and selection of the quality indicators. We conducted systematic literature searches for existing measures in international databases for quality indicators as well as in bibliographic databases. All retrieved measures were evaluated and rated by an expert panel in a 2-step process regarding relevance and feasibility. Results Overall, the literature searches yielded 281 potentially relevant quality indicators, which were summarized to 65 different quality measures for primary health care. Out of these, the panel rated and accepted 30 measures as relevant and feasible for use in Austria. Five of these indicators were structure measures, 14 were process measures and the remaining 11 were outcome measures. Based on the Austrian primary health care concept, the final set of quality indicators was grouped in the 5 following domains: Access to primary health care (5), quality of care (15), continuity of care (5), coordination of care (4), and safety (1). Conclusion This set of quality measures largely covers the four defined functions of primary health care. It enables standardized evaluation of primary health care facilities in Austria regarding the implementation of the Austrian primary health care concept as well as improvement in healthcare of the population. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Deformity, Erosion, Lesion, and Tumor Occurrence, Fluctuating Asymmetry, and Population Parameters for Bluntnose Minnow (Pimephales notatus) as Indicators of Recovering Water Quality in a Great Lakes Area of Concern, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Thomas P; Burskey, Jacob L

    2016-02-01

    The Grand Calumet River is an industrial river and a Great Lakes Area of Concern in southwestern Lake Michigan, USA. Recovery end points require well-formulated designs to assess the use of occurrence of internal and external anomalies, fluctuating asymmetry, and population indicators to determine recovery from the water-quality Beneficial Use Impairments of fish tumors and deformities. A paired-watershed approach using three reaches within the study area was sampled weekly and separated into near- and far-field reaches, whereas the Little Calumet River, Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, served as a control. Field-collected Pimephales notatus were inspected for occurrence of deformities, erosion, lesion, and tumor (DELT) anomalies, measured for body symmetry, and dissected to ascertain sex and the condition of internal organs. Morphometric measurements (p ≤ 0.000), internal organ conditions (p = 0.001), and sex ratios of the fish (p = 0.001) were significantly different between the control and P. notatus test populations. The near-field individuals had the highest incidence of DELT occurrence (70 %) followed by the far-field reaches at Roxana Marsh (45 %) and Kennedy Avenue (41.9 %). Morphometric analysis showed significant differences between body size and shape and age class structure between populations. No test-reach individual lived to reach age >2 years. Gonads and livers from Grand Calumet individuals were found to be blackened, ruptured, and decreased in thickness. None of the fish from test study reaches displayed sexual structure in a 1:1 ratio. High sediment-contaminant concentrations for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metals in the Grand Calumet River correlated (r (2) = 0.998) with decreased population fitness and decreased individual reproductive health.

  5. Public views on drinking water standards as risk indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Branden B

    2008-12-01

    Government agencies often compare contaminant levels to standards and other regulatory benchmarks to convey relative risk to public audiences, as well as for enforcement. Yet we know little of how citizens interpret these risk indicators or factors influencing interpretations. Owners of private residential wells in New Jersey were surveyed by mail. A majority appreciated this comparison, trusted the standard, and could effectively compare the contaminant level to the standard. Most people who recalled that their own well water quality was unsatisfactory simply installed treatment systems. However, there was also a surprising amount of inability to tell whether pollution levels were better or worse than the standard, perhaps exacerbated by confusing institutional language to summarize the comparison (e.g., pollution "exceeds" or is "less than" the standard) and innumeracy. There was also substantial skepticism about the degree to which pollution levels below, or (to a lesser extent) above, the standard are harmless or harmful, respectively. Skepticism was variously due to distrust of standards, disbelief in thresholds for health effects, inability to accurately compare standards and contaminant levels, information processing, and demographics. Discontinuity in reactions below versus above the standard did not exist in the aggregate, and rarely among individuals, contrary to some previous findings. At identical standards and contaminant levels, familiar toxins (mercury, arsenic, lead) elicited higher risk ratings than less familiar ones. Given the wide institutional use of this risk indicator, further research on how to improve the design and use of this indicator, and consideration of alternatives, is warranted.

  6. Predicting Salmonella Populations from Biological, Chemical, and Physical Indicators in Florida Surface Waters

    OpenAIRE

    McEgan, Rachel; Mootian, Gabriel; Goodridge, Lawrence D.; Schaffner, Donald W.; Danyluk, Michelle D.

    2013-01-01

    Coliforms, Escherichia coli, and various physicochemical water characteristics have been suggested as indicators of microbial water quality or index organisms for pathogen populations. The relationship between the presence and/or concentration of Salmonella and biological, physical, or chemical indicators in Central Florida surface water samples over 12 consecutive months was explored. Samples were taken monthly for 12 months from 18 locations throughout Central Florida (n = 202). Air and wat...

  7. STUDY OF POND WATER QUALITY BY THE ASSESSMENT OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS AND WATER QUALITY INDEX

    OpenAIRE

    Vinod Jena; Satish Dixit; Ravi ShrivastavaSapana Gupta; Sapana Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Water quality index (WQI) is a dimensionless number that combines multiple water quality factors into a single number by normalizing values to subjective rating curves. Conventionally it has been used for evaluating the quality of water for water resources suchas rivers, streams and lakes, etc. The present work is aimed at assessing the Water Quality Index (W.Q.I) ofpond water and the impact of human activities on it. Physicochemical parameters were monitored for the calculation of W.Q.I for ...

  8. Development of a water quality index based on a European ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This index has advantages over pre-existing indices by reflecting the appropriateness of water for specific use, e.g. drinking water supply rather than general supply, and has been developed by studying the supranational standard, i.e. the European Community Standard. Three classification schemes for water quality are ...

  9. Valuation of Biochemical and Microbiological Indicators in Soil Quality Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Peruzzi, Elisabetta

    2017-01-01

    This thesis research aimed at valuating the suitability of biochemical and microbiological indicators in soil quality and soil health assessment, applying an interdisciplinary approach by means of different methodologies. As the concept of soil quality encompasses both functionality and biological diversity, two cases of study are proposed and each of them aimed at the description of this two aspects. The first case study examined the degree of interference of high soil copper contamination w...

  10. Framework and indicator testing protocol for developing and piloting quality indicators for the UK quality and outcomes framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burke Martyn

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quality measures should be subjected to a testing protocol before being used in practice using key attributes such as acceptability, feasibility and reliability, as well as identifying issues derived from actual implementation and unintended consequences. We describe the methodologies and results of an indicator testing protocol (ITP using data from proposed quality indicators for the United Kingdom Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF. Methods The indicator testing protocol involved a multi-step and methodological process: 1 The RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method, to test clarity and necessity, 2 data extraction from patients' medical records, to test technical feasibility and reliability, 3 diaries, to test workload, 4 cost-effectiveness modelling, and 5 semi-structured interviews, to test acceptability, implementation issues and unintended consequences. Testing was conducted in a sample of representative family practices in England. These methods were combined into an overall recommendation for each tested indicator. Results Using an indicator testing protocol as part of piloting was seen as a valuable way of testing potential indicators in 'real world' settings. Pilot 1 (October 2009-March 2010 involved thirteen indicators across six clinical domains and twelve indicators passed the indicator testing protocol. However, the indicator testing protocol identified a number of implementation issues and unintended consequences that can be rectified or removed prior to national roll out. A palliative care indicator is used as an exemplar of the value of piloting using a multiple attribute indicator testing protocol - while technically feasible and reliable, it was unacceptable to practice staff and raised concerns about potentially causing actual patient harm. Conclusions This indicator testing protocol is one example of a protocol that may be useful in assessing potential quality indicators when adapted to specific country health

  11. Macroinvertebrados bentónicos como indicadores de calidad de agua de ríos del sur de Chile Benthic macroinvertebrates as indicators of water quality of southern Chile rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RICARDO FIGUEROA

    2003-06-01

    conducted in January 1998 using a Surber net (0.09 m² at 15 sites, distributed along the main course of the river and its tributaries. A total of 77 taxa was recorded, being the most diverse Plecoptera (16 %, Trichoptera (16 %, Diptera (14 % and Ephemeroptera (12 %. A marked tendency to a decrease of specific richness was observed from the head of the basin towards downstream. The abundance, biomass and FBI presented an inverse trend to the species richness. The FBI was significantly and positively correlated with total phosphorous (r² = 0.71, temperature (r² = 0.66, nitrite (r² = 0.56, electrical conductivity (r² = 0.50, biological oxygen demand (r² = 0.46 and total nitrogen (r² = 0.46 and negatively correlated with dissolved oxygen (r² = 0.53. All of these variables are closely associated with the intense use of fertilizers in the basin. The results obtained suggest that the FBI is an appropriate indicator for determining the water quality of rivers of agricultural and cattle ranching basins in southern Chile

  12. Key interventions and quality indicators for quality improvement of STEMI care: a RAND Delphi survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeyels, Daan; Sinnaeve, Peter R; Claeys, Marc J; Gevaert, Sofie; Schoors, Danny; Sermeus, Walter; Panella, Massimiliano; Coeckelberghs, Ellen; Bruyneel, Luk; Vanhaecht, Kris

    2017-12-13

    Identification, selection and validation of key interventions and quality indicators for improvement of in hospital quality of care for ST-elevated myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients. A structured literature review was followed by a RAND Delphi Survey. A purposively selected multidisciplinary expert panel of cardiologists, nurse managers and quality managers selected and validated key interventions and quality indicators prior for quality improvement for STEMI. First, 34 experts (76% response rate) individually assessed the appropriateness of items to quality improvement on a nine point Likert scale. Twenty-seven key interventions, 16 quality indicators at patient level and 27 quality indicators at STEMI care programme level were selected. Eighteen additional items were suggested. Experts received personal feedback, benchmarking their score with group results (response rate, mean, median and content validity index). Consequently, 32 experts (71% response rate) openly discussed items with an item-content validity index above 75%. By consensus, the expert panel validated a final set of 25 key interventions, 13 quality indicators at patient level and 20 quality indicators at care programme level prior for improvement of in hospital care for STEMI. A structured literature review and multidisciplinary expertise was combined to validate a set of key interventions and quality indicators prior for improvement of care for STEMI. The results allow researchers and hospital staff to evaluate and support quality improvement interventions in a large cohort within the context of a health care system.

  13. Monitoring And Modeling Environmental Water Quality To Support Environmental Water Purchase Decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Null, S. E.; Elmore, L.; Mouzon, N. R.; Wood, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    More than 25 million cubic meters (20,000 acre feet) of water has been purchased from willing agricultural sellers for environmental flows in Nevada's Walker River to improve riverine habitat and connectivity with downstream Walker Lake. Reduced instream flows limit native fish populations, like Lahontan cutthroat trout, through warm daily stream temperatures and low dissolved oxygen concentrations. Environmental water purchases maintain instream flows, although effects on water quality are more varied. We use multi-year water quality monitoring and physically-based hydrodynamic and water quality modeling to estimate streamflow, water temperature, and dissolved oxygen concentrations with alternative environmental water purchases. We simulate water temperature and dissolved oxygen changes from increased streamflow to prioritize the time periods and locations that environmental water purchases most enhance trout habitat as a function of water quality. Monitoring results indicate stream temperature and dissolved oxygen limitations generally exist in the 115 kilometers upstream of Walker Lake (about 37% of the study area) from approximately May through September, and this reach acts as a water quality barrier for fish passage. Model results indicate that low streamflows generally coincide with critically warm stream temperatures, water quality refugia exist on a tributary of the Walker River, and environmental water purchases may improve stream temperature and dissolved oxygen conditions for some reaches and seasons, especially in dry years and prolonged droughts. This research supports environmental water purchase decision-making and allows water purchase decisions to be prioritized with other river restoration alternatives.

  14. The importance of using quality indicators in nursing care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaizy Valânia Lopes Silveira

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the opinion of hospital nurses on the use of quality indicators for nursing care. METHOD: Research based on the qualitative approach, conducted with 41 nurses from two charity hospitals in Minas Gerais, from September to October 2013. Interviews with a semi-structured script were used to collect data. The empirical data were organized by means of content analysis. RESULTS: Indicators are important for assessing the provided care, for improving the quality of care, and for defining strategies to achieve goals. CONCLUSIONS: The difficulties encountered when using these indicators revealed the following constituent elements: lack of time, inadequate number of professionals and lack of knowledge on the subject. It was concluded that nurses understand that indicators are instruments that enable evaluations and improvements, but their understanding of how to use these instruments is incomplete and fragmented.

  15. Water Quality Evaluation of Spring Waters in Nsukka, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water qualities of springs in their natural state are supposed to be clean and potable. Although, water quality is not a static condition it depends on the local geology and ecosystem, as well as human activities such as sewage dispersion, industrial pollution, use of water bodies as a heat sink, and overuse. The activities on ...

  16. Use of cyanobacteria to assess water quality in running waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douterelo, I.; Perona, E.; Mateo, P.

    2004-01-01

    Epilithic cyanobacterial communities in rivers in the province of Madrid (Spain) and their relationship with water quality were studied. Sampling locations above and below outlets for sewage effluent and other wastes from human settlements were selected. We aimed to evaluate the use of cyanobacteria as potential indicators of pollution in running waters. Large increases in nutrient concentrations were always observed at downstream sampling sites. A decrease in species richness and the Margalef diversity index were associated with these increases in nutrient load. Differences in cyanobacterial community structure were also observed. A higher proportion of cyanobacteria belonging to the Oscillatoriales order predominated at sampling sites with higher nutrient content. However, Nostocales species were more abundant at upstream sites characterized by lower nutrient load than at downstream locations. The soluble reactive phosphate (SRP) had a threshold effect on cyanobacterial biomass: a decrease in phycobiliprotein content as SRP increased, reaching a minimum, followed by an increase in abundance. This increase may be attributed to hypertrophic conditions in those locations. Our results and literature data confirm the suitability of this phototroph community for monitoring eutrophication in rivers - Taxonomic composition of cyanobacteria is a sensitive indicator of river water quality

  17. Use of cyanobacteria to assess water quality in running waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douterelo, I.; Perona, E.; Mateo, P

    2004-02-01

    Epilithic cyanobacterial communities in rivers in the province of Madrid (Spain) and their relationship with water quality were studied. Sampling locations above and below outlets for sewage effluent and other wastes from human settlements were selected. We aimed to evaluate the use of cyanobacteria as potential indicators of pollution in running waters. Large increases in nutrient concentrations were always observed at downstream sampling sites. A decrease in species richness and the Margalef diversity index were associated with these increases in nutrient load. Differences in cyanobacterial community structure were also observed. A higher proportion of cyanobacteria belonging to the Oscillatoriales order predominated at sampling sites with higher nutrient content. However, Nostocales species were more abundant at upstream sites characterized by lower nutrient load than at downstream locations. The soluble reactive phosphate (SRP) had a threshold effect on cyanobacterial biomass: a decrease in phycobiliprotein content as SRP increased, reaching a minimum, followed by an increase in abundance. This increase may be attributed to hypertrophic conditions in those locations. Our results and literature data confirm the suitability of this phototroph community for monitoring eutrophication in rivers - Taxonomic composition of cyanobacteria is a sensitive indicator of river water quality.

  18. The assessment of khorramabad River water quality with National Sanitation Foundation Water Quality Index and Zoning by GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    abdolrahim Yusefzadeh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background : Rivers are a fraction of flowing waters in the worlds and one of the important sources of water for different consumptions such as agricultural, drinking and industrial uses. The aim of this study was to assess water quality of the Khorramrood River in Khorramabad by NSFWQI index. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, quality parameters needed for NASWQI index calculation such as BOD5, dissolved oxygen (DO, total nitrate, fecal coliform, pH, total phosphate, temperature, turbidity and total suspended solids content were measured for six months (from July to December 2012using standard methods at six selected stations. The river zoning conducted by GIS software. Results: According to the results obtained through this study, the highest and the lowest water quality value was observed in stations 1 and 6 with NSFWQI indexes 82 water with good quality, 42 water with bad quality, respectively. With moving toward last station (from 1 to 6 station water pollution increased. Conclusion: Results of the study indicated that water quality index NSFWQI is a good index to identify the effect of polluter sources on the river water. Based on the average of the index NSFWQI, water quality in station one was good, in the second, third and fourth stations were mediocre and the fifth and sixth stations had bad quality. These results allow to make decisions about monitoring and controlling water pollution sources, as well as provide different efficient uses of it by relevant authorities.

  19. Study on water quality around mangrove ecosystem for coastal rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guntur, G.; Sambah, A. B.; Arisandi, D. M.; Jauhari, A.; Jaziri, A. A.

    2018-01-01

    Coastal ecosystems are vulnerable to environmental degradation including the declining water quality in the coastal environment due to the influence of human activities where the river becomes one of the input channels. Some areas in the coastal regions of East Java directly facing the Madura Strait indicate having experienced the environmental degradation, especially regarding the water quality. This research was conducted in the coastal area of Probolinggo Regency, East Java, aiming to analyze the water quality as the basis for coastal rehabilitation planning. This study was carried out using survey and observation methods. Water quality measurement results were analyzed conforming to predetermined quality standards. The coastal area rehabilitation planning as a means to restore the degraded water quality parameters is presumably implemented through mangrove planting. Thus, the mangrove mapping was also devised in this research. Based on 40 sampling points, the results illustrate that according to the quality standard, the water quality in the study area is likely to be deteriorated. On account of the mapping analysis of mangrove distribution in the study area, the rehabilitation of the coastal zone can be done through planning the mangrove forest plantation. The recommended coastal area maintenance is a periodic water quality observation planning in the river region which is divided into three zones to monitor the impact of fluctuating changes in land use or human activities on the coastal water quality.

  20. Habitat quality, water quality and otter distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Mason

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In recent decades the otter (Lutra lutra has declined over much of Europe. Good habitat has been shown to be essential to otters. Specific elements of cover have been identified in some studies but the minimum cover requirements to support otter populations are not known. These are likely to vary in relation to other factors, such as disturbance. Habitat destruction has been severe in many areas of Europe. Water quantity is important to otters, especially where low flows destroy the food base, namely fish. However the minimum food requirements to support populations are not known. The main cause of the decline in otter populations is almost certainly bioaccumulating pollutants, especially PCBs. These are likely to be inhibiting recolonization in many areas. In Britain, catchment distribution of otters within regions is negatively correlated to mean PCB levels in otter spraints, and these are indicative of tissue levels. PCBs have been found in all samples studied. Current EC statutory monitoring is inadequate to protect otter populations from bioaccumulating contaminants. Standards are presented here for otter protection. More fundamental research is required to refine our understanding of the requirements of the otter. Riassunto Qualità ambientale, qualità dell'acqua e distribuzione della lontra - Negli ultimi decenni la lontra (Lutra lutra è diminuita su buona parte del suo areale europeo, dove particolarmente pesante è stata la distruzione di ambienti favorevoli. Habitat qualitativamente idonei sono essenziali per la sopravvivenza della specie. In alcuni studi, specifici parametri di copertura vegetale dei corpi idrici sono stati ritenuti importanti per la specie, ma quale sia il valore minimo di copertura riparia in grado di supportare una popolazione resta sconosciuto. I parametri di copertura variano probabilmente in relazione ad altri fattori, quali, ad

  1. Socioeconomic dynamics of water quality in the Egyptian Nile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Maheen; Nisar, Zainab; Karakatsanis, Georgios

    2016-04-01

    The Nile River remains the most important source of freshwater for Egypt as it accounts for nearly all of the country's drinking and irrigation water. About 95% of the total population is accounted to live along the Banks of the Nile(1). Therefore, water quality deterioration in addition to general natural scarcity of water in the region(2) is the main driver for carrying out this study. What further aggravates this issue is the water conflict in the Blue Nile region. The study evaluates different water quality parameters and their concentrations in the Egyptian Nile; further assessing the temporal dynamics of water quality in the area with (a) the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC)(3) and (b) the Jevons Paradox (JP)(4) in order to identify water quality improvements or degradations using selected socioeconomic variables(5). For this purpose various environmental indicators including BOD, COD, DO, Phosphorus and TDS were plotted against different economic variables including Population, Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Annual Fresh Water Withdrawal and Improved Water Source. Mathematically, this was expressed by 2nd and 3rd degree polynomial regressions generating the EKC and JP respectively. The basic goal of the regression analysis is to model and highlight the dynamic trend of water quality indicators in relation to their established permissible limits, which will allow the identification of optimal future water quality policies. The results clearly indicate that the dependency of water quality indicators on socioeconomic variables differs for every indicator; while COD was above the permissible limits in all the cases despite of its decreasing trend in each case, BOD and phosphate signified increasing concentrations for the future, if they continue to follow the present trend. This could be an indication of rebound effect explained by the Jevons Paradox i.e. water quality deterioration after its improvement, either due to increase of population or intensification

  2. Waste Water Treatment And Data Book Of Method Of Water Quality Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-03-01

    This book indicates the method of water quality analysis and waste water treatment with collecting water quality data of advanced country and WHO, which introduces poisonous substance in industrial waste water such as heavy metal, ammonia, chlorine ion, PCB, chloroform, residual chlorine and manganese, reports about influence of those materials on human health, lists on method of analysis the poisonous substance, research way like working order and precautions on treatment and method of chemical process and use.

  3. Assessment of quality indicators in spanish higher military education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olmos Gómez Maria del Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality assessment is subject to multiple interpretations of its content and purpose, and also regarding to methods and techniques used to develop it. Although purposes of assessment are varied, usually pursuit three goals: Improvement, accountability and information. Currently, the concept of quality evaluation has been replaced by the management of educational quality, as Matthew [6] point “the new culture of evaluation is no longer oriented to penalty, ranking or selection of people, as provide a reasoned and reasonable information to guide the management of educational improvement”. Military Training Centres are externally evaluated by an experts External Evaluation Unit to identify strengths and weaknesses on their self-evaluation system and focus on important aspects related to the organization of the Centre, development of work plans, teacher’s style and students learning strategies, system of evaluation and qualification and accurate recommendations to improve all that. This research focuses on the evaluation of quality indicators for the external evaluation of higher education at Military Education Centres in Spain and it is funded by a joint project between University of Granada and MADOC. The technique used for collecting and analysing information was a content description of several documents provided by these military educational authorities, arising the identification and extraction of relevant indicators on the evaluation of higher education. This analysis was primarily based on standards and indicators systems by ANECA (National Agency for Quality Assessment and Accreditation adapted to the Military Higher Education, but also it was consider other standards by international agencies and evaluative institutions, such as University of Chile, University of Paraguay, Canarias Agency for Quality Assessment and Accreditation and Agency for Quality Education System University of Castilla y León. The analysis realize a usual

  4. Assessment of quality indicators in Spanish higher military education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olmos Gómez Maria del Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality assessment is subject to multiple interpretations of its content and purpose, and also regarding to methods and techniques used to develop it. Although purposes of assessment are varied, usually pursuit three goals: Improvement, accountability and information. Currently, the concept of quality evaluation has been replaced by the management of educational quality, as Matthew [6] point “the new culture of evaluation is no longer oriented to penalty, ranking or selection of people, as provide a reasoned and reasonable information to guide the management of educational improvement”. Military Training Centres are externally evaluated by an experts External Evaluation Unit to identify strengths and weaknesses on their self-evaluation system and focus on important aspects related to the organization of the Centre, development of work plans, teacher’s style and students learning strategies, system of evaluation and qualification and accurate recommendations to improve all that. This research focuses on the evaluation of quality indicators for the external evaluation of higher education at Military Education Centres in Spain and it is funded by a joint project between University of Granada and MADOC. The technique used for collecting and analysing information was a content description of several documents provided by these military educational authorities, arising the identification and extraction of relevant indicators on the evaluation of higher education. This analysis was primarily based on standards and indicators systems by ANECA (National Agency for Quality Assessment and Accreditation adapted to the Military Higher Education, but also it was consider other standards by international agencies and evaluative institutions, such as University of Chile, University of Paraguay, Canarias Agency for Quality Assessment and Accreditation and Agency for Quality Education System University of Castilla y León. The analysis realize a usual

  5. Water quality and MTBE water pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buiatti, M.; Mascini, M.; Monanni, R.; Filipponi, M.; Piangoloni, A.; Mancini, G.

    2001-01-01

    The research project, here presented, was defined with the aim of evaluating the eventual presence of MTBE and the possible relative impact in water destined to human use; the territorial valence of the project was extended to the competence region n. 4 of the Tuscany water authority (AATO n. 4). University of Florence, ARPAT, AATO n. 4 and Nuove Acque SpA, in this role of manager for the integrated water cycle in the country, have productively contributed to the project [it

  6. Developing an Evaluation Framework of Quality Indicators for Learning Analytics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffel, Maren; Drachsler, Hendrik; Specht, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents results from the continuous process of developing an evaluation framework of quality indicators for learning analytics (LA). Building on a previous study, a group concept mapping approach that uses multidimensional scaling and hierarchical clustering, the study presented here

  7. Tracking of Power Quality Indicators during Wind Farm Islanding Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terzija, V.; Crossley, P.A.; Stanojevic, V.

    2007-01-01

    The application of the two-stage Newton Type Algorithm for the tracking of the power quality indicators (in accordance with IEEE Standard 1459-2000) is presented in the paper. To estimate their spectra and fundamental frequency, the current and voltage signals are first processed and then the pow...... experiment in Denmark....

  8. Indicators for the automated analysis of drug prescribing quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coste, J; Séné, B; Milstein, C; Bouée, S; Venot, A

    1998-01-01

    Irrational and inconsistent drug prescription has considerable impact on morbidity, mortality, health service utilization, and community burden. However, few studies have addressed the methodology of processing the information contained in these drug orders used to study the quality of drug prescriptions and prescriber behavior. We present a comprehensive set of quantitative indicators for the quality of drug prescriptions which can be derived from a drug order. These indicators were constructed using explicit a priori criteria which were previously validated on the basis of scientific data. Automatic computation is straightforward, using a relational database system, such that large sets of prescriptions can be processed with minimal human effort. We illustrate the feasibility and value of this approach by using a large set of 23,000 prescriptions for several diseases, selected from a nationally representative prescriptions database. Our study may result in direct and wide applications in the epidemiology of medical practice and in quality control procedures.

  9. Management of drinking water quality in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    Drinking water quality in both urban and rural areas of Pakistan is not being managed properly. Results of various investigations provide evidence that most of the drinking water supplies are faecally contaminated. At places groundwater quality is deteriorating due to the naturally occurring subsoil contaminants, or by anthropogenic activities. The poor bacteriological quality of drinking water has frequently resulted in high incidence of water borne diseases while subsoil contaminants have caused other ailments to consumers. This paper presents a detailed review of drinking water quality in the country and the consequent health impacts. It identifies various factors contributing to poor water quality and proposes key actions required to ensure safe drinking water supplies to consumers. (author)

  10. Water footprints of cities - indicators for sustainable consumption and production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, H.; Döll, P.; Fader, M.; Gerten, D.; Hauser, S.; Siebert, S.

    2014-01-01

    Water footprints have been proposed as sustainability indicators, relating the consumption of goods like food to the amount of water necessary for their production and the impacts of that water use in the source regions. We further developed the existing water footprint methodology, by globally resolving virtual water flows from production to consumption regions for major food crops at 5 arcmin spatial resolution. We distinguished domestic and international flows, and assessed local impacts of export production. Applying this method to three exemplary cities, Berlin, Delhi and Lagos, we find major differences in amounts, composition, and origin of green and blue virtual water imports, due to differences in diets, trade integration and crop water productivities in the source regions. While almost all of Delhi's and Lagos' virtual water imports are of domestic origin, Berlin on average imports from more than 4000 km distance, in particular soy (livestock feed), coffee and cocoa. While 42% of Delhi's virtual water imports are blue water based, the fractions for Berlin and Lagos are 2 and 0.5%, respectively, roughly equal to the water volumes abstracted in these two cities for domestic water use. Some of the external source regions of Berlin's virtual water imports appear to be critically water scarce and/or food insecure. However, for deriving recommendations on sustainable consumption and trade, further analysis of context-specific costs and benefits associated with export production will be required.

  11. Analysis of water quality on several waters affected by contamination in West Sumbawa Regency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, N. N.; Satyantini, W. H.; Sahidu, A. M.; Sari, L. A.; Mukti, A. T.

    2018-04-01

    This study reports the result of water quality in several waters in West Sumbawa Regency. The load of waste input from anthropogenic activity becomes an indication of the decrease of water quality in West Sumbawa Regency Waters. The existence of illegal mining activities around the water has the potential to cause water pollution. Sample of water were collected on April 2017 in four location such as Sejorong 1, Sejorong 2, Tongo, and Taliwang. Sample were analyzed as insitu and exsitu parameters. The result of this research showed that Sejorong 2 have the highest value of pollution index but generally four site on West Sumbawa Regency Waters were categorized lightly contaminated. Concentration of heavy metal cadmium at four locations exceed the water quality standard for fisheries and drinking water. However, the trophic classification using TSI and TRIX of all location was oligothropic water.

  12. Water quality management in the Netherlands : Contribution to the Dutch-Japanese workshops on the treatment of municipal waste water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoornstra, J.S.; De Jong, J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes water management in the Netherlands with an emphasis on water quality aspects. First some features of the country are presented, underlining the importance of water and indicating the need for international cooperation on water quality matters. In the third paragraph, the water

  13. The Global Streamflow Indices and Metadata Archive (GSIM – Part 2: Quality control, time-series indices and homogeneity assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Gudmundsson

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This is Part 2 of a two-paper series presenting the Global Streamflow Indices and Metadata Archive (GSIM, which is a collection of daily streamflow observations at more than 30 000 stations around the world. While Part 1 (Do et al., 2018a describes the data collection process as well as the generation of auxiliary catchment data (e.g. catchment boundary, land cover, mean climate, Part 2 introduces a set of quality controlled time-series indices representing (i the water balance, (ii the seasonal cycle, (iii low flows and (iv floods. To this end we first consider the quality of individual daily records using a combination of quality flags from data providers and automated screening methods. Subsequently, streamflow time-series indices are computed for yearly, seasonal and monthly resolution. The paper provides a generalized assessment of the homogeneity of all generated streamflow time-series indices, which can be used to select time series that are suitable for a specific task. The newly generated global set of streamflow time-series indices is made freely available with an digital object identifier at https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.887470 and is expected to foster global freshwater research, by acting as a ground truth for model validation or as a basis for assessing the role of human impacts on the terrestrial water cycle. It is hoped that a renewed interest in streamflow data at the global scale will foster efforts in the systematic assessment of data quality and provide momentum to overcome administrative barriers that lead to inconsistencies in global collections of relevant hydrological observations.

  14. The Global Streamflow Indices and Metadata Archive (GSIM) - Part 2: Quality control, time-series indices and homogeneity assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsson, Lukas; Do, Hong Xuan; Leonard, Michael; Westra, Seth

    2018-04-01

    This is Part 2 of a two-paper series presenting the Global Streamflow Indices and Metadata Archive (GSIM), which is a collection of daily streamflow observations at more than 30 000 stations around the world. While Part 1 (Do et al., 2018a) describes the data collection process as well as the generation of auxiliary catchment data (e.g. catchment boundary, land cover, mean climate), Part 2 introduces a set of quality controlled time-series indices representing (i) the water balance, (ii) the seasonal cycle, (iii) low flows and (iv) floods. To this end we first consider the quality of individual daily records using a combination of quality flags from data providers and automated screening methods. Subsequently, streamflow time-series indices are computed for yearly, seasonal and monthly resolution. The paper provides a generalized assessment of the homogeneity of all generated streamflow time-series indices, which can be used to select time series that are suitable for a specific task. The newly generated global set of streamflow time-series indices is made freely available with an digital object identifier at https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.887470" target="_blank">https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.887470 and is expected to foster global freshwater research, by acting as a ground truth for model validation or as a basis for assessing the role of human impacts on the terrestrial water cycle. It is hoped that a renewed interest in streamflow data at the global scale will foster efforts in the systematic assessment of data quality and provide momentum to overcome administrative barriers that lead to inconsistencies in global collections of relevant hydrological observations.

  15. Selection and grouping of indicators of water quality using Multivariate StatisticsSeleção e agrupamento de indicadores da qualidade de águas utilizando Estatística Multivariada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Almeida Bertossi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Multivariate statistics techniques (Principal Component Analysis and Cluster Analysis were employed to select the most important parameters that explain water quality variability at a rural watershed in the state of Espírito Santo (Brazil. In addition to group the waters studied for the similarity of features selected to verify the effect of type of soil cover (agriculture, livestock, forest and urban, water resource (surface and underground and sampling period (rainy and dry seasons. Nineteen physico-chemical parameters of water quality were analyzed: pH, electrical conductivity, total solids, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, turbidity, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, ammoniacal nitrogen, nitrate, nitrite, total phosphorous, Ca, Mg, Fe, Na, K, Zn, Cu and total coliform. Application of Principal Component Analysis reduced the 19 parameters to three components that explained 87.53% of the total variance of data set. Water quality parameters that best explained variability of data were: electrical conductivity, total solids, total dissolved solids, turbidity, BOD, nitrate, Ca, Mg, and Na. Application of Cluster Analysis showed four different groups of water quality that differed in concentration of physicochemical characteristics and the type of water resource study, since the collection periods and the type of soil cover did not influence the segregation of groups formed. No presente trabalho empregaram-se técnicas de Estatística Multivariada (Análise de Componentes Principais e Análise de Agrupamento Hierárquico com o objetivo de selecionar as características físico-químicas mais importantes para explicar a variabilidade da qualidade das águas de uma sub-bacia hidrográfica rural no Sul do Estado do Espírito Santo, além de agrupar as águas estudadas quanto à similaridade das características selecionadas para verificar o efeito do tipo de cobertura do solo (agrícola, pecuário, florestal e urbano, de recurso h

  16. Quality in the provision of headache care. 2: defining quality and its indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michele; Jenkinson, Crispin; Perera, Suraj; Loder, Elizabeth; Jensen, Rigmor; Katsarava, Zaza; Gil Gouveia, Raquel; Broner, Susan; Steiner, Timothy

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to define "quality" of headache care, and develop indicators that are applicable in different settings and cultures and to all types of headache. No definition of quality of headache care has been formulated. Two sets of quality indicators, proposed in the US and UK, are limited to their localities and/or specific to migraine and their development received no input from people with headache. We first undertook a literature review. Then we conducted a series of focus-group consultations with key stakeholders (doctors, nurses and patients) in headache care. From the findings we proposed a large number of putative quality indicators, and refined these and reduced their number in consultations with larger international groups of stakeholder representatives. We formulated a definition of quality from the quality indicators. Five main themes were identified: (1) headache services; (2) health professionals; (3) patients; (4) financial resources; (5) political agenda and legislation. An initial list of 160 putative quality indicators in 14 domains was reduced to 30 indicators in 9 domains. These gave rise to the following multidimensional definition of quality of headache care: "Good-quality headache care achieves accurate diagnosis and individualized management, has appropriate referral pathways, educates patients about their headaches and their management, is convenient and comfortable, satisfies patients, is efficient and equitable, assesses outcomes and is safe." Quality in headache care is multidimensional and resides in nine essential domains that are of equal importance. The indicators are currently being tested for feasibility of use in clinical settings.

  17. Infectious Disinfection: "Exploring Global Water Quality"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaya, Evans; Tippins, Deborah J.; Mueller, Michael P.; Thomson, Norman

    2009-01-01

    Learning about the water situation in other regions of the world and the devastating effects of floods on drinking water helps students study science while learning about global water quality. This article provides science activities focused on developing cultural awareness and understanding how local water resources are integrally linked to the…

  18. Water Quality Management of Beijing in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    At present, Beijing's water resources are insufficient and will become the limiting factor for sustainable development for the city in the near future. Although efforts have been made to control pollution, water quality degradation has occurred in some of the important surface water supplies, aggravating the water resource shortage. At present, approximately three quarters of the city's wastewater is discharged untreated into the urban river system, resulting in serious pollution and negatively influencing the urban landscape and quality of daily life. To counteract these measures, the city has implemented a comprehensive "Water Quality Management Plan" for the region, encompassing water pollution control, prevention of water body degradation, and improved water quality.The construction of municipal wastewater treatment plants is recognised as fundamental to controlling water pollution, and full secondary treatment is planned to be in place by the year 2015. Significant work is also required to expand the service area of the municipal sewage system and to upgrade and renovate the older sewer systems. The limitation on available water resources has also seen the emphasis shift to low water using industries and improved water conservation. Whilst industrial output has increased steadily over the past 10-15 years at around 10% per annum, industrial water usage has remained relatively constant. Part of the city's water quality management plan has been to introduce a strict discharge permit system, encouraging many industries to install on-site treatment facilities.

  19. Abundance of pollution indicator and pathogenic bacteria in Mumbai waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.; Kolhe, V.; Sadhasivan, A

    As a part of environmental assessment in the Mumbai Harbour region, where large numbers of ships either take in ballast from- or discharge their ballast, many groups of indicator and human pathogenic bacteria were quantified. Samples (water...

  20. Microbiological and physicochemical quality of drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Chee Ling; Zalifah, M.K.; Norrakiah, A.S.

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted on the water samples collected before and after filtration treatment was given. Five types of filtered drinking water (A1, B1, C1, D1 and E2) were chosen randomly from houses in Klang Valley for analyses. The purpose of this study was to determine the quality of filtered drinking water by looking into microbiological aspect and several physicochemical analyses such as turbidity, pH and total suspended solid (TSS). The microbiological analyses were performed to trace the presence of indicator organisms and pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Streptococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. All of the water did not comply with the regulations of Food Act as consisted of more than 10 3 -10 4 cfu/ mL for total plate count. However, the total coliforms and E. coli were detected lower than 4 cfu/ mL and not exceeding the maximum limit of Food Act. While the presence of S. faecalis and P. aeruginosa were negative in all samples. The pH value was slightly acidic (pH -4 - 2.2 x 10 -3 mg/ L) and the turbidity for all the samples were recorded below 1 Nephelometric Turbidity units (NTU) thus, complying with the regulations. All the water samples that undergo the filtration system were fit to be consumed. (author)

  1. Estimation of air quality by air pollution indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liblik, Valdo; Kundel, Helmut

    1999-01-01

    A novel system for estimating the quality of atmospheric air in the over-ground air layer with the help of air pollution indices was developed. The method is based on a comparison of measured or calculated maximum short-term concentrations and average annual concentrations of pollutants with maximum permissible concentrations (with regard to human beings and vegetation). Special air quality estimation scales for residential areas and natural systems are presented. On the basis of the concentration of the substance under study zones of very high, high, rather high, moderate, low and very low air pollution were distinguished in the over-ground layer of the atmosphere. These are projected to land surface for landscape zonation. The application of the system of indices is demonstrated in the analysis of air quality for the towns of Kohtla-Jarve, Johvi and Kivioli (in 1997-1998). A comparative analysis of the air pollution zones distinguished on the basis of emissions and data from bio monitoring yielded satisfactory results. The system of air pollution indices developed enables to process the results of air monitoring in case of pollution fields of complicated composition so that the result for estimating the quality of ambient air in a residential area is easily understood by inhabitants and interpretable with the help of a special scale; analyse temporal changes in the quality of the air in towns, villages and other residential areas and use the results as basis for developing measures for reducing the pollution of ambient air; carry out zonation of large territories on the basis of air pollution levels (spatial air pollution zones are projected on the ground surface) and estimate air quality in places where air monitoring is lacking to forecast the possible effect of air pollution on natural systems (author)

  2. Preliminary Water-Table Map and Water-Quality Data for Part of the Matanuska-Susitna Valley, Alaska, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Edward H.; Solin, Gary L.

    2006-01-01

    The Matanuska-Susitna Valley is in the northeastern part of the Cook Inlet Basin, Alaska, an area experiencing rapid population growth and development proximal to many lakes. Here water commonly flows between lakes and ground water, indicating interrelation between water quantity and quality. Thus concerns exist that poorer quality ground water may degrade local lake ecosystems. This concern has led to water-quality sampling in cooperation with the Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation and the Matanuska-Susitna Borough. A map showing the estimated altitude of the water table illustrates potential ground-water flow directions and areas where ground- and surface-water exchanges and interactions might occur. Water quality measured in selected wells and lakes indicates some differences between ground water and surface water. 'The temporal and spatial scarcity of ground-water-level and water-quality data limits the analysis of flow direction and water quality. Regionally, the water-table map indicates that ground water in the eastern and southern parts of the study area flows southerly. In the northcentral area, ground water flows predominately westerly then southerly. Although ground and surface water in most areas of the Matanuska-Susitna Valley are interconnected, they are chemically different. Analyses of the few water-quality samples collected in the area indicate that dissolved nitrite plus nitrate and orthophosphorus concentrations are higher in ground water than in surface water.'

  3. Bacterial indicators of faecal pollution of water supplies and public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacterial indicators of faecal pollution of water supplies and their significance to public health are reviewed in this paper, to highlight their levels of general acceptability and suitability as safeguards against health hazards associated with water supplies. Regular bacteriological analysis with the sole aim of detecting faecal ...

  4. The modeling of response indicators of integrated water resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results indicate that the feed forward multilayer perceptron models with back propagation are useful tools to define and prioritize the most effective response variable on water resources mobilization to intervene and solve water problems. The model evaluation shows that the correlation coefficients are more than 96% ...

  5. Water poverty indicators: conceptual problems and policy issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molle, F.; Mollinga, P.P.

    2003-01-01

    In the wake of a growing concern about both the unchecked rise of poverty and the local and global consequences of water scarcity, the relationships between water and poverty are the object of a sprawling literature. Indicators are presented as indispensable tools for informing and orienting

  6. [Indicators of healthcare quality in day surgery (2010-2012)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Rodenas, F; Codina Grifell, J; Deulofeu Quintana, P; Garrido Corchón, J; Blasco Casares, F; Gibanel Garanto, X; Cuixart Vilamajó, L; de Haro Licer, J; Vazquez Dorrego, X

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring quality indicators in Ambulatory Surgery centers is fundamental in order to identify problems, correct them and prevent them. Given their large number, it is essential to select the most valid ones. The objectives of the study are the continuous improvement in the quality of healthcare of day-case surgery in our center, by monitoring selective quality parameters, having periodic information on the results and taking corrective measures, as well as achieving a percentage of unplanned transfer and cancellations within quality standards. Prospective, observational and descriptive study of the day-case surgery carried out from January 2010 to December 2012. Unplanned hospital admissions and cancellations on the same day of the operation were selected and monitored, along with their reasons. Hospital admissions were classified as: inappropriate selection, medical-surgical complications, and others. The results were evaluated each year and statistically analysed using χ(2) tests. A total of 8,300 patients underwent day surgery during the 3 years studied. The day-case surgery and outpatient index increased by 5.4 and 6.4%, respectively (P<.01). Unexpected hospital admissions gradually decreased due to the lower number of complications (P<.01). Hospital admissions, due to an extended period of time in locoregional anaesthesia recovery, also decreased (P<.01). There was improved prevention of nausea and vomiting, and of poorly controlled pain. The proportion of afternoon admissions was significantly reduced (P<.01). The cancellations increased in 2011 (P<.01). The monitoring of quality parameters in day-case surgery has been a useful tool in our clinical and quality management. Globally, the unplanned transfer and cancellations have been within the quality standards and many of the indicators analysed have improved. Copyright © 2013 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessing quality in European educational research indicators and approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Åström, Fredrik; Hansen, Antje

    2014-01-01

    Competition-based models for research policy and management have an increasing influence throughout the research process, from attracting funding to publishing results. The introduction of quality control methods utilizing various forms of performance indicators is part of this development. The authors presented in this volume deal with the following questions: What counts as ‘quality’ and how can this be assessed? What are the possible side effects of current quality control systems on research conducted in the European Research Area, especially in the social sciences and the humanities?

  8. UK key performance indicators and quality assurance standards for colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Colin J; Thomas Gibson, Siwan; Rutter, Matt D; Baragwanath, Phil; Pullan, Rupert; Feeney, Mark; Haslam, Neil

    2016-12-01

    Colonoscopy should be delivered by endoscopists performing high quality procedures. The British Society of Gastroenterology, the UK Joint Advisory Group on GI Endoscopy, and the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland have developed quality assurance measures and key performance indicators for the delivery of colonoscopy within the UK. This document sets minimal standards for delivery of procedures along with aspirational targets that all endoscopists should aim for. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. Heavy Water Quality Management in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ho Chul; Lee, Mun; Kim, Hi Gon; Park, Chan Young; Choi, Ho Young; Hur, Soon Ock; Ahn, Guk Hoon

    2008-12-15

    Heavy water quality management in the reflector tank is a very important element to maintain the good thermal neutron flux and to ensure the performance of reflector cooling system. This report is written to provide a guidance for the future by describing the history of the heavy water quality management during HANARO operation. The heavy water quality in the reflector tank has been managed by measuring the electrical conductivity at the inlet and outlet of the ion exchanger and by measuring pH of the heavy water. In this report, the heavy water quality management activities performed in HANARO from 1996 to 2007 ere described including a basic theory of the heavy water quality management, exchanging history of used resin in the reflector cooling system, measurement data of the pH and the electrical conductivity, and operation history of the reflector cooling system.

  10. Applications of MIDAS regression in analysing trends in water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penev, Spiridon; Leonte, Daniela; Lazarov, Zdravetz; Mann, Rob A.

    2014-04-01

    We discuss novel statistical methods in analysing trends in water quality. Such analysis uses complex data sets of different classes of variables, including water quality, hydrological and meteorological. We analyse the effect of rainfall and flow on trends in water quality utilising a flexible model called Mixed Data Sampling (MIDAS). This model arises because of the mixed frequency in the data collection. Typically, water quality variables are sampled fortnightly, whereas the rain data is sampled daily. The advantage of using MIDAS regression is in the flexible and parsimonious modelling of the influence of the rain and flow on trends in water quality variables. We discuss the model and its implementation on a data set from the Shoalhaven Supply System and Catchments in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Information criteria indicate that MIDAS modelling improves upon simplistic approaches that do not utilise the mixed data sampling nature of the data.

  11. Quality indicators for all dimensions of infertility care quality: consensus between professionals and patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dancet, E.A.; D'Hooghe, T.M.; Spiessens, C.; Sermeus, W.; Neubourg, D. De; Karel, N.; Kremer, J.A.M.; Nelen, W.L.D.M.

    2013-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: What is the relative importance of the six dimensions of quality of care according to different stakeholders and can a quality indicator set address all six quality dimensions and incorporate the views from professionals working in different disciplines and from patients? SUMMARY

  12. Comparison Between Water Quality Index (WQI) and Biological Water Quality Index (BWQI) for Water Quality Assessment: Case Study of Melana River, Johor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nor Zaiha Arman; Mohd Ismid Mohd Said; Shamila Azman; Muhammad Hazim Mat Hussin

    2013-01-01

    A study of water quality in Melana River, Johor was carried out in three consecutive months (March - May 2012). This study aims to determine the comparative results through biological monitoring as well as conventional method (physical and chemical analysis). Assessment is carried out through collection and identification of the biological indicator which comprises of macro benthos based on Biological Water Quality Index (BWQI). Comparison was done based on two methods namely invertebrate analysis and also laboratory analysis. For invertebrate analysis, Melana River consist of three types of Family groups namely Nymphs, Larvae and Molluscs. The result for Water Quality Index (WQI) and also Biological Water Quality Index (BWQI) analysis showed that the level of Melana River is polluted and classified in Class III. This study shows that even though different methods were used, the similar results were obtained for both rivers and can be applied to any river to identify their level of cleanliness. (author)

  13. Survey of quality indicators in commercial dehydrated fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megías-Pérez, Roberto; Gamboa-Santos, Juliana; Soria, Ana Cristina; Villamiel, Mar; Montilla, Antonia

    2014-05-01

    Physical and chemical quality parameters (dry matter, aw, protein, carbohydrates, vitamin C, 2-furoylmethyl amino acids, rehydration ratio and leaching loss) have been determined in 30 commercial dehydrated fruits (strawberry, blueberry, raspberry, cranberry, cherry, apple, grapefruit, mango, kiwifruit, pineapple, melon, coconut, banana and papaya). For comparison purposes, strawberry samples processed in the laboratory by freeze-drying and by convective drying were used as control samples. Overall quality of dehydrated fruits seemed to be greatly dependent on processing conditions and, in a cluster analysis, samples which were presumably subjected to osmotic dehydration were separated from the rest of fruits. These samples presented the lowest concentration of vitamin C and the highest evolution of Maillard reaction, as evidenced by its high concentration of 2-furoylmethyl amino acids. This is the first study on the usefulness of this combination of chemical and physical indicators to assess the overall quality of commercial dehydrated fruits. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Health indicators associated with poor sleep quality among university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Flávio Moura de Araújo

    Full Text Available Objective To associate the sleep quality of Brazilian undergraduate students with health indicators. Method A cross-sectional study was developed with a random sample of 662 undergraduate students from Fortaleza, Brazil. The demographic data, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and health data indicators (smoking, alcoholism, sedentary lifestyle, nutritional condition and serum cholesterol were collected through a self-administered questionnaire. Blood was collected at a clinical laboratory. In order to estimate the size of the associations, a Poisson Regression was used. Results For students who are daily smokers, the occurrence of poor sleep was higher than in non-smokers (p<0.001. Prevalence rate values were nevertheless close to 1. Conclusion The likelihood of poor sleep is almost the same in smokers and in alcoholics.

  15. Aqueous Productivity: An enhanced productivity indicator for water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritzema, Randall S.

    2014-09-01

    Increasing demand for scarce water supplies is fueling competition between agricultural production and other municipal and environmental demands, and has heightened the need for effective indicators to measure water performance and support water allocation and planning processes. Water productivity (WP), defined as the ‘ratio of the net benefits from crop, forestry, fishery, livestock, and mixed agricultural systems to the amount of water required to produce those benefits', is one such indicator that has gained prominence, particularly in research-for-development efforts in the developing world. However, though WP is a framework well-suited to systems where water use is directly attributable, particularly via depletion, to definitive benefits, the suitability of the approach becomes questionable when these conditions are not met, such as in multiple use systems with high re-use and non-depleting uses. These factors furthermore make WP highly scale-dependent, complicating comparative studies across scales and systems. This research forwards ‘aqueous productivity' (AP) as an alternative indicator that addresses some inherent limitations in the WP approach and enhances productivity estimates for water in integrated systems. Like WP, AP is expressed as a ratio of benefit to water volume. However, AP uses a systems approach and is based on the concept that elements within a hydrologic system are linked via water flow interactions, and that those elements either ‘extract' value from associated water flows or ‘infuse' value into them. The AP method therefore calculates the ‘aqueous productivity', a ratio indicating the ‘dissolved' production-related economic value of all downstream uses of an individual water flow, for each inter-element and cross-boundary flow in the system. The AP conceptual framework and analytical methodology are presented. The method is then applied to two example hydroeconomic systems and compared to equivalent WP analysis. Discussion

  16. Lake Chini Water Quality Assessment Using Multivariate Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, A.K.; Shuhaimi, Othman M.; Lim, E.C.; Aziz, Z.A.

    2013-01-01

    An analysis was undertaken using the multivariate approach to determine the important water quality for shallow lake water quality assessment. Fourteen water quality parameters which includes biological, physical and chemical components were collected monthly over twelve month period. The data were analysed using factor analysis which involves identification of factor correlation, factor extraction and factor permutations. The first process involved the clustering of high correlation parameters into its respective factor and the removal of parameters that have more than one factor. Agglomerative hierarchy (HACA) and discriminant analysis (DA) were also used to exhibit the important factors that has significant influence on lake water quality. The analysis showed that Lake Chini water quality was determined by more than one factor. The results indicated that the biological and chemical (nutrients) components have significant influence in determining the lake water quality. The biological parameters namely BOD5, COD, chlorophyll a and chemical (nitrate and orthophosphate) are important parameters in Lake Chini. All analysis demonstrated the importance of biological and chemical water quality components in the determination of Lake Chini water quality. (author)

  17. Principles and Practices of Water Quality Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.L. Michael

    2001-01-01

    There are many activities in forest management that may affect water quality, i.e., timber harvestine, road building,mechanical and chemical site preparation, release operations, fuel reduction,wildlife opening maintenance, etc. How severely they affect water quality depends on how well the person in charge of the operation understands the activity itself, the...

  18. Bacteriological physicochemical quality of recreational water bodies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tinsae

    logical quality, and there are no guidelines (standards) towards the safe use and quality control of recreational water. Under this circumstances, it is neither possible to know the gravity of the problem, nor simple to manage the possible health related risks that are associated with the use of recreational water bodies.

  19. 40 CFR 240.204 - Water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality. 240.204 Section 240.204 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.204 Water quality. ...

  20. STREAMFLOW AND WATER QUALITY REGRESSION MODELING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... downstream Obigbo station show: consistent time-trends in degree of contamination; linear and non-linear relationships for water quality models against total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended sediment (TSS), chloride, pH and sulphate; and non-linear relationship for streamflow and water quality transport models.

  1. Evaluation on the Quality of Bangkok Tap Water with Other Drinking Purpose Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordach, A.; Chardwattananon, C.; Wongin, K.; Chayaput, B.; Wongpat, N.

    2018-02-01

    The concern of drinking purposed water quality in Bangkok, Nonthaburi, and Samutprakarn provinces has been a problem for over fifteen years. Metropolitan Water Works Authority (MWA) of Thailand is fully responsible for providing water supply to the mentioned areas. The objective of Drinkable Tap Water Project is to make people realize in quality of tap water. Communities, school, government agencies, hotels, hospitals, department stores, and other organizations are participating in this project. MWA have collected at least 3 samples of water from the corresponding places and the samples have to meet the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines level. This study is to evaluate water quality of tap water, storage water, filtered water, and filtered water dispenser. The water samples from 2,354 attending places are collected and analyzed. From October 2011 to September 2016, MWA analyzed 32,711 samples. The analyzed water parameters are free residual chlorine, appearance color, turbidity, pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), and pathogenic bacteria; E.coli. The results indicated that a number of tap water samples had the highest number compliance with WHO guidelines levels at 98.40%. The filtered water, filtered water dispenser, and storage water were received 96.71%, 95.63%, and 90.88%, respectively. However, the several samples fail to pass WHO guideline level because they were contaminated by E.coli. The result is that tap water has the highest score among other sources probably because tap water has chlorine for disinfection and always is monitored by professional team round-the-clock services compared to the other water sources with less maintenance or cleaning. Also, water quality reports are continuously sent to customers by mail addresses. Tap water quality data are shown on MWA websites and Facebook. All these steps of work should enhance the confidence of tap water quality.

  2. Evaluation on the Quality of Bangkok Tap Water with Other Drinking Purpose Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kordach A.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The concern of drinking purposed water quality in Bangkok, Nonthaburi, and Samutprakarn provinces has been a problem for over fifteen years. Metropolitan Water Works Authority (MWA of Thailand is fully responsible for providing water supply to the mentioned areas. The objective of Drinkable Tap Water Project is to make people realize in quality of tap water. Communities, school, government agencies, hotels, hospitals, department stores, and other organizations are participating in this project. MWA have collected at least 3 samples of water from the corresponding places and the samples have to meet the World Health Organization (WHO guidelines level. This study is to evaluate water quality of tap water, storage water, filtered water, and filtered water dispenser. The water samples from 2,354 attending places are collected and analyzed. From October 2011 to September 2016, MWA analyzed 32,711 samples. The analyzed water parameters are free residual chlorine, appearance color, turbidity, pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS, and pathogenic bacteria; E.coli. The results indicated that a number of tap water samples had the highest number compliance with WHO guidelines levels at 98.40%. The filtered water, filtered water dispenser, and storage water were received 96.71%, 95.63%, and 90.88%, respectively. However, the several samples fail to pass WHO guideline level because they were contaminated by E.coli. The result is that tap water has the highest score among other sources probably because tap water has chlorine for disinfection and always is monitored by professional team round-the-clock services compared to the other water sources with less maintenance or cleaning. Also, water quality reports are continuously sent to customers by mail addresses. Tap water quality data are shown on MWA websites and Facebook. All these steps of work should enhance the confidence of tap water quality.

  3. Developing a methodological framework for estimating water productivity indicators in water scarce regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubako, S. T.; Fullerton, T. M.; Walke, A.; Collins, T.; Mubako, G.; Walker, W. S.

    2014-12-01

    Water productivity is an area of growing interest in assessing the impact of human economic activities on water resources, especially in arid regions. Indicators of water productivity can assist water users in evaluating sectoral water use efficiency, identifying sources of pressure on water resources, and in supporting water allocation rationale under scarcity conditions. This case study for the water-scarce Middle Rio Grande River Basin aims to develop an environmental-economic accounting approach for water use in arid river basins through a methodological framework that relates water use to human economic activities impacting regional water resources. Water uses are coupled to economic transactions, and the complex but mutual relations between various water using sectors estimated. A comparison is made between the calculated water productivity indicators and representative cost/price per unit volume of water for the main water use sectors. Although it contributes very little to regional economic output, preliminary results confirm that Irrigation is among the sectors with the largest direct water use intensities. High economic value and low water use intensity economic sectors in the study region include Manufacturing, Mining, and Steam Electric Power. Water accounting challenges revealed by the study include differences in water management regimes between jurisdictions, and little understanding of the impact of major economic activities on the interaction between surface and groundwater systems in this region. A more comprehensive assessment would require the incorporation of environmental and social sustainability indicators to the calculated water productivity indicators.

  4. Faculty Perceptions of Online Teaching Effectiveness and Indicators of Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Frazer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Online education programs in nursing are increasing rapidly. Faculty need to be competent in their role and possess the skills necessary to positively impact student outcomes. Existing research offers effective teaching strategies for online education; however, there may be some disconnect in the application of these strategies and faculty perceptions of associated outcomes. Focus groups were formed to uncover how nursing faculty in an online program define and describe teaching effectiveness and quality indicators in an asynchronous online environment. A semistructured interview format guided group discussion. Participants (n=11 included nurse educators from an online university with an average of 15 years of experience teaching in nursing academia and 6 years in an online environment. Teaching effectiveness, indicators of quality, and student success were three categories that emerged from the analysis of data. What materialized from the analysis was an overarching concept of a “dance” that occurs in the online environment. Effective online teachers facilitate, connect, lead, and work in synchrony with students to obtain indicators of quality such as student success, student improvement over time, and student application of knowledge to the professional role.

  5. Selection indices for yield and quality traits in sweet corn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asghar, M.J.; Mehdi, S.S.

    2010-01-01

    The efficiency of three selection indices, viz., Smith-Hazel index (SHI), Desired gain index (DGI) and Base Index (BI) was compared for the improvement of an open pollinated sweet corn (Zea mays L. Saccharata) population. The data of genetic studies on various yield and quality traits among S1 families were used to construct these selection indices. Smith-Hazel index was found to be the most efficient in improving the aggregate genotype of yield traits for most of the selection strategies. Base index proved to be more efficient as compared to Smith-Hazel index in the improvement of aggregate genotype for five out of six selection strategies of quality traits. Both smith-hazel and Base indices were found useful for the improvement of sweetness and sweet flavour for all the selection strategies. When selection was confined to eight yield and four quality traits simultaneously, Base index proved to be more efficient as compared to Smith-Hazel index and desired gain index in improving the aggregate genotype for almost all the selection strategies. (author)

  6. Indicators for Monitoring Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene: A Systematic Review of Indicator Selection Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Schwemlein

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH is important to track progress, improve accountability, and demonstrate impacts of efforts to improve conditions and services, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Indicator selection methods enable robust monitoring of WaSH projects and conditions. However, selection methods are not always used and there are no commonly-used methods for selecting WaSH indicators. To address this gap, we conducted a systematic review of indicator selection methods used in WaSH-related fields. We present a summary of indicator selection methods for environment, international development, and water. We identified six methodological stages for selecting indicators for WaSH: define the purpose and scope; select a conceptual framework; search for candidate indicators; determine selection criteria; score indicators against criteria; and select a final suite of indicators. This summary of indicator selection methods provides a foundation for the critical assessment of existing methods. It can be used to inform future efforts to construct indicator sets in WaSH and related fields.

  7. The measurement of water scarcity: Defining a meaningful indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damkjaer, Simon; Taylor, Richard

    2017-09-01

    Metrics of water scarcity and stress have evolved over the last three decades from simple threshold indicators to holistic measures characterising human environments and freshwater sustainability. Metrics commonly estimate renewable freshwater resources using mean annual river runoff, which masks hydrological variability, and quantify subjectively socio-economic conditions characterising adaptive capacity. There is a marked absence of research evaluating whether these metrics of water scarcity are meaningful. We argue that measurement of water scarcity (1) be redefined physically in terms of the freshwater storage required to address imbalances in intra- and inter-annual fluxes of freshwater supply and demand; (2) abandons subjective quantifications of human environments and (3) be used to inform participatory decision-making processes that explore a wide range of options for addressing freshwater storage requirements beyond dams that include use of renewable groundwater, soil water and trading in virtual water. Further, we outline a conceptual framework redefining water scarcity in terms of freshwater storage.

  8. Setting water quality criteria for agricultural water reuse purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Müller

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of reclaimed water for agricultural irrigation is practiced worldwide and will increase in the future. The definition of water quality limits is a useful instrument for the assessment of water quality regarding its suitability for irrigation purposes and the performance of wastewater treatment steps. This study elaborates water quality objectives for a water reuse project in a setting where national guidelines do not exist. Internationally established guidelines are therefore applied to the local context. Additional limits for turbidity, total suspended solids, biochemical and chemical oxygen demand, total phosphorus and potassium are suggested to meet the requirements of water reuse projects. Emphasis is put on water quality requirements prior to UV disinfection and nutrient requirements of cultivated crops. The presented values can be of assistance when monitoring reclaimed water quality. To facilitate the realization of water reuse projects, comprehensive and more detailed information, in particular on water quality requirements prior to disinfection steps, should be provided as well as regarding the protection of the irrigation infrastructure.

  9. Water Quality Monitoring of Inland Waters using Meris data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potes, M.; Costa, M. J.; Salgado, R.; Le Moigne, P.

    2012-04-01

    The successful launch of ENVISAT in March 2002 has given a great opportunity to understand the optical changes of water surfaces, including inland waters such as lakes and reservoirs, through the use of the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS). The potential of this instrument to describe variations of optically active substances has been examined in the Alqueva reservoir, located in the south of Portugal, where satellite spectral radiances are corrected for the atmospheric effects to obtain the surface spectral reflectance. In order to validate this spectral reflectance, several field campaigns were carried out, with a portable spectroradiometer, during the satellite overpass. The retrieved lake surface spectral reflectance was combined with limnological laboratory data and with the resulting algorithms, spatial maps of biological quantities and turbidity were obtained, allowing for the monitoring of these water quality indicators. In the framework of the recent THAUMEX 2011 field campaign performed in Thau lagoon (southeast of France) in-water radiation, surface irradiation and reflectance measurements were taken with a portable spectrometer in order to test the methodology described above. At the same time, water samples were collected for laboratory analysis. The two cases present different results related to the geographic position, water composition, environment, resources exploration, etc. Acknowledgements This work is financed through FCT grant SFRH/BD/45577/2008 and through FEDER (Programa Operacional Factores de Competitividade - COMPETE) and National funding through FCT - Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia in the framework of projects FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-007122 (PTDC / CTE-ATM / 65307 / 2006) and FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-009303 (PTDC/CTE-ATM/102142/2008). Image data has been provided by ESA in the frame of ENVISAT projects AOPT-2423 and AOPT-2357. We thank AERONET investigators for their effort in establishing and maintaining Évora AERONET

  10. Impact of RO-desalted water on distribution water qualities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J; Dietz, J; Randall, A; Hong, S

    2005-01-01

    A large-scale pilot distribution study was conducted to investigate the impacts of blending different source waters on distribution water qualities, with an emphasis on metal release (i.e. corrosion). The principal source waters investigated were conventionally treated ground water (G1), surface water processed by enhanced treatment (S1), and desalted seawater by reverse osmosis membranes (RO). Due to the nature of raw water quality and associated treatment processes, G1 water had high alkalinity, while S1 and RO sources were characterized as high sulfate and high chloride waters, respectively. The blending ratio of different treated waters determined the quality of finished waters. Iron release from aged cast iron pipes increased significantly when exposed to RO and S1 waters: that is, the greater iron release was experienced with alkalinity reduced below the background of G1 water. Copper release to drinking water, however, increased with increasing alkalinity and decreasing pH. Lead release, on the other hand, increased with increasing chloride and decreasing sulfate. The effect of pH and alkalinity on lead release was not clearly observed from pilot blending study. The flat and compact corrosion scales observed for lead surface exposed to S1 water may be attributable to lead concentration less than that of RO water blends.

  11. evaluation of surface water quality charac- teristics in ogun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DEPT OF AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

    total viable counts as the major water quality indicators. The PC2 had Temperature, COD,. Phosphate, heavy metals (Zn and Hg) and Fecal coliform as responsible for the observed 19% of the variation within the location. Organic constituent (BOD5), which has direct influence on dissolved oxygen depletion in the water.

  12. Water quality in okara and its suburbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, M.T.; Imtiaz, N.; Athar, M.

    2007-01-01

    Ground water samples (70), collected from Okara and its sburbs were studied. Thirty samples were collected from municipal supply of urban areas while forty from deep water pumps of non-urban areas. The samples were investigated for various physiochemical parameters. Outcome of the study is that ground water of municipal supply area is suitable for human consumption while the water quality of non supply area is slightly brackish to saline and nitrate content is high above the acceptable levels of drinking water quality. (author)

  13. Florida's ground water quality monitoring program: background hydrogeochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Maddox, Gary; Upchurch, Sam; Lloyd, Jacqueline; Scott, Tom

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of the initial quantification of background water quality in each of the state's major potable aquifer systems. Results are presented and interpreted in light of the influencing factors which locally and regionally affect ambient ground-water quality. This initial data will serve as a baseline from which future sampling results can be compared. Future sampling of the Network will indicate the extent to which Flori...

  14. Water quality impacts of forest fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecle Aregai; Daniel Neary

    2015-01-01

    Forest fires have been serious menace, many times resulting in tremendous economic, cultural and ecological damage to many parts of the United States. One particular area that has been significantly affected is the water quality of streams and lakes in the water thirsty southwestern United States. This is because the surface water coming off burned areas has resulted...

  15. Indicators to support the dynamic evaluation of air quality models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thunis, P.; Clappier, A.

    2014-12-01

    Air quality models are useful tools for the assessment and forecast of pollutant concentrations in the atmosphere. Most of the evaluation process relies on the “operational phase” or in other words the comparison of model results with available measurements which provides insight on the model capability to reproduce measured concentrations for a given application. But one of the key advantages of air quality models lies in their ability to assess the impact of precursor emission reductions on air quality levels. Models are then used in a dynamic mode (i.e. response to a change in a given model input data) for which evaluation of the model performances becomes a challenge. The objective of this work is to propose common indicators and diagrams to facilitate the understanding of model responses to emission changes when models are to be used for policy support. These indicators are shown to be useful to retrieve information on the magnitude of the locally produced impacts of emission reductions on concentrations with respect to the “external to the domain” contribution but also to identify, distinguish and quantify impacts arising from different factors (different precursors). In addition information about the robustness of the model results is provided. As such these indicators might reveal useful as first screening methodology to identify the feasibility of a given action as well as to prioritize the factors on which to act for an increased efficiency. Finally all indicators are made dimensionless to facilitate the comparison of results obtained with different models, different resolutions, or on different geographical areas.

  16. water quality assessment of underground and surface water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Osondu

    Water quality assessment in the Ethiopian highlands is crucial owing to increasing ... and provide information for formulating appropriate framework for an integrated ... with four seasons (rainy, dry period, small rains ..... treatment. Annual conference proceedings, American Water Works ... Towns' water supply and sanitation.

  17. Assesment of the water quality and prevalence of water borne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The water related diseases that were consistently reported and diagnosed for the period are cholera (3.37%), diarrhea (44.94%), dysentery (16.85%), and typhoid fever (34.83%). The quality of the water and the prevalence of water related diseases in the hospitals were casually related to the contamination of the river in the ...

  18. Increased Mercury Bioaccumulation Follows Water Quality Improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogle, M.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.

    1999-09-15

    Changes in physical and chemical characteristics of aquatic habitats made to reduce or eliminate ecological risks can sometimes have unforeseen consequences. Environmental management activities on the U.S. Dept. of Energy reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee,have succeeded in improving water quality in streams impacted by discharges fi-om industrial facilities and waste disposal sites. The diversity and abundance of pollution-sensitive components of the benthic macroinvertebrate communities of three streams improved after new waste treatment systems or remedial actions reduced inputs of various toxic chemicals. Two of the streams were known to be mercury-contaminated from historical spills and waste disposal practices. Waterborne mercury concentrations in the third were typical of uncontaminated systems. In each case, concentrations of mercury in fish, or the apparent biological availability of mercury increased over the period during which ecological metrics indicated improved water quality. In the system where waterborne mercury concentrations were at background levels, increased mercury bioaccumulation was probably a result of reduced aqueous selenium concentrations; however, the mechanisms for increased mercury accumulation in the other two streams remain under investigation. In each of the three systems, reduced inputs of metals and inorganic anions was followed by improvements in the health of aquatic invertebrate communities. However, this reduction in risk to aquatic invertebrates was accompanied by increased risk to humans and piscivorous wildlife related to increased mercury concentrations in fish.

  19. Increased Mercury Bioaccumulation Follows Water Quality Improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogle, M.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.

    1999-01-01

    Changes in physical and chemical characteristics of aquatic habitats made to reduce or eliminate ecological risks can sometimes have unforeseen consequences. Environmental management activities on the U.S. Dept. of Energy reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee,have succeeded in improving water quality in streams impacted by discharges fi-om industrial facilities and waste disposal sites. The diversity and abundance of pollution-sensitive components of the benthic macroinvertebrate communities of three streams improved after new waste treatment systems or remedial actions reduced inputs of various toxic chemicals. Two of the streams were known to be mercury-contaminated from historical spills and waste disposal practices. Waterborne mercury concentrations in the third were typical of uncontaminated systems. In each case, concentrations of mercury in fish, or the apparent biological availability of mercury increased over the period during which ecological metrics indicated improved water quality. In the system where waterborne mercury concentrations were at background levels, increased mercury bioaccumulation was probably a result of reduced aqueous selenium concentrations; however, the mechanisms for increased mercury accumulation in the other two streams remain under investigation. In each of the three systems, reduced inputs of metals and inorganic anions was followed by improvements in the health of aquatic invertebrate communities. However, this reduction in risk to aquatic invertebrates was accompanied by increased risk to humans and piscivorous wildlife related to increased mercury concentrations in fish

  20. Performance indicators: A tool for continuous quality improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi M Bhatnagar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Performance monitoring is an important tool which can be used for setting priorities for process improvement. At our centre, we have been monitoring every step in the processes, right from inventory of consumables (both critical and routine to number of donors reactive for TTI. We conducted a study to measure the impact of monitoring Performance Indicators and how it could be used as a tool for Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI. Materials and Methods: The present study was a retrospective study where the performance indicator (PI data of blood bank was analyzed for over four years. For certain parameters, benchmarks or thresholds were set that represented warning limits or action limits. The yearly data were collated from monthly data. "Shifts" or "Trends", if any, were identified and Corrective and Preventive Action (CAPA taken accordingly. At the end, outcomes of the analysis were charted. Results: After the yearly data evaluation, outcomes obtained were used to plan, correct and amend processes and systems in the blood center. It was observed that the workload of the center showed an upward trend. This helped us to plan for the purchase of consumables and management of manpower. The monitoring of usage and discard of blood helped in the efficient management of blood stocks. The need for any new equipment could also be judged by the trends in workload. Conclusion: Performance indicators are indispensible tools which various stakeholders in the Blood Transfusion centres should implement to improve on quality performance.

  1. Performance indicators: A tool for continuous quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Nidhi M; Soni, Shital; Gajjar, Maitrey; Shah, Mamta; Shah, Sangita; Patel, Vaidehi

    2016-01-01

    Performance monitoring is an important tool which can be used for setting priorities for process improvement. At our centre, we have been monitoring every step in the processes, right from inventory of consumables (both critical and routine) to number of donors reactive for TTI. We conducted a study to measure the impact of monitoring Performance Indicators and how it could be used as a tool for Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI). The present study was a retrospective study where the performance indicator (PI) data of blood bank was analyzed for over four years. For certain parameters, benchmarks or thresholds were set that represented warning limits or action limits. The yearly data were collated from monthly data. Shifts or Trends, if any, were identified and Corrective and Preventive Action (CAPA) taken accordingly. At the end, outcomes of the analysis were charted. After the yearly data evaluation, outcomes obtained were used to plan, correct and amend processes and systems in the blood center. It was observed that the workload of the center showed an upward trend. This helped us to plan for the purchase of consumables and management of manpower. The monitoring of usage and discard of blood helped in the efficient management of blood stocks. The need for any new equipment could also be judged by the trends in workload. Performance indicators are indispensible tools which various stakeholders in the Blood Transfusion centres should implement to improve on quality performance.

  2. Extra-analytical quality indicators and laboratory performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciacovelli, Laura; Aita, Ada; Plebani, Mario

    2017-07-01

    In the last few years much progress has been made in raising the awareness of laboratory medicine professionals about the effectiveness of quality indicators (QIs) in monitoring, and improving upon, performances in the extra-analytical phases of the Total Testing Process (TTP). An effective system for management of QIs includes the implementation of an internal assessment system and participation in inter-laboratory comparison. A well-designed internal assessment system allows the identification of critical activities and their systematic monitoring. Active participation in inter-laboratory comparison provides information on the performance level of one laboratory with respect to that of other participating laboratories. In order to guarantee the use of appropriate QIs and facilitate their implementation, many laboratories have adopted the Model of Quality Indicators (MQI) proposed by Working Group "Laboratory Errors and Patient Safety" (WG-LEPS) of IFCC, since 2008, which is the result of international consensus and continuous experimentation, and updating to meet new, constantly emerging needs. Data from participating laboratories are collected monthly and reports describing the statistical results and evaluating laboratory data, utilizing the Six Sigma metric, issued regularly. Although the results demonstrate that the processes need to be improved upon, overall the comparison with data collected in 2014 shows a general stability of quality levels and that an improvement has been achieved over time for some activities. The continuous monitoring of QI data allows identification all possible improvements, thus highlighting the value of participation in the inter-laboratory program proposed by WG-LEPS. The active participation of numerous laboratories will guarantee an ever more significant State-of-the-Art, promote the reduction of errors and improve quality of the TTP, thus guaranteeing patient safety. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Comparative Assessment of Physical and Social Determinants of Water Quantity and Water Quality Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunda, T.; Hornberger, G. M.

    2017-12-01

    Concerns over water resources have evolved over time, from physical availability to economic access and recently, to a more comprehensive study of "water security," which is inherently interdisciplinary because a secure water system is influenced by and affects both physical and social components. The concept of water security carries connotations of both an adequate supply of water as well as water that meets certain quality standards. Although the term "water security" has many interpretations in the literature, the research field has not yet developed a synthetic analysis of water security as both a quantity (availability) and quality (contamination) issue. Using qualitative comparative and multi-regression analyses, we evaluate the primary physical and social factors influencing U.S. states' water security from a quantity perspective and from a quality perspective. Water system characteristics are collated from academic and government sources and include access/use, governance, and sociodemographic, and ecosystem metrics. Our analysis indicates differences in variables driving availability and contamination concerns; for example, climate is a more significant determinant in water quantity-based security analyses than in water quality-based security analyses. We will also discuss coevolution of system traits and the merits of constructing a robust water security index based on the relative importance of metrics from our analyses. These insights will improve understanding of the complex interactions between quantity and quality aspects and thus, overall security of water systems.

  4. A cluster-randomised quality improvement study to improve two inpatient stroke quality indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Linda; Daggett, Virginia; Slaven, James E; Yu, Zhangsheng; Sager, Danielle; Myers, Jennifer; Plue, Laurie; Woodward-Hagg, Heather; Damush, Teresa M

    2016-04-01

    Quality indicator collection and feedback improves stroke care. We sought to determine whether quality improvement training plus indicator feedback was more effective than indicator feedback alone in improving inpatient stroke indicators. We conducted a cluster-randomised quality improvement trial, randomising hospitals to quality improvement training plus indicator feedback versus indicator feedback alone to improve deep vein thrombosis (DVT) prophylaxis and dysphagia screening. Intervention sites received collaborative-based quality improvement training, external facilitation and indicator feedback. Control sites received only indicator feedback. We compared indicators pre-implementation (pre-I) to active implementation (active-I) and post-implementation (post-I) periods. We constructed mixed-effect logistic models of the two indicators with a random intercept for hospital effect, adjusting for patient, time, intervention and hospital variables. Patients at intervention sites (1147 admissions), had similar race, gender and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores to control sites (1017 admissions). DVT prophylaxis improved more in intervention sites during active-I period (ratio of ORs 4.90, pimproved similarly in both groups during active-I, but control sites improved more in post-I period (ratio of ORs 0.67, p=0.04). In logistic models, the intervention was independently positively associated with DVT performance during active-I period, and negatively associated with dysphagia performance post-I period. Quality improvement training was associated with early DVT improvement, but the effect was not sustained over time and was not seen with dysphagia screening. External quality improvement programmes may quickly boost performance but their effect may vary by indicator and may not sustain over time. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. Indicators of image quality and doses in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaona, E.; Franco E, J.G.; Azorin N, J.; Diaz G, J.A.I.; Arreola, M.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The purpose of the study was to determine the values of the image quality indicators and their relationship with the dose in mammography of screen-film that they allowed the detection of a bigger number of objects in the images obtained with the mannequin (phantom) authorized of the ACR/FDA. The study was carried out in four mammography services in a period of 12 months. The indicators of the image quality are the half optic density (DOM), contrast (differences of densities), the number of observed objects in the images and the dose for image. The minimum acceptable values by the ACR/FDA are a half optical density of 1.4, contrast of 0.4 and the one numbers minimum of objects observed in the image of the mannequin of mammography of 10 (4 fibers, 3 groups of calcifications and 3 masses), with a maximum dose by image of 3 mGy. The found results are half optical density of 1.9, contrast of 0.56 and the average number of objects observed in the images of 12, with a dose in the interval of 1.6 mGy to 2.4 mGy. The doses were measured by thermoluminescent dosimetry and ionization chamber. Once carried out the analysis of the tendencies of the indicators of image quality and their distributions is found that for a p < 0.05, the bigger number of objects observed in the images is in the interval from 1.8 to 1.9 of DOM. When comparing both mammography system, the system screen-film has a lower variability in the distribution of objects associated to a DOM. (Author)

  6. Spatio-Temporal Trends and Identification of Correlated Variables with Water Quality for Drinking-Water Reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qing; Wang, Ke; Li, Jiadan; Ma, Ligang; Deng, Jinsong; Zheng, Kefeng; Zhang, Xiaobin; Sheng, Li

    2015-10-20

    It is widely accepted that characterizing the spatio-temporal trends of water quality parameters and identifying correlated variables with water quality are indispensable for the management and protection of water resources. In this study, cluster analysis was used to classify 56 typical drinking water reservoirs in Zhejiang Province into three groups representing different water quality levels, using data of four water quality parameters for the period 2006-2010. Then, the spatio-temporal trends in water quality were analyzed, assisted by geographic information systems (GIS) technology and statistical analysis. The results indicated that the water quality showed a trend of degradation from southwest to northeast, and the overall water quality level was exacerbated during the study period. Correlation analysis was used to evaluate the relationships between water quality parameters and ten independent variables grouped into four categories (land use, socio-economic factors, geographical features, and reservoir attributes). According to the correlation coefficients, land use and socio-economic indicators were identified as the most significant factors related to reservoir water quality. The results offer insights into the spatio-temporal variations of water quality parameters and factors impacting the water quality of drinking water reservoirs in Zhejiang Province, and they could assist managers in making effective strategies to better protect water resources.

  7. Spatio-Temporal Trends and Identification of Correlated Variables with Water Quality for Drinking-Water Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Gu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that characterizing the spatio-temporal trends of water quality parameters and identifying correlated variables with water quality are indispensable for the management and protection of water resources. In this study, cluster analysis was used to classify 56 typical drinking water reservoirs in Zhejiang Province into three groups representing different water quality levels, using data of four water quality parameters for the period 2006–2010. Then, the spatio-temporal trends in water quality were analyzed, assisted by geographic information systems (GIS technology and statistical analysis. The results indicated that the water quality showed a trend of degradation from southwest to northeast, and the overall water quality level was exacerbated during the study period. Correlation analysis was used to evaluate the relationships between water quality parameters and ten independent variables grouped into four categories (land use, socio-economic factors, geographical features, and reservoir attributes. According to the correlation coefficients, land use and socio-economic indicators were identified as the most significant factors related to reservoir water quality. The results offer insights into the spatio-temporal variations of water quality parameters and factors impacting the water quality of drinking water reservoirs in Zhejiang Province, and they could assist managers in making effective strategies to better protect water resources.

  8. Water quality index for Al-Gharraf River, southern Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salam Hussein Ewaid

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Water Quality Index has been developed mathematically to evaluate the water quality of Al-Gharraf River, the main branch of the Tigris River in the south of Iraq. Water samples were collected monthly from five sampling stations during 2015–2016, and 11 parameters were analyzed: biological oxygen demand, total dissolved solids, the concentration of hydrogen ions, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, phosphates, nitrates, chlorides, as well as turbidity, total hardness, electrical conductivity and alkalinity. The index classified the river water, without including turbidity as a parameter, as good for drinking at the first station, poor at stations 2, 3, 4 and very poor at station 5. When turbidity was included, the index classified the river water as unsuitable for drinking purposes in the entire river. The study highlights the importance of applying the water quality indices which indicate the total effect of the ecological factors on surface water quality and which give a simple interpretation of the monitoring data to help local people in improving water quality.

  9. Water quality for the year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, A.

    1991-01-01

    Under an umbrella labeled Water Quality 2000, 86 organizations - ranging from the Natural Resources Defense Council to the Chemical Manufacturers Association - have reached a consensus on the major water quality problems currently facing the US. Their broad-based conclusions have been released in a report entitled Challenges for the Future, which represents one step in an ongoing discussion among representatives of these diverse groups on improving water quality. Although the report presents a long-term view, William Matuszeski from EPA described the document as a superb background for the upcoming debate over reauthorization of the Clean Water Act. In general terms, the report cites the major sources of current water problems as agricultural and urban runoff, especially following storms; airborne pollutants; continued dumping of toxic wastes; accidental spills; overharvesting of fish and shellfish; habitat competition from exotic species; and land and water use practices. This article summarizes some of the findings

  10. Quality Assurance for Iraqi Bottled Water Specifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May George Kassir

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this research the specifications of Iraqi drinking bottled water brands are investigated throughout the comparison between local brands, Saudi Arabia and the World Health Organization (WHO for bottled water standard specifications. These specifications were also compared to that of Iraqi Tap Water standards. To reveal variations in the specifications for Iraqi bottled water, and above mentioned standards some quality control tools are conducted for more than 33% of different bottled water brands (of different origins such as spring, purified,..etc in Iraq by investigating the selected quality parameters registered on their marketing labels. Results employing Minitab software (ver. 16 to generate X bar, and Pareto chart. It was found from X bar charts that the quality parameters of some drinking bottled water brands are not within Iraqi standards set by the “Central Agency for Standardization and Quality Control” such as pH values, Fe, Na, and Mg concentrations. While the comparison of previously mentioned standard specifications through radar chart many important issues are detected such as the absence of lower limits the whole bottled water quality parameters such as for Na and Mg also the radar chart shows that Iraqi bottled and tap water specifications are almost equal in their quality values. Also the same chart pictured the limited range of Iraqi specifications compared to that of Saudi Arabia, and WHO and the need to introduce other water specifications such as K, Na, etc. This confirms the need to improve Iraqi bottled water specifications since it was introduced on 2000. These results also highlighted the weakness of quality assurance activities since only 33 % of the investigated companies registered the whole water quality specifications as shown in Pareto chart. Other companies do not register any quality characteristics. Also certain companies should be stopped due to non-conforming specifications, yet these companies are

  11. Prediction of Availability Indicator of Water Pipes Using Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Kutyłowska Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents the results of artificial neural networks application to the availability indicator prediction. The forecasted results indicate that artificial networks may be used to model the reliability level of the water supply systems. The network was trained using 147 and 173 operational data from one Polish medium-sized city (distribution pipes and house connections, respectively). 50% of all data was chosen for learning, 25% for testing and 25% for validation. In prognosis phase, t...

  12. Quality Indicators for Quality of Care During Hospitalization for Vulnerable Elder Persons

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kleerup, Eric

    2004-01-01

    .... While many of the above conditions, such as congestive heart failure, pressure ulcers, and ischemic heart disease, contain indicators for the quality of hospital care associated with that condition...

  13. Annual report. (Air quality criteria and plants as biological indicators)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1969-01-01

    Studies have been carried out to derive air quality criteria as the basis for establishing emission limits. Experiments have also been carried out on the resistance of plant species which are important to the economy and public health. Among the specific avenues of investigation have been: the determination of phytotoxic hydrogen fluoride concentrations; studies on the resistance behavior of cultivated plants; fluorine enrichment in plant organs as a function of exposure height and wind speed; development and use of biological methods for detecting atmospheric impurities; detection of sulfur dioxide effects on plants; the use of transplanted lichens as air pollution indicators; grass cultures as indicators of fluorine pollution; biological accumulation of fluorine as a function of HF concentration in air; and the determination of lead and zinc levels in plants. 5 figures, 4 tables.

  14. Association of water spectral indices with plant and soil water relations in contrasting wheat genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Mario; Reynolds, Matthew P; Klatt, Arthur R

    2010-07-01

    Spectral reflectance indices can be used to estimate the water status of plants in a rapid, non-destructive manner. Water spectral indices were measured on wheat under a range of water-deficit conditions in field-based yield trials to establish their relationship with water relations parameters as well as available volumetric soil water (AVSW) to indicate soil water extraction patterns. Three types of wheat germplasm were studied which showed a range of drought adaptation; near-isomorphic sister lines from an elite/elite cross, advanced breeding lines, and lines derived from interspecific hybridization with wild relatives (synthetic derivative lines). Five water spectral indices (one water index and four normalized water indices) based on near infrared wavelengths were determined under field conditions between the booting and grain-filling stages of crop development. Among all water spectral indices, one in particular, which was denominated as NWI-3, showed the most consistent associations with water relations parameters and demonstrated the strongest associations in all three germplasm sets. NWI-3 showed a strong linear relationship (r(2) >0.6-0.8) with leaf water potential (psi(leaf)) across a broad range of values (-2.0 to -4.0 MPa) that were determined by natural variation in the environment associated with intra- and inter-seasonal affects. Association observed between NWI-3 and canopy temperature (CT) was consistent with the idea that genotypes with a better hydration status have a larger water flux (increased stomatal conductance) during the day. NWI-3 was also related to soil water potential (psi(soil)) and AVSW, indicating that drought-adapted lines could extract more water from deeper soil profiles to maintain favourable water relations. NWI-3 was sufficiently sensitive to detect genotypic differences (indicated by phenotypic and genetic correlations) in water status at the canopy and soil levels indicating its potential application in precision

  15. Evaluation of physical quality indices of a soil under a seasonal semideciduous forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalita Campos Oliveira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The concept of soil quality is currently the subject of great discussion due to the interaction of soil with the environment (soil-plant-atmosphere and practices of human intervention. However, concepts of soil quality relate quality to agricultural productivity, but assessment of soil quality in an agronomic context may be different from its assessment in natural areas. The aim of this study was to assess physical quality indices, the S index, soil aeration capacity (ACt/Pt, and water storage capacity (FC/Pt of the soil from a permanent plot in the Caetetus Ecological Reserve (Galia, São Paulo, Brazil under a seasonal semideciduous forest and compare them with the reference values for soil physical quality found in the literature. Water retention curves were used for that purpose. The S values found were higher than the proposed limit for soil physical quality (0.035. The A and E horizons showed the highest values because their sandy texture leads to a high slope of the water retention curve. The B horizons showed the lowest S values because their natural density leads to a lower slope of the water retention curve. The values found for ACt/Pt and FC/Pt were higher and lower than the idealized limits. The values obtained from these indices under natural vegetation can provide reference values for soils with similar properties that undergo changes due to anthropic activities. All the indices evaluated were effective in differentiating the effects of soil horizons in the natural hydro-physical functioning of the soils under study.

  16. Water Footprint Assessment in Waste Water Treatment Plant: Indicator of the sustainability of urban water cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Llanos, Eva; Durán Barroso, Pablo; Matías Sánchez, Agustín; Fernández Rodríguez, Santiago; Guzmán Caballero, Raúl

    2017-04-01

    The seventeen Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) represent a challenge for citizens and countries around the world by working together to reduce social inequality, to fight poverty and climate change. The Goal six water and sanitation aims for ensuring, among others, the protection and restoration of water-related ecosystem (target 6.6) and encouraging the water use efficiency (target 6.3). The commitment to this goal is not only the development of sanitation infrastructure, but also incorporates the necessity of a sustainable and efficient management from ecological and economic perspectives. Following this approach, we propose a framework for assessing the waste water treatment plant (WWTP) management based on the Water Footprint (WF) principles. The WF as indicator is able to highlight the beneficial role of WWTPs within the environment and provide a complementary information to evaluate the impact of a WWTP regarding to the use of freshwater and energy. Therefore, the footprint family provides an opportunity to relate the reduction of pollutant load in a WWTP and the associated consumptions in terms of electricity and chemical products. As a consequence, the new methodology allows a better understanding of the interactions among water and energy resources, economic requirements and environmental risks. Because of this, the current technologies can be improved and innovative solutions for monitoring and management of urban water use can be integrated. The WF was calculated in four different WWTP located in the North East of Extremadura (SW Spain) which have activated sludge process as secondary treatment. This zone is characterized by low population density but an incipient tourism development. The WF estimation and its relationship with the electricity consumption examines the efficiency of each WWTP and identifies the weak points in the management in terms of the sustainability. Consequently, the WF establishes a benchmark for multidisciplinary decision

  17. Surface Water Quality Monitoring Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The MN Department of Agriculture (MDA) is charged with periodically collecting and analyzing water samples from selected locations throughout the state to determine...

  18. [Patient satisfaction as a quality indicator in mental health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Martín, L C; Iglesias-de-Sena, H; Fombellida-Velasco, C; Vicente-Torres, I; Alonso-Sardón, M; Mirón Canelo, J A

    2016-01-01

    To improve the quality of care in a Mental Health Hospital and identify the level of patient satisfaction. A descriptive, longitudinal, and retrospective study was conducted on 666 patients who completed treatment in the Mental Health Day Hospital of Salamanca, during the period 1994-2012, using the Hospital Management Annual Reports. A questionnaire designed for this purpose was used as the measurement tool. Most of the patients satisfactorily valued aspects, such as the general impression of the treatment (90% said «good/fairly good») and perception of being helped (94% perceived «very/fairly helped»); with 83% believing that the hospital is accessible. As regards empathy-understanding, it was noted that 14% feel discontent. While 18% of patients expected to be completely cured, the 83% of patients that finished their treatment have said that, in their opinion, the symptoms have subsided «very or somewhat». As regards the knowledge that they have about their disease, 30% believe it has advanced «a lot.» Based on the perceptions reported by patients, it may be said that in general, the level of user satisfaction in the Mental Health Day Hospital is high. Assessing quality through the user opinions helps control the quality, considering that patient satisfaction is a good indicator of result of the care received during their hospitalisation. Copyright © 2016 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Quality Indicators for Evaluating Prehospital Emergency Care: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Ian; Cameron, Peter; Wallis, Lee; Castren, Maaret; Lindstrom, Veronica

    2018-02-01

    Introduction Historically, the quality and performance of prehospital emergency care (PEC) has been assessed largely based on surrogate, non-clinical endpoints such as response time intervals or other crude measures of care (eg, stakeholder satisfaction). However, advances in Emergency Medical Services (EMS) systems and services world-wide have seen their scope and reach continue to expand. This has dictated that novel measures of performance be implemented to compliment this growth. Significant progress has been made in this area, largely in the form of the development of evidence-informed quality indicators (QIs) of PEC. Problem Quality indicators represent an increasingly popular component of health care quality and performance measurement. However, little is known about the development of QIs in the PEC environment. The purpose of this study was to assess the development and characteristics of PEC-specific QIs in the literature. A scoping review was conducted through a search of PubMed (National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Institutes of Health; Bethesda, Maryland USA); EMBase (Elsevier; Amsterdam, Netherlands); CINAHL (EBSCO Information Services; Ipswich, Massachusetts USA); Web of Science (Thomson Reuters; New York, New York USA); and the Cochrane Library (The Cochrane Collaboration; Oxford, United Kingdom). To increase the sensitivity of the literature, a search of the grey literature and review of select websites was additionally conducted. Articles were selected that proposed at least one PEC QI and whose aim was to discuss, analyze, or promote quality measurement in the PEC environment. The majority of research (n=25 articles) was published within the last decade (68.0%) and largely originated within the USA (68.0%). Delphi and observational methodologies were the most commonly employed for QI development (28.0%). A total of 331 QIs were identified via the article review, with an additional 15 QIs identified via the website review. Of

  20. A THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK FOR QUALITY INDICATORS IN ELEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian CEOBANU

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Advances in information and communication technologies, especially in Multimedia, Networking and Software Engineering allow the appearance of a new generation of computer-based training systems. Despite its obvious advantages in terms of reduced costs, simplified training programs and flexibility, e-learning was not always the miracle solution. Conceived as a powerful educational tool, e-learning was destined to change the face of learning but unfortunately, this change wasn’t exactly the intended one. The constant interest in researching and testing the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT, eLearning and multimedia in the learning process led to educational imperatives about the indicators that can reveal the level of quality for teaching and management of the course. Modern eLearning solutions now recognize the importance of learning as a social process and offer possibilities for collaboration with other learners, for interaction with the learning content and for guidance from teachers, trainers and tutors. Our aim is to analyze the importance of using ICT in a “learning society”. The present paper focuses on the strong potential that ICT provides, in order to develop the learning possibilities among students. The great challenge is to draw up a quality indicators framework which can represent an instrument for teachers on how to organize their online course – including ways of developing the teaching methods.

  1. Drinking water quality concerns and water vending machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McSwane, D.Z.; Oleckno, W.A.; Eils, L.M.

    1994-01-01

    Drinking water quality is a vital public health concern to consumers and regulators alike. This article describes some of the current microbiological, chemical, and radiological concerns about drinking water and the evolution of water vending machines. Also addressed are the typical treatment processes used in water vending machines and their effectiveness, as well as a brief examination of a certification program sponsored by the National Automatic Merchandising Association (NAMA), which provides a uniform standard for the design and construction of food and beverage vending machines. For some consumers, the water dispensed from vending machines is an attractive alternative to residential tap water which may be objectionable for aesthetic or other reasons

  2. Evaluating how variants of floristic quality assessment indicate wetland condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutcher, Thomas E; Forrester, Graham E

    2018-03-28

    Biological indicators are useful tools for the assessment of ecosystem condition. Multi-metric and multi-taxa indicators may respond to a broader range of disturbances than simpler indicators, but their complexity can make them difficult to interpret, which is critical to indicator utility for ecosystem management. Floristic Quality Assessment (FQA) is an example of a biological assessment approach that has been widely tested for indicating freshwater wetland condition, but less attention has been given to clarifying the factors controlling its response. FQA quantifies the aggregate of vascular plant species tolerance to habitat degradation (conservatism), and model variants have incorporated species richness, abundance, and indigenity (native or non-native). To assess bias, we tested FQA variants in open-canopy freshwater wetlands against three independent reference measures, using practical vegetation sampling methods. FQA variants incorporating species richness did not correlate with our reference measures and were influenced by wetland size and hydrogeomorphic class. In contrast, FQA variants lacking measures of species richness responded linearly to reference measures quantifying individual and aggregate stresses, suggesting a broad response to cumulative degradation. FQA variants incorporating non-native species, and a variant additionally incorporating relative species abundance, improved performance over using only native species. We relate our empirical findings to ecological theory to clarify the functional properties and implications of the FQA variants. Our analysis indicates that (1) aggregate conservatism reliably declines with increased disturbance; (2) species richness has varying relationships with disturbance and increases with site area, confounding FQA response; and (3) non-native species signal human disturbance. We propose that incorporating species abundance can improve FQA site-level relevance with little extra sampling effort. Using our

  3. 40 CFR 130.3 - Water quality standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality standards. 130.3 Section... QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.3 Water quality standards. A water quality standard (WQS) defines the water quality goals of a water body, or portion thereof, by designating the use or uses to be made...

  4. Collection of Condensate Water: Global Potential and Water Quality Impacts

    KAUST Repository

    Loveless, Kolin Joseph

    2012-12-28

    Water is a valuable resource throughout the world, especially in hot, dry climates and regions experiencing significant population growth. Supplies of fresh water are complicated by the economic and political conditions in many of these regions. Technologies that can supply fresh water at a reduced cost are therefore becoming increasingly important and the impact of such technologies can be substantial. This paper considers the collection of condensate water from large air conditioning units as a possible method to alleviate water scarcity issues. Using the results of a climate model that tested data collected from 2000 to 2010, we have identified areas in the world with the greatest collection potential. We gave special consideration to areas with known water scarcities, including the coastal regions of the Arabian Peninsula, Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. We found that the quality of the collected water is an important criterion in determining the potential uses for this water. Condensate water samples were collected from a few locations in Saudi Arabia and detailed characterizations were conducted to determine the quality of this water. We found that the quality of condensate water collected from various locations and types of air conditioners was very high with conductivities reaching as low as 18 μS/cm and turbidities of 0. 041 NTU. The quality of the collected condensate was close to that of distilled water and, with low-cost polishing treatments, such as ion exchange resins and electrochemical processes, the condensate quality could easily reach that of potable water. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  5. Energy and water uses and their performance explanatory indicators in hotels in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, S.

    2003-01-01

    This paper firstly presents a case study on analyzing the electrical load profiles recorded in a Hong Kong hotel over a period of 12 months to examine the potential energy saving opportunities (ESOs) in its building services installations. The case study is followed by a report of the survey results of energy and water use in 36 quality hotels in Hong Kong. Finally, a regression analysis where the surveyed energy and water use data were correlated to a number of hotel background or operational parameters to search for suitable energy and water use performance explanatory indicators is presented. The survey results depict a diversified energy and water use situation in Hong Kong's hotels, but the regression analysis indicates that, while some of the correlations obtained are weak, there do exist a few strong energy and water explanatory indicators. (author)

  6. Predicting Salmonella populations from biological, chemical, and physical indicators in Florida surface waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEgan, Rachel; Mootian, Gabriel; Goodridge, Lawrence D; Schaffner, Donald W; Danyluk, Michelle D

    2013-07-01

    Coliforms, Escherichia coli, and various physicochemical water characteristics have been suggested as indicators of microbial water quality or index organisms for pathogen populations. The relationship between the presence and/or concentration of Salmonella and biological, physical, or chemical indicators in Central Florida surface water samples over 12 consecutive months was explored. Samples were taken monthly for 12 months from 18 locations throughout Central Florida (n = 202). Air and water temperature, pH, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), turbidity, and conductivity were measured. Weather data were obtained from nearby weather stations. Aerobic plate counts and most probable numbers (MPN) for Salmonella, E. coli, and coliforms were performed. Weak linear relationships existed between biological indicators (E. coli/coliforms) and Salmonella levels (R(2) Florida surface water through logistic regression.

  7. Flux of nitrogen, phosphorus, and suspended sediment from the Susquehanna River Basin to the Chesapeake Bay during Tropical Storm Lee, September 2011, as an indicator of the effects of reservoir sedimentation on water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    Concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus, and suspended sediment are measured at the U.S. Geological Survey streamgage at Conowingo Dam at the downstream end of the Susquehanna River Basin in Maryland, where the river flows into the Chesapeake Bay. During the period September 7-15, 2011, in the aftermath of Tropical Storm Lee, concentrations of these three constituents were among the highest ever measured at this site. These measurements indicate that sediment-storage processes behind the three dams on the lower Susquehanna River are evolving. In particular, they indicate that scouring of sediment (and the nitrogen and phosphorus attached to that sediment) may be increasing with time. Trends in flow-normalized fluxes at the Susquehanna River at Conowingo, Maryland, streamgage during 1996-2011 indicate a 3.2-percent decrease in total nitrogen, but a 55-percent increase in total phosphorus and a 97-percent increase in suspended sediment. These large increases in the flux of phosphorus and sediment from the Susquehanna River to the Chesapeake Bay have occurred despite reductions in the fluxes of these constituents from the Susquehanna River watershed upstream from the reservoirs. Although the Tropical Storm Lee flood event contributed about 1.8 percent of the total streamflow from the Susquehanna River to the Chesapeake Bay over the past decade (water years 2002-11), it contributed about 5 percent of the nitrogen, 22 percent of the phosphorus, and 39 percent of the suspended sediment during the same period. These results highlight the importance of brief high-flow events in releasing nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment derived from the Susquehanna River watershed and stored in the Conowingo Reservoir to the Chesapeake Bay.

  8. Maui Citizen Science Coastal Water Quality Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A network of citizen science volunteers periodically monitors water quality at several beaches across the island of Maui in the State of Hawaii. This community-based...

  9. ASSESSMENT OF WATER QUALITY INDEX FOR GROUNDWATER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-12-31

    Dec 31, 2013 ... The advantages of an index include its ability to represent measurements of a ... Fair. Water quality is usually protected but occasionally threatened or ... Electrical Conductivity (EC) value is an index to represent the total.

  10. Aggradation, Degradation, and Water Quality Conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compile a record of pertinent data and information relative to aggradation, degradation, and water quality within the system of six Missouri River mainstem reservoirs...

  11. Mobile Water Quality Information Tool, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Water quality remote sensing has grown to allow for operational monitoring of trophic status, assessment of cyanobacteria blooms, and historical and trend analysis...

  12. Lake Tahoe Water Quality Improvement Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on the Lake Tahoe watershed, EPA's protection efforts, water quality issues, effects of climate, change, Lake Tahoe Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL), EPA-sponsored projects, and list of partner agencies.

  13. Carbonate chemistry, water quality, coral measurements

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Carbonate chemistry parameters (pH, total alkalinity, and pCO2), water quality parameters (Temperature, salinity, Ca, Mg, PO4, NH3 and NO3) as well as all coral...

  14. WATER QUALITY MONITORING OF PHARMACEUTICALS ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The demand on freshwater to sustain the needs of the growing population is of worldwide concern. Often this water is used, treated, and released for reuse by other communities. The anthropogenic contaminants present in this water may include complex mixtures of pesticides, prescription and nonprescription drugs, personal care and common consumer products, industrial and domestic-use materials and degradation products of these compounds. Although, the fate of these pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in wastewater treatment facilities is largely unknown, the limited data that does exist suggests that many of these chemicals survive treatment and some others are returned to their biologically active form via deconjugation of metabolites.Traditional water sampling methods (i.e., grab or composite samples) often require the concentration of large amounts of water to detect trace levels of PPCPs. A passive sampler, the polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS), has been developed to integratively concentrate the trace levels of these chemicals, determine the time-weighted average water concentrations, and provide a method of estimating the potential exposure of aquatic organisms to these complex mixtures of waterborne contaminants. The POCIS (U.S. Patent number 6,478,961) consists of a hydrophilic microporous membrane, acting as a semipermeable barrier, enveloping various solid-phase sorbents that retain the sampled chemicals. Sampling rates f

  15. Evaluating the Effect of Software Quality Characteristics on Health Care Quality Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakineh Aghazadeh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Various types of software are used in health care organizations to manage information and care processes. The quality of software has been an important concern for both health authorities and designers of Health Information Technology. Thus, assessing the effect of software quality on the performance quality of healthcare institutions is essential. Method: The most important health care quality indicators in relation to software quality characteristics are provided via an already performed literature review. ISO 9126 standard model is used for definition and integration of various characteristics of software quality. The effects of software quality characteristics and sub-characteristics on the healthcare indicators are evaluated through expert opinion analyses. A questionnaire comprising of 126 questions of 10-point Likert scale was used to gather opinions of experts in the field of Medical/Health Informatics. The data was analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling. Results: Our findings showed that software Maintainability was rated as the most effective factor on user satisfaction (R2 =0.89 and Functionality as the most important and independent variable affecting patient care quality (R2 =0.98. Efficiency was considered as the most effective factor on workflow (R2 =0.97, and Maintainability as the most important factor that affects healthcare communication (R2 =0.95. Usability and Efficiency were rated as the most effectual factor affecting patient satisfaction (R2 =0.80, 0.81. Reliability, Maintainability, and Efficiency were considered as the main factors affecting care costs (R2 =0.87, 0.74, 0.87. Conclusion: We presented a new model based on ISO standards. The model demonstrates and weighs the relations between software quality characteristics and healthcare quality indicators. The clear relationships between variables and the type of the metrics and measurement methods used in the model make it a reliable method to assess

  16. Shale Gas Development and Drinking Water Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Elaine; Ma, Lala

    2017-05-01

    The extent of environmental externalities associated with shale gas development (SGD) is important for welfare considerations and, to date, remains uncertain (Mason, Muehlenbachs, and Olmstead 2015; Hausman and Kellogg 2015). This paper takes a first step to address this gap in the literature. Our study examines whether shale gas development systematically impacts public drinking water quality in Pennsylvania, an area that has been an important part of the recent shale gas boom. We create a novel dataset from several unique sources of data that allows us to relate SGD to public drinking water quality through a gas well's proximity to community water system (CWS) groundwater source intake areas.1 We employ a difference-in-differences strategy that compares, for a given CWS, water quality after an increase in the number of drilled well pads to background levels of water quality in the geographic area as measured by the impact of more distant well pads. Our main estimate finds that drilling an additional well pad within 1 km of groundwater intake locations increases shale gas-related contaminants by 1.5–2.7 percent, on average. These results are striking considering that our data are based on water sampling measurements taken after municipal treatment, and suggest that the health impacts of SGD 1 A CWS is defined as the subset of public water systems that supplies water to the same population year-round. through water contamination remains an open question.

  17. Watershed land use effects on lake water quality in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders; Trolle, Dennis; Søndergaard, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Mitigating nutrient losses from anthropogenic nonpoint sources is today of particular importance for improving the water quality of numerous freshwater lakes worldwide. Several empirical relationships between land use and in-lake water quality variables have been developed, but they are often weak......, which can in part be attributed to lack of detailed information about land use activities or point sources. We examined a comprehensive data set comprising land use data, point-source information, and in-lake water quality for 414 Danish lakes. By excluding point-source-influenced lakes (n = 210....... Relationships between TP and agricultural land use were even stronger for lakes with rivers in their watershed (55%) compared to lakes without (28%), indicating that rivers mediate a stronger linkage between landscape activity and lake water quality by providing a “delivery” mechanism for excess nutrients...

  18. The quality of drinking water in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kłos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. An analysis of the drinking water quality and the degree of access to water supply and sewerage system in Poland was conducted. Materials and methods. Method of analysis of secondary statistical data was applied, mostly based on data available in the materials of the Central Statistical Office in Warsaw, the Waterworks Polish Chamber of Commerce in Bydgoszcz and the National Water Management in Warsaw. Result and discussion. 60 % of Poles do not trust to drink water without prior boiling. Water flowing from the taps, although widely available, is judged to be polluted, with too much fluorine or not having the appropriate consumer values (colour, smell and taste. The current water treatment systems can however improve them, although such a treatment, i.e. mainly through chlorination of water, deteriorates its quality in relation to pure natural water. The result is that fewer and fewer Poles drink water directly from the tap. They also less and less use tap water to cook food for which the bottled water is trusted more. Reason for that is that society does not trust the safety of the water supplied by the municipal water companies. The question thus is: Are they right? Tap water in Poland meets all standards since it is constantly monitored by the water companies and all relevant health services. Tap water supplied through the water supply system can be used without prior boiling. Studies have shown that only the operating parameters of water, suc h as taste, odour and hardness, are not satisfactory everywhere, different in each city, and sometimes in different districts of cities, often waking thoughts among users about its inappropriateness. The lowered water value can be easily improved at home through the use of filters. In conclusion, due to constant monitoring and investment in upgrading treatment processes, the quality of tap water has improved significantly in the last years. Conclusion. The results first allow assessing the

  19. Autonomous nutrient detection for water quality monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Maher, Damien; Cleary, John; Cogan, Deirdre; Diamond, Dermot

    2012-01-01

    The ever increasing demand for real time environmental monitoring is currently being driven by strong legislative and societal drivers. Low cost autonomous environmental monitoring systems are required to meet this demand as current monitoring solutions are insufficient. This poster presents an autonomous nutrient analyser platform for water quality monitoring. Results from a field trial of the nutrient analyser are reported along with current work to expand the range of water quality targ...

  20. Water quality in North American river systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, C.D.; Neitzel, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    This book is about water quality and other characteristics of selected ecosystems in North America. It is also about changes that have occurred in these ecosystems as a result of recent human activities-changes that result primarily from development and exploitation to sustain the needs of an ever-increasing population and the technical innovations that sustain it. Fish populations, hydrology, and water quality control efforts are discussed

  1. Water quality management in the Netherlands: Contribution to the Dutch-Japanese workshops on the treatment of municipal waste water

    OpenAIRE

    Hoornstra, J.S.; De Jong, J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes water management in the Netherlands with an emphasis on water quality aspects. First some features of the country are presented, underlining the importance of water and indicating the need for international cooperation on water quality matters. In the third paragraph, the water management structure is discussed, such as relevant laws and authorities, management instruments (planning, licensing) and funding methods. More detailed information is provided on water use and pu...

  2. Applications of continuous water quality monitoring techniques for more efficient water quality research and water resources management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozemeijer, J.C.; Velde, Y. van der; Broers, H.P.; Geer, F. van

    2013-01-01

    Understanding and taking account of dynamics in water quality is essential for adequate water quality policy and management. In conventional regional surface water and upper groundwater quality monitoring, measurement frequencies are too low to capture the short-term dynamic behavior of solute

  3. Putting people into water quality modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickert, G. E.; Hassanzadeh, E.; Noble, B.; Baulch, H. M.; Morales-Marin, L. A.; Lindenschmidt, K. E.

    2017-12-01

    Water quality in the Qu'Appelle River Basin, Saskatchewan is under pressure due to nutrient pollution entering the river system from major cities, industrial zones and agricultural areas. Among these stressors, agricultural activities are basin-wide; therefore, they are the largest non-point source of water pollution in this region. The dynamics of agricultural impacts on water quality are complex and stem from decisions and activities of two distinct stakeholder groups, namely grain farmers and cattle producers, which have different business plans, values, and attitudes towards water quality. As a result, improving water quality in this basin requires engaging with stakeholders to: (1) understand their perspectives regarding a range of agricultural Beneficial Management Practices (BMPs) that can improve water quality in the region, (2) show them the potential consequences of their selected BMPs, and (3) work with stakeholders to better understand the barriers and incentives to implement the effective BMPs. In this line, we held a series of workshops in the Qu'Appelle River Basin with both groups of stakeholders to understand stakeholders' viewpoints about alternative agricultural BMPs and their impact on water quality. Workshop participants were involved in the statement sorting activity (Q-sorts), group discussions, as well as mapping activity. The workshop outcomes show that stakeholder had four distinct viewpoints about the BMPs that can improve water quality, i.e., flow and erosion control, fertilizer management, cattle site management, as well as mixed cattle and wetland management. Accordingly, to simulate the consequences of stakeholder selected BMPs, a conceptual water quality model was developed using System Dynamics (SD). The model estimates potential changes in water quality at the farm, tributary and regional scale in the Qu'Appelle River Basin under each and/or combination of stakeholder selected BMPs. The SD model was then used for real

  4. Remote sensing for water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giardino, Claudia

    2006-01-01

    The application of remote sensing to the study of lakes is begun in years 80 with the lunch of the satellites of second generation. Many experiences have indicated the contribution of remote sensing for the limnology [it

  5. British Columbia water quality guidelines (criteria): 1998 edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagpal, N.K.; Pommen, L.W.; Swain, L.G.

    1998-08-01

    British Columbia has developed water quality guidelines in order that water quality data can be assessed and site-specific water quality objectives can be prepared. The guidelines provide benchmarks for the assessment of water quality and setting water quality objectives. Guidelines are provided to protect the following six major water uses: drinking water, aquatic life, wildlife, recreation/aesthetics, agriculture, and industrial. Water quality encompasses the physical, chemical and biological quality of the water, sediment and biota. Among other quality criteria the guide provides maximum approved concentrations for nitrogen, aluminum, copper, cyanide, lead, mercury, and molybdenum. 30 tabs.

  6. A space satellite perspective to monitor water quality using ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good water quality is important for human health, economic development, and the health of our environment. Across the country, we face the challenge of degraded water quality in many of our rivers, lakes, coastal regions and oceans. The EPA National Rivers and Stream Assessment report found that more than half - 55 percent - of our rivers and streams are in poor condition for aquatic life. Likewise, the EPA Lakes Assessment found that 22 percent of our lakes are in poor condition for aquatic life. The reasons for unhealthy water quality are vast. Likewise, poor water quality has numerous impacts to ecosystems. One indicator, which trends during warm weather months, is the duration and frequency of harmful algal blooms. A healthy environment includes good water quality to support a rich and varied ecosystem, economic growth, and protects the health of the people in the community who rely on that water. Having the ability to monitor and provide timely response to harmful algal blooms would be one step in protecting the benefits people receive from good water quality (U.S. EPA 2010 and 2013). Published in the North American Lake Management Society-LakeLine Magazine.

  7. Development of specific water quality index for water supply in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaiwat Prakirake

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the specific water quality index for assessing water quality in terms of water supply (WSI usage has been developed by using Delphi technique and its application in Thai rivers is proposed. The thirteen parameters including turbidity, DO, pH, NO3-N, TDS, FCB, Fe, color, BOD, Mn, NH3-N, hardness, and total PO4-P are employed for the estimation of water quality. The sub-index transformation curves are established for each variable to assess the variation in water quality level. An appropriate function to aggregate overall sub-indices was weighted Solway function that provided reasonableresults for reducing ambiguous and eclipsing effects for high and slightly polluted samples. The developed WSI couldbe applied to measure water quality into 5 levels - very good (85-100; good (80-<85; average (65-<80; poor (40-<65and very poor (<40. The proposed WSI could be used for evaluating water quality in terms of water supply. In addition, it could be used for analyzing long-term trait analysis and comparing water quality among different reaches of rivers or between different watersheds.

  8. Quality-assurance results for routine water analysis in US Geological Survey laboratories, water year 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, T.J.; Ludtke, A.S.; Krizman, T.L.

    1994-01-01

    The US. Geological Survey operates a quality- assurance program based on the analyses of reference samples for the National Water Quality Laboratory in Arvada, Colorado, and the Quality of Water Service Unit in Ocala, Florida. Reference samples containing selected inorganic, nutrient, and low ionic-strength constituents are prepared and disguised as routine samples. The program goal is to determine precision and bias for as many analytical methods offered by the participating laboratories as possible. The samples typically are submitted at a rate of approximately 5 percent of the annual environmental sample load for each constituent. The samples are distributed to the laboratories throughout the year. Analytical data for these reference samples reflect the quality of environmental sample data produced by the laboratories because the samples are processed in the same manner for all steps from sample login through data release. The results are stored permanently in the National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System. During water year 1991, 86 analytical procedures were evaluated at the National Water Quality Laboratory and 37 analytical procedures were evaluated at the Quality of Water Service Unit. An overall evaluation of the inorganic (major ion and trace metal) constituent data for water year 1991 indicated analytical imprecision in the National Water Quality Laboratory for 5 of 67 analytical procedures: aluminum (whole-water recoverable, atomic emission spectrometric, direct-current plasma); calcium (atomic emission spectrometric, direct); fluoride (ion-exchange chromatographic); iron (whole-water recoverable, atomic absorption spectrometric, direct); and sulfate (ion-exchange chromatographic). The results for 11 of 67 analytical procedures had positive or negative bias during water year 1991. Analytical imprecision was indicated in the determination of two of the five National Water Quality Laboratory nutrient constituents: orthophosphate as phosphorus and

  9. Water quality control program in experimental circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cegalla, Miriam A.

    1996-01-01

    The Water Quality Control Program of the Experimental Circuits visualizes studying the water chemistry of the cooling in the primary and secondary circuits, monitoring the corrosion of the systems and studying the mechanism of the corrosion products transport in the systems. (author)

  10. Water Quality Standards for Coral Reef Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Clean Water Act provides a legal framework to protect coastal biological resources such as coral reefs, mangrove forests, and seagrass meadows from the damaging effects of human activities. Even though many resources are protected under this authority, water quality stan...

  11. Industry disagrees with water quality recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begley, R.

    1992-01-01

    Industry groups are distancing themselves from recommendations on cleaning up the nation's waters issued by Water Quality 2000, a coalition of more than 80 organizations representing industry, environmental groups, government, academia, and professional and scientific societies. The report, open-quotes A National Water Agenda for the 21st Centuryclose quotes, is a result of work begun in 1989. It recommends an approach to water quality that emphasizes pollution prevention, increased individual and collective responsibility for protecting water resources, and reorienting water resource programs and institutions along natural, rather than political, watershed boundaries. It includes 85 specific recommendations, many of which are to be implemented locally. The Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC; Washington) open-quotes wholeheartedly endorses not only the specific solutions offered today but the process by which these proposals were reached,close quotes says Robert W. Adler, NRDC senior attorney and vice chairman of Water Quality 2000. John B. Coleman, corporate environmental affairs manager for Du Pont and a member of the groups's steering committee, says open-quotes Du Pont and the other industry members of Water Quality 2000 are committedclose quotes to working to make continuous improvements

  12. Water quality of the river Damanganga (Gujarat)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D.; Narvekar, P.V.; Sarma, R.V.; Desai, B.N.

    Water quality (pH, suspended solids, chlorides, DO, BOD, reactive and total phosphorus, nitrates and boron) of River Damanganga which receives 0.2 mld of industrial waste into its fresh water zone through Pimparia River and 3.7 mld in its tidal zone...

  13. Hydrology and heterogeneneous distribution of water quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out on the hydrology and heterogeneous distribution of water quality characteristics in the Lagoon of Porto-Novo between July 2014 and June 2015. The water body was stratified into 12 strata for sampling. Data and samples were collected based on season and stations. The results were analyzed in the ...

  14. Multi-indicator assessment of water environment in government environmental auditing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Gui-zhen; LU Yong-long; MA Hua; WANG Xiao-long

    2007-01-01

    This study focuses on a multi-indicator assessment methodology for governmental environmental auditing of water protection programs. The environmental status of Wuli Lake in China was assessed using the global indicators (driver-status-response) developed by the CSD, and four additional indicators proposed by the author- water quality, pollution load, aquatic ecosystem status and lake sediment deposition. Various hydrological, chemical, biological and environmental parameters were used to estimate the values of the indicators for assessment of environmental status of the lake based on time series data sets for twenty years. The indicators proposed can be customized to meeting the needs for particular assessment of water protection programs. This method can be used to evaluate the performance of national environmental protection programs and provide technical support for environmental auditors.

  15. Indications for quality assurance in conformal radiotherapy in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banci Buonamici, F.; DE Angelis, C.; Rosi, A.; Tabocchini, M.A.; Iotti, C.; Olmi, P.

    2008-01-01

    Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) is an advanced and promising technique of external beam irradiation. IMRT is able to conform the dose distribution to the 3D tumour shape also for complex geometries, preserving surrounding normal tissues and reducing the probability of side effects. IMRT is a time consuming and complex technique and its use demands high level quality assurance. It is, therefore, very important to define conditions for its utilization. Professionals of Radiotherapy Centres, with experience in the IMRT use, have constituted a multidisciplinary working group with the aim of developing indications in this field. Purpose of the present document is to highlight relevant aspects of the technique, but also to underline the high complexity of the technique, whose implementation requires extreme attention of the staff of Radiotherapy Centres involved [it

  16. Associations between quality indicators of internal medicine residency training programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Several residency program characteristics have been suggested as measures of program quality, but associations between these measures are unknown. We set out to determine associations between these potential measures of program quality. Methods Survey of internal medicine residency programs that shared an online ambulatory curriculum on hospital type, faculty size, number of trainees, proportion of international medical graduate (IMG) trainees, Internal Medicine In-Training Examination (IM-ITE) scores, three-year American Board of Internal Medicine Certifying Examination (ABIM-CE) first-try pass rates, Residency Review Committee-Internal Medicine (RRC-IM) certification length, program director clinical duties, and use of pharmaceutical funding to support education. Associations assessed using Chi-square, Spearman rank correlation, univariate and multivariable linear regression. Results Fifty one of 67 programs responded (response rate 76.1%), including 29 (56.9%) community teaching and 17 (33.3%) university hospitals, with a mean of 68 trainees and 101 faculty. Forty four percent of trainees were IMGs. The average post-graduate year (PGY)-2 IM-ITE raw score was 63.1, which was 66.8 for PGY3s. Average 3-year ABIM-CE pass rate was 95.8%; average RRC-IM certification was 4.3 years. ABIM-CE results, IM-ITE results, and length of RRC-IM certification were strongly associated with each other (p ITE scores were higher in programs with more IMGs and in programs that accepted pharmaceutical support (p < 0.05). RRC-IM certification was shorter in programs with higher numbers of IMGs. In multivariable analysis, a higher proportion of IMGs was associated with 1.17 years shorter RRC accreditation. Conclusions Associations between quality indicators are complex, but suggest that the presence of IMGs is associated with better performance on standardized tests but decreased duration of RRC-IM certification. PMID:21651768

  17. Quality indicators in a computerized technology information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancuso, C.A.; Hyde, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    An environmental technology information system was developed by EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc. at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for the Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of the system is to reduce costs and time associated with evaluating potential remedial alternatives for a waste site. The information system is organized to aid in the CERCLA process by describing the implementability, effectiveness, and cost of many remedial technologies. Technology categories included in the information system include: Institutional Controls, Retrieval, Separation, Characterization, Physical/Chemical Treatment, Biological Treatment, Thermal Treatment, Storage, Transportation, Disposal, Migration Control (containment), Support Systems, Waste Minimization, and Remote Operations. Two hundred and sixty processes are summarized in these technology areas. Information on these processes was collected from EPA publications, books, journal articles, conference proceedings, vendors, DOE publications, and technical experts. The purpose of this paper is to familiarize readers with issues associated with the development of information systems. A major issue is the system and software quality, which can be controlled by configuration management. Another major issue is the documentation of data quality indicators in references used to collect data for the system, which can not be controlled but must be planned for in the review process

  18. Mycoflora and Water Quality index Assessment of Water Sources in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    water sources (31.96 - 47.31) falls within the classification “Bad” despite the slight increase during the dry season. The quality of water in the study area is poor and portends health risk; ... tributary that originates from the New Calabar River.

  19. Determination of water quality index and portability of Iguedo stream ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of water quality index and portability of Iguedo stream in Edo ... has been found functional in assessing the water quality of this stream based on the ... Key words: Water quality index, physicochemical parameters, Iguedo Stream.

  20. Impacts of Water Quality on Residential Water Heating Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2013-11-01

    Water heating is a ubiquitous energy use in all residential housing, accounting for 17.7% of residential energy use (EIA 2012). Today, there are many efficient water heating options available for every fuel type, from electric and gas to more unconventional fuel types like propane, solar, and fuel oil. Which water heating option is the best choice for a given household will depend on a number of factors, including average daily hot water use (total gallons per day), hot water draw patterns (close together or spread out), the hot water distribution system (compact or distributed), installation constraints (such as space, electrical service, or venting accommodations) and fuel-type availability and cost. While in general more efficient water heaters are more expensive than conventional water heating technologies, the savings in energy use and, thus, utility bills can recoup the additional upfront investment and make an efficient water heater a good investment over time in most situations, although the specific payback period for a given installation will vary widely. However, the expected lifetime of a water heater in a given installation can dramatically influence the cost effectiveness and savings potential of a water heater and should be considered, along with water use characteristics, fuel availability and cost, and specific home characteristics when selecting the optimum water heating equipment for a particular installation. This report provides recommendations for selecting and maintaining water heating equipment based on local water quality characteristics.

  1. Delineating fresh water and brackish water aquifers by GIS and groundwater quality data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasin, M.; Latif, M.

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted in the Mona project area, Bhalwal, district Sargodha to delineate fresh water and brackish water aquifers by GIS (Geographic Information System) and historic groundwater quality data of 138 deep tube wells installed in the study area. The groundwater quality zonations were made by overlapping maps of TDS (Total Dissolved Solids), SAR (Sodium Adsorption Ratio) and RSC (Residual Sodium Carbonate). Seven zones of groundwater quality consisting of good, marginal, hazardous and their combinations were identified. The results indicated redistribution of salts in the aquifer and rise in water table in some parts of the study area from 1965-1997. (author)

  2. A scientometric examination of the water quality research in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishy, P; Saroja, Renuka

    2018-03-16

    comprehends the magnitude of water quality research also establishes future research directions using various scientometric indicators.

  3. Influences of water quality and climate on the water-energy nexus: A spatial comparison of two water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stang, Shannon; Wang, Haiying; Gardner, Kevin H; Mo, Weiwei

    2018-07-15

    As drinking water supply systems plan for sustainable management practices, impacts from future water quality and climate changes are a major concern. This study aims to understand the intraannual changes of energy consumption for water treatment, investigate the relative importance of water quality and climate indicators on energy consumption for water treatment, and predict the effects of climate change on the embodied energy of treated, potable water at two municipal drinking water systems located in the northeast and southeast US. To achieve this goal, a life cycle assessment was first performed to quantify the monthly energy consumption in the two drinking water systems. Regression and relative importance analyses were then performed between climate indicators, raw water quality indicators, and chemical and energy usages in the treatment processes to determine their correlations. These relationships were then used to project changes in embodied energy associated with the plants' processes, and the results were compared between the two regions. The projections of the southeastern US water plant were for an increase in energy demand resulted from an increase of treatment chemical usages. The northeastern US plant was projected to decrease its energy demand due to a reduced demand for heating the plant's infrastructure. The findings indicate that geographic location and treatment process may determine the way climate change affects drinking water systems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Water quality management for Lake Mariout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Donia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A hydrodynamic and water quality model was used to study the current status of the Lake Mariout subject to the pollution loadings from the agricultural drains and the point sources discharging directly to the Lake. The basic water quality modelling component simulates the main water quality parameters including the oxygen compounds (BOD, COD, DO, nutrients compounds (NH4, TN, TP, and finally the temperature, salinity and inorganic matter. Many scenarios have been conducted to improve the circulation and the water quality in the lake and to assess the spreading and mixing of the discharge effluents and its impact on the water quality of the main basin. Several pilot interventions were applied through the model in the Lake Mariout together with the upgrades of the East and West Waste Water Treatment Plants in order to achieve at least 5% reduction in the pollution loads entering the Mediterranean Sea through Lake Mariout in order to improve the institutional mechanisms for sustainable coastal zone management in Alexandria in particular to reduce land-based pollution to the Mediterranean Sea.

  5. Modeling of Water Quality 'Almendares River'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domínguez Catasús, Judith

    2005-01-01

    The river Almendares, one of the most important water bodies of the Havana City, is very polluted. The analysis of parameters as dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand is very helpful for the studies aimed to the recovery of the river. There is a growing recognition around the word that the water quality models are very useful tools to plan sanitary strategies for the handling of the contamination. In the present work, the advective, steady- state Streeter and Phelps model was validated to simulate the effect of the multiple-point and distributed sources on the carbonaceous oxygen demand, NH4 and dissolved oxygen. For modeling purposes the section of the river located between the point where the waste water treatment station Maria del Carmen discharges to the river and the Bridge El Bosque, was divided in 11 segments. The use of the 99mTc and the Rodamine WT as tracers allowed determining the hydrodynamic parameters necessary for modeling purposes. The validated model allows to predict the effect of the sanitary strategies on the water quality of the river. The main conclusions are: 1. The model Streeter and Phelps calibrated and validated in the Almendares between the confluence of the channel 'María del Carmen' and bridge the Forest of Havana, described in more than 90% The behavior of the dissolved oxygen and BODn (in terms of ammonia), and more than 85%, the carbonaceous demand oxygen, which characterizes the process of purification. 2. Model validation Streeter and Phelps, indicates that implicit conceptual model is appropriate. This refers primarily to the considerations relating to the calculation of the kinetic constants and the DOS, the segmentation used, to the location of the discharges and the Standing been about them, to the river morphology and hydrodynamic parameters . 3. The calibration procedure Streeter and Phelps model that determines the least-squares Kr-Kd pair that best fits the OD and uses this Kr to model BOD gets four% increase in

  6. Recursive estimation of the parts production process quality indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipovich Oleg

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Consideration is given to a mathematical representation for manufacturing of batch parts on a metal-cutting machine tool. Linear dimensions of machined parts are assumed to be the major quality indicator, deviation from these dimensions is determined by size setting of machine tool and ensemble of random factors. It is allowed to have absolutely precise pre-setting of machine tool, effects from setup level offsetting due to deformation in process equipment on the specified indicator are disregarded. Consideration is given to factors which affect the tool wear, with two definitions of tool wear being provided. Reasons for development of random error in processing, dependence of measurement results on error as well as distribution laws and some parameters of random values are provided. To evaluate deviation of size setting value in each cycle, it is proposed to apply a recursive algorithm in description of investigated dynamic discrete process in the space state. Kalman filter equations are used in description of process model by means of first-order difference equations. The algorithm of recursive estimation is implemented in the mathematical software Maple. Simulation results which prove effectiveness of algorithm application to investigate the given dynamic system are provided. Variants of algorithm application and opportunities of further research are proposed.

  7. Quality-control design for surface-water sampling in the National Water-Quality Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riskin, Melissa L.; Reutter, David C.; Martin, Jeffrey D.; Mueller, David K.

    2018-04-10

    The data-quality objectives for samples collected at surface-water sites in the National Water-Quality Network include estimating the extent to which contamination, matrix effects, and measurement variability affect interpretation of environmental conditions. Quality-control samples provide insight into how well the samples collected at surface-water sites represent the true environmental conditions. Quality-control samples used in this program include field blanks, replicates, and field matrix spikes. This report describes the design for collection of these quality-control samples and the data management needed to properly identify these samples in the U.S. Geological Survey’s national database.

  8. An assessment of Lot Quality Assurance Sampling to evaluate malaria outcome indicators: extending malaria indicator surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, Caitlin; Pagano, Marcello; Hedt, Bethany L; Kilian, Albert; Ratcliffe, Amy; Mabunda, Samuel; Valadez, Joseph J

    2010-02-01

    Large investments and increased global prioritization of malaria prevention and treatment have resulted in greater emphasis on programme monitoring and evaluation (M&E) in many countries. Many countries currently use large multistage cluster sample surveys to monitor malaria outcome indicators on a regional and national level. However, these surveys often mask local-level variability important to programme management. Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) has played a valuable role for local-level programme M&E. If incorporated into these larger surveys, it would provide a comprehensive M&E plan at little, if any, extra cost. The Mozambique Ministry of Health conducted a Malaria Indicator Survey (MIS) in June and July 2007. We applied LQAS classification rules to the 345 sampled enumeration areas to demonstrate identifying high- and low-performing areas with respect to two malaria program indicators-'household possession of any bednet' and 'household possession of any insecticide-treated bednet (ITN)'. As shown by the MIS, no province in Mozambique achieved the 70% coverage target for household possession of bednets or ITNs. By applying LQAS classification rules to the data, we identify 266 of the 345 enumeration areas as having bednet coverage severely below the 70% target. An additional 73 were identified with low ITN coverage. This article demonstrates the feasibility of integrating LQAS into multistage cluster sampling surveys and using these results to support a comprehensive national, regional and local programme M&E system. Furthermore, in the recommendations we outlined how to integrate the Large Country-LQAS design into macro-surveys while still obtaining results available through current sampling practices.

  9. Estimating MCC System Dryness Index using the Vineyard Water Indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conceição Marco Antônio Fonseca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Dryness Index (DI is one of the three Geoviticulture Multicriteria Climatic Classification System (MCC System indices and its calculation is based on a soil water balance approach. However, other climatic indices can be used for the same purpose. One of them is the Vineyard Water Indicator (VWI that represents the ratio between the total rainfall and the vineyard water requirement during the productive period of the culture. When compared to DI, the VWI presents a simpler calculation methodology. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to establish a model to estimate DI based on VWI values. Climate data of 80 winegrowing regions in 18 countries were used. Four regression models were evaluated: linear, quadratic, logarithmic and the Mitscherlich model. Real and simulated data were compared using the confidence coefficient (c that corresponds to the product of the correlation coefficient (r by the exactness coefficient (d. The best fit was obtained employing the quadratic model and DI can be calculated using the following equation: DI = −363.84 VWI2+ 834.47 VWI – 257.17 (R2 = 0.93, for VHI <0.905. For VHI values equal to or greater than 0.905, DI is constant and equal to 200.

  10. Klang River water quality modelling using music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahari, Nazirul Mubin; Zawawi, Mohd Hafiz; Muda, Zakaria Che; Sidek, Lariyah Mohd; Fauzi, Nurfazila Mohd; Othman, Mohd Edzham Fareez; Ahmad, Zulkepply

    2017-09-01

    Water is an essential resource that sustains life on earth; changes in the natural quality and distribution of water have ecological impacts that can sometimes be devastating. Recently, Malaysia is facing many environmental issues regarding water pollution. The main causes of river pollution are rapid urbanization, arising from the development of residential, commercial, industrial sites, infrastructural facilities and others. The purpose of the study was to predict the water quality of the Connaught Bridge Power Station (CBPS), Klang River. Besides that, affects to the low tide and high tide and. to forecast the pollutant concentrations of the Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Total Suspended Solid (TSS) for existing land use of the catchment area through water quality modeling (by using the MUSIC software). Besides that, to identifying an integrated urban stormwater treatment system (Best Management Practice or BMPs) to achieve optimal performance in improving the water quality of the catchment using the MUSIC software in catchment areas having tropical climates. Result from MUSIC Model such as BOD5 at station 1 can be reduce the concentration from Class IV to become Class III. Whereas, for TSS concentration from Class III to become Class II at the station 1. The model predicted a mean TSS reduction of 0.17%, TP reduction of 0.14%, TN reduction of 0.48% and BOD5 reduction of 0.31% for Station 1 Thus, from the result after purposed BMPs the water quality is safe to use because basically water quality monitoring is important due to threat such as activities are harmful to aquatic organisms and public health.

  11. 40 CFR 130.6 - Water quality management plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality management plans. 130.6... QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.6 Water quality management plans. (a) Water quality management (WQM... and certified and approved updates to those plans. Continuing water quality planning shall be based...

  12. CEER 2014 Dedicated Session Proposal: Restoring Water Quality along with Restoring the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    This session focuses on the importance of restoring water quality as part of the larger Gulf of Mexico restoration efforts. Water quality has been identified as a significant indicator of water body condition, and Gulf waters have been impacted by increased urban development, agr...

  13. Seleção dos indicadores da qualidade das águas superficiais pelo emprego da análise multivariada Surface water quality indicators in low Acaraú basin, Ceará, Brazil, using multivariable analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice M. de Andrade

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Os fatores antrópicos e naturais que determinam a qualidade das águas superficiais na Bacia do Baixo Acaraú foram identificados pelo emprego da técnica de Análise Fatorial/Análise da Componente Principal (AF/ACP. Foram realizadas quatro campanhas no período de fev./2003 a mar./2004, em sete pontos de amostragem localizados ao longo do Rio Acaraú. Foram analisados 25 parâmetros físico-químicos e bacteriológicos. Pelo emprego da AF/ACP, identificou-se que o modelo de melhor ajuste para expressar a qualidade das águas na Bacia do Baixo Acaraú foi aquele composto por quatro fatores, explicando 82,1% da variância total. O primeiro fator representa a componente de sólidos em suspensão, expressando o processo de erosão e escoamento superficial. O segundo fator é definido por uma componente de nutrientes associados aos esgotos sanitários, às áreas agrícolas e a outras fontes de poluição difusa; o terceiro fator é indicativo da ação antrópica (componente orgânica, enquanto o quarto representa os sais solúveis que expressam o processo natural do intemperismo das rochas. Outro ponto observado é que a análise fatorial não resultou em grande redução no número de variáveis, uma vez que o melhor ajuste do modelo ocorreu com a inclusão de 18 das 25 variáveis analisadas.Multivariate statistical technique, factor analysis/principal component analysis (FA/PCA, was applied to identify the human activity effects and natural processes on surface water quality in Low Acaraú basin, Ceará, Brazil. Water samples were collected in four different campaigns from Feb/2003 to Mar/2004, at seven sampling stations sited in low Acaraú watershed. Twenty-five physical, chemical and bacteriological parameters were examined in this study. The FA/PCA allowed the identification of the total variance. The best model was adjusted with four components, explaining 82.1% of the data variance. The first factor was mainly associated with suspended

  14. Private drinking water quality in rural Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobeloch, Lynda; Gorski, Patrick; Christenson, Megan; Anderson, Henry

    2013-03-01

    Between July 1, 2007, and December 31, 2010, Wisconsin health departments tested nearly 4,000 rural drinking water supplies for coliform bacteria, nitrate, fluoride, and 13 metals as part of a state-funded program that provides assistance to low-income families. The authors' review of laboratory findings found that 47% of these wells had an exceedance of one or more health-based water quality standards. Test results for iron and coliform bacteria exceeded safe limits in 21% and 18% of these wells, respectively. In addition, 10% of the water samples from these wells were high in nitrate and 11% had an elevated result for aluminum, arsenic, lead, manganese, or strontium. The high percentage of unsafe test results emphasizes the importance of water quality monitoring to the health of nearly one million families including 300,000 Wisconsin children whose drinking water comes from a privately owned well.

  15. New techniques for analyzing relationships between energy and water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, E.; Thode, H.C. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Water quality data for 65 variables were obtained for the period 1955 to 1977 and aggregated on a county basis. Measurements were taken primarily in New England and the Middle Atlantic States. When a subset of 138 counties with complete data was used, it was found that county aggregation statistical procedures resulted in data still able to describe the chemical characteristics of natural waters. Energy and socioeconomic data were merged with water quality data for these 138 counties. The path analytic methodology used by geneticists was adapted for use with these combined data to investigate for potential interactions between energy-related activities and water quality. A path diagram was proposed to provide insight into the possible causal nature of these interrelations. Direct and indirect pathways from energy production and use were traced to three factors describing functional attributes of water: conductivity, hardness, and dissolved metallic ions. This analysis explained 25 to 40% of the variance in three water quality factors and indicated the applicability of this technique to regional assessments of water quality impacts due to many human activities

  16. Drinking Water Quality of Water Vending Machines in Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, N. H.; Yusop, H. M.

    2016-07-01

    An increased in demand from the consumer due to their perceptions on tap water quality is identified as one of the major factor on why they are mentally prepared to pay for the price of the better quality drinking water. The thought that filtered water quality including that are commercially available in the market such as mineral and bottled drinking water and from the drinking water vending machine makes they highly confident on the level of hygiene, safety and the mineral content of this type of drinking water. This study was investigated the vended water quality from the drinking water vending machine in eight locations in Parit Raja are in terms of pH, total dissolve solids (TDS), turbidity, mineral content (chromium, arsenic, cadmium, lead and nickel), total organic carbon (TOC), pH, total colony-forming units (CFU) and total coliform. All experiments were conducted in one month duration in triplicate samples for each sampling event. The results indicated the TDS and all heavy metals in eight vended water machines in Parit Raja area were found to be below the Food Act 1983, Regulation 360C (Standard for Packaged Drinking Water and Vended water, 2012) and Malaysian Drinking Water Quality, Ministry of Health 1983. No coliform was presence in any of the vended water samples. pH was found to be slightly excess the limit provided while turbidity was found to be 45 to 95 times more higher than 0.1 NTU as required by the Malaysian Food Act Regulation. The data obtained in this study would suggest the important of routine maintenance and inspection of vended water provider in order to maintain a good quality, hygienic and safety level of vended water.

  17. Microbiological indicators of water quality in the Xochimilco canals, Mexico City Indicadores microbiológicos de la calidad del agua de los canales de Xochimilco de la Ciudad de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alfredo Juárez-Figueroa

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To quantify microbiology indicators of fecal contamination in the effluents of two waste water treatment plants and in samples collected in several canals in Xochimilco. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross sectional study was performed. Ten sites, 5 from plant effluents and 5 from canals, were selected for sampling during November and December 2001. Fecal coliforms and enterococci were quantified by membrane filtration, male specific (F+ and somatic coliphages by double agar layer technique, and Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts by concentration with Envirocheck filter followed by immunofluorescence microscopy quantification.The average of organisms counts from effluents and canal water were compared with t Student test. RESULTS: Treated water discharge in canals showed a low count of Fecal Coliforms (average 40.4/100 ml, enterococci (average 58.8/100 ml and Cryptosporidium oocysts (average 13.2/100 l, while coliphages and Giardia cyst rendered higher counts (average 1467.5/100 ml and 1199.8/100 l, respectively suggesting the water treatment methods could fail to remove these agents. A significant lower count of Giardia cysts (average 45/100 l and no Cryptosporidium oocysts were found in irrigation canals, which suggests a natural clearance of these pathogens. Strains of Escherichia coli isolated in one of the canals contaminated with sewage had antimicrobial multi-resistance that was transferred by conjugation suggesting that resistance is encoded in a plasmid potentially transferable to other pathogenic bacteria. CONCLUSIONS: Cost effective and culturally acceptable waste treatment methods will require careful planning and consultation if they are to be adopted and mantained by local populations.OBJETIVO: Cuantificar diversos indicadores de contaminación fecal en los efluentes de dos plantas de tratamiento de aguas residuales y en muestras recogidas en varios canales de Xochimilco. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal

  18. Water Quality and Sustainable Environmental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setegn, S. G.

    2014-12-01

    Lack of adequate safe water, the pollution of the aquatic environment and the mismanagement of resources are major causes of ill-health and mortality, particularly in the developing countries. In order to accommodate more growth, sustainable fresh water resource management will need to be included in future development plans. One of the major environmental issues of concern to policy-makers is the increased vulnerability of ground water quality. The main challenge for the sustainability of water resources is the control of water pollution. To understand the sustainability of the water resources, one needs to understand the impact of future land use and climate changes on the natural resources. Providing safe water and basic sanitation to meet the Millennium Development Goals will require substantial economic resources, sustainable technological solutions and courageous political will. A balanced approach to water resources exploitation for development, on the one hand, and controls for the protection of health, on the other, is required if the benefits of both are to be realized without avoidable detrimental effects manifesting themselves. Meeting the millennium development goals for water and sanitation in the next decade will require substantial economic resources, sustainable technological solutions and courageous political will. In addition to providing "improved" water and "basic" sanitation services, we must ensure that these services provide: safe drinking water, adequate quantities of water for health, hygiene, agriculture and development and sustainable sanitation approaches to protect health and the environment.

  19. Enzyme activities by indicator of quality in organic soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raigon Jiménez, Mo; Fita, Ana Delores; Rodriguez Burruezo, Adrián

    2016-04-01

    The analytical determination of biochemical parameters, as soil enzyme activities and those related to the microbial biomass is growing importance by biological indicator in soil science studies. The metabolic activity in soil is responsible of important processes such as mineralization and humification of organic matter. These biological reactions will affect other key processes involved with elements like carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus , and all transformations related in soil microbial biomass. The determination of biochemical parameters is useful in studies carried out on organic soil where microbial processes that are key to their conservation can be analyzed through parameters of the metabolic activity of these soils. The main objective of this work is to apply analytical methodologies of enzyme activities in soil collections of different physicochemical characteristics. There have been selective sampling of natural soils, organic farming soils, conventional farming soils and urban soils. The soils have been properly identified conserved at 4 ° C until analysis. The enzyme activities determinations have been: catalase, urease, cellulase, dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase, which bring together a representative group of biological transformations that occur in the soil environment. The results indicate that for natural and agronomic soil collections, the values of the enzymatic activities are within the ranges established for forestry and agricultural soils. Organic soils are generally higher level of enzymatic, regardless activity of the enzyme involved. Soil near an urban area, levels of activities have been significantly reduced. The vegetation cover applied to organic soils, results in greater enzymatic activity. So the quality of these soils, defined as the ability to maintain their biological productivity is increased with the use of cover crops, whether or spontaneous species. The practice of cover based on legumes could be used as an ideal choice

  20. Comparing microbial water quality in an intermittent and continuous piped water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpel, Emily; Nelson, Kara L

    2013-09-15

    Supplying piped water intermittently is a common practice throughout the world that increases the risk of microbial contamination through multiple mechanisms. Converting an intermittent supply to a continuous supply has the potential to improve the quality of water delivered to consumers. To understand the effects of this upgrade on water quality, we tested samples from reservoirs, consumer taps, and drinking water provided by households (e.g. from storage containers) from an intermittent and continuous supply in Hubli-Dharwad, India, over one year. Water samples were tested for total coliform, Escherichia coli, turbidity, free chlorine, and combined chlorine. While water quality was similar at service reservoirs supplying the continuous and intermittent sections of the network, indicator bacteria were detected more frequently and at higher concentrations in samples from taps supplied intermittently compared to those supplied continuously (p supply, with 0.7% of tap samples positive compared to 31.7% of intermittent water supply tap samples positive for E. coli. In samples from both continuously and intermittently supplied taps, higher concentrations of total coliform were measured after rainfall events. While source water quality declined slightly during the rainy season, only tap water from intermittent supply had significantly more indicator bacteria throughout the rainy season compared to the dry season. Drinking water samples provided by households in both continuous and intermittent supplies had higher concentrations of indicator bacteria than samples collected directly from taps. Most households with continuous supply continued to store water for drinking, resulting in re-contamination, which may reduce the benefits to water quality of converting to continuous supply. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Job Satisfaction: a quality indicator in nursing human resource management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Vera Thânia Alves; Kurcgant, Paulina

    2012-02-01

    This descriptive study addresses the job satisfaction of nurse managers and clinical nurses working at the Hematology and Hemotherapy Services of a public hospital in São Paulo. The study objectives were to identify the factors that caused job satisfaction among nurse managers and clinical nurses, and support the results in the development of indicators to evaluate the quality of nursing human resource management. The components of the study were: autonomy, interaction, professional status, job requirements, organizational norms and remuneration. Participants were 44 nurses. Data were collected using a Job Satisfaction Index (JSI) questionnaire. In conclusion, this study permitted the identification of the clinical nurse group, which was the most satisfied, with a JSI of 10.5; the managerial group scored 10.0. Regarding the satisfaction levels in regards to the current activity, 88.9% of the nurse managers reported feeling satisfied, as did 90.9% of clinical nurses. For both groups, autonomy was the component with the highest level of professional satisfaction.

  2. Water and water quality management in the cholistan desert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahlown, M.A.; Chaudhry, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Water scarcity is the main problem in Cholistan desert. Rainfall is scanty and sporadic and groundwater is saline in most of the area. Rainwater is collected in man made small storages, locally called tobas during rainy season for human and livestock consumption. These tobas usually retain rainwater for three to four months at the maximum, due to small storage capacity and unfavorable location. After the tobas become dry, people use saline groundwater for human and livestock consumption where marginal quality groundwater is available. In complete absence of water they migrate towards canal irrigated areas till the next rains. During migration humans and livestock suffer from hunger, thirst and diseases. In order to overcome this problem Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources (PCRWR) has introduced improved designs of tobas. The PCRWR is collecting more than 13.0 million cubic meter rainwater annually from only ninety hectare catchment area. As a result, water is available for drinking of human and livestock population as well as to wild life through out the year for the village of Dingarh in Cholistan desert. However, water collected in these tobas is usually muddy and full of impurities. To provide good quality drinking water to the residents of Cholistan, PCRWR has launched a Project under which required quantity of drinkable water will be provided at more than seventy locations by rainwater harvesting, pumping of good and marginal quality groundwater and desalination of moderately saline water through Reverse Osmosis Plants. After the completion of project, more then 380 million gallons of fresh rainwater and more than 1300 million gallons of good and marginal quality groundwater will be available annually. Intervention to collect the silt before reaching to the tobas are also introduced, low cost filter plants are designed and constructed on the tobas for purification of water. (author)

  3. Water quality effects of harbour activities assessed with integrated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ecological tools were developed to study the water quality in Cochin harbour, a complex aquatic ecosystems, through the integration of microbiological monitoring (faecal coliforms and Pseudomonas species) and heavy metal contamination (lead, cadmium and mercury). One way ANOVA indicates statistically significant ...

  4. Situation analysis of water quality in the Umtata River catchment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Umtata River was characterised by using standard physico-chemical and microbiological methods to assess the present water quality in the river. The results indicated high turbidity, gross microbiological and cadmium pollution. Turbidity values ranged from 0.28 NTU to 1 899 NTU highlighting the known problem of ...

  5. Pursuing Quality Evidence: Applying Single-Subject Quality Indicators to Non-Experimental Qualitative Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stodden, Robert A.; Yamamoto, Kathryn K.; Folk, Eric; Kong, Eran; Otsuji, Derek N.

    2013-01-01

    The need for quality evidence in support of strategies used while working with persons with autism and intellectual disability (ID) has been long been recognized by researchers and practitioners. The authors reviewed and applied a number of evidence-based indicators, developed through the "What Works Clearinghouse" (WWC), to the conduct…

  6. A national look at water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliom, Robert J.; Mueller, David K.; Zogorski, John S.; Ryker, Sarah J.

    2002-01-01

    Most water-quality problems we face today result from diffuse "nonpoint" sources of pollution from agricultural land, urban development, forest harvesting and the atmosphere (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers et al., 1999). It is difficult to quantify nonpoint sources because the contaminants they deliver vary in composition and concentrations from hour to hour and season to season. Moreover, the nature of the contamination is complex and varied. When Congress enacted the Clean Water Act 30 years ago, attention was focused on water-quality issues related to the sanitation of rivers and streams - bacteria counts, oxygen in the water for fish, nutrients, temperature, and salinity. Now, attention is turning to the hundreds of synthetic organic compounds like pesticides used in agricultural and residential areas, volatile organics in solvents and gasoline, microbial and viral contamination, and pharmaceuticals and hormones.

  7. Utility service quality - telecommincations, electricity, water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, L. [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States). Public Utility Research Center

    2005-09-01

    This survey of quality-of-service issues raised by regulation identifies 12 steps for promoting efficient sector performance. First, regulators must identify objectives and prioritize them. Inter-agency coordination is often required to establish targets. Regulators must also determine a process for selecting measures and an appropriate method for evaluating them. Finally, performance incentives must be established and outcomes periodically reviewed. Telecommunications, electricity, and water all have multiple dimensions of quality that warrant careful attention. (Author)

  8. Drinking Water Quality Assessment in Tetova Region

    OpenAIRE

    B. H. Durmishi; M. Ismaili; A. Shabani; Sh. Abduli

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: The quality of drinking water is a crucial factor for human health. The objective of this study was the assessment of physical, chemical and bacteriological quality of the drinking water in the city of Tetova and several surrounding villages in the Republic of Macedonia for the period May 2007-2008. The sampling and analysis are conducted in accordance with State Regulation No. 57/2004, which is in compliance with EU and WHO standards. A total of 415 samples were taken for ...

  9. Monitoring water quality by remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A limited study was conducted to determine the applicability of remote sensing for evaluating water quality conditions in the San Francisco Bay and delta. Considerable supporting data were available for the study area from other than overflight sources, but short-term temporal and spatial variability precluded their use. The study results were not sufficient to shed much light on the subject, but it did appear that, with the present state of the art in image analysis and the large amount of ground truth needed, remote sensing has only limited application in monitoring water quality.

  10. New Perspectives in Monitoring Drinking Water Microbial Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan J. Borrego

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The safety of drinking water is evaluated by the results obtained from faecal indicators during the stipulated controls fixed by the legislation. However, drinking-water related illness outbreaks are still occurring worldwide. The failures that lead to these outbreaks are relatively common and typically involve preceding heavy rain and inadequate disinfection processes. The role that classical faecal indicators have played in the protection of public health is reviewed and the turning points expected for the future explored. The legislation for protecting the quality of drinking water in Europe is under revision, and the planned modifications include an update of current indicators and methods as well as the introduction of Water Safety Plans (WSPs, in line with WHO recommendations. The principles of the WSP approach and the advances signified by the introduction of these preventive measures in the future improvement of dinking water quality are presented. The expected impact that climate change will have in the quality of drinking water is also critically evaluated.

  11. An ANN application for water quality forecasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palani, Sundarambal; Liong, Shie-Yui; Tkalich, Pavel

    2008-09-01

    Rapid urban and coastal developments often witness deterioration of regional seawater quality. As part of the management process, it is important to assess the baseline characteristics of the marine environment so that sustainable development can be pursued. In this study, artificial neural networks (ANNs) were used to predict and forecast quantitative characteristics of water bodies. The true power and advantage of this method lie in its ability to (1) represent both linear and non-linear relationships and (2) learn these relationships directly from the data being modeled. The study focuses on Singapore coastal waters. The ANN model is built for quick assessment and forecasting of selected water quality variables at any location in the domain of interest. Respective variables measured at other locations serve as the input parameters. The variables of interest are salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and chlorophyll-alpha. A time lag up to 2Delta(t) appeared to suffice to yield good simulation results. To validate the performance of the trained ANN, it was applied to an unseen data set from a station in the region. The results show the ANN's great potential to simulate water quality variables. Simulation accuracy, measured in the Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency (R(2)), ranged from 0.8 to 0.9 for the training and overfitting test data. Thus, a trained ANN model may potentially provide simulated values for desired locations at which measured data are unavailable yet required for water quality models.

  12. Socioeconomic impact indicators relating to water and hydrological policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Lorca, A.

    2009-01-01

    The work approaches one of the principal problematic ones in order the development of the arid, semiarid and sub humid dry regions, since it is the case of the land management and in I make concrete of that of hydrological management. For it, one presents an offer of design and construction of indicators, from the conceptual perspective of the sustainability, to evaluate the values corresponding to the socioeconomic productivity of the water, in order to motivate the public action in case of the territorial policies in general and sectorial especially. (Author) 4 refs.

  13. Small drinking water systems under spatiotemporal water quality variability: a risk-based performance benchmarking framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereskie, Ty; Haider, Husnain; Rodriguez, Manuel J; Sadiq, Rehan

    2017-08-23

    Traditional approaches for benchmarking drinking water systems are binary, based solely on the compliance and/or non-compliance of one or more water quality performance indicators against defined regulatory guidelines/standards. The consequence of water quality failure is dependent on location within a water supply system as well as time of the year (i.e., season) with varying levels of water consumption. Conventional approaches used for water quality comparison purposes fail to incorporate spatiotemporal variability and degrees of compliance and/or non-compliance. This can lead to misleading or inaccurate performance assessment data used in the performance benchmarking process. In this research, a hierarchical risk-based water quality performance benchmarking framework is proposed to evaluate small drinking water systems (SDWSs) through cross-comparison amongst similar systems. The proposed framework (R WQI framework) is designed to quantify consequence associated with seasonal and location-specific water quality issues in a given drinking water supply system to facilitate more efficient decision-making for SDWSs striving for continuous performance improvement. Fuzzy rule-based modelling is used to address imprecision associated with measuring performance based on singular water quality guidelines/standards and the uncertainties present in SDWS operations and monitoring. This proposed R WQI framework has been demonstrated using data collected from 16 SDWSs in Newfoundland and Labrador and Quebec, Canada, and compared to the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment WQI, a traditional, guidelines/standard-based approach. The study found that the R WQI framework provides an in-depth state of water quality and benchmarks SDWSs more rationally based on the frequency of occurrence and consequence of failure events.

  14. Low water quality in tropical fishponds in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIMONE M. COSTA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Expansion of aquaculture around the world has heavily impacted the environment. Because fertilizers are needed to raise fish, one of the main impacts is eutrophication, which lowers water quality and increases the frequency of algal blooms, mostly cyanobacteria. To evaluate whether the water quality in 30 fishponds in southeastern Brazilian met the requirements of Brazilian legislation, we analyzed biotic and abiotic water conditions. We expected that the high nutrient levels due to fertilization would cause low water quality. We also analyzed cyanotoxins in seston and fish muscle in some systems where cyanobacteria were dominant. The fishponds ranged from eutrophic and hypereutrophic with high phytoplankton biomass. Although cyanobacteria were dominant in most of the systems, cyanotoxins occurred in low concentrations, possibly because only two of the 12 dominant species were potential producers of microcystins. The high phosphorus concentrations caused the low water quality by increasing cyanobacteria, chlorophyll-a, turbidity, and thermotolerant coliforms, and by depleting dissolved oxygen. We found that all the 30 systems were inappropriate for fish culture, according to Brazilian legislation, based on at least one of the parameters measured. Furthermore, there was not any single system in the water-quality thresholds, according to the Brazilian legislation, to grow fish. Our findings indicate the need for better management to minimize the impacts of eutrophication in fishponds, in addition to a rigorous control to guarantee good food.

  15. BARC's efforts towards maintenance of water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamath, P.R.

    1978-01-01

    Some of the studies pursued at the Environmental Survey Laboratories (ESLs) established at the site of nuclear installations in India are discussed. Each site has its special features and these ESLs monitor radioactive pollution in the environment including Man. The major objective of the surveillance programme at nuclear sites is the maintenance of water quality. Environmental investigations carried out to collect data on individual organisms, recipient water characteristics, thermal pollution and its effect on fish are described. (K.M.)

  16. Par Pond refill water quality sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, J.W. II; Martin, F.D.; Westbury, H.M.

    1996-08-01

    This study was designed to document anoxia and its cause in the event that the anoxia caused a fish kill. However, no fish kill was observed during this study, and dissolved oxygen and nutrient concentrations generally remained within the range expected for southeastern reservoirs. Par Pond water quality monitoring will continue during the second summer after refill as the aquatic macrophytes become reestablished and nutrients in the sediments are released to the water column

  17. Water quality maintaining device of power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Minoru; Inami, Ichiro.

    1994-01-01

    The device of the present invention reduces the amount of leaching materials of ion exchange resins from a water processing system of a BWR tyep plant, improves the water quality of reactor water to maintain the water at high purity. That is, steams used for power generation are condensated in a condensate system. A condensate filter and a condensate desalter for cleaning the condensates are disposed. A resin storage hopper is disposed for supplying the ion exchange resins to the water processing system. A device for supplying a nitrogen gas or an inert gas is disposed in the hopper. With such a constitution, the ion exchange resins in the water processing system are maintained in a nitrogen gas or inert gas atmosphere or at a low dissolved oxygen level in an operation stage in the power plant. Accordingly, degradation of the ion exchange resins in the water processing system is suppressed and the amount of the leaching material from the resins is reduced. As a result, the amount of the resins leached into the reactor is reduced, so that the reactor water quality can be maintained at high purity. (I.S.)

  18. Aquatic macrophytes as indicators of water quality in subtropical shallow lakes, Southern Brazil Macrófitas aquáticas como indicadores da qualidade da água em pequenos lagos rasos subtropicais, Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Amaral Pereira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: We evaluated the potential of aquatic macrophyte communities as bioindicators in six small shallow lakes. METHODS: The sampling was conducted monthly for one year, during which all macrophytes were surveyed, and the water temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, conductivity, total alkalinity, chlorophyll-a, suspended matter, total nitrogen (Nt and total phosphorus (Pt were measured. RESULTS: In total, forty-three species were recorded, and there were significant differences in the species richness and limnological conditions among the lakes studied. A canonical correspondence analysis showed that the concentration of nutrients (Nt and Pt, chlorophyll-a, suspended matter, dissolved oxygen and pH were the most important predictors of the distribution of macrophytes. Some emergents were related to the high concentration of nutrients, chlorophyll-a, and suspended matter. Moreover, the most submersed species were associated with environments with low nutrient concentrations and the lowest values chlorophyll-a and suspended matter. In addition, some species submerged and floating were related to low values pH, alkalinity and dissolved oxygen. Limnological differences between lakes may be cited as the main causes of the observed heterogeneous distribution of macrophytes. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate the importance of limnological characteristics of the different environments in the macrophyte community composition and the potential role of this community as a bioindicator in shallow lakes in southern Brazil.OBJETIVO: Foi avaliado o potencial bioindicador da comunidade de macrófitas aquáticas em seis pequenos lagos rasos. MÉTODOS: O acompanhamento foi mensal durante um ano, sendo que em cada coleta, além do registro de todas as espécies de macrófitas foram determinadas a temperatura da água, oxigênio dissolvido, pH, condutividade elétrica, alcalinidade total, clorofila-a, material em suspensão, nitrogênio total (Nt e fósforo total

  19. Prediction of Availability Indicator of Water Pipes Using Artificial Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kutyłowska Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of artificial neural networks application to the availability indicator prediction. The forecasted results indicate that artificial networks may be used to model the reliability level of the water supply systems. The network was trained using 147 and 173 operational data from one Polish medium-sized city (distribution pipes and house connections, respectively. 50% of all data was chosen for learning, 25% for testing and 25% for validation. In prognosis phase, the best created network used 100% of 114 and 133 values for testing. Following functions were used to activate neurons in hidden and output layers: linear, logistic, hyperbolic tangent, exponential. The learning of the artificial network was performed using following input parameters: material, total length, diameter. In the optimal models hyperbolic tangent was chosen to activate the hidden and output neurons in modeling the availability indicator of house connections during 68 epochs of training. Hidden and output neurons were activated (20 epochs of learning respectively by hyperbolic tangent and linear function during the prediction of availability indicator of distribution pipes. The maximum relative errors in learning and prognosis step were equal to 0.10% and 1.20% as well as 0.27% and 1.15% for distribution pipes and house connections, respectively.

  20. Big Data and Heath Impacts of Drinking Water Quality Violation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaire, M.; Zheng, S.; Lall, U.

    2017-12-01

    Health impacts of drinking water quality violations are only understood at a coarse level in the United States. This limits identification of threats to water security in communities across the country. Substantial under-reporting is suspected due to requirements at U.S. public health institutes that water borne illnesses be confirmed by health providers. In the era of `big data', emerging information sources could offer insight into waterborne disease trends. In this study, we explore the use of fine-resolution sales data for over-the-counter medicine to estimate the health impacts of drinking water quality violations. We also demonstrate how unreported water quality issues can be detected by observing market behavior. We match a panel of supermarket sales data for the U.S. at the weekly level with geocoded violations data from 2006-2015. We estimate the change in anti-diarrheal medicine sale due to drinking water violations using a fixed effects model. We find that water quality violations have considerable effects on medicine sales. Sales nearly double due to Tier 1 violations, which pose an immediate health risk, and sales increase 15.1 percent due to violations related to microorganisms. Furthermore, our estimate of diarrheal illness cases associated with water quality violations indicates that the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reporting system may only capture about one percent of diarrheal cases due to impaired water. Incorporating medicine sales data could offer national public health institutes a game-changing way to improve monitoring of disease outbreaks. Since many disease cases are not formally diagnosed by health providers, consumption information could provide additional information to remedy under-reporting issues and improve water security in communities across the United States.

  1. Water quality and supply on Cortina Rancheria, Colusa County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, E.B.

    1989-01-01

    Cortina Rancheria covers an area of 1 sq mi in Colusa County, California, near the western edge of the Sacramento Valley. Local sources of water for residents of the rancheria are of poor quality or limited availability. Domestic needs are presently met by water from a hand-dug well and from a drilled well with a potential yield of 15 gal/min. Water from both wells fails to meet California State drinking-water standards, primarily because of high concentrations of chloride and dissolved solids. High concentrations of sodium and boron pose additional problems for agricultural use of the water. The dissolved ions originate in Upper Cretaceous marine sediments of the Cortina Formation, which occurs at or near land surface throughout the rancheria. Small quantities of fresh groundwater may occur locally in the Tehama Formation which overlies the Cortina Formation in the eastern part of the rancheria. Canyon Creek, the largest stream on the rancheria, flows only during winter and spring. Water from one of the rancheria 's three springs meet drinking water standards, but it almost stops flowing in summer. The generally poor quality of ground and surface water on the rancheria is typical of areas along the west side of the Sacramento Valley. Additional hydrologic information could indicate more precisely the quantity and quality of surface and groundwater on Cortina Rancheria. Principal features of a possible data-collection program would include monitoring of discharge and water quality in three springs and in Canyon Creek, electromagntic terrain conductivity surveys, and monitoring of water levels and quality in two existing wells and several proposed test wells. (USGS)

  2. 40 CFR 227.31 - Applicable marine water quality criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicable marine water quality... § 227.31 Applicable marine water quality criteria. Applicable marine water quality criteria means the criteria given for marine waters in the EPA publication “Quality Criteria for Water” as published in 1976...

  3. Social representations of drinking water: subsidies for water quality surveillance programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo, Rose Ferraz; Bevilacqua, Paula Dias; Barletto, Marisa

    2015-09-01

    A qualitative study was developed aimed at understanding the social representations of water consumption by a segment of the population of a small town in Brazil. A total of 19 semi-structured interviews were carried out and subjected to a content analysis addressing opinion on drinking water, characteristics of drinking water and its correlation to health and diseases, criteria for water usage and knowledge on the source and accountability for drinking-water quality. Social representations of drinking water predominantly incorporate the municipal water supply and sanitation provider and its quality. The identification of the municipal water supply provider as alone responsible for maintaining water quality indicated the lack of awareness of any health surveillance programme. For respondents, chlorine was accountable for conferring colour, odour and taste to the water. These physical parameters were reported as the cause for rejecting the water supplied and suggest the need to review the focus of health-educational strategies based on notions of hygiene and water-borne diseases. The study allowed the identification of elements that could contribute to positioning the consumers vs. services relationship on a level playing field, enabling dialogue and exchange of knowledge for the benefit of public health.

  4. ASSESSMENT OF LAND QUALITY USING ECOPEDOLOGICAL INDICATORS - JEBEL AREA, TIMIŞ COUNTY, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costina Roxana URUIOC

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The studied area is placed in North-East Jebel locality. Based on the physical and chemical characteristics and soil morphology profile, the following types of soil were identified: typical preluvosol, typical and gleyic eutricambosols, luvic solonet, gleysol, gleyic vertisol and gleyic-stagnic vertisol. The assessment of land quality (fertility was determined by bonitation. For the notes of bonitation calculation, the following ecopedological indicatories have been used: annual medium temperature, annual medium precipitations, depth of the underground water, texture in Ap horizon, gleization, pseudogleization, salinization, edafic volume, porosity, soil reaction (pH, humus reserve and content of CaCO3. The way that these indicators influence the notes of bonitation is different from a type of soil to another and the use of land. Thus, for grassland, typical preluvosol, the note of bonitate is 81 and it’s included in class II of quality (favorability, luvic solonet with 63 points in class IV of quality, typical eutricambosols with 58 points and vertisol with 57 points, in class V of quality, gleysol with 32 points and gleyic eutricambosol with 36 points, in class VII of quality. In case of using the land for growing maize, we have the following: typical preluvosol with 90 points which is in class II of quality, typical eutricambosol with 54 points and gleyic vertisol with 60 points, in class V of quality, luvic solonet with 49 points in class VI of quality, gleyic-stagnic vertisol with 35 points, in class VII of quality, gleysol with 24 points and gleyic eutricambosol with 29 points, in class VIII of quality. The notes of bonitation calculation, including them in the favorability classes, showed up that lands from Jebel area are good and very good quality, exception those that develop on gleysol and gleyic eutricambosols soils.

  5. Water quality indexing for predicting variation of water quality over time

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PPoonoosamy

    water, and expressing them to non-technical people may not always be easy. ... parameters for a case study; dissolved oxygen, pH, total coliforms, ... Several national agencies responsible for water supply and water pollution, have strongly .... good quality and required proper treatment if it were to be consumed as potable.

  6. Sustainable River Water Quality Management in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Al-Mamun

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Ecological status of Malaysia is not as bad as many other developing nations in the world. However, despite the enforcement of the Environmental Quality Act (EQA in 1974, the water quality of Malaysian inland water (especially rivers is following deteriorating trend. The rivers are mainly polluted due to the point and non-point pollution sources. Point sources are monitored and controlled by the Department of Environment (DOE, whereas a significant amount of pollutants is contributed by untreated sullage and storm runoff. Nevertheless, it is not too late to take some bold steps for the effective control of non-point source pollution and untreated sullage discharge, which play significant roles on the status of the rivers. This paper reviews the existing procedures and guidelines related to protection of the river water quality in Malaysia.  There is a good possibility that the sewage and effluent discharge limits in the Environmental Quality Act (EQA may pose hindrance against achieving good quality water in the rivers as required by the National Water Quality Standards (NWQS. For instance, Ammoniacal Nitrogen (NH3-N is identified as one of the main pollutants to render many of the rivers polluted but it was not considered in the EQA as a monitoring parameter until the new regulations published in 2009.  Surprisingly, the new regulation for sewage and industrial effluent limits set allowable NH3-N concentration quite high (5 mg/L, which may result in low Water Quality Index (WQI values for the river water. The water environment is a dynamic system. Periodical review of the monitoring requirements, detecting emerging pollutants in sewage, effluent and runoff, and proper revision of water quality standards are necessary for the management of sustainable water resources in the country. ABSTRAK: Satus ekologi Malaysia tidak seburuk kebanyakan negara membangun lain di dunia. Walaupun Akta Kualiti Alam Sekitar (EQA dikuatkuasakan pada tahun 1974

  7. Price as an Indicator for Quality in International Trade?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    This paper examines the relation between price differences and quality differences in an oligopoly model with intra-industry trade, where goods are horizontally as well as vertically differentiated. The analysis demonstrates that the ratio of prices is not linked to the ratio of qualities in any ...

  8. Price as an indicator for quality in international trade?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the relation between price differences and quality differences in an oligopoly model with intra-industry trade, where goods are horizontally as well as vertically differentiated. The analysis demonstrates that the ratio of prices is not linked to the ratio of qualities in any ...

  9. Quality indicators for international benchmarking of mental health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Richard C; Mattke, Soeren; Somekh, David

    2006-01-01

    To identify quality measures for international benchmarking of mental health care that assess important processes and outcomes of care, are scientifically sound, and are feasible to construct from preexisting data.......To identify quality measures for international benchmarking of mental health care that assess important processes and outcomes of care, are scientifically sound, and are feasible to construct from preexisting data....

  10. Linking Spatial Variations in Water Quality with Water and Land Management using Multivariate Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yongshan; Qian, Yun; Migliaccio, Kati White; Li, Yuncong; Conrad, Cecilia

    2014-03-01

    Most studies using multivariate techniques for pollution source evaluation are conducted in free-flowing rivers with distinct point and nonpoint sources. This study expanded on previous research to a managed "canal" system discharging into the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, where water and land management is the single most important anthropogenic factor influencing water quality. Hydrometric and land use data of four drainage basins were uniquely integrated into the analysis of 25 yr of monthly water quality data collected at seven stations to determine the impact of water and land management on the spatial variability of water quality. Cluster analysis (CA) classified seven monitoring stations into four groups (CA groups). All water quality parameters identified by discriminant analysis showed distinct spatial patterns among the four CA groups. Two-step principal component analysis/factor analysis (PCA/FA) was conducted with (i) water quality data alone and (ii) water quality data in conjunction with rainfall, flow, and land use data. The results indicated that PCA/FA of water quality data alone was unable to identify factors associated with management activities. The addition of hydrometric and land use data into PCA/FA revealed close associations of nutrients and color with land management and storm-water retention in pasture and citrus lands; total suspended solids, turbidity, and NO + NO with flow and Lake Okeechobee releases; specific conductivity with supplemental irrigation supply; and dissolved O with wetland preservation. The practical implication emphasizes the importance of basin-specific land and water management for ongoing pollutant loading reduction and ecosystem restoration programs. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  11. Drinking water quality of Sukkur municipal corporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandhar, I.A.; Ansari, A.K.

    2002-01-01

    SMC (Sukkur Municipal Corporation) supply the (filtered/settled) water for domestic purpose to the consumers, through intermittent water supply, from Phases I to IV. The water supply distribution network is underground and at most places pass parallel to sewerage lines. The grab sampling technique was followed for collecting representative samples. The official US-EPA and standard methods of water analysis have been used for drinking water quality analysis. DR/2000 spectrophotometer has been used for monitoring: Nitrates, Fluorides, Sulfates, Copper, Chromium, Iron and manganese. The trace metals Cr/sup 6/, Fe/sup 2+/ and other contaminants like; Turbidity and TSS (Total Suspended Solids) have been found higher than World Health Organization (WHO-1993) guideline values. (author)

  12. Klamath River Basin water-quality data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cassandra D.; Rounds, Stewart A.; Orzol, Leonard L.; Sobieszczyk, Steven

    2018-05-29

    The Klamath River Basin stretches from the mountains and inland basins of south-central Oregon and northern California to the Pacific Ocean, spanning multiple climatic regions and encompassing a variety of ecosystems. Water quantity and water quality are important topics in the basin, because water is a critical resource for farming and municipal use, power generation, and for the support of wildlife, aquatic ecosystems, and endangered species. Upper Klamath Lake is the largest freshwater lake in Oregon (112 square miles) and is known for its seasonal algal blooms. The Klamath River has dams for hydropower and the upper basin requires irrigation water to support agriculture and grazing. Multiple species of endangered fish inhabit the rivers and lakes, and the marshes are key stops on the Pacific flyway for migrating birds. For these and other reasons, the water resources in this basin have been studied and monitored to support their management distribution.

  13. AFRRI TRIGA Reactor water quality monitoring program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Mark; George, Robert; Spence, Harry; Nguyen, John

    1992-01-01

    AFRRI has started a water quality monitoring program to provide base line data for early detection of tank leaks. This program revealed problems with growth of algae and bacteria in the pool as a result of contamination with nitrogenous matter. Steps have been taken to reduce the nitrogen levels and to kill and remove algae and bacteria from the reactor pool. (author)

  14. Quality assurance plan, Westinghouse Water Reactor Divisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-03-01

    The Quality Assurance Program used by Westinghouse Nuclear Energy Systems Water Reactor Divisions is described. The purpose of the program is to assure that the design, materials, and workmanship on Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) equipment meet applicable safety requirements, fulfill the requirements of the contracts with the applicants, and satisfy the applicable codes, standards, and regulatory requirements.

  15. NONPOINT SOURCES AND WATER QUALITY TRADING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Management of nonpoint sources (NPS) of nutrients may reduce discharge levels more cost effectively than can additional controls on point sources (PS); water quality trading (WQT), where a PS buys nutrient or sediment reductions from an NPS, may be an alternative means for the PS...

  16. FISH PHYSIOLOGY, TOXICOLOGY, AND WATER QUALITY:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenty-one participants from Europe, North America and China convened in Chongqing, China, October 12-14, 2005, for the Eighth International Symposium in Fish Physiology, Toxicology and Water Quality. The subject of the meeting was "Hypoxia in vertebrates: Comparisons of terrestr...

  17. Compost improves urban soil and water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Construction in urban zones compacts the soil, which hinders root growth and infiltration and may increase erosion, which may degrade water quality. The purpose of our study was to determine the whether planting prairie grasses and adding compost to urban soils can mitigate these concerns. We simula...

  18. FISH PHYSIOLOGY, TOXICOLOGY, AND WATER QUALITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientists from ten countries presented papers at the Fifth International Symposium on Fish Physiology, Toxicology, and Water Quality, which was held on the campus of the city University of Hong Kong on November 10-13, 1998. These Proceedings include 23 papers presented in sessi...

  19. Water quality criteria for hexachloroethane: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, K.A.; Hovatter, P.S.; Ross, R.H.

    1988-03-01

    The available data regarding the environmental fate, aquatic toxicity, and mammalian toxicity of hexachloroethane, which is used in military screening smokes, were reviewed. The USEPA guidelines were used to generate water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life and its uses and of human health. 16 tabs.

  20. Land-Water-Food Nexus and Indications of Crop Adjustment for Water Shortage Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Ren, D.; Zhou, X.

    2017-12-01

    Agriculture places the greatest demand on water resources, and increasing agricultural production is worsening a global water shortage. Reducing the cultivation of water-consuming crops may be the most effective way to reduce agricultural water use. However, when also taking food demand into consideration, sustaining the balance between regional water and food securities is a growing challenge. This paper addresses this task for regions where water is unsustainable for food production (Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region for example), by (i) assessing the different effects of wheat and maize on water use; (ii) analyzing virtual water and virtual land flows associated with food imports and exports between Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei and elsewhere in China; (iii) identifying sub-regions where grain are produced using scarce water resources but exported to other regions. (iv) analyzing the potentiality for mitigating water shortage via Land-Water-Food Nexus. In the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region, the study reveals that 29.76 bn m3 of virtual water (10.81 bn m3 of blue virtual water) are used by wheat and maize production and nearly 2 million ha of cropland using 8.77 bn m3 of virtual water overproduced 12 million ton of maize for external food consumption. As an importing-based sub-region with high population density, Beijing and Tianjin (BT) imported mostly grain (wheat and maize) from Shandong (SD). Whereas, Hebei (HB), as an exporting-based sub-region with sever water shortage, overproduced too much grain for other regions (like Central area), which aggravated water crisis. To achieve Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei's integrated and sustainable development, HB should not undertake the breadbasket role for BT but pay more attention to groundwater depletion. The analysis of the Land-Water-Food Nexus indicates how shifts in the cultivated crops can potentially solve the overuse of water resources without adverse effect on food supply, and provides meaningful information to support policy

  1. Highly purified water production technology. The influence of water purity on steam quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganter, J.

    1975-01-01

    The fundamental question related to high-pressure steam generation, intended for powering steam turbines, concerns steam production conditions based on constant quality standards. The characteristics of water (salinity, silica concentration) are indicated for a given steam quality as a function of the pressure. Two processes for the purification of feedwater for high pressure boilers are described: a treatment using precoated cellulose or resin filters and a treatment using mixed-bed ion exchangers. When ultrapure water is required, the demineralized water is filtred using microfiltration and ultrafiltration processes [fr

  2. Water quality issues in southern Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajayi, O.

    2000-07-01

    There is a keen awareness of the effects of water quality on human health and behaviour in developing countries arising from well documented cases which can be found in the literature. Also in Nigeria there are various concerns about incidents of toxic waste disposal, groundwater pollution through oil spillages, waste disposal practices by agricultural, domestic and industrial activities which affect the domestic water supplies and the environment. The aims of this paper are to highlight the role of water quality in human health; provide a framework for water related health assessment, present results of case studies and recommend appropriate strategies to safeguard human health from contaminated water sources. Major health problems, other than those due to micro-biological contamination of water sources, such as cholera and typhoid, have not been reported or linked to water supplies in Nigeria. Yet there are symptoms of and growing incidences of various diseases, such as psychopathic and neurological disorders which have been linked to contaminated water supplies in developed countries. The major, minor and trace concentrations of elements in water supplies in Nigeria are usually determined in the ppm range whereas most trace elements are hazardous to human health in the ppb or μg/l levels. The reason for this state of affairs is that the instrumentation required for determination of elemental concentrations at the ppb level is not readily available to researchers. Most reports on water quality do not provide any links to the major health problems which have been demonstrated elsewhere as responsible for major pathologic and neurologic disorders, including outright fatalities. Recent studies in Europe and Japan link several diseases, including kidney failure, mood disturbance and other neurologic disorders, heart, liver and kidney damage including death from eating poisonous fish caught in polluted waters, to contamination of water supplies by heavy metals in

  3. Storm water and wastewater management for improving water quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogaard, Floris; Vojinovic, Zoran; Heikoop, Rick

    Climate change and urbanization will increase the frequency and magnitude of urban flooding and water quality problems in many regions of the world. In coastal and delta areas like The Netherlands and the Philippines, where urbanization is often high, there has been an increase in the adoption of

  4. Upper Hiwassee River Basin reservoirs 1989 water quality assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehring, J.P.

    1991-08-01

    The water in the Upper Hiwassee River Basin is slightly acidic and low in conductivity. The four major reservoirs in the Upper Hiwassee River Basin (Apalachia, Hiwassee, Chatuge, and Nottely) are not threatened by acidity, although Nottely Reservoir has more sulfates than the other reservoirs. Nottely also has the highest organic and nutrient concentrations of the four reservoirs. This results in Nottely having the poorest water clarity and the most algal productivity, although clarity as measured by color and secchi depths does not indicate any problem with most water use. However, chlorophyll concentrations indicate taste and odor problems would be likely if the upstream end of Nottely Reservoir were used for domestic water supply. Hiwassee Reservoir is clearer and has less organic and nutrient loading than either of the two upstream reservoirs. All four reservoirs have sufficient algal activity to produce supersaturated dissolved oxygen conditions and relatively high pH values at the surface. All four reservoirs are thermally stratified during the summer, and all but Apalachia have bottom waters depleted in oxygen. The very short residence time of Apalachia Reservoir, less than ten days as compared to over 100 days for the other three reservoirs, results in it being more riverine than the other three reservoirs. Hiwassee Reservoir actually develops three distinct water temperature strata due to the location of the turbine intake. The water quality of all of the reservoirs supports designated uses, but water quality complaints are being received regarding both Chatuge and Nottely Reservoirs and their tailwaters

  5. Virological and bacteriological quality of drinking water in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedada, Tesfaye Legesse; Mezemir, Walelign Dessie; Dera, Firehiwot Abera; Sima, Waktole Gobena; Gebre, Samson Girma; Edicho, Redwan Muzeyin; Biegna, Almaz Gonfa; Teklu, Dejenie Shiferaw; Tullu, Kassu Desta

    2018-05-01

    Since unsafe water is responsible for many illness, deaths, and economic failure, water quality monitoring is essential. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 218 drinking waters samples collected between February and June 2016 to assess water quality using phages by the help of CB390 E. coli host, plaque assay; multiple tube fermentation for coliforms and pour plate for heterotrophic bacteria at Ethiopian Public Health Institute. Heterotrophic plate count greater than 100 cfu/ml was noted in 41 samples and detections of total and thermotolerant coliforms and E. coli in 38, 24, and 10 samples, respectively, and no phages detection in chlorinated waters. While heterotrophic plate count greater than 100 cfu/ml was observed in 100 samples and detections of total and thermotolerant coliforms, E. coli, and phages in 75, 60, 42, and 5 samples, respectively, for untreated waters. The majority of the waters contained indicators above standard limits. This indicates that the sources are contaminated and they are potential threats for health. Hence, regular water monitoring should be a priority agenda.

  6. The WIPP Water Quality Sampling Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhland, D.; Morse, J.G.; Colton, D.

    1986-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a Department of Energy facility, will be used for the underground disposal of wastes. The Water Quality Sampling Program (WQSP) is designed to obtain representative and reproducible water samples to depict accurate water composition data for characterization and monitoring programs in the vicinity of the WIPP. The WQSP is designed to input data into four major programs for the WIPP project: Geochemical Site Characterization, Radiological Baseline, Environmental Baseline, and Performance Assessment. The water-bearing units of interest are the Culebra and Magneta Dolomite Members of the Rustler Formation, units in the Dewey Lake Redbeds, and the Bell Canyon Formation. At least two chemically distinct types of water occur in the Culebra, one being a sodium/potassium chloride water and the other being a calcium/magnesium sulfate water. Water from the Culebra wells to the south of the WIPP site is distinctly fresher and tends to be of the calcium/magnesium sulfate type. Water in the Culebra in the north and around the WIPP site is distinctly fresher and tends to be of the sodium/potassium chloride type and is much higher in total dissolved solids. The program, which is currently 1 year old, will continue throughout the life of the facility as part of the Environmental Monitoring Program

  7. SF Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund: Projects and Accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund (SFBWQIF) projects listed here are part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  8. Water quality of the Chhoti Gandak River using principal component ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ; therefore water samples were collected to analyse its quality along the entire length of Chhoti Gandak. River. The principal components of water quality are controlled by lithology, gentle slope gradient, poor drainage, long residence of water, ...

  9. Identification of water quality degradation hotspots in developing countries by applying large scale water quality modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malsy, Marcus; Reder, Klara; Flörke, Martina

    2014-05-01

    Decreasing water quality is one of the main global issues which poses risks to food security, economy, and public health and is consequently crucial for ensuring environmental sustainability. During the last decades access to clean drinking water increased, but 2.5 billion people still do not have access to basic sanitation, especially in Africa and parts of Asia. In this context not only connection to sewage system is of high importance, but also treatment, as an increasing connection rate will lead to higher loadings and therefore higher pressure on water resources. Furthermore, poor people in developing countries use local surface waters for daily activities, e.g. bathing and washing. It is thus clear that water utilization and water sewerage are indispensable connected. In this study, large scale water quality modelling is used to point out hotspots of water pollution to get an insight on potential environmental impacts, in particular, in regions with a low observation density and data gaps in measured water quality parameters. We applied the global water quality model WorldQual to calculate biological oxygen demand (BOD) loadings from point and diffuse sources, as well as in-stream concentrations. Regional focus in this study is on developing countries i.e. Africa, Asia, and South America, as they are most affected by water pollution. Hereby, model runs were conducted for the year 2010 to draw a picture of recent status of surface waters quality and to figure out hotspots and main causes of pollution. First results show that hotspots mainly occur in highly agglomerated regions where population density is high. Large urban areas are initially loading hotspots and pollution prevention and control become increasingly important as point sources are subject to connection rates and treatment levels. Furthermore, river discharge plays a crucial role due to dilution potential, especially in terms of seasonal variability. Highly varying shares of BOD sources across

  10. Aquatic macroinvertebrates and water quality in Sandia Canyon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, K.

    1994-05-01

    In 1990, field studies of water quality and stream macroinvertebrate communities were initiated in Sandia Canyon at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The studies were designed to establish baseline data and to determine the effects of routine discharges of industrial and sanitary waste. Water quality measurements were taken and aquatic macroinvertebrates sampled at three permanent stations within the canyon. Two of the three sample stations are located where the stream regularly receives industrial and sanitary waste effluents. These stations exhibited a low diversity of macroinvertebrates and slightly degraded water quality. The last sample station, located approximately 0.4 km (0.25 mi) downstream from the nearest wastewater outfall, appears to be in a zone of recovery where water quality parameters more closely resemble those found in natural streams in the Los Alamos area. A large increase in macroinvertebrate diversity was also observed at the third station. These results indicate that effluents discharged into Sandia Canyon have a marked effect on water quality and aquatic macroinvertebrate communities

  11. DETERMINING INDICATORS OF URBAN HOUSEHOLD WATER CONSUMPTION THROUGH MULTIVARIATE STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gledsneli Maria Lima Lins

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Water has a decisive influence on populations’ life quality – specifically in areas like urban supply, drainage, and effluents treatment – due to its sound impact over public health. Water rational use constitutes the greatest challenge faced by water demand management, mainly with regard to urban household water consumption. This makes it important to develop researches to assist water managers and public policy-makers in planning and formulating water demand measures which may allow urban water rational use to be met. This work utilized the multivariate techniques Factor Analysis and Multiple Linear Regression Analysis – in order to determine the participation level of socioeconomic and climatic variables in monthly urban household consumption changes – applying them to two districts of Campina Grande city (State of Paraíba, Brazil. The districts were chosen based on socioeconomic criterion (income level so as to evaluate their water consumer’s behavior. A 9-year monthly data series (from year 2000 up to 2008 was utilized, comprising family income, water tariff, and quantity of household connections (economies – as socioeconomic variables – and average temperature and precipitation, as climatic variables. For both the selected districts of Campina Grande city, the obtained results point out the variables “water tariff” and “family income” as indicators of these district’s household consumption.

  12. Development of innovative computer software to facilitate the setup and computation of water quality index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabizadeh, Ramin; Valadi Amin, Maryam; Alimohammadi, Mahmood; Naddafi, Kazem; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Yousefzadeh, Samira

    2013-04-26

    Developing a water quality index which is used to convert the water quality dataset into a single number is the most important task of most water quality monitoring programmes. As the water quality index setup is based on different local obstacles, it is not feasible to introduce a definite water quality index to reveal the water quality level. In this study, an innovative software application, the Iranian Water Quality Index Software (IWQIS), is presented in order to facilitate calculation of a water quality index based on dynamic weight factors, which will help users to compute the water quality index in cases where some parameters are missing from the datasets. A dataset containing 735 water samples of drinking water quality in different parts of the country was used to show the performance of this software using different criteria parameters. The software proved to be an efficient tool to facilitate the setup of water quality indices based on flexible use of variables and water quality databases.

  13. Headache service quality: evaluation of quality indicators in 14 specialist-care centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Sara; Uluduz, Derya; Gouveia, Raquel Gil; Jensen, Rigmor; Siva, Aksel; Uygunoglu, Ugur; Gvantsa, Giorgadze; Mania, Maka; Braschinsky, Mark; Filatova, Elena; Latysheva, Nina; Osipova, Vera; Skorobogatykh, Kirill; Azimova, Julia; Straube, Andreas; Eren, Ozan Emre; Martelletti, Paolo; De Angelis, Valerio; Negro, Andrea; Linde, Mattias; Hagen, Knut; Radojicic, Aleksandra; Zidverc-Trajkovic, Jasna; Podgorac, Ana; Paemeleire, Koen; De Pue, Annelien; Lampl, Christian; Steiner, Timothy J; Katsarava, Zaza

    2016-12-01

    The study was a collaboration between Lifting The Burden (LTB) and the European Headache Federation (EHF). Its aim was to evaluate the implementation of quality indicators for headache care Europe-wide in specialist headache centres (level-3 according to the EHF/LTB standard). Employing previously-developed instruments in 14 such centres, we made enquiries, in each, of health-care providers (doctors, nurses, psychologists, physiotherapists) and 50 patients, and analysed the medical records of 50 other patients. Enquiries were in 9 domains: diagnostic accuracy, individualized management, referral pathways, patient's education and reassurance, convenience and comfort, patient's satisfaction, equity and efficiency of the headache care, outcome assessment and safety. Our study showed that highly experienced headache centres treated their patients in general very well. The centres were content with their work and their patients were content with their treatment. Including disability and quality-of-life evaluations in clinical assessments, and protocols regarding safety, proved problematic: better standards for these are needed. Some centres had problems with follow-up: many specialised centres operated in one-touch systems, without possibility of controlling long-term management or the success of treatments dependent on this. This first Europe-wide quality study showed that the quality indicators were workable in specialist care. They demonstrated common trends, producing evidence of what is majority practice. They also uncovered deficits that might be remedied in order to improve quality. They offer the means of setting benchmarks against which service quality may be judged. The next step is to take the evaluation process into non-specialist care (EHF/LTB levels 1 and 2).

  14. Use of tritiated water as indicator of the water metabolism on normal and operate patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fallot, P.; Aeberhardt, A.

    1955-01-01

    Water disruptions are very frequent during the medical and surgical affections. In order to study the kinetics of the water exchanges as well as the determination of the total water of the body, we have chosen tritiated water as indicator. This work presents a rapid process, faithful and sensitive of dosage of the Tritium in the biologic liquids. This method has been applied to the survey of the intestinal absorption of water among normal subjects and during some medical and surgical affections. The exam of the experimental curves permitted to get information concerning the kinetics of water ingested as well as of data on the volume of total water of the human body and on the biologic period of the Tritium in the organism. (M.B.) [fr

  15. Integral statistical eco-indices - effective complementary tool for assessment of ecological state of and ecological risks for water ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashamkova, I

    2010-01-01

    Eco-indices are successfully used for assessment of the ecological state and risks of water reservoirs. They allow, already at early stages, to detect negative effects on water ecosystems caused by progressive anthropogenic impacts and widening of the spectrum of pollutants, and to quantitatively evaluate ecological risks and damage for water reservoirs. Implementing these modern tools to water quality assessment is one of the lines to make decisions concerning challenging environmental problems.

  16. Quality-assurance plan for water-quality activities in the U.S. Geological Survey Washington Water Science Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Kathleen E.; Huffman, Raegan L.; Barton, Cynthia

    2017-05-08

    In accordance with guidelines set forth by the Office of Water Quality in the Water Mission Area of the U.S. Geological Survey, a quality-assurance plan has been created for use by the Washington Water Science Center (WAWSC) in conducting water-quality activities. This qualityassurance plan documents the standards, policies, and procedures used by the WAWSC for activities related to the collection, processing, storage, analysis, and publication of water-quality data. The policies and procedures documented in this quality-assurance plan for water-quality activities complement the quality-assurance plans for surface-water and groundwater activities at the WAWSC.

  17. Technical note: A new method for the determination of water quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to develop and test a novel screening method for determining water quality. We hypothesised that L-ascorbic acid would be a good indicator of water quality, due to its sensitivity to pollutants. We investigated the absorption spectra of L‑ascorbic acid dissolved at different concentrations in water from ...

  18. Assessing water quality of rural water supply schemes as a measure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessing water quality of rural water supply schemes as a measure of service ... drinking water quality parameters were within the World Health Organization ... Besides, disinfection of