Sample records for water quality effects

  1. Integrating Product Water Quality Effects In Holistic Assessments Of Water Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygaard, Martin


    economic assessment of water quality effects, production costs and environmental costs (water abstraction and CO2-emissions). Considered water quality issues include: health (dental caries, cardiovascular diseases, eczema), corrosion (lifetime of appliances, pipes), consumption of soap, and bottled water...

  2. Integrating Product Water Quality Effects In Holistic Assessments Of Water Systems


    Rygaard, Martin


    While integrated assessments of sustainability of water systems are largely focused on quantity issues, chemical use, and energy consumption, effects of the supplied water quality are often overlooked. Drinking water quality affects corrosion rates, human health, applicability of water and aesthetics. Even small changes in the chemical composition of water may accumulate large impacts on city scale. Here, a method for integrated assessment of water quality is presented. Based on dose-response...

  3. Water quality (United States)

    Aquatic animals are healthiest and grow best when environmental conditions are within certain ranges that define, for a particular species, “good” water quality. From the outset, successful aquaculture requires a high-quality water supply. Water quality in aquaculture systems also deteriorates as an...

  4. Effect of the Distribution System on Drinking Water Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Grünwald


    Full Text Available The overall objective of this paper is to characterise the main aspects of water quality deterioration in a distribution system. The effect of residence time on chlorine uptake and the formation and evolution of disinfection by-products in distributed drinking water are discussed.

  5. Microscreen effects on water quality in replicated recirculating aquaculture systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandes, Paulo; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg


    This study investigated the effects of three microscreen mesh sizes (100, 60 and 20 μm) on water quality and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) performance compared to a control group without microscreens, in triplicated recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). Operational conditions were kept....... Fish performed similarly in all treatments. Preliminary screening of trout gills did not reveal any pathological changes related to microscreen filtration and the resulting water quality. Biofilter performance was also unaffected, with 0′-order nitrification rates (k0a) being equivalent for all twelve...

  6. Linking flow, water quality and potential effects on aquatic biota ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Linking the potential effects of altered water quality on aquatic biota, that may result from a change in the flow (discharge) regime, is an essential step in the maintenance of riverine ecological functioning. Determination of the environmental flow requirement of a river (as well as other activities, such as classifying the ...

  7. Effectiveness of streamside management zones on water quality: pretreatment measurements (United States)

    J.L. Boggs; G. Sun; S.G. McNulty; W. Swartley; E. Treasure


    The objective of this paired watershed study is to quantify the effects of upland forest harvesting and Streamside Management Zones (SMZs) on stream water quantity and quality in North Carolina. Four watersheds ranging from 12 to 28 hectares (i.e., two on Hill Forest and two on Umstead Research Farm) with perennial stream channels were gauged for flow monitoring and...

  8. Effect of Logging Activities on Water Quality and Benthic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to determine the effect of logging activities on water quality and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages for the Madek River basin. The study area was situated in Kluang, Johor, Malaysia. Two sampling stations 500 meters apart are upstream and the other, downstream located at Madek River ...

  9. Effects of urbanization on water quality variables along urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focuses on water quality of permanent and temporary water bodies along the urban and suburban gradients of Chennai City, South India. Water samples were analyzed for their major elements and nutrients. The results indicated that the response of water quality variables was different when compared to urban ...

  10. Water quality effects of intermittent water supply in Arraiján, Panama. (United States)

    Erickson, John J; Smith, Charlotte D; Goodridge, Amador; Nelson, Kara L


    Intermittent drinking water supply is common in low- and middle-income countries throughout the world and can cause water quality to degrade in the distribution system. In this study, we characterized water quality in one study zone with continuous supply and three zones with intermittent supply in the drinking water distribution network in Arraiján, Panama. Low or zero pressures occurred in all zones, and negative pressures occurred in the continuous zone and two of the intermittent zones. Despite hydraulic conditions that created risks for backflow and contaminant intrusion, only four of 423 (0.9%) grab samples collected at random times were positive for total coliform bacteria and only one was positive for E. coli. Only nine of 496 (1.8%) samples had turbidity >1.0 NTU and all samples had ≥0.2 mg/L free chlorine residual. In contrast, water quality was often degraded during the first-flush period (when supply first returned after an outage). Still, routine and first-flush water quality under intermittent supply was much better in Arraiján than that reported in a previous study conducted in India. Better water quality in Arraiján could be due to better water quality leaving the treatment plant, shorter supply outages, higher supply pressures, a more consistent and higher chlorine residual, and fewer contaminant sources near pipes. The results illustrate that intermittent supply and its effects on water quality can vary greatly between and within distribution networks. The study also demonstrated that monitoring techniques designed specifically for intermittent supply, such as continuous pressure monitoring and sampling the first flush, can detect water quality threats and degradation that would not likely be detected with conventional monitoring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of suburban development on runoff generation and water quality


    Sillanpää, Nora


    Urbanization leads to changes in natural catchment characteristics by increasing the imper-vious coverage and drainage efficiency, which enhance flooding, erosion and water quality problems in the receiving waters. Year-round monitoring of catchment-scale hydrological and water quality variables is needed to produce data resources for the development of urban drainage design principles for various management purposes in cold climate. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the impacts of ur...

  12. Is water age a reliable indicator for evaluating water quality effectiveness of water diversion projects in eutrophic lakes? (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoling; Zou, Rui; Wang, Yilin; Liu, Yong; Zhao, Lei; Zhu, Xiang; Guo, Huaicheng


    Water diversion has been applied increasingly to promote the exchange of lake water and to control eutrophication of lakes. The accelerated water exchange and mass transport by water diversion can usually be represented by water age. But the responses of water quality after water diversion is still disputed. The reliability of using water age for evaluating the effectiveness of water diversion projects in eutrophic lakes should be thereby explored further. Lake Dianchi, a semi-closed plateau lake in China, has suffered severe eutrophication since the 1980s, and it is one of the three most eutrophic lakes in China. There was no significant improvement in water quality after an investment of approximately 7.7 billion USD and numerous project efforts from 1996 to 2015. After the approval of the Chinese State Council, water has been transferred to Lake Dianchi to alleviate eutrophication since December 2013. A three-dimensional hydrodynamic and water quality model and eight scenarios were developed in this study to quantity the influence of this water diversion project on water quality in Lake Dianchi. The model results showed that (a) Water quality (TP, TN, and Chla) could be improved by 13.5-32.2%, much lower than the approximate 50% reduction in water age; (b) Water exchange had a strong positive relationship with mean TP, and mean Chla had exactly the same response to water diversion as mean TN; (c) Water level was more beneficial for improving hydrodynamic and nutrient concentrations than variation in the diverted inflowing water volume; (d) The water diversion scenario of doubling the diverted inflow rate in the wet season with the water level of 1886.5 m and 1887 m in the remaining months was the best water diversion mode for mean hydrodynamics and TP, but the scenario of doubling the diverted inflow rate in the wet season with 1887 m throughout the year was optimum for mean TN and Chla; (e) Water age influenced the effectiveness of water diversion on the

  13. Effects of nonindigenous invasive species on water quality and quantity (United States)

    Frank H. McCormick; Glen C. Contreras; Sherri L. Johnson


    Physical and biological disruptions of aquatic systems caused by invasive species alter water quantity and water quality. Recent evidence suggests that water is a vector for the spread of Sudden Oak Death disease and Port-Orfordcedar root disease. Since the 1990s, the public has become increasingly aware of the presence of invasive species in the Nation’s waters. Media...

  14. Water-Quality Data (United States)

    ... Water Quality? [1.7MB PDF] Past featured science... Water Quality Data Today's Water Conditions Get continuous real- ... list of USGS water-quality data resources . USGS Water Science Areas Water Resources Groundwater Surface Water Water ...

  15. Primer on Water Quality (United States)

    ... water quality. What do we mean by "water quality"? Water quality can be thought of as a measure ... is suitable for a particular use. How is water quality measured? Some aspects of water quality can be ...

  16. Watershed land use effects on lake water quality in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders; Trolle, Dennis; Søndergaard, Martin


    Mitigating nutrient losses from anthropogenic nonpoint sources is today of particular importance for improving the water quality of numerous freshwater lakes worldwide. Several empirical relationships between land use and in-lake water quality variables have been developed, but they are often weak......, which can in part be attributed to lack of detailed information about land use activities or point sources. We examined a comprehensive data set comprising land use data, point-source information, and in-lake water quality for 414 Danish lakes. By excluding point-source-influenced lakes (n = 210....... Relationships between TP and agricultural land use were even stronger for lakes with rivers in their watershed (55%) compared to lakes without (28%), indicating that rivers mediate a stronger linkage between landscape activity and lake water quality by providing a “delivery” mechanism for excess nutrients...

  17. Effect of Logging Activities on Water Quality and Benthic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    3Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) ... All the physico-chemical water quality parameters were well below Class I as provided for under Interim National .... Ph.D. Thesis, Annamalai University, India,. P140.

  18. Water quality effects of harbour activities assessed with integrated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Ecological tools were developed to study the water quality in Cochin harbour, a complex aquatic ecosystems ... contamination index is another important factor to assess ... Nutrient agar with the ... yeast extract 3.0 g; beef extract 2.0 g; agar 15.0 g; aged sea water .... ability to be incorporated into food chains (Kishe and.

  19. Water quality, pesticide occurrence, and effects of irrigation with reclaimed water at golf courses in Florida (United States)

    Swancar, Amy


    Reuse of treated wastewater for golf course irrigation is an increasingly popular water management option in Florida, where growth has put stress on potable water supplies. Surface water, ground water, and irrigation water were sampled at three pairs of golf courses quarterly for one year to determine if pesticides were present, and the effect of irrigation with treated effluent on ground-water quality, with an emphasis on interactions of effluent with pesticides. In addition to the six paired golf courses, which were in central Florida, ground water was sampled for pesticides and other constituents at three more golf courses in other parts of the State. This study was the first to analyze water samples from Florida golf courses for a broad range of pesticides. Statistical methods based on the percentage of data above detection limits were used to determine the effects of irrigation with reclaimed water on ground-water quality. Shallow ground water at golf courses irrigated with treated effluent has higher concentrations of chloride, lower concentrations of bicarbonate, and lower pH than ground water at golf courses irrigated with water from carbonate aquifers. There were no statistically significant differences in nutrient concentrations in ground water between paired golf courses grouped by irrigation water type at a 95 percent confidence level. The number of wells where pesticides occurred was significantly higher at the paired golf courses using ground water for irrigation than at ones using reclaimed water. However, the limited occurrences of individual pesticides in ground water make it difficult to correlate differences in irrigation- water quality with pesticide migration to the water table. At some of the golf courses, increased pesticide occurrences may be associated with higher irrigation rates, the presence of well-drained soils, and shallow depths to the surficial aquifer. Pesticides used by golf courses for turf grass maintenance were detected in

  20. Water quality effects of harbour activities assessed with integrated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ecological tools were developed to study the water quality in Cochin harbour, a complex aquatic ecosystems, through the integration of microbiological monitoring (faecal coliforms and Pseudomonas species) and heavy metal contamination (lead, cadmium and mercury). One way ANOVA indicates statistically significant ...

  1. The Effects of Abattoir Waste on Water Quality in Gwagwalada ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined the impact of abattoir wastes on water quality around an abattoir site in Gwagwalada. The work was premised on the fact that untreated wastes from the abattoir are discharged directly into open drainage which flows into a nearby stream. Leachates from dumped and decomposed wastes have also ...

  2. Effects of energy development on ground water quality: an overview and preliminary assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, W.M. III; Yin, S.C.L.; Davis, M.J.; Kutz, W.J.


    A preliminary national overview of the various effects on ground water quality likely to result from energy development. Based on estimates of present and projected energy-development activities, those regions of the country are identified where ground water quality has the potential for being adversely affected. The general causes of change in ground water quality are reviewed. Specific effects on ground water quality of selected energy technologies are discussed, and some case-history material is provided. A brief overview of pertinent legislation relating to the protection and management of ground water quality is presented. Six methodologies that have some value for assessing the potential effects on ground water quality of energy development activities are reviewed. A method of identifying regions in the 48 contiguous states where there is a potential for ground water quality problems is described and then applied

  3. Effectiveness of the stormwater quality devices to improve water quality at Putrajaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidek, L M; Basri, H; Puad, A H Mohd; Noh, M N Md; Ainan, A


    Development of Putrajaya has changed the character of the natural landform by covering the land with impervious surfaces. Houses, office buildings, commercial place and shopping centres have provided places to live and work. The route between buildings is facilitated and encouraged by a complex network of roads and car parks. However, this change from natural landforms and vegetative cover to impervious surfaces has major effect on stormwater which are water quality (non-point source pollution). This paper describes the effectiveness of the stormwater quality devices to improve water quality at selected Putrajaya for demonstration in order to evaluate low cost storm inlet type devices in the Putrajaya Catchment. Five stormwater quality devices were installed and monitored during the study. The devices include Ultra Drain Guard Recycle model, Ultra Curb Guard Plus, Ultra Grate Guard, Absorbent Tarp and Ultra Passive Skimmer. This paper will provide information on the benefits and costs of these devices, including operations and maintenance requirements. Applicability of these devices in gas stations, small convenience stores, residential and small parking lots in the catchment are possible due to their low cost.

  4. [The effect of water pipelines on the quality of drinking water]. (United States)

    Wichrowska, B; Zyciński, D; Krogulska, B; Szlachta, R; Ranke-Rybicka, B; Kozłowski, J


    The purpose of the study was to assess the effects of various pipelines on drinking water quality. For the study carried out in Warsaw buildings were chosen in which the installations were made of polypropylene, polyvinyl chloride, copper and steel. Water samples were taken from the sites of water leading to the buildings and from the highest floors, if possible. Physicochemical studies included determination of turbidity, colour, odour, pH, hardness, chlorides, ammonia, nitrates, nitrites, oxidation, manganese, iron, lead, cadmium, copper and zinc content. Bacteriological tests included determination of total microorganism count at 20 degrees C and 37 degrees C, total number of sporing bacteria and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The hydro-biological testing of water samples included quantitative and qualitative analysis of macroscopic and microscopic plant and animal organisms. All studies were carried out according to Polish Standards and the methods of the State Institute of Hygiene. The results of the physicochemical, bacteriological and hydro-biological tests failed to show any effect of the material of pipelines on the quality of drinking water in the range of the determined parameters.

  5. Assessment of water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, I.H.


    Water is the most essential component of all living things and it supports the life process. Without water, it would not have been possible to sustain life on this planet. The total quantity of water on earth is estimated to be 1.4 trillion cubic meter. Of this, less than 1 % water, present in rivers and ground resources is available to meet our requirement. These resources are being contaminated with toxic substances due to ever increasing environmental pollution. To reduce this contamination, many countries have established standards for the discharge of municipal and industrial waste into water streams. We use water for various purposes and for each purpose we require water of appropriate quality. The quality of water is assessed by evaluating the physical chemical, biological and radiological characteristics of water. Water for drinking and food preparation must be free from turbidity, colour, odour and objectionable tastes, as well as from disease causing organisms and inorganic and organic substances, which may produce adverse physiological effects, Such water is referred to as potable water and is produced by treatment of raw water, involving various unit operations. The effectiveness of the treatment processes is checked by assessing the various parameters of water quality, which involves sampling and analysis of water and comparison with the National Quality Standards or WHO standards. Water which conforms to these standards is considered safe and palatable for human consumption. Periodic assessment of water is necessary, to ensure the quality of water supplied to the public. This requires proper sampling at specified locations and analysis of water, employing reliable analytical techniques. (author)

  6. The valuation of water quality: Effects of mixing different drinking water qualities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygaard, Martin; Arvin, Erik; Binning, Philip John


    impacts are cardiovascular diseases, dental caries, atopic eczema, lifetime of dish and clothes washing machines, heat exchangers, distribution systems, bottled water consumption and soap usage. The method includes an uncertainty assessment that ranks the imacts having the hi hest influence on the result...

  7. Effect of type of water supply on water quality in a developing community in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Genthe, Bettina


    Full Text Available Efforts to provide water to developing communities in South Africa have resulted in various types of water supplies being used. This study examined the relationship between the type of water supply and the quality of water used. Source (communal...

  8. Effect of beach management policies on recreational water quality. (United States)

    Kelly, Elizabeth A; Feng, Zhixuan; Gidley, Maribeth L; Sinigalliano, Christopher D; Kumar, Naresh; Donahue, Allison G; Reniers, Adrianus J H M; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M


    When beach water monitoring programs identify poor water quality, the causes are frequently unknown. We hypothesize that management policies play an important role in the frequency of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) exceedances (enterococci and fecal coliform) at recreational beaches. To test this hypothesis we implemented an innovative approach utilizing large amounts of monitoring data (n > 150,000 measurements per FIB) to determine associations between the frequency of contaminant exceedances and beach management practices. The large FIB database was augmented with results from a survey designed to assess management policies for 316 beaches throughout the state of Florida. The FIB and survey data were analyzed using t-tests, ANOVA, factor analysis, and linear regression. Results show that beach geomorphology (beach type) was highly associated with exceedance of regulatory standards. Low enterococci exceedances were associated with open coast beaches (n = 211) that have sparse human densities, no homeless populations, low densities of dogs and birds, bird management policies, low densities of seaweed, beach renourishment, charge access fees, employ lifeguards, without nearby marinas, and those that manage storm water. Factor analysis and a linear regression confirmed beach type as the predominant factor with secondary influences from grooming activities (including seaweed densities and beach renourishment) and beach access (including charging fees, employing lifeguards, and without nearby marinas). Our results were observable primarily because of the very large public FIB database available for analyses; similar approaches can be adopted at other beaches. The findings of this research have important policy implications because the selected beach management practices that were associated with low levels of FIB can be implemented in other parts of the US and around the world to improve recreational beach water quality. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All

  9. Effects of rainfall on water quality in six sequentially disposed fishponds with continuous water flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LH. Sipaúba-Tavares

    Full Text Available An investigation was carried out during the rainy period in six semi-intensive production fish ponds in which water flowed from one pond to another without undergoing any treatment. Eight sampling sites were assigned at pond outlets during the rainy period (December-February. Lowest and highest physical and chemical parameters of water occurred in pond P1 (a site near the springs and in pond P4 (a critical site that received allochthonous material from the other ponds and also from frog culture ponds, respectively. Pond sequential layout caused concentration of nutrients, chlorophyll-a and conductivity. Seasonal rains increased the water flow in the ponds and, consequently, silted more particles and other dissolved material from one fish pond to another. Silting increased limnological variables from P3 to P6. Although results suggest that during the period under analysis, rainfall affected positively the ponds' water quality and since the analyzed systems have been aligned in a sequential layout with constant water flow from fish ponds and parallel tanks without any previous treatment, care has to be taken so that an increase in rain-induced water flow does not have a contrary effect in the fish ponds investigated.

  10. Understanding the effectiveness of vegetated streamside management zones for protecting water quality (Chapter 5) (United States)

    Philip Smethurst; Kevin Petrone; Daniel Neary


    We set out to improve understanding of the effectiveness of streamside management zones (SMZs) for protecting water quality in landscapes dominated by agriculture. We conducted a paired-catchment experiment that included water quality monitoring before and after the establishment of a forest plantation as an SMZ on cleared farmland that was used for extensive grazing....

  11. Effects of Coordinated Operation of Weirs and Reservoirs on the Water Quality of the Geum River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Min Ahn


    Full Text Available Multifunctional weirs can be used to maintain water supply during dry seasons and to improve downstream water quality during drought conditions through discharge based on retained flux. Sixteen multifunctional weirs were recently constructed in four river systems as part of the Four Rivers Restoration Project. In this study, three multifunctional weirs in the Geum River Basin were investigated to analyze the environmental effects of multifunctional weir operation on downstream flow. To determine seasonal vulnerability to drought, the basin was evaluated using the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI. Furthermore, the downstream flow regime and the effect on water quality improvement of a coordinated dam–multifunctional weir operation controlled by: (a a rainfall–runoff model; (b a reservoir optimization model; and (c a water quality model, were examined. A runoff estimate at each major location in the Geum River Basin was performed using the water quality model, and examined variation in downstream water quality depending on the operational scenario of each irrigation facility such as dams and weirs. Although the water quality was improved by the coordinated operation of the dams and weirs, when the discharged water quality is poor, the downstream water quality is not improved. Therefore, it is necessary to first improve the discharged water quality on the lower Geum River. Improvement of the water quality of main stream in the Geum River is important, but water quality from tributaries should also be improved. By applying the estimated runoff data to the reservoir optimization model, these scenarios will be utilized as basic parameters for assessing the optimal operation of the river.

  12. Effect of Batik Waste Water on Kali Wangan Water Quality in Different Seasons (United States)

    Lestari, S.; Sudarmadji; Tandjung, S. D.; Santoso, S. J.


    Sokaraja Batik Center is one of batik industrial centers in Banyumas Regency. The craftsmen in Sokaraja Batik Center dispose of their waste water directly to a river named Kali Wangan. This study aims at figuring out the quality of Kali Wangan in dry and rainy seasons. The research is conducted along the Wangan River in January - November 2015. The research method used is survey with Purposive Random Sampling. The Kali Wangan water is sampled in four observation stations. The obtained data are analyzed descriptively and compared against the environmental quality standards. The research results show that the quality of Kali River water is found contaminated by the batik waste water, all parameters are below the class III standards quality based on Government Regulation Number 82 Year 2001 during dry and rainy season

  13. Linking the effects of land use change with water quality and discharge :an integrated approach


    Fauss, Lynn Michael


    Hydrologic and water-quality equilibria are greatly affected by changing land use. This study presents a methodology that integrates the use of remote sensing, geographical information systems (GIS) and water-quality modeling. Archived aerial photography proved to be a valuable source of historical land use data. GIS technology was used to compile and analyze spatial data. A comprehensive watershed model was used to link the effects of land use change to water quali...

  14. Effect of a reservoir in the water quality of the Reconquista River, Buenos Aires, Argentina. (United States)

    Rigacci, Laura N; Giorgi, Adonis D N; Vilches, Carolina S; Ossana, Natalia Alejandra; Salibián, Alfredo


    The lower portion of the Reconquista River is highly polluted. However, little is known about the state of the high and middle basins. The aims of this work were to assess the water quality on the high and middle Reconquista River basins and to determinate if the presence of a reservoir in the river has a positive effect on the water quality. We conducted a seasonal study between August 2009 and November 2010 at the mouth of La Choza, Durazno, and La Horqueta streams at the Roggero reservoir--which receives the water from the former streams--at the origin of the Reconquista River and 17 km downstream from the reservoir. We measured 25 physical and chemical parameters, including six heavy metal concentrations, and performed a multivariate statistical analysis to summarize the information and allow the interpretation of the whole data set. We found that the Durazno and La Horqueta streams had better water quality than La Choza, and the presence of the reservoir contributed to the improvement of the water quality, allowing oxygenation of the water body and processing of organic matter and ammonia. The water quality of the Reconquista River at its origin is good and similar to the reservoir, but a few kilometers downstream, the water quality declines as a consequence of the presence of industries and human settlements. Therefore, the Roggero reservoir produces a significant improvement of water quality of the river, but the discharge of contaminants downstream quickly reverses this effect.

  15. Water Quality Effects of Miscanthus as a Bioenergy Crop (United States)

    Ng, T.; Eheart, J. W.; Cai, X.


    There is increasing interest in perennial grasses as a renewable source of bioenergy and biofuels. Under the right conditions, environmental advantages of cultivating such crops, relative to conventional row crops, include reductions in greenhouse gas emissions and waterborne pollutants, increased biodiversity and improved soil properties. This study focuses on the riverine nitrate load of cultivating miscanthus in lieu of conventional crops. Miscanthus has been identified as a high-yielding, low-input perennial grass suitable as a feedstock for cellulosic ethanol production and power generation by biomass combustion. To achieve the objective of this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is used to model runoff and stream water quality in the Salt Creek watershed in East-Central Illinois. The watershed is agricultural and its nitrogen export, like that of most other agricultural watersheds in the region, is a major contributor to hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. SWAT is a hydrologic model with a built-in crop growth component. However, as miscanthus is relatively new as a crop of interest, data for the SWAT crop growth parameters for it are lacking. This study reports an evaluation of those parameters and an application of them to estimate the potential reduction in nitrate load from miscanthus cultivation under various scenarios. The miscanthus growth parameters are divided into three subsets. The first subset contains those parameters describing optimal growth under zero stress conditions, while the second contains those used to estimate nitrogen stress. Those parameters that are remaining (namely, maximum root depth and phosphorus and temperature stress parameters) are included in the third subset. To calibrate for the parameters in the first subset, simulated data from another miscanthus growth model are used. That other model is highly mechanistic and has been validated (no calibration is necessary because of its degree of mechanisticity) using

  16. Bridge Deck Runoff: Water Quality Analysis and BMP Effectiveness (United States)


    The Alaska Department of Transportation (ADOT) is responsible for more than 700 bridges - most span water bodies. Are these water bodies affected by stormwater runoff from ADOT bridges? What are the regulatory and economic constraints on the ADOT reg...

  17. Accelerate Water Quality Improvement (United States)

    EPA is committed to accelerating water quality improvement and minimizing negative impacts to aquatic life from contaminants and other stressors in the Bay Delta Estuary by working with California Water Boards to strengthen water quality improvement plans.

  18. Water quality degradation effects on freshwater availability: Impacts to human activities (United States)

    Peters, N.E.; Meybeck, Michel


    The quality of freshwater at any point on the landscape reflects the combined effects of many processes along water pathways. Human activities on all spatial scales affect both water quality and quantity. Alteration of the landscape and associated vegetation has not only changed the water balance, but typically has altered processes that control water quality. Effects of human activities on a small scale are relevant to an entire drainage basin. Furthermore, local, regional, and global differences in climate and water flow are considerable, causing varying effects of human activities on land and water quality and quantity, depending on location within a watershed, geology, biology, physiographic characteristics, and climate. These natural characteristics also greatly control human activities, which will, in turn, modify (or affect) the natural composition of water. One of the most important issues for effective resource management is recognition of cyclical and cascading effects of human activities on the water quality and quantity along hydrologic pathways. The degradation of water quality in one part of a watershed can have negative effects on users downstream. Everyone lives downstream of the effects of some human activity. An extremely important factor is that substances added to the atmosphere, land, and water generally have relatively long time scales for removal or clean up. The nature of the substance, including its affinity for adhering to soil and its ability to be transformed, affects the mobility and the time scale for removal of the substance. Policy alone will not solve many of the degradation issues, but a combination of policy, education, scientific knowledge, planning, and enforcement of applicable laws can provide mechanisms for slowing the rate of degradation and provide human and environmental protection. Such an integrated approach is needed to effectively manage land and water resources.

  19. Effect of community activities on water qualities of the Bangpakong River, Chachoengsao Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paibulkichakul, C.


    Full Text Available The effect of community activities on water qualities of the Bangpakong River were investigated. Water from three different areas, Huasai temple, Thayai market and Sothorn temple, were sampled for quality monitoring for its physical, chemical and biological properties during July-September 2004. Analysis of variance was used for data analysis, and Duncan's Multiple Range Test was applied for means comparison at 95% confidence level.The results showed that ranges of dissolved oxygen, ammonia, nitrite, nitrate and orthophosphatephosphorus in all stations were 4.10-6.35, 0.022-0.156, 0.012-0.050, 0.084-0.299 and 0.004-0.047 mg/L, res the large food market, had the lowest water quality. Sothorn temple, the well-known tourist temple, had water quality in the middle of the three stations. Huasai temple, the agricultural site, had the best water qualities. The differences of water quality may be caused by the differences of community activities. The other parameters of this study could not clearly indicate the resons for the difference on water qualities.However, water quality from three areas met the Surface Water Quality Standard, class 3. Bangpakong River, the main river of Chachoengsao Province, is not only the source of water supply for households consumption as well as agricultural and industrial activities, but also receives untreated waste water from households, markets and industrial estates. Consequently, unless wastewater has been treated properly before discharging into the Bangpakong River, there will be water pollution in the near future.

  20. Ozonation control and effects of ozone on water quality in recirculating aquaculture systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiliotopoulou, Aikaterini; Rojas-Tirado, Paula Andrea; Chetri, Ravi K.


    To address the undesired effect of chemotherapeutants in aquaculture, ozone has been suggested as an alternative to improve water quality. To ensure safe and robust treatment, it is vital to define the ozone demand and ozone kinetics of the specific water matrix to avoid ozone overdose. Different...... ozone dosages were applied to water in freshwater recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). Experiments were performed to investigate ozone kinetics and demand, and to evaluate the effects on the water quality, particularly in relation to fluorescent organic matter. This study aimed at predicting...... a suitable ozone dosage for water treatment based on daily ozone demand via laboratory studies. These ozone dosages will be eventually applied and maintained at these levels in pilot-scale RAS to verify predictions. Selected water quality parameters were measured, including natural fluorescence and organic...

  1. Effect of land cover, stream discharge, and precipitation on water quality in Puerto Rico (United States)

    Hall, J. S.; Uriarte, M.


    In 2015, Puerto Rico experienced one of the worst droughts in its history, causing widespread water rationing and sparking concerns for future resources. The drought represents precipitation extremes that provide valuable insight into the effects of land cover (LC), on modulating discharge and water quality indices at varying spatial scales. We used data collected from 38 water quality and 55 precipitation monitoring stations in Puerto Rico from 2005 to 2016, paired with a 2010 land cover map to (1) determine whether temporal variability in discharge, precipitation, or antecedent precipitation was a better predictor of water quality, (2) find the spatial scale where LC has the greatest impact on water quality, and (3) quantify impacts of LC on water quality indices, including dissolved oxygen (mg/L), total nitrogen (mg/L), phosphorous (mg/L), turbidity (NTRU), fecal coliforms (colony units/100mL) and instantaneous discharge (ft3/s). The resulting linear mixed effects models account for between 36-68% of the variance in water quality. Preliminary results indicate that phosphorous and nitrogen were best predicted from instantaneous stream discharge, the log of discharge was the better predictor for turbidity and fecal coliforms, and summed 2 and 14-day antecedent precipitation indices were better predictors for dissolved oxygen and discharge, respectively. Increased urban and pasture area reliably decreased water quality in relation to forest cover, while agriculture and wetlands had little or mixed effects. Turbidity and nitrogen responded to a watershed level LC, while phosphorous, fecal coliforms, and discharge responded to LC in 60 m riparian buffers at the watershed scale. Our results indicate that LC modulates changing precipitation regimes and the ensuing impacts on water quality at a range of spatial scales.

  2. Effects of water quality parameters on boron toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia. (United States)

    Dethloff, Gail M; Stubblefield, William A; Schlekat, Christian E


    The potential modifying effects of certain water quality parameters (e.g., hardness, alkalinity, pH) on the acute toxicity of boron were tested using a freshwater cladoceran, Ceriodaphnia dubia. By comparison, boron acute toxicity was less affected by water quality characteristics than some metals (e.g., copper and silver). Increases in alkalinity over the range tested did not alter toxicity. Increases in water hardness appeared to have an effect with very hard waters (>500 mg/L as CaCO(3)). Decreased pH had a limited influence on boron acute toxicity in laboratory waters. Increasing chloride concentration did not provide a protective effect. Boron acute toxicity was unaffected by sodium concentrations. Median acute lethal concentrations (LC(50)) in natural water samples collected from three field sites were all greater than in reconstituted laboratory waters that matched natural waters in all respects except for dissolved organic carbon. Water effect ratios in these waters ranged from 1.4 to 1.8. In subsequent studies using a commercially available source of natural organic matter, acute toxicity decreased with increased dissolved organic carbon, suggesting, along with the natural water studies, that dissolved organic carbon should be considered further as a modifier of boron toxicity in natural waters where it exceeds 2 mg/L.

  3. Effect of abattoir wastes on the water quality of Aleto River in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of abattoir effluent on the water quality parameters, pH, dissolved oxygen, nitrate (NO3), phosphate (PO4), sulphate (SO4), hardness, conductivity, faecal coliform and the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), of the receiving surface water of Aleto River in River State (Niger Delta, Nigeria) was monitored monthly ...

  4. Effects of pond fertilization on the physico-chemical water quality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of fertilization on the physico-chemical water quality of six selected earthen fishponds in Ife North Local Government Area of Osun State was investigated for a period of two years sampling the ponds every other month. The fishponds were grouped with regard to fertilization practice and water flowage regime into ...

  5. Interaction of water extractable pentosans with gluten protein : effect on dough properties and gluten quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, M.; Hamer, R.J.; Vliet, van T.; Oudgenoeg, G.


    The effects of modified water extractable pentosans (WEP) on gluten yield, dough properties, gluten quality and composition were studied. The results show that WEP interfere with gluten formation in both a direct and an indirect way. WEP interfere indirectly by competing for water and thus changing

  6. A review of the effects of dams on the hydrology, water quality and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, the effects of dams on the hydrology, water quality and invertebrate fauna of some Nigerian inland waters were reviewed. The freshwaters considered include Awba Reservoir (Oyo State), Shiroro Lake (Kaduna State), Moro Lake (Kwara State), Aiba Reservoir (Osun State), Ikpoba Reservoir (Edo State), Onah ...

  7. Effects of sulphuric acid and acidifying ammonium deposition on water quality and vegetation of simulated soft water ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuurkes, J.A.A.R.; Heck, I.C.C; Hesen, P.L.G.M.; Leuven, R.S.E.W.; Roelofs, J.G.M.


    In a greenhouse, seven identical mini-ecosystems, simulating soft water ponds, were exposed to different types of artificial rain water. The effects of rain water containing H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and nitrate, and rain water containing ammonium sulphate on water quality and vegetation were studied and compared. Causal relations were established between rain water quality, water chemistry and changes in floristic composition. Ammonium sulphate deposition, particularly, strongly affected water quality and vegetation development. Although ammonium sulphate deposition was only slightly acid, due to nitrification it acted as an important acid source, causing acidification to pH 3.8. Under acidified conditions, ammonium sulphate deposition led to a luxuriant growth of Juncus bulbosus and Agrostis canina. In the mini-ecosystems, H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ deposition with a pH of 3.5 only decreased the pH of the water to 5.1 within 1 yr, the acidification of water appeared to be coupled with changes in alkalinity, sulphate, Al, Cd, Ca, Mg, K and inorganic-N. It is concluded that in NH/sub 3/-affected regions in The Netherlands, the high atmospheric deposition of ammonium sulphate probably contributes to a large extent in the acidification, eutrophication and floristic changes of oligotrophic soft waters. 10 references.

  8. Effects of sulphuric acid and acidifying ammonium deposition on water quality and vegetation of simulated soft water ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuurkes, J.A.; Heck, I.C.; Hesen, P.L.; Leuven, R.S.; Roelofs, J.G.


    In a greenhouse, seven identical mini-ecosystems, simulating soft water ponds, were exposed to different types of artificial rain water. The effects of rain water containing H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and nitrate, and rain water containing ammonium sulfate on water quality and vegetation were studied and compared. Causal relations were established between rain water quality, water chemistry and changes in floristic composition. Ammonium sulfate deposition, particularly, strongly affected water quality and vegetation development. Although ammonium sulfate deposition was only slightly acid, due to nitrification it acted as an important acid source, causing acidification to pH = 3.8. Under acidified conditions, ammonium sulfate deposition lead to a luxuriant growth of Juncus bulbosus and Agrostis canina. In the mini-ecosystems, H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ deposition with a pH of 3.5 only decreased the pH of the water to 5.1 within 1 yr. The acidification of water appeared to be coupled with changes in alkalinity, sulfate, Al, Cd, Ca, Mg, K and inorganic-N. It is concluded that in NH/sub 3/-affected regions in The Netherlands, the high atmospheric deposition of ammonium sulfate probably contributes to a large extent in the acidification, eutrophication and floristic changes of oligotrophic soft waters. 10 refs.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    properties [such as pH, Dissolved Oxygen, salinity, conductivity, and Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)]. The student t ... The paper thus concludes by recommending that a mechanism be put in place for the .... much depend on this same stream water for ... the toxic metals that readily affect human health. ... Copper CU 2+. 0.18- ...

  10. Effects of water quality alterations on fish behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, R.H.; Haynes, J.M.; Montgomery, J.C.; Genoway, R.G.; Barraclough, S.A.; Anderson, D.R.; Thatcher, T.O.; Bean, R.M.; Page, T.L.


    Objectives of this project are to study behavioral patterns of ecologically or economically valuable fish. Information on sensory--avoidance behavior, or preferential foraging habits, if definitively established by systematic observation can be constructively used in both outfall and water intake design to ameliorate potentially noxious disturbances caused by these structures. The work is applicable to both nuclear and fossil fuel-fired steam electric plants. The instantaneous response of juvenile chinook salmon encountering a simulated river thermal plume interface was also evaluated in a model raceway. Tests indicate that juvenile chinook salmon perceive and avoid discharge temperatures greater than 9 to 11 0 C above ambient, regardless of acclimation temperature. Chlorine is a major chemical compound to reduce biofouling in steam electric power plants. Chlorination of large volumes of cooling waters poses the problem of the formation of chlorination by-products discharged to natural water systems. Long-term bioassays, both fresh and salt water, are underway with indepth analytical chemistry to determine the magnitude of the chlorination by-product problem

  11. Water Quality Analysis Simulation (United States)

    The Water Quality analysis simulation Program, an enhancement of the original WASP. This model helps users interpret and predict water quality responses to natural phenomena and man-made pollution for variious pollution management decisions.

  12. Water Quality Criteria (United States)

    EPA develops water quality criteria based on the latest scientific knowledge to protect human health and aquatic life. This information serves as guidance to states and tribes in adopting water quality standards.

  13. Water Quality Analysis Simulation (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Water Quality analysis simulation Program, an enhancement of the original WASP. This model helps users interpret and predict water quality responses to natural...

  14. The effects of sewer infrastructure on water quality: implications for land use studies. (United States)

    Vrebos, Dirk; Staes, Jan; Meire, Patrick


    The European Water Framework Directive requires a good ecological status of the European water bodies and the necessary measures to obtain this have to be implemented. The water quality of a river is the result of complex anthropogenic systems (buildings, waste water treatment infrastructure, regulations, etc.) and biogeochemical and eco-hydrological interactions. It is therefore essential to obtain more insight in the factors that determine the water quality in a river. Research into the relation between land use and water quality is necessary. Human activities have a huge impact on the flow regimes and associated water quality of river systems. Effects of land use bound activities on water quality are often investigated, but these studies generally ignore the hydrological complexity of a human influenced catchment. Infrastructure like sewer systems and wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) can displace huge quantities of polluted water. The transfers change flow paths, displace water between catchments and change the residence time of the system. If we want to correctly understand the effect of land use distribution on water quality we have to take these sewer systems into account. In this study we analyse the relation between land use and water quality in the Nete catchment (Belgium) and investigate the impact of the sewage infrastructure on this relation. The Nete catchment (1.673 km²) is a mosaic of semi natural, agricultural and urbanized areas and the land use is very fragmented. For the moment 74% of the households within the catchment are connected to a WWTP. The discharges from these WWTP's compose 15% of the total discharge of the Nete. Based on a runoff model the surface of upstream land use was calculated for 378 points. These data were then corrected for the impact of WWTP's. Using sewage infrastructure plans, urban areas connected to a WWTP were added to the upstream land use of the WWTP's water receiving stream. In order to understand the effect of

  15. Voyageurs National Park: Water-level regulation and effects on water quality and aquatic biology (United States)

    Christensen, Victoria G.; Maki, Ryan P.; LeDuc, Jaime F.


    Following dam installations in the remote Rainy Lake Basin during the early 1900s, water-level fluctuations were considered extreme (1914–1949) compared to more natural conditions. In 1949, the International Joint Commission (IJC), which sets rules governing dam operation on waters shared by the United States and Canada, established the first rule curves to regulate water levels on these waterbodies. However, rule curves established prior to 2000 were determined to be detrimental to the ecosystem. Therefore, the IJC implemented an order in 2000 to change rule curves and to restore a more natural water regime. After 2000, measured chlorophyll-a concentrations in the two most eutrophic water bodies decreased whereas concentrations in oligotrophic lakes did not show significant water-quality differences. Fish mercury data were inconclusive, due to the variation in water levels and fish mercury concentrations, but can be used by the IJC as part of a long term data set.

  16. Waste water discharge and its effect on the quality of water of Mahim creek and bay

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D.; Desai, B.N.

    Coastal environment around Mahim was monitored to evaluate the effects of domestic and industrial waste water discharge in Mahim Creek, Maharashtra, India. Vertical salinity and DO gradient occasionally observed in the Mahim Bay during postmonsoon...

  17. A conceptual framework for effectively anticipating water-quality changes resulting from changes in agricultural activities (United States)

    Capel, Paul D.; Wolock, David M.; Coupe, Richard H.; Roth, Jason L.


    Agricultural activities can affect water quality and the health of aquatic ecosystems; many water-quality issues originate with the movement of water, agricultural chemicals, and eroded soil from agricultural areas to streams and groundwater. Most agricultural activities are designed to sustain or increase crop production, while some are designed to protect soil and water resources. Numerous soil- and water-protection practices are designed to reduce the volume and velocity of runoff and increase infiltration. This report presents a conceptual framework that combines generalized concepts on the movement of water, the environmental behavior of chemicals and eroded soil, and the designed functions of various agricultural activities, as they relate to hydrology, to create attainable expectations for the protection of—with the goal of improving—water quality through changes in an agricultural activity.The framework presented uses two types of decision trees to guide decision making toward attainable expectations regarding the effectiveness of changing agricultural activities to protect and improve water quality in streams. One decision tree organizes decision making by considering the hydrologic setting and chemical behaviors, largely at the field scale. This decision tree can help determine which agricultural activities could effectively protect and improve water quality in a stream from the movement of chemicals, or sediment, from a field. The second decision tree is a chemical fate accounting tree. This decision tree helps set attainable expectations for the permanent removal of sediment, elements, and organic chemicals—such as herbicides and insecticides—through trapping or conservation tillage practices. Collectively, this conceptual framework consolidates diverse hydrologic settings, chemicals, and agricultural activities into a single, broad context that can be used to set attainable expectations for agricultural activities. This framework also enables

  18. Effects of storm-water runoff on water quality of the Edwards Aquifer near Austin, Texas (United States)

    Andrews, Freeman L.; Schertz, Terry L.; Slade, Raymond M.; Rawson, Jack


    Analyses of samples collected from Barton Springs at approximately weekly Intervals and from Barton Creek and five wells in the Austin area during selected storm-runoff periods generally show that recharge during storm runoff resulted in significant temporal and area! variations in the quality of ground water in the recharge zone of the Edwards aquifer. Recharge during storm runoff resulted in significant increases of bacterial densities in the ground water. Densities of fecal coliform bacteria in samples collected from Barton Springs, the major point of ground-water discharge, ranged from less than 1 colony per 100 milliliters during dry weather in November 1981 and January and August 1982 to 6,100 colonies per 100 milliliters during a storm in May 1982. Densities of fecal streptococcal bacteria ranged from 1 colony per 100 miniliters during dry weather in December 1981 to 11,000 colonies per 100 miniliters during a storm in May 1982.

  19. Scale effects on spatially varying relationships between urban landscape patterns and water quality. (United States)

    Sun, Yanwei; Guo, Qinghai; Liu, Jian; Wang, Run


    Scientific interpretation of the relationships between urban landscape patterns and water quality is important for sustainable urban planning and watershed environmental protection. This study applied the ordinary least squares regression model and the geographically weighted regression model to examine the spatially varying relationships between 12 explanatory variables (including three topographical factors, four land use parameters, and five landscape metrics) and 15 water quality indicators in watersheds of Yundang Lake, Maluan Bay, and Xinglin Bay with varying levels of urbanization in Xiamen City, China. A local and global investigation was carried out at the watershed-level, with 50 and 200 m riparian buffer scales. This study found that topographical features and landscape metrics are the dominant factors of water quality, while land uses are too weak to be considered as a strong influential factor on water quality. Such statistical results may be related with the characteristics of land use compositions in our study area. Water quality variations in the 50 m buffer were dominated by topographical variables. The impact of landscape metrics on water quality gradually strengthen with expanding buffer zones. The strongest relationships are obtained in entire watersheds, rather than in 50 and 200 m buffer zones. Spatially varying relationships and effective buffer zones were verified in this study. Spatially varying relationships between explanatory variables and water quality parameters are more diversified and complex in less urbanized areas than in highly urbanized areas. This study hypothesizes that all these varying relationships may be attributed to the heterogeneity of landscape patterns in different urban regions. Adjustment of landscape patterns in an entire watershed should be the key measure to successfully improving urban lake water quality.

  20. Degree of Milling Effect on Cold Water Rice Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ujjwol Subedi


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the effects of degree of milling on various rice parameters such as proximate composition, and cooking properties using mathematical model. The experiments were performed in the laboratory of Food Research Division, Nepal Agricultural Research Council. The three different medium type rice varieties of Nepal (Lumle-2, Chhomrong and Machhapuchre-3 were exposed to five different degrees of milling (0%, 6%, 8%, 10% and 12%. The degree of milling (DM level significantly (P≤0.05 affected the milling recovery; head rice yield, nutrient content as well as cooking properties of the rice. Increase in DM resulted in further reduction of protein content, fat content, minerals, milled rice and head rice yield after bran layer was further removed. A positive correlation between DM used in present model, amylose content, kernel elongation and gruel solid loss was observed, however, with an increase in DM; amylose content, kernel elongation and gruel solid loss were found to be increased. Adopting 6 to 8% DM for commercial milling of rice might help to prevent quantitative, qualitative and nutritional loss along with retention of good cooking characteristics.

  1. Agricultural drainage water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madani, A.; Gordon, R.


    'Full text:' Agricultural drainage systems have been identified as potential contributors of non-point source pollution. Two of the major concerns have been with nitrate-nitrogen (NO3 - -N) concentrations and bacteria levels exceeding the Maximum Acceptable Concentration in drainage water. Heightened public awareness of environmental issues has led to greater pressure to maintain the environmental quality of water systems. In an ongoing field study, three experiment sites, each with own soil properties and characteristics, are divided into drainage plots and being monitored for NO3 - -N and fecal coliforms contamination. The first site is being used to determine the impact of the rate of manure application on subsurface drainage water quality. The second site is being used to determine the difference between hog manure and inorganic fertilizer in relation to fecal coliforms and NO3-N leaching losses under a carrot rotation system. The third site examines the effect of timing of manure application on water quality, and is the only site equipped with a surface drainage system, as well as a subsurface drainage system. Each of the drains from these fields lead to heated outflow buildings to allow for year-round measurements of flow rates and water samples. Tipping buckets wired to data-loggers record the outflow from each outlet pipe on an hourly basis. Water samples, collected from the flowing drains, are analyzed for NO3 - -N concentrations using the colorimetric method, and fecal coliforms using the Most Probable Number (MPN) method. Based on this information, we will be able better positioned to assess agricultural impacts on water resources which will help towards the development on industry accepted farming practices. (author)

  2. Summarized water quality criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempster, P.L.; Hattingh, W.H.J.; Van Vliet, H.R.


    The available world literature from 27 sources on existing water quality criteria are summarized for the 15 main uses of water. The minimum, median and maximum specified values for 96 different determinands are included. Under each water use the criteria are grouped according to the functional significance of the determinands e.g. aesthetic/physical effects, high toxic potential, low toxic potential etc. A synopsis is included summarizing salient facts for each determinand such as the conditions under which it is toxic and its relationship to other determinands. The significance of the criteria is briefly discussed and the importance of considering functional interactions between determinands emphasized in evaluating the potential for toxic or beneficial effects. From the source literature it appears that the toxic potential, in addition to being determined by concentration, is also affected by the origin of the substance concerned, i.e. whether from natural sources or from anthropogenic pollution

  3. Effects of future climate and land use scenarios on riverine source water quality. (United States)

    Delpla, Ianis; Rodriguez, Manuel J


    Surface water quality is particularly sensitive to land use practices and climatic events that affect its catchment. The relative influence of a set of watershed characteristics (climate, land use, morphology and pedology) and climatic variables on two key water quality parameters (turbidity and fecal coliforms (FC)) was examined in 24 eastern Canadian catchments at various spatial scales (1 km, 5 km, 10 km and the entire catchment). A regression analysis revealed that the entire catchment was a better predictor of water quality. Based on this information, linear mixed effect models for predicting turbidity and FC levels were developed. A set of land use and climate scenarios was considered and applied within the water quality models. Four land use scenarios (no change, same rate of variation, optimistic and pessimistic) and three climate change scenarios (B1, A1B and A2) were tested and variations for the near future (2025) were assessed and compared to the reference period (2000). Climate change impacts on water quality remained low annually for this time horizon (turbidity: +1.5%, FC: +1.6%, A2 scenario). On the other hand, the influence of land use changes appeared to predominate. Significant benefits for both parameters could be expected following the optimistic scenario (turbidity: -16.4%, FC: -6.3%; p climate change impacts could become equivalent to those modeled for land use for this horizon. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Water Quality Protection Charges (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — The Water Quality Protection Charge (WQPC) is a line item on your property tax bill. WQPC funds many of the County's clean water initiatives including: • Restoration...

  5. Biological Water Quality Criteria (United States)

    Page contains links to Technical Documents pertaining to Biological Water Quality Criteria, including, technical assistance documents for states, tribes and territories, program overviews, and case studies.

  6. Effects of pond draining on biodiversity and water quality of farm ponds. (United States)

    Usio, Nisikawa; Imada, Miho; Nakagawa, Megumi; Akasaka, Munemitsu; Takamura, Noriko


    Farm ponds have high conservation value because they contribute significantly to regional biodiversity and ecosystem services. In Japan pond draining is a traditional management method that is widely believed to improve water quality and eradicate invasive fish. In addition, fishing by means of pond draining has significant cultural value for local people, serving as a social event. However, there is a widespread belief that pond draining reduces freshwater biodiversity through the extirpation of aquatic animals, but scientific evaluation of the effectiveness of pond draining is lacking. We conducted a large-scale field study to evaluate the effects of pond draining on invasive animal control, water quality, and aquatic biodiversity relative to different pond-management practices, pond physicochemistry, and surrounding land use. The results of boosted regression-tree models and analyses of similarity showed that pond draining had little effect on invasive fish control, water quality, or aquatic biodiversity. Draining even facilitated the colonization of farm ponds by invasive red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii), which in turn may have detrimental effects on the biodiversity and water quality of farm ponds. Our results highlight the need for reconsidering current pond management and developing management plans with respect to multifunctionality of such ponds. Efectos del Drenado de Estanques sobre la Biodiversidad y la Calidad del Agua en Estanques de Cultivo. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.


    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of a golf course complex on water quality, colonized periphyton and seagrass meadows in adjacent freshwater, near-coastal and wetland areas. The environmental impact of the recreational facility, which uses spray wastewater...

  8. Effect of Strip Mining on Water Quality in Small Streams in Eastern Kentucky, 1967-1975 (United States)

    Kenneth L. Dyer; Willie R. Curtis


    Eight years of streamflow data are analyzed to show the effects of strip mining on chemical quality of water in six first-order streams in Breathitt County, Kentucky. All these watersheds were unmined in August, 1967, but five have since been strip mined. The accumulated data from this case history study indicate that strip mining causes large increases in the...

  9. Dynamic Evaluation of Water Quality Improvement Based on Effective Utilization of Stockbreeding Biomass Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Yan


    Full Text Available The stockbreeding industry is growing rapidly in rural regions of China, carrying a high risk to the water environment due to the emission of huge amounts of pollutants in terms of COD, T-N and T-P to rivers. On the other hand, as a typical biomass resource, stockbreeding waste can be used as a clean energy source by biomass utilization technologies. In this paper, we constructed a dynamic linear optimization model to simulate the synthetic water environment management policies which includes both the water environment system and social-economic situational changes over 10 years. Based on the simulation, the model can precisely estimate trends of water quality, production of stockbreeding biomass energy and economic development under certain restrictions of the water environment. We examined seven towns of Shunyi district of Beijing as the target area to analyse synthetic water environment management policies by computer simulation based on the effective utilization of stockbreeding biomass resources to improve water quality and realize sustainable development. The purpose of our research is to establish an effective utilization method of biomass resources incorporating water environment preservation, resource reutilization and economic development, and finally realize the sustainable development of the society.

  10. Effect of Water Quality and Drip Irrigation Management on Yield and Water Use Efficiency in Late Summer Melon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    javad baghani


    Full Text Available Introduction: Production and growth of plants in many parts of the world due to degradation and water scarcity have been limited and particularly, in recent decades, agriculture is faced with stress. In the most parts of Iran, especially in the Khorasan Razavi province, drought is a fact and water is very important. Due to melon cultivation in this province, and the conditions of quality and quantity of water resources and water used to produce the melon product in this province, any research done on the use of saline and brackish waters is statistically significant. Materials and Methods: To study the effects of different water salinity and water management on some of the agronomic traits of late summer melon with drip irrigation, an experiment with 7 treatments and 3 repetitions was conducted in a randomized complete block design, in Torogh station, Mashhad. The irrigation treatments were: 1- fresh water from planting to harvesting, 2- water (3 dS/m from planting to harvesting, 3- water (6 dS/m from planting to harvesting, 4- water (6 dS/m from 20 days after plantation to harvesting, 5-water (6 dS/m from 40 days after plantation to harvesting, 6-water (3 dS/m from 20 days after plantation to harvesting, 7-water (6 dS/m from 40 days after plantation to harvesting. Row spacing and plant spacing were 3 m and 60 cm, respectively and the pipe type had 6 liters per hour per unit of meters in the drip irrigation system. Finally, the amount of salinity water, number of male and female flowers, number of seed germination, dry leaves' weight, leaf area, chlorophyll (with SPAD etc. were measured and all data were analyzed by using MSTAT-C software and all averages of data, were compared by using the Duncan test. Results and Discussion The results of analysis of data showed the following: Number of seeds germination: Salinity in water irrigation had no significant effects on the number of seed germination. However, there was the most number of seed

  11. Effect of Canal Bank Filtration on Quality of Water Long Hyderabad City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The focus of the present study was to examine the effect of canal bank filtration on the quality of water and the geological settings along the banks of canals at the shallow depth aquifers. The four Model wells were drilled at different locations of the Line channel, Pinyari and phulali canals in the study area. The samples of soil were collected throughout drilling of the model wells for the analysis of grain size distribution .In addition to this, canal water and model well water samples were collected and analyzed for the water quality characteristics during winter and summer seasons. The analysis of soil and water samples reveals that the ground water is influenced by the grain size distribution, hydraulic conductivity and the location of the model Wells. The model well that has higher percentage of 0.075 mm of grain size distribution(hydraulic conductivity between 10-25 ft/day was more suitable for the filtration of the canal water through its banks, followed by 0.15 mm of grain size distribution (hydraulic conductivity > 25ft/ day. Moreover, the present study also shows that the canal water filtration is suitable in terms of total alkalinity, nitrate-nitrogen, total iron and pH to get the potable water at the location near upstream of the canal, especially in the summer season.

  12. Effect of Mehmood Booti dumping site in Lahore on ground water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haydar, S.


    A study was carried out to elucidate the effects of Mehmood Booti dumping site in Lahore on the quality of groundwater in conterminous areas and recommend improvement measures. For this purpose, five tube wells were selected for collection of water samples. One of these was located within the premises of Mahmood Booti dumping site while another tube well at a distance of 8 km near Mall Road was selected as the control point to compare the test results. Three samples from each sampling point were collected before monsoon and three after monsoon with a total of thirty (30) samples for statistical significance. To find out the effect of leachate on groundwater quality, five parameters i.e. turbidity, pH, hardness, total dissolved solids and fecal coliform were tested. Mean value of test results was compared with the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for drinking water. It was indicated by the test results that physico-chemical quality of all sources (tube wells) was satisfactory. The test results indicated that 20% of water samples collected from the tube wells before monsoon contained fecal contaminant and that percentage rose to 60% after monsoon. The analysis of results showed that Mehmood Booti dumping site has no significant effect on the selected water quality parameters. (author)

  13. Effects of historic forest disturbance on water quality and flow in the Interior Western U.S (United States)

    M. Matyjasik; G. Moisen; C. Combe; T. Hathcock; S. Mitts; M. Hernandez; T. Frescino; T. Schroeder


    Water quality and flow is affected my many complex factors in the Interior Western U.S. While many studies focus on individual water parameters response to a limited number of changing conditions, little work looks at long term effects of diverse forest disturbances on a broader array of water quality and flow metrics. The U.S. Forest Service Forest Inventory and...

  14. The Effect of Aquatic Vegetation on Water Quality in the Everglades Agricultural Area Canals (United States)

    Gomez, S. M.; Bhadha, J. H.; Lang, T. A.; Josan, M. S.; Daroub, S. H.


    The canals in the Everglades Agricultural Area contain an abundance of floating aquatic vegetation (FAV) and submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV). These FAV flourish in waters with high phosphorus (P) concentrations and prevent the co-precipitation of P with the limestone bedrock (CaCO3). To test the effects of FAV and SAV and the presence of sediments on water quality in the canals, a lysimeter study was set up and stocked with FAV (water lettuce) and SAV (filamentous algae). There were four treatments with four replicates Treatment one contained limerock, sediment from the canals, and FAV. Treatment two contained limerock, sediment, and SAV. Treatment three contained limerock and FAV, while treatment four had limerock and SAV. After 7 days, the buckets were drained and replaced the water with new, high P canal water. Water samples were taken at 0, 0.25, 1, 3, and 7 days after each weekly water exchange. To test water quality soluble reactive P, total P, total dissolved P, Ca, and total organic carbon were analyzed. The impact of FAV and SAV and canal sediments on water quality will be discussed. We hypothesize water lettuce treatments will initially result in a reduction in P-concentration in all species, but will only serve as a short-term sink because of their high turn-over rate and production of labile high-P sediment (floc). In addition, we hypothesize the treatments with no sediment will have more P reduction because of the availability for P to co-precipitate with CaCO3.

  15. Effects of atmospheric deposition of energy-related pollutants on water quality: a review and assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, M.J.


    The effects on surface-water quality of atmospheric pollutants that are generated during energy production are reviewed and evaluated. Atmospheric inputs from such sources to the aquatic environment may include trace elements, organic compounds, radionuclides, and acids. Combustion is the largest energy-related source of trace-element emissions to the atmosphere. This report reviews the nature of these emissions from coal-fired power plants and discusses their terrestrial and aquatic effects following deposition. Several simple models for lakes and streams are developed and are applied to assess the potential for adverse effects on surface-water quality of trace-element emissions from coal combustion. The probability of acute impacts on the aquatic environment appears to be low; however, more subtle, chronic effects are possible. The character of acid precipitation is reviewed, with emphasis on aquatic effects, and the nature of existing or potential effects on water quality, aquatic biota, and water supply is considered. The response of the aquatic environment to acid precipitation depends on the type of soils and bedrock in a watershed and the chemical characteristics of the water bodies in question. Methods for identifying regions sensitive to acid inputs are reviewed. The observed impact of acid precipitation ranges from no effects to elimination of fish populations. Coal-fired power plants and various stages of the nuclear fuel cycle release radionuclides to the atmosphere. Radioactive releases to the atmosphere from these sources and the possible aquatic effects of such releases are examined. For the nuclear fuel cycle, the major releases are from reactors and reprocessing. Although aquatic effects of atmospheric releases have not been fully quantified, there seems little reason for concern for man or aquatic biota

  16. Effect of traditional gold mining to surface water quality in Murung Raya District, Central Kalimantan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available There are many locations for traditional gold mining in Indonesia. One of these is in Murung Raya District, Central Kalimantan Province. Mining activities involving the application of traditional gold processing technology have a high potential to pollute the environment, especially surface water. Therefore, this study aims to determine the impact of gold mining and processing on surface water quality around the mine site. Based on the results of field surveys and laboratory analysis, our data shows that the concentration of mercury (Hg and Cyanide (CN has reached 0.3 mg/L and 1.9 mg/L, respectively, in surface water. These values exceed the drinking water quality standards of Indonesia and WHO. Many people who live in the mining area use surface water for daily purposes including drinking, cooking, bathing and washing. This scenario is very dangerous because the effect of surface water contamination on human health cannot be immediately recognized or diagnosed. In our opinion the dissemination of knowledge regarding the treatment of gold mining wastewater is urgently required so that the quality of wastewater can be improved before it is discharged into the environment

  17. Water Quality Assessment and Management (United States)

    Overview of Clean Water Act (CWA) restoration framework including; water quality standards, monitoring/assessment, reporting water quality status, TMDL development, TMDL implementation (point & nonpoint source control)

  18. Quality of water in an inactive uranium mine and its effects on the quality of water in Blue Creek, Stevens County, Washington, 1984-85. Water Resources Investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumioka, S.S.


    The purpose of the report is to present the results of a study done to determine (1) the monthly and annual water budgets and probable variation in runoff for the drainage basin in which the mine is located; (2) if precipitation is the source of low pH water found in pit 3 and the retention pond; (3) the quality of water in pits 3 and 4, the retention pond, streamflow from the basin, Blue Creek upstream and downstream of the point the drainage enters, and near the mouth of Blue Creek; (4) the quality of ground water discharged from the basin into Blue Creek; and (5) the daily mean values of discharge, water temperature, specific conductance, and pH for mine drainage from the basin, Blue Creek upstream and downstream of the mine drainage, and near the mouth of Blue Creek. The report also describes a potential water-quality monitoring program that would allow the determination of annual loads of selected chemical constituents entering Blue Creek from the mine basin and information about the type of ground-water tracers and procedures needed to examine flow paths near the retention pond

  19. Predicting fire effects on water quality: a perspective and future needs (United States)

    Smith, Hugh; Sheridan, Gary; Nyman, Petter; Langhans, Christoph; Noske, Philip; Lane, Patrick


    Forest environments are a globally significant source of drinking water. Fire presents a credible threat to the supply of high quality water in many forested regions. The post-fire risk to water supplies depends on storm event characteristics, vegetation cover and fire-related changes in soil infiltration and erodibility modulated by landscape position. The resulting magnitude of runoff generation, erosion and constituent flux to streams and reservoirs determines the severity of water quality impacts in combination with the physical and chemical composition of the entrained material. Research to date suggests that most post-fire water quality impacts are due to large increases in the supply of particulates (fine-grained sediment and ash) and particle-associated chemical constituents. The largest water quality impacts result from high magnitude erosion events, including debris flow processes, which typically occur in response to short duration, high intensity storm events during the recovery period. Most research to date focuses on impacts on water quality after fire. However, information on potential water quality impacts is required prior to fire events for risk planning. Moreover, changes in climate and forest management (e.g. prescribed burning) that affect fire regimes may alter water quality risks. Therefore, prediction requires spatial-temporal representation of fire and rainfall regimes coupled with information on fire-related changes to soil hydrologic parameters. Recent work has applied such an approach by combining a fire spread model with historic fire weather data in a Monte Carlo simulation to quantify probabilities associated with fire and storm events generating debris flows and fine sediment influx to a reservoir located in Victoria, Australia. Prediction of fire effects on water quality would benefit from further research in several areas. First, more work on regional-scale stochastic modelling of intersecting fire and storm events with landscape

  20. Quality of Drinking Water (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.


    The quality of drinking water has been gaining a great deal of attention lately, especially as water delivery infrastructure continues to age. Particles of various metals such as lead and copper, and other substances like radon and arsenic could be entering drinking water supplies. Spilled-on-the-ground hydrocarbon-based substances are also…

  1. Estimates the Effects of Benthic Fluxes on the Water Quality of the Reservoir (United States)

    Lee, H.; Huh, I. A.; Park, S.; Choi, J. H.


    Reservoirs located in highly populated and industrialized regions receive discharges of nutrients and pollutants from the watershed that have great potential to impair water quality and threaten aquatic life. The Euiam reservoir is a multiple-purpose water body used for tourism, fishery, and water supply and has been reported as eutrophic since 1990s. The external nutrients loading is considered to be the main cause of eutrophication of water bodies, and control strategies therefore focus on its reduction. However, algae blooms often continue even after external nutrients loading has been controlled, being benthic nutrient loading the main source of nutrients in the water column. Attempts to quantify benthic nutrients fluxes and their role as a source of nutrients to the water column have produced ambiguous results. Benthic flux is dependent on the upward flow of pore water caused by hydrostatic pressure, molecular diffusion, and mixing of sediment and water. In addition, it is controlled by dissolved oxygen (DO) levels, pH values and temperature in the overlying water. Therefore, linking a benthic flux to a water quality model should give us more insight on the effects of benthic fluxes to better quantify nutrient concentration within an entire reservoir system where physical, chemical, biological properties are variable. To represent temporal and spatial variations in the nutrient concentrations of the reservoir, a three-dimensional time variable model, Generalized Longitudinal-Lateral-Vertical Hydrodynamic and Transport (GLLVHT) was selected. The GLLVHT model is imbedded within the Generalized Environmental Modeling System for Surface waters (GEMSS). The computational grid of the three-dimensional model was developed using the GIS. The horizontal grid is composed of 580 active cells at the surface layer with spacing varies from 54.2 m to 69.8 m. There are 15 vertical layers with uniform thickness of 1.9 m resolution. To calibrate the model, model prediction for

  2. [Effect of antecedent dry period on water quality of urban storm runoff pollution]. (United States)

    Bian, Bo


    Identified the main factor influencing urban rainfall-runoff pollution provides a scientific basis for urban rainfall-runoff pollution control and management. Therefore, starting in May 2006, a study was conducted to characterize water quality from representative land uses types in Zhenjiang to analyse the effect of antecedent dry period on stormwater runoff quality. The results show that the beginning of rainfall, with the increase of antecedent dry periods, the percentages of less than 40 microm is increased, the correlation of the water quality parameters (TN, TP, Zn, Pb, Cu, TSS and COD) and antecedent dry period shows a significant positive correlation, dissolved pollutants in the initial period surface runoff is increased. These findings show that facilitating the recognition of antecedent dry periods is the main factor influencing the change in concentration and partitioning of pollutants to provide the scientific basis for non-point source pollution control and management.

  3. Effect of Water Quality on the Performance of Boiler in Nigerian Petroleum Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This work investigates quality of water used in boilers of Refinery Company in Nigeria. The results shows that the quality of water fed to boilers are off specification. Low water quality used in boilers led to frequent failure of the boilers as a result of tube rupture. This has resulted into low capacity utilization and loss of processing fees. The poor performance of the boiler feed treatment plant is attributable to the deplorable condition of water intake plant, raw water treatment, demineralization plant, change in raw water quality and non-functioning of the polisher unit.

  4. Dam water quality study. Report to Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The objective of the report is to identify water quality effects attributable to the impoundment of water by dams as required by Section 524 of the Water Quality Act of 1987. The document presents a study of water quality effects associated with impoundments in the U.S.A

  5. Water quality diagnosis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagase, Makoto; Asakura, Yamato; Sakagami, Masaharu


    By using a model representing a relationship between the water quality parameter and the dose rate in primary coolant circuits of a water cooled reactor, forecasting for the feature dose rate and abnormality diagnosis for the water quality are conducted. The analysis model for forecasting the reactor water activity or the dose rate receives, as the input, estimated curves for the forecast Fe, Ni, Co concentration in feedwater or reactor water pH, etc. from the water quality data in the post and forecasts the future radioactivity or dose rate in the reactor water. By comparing the result of the forecast and the setting value such as an aimed value, it can be seen whether the water quality at present or estimated to be changed is satisfactory or not. If the quality is not satisfactory, it is possible to take an early countermeasure. Accordingly, the reactor water activity and the dose rate can be kept low. Further, the basic system constitution, diagnosis algorithm, indication, etc. are identical between BWR and PWR reactors, except for only the difference in the mass balance. (K.M.)

  6. Quantifying effects of hydrological and water quality disturbances on fish with food-web modeling (United States)

    Zhao, Changsen; Zhang, Yuan; Yang, Shengtian; Xiang, Hua; Sun, Ying; Yang, Zengyuan; Yu, Qiang; Lim, Richard P.


    Accurately delineating the effects of hydrological and water quality habitat factors on the aquatic biota will significantly assist the management of water resources and restoration of river ecosystems. However, current models fail to comprehensively consider the effects of multiple habitat factors on the development of fish species. In this study, a dynamic framework for river ecosystems was set up to explore the effects of multiple habitat factors in terms of hydrology and water quality on the fish community in rivers. To achieve this the biomechanical forms of the relationships between hydrology, water quality, and aquatic organisms were determined. The developing processes of the food web without external disturbance were simulated by 208 models, constructed using Ecopath With Ecosim (EWE). These models were then used to analyze changes in biomass (ΔB) of two representative fish species, Opsariichthys bidens and Carassius auratus, which are widely distributed in Asia, and thus have attracted the attention of scholars and stakeholders, due to the consequence of habitat alteration. Results showed that the relationship between the changes in fish biomass and key habitat factors can be expressed in a unified form. T-tests for the unified form revealed that the means of the two data sets of simulated and observed ΔB for these two fish species (O. bidens and C. auratus) were equal at the significance level of 5%. Compared with other ecological dynamic models, our framework includes theories that are easy to understand and has modest requirements for assembly and scientific expertise. Moreover, this framework can objectively assess the influence of hydrological and water quality variance on aquatic biota with simpler theory and little expertise. Therefore, it is easy to be put into practice and can provide a scientific support for decisions in ecological restoration made by river administrators and stakeholders across the world.

  7. Effects of a tropical cyclone on the drinking-water quality of a remote Pacific island. (United States)

    Mosley, Luke M; Sharp, Donald S; Singh, Sarabjeet


    The effect of a cyclone (Ami, January 2003) on drinking-water quality on the island of Vanua Levu, Fiji was investigated. Following the cyclone nearly three-quarters of the samples analysed did not conform to World Health Organisation (WHO) guideline values for safe drinking-water in terms of chlorine residual, total and faecal coliforms, and turbidity. Turbidity and total coliform levels significantly increased (up 56 and 62 per cent, respectively) from pre-cyclone levels, which was likely due to the large amounts of silt and debris entering water-supply sources during the cyclone. The utility found it difficult to maintain a reliable supply of treated water in the aftermath of the disaster. Communities were unaware they were drinking water that had not been adequately treated. Circumstances permitted this cyclone to be used as a case study to assess whether a simple paper-strip water-quality test (the hydrogen sulphide, H(2)S) kit could be distributed and used for community-based monitoring following such a disaster event to better protect public health. The H(2)S test results correlated well with faecal and total coliform results as found in previous studies. A small percentage of samples (about 10 per cent) tested positive for faecal and total coliforms but did not test positive in the H(2)S test. It was concluded that the H(2)S test would be well suited to wider use, especially in the absence of water-quality monitoring capabilities for outer island groups as it is inexpensive and easy to use, thus enabling communities and community health workers with minimal training to test their own water supplies without outside assistance. The importance of public education before and after natural disasters is also discussed.

  8. A Synthesis of Sierran Forest Biomass Management Studies and Potential Effects on Water Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Weisberg


    Full Text Available The Lake Tahoe basin, located along the California and Nevada border between the Carson and Sierra Nevada mountain ranges, represents a complex forested ecosystem consisting of numerous sub-watersheds and tributaries that discharge directly to Lake Tahoe. This synthesis focuses on historical and current nutrient pools and the effects of biomass management in watersheds of the basin relative to their potential impacts on nutrient (N, P related discharge water quality. An accumulating forest floor as a result of fire suppression has resulted in the build-up of large nutrient pools that now provide a “natural” source of long term nutrient availability to surface waters. As a consequence, stand and forest floor replacing wildfire may cause a large magnitude nutrient mobilization impact on runoff water quality. Hence, mechanical harvest and controlled burning have become popular management strategies. The most ecologically significant long-term effects of controlled fire appear to be the loss of C and N from the forest floor. Although the application of controlled fire may have some initial impact on overland/litter interflow nutrient loading, controlled burning in conjunction with mechanical harvest has the potential to improve runoff water quality by reducing N and P discharge and improving the overall health of forest ecosystems without the danger of a high intensity wildfire.

  9. Drinking water quality and chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu): synergic effects of fluoride, cadmium and hardness of water. (United States)

    Wasana, Hewa M S; Aluthpatabendi, Dharshani; Kularatne, W M T D; Wijekoon, Pushpa; Weerasooriya, Rohan; Bandara, Jayasundera


    High prevalence of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) in some regions of the world is suspected mainly due to a toxin-mediated renal failure. We examined the incidence of CKDu and potable chemical water quality in a CKDu-affected region. This region has been identified as a high-risk zone for CKDu (location: latitude: 8.3500°-9.0000°, longitude: 80.3833°-81.3000°, North Central Province, NCP, Sri Lanka) by the World Health Organization (WHO). However, within this macro-region, small pockets of CKDu non-prevalence zones do exist; notably, the residents in those pockets consume spring water. Therefore, the drinking water quality of four areas, namely high-CKDu-prevalence areas (zone I), low-CKDu-prevalence area (zone II), the CKDu-free isolated pockets (zone III) and control areas (controls) were examined for F, Al, Cd, and As, and hardness and the statistical analysis were carried out to probe possible correlations among these parameters. The fluoride and hardness concentrations of water in zone III and control areas are much lower compared to zones I and II, and the water hardness is ~61 mg/L CaCO3. In zones I and II, the harness of drinking water is ~121-180 mg/L CaCO3; however, Al, Cd and As concentrations are almost comparable and below WHO recommendations. In most of the locations in zones I and II, the F concentration in drinking water is higher than the WHO recommendations. The peculiar distribution patterns of CKDu point to a synergic effect of trace elements in water for etiology of the disease.

  10. Effects of Hot Water Immersion on Storage Quality of Fresh Broccoli Heads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaqiang Dong


    Full Text Available Freshly harvested broccoli heads were immersed for 0, 1, 4 or 8 min into hot water at 45 °C, and then were hydrocooled rapidly for 10 min at 10 °C. Following these treatments, the broccoli were air-dried for 30 min, then packed in commercial polymeric film bags, and, finally, stored for 16 days at –1, 1, and 12 °C. The samples treated with hot water maintained high contents of chlorophyll concentrations, their yellowing rate was delayed, and fungal infection and chilling or freezing injury were inhibited markedly. Compared to non-heat-treated broccoli, a lower level of peroxidase activity with a relatively higher chlorophyll concentration was observed when broccoli were treated with hot water. Among these heat treatments, immersion in hot water for 4 min at 45 °C was the most effective for maintaining the quality of harvested broccoli heads.

  11. Water quality and water rights in Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonnell, L.J.


    The report begins with a review of early Colorado water quality law. The present state statutory system of water quality protection is summarized. Special attention is given to those provisions of Colorado's water quality law aimed at protecting water rights. The report then addresses several specific issues which involve the relationship between water quality and water use. Finally, recommendations are made for improving Colorado's approach to integrating quality and quantity concerns

  12. Water Quality Data (WQX) (United States)

    The STORET (short for STOrage and RETrieval) Data Warehouse is a repository for water quality, biological, and physical data and is used by state environmental agencies, EPA and other federal agencies, universities, private citizens, and many others.

  13. The Effects of Source Water Quality on Drinking Water Treatment Costs: A Review and Synthesis of Empirical Literature - Ecological Economics (United States)

    Watershed protection, and associated in situ water quality improvements, has received considerable attention as a means of mitigating health risks and avoiding expenditures at drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs). This study reviews the extant cost function literature linking ...

  14. The Effects of Source Water Quality on Drinking Water Treatment Costs: A Review and Synthesis of Empirical Literature - slides (United States)

    Watershed protection, and associated in situ water quality improvements, has received considerable attention as a means of mitigating health risks and avoiding expenditures at drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs). In this presentation, we review the literature linking raw wate...

  15. WHO water quality standards Vs Synergic effect(s) of fluoride, heavy metals and hardness in drinking water on kidney tissues (United States)

    Wasana, Hewa M. S.; Perera, Gamage D. R. K.; Gunawardena, Panduka De S.; Fernando, Palika S.; Bandara, Jayasundera


    Despite WHO standards, waterborne diseases among the human being are rising alarmingly. It is known that the prolong exposure to contaminated water has major impact on public health. The effect of chemical contaminations in drinking water on human being is found to be chronic rather than acute and hence can be defined “consumption of contaminated drinking water could be a silent killer”. As the WHO recommended water quality standards are only for individual element and synergic effects of trace metals and anions have not been considered, investigation of synergic effects of trace metals and anions and their effect on human being is of prime important research. By an animal trial, we investigated the synergic effect(s) of heavy metals, aluminium, arsenic, fluoride and hardness in drinking water on kidney tissues of mice. Our investigation strongly suggests existing of a synergic effect especially among Cd, F and hardness of water which could lead to severe kidney damage in mice, even at WHO maximum recommended levels. Hence, the synergic effect(s) of trace metals, fluoride and hardness present in drinking water should be investigated meticulously when stipulating the water quality at WHO maximum recommended levels.

  16. Effects of physical and chemical heterogeneity on water-quality samples obtained from wells (United States)

    Reilly, Thomas E.; Gibs, Jacob


    Factors that affect the mass of chemical constituents entering a well include the distributions of flow rate and chemical concentrations along and near the screened or open section of the well. Assuming a layered porous medium (with each layer being characterized by a uniform hydraulic conductivity and chemical concentration), a knowledge of the flow from each layer along the screened zone and of the chemical concentrations in each layer enables the total mass entering the well to be determined. Analyses of hypothetical systems and a site at Galloway, NJ, provide insight into the temporal variation of water-quality data observed when withdrawing water from screened wells in heterogeneous ground-water systems.The analyses of hypothetical systems quantitatively indicate the cause-and-effect relations that cause temporal variability in water samples obtained from wells. Chemical constituents that have relatively uniform concentrations with depth may not show variations in concentrations in the water discharged from a well after the well is purged (evacuation of standing water in the well casing). However, chemical constituents that do not have uniform concentrations near the screened interval of the well may show variations in concentrations in the well discharge water after purging because of the physics of ground-water flow in the vicinity of the screen.Water-quality samples were obtained through time over a 30 minute period from a site at Galloway, NJ. The water samples were analyzed for aromatic hydrocarbons, and the data for benzene, toluene, and meta+para xylene were evaluated for temporal variations. Samples were taken from seven discrete zones, and the flow-weighted concentrations of benzene, toluene, and meta+para xylene all indicate an increase in concentration over time during pumping. These observed trends in time were reproduced numerically based on the estimated concentration distribution in the aquifer and the flow rates from each zone.The results of

  17. Effects of land use change on streamflow and stream water quality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to link land cover/use change to water quality in an important water supply coastal catchment. The approach followed a spatial and temporal analysis of historical catchment land use change to assess how changes influenced water quality and river flow in the Touws and Duiwe Rivers, southwestern Cape, ...

  18. Water quality management of contaminated areas and its effects on doses from aquatic pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voitsekhovitch, O.; Sansone, U.; Zhelesnyak, M.; Bugai, D.


    A critical analysis of remedial actions performed in the Chernobyl close zone are presented in term of effectiveness to dose reduction and money expenditure. The Chernobyl experience proved the need to consolidate the international water protection capacity on the basis of scientific knowledge which should exclude inefficient use of national resource. Strategical and technological interventions on water quality management need to be revised on the base of the experience gained after the 1986 accident. The lesson learned from the Chernobyl experience has to be used as a key element in the adoption of a strategy of water bodies management. Remedial actions have to be based with an integrated approach considering: dose reduction, secondary environmental effects of countermeasures, synergisms of radionuclides and countermeasure applications with other toxicants, social and economical factors of the contaminated areas

  19. Scale-dependence of land use effects on water quality of streams in agricultural catchments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, Oliver; Niyogi, Dev K.; Townsend, Colin R.


    The influence of land use on water quality in streams is scale-dependent and varies in time and space. In this study, land cover patterns and stocking rates were used as measures of agricultural development in two pasture and one native grassland catchment in New Zealand and were related to water quality in streams of various orders. The amount of pasture per subcatchment correlated well to total nitrogen and nitrate in one catchment and turbidity and total phosphorous in the other catchment. Stocking rates were only correlated to total phosphorous in one pasture catchment but showed stronger correlations to ammonium, total phosphorous and total nitrogen in the other pasture catchment. Winter and spring floods were significant sources of nutrients and faecal coliforms from one of the pasture catchments into a wetland complex. Nutrient and faecal coliform concentrations were better predicted by pastural land cover in fourth-order than in second-order streams. This suggests that upstream land use is more influential in larger streams, while local land use and other factors may be more important in smaller streams. These temporal and spatial scale effects indicate that water-monitoring schemes need to be scale-sensitive. - Land use influences water quality of streams at various spatial scales

  20. Scale-dependence of land use effects on water quality of streams in agricultural catchments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, Oliver; Niyogi, Dev K.; Townsend, Colin R


    The influence of land use on water quality in streams is scale-dependent and varies in time and space. In this study, land cover patterns and stocking rates were used as measures of agricultural development in two pasture and one native grassland catchment in New Zealand and were related to water quality in streams of various orders. The amount of pasture per subcatchment correlated well to total nitrogen and nitrate in one catchment and turbidity and total phosphorous in the other catchment. Stocking rates were only correlated to total phosphorous in one pasture catchment but showed stronger correlations to ammonium, total phosphorous and total nitrogen in the other pasture catchment. Winter and spring floods were significant sources of nutrients and faecal coliforms from one of the pasture catchments into a wetland complex. Nutrient and faecal coliform concentrations were better predicted by pastural land cover in fourth-order than in second-order streams. This suggests that upstream land use is more influential in larger streams, while local land use and other factors may be more important in smaller streams. These temporal and spatial scale effects indicate that water-monitoring schemes need to be scale-sensitive. - Land use influences water quality of streams at various spatial scales.

  1. Water quality and ecosystem management: Data-driven reality check of effects in streams and lakes (United States)

    Destouni, Georgia; Fischer, Ida; Prieto, Carmen


    This study investigates nutrient-related water quality conditions and change trends in the first management periods of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD; since 2009) and Baltic Sea Action Plan (BASP; since 2007). With mitigation of nutrients in inland waters and their discharges to the Baltic Sea being a common WFD and BSAP target, we use Sweden as a case study of observable effects, by compiling and analyzing all openly available water and nutrient monitoring data across Sweden since 2003. The data compilation reveals that nutrient monitoring covers only around 1% (down to 0.2% for nutrient loads) of the total number of WFD-classified stream and lake water bodies in Sweden. The data analysis further shows that the hydro-climatically driven water discharge dominates the determination of waterborne loads of both total phosphorus and total nitrogen across Sweden. Both water discharge and the related nutrient loads are in turn well correlated with the ecosystem status classification of Swedish water bodies. Nutrient concentrations do not exhibit such correlation and their changes over the study period are on average small, but concentration increases are found for moderate-to-bad status waters, for which both the WFD and the BSAP have instead targeted concentration decreases. In general, these results indicate insufficient distinction and mitigation of human-driven nutrient components in inland waters and their discharges to the sea by the internationally harmonized applications of the WFD and the BSAP. The results call for further comparative investigations of observable large-scale effects of such regulatory/management frameworks in different parts of the world.

  2. Assessing the effects of regional payment for watershed services program on water quality using an intervention analysis model. (United States)

    Lu, Yan; He, Tian


    Much attention has been recently paid to ex-post assessments of socioeconomic and environmental benefits of payment for ecosystem services (PES) programs on poverty reduction, water quality, and forest protection. To evaluate the effects of a regional PES program on water quality, we selected chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N) as indicators of water quality. Statistical methods and an intervention analysis model were employed to assess whether the PES program produced substantial changes in water quality at 10 water-quality sampling stations in the Shaying River watershed, China during 2006-2011. Statistical results from paired-sample t-tests and box plots of COD and NH3-N concentrations at the 10 stations showed that the PES program has played a positive role in improving water quality and reducing trans-boundary water pollution in the Shaying River watershed. Using the intervention analysis model, we quantitatively evaluated the effects of the intervention policy, i.e., the watershed PES program, on water quality at the 10 stations. The results suggest that this method could be used to assess the environmental benefits of watershed or water-related PES programs, such as improvements in water quality, seasonal flow regulation, erosion and sedimentation, and aquatic habitat. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Columbia River water quality monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Waste water from Hanford activities is discharged at eight points along the Hanford reach of the Columbia River. These discharges consist of backwash water from water intake screens, cooling water, river bank springs, water storage tank overflow, and fish laboratory waste water. Each discharge point is identified in an existing National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued by the EPA. Effluents from each of these outfalls are routinely monitored and reported by the operating contractors as required by their NPDES permits. Measurements of several Columbia River water quality parameters were conducted routinely during 1982 both upstream and downstream of the Hanford Site to monitor any effects on the river that may be attributable to Hanford discharges and to determine compliance with the Class A designation requirements. The measurements indicated that Hanford operations had a minimal, if any, impact on the quality of the Columbia River water

  4. The synergistic effect of manure supply and extreme precipitation on surface water quality (United States)

    Motew, Melissa; Booth, Eric G.; Carpenter, Stephen R.; Chen, Xi; Kucharik, Christopher J.


    Over-enrichment of phosphorus (P) in agroecosystems contributes to eutrophication of surface waters. In the Midwest US and elsewhere, climate change is increasing the frequency of high-intensity precipitation events, which can serve as a primary conduit of P transport within watersheds. Despite uncertainty in their estimates, process-based watershed models are important tools that help characterize watershed hydrology and biogeochemistry and scale up important mechanisms affecting water quality. Using one such model developed for an agricultural watershed in Wisconsin, we conducted a 2 × 2 factorial experiment to test the effects of (high/low) terrestrial P supply (PSUP) and (high/low) precipitation intensity (PREC) on surface water quality. Sixty-year simulations were conducted for each of the four runs, with annual results obtained for watershed average P yield and concentration at the field scale (220 × 220 m grid cells), P load and concentration at the stream scale, and summertime total P concentration (TP) in Lake Mendota. ANOVA results were generated for the 2 × 2 factorial design, with PSUP and PREC treated as categorical variables. The results showed a significant, positive interaction (p loss may have important ecological consequences because dissolved P is highly bioavailable. Overall, the results suggest that high levels of terrestrial P supplied as manure can exacerbate water quality problems in the future as the frequency of high-intensity rainfall events increases with a changing climate. Conversely, lowering terrestrial manure P supply may help improve the resilience of surface water quality to extreme events.

  5. Purified water quality study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinka, H.; Jackowski, P.


    Argonne National Laboratory (HEP) is examining the use of purified water for the detection medium in cosmic ray sensors. These sensors are to be deployed in a remote location in Argentina. The purpose of this study is to provide information and preliminary analysis of available water treatment options and associated costs. This information, along with the technical requirements of the sensors, will allow the project team to determine the required water quality to meet the overall project goals

  6. Drinking water quality assessment. (United States)

    Aryal, J; Gautam, B; Sapkota, N


    Drinking water quality is the great public health concern because it is a major risk factor for high incidence of diarrheal diseases in Nepal. In the recent years, the prevalence rate of diarrhoea has been found the highest in Myagdi district. This study was carried out to assess the quality of drinking water from different natural sources, reservoirs and collection taps at Arthunge VDC of Myagdi district. A cross-sectional study was carried out using random sampling method in Arthunge VDC of Myagdi district from January to June,2010. 84 water samples representing natural sources, reservoirs and collection taps from the study area were collected. The physico-chemical and microbiological analysis was performed following standards technique set by APHA 1998 and statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS 11.5. The result was also compared with national and WHO guidelines. Out of 84 water samples (from natural source, reservoirs and tap water) analyzed, drinking water quality parameters (except arsenic and total coliform) of all water samples was found to be within the WHO standards and national standards.15.48% of water samples showed pH (13) higher than the WHO permissible guideline values. Similarly, 85.71% of water samples showed higher Arsenic value (72) than WHO value. Further, the statistical analysis showed no significant difference (Pwater for collection taps water samples of winter (January, 2010) and summer (June, 2010). The microbiological examination of water samples revealed the presence of total coliform in 86.90% of water samples. The results obtained from physico-chemical analysis of water samples were within national standard and WHO standards except arsenic. The study also found the coliform contamination to be the key problem with drinking water.

  7. The effect of algal and bacterial filters on sea water quality during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    quality changes in bacterial and algal filtration systems over a two month period. Juvenile ..... of the algae, prawns and micro-organisms (decomposition of excess food and .... Cultivation of marine organisms: Water quality management and ...

  8. Hydrology, water quality, and effects of drought in Monroe County, Michigan (United States)

    Nicholas, J.R.; Rowe, Gary L.; Brannen, J.R.


    Monroe County relies heavily on its aquifers and streams for drinking water, irrigation, and other ~ses; however, increased water use, high concentrations of certain constituents in ground water, and droughts may limit the availability of water resources. Although the most densely populated parts of the county use water from the Great Lakes, large amounts of ground water are withdrawn for quarry dewatering, domestic supply, and irrigation.Unconsolidated deposits and bedrock of Silurian and Devonian age underlie Mon_roe County. The unconsolidated deposits are mostly clayey and less than 50 feet thick. Usable amounts of ground water generally are obtained from thin, discontinuous surficial sand deposits or, in the northwestern part of the county, from deep glaciofluvial deposits. In most of the county, however, ground water in unconsolidated deposits is highly susceptible to effects of droughts and to contamination.The bedrock is mostly carbonate rock, and usable quantities of ground water can be obtained from fractures and other secondary openings throughout the county. Transmissivities of the Silurian-Devonian aquifer range from 10 to 6,600 feet squared per day. Aquifer tests and historical informati.on indicate that the Silurian-Devonian aquifer is confmed throughout most of the county. The major recharge area for the Silurian-Devonian aquifer in Monroe County is in the southwest, and groundwater flow is mostly southeastward toward Lake Erie. In the northeastern and southeastern parts of the county, the potentiometric surface of the SilurianDevonian aquifers has been lowered by pumpage to below the elevation of Lake Erie.Streams and artificial drains in Monroe County are tributary to Lake Erie. Most streams are perennial because of sustained discharge from the sand aquifer and the Silurian-Devonian aquifer; however, the lower reaches of River Raisin and Plum Creek lost water to the Silurian-Devonian aquifer in July 1990.The quality of ground water and of

  9. Water quality assessment of selected domestic water sources in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, lead ion appears higher than the approved WHO and SON standard for water quality in all the sources except that of water vendors which is 0.04mg/l. It is therefore recommended that periodic monitoring of water quality, effective waste management system to improve the general water quality in the town, and ...

  10. Effect of water quality and confounding factors on digestive enzyme activities in Gammarus fossarum. (United States)

    Charron, L; Geffard, O; Chaumot, A; Coulaud, R; Queau, H; Geffard, A; Dedourge-Geffard, O


    The feeding activity and subsequent assimilation of the products resulting from food digestion allow organisms to obtain energy for growth, maintenance and reproduction. Among these biological parameters, we studied digestive enzymes (amylase, cellulase and trypsin) in Gammarus fossarum to assess the impact of contaminants on their access to energy resources. However, to enable objective assessment of a toxic effect of decreased water quality on an organisms' digestive capacity, it is necessary to establish reference values based on its natural variability as a function of changing biotic and abiotic factors. To limit the confounding influence of biotic factors, a caging approach with calibrated male organisms from the same population was used. This study applied an in situ deployment at 23 sites of the Rhone basin rivers, complemented by a laboratory experiment assessing the influence of two abiotic factors (temperature and conductivity). The results showed a small effect of conductivity on cellulase activity and a significant effect of temperature on digestive enzyme activity but only at the lowest temperature (7 °C). The experimental conditions allowed us to define an environmental reference value for digestive enzyme activities to select sites where the quality of the water impacted the digestive capacity of the organisms. In addition to the feeding rate, this study showed the relevance of digestive enzymes as biomarkers to be used as an early warning tool to reflect organisms' health and the chemical quality of aquatic ecosystems.

  11. Small reservoir effects on headwater water quality in the rural-urban fringe, Georgia Piedmont, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.. Amber R. Ignatius, Geographer


    Full Text Available Small reservoirs are prevalent landscape features that affect the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of headwater streams. Tens of thousands of small reservoirs, often less than a hectare in size, were constructed over the past century within the United States. While remote-sensing and geographic-mapping technologies assist in identifying and quantifying these features, their localized influence on water quality is uncertain. We report a year-long physicochemical study of nine small reservoirs (0.15–2.17 ha within the Oconee and Broad River Watersheds in the Georgia Piedmont. Study sites were selected along an urban-rural gradient with differing amounts of agricultural, forested, and developed land covers. Sites were sampled monthly for discharge and inflow/outflow water quality parameters (temperature, specific conductance, pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, alkalinity, total phosphorus, total nitrogen, nitrate, ammonium. While the proportion of developed land cover within watersheds had positive correlations with reservoir specific conductivity values, agricultural and forested land covers showed correlations (positive and negative, respectively with reservoir alkalinity, total nitrogen, nitrate, and specific conductivity. The majority of outflow temperatures were warmer than inflows for all land uses throughout the year, especially in the summer. Outflows had lower nitrate concentrations, but higher ammonium. The type of outflow structure was also influential; top-release dams showed higher dissolved oxygen and pH than bottom-release dams. Water quality effects were still evident 250 m below the dam, albeit reduced.

  12. Water Quality Monitoring (United States)


    With the backing of NASA, researchers at Michigan State University, the University of Minnesota, and the University of Wisconsin have begun using satellite data to measure lake water quality and clarity of the lakes in the Upper Midwest. This false color IKONOS image displays the water clarity of the lakes in Eagan, Minnesota. Scientists measure the lake quality in satellite data by observing the ratio of blue to red light in the satellite data. When the amount of blue light reflecting off of the lake is high and the red light is low, a lake generally had high water quality. Lakes loaded with algae and sediments, on the other hand, reflect less blue light and more red light. In this image, scientists used false coloring to depict the level of clarity of the water. Clear lakes are blue, moderately clear lakes are green and yellow, and murky lakes are orange and red. Using images such as these along with data from the Landsat satellites and NASA's Terra satellite, the scientists plan to create a comprehensive water quality map for the entire Great Lakes region in the next few years. For more information, read: Testing the Waters (Image courtesy Upper Great Lakes Regional Earth Science Applications Center, based on data copyright Space Imaging)

  13. Effects of seasonal operation on the quality of water produced by public-supply wells. (United States)

    Bexfield, Laura M; Jurgens, Bryant C


    Seasonal variability in groundwater pumping is common in many places, but resulting effects of seasonal pumping stress on the quality of water produced by public-supply wells are not thoroughly understood. Analysis of historical water-quality samples from public-supply wells completed in deep basin-fill aquifers in Modesto, California (134 wells) and Albuquerque, New Mexico (95 wells) indicates that several wells have seasonal variability in concentrations of contaminants of concern. In Modesto, supply wells are more likely to produce younger groundwater with higher nitrate and uranium concentrations during the summer (high) pumping season than during the winter (low) pumping season. In Albuquerque, supply wells are more likely to produce older groundwater with higher arsenic concentrations during the winter pumping season than during the summer pumping season. Seasonal variability in contaminant concentrations in Modesto is influenced primarily by effects of summer pumping on vertical hydraulic gradients that drive migration of shallow groundwater through the aquifer to supply wells. Variability in Albuquerque is influenced primarily by the period of time that a supply well is idle, allowing its wellbore to act as a conduit for vertical groundwater flow and contaminant migration. However, both processes are observed in each study area. Similar findings would appear to be likely in other alluvial basins with stratified water quality and substantial vertical head gradients. Results suggest that even in aquifers dominated by old groundwater, changes to seasonal pumping patterns and/or to depth of well completion can help reduce vulnerability to selected contaminants of either natural or anthropogenic origin. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Groundwater published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of National Ground Water Association.

  14. Experimental forest watershed studies contribution to the effect of disturbances on water quality (United States)

    Daniel G. Neary


    The most sustainable and best quality fresh water sources in the world originate in forested watersheds (Dissmeyer 2000, Brooks et al. 2003, Barten and Ernst 2004). The biological, chemical, and physical characteristics of forest soils are particularly well suited to delivering high quality water to streams, and moderating the climatic extremes which affect stream...

  15. Communicating water quality risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherer, C.W.


    Technology for detecting and understanding water quality problems and the impacts of activities on long-range groundwater quality has advanced considerably. In the past a technical solution was considered adequate but today one must consider a wide range of both technical and social factors in evaluating technical alternatives that are also acceptable social solutions. Policies developed and implemented with limited local participation generally are resisted and become ineffective if public cooperation is necessary for effective implementation. The public, the experts and the policymakers all must understand and appreciate the different perspectives present in risk policymaking. The typical model used to involve the public in policy decisions is a strategy described as the decide-announce-defend-approach. Much more acceptable to the public, but also more difficult to implement, is a strategy that calls for free flow of information within the community about the problem, policies and potential solutions. Communication about complex issues will be more successful if the communication is substantial; if it takes advantage of existing interpersonal networks and mass media; if it pays particular attention to existing audience knowledge, interest and behaviors; and if it clearly targets messages to various segments of the audience

  16. Integrated cost-effectiveness analysis of agri-environmental measures for water quality. (United States)

    Balana, Bedru B; Jackson-Blake, Leah; Martin-Ortega, Julia; Dunn, Sarah


    This paper presents an application of integrated methodological approach for identifying cost-effective combinations of agri-environmental measures to achieve water quality targets. The methodological approach involves linking hydro-chemical modelling with economic costs of mitigation measures. The utility of the approach was explored for the River Dee catchment in North East Scotland, examining the cost-effectiveness of mitigation measures for nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) pollutants. In-stream nitrate concentration was modelled using the STREAM-N and phosphorus using INCA-P model. Both models were first run for baseline conditions and then their effectiveness for changes in land management was simulated. Costs were based on farm income foregone, capital and operational expenditures. The costs and effects data were integrated using 'Risk Solver Platform' optimization in excel to produce the most cost-effective combination of measures by which target nutrient reductions could be attained at a minimum economic cost. The analysis identified different combination of measures as most cost-effective for the two pollutants. An important aspect of this paper is integration of model-based effectiveness estimates with economic cost of measures for cost-effectiveness analysis of land and water management options. The methodological approach developed is not limited to the two pollutants and the selected agri-environmental measures considered in the paper; the approach can be adapted to the cost-effectiveness analysis of any catchment-scale environmental management options. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The effect of beaver ponds on water quality in rural coastal plain streams (United States)

    Bason, Christopher W.; Kroes, Daniel; Brinson, Mark M.


    We compared water-quality effects of 13 beaver ponds on adjacent free-flowing control reaches in the Coastal Plain of rural North Carolina. We measured concentrations of nitrate, ammonium, soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), and suspended sediment (SS) upstream and downstream of paired ponds and control reaches. Nitrate and SS concentrations decreased, ammonium concentrations increased, and SRP concentrations were unaffected downstream of the ponds and relative to the control reaches. The pond effect on nitrate concentration was a reduction of 112 ± 55 μg-N/L (19%) compared to a control-reach—influenced reduction of 28 ± 17 μg-N/L. The pond effect on ammonium concentration was an increase of 9.47 ± 10.9 μg-N/L (59%) compared to the control-reach—influenced reduction of 1.49 ± 1.37 μg-N/L. The pond effect on SS concentration was a decrease of 3.41 ± 1.68 mg/L (40%) compared to a control-reach—influenced increase of 0.56 ± 0.27 mg/L. Ponds on lower-order streams reduced nitrate concentrations by greater amounts compared to those in higher-order streams. Older ponds reduced SS concentrations by greater amounts compared to younger ponds. The findings of this study indicate that beaver ponds provide water-quality benefits to rural Coastal Plain streams by reducing concentrations of nitrate and suspended sediment.

  18. Effect of Water Quality and Drip Irrigation Management on Yield and Water Use Efficiency in Late Summer Melon


    javad baghani; A. Alizadeh; H. Ansari; M. Azizi


    Introduction: Production and growth of plants in many parts of the world due to degradation and water scarcity have been limited and particularly, in recent decades, agriculture is faced with stress. In the most parts of Iran, especially in the Khorasan Razavi province, drought is a fact and water is very important. Due to melon cultivation in this province, and the conditions of quality and quantity of water resources and water used to produce the melon product in this province, any researc...

  19. Optical sensors for water quality (United States)

    Pellerin, Brian A.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.


    Shifts in land use, population, and climate have altered hydrologic systems in the United States in ways that affect water quality and ecosystem function. Water diversions, detention in reservoirs, increased channelization, and changes in rainfall and snowmelt are major causes, but there are also more subtle causes such as changes in soil temperature, atmospheric deposition, and shifting vegetation patterns. The effects on water quality are complex and interconnected, and occur at timeframes of minutes (e.g., flash floods) to decades (e.g., evolving management practices).

  20. Numerical simulation of hydrodynamic and water quality effects of shoreline changes in Bohai Bay (United States)

    Jia, Han; Shen, Yongming; Su, Meirong; Yu, Chunxue


    This study uses the HD and Ecolab modules of MIKE to simulate the hydrodynamic and water quality and predict the influence of shoreline changes in Bohai Bay, China. The study shows that shoreline changes weaken the residual current and generate a counter-clockwise circulation south of Huanghua Port, thereby resulting in weak water exchange capacity and low pollutant-diffusing capacity. Shoreline changes reduce the area of Bohai Bay, resulting in a smaller tidal prism and further weakening the water exchange capacity. This situation is not conducive to the diffusion of pollutants, and therefore may lead to increased water pollution in the bay. Shoreline changes hinder the spread of runoff, weaken the dilution effect of the river on seawater, and block the spread of coastal residual current, thereby resulting in increased salinity near the reclamation area. Shoreline changes lead to an increase in PO4-P concentration and decrease in DIN concentration. The value of N/P near the project decreases, thereby weakening the phosphorus-limited effect.

  1. Studying Effect of Water Quality Parameters on Coagulation Efficiency by Moringa Oleifera Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Parvini


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the performance and efficiency of Moringa seeds from different sources on turbidity. A protein analysis test was done for each source; then two different methods of extraction were compared to examine the coagulation activity for the Moringa's active ingredient. The results of sodium chloride (NaCI extraction in comparison to distilled water extraction of the Moringa olifera seeds showed that the salt solution extraction technique was more efficient than the distilled water for extracting the active coagulant ingredient.  The above mentioned findings were used to examine the effects of other parameters such as pH, calcium and magnesium hardness, bicarbonate-alkalinity, and salinity independently on turbidity removal with an optimum dosage of 1% NaCI extract of dry shelled Moringa seeds. The obtained results showed that the water quality parameters had no significant effect on the coagulation potential of the NaCI extract of the shelled Moringa seeds and was almost amenable to a wide range of water environment condition.

  2. The Effect of Ambient Water Quality on Lakefront Property Values: Evidence from Coeur d'Alene, Idaho (United States)

    Liao, H.


    Climate warming is causing water temperatures to increase and subsequent changes in water quality. To develop innovative approaches for mitigating the possible negative social consequences of such changes, more research efforts are needed to investigate how people perceive and respond to ambient water quality. This research examines the amenity value of water quality in the areas centered on Lake Coeur d'Alene of Northern Idaho. Through a hedonic analysis, we find that two important water-quality variables have had significant effects on lakefront property values, including Secchi disc reading, a technical measure of water clarity, and the presence of Eurasian watermilfoil, an aquatic invasive species. We further explore the spatial heterogeneity of water-quality benefits along the urban-rural gradient and find that access to urban amenities has strengthened the water-quality benefits in the lakefront housing market. Our findings could be used to incentivize private property owners and stakeholders to commit time and funding to cope with the potential degradation of water quality under climate change.

  3. Application of Water Quality Model of Jordan River to Evaluate Climate Change Effects on Eutrophication (United States)

    Van Grouw, B.


    The Jordan River is a 51 mile long freshwater stream in Utah that provides drinking water to more than 50% of Utah's population. The various point and nonpoint sources introduce an excess of nutrients into the river. This excess induces eutrophication that results in an inhabitable environment for aquatic life is expected to be exacerbated due to climate change. Adaptive measures must be evaluated based on predictions of climate variation impacts on eutrophication and ecosystem processes in the Jordan River. A Water Quality Assessment Simulation Program (WASP) model was created to analyze the data results acquired from a Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) study conducted on the Jordan River. Eutrophication is modeled based on levels of phosphates and nitrates from point and nonpoint sources, temperature, and solar radiation. It will simulate the growth of phytoplankton and periphyton in the river. This model will be applied to assess how water quality in the Jordan River is affected by variations in timing and intensity of spring snowmelt and runoff during drought in the valley and the resulting effects on eutrophication in the river.

  4. Effects of seasonal operation on the quality of water produced by public-supply wells (United States)

    Bexfield, Laura M.; Jurgens, Bryant C.


    Seasonal variability in groundwater pumping is common in many places, but resulting effects of seasonal pumping stress on the quality of water produced by public-supply wells are not thoroughly understood. Analysis of historical water-quality samples from public-supply wells completed in deep basin-fill aquifers in Modesto, California (134 wells) and Albuquerque, New Mexico (95 wells) indicates that several wells have seasonal variability in concentrations of contaminants of concern. In Modesto, supply wells are more likely to produce younger groundwater with higher nitrate and uranium concentrations during the summer (high) pumping season than during the winter (low) pumping season. In Albuquerque, supply wells are more likely to produce older groundwater with higher arsenic concentrations during the winter pumping season than during the summer pumping season. Seasonal variability in contaminant concentrations in Modesto is influenced primarily by effects of summer pumping on vertical hydraulic gradients that drive migration of shallow groundwater through the aquifer to supply wells. Variability in Albuquerque is influenced primarily by the period of time that a supply well is idle, allowing its wellbore to act as a conduit for vertical groundwater flow and contaminant migration. However, both processes are observed in each study area. Similar findings would appear to be likely in other alluvial basins with stratified water quality and substantial vertical head gradients. Results suggest that even in aquifers dominated by old groundwater, changes to seasonal pumping patterns and/or to depth of well completion can help reduce vulnerability to selected contaminants of either natural or anthropogenic origin.

  5. Effect of the Cedar River on the quality of the ground-water supply for Cedar Rapids, Iowa (United States)

    Schulmeyer, P.M.


    The Surface Water Treatment Rule under the 1986 Amendment to the Safe Drinking Water Act requires that public-water supplies be evaluated for susceptibility to surface-water effects. The alluvial aquifer adjacent to the Cedar River is evaluated for biogenic material and monitored for selected water-quality properties and constituents to determine the effect of surface water on the water supply for the City of Cedar Rapids, Iowa. Results from monitoring of selected water-quality properties and constituents showed an inverse relation to river stage or discharge. Water-quality properties and constituents of the alluvial aquifer changed as water flowed from the river to the municipal well as a result of drawdown. The values of specific conductance, pH, temperature, and dissolved oxygen at observation well CRM-4 and municipal well Seminole 10 generally follow the trends of values for the Cedar River. Values at observation well CRM-3 and the municipal water-treatment plant showed very little correlation with values from the river. The traveltime of water through the aquifer could be an indication of the susceptibility of the alluvial aquifer to surface-water effects. Estimated traveltimes from the Cedar River to municipal well Seminole 10 ranged from 7 to 17 days.

  6. Water quality in Atlantic rainforest mountain rivers (South America): quality indices assessment, nutrients distribution, and consumption effect. (United States)

    Avigliano, Esteban; Schenone, Nahuel


    The South American Atlantic rainforest is a one-of-a-kind ecosystem considered as a biodiversity hotspot; however, in the last decades, it was intensively reduced to 7 % of its original surface. Water resources and water quality are one of the main goods and services this system provides to people. For monitoring and management recommendations, the present study is focused on (1) determining the nutrient content (nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, and phosphate) and physiochemical parameters (temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, and total dissolved solids) in surface water from 24 rainforest mountain rivers in Argentina, (2) analyzing the human health risk, (3) assessing the environmental distribution of the determined pollutants, and (4) analyzing water quality indices (WQIobj and WQImin). In addition, for total coliform bacteria, a dataset was used from literature. Turbidity, total dissolved solids, and nitrite (NO2 (-)) exceeded the guideline value recommended by national or international guidelines in several sampling stations. The spatial distribution pattern was analyzed by Principal Component Analysis and Factor Analysis (PCA/FA) showing well-defined groups of rivers. Both WQI showed good adjustment (R (2) = 0.89) and rated water quality as good or excellent in all sampling sites (WQI > 71). Therefore, this study suggests the use of the WQImin for monitoring water quality in the region and also the water treatment of coliform, total dissolved solids, and turbidity.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brata Pantjara


    Full Text Available One of the technologies to improve the productivity of shrimp farms are environmentally friendly shrimp farming multitrophic integrated system known as Integrated Multitrophic Aquaculture (IMTA. The aims of the study were to observe the water quality dynamic on the integrated multitrophic aquaculture and the effect on the production. This study was used four plots which each of pond had 4,000 m2 in sizing, located in experiment pond, at Research and Development Institute for Coastal Aquaculture, Maros. The main commodities used were tiger and vannamei shrimp. In the A pond was cultivated the tiger shrimp with density 12 ind./m2, in B pond was tiger shrimp with density 8 ind./m2, C pond was vannamei shrimp with density 50 ind./m2, and D pond was vannamei shrimp with density 25 ind./m2. Other commodities were red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Each pond had stocking density 2,400 ind./plot which was divided into 5 hapas having a size of (6 m x 4 m x 1.2 m/each, mangrove oysters (Crassostrea iredalei and Saccostrea cucullata with density 7,500 ind./4,000 m2 and seaweed (Gracilaria verrucosa of 500 kg/4,000 m2. The observation of dynamic water quality in the pond was conducted every day i.e. temperature, dissolved oxygen, salinity, and measured pH, while the total organic matter total (TOM, total ammonia nitrogen (TAN, nitrite, nitrate, phosphate were taken every two weeks. The measurements methods of water quality in laboratory was refered to APHA (2008; and Boyd (1990. During the study, absorption of N and P in seaweed were measured, the obtained plankton was identified and the ratio of carbon and nitrogen during the observation was also calculated. To determine the effect of dominant water quality on production was used the principal component analysis (PCA. The result showed that water quality during the study was suitable for shrimp and red tilapia culture. The dominant water qualities which effected the shrimp production in

  8. A Regional Assessment of the Effects of Conservation Practices on In-stream Water Quality (United States)

    Garcia, A. M.; Alexander, R. B.; Arnold, J.; Norfleet, L.; Robertson, D. M.; White, M.


    The Conservation Effects Assessment Program (CEAP), initiated by USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), has the goal of quantifying the environmental benefits of agricultural conservation practices. As part of this effort, detailed farmer surveys were compiled to document the adoption of conservation practices. Survey data showed that up to 38 percent of cropland in the Upper Mississippi River basin is managed to reduce sediment, nutrient and pesticide loads from agricultural activities. The broader effects of these practices on downstream water quality are challenging to quantify. The USDA-NRCS recently reported results of a study that combined farmer surveys with process-based models to deduce the effect of conservation practices on sediment and chemical loads in farm runoff and downstream waters. As a follow-up collaboration, USGS and USDA scientists conducted a semi-empirical assessment of the same suite of practices using the USGS SPARROW (SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes) modeling framework. SPARROW is a hybrid statistical and mechanistic stream water quality model of annual conditions that has been used extensively in studies of nutrient sources and delivery. In this assessment, the USDA simulations of the effects of conservation practices on loads in farm runoff were used as an explanatory variable (i.e., change in farm loads per unit area) in a component of an existing a SPARROW model of the Upper Midwest. The model was then re-calibrated and tested to determine whether the USDA estimate of conservation adoption intensity explained a statistically significant proportion of the spatial variability in stream nutrient loads in the Upper Mississippi River basin. The results showed that the suite of conservation practices that NRCS has catalogued as complete nutrient and sediment management are a statistically significant feature in the Midwestern landscape associated with phosphorous runoff and delivery to downstream waters

  9. Integrated analysis of water quality parameters for cost-effective faecal pollution management in river catchments. (United States)

    Nnane, Daniel Ekane; Ebdon, James Edward; Taylor, Huw David


    In many parts of the world, microbial contamination of surface waters used for drinking, recreation, and shellfishery remains a pervasive risk to human health, especially in Less Economically Developed Countries (LEDC). However, the capacity to provide effective management strategies to break the waterborne route to human infection is often thwarted by our inability to identify the source of microbial contamination. Microbial Source Tracking (MST) has potential to improve water quality management in complex river catchments that are either routinely, or intermittently contaminated by faecal material from one or more sources, by attributing faecal loads to their human or non-human sources, and thereby supporting more rational approaches to microbial risk assessment. The River Ouse catchment in southeast England (U.K.) was used as a model with which to investigate the integration and application of a novel and simple MST approach to monitor microbial water quality over one calendar year, thereby encompassing a range of meteorological conditions. A key objective of the work was to develop simple low-cost protocols that could be easily replicated. Bacteriophages (viruses) capable of infecting a human specific strain of Bacteroides GB-124, and their correlation with presumptive Escherichia coli, were used to distinguish sources of faecal pollution. The results reported here suggest that in this river catchment the principal source of faecal pollution in most instances was non-human in origin. During storm events, presumptive E. coli and presumptive intestinal enterococci levels were 1.1-1.2 logs higher than during dry weather conditions, and levels of the faecal indicator organisms (FIOs) were closely associated with increased turbidity levels (presumptive E. coli and turbidity, r = 0.43). Spatio-temporal variation in microbial water quality parameters was accounted for by three principal components (67.6%). Cluster Analysis, reduced the fourteen monitoring sites to six

  10. Hydrology and water quality of Shell Lake, Washburn County, Wisconsin, with special emphasis on the effects of diversion and changes in water level on the water quality of a shallow terminal lake (United States)

    Juckem, Paul F.; Robertson, Dale M.


    Shell Lake is a relatively shallow terminal lake (tributaries but no outlets) in northwestern Wisconsin that has experienced approximately 10 feet (ft) of water-level fluctuation over more than 70 years of record and extensive flooding of nearshore areas starting in the early 2000s. The City of Shell Lake (City) received a permit from the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources in 2002 to divert water from the lake to a nearby river in order to lower water levels and reduce flooding. Previous studies suggested that water-level fluctuations were driven by long-term cycles in precipitation, evaporation, and runoff, although questions about the lake’s connection with the groundwater system remained. The permit required that the City evaluate assumptions about lake/groundwater interactions made in previous studies and evaluate the effects of the water diversion on water levels in Shell Lake and other nearby lakes. Therefore, a cooperative study between the City and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) was initiated to improve the understanding of the hydrogeology of the area and evaluate potential effects of the diversion on water levels in Shell Lake, the surrounding groundwater system, and nearby lakes. Concerns over deteriorating water quality in the lake, possibly associated with changes in water level, prompted an additional cooperative project between the City and the USGS to evaluate efeffects of changes in nutrient loading associated with changes in water levels on the water quality of Shell Lake. Numerical models were used to evaluate how the hydrology and water quality responded to diversion of water from the lake and historical changes in the watershed. The groundwater-flow model MODFLOW was used to simulate groundwater movement in the area around Shell Lake, including groundwater/surface-water interactions. Simulated results from the MODFLOW model indicate that groundwater flows generally northward in the area around Shell Lake, with flow locally converging

  11. A Comparison of Alternative Strategies for Cost-Effective Water Quality Management in Lakes (United States)

    Kramer, Daniel Boyd; Polasky, Stephen; Starfield, Anthony; Palik, Brian; Westphal, Lynne; Snyder, Stephanie; Jakes, Pamela; Hudson, Rachel; Gustafson, Eric


    Roughly 45% of the assessed lakes in the United States are impaired for one or more reasons. Eutrophication due to excess phosphorus loading is common in many impaired lakes. Various strategies are available to lake residents for addressing declining lake water quality, including septic system upgrades and establishing riparian buffers. This study examines 25 lakes to determine whether septic upgrades or riparian buffers are a more cost-effective strategy to meet a phosphorus reduction target. We find that riparian buffers are the more cost-effective strategy in every case but one. Large transaction costs associated with the negotiation and monitoring of riparian buffers, however, may be prohibiting lake residents from implementing the most cost-effective strategy.

  12. Effect of agriculture on water quality of Lake Biwa tributaries, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Takanori; Tayasu, Ichiro; Yamada, Yoshihiro; Hosono, Takahiro; Igeta, Akitake; Hyodo, Fujio; Ando, Atsushi; Saitoh, Yu; Tanaka, Takuya; Wada, Eitaro; Yachi, Shigeo


    We investigated the effects of natural environments and human activity on Lake Biwa, central Japan. We determined the concentrations of 19 elements and the compositions of stable S and Sr isotopes in the main tributaries of the lake and compared them with the corresponding values obtained from the lake water during the circulation period. Results of a principal component analysis indicated that the components dissolved in the lower reaches of the tributaries can be divided into group 1 (HCO 3 , SO 4 , NO 3 , Ca, Mg, Sr) and group 2 components (Cl, Br, Na, K, Ba, Rb, Cs). The concentrations of group 1 components were high in the rivers of the southern area, which is urbanized and densely populated, and the eastern area, which consists of plains where agriculture predominates, compared with the rivers of the northern and western areas, which are mostly mountainous and sparsely populated. The concentrations of group 2 components tended to be high in the river water of industrial areas. The δ 34 S values of SO 4 in the river water converged to 0 ± 2 per mille as the SO 4 concentration increased and, excluding the areas where limestone is extensively distributed, as the HCO 3 concentration increased. In particular, both the δ 34 S values (0 ± 2 per mille ) and the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios (0.7117 ± 0.0005) fell within narrow ranges in the small and medium rivers of the eastern plain area, where rice is widely grown. These values agreed respectively with the δ 34 S values of the fertilizers used in the Lake Biwa basin and the soil-exchangeable 87 Sr/ 86 Sr in the eastern plain. The characteristics of water quality in the small and medium rivers of the eastern area can be explained by a model in which sulfuric, nitric, and bicarbonic acids generated by the decomposition of agricultural fertilizer and paddy rice selectively leached out alkaline-earth elements adsorbed on the soil and sediments of the plain or dissolved calcium carbonate enriched with Mg and Sr. Compared

  13. Effects of mechanical harvest plus chipping and prescribed fire on Sierran runoff water quality. (United States)

    Loupe, T M; Miller, W W; Johnson, D W; Sedinger, J S; Carroll, E M; Walker, R F; Murphy, J D; Stein, C M


    Fire suppression in Sierran ecosystems creates a substantial wildfire hazard and may exacerbate nutrient inputs into Lake Tahoe by allowing the buildup of O horizon material, which serves as a source for high N and P concentrations in runoff water. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of biomass reduction using cut-to-length mechanical harvest followed by chipping and controlled burning on surface runoff volume and water quality. Based on previous findings regarding N and P leaching flux and soil solution concentrations, we hypothesized that controlled burning and/or mechanical harvest with residue chipping does not increase inorganic N, P, and S concentrations in overland flow. Runoff, snowmelt, and rainfall were collected, volume measurements were taken, and samples were analyzed for NO(3)-N, NH(4)-N, PO(4)-P, and SO(4). Runoff volume, season, and year were identified as important parameters influencing overland flow nutrient concentrations and loads. Higher nutrient concentrations were commonly associated with summer rather than winter runoff, but the opposite was true for nutrient loads due to the higher runoff volumes. Treatment (unharvested, harvested, unburned, burned) effect was a strong predictor for discharge loads of NO(3)-N and SO(4) but was a weak predictor for PO(4)-P. Discharge loads of NO(3)-N and SO(4) were greater for the unburned harvested and the burned unharvested treatments than for the unburned, unharvested control sites or the burned and harvested combined treatment. Although mechanical harvest and/or controlled burning had a small initial impact on increased nutrient loading, the effects were minimal compared with background levels. Hence, these management practices may have the potential to improve forest health without the danger of large-magnitude nutrient mobilization and degradation of runoff water quality found with wildfire.

  14. Effect of the litter material on drinking water quality in broiler production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RG Garcia


    Full Text Available Considering the importance of drinking water and its effect on broiler performance, drinking water quality was studied using six different litter materials. The presence of coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli was investigated. The following litter materials were used in the trial: wood shavings, rice husks, chopped Napier grass (Pennisetum pupureum, 50% sugarcane bagasse (Saccharum L. + 50% wood shavings, 50% sugarcane bagasse (Saccharum L. + 50% rice husks, and plain sugarcane bagasse (Saccharum L.. A number of 1620 Ross® one-day-old chicks were reared in 54 pens measuring 4.5 m² each, equipped with a bell drinker and a tube feeder. Water samples were collected in sterile tubes on days 28 and 42 of the rearing period, and submitted to the laboratory for analyses. Microbiological data were organized by classes expressed in a logarithm scale, where the lowest contamination corresponds to class 1 and the highest contamination to class 4. Results showed that total coliform contamination was higher on day 28 than in the end of the rearing period, and that E. coli presence was detected during both analyzed periods. The litter materials that presented lower degree of water contamination, predominantly class 1, were sugarcane bagasse and 50% of sugarcane bagasse and 50% of rice husks.

  15. 77 FR 29271 - Effective Date for the Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Lakes and Flowing Waters (United States)


    ... comments, identified by Docket ID No. EPA-HQ-OW- 2009-0596, by one of the following methods: 1. http://www... final inland waters rule established numeric nutrient criteria in the form of total nitrogen, total... attainment of the State's applicable water quality designated uses. More specifically, the numeric nutrient...

  16. 76 FR 79604 - Effective Date for the Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Lakes and Flowing Waters (United States)


    ... following methods: 1. : Follow the on-line instructions for submitting comments... inland waters rule established numeric nutrient criteria in the form of total nitrogen, total phosphorus... of the State's applicable water quality designated uses. More specifically, the numeric nutrient...

  17. Effect of chlorination of drinking-water on water quality and childhood diarrhoea in a village in Pakistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter K; Ensink, Jeroen H J; Jayasinghe, Gayathri


    had a higher risk of diarrhoea than children using groundwater sources, controlled for confounding by season and availability of a toilet and a water-storage facility. The incidence of diarrhoea in the village (7.3 episodes per 10(3) person-days) was not statistically different from......To evaluate the importance of public-domain transmission of pathogens in drinking-water, an intervention study was carried out by chlorinating the public water-supply system in a village in Pakistan. The water quality improved and reached a geometric mean of 3 Escherichia coli per 100 m......L at the last standpipe of the water-supply system. Drinking-water source used and the occurrence of diarrhoea were monitored on a weekly basis over a six-month period among 144 children aged less than five years in the village. In this group, the children using chlorinated water from the water-supply scheme...

  18. Effects of coal mining on ground and surface water quality, Monongalia County, West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbett, R G


    Water quality data are compared. Areas disturbed extensively either by surface or underground mining for bituminous coal in Monongalia County, West Virginia yield water of poorer quality than similar terrain which is not so disturbed. Specifically, the disturbed areas yield hard water of the calcium-sulfate or calcium-magnesium-sulfate type which is low in pH, high in iron and aluminum, and which contains trace elements one or more orders of magnitude greater than water from undisturbed terrain. These hard waters differ from the more common type of hard waters in that sulfate rather than bicarbonate is the dominant anion. As such they may provide further insight into factors affecting the relationship between water hardness and cardiovascular disease rates. The necessary additional data are being collected.

  19. Study of pollution effect on water quality of Grogol River, DKI Jakarta (United States)

    Amira, S.; Astono, W.; Hendrawan, D.


    A study has been conducted to identify the incoming pollutants and assess the water quality in Grogol River, DKI Jakarta, Indonesia, which has a length of 13.35 km and consists of two segments. The water quality assessment is determined by pollution index method, referring to Minister of Environment Decree No. 15/2013 on The Guidelines of Water Quality Status. The samples were taken both in rainy and dry seasons at 7 sampling points. Based on the analyses of 10 key parameters and the calculation of pollution index value, it can be concluded that Grogol River is low polluted in rainy season and moderate polluted in dry season. The information obtained from this research can be used for decision making to improve the water quality of Grogol River.

  20. Effect of Water Quality and Temperature on the Efficiency of Two Kinds of Hydrophilic Polymers in Soil. (United States)

    Dehkordi, Davoud Khodadadi


      In this study, evaluation of two-superabsorbent effects, Super-AB-A-300 and Super-AB-A-200 in a sandy soil on the water retention capability and saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) at different water quality and soil temperature were done. The Super-AB-A-200 was less effective in water uptake than Super-AB-A-300. The efficiency of these polymers in water retention was negatively influenced by the water quality and temperature. The efficiency of these polymer treatments in water uptake reduced significantly (P < 0.05) with increasing soil temperature. In the control soil, the Ks stayed nearly constant with increasing soil temperature. As compared to the untreated control, the treated soil demonstrated a significant (P < 0.05) linear increase of Ks with increasing soil temperature. In the control soil, the water holding properties curve did not change with increasing soil temperature.

  1. Assessing ecosystem effects of reservoir operations using food web-energy transfer and water quality models (United States)

    Saito, L.; Johnson, B.M.; Bartholow, J.; Hanna, R.B.


    We investigated the effects on the reservoir food web of a new temperature control device (TCD) on the dam at Shasta Lake, California. We followed a linked modeling approach that used a specialized reservoir water quality model to forecast operation-induced changes in phytoplankton production. A food web–energy transfer model was also applied to propagate predicted changes in phytoplankton up through the food web to the predators and sport fishes of interest. The food web–energy transfer model employed a 10% trophic transfer efficiency through a food web that was mapped using carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis. Stable isotope analysis provided an efficient and comprehensive means of estimating the structure of the reservoir's food web with minimal sampling and background data. We used an optimization procedure to estimate the diet proportions of all food web components simultaneously from their isotopic signatures. Some consumers were estimated to be much more sensitive than others to perturbations to phytoplankton supply. The linked modeling approach demonstrated that interdisciplinary efforts enhance the value of information obtained from studies of managed ecosystems. The approach exploited the strengths of engineering and ecological modeling methods to address concerns that neither of the models could have addressed alone: (a) the water quality model could not have addressed quantitatively the possible impacts to fish, and (b) the food web model could not have examined how phytoplankton availability might change due to reservoir operations.

  2. Ground Water Quality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results showed that Na and K were the most abundant dissolved cations in the groundwater. The. + .... concentration of phosphate (PO ) in the water. 4 samples was ...... The Effect of Copper on Some Laboratory Indices of Clarias.

  3. Effects of pollution in River Krishni on hand pump water quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Dhakyanaika


    Full Text Available River Krishni is highly polluted. The investigation was “to study the effect of pollution in River Krishni on the quality ofgroundwater abstracted through shallow and deep hand pumps placed in the close vicinity of River Krishni”. One suchaffected Village Chanedna Maal was selected for the study. Water samples were analyzed in terms of physical, chemicaland bacteriological water quality parameters. Range of values of conductivity (1040–2770 μS/cm, TOC (27.79–1365.1mg/L, UV absorbance at 254 nm (0.281–10.34 cm-1, color (1510–5200 CU, and COD (15.82–1062 mg/L indicatedpresence of significant amount of pollution / organics in the river water, total coliform (16x102–46x106 MPN/100mLand fecal coliform (16x102–24x106 MPN/100mL. In case of deeper India Mark-II hand pumps conductivity was foundto range from 443–755 μS/cm, TOC (0.226–9.284 mg/L, UV absorbance (0.0–0.118 cm-1, colour (0.0–119 CU, COD(9.0–113 mg/L and MPN (0.0–93x101/100m L. While in case of shallower hand pumps conductivity (441–1609 μS/cm, TOC (0.015–68.82 mg/L, UV absorbance (0.0–1.094 cm-1, colour (4.0–560 CU, COD (9.72–163 mg/L and MPN(0.0–15x102/100mL. Hand pumps abstracting water from shallow and deep unconfined aquifers have been found to deliverpolluted water in terms of color, organics and coliform bacteria. As the hand pumps are the only source of water supply inVillage Chandena Maal, pollution of the groundwater has adversely affected the day to day life of its 3000 residents.

  4. Examining the Effects of Altered Water Quality on Sea Urchin Fertilization Success and Embryo Development (United States)

    Haverkort-Yeh, Roxanne Dominique; Tamaru, Clyde S.; Gorospe, Kelvin Dalauta; Rivera, Malia Ana J.


    As a result of shifting marine environmental conditions caused by global climate change and localized water pollution, marine organisms are becoming increasingly exposed to changing water quality conditions. For example, they are exposed to more extreme salinity fluctuations as a result of heavier rainfall, melting polar caps, or extreme droughts.…

  5. The effects of brewery effluent discharge on the water quality and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effluent discharge into the river significantly altered the water quality. Monitoring of effluent discharge into the aquatic environment and strict adherence to regulatory limits will halt further degradation of the environment. Key words: Water, sediment physico-chemistry, distribution coefficient, effluent discharge, tropical river ...

  6. Water-quality effects on Baker Lake of recent volcanic activity at Mount Baker, Washington (United States)

    Bortleson, Gilbert Carl; Wilson, Reed T.; Foxworthy, B.L.


    Increased volcanic activity on Mount Baker, which began in March 1975, represents the greatest known activity of a Cascade Range volcano since eruptions at Lassen Peak, Calif. during 1914-17. Emissions of dust and increased emanations of steam, other gases, and heat from the Sherman Crater area of the mountain focused attention on the possibility of hazardous events, including lava flows, pyroclastic eruptions, avalanches, and mudflows. However, the greatest undesirable natural results that have been observed after one year of the increased activity are an increase in local atmospheric pollution and a decrease in the quality of some local water resources, including Baker Lake. Baker Lake, a hydropower reservoir behind Upper Baker Dam, supports a valuable fishery resource and also is used for recreation. The lake's feedwater is from Baker River and many smaller streams, some of which, like Boulder Creek, drain parts of Mount Baker. Boulder Creek receives water from Sherman Crater, and its channel is a likely route for avalanches or mudflows that might originate in the crater area. Boulder Creek drains only about 5 percent of the total drainage area of Baker Lake, but during 1975 carried sizeable but variable loads of acid and dissolved minerals into the lake. Sulfurous gases and the fumarole dust from Sherman Crater are the main sources for these materials, which are brought into upper Boulder Creek by meltwater from the crater. In September 1973, before the increased volcanic activity, Boulder Creek near the lake had a pH of 6.0-6.6; after the increase the pH ranged as low as about 3.5. Most nearby streams had pH values near 7. On April 29, in Boulder Creek the dissolved sulfate concentration was 6 to 29 times greater than in nearby creeks or in Baker River; total iron was 18-53 times greater than in nearby creeks; and other major dissolved constituents generally 2 to 7 times greater than in the other streams. The short-term effects on Baker Lake of the acidic

  7. Integrated Urban Water Quality Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rauch, W.; Harremoës, Poul


    The basic features of integrated urban water quality management by means of deterministic modeling are outlined. Procedures for the assessment of the detrimental effects in the recipient are presented as well as the basic concepts of an integrated model. The analysis of a synthetic urban drainage...... system provides useful information for water quality management. It is possible to identify the system parameters that contain engineering significance. Continuous simulation of the system performance indicates that the combined nitrogen loading is dominated by the wastewater treatment plant during dry...

  8. Effects of forest harvest on stream-water quality and nitrogen cycling in the Caspar Creek watershed (United States)

    Randy A. Dahlgren


    The effects of forest harvest on stream-water quality and nitrogen cycling were examined for a redwood/Douglas-fir ecosystem in the North Fork, Caspar Creek experimental watershed in northern California. Stream-water samples were collected from treated (e.g., clearcut) and reference (e.g., noncut) watersheds, and from various locations downstream from the treated...

  9. Shifting cultivation effects on creek water quality around Barkal Upazila in Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shyamal Karmakar; S.M.Sirajul Haque; M.Mozaffar Hossain; Sohag Miah


    We report the effects of shifting cultivation on water quality in 16 creeks investigated once in 2007 and twice in 2008 in 16 apparently similar small neighboring watersheds,each of 3 to 5 ha,at four locations around Barkal sub-district under Rangamati District of Chittagong Hill Tracts in Bangladesh.Concentrations of SO42-and K+,and pH in creek water were lower,and NO3-N and Na+ concentrations were higher in shifting-cultivation land compared to land with either plantation or natural forest or a combination of these cover types.Shifting cultivation effects on some water quality parameters were not significant due to change in land cover of the watershed between two sampling periods either through introduction of planted tree species or naturally regenerated vegetation.Conductivity and concentrations of HCO3-.PO43-,Ca2+ and Mg2+ in creek water showed no definite trend between shifting cultivation and the other land cover types.At one area near the Forest Range Office of Barkal,creek water pH was 5.8 under land cover with a combination of shifting cultivation and plantation.At this area Na+ concentration in shifting-cultivation land ranged from 32.33 to 33.00 mg·L-1 and in vegetated area from 25.00 to 30.50 mg·L-1 in 2007.At another area,Chaliatali Chara,SO42-concentration in a shifting-cultivation watershed ranged from 4.46 to 10.51 mg·L-1,lower than in a vegetated watershed that ranged from 11.69 to 19.98 mg·L-1 in 2007.SO42-concentration in this shifting-cultivation area ranged from 1.28 to 1.37 mg·L-1 and in the vegetated area from 1.37 to 3.50 mg·L-1 in 2008.

  10. Simulated wetland conservation-restoration effects on water quantity and quality at watershed scale. (United States)

    Wang, Xixi; Shang, Shiyou; Qu, Zhongyi; Liu, Tingxi; Melesse, Assefa M; Yang, Wanhong


    Wetlands are one of the most important watershed microtopographic features that affect hydrologic processes (e.g., routing) and the fate and transport of constituents (e.g., sediment and nutrients). Efforts to conserve existing wetlands and/or to restore lost wetlands require that watershed-level effects of wetlands on water quantity and water quality be quantified. Because monitoring approaches are usually cost or logistics prohibitive at watershed scale, distributed watershed models such as the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), enhanced by the hydrologic equivalent wetland (HEW) concept developed by Wang [Wang, X., Yang, W., Melesse, A.M., 2008. Using hydrologic equivalent wetland concept within SWAT to estimate streamflow in watersheds with numerous wetlands. Trans. ASABE 51 (1), 55-72.], can be a best resort. However, there is a serious lack of information about simulated effects using this kind of integrated modeling approach. The objective of this study was to use the HEW concept in SWAT to assess effects of wetland restoration within the Broughton's Creek watershed located in southwestern Manitoba, and of wetland conservation within the upper portion of the Otter Tail River watershed located in northwestern Minnesota. The results indicated that the HEW concept allows the nonlinear functional relations between watershed processes and wetland characteristics (e.g., size and morphology) to be accurately represented in the models. The loss of the first 10-20% of the wetlands in the Minnesota study area would drastically increase the peak discharge and loadings of sediment, total phosphorus (TP), and total nitrogen (TN). On the other hand, the justifiable reductions of the peak discharge and loadings of sediment, TP, and TN in the Manitoba study area may require that 50-80% of the lost wetlands be restored. Further, the comparison between the predicted restoration and conservation effects revealed that wetland conservation seems to deserve a higher priority

  11. Zebra Mussel Farming in the Szczecin (Oder Lagoon: Water-Quality Objectives and Cost-Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Schernewski


    Full Text Available The Oder (Szczecin Lagoon in the southern Baltic Sea is a heavily eutrophicated and degraded coastal ecosystem. We applied a systems approach framework to critically evaluate whether existing water-management measures achieve water-quality objectives for the river and lagoon systems. Our simulations reveal that the existing water-quality objectives for the river and the coastal waters are not sufficiently complementary. We suggest new water-quality threshold concentrations, which are in agreement with the European Water Framework Directive, and we calculate acceptable maximum nutrient loads for the Oder River. These calculations suggest that external nutrient-load reductions in the river basin alone seem insufficient to achieve good water quality in the lagoon. A comprehensive eutrophication management approach should also include internal nutrient-retention and nutrient-removal measures in the lagoon. We focus on mussel farming, i.e., that of zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, because they are efficient in removing nutrients and improving water transparency in the Oder Lagoon. For this purpose, the ecosystem model ERGOM is extended by a mussel module and an economic model. The economic model describes costs and benefits of mussel cultivation depending on the the farm size. We included additional potential sources of income such as water-quality tax or emission certificates. The simulations show that mussel farming in the lagoon is a suitable supportive measure and, at a load-reduction target of 50% or more, it is a cost-efficient measure for removing nutrients and for implementing the Baltic Sea Action Plan. In the Oder Lagoon, mussel farming could potentially remove nearly 1000 t of N (70 t of P/year, or about 2% of the present N and P loads, and it would have the additional benefit of improving water transparency.

  12. Inactivation of Salmonella in Shell Eggs by Hot Water Immersion and Its Effect on Quality. (United States)

    Geveke, David J; Gurtler, Joshua B; Jones, Deana R; Bigley, Andrew B W


    Thermal inactivation kinetics of heat resistant strains of Salmonella Enteritidis in shell eggs processed by hot water immersion were determined and the effects of the processing on egg quality were evaluated. Shell eggs were inoculated with a composite of heat resistant Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) strains PT8 C405, 2 (FSIS #OB030832), and 6 (FSIS #OB040159). Eggs were immersed in a circulating hot water bath for various times and temperatures. Come-up time of the coldest location within the egg was 21 min. SE was reduced by 4.5 log at both hot water immersion treatments of 56.7 C for 60 min and 55.6 °C for 100 min. Decimal reduction times (D-values) at 54.4, 55.6, and 56.7 °C were 51.8, 14.6, and 9.33 min, respectively. The z-value was 3.07 °C. Following treatments that resulted in a 4.5 log reduction (56.7 °C/60 min and 55.6 °C/100 min), the surviving population of SE remained static during 4 wk of refrigerated storage. After processing under conditions resulting in 4.5 log reductions, the Haugh unit and albumen height significantly increased (P eggs by 4.5 log, but also significantly affected several egg quality characteristics. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  13. The effect of different soil uses on the quality of spring water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Vilela Andrade Pinto


    Full Text Available Several factors are known to be responsible for the degradation of water quality in our Planet’s spring sources. The goal of this study was to evaluate the impact of different anthropogenic activities on physico-chemical and biological properties of five spring water located in Inconfidentes, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Analytical results have demonstrated that water source protected by native vegetation had the highest quality in terms of color, turbidity, biological oxygen demand (BOD5, total phosphate, nitrate, dissolved oxygen (DO, fecal coliforms and thermo-tolerant coliforms. On the other hand, the water quality was negatively impacted by the lack of adequate agricultural practices, such as the use of chemical inputs, the nonexistence of fenced livestock grazing areas and residential sewage system which are considered to be indispensable practices to minimize the environmental impact of anthropogenic activities and to protect human health.

  14. The effects of ozone and water exchange rates on water quality and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss performance in replicated water recirculating systems (United States)

    Rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss performance and water quality were evaluated and compared within six replicated 9.5 cubic meter water recirculating aquaculture systems (WRAS) operated with and without ozone at various water exchange rates. Three separate studies were conducted: 1) low water exchan...

  15. Hemodialysis and water quality. (United States)

    Coulliette, Angela D; Arduino, Matthew J


    Over 383,900 individuals in the U.S. undergo maintenance hemodialysis that exposes them to water, primarily in the form of dialysate. The quality of water and associated dialysis solutions have been implicated in adverse patient outcomes and is therefore critical. The Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation has published both standards and recommended practices that address both water and the dialyzing solutions. Some of these recommendations have been adopted into Federal Regulations by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services as part of the Conditions for Coverage, which includes limits on specific contaminants within water used for dialysis, dialysate, and substitution fluids. Chemical, bacterial, and endotoxin contaminants are health threats to dialysis patients, as shown by the continued episodic nature of outbreaks since the 1960s causing at least 592 cases and 16 deaths in the U.S. The importance of the dialysis water distribution system, current standards and recommendations, acceptable monitoring methods, a review of chemical, bacterial, and endotoxin outbreaks, and infection control programs are discussed. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  16. Effect of Lakhara chemical power station (LPTS) effluents on the river Indus water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahar, R.B.; Memon, H.M.; Khushwar, M.Y.


    The variation of the quality of river Indus water with respect to the seasonal changes, discharge of water and dilution with the effluents of Lakhra Thermal Power Station (LTPS), has been monitored. The studies were focussed on the river Indus water quality before and after mixing the effluents of the power station. The samples were collected monthly from the representative locations of the river Indus, and analyzed for the residues (total, filterable, non-filterable, volatile and fixed), pH, temperature (air and water), conductance, chloride, hardness, alkalinity, dissolved oxygen (DO), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) /sub 5/- nitrate, phosphate, sulfate, ammonia, ammonium, silicates, magnesium, potassium, calcium and sodium. The results have been compared with the permissible limits of ECC (European Economic Community) standards for drinking and surface water. (author)

  17. National Recommended Water Quality Criteria (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Recommended Water Quality Criteria is a compilation of national recommended water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life and human health...

  18. The effect of lake water quality and wind turbines on Rhode Island property sales price (United States)

    Gorelick, Susan Shim

    This dissertation uses the hedonic pricing model to study the impact of lake water quality and wind turbines on Rhode Island house sales prices. The first two manuscripts are on lake water quality and use RI house sales transactions from 1988--2012. The third studies wind turbines using RI house sales transactions from 2000--2013. The first study shows that good lake water quality increases lakefront property price premium. It also shows that environmental amenities, such as forests, substitute for lake amenity as the property's distance from the lake increases. The second lake water quality study incorporates time variables to examine how environmental amenity values change over time. The results show that property price premium associated with good lake water quality does not change as it is constant in proportion to housing prices with short term economic fluctuations. The third study shows that wind turbines have a negative and significant impact on housing prices. However, this is highly location specific and varies with neighborhood demographics. All three studies have policy implications which are discussed in detail in the manuscripts below.

  19. Estimation of Water Quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetrinskaya, N.I.; Manasbayeva, A.B.


    Water has a particular ecological function and it is an indicator of the general state of the biosphere. In relation with this summary, the toxicological evaluation of water by biologic testing methods is very actual. The peculiarity of biologic testing information is an integral reflection of all totality properties of examination of the environment in position of its perception by living objects. Rapid integral evaluation of anthropological situation is a base aim of biologic testing. If this evaluation has deviations from normal state, detailed analysis and revelation of dangerous components could be conducted later. The quality of water from the Degelen gallery, where nuclear explosions were conducted, was investigated by bio-testing methods. The micro-organisms (Micrococcus Luteus, Candida crusei, Pseudomonas algaligenes) and water plant elodea (Elodea canadensis Rich) were used as test-objects. It is known that the transporting functions of cell membranes of living organisms are violated the first time in extreme conditions by difference influences. Therefore, ion penetration of elodeas and micro-organisms cells, which contained in the examination water with toxicants, were used as test-function. Alteration of membrane penetration was estimated by measurement of electrolytes electrical conductivity, which gets out from living objects cells to distillate water. Index of water toxic is ratio of electrical conductivity in experience to electrical conductivity in control. Also, observations from common state of plant, which was incubated in toxic water, were made. (Chronic experience conducted for 60 days.) The plants were incubated in water samples, which were picked out from gallery in the years 1996 and 1997. The time of incubation is 1-10 days. The results of investigation showed that ion penetration of elodeas and micro-organisms cells changed very much with influence of radionuclides, which were contained in testing water. Changes are taking place even in

  20. Effects of combined-sewer overflows and urban runoff on the water quality of Fall Creek, Indianapolis, Indiana (United States)

    Martin, Jeffrey D.


    In 1986, the U.S. Geological Survey and the Indianapolis Department of Public Works began a study to evaluate the effects of combined-sewer overflows and urban runoff discharging to Fall Geek on the White River. This report describes the effects of combined-sewer overflows and urban runoff on the water quality of Fall Creek during summer 1987 by comparing the water quality during base flow with that during storm runoff and by comparing water quality in the urbanized area with that in the less urbanized area upstream from the combined-sewer overflows. Data were collected at three streamflow-gaging stations located upstream from, downstream from, and in the middle of 27 combined-sewer overflows on Fall Creek. The most downstream station also was immediately downstream from the discharge of filter backwash from a water-treatment plant for public supply.

  1. Institutional design and regime effectiveness in transboundary river management – the Elbe water quality regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Dombrowsky


    Full Text Available The literature on transboundary river management suggests that institutions play an important role in bringing about cooperation. However, knowledge about how such institutions should be designed in order to do so remains limited. One way to learn more about adequate institutional design is to assess the effectiveness of existing regimes, and to trace the causal relationships that lead to the respective outcomes. In order to gain further insights into the relationship between institutional design and regime effectiveness, this paper presents a study on the water quality regime of the International Commission for the Protection of the Elbe (ICPE. The analysis is based on a review of pertinent documents and ten qualitative interviews with Czech and German Commission members and NGO representatives. Particular emphasis has been put on determining the ICPE's specific contribution and the no-regime counterfactual as well as on the perceived expediency of the institutional arrangements. The study shows overall that the countries were relatively successful in improving water quality in the Elbe basin. However, this outcome can only partly be attributed to the ICPE itself. Furthermore, the ICPE's contribution towards achieving the various goals varied significantly between the different areas of activity: it was relatively significant where the main responsibility for action lay with the public authorities, such as in the area of wastewater treatment and the establishment of an international alarm plan and model, but was practically non-existent in the reduction of non-point pollution from agriculture, where success depended on the behavior of individual private actors (farmers. The commission contributed towards problem solving by serving as a forum for the joint identification of priorities for action from a basin-wide perspective. The resulting international obligations increased the power of national water administrations and their access to funds

  2. Water Quality vs. Sanitation Accessibility: What is the most effective intervention point for preventing cholera in Dhaka, Bangladesh? (United States)

    Majumder, M. S.; Gute, D.; Faruque, A. S.


    Every year, 3 to 5 million individuals contract cholera, an acute diarrheal infection that is caused by the ingestion of food or water containing the Vibrio cholerae bacterium. Because cholera is a waterborne disease, it can be transmitted quickly in environments with inadequate water and sanitation systems where infected waste can easily pollute drinking water. Today, Bangladesh continues to struggle with endemic cholera. Donor organizations address water and sanitation via localized initiatives, including the installation of community water collection sites (i.e. tubewells; water-boiling points; etc.). At this small-scale level, water quality and sanitation accessibility can be improved independently of one another, and when resources are limited, donors must invest in the most effective disease prevention options. This study used laboratory-confirmed cholera incidence data (2000-2009) collected by the International Centre of Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh at their on-site hospital to compare the efficacy of interventions addressing water quality versus sanitation accessibility in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Data regarding use of sanitary latrines and boiling of drinking water were extracted from sequential patient interviews conducted at the Dhaka facility and used as surrogate variables for sanitation accessibility and water quality respectively. Our analysis indicates that boiling water is 10 times more effective at preventing cholera than the use of a sanitary latrine. This finding suggests that regulating water quality is perhaps more critical to cholera prevention than increasing sanitation accessibility in an urban environment like that of Dhaka. At present, WaterAid - one of Bangladesh's most significant water and sanitation donor organizations - invests the majority of its budget on improving sanitation accessibility. The World Health Organization and the United Nations Millennium Development Goals also prioritize sanitation accessibility. However, in

  3. A reconnaissance study of the effect of irrigated agriculture on water quality in the Ogallala Formation, Central High Plains Aquifer (United States)

    McMahon, Peter B.


    In 1998, the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program began a regional study of water quality in the High Plains aquifer. The High Plains aquifer underlies an area of about 174,000 square miles in parts of eight States. Because of its large size, the High Plains aquifer has been divided into three regions: the Southern High Plains, Central High Plains, and Northern High Plains. Although an assessment of water quality in each of the three regions is planned, the initial focus will be the Central High Plains aquifer. Anyone who has flown over the Central High Plains in the summer and has seen the large green circles associated with center pivot sprinklers knows that irrigated agriculture is a widespread land use. Pesticides and fertilizers applied on those irrigated fields will not degrade ground-water quality if they remain in or above the root zone. However, if those chemicals move downward through the unsaturated zone to the water table, they may degrade the quality of the ground water. Water is the principal agent for transporting chemicals from land surface to the water table, and in the semiarid Central High Plains, irrigation often represents the most abundant source of water during the growing season. One objective of NAWQA's High Plains Regional Ground-Water study is to evaluate the effect of irrigated agriculture on the quality of recently recharged water in the Ogallala Formation of the Central High Plains aquifer. The Ogallala Formation is the principal geologic unit in the Central High Plains aquifer, and it consists of poorly sorted clay, silt, sand, and gravel that generally is unconsolidated (Gutentag and others, 1984). Approximately 23 percent of the cropland overlying the Ogallala Formation is irrigated (U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1999). The NAWQA Program generally defines recently recharged ground water to be water recharged in the last 50 years. The water table in the Ogallala Formation is separated from

  4. Water quality sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizuka, Keiko; Takahashi, Masanori; Watanabe, Atsushi; Ibe, Hidefumi.


    The sensor of the present invention can directly measure oxygen/hydrogen peroxide concentrations in reactor water under radiation irradiation condition, and it has a long life time. Namely, an oxygen sensor comprises electrodes attached on both sides of high temperature/radiation resistant ion conductive material in which ions are sufficiently diffused within a temperature range of from a room temperature to 300degC. It has a performance for measuring electromotive force caused by the difference of a partial pressure between a reference gas and a gas to be measured contained in the high temperature/radiation resistant material. A hydrogen peroxide sensor has the oxygen sensor described above, to which a filter for causing decomposition of hydrogen peroxide is attached. The sensor of the present invention can directly measure oxygen/hydrogen peroxide concentrations in a reactor water of a BWR type reactor under high temperature/radiation irradiation condition. Accordingly, accurate water quality environment in the reactor water can be recognized. As a result, determination of incore corrosion environment is established thereby enabling to attain reactor integrity, safety and long life. (I.S.)

  5. Effect of Traditional Gold Mining to Surface Water Quality in Murung Raya District, Central Kalimantan Province


    Wilopo, W; Resili, R; Putra, D P E


    There are many locations for traditional gold mining in Indonesia. One of these is in Murung Raya District, Central Kalimantan Province. Mining activities involving the application of traditional gold processing technology have a high potential to pollute the environment, especially surface water. Therefore, this study aims to determine the impact of gold mining and processing on surface water quality around the mine site. Based on the results of field surveys and laboratory analysis, our dat...

  6. Effects of Main Pollution Sources on Parameters of Water Quality of the Prut River Within the Limits of Chernivtsi in the Last Seven Years and Consequent Environmental Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrytsku V.S.


    Full Text Available The results of the Prut River water quality monitoring in the last 7 years are dealt with. Attention is paid to situation of water quality worsening and to the reasons that caused it. Application of the method of water quality index’s integrated assessment has confirmed that it is not solely the degree of anthropogenic impact that affects the water quality, but also the effects of natural factors.

  7. The Effect of Landuse and Other External Factors on Water Quality Within two Creeks in Northern Kentucky (United States)

    Boateng, S.


    The purpose of this study was to monitor the water quality in two creeks in Northern Kentucky. These are the Banklick Creek in Kenton County and the Woolper Creek in Boone County, Kentucky. The objective was to evaluate the effect of landuse and other external factors on surface water quality. Landuse within the Banklick watershed is industrial, forest and residential (urban) whereas that of Woolper Creek is agricultural and residential (rural). Two testing sites were selected along the Banklick Creek; one site was upstream the confluence with an overflow stream from an adjacent lake; the second site was downstream the confluence. Most of the drainage into the lake is over a near-by industrial park and the urban residential areas of the cities of Elsmere and Erlanger, Kentucky. Four sampling locations were selected within the Woolper Creek watershed to evaluate the effect of channelization and subsequent sedimentation on the health of the creek. Water quality parameters tested for include dissolved oxygen, phosphates, chlorophyll, total suspended sediments (TSS), pH, oxidation reduction potential (ORP), nitrates, and electrical conductivity. Sampling and testing were conducted weekly and also immediately after storm events that occurred before the regular sampling dates. Sampling and testing proceeded over a period of 29 weeks. Biological impact was determined, only in Woolper Creek watershed, by sampling benthic macroinvertebrates once every four weeks. The results showed significant differences in the water quality between the two sites within the Banklick Creek. The water quality may be affected by the stream overflow from the dammed lake. Also, channelization in the Woolper Creek seemed to have adverse effects on the water quality. A retention pond, constructed to prevent sediments from flowing into the Woolper Creek, did not seem to be effective. This is because the water quality downstream of the retention pond was significantly worse than that of the

  8. Effect of Hartha and Najibia power plants on water quality indices of Shatt Al-Arab River, south of Iraq (United States)

    Al-Aboodi, Ali H.; Abbas, Sarmad A.; Ibrahim, Husham T.


    The main object of this research is to assess the water quality of Shatt Al-Arab River and its suitability for various purposes near power plants (Hartha and Najibia) through physical and chemical analysis [temperature, pH, EC, Cl-, Na+, K+, Ca+2, Mg+2, HCO3 -, NO3 -, SO 4 -2 , Fe+, total alkalinity, total hardness, biological oxygen demand (BOD5), NH4 +, and NO2 -] using water quality index (WQI), organic pollution index (OPI), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), and percentage of sodium ion (Na%) during the dry season (August, 2016) and the wet season (January, 2017). WQI of Shatt Al-Arab falls under very poor quality during summer season, while it ranges from very poor quality to unsuitable for drinking purposes during winter season. There is a clear effect of power plants on water quality. Hartha and Najibia power plants contribute to the deterioration of water quality by increasing the percentage ratio of WQI near these plants by 13.22 and 9.69%, respectively, compared to the north sites of these plants during summer season. The percentage ratios of increased WQI near Hartha and Najibia power plants compared to the north sites of these plants are 17.93 and 15.92%, respectively, during winter season. Water quality of Shatt Al-Arab falls under a high level of organic pollution during the summer and winter seasons. There is a slight effect by the power plants on the OPI. Hartha and Najibia power plants contributed to the change of the OPI by 10% compared to the north site of Hartha power plant. According to the comparison between the SAR values which represent the suitability of water for serve irrigation purposes and SAR values of Shatt Al-Arab, all sites lie in the first class (excellent). According to Na+%, the type of surface water in the studied area lies in good class during winter season and permissible class during summer season.

  9. Operational forest stream crossings effects on water quality in the Virginia Piedmont (United States)

    Wallace M. Aust; Matthew B. Carroll; M. Chad Bolding; Andy Dolloff


    Water quality indices were examined for paired upstream and downstream samples for 23 operational stream crossings and approaches during four periods. Stream crossings were (1) portable bridges (BRIDGE), (2) culverts backfilled with poles (POLE), (3) culverts with earth backfill (CULVERT), and (4) reinforced fords (FORD). The four operational periods were (1) prior to...

  10. Interaction of water unextractable solids with gluten protein: Effect on dough properties and gluten quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, M.; Oudgenoeg, G.; Vliet, T. van; Hamer, R.J.


    In a previous study, we have shown that water unextractable solids (WUS) interfere with gluten formation and affect the quality of the resulting gluten. In this study we aim to explain how WUS can affect the process of gluten formation. To this end, WUS were modified with NaOH, xylanase, horseradish

  11. Using VELMA to Quantify and Visualize the Effectiveness of Green Infrastructure Options for Protecting Water Quality (United States)

    This webinar describes the use of VELMA, a spatially-distributed ecohydrological model, to identify green infrastructure (GI) best management practices for protecting water quality in intensively managed watersheds. The seminar will include a brief description of VELMA and an ex...

  12. Effects of environmental and water quality parameters on the functioning of copepod assemblages in tropical estuaries (United States)

    Araujo, Adriana V.; Dias, Cristina O.; Bonecker, Sérgio L. C.


    We examined changes in the functioning of copepod assemblages with increasing pollution in estuaries, using sampling standardization of the salinity range to enable comparisons. Copepod assemblages were analyzed in four southeast Brazilian estuaries with different water quality levels and hydrodynamic characteristics over two years. We obtained mesozooplankton samples together with environmental and water quality parameters in the estuaries, every two months under predetermined salinities ranging from 15 to 25. The values of parameters, except species size, associated with the functioning of the copepod assemblages (biomass, productivity, and turnover rate) did not differ among estuaries. However, in the more polluted estuaries, the biomass and productivity of copepod assemblages of mesozooplankton were negatively correlated with concentration of pollution indicator parameters. Conversely, in the less polluted estuaries some degree of enrichment still seems to increase the system biomass and productivity, as these parameters were inversely related to indicators of improved water quality. The pollution level of estuaries distorted the relationship between temperature and the efficiency of converting energy to organic matter. In the less polluted estuaries, the relationship between turnover rate and temperature was over 70%, while in the most polluted estuaries, this relationship was only approximately 50%. Our results demonstrated that the functioning of assemblages in the estuaries was affected differently by increasing pollution depending on the water quality level of the system. Thus, investigating the functioning of assemblages can be a useful tool for the analysis of estuarine conditions.

  13. A Comparison of Alternative Strategies for Cost-Effective Water Quality Management in Lakes (United States)

    Daniel Boyd Kramer; Stephen Polasky; Anthony Starfield; Brian Palik; Lynn Westphal; Stephanie Snyder; Pamela Jakes; Rachel Hudson; Eric Gustafson


    Roughly 45% of the assessed lakes in the United States are impaired for one or more reasons. Eutrophication due to excess phosphorus loading is common in many impaired lakes. Various strategies are available to lake residents for addressing declining lake water quality, including septic system upgrades and establishing riparian buffers. This study examines 25 lakes to...

  14. Interaction of water unextractable solids with gluten protein: effect on dough properties and gluten quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, M.; Oudgenoeg, G.; Vliet, van T.; Hamer, R.J.


    Abstract In a previous study, we have shown that water unextractable solids (WUS) interfere with gluten formation and affect the quality of the resulting gluten. In this study we aim to explain how WUS can affect the process of gluten formation. To this end, WUS were modified with NaOH, xylanase,

  15. Effects of logging activities on ecological water quality indicators in the Berasau River, Johor, Malaysia. (United States)

    Nor Zaiha, A; Mohd Ismid, M S; Salmiati; Shahrul Azri, M S


    Influence of deforestation on biodiversity of aquatic organisms was investigated in a stream in the Ulu Sedili Forest Reserve. The stream was monitored five (5) times from December 2011 until December 2012 with 2-month intervals. Sampling of benthic communities was carried out using rectangular dip net while water quality study using a YSI ProPlus meter and the rest were done in the laboratory. Physicochemical parameters and water quality index (WQI) calculation showed no significant difference among the investigated events. WQI classified the Berasau River between Class II (good) to III (moderate) of river water quality. In total, 603 individuals representing 25 taxa that were recorded with Decapods from genus Macrobrabchium were widely distributed. Several intolerant taxa, especially Ephemeroptera and Odonata, were also observed in this river. According to Pearson's correlation analysis, the richness and diversity indices were generally influenced by water quality parameters represented by WQI (P < 0.01). In conclusion, logging activities have strong attributes for variation in benthic macroinvertebrate assemblage.

  16. The effects of industrial and agricultural activity on the water quality of the Sitnica River (Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albona Shala


    Full Text Available An important issue in Kosovo is water pollution. The use of polluted water has a direct impact on human health and cause long-term consequences. The longest and most polluted river in Kosovo is the Sitnica, a 90 km long river with its source located near the village of Sazli. The river flows into the Ibar River in Northern Kosovo. Agriculture is prevailing activity in the basin of Sitnica which is why agricultural as well as industrial waste are the biggest water pollutants. The purpose of this study was to evaluate water quality of the river and analyse the pollution level along the Sitnica River caused by agricultural activities and industrial discharges. In order to assess the impact of pollutants on this river, a measurements were carried out in four (five monitoring stations: the first station represents the reference station which has not undergone or has not been affected by polluting pressures, two stations in water areas affected by the irrigation of farming land and two monitoring stations in water areas affected by industrial wastewater discharge. Some of the parameters of water quality analysed are temperature, turbidity, electrical conductivity, pH, DO, COD, BOD, P total, nitrates, sulfates, and heavy metals iron, manganese, zinc, nickel. Compared to the reference station the results obtained from the Gracka and Pestova monitoring stations prove that the dominant form of pollution is that from agricultural lands irrigation, while the Plemetin and Mitrovica stations show that the Sitnica River is affected by wastewater discharge which contains significant concentrations of heavy metals, as well as metal ions selected in this paper. It can be concluded that the irrigation of agricultural lands and discharges from mining significantly affect water quality of the Sitnica River.

  17. The effects of industrial and agricultural activity on the water quality of the Sitnica River (Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albona Shala


    Full Text Available An important issue in Kosovo is water pollution. The use of polluted water has a direct impact on human health and cause long-term consequences. The longest and most polluted river in Kosovo is the Sitnica, a 90 km long river with its source located near the village of Sazli. The river flows into the Ibar River in Northern Kosovo. Agriculture is prevailing activity in the basin of Sitnica which is why agricultural as well as industrial waste are the biggest water pollutants. The purpose of this study was to evaluate water quality of the river and analyse the pollution level along the Sitnica River caused by agricultural activities and industrial discharges. In order to assess the impact of pollutants on this river, a measurements were carried out in four (five monitoring stations: the first station represents the reference station which has not undergone or has not been affected by polluting pressures, two stations in water areas affected by the irrigation of farming land and two monitoring stations in water areas affected by industrial wastewater discharge. Some of the parameters of water quality analysed are temperature, turbidity, electrical conductivity, pH, DO, COD, BOD, P total, nitrates, sulfates, and heavy metals iron, manganese, zinc, nickel. Compared to the reference station the results obtained from the Gracka and Pestova monitoring stations prove that the dominant form of pollution is that from agricultural lands irrigation, while the Plemetin and Mitrovica stations show that the Sitnica River is affected by wastewater discharge which contains significant concentrations of heavy metals, as well as metal ions selected in this paper. It can be concluded that the irrigation of agricultural lands and discharges from mining significantly affect water quality of the Sitnica River.

  18. Effects of bubbling operations on a thermally stratified reservoir: implications for water quality amelioration. (United States)

    Fernandez, R L; Bonansea, M; Cosavella, A; Monarde, F; Ferreyra, M; Bresciano, J


    Artificial thermal mixing of the water column is a common method of addressing water quality problems with the most popular method of destratification being the bubble curtain. The air or oxygen distribution along submerged multiport diffusers is based on similar basic principles as those of outfall disposal systems. Moreover, the disposal of sequestered greenhouse gases into the ocean, as recently proposed by several researchers to mitigate the global warming problem, requires analogous design criteria. In this paper, the influence of a bubble-plume is evaluated using full-scale temperature and water quality data collected in San Roque Reservoir, Argentina. A composite system consisting of seven separated diffusers connected to four 500 kPa compressors was installed at this reservoir by the end of 2008. The original purpose of this air bubble system was to reduce the stratification, so that the water body may completely mix under natural phenomena and remain well oxygenated throughout the year. By using a combination of the field measurements and modelling, this work demonstrates that thermal mixing by means of compressed air may improve water quality; however, if improperly sized or operated, such mixing can also cause deterioration. Any disruption in aeration during the destratification process, for example, may result in a reduction of oxygen levels due to the higher hypolimnetic temperatures. Further, the use of artificial destratification appears to have insignificant influence on reducing evaporation rates in relatively shallow impoundments such as San Roque reservoir.

  19. 77 FR 13496 - Effective Date for the Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Lakes and Flowing Waters (United States)


    ... other material, such as copyrighted material, is not placed on the Internet and will be publicly... watersheds of the Florida waters covered by this rule, or who rely on, depend upon, influence, or contribute... uses of Florida's waters, which are a critical part of the State's economy. III. Revised Effective Date...

  20. 77 FR 39949 - Effective Date for the Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Lakes and Flowing Waters (United States)


    ... statute. Certain other material, such as copyrighted material, is not placed on the Internet and will be... Florida waters covered by this rule, or who rely on, depend upon, influence, or contribute to the water..., which are a critical part of the State's economy. III. Revised Effective Date A. Rationale for Extending...

  1. Pulse versus continuous peracetic acid applications: Effects on rainbow trout performance, biofilm formation and water quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Dibo; Straus, David L.; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming


    Peracetic acid (PAA) products are being introduced to aquaculture as sustainable disinfectants. Two strategies are used to apply PAA: high dose pulse applications, or low dose continuous application. In the present study, their impacts on fish health and water quality were investigated...... by ensuring better water quality....... in triplicate flow-through tanks stocked with rainbow trout. The gentler and shorter water cortisol increase measured along twice-per-week pulse applications of 1 mg L−1 PAA indicated a progressive adaptation of fish. In contrast, the continuous application of 0.2 mg L−1 PAA caused no stress to fish...

  2. Effect of degrading yellow oxo-biodegradable low-density polyethylene films to water quality (United States)

    Requejo, B. A.; Pajarito, B. B.


    Polyethylene (PE) contributes largely to plastic wastes that are disposed in aquatic environment as a consequence of its widespread use. In this study, yellow oxo-biodegradable low-density PE films were immersed in deionized water at 50°C for 49 days. Indicators of water quality: pH, oxidation-reduction potential, turbidity, and total dissolved solids (TDS), were monitored at regular intervals. It was observed that pH initially rises and then slowly decreases with time, oxidation-reduction potential decreases then slowly increases with time, turbidity rises above the control at varied rates, and TDS increases abruptly and rises at a hindered rate. Moreover, the films potentially leach out lead chromate. The results imply that degrading oxo-biodegradable LDPE films results to significant reduction of water quality.

  3. The Effect of Land Used on the Water Quality of Oxbow Lakes in Sabah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajimi Jawan; Viduriati Sumin


    The unique and isolated nature of oxbow lakes from its parent river is reflected by its water quality. This study was carried out to determine the water quality of oxbow lake located along the Sg. Sugut, Beluran, Sg. Padas, Beaufort and Sg. Kinabatangan, Sandakan, Sabah with different human activities. Physical and chemical parameters studied on site were dissolved oxygen (DO), temperature, pH value, conductivity and secchi disk depth (SDD) while those analysed in the laboratory were total suspended solid (TSS), total phosphorus (TP) and chlorophyll-a. From the results indicate human activities near oxbow lake cause increment of nutrient. It will lead ecotone by eutrophication that start succession of water bodies to terrestrial land. Number of oxbow lakes and its uniqueness will diminish and its function as organisms sanctuary will be greatly affected. (author)

  4. Disposing of coal combustion residues in inactive surface mines: Effects on water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, A.G.; Ackman, T.E.


    The disposal of coal combustion residues (CCR) in surface and underground coal mines can provide a stable, low-maintenance alternative to landfills, benefiting the mining and electric power industries. The material may be able to improve water quality at acid generating abandoned or reclaimed coal mine sites. Most combustion residues are alkaline, and their addition to the subsurface environment could raise the pH, limiting the propagation of pyrite oxidizing bacteria and reducing the rate of acid generation. Many of these CCR are also pozzolanic, capable of forming cementitious grouts. Grouts injected into the buried spoil may decrease its permeability and porosity, diverting water away from the pyritic material. Both mechanisms, alkaline addition and water diversion, are capable of reducing the amount of acid produced at the disposal site. The US Bureau of Mines is cooperating in a test of subsurface injection of CCR into a reclaimed surface mine. Initially, a mixture of fly ash, lime, and acid mine drainage (AMD) sludge was injected. Lime was the source of calcium for the formation of the pozzolanic grout. Changes in water quality parameters (pH, acidity, anions, and trace metals) in water samples from wells and seeps indicate a small but significant improvement after CCR injection. Changes in the concentration of heavy metals in the water flowing across the site were apparently influenced by the presence of flyash

  5. Infectious Disinfection: "Exploring Global Water Quality" (United States)

    Mahaya, Evans; Tippins, Deborah J.; Mueller, Michael P.; Thomson, Norman


    Learning about the water situation in other regions of the world and the devastating effects of floods on drinking water helps students study science while learning about global water quality. This article provides science activities focused on developing cultural awareness and understanding how local water resources are integrally linked to the…

  6. Effect on Quality Characteristics of Tomatoes Grown Under Well-Watered and Drought Stress Conditions. (United States)

    Klunklin, Warinporn; Savage, Geoffrey


    Tomatoes are one of the most nutritionally and economically important crops in New Zealand and around the world. Tomatoes require large amounts of water to grow well and are adversely affected by drought stress. However, few studies have evaluated the physicochemical characteristics of commercial tomatoes grown under water stress conditions. Four tomato cultivars (Incas, Marmande, Scoresby Dwarf, and Window Box Red) were grown in a greenhouse under well-watered and drought stress conditions and the tomatoes were harvested when ripe. The physicochemical properties and antioxidant contents of the fruits were compared. There were significant differences between cultivars in quality characteristics-such as dry matter, total soluble solids, and pH parameters-but there were no differences in the quality characteristics between the two treatments of the fruits ( p > 0.05); however, there were significant differences ( p < 0.05) in the antioxidant compositions (lycopene, total phenolics, and flavonoids) and antioxidant activities (DPPH and ABTS) of the fruits of both cultivars and treatments. Overall, these results indicated that tomatoes increased their bioactive compounds without changing any quality characteristics when exposed to water stress conditions.

  7. The Effect of Topaz Irradiation to the Quality of Cooling Water Reactor GA Siwabessy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elisabeth Ratnawati; Kawkab Mustofa; Arif Hidayat


    Topaz irradiation which applied both inside and outside the reactor core is one utilization of the reactor GA Siwabessy. Topaz consists of silicon clusters containing a combination of aluminum, fluorine and hydroxyl, and impurities. The results of the qualitative analysis of the topaz before irradiation detected europium (Eu-152), potassium (K-40) and sodium (Na-24). While the post-irradiation of topaz detected europium (Eu), cobalt (Co), cesium (Cs), tantalum (Ta), scandium (Sc), iron (Fe), Selenium (Se) and potassium (K). These elements might affect the quality of the cooling water. But the results of the qualitative analysis that were carried out to the primary cooling water did not reveal any elements similar to the elements contained in topaz impurities. Most likely this is because most impurities have been caught by the resin trap in purification systems, because of the results of the analysis of the dirt on the resin trap contained elements similar to the impurities Fe and Co topaz. The purification system makes quality primary cooling water is maintained. From the result shows that chemically the quality of primary cooling water is not affected by the topaz irradiation. (author)

  8. Water availability, water quality water governance: the future ahead (United States)

    Tundisi, J. G.; Matsumura-Tundisi, T.; Ciminelli, V. S.; Barbosa, F. A.


    The major challenge for achieving a sustainable future for water resources and water security is the integration of water availability, water quality and water governance. Water is unevenly distributed on Planet Earth and these disparities are cause of several economic, ecological and social differences in the societies of many countries and regions. As a consequence of human misuse, growth of urbanization and soil degradation, water quality is deteriorating continuously. Key components for the maintenance of water quantity and water quality are the vegetation cover of watersheds, reduction of the demand and new water governance that includes integrated management, predictive evaluation of impacts, and ecosystem services. Future research needs are discussed.

  9. Effects of water deficit on breadmaking quality and storage protein compositions in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). (United States)

    Zhou, Jiaxing; Liu, Dongmiao; Deng, Xiong; Zhen, Shoumin; Wang, Zhimin; Yan, Yueming


    Water deficiency affects grain proteome dynamics and storage protein compositions, resulting in changes in gluten viscoelasticity. In this study, the effects of field water deficit on wheat breadmaking quality and grain storage proteins were investigated. Water deficiency produced a shorter grain-filling period, a decrease in grain number, grain weight and grain yield, a reduced starch granule size and increased protein content and glutenin macropolymer contents, resulting in superior dough properties and breadmaking quality. Reverse phase ultra-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that the total gliadin and glutenin content and the accumulation of individual components were significantly increased by water deficiency. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis detected 144 individual storage protein spots with significant accumulation changes in developing grains under water deficit. Comparative proteomic analysis revealed that water deficiency resulted in significant upregulation of 12 gliadins, 12 high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits and 46 low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that the expression of storage protein biosynthesis-related transcription factors Dof and Spa was upregulated by water deficiency. The present results illustrated that water deficiency leads to increased accumulation of storage protein components and upregulated expression of Dof and Spa, resulting in an improvement in glutenin strength and breadmaking quality. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Effect of injection water quality on permeability of productive sands in Shaimsk group of oil fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreeva, N I; Ivanov, V N; Lazarev, V N; Maksimov, V P


    Water from the Kond River is used to flood Shaimsk oil fields. Effect of raw and filtered waters on permeability of Shaimsk cores was experimentally determined. The raw river water contained 26 mg/liter of suspended solids, 10.7 mg/liter of total iron, 4.3 mg/liter of suspended iron oxide, and a pH of 6.4. The filtered river water was free of suspended solids and had a pH of 6.2. It was found that both raw and filtered water decreased core permeability. The unfiltered water decreased permeability 2 to 7 times more than the filtered water. Also, the decrease in permeability occurs much more slowly with the filtered than the unfiltered water. The effect of water on core permeability is essentially irreversible. Efforts to restore core permeability by reversing flow direction were not successful. Among the reasons for the permeability decrease were hydration and swelling of clays and evolution of gases from water in the cores. (10 refs.)

  11. Sorption of radionickel to goethite: Effect of water quality parameters and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baowei Hu; ShaoXing University, ShaoXing; Wen Cheng; Hui Zhang; Guodong Sheng; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei


    In this work, sorption of Ni(II) from aqueous solution to goethite as a function of various water quality parameters and temperature was investigated. The results indicated that the pseudo-second-order rate equation fitted the kinetic sorption well. The sorption of Ni(II) to goethite was strongly dependent on pH and ionic strength. A positive effect of HA/FA on Ni(II) sorption was found at pH 8.0. The Langmuir, Freundlich, and D-R models were applied to simulate the sorption isotherms at three different temperatures of 293.15 K, 313.15 K and 333.15 K. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔH 0 , ΔS 0 and ΔG 0 ) were calculated from the temperature dependent sorption, and the results indicated that the sorption was endothermic and spontaneous. At low pH, the sorption of Ni(II) was dominated by outer-sphere surface complexation or ion exchange with Na + /H + on goethite surfaces, whereas inner-sphere surface complexation was the main sorption mechanism at high pH. (author)

  12. Effect of alteration zones on water quality: a case study from Biga Peninsula, Turkey. (United States)

    Baba, Alper; Gunduz, Orhan


    Widespread and intense zones of silicified, propylitic, and argillic alteration can be found in the Can volcanics of Biga Peninsula, northwest Turkey. Most of the springs in the study area surface out from the boundary between fractured aquifer (silicified zone) and impervious boundary (argillic zone). This study focuses on two such springs in Kirazli area (Kirazli and Balaban springs) with a distinct quality pattern. Accordingly, field parameters (temperature, pH, and electrical conductivity), major anion and cation (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, bicarbonate, and sulfate), heavy metals (aluminum, arsenic, barium, chromium, cobalt, cupper, iron, lithium, manganese, nickel, lead, and zinc), and isotopes (oxygen-18, deuterium, and tritium) were determined in water samples taken from these springs during 2005 through 2007. The chemical analyses showed that aluminum concentrations were found to be two orders of magnitude greater in Kirazli waters (mean value 13813.25 microg/L). The levels of this element exceeded the maximum allowable limits given in national and international standards for drinking-water quality. In addition, Balaban and Kirazli springs are >55 years old according to their tritium levels; Kirazli spring is older than Balaban spring. Kirazli spring is also more enriched than Balaban spring based in oxygen-18 and deuterium values. Furthermore, Kirazli spring water has been in contact with altered rocks longer than Balaban spring water, according to its relatively high chloride and electrical conductivity values.

  13. Potential Effects of Organic Carbon Production on Ecosystems and Drinking Water Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry R. Brown


    Full Text Available Restoration of tidal wetlands in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (Delta is an important component of the Ecosystem Restoration Program of the CALFED Bay-Delta Program (CALFED. CALFED is a collaborative effort among state and federal agencies to restore the ecological health and improve water management of the Delta and San Francisco Bay (Bay. Tidal wetland restoration is intended to provide valuable habitat for organisms and to improve ecosystem productivity through export of various forms of organic carbon, including both algae and plant detritus. However, the Delta also provides all or part of the drinking water for over 22 million Californians. In this context, increasing sources of organic carbon may be a problem because of the potential increase in the production of trihalomethanes and other disinfection by-products created during the process of water disinfection. This paper reviews the existing information about the roles of organic carbon in ecosystem function and drinking water quality in the Bay-Delta system, evaluates the potential for interaction, and considers major uncertainties and potential actions to reduce uncertainty. In the last 10 years, substantial progress has been made on the role of various forms of organic carbon in both ecosystem function and drinking water quality; however, interactions between the two have not been directly addressed. Several ongoing studies are beginning to address these interactions, and the results from these studies should reduce uncertainty and provide focus for further research.

  14. Effects of application of composted water-bamboo leaves on soil nutrients and vegetable quality (United States)

    Luo, Zhi-Qing; Hu, Xue-Feng; Lu, Xinzhe; Luo, Fan


    CK; while those with CF only by 18.4% and 4.9%, respectively. Likewise, the contents of Vitamin C and soluble proteins in cabbage treated with HM increased by 115.3% and 31.4%, respectively. Compared with synthetic chemical fertilizers, the fermented manure released nutrients slowly and persistently, which was conducive to maintain soil fertility for a long term and reduce agricultural diffuse pollution effectively. Moreover, the application of this fermented manure increased the contents of soluble sugar and Vitamin C in vegetables and improved their quality significantly. Turning discarded water-bamboo leaves into organic manure through fermenting and composting is not only low in cost, but also contributes to the development of recycling agriculture in the suburbs of Shanghai.

  15. The effects of periphyton, fish and fertilizer dose on biological processes affecting water quality in earthen fish ponds.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milstein, A.; Azim, M.E.; Wahab, M.A.; Verdegem, M.C.J.


    The potential of periphyton-based aquaculture in South Asia is under investigation in an extensive research program. This paper is a further analysis of data from four experiments carried out in that framework, to explore periphyton, fish and fertilizer dose effects on water quality. Factor analysis

  16. Towards More Effective Water Quality Governance : A Review of Social-Economic, Legal and Ecological Perspectives and Their Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijswick, H.F.M.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/099909189; Wuijts, S.; Driessen, P.P.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069081417


    In this article, social-economic, legal and ecological perspectives on effectiveness of water quality governance and their interactions have been studied. Worldwide, authorities are facing the challenge of restoring and preserving aquatic ecosystems in accordance with the United Nations Sustainable

  17. Real-time water quality monitoring and providing water quality ... (United States)

    EPA and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have initiated the “Village Blue” research project to provide real-time water quality monitoring data to the Baltimore community and increase public awareness about local water quality in Baltimore Harbor and the Chesapeake Bay. The Village Blue demonstration project complements work that a number of state and local organizations are doing to make Baltimore Harbor “swimmable and fishable” 2 by 2020. Village Blue is designed to build upon EPA’s “Village Green” project which provides real-time air quality information to communities in six locations across the country. The presentation, “Real-time water quality monitoring and providing water quality information to the Baltimore Community”, summarizes the Village Blue real-time water quality monitoring project being developed for the Baltimore Harbor.

  18. Modeling Miscanthus in the soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) to simulate its water quality effects as a bioenergy crop. (United States)

    Ng, Tze Ling; Eheart, J Wayland; Cai, Ximing; Miguez, Fernando


    There is increasing interest in perennial grasses as a renewable source of bioenergy and feedstock for second-generation cellulosic biofuels. The primary objective of this study is to estimate the potential effects on riverine nitrate load of cultivating Miscanthus x giganteus in place of conventional crops. In this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is used to model miscanthus growth and streamwater quality in the Salt Creek watershed in Illinois. SWAT has a built-in crop growth component, but, as miscanthus is relatively new as a potentially commercial crop, data on the SWAT crop growth parameters for the crop are lacking. This leads to the second objective of this study, which is to estimate those parameters to facilitate the modeling of miscanthus in SWAT. Results show a decrease in nitrate load that depends on the percent land use change to miscanthus and the amount of nitrogen fertilizer applied to the miscanthus. Specifically, assuming a nitrogen fertilization rate for miscanthus of 90 kg-N/ha, a 10%, 25%, and 50% land use change to miscanthus will lead to decreases in nitrate load of about 6.4%, 16.5%, and 29.6% at the watershed outlet, respectively. Likewise, nitrate load may be reduced by lowering the fertilizer application rate, but not proportionately. When fertilization drops from 90 to 30 kg-N/ha the difference in nitrate load decrease is less than 1% when 10% of the watershed is miscanthus and less than 6% when 50% of the watershed is miscanthus. It is also found that the nitrate load decrease from converting less than half the watershed to miscanthus from corn and soybean in 1:1 rotation surpasses that from converting the whole watershed to just soybean.

  19. Study of the Effect of Material Machinability on Quality of Surface Created by Abrasive Water Jet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klichová, Dagmar; Klich, Jiří


    Roč. 149, č. 149 (2016), s. 177-182 E-ISSN 1877-7058. [International Conference on Manufacturing Engineering and Materials, ICMEM 2016. Nový Smokovec, 06.06.2016-10.06.2016] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1406 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : machinability * surface roughness * abrasive water jet * study of quality * aluminium alloy * optical profilometer Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools

  20. Effects of septic-tank effluent on ground-water quality in northern Williamson County and southern Davidson County, Tennessee (United States)

    Hanchar, D.W.


    An investigation of the potential contamination of ground water from septic tank systems blasted in bedrock in Williamson and Davidson Counties, Tennessee, was conducted during 1988-89. Water samples were collected from domestic and observation wells, springs, and surface-water sites in a residential subdivision in the northern part of Williamson County near Nashville. The subdivision has a high density of septic-tank field lines installed into blasted bedrock Water samples also were collected from a well located in an area of Davidson County where field lines were installed in 5 feet of soil. Samples were analyzed for major inorganic constituents, nutrients, total organic carbon, optical brighteners, and bacteria. Although results of analyses of water samples from wells indicate no effect of septic-tank effluent on ground-water quality at these sites, water from two springs located downgradient from the subdivision had slightly larger concentrations of nitrite plus nitrate (2.2 and 2.7 milligrams per liter N), and much larger concentrations of fecal coliform and fecal streptococci bacteria (2,000 to 3,200 and 700 to 900 colonies per 100 milliliters of sample, respectively), than other wells and springs sampled during 1988. Water from one of these springs contained optical brighteners, which indicates that septic-tank effluent is affecting ground-water quality.

  1. Improved or Unimproved Urban Areas Effect on Soil and Water Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally D. Logsdon


    Full Text Available Construction in urban areas usually results in compacted soil, which restricts plant growth and infiltration. Nutrients may be lost in storm runoff water and sediment. The purpose of this study was to determine if existing lawns benefit from aeration and surface compost additions without the negative impact of nutrient loss in runoff. Four sets of lawns were compared, with or without compost plus aeration, as a paired comparison. Surface bulk density was significantly reduced in the treated lawns (1.32 versus 1.42 Mg·m−3. Visual evaluation of soil structure showed improvement in the treated lawns. Of fifteen measurement dates over four years, four dates showed significantly higher surface soil water contents in the treated lawns compared with the untreated lawns. When compared over time, three of the four treated lawns had significantly higher soil water content than the untreated lawns. Nutrient concentrations in rainfall simulator runoff were not significantly different between treated and control lawns, which showed that compost did not negatively impact water quality. Compost and aeration helped restore soil quality for urban soils of recent construction.

  2. The Effect of Population Variation on the Water Quality of Latian Dam Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mirzaie


    Full Text Available The increasing expansion of resential areas and urbanization together with industrial and agricultural development in Iran have made it possible to destroy the ecological system of the natural society remarkably. The watershed of Latian Dam , as one of the sources to supply the drinking water of Tehran is of specific geographical and climatic important ,and because it is adjutant to Tehran , it has exprienced considerable change in population and residential expansion. In this research, we have tried to focus on the changes of the quality of water in the Jajrood River , by surveying the population growth of this area, in recent years. Considering the results of this research the number of tourist have also increased remarkably in the last few years and the quality of water has also been changed because of the increasing number of tourist in the region. Therefore ,without regarding the ecological ,hygienically and controlling necessities in this area , there many be dangerous conditions and consequences forced upon one of the important drinking water sources of Tehran  in the near future.

  3. Research NoteEffect of drought and fires on the quality of water in Lithuanian rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sakalauskiene


    Full Text Available In August and September 2002, concentrations of heavy metals (copper, lead, and zinc were 21-74% more than in previous years in Lithuanian rivers. Such a sudden increase in heavy metal pollution reduces the value of any water body for fishing or recreation and poses a potential risk to the environment and to human health. Droughts in the summer of 2002 led to forest and peat bog fires all over Lithuania and may have caused the increase in concentrations of heavy metals detected in Lithuanian rivers in August 2002. The fires could have changed the pH in the top layers of the soil, overcome geochemical barriers in the soil and enabled heavy metals to migrate from the soil to the groundwater and from river bottom sediments to the surface water. Keywords: heavy metals, river water quality, Lithuania

  4. Microbiological quality of natural waters. (United States)

    Borrego, J J; Figueras, M J


    Several aspects of the microbiological quality of natural waters, especially recreational waters, have been reviewed. The importance of the water as a vehicle and/or a reservoir of human pathogenic microorganisms is also discussed. In addition, the concepts, types and techniques of microbial indicator and index microorganisms are established. The most important differences between faecal streptococci and enterococci have been discussed, defining the concept and species included. In addition, we have revised the main alternative indicators used to measure the water quality.

  5. Effects of 1992 farming systems on ground-water quality at the management systems evaluation area near Princeton, Minnesota (United States)

    Delin, G.N.; Landon, M.K.; Lamb, J.A.; Dowdy, R.H.


    The Management Systems Evaluation Area (MSEA) program was a multiscale, interagency initiative to evaluate the effects of agricultural systems on water quality in the midwest corn belt. The primary objective of the Minnesota MSEA was to evaluate the effects of ridge-tillage practices in a corn and soybean farming system on ground-water quality. The 65-hectare Minnesota MSEA was located in the Anoka Sand Plain near the town of Princeton, Minnesota. Three fanning systems were evaluated: corn-soybean rotation with ridge-tillage (areas B and D), sweet corn-potato rotation (areas A and C), and field corn in consecutive years (continuous corn; area E). Water samples were collected four different times per year from a network of 22 multiport wells and 29 observation wells installed in the saturated zone beneath and adjacent to the cropped areas.

  6. Effects of reduced water quality on coral reefs in and out of no-take marine reserves. (United States)

    Wenger, Amelia S; Williamson, David H; da Silva, Eduardo T; Ceccarelli, Daniela M; Browne, Nicola K; Petus, Caroline; Devlin, Michelle J


    Near-shore marine environments are increasingly subjected to reduced water quality, and their ability to withstand it is critical to their persistence. The potential role marine reserves may play in mitigating the effects of reduced water quality has received little attention. We investigated the spatial and temporal variability in live coral and macro-algal cover and water quality during moderate and major flooding events of the Fitzroy River within the Keppel Bay region of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park from 2007 to 2013. We used 7 years of remote sensing data on water quality and data from long-term monitoring of coral reefs to quantify exposure of coral reefs to flood plumes. We used a distance linear model to partition the contribution of abiotic and biotic factors, including zoning, as drivers of the observed changes in coral and macro-algae cover. Moderate flood plumes from 2007 to 2009 did not affect coral cover on reefs in the Keppel Islands, suggesting the reef has intrinsic resistance against short-term exposure to reduced water quality. However, from 2009 to 2013, live coral cover declined by ∼ 50% following several weeks of exposure to turbid, low salinity water from major flood plume events in 2011 and subsequent moderate events in 2012 and 2013. Although the flooding events in 2012 and 2013 were smaller than the flooding events between 2007 to 2009, the ability of the reefs to withstand these moderate floods was lost, as evidenced by a ∼ 20% decline in coral cover between 2011 to 2013. Although zoning (no-take reserve or fished) was identified a significant driver of coral cover, we recorded consistently lower coral cover on reserve reefs than on fished reefs throughout the study period and significantly lower cover in 2011. Our findings suggest that even reefs with an inherent resistance to reduced water quality are not able to withstand repeated disturbance events. The limitations of reserves in mitigating the effects of reduced water

  7. Effects of temporal and spatial resolution of calibration data on integrated hydrologic water quality model identification (United States)

    Jiang, Sanyuan; Jomaa, Seifeddine; Büttner, Olaf; Rode, Michael


    Hydrological water quality modeling is increasingly used for investigating runoff and nutrient transport processes as well as watershed management but it is mostly unclear how data availablity determins model identification. In this study, the HYPE (HYdrological Predictions for the Environment) model, which is a process-based, semi-distributed hydrological water quality model, was applied in two different mesoscale catchments (Selke (463 km2) and Weida (99 km2)) located in central Germany to simulate discharge and inorganic nitrogen (IN) transport. PEST and DREAM(ZS) were combined with the HYPE model to conduct parameter calibration and uncertainty analysis. Split-sample test was used for model calibration (1994-1999) and validation (1999-2004). IN concentration and daily IN load were found to be highly correlated with discharge, indicating that IN leaching is mainly controlled by runoff. Both dynamics and balances of water and IN load were well captured with NSE greater than 0.83 during validation period. Multi-objective calibration (calibrating hydrological and water quality parameters simultaneously) was found to outperform step-wise calibration in terms of model robustness. Multi-site calibration was able to improve model performance at internal sites, decrease parameter posterior uncertainty and prediction uncertainty. Nitrogen-process parameters calibrated using continuous daily averages of nitrate-N concentration observations produced better and more robust simulations of IN concentration and load, lower posterior parameter uncertainty and IN concentration prediction uncertainty compared to the calibration against uncontinuous biweekly nitrate-N concentration measurements. Both PEST and DREAM(ZS) are efficient in parameter calibration. However, DREAM(ZS) is more sound in terms of parameter identification and uncertainty analysis than PEST because of its capability to evolve parameter posterior distributions and estimate prediction uncertainty based on global

  8. Effects of the Biofuels Initiative on Water Quality and Quantity in the Mississippi Alluvial Plain (United States)

    Welch, H. L.; Green, C. T.; Coupe, R. H.


    In the search for renewable fuel alternatives, biofuels have gained strong political momentum. In the last decade, extensive mandates, policies, and subsidies have been adopted to foster the development of a biofuels industry in the United States. The manifestation of the Biofuels Initiative in the Mississippi Delta was a 47-percent decrease in cotton acreage with a concurrent 288 percent increase in corn acreage in 2007. Because corn uses 80 percent more water for irrigation than cotton, and more nitrogen fertilizer is recommended for corn cultivation, this crop type change has implications for water quantity and quality in the Delta. Increased water use for corn is accelerating water-level declines in the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer at a time when conservation is being encouraged due to concerns about sustainability. A mathematical model calibrated to existing conditions in the Delta shows that increased fertilizer applications on corn will increase the extent of nitrate movement into the alluvial aquifer. Estimates based on surface-water modeling results indicate that higher application rates of nitrogen from increased corn production increases the amount of nitrogen exported from the Yazoo River basin to the Gulf of Mexico by about 7 percent; increasing the Delta’s contribution to hypoxic conditions in the Gulf of Mexico.

  9. Chemistry of Hot Spring Pool Waters in Calamba and Los Banos and Potential Effect on the Water Quality of Laguna De Bay (United States)

    Balangue, M. I. R. D.; Pena, M. A. Z.; Siringan, F. P.; Jago-on, K. A. B.; Lloren, R. B.; Taniguchi, M.


    Since the Spanish Period (1600s), natural hot spring waters have been harnessed for balneological purposes in the municipalities of Calamba and Los Banos, Laguna, south of Metro Manila. There are at more than a hundred hot spring resorts in Brgy. Pansol, Calamba and Tadlac, Los Banos. These two areas are found at the northern flanks of Mt. Makiling facing Laguna de Bay. This study aims to provide some insights on the physical and chemical characteristics of hot spring resorts and the possible impact on the lake water quality resulting from the disposal of used water. Initial ocular survey of the resorts showed that temperature of the pool water ranges from ambient (>300C) to as high as 500C with an average pool size of 80m3. Water samples were collected from a natural hot spring and pumped well in Los Banos and another pumped well in Pansol to determine the chemistry. The field pH ranges from 6.65 to 6.87 (Pansol springs). Cation analysis revealed that the thermal waters belonged to the Na-K-Cl-HCO3 type with some trace amount of heavy metals. Methods for waste water disposal are either by direct discharge down the drain of the pool or by discharge in the public road canal. Both methods will dump the waste water directly into Laguna de Bay. Taking in consideration the large volume of waste water used especially during the peak season, the effect on the lake water quality would be significant. It is therefore imperative for the environmental authorities in Laguna to regulate and monitor the chemistry of discharges from the pool to protect both the lake water as well as groundwater quality.

  10. Effects of Biosolids and Manure Application on Microbial Water Quality in Rural Areas in the US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Oun


    Full Text Available Most of the waterborne disease outbreaks observed in North America are associated with rural drinking water systems. The majority of the reported waterborne outbreaks are related to microbial agents (parasites, bacteria and viruses. Rural areas are characterized by high livestock density and lack of advanced treatment systems for animal and human waste, and wastewater. Animal waste from livestock production facilities is often applied to land without prior treatment. Biosolids (treated municipal wastewater sludge from large wastewater facilities in urban areas are often transported and applied to land in rural areas. This situation introduces a potential for risk of human exposure to waterborne contaminants such as human and zoonotic pathogens originating from manure, biosolids, and leaking septic systems. This paper focuses on waterborne outbreaks and sources of microbial pollution in rural areas in the US, characterization of the microbial load of biosolids and manure, association of biosolid and manure application with microbial contamination of surface and groundwater, risk assessment and best management practice for biosolids and manure application to protect water quality. Gaps in knowledge are identified, and recommendations to improve the water quality in the rural areas are discussed.

  11. Effect of plasma activated water on the postharvest quality of button mushrooms, Agaricus bisporus. (United States)

    Xu, Yingyin; Tian, Ying; Ma, Ruonan; Liu, Qinghong; Zhang, Jue


    Non-thermal plasma is a new approach to improving microbiological safety while maintaining the sensory attributes of the treated foods. Recent research has reported that plasma activated water (PAW) can also efficiently inactivate a wide variety of microorganisms. This study invested the effects of plasma-activated water soaking on the postharvest preservation of button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) over seven days of storage at 20°C. Plasma activated water reduced the microbial counts by 1.5 log and 0.5 log for bacteria and fungi during storage, respectively. Furthermore, the corresponding physicochemical and biological properties were assessed between plasma activated water soaking groups and control groups. The results for firmness, respiration rate and relative electrical conductivity suggested that plasma activated water soaking can delay mushroom softening. Meanwhile, no significant change was observed in the color, pH, or antioxidant properties of A. bisporus treated with plasma activated water. Thus, plasma activated water soaking is a promising method for postharvest fresh-keeping of A. bisporus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Longevity and effectiveness of aluminum addition to reduce sediment phosphorus release and restore lake water quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huser, Brian J; Egemose, Sara; Harper, Harvey


    114 lakes treated with aluminum (Al) salts to reduce internal phosphorus (P) loading were analyzed to identify factors driving longevity of post-treatment water quality improvements. Lakes varied greatly in morphology, applied Al dose, and other factors that may have affected overall treatment...... (OI, a morphological index), and watershed to lake area ratio (related to hydraulic residence time, WA:LA) were the most important variables determining treatment longevity. Multiple linear regression showed that Al dose, WA:LA, and OI explained 47, 32 and 3% respectively of the variation in treatment...

  13. Effects of highway-deicer application on ground-water quality in a part of the Calumet Aquifer, northwestern Indiana (United States)

    Watson, Lee R.; Bayless, E. Randall; Buszka, Paul M.; Wilson, John T.


    The effects of highway-deicer application on ground-water quality were studied at a site in northwestern Indiana using a variety of geochemical indicators. Site characteristics such as high snowfall rates; large quantities of applied deicers; presence of a high-traffic highway; a homogeneous, permeable, and unconfined aquifer; a shallow water table; a known ground-water-flow direction; and minimal potential for other sources of chloride and sodium to complicate source interpretation were used to select a study area where ground water was likely to be affected by deicer application. Forty-three monitoring wells were installed in an unconfined sand aquifer (the Calumet aquifer) near Beverly Shores in northwestern Indiana. Wells were installed along two transects that approximately paralleled groundwater flow in the Calumet aquifer and crossed US?12. US?12 is a highway that receives Indiana?s highest level of maintenance to maintain safe driving conditions. Ground-water quality and water-level data were collected from the monitoring wells, and precipitation and salt-application data were compiled from 1994 through 1997. The water-quality data indicated that chloride was the most easily traced indicator of highway deicers in ground water. Concentration ratios of chloride to iodide and chloride to bromide and Stiff diagrams of major element concentrations indicated that the principal source of chloride and sodium in ground water from the uppermost one-third to one-half of the Calumet relative electromagnetic conductivity defined a distinct plume of deicer-affected water in the uppermost 8 feet of aquifer at about 9 feet horizontally from the paved roadway edge and a zone of higher conductivity than background in the lower one-third of the aquifer. Chloride and sodium in the deep parts of the aquifer originated from natural sources. Chloride and sodium from highway deicers were present in the aquifer throughout the year. The highest concentrations of chloride and sodium

  14. Potential effects of desalinated water quality on the operation stability of wastewater treatment plants. (United States)

    Lew, Beni; Cochva, Malka; Lahav, Ori


    Desalinated water is expected to become the major source of drinking water in many places in the near future, and thus the major source of wastewater to arrive at wastewater treatment plants. The paper examines the effect of the alkalinity value with which the water is released from the desalination plant on the alkalinity value that would develop within the wastewater treatment process under various nitrification-denitrification operational scenarios. The main hypothesis was that the difference in the alkalinity value between tap water and domestic wastewater is almost exclusively a result of the hydrolysis of urea (NH(2)CONH(2), excreted in the human urine) to ammonia (NH(3)), regardless of the question what fraction of NH(3(aq)) is transformed to NH(4)(+). Results from a field study show that the ratio between the alkalinity added to tap water when raw wastewater is formed (in meq/l units) and the TAN (total ammonia nitrogen, mole/l) concentration in the raw wastewater is almost 1:1 in purely domestic sewage and close to 1:1 in domestic wastewater streams mixed with light industry wastewaters. Having established the relationship between TAN and total alkalinity in raw wastewater the paper examines three theoretical nitrification-denitrification treatment scenarios in the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The conclusion is that if low-alkalinity desalinated water constitutes the major water source arriving at the WWTP, external alkalinity will have to be added in order to avoid pH drop and maintain process stability. The results lead to the conclusion that supplying desalinated water with a high alkalinity value (e.g. > or =100 mg/l as CaCO(3)) would likely prevent the need to add costly basic chemicals in the WWTP, while, in addition, it would improve the chemical and biological stability of the drinking water in the distribution system.

  15. Effects of highway construction on stream water quality and macroinvertebrate condition in a mid-atlantic highlands watershed, USA. (United States)

    Chen, Yushun; Viadero, Roger C; Wei, Xinchao; Fortney, Ronald; Hedrick, Lara B; Welsh, Stuart A; Anderson, James T; Lin, Lian-Shin


    Refining best management practices (BMPs) for future highway construction depends on a comprehensive understanding of environmental impacts from current construction methods. Based on a before-after-control impact (BACI) experimental design, long-term stream monitoring (1997-2006) was conducted at upstream (as control, n = 3) and downstream (as impact, n = 6) sites in the Lost River watershed of the Mid-Atlantic Highlands region, West Virginia. Monitoring data were analyzed to assess impacts of during and after highway construction on 15 water quality parameters and macroinvertebrate condition using the West Virginia stream condition index (WVSCI). Principal components analysis (PCA) identified regional primary water quality variances, and paired t tests and time series analysis detected seven highway construction-impacted water quality parameters which were mainly associated with the second principal component. In particular, impacts on turbidity, total suspended solids, and total iron during construction, impacts on chloride and sulfate during and after construction, and impacts on acidity and nitrate after construction were observed at the downstream sites. The construction had statistically significant impacts on macroinvertebrate index scores (i.e., WVSCI) after construction, but did not change the overall good biological condition. Implementing BMPs that address those construction-impacted water quality parameters can be an effective mitigation strategy for future highway construction in this highlands region.

  16. Potential water-quality effects of coal-bed methane production water discharged along the upper Tongue River, Wyoming and Montana (United States)

    Kinsey, Stacy M.; Nimick, David A.


    Water quality in the upper Tongue River from Monarch, Wyoming, downstream to just upstream from the Tongue River Reservoir in Montana potentially could be affected by discharge of coal-bed methane (CBM) production water (hereinafter referred to as CBM discharge). CBM discharge typically contains high concentrations of sodium and other ions that could increase dissolved-solids (salt) concentrations, specific conductance (SC), and sodium-adsorption ratio (SAR) in the river. Increased inputs of sodium and other ions have the potential to alter the river's suitability for agricultural irrigation and aquatic ecosystems. Data from two large tributaries, Goose Creek and Prairie Dog Creek, indicate that these tributaries were large contributors to the increase in SC and SAR in the Tongue River. However, water-quality data were not available for most of the smaller inflows, such as small tributaries, irrigation-return flows, and CBM discharges. Thus, effects of these inflows on the water quality of the Tongue River were not well documented. Effects of these small inflows might be subtle and difficult to determine without more extensive data collection to describe spatial patterns. Therefore, synoptic water-quality sampling trips were conducted in September 2005 and April 2006 to provide a spatially detailed profile of the downstream changes in water quality in this reach of the Tongue River. The purpose of this report is to describe these downstream changes in water quality and to estimate the potential water-quality effects of CBM discharge in the upper Tongue River. Specific conductance of the Tongue River through the study reach increased from 420 to 625 microsiemens per centimeter (.μS/cm; or 49 percent) in the downstream direction in September 2005 and from 373 to 543 .μS/cm (46 percent) in April 2006. Large increases (12 to 24 percent) were measured immediately downstream from Goose Creek and Prairie Dog Creek during both sampling trips. Increases attributed to

  17. Effects of land disposal of municipal sewage sludge on fate of nitrates in soil, streambed sediment, and water quality (United States)

    Tindall, James A.; Lull, Kenneth J.; Gaggiani, Neville G.


    This study was undertaken to determine the effects of sewage-sludge disposal at the Lowry sewage-sludge-disposal area, near Denver, Colorado, on ground- and surface-water quality, to determine the fate of nitrates from sludge leachate, and to determine the source areas of leachate and the potential for additional leaching from the disposal area.Sewage-sludge disposal began in 1969. Two methods were used to apply the sludge: burial and plowing. Also, the sludge was applied both in liquid and cake forms. Data in this report represent the chemical composition of soil and streambed sediment from seven soil- and four streambed-sampling sites in 1986, chemical and bacterial composition of ground water from 28 wells from 1981 to 1987, and surface-water runoff from seven water-sampling sites from 1984 to 1987. Ground water samples were obtained from alluvial and bedrock aquifers. Samples of soil, streambed sediment, ground water and surface water were obtained for onsite measurement and chemical analysis. Measurements included determination of nitrogen compounds and major cations and anions, fecal-coliform and -streptococcus bacteria, specific conductance, and pH.Thirteen wells in the alluvial aquifer in Region 3 of the study area contain water that was probably affected by sewage-sludge leachate. The plots of concentration of nitrate with time show seasonal trends and trends caused by precipitation. In addition to yearly fluctuation, there were noticeable increases in ground-water concentrations of nitrate that coincided with increased precipitation. After 3 years of annual ground-water-quality monitoring and 4 years of a quarterly sampling program, it has been determined that leachate from the sewage-sludge-disposal area caused increased nitrite plus nitrate (as nitrogen) concentration in the alluvial ground water at the site. Soil analyses from the disposal area indicate that organic nitrogen was the dominant form of nitrogen in the soil.As a result of investigations at

  18. Water Quality Monitoring by Satellite (United States)

    Journal of Chemical Education, 2004


    The availability of abundant water resources in the Upper Midwest of the United States is nullified by their contamination through heavy commercial and industrial activities. Scientists have taken the responsibility of detecting the water quality of these resources through remote-sensing satellites to develop a wide-ranging water purification plan…

  19. Effect of farming activities on seasonal variation of water quality of Bonsma Dam, KwaZulu-Natal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayanda N. Shabalala


    Full Text Available Agriculture has both direct and indirect effects on the quality of surface water and groundwater and is among the leading causes of water quality degradation, mainly as a result of the excessive use of agrochemicals. Water samples were collected in a selected catchment area (Bonsma Dam in KwaZulu-Natal and analysed for physicochemical variables. The concentrations of most of the elements and total dissolved solids, as well as the pH and electrical conductivity values, met the water quality requirements for domestic, agricultural, livestock and aquatic ecosystem uses. However, the inlet streams feeding the dam were found to be eutrophic during the wet season. Analysis of nitrate in the water body of the study area indicated that agricultural applications of manure and fertilisers may be a potential source of nitrate contamination. Most elements were more concentrated in the dam during the wet season. The overall ionic conductivity values were also higher in the wet season, while the pH was lower. The outcome of this work links the concentrations of physicochemical variables to land use, agricultural practice and local geomorphology. Seasonal patterns in the concentration of physicochemical variables occur, as land use, rainfall and farming activities change seasonally, and these concentrations should therefore be determined periodically.

  20. What's in Your Water? An Educator's Guide to Water Quality. (United States)

    Constabile, Kerry, Comp.; Craig, Heidi, Comp.; O'Laughlin, Laura, Comp.; Reiss, Anne Bei, Comp.; Spencer, Liz, Comp.

    This guide provides basic information on the Clean Water Act, watersheds, and testing for water quality, and presents four science lesson plans on water quality. Activities include: (1) "Introduction to Water Quality"; (2) "Chemical Water Quality Testing"; (3) "Biological Water Quality Testing"; and (4) "What Can We Do?" (YDS)

  1. Effects of application timing of saline irrigation water on broccoli production and quality (United States)

    Irrigation with moderately saline water is a necessity in many semi-arid areas of the Mediterranean Basin, and requires adequate irrigation management strategies. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), a crop moderately tolerant to salinity stress, was used to evaluate the effects of the applica...

  2. Effect of water quality on the feeding ecology of axolotl Ambystoma mexicanum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego de Jesus Chaparro-Herrera


    Full Text Available Ambystoma mexicanum, a highly endangered species, is endemic to lake Xochimilco (Mexico City, Mexico which currently is being negatively affected by the introduction of Oreochromis niloticus (Tilapia and water pollution. During the first weeks of development, when mortality is the highest, Ambystoma mexicanumdepends on a diet of zooplankton. The aim of this study was to check whether contamination levels in lake Xochimilco influence zooplankton consumption by similar size classes of A. mexicanum and Oreochromis niloticus. In this study, we analysed changes in the functional responses and prey preference of A. mexicanum and larval Tilapia in two media, one with filtered lake Xochimilco water and another one with reconstituted water. As prey we used cladocerans (Moina macrocopa, Alona glabra, Macrothrix triserialis and Simocephalus vetulus and ostracods (Heterocypris incongruens. Zooplankton was offered in 5 different densities, 10, 20, 40, 80, 160 ind./mL. Prey consumption by A. mexicanum varied in relation to the species offered and age of the larvae. From the first week to the eighth week prey consumption by A. mexicanum increased by 57%. Our functional response tests showed that regardless of the prey type, prey consumption by A. mexicanum was lower in the contaminated water from lake Xochimilco. Among the zooplankton offered in the contaminated environment predators preferred smaller and slower moving microcrustaceans such as Alona glabra and Heterocypris incongruens. Furthermore, O. niloticus preferred prey such as Moina macrocopa and Macrothrix triserialis in the contaminated medium and was more voracious than the axolotl. Our results indicate that both water quality of the lake and the presence of the more resistant exotic fish adversely impact the survival of this endangered amphibian.

  3. Evaluating the effect of river restoration techniques on reducing the impacts of outfall on water quality (United States)

    Mant, Jenny; Janes, Victoria; Terrell, Robert; Allen, Deonie; Arthur, Scott; Yeakley, Alan; Morse, Jennifer; Holman, Ian


    Outfalls represent points of discharge to a river and often contain pollutants from urban runoff, such as heavy metals. Additionally, erosion around the outfall site results in increased sediment generation and the release of associated pollutants. Water quality impacts from heavy metals pose risks to the river ecosystem (e.g. toxicity to aquatic habitats). Restoration techniques including establishment of swales, and the re-vegetation and reinforcement of channel banks aim to decrease outfall flow velocities resulting in deposition of pollutants and removal through plant uptake. Within this study the benefits of river restoration techniques for the removal of contaminants associated with outfalls have been quantified within Johnson Creek, Portland, USA as part of the EPSRC funded Blue-Green Cities project. The project aims to develop new strategies for protecting hydrological and ecological values of urban landscapes. A range of outfalls have been selected which span restored and un-restored channel reaches, a variety of upstream land-uses, and both direct and set-back outfalls. River Habitat Surveys were conducted at each of the sites to assess the level of channel modification within the reach. Sediment samples were taken at the outfall location, upstream, and downstream of outfalls for analysis of metals including Nickel, Lead, Zinc, Copper, Iron and Magnesium. These were used to assess the impact of the level of modification at individual sites, and to compare the influence of direct and set-back outfalls. Concentrations of all metals in the sediments found at outfalls generally increased with the level of modification at the site. Sediment in restored sites had lower metal concentrations both at the outfall and downstream compared to unrestored sites, indicating the benefit of these techniques to facilitate the effective removal of pollutants by trapping of sediment and uptake of contaminants by vegetation. However, the impact of restoration measures varied

  4. Water Quality Monitoring Manual. (United States)

    Mason, Fred J.; Houdart, Joseph F.

    This manual is designed for students involved in environmental education programs dealing with water pollution problems. By establishing a network of Environmental Monitoring Stations within the educational system, four steps toward the prevention, control, and abatement of water pollution are proposed. (1) Train students to recognize, monitor,…

  5. Lake Tahoe Water Quality Improvement Programs (United States)

    Information on the Lake Tahoe watershed, EPA's protection efforts, water quality issues, effects of climate, change, Lake Tahoe Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL), EPA-sponsored projects, and list of partner agencies.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed FARISSI


    Full Text Available The present study focused the effect of water deficit on agronomic potential and some traits related to forage quality in plants of Moroccan Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. populations (Taf 1, Taf 2, Dem and Tata originated from Oasis and High Atlas of Morocco and an introduced variety from Australia (Siriver. The experiment was conducted under field conditions in experimental station of INRA-Marrakech and under two irrigation treatments. The first treatment was normal irrigation, providing an amount of water corresponding to the potential evapo-transpiration of the crop, and the second treatment was water deficit stress (one irrigation per cut. For each treatment, the experiment was conducted as a split plot based on a randomized complete block design with four replications. The plants were measured and analyzed over three cuts. Some agronomic traits as, plant height, fresh and dry forage yields were measured. The forage quality was evaluated by leaf:stem ratio and the contents of plants in proteins and nitrogen. The results indicated that the water deficit has negatively affected the plant height and forage yield. The decrease in leaf:stem ratio was observed under water deficit conditions. However, the proteins and nitrogen contents were unaffected. The behavior of tested alfalfa genotypes was significantly different. The Moroccan alfalfa populations were more adapted to water deficit conditions comparatively to Siriver variety and the Tata population was the most adapted one.



    Mohamed FARISSI; Cherki GHOULAM; Abdelaziz BOUIZGAREN


    The present study focused the effect of water deficit on agronomic potential and some traits related to forage quality in plants of Moroccan Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) populations (Taf 1, Taf 2, Dem and Tata) originated from Oasis and High Atlas of Morocco and an introduced variety from Australia (Siriver). The experiment was conducted under field conditions in experimental station of INRA-Marrakech and under two irrigation treatments. The first treatment was normal irrigation, providing an...

  8. Effects of River Discharge and Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) on Water Quality Dynamics in Migina Catchment, Rwanda (United States)

    Uwimana, Abias; van Dam, Anne; Gettel, Gretchen; Bigirimana, Bonfils; Irvine, Kenneth


    Agricultural intensification may accelerate the loss of wetlands, increasing the concentrations of nutrients and sediments in downstream water bodies. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of land use and land cover and river discharge on water quality in the Migina catchment, southern Rwanda. Rainfall, discharge and water quality (total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total suspended solids, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, pH, and temperature) were measured in different periods from May 2009 to June 2013. In 2011, measurements were done at the outlets of 3 sub-catchments (Munyazi, Mukura and Akagera). Between May 2012 and May 2013 the measurements were done in 16 reaches of Munyazi dominated by rice, vegetables, grass/forest or ponds/reservoirs. Water quality was also measured during two rainfall events. Results showed seasonal trends in water quality associated with high water flows and farming activities. Across all sites, the total suspended solids related positively to discharge, increasing 2-8 times during high flow periods. Conductivity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and pH decreased with increasing discharge, while total nitrogen and total phosphorus did not show a clear pattern. The total suspended solids concentrations were consistently higher downstream of reaches dominated by rice and vegetable farming. For total nitrogen and total phosphorus results were mixed, but suggesting higher concentration of total nitrogen and total phosphorus during the dry and early rainy (and farming) season, and then wash out during the rainy season, with subsequent dilution at the end of the rains. Rice and vegetable farming generate the transport of sediment as opposed to ponds/reservoir and grass/forest.

  9. Abrupt state change of river water quality (turbidity): Effect of extreme rainfalls and typhoons. (United States)

    Lee, Chih-Sheng; Lee, Yi-Chao; Chiang, Hui-Min


    River turbidity is of dynamic nature, and its stable state is significantly changed during the period of heavy rainfall events. The frequent occurrence of typhoons in Taiwan has caused serious problems in drinking water treatment due to extremely high turbidity. The aim of the present study is to evaluate impact of typhoons on river turbidity. The statistical methods used included analyses of paired annual mean and standard deviation, frequency distribution, and moving standard deviation, skewness, and autocorrelation; all clearly indicating significant state changes of river turbidity. Typhoon Morakot of 2009 (recorded high rainfall over 2000mm in three days, responsible for significant disaster in southern Taiwan) is assumed as a major initiated event leading to critical state change. In addition, increasing rate of turbidity in rainfall events is highly and positively correlated with rainfall intensity both for pre- and post-Morakot periods. Daily turbidity is also well correlated with daily flow rate for all the eleven events evaluated. That implies potential prediction of river turbidity by river flow rate during rainfall and typhoon events. Based on analysis of stable state changes, more effective regulations for better basin management including soil-water conservation in watershed are necessary. Furthermore, municipal and industrial water treatment plants need to prepare and ensure the adequate operation of water treatment with high raw water turbidity (e.g., >2000NTU). Finally, methodology used in the present of this study can be applied to other environmental problems with abrupt state changes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Surface water quality assessment using factor analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jan 16, 2006 ... Surface water, groundwater quality assessment and environ- .... Urbanisation influences the water cycle through changes in flow and water ..... tion of aquatic life, CCME water quality Index 1, 0. User`s ... Water, Air Soil Pollut.

  11. [Drinking water quality and safety]. (United States)

    Gómez-Gutiérrez, Anna; Miralles, Maria Josepa; Corbella, Irene; García, Soledad; Navarro, Sonia; Llebaria, Xavier


    The purpose of drinking water legislation is to guarantee the quality and safety of water intended for human consumption. In the European Union, Directive 98/83/EC updated the essential and binding quality criteria and standards, incorporated into Spanish national legislation by Royal Decree 140/2003. This article reviews the main characteristics of the aforementioned drinking water legislation and its impact on the improvement of water quality against empirical data from Catalonia. Analytical data reported in the Spanish national information system (SINAC) indicate that water quality in Catalonia has improved in recent years (from 88% of analytical reports in 2004 finding drinking water to be suitable for human consumption, compared to 95% in 2014). The improvement is fundamentally attributed to parameters concerning the organoleptic characteristics of water and parameters related to the monitoring of the drinking water treatment process. Two management experiences concerning compliance with quality standards for trihalomethanes and lead in Barcelona's water supply are also discussed. Finally, this paper presents some challenges that, in the opinion of the authors, still need to be incorporated into drinking water legislation. It is necessary to update Annex I of Directive 98/83/EC to integrate current scientific knowledge, as well as to improve consumer access to water quality data. Furthermore, a need to define common criteria for some non-resolved topics, such as products and materials in contact with drinking water and domestic conditioning equipment, has also been identified. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. 43 CFR 414.5 - Water quality. (United States)


    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water quality. 414.5 Section 414.5 Public... APPORTIONMENT IN THE LOWER DIVISION STATES Water Quality and Environmental Compliance § 414.5 Water quality. (a) Water Quality is not guaranteed. The Secretary does not warrant the quality of water released or...

  13. Impact of RO-desalted water on distribution water qualities. (United States)

    Taylor, J; Dietz, J; Randall, A; Hong, S


    A large-scale pilot distribution study was conducted to investigate the impacts of blending different source waters on distribution water qualities, with an emphasis on metal release (i.e. corrosion). The principal source waters investigated were conventionally treated ground water (G1), surface water processed by enhanced treatment (S1), and desalted seawater by reverse osmosis membranes (RO). Due to the nature of raw water quality and associated treatment processes, G1 water had high alkalinity, while S1 and RO sources were characterized as high sulfate and high chloride waters, respectively. The blending ratio of different treated waters determined the quality of finished waters. Iron release from aged cast iron pipes increased significantly when exposed to RO and S1 waters: that is, the greater iron release was experienced with alkalinity reduced below the background of G1 water. Copper release to drinking water, however, increased with increasing alkalinity and decreasing pH. Lead release, on the other hand, increased with increasing chloride and decreasing sulfate. The effect of pH and alkalinity on lead release was not clearly observed from pilot blending study. The flat and compact corrosion scales observed for lead surface exposed to S1 water may be attributable to lead concentration less than that of RO water blends.

  14. 5 Water Quality.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The water quality assessment conducted in the Densu, Birim and Ayensu Basins of Ghana in the Okyeman area ... All the mean nutrient values for Densu, Birim and Ayensu were not significantly .... variability in the composition of the river.

  15. Most oxidative stress response in water samples comes from unknown chemicals: the need for effect-based water quality trigger values. (United States)

    Escher, Beate I; van Daele, Charlotte; Dutt, Mriga; Tang, Janet Y M; Altenburger, Rolf


    The induction of adaptive stress response pathways is an early and sensitive indicator of the presence of chemical and non-chemical stressors in cells. An important stress response is the Nrf-2 mediated oxidative stress response pathway where electrophilic chemicals or chemicals that cause the formation of reactive oxygen species initiate the production of antioxidants and metabolic detoxification enzymes. The AREc32 cell line is sensitive to chemicals inducing oxidative stress and has been previously applied for water quality monitoring of organic micropollutants and disinfection byproducts. Here we propose an algorithm for the derivation of effect-based water quality trigger values for this end point that is based on the combined effects of mixtures of regulated chemicals. Mixture experiments agreed with predictions by the mixture toxicity concept of concentration addition. The responses in the AREc32 and the concentrations of 269 individual chemicals were quantified in nine environmental samples, ranging from treated effluent, recycled water, stormwater to drinking water. The effects of the detected chemicals could explain less than 0.1% of the observed induction of the oxidative stress response in the sample, affirming the need to use effect-based trigger values that account for all chemicals present.

  16. Towards More Effective Water Quality Governance: A Review of Social-Economic, Legal and Ecological Perspectives and Their Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Wuijts


    Full Text Available In this article, social-economic, legal and ecological perspectives on effectiveness of water quality governance and their interactions have been studied. Worldwide, authorities are facing the challenge of restoring and preserving aquatic ecosystems in accordance with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDG 6. Over the last few decades, governance approaches have often been used to realise these ambitions. To date, scholars have identified that it is difficult to relate governance approaches to water quality improvement and have offered several different explanations for this. Combined with a targeted conceptualisation of the perspectives and their interactions, the systematic literature review demonstrates the gap that exists in the current understanding of these interactions and what their effects are on water quality improvement, especially in regard to the identification of ecological issues and their boundary conditions for the legal framework and the development of measures and follow-up. The review also reveals that the scientific debate is focused on the planning rather than implementation phase. A step forward can be made by supplementing existing analytical frameworks by the interactions between the different perspectives, especially those related to problem definition and the development and realisation of measures.

  17. Comment on “Modeling Miscanthus in the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to Simulate Its Water Quality Effects As a Bioenergy Crop”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xuesong; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Arnold, J. G.; Sammons, N. B.; Manowitz, David H.; Thomson, Allison M.; Williams, J.R.


    In this paper, the authors comment on several mistakes made in a journal paper "Modeling Miscanthus in the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to Simulate Its Water Quality Effects As a Bioenergy Crop" published on Environmental Scienece & Technology, based on field measurements from Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, Carbon Sequestration in Terrestrial Ecosystems, and published literature. Our comment has led to the development of another version of SWAT to include better process based description of radiation use efficiency and root-shoot growth.

  18. Effect-based trigger values for in vitro bioassays: Reading across from existing water quality guideline values. (United States)

    Escher, Beate I; Neale, Peta A; Leusch, Frederic D L


    Cell-based bioassays are becoming increasingly popular in water quality assessment. The new generations of reporter-gene assays are very sensitive and effects are often detected in very clean water types such as drinking water and recycled water. For monitoring applications it is therefore imperative to derive trigger values that differentiate between acceptable and unacceptable effect levels. In this proof-of-concept paper, we propose a statistical method to read directly across from chemical guideline values to trigger values without the need to perform in vitro to in vivo extrapolations. The derivation is based on matching effect concentrations with existing chemical guideline values and filtering out appropriate chemicals that are responsive in the given bioassays at concentrations in the range of the guideline values. To account for the mixture effects of many chemicals acting together in a complex water sample, we propose bioanalytical equivalents that integrate the effects of groups of chemicals with the same mode of action that act in a concentration-additive manner. Statistical distribution methods are proposed to derive a specific effect-based trigger bioanalytical equivalent concentration (EBT-BEQ) for each bioassay of environmental interest that targets receptor-mediated toxicity. Even bioassays that are indicative of the same mode of action have slightly different numeric trigger values due to differences in their inherent sensitivity. The algorithm was applied to 18 cell-based bioassays and 11 provisional effect-based trigger bioanalytical equivalents were derived as an illustrative example using the 349 chemical guideline values protective for human health of the Australian Guidelines for Water Recycling. We illustrate the applicability using the example of a diverse set of water samples including recycled water. Most recycled water samples were compliant with the proposed triggers while wastewater effluent would not have been compliant with a few

  19. Effects of different irrigation practices using treated wastewater on tomato yields, quality, water productivity, and soil and fruit mineral contents. (United States)

    Demir, Azize Dogan; Sahin, Ustun


    Wastewater use in agricultural irrigation is becoming a common practice in order to meet the rising water demands in arid and semi-arid regions. The study was conducted to determine the effects of the full (FI), deficit (DI), and partial root-zone drying (PRD) irrigation practices using treated municipal wastewater (TWW) and freshwater (FW) on tomato yield, water use, fruit quality, and soil and fruit heavy metal concentrations. The TWW significantly increased marketable yield compared to the FW, as well as decreased water consumption. Therefore, water use efficiency (WUE) in the TWW was significantly higher than in the FW. Although the DI and the PRD practices caused less yields, these practices significantly increased WUE values due to less irrigation water applied. The water-yield linear relationships were statistically significant. TWW significantly increased titratable acidity and vitamin C contents. Reduced irrigation provided significantly lower titratable acidity, vitamin C, and lycopene contents. TWW increased the surface soil and fruit mineral contents in response to FW. Greater increases were observed under FI, and mineral contents declined with reduction in irrigation water. Heavy metal accumulation in soils was within safe limits. However, Cd and Pb contents in fruits exceeded standard limits given by FAO/WHO. Higher metal pollution index values determined for fruits also indicated that TWW application, especially under FI, might cause health risks in long term.

  20. Water quality. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This International Standard specifies a method for the determination of gross alpha activity in non-saline waters for alpha-emitting radionuclides which are not volatile at 350 o C. It is possible to determine supported volatile radionuclides measured to an extent determined by half-life, matrix retention (of the volatile species) and the duration of measurement (counting time). The method is applicable to raw and potable waters and can be extended to saline or mineralized waters, but with a reduced sensitivity. The range of application depends on the amount of inorganic material in the water and on the performance characteristics (background count rate and counting efficiency) of the counter. The sample is acidified to stabilize it, evaporated almost to dryness, converted to the sulfate form and then ignited at 350 o C. A portion of the residue is transferred to a planchette and the alpha activity measured by counting in an alpha-particle detector or counting system previously calibrated against an alpha-emitting standard. (author)

  1. Watercress and Water Quality: The Effect of Phenethyl Isothiocyanate on the Mating Behaviour of Gammarus pulex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie J. Dixon


    Full Text Available Watercress releases phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC upon wounding as a defence against herbivores. PEITC levels released from watercress farms are elevated due to cropping, washing, and processing and are thought to lead to adverse effects on Gammarus pulex in chalk streams. This study elucidates the sublethal effect of PEITC on reproductive behaviour of G. pulex, employing ex situ tests to investigate the disruption of precopular pairing under conditions simulating in situ exposure. Mean time to separation of precopular pairs was 89 ± 6 minutes for watercress wash water (1 g watercress per litre water and 81 ± 15 minutes for pure PEITC (1 μL/L. Re-exposure to watercress wash water to simulate the pulsed operation at a watercress farm did not alter behavioural response. The repeated interruption of reproductive behaviour under in situ conditions would impair long-term reproductive success and could explain in part low abundance of G. pulex downstream of watercress farms.

  2. Effects of local land-use on riparian vegetation, water quality, and the functional organization of macroinvertebrate assemblages. (United States)

    Fierro, Pablo; Bertrán, Carlos; Tapia, Jaime; Hauenstein, Enrique; Peña-Cortés, Fernando; Vergara, Carolina; Cerna, Cindy; Vargas-Chacoff, Luis


    Land-use change is a principal factor affecting riparian vegetation and river biodiversity. In Chile, land-use change has drastically intensified over the last decade, with native forests converted to exotic forest plantations and agricultural land. However, the effects thereof on aquatic ecosystems are not well understood. Closing this knowledge gap first requires understanding how human perturbations affect riparian and stream biota. Identified biological indicators could then be applied to determine the health of fluvial ecosystems. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of land-use change on the health of riparian and aquatic ecosystems by assessing riparian vegetation, water quality, benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages, and functional feeding groups. Twenty-one sites in catchment areas with different land-uses (i.e. pristine forests, native forests, exotic forest plantations, and agricultural land) were selected and sampled during the 2010 to 2012 dry seasons. Riparian vegetation quality was highest in pristine forests. Per the modified Macroinvertebrate Family Biotic Index for Chilean species, the best conditions existed in native forests and the worst in agricultural catchments. Water quality and macroinvertebrate assemblages significantly varied across land-use areas, with forest plantations and agricultural land having high nutrient concentrations, conductivity, suspended solids, and apparent color. Macroinvertebrate assemblage diversity was lowest for agricultural and exotic forest plantation catchments, with notable non-insect representation. Collector-gatherers were the most abundant functional feeding group, suggesting importance independent of land-use. Land-use areas showed no significant differences in functional feeding groups. In conclusion, anthropogenic land-use changes were detectable through riparian quality, water quality, and macroinvertebrate assemblages, but not through functional feeding groups. These data, particularly the

  3. A spatially distributed model for assessment of the effects of changing land use and climate on urban stream quality: Development of a Spatially Distributed Urban Water Quality Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Ning [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle WA USA; Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Yearsley, John [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle WA USA; Baptiste, Marisa [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle WA USA; Cao, Qian [Department of Geography, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles CA USA; Lettenmaier, Dennis P. [Department of Geography, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles CA USA; Nijssen, Bart [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle WA USA


    While the effects of land use change in urban areas have been widely examined, the combined effects of climate and land use change on the quality of urban and urbanizing streams have received much less attention. We describe a modeling framework that is applicable to the evaluation of potential changes in urban water quality and associated hydrologic changes in response to ongoing climate and landscape alteration. The grid-based spatially distributed model, DHSVM-WQ, is an outgrowth of the Distributed Hydrology-Soil-Vegetation Model (DHSVM) that incorporates modules for assessing hydrology and water quality in urbanized watersheds at a high spatial and temporal resolution. DHSVM-WQ simulates surface runoff quality and in-stream processes that control the transport of nonpoint-source (NPS) pollutants into urban streams. We configure DHSVM-WQ for three partially urbanized catchments in the Puget Sound region to evaluate the water quality responses to current conditions and projected changes in climate and/or land use over the next century. Here we focus on total suspended solids (TSS) and total phosphorus (TP) from nonpoint sources (runoff), as well as stream temperature. The projection of future land use is characterized by a combination of densification in existing urban or partially urban areas, and expansion of the urban footprint. The climate change scenarios consist of individual and concurrent changes in temperature and precipitation. Future precipitation is projected to increase in winter and decrease in summer, while future temperature is projected to increase throughout the year. Our results show that urbanization has a much greater effect than climate change on both the magnitude and seasonal variability of streamflow, TSS and TP loads largely due to substantially increased streamflow, and particularly winter flow peaks. Water temperature is more sensitive to climate warming scenarios than to urbanization and precipitation changes. Future urbanization and

  4. Mechanisms affecting water quality in an intermittent piped water supply. (United States)

    Kumpel, Emily; Nelson, Kara L


    Drinking water distribution systems throughout the world supply water intermittently, leaving pipes without pressure between supply cycles. Understanding the multiple mechanisms that affect contamination in these intermittent water supplies (IWS) can be used to develop strategies to improve water quality. To study these effects, we tested water quality in an IWS system with infrequent and short water delivery periods in Hubli-Dharwad, India. We continuously measured pressure and physicochemical parameters and periodically collected grab samples to test for total coliform and E. coli throughout supply cycles at 11 sites. When the supply was first turned on, water with elevated turbidity and high concentrations of indicator bacteria was flushed out of pipes. At low pressures (water was delivered with a chlorine residual and at pressures >17 psi.

  5. Water quality criteria for lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagpal, N.K.


    This report is one in a series that establishes water quality criteria for British Columbia. The report sets criteria for lead to protect a number of water uses, including drinking water, freshwater and marine aquatic life, wildlife, livestock, irrigation, and recreation. The criteria are set as either maximum concentrations of total lead that should not be exceeded at any time, or average concentrations that should not be exceeded over a 30-day period. Actual values are summarized.

  6. Effects of flood control and other reservoir operations on the water quality of the lower Roanoke River, North Carolina (United States)

    Garcia, Ana Maria


    The Roanoke River is an important natural resource for North Carolina, Virginia, and the Nation. Flood plains of the lower Roanoke River, which extend from Roanoke Rapids Dam to Batchelor Bay near Albemarle Sound, support a large and diverse population of nesting birds, waterfowl, freshwater and anadromous fish, and other wildlife, including threatened and endangered species. The flow regime of the lower Roanoke River is affected by a number of factors, including flood-management operations at the upstream John H. Kerr Dam and Reservoir. A three-dimensional, numerical water-quality model was developed to explore links between upstream flows and downstream water quality, specifically in-stream dissolved-oxygen dynamics. Calibration of the hydrodynamics and dissolved-oxygen concentrations emphasized the effect that flood-plain drainage has on water and oxygen levels, especially at locations more than 40 kilometers away from the Roanoke Rapids Dam. Model hydrodynamics were calibrated at three locations on the lower Roanoke River, yielding coefficients of determination between 0.5 and 0.9. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations were calibrated at the same sites, and coefficients of determination ranged between 0.6 and 0.8. The model has been used to quantify relations among river flow, flood-plain water level, and in-stream dissolved-oxygen concentrations in support of management of operations of the John H. Kerr Dam, which affects overall flows in the lower Roanoke River. Scenarios have been developed to mitigate the negative effects that timing, duration, and extent of flood-plain inundation may have on vegetation, wildlife, and fisheries in the lower Roanoke River corridor. Under specific scenarios, the model predicted that mean dissolved-oxygen concentrations could be increased by 15 percent by flow-release schedules that minimize the drainage of anoxic flood-plain waters. The model provides a tool for water-quality managers that can help identify options that improve

  7. Drinking water quality concerns and water vending machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McSwane, D.Z.; Oleckno, W.A.; Eils, L.M.


    Drinking water quality is a vital public health concern to consumers and regulators alike. This article describes some of the current microbiological, chemical, and radiological concerns about drinking water and the evolution of water vending machines. Also addressed are the typical treatment processes used in water vending machines and their effectiveness, as well as a brief examination of a certification program sponsored by the National Automatic Merchandising Association (NAMA), which provides a uniform standard for the design and construction of food and beverage vending machines. For some consumers, the water dispensed from vending machines is an attractive alternative to residential tap water which may be objectionable for aesthetic or other reasons

  8. Quality-control design for surface-water sampling in the National Water-Quality Network (United States)

    Riskin, Melissa L.; Reutter, David C.; Martin, Jeffrey D.; Mueller, David K.


    The data-quality objectives for samples collected at surface-water sites in the National Water-Quality Network include estimating the extent to which contamination, matrix effects, and measurement variability affect interpretation of environmental conditions. Quality-control samples provide insight into how well the samples collected at surface-water sites represent the true environmental conditions. Quality-control samples used in this program include field blanks, replicates, and field matrix spikes. This report describes the design for collection of these quality-control samples and the data management needed to properly identify these samples in the U.S. Geological Survey’s national database.

  9. Effects of Changes in Lugu Lake Water Quality on Schizothorax Yunnansis Ecological Habitat Based on HABITAT Model (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Mynnet, Arthur

    Schizothorax Yunnansis is an unique fish species only existing in Lugu Lake, which is located in the southwestern China. The simulation and research on Schizothorax Yunnansis habitat environment have a vital significance to protect this rare fish. With the development of the tourism industry, there bring more pressure on the environmental protection. The living environment of Schizothorax Yunnansis is destroyed seriously because the water quality is suffering the sustaining pollution of domestic sewage from the peripheral villages. This paper analyzes the relationship between water quality change and Schizothorax Yunnansis ecological habitat and evalutes Schizothorax Yunnansis's ecological habitat impact based on HABITAT model. The results show that when the TP concentration in Lugu Lake does not exceed Schizothorax Yunnansis's survival threshold, Schizothorax Yunnansis can get more nutrients and the suitable habitat area for itself is increased. Conversely, it can lead to TP toxicity in the Schizothorax Yunnansis and even death. Therefore, unsuitable habitat area for Schizothorax Yunnansis is increased. It can be seen from the results that HABITAT model can assist in ecological impact assessment studies by translating results of hydrological, water quality models into effects on the natural environment and human society.

  10. Simulated effects of hydrologic, water quality, and land-use changes of the Lake Maumelle watershed, Arkansas, 2004–10 (United States)

    Hart, Rheannon M.; Green, W. Reed; Westerman, Drew A.; Petersen, James C.; DeLanois, Jeanne L.


    Lake Maumelle, located in central Arkansas northwest of the cities of Little Rock and North Little Rock, is one of two principal drinking-water supplies for the Little Rock, and North Little Rock, Arkansas, metropolitan areas. Lake Maumelle and the Maumelle River (its primary tributary) are more pristine than most other reservoirs and streams in the region with 80 percent of the land area in the entire watershed being forested. However, as the Lake Maumelle watershed becomes increasingly more urbanized and timber harvesting becomes more extensive, concerns about the sustainability of the quality of the water supply also have increased. Two hydrodynamic and water-quality models were developed to examine the hydrology and water quality in the Lake Maumelle watershed and changes that might occur as the watershed becomes more urbanized and timber harvesting becomes more extensive. A Hydrologic Simulation Program–FORTRAN watershed model was developed using continuous streamflow and discreet suspended-sediment and water-quality data collected from January 2004 through 2010. A CE–QUAL–W2 model was developed to simulate reservoir hydrodynamics and selected water-quality characteristics using the simulated output from the Hydrologic Simulation Program–FORTRAN model from January 2004 through 2010. The calibrated Hydrologic Simulation Program–FORTRAN model and the calibrated CE–QUAL–W2 model were developed to simulate three land-use scenarios and to examine the potential effects of these land-use changes, as defined in the model, on the water quality of Lake Maumelle during the 2004 through 2010 simulation period. These scenarios included a scenario that simulated conversion of most land in the watershed to forest (scenario 1), a scenario that simulated conversion of potentially developable land to low-intensity urban land use in part of the watershed (scenario 2), and a scenario that simulated timber harvest in part of the watershed (scenario 3). Simulated land

  11. Water Quality Standards for Coral Reef Protection (United States)

    The U.S. Clean Water Act provides a legal framework to protect coastal biological resources such as coral reefs, mangrove forests, and seagrass meadows from the damaging effects of human activities. Even though many resources are protected under this authority, water quality stan...

  12. The effectiveness of agricultural stewardship for improving water quality at the catchment scale: Experiences from an NVZ and ECSFDI watershed (United States)

    Kay, Paul; Grayson, Richard; Phillips, Martin; Stanley, Karen; Dodsworth, Alan; Hanson, Ann; Walker, Andrew; Foulger, Miles; McDonnell, Iain; Taylor, Simon


    SummaryAgriculture is estimated to be responsible for 70% of nitrate and 30-50% of phosphorus pollution, contributing to ecological and water treatment problems. Despite the fact that significant gaps remain in our understanding, it is known that agricultural stewardship can be highly effective in controlling water pollution at the plot and field scales. Knowledge at the catchment scale is, to a large extent, entirely lacking though and this is of paramount concern given that the catchment is the management unit used by regulatory authorities. The few studies that have examined the impact of agricultural stewardship at the catchment scale have found that Nitrate Vulnerable Zones (NVZs) in the UK have resulted in little improvement in water quality which concurs with the current catchment study. In addition to NVZs, there was little evidence to suggest that the England Catchment Sensitive Farming Delivery Initiative had impacted water quality and suggestions have been made for improvements, such as ensuring that stewardship measures are used in key pollution source areas and their implementation and impacts are monitored more closely. This will be essential if agricultural catchment management schemes are going to provide the benefits expected of them. Nevertheless, more intensive monitoring than that carried out by regulators showed a significant trend in decreasing winter nitrate peaks in some streams which is hypothesised to be due to recent reduced inorganic fertiliser application as a result of increasing prices. It was concluded that, collectively, these findings indicate that agricultural stewardship measures have the potential to improve water quality at the catchment scale but that voluntary schemes with insufficient financial reward or regulatory pressure are unlikely to be successful.

  13. Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP) (United States)

    The Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP) model helps users interpret and predict water quality responses to natural phenomena and manmade pollution for various pollution management decisions.

  14. Effect of the type of brewing water on the chemical composition, sensory quality and antioxidant capacity of Chinese teas. (United States)

    Xu, Yong-Quan; Zou, Chun; Gao, Ying; Chen, Jian-Xin; Wang, Fang; Chen, Gen-Sheng; Yin, Jun-Feng


    The physicochemical characteristics, sensory quality, and antioxidant activity of tea infusions prepared with purified water (PW), mineral water (MW), mountain spring water (MSW), and tap water (TW) from Hangzhou were investigated. The results showed that the taste quality, catechin concentration, and antioxidant capacity of green, oolong, and black tea infusions prepared using MW and TW were significantly lower than those prepared using PW. Extraction of catechins and caffeine was reduced with high-conductivity water, while high pH influenced the stability of catechins. PW and MSW were more suitable for brewing green and oolong teas, while MSW, with low pH and moderate ion concentration, was the most suitable water for brewing black tea. Lowering the pH of mineral water partially improved the taste quality and increased the concentration of catechins in the infusions. These results aid selection of the most appropriate water for brewing Chinese teas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of land-applied biosolids on surface-water nutrient yields and groundwater quality in Orange County, North Carolina (United States)

    Wagner, Chad R.; Fitzgerald, Sharon A.; McSwain, Kristen Bukowski; Harden, Stephen L.; Gurley, Laura N.; Rogers, Shane W.


    Land application of municipal wastewater biosolids is the most common method of biosolids management used in North Carolina and the United States. Biosolids have characteristics that may be beneficial to soil and plants. Land application can take advantage of these beneficial qualities, whereas disposal in landfills or incineration poses no beneficial use of the waste. Some independent studies and laboratory analysis, however, have shown that land-applied biosolids can pose a threat to human health and surface-water and groundwater quality. The effect of municipal biosolids applied to agriculture fields is largely unknown in relation to the delivery of nutrients, bacteria, metals, and contaminants of emerging concern to surface-water and groundwater resources. Therefore, the North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources (NCDENR) collaborated with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) through the 319 Nonpoint Source Program to better understand the transport of nutrients and bacteria from biosolids application fields to groundwater and surface water and to provide a scientific basis for evaluating the effectiveness of the current regulations.



    Koçbeker, Vildan Doğan; Bahtiyarca, Yılmaz


    Water is an essential nutrient that is necessaryafter oxygen for the maintenance of life, growth, milk production and pregnancyfor both humans and animals. Water is a nutrient that has generally beenneglected and disregarded for the alimentation of livestock. Daily consumptionof water for dairy cattle (approximately 90-100 L) is more than that of anyother nutrient. Water is a perfect solvent and a number of composites dissolvedin water affect the appearance, odor, taste, physical and chemical...

  17. quality assessment of sachet and bottled water soldin gboko, benue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Water is an essential part of human nutrition, both directly as ... The effect of storage on the quality of sachet water produced within Port ... WHO limits for drinking water quality, except for pH. ... Sample. Source. K1. Barna Sachet Water. K2. Fresh life Sachet Water. K3 ..... The high iron content may be because, the treatment.

  18. Effects of water blanching on polyphenol reaction kinetics and quality of cocoa beans (United States)

    Menon, A. S.; Hii, C. L.; Law, C. L.; Suzannah, S.; Djaeni, M.


    Several studies have been reported on the potential health benefits of cocoa polyphenols. However, drying has an inhibitory effect on the substantial recovery of cocoa polyphenols. This is majorly because of the high degradation of polyphenol compounds as well as the enhanced activity of polyphenol oxidases; a pre-cursor for browning of polyphenols during drying. Pre-treatment technique such as water blanching (80° and 90°C for 5 min, 10 min and 15 min exposure times respectively) can inactivate the polyphenol oxidases enzyme and promote high percent of the polyphenol recovery in dried cocoa bean. The degradation kinetics of cocoa polyphenols during hot water blanching are analyzed; The rate constant for the polyphenol degradation after blanching was found to be ranging from 0.0208 to 0.0340 /min. The results for dried fresh cocoa beans showed an optimal level of polyphenol recovery (118 mg GAE/g) when blanched at 90°C for 5 minutes duration. The antioxidant activity is also analyzed using DPPH scavenging assay.

  19. The effect of water quality on reliability of boiler plants performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajić Anto S.


    Full Text Available This paper presents sources and types of corrosion processes of boiler tube system of the Thermal Power Plant "Ugljevik". The main goal in the electric power production is to achieve lower prices, which can only be done by providing low maintenance costs. While it is not possible to completely stop corrosion, it could be slowed down and it's effects could be reduced. In order to reduce corrosion to a minimum on thermal power plants' vital equipment, particularly boilers, it is necessary to determine in each particular case the acting mechanism of corrosion and agents that cause it. Damages and failures on thermal power plants are largely caused by the development of various types of corrosion processes. Special attention is given to the preparation of water, considering its importance to the occurrence of corrosion. The following types of corrosion were detected on the screen tube boiler by visual examination on the side of water and steam: erosive, pitting and impact corrosion. The inner surface of screen pipes, from which the scale layer was removed, indicates that the erosive corrosion with the thinning of pipe walls occurs. Perforation of the welded screen pipes shows that stress corrosion occurred on the screen pipe with formation of cracks and that pipe exploded. Pits on the inner surface of the screen pipes, visible after the removal of scale and corrosion products, are proof that pitting corrosion occurred. The causes of corrosion were discovered and proposed measures for their elimination were given.

  20. Local and regional effects of reopening a tidal inlet on estuarine water quality, seagrass habitat, and fish assemblages (United States)

    Milbrandt, Eric C.; Bartleson, Richard D.; Coen, Loren D.; Rybak, Olexandr; Thompson, Mark A.; DeAngelo, Jacquelyn A.; Stevens, Philip W.


    Blind Pass is an inlet that separates Sanibel and Captiva Islands in southwest Florida but has historically closed and opened by both anthropogenic and natural processes. In July 2010, a dredging project to open the small inlet between the two barrier islands was completed. The objective of this study was to use and supplement ongoing estuary-monitoring programs to examine the responses of water quality, seagrass habitat metrics, and fish assemblages both in the immediate vicinity of the inlet and at broader scales (up to 40 km2). As far as we are aware, there are no previous studies with this intensity of sampling, both before and after an inlet opening. Significant increases in salinity and turbidity were observed inside Blind Pass, with significant decreases in CDOM and chlorophyll a, however, the effects were not far-reaching and limited to less than 1.7 km from the inlet within Pine Island Sound. Seagrass habitat metrics were expected to respond rapidly after the inlet was opened given the reduced light attenuation. However, there were no changes in shoot densities, species composition, and epiphytic algae within the approximately one-year duration of the study. The reopening of the pass did not substantially change fish assemblage structure, except for those from deeper habitats. Although immediate increases in the abundances of estuarine-dependent species were predicted in shallow habitats post opening, this did not occur. In conclusion, the effects of reopening a relatively small ocean inlet on water quality were apparent in the immediate vicinity of the inlet (within 1.7 km), but far-reaching effects on water quality, seagrass metrics, and fish assemblages were not immediately apparent in this well-flushed estuary. If subtle changes in tidal exchange and circulation affect productivity of seagrasses or its fish assemblages at broad scales, it may take several years to reach a steady state.

  1. Simulation of the effects of proposed tide gates on circulation, flushing, and water quality in residential canals, Cape Coral Florida (United States)

    Goodwin, Carl R.


    Decades of dredging and filling of Florida's low-lying coastal wetlands have produced thousands of miles of residential tidal canals and adjacent waterfront property. Typically, these canals are poorly flushed, and over time, accumulated organic-rich bottom materials, contribute to an increasingly severe degraded water quality. One-dimensional hydrodynamic and constituent-transport models were applied to two dead-end canal systems to determine the effects of canal system interconnection using tide gates on water circulation and constituent flushing. The model simulates existing and possible future circulation and flushing conditions in about 29 miles of the approximately 130 miles of tidally influenced canals in Cape Coral, located on the central west coast of peninsular Florida. Model results indicate that tidal water-level differences between the two canal systems can be converted to kinetic energy, in the form of increased water circulation, but the use of one-way tide gate interconnections. Computations show that construction of from one to four tide gates will cause replacement of a volume of water equivalent to the total volume of canals in both systems in 15 to 9 days, respectively. Because some canals flush faster than others, 47 and 21 percent of the original canal water will remain in both systems 50 days after start of operation of one and four tide gates, respectively. Some of the effects that such increased flushing are expected to have include reduced density stratification and associated dissolved-oxygen depletion in canal bottom waters, increased localized reaeration, and more efficient discharge of stormwater runoff entering the canals.

  2. On the effect of operation of the hydropower plant on the water quality of Rapel reservoir, central Chile (United States)

    Rossel, V.; De La Fuente, A.


    Eutrophication of lakes and reservoirs is a common problem in systems with high incoming loads of nutrients. The consequent algae bloom related to the eutrophication alters the water quality and generates an incompatibility with the tourist and recreational activities. This study is focused on Rapel reservoir: an old, dentritic and monomictic reservoir, located in central Chile (34°S, 71.6°W), that has experienced numerous algae bloom events in the past years produced by high loads of nutrients, sediments and metals. This reservoir was originally constructed in 1968 for hydropower generation without environmental restrictions on its operation. Rapel is part of Chile's Central Interconnected System (SIC), and is controlled by an independent system operator (ISO) that decides the optimal allocation of water by minimizing the SIC's operation cost. As a result of this framework, Rapel reservoir operates based on a hydropeaking scheme, thus producing energy few hours a day while zero outflows are observed the remaining hours, impacting on Rapel river located downstream the reservoir. However, previous research showed that this hydropeaking has important effects on the hydrodynamic of the reservoir as well. Particularly, it enhances vertical mixing nears the dam, and reduces horizontal dispersion. Furthermore, hydropeaking defines the outflows water temperature, and the temperature profile near the dam. As a consequence of this role of hydropeaking on the hydrodynamics and mixing of Rapel reservoir, it is expected to be a link between hydropeaking and water quality. The aim of the study is to evaluate the impact of the operation of hydropower plant on the water quality of Rapel reservoir, for which the reservoir system is modeled using the three dimensional hydrodynamic and water quality model ELCOM-CAEDYM. Field data to validate the results and to define boundary and initial conditions are available for the austral summer period of 2009-2010. Different scenarios of

  3. The effects of precipitation, river discharge, land use and coastal circulation on water quality in coastal Maine. (United States)

    Tilburg, Charles E; Jordan, Linda M; Carlson, Amy E; Zeeman, Stephan I; Yund, Philip O


    Faecal pollution in stormwater, wastewater and direct run-off can carry zoonotic pathogens to streams, rivers and the ocean, reduce water quality, and affect both recreational and commercial fishing areas of the coastal ocean. Typically, the closure of beaches and commercial fishing areas is governed by the testing for the presence of faecal bacteria, which requires an 18-24 h period for sample incubation. As water quality can change during this testing period, the need for accurate and timely predictions of coastal water quality has become acute. In this study, we: (i) examine the relationship between water quality, precipitation and river discharge at several locations within the Gulf of Maine, and (ii) use multiple linear regression models based on readily obtainable hydrometeorological measurements to predict water quality events at five coastal locations. Analysis of a 12 year dataset revealed that high river discharge and/or precipitation events can lead to reduced water quality; however, the use of only these two parameters to predict water quality can result in a number of errors. Analysis of a higher frequency, 2 year study using multiple linear regression models revealed that precipitation, salinity, river discharge, winds, seasonality and coastal circulation correlate with variations in water quality. Although there has been extensive development of regression models for freshwater, this is one of the first attempts to create a mechanistic model to predict water quality in coastal marine waters. Model performance is similar to that of efforts in other regions, which have incorporated models into water resource managers' decisions, indicating that the use of a mechanistic model in coastal Maine is feasible.

  4. The effect of restored and native oxbows on hydraulic loads of nutrients and stream water quality (United States)

    Kalkhoff, Stephen J.; Hubbard, Laura E.; Joseph P.Schubauer-Berigan,


    The use of oxbow wetlands has been identified as a potential strategy to reduce nutrient transport from agricultural drainage tiles to streams in Iowa. In 2013 and 2014, a study was conducted in north-central Iowa in a native oxbow in the Lyons Creek watershed and two restored oxbow wetlands in the Prairie Creek watershed (Smeltzer west and Smeltzer east) to assess their effectiveness at reducing nitrogen and phosphorus loads. The tile line inlets carrying agricultural runoff to the oxbows, the outfall from the oxbows, and the surface waters in the streams receiving the outfall water were monitored for discharge and nutrients from February 2013 to September 2015. Smeltzer west and east also had four monitoring wells each, two in the upland and two between the oxbow and Prairie Creek to monitor surface water-groundwater interaction. The Smeltzer west and east oxbow sites also were instrumented to continuously measure the nitrate concentration. Rainfall was measured at one Lyons Creek and one Smeltzer site. Daily mean nitrate-N concentrations in Lyons Creek in 2013 ranged from 11.8 mg/L to 40.9 mg/L, the median daily mean nitrate-N concentration was 33.0 mg/L. Daily mean nitrate-N concentrations in Prairie Creek in 2013 ranged from 0.07 mg/L in August to 32.2 mg/L in June. In 2014, daily mean nitrate-N concentrations in Prairie Creek ranged from 0.17 mg/L in April to 26.7 mg/L in July; the daily mean nitrate-N concentration for the sampled period was 9.78 mg/L. Nutrient load reduction occurred in oxbow wetlands in Lyons and Prairie Creek watersheds in north-central Iowa but efficiency of reduction was variable. Little nutrient reduction occurred in the native Lyons Creek oxbow during 2013. Concentrations of all nutrient constituents were not significantly (P>0.05, Wilcoxon rank sum) different in water discharging from the tile line than in water leaving the Lyons Creek oxbow. A combination of physical features and flow conditions suggest that the residence time of

  5. Estimating the effects of land-use and catchment characteristics on lake water quality: Irish lakes 2004-2009


    Curtis, John; Morgenroth, Edgar


    This paper attributes the variation in water quality across Irish lakes to a range of contributory factors such as human population, septic tanks, urban waste water treatment, phosphorous excreted by livestock, as well as catchment soil and geology. Both linear and non-linear quadratic models were estimated in the analysis, which attempts to account for point and non-point sources of pollution affecting water quality in 216 lake catchments. The models show a clear link between activities with...

  6. The effects of adding agrimony and sage extracts to water on blood biochemistry and meat quality of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Supuka


    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to determine the effects of supplementation of agrimony extract (Agrimonia eupatoria L. and a combination of agrimony with sage extract (Salvia officinalis L. to water during the fattening period of broiler chickens on selected biochemical and antioxidant indicators in blood, and on the nutritional composition and oxidative stability of meat. A total of 117 Cobb 500 chicks were randomly divided on the day of hatching into three groups (n = 39 in each and fattened for 42 days. All groups were fed the same diets. In experimental group A water was supplemented with agrimony extract (0.2%. In experimental group AS water was supplemented with a combination of agrimony (0.1% and sage (0.1% extracts. Group C was control without supplementation. The total cholesterol, low density lipoproteins and malondialdehyde in serum were decreased (P P P < 0.05 in both experimental groups compared to control. Our results indicate that supplementation of agrimony and sage extract to water can beneficially influence the antioxidant status as well as oxidative stability of thigh meat and thus improve meat quality. This is a first similar study comparing addition of plant extracts to water in broiler nutrition.

  7. Above and belowground controls on litter decomposition in semiarid ecosystems: effects of solar radiation, water availability and litter quality (United States)

    Austin, A. T.; Araujo, P. I.; Leva, P. E.; Ballare, C. L.


    The integrated controls on soil organic matter formation in arid and semiarid ecosystems are not well understood and appear to stem from a number of interacting controls affecting above- and belowground carbon turnover. While solar radiation has recently been shown to have an important direct effect on carbon loss in semiarid ecosystems as a result of photochemical mineralization of aboveground plant material, the mechanistic basis for photodegradative losses is poorly understood. In addition, there are large potential differences in major controls on above- and belowground decomposition in low rainfall ecosystems. We report on a mesocosm and field study designed to examine the relative importance of different wavelengths of solar radiation, water availability, position of senescent material above- and belowground and the importance of carbon litter quality in determining rates of abiotic and biotic decomposition. In a factorial experiment of mesocosms, we incubated leaf and root litter simultaneously above- and belowground and manipulated water availability with large and small pulses. Significant interactions between position-litter type and position-pulse sizes demonstrated interactive controls on organic mass loss. Aboveground decomposition showed no response to pulse size or litter type, as roots and leaves decomposed equally rapidly under all circumstances. In contrast, belowground decomposition was significantly altered by litter type and water pulses, with roots decomposing significantly slower and small water pulses reducing belowground decomposition. In the field site, using plastic filters which attenuated different wavelengths of natural solar radiation, we found a highly significant effect of radiation exclusion on mass loss and demonstrated that both UV-A and short-wave visible light can have important impacts on photodegradative carbon losses. The combination of position and litter quality effects on litter decomposition appear to be critical for the

  8. Hydrogeology, water quality, and simulated effects of ground-water withdrawals from the Floridan aquifer system, Seminole County and vicinity, Florida (United States)

    Spechler, Rick M.; Halford, Keith J.


    The hydrogeology and ground-water quality of Seminole County in east-central Florida was evaluated. A ground-water flow model was developed to simulate the effects of both present day (September 1996 through August 1997) and projected 2020 ground-water withdrawals on the water levels in the surficial aquifer system and the potentiometric surface of the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers in Seminole County and vicinity. The Floridan aquifer system is the major source of ground water in the study area. In 1965, ground-water withdrawals from the Floridan aquifer system in Seminole County were about 11 million gallons per day. In 1995, withdrawals totaled about 69 million gallons per day. Of the total ground water used in 1995, 74 percent was for public supply, 12 percent for domestic self-supplied, 10 percent for agriculture self-supplied, and 4 percent for recreational irrigation. The principal water-bearing units in Seminole County are the surficial aquifer system and the Floridan aquifer system. The two aquifer systems are separated by the intermediate confining unit, which contains beds of lower permeability sediments that confine the water in the Floridan aquifer system. The Floridan aquifer system has two major water-bearing zones (the Upper Floridan aquifer and the Lower Floridan aquifer), which are separated by a less-permeable semiconfining unit. Upper Floridan aquifer water levels and spring flows have been affected by ground-water development. Long-term hydrographs of four wells tapping the Upper Floridan aquifer show a general downward trend from the early 1950's until 1990. The declines in water levels are caused predominantly by increased pumpage and below average annual rainfall. From 1991 to 1998, water levels rose slightly, a trend that can be explained by an increase in average annual rainfall. Long-term declines in the potentiometric surface varied throughout the area, ranging from about 3 to 12 feet. Decreases in spring discharge also have been

  9. The Effects of Storage on Sachet Water Quality in Ogun State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... Ten brands of sachet water were collected within 24 hours of production and stored at ambient ... The study revealed that all the brands of water analyzed were physically and ...

  10. Effects of industrial waste disposal on the water quality of the river Kolak

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D.; Sabnis, M.M.; Mandalia, A.V.; Desai, B.N.

    About 6 mld of industrial waste water is discharged without proper treatment in the fresh water zone of the river Kolak. Parameters like suspended solids, pH, chloride, DO, BOD, phosphate, nitrate, boron, sulphate and trace metals were periodically...

  11. Sedimentation and Its Impacts/Effects on River System and Reservoir Water Quality: case Study of Mazowe Catchment, Zimbabwe (United States)

    Tundu, Colleta; Tumbare, Michael James; Kileshye Onema, Jean-Marie


    Sediment delivery into water sources and bodies results in the reduction of water quantity and quality, increasing costs of water purification whilst reducing the available water for various other uses. The paper gives an analysis of sedimentation in one of Zimbabwe's seven rivers, the Mazowe Catchment, and its impact on water quality. The Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model was used to compute soil lost from the catchment as a result of soil erosion. The model was used in conjunction with GIS remotely sensed data and limited ground observations. The estimated annual soil loss in the catchment indicates soil loss ranging from 0 to 65 t ha yr-1. Bathymetric survey at Chimhanda Dam showed that the capacity of the dam had reduced by 39 % as a result of sedimentation and the annual sediment deposition into Chimhanda Dam was estimated to be 330 t with a specific yield of 226 t km-2 yr-1. Relationship between selected water quality parameters, TSS, DO, NO3, pH, TDS, turbidity and sediment yield for selected water sampling points and Chimhanda Dam was analyzed. It was established that there is a strong positive relationship between the sediment yield and the water quality parameters. Sediment yield showed high positive correlation with turbidity (0.63) and TDS (0.64). Water quality data from Chimhanda treatment plant water works revealed that the quality of water is deteriorating as a result of increase in sediment accumulation in the dam. The study concluded that sedimentation can affect the water quality of water sources.

  12. Part 2: Surface water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    In 1996 the surface water quality measurements were performed, according to the Agreement, at 8 profiles on the Hungarian territory and at 15 profiles on the Slovak territory. Basic physical and chemical parameters (as water temperature, pH values, conductivity, suspended solids, cations and anions (nitrates, ammonium ion, nitrites, total nitrogen, phosphates, total phosphorus, oxygen and organic carbon regime parameters), metals (iron, manganese and heavy metals), biological and microbiological parameters (coliform bacteria, chlorophyll-a, saprobity index and other biological parameters) and quality of sediment were measured

  13. Evaluating and Predicting the Effectiveness of Green Infrastructure on a Small Watershed Scale - Emphasis on Water Quality, Flow, Thermal Regime, Substrate Integrity, and Biological Condition (United States)

    Assessments of the effectiveness of stormwater best management practices (BMPs) have focused on measurement of load or concentration reductions, which can be translated to predict biological impacts based on chemical water quality criteria. However, many of the impacts of develo...

  14. Putting people into water quality modelling. (United States)

    Strickert, G. E.; Hassanzadeh, E.; Noble, B.; Baulch, H. M.; Morales-Marin, L. A.; Lindenschmidt, K. E.


    Water quality in the Qu'Appelle River Basin, Saskatchewan is under pressure due to nutrient pollution entering the river system from major cities, industrial zones and agricultural areas. Among these stressors, agricultural activities are basin-wide; therefore, they are the largest non-point source of water pollution in this region. The dynamics of agricultural impacts on water quality are complex and stem from decisions and activities of two distinct stakeholder groups, namely grain farmers and cattle producers, which have different business plans, values, and attitudes towards water quality. As a result, improving water quality in this basin requires engaging with stakeholders to: (1) understand their perspectives regarding a range of agricultural Beneficial Management Practices (BMPs) that can improve water quality in the region, (2) show them the potential consequences of their selected BMPs, and (3) work with stakeholders to better understand the barriers and incentives to implement the effective BMPs. In this line, we held a series of workshops in the Qu'Appelle River Basin with both groups of stakeholders to understand stakeholders' viewpoints about alternative agricultural BMPs and their impact on water quality. Workshop participants were involved in the statement sorting activity (Q-sorts), group discussions, as well as mapping activity. The workshop outcomes show that stakeholder had four distinct viewpoints about the BMPs that can improve water quality, i.e., flow and erosion control, fertilizer management, cattle site management, as well as mixed cattle and wetland management. Accordingly, to simulate the consequences of stakeholder selected BMPs, a conceptual water quality model was developed using System Dynamics (SD). The model estimates potential changes in water quality at the farm, tributary and regional scale in the Qu'Appelle River Basin under each and/or combination of stakeholder selected BMPs. The SD model was then used for real


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Junaidi


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The development of lobster farming in floating net cage in Ekas Bay caused an environmental degradation such as decrease water quality due to some aquaculture wastes. The purposes of this study were to determine the status of water quality and their effect on growth and survival rate of lobster reared in floating net cages (FNC in the Ekas Bay, West Nusa Tenggara Province. Water sample collection and handling referred to the APHA (1992. Analyses of water quality data were conducted using Principal Component Analysis. Determination of the water quality status of Ekas Bay was performed with STORET system. Multivariate analyses were used to determine the relationship between water quality, growth, and survival rate of lobster reared in FNC. Results showed that Ekas Bay water quality status was categorized in class C (medium contaminated, which exceeded some quality standard parameters such as ammonia (0.3 mg/l, nitrate (0.008 mg/l, and phosphate (0.015 mg/l. During lobster farming activities feeding with trash fish for 270 days, we obtained daily growth rate of  0.74% (lower than normal growth rate of 0.86%, survival rate of 66% (lower than normal survival rate of 86.7%, and feed conversion ratio of 11.15. Ammonia was found as a dominant factor reducing growth  and survival rate of lobster reared in FNC. Keywords: water quality, lobsters, growth, survival, Ekas Bay

  16. Effects of land use and land cover changes on water quality in the uMngeni river catchment, South Africa (United States)

    Namugize, Jean Nepomuscene; Jewitt, Graham; Graham, Mark


    Land use and land cover change are major drivers of water quality deterioration in watercourses and impoundments. However, understanding of the spatial and temporal variability of land use change characteristics and their link to water quality parameters in catchments is limited. As a contribution to address this limitation, the objective of this study is to assess the linkages between biophysico-chemical water quality parameters and land use and land cover (LULC) classes in the upper reaches of the uMngeni Catchment, a rapidly developing catchment in South Africa. These were assessed using Geographic Information Systems tools and statistical analyses for the years 1994, 2000, 2008 and 2011 based on changes over time of eight LULC classes and available water quality information. Natural vegetation, forest plantations and cultivated areas occupy 85% of the catchment. Cultivated, urban/built-up and degraded areas increased by 6%, 4.5% and 3%, respectively coinciding with a decrease in natural vegetation by 17%. Variability in the concentration of water quality parameters from 1994 to 2011 and an overall decline in water quality were observed. Escherichia coli (E. coli) levels exceeding the recommended guidelines for recreation and public health protection was noted as a major issue at seven of the nine sampling points. Overall, water supply reservoirs in the catchment retained over 20% of nutrients and over 85% of E. coli entering them. A relationship between land use types and water quality variables was found. However, the degree and magnitude of the associations varies between sub-catchments and is difficult to quantify. This highlights the complexity and the site-specific nature of relationships between land use types and water quality parameters in the catchment. Thus, this study provides useful findings on the general relationship between land use and land cover and water quality degradation, but highlights the risks of applying simple relationships or adding

  17. Assessment of the mining practices effects on the water quality in the Ibar river within the Leposavić municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milentijević Gordana


    Full Text Available Exploitation, development and primary extraction of the minerals result in release of the harmful substances, e.g. heavy metals, toxic gases, dirt, etc, that are often uncontrolled deposit in the environment. Those deposited and overlooked substances remain as a heritage and challenge for the coming generations that would involve abundant human, technical and financial resources for the environmental reclamation. The mining activities of the Trepča - RIF Kopaonik has both positive and negative influences within the Leposavić municipality, i.e., industrial development and environmental degradation. As a result of the mining activities the air, land and water resources both surface and underground are severely polluted. The main objective of this paper is to present adverse effects of the mineral resources (lead and zinc exploitation and primary extraction on the Ibar River water quality degradation mainly by heavy metals. Since the heavy metals are frequently ingested by the people through the food chain and given the high toxicity of them they are crucial parameters for the water quality monitoring practices that should be carefully assessed and controlled. Thus this paper includes comprehensive analyses of the heavy metals concentration (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd and Fe in the Ibar River within the Leposavić municipality.

  18. A reconnaissance of the effects of a forest fire on water quality in Kings Canyon National Park, California (United States)

    Hoffman, Ray J.; Ferreira, Rodger F.


    Following two forest fires in the Roaring River drainage basin, Kings Canyon National Park, Calif., water samples were collected from May to July 1974 to determine water-quality changes resulting from the fires. Field measurements included alkalinity , pH, specific conductance, temperature, and discharge. Samples were analyzed in the laboratory for major dissolved chemical constituents, selected plant nutrients, trace metals, suspended sediment, total organic carbon, and seston. Periphytic algae and benthic invertebrate samples were collected. A noticeable increase in the concentration of nitrogen was found in Roaring River immediately downstream from the Moraine Creek fire. The increase in the concentration of inorganic nitrogen compounds, however, was not great enough to pose a serious threat to the aquatic ecosystem. High total organic nitrogen concentrations may have been due, in part, to factors other than the effect of fire. The results of other water-quality measurements were typical of dilute Sierra Nevada streams and indicate that Roaring River was not adversely affected by the fires. (Woodard-USGS)

  19. In situ study of the effect of ground source heat pump on shallow ground-water quality in the late Pleistocene terrace area of Tokyo, Japan (United States)

    Takemura, T.; Uemura, K.; Akiba, Y.; Ota, M.


    The implementation of ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems has rapidly increased around the world, since they reduce carbon dioxide emissions and save electric energy. The GSHP system transfer heat into the geosphere zone when air conditioners are used to cool rooms or buildings. However, the effects of temperature increase on the quality of underground water has yet to be fully investigated. In order to reduce the risks of ground-water pollution by the installed GSHPs, it is important to evaluate the effect of temperature change on the ground-water quality. In this study, we installed a closed loop GSHP system on a heat exchange well along with a monitoring well drilled to measure ground-water quality and temperature. The monitoring well was drilled at 0.1cm away from the heat exchange well. We observed that changes of temperature in the heat exchange well affected the water quality, especially turbidity, in gravelly layer.

  20. Modeling framework for representing long-term effectiveness of best management practices in addressing hydrology and water quality problems: Framework development and demonstraton using a Bayesian method (United States)

    Best management practices (BMPs) are popular approaches used to improve hydrology and water quality. Uncertainties in BMP effectiveness over time may result in overestimating long-term efficiency in watershed planning strategies. To represent varying long-term BMP effectiveness in hydrologic/water q...

  1. Water quality index for assessment of water quality of river ravi at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water quality of River Ravi, a tributary of Indus River System was evaluated by Water Quality Index (WQI) technique. A water quality index provides a single number that expresses overall water quality at a certain location and time based on several water quality parameters. The objective of an index is to turn complex water ...

  2. Solid Wastes and Water Quality. (United States)

    DeWalle, F. B.; Chian, E. S. K.


    Presents a literature review of solid wastes and water quality, covering publications of 1976-77. This review covers areas such as: (1) environmental impacts and health aspects for waste disposal, and (2) processed and hazardous wastes. A list of 80 references is also presented. (HM)

  3. 18 CFR 801.7 - Water quality. (United States)


    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water quality. 801.7... POLICIES § 801.7 Water quality. (a) The signatory States have the primary responsibility in the basin for water quality management and control. However, protection of the water resources of the basin from...

  4. Portable water quality monitoring system (United States)

    Nizar, N. B.; Ong, N. R.; Aziz, M. H. A.; Alcain, J. B.; Haimi, W. M. W. N.; Sauli, Z.


    Portable water quality monitoring system was a developed system that tested varied samples of water by using different sensors and provided the specific readings to the user via short message service (SMS) based on the conditions of the water itself. In this water quality monitoring system, the processing part was based on a microcontroller instead of Lead and Copper Rule (LCR) machines to receive the results. By using four main sensors, this system obtained the readings based on the detection of the sensors, respectively. Therefore, users can receive the readings through SMS because there was a connection between Arduino Uno and GSM Module. This system was designed to be portable so that it would be convenient for users to carry it anywhere and everywhere they wanted to since the processor used is smaller in size compared to the LCR machines. It was also developed to ease the user to monitor and control the water quality. However, the ranges of the sensors' detection still a limitation in this study.

  5. Water quality for liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuniwa, Fumio; Maekoya, Chiaki; Iwasaki, Hitoshi; Yano, Hiroaki; Watahiki, Kazuo.


    Purpose: To facilitate the automation of the operation for a liquid wastes processing system by enabling continuous analysis for the main ingredients in the liquid wastes accurately and rapidly. Constitution: The water quality monitor comprises a sampling pipeway system for taking out sample water for the analysis of liquid wastes from a pipeway introducing liquid wastes to the liquid wastes concentrator, a filter for removing suspended matters in the sample water and absorption photometer as a water quality analyzer. A portion of the liquid wastes is passed through the suspended matter filter by a feedpump. In this case, sulfate ions and chloride ions in the sample are retained in the upper portion of a separation color and, subsequently, the respective ingredients are separated and leached out by eluting solution. Since the leached out ingredients form ferric ions and yellow complexes respectively, their concentrations can be detected by the spectrum photometer. Accordingly, concentration for the sodium sulfate and sodium chloride in the liquid wastes can be analyzed rapidly, accurately and repeatedly by which the water quality can be determined rapidly and accurately. (Yoshino, Y.)

  6. The effect of taxonomic resolution on the assessment of ecological water quality classes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt-Kloiber, A.; Nijboer, R.C.


    Within the ecological assessment of running waters based on benthic macroinvertebrates different levels of taxonomic resolution (species, genus, family and higher) are in use. Although assessment systems are often developed with detailed data on species level, water managers and other end-users

  7. The effect of water supply, handling and usage on water quality in relation to health indices in a developing community in South Africa. (United States)

    Genthe, B; Strauss, N; Vundule, C; Maforah, F; Seager, J


    This study examined the relationship between the quality of water consumed by people in a developing community in South Africa, and health outcomes for diarrhea. Water sources included no formal water supply, communal taps used by over 100 people, outdoor taps on individual plots, and indoor taps. The aim of this 3-year study was to determine water quality at point of collection, to examine patterns of water usage, and to determine the health consequences. This was a case control study and epidemiological assessment. The sample included over 300 households. Cases included pre-school children with severe diarrhea who visited a health facility in the study area. Interviews were conducted to determine hygiene, sanitation, education, and socioeconomic information. Controls of similar age and type of water supply were obtained from neighborhoods in the study area. Findings indicate that water, based on microbiological assay, was of good quality and complied with the South African Bureau of Standards. Water was significantly more contaminated after handling and storage compared to point of source. Cases and controls had equally poor water quality after collection and storage. Control indoor cases had higher levels of E. coli. There was a strong association between diarrhea and the attendance at a day care center. Increased risk of diarrhea was associated with poor kitchen hygiene and low levels of knowledge about hygiene and diarrhea prevention. Communal tap facilities had lower water quality than private taps.

  8. Impacts of Water Quality on Residential Water Heating Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Baechler, Michael C.


    Water heating is a ubiquitous energy use in all residential housing, accounting for 17.7% of residential energy use (EIA 2012). Today, there are many efficient water heating options available for every fuel type, from electric and gas to more unconventional fuel types like propane, solar, and fuel oil. Which water heating option is the best choice for a given household will depend on a number of factors, including average daily hot water use (total gallons per day), hot water draw patterns (close together or spread out), the hot water distribution system (compact or distributed), installation constraints (such as space, electrical service, or venting accommodations) and fuel-type availability and cost. While in general more efficient water heaters are more expensive than conventional water heating technologies, the savings in energy use and, thus, utility bills can recoup the additional upfront investment and make an efficient water heater a good investment over time in most situations, although the specific payback period for a given installation will vary widely. However, the expected lifetime of a water heater in a given installation can dramatically influence the cost effectiveness and savings potential of a water heater and should be considered, along with water use characteristics, fuel availability and cost, and specific home characteristics when selecting the optimum water heating equipment for a particular installation. This report provides recommendations for selecting and maintaining water heating equipment based on local water quality characteristics.

  9. Shallow Water Optical Water Quality Buoy (United States)

    Bostater, Charles


    This NASA grant was funded as a result of an unsolicited proposal submission to Kennedy Space Center. The proposal proposed the development and testing of a shallow water optical water quality buoy. The buoy is meant to work in shallow aquatic systems (ponds, rivers, lagoons, and semi-enclosed water areas where strong wind wave action is not a major environmental During the project period of three years, a demonstration of the buoy was conducted. The last demonstration during the project period was held in November, 1996 when the buoy was demonstrated as being totally operational with no tethered communications line. During the last year of the project the buoy was made to be solar operated by large gel cell batteries. Fund limitations did not permit the batteries in metal enclosures as hoped for higher wind conditions, however the system used to date has worked continuously for in- situ operation of over 18 months continuous deployment. The system needs to have maintenance and somewhat continuous operational attention since various components have limited lifetime ages. For example, within the last six months the onboard computer has had to be repaired as it did approximately 6 months after deployment. The spectrograph had to be repaired and costs for repairs was covered by KB Science since no ftmds were available for this purpose after the grant expired. Most recently the computer web page server failed and it is currently being repaired by KB Science. In addition, the cell phone operation is currently being ftmded by Dr. Bostater in order to maintain the system's operation. The above points need to be made to allow NASA to understand that like any sophisticated measuring system in a lab or in the field, necessary funding and maintenance is needed to insure the system's operational state and to obtain quality factor. The proposal stated that the project was based upon the integration of a proprietary and confidential sensor and probe design that was developed by

  10. An innovative modeling approach using Qual2K and HEC-RAS integration to assess the impact of tidal effect on River Water quality simulation. (United States)

    Fan, Chihhao; Ko, Chun-Han; Wang, Wei-Shen


    Water quality modeling has been shown to be a useful tool in strategic water quality management. The present study combines the Qual2K model with the HEC-RAS model to assess the water quality of a tidal river in northern Taiwan. The contaminant loadings of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), ammonia nitrogen (NH(3)-N), total phosphorus (TP), and sediment oxygen demand (SOD) are utilized in the Qual2K simulation. The HEC-RAS model is used to: (i) estimate the hydraulic constants for atmospheric re-aeration constant calculation; and (ii) calculate the water level profile variation to account for concentration changes as a result of tidal effect. The results show that HEC-RAS-assisted Qual2K simulations taking tidal effect into consideration produce water quality indices that, in general, agree with the monitoring data of the river. Comparisons of simulations with different combinations of contaminant loadings demonstrate that BOD is the most import contaminant. Streeter-Phelps simulation (in combination with HEC-RAS) is also performed for comparison, and the results show excellent agreement with the observed data. This paper is the first report of the innovative use of a combination of the HEC-RAS model and the Qual2K model (or Streeter-Phelps equation) to simulate water quality in a tidal river. The combination is shown to provide an alternative for water quality simulation of a tidal river when available dynamic-monitoring data are insufficient to assess the tidal effect of the river.

  11. Review on water quality sensors (United States)

    Kruse, Peter


    Terrestrial life may be carbon-based, but most of its mass is made up of water. Access to clean water is essential to all aspects of maintaining life. Mainly due to human activity, the strain on the water resources of our planet has increased substantially, requiring action in water management and purification. Water quality sensors are needed in order to quantify the problem and verify the success of remedial actions. This review summarizes the most common chemical water quality parameters, and current developments in sensor technology available to monitor them. Particular emphasis is on technologies that lend themselves to reagent-free, low-maintenance, autonomous and continuous monitoring. Chemiresistors and other electrical sensors are discussed in particular detail, while mechanical, optical and electrochemical sensors also find mentioning. The focus here is on the physics of chemical signal transduction in sensor elements that are in direct contact with the analyte. All other sensing methods, and all other elements of sampling, sample pre-treatment as well as the collection, transmission and analysis of the data are not discussed here. Instead, the goal is to highlight the progress and remaining challenges in the development of sensor materials and designs for an audience of physicists and materials scientists.

  12. A cost-effectiveness analysis of water security and water quality: impacts of climate and land-use change on the River Thames system. (United States)

    Whitehead, P G; Crossman, J; Balana, B B; Futter, M N; Comber, S; Jin, L; Skuras, D; Wade, A J; Bowes, M J; Read, D S


    The catchment of the River Thames, the principal river system in southern England, provides the main water supply for London but is highly vulnerable to changes in climate, land use and population. The river is eutrophic with significant algal blooms with phosphorus assumed to be the primary chemical indicator of ecosystem health. In the Thames Basin, phosphorus is available from point sources such as wastewater treatment plants and from diffuse sources such as agriculture. In order to predict vulnerability to future change, the integrated catchments model for phosphorus (INCA-P) has been applied to the river basin and used to assess the cost-effectiveness of a range of mitigation and adaptation strategies. It is shown that scenarios of future climate and land-use change will exacerbate the water quality problems, but a range of mitigation measures can improve the situation. A cost-effectiveness study has been undertaken to compare the economic benefits of each mitigation measure and to assess the phosphorus reductions achieved. The most effective strategy is to reduce fertilizer use by 20% together with the treatment of effluent to a high standard. Such measures will reduce the instream phosphorus concentrations to close to the EU Water Framework Directive target for the Thames.

  13. Effects of soil data resolution on SWAT model stream flow and water quality predictions. (United States)

    Geza, Mengistu; McCray, John E


    The prediction accuracy of agricultural nonpoint source pollution models such as Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) depends on how well model input spatial parameters describe the characteristics of the watershed. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of different soil data resolutions on stream flow, sediment and nutrient predictions when used as input for SWAT. SWAT model predictions were compared for the two US Department of Agriculture soil databases with different resolution, namely the State Soil Geographic database (STATSGO) and the Soil Survey Geographic database (SSURGO). Same number of sub-basins was used in the watershed delineation. However, the number of HRUs generated when STATSGO and SSURGO soil data were used is 261 and 1301, respectively. SSURGO, with the highest spatial resolution, has 51 unique soil types in the watershed distributed in 1301 HRUs, while STATSGO has only three distributed in 261 HRUS. As a result of low resolution STATSGO assigns a single classification to areas that may have different soil types if SSURGO were used. SSURGO included Hydrologic Response Units (HRUs) with soil types that were generalized to one soil group in STATSGO. The difference in the number and size of HRUs also has an effect on sediment yield parameters (slope and slope length). Thus, as a result of the discrepancies in soil type and size of HRUs stream flow predicted was higher when SSURGO was used compared to STATSGO. SSURGO predicted less stream loading than STATSGO in terms of sediment and sediment-attached nutrients components, and vice versa for dissolved nutrients. When compared to mean daily measured flow, STATSGO performed better relative to SSURGO before calibration. SSURGO provided better results after calibration as evaluated by R(2) value (0.74 compared to 0.61 for STATSGO) and the Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of Efficiency (NSE) values (0.70 and 0.61 for SSURGO and STATSGO, respectively) although both are in the same satisfactory

  14. Effectiveness of benthic foraminiferal and coral assemblages as water quality indicators on inshore reefs of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia (United States)

    Uthicke, S.; Thompson, A.; Schaffelke, B.


    Although the debate about coral reef decline focuses on global disturbances (e.g., increasing temperatures and acidification), local stressors (nutrient runoff and overfishing) continue to affect reef health and resilience. The effectiveness of foraminiferal and hard-coral assemblages as indicators of changes in water quality was assessed on 27 inshore reefs along the Great Barrier Reef. Environmental variables (i.e., several water quality and sediment parameters) and the composition of both benthic foraminiferal and hard-coral assemblages differed significantly between four regions (Whitsunday, Burdekin, Fitzroy, and the Wet Tropics). Grain size and organic carbon and nitrogen content of sediments, and a composite water column parameter (based on turbidity and concentrations of particulate matter) explained a significant amount of variation in the data (tested by redundancy analyses) in both assemblages. Heterotrophic species of foraminifera were dominant in sediments with high organic content and in localities with low light availability, whereas symbiont-bearing mixotrophic species were dominant elsewhere. A similar suite of parameters explained 89% of the variation in the FORAM index (a Caribbean coral reef health indicator) and 61% in foraminiferal species richness. Coral richness was not related to environmental setting. Coral assemblages varied in response to environmental variables, but were strongly shaped by acute disturbances (e.g., cyclones, Acanthaster planci outbreaks, and bleaching), thus different coral assemblages may be found at sites with the same environmental conditions. Disturbances also affect foraminiferal assemblages, but they appeared to recover more rapidly than corals. Foraminiferal assemblages are effective bioindicators of turbidity/light regimes and organic enrichment of sediments on coral reefs.

  15. Water quality management and climate change mitigation: cost-effectiveness of joint implementation in the Baltic Sea region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nainggolan, Doan; Hasler, Berit; Andersen, Hans Estrup


    of contrasting strategies: single environmental objective management versus joint implementation strategy. The results show that implementing land-based measures with a sole focus on water quality (to meet the HELCOM's 2013 Baltic Sea Action Plan nutrient abatement targets) can produce climate change mitigation......This paper explores the scope for simultaneously managing nutrient abatement and climate change mitigation in the Baltic Sea (BS) region through the implementation of a selection of measures. The analysis is undertaken using a cost-minimisation model for the entire BS region, the BALTCOST model....... In the present research, the model has been extended to include greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions effects, enabling us to analyse the tradeoffs between cost-effective GHG and nutrient load reductions. We run the model for four different scenarios in order to compare the environmental and economic consequences...

  16. Effects of C/N controlled periphyton based organic farming of freshwater prawn on water quality parameters and biotic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rezoanul Haque


    Full Text Available The effects of C:N controlled periphyton based organic farming of freshwater prawn on water quality parameters and biotic factors were investigated. The experiment had two treatments: T1 and T2 each with three replications. Stocking density was maintained at 20,000 juveniles ha-1. In T1, only commercially available prawn feed was applied and in T2, a locally formulated and prepared feed containing 24% crude protein with C:N ratio close to 20 was used, and maize flour and bamboo side shoots were provided for maintaining C:N ratio 20.Mean values of water quality parameters did not vary significantly (P>0.05 between treatments. Periphytic biomass in terms of dry matter, ash free dry matter (AFDM and chlorophyll a showed significant difference (P<0.05 among different sampling months. Individual harvesting weight, individual weight gain, specific growth rates, gross and net yields of prawn were significantly higher (P<0.05 in T2 than T1. Therefore, it was concluded that freshwater prawn might consume periphyton biomass in C:N controlled periphyton based organic farming practices resulted a significantly (P<0.05 higher production of freshwater prawn than traditional farming.

  17. Coupled effects of natural and anthropogenic controls on seasonal and spatial variations of river water quality during baseflow in a coastal watershed of Southeast China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinliang Huang

    demonstrates that the coupled effects of natural and anthropogenic controls involved in watershed processes, contribute to the seasonal and spatial variation of headwater stream water quality in a coastal watershed with high spatial variability and intensive anthropogenic activities.

  18. Water quality relationships and evaluation using a new water quality index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Said, A.; Stevens, D.; Sehlke, G.


    Water quality is dependent on a variety of measures, including dissolved oxygen, microbial contamination, turbidity, nutrients, temperature, pH, and other constituents. Determining relationships between water quality parameters can improve water quality assessment, and watershed management. In addition, these relationships can be very valuable in case of evaluating water quality in watersheds that have few water quality data. (author)

  19. Application of Nemerow Index Method and Integrated Water Quality Index Method in Water Quality Assessment of Zhangze Reservoir (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Feng, Minquan; Hao, Xiaoyan


    [Objective] Based on the water quality historical data from the Zhangze Reservoir from the last five years, the water quality was assessed by the integrated water quality identification index method and the Nemerow pollution index method. The results of different evaluation methods were analyzed and compared and the characteristics of each method were identified.[Methods] The suitability of the water quality assessment methods were compared and analyzed, based on these results.[Results] the water quality tended to decrease over time with 2016 being the year with the worst water quality. The sections with the worst water quality were the southern and northern sections.[Conclusion] The results produced by the traditional Nemerow index method fluctuated greatly in each section of water quality monitoring and therefore could not effectively reveal the trend of water quality at each section. The combination of qualitative and quantitative measures of the comprehensive pollution index identification method meant it could evaluate the degree of water pollution as well as determine that the river water was black and odorous. However, the evaluation results showed that the water pollution was relatively low.The results from the improved Nemerow index evaluation were better as the single indicators and evaluation results are in strong agreement; therefore the method is able to objectively reflect the water quality of each water quality monitoring section and is more suitable for the water quality evaluation of the reservoir.

  20. Predicting the Effects of Water Quality on the Growth of Thalassia testudinum in Tampa Bay with a Dynamic Simile-Based Model Tool (United States)

    We describe a seagrass growth (SGG) model that is coupled to a water quality (WQ) model that includes the effects of phytoplankton (chlorophyll), colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and suspended solids (TSS) on water clarity. Phytoplankton growth was adjusted daily for PAR (...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Halina Grygorczuk-Petersons


    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of the landfill on the groundwater environment. The assessment of water status in the region of landfill sealed with a layer of clay with a thickness of 0.5 m, was based on the own research and monitoring received from the municipal office, and conducted in 2007–2010. Waters flowing out of the landfill revealed an increase in pollution indicators such as: total organic carbon (TOC, concentrations of PAHs and heavy metals including zinc, cadmium, and chromium. It was demonstrated that the landfill sealed with a clay layer does not reduce the outflow of leachate to groundwater, but also that the purity of these waters is influenced by increased agricultural activity in the areas adjacent to the landfill.

  2. BARC's efforts towards maintenance of water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamath, P.R.


    Some of the studies pursued at the Environmental Survey Laboratories (ESLs) established at the site of nuclear installations in India are discussed. Each site has its special features and these ESLs monitor radioactive pollution in the environment including Man. The major objective of the surveillance programme at nuclear sites is the maintenance of water quality. Environmental investigations carried out to collect data on individual organisms, recipient water characteristics, thermal pollution and its effect on fish are described. (K.M.)

  3. Effects of chlorine and other water quality parameters on the release of silver nanoparticles from a ceramic surface. (United States)

    Bielefeldt, Angela R; Stewart, Michael W; Mansfield, Elisabeth; Scott Summers, R; Ryan, Joseph N


    A quartz crystal microbalance was used to determine the effects of different water quality parameters on the detachment of silver nanoparticles from surfaces representative of ceramic pot filters (CPFs). Silver nanoparticles stabilized with casein were used in the experiments. The average hydrodynamic diameter of the nanoparticles ranged from 20 nm to 100 nm over a pH range of 6.5-10.5. The isoelectric point was about 3.5 and the zeta potential was -45 mV from pH 4.5 to 9.5. The silver nanoparticles were deposited onto silica surfaces and a quartz crystal microbalance was used to monitor silver release from the surface. At environmentally relevant ranges of pH (4.8-9.3), ionic strength (0 and 150 mol/m(3) NaNO3 or 150 mol/m(3) Ca(NO3)2), and turbidity (0 and 51.5 NTU kaolin clay), the rates of silver release were similar. A high concentration of sodium chloride and bacteria (Echerichia coli in 10% tryptic soy broth) caused rapid silver release. Water containing sodium hypochlorite removed 85% of the silver from the silica surface within 3 h. The results suggest that contact between CPFs and prechlorinated water or bleach CPF cleaning should be avoided. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 9 CFR 3.106 - Water quality. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water quality. 3.106 Section 3.106... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.106 Water quality. (a) General. The primary enclosure... additives (e.g. chlorine and copper) that are added to the water to maintain water quality standards...

  5. Petal abscission in rose flowers: effects of water potential, light intensity and light quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van W.G.; Vojinovic, A.


    Petal abscission was studied in roses (Rosa hybrida L.), cvs. Korflapei (trade name Frisco), Sweet Promise (Sonia) and Cara Mia (trade name as officially registered cultivar name). Unlike flowers on plants in greenhouses, cut flowers placed in water in the greenhouse produced visible symptoms of

  6. The water quality and quantity effects of biofuel operations in pine plantations of the southeastern USA (United States)

    J. Nettles; M. Youssef; J. Cacho; J. Grace; Z. Leggett; E. Sucre


    Working alongside operational trials, a comprehensive research programme was developed to evaluate sustainability, life-cycle analysis, soil productivity, wildlife, and water resource impacts. The hydrology field studies consist of three sets of forested watersheds, each with mid-rotation pine reference, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) interplanted, typical...

  7. Water quality control system and water quality control method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itsumi, Sachio; Ichikawa, Nagayoshi; Uruma, Hiroshi; Yamada, Kazuya; Seki, Shuji


    In the water quality control system of the present invention, portions in contact with water comprise a metal material having a controlled content of iron or chromium, and the chromium content on the surface is increased than that of mother material in a state where compression stresses remain on the surface by mechanical polishing to form an uniform corrosion resistant coating film. In addition, equipments and/or pipelines to which a material controlling corrosion potential stably is applied on the surface are used. There are disposed a cleaning device made of a material less forming impurities, and detecting intrusion of impurities and removing them selectively depending on chemical species and/or a cleaning device for recovering drain from various kinds of equipment to feedwater, connecting a feedwater pipeline and a condensate pipeline and removing impurities and corrosion products. Then, water can be kept to neutral purified water, and the concentrations of oxygen and hydrogen in water are controlled within an optimum range to suppress occurrence of corrosion products. (N.H.)

  8. Effects of stock use and backpackers on water quality in wilderness in Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks, USA (United States)

    Clow, David W.; Forrester, Harrison; Miller, Benjamin; Roop, Heidi; Sickman, James O.; Ryu, Hodon; Santo Domingo, Jorge


    During 2010-2011, a study was conducted in Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks (SEKI) to evaluate the influence of pack animals (stock) and backpackers on water quality in wilderness lakes and streams. The study had three main components: (1) a synoptic survey of water quality in wilderness areas of the parks, (2) paired water-quality sampling above and below several areas with differing types and amounts of visitor use, and (3) intensive monitoring at six sites to document temporal variations in water quality. Data from the synoptic water-quality survey indicated that wilderness lakes and streams are dilute and have low nutrient and Escherichia coli (E. coli) concentrations. The synoptic survey sites were categorized as minimal use, backpacker use, or mixed use (stock and backpackers), depending on the most prevalent type of use upstream from the sampling locations. Sites with mixed use tended to have higher concentrations of most constituents (including E.coli) than those categorized as minimal-use (p≤0.05); concentrations at backpacker-use sites were intermediate. Data from paired-site sampling indicated that E.coli, total coliform, and particulate phosphorus concentrations were greater in streams downstream from mixed-use areas than upstream from those areas (p≤0.05). Paired-site data also indicated few statistically significant differences in nutrient, E. coli, or total coliform concentrations in streams upstream and downstream from backpacker-use areas. The intensive-monitoring data indicated that nutrient and E. coli concentrations normally were low, except during storms, when notable increases in concentrations of E.coli, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, and turbidity occurred. In summary, results from this study indicate that water quality in SEKI wilderness generally is good, except during storms; and visitor use appears to have a small, but statistically significant influence on stream water quality.


    Management of nonpoint sources (NPS) of nutrients may reduce discharge levels more cost effectively than can additional controls on point sources (PS); water quality trading (WQT), where a PS buys nutrient or sediment reductions from an NPS, may be an alternative means for the PS...

  10. Effects of long-term poultry litter application on phosphorus soil chemistry and runoff water quality. (United States)

    Reiter, Mark S; Daniel, Tommy C; DeLaune, Paul B; Sharpley, Andrew N; Lory, John A


    Continuous application of poultry litter (PL) significantly changes many soil properties, including soil test P (STP); Al, Fe, and Ca concentrations; and pH, which can affect the potential for P transport in surface runoff water. We conducted rainfall simulations on three historically acidic silt loam soils in Arkansas, Missouri, and Virginia to establish if long-term PL applications would affect soil inorganic P fractions and the resulting dissolved reactive P (DRP) in runoff water. Soil samples (0-5 cm depth) were taken to find sites ranging in Mehlich-3 STP from 20 to 1154 mg P kg. Simulated rainfall events were conducted on 3-m plots at 6.7 cm h, and runoff was collected for 30 min. Correlation between Mehlich-3 and runoff DRP indicated a linear relationship to 833 mg Mehlich-3 P kg. As Mehlich-3 STP increased, a concomitant increase in soil pH and Ca occurred on all soils. Soil P fractionation demonstrated that, as Mehlich-3 STP generally increased above 450 mg P kg (from high to very high), the easily soluble and loosely bound P fractions decreased by 3 to 10%. Water-insoluble complexes of P bound to Al and Ca were the main drivers in the reduction of DRP in runoff, accounting for up to 43 and 38% of total P, respectively. Basing runoff DRP concentration projections solely on Mehlich-3 STP may overestimate runoff P losses from soils receiving long-term PL applications due to dissolution of water-insoluble Ca-P compounds. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  11. Research NoteEffect of drought and fires on the quality of water in Lithuanian rivers


    Sakalauskiene, G.; Ignatavicius, G.


    In August and September 2002, concentrations of heavy metals (copper, lead, and zinc) were 21-74% more than in previous years in Lithuanian rivers. Such a sudden increase in heavy metal pollution reduces the value of any water body for fishing or recreation and poses a potential risk to the environment and to human health. Droughts in the summer of 2002 led to forest and peat bog fires all over Lithuania and may have caused the increase ...

  12. The effect of environmental health and water supply quality on children's health in Karary locality - Omdurman Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salih, N.S.M.


    There are many joint factors that have negative effects on children's health, such as environmental health and water supply quality. Therefore, the importance of this study was emerged to contribute in finding suitable solutions for this problem. The study was done in Khartoum State, Omdurman area mainly Karary locality. Three methodologies were used; field work to collect data about the most common diseases that affect children, water sampling from the drinking wells, questionnaire to collect data about public awareness. Data collected from Omdurman hospital- children emergency unit dealing with the most common diseases that affect children. The data were divided into three categories: category (1) for infants < one year old, category (2) children from 1-4 years old and category (3) from 5-14 years old. This study consists of five chapters: chapter one explains the problem, importance, objectives, limitations, terms and methods of the research. Chapter two is a literature review of environmental health and water pollution. Chapter three explains samples, methodology, and procedures of the research. Chapter four discusses data analysis, discussions and results. Chapter five concentrates on conclusions and recommendations. The results revealed that most of the diseases that attack children were caused due to drinking water quality. Some of the diseases seemed to be very serious regarding the number of incidence and number of children admitted to hospitals especially during February to April 2005. It was also found that pneumonia, tuberculosis, malaria, food poisoning, hepatitis, dysentery, gardiasis, gastro enteritis and diarrhoea, are the most common diseases that attack children, through out the year. The results revealed that there was an environmental problem of housing condition that cause some of the diseases, some of the drinking water wells found to be contaminated and not suitable for human consumption. The study recommendations include income improvement

  13. Cumulative effects analysis of the water quality risk of herbicides used for site preparation in the Central North Island, New Zealand (United States)

    Dan Neary; Brenda R. Baillie


    Herbicide use varies both spatially and temporally within managed forests. While information exists on the effects of herbicide use on water quality at the site and small catchment scale, little is known about the cumulative effects of herbicide use at the landscape scale. A cumulative effects analysis was conducted in the upper Rangitaiki catchment (118,345...

  14. Effects on Water Management and Quality Characteristics of Ozone Application in Chicory Forcing Process: A Pilot System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Nicoletto


    Full Text Available Agriculture is the largest user of world water resources, accounting for 70% of all consumption. Reducing water consumption and increasing water use efficiency in agriculture are two of the main challenges that need to be faced in the coming decades. Radicchio Rosso di Treviso Tardivo (RTT is a vegetable that requires a water forcing process prior to final commercialization which presents a significant environmental impact due to the high water volumes used and then dispersed into the environment. The experiment was aimed at reducing the water use in the forcing process of RTT, by developing a pilot system with recycled water in a closed loop through ozone treatment. Concerning water quality, the redox potential value was higher in the ozonized system, whereas turbidity, pH and electrical conductivity of the ozonized system did not change significantly from the control. Yield and quality of plants obtained in the ozonized system did not significantly differ from the control plants except for the antioxidant activity that was higher in plants forced using the water treated with ozone. Our initial results suggest that the ozone treatment could be applied in the forcing process and is suitable for growers, saving up to 95% of water volumes normally used for this cultivation practice.

  15. Water Quality and Sustainable Environmental Health (United States)

    Setegn, S. G.


    Lack of adequate safe water, the pollution of the aquatic environment and the mismanagement of resources are major causes of ill-health and mortality, particularly in the developing countries. In order to accommodate more growth, sustainable fresh water resource management will need to be included in future development plans. One of the major environmental issues of concern to policy-makers is the increased vulnerability of ground water quality. The main challenge for the sustainability of water resources is the control of water pollution. To understand the sustainability of the water resources, one needs to understand the impact of future land use and climate changes on the natural resources. Providing safe water and basic sanitation to meet the Millennium Development Goals will require substantial economic resources, sustainable technological solutions and courageous political will. A balanced approach to water resources exploitation for development, on the one hand, and controls for the protection of health, on the other, is required if the benefits of both are to be realized without avoidable detrimental effects manifesting themselves. Meeting the millennium development goals for water and sanitation in the next decade will require substantial economic resources, sustainable technological solutions and courageous political will. In addition to providing "improved" water and "basic" sanitation services, we must ensure that these services provide: safe drinking water, adequate quantities of water for health, hygiene, agriculture and development and sustainable sanitation approaches to protect health and the environment.

  16. Effect of Mycorrhizal Fungus (Glomus spp on Wheat (Triticumaestivum Yield and Yield Components with Regard to Irrigation Water Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Habibi


    Full Text Available Introduction Decrease in water quality affected by salinization of the water resources due to the drought is one of the limiting factors of plant production. Using mycorrhizal fungi is an important approach to deal with damaging effects during stress conditions. The symbiosis of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM with the host plant and hence, the production of a very extensive network of hypha, enhances nutrient acquisition and improves water uptake in the host plant. The specialized network of hypha raises the uptake and translocation of nutrients to the plant, whereas it inhibits high uptake of Na and Cl and their transport to plant shoots compared with plant roots. Hence, AM can alleviate the stress of salinity on plant growth and increases their tolerance to the stresses. Materials and Methods In order to evaluate the influence of mycorrhizal fungi on yield and yield components of wheat, a greenhouse experiment was conducted in research farm of Shahid Chamran Ahvaz University. Experimental design was a randomized complete block design arranged in split factorial with three replications. The factors were water salinity (water quality including filtered water (EC ≥ 1 dS m-1, tap water (EC = 1/7-3 ds m-1, tap water plus NaCl and filtered water plus NaCl (EC = 8 ds m-1. Soil sterilization included sterilized and non-sterilized soil and mycorrhizal inoculation were in five levels (non-inoculated, inoculated with ‌Glomusmosseae, G. intraradices, G. geosporum and mixture of them. Yield and yield components were measured at crop maturity and colonization percentage of root was determined at flowering stage. Root colonization by AM was determined through preparing root samples at 1 g in each experimental unit, and roots were stained using the Gridline- Intersect Method. The harvest index and mycorrhizal dependency were also measured. Salinity levels determined approximate the threshold of wheat –tolerate- salinity before the results would rather

  17. The effects of two free-floating plants (Eichhornia crassipes and Pistia stratiotes on the burrow morphology and water quality characteristics of pond loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinqing Wang


    Full Text Available Loach exhibit conspicuous drilling behaviors in the mud of shallow waters, yet their burrow morphology and the factors affecting this behavior have received little attention. We characterized the burrow morphology and water quality of the pond loach Misgurnus anguillicaudatus in three scenarios: in tanks without plants, tanks with the free-floating plant water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes, and tanks with water lettuce Pistia stratiotes. Water hyacinth effectively removed water TN, COD, NO3-N and NH4-N, and water lettuce removed water TP and NH4-N. Water hyacinth and water lettuce markedly reduced water turbidity and DO, increased TOC and EC. Water hyacinth purified water more effectively than water lettuce, providing a suitable habitat for loach feeding, living and burrowing. The burrow structures were V-shaped, Y-shaped, inverted L-shaped, or complicated dendritic networks composed of multiple V shapes. The hyacinth treatment was characterized by the greatest burrow volume, length, depth, and structural complexity, but the opening size was reduced by dense root mat coverage. Burrows in the water lettuce treatment were characterized by intermediate volume, length, branches and sinuosity, but they had the largest opening and pit size. The control treatment had a flat bottom with the smallest, shortest burrows. This study indicates that free-floating plants improve habitat suitability and change burrow morphology and may be used to improve loach breeding methods.

  18. 78 FR 20252 - Water Quality Standards; Withdrawal of Certain Federal Water Quality Criteria Applicable to... (United States)


    ... Water Quality Standards; Withdrawal of Certain Federal Water Quality Criteria Applicable to California... aquatic life water quality criteria applicable to waters of New Jersey, Puerto Rico, and California's San Francisco Bay. In 1992, EPA promulgated the National Toxics Rule or NTR to establish numeric water quality...

  19. The Impact of Traditional Septic Tank Soakaway Systems and the Effects of Remediation on Water Quality in Ireland (United States)

    Kilroy, Kate; Keggan, Mary; Barrett, Maria; Dubber, Donata; Gill, Laurence W.; O'Flaherty, Vincent


    In Ireland the domestic wastewater of over 1/3 of the population is treated by on-site systems. These systems are based on a traditional design for disposal of domestic wastewater and rely on the surrounding subsoil for further treatment. Inefficient treatment is often associated with these systems and can cause pollution of local aquifers and waterways. The effluent nutrient load can contribute to eutrophication, depletion of dissolved oxygen and excessive algae growth in surface water bodies. Human enteric pathogens associated with faecal pollution of water sources may promote the outbreak of disease through contamination of drinking water supplies. The subsoil attenuation plays an important role in the protection of groundwater from effluent pollution. Therefore, as over 25% of the countries domestic water supplies are provided by groundwater, the protection of groundwater resources is crucial. This project involves both the assessment of traditional septic tank soakaway systems and the effects of remediation in low permeability subsoil settings on water quality in Ireland. The study aims to confirm by microbial source tracking (MST), the source (human and/or animal) of faecal microorganisms detected in groundwater, surface water and effluent samples, and to monitor the transport of pathogens specific to on-site wastewater outflows. In combination with MST, the evaluation of nitrification and denitrification in surrounding soil and effluent samples aims to assess nitrogen removal at specific intervals; pre-remediation and post-remediation. Two experimental sites have been routinely sampled for effluent, soil and groundwater samples as well as soil moisture samples using suction lysimeters located at various depths. A robust and reproducible DNA extraction method was developed, applicable to both sites. MST markers based on host-specific Bacteriodales bacteria for universal, human and cow-derived faecal matter are being employed to determine quantitative target

  20. Effects of geothermal energy utilization on stream biota and water quality at The Geysers, California. Final report. [Big Sulphur, Little Sulphur, Squaw, and Pieta Creeks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeGore, R.S.


    The discussion is presented under the following section headings: biological studies, including fish, insects, and microbiology; stream hydrology; stream water quality, including methods and results; the contribution of tributaries to Big Sulphur Creek, including methods, results, and tributary characterization; standing water at wellheads; steam condensate quality; accidental discharges; trout spawning bed quality; major conclusions; list of references; and appendices. It is concluded that present operational practices at Geysers geothermal field do not harm the biological resources in adjacent streams. The only effects of geothermal development observed during the study were related to operational accidents. (JGB)

  1. Effects of land use change on streamflow and stream water quality of a coastal catchment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Petersen, Chantel R


    Full Text Available Main stream length (km) 28.4 19.46 Main stream slope (%) 3.4 2.6 Drainage density (km/km2) 2.51 3.59 Length of overland flow (km) 0.19 0.139   Figure 1    Figure 1 Catchments of the Touws and Duiwe Rivers 141 catchment throughout the period examined (Fig. 2a, Table 3), as the natural forest areas were formally protected from the 142 Available on website ISSN 1816-7950 (Online) = Water SA Vol. 43 No. 1...

  2. Effect of Short-Circuit Pathways on Water Quality in Selected Confined Aquifers (Invited) (United States)

    McMahon, P. B.


    Confined aquifers in the United States generally contain fewer anthropogenic contaminants than unconfined aquifers because confined aquifers often contain water recharged prior to substantial human development and redox conditions are more reducing, which favors degradation of common contaminants like nitrate and chlorinated solvents. Groundwater in a confined part of the High Plains aquifer near York, Nebraska had an adjusted radiocarbon age of about 2,000 years, and groundwater in a confined part of the Floridan aquifer near Tampa, Florida had apparent ages greater than 60 years on the basis of tritium measurements. Yet compounds introduced more recently into the environment (anthropogenic nitrate and volatile organic compounds) were detected in selected public-supply wells completed in both aquifers. Depth-dependent measurements of flow and chemistry in the pumping supply wells, groundwater age dating, numerical modeling of groundwater flow, and other monitoring data indicated that the confined aquifers sampled by the supply wells were connected to contaminated unconfined aquifers by short-circuit pathways. In the High Plains aquifer, the primary pathways appeared to be inactive irrigation wells screened in both the unconfined and confined aquifers. In the Floridan aquifer, the primary pathways were karst sinkholes and conduits. Heavy pumping in both confined systems exacerbated the problem by reducing the potentiometric surface and increasing groundwater velocities, thus enhancing downward gradients and reducing reaction times for processes like denitrification. From a broader perspective, several confined aquifers in the U.S. have experienced large declines in their potentiometric surfaces because of groundwater pumping and this could increase the potential for contamination in those aquifers, particularly where short-circuit pathways connect them to shallower, contaminated sources of water, such as was observed in York and Tampa.

  3. San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund (United States)

    EPAs grant program to protect and restore San Francisco Bay. The San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund (SFBWQIF) has invested in 58 projects along with 70 partners contributing to restore wetlands, water quality, and reduce polluted runoff.,

  4. Assessing water quality in Lake Naivasha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ndungu, J.N.


    Water quality in aquatic systems is important because it maintains the ecological processes that support biodiversity. However, declining water quality due to environmental perturbations threatens the stability of the biotic integrity and therefore hinders the ecosystem services and functions of

  5. National Water Quality Standards Database (NWQSD) (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Water Quality Standards Database (WQSDB) provides access to EPA and state water quality standards (WQS) information in text, tables, and maps. This data...

  6. R2 Water Quality Portal Monitoring Stations (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Water Quality Data Portal (WQP) provides an easy way to access data stored in various large water quality databases. The WQP provides various input parameters on...

  7. Effect assessment of Future Climate Change on Water Resource and Snow Quality in cold snowy regions in Japan (United States)

    Taniguchi, Y.; Nakatsugawa, M.; Kudo, K.


    It is predicted that the effects of global warming on everyday life will be clearly seen in cold, snowy regions such as Hokkaido. In relation to climate change, there is the concern that the warmer climate will affect not only water resources, but also local economies, in snowy areas, when air temperature increases and snowfall decreases become more marked in the future. Communities whose economies are greatly dependent on snow as a tourism resource, such as for winter sports and snow events, will lose large numbers of visitors because of the shortened winter season. This study was done as a basic study to provide basic ideas for planning adaptation strategies against climate change based on the local characteristics of a cold, snowy region. By taking dam catchment basins in Hokkaido as the subject areas and by using the climate change prediction data that correspond to IPCCAR5, the local-level influence of future climate change on snowfall and snow quality in relation to water resources and winter sports was quantitatively assessed. The water budget was examined for a dam catchment basin in Hokkaido under the present climate (September 1984 to August 2004) and under the future climate (September 2080 to August 2100) by using rainfall, snowfall and evapotranspiration estimated by the LoHAS heat and water balance analysis model.The examination found that, under the future climate, the net annual precipitation will decrease by up to 200 mm because of decreases in precipitation and in runoff height that will result from increased evapotranspiration. The predicted decrease in annual hydro potential of snowfall was considered to greatly affect the dam reservoir operation during the snowmelt season. The snow quality analysis by SNOWPACK revealed that the future snow would become granular earlier than it does at present. Most skiers' snow preferences, from best to worst, are light dry snow (i.e., fresh snow), lightly compacted snow, compacted snow and, finally, granular

  8. A review on effectiveness of best management practices in improving hydrology and water quality: Needs and opportunities. (United States)

    Liu, Yaoze; Engel, Bernard A; Flanagan, Dennis C; Gitau, Margaret W; McMillan, Sara K; Chaubey, Indrajeet


    Best management practices (BMPs) have been widely used to address hydrology and water quality issues in both agricultural and urban areas. Increasing numbers of BMPs have been studied in research projects and implemented in watershed management projects, but a gap remains in quantifying their effectiveness through time. In this paper, we review the current knowledge about BMP efficiencies, which indicates that most empirical studies have focused on short-term efficiencies, while few have explored long-term efficiencies. Most simulation efforts that consider BMPs assume constant performance irrespective of ages of the practices, generally based on anticipated maintenance activities or the expected performance over the life of the BMP(s). However, efficiencies of BMPs likely change over time irrespective of maintenance due to factors such as degradation of structures and accumulation of pollutants. Generally, the impacts of BMPs implemented in water quality protection programs at watershed levels have not been as rapid or large as expected, possibly due to overly high expectations for practice long-term efficiency, with BMPs even being sources of pollutants under some conditions and during some time periods. The review of available datasets reveals that current data are limited regarding both short-term and long-term BMP efficiency. Based on this review, this paper provides suggestions regarding needs and opportunities. Existing practice efficiency data need to be compiled. New data on BMP efficiencies that consider important factors, such as maintenance activities, also need to be collected. Then, the existing and new data need to be analyzed. Further research is needed to create a framework, as well as modeling approaches built on the framework, to simulate changes in BMP efficiencies with time. The research community needs to work together in addressing these needs and opportunities, which will assist decision makers in formulating better decisions regarding BMP

  9. R2 Water Quality Portal Monitoring Stations (United States)

    The Water Quality Data Portal (WQP) provides an easy way to access data stored in various large water quality databases. The WQP provides various input parameters on the form including location, site, sampling, and date parameters to filter and customize the returned results. The The Water Quality Portal (WQP) is a cooperative service sponsored by the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Water Quality Monitoring Council (NWQMC) that integrates publicly available water quality data from the USGS National Water Information System (NWIS) the EPA STOrage and RETrieval (STORET) Data Warehouse, and the USDA ARS Sustaining The Earth??s Watersheds - Agricultural Research Database System (STEWARDS).

  10. The effect of in-stream activities on the Njoro River, Kenya. Part I: Stream flow and chemical water quality (United States)

    Yillia, Paul T.; Kreuzinger, Norbert; Mathooko, Jude M.

    For shallow streams in sub-Saharan Africa, in-stream activities could be described as the actions by people and livestock, which take place within or besides stream channels. This study examined the nature of in-stream activities along a rural stream in Kenya and established the inequality in water allocation for various livelihood needs, as well as the negative impact they have on dry weather stream flow and chemical water quality. Seven locations along the stream were studied in wet and dry weather of 2006. Enumeration consisted of making head counts of people and livestock and tallying visitors at hourly intervals from 6 a.m. to 7 p.m. To estimate water abstraction, filled containers of known volume were counted and the stream was sampled to examine the impact on water quality. Water samples were obtained upstream and downstream of in-stream activities before (6 a.m.) and during (11 a.m., 6 p.m.) activities. Samples were analyzed for suspended solids, turbidity, BOD 5, total nitrogen and total phosphorus. The daily total abstraction at the middle reaches during dry weather was 120-150 m 3 day -1. More than 60% of abstraction was done by water vendors. Vended water from the stream was sold at US 3.5-7.5 per m 3 and vendors earned between US 3-6 a day. Abstracted water contributed approximately 40-60% of the total daily consumptive water use in the riparian area during dry weather but >30% of the morning stream flow was abstracted thereby upsetting stream flow in the lower reaches. The daily total water abstraction correlated positively ( R2, 0.98) and significantly ( p < 0.05) with the daily total human visit, which was diurnally periodic with two peaks, occurring between 9 a.m. and 10 a.m. and from 4 p.m. to 5 p.m. This diurnal pattern of visits and the corresponding in-stream activities affected water quality. In particular, suspended solids, turbidity and BOD 5 levels increased significantly ( p < 0.05) downstream during in-stream activities. It was concluded

  11. The effects of season and sand mining activities on thermal regime and water quality in a large shallow tropical lake. (United States)

    Sharip, Zati; Zaki, Ahmad Taqiyuddin Ahmad


    Thermal structure and water quality in a large and shallow lake in Malaysia were studied between January 2012 and June 2013 in order to understand variations in relation to water level fluctuations and in-stream mining activities. Environmental variables, namely temperature, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, pH, electrical conductivity, chlorophyll-A and transparency, were measured using a multi-parameter probe and a Secchi disk. Measurements of environmental variables were performed at 0.1 m intervals from the surface to the bottom of the lake during the dry and wet seasons. High water level and strong solar radiation increased temperature stratification. River discharges during the wet season, and unsustainable sand mining activities led to an increased turbidity exceeding 100 NTU, and reduced transparency, which changed the temperature variation and subsequently altered the water quality pattern.

  12. Shade and flow effects on ammonia retention in macrophyte-rich streams: implications for water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcock, Robert J.; Scarsbrook, Mike R.; Cooke, James G.; Costley, Kerry J.; Nagels, John W.


    Controlled releases of NH 4 -N and conservative tracers (Br - and Cl - ) to five reaches of four streams with contrasting macrophyte communities have shown differing retentions, largely as a result of the way plants interact with stream flow and velocity. First-order constants (k) were 1.0-4.8 d -1 and retention of NH 4 -N was 6-71% of amounts added to each reach. Distance travelled before a 50% reduction in concentration was achieved were 40-450 m in three streams under low-flow conditions, and 2400-3800 m at higher flows. Retention (%) of NH 4 -N can be approximated by a simple function of travel time and k, highlighting the importance of the relationship between macrophytes and stream velocity on nutrient processing. This finding has significant management implications, particularly with respect to restoration of riparian shade. Small streams with predominantly marginal emergent plants are likely to have improved retention of NH 4 -N as a result of shading or other means of reducing plant biomass. Streams dominated by submerged macrophytes will have impaired NH 4 -N retention if plant biomass is reduced because of reduced contact times between NH 4 -N molecules and reactive sites. In these conditions water resource managers should utilise riparian shading in concert with unshaded vegetated reaches to achieve a balance between enhanced in-stream habitat and nutrient processing capacity

  13. River water quality modelling: II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shanahan, P.; Henze, Mogens; Koncsos, L.


    The U.S. EPA QUAL2E model is currently the standard for river water quality modelling. While QUAL2E is adequate for the regulatory situation for which it was developed (the U.S. wasteload allocation process), there is a need for a more comprehensive framework for research and teaching. Moreover......, QUAL2E and similar models do not address a number of practical problems such as stormwater-flow events, nonpoint source pollution, and transient streamflow. Limitations in model formulation affect the ability to close mass balances, to represent sessile bacteria and other benthic processes......, and to achieve robust model calibration. Mass balance problems arise from failure to account for mass in the sediment as well as in the water column and due to the fundamental imprecision of BOD as a state variable. (C) 1998 IAWQ Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  14. Combined and synergistic effects of climate change and urbanization on water quality in the Wolf Bay watershed, southern Alabama. (United States)

    Wang, Ruoyu; Kalin, Latif


    This study investigated potential changes in flow, total suspended solid (TSS) and nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorous) loadings under future climate change, land use/cover (LULC) change and combined change scenarios in the Wolf Bay watershed, southern Alabama, USA. Four Global Circulation Models (GCMs) under three Special Report Emission Scenarios (SRES) of greenhouse gas were used to assess the future climate change (2016-2040). Three projected LULC maps (2030) were employed to reflect different extents of urbanization in future. The individual, combined and synergistic impacts of LULC and climate change on water quantity/quality were analyzed by the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Under the "climate change only" scenario, monthly distribution and projected variation of TSS are expected to follow a pattern similar to streamflow. Nutrients are influenced both by flow and management practices. The variation of Total Nitrogen (TN) and Total Phosphorous (TP) generally follow the flow trend as well. No evident difference in the N:P ratio was projected. Under the "LULC change only" scenario, TN was projected to decrease, mainly due to the shrinkage of croplands. TP will increase in fall and winter. The N:P ratio shows a strong decreasing potential. Under the "combined change" scenario, LULC and climate change effect were considered simultaneously. Results indicate that if future loadings are expected to increase/decrease under any individual scenario, then the combined change will intensify that trend. Conversely, if their effects are in opposite directions, an offsetting effect occurs. Science-based management practices are needed to reduce nutrient loadings to the Bay. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Effects of Dredging and Lanthanum-Modified Clay on Water Quality Variables in an Enclosure Study in a Hypertrophic Pond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miquel Lürling Guido Waajen


    Full Text Available An enclosure experiment was conducted between July and September 2009 to compare the effectiveness of a phosphate fixative, the lanthanum-modified bentonite clay Phoslock® (LMB, dredging, and their combination in controlling eutrophication in a hypertrophic urban pond in Heesch, The Netherlands. In total, 25 water quality variables were monitored. Multivariate analysis revealed that the combination LMB-treated and dredged enclosures deviated most from the pond (reference and the controls, and showed the strongest eutrophication reduction. Overall, dredging significantly increased transparency, lowered turbidity, and improved the oxygen conditions in the enclosures compared to non-dredged ones. Nonetheless, one dredged enclosure deviated dramatically from the others, which might reflect methodological issues with dredging. The LMB treatment appeared to be less effective at mitigating eutrophication than dredging, and phosphate concentrations even increased during the experiment in the LMB-treated enclosures. Chemical equilibrium modeling suggested that humic substances could have formed complexes with lanthanum (La from the LMB, rendering it unavailable for intercepting P over the course of the enclosure experiment. Residual lanthanum concentrations in combination dredging and LMB treatments exceeded the Dutch standard 10-fold. Total zooplankton abundance, and particularly Cladocera, increased in all enclosures over the course of the experiment. The limited effect of LMB in the enclosure experiment and the violation of the Dutch La standard when combined with dredging disqualify LMB as an intervention agent in the restoration of the pond.

  16. Effects of Hydrologic Restoration on the Residence Times and Water Quality of a Coastal Wetland in the Florida Everglades (United States)

    Sandoval, E.; Price, R. M.; Melesse, A. M.; Whitman, D.


    The Everglades, located in southern Florida, is a dominantly freshwater coastal wetland ecosystem that has experienced many alterations and changes led by urbanization and water management practices with most cases resulting in decreased water flow across the system. The Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan, passed in 2000, has the final goal of restoring natural flow and clean water to the Everglades while also balancing flood control and water supply needs of the south Florida population with approximately 60 projects to be constructed and completed in the following 30 years. One way to assess the success of restoration projects is to observe long-term hydrological and geochemical changes as the projects undergo completion. The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of restoration on the water balance, flushing time, and water chemistry of Taylor Slough; one of the main natural waterways located within the coastal Everglades. A water balance equation was used to solve for groundwater-surface water exchange. The major parameters for the water balance equation (precipitation, evapotranspiration (ET), surface water storage, inflow and outflow) were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey and Everglades National Park databases via the Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN). Watershed flushing times were estimated as the surface water volume divided by the total outputs from the watershed. Both the water balance equation and water flushing time were calculated on a monthly time step from 2001 - 2011. Water chemistry of major ions and Total Nitrogen (TN) and Total Phosphorus (TP) was analyzed on water samples, 3-day composites collected every 18 hours from 2008 - 2012, and correlated with water flushing times. Stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen of water samples were obtained to support the dominant inputs of water into Taylor Slough as identified by the water budget equation. Results for flushing times varied between 3 and 78 days, with

  17. Water Quality of Hills Water, Supply Water and RO Water Machine at Ulu Yam Selangor (United States)

    Ngadiman, N.; ‘I Bahari, N.; Kaamin, M.; Hamid, N. B.; Mokhtar, M.; Sahat, S.


    The rapid development resulted in the deterioration of the quality of drinking water in Malaysia. Recognizing the importance of water quality, new alternatives for drinking water such as mineral water processing from reverse osmosis (RO) machine become more popular. Hence, the demand for mineral water, natural spring water or water from the hills or mountains rose lately. More consumers believed the quality of these spring water better than other source of drinking water. However, the quality of all the drinking water sources is to meet the required quality standard. Therefore, this paper aims to measure the quality of the waters from hills, from RO machine and the water supply in Ulu Yam, Selangor Batang Kali, Malaysia. The water quality was determined based on following parameters: ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3), iron (Fe), turbidity (NTU) and pH. The results show that the water from hills has better quality compared to water supply and water from RO machine. The value of NH3 ranged from 0.03 mg/L- 0.67 mg/L; Fe was from 0.03mg/L - 0.12 mg/L, turbidity at 0.42 NTU - 0.88 NTU and pH is at 6.60 - 0.71. Based on the studied parameters, all three types of water are fit for drinking and have met the required national drinking water quality standard.

  18. Water quality assessment of bioenergy production (United States)

    Rocio Diaz-Chavez; Goran Berndes; Dan Neary; Andre Elia Neto; Mamadou Fall


    Water quality is a measurement of the biological, chemical, and physical characteristics of water against certain standards set to ensure ecological and/or human health. Biomass production and conversion to fuels and electricity can impact water quality in lakes, rivers, and aquifers with consequences for aquatic ecosystem health and also human water uses. Depending on...

  19. Automated monitoring of recovered water quality (United States)

    Misselhorn, J. E.; Hartung, W. H.; Witz, S. W.


    Laboratory prototype water quality monitoring system provides automatic system for online monitoring of chemical, physical, and bacteriological properties of recovered water and for signaling malfunction in water recovery system. Monitor incorporates whenever possible commercially available sensors suitably modified.

  20. Evaluating the effectiveness of management practices on hydrology and water quality at watershed scale with a rainfall-runoff model. (United States)

    Liu, Yaoze; Bralts, Vincent F; Engel, Bernard A


    The adverse influence of urban development on hydrology and water quality can be reduced by applying best management practices (BMPs) and low impact development (LID) practices. This study applied green roof, rain barrel/cistern, bioretention system, porous pavement, permeable patio, grass strip, grassed swale, wetland channel, retention pond, detention basin, and wetland basin, on Crooked Creek watershed. The model was calibrated and validated for annual runoff volume. A framework for simulating BMPs and LID practices at watershed scales was created, and the impacts of BMPs and LID practices on water quantity and water quality were evaluated with the Long-Term Hydrologic Impact Assessment-Low Impact Development 2.1 (L-THIA-LID 2.1) model for 16 scenarios. The various levels and combinations of BMPs/LID practices reduced runoff volume by 0 to 26.47%, Total Nitrogen (TN) by 0.30 to 34.20%, Total Phosphorus (TP) by 0.27 to 47.41%, Total Suspended Solids (TSS) by 0.33 to 53.59%, Lead (Pb) by 0.30 to 60.98%, Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) by 0 to 26.70%, and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) by 0 to 27.52%. The implementation of grass strips in 25% of the watershed where this practice could be applied was the most cost-efficient scenario, with cost per unit reduction of $1m3/yr for runoff, while cost for reductions of two pollutants of concern was $445 kg/yr for Total Nitrogen (TN) and $4871 kg/yr for Total Phosphorous (TP). The scenario with very high levels of BMP and LID practice adoption (scenario 15) reduced runoff volume and pollutant loads from 26.47% to 60.98%, and provided the greatest reduction in runoff volume and pollutant loads among all scenarios. However, this scenario was not as cost-efficient as most other scenarios. The L-THIA-LID 2.1 model is a valid tool that can be applied to various locations to help identify cost effective BMP/LID practice plans at watershed scales. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Environmental Setting and Effects on Water Quality in the Great and Little Miami River Basins, Ohio and Indiana (United States)

    Debrewer, Linda M.; Rowe, Gary L.; Reutter, David C.; Moore, Rhett C.; Hambrook, Julie A.; Baker, Nancy T.


    The Great and Little Miami River Basins drain approximately 7,354 square miles in southwestern Ohio and southeastern Indiana and are included in the more than 50 major river basins and aquifer systems selected for water-quality assessment as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Principal streams include the Great and Little Miami Rivers in Ohio and the Whitewater River in Indiana. The Great and Little Miami River Basins are almost entirely within the Till Plains section of the Central Lowland physiographic province and have a humid continental climate, characterized by well-defined summer and winter seasons. With the exception of a few areas near the Ohio River, Pleistocene glacial deposits, which are predominantly till, overlie lower Paleozoic limestone, dolomite, and shale bedrock. The principal aquifer is a complex buried-valley system of sand and gravel aquifers capable of supporting sustained well yields exceeding 1,000 gallons per min-ute. Designated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as a sole-source aquifer, the Buried-Valley Aquifer System is the principal source of drinking water for 1.6 million people in the basins and is the dominant source of water for southwestern Ohio. Water use in the Great and Little Miami River Basins averaged 745 million gallons per day in 1995. Of this amount, 48 percent was supplied by surface water (including the Ohio River) and 52 percent was supplied by ground water. Land-use and waste-management practices influence the quality of water found in streams and aquifers in the Great and Little Miami River Basins. Land use is approximately 79 percent agriculture, 13 percent urban (residential, industrial, and commercial), and 7 percent forest. An estimated 2.8 million people live in the Great and Little Miami River Basins; major urban areas include Cincinnati and Dayton, Ohio. Fertilizers and pesticides associated with agricultural activity, discharges from municipal and

  2. Effect of Cold-Water Irrigation on Grain Quality Traits in japonica Rice Varieties from Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-zhen ZHAO


    Full Text Available The response of grain quality traits to cold-water irrigation and its correlation with cold tolerance were studied in 11 japonica rice varieties from Yunnan Province, China. The results indicated that the response of grain quality traits to the cold-water stress varied with rice varieties and grain quality traits. Under the cold-water stress, grain width, chalky rice rate, whiteness, 1000-grain weight, brown rice rate, taste meter value, peak viscosity, trough viscosity, breakdown viscosity and final viscosity significantly decreased, whereas grain length-width ratio, head rice rate, alkali digestion value, protein content and setback viscosity markedly increased. However, the other traits such as grain length, amylose content, milled rice rate, peak viscosity time and pasting temperature were not significantly affected by the cold-water stress. Significant correlations were discovered between phenotypic acceptability and cold response indices of taste meter value, protein content, peak viscosity and breakdown viscosity. Therefore, it would be very important to improve the cold tolerance of Yunnan rice varieties in order to stabilize and improve their eating quality.

  3. Cost-effective solutions for water quality improvement in the Dommel river supported by sewer-WWTP-river integrated modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benedetti, L.; Langeveld, J.; Nieuwenhuijzen, van A.F.; Jonge, de J.; Weijers, S.; Klein, de J.J.M.; Nopens, I.; Flameling, T.; Zanten, van O.


    This project aims at finding cost-efficient sets of measures to meet the Water Framework Directive (WFD) derived goals for the Dommel River (The Netherlands). Within the project, both acute and long-term impacts of the urban wastewater system on the chemical and ecological quality of the river are

  4. The effect of carbohydrate addition on water quality and the nitrogen budget in extensive shrimp culture systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hari, B.; Kurup, B.M.; Varghese, J.T.; Schrama, J.W.; Verdegem, M.C.J.


    Water quality and shrimp production were monitored in extensively managed ponds which were fed a 25% (P25) or 40% (P40) dietary protein, each diet complemented with or without carbohydrate (CH) addition. The experiment was carried out in 6-m3 concrete tanks, with a mud bottom and stocked with 7 post

  5. Effect-based trigger values for in vitro and in vivo bioassays performed on surface water extracts supporting the environmental quality standards (EQS) of the European Water Framework Directive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escher, Beate I.; Aїt-Aїssa, Selim; Behnisch, Peter A.; Brack, Werner; Brion, François; Brouwer, Abraham; Buchinger, Sebastian; Crawford, Sarah E.; Du Pasquier, David; Hamers, Timo; Hettwer, Karina; Hilscherová, Klára; Hollert, Henner; Kase, Robert; Kienle, Cornelia; Tindall, Andrew J.; Tuerk, Jochen; van der Oost, Ron; Vermeirssen, Etienne; Neale, Peta A.

    Effect-based methods including cell-based bioassays, reporter gene assays and whole-organism assays have been applied for decades in water quality monitoring and testing of enriched solid-phase extracts. There is no common EU-wide agreement on what level of bioassay response in water extracts is

  6. Effects of coconut granular activated carbon pretreatment on membrane filtration in a gravitational driven process to improve drinking water quality. (United States)

    da Silva, Flávia Vieira; Yamaguchi, Natália Ueda; Lovato, Gilselaine Afonso; da Silva, Fernando Alves; Reis, Miria Hespanhol Miranda; de Amorim, Maria Teresa Pessoa Sousa; Tavares, Célia Regina Granhen; Bergamasco, Rosângela


    This study evaluates the performance of a polymeric microfiltration membrane, as well as its combination with a coconut granular activated carbon (GAC) pretreatment, in a gravitational filtration module, to improve the quality of water destined to human consumption. The proposed membrane and adsorbent were thoroughly characterized using instrumental techniques, such as contact angle, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses. The applied processes (membrane and GAC + membrane) were evaluated regarding permeate flux, fouling percentage, pH and removal of Escherichia coli, colour, turbidity and free chlorine. The obtained results for filtrations with and without GAC pretreatment were similar in terms of water quality. GAC pretreatment ensured higher chlorine removals, as well as higher initial permeate fluxes. This system, applying GAC as a pretreatment and a gravitational driven membrane filtration, could be considered as an alternative point-of-use treatment for water destined for human consumption.

  7. Effect of the spatiotemporal variability of rainfall inputs in water quality integrated catchment modelling for dissolved oxygen concentrations (United States)

    Moreno Ródenas, Antonio Manuel; Cecinati, Francesca; ten Veldhuis, Marie-Claire; Langeveld, Jeroen; Clemens, Francois


    Maintaining water quality standards in highly urbanised hydrological catchments is a worldwide challenge. Water management authorities struggle to cope with changing climate and an increase in pollution pressures. Water quality modelling has been used as a decision support tool for investment and regulatory developments. This approach led to the development of integrated catchment models (ICM), which account for the link between the urban/rural hydrology and the in-river pollutant dynamics. In the modelled system, rainfall triggers the drainage systems of urban areas scattered along a river. When flow exceeds the sewer infrastructure capacity, untreated wastewater enters the natural system by combined sewer overflows. This results in a degradation of the river water quality, depending on the magnitude of the emission and river conditions. Thus, being capable of representing these dynamics in the modelling process is key for a correct assessment of the water quality. In many urbanised hydrological systems the distances between draining sewer infrastructures go beyond the de-correlation length of rainfall processes, especially, for convective summer storms. Hence, spatial and temporal scales of selected rainfall inputs are expected to affect water quality dynamics. The objective of this work is to evaluate how the use of rainfall data from different sources and with different space-time characteristics affects modelled output concentrations of dissolved oxygen in a simplified ICM. The study area is located at the Dommel, a relatively small and sensitive river flowing through the city of Eindhoven (The Netherlands). This river stretch receives the discharge of the 750,000 p.e. WWTP of Eindhoven and from over 200 combined sewer overflows scattered along its length. A pseudo-distributed water quality model has been developed in WEST (; this is a lumped-physically based model that accounts for urban drainage processes, WWTP and river dynamics for several

  8. Effects of mining activities on evolution of water quality of karst waters in Midwestern Guizhou, China: evidences from hydrochemistry and isotopic composition. (United States)

    Li, Xuexian; Wu, Pan; Han, Zhiwei; Zha, Xuefang; Ye, Huijun; Qin, Yingji


    Zhijin coal-mining district, located in Midwestern Guizhou Province, has been extensively exploited for several decades. The discharge of acid mine drainage (AMD) has constituted a serious threat to local water environmental quality, which greatly affected the normal use of local people. The Permian limestone aquifer is the essential potable water supply for local people, which covered under the widely distributed coal seams. To investigate the origin of the water, the evolutionary processes, and the sources of dissolved sulfate in the karst waters, the mine water, surface water, and groundwater near the coal mines were sampled for stable isotopes (H, O, and S) and conventional hydrochemical analysis. The results of hydrochemistry and isotopic composition indicate that the regional surface water and partial karst groundwater are obviously affected by coal-mining activities, which is mainly manifested in the increase of water solute concentration and the change of hydrochemical types. The isotopic composition of δ 2 H H2O and δ 18 O H2O indicates that the major recharge source of surface water and the groundwater is atmospheric precipitation and that it is influenced obviously by evaporation in the recharge process. The surface water is mainly controlled by the oxidation of pyrite, as well as the dissolution of carbonate rocks, whereas that of natural karst waters is influenced by the dissolution of carbonate rocks. The resulting δ 34 S SO4 values suggest that the dissolved sulfate source in the surface water is mainly pyrite oxidation but atmospheric precipitation for the karst groundwater. Given the similar chemistry and isotopic composition between surface water and partial groundwater, it is reasonable to assume that most of the dissolved sulfate source in part of the groundwater was derived through the oxidation of pyrite in the coal. Furthermore, the contamination of the surface water and partial groundwater from the coal seam has occurred distinctly in the

  9. Land use change and conversion effects on ground water quality trends: An integration of land change modeler in GIS and a new Ground Water Quality Index developed by fuzzy multi-criteria group decision-making models. (United States)

    Shooshtarian, Mohammad Reza; Dehghani, Mansooreh; Margherita, Ferrante; Gea, Oliveri Conti; Mortezazadeh, Shima


    This study aggregated Land Change Modeller (LCM) as a useful model in GIS with an extended Groundwater Quality Index (GWQI) developed by fuzzy Multi-Criteria Group Decision-Making models to investigate the effect of land use change and conversion on groundwater quality being supplied for drinking. The model's performance was examined through an applied study in Shiraz, Iran, in a five year period (2011 to 2015). Four land use maps including urban, industrial, garden, and bare were employed in LCM model and the impact of change in area and their conversion to each other on GWQI changes was analysed. The correlation analysis indicated that increase in the urban land use area and conversion of bare to the residential/industrial land uses, had a relation with water quality decrease. Integration of LCM and GWQI can accurately and logically provide a numerical analysis of the possible impact of land use change and conversion, as one of the influencing factors, on the groundwater quality. Hence, the methodology could be used in urban development planning and management in macro level. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Sustainable River Water Quality Management in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Al-Mamun


    Full Text Available Ecological status of Malaysia is not as bad as many other developing nations in the world. However, despite the enforcement of the Environmental Quality Act (EQA in 1974, the water quality of Malaysian inland water (especially rivers is following deteriorating trend. The rivers are mainly polluted due to the point and non-point pollution sources. Point sources are monitored and controlled by the Department of Environment (DOE, whereas a significant amount of pollutants is contributed by untreated sullage and storm runoff. Nevertheless, it is not too late to take some bold steps for the effective control of non-point source pollution and untreated sullage discharge, which play significant roles on the status of the rivers. This paper reviews the existing procedures and guidelines related to protection of the river water quality in Malaysia.  There is a good possibility that the sewage and effluent discharge limits in the Environmental Quality Act (EQA may pose hindrance against achieving good quality water in the rivers as required by the National Water Quality Standards (NWQS. For instance, Ammoniacal Nitrogen (NH3-N is identified as one of the main pollutants to render many of the rivers polluted but it was not considered in the EQA as a monitoring parameter until the new regulations published in 2009.  Surprisingly, the new regulation for sewage and industrial effluent limits set allowable NH3-N concentration quite high (5 mg/L, which may result in low Water Quality Index (WQI values for the river water. The water environment is a dynamic system. Periodical review of the monitoring requirements, detecting emerging pollutants in sewage, effluent and runoff, and proper revision of water quality standards are necessary for the management of sustainable water resources in the country. ABSTRAK: Satus ekologi Malaysia tidak seburuk kebanyakan negara membangun lain di dunia. Walaupun Akta Kualiti Alam Sekitar (EQA dikuatkuasakan pada tahun 1974

  11. Temporal variability in groundwater and surface water quality in humid agricultural catchments; Driving processes and consequences for regional water quality monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozemeijer, Joachim; Van Der Velde, Ype


    Considering the large temporal variability in surface water quality is essential for adequate water quality policy and management. Neglecting these dynamics may easily lead to decreased effectiveness of measures to improve water quality and to inefficient water quality monitoring. The objective of

  12. Temporal variability in groundwater and surface water quality in humid agricultural catchments; driving processes and consequences for regional water quality monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozemeijer, J.; Velde, van der Y.


    Considering the large temporal variability in surface water quality is essential for adequate water quality policy and management. Neglecting these dynamics may easily lead to decreased effectiveness of measures to improve water quality and to inefficient water quality monitoring. The objective of

  13. Water quality issues in southern Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajayi, O.


    There is a keen awareness of the effects of water quality on human health and behaviour in developing countries arising from well documented cases which can be found in the literature. Also in Nigeria there are various concerns about incidents of toxic waste disposal, groundwater pollution through oil spillages, waste disposal practices by agricultural, domestic and industrial activities which affect the domestic water supplies and the environment. The aims of this paper are to highlight the role of water quality in human health; provide a framework for water related health assessment, present results of case studies and recommend appropriate strategies to safeguard human health from contaminated water sources. Major health problems, other than those due to micro-biological contamination of water sources, such as cholera and typhoid, have not been reported or linked to water supplies in Nigeria. Yet there are symptoms of and growing incidences of various diseases, such as psychopathic and neurological disorders which have been linked to contaminated water supplies in developed countries. The major, minor and trace concentrations of elements in water supplies in Nigeria are usually determined in the ppm range whereas most trace elements are hazardous to human health in the ppb or μg/l levels. The reason for this state of affairs is that the instrumentation required for determination of elemental concentrations at the ppb level is not readily available to researchers. Most reports on water quality do not provide any links to the major health problems which have been demonstrated elsewhere as responsible for major pathologic and neurologic disorders, including outright fatalities. Recent studies in Europe and Japan link several diseases, including kidney failure, mood disturbance and other neurologic disorders, heart, liver and kidney damage including death from eating poisonous fish caught in polluted waters, to contamination of water supplies by heavy metals in

  14. Groundwater quality data from the National Water-Quality Assessment Project, May 2012 through December 2013 (United States)

    Arnold, Terri L.; Desimone, Leslie A.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Lindsey, Bruce D.; Barlow, Jeannie R.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Musgrove, MaryLynn; Kingsbury, James A.; Belitz, Kenneth


    Groundwater-quality data were collected from 748 wells as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Project of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Program from May 2012 through December 2013. The data were collected from four types of well networks: principal aquifer study networks, which assess the quality of groundwater used for public water supply; land-use study networks, which assess land-use effects on shallow groundwater quality; major aquifer study networks, which assess the quality of groundwater used for domestic supply; and enhanced trends networks, which evaluate the time scales during which groundwater quality changes. Groundwater samples were analyzed for a large number of water-quality indicators and constituents, including major ions, nutrients, trace elements, volatile organic compounds, pesticides, and radionuclides. These groundwater quality data are tabulated in this report. Quality-control samples also were collected; data from blank and replicate quality-control samples are included in this report.



    Vinod Jena; Satish Dixit; Ravi ShrivastavaSapana Gupta; Sapana Gupta


    Water quality index (WQI) is a dimensionless number that combines multiple water quality factors into a single number by normalizing values to subjective rating curves. Conventionally it has been used for evaluating the quality of water for water resources suchas rivers, streams and lakes, etc. The present work is aimed at assessing the Water Quality Index (W.Q.I) ofpond water and the impact of human activities on it. Physicochemical parameters were monitored for the calculation of W.Q.I for ...

  16. Effect of UV-C radiation and hot water on the calcium content and postharvest quality of apples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemmaty, S.; Moallemi, N.; Naseri, L.


    To increase the storage shelf life of 'Red Delicious' and 'Golden Delicious' apples they were treated with UV-C irradiation at doses of 0, 5 and 15 min irradiation at 1.435 x 10 -4 W/square cm - and with hot water containing 4% CaCl 2 at four levels (control, dipping at 25 deg C for 10 min, dipping at 38 deg C for 5 min and dipping in 54 deg C for 1 min) in a factorial design with 4 replicates. The results showed that UV-C irradiation and dipping of fruit in hot water increased the storage life and improved fruit quality factors in 'Red Delicious' and 'Golden Delicious' apples at the end of cold storage. Both UV-C and hot water treatments decreased pH and total soluble solids/titratable acids ratio and increased fruit titratable acids and firmness. UV-C and hot water treatment increased fruit Ca content during storage. The results showed that UV-C and hot water treatment can retard fruit ripening and maintain fruit quality in cold storage. These treatments can also increase Ca concentration of fruit flesh and thus increase the nutritional value of the apples. (author) [es

  17. On the complex non-linear interaction between bacteria and redox dynamics in sediments and its effects on water quality (United States)

    Sanchez-Vila, X.; Rubol, S.; Fernandez-Garcia, D.


    Despite the fact that the prognoses on the availability of resources related to different climate scenarios have been already formulated, the complex hydrological and biogeochemical reactions taking place in different compartments in natural environmental media are poorly understood, especially regarding the interactions between water bodies, and the reactions taking place at soil-water interfaces. Amongst them, the inter-relationship between hydrology, chemistry and biology has important implications in natural (rivers, lakes) and man-made water facilities (lagoons, artificial recharge pounds, reservoirs, slow infiltration systems, etc). The consequences involve environment, economic, social and health-risk aspects. At the current stage, only limited explanations are available to understand the implications of these relationships on ecosystem services, water quality and water quantity. Therefore, there is an urgent need to seek a full understanding of these physical-biogeochemical processes in water-bodies, sediments and biota and its implications in ecological and health risk. We present a soil column experiment and a mathematical model which aim to study the mutual interplay between water and bacteria activity in porous media, the corresponding dynamics and the feedback on nutrient cycling by using a multidisciplinary approach.

  18. Guide to federal water quality programs and information: A guide with computer software developed by the interagency work group on water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The publication makes key Federal information on water quality available to environmental analysts. The Guide includes information on (1) underlying demographic pressures; (2) the use of land, water, and resources; (3) pollutant loadings; (4) ambient water quality; (5) other effects of water pollution; and (6) a listing of programs established to preserve, protect and restore water quality


    A suite of biological and ecological responses of a Valued Ecosystem Component species, Crassostrea virginica, was used to investigate ecosystem-wide health effects of watershed alterations in the Caloosahatchee River estuary, Florida. The influence of water quality and season on...

  20. SIMONI (smart integrated monitoring) as a novel bioanalytical strategy for water quality assessment : Part i–model design and effect-based trigger values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Oost, Ron; Sileno, Giulia; Suárez-Muñoz, Maria; Nguyen, Mai Thao; Besselink, Harrie; Brouwer, Abraham


    It is virtually impossible to reliably assess water quality with target chemical analyses only. Therefore, a complementary effect-based risk assessment by bioanalyses on mixtures of bioavailable micropollutants is proposed: the Smart Integrated Monitoring (SIMONI) strategy. The goal of this strategy


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Taş


    Full Text Available High yield cultivars with quite high resistance against pests and diseases, irrigation water salinity and deficit irrigation conditions are significant in plant production activities. Researches have been conducted also to improve the resistance of available cultivars. Since 1990s, researchers have tried to use low quality irrigation waters just because of deficit water resources and current trends in global warming and climate change. The basic target in all these researches is to reduce production costs and to improve quality and yields. Availability of low quality irrigation waters is a basic component of sustainable agricultural production. The present study was conducted in 40 liter pots under greenhouse conditions. Grafted and non-grafted eggplant seedlings were planted into these pots. Then, plants were irrigated with irrigations waters with different salinity levels (0.25, 1, 1.5, 2, 4, 6, 10 and 15 dS/m and boron concentrations (0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 and 64 ppm. In this way, effects of different irrigation water qualities on plant morphological characteristics were investigated.

  2. Evaluation of Ravi river water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, K.; Ali, W.


    Investigation from 1989 to 1998 on river Ravi pollution was carried out to study the effects of wastewater discharges on its water quality in relation to its various water use. The sources of pollution entering the river between Syphon (20 Km upstream) and Balloki Head works (75 Km downstream) includes Upper Chenab Canal (U.C.) which bring industrial effluents through Deg municipal swage from the city of Lahore. Investigation revealed that the flow in the river are highly variable with time during the year U.C. canal with a capacity of 220 m/sup 3//S at the tail and Qadiarabad (Q.B.) Link canal with a capacity of 410 m3/S are mainly responsible for higher flows during dry season. A desecrating trend has been observed in the D.O. Levels indicating increasing pollution. Over times D.O values are above 4 mg/l indicating recovery due to dilution biodegradation and aeration. An increasing trend has been observed in Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), suspended solids, total dissolved solids and indicator organisms. Even with the discharges of pollutions from U.C. canal, Hudiara Nullah and city sewage, BOD at Balloki was unexpectedly low. It was investigated that because of pollution free Q.B. link canal which joins the river just before Balloki Head works makes the water diluted, which accounted for low BOD. Water of river Ravi meet the chemical water quality requirement for irrigation. However the water quality does not meet the coliform and faecal coliform criteria for most water use. (orig../A.B.)

  3. Examining the effects of hurricanes Matthew and Irma on water quality in the intracoastal waterway, St. Augustine, FL. (United States)

    Ward, N. D.; Osborne, T.; Dye, T.; Julian, P.


    The last several years have been marked by a high incidence of Atlantic tropical cyclones making landfall as powerful hurricanes or tropical storms. For example, in 2016 Hurricane Matthew devastated parts of the Caribbean and the southeastern United States. In 2017, this region was further battered by hurricanes Irma and Maria. Here, we present water quality data collected in the intracoastal waterway near the Whitney Lab for Marine Bioscience during hurricanes Matthew and Irma, a region that experienced flooding during both storms. YSI Exo 2 sondes were deployed to measure pH, salinity, temperature, dissolved O2, fluorescent dissolved organic matter (fDOM), turbidity, and Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) on a 15 minute interval. The Hurricane Matthew sonde deployment failed as soon as the storm hit, but revealed an interesting phenomenon leading up to the storm that was also observed during Irma. Salinity in the intracoastal waterway (off the Whitney Lab dock) typically varies from purely marine to 15-20 psu throughout the tidal cycle. However, several days before both storms approached the Florida coast (i.e. when they were near the Caribbean), the salinity signal became purely marine, overriding any tidal signal. Anecdotally, storm drains were already filled up to street level prior to the storm hitting, poising the region for immense flooding and storm surge. The opposite effect was observed after Irma moved past FL. Water became much fresher than normal for several days and it took almost a week to return to "normal" salinity tidal cycles. As both storms hit, turbidity increased by an order of magnitude for a several hour period. fDOM and O2 behaved similar to salinity during and after Irma, showing a mostly marine signal (e.g. higher O2, lower fDOM) in the lead up, and brief switch to more freshwater influence the week after the storm. Chl-a peaked several days after the storm, presumably due to mobilization of nutrient rich flood and waste waters and subsequent algae

  4. Effects of residential wastewater treatment systems on ground-water quality in west-central Jefferson County, Colorado (United States)

    Hall, Dennis C.; Hillier, D.E.; Nickum, Edward; Dorrance, W.G.


    The use of residential wastewater-treatment systems in Evergreen Meadows, Marshdale, and Herzman Mesa, Colo., has degraded ground-water quality to some extent in each community. Age of community; average lot size; slope of land surface; composition, permeability, and thickness of surficial material; density, size , and orientation of fractures; maintenance of wastewater-treatment systems; and presence of animals are factors possibly contributing to the degradation of ground-water quality. When compared with effluent from aeration-treatment tanks, effluent fom septic-treatment tanks is characterized by greater biochemical oxygen demand and greater concentrations of detergents. When compared with effluent from septic-treatment tanks, effluent from aeration-treatment tanks is characterized by greater concentrations of dissolved oxygen, nitrite, nitrate, sulfate, and dissolved solids. (USGS)

  5. Effect of water quality on the composition of fish communities in three coastal rivers of Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunkumar Shetty


    Full Text Available The fish assemblage and diversity in relation to water quality of three coastal rivers Sita, Swarna and Varahi of Udupi district, Karnataka, India was studied. 71 species representing 7 orders, 20 families and 41 genera were recorded from 21 sites along the three rivers. Species composition varied longitudinally in relation to the environmental factors of the habitat. The downstream change in the three rivers indicates that fish assemblage changed with increasing loss of riparian canopy cover and increasing agricultural land-use. The richness and abundance of fishes were correlated with land-use type, canopy cover, pH and turbidity. Diversion of water, discharge of domestic sewage and agricultural runoff were prominent among the disturbances that alter the habitat quality.

  6. Seasonal variations of ground water quality and its agglomerates by water quality index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sharma


    Full Text Available Water is a unique natural resource among all sources available on earth. It plays an important role in economic development and the general well-being of the country. This study aimed at using the application of water quality index in evaluating the ground water quality innorth-east area of Jaipur in pre and post monsoon for public usage. Total eleven physico–chemical characteristics; total dissolved solids, total hardness,chloride, nitrate, electrical conductance, sodium, fluorideand potassium, pH, turbidity, temperature were analyzed and observed values were compared with standard values recommended by Indian standard and World Health Organization. Most of parameter show higher value than permissible limit in pre and post monsoon. Water quality index study showed that drinking water in Amer (221.58,277.70, Lalawas (362.74,396.67, Jaisinghpura area (286.00,273.78 were found to be highly contaminated due to high value of total dissolved solids, electrical conductance, total hardness, chloride, nitrate and sodium.Saipura (122.52, 131.00, Naila (120.25, 239.86, Galta (160.9, 204.1 were found to be moderately contaminated for both monsoons. People dependent on this water may prone to health hazard. Therefore some effective measures are urgently required to enhance the quality of water in these areas.

  7. Seasonal variations of ground water quality and its agglomerates by water quality index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S.; Chhipa, R.C.


    Water is a unique natural resource among all sources available on earth. It plays an important role in economic development and the general well-being of the country. This study aimed at using the application of water quality index in evaluating the ground water quality in north-east area of Jaipur in pre and post monsoon for public usage. Total eleven physico–chemical characteristics; total dissolved solids, total hardness,chloride, nitrate, electrical conductance, sodium, fluoride and potassium, p H, turbidity, temperature) were analyzed and observed values were compared with standard values recommended by Indian standard and World Health Organization. Most of parameter show higher value than permissible limit in pre and post monsoon. Water quality index study showed that drinking water in Amer (221.58,277.70), Lalawas (362.74,396.67), Jaisinghpura area (286.00, 273.78) were found to be highly contaminated due to high value of total dissolved solids, electrical conductance, total hardness, chloride, nitrate and sodium. Saipura (122.52, 131.00), Naila (120.25, 239.86), Galta (160.9, 204.1) were found to be moderately contaminated for both monsoons. People dependent on this water may prone to health hazard. Therefore some effective measures are urgently required to enhance the quality of water in these areas.

  8. Water quality of small seasonal wetlands in the Piedmont ecoregion, South Carolina, USA: Effects of land use and hydrological connectivity. (United States)

    Yu, Xubiao; Hawley-Howard, Joanna; Pitt, Amber L; Wang, Jun-Jian; Baldwin, Robert F; Chow, Alex T


    Small, shallow, seasonal wetlands with short hydroperiod (2-4 months) play an important role in the entrapment of organic matter and nutrients and, due to their wide distribution, in determining the water quality of watersheds. In order to explain the temporal, spatial and compositional variation of water quality of seasonal wetlands, we collected water quality data from forty seasonal wetlands in the lower Blue Ridge and upper Piedmont ecoregions of South Carolina, USA during the wet season of February to April 2011. Results indicated that the surficial hydrological connectivity and surrounding land-use were two key factors controlling variation in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) in these seasonal wetlands. In the sites without obvious land use changes (average developed area land use changes. The connected wetlands in more urbanized areas (average developed area = 12.3%) showed higher concentrations of dissolved organic matter (DOM) (DOC: 11.76 ± 6.09 mg L(-1), TDN: 0.74 ± 0.22 mg L(-1), mean ± standard error) compared to those in isolated wetlands (DOC: 7.20 ± 0.62 mg L(-1), TDN: 0.20 ± 0.08 mg L(-1)). The optical parameters derived from UV and fluorescence also confirmed significant portions of protein-like fractions likely originating from land use changes such as wastewater treatment and livestock pastures. The average of C/N molar ratios of all the wetlands decreased from 77.82 ± 6.72 (mean ± standard error) in February to 15.14 ± 1.58 in April, indicating that the decomposition of organic matter increased with the temperature. Results of this study demonstrate that the water quality of small, seasonal wetlands has a direct and close association with the surrounding environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Ground-water development and the effects on ground-water levels and water quality in the town of Atherton, San Mateo County, California (United States)

    Metzger, Loren F.; Fio, John L.


    The installation of at least 100 residential wells in the town of Atherton, California, during the 198792 drought has raised concerns about the increased potential for land subsidence and salt water intrusion. Data were collected and monitor ing networks were established to assess current processes and to monitor future conditions affect ing these processes. Data include recorded pump age, recorded operation time, and measured pumpage rates from 38 wells; water levels from 49 wells; water chemistry samples from 20 wells, and land-surface elevation data from 22 survey sites, including one National Geodetic Survey estab lished bench mark. Geologic, lithologic, climato logic, well construction, well location, and historical information obtained from available reports and local, state, and Federal agencies were used in this assessment. Estimates of annual residential pumpage from 269 assumed active residential wells in the study area indicate that the average annual total pumping rate is between 395 and 570 acre-feet per year. The nine assumed active institutional wells are estimated to pump a total of about 200 acre- feet per year, or 35 to 50 percent of the total resi dential pumpage. Assuming that 510 acre-feet per year is the best estimate of annual residential pumpage, total pumpage of 710 acre-feet per year would represent about 19 percent of the study area's total water supply, as estimated. Depth-to-water-level measurements in wells during April 1993 through September 1995 typically ranged from less than 20 feet below land surface nearest to San Francisco Bay to more than 70 feet below land surface in upslope areas near exposed bedrock, depending on the season. This range, which is relatively high historically, is attributed to above normal rainfall between 1993 and 1995. Water levels expressed as hydraulic heads indicate the presence of three different hydrologic subareas on the basis of hydraulic-head contour configurations and flow direction. That all

  10. Water Quality Evaluation of Spring Waters in Nsukka, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water qualities of springs in their natural state are supposed to be clean and potable. Although, water quality is not a static condition it depends on the local geology and ecosystem, as well as human activities such as sewage dispersion, industrial pollution, use of water bodies as a heat sink, and overuse. The activities on ...

  11. A Bayesian approach for evaluation of the effect of water quality model parameter uncertainty on TMDLs: A case study of Miyun Reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Shidong; Jia, Haifeng; Xu, Changqing; Xu, Te; Melching, Charles


    Facing increasingly serious water pollution, the Chinese government is changing the environmental management strategy from solely pollutant concentration control to a Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) program, and water quality models are increasingly being applied to determine the allowable pollutant load in the TMDL. Despite the frequent use of models, few studies have focused on how parameter uncertainty in water quality models affect the allowable pollutant loads in the TMDL program, particularly for complicated and high-dimension water quality models. Uncertainty analysis for such models is limited by time-consuming simulation and high-dimensionality and nonlinearity in parameter spaces. In this study, an allowable pollutant load calculation platform was established using the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC), which is a widely applied hydrodynamic-water quality model. A Bayesian approach, i.e. the DiffeRential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (DREAM) algorithm, which is a high-efficiency, multi-chain Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method, was applied to assess the effects of parameter uncertainty on the water quality model simulations and its influence on the allowable pollutant load calculation in the TMDL program. Miyun Reservoir, which is the most important surface drinking water source for Beijing, suffers from eutrophication and was selected as a case study. The relations between pollutant loads and water quality indicators are obtained through a graphical method in the simulation platform. Ranges of allowable pollutant loads were obtained according to the results of parameter uncertainty analysis, i.e. Total Organic Carbon (TOC): 581.5–1030.6 t·yr"−"1; Total Phosphorus (TP): 23.3–31.0 t·yr"−"1; and Total Nitrogen (TN): 480–1918.0 t·yr"−"1. The wide ranges of allowable pollutant loads reveal the importance of parameter uncertainty analysis in a TMDL program for allowable pollutant load calculation and margin of safety (MOS

  12. Land use effects on quality and quantity aspects of water resources in headwater areas of the Jaguari River Basin (United States)

    Figueiredo, R. D. O.; Camargo, P. B. D.; Piccolo, M. C.; Zuccari, M. L.; Ferracini, V. L.; Cruz, P. P. N. D.; Green, T. R.; Costa, C. F. G. D.; Reis, L. D. C.


    In the context of the recent drought conditions in southeastern Brazil, EMBRAPA (Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation) in partnership with two Brazilian universities (USP/CENA and UNIFAL) planned a research project, called BaCaJa, to understand the hydrobiogeochemistry processes that occur in small catchments (management of water resources in this region. Sampling stations were established on rivers and streams ranging from one to five order channels as well as selected small catchments to conduct studies on overland flow, soil solution, soil quality, aquatic biota and pesticide dynamic. The research team is huge and their goals are specific, diverse and complementary, being summed up as: characterize land use, topography and soils; evaluate erosive potential in agriculture areas; measure soil carbon and nitrogen contents; characterize hydrogeochemistry fluxes; apply hydrological modeling and simulate different land use and management scenarios; monitor possible pesticides contamination; and survey macro invertebrates as indicators of water quality. Based on a synthesis of the results, the project team intends to point out the environmental impacts and contribute recommendations of management for the focused region to conserve water resources in terms of quality and quantity.

  13. Unintended consequences of biofuels production?The effects of large-scale crop conversion on water quality and quantity (United States)

    Welch, Heather L.; Green, Christopher T.; Rebich, Richard A.; Barlow, Jeannie R.B.; Hicks, Matthew B.


    In the search for renewable fuel alternatives, biofuels have gained strong political momentum. In the last decade, extensive mandates, policies, and subsidies have been adopted to foster the development of a biofuels industry in the United States. The Biofuels Initiative in the Mississippi Delta resulted in a 47-percent decrease in cotton acreage with a concurrent 288-percent increase in corn acreage in 2007. Because corn uses 80 percent more water for irrigation than cotton, and more nitrogen fertilizer is recommended for corn cultivation than for cotton, this widespread shift in crop type has implications for water quantity and water quality in the Delta. Increased water use for corn is accelerating water-level declines in the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer at a time when conservation is being encouraged because of concerns about sustainability of the groundwater resource. Results from a mathematical model calibrated to existing conditions in the Delta indicate that increased fertilizer application on corn also likely will increase the extent of nitrate-nitrogen movement into the alluvial aquifer. Preliminary estimates based on surface-water modeling results indicate that higher application rates of nitrogen increase the nitrogen exported from the Yazoo River Basin to the Mississippi River by about 7 percent. Thus, the shift from cotton to corn may further contribute to hypoxic (low dissolved oxygen) conditions in the Gulf of Mexico.

  14. Future scenarios of urbanization and its effects on water quantity and quality in three New England watersheds (United States)

    Hutyra, L.; Yang, Y.; Kim, J.; Cheng, C.; O'Brien, P.; Rouhani, S.; Douglas, E. M.; Nicolson, C.; Ryan, R.; Schaaf, C.; Warren, P.; Wollheim, W. M.


    New England watersheds have been impacted by human development and environmental stressors that are similar to those projected to impact large portions of the United States and the world. These impacts are likely to continue as some parts of the region are projected to lose over 60% of private forestland to development by 2030. Such dramatic changes have important consequences for water quality and quantity. Because of the complex and varied interactions between human and natural systems, simply understanding the processes affecting current and historical conditions in urbanizing watersheds is inadequate to model the future. Understanding future hydrologic conditions is made more difficult because of the uncertainties inherent in projecting future climate conditions. One approach to handling this complexity is to use scenarios to explore a range of potential futures following contrasting trajectories of change. Here we describe how four scenarios of land use change were developed using a stakeholder driven process. We then began using the scenarios in hydrological models to estimate future changes in water quality and quantity. The study area includes three watersheds (the Charles, Neponset and Ipswich) that have undergone varying degrees of urbanization in the greater Boston area of Massachusetts in the northeastern United States. The Charles and Neponset River watersheds are densely populated and include the city of Boston itself. Municipal water supplies in these two watersheds are mostly from the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority (MWRA) sources in western Massachusetts. The Ipswich River watershed is highly suburban, and communities are largely dependent on local water supplies. If the historical urbanization trends continue, the impervious area in the Charles River watershed is projected to increase by 13%, 16% in Neponset River watershed, and 24% in Ipswich River watershed by 2030. For the Charles River watershed, analyses identified hot spots for

  15. Water quality and MTBE water pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buiatti, M.; Mascini, M.; Monanni, R.; Filipponi, M.; Piangoloni, A.; Mancini, G.


    The research project, here presented, was defined with the aim of evaluating the eventual presence of MTBE and the possible relative impact in water destined to human use; the territorial valence of the project was extended to the competence region n. 4 of the Tuscany water authority (AATO n. 4). University of Florence, ARPAT, AATO n. 4 and Nuove Acque SpA, in this role of manager for the integrated water cycle in the country, have productively contributed to the project [it

  16. Water-based aerobic and combined training in elderly women: Effects on functional capacity and quality of life. (United States)

    Silva, Mariana Ribeiro; Alberton, Cristine Lima; Portella, Elisa Gouvêa; Nunes, Gabriela Neves; Martin, Daniela Gomez; Pinto, Stephanie Santana


    This study aimed to investigate the effects of two water-based training programs (aerobic and combined) and a non-periodized physical activity program on functional capacity and quality of life (QoL) of elderly women. Forty-one elderly female volunteers (65 ± 4 years) were divided into three groups: aerobic training group (WBA, n = 13), combined training (sequence: resistance/aerobic; WBC; n = 11) and a control group of non-periodized physical activity program (CG, n = 9). The participants performed the water-based trainings twice a week for 12 weeks. The resistance training sets were performed at maximal effort and the aerobic training was performed in the percentage of the heart rate corresponding to the anaerobic threshold (85-110%) determined in an aquatic progressive test. Assessments of QoL perception (WHOQOL-BREF) and functional tests 30-Second Chair Stand, 6-Minute Walk and 8-Foot Up-and-go were performed before and after training. The data were analyzed using Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE), and Bonferroni post-hoc test (α = 0.05). In CG, QoL perception in the physical domain decreased (12 ± 10%) and there was no difference in the other domains. On the other hand, QoL perception was significantly increased in the water-based training groups after the training period in the physical (WBC: 13 ± 16%), psychological (WBA: 9 ± 16%; WBC: 10 ± 11%), social relationships (WBA: 19 ± 42%; WBC: 16 ± 21%) and environmental (WBA: 10 ± 17%; WBC: 16 ± 28%) domains and overall QoL (WBA: 17 ± 22%). No significant difference was observed in the physical domain for WBA and in the overall for WBC. Significant improvements were observed for all groups in the functional tests 30-Second Chair Stand (WBA: 32 ± 11%; WBC: 24 ± 14%; CG: 20 ± 9), 6-Minute Walk (WBA: 10 ± 7%; WBC: 7 ± 6%; CG: 7 ± 5%) and 8-Foot Up-and-go (WBA: 11 ± 5%; WBC: 10 ± 9%; CG: 10 ± 6

  17. Management of drinking water quality in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, A.A.


    Drinking water quality in both urban and rural areas of Pakistan is not being managed properly. Results of various investigations provide evidence that most of the drinking water supplies are faecally contaminated. At places groundwater quality is deteriorating due to the naturally occurring subsoil contaminants, or by anthropogenic activities. The poor bacteriological quality of drinking water has frequently resulted in high incidence of water borne diseases while subsoil contaminants have caused other ailments to consumers. This paper presents a detailed review of drinking water quality in the country and the consequent health impacts. It identifies various factors contributing to poor water quality and proposes key actions required to ensure safe drinking water supplies to consumers. (author)

  18. Effect of multiple freeze-thaw cycles on the quality of instant sea cucumber: Emphatically on water status of by LF-NMR and MRI. (United States)

    Tan, Mingqian; Lin, Zhuyi; Zu, Yinxue; Zhu, Beiwei; Cheng, Shasha


    Instant sea cucumber has become one popular product due to its convenience to eat, favourable taste and minimal loss of nutrients and bioactive components. However, there was rare information about the water dynamic of instant sea cucumber subjected to multiple freeze-thaw cycles. In this study, low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) and magnetic resonance image (MRI) were employed to investigate the effect of freeze-thaw cycles on water status of instant sea cucumber. Four water populations corresponding to strongly bound water, weakly bound water, immobile water and free water were observed in instant sea cucumber. With the increase of freeze-thaw cycles, the transverse relaxation time of immobile and free water increased, while the peak area of free water decreased significantly. MRI enabled the visualization of water migration of instant sea cucumber during multiple freeze-thaw cycles. Multiple freeze-thaw cycles also led to significant changes of other quality properties including thawing loss, WHC, color parameters, texture and protein content, and enlarge the interspace between fiber network in microstructure. Good correlations between T 22 , A 22 , A 23 and thaw loss, WHC, L*, hardness and collagen content (0.873 ≤ r ≤ 0.958) revealed LF-NMR may be an effective real-time monitoring method of these physicochemical parameters as a non-destructive technique. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Water Quality Protection from Nutrient Pollution: Case ... (United States)

    Water bodies and coastal areas around the world are threatened by increases in upstream sediment and nutrient loads, which influence drinking water sources, aquatic species, and other ecologic functions and services of streams, lakes, and coastal water bodies. For example, increased nutrient fluxes from the Mississippi River Basin have been linked to increased occurrences of seasonal hypoxia in northern Gulf of Mexico. Lake Erie is another example where in the summer of 2014 nutrients, nutrients, particularly phosphorus, washed from fertilized farms, cattle feedlots, and leaky septic systems; caused a severe algae bloom, much of it poisonous; and resulted in the loss of drinking water for a half-million residents. Our current management strategies for point and non-point source nutrient loadings need to be improved to protect and meet the expected increased future demands of water for consumption, recreation, and ecological integrity. This presentation introduces management practices being implemented and their effectiveness in reducing nutrient loss from agricultural fields, a case analysis of nutrient pollution of the Grand Lake St. Marys and possible remedies, and ongoing work on watershed modeling to improve our understanding on nutrient loss and water quality. Presented at the 3rd International Conference on Water Resource and Environment.

  20. Effects of Highway Road Salting on the Water Quality of Selected Streams in Chittenden County, Vermont, November 2005-2007 (United States)

    Denner, Jon C.; Clark, Stewart F.; Smith, Thor E.; Medalie, Laura


    A study of road-deicing chloride (Cl) concentrations and loads was conducted at three streams in Chittenden County, VT, from November 2005 to 2007. This study was done by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Vermont Agency of Transportation. The streams, Alder Brook, Allen Brook, and Mill Brook, were selected to represent different land uses in the upstream watershed, different road types and densities, and different geometric patterns of the roadway draining to the receiving stream to assess the relative contribution of and differences in state road-salt applications to stream Cl concentrations and loads. Water-quality samples were collected and specific conductance was measured continuously at paired stations upstream and downstream from State highways and related to Cl concentrations to assist in determining the effects of road-salting operations during winter maintenance on the levels of Cl in the streams. Mean concentrations of Cl ranged from 8.2 to 72 mg/L (milligrams per liter) in the water-quality samples collected at sampling stations upstream from State highway bridges and from 7.9 to 80 mg/L in those collected at sampling stations downstream of highway bridges. Mean Cl loads ranged from 1,100 to 4,090 lb/d (pounds per day) at upstream stations and from 1,110 to 4,200 lb/d at downstream stations. Estimated mean annual Cl loads ranged from 402,000 to 1,490,000 lb/yr (pounds per year) at upstream stations and from 405,000 to 1,530,000 lb/yr at downstream stations. Mean Cl concentrations in samples collected at the three paired stations were lowest at Mill Brook at VT 117 near Essex Junction, VT (7.9 mg/L) and highest at Allen Brook at VT 2A near Essex Junction, VT (80.7 mg/L). None of the monitored Cl concentrations in the water-quality samples collected at the three paired sampling stations exceeded either of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) recommended chronic and acute Cl toxicity criteria of 230 and 860 mg

  1. Effects of land disposal of municipal sewage sludge on soil, streambed sediment, and ground- and surface-water quality at a site near Denver, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaggiani, N.G.


    The report describes the effects of burial and land application of municipal sewage sludge on soil and streambed sediment and water quality in the underlying aquifers and surface water within and around the Lowry sewage-sludge-disposal area. The existing ground-water observation-well network at the disposal area was expanded for the study. Surface-water-sampling sites were selected so that runoff could be sampled from intense rainstorms or snowmelt. The sampling frequency for ground-water and surface-water runoff was changed from yearly to quarterly, and soil samples were collected. Four years of data were collected from 1984 to 1987 during the expanded monitoring program at the Lowry sewage-sludge-disposal area. These data, in addition to the data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from 1981 to 1983, were used to determine effects of sewage-sludge-disposal on soil and streambed sediment and surface- and ground-water quality at the disposal area.

  2. Capacity of biochar application to maintain energy crop productivity: soil chemistry, sorghum growth, and runoff water quality effects. (United States)

    Schnell, Ronnie W; Vietor, Donald M; Provin, Tony L; Munster, Clyde L; Capareda, Sergio


    Pyrolysis of crop biomass generates a by-product, biochar, which can be recycled to sustain nutrient and organic C concentrations in biomass production fields. We evaluated effects of biochar rate and application method on soil properties, nutrient balance, biomass production, and water quality. Three replications of eight sorghum [ (L.) Moench] treatments were installed in box lysimeters under greenhouse conditions. Treatments comprised increasing rates (0, 1.5, and 3.0 Mg ha) of topdressed or incorporated biochar supplemented with N fertilizer or N, P, and K fertilizer. Simulated rain was applied at 21 and 34 d after planting, and mass runoff loss of N, P, and K was measured. A mass balance of total N, P, and K was performed after 45 d. Returning 3.0 Mg ha of biochar did not affect sorghum biomass, soil total, or Mehlich-3-extractable nutrients compared to control soil. Yet, biochar contributed to increased concentration of dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) and mass loss of total phosphorus (TP) in simulated runoff, especially if topdressed. It was estimated that up to 20% of TP in topdressed biochar was lost in surface runoff after two rain events. Poor recovery of nutrients during pyrolysis and excessive runoff loss of nutrients for topdressed biochar, especially K, resulted in negative nutrient balances. Efforts to conserve nutrients during pyrolysis and incorporation of biochar at rates derived from annual biomass yields will be necessary for biochar use in sustainable energy crop production. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  3. Water Quality Management of Beijing in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    At present, Beijing's water resources are insufficient and will become the limiting factor for sustainable development for the city in the near future. Although efforts have been made to control pollution, water quality degradation has occurred in some of the important surface water supplies, aggravating the water resource shortage. At present, approximately three quarters of the city's wastewater is discharged untreated into the urban river system, resulting in serious pollution and negatively influencing the urban landscape and quality of daily life. To counteract these measures, the city has implemented a comprehensive "Water Quality Management Plan" for the region, encompassing water pollution control, prevention of water body degradation, and improved water quality.The construction of municipal wastewater treatment plants is recognised as fundamental to controlling water pollution, and full secondary treatment is planned to be in place by the year 2015. Significant work is also required to expand the service area of the municipal sewage system and to upgrade and renovate the older sewer systems. The limitation on available water resources has also seen the emphasis shift to low water using industries and improved water conservation. Whilst industrial output has increased steadily over the past 10-15 years at around 10% per annum, industrial water usage has remained relatively constant. Part of the city's water quality management plan has been to introduce a strict discharge permit system, encouraging many industries to install on-site treatment facilities.

  4. Effects of peatland drainage on water quality: a case study of the shallow blanket bogs of Exmoor, UK (United States)

    Grand-Clement, E.; Luscombe, D.; Le Feuvre, N.; Smith, D.; Anderson, K.; Brazier, R. E.


    Peatlands are widely represented in the South West of England (i.e. Exmoor, Dartmoor and Bodmin moors), but their existence is currently under threat due to both climate change and the impact of historical human activities. Peat cutting and intensive drainage for agricultural reclamation in the 19th and 20th century, have modified the hydrological behaviour of these shallow peats and dried out the upper layers, causing oxidation, erosion and vegetation change. Such anthropogenic impacts directly affect the storage of carbon, but also the provision of other ecosystem services, such as the supply of drinking water, and the support of specific and rare habitats. Blocking drainage ditches to restore the hydrological behaviour of peatlands has mostly been undertaken in the North of England, but to date, little is still known about the consequences of such management approaches on the overall Carbon stocks. The need to monitor restoration of peatlands in the South West of England arises due to the specific characteristics of the peat - it is often shallower than more northerly peat and dominated by Purple Moor Grass. In addition, and in part because of the shallowness of the resource, the peat has been damaged differently, often with very dense networks of hand-cut ditches which behave as highly efficient drainage networks. Most importantly, their location at the southernmost margin of the UK peatlands' geographical extent makes them extremely vulnerable to climate change, and so it is hypothesised that monitoring of these peatlands may provide an 'early warning system' for climatic impacts that affect more northerly sites in years to come. This study focuses upon the current impact of peatland degradation on water quality on Exmoor. Our experimental approach employs detailed, high resolution monitoring of selected ditches that are representative of damaged conditions on Exmoor, from small- (30 x 30cm ditches) through medium- (50x50cm), large- (1-2m ditches) and finally

  5. Disentangling the Effects of Water Stress on Carbon Acquisition, Vegetative Growth, and Fruit Quality of Peach Trees by Means of the QualiTree Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Rahmati


    Full Text Available Climate change projections predict warmer and drier conditions. In general, moderate to severe water stress reduce plant vegetative growth and leaf photosynthesis. However, vegetative and reproductive growths show different sensitivities to water deficit. In fruit trees, water restrictions may have serious implications not only on tree growth and yield, but also on fruit quality, which might be improved. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to understand the complex interrelations among the physiological processes involved in within-tree carbon acquisition and allocation, water uptake and transpiration, organ growth, and fruit composition when affected by water stress. This can be studied using process-based models of plant functioning, which allow assessing the sensitivity of various physiological processes to water deficit and their relative impact on vegetative growth and fruit quality. In the current study, an existing fruit-tree model (QualiTree was adapted for describing the water stress effects on peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch vegetative growth, fruit size and composition. First, an energy balance calculation at the fruit-bearing shoot level and a water transfer formalization within the plant were integrated into the model. Next, a reduction function of vegetative growth according to tree water status was added to QualiTree. Then, the model was parameterized and calibrated for a late-maturing peach cultivar (“Elberta” under semi-arid conditions, and for three different irrigation practices. Simulated vegetative and fruit growth variability over time was consistent with observed data. Sugar concentrations in fruit flesh were well simulated. Finally, QualiTree allowed for determining the relative importance of photosynthesis and vegetative growth reduction on carbon acquisition, plant growth and fruit quality under water constrains. According to simulations, water deficit impacted vegetative growth first through a direct effect on

  6. Disentangling the Effects of Water Stress on Carbon Acquisition, Vegetative Growth, and Fruit Quality of Peach Trees by Means of the QualiTree Model. (United States)

    Rahmati, Mitra; Mirás-Avalos, José M; Valsesia, Pierre; Lescourret, Françoise; Génard, Michel; Davarynejad, Gholam H; Bannayan, Mohammad; Azizi, Majid; Vercambre, Gilles


    Climate change projections predict warmer and drier conditions. In general, moderate to severe water stress reduce plant vegetative growth and leaf photosynthesis. However, vegetative and reproductive growths show different sensitivities to water deficit. In fruit trees, water restrictions may have serious implications not only on tree growth and yield, but also on fruit quality, which might be improved. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to understand the complex interrelations among the physiological processes involved in within-tree carbon acquisition and allocation, water uptake and transpiration, organ growth, and fruit composition when affected by water stress. This can be studied using process-based models of plant functioning, which allow assessing the sensitivity of various physiological processes to water deficit and their relative impact on vegetative growth and fruit quality. In the current study, an existing fruit-tree model (QualiTree) was adapted for describing the water stress effects on peach ( Prunus persica L. Batsch) vegetative growth, fruit size and composition. First, an energy balance calculation at the fruit-bearing shoot level and a water transfer formalization within the plant were integrated into the model. Next, a reduction function of vegetative growth according to tree water status was added to QualiTree. Then, the model was parameterized and calibrated for a late-maturing peach cultivar ("Elberta") under semi-arid conditions, and for three different irrigation practices. Simulated vegetative and fruit growth variability over time was consistent with observed data. Sugar concentrations in fruit flesh were well simulated. Finally, QualiTree allowed for determining the relative importance of photosynthesis and vegetative growth reduction on carbon acquisition, plant growth and fruit quality under water constrains. According to simulations, water deficit impacted vegetative growth first through a direct effect on its sink strength

  7. Monitoring Water Quality in the Future, Volume 3: Biomonitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart D de; ECO


    In general terms the problems with the existing water quality monitoring approach concern effective and efficient monitoring strategies. In 1993 the project "Monitoring water quality in the future" started in order to address these problems which will only increase in the future. In the framework of

  8. Water-quality impact assessment for hydropower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniil, E.I.; Gulliver, J.; Thene, J.R.


    A methodology to assess the impact of a hydropower facility on downstream water quality is described. Negative impacts can result from the substitution of discharges aerated over a spillway with minimally aerated turbine discharges that are often withdrawn from lower reservoir levels, where dissolved oxygen (DO) is typically low. Three case studies illustrate the proposed method and problems that can be encountered. Historic data are used to establish the probability of low-dissolved-oxygen occurrences. Synoptic surveys, combined with downstream monitoring, give an overall picture of the water-quality dynamics in the river and the reservoir. Spillway aeration is determined through measurements and adjusted for temperature. Theoretical computations of selective withdrawal are sensitive to boundary conditions, such as the location of the outlet-relative to the reservoir bottom, but withdrawal from the different layers is estimated from measured upstream and downstream temperatures and dissolved-oxygen profiles. Based on field measurements, the downstream water quality under hydropower operation is predicted. Improving selective withdrawal characteristics or diverting part of the flow over the spillway provided cost-effective mitigation solutions for small hydropower facilities (less than 15 MW) because of the low capital investment required

  9. Heavy Water Quality Management in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ho Chul; Lee, Mun; Kim, Hi Gon; Park, Chan Young; Choi, Ho Young; Hur, Soon Ock; Ahn, Guk Hoon


    Heavy water quality management in the reflector tank is a very important element to maintain the good thermal neutron flux and to ensure the performance of reflector cooling system. This report is written to provide a guidance for the future by describing the history of the heavy water quality management during HANARO operation. The heavy water quality in the reflector tank has been managed by measuring the electrical conductivity at the inlet and outlet of the ion exchanger and by measuring pH of the heavy water. In this report, the heavy water quality management activities performed in HANARO from 1996 to 2007 ere described including a basic theory of the heavy water quality management, exchanging history of used resin in the reflector cooling system, measurement data of the pH and the electrical conductivity, and operation history of the reflector cooling system.

  10. Effects of selected low-impact-development (LID) techniques on water quality and quantity in the Ipswich River Basin, Massachusetts-Field and modeling studies (United States)

    Zimmerman, Marc J.; Barbaro, Jeffrey R.; Sorenson, Jason R.; Waldron, Marcus C.


    During the months of August and September, flows in the Ipswich River, Massachusetts, dramatically decrease largely due to groundwater withdrawals needed to meet increased residential and commercial water demands. In the summer, rates of groundwater recharge are lower than during the rest of the year, and water demands are higher. From 2005 to 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey, in a cooperative funding agreement with the Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation, monitored small-scale installations of low-impact-development (LID) enhancements designed to diminish the effects of storm runoff on the quantity and quality of surface water and groundwater. Funding for the studies also was contributed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Targeted Watersheds Grant Program through a financial assistance agreement with Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation. The monitoring studies examined the effects of (1) replacing an impervious parking lot surface with a porous surface on groundwater quality, (2) installing rain gardens and porous pavement in a neighborhood of 3 acres on the quantity and quality of stormwater runoff, and (3) installing a 3,000-square foot (ft2) green roof on the quantity and quality of stormwater runoff. In addition, the effects of broad-scale implementation of LID techniques, reduced water withdrawals, and water-conservation measures on streamflow in large areas of the basin were simulated using the U.S. Geological Survey's Ipswich River Basin model. From June 2005 to 2007, groundwater quality was monitored at the Silver Lake town beach parking lot in Wilmington, MA, prior to and following the replacement of the conventional, impervious-asphalt surface with a porous surface consisting primarily of porous asphalt and porous pavers. Changes in the concentrations of the water-quality constituents, phosphorus, nitrogen, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, zinc, and total petroleum hydrocarbons, were monitored

  11. The assessment of khorramabad River water quality with National Sanitation Foundation Water Quality Index and Zoning by GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    abdolrahim Yusefzadeh


    Full Text Available Background : Rivers are a fraction of flowing waters in the worlds and one of the important sources of water for different consumptions such as agricultural, drinking and industrial uses. The aim of this study was to assess water quality of the Khorramrood River in Khorramabad by NSFWQI index. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, quality parameters needed for NASWQI index calculation such as BOD5, dissolved oxygen (DO, total nitrate, fecal coliform, pH, total phosphate, temperature, turbidity and total suspended solids content were measured for six months (from July to December 2012using standard methods at six selected stations. The river zoning conducted by GIS software. Results: According to the results obtained through this study, the highest and the lowest water quality value was observed in stations 1 and 6 with NSFWQI indexes 82 water with good quality, 42 water with bad quality, respectively. With moving toward last station (from 1 to 6 station water pollution increased. Conclusion: Results of the study indicated that water quality index NSFWQI is a good index to identify the effect of polluter sources on the river water. Based on the average of the index NSFWQI, water quality in station one was good, in the second, third and fourth stations were mediocre and the fifth and sixth stations had bad quality. These results allow to make decisions about monitoring and controlling water pollution sources, as well as provide different efficient uses of it by relevant authorities.

  12. Potential impacts of changing supply-water quality on drinking water distribution: A review. (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Zhang, Ya; Knibbe, Willem-Jan; Feng, Cuijie; Liu, Wentso; Medema, Gertjan; van der Meer, Walter


    Driven by the development of water purification technologies and water quality regulations, the use of better source water and/or upgraded water treatment processes to improve drinking water quality have become common practices worldwide. However, even though these elements lead to improved water quality, the water quality may be impacted during its distribution through piped networks due to the processes such as pipe material release, biofilm formation and detachment, accumulation and resuspension of loose deposits. Irregular changes in supply-water quality may cause physiochemical and microbiological de-stabilization of pipe material, biofilms and loose deposits in the distribution system that have been established over decades and may harbor components that cause health or esthetical issues (brown water). Even though it is clearly relevant to customers' health (e.g., recent Flint water crisis), until now, switching of supply-water quality is done without any systematic evaluation. This article reviews the contaminants that develop in the water distribution system and their characteristics, as well as the possible transition effects during the switching of treated water quality by destabilization and the release of pipe material and contaminants into the water and the subsequent risks. At the end of this article, a framework is proposed for the evaluation of potential transition effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of 2002 Water Year and Historical Water-Quality Data, Upper Gunnison River Basin, Colorado (United States)

    Spahr, N.E.


    Introduction: Population growth and changes in land-use practices have the potential to affect water quality and quantity in the upper Gunnison River basin. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with local sponsors, City of Gunnison, Colorado River Water Conservation District, Crested Butte South Metropolitan District, Gunnison County, Mount Crested Butte Water and Sanitation District, National Park Service, Town of Crested Butte, and Upper Gunnison River Water Conservancy District, established a water-quality monitoring program in the upper Gunnison River basin to characterize current water-quality conditions and to assess the effects of increased urban development and other land-use changes on water quality. The monitoring network has evolved into two groups of stations, stations that are considered as long term and stations that are rotational. The long-term stations are monitored to assist in defining temporal changes in water quality (how conditions have changed over time). The rotational stations are monitored to assist in the spatial definition of water-quality conditions (how conditions differ throughout the basin) and to address local and short term concerns. Another group of stations (rotational group 2) will be chosen and sampled beginning in water year 2004. Annual summaries of the water-quality data from the monitoring network provide a point of reference for discussions regarding water-quality sampling in the upper Gunnison River basin. This summary includes data collected during water year 2002. The introduction provides a map of the sampling locations, definitions of terms, and a one-page summary of selected water-quality conditions at the network stations. The remainder of the summary is organized around the data collected at individual stations. Data collected during water year 2002 are compared to historical data (data collected for this network since 1995), state water-quality standards, and federal water-quality guidelines

  14. Regeneration of Mature Norway Spruce Stands: Early Effects of Selective Cutting and Clear Cutting on Seepage Water Quality and Soil Fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendelin Weis


    Full Text Available The cutting of trees influences element turnover in the forest ecosystem. The reduction of plant uptake, as well as an increased mineralization and nitrification due to higher soil temperature and soil moisture, can lead to considerable losses of nutrients from the main rooting zone. This may result in a reduced soil fertility and a decrease in drinking water quality due to high nitrate concentrations in the seepage water. In Bavaria (Germany selective cutting is preferred to clear cutting when initiating the regeneration of Norway spruce stands with European beech. This paper summarizes the early effects of both forest management practices on soil fertility and seepage water quality for three different sites. Shown are the concentrations of nitrogen and base cations in the seepage water as well as the water and ion fluxes during the first year after tree cut. Nutrient inputs decreased on thinned plots and even more at clear-cuts. Nitrate concentrations in the seepage water are hardly affected by moderate thinning; however, on clear-cuts, the nitrate concentration increases significantly, and base cations are lost from the upper mineral soil. This effect is less obvious at sites where a dense ground vegetation, which is able to take up excess nitrogen, exists.

  15. Effects of two stormwater management methods on the quality of water in the upper Biscayne aquifer at two commercial areas in Dade County, Florida (United States)

    McKenzie, D.J.; Irwin, G.A.


    This study is part of a continued effort to assess the effects of urban stormwater recharge on the water quality of the Biscayne aquifer in southeast Florida. In this report, the water-quality effects on shallow ground water resulting from stormwater disposal by exfiltration trench and grassy swale were investigated at two small commercial areas in Dade County, Florida. One study area (airport ) was located near the Miami International Airport and had a drainage area of about 10 acres overlying a sandy soil; the other study area ( free zone ) was located at the Miami International Free Trade Zone and had a drainage area of about 20 acres overlying limestone. The monitoring design for each study area consisted of seven sites and included water-quality sampling of the stormwater in the catch basin of the exfiltration trench, ground water from two wells 1 foot from the trench (trench wells), two wells 20 feet from the trench, and ground water from two wells at the swale from April 1985 through May 1986. Eleven water-quality variables (target variables) commonly found in high levels in urban stormwater runoff were used as tracers to estimate possible changes in ground-water quality that may have been caused by stormwater recharge. Comparison of the distribution of target variables indicated that the concentrations tended to be greater in the stormwater in the exfiltration trench than in water from the two wells 1 foot from the trench at both study areas. The concentration difference for several target variables was statistically significant at the 5-percent level. Lead, for example, had median concentrations of 23 and 4 micrograms per liter, respectively, in stormwater and water from the two trench wells at the airport study area, and 38 and 2 micrograms per liter, respectively, in stormwater and groundwater at the free zone. Similar reductions in concentrations between stormwater and water from the two trench wells were indicated for zinc at both study areas and also

  16. Principles and Practices of Water Quality Monitoring (United States)

    J.L. Michael


    There are many activities in forest management that may affect water quality, i.e., timber harvestine, road building,mechanical and chemical site preparation, release operations, fuel reduction,wildlife opening maintenance, etc. How severely they affect water quality depends on how well the person in charge of the operation understands the activity itself, the...

  17. Bacteriological physicochemical quality of recreational water bodies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    logical quality, and there are no guidelines (standards) towards the safe use and quality control of recreational water. Under this circumstances, it is neither possible to know the gravity of the problem, nor simple to manage the possible health related risks that are associated with the use of recreational water bodies.

  18. 40 CFR 240.204 - Water quality. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality. 240.204 Section 240.204 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.204 Water quality. ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... downstream Obigbo station show: consistent time-trends in degree of contamination; linear and non-linear relationships for water quality models against total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended sediment (TSS), chloride, pH and sulphate; and non-linear relationship for streamflow and water quality transport models.

  20. Water quality evaluation of Al-Gharraf river by two water quality indices (United States)

    Ewaid, Salam Hussein


    Water quality of Al-Gharraf river, the largest branch of Tigris River south of Iraq, was evaluated by the National Sanitation Foundation Water Quality Index (NFS WQI) and the Heavy Metal Pollution Index (HPI) depending on 13 physical, chemical, and biological parameters of water quality measured monthly at ten stations on the river during 2015. The NSF-WQI range obtained for the sampling sites was 61-70 indicating a medium water quality. The HPI value was 98.6 slightly below the critical value for drinking water of 100, and the water quality in the upstream stations is better than downstream due to decrease in water and the accumulation of contaminants along the river. This study explains the significance of applying the water quality indices that show the aggregate impact of ecological factors in charge of water pollution of surface water and which permits translation of the monitoring data to assist the decision makers.

  1. Determination of surface and groundwater quality in the Orontes basin (Syria) and the negative effect of some pollutants on the water, soil, and plants at this area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassem, A.


    This work deals with the physical/chemical characteristics and quality of surface and ground water in the basin of the Orontes river in Syria. It also deals with concentration of basic elements and trace elements in water, soil and some plant leaves in that area. The internationally acknowledged methods were used to determine the physical constituents and to analyze elements of the most important basic and sub compounds in 95 water samples (77 ground samples and 18 surface samples). The instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis was used to analyze some major elements and trace elements in 18 soil samples and 9 plant leave samples. Evaluation of analysis results of those samples shows the great geo-ecological and geographic effect and the effect of human activities on polluting the water, soil and plants according to quality of irrigation water, effect of air, liquid and solid rejects of the industrial and municipal sites, nature and repetition of plantations and type of fertilizers and pesticides used in the studied area.(author)

  2. Impact of Yangtze river water transfer on the water quality of the Lixia river watershed, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxue Ma

    Full Text Available To improve water quality and reduce the negative impacts of sudden inputs of water pollution in the Lixia River watershed, China, a series of experimental water transfers from the Yangtze River to the Lixia River were conducted from 2 December 2006 to 7 January 2007. Water samples were collected every six days at 55 monitoring sites during this period. Eight water parameters (water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO, chemical oxygen demand (COD, potassium permanganate index (CODMn, ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N, electrical conductivity (EC, and water transparency (WT were analyzed to determine changes in nutrient concentrations during water transfers. The comprehensive pollution index (Pi and single-factor (Si evaluation methods were applied to evaluate spatio-temporal patterns of water quality during water transfers. Water quality parameters displayed different spatial and temporal distribution patterns within the watershed. Water quality was improved significantly by the water transfers, especially for sites closer to water intake points. The degree of improvement is positively related to rates of transfer inflow and drainage outflow. The effects differed for different water quality parameters at each site and at different water transfer times. There were notable decreases in NH4+-N, DO, COD, and CODMn across the entire watershed. However, positive effects on EC and pH were not observed. It is concluded that freshwater transfers from the Yangtze River can be used as an emergency measure to flush pollutants from the Lixia River watershed. Improved understanding of the effects of water transfers on water quality can help the development and implementation of effective strategies to improve water quality within this watershed.

  3. Setting water quality criteria for agricultural water reuse purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Müller


    Full Text Available The use of reclaimed water for agricultural irrigation is practiced worldwide and will increase in the future. The definition of water quality limits is a useful instrument for the assessment of water quality regarding its suitability for irrigation purposes and the performance of wastewater treatment steps. This study elaborates water quality objectives for a water reuse project in a setting where national guidelines do not exist. Internationally established guidelines are therefore applied to the local context. Additional limits for turbidity, total suspended solids, biochemical and chemical oxygen demand, total phosphorus and potassium are suggested to meet the requirements of water reuse projects. Emphasis is put on water quality requirements prior to UV disinfection and nutrient requirements of cultivated crops. The presented values can be of assistance when monitoring reclaimed water quality. To facilitate the realization of water reuse projects, comprehensive and more detailed information, in particular on water quality requirements prior to disinfection steps, should be provided as well as regarding the protection of the irrigation infrastructure.

  4. Final report for the IAEA urban aquifers RCA : determining the effects of storm water infiltration on groundwater quality in an urban fractured rock aquifer, Auckland, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, M.R.; Hong, Y.S.; Sheppard, D.; Roberts, K.; Viljevac, Z.; Smaill, A.; Reeves, R.R.


    Disposal of storm water in the Mt Eden-Mt Albert area of Auckland, New Zealand, is via ''soak holes'' drilled directly into the top of the fractured basalt. These soak holes receive storm water and sediment runoff from city streets throughout Mt Eden. Although this method of disposal has been used for at least 60 years, its sustainability with respect to groundwater quality has not been addressed. This study aimed to determine the impact of soakage on the chemical and isotopic composition of the groundwater. In addition, sediments captured by the soak holes were analysed to determine their effectiveness at trapping contaminants. Groundwater samples were collected between August 1998 and August 1999. Three sampling trips were carried out after rainfall events in October 1998, April 1999 and August 1999. Samples were analysed for major and trace components, including nutrients, dissolved and total heavy metals (As, Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, and Ni), polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and stable and radiogenic isotopes. Cores of sediment collected in the soak holes were analysed for major components, total and leachable heavy metals, and PAHs to determine the ability of the sediments to adsorp contaminants. In summary, the Mt Eden aquifer system shows the effect of storm water infiltration rapidly after a rainfall event in some parts of the aquifer. Water quality has been effected in some areas, but in general the water quality is quite good considering the quantity of storm water discharge that has occurred in the area for the past 60 years. The relatively high quality of the water in the wells monitored may be attributed to the ability of the accumulated sediment in the soak holes and the aquifer fractures to trap contaminants. Further research is needed to determine if continued use of the groundwater system as a conduit for storm water infiltration will lead to clogging of the fractures in the aquifer and/or transport of particulates

  5. Water quality, hydrology, and the effects of changes in phosphorus loading to Pike Lake, Washington County, Wisconsin, with special emphasis on inlet-to-outlet short-circuiting (United States)

    Rose, William J.; Robertson, Dale M.; Mergener, Elizabeth A.


    Pike Lake is a 459-acre, mesotrophic to eutrophic dimictic lake in southeastern Wisconsin. Because of concern over degrading water quality in the lake associated with further development in its watershed, a study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey from 1998 to 2000 to describe the water quality and hydrology of the lake, quantify sources of phosphorus including the effects of short-circuiting of inflows, and determine how changes in phosphorus loading should affect the water quality of the lake. Measuring all significant water and phosphorus sources and estimating lesser sources was the method used to construct detailed water and phosphorus budgets. The Rubicon River, ungaged near-lake surface inflow, precipitation, and ground water provide 55, 20, 17, and 7 percent of the total inflow, respectively. Water leaves the lake through the Rubicon River outlet (87 percent) or by evaporation (13 percent). Total input of phosphorus to the lake was about 3,500 pounds in 1999 and 2,400 pounds in 2000. About 80 percent of the phosphorus was from the Rubicon River, about half of which came from the watershed and half from a waste-water treatment plant in Slinger, Wisconsin. Inlet-to-outlet short-circuiting of phosphorus is facilitated by a meandering segment of the Rubicon River channel through a marsh at the north end of the lake. It is estimated that 77 percent of phosphorus from the Rubicon River in monitoring year 1999 and 65 percent in monitoring year 2000 was short-circuited to the outlet without entering the main body of the lake.

  6. Water quality of Cisadane River based on watershed segmentation (United States)

    Effendi, Hefni; Ayu Permatasari, Prita; Muslimah, Sri; Mursalin


    The growth of population and industrialization combined with land development along river cause water pollution and environmental deterioration. Cisadane River is one of the river in Indonesia where urbanization, industrialization, and agricultural are extremely main sources of pollution. Cisadane River is an interesting case for investigating the effect of land use to water quality and comparing water quality in every river segment. The main objectives with this study were to examine if there is a correlation between land use and water quality in Cisadane River and there is a difference in water quality between the upstream section of Cisadane River compared with its downstream section. This study compared water quality with land use condition in each segment of river. Land use classification showed that river segment that has more undeveloped area has better water quality compared to river segment with developed area. in general, BOD and COD values have increased from upstream to downstream. However, BOD and COD values do not show a steady increase in each segment Water quality is closely related to the surrounding land use.Therefore, it can not be concluded that the water quality downstream is worse than in the upstream area.

  7. Evaluate Effect of Water Stress and Different Amounts of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Seed Quality of Black Cumin (Nigella Sativa L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Heidari


    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of water stress and different levels of nitrogen fertilizer on grian yield and accumulation macronutrients included: nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium and micronutrient included: iron, zinc, manganese and copper, oil, protein and thymoquinone contents in seed of black cumin, a field experiment was conducted as split plot design with three replications at Agricultural Research Station, Zahak, Zabol during growing season of 2010-2011. Water stress treatments included: W1= control, W2= no irrigation at stem elongation stage to flowering, W3= irrigation at flowering stage until the beginning of grain filling and W4= no irrigation at flowering and grain filling as the main plots and four levels of nitrogen application fertilizer, including N1= control or without any fertilizer consumption, N2= 30 kg N/ha, N3= 60 kg N/ha and N4= 90 kg N/ha in sub plot. Results showed that water stress had significant effect on the grain yield and accumulation of macro and micronutrient in the seed of Black Cumin. Except for and iron, the highest amounts of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, manganese, copper and zinc and the lowest amount of grain yield were obtained at W4 treatment and manganese at W3 treatment. In this experiment the interaction effect between stress and nitrogen fertilizer except grain yield and potassium had significant impact on others elements. The results indicated that water stress at flowering and grain filling (W4 stages, the maximum amount of micro and macronutrients in seed was obtained at N1 and N2 nitrogen treatment. Also, water stress and nitrogen treatments increased the percentage of protein, oil and thymoquinone contents of seed, but during the onset of water stress and the use of nitrogen fertilizer, the highest percentage of protein in and thymoquinone were obtained in W4N4.

  8. Effects of different irrigation regimes on fruit production, oil quality, water use efficiency and agronomic nitrogen use efficiency of pumpkin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Hamzei


    Full Text Available Effect of different irrigation regimes and nitrogen fertilizer on percentage of grain fatty acids, yield, water and nitrogen use efficiency of pumpkin was studies as split plot based on complete randomized block design with three replications in growing season of 2013. Irrigation treatments (320, 420, 600 and 900 mm ha-1 were se as main plots and nitrogen fertilizer (0, 130, 260, 390 and 520 kg urea ha-1 were allocated in subplots. The effect of irrigation and nitrogen on all traits was significant. Also, interaction of irrigation × nitrogen had significant effect on all traits except WUE and NUE. The Highest values of linoleic fatty acid (33.99%, fruit yield (4.40 kg m-2, grain yield (1.53 kg m-2 and agronomic nitrogen use efficiency (32.27 kg fruit/kg urea were achieved at consumption of 600 mm water ha-1 and application of 390 kg urea ha-1. The highest water use efficiency for fruit and grain yield; 56.61 and 1.10 kg mm-1, were revealed at 600 mm irrigation water ha-1. Between nitrogen levels, maximum and minimum WUE for fruit and grain yield were achieved at 390 kg urea and non application of urea treatments, respectively. Also, maximum agronomic nitrogen efficiency belonged to 390 kg urea and minimum this trait with 33 reductions was revealed at 520 kg urea. Based on the results of this research and with considering of water and nitrogen use efficiency, irrigation of pumpkin plants with 600 mm water ha-1 and consumption of 390 kg urea ha-1 was identified as a suitable treatment.

  9. Water quality in okara and its suburbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, M.T.; Imtiaz, N.; Athar, M.


    Ground water samples (70), collected from Okara and its sburbs were studied. Thirty samples were collected from municipal supply of urban areas while forty from deep water pumps of non-urban areas. The samples were investigated for various physiochemical parameters. Outcome of the study is that ground water of municipal supply area is suitable for human consumption while the water quality of non supply area is slightly brackish to saline and nitrate content is high above the acceptable levels of drinking water quality. (author)

  10. Water- and sediment-quality effects on Pimephales promelas spawning vary along an agriculture-to-urban land-use gradient. (United States)

    Corsi, Steven R; Klaper, Rebecca D; Weber, Daniel N; Bannerman, Roger T


    Many streams in the U.S. are "impaired" due to anthropogenic influence. For watershed managers to achieve practical understanding of these impairments, a multitude of factors must be considered, including point and nonpoint-source influence on water quality. A spawning assay was developed in this study to evaluate water- and sediment-quality effects that influenced Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow) egg production over a gradient of urban and agricultural land use in 27 small watersheds in Eastern Wisconsin. Six pairs of reproducing fathead minnows were contained in separate mesh cartridges within one larger flow-through chamber. Water- and sediment quality were sampled for an array of parameters. Egg production was monitored for each pair providing an assessment of spawning success throughout the 21-day test periods. Incidences of low dissolved oxygen (DO) in many of these streams negatively impacted spawning success. Nine of 27 streams experienced DO less than 3.1mg/L and 15 streams experienced DO less than 4.8mg/L. Low DO was observed in urban and agricultural watersheds, but the upper threshold of minimum DO decreased with increasing urban development. An increase in specific conductance was related to a decrease in spawning success. In previous studies for streams in this region, specific conductance had a linear relation with chloride, suggesting the possibility that chloride could be a factor in egg production. Egg production was lower at sites with substantial urban development, but sites with low egg production were not limited to urban sites. Degradation of water- and sediment-quality parameters with increasing urban development is indicated for multiple parameters while patterns were not detected for others. Results from this study indicate that DO must be a high priority watershed management consideration for this region, specific conductance should be investigated further to determine the mechanism of the relation with egg production, and water- and

  11. Water quality impacts of forest fires (United States)

    Tecle Aregai; Daniel Neary


    Forest fires have been serious menace, many times resulting in tremendous economic, cultural and ecological damage to many parts of the United States. One particular area that has been significantly affected is the water quality of streams and lakes in the water thirsty southwestern United States. This is because the surface water coming off burned areas has resulted...

  12. Tidal Influence on Water Quality of Kapuas Kecil River Downstream (United States)

    Purnaini, Rizki; Sudarmadji; Purwono, Suryo


    The Kapuas Kecil River is strongly influenced by tidal, in the dry season the intrusion of surface water is often a problem for the WTP because it causes the change of raw water quality to be processed. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of sea tides on water quality of the Kapuas Kecil River. The study was conducted in Kapuas River downstream along ± 30 km from the upper boundary to the estuary. Water sampling is carried out during the dry and rainy season, when the tidal conditions at 7 (seven) locations of the monitoring station. Descriptive analysis methods and regression-correlation statistics are used to determine the effect of tides on water quality in Kapuas River downstream. In general, the water quality of the Kapuas Kecil River has exceeded the criteria of first class water quality, ie water that can be used for drinking water. The status of water quality of the Kapuas Kecil River based on the pollution index calculation shows the condition of the river is "mild to medium pollutants". The result of multiple linear regression analysis got the value of coefficient of determination (adjusted R square) = 0,760, which in whole show that independent variable (tidal and distance) influence to dependent variable (value of TDS) equal to 76%.

  13. The effectiveness of the use of filter on the tilapia growth performance, number of Nitrosomonas sp., and water quality in aquaponics systems


    Yuli Andriani; , Zahidah; Yayat Dhahiyat; Ujang Subhan; Irfan Zidni; Rusky Intan Pratama; Nadia Purnamasari Gumay


    ABSTRACT This study aims to determine the most effective type of living filter media for the bacteria Nitrosomonas sp. in order to improve water quality in aquaponics systems. The method used in this study was completely randomized design, consisting of five treatments and each was repeated three times. The treatments were: A (without addition of filter media), B (addition of palm fibers, silica sand, and activated carbon), C (addition of palm fibers, silica sand, gravel, and activated carbon...

  14. The economics of water reuse and implications for joint water quality-quantity management (United States)

    Kuwayama, Y.


    Traditionally, economists have treated the management of water quality and water quantity as separate problems. However, there are some water management issues for which economic analysis requires the simultaneous consideration of water quality and quantity policies and outcomes. Water reuse, which has expanded significantly over the last several decades, is one of these issues. Analyzing the cost effectiveness and social welfare outcomes of adopting water reuse requires a joint water quality-quantity optimization framework because, at its most basic level, water reuse requires decision makers to consider (a) its potential for alleviating water scarcity, (b) the quality to which the water should be treated prior to reuse, and (c) the benefits of discharging less wastewater into the environment. In this project, we develop a theoretical model of water reuse management to illustrate how the availability of water reuse technologies and practices can lead to a departure from established rules in the water resource economics literature for the optimal allocation of freshwater and water pollution abatement. We also conduct an econometric analysis of a unique dataset of county-level water reuse from the state of Florida over the seventeen-year period between 1996 and 2012 in order to determine whether water quality or scarcity concerns drive greater adoption of water reuse practices.

  15. Habitat quality, water quality and otter distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Mason


    Full Text Available Abstract In recent decades the otter (Lutra lutra has declined over much of Europe. Good habitat has been shown to be essential to otters. Specific elements of cover have been identified in some studies but the minimum cover requirements to support otter populations are not known. These are likely to vary in relation to other factors, such as disturbance. Habitat destruction has been severe in many areas of Europe. Water quantity is important to otters, especially where low flows destroy the food base, namely fish. However the minimum food requirements to support populations are not known. The main cause of the decline in otter populations is almost certainly bioaccumulating pollutants, especially PCBs. These are likely to be inhibiting recolonization in many areas. In Britain, catchment distribution of otters within regions is negatively correlated to mean PCB levels in otter spraints, and these are indicative of tissue levels. PCBs have been found in all samples studied. Current EC statutory monitoring is inadequate to protect otter populations from bioaccumulating contaminants. Standards are presented here for otter protection. More fundamental research is required to refine our understanding of the requirements of the otter. Riassunto Qualità ambientale, qualità dell'acqua e distribuzione della lontra - Negli ultimi decenni la lontra (Lutra lutra è diminuita su buona parte del suo areale europeo, dove particolarmente pesante è stata la distruzione di ambienti favorevoli. Habitat qualitativamente idonei sono essenziali per la sopravvivenza della specie. In alcuni studi, specifici parametri di copertura vegetale dei corpi idrici sono stati ritenuti importanti per la specie, ma quale sia il valore minimo di copertura riparia in grado di supportare una popolazione resta sconosciuto. I parametri di copertura variano probabilmente in relazione ad altri fattori, quali, ad

  16. water quality assessment of underground and surface water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Osondu

    Water quality assessment in the Ethiopian highlands is crucial owing to increasing ... and provide information for formulating appropriate framework for an integrated ... with four seasons (rainy, dry period, small rains ..... treatment. Annual conference proceedings, American Water Works ... Towns' water supply and sanitation.

  17. Assesment of the water quality and prevalence of water borne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The water related diseases that were consistently reported and diagnosed for the period are cholera (3.37%), diarrhea (44.94%), dysentery (16.85%), and typhoid fever (34.83%). The quality of the water and the prevalence of water related diseases in the hospitals were casually related to the contamination of the river in the ...

  18. Simulating the effect of water management decisions on groundwater flow and quality in the Kyzylkum Irrigation Scheme, Kazakhstan (United States)

    Naudascher, R. M.; Marti, B. S.; Siegfried, T.; Wolfgang, K.; Anselm, K.


    The Kyzylkum Irrigation Scheme lies north of the Chardara reservoir on the banks of the river Syr Darya in South Kazakhstan. It was designed as a model Scheme and developed to a size of 74'000 ha during Soviet times for rice and cotton production. However, since the 1990s only very limited funds were available for maintenance and as a result, problems like water logging and salinization of soils and groundwater are now omnipresent in the scheme. The aim of this study was to develop a numerical groundwater flow model for the region in Modflow and to evaluate the effect of various infrastructure investments on phreatic evaporation (a major driver for soil salinization). Decadal groundwater observation data from 2011 to 2015 were used to calibrate the annual model and to validate the monthly model. Scenarios simulated were (partial) lining of main and/or secondary and tertiary canal system, improvement of drainage via horizontal canals or pumps, combinations of these and a joint groundwater-surface-water use scenario. Although the annual average model is sufficient to evaluate the yearly water balance, the transient model is a prerequisite for analysing measures against water logging and salinization, both of which feature strong seasonality. The transient simulation shows that a combination of leakage reduction (lining of canals) and drainage improvement measures is needed to lower the groundwater levels enough to avoid phreatic evaporation. To save water, joint surface water and groundwater irrigation can be applied in areas where groundwater salinity is low enough but without proper lining of canals, it is not sufficient to mitigate the ongoing soil degradation due to salinization and water logging.

  19. Monitoring And Modeling Environmental Water Quality To Support Environmental Water Purchase Decision-making (United States)

    Null, S. E.; Elmore, L.; Mouzon, N. R.; Wood, J. R.


    More than 25 million cubic meters (20,000 acre feet) of water has been purchased from willing agricultural sellers for environmental flows in Nevada's Walker River to improve riverine habitat and connectivity with downstream Walker Lake. Reduced instream flows limit native fish populations, like Lahontan cutthroat trout, through warm daily stream temperatures and low dissolved oxygen concentrations. Environmental water purchases maintain instream flows, although effects on water quality are more varied. We use multi-year water quality monitoring and physically-based hydrodynamic and water quality modeling to estimate streamflow, water temperature, and dissolved oxygen concentrations with alternative environmental water purchases. We simulate water temperature and dissolved oxygen changes from increased streamflow to prioritize the time periods and locations that environmental water purchases most enhance trout habitat as a function of water quality. Monitoring results indicate stream temperature and dissolved oxygen limitations generally exist in the 115 kilometers upstream of Walker Lake (about 37% of the study area) from approximately May through September, and this reach acts as a water quality barrier for fish passage. Model results indicate that low streamflows generally coincide with critically warm stream temperatures, water quality refugia exist on a tributary of the Walker River, and environmental water purchases may improve stream temperature and dissolved oxygen conditions for some reaches and seasons, especially in dry years and prolonged droughts. This research supports environmental water purchase decision-making and allows water purchase decisions to be prioritized with other river restoration alternatives.

  20. Management of poor quality irrigation water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Change, M.H.; Leghari, A.M.; Sipio, Q.A.


    The effect of poor quality drainage effluent on moderately saline sodic, medium textured soil at different growth stages of wheat and cotton is reported. The irrigation treatments were: I) All canal irrigations, II) one irrigation of 75 mm with saline drainage effluent (EC = 3 dS m1) after four weeks sowing of the crop, III) one irrigation of 75 mm with saline drainage effluent after seven weeks sowing of the crop, and IV) one irrigation of 75 mm with saline drainage effluent after ten weeks sowing of the crop. The treatments receiving saline water gave significant decrease in crop yields as compared to canal irrigation treatment. The higher yield of wheat and seed cotton was recorded T1 followed by T2, T3 and T4. The trend of produce was T1< T2< T3< T4 respectively. Electrical conductivity of the soil (Ece) in T1 was decreased and in other three treatments was increased, whereas, pH decreased in T1 and T2. The SAR of soil decreased in all the treatments as compared with initial values. Treatment receiving an irrigation with saline water after four weeks of sowing (T2) was better in reducing soil salinity as compared to treatments receiving such water after 7 or 10 weeks os sowing. Poor quality water (EC = 3 d Sm/sup -1/) can be managed for irrigation after four weeks of swing of crops provided certain soil and water management practices like good seed bed preparation and proper drainage measures are adopted. (author)

  1. Use of cyanobacteria to assess water quality in running waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douterelo, I.; Perona, E.; Mateo, P.


    Epilithic cyanobacterial communities in rivers in the province of Madrid (Spain) and their relationship with water quality were studied. Sampling locations above and below outlets for sewage effluent and other wastes from human settlements were selected. We aimed to evaluate the use of cyanobacteria as potential indicators of pollution in running waters. Large increases in nutrient concentrations were always observed at downstream sampling sites. A decrease in species richness and the Margalef diversity index were associated with these increases in nutrient load. Differences in cyanobacterial community structure were also observed. A higher proportion of cyanobacteria belonging to the Oscillatoriales order predominated at sampling sites with higher nutrient content. However, Nostocales species were more abundant at upstream sites characterized by lower nutrient load than at downstream locations. The soluble reactive phosphate (SRP) had a threshold effect on cyanobacterial biomass: a decrease in phycobiliprotein content as SRP increased, reaching a minimum, followed by an increase in abundance. This increase may be attributed to hypertrophic conditions in those locations. Our results and literature data confirm the suitability of this phototroph community for monitoring eutrophication in rivers - Taxonomic composition of cyanobacteria is a sensitive indicator of river water quality

  2. Use of cyanobacteria to assess water quality in running waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douterelo, I.; Perona, E.; Mateo, P


    Epilithic cyanobacterial communities in rivers in the province of Madrid (Spain) and their relationship with water quality were studied. Sampling locations above and below outlets for sewage effluent and other wastes from human settlements were selected. We aimed to evaluate the use of cyanobacteria as potential indicators of pollution in running waters. Large increases in nutrient concentrations were always observed at downstream sampling sites. A decrease in species richness and the Margalef diversity index were associated with these increases in nutrient load. Differences in cyanobacterial community structure were also observed. A higher proportion of cyanobacteria belonging to the Oscillatoriales order predominated at sampling sites with higher nutrient content. However, Nostocales species were more abundant at upstream sites characterized by lower nutrient load than at downstream locations. The soluble reactive phosphate (SRP) had a threshold effect on cyanobacterial biomass: a decrease in phycobiliprotein content as SRP increased, reaching a minimum, followed by an increase in abundance. This increase may be attributed to hypertrophic conditions in those locations. Our results and literature data confirm the suitability of this phototroph community for monitoring eutrophication in rivers - Taxonomic composition of cyanobacteria is a sensitive indicator of river water quality.

  3. Applications of MIDAS regression in analysing trends in water quality (United States)

    Penev, Spiridon; Leonte, Daniela; Lazarov, Zdravetz; Mann, Rob A.


    We discuss novel statistical methods in analysing trends in water quality. Such analysis uses complex data sets of different classes of variables, including water quality, hydrological and meteorological. We analyse the effect of rainfall and flow on trends in water quality utilising a flexible model called Mixed Data Sampling (MIDAS). This model arises because of the mixed frequency in the data collection. Typically, water quality variables are sampled fortnightly, whereas the rain data is sampled daily. The advantage of using MIDAS regression is in the flexible and parsimonious modelling of the influence of the rain and flow on trends in water quality variables. We discuss the model and its implementation on a data set from the Shoalhaven Supply System and Catchments in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Information criteria indicate that MIDAS modelling improves upon simplistic approaches that do not utilise the mixed data sampling nature of the data.

  4. Effect of surfactant-coated iron oxide nanoparticles on the effluent water quality from a simulated sequencing batch reactor treating domestic wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Sangchul; Martinez, Diana; Perez, Priscilla; Rinaldi, Carlos


    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of commercially available engineered iron oxide nanoparticles coated with a surfactant (ENP Fe-surf ) on effluent water quality from a lab-scale sequencing batch reactor as a model secondary biological wastewater treatment. Results showed that ∼8.7% of ENP Fe-surf applied were present in the effluent stream. The stable presence of ENP Fe-surf was confirmed by analyzing the mean particle diameter and iron concentration in the effluent. Consequently, aqueous ENP Fe-surf deteriorated the effluent water quality at a statistically significant level (p Fe-surf would be introduced into environmental receptors through the treated effluent and could potentially impact them. - Highlights: → Surfactant-coated engineered iron oxide nanoparticles (ENP Fe-surf ) were assessed. → Effluent quality was analyzed from a sequencing batch reactor with ENP Fe-surf . → ∼8.7% of ENP Fe-surf applied was present in the effluent. → ENP Fe-surf significantly (p Fe-surf will be introduced into environmental receptors. - Stable presence of surfactant-coated engineered iron oxides nanoparticles deteriorated the effluent water quality at a statistically significant level (p < 0.05).

  5. Effective quality auditing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivertsen, Terje


    The present report focuses on how to improve the effectiveness of quality audits and organization-wide quality management. It discusses several concepts related to internal quality auditing, includes guidelines on how to establish auditing as a key process of the organization, and exemplifies its application in the management of quality, strategy, and change. The report follows a line of research documented previously in the reports 'Continuous Improvement of Software Quality' (HWR-584) and 'ISO 9000 Quality Systems for Software Development' (HWR-629). In particular, the concepts of measurement programmes and process improvement cycles, discussed in HWR-584, form the basis for the approach advocated in the present report to the continual improvement of the internal quality audit process. Internal auditing is an important ingredient in ISO 9000 quality systems, and continual improvement of this process is consistent with the process-oriented view of the 2000 revision of the ISO 9000 family (HWR-629). The overall aim of the research is to provide utilities and their system vendors with better tools for quality management in digital I and C projects. The research results are expected to provide guidance to the choice of software engineering practices to obtain a system fulfilling safety requirements at an acceptable cost. For licensing authorities, the results are intended to make the review process more efficient through the use of appropriate measures (metrics), and to be of help in establishing requirements to software quality assurance in digital I and C projects. (Author)

  6. Effect-based trigger values for in vitro and in vivo bioassays performed on surface water extracts supporting the environmental quality standards (EQS) of the European Water Framework Directive. (United States)

    Escher, Beate I; Aїt-Aїssa, Selim; Behnisch, Peter A; Brack, Werner; Brion, François; Brouwer, Abraham; Buchinger, Sebastian; Crawford, Sarah E; Du Pasquier, David; Hamers, Timo; Hettwer, Karina; Hilscherová, Klára; Hollert, Henner; Kase, Robert; Kienle, Cornelia; Tindall, Andrew J; Tuerk, Jochen; van der Oost, Ron; Vermeirssen, Etienne; Neale, Peta A


    Effect-based methods including cell-based bioassays, reporter gene assays and whole-organism assays have been applied for decades in water quality monitoring and testing of enriched solid-phase extracts. There is no common EU-wide agreement on what level of bioassay response in water extracts is acceptable. At present, bioassay results are only benchmarked against each other but not against a consented measure of chemical water quality. The EU environmental quality standards (EQS) differentiate between acceptable and unacceptable surface water concentrations for individual chemicals but cannot capture the thousands of chemicals in water and their biological action as mixtures. We developed a method that reads across from existing EQS and includes additional mixture considerations with the goal that the derived effect-based trigger values (EBT) indicate acceptable risk for complex mixtures as they occur in surface water. Advantages and limitations of various approaches to read across from EQS are discussed and distilled to an algorithm that translates EQS into their corresponding bioanalytical equivalent concentrations (BEQ). The proposed EBT derivation method was applied to 48 in vitro bioassays with 32 of them having sufficient information to yield preliminary EBTs. To assess the practicability and robustness of the proposed approach, we compared the tentative EBTs with observed environmental effects. The proposed method only gives guidance on how to derive EBTs but does not propose final EBTs for implementation. The EBTs for some bioassays such as those for estrogenicity are already mature and could be implemented into regulation in the near future, while for others it will still take a few iterations until we can be confident of the power of the proposed EBTs to differentiate good from poor water quality with respect to chemical contamination. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The effects of adding agrimony and sage extracts to water on blood biochemistry and meat quality of broiler chickens


    Peter Supuka; Slavomír Marcinčák; Peter Popelka; Vladimír Petrovič; Ladislav Molnár; Iveta Maskaľová; Pavol Kovalík; Dana Marcinčáková; Anna Supuková; Peter Turek


    The aim of our study was to determine the effects of supplementation of agrimony extract (Agrimonia eupatoria L.) and a combination of agrimony with sage extract (Salvia officinalis L.) to water during the fattening period of broiler chickens on selected biochemical and antioxidant indicators in blood, and on the nutritional composition and oxidative stability of meat. A total of 117 Cobb 500 chicks were randomly divided on the day of hatching into three groups (n = 39 in each) and fattened f...

  8. Water quality for the year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, A.


    Under an umbrella labeled Water Quality 2000, 86 organizations - ranging from the Natural Resources Defense Council to the Chemical Manufacturers Association - have reached a consensus on the major water quality problems currently facing the US. Their broad-based conclusions have been released in a report entitled Challenges for the Future, which represents one step in an ongoing discussion among representatives of these diverse groups on improving water quality. Although the report presents a long-term view, William Matuszeski from EPA described the document as a superb background for the upcoming debate over reauthorization of the Clean Water Act. In general terms, the report cites the major sources of current water problems as agricultural and urban runoff, especially following storms; airborne pollutants; continued dumping of toxic wastes; accidental spills; overharvesting of fish and shellfish; habitat competition from exotic species; and land and water use practices. This article summarizes some of the findings

  9. Water quality issues and status in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahlown, M.A.; Tahir, M. A.; Ashraf, M.


    Per capita water availability in Pakistan has dropped drastically during the last fifty years. Recent extended droughts have further aggravated the situation. In order to meet the shortage and crop water requirements, groundwater is being used extensively in the Indus Basin. Groundwater is also the main source of water for drinking and industrial uses. This increased pressure on groundwater has lowered the water table in many cities. It is reported that water table has dropped by more than 3 m in many cities. This excessive use of groundwater has seriously affected the quality of groundwater and has increased the incidences of water-borne diseases many folds. A recent water quality study has shown that out of 560,000 tube wells of Indus Basin, about 70 percent are pumping sodic water. The use of sodic water has in turn affected the soil health and crop yields. This situation is being further aggravated due to changes in climate and rainfall patterns. To monitor changes in surface and groundwater quality and groundwater levels, Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources has undertaken a countrywide programme of water quality monitoring. This programme covers twenty-one cities from the four provinces, five rivers, 10 storage reservoirs and lakes and two main drains of Pakistan. Under this programme a permanent monitoring network is established from where water samples are collected and analyzed once every year. The collected water samples are analyzed for aesthetic, chemical and bacteriological parameters to determine their suitability for agricultural, domestic and industrial uses. The results of the present study indicate serious contamination in many cities. Excessive levels of arsenic, fluoride and sodium have been detected in many cities. This paper highlights the major water quality issues and briefly presents the preliminary results of the groundwater analysis for major cities of Pakistan. (author)

  10. Quality Assurance for Iraqi Bottled Water Specifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May George Kassir


    Full Text Available In this research the specifications of Iraqi drinking bottled water brands are investigated throughout the comparison between local brands, Saudi Arabia and the World Health Organization (WHO for bottled water standard specifications. These specifications were also compared to that of Iraqi Tap Water standards. To reveal variations in the specifications for Iraqi bottled water, and above mentioned standards some quality control tools are conducted for more than 33% of different bottled water brands (of different origins such as spring, purified,..etc in Iraq by investigating the selected quality parameters registered on their marketing labels. Results employing Minitab software (ver. 16 to generate X bar, and Pareto chart. It was found from X bar charts that the quality parameters of some drinking bottled water brands are not within Iraqi standards set by the “Central Agency for Standardization and Quality Control” such as pH values, Fe, Na, and Mg concentrations. While the comparison of previously mentioned standard specifications through radar chart many important issues are detected such as the absence of lower limits the whole bottled water quality parameters such as for Na and Mg also the radar chart shows that Iraqi bottled and tap water specifications are almost equal in their quality values. Also the same chart pictured the limited range of Iraqi specifications compared to that of Saudi Arabia, and WHO and the need to introduce other water specifications such as K, Na, etc. This confirms the need to improve Iraqi bottled water specifications since it was introduced on 2000. These results also highlighted the weakness of quality assurance activities since only 33 % of the investigated companies registered the whole water quality specifications as shown in Pareto chart. Other companies do not register any quality characteristics. Also certain companies should be stopped due to non-conforming specifications, yet these companies are

  11. Overview of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program (United States)

    Leahy, P.P.; Thompson, T.H.


    The Nation's water resources are the basis for life and our economic vitality. These resources support a complex web of human activities and fishery and wildlife needs that depend upon clean water. Demands for good-quality water for drinking, recreation, farming, and industry are rising, and as a result, the American public is concerned about the condition and sustainability of our water resources. The American public is asking: Is it safe to swim in and drink water from our rivers or lakes? Can we eat the fish that come from them? Is our ground water polluted? Is water quality degrading with time, and if so, why? Has all the money we've spent to clean up our waters, done any good? The U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program was designed to provide information that will help answer these questions. NAWQA is designed to assess historical, current, and future water-quality conditions in representative river basins and aquifers nationwide. One of the primary objectives of the program is to describe relations between natural factors, human activities, and water-quality conditions and to define those factors that most affect water quality in different parts of the Nation. The linkage of water quality to environmental processes is of fundamental importance to water-resource managers, planners, and policy makers. It provides a strong and unbiased basis for better decisionmaking by those responsible for making decisions that affect our water resources, including the United States Congress, Federal, State, and local agencies, environmental groups, and industry. Information from the NAWQA Program also will be useful for guiding research, monitoring, and regulatory activities in cost effective ways.

  12. Water Quality Monitoring of Inland Waters using Meris data (United States)

    Potes, M.; Costa, M. J.; Salgado, R.; Le Moigne, P.


    The successful launch of ENVISAT in March 2002 has given a great opportunity to understand the optical changes of water surfaces, including inland waters such as lakes and reservoirs, through the use of the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS). The potential of this instrument to describe variations of optically active substances has been examined in the Alqueva reservoir, located in the south of Portugal, where satellite spectral radiances are corrected for the atmospheric effects to obtain the surface spectral reflectance. In order to validate this spectral reflectance, several field campaigns were carried out, with a portable spectroradiometer, during the satellite overpass. The retrieved lake surface spectral reflectance was combined with limnological laboratory data and with the resulting algorithms, spatial maps of biological quantities and turbidity were obtained, allowing for the monitoring of these water quality indicators. In the framework of the recent THAUMEX 2011 field campaign performed in Thau lagoon (southeast of France) in-water radiation, surface irradiation and reflectance measurements were taken with a portable spectrometer in order to test the methodology described above. At the same time, water samples were collected for laboratory analysis. The two cases present different results related to the geographic position, water composition, environment, resources exploration, etc. Acknowledgements This work is financed through FCT grant SFRH/BD/45577/2008 and through FEDER (Programa Operacional Factores de Competitividade - COMPETE) and National funding through FCT - Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia in the framework of projects FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-007122 (PTDC / CTE-ATM / 65307 / 2006) and FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-009303 (PTDC/CTE-ATM/102142/2008). Image data has been provided by ESA in the frame of ENVISAT projects AOPT-2423 and AOPT-2357. We thank AERONET investigators for their effort in establishing and maintaining Évora AERONET

  13. Hydrology, water quality, and response to changes in phosphorus loading of Minocqua and Kawaguesaga Lakes, Oneida County, Wisconsin, with special emphasis on effects of urbanization (United States)

    Garn, Herbert S.; Robertson, Dale M.; Rose, William J.; Saad, David A.


    Minocqua and Kawaguesaga Lakes are 1,318- and 690-acre interconnected lakes in the popular recreation area of north-central Wisconsin. The lakes are the lower end of a complex chain of lakes in Oneida and Vilas Counties, Wis. There is concern that increased stormwater runoff from rapidly growing residential/commercial developments and impervious surfaces from the urbanized areas of the Town of Minocqua and Woodruff, as well as increased effluent from septic systems around their heavily developed shoreline has increased nutrient loading to the lakes. Maintaining the quality of the lakes to sustain the tourist-based economy of the towns and the area was a concern raised by the Minocqua/Kawaguesaga Lakes Protection Association. Following several small studies, a detailed study during 2006 and 2007 was done by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Minocqua/Kawaguesaga Lakes Protection Association through the Town of Minocqua to describe the hydrology and water quality of the lakes, quantify the sources of phosphorus including those associated with urban development and to better understand the present and future effects of phosphorus loading on the water quality of the lakes. The water quality of Minocqua and Kawaguesaga Lakes appears to have improved since 1963, when a new sewage-treatment plant was constructed and its discharge was bypassed around the lakes, resulting in a decrease in phosphorus loading to the lakes. Since the mid-1980s, the water quality of the lakes has changed little in response to fluctuations in phosphorus loading from the watershed. From 1986 to 2009, summer average concentrations of near-surface total phosphorus in the main East Basin of Minocqua Lake fluctuated from 0.009 mg/L to 0.027 mg/L but generally remained less than 0.022 mg/L, indicating that the lake is mesotrophic. Phosphorus concentrations from 1988 through 1996, however, were lower than the long-term average, possibly the result of an extended drought in the area

  14. GKI water quality studies. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, D L


    GKI water quality data collected in 1978 and early 1979 was evaluated with the objective of developing preliminary characterizations of native groundwater and retort water at Kamp Kerogen, Uintah County, Utah. Restrictive analytical definitions were developed to describe native groundwater and GKI retort water in an effort to eliminate from the sample population both groundwater samples affected by retorting and retort water samples diluted by groundwater. Native groundwater and retort water sample analyses were subjected to statistical manipulation and testing to summarize the data to determine the statistical validity of characterizations based on the data available, and to identify probable differences between groundwater and retort water based on available data. An evaluation of GKI water quality data related to developing characterizations of native groundwater and retort water at Kamp Kerogen was conducted. GKI retort water and the local native groundwater both appeared to be of very poor quality. Statistical testing indicated that the data available is generally insufficient for conclusive characterizations of native groundwater and retort water. Statistical testing indicated some probable significant differences between native groundwater and retort water that could be determined with available data. Certain parameters should be added to and others deleted from future laboratory analyses suites of water samples.

  15. Impacts of extreme flooding on riverbank filtration water quality. (United States)

    Ascott, M J; Lapworth, D J; Gooddy, D C; Sage, R C; Karapanos, I


    Riverbank filtration schemes form a significant component of public water treatment processes on a global level. Understanding the resilience and water quality recovery of these systems following severe flooding is critical for effective water resources management under potential future climate change. This paper assesses the impact of floodplain inundation on the water quality of a shallow aquifer riverbank filtration system and how water quality recovers following an extreme (1 in 17 year, duration >70 days, 7 day inundation) flood event. During the inundation event, riverbank filtrate water quality is dominated by rapid direct recharge and floodwater infiltration (high fraction of surface water, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) >140% baseline values, >1 log increase in micro-organic contaminants, microbial detects and turbidity, low specific electrical conductivity (SEC) 400% baseline). A rapid recovery is observed in water quality with most floodwater impacts only observed for 2-3 weeks after the flooding event and a return to normal groundwater conditions within 6 weeks (lower fraction of surface water, higher SEC, lower DOC, organic and microbial detects, DO). Recovery rates are constrained by the hydrogeological site setting, the abstraction regime and the water quality trends at site boundary conditions. In this case, increased abstraction rates and a high transmissivity aquifer facilitate rapid water quality recoveries, with longer term trends controlled by background river and groundwater qualities. Temporary reductions in abstraction rates appear to slow water quality recoveries. Flexible operating regimes such as the one implemented at this study site are likely to be required if shallow aquifer riverbank filtration systems are to be resilient to future inundation events. Development of a conceptual understanding of hydrochemical boundaries and site hydrogeology through monitoring is required to assess the suitability of a prospective riverbank filtration

  16. Surface Water Quality Monitoring Sites (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The MN Department of Agriculture (MDA) is charged with periodically collecting and analyzing water samples from selected locations throughout the state to determine...

  17. Effect of integration of oxalic acid and hot water treatments on postharvest quality of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L. cv. Anak Sekolah) under modified atmosphere packaging. (United States)

    Hafiz, Ahmad Faiz Ahmad; Keat, Yeoh Wei; Ali, Asgar


    The shelf life of rambutan is often limited due to rapid water loss from the spinterns and browning of the pericarp. An integrated approach, which combined hot water treatment (HWT) (56 °C for 1 min), oxalic acid (OA) dip (10% for 10 min) and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), was used to study their effectiveness on the quality of rambutan during storage (10 °C, 90-95% relative humidity). Significant differences were observed in rambutan quality with the combination of MAP + HWT + OA after 20 days of storage. This treatment combination resulted into better retention of firmness and colour (L and a* values) than in the control. Change in the total soluble solid content was significantly delayed however the titratable acidity showed no significant change in comparison to the control at the end of storage.

  18. Arsenic removal from drinking water by a household sand filter in Vietnam--effect of filter usage practices on arsenic removal efficiency and microbiological water quality. (United States)

    Nitzsche, Katja Sonja; Lan, Vi Mai; Trang, Pham Thi Kim; Viet, Pham Hung; Berg, Michael; Voegelin, Andreas; Planer-Friedrich, Britta; Zahoransky, Jan; Müller, Stefanie-Katharina; Byrne, James Martin; Schröder, Christian; Behrens, Sebastian; Kappler, Andreas


    Household sand filters are applied to treat arsenic- and iron-containing anoxic groundwater that is used as drinking water in rural areas of North Vietnam. These filters immobilize poisonous arsenic (As) via co-oxidation with Fe(II) and sorption to or co-precipitation with the formed Fe(III) (oxyhydr)oxides. However, information is lacking regarding the effect of the frequency and duration of filter use as well as of filter sand replacement on the residual As concentrations in the filtered water and on the presence of potentially pathogenic bacteria in the filtered and stored water. We therefore scrutinized a household sand filter with respect to As removal efficiency and the presence of fecal indicator bacteria in treated water as a function of filter operation before and after sand replacement. Quantification of As in the filtered water showed that periods of intense daily use followed by periods of non-use and even sand replacement did not significantly (psand replacement, CFUs of Escherichia coli of sand filters regarding As removal, but indicate a potential risk for human health arising from the enrichment of coliform bacteria during filtration and from E. coli cells that are introduced by sand replacement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of a Reservoir Water on the GW Quality in a Coastal Aquifer of Semi-arid Region, North-east of Tunisia (United States)

    Uchida, C.; Kawachi, A.; Tsujimura, M.; Tarhouni, J.


    This study investigated effects of a reservoir water in a salinized shallow aquifer based on spatial distribution of geochemical properties in groundwater (GW). In many coastal shallow aquifers of arid and semi-arid regions, groundwater table (GWT) depression and salinization have occurred due to GW overexploitation. In Korba aquifer, north-east of Tunisia, after a dam reservoir has been constructed in order to assure a water resource for irrigation, improvement of GW level and quality have been observed in the downstream area of the dam (area-A), while the GW in the other area (area-B) still has high salinity. This study, therefore, aimed to investigate the effects of the reservoir water on the GW quality. In June 2013, water quality survey and sampling were carried out at 60 wells (GW), a dam reservoir, river and the sea. Major ions, boron, bromide, and oxygen-18 and deuterium in collected samples were analyzed. From the results, in the area-B, the GWT was lower than the sea level and the high salinity were observed. The Br- concentration of the GW was correlated with the Cl- concentration, and the values of B/Cl- and Br-/Cl- of the GW were similar to the seawater. Since the GWT depression allowed the seawater to intrude into the aquifer, the GW salinization occurred in this area. On the other hand, in the area-A, GWT was higher than the seawater level, and the Na+ and Cl- concentrations were lower than the area-B. Especially, in the irrigated areas by using the reservoir water, the isotopic values, B/Cl- and Br-/Cl- of the GW were relatively higher than the others. The reservoir water has high isotopic values due to evaporation effect, and the B/Cl- and Br-/Cl- values become higher due to organic matters in sediment of the reservoir or soil in the filtration process. Thus, in addition to the direct infiltration from the reservoir into the aquifer, irrigation using a reservoir water probably has a positive impact on the GW quality in this area.

  20. Chemical application strategies to protect water quality. (United States)

    Rice, Pamela J; Horgan, Brian P; Barber, Brian L; Koskinen, William C


    Management of turfgrass on golf courses and athletic fields often involves application of plant protection products to maintain or enhance turfgrass health and performance. However, the transport of fertilizer and pesticides with runoff to adjacent surface waters can enhance algal blooms, promote eutrophication and may have negative impacts on sensitive aquatic organisms and ecosystems. Thus, we evaluated the effectiveness of chemical application setbacks to reduce the off-site transport of chemicals with storm runoff. Experiments with water soluble tracer compounds confirmed an increase in application setback distance resulted in a significant increase in the volume of runoff measured before first off-site chemical detection, as well as a significant reduction in the total percentage of applied chemical transported with the storm runoff. For example, implementation of a 6.1 m application setback reduced the total percentage of an applied water soluble tracer by 43%, from 18.5% of applied to 10.5% of applied. Evaluation of chemographs revealed the efficacy of application setbacks could be observed with storms resulting in lesser (e.g. 100 L) and greater (e.g. > 300 L) quantities of runoff. Application setbacks offer turfgrass managers a mitigation approach that requires no additional resources or time inputs and may serve as an alternative practice when buffers are less appropriate for land management objectives or site conditions. Characterizing potential contamination of surface waters and developing strategies to safeguard water quality will help protect the environment and improve water resource security. This information is useful to grounds superintendents for designing chemical application strategies to maximize environmental stewardship. The data will also be useful to scientists and regulators working with chemical transport and risk models. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. A New Empirical Sewer Water Quality Model for the Prediction of WWTP Influent Quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langeveld, J.G.; Schilperoort, R.P.S.; Rombouts, P.M.M.; Benedetti, L.; Amerlinck, Y.; de Jonge, J.; Flameling, T.; Nopens, I.; Weijers, S.


    Modelling of the integrated urban water system is a powerful tool to optimise wastewater system performance or to find cost-effective solutions for receiving water problems. One of the challenges of integrated modelling is the prediction of water quality at the inlet of a WWTP. Recent applications

  2. 40 CFR 130.3 - Water quality standards. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality standards. 130.3 Section... QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.3 Water quality standards. A water quality standard (WQS) defines the water quality goals of a water body, or portion thereof, by designating the use or uses to be made...

  3. Collection of Condensate Water: Global Potential and Water Quality Impacts

    KAUST Repository

    Loveless, Kolin Joseph


    Water is a valuable resource throughout the world, especially in hot, dry climates and regions experiencing significant population growth. Supplies of fresh water are complicated by the economic and political conditions in many of these regions. Technologies that can supply fresh water at a reduced cost are therefore becoming increasingly important and the impact of such technologies can be substantial. This paper considers the collection of condensate water from large air conditioning units as a possible method to alleviate water scarcity issues. Using the results of a climate model that tested data collected from 2000 to 2010, we have identified areas in the world with the greatest collection potential. We gave special consideration to areas with known water scarcities, including the coastal regions of the Arabian Peninsula, Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. We found that the quality of the collected water is an important criterion in determining the potential uses for this water. Condensate water samples were collected from a few locations in Saudi Arabia and detailed characterizations were conducted to determine the quality of this water. We found that the quality of condensate water collected from various locations and types of air conditioners was very high with conductivities reaching as low as 18 μS/cm and turbidities of 0. 041 NTU. The quality of the collected condensate was close to that of distilled water and, with low-cost polishing treatments, such as ion exchange resins and electrochemical processes, the condensate quality could easily reach that of potable water. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  4. National trends in drinking water quality violations. (United States)

    Allaire, Maura; Wu, Haowei; Lall, Upmanu


    Ensuring safe water supply for communities across the United States is a growing challenge in the face of aging infrastructure, impaired source water, and strained community finances. In the aftermath of the Flint lead crisis, there is an urgent need to assess the current state of US drinking water. However, no nationwide assessment has yet been conducted on trends in drinking water quality violations across several decades. Efforts to reduce violations are of national concern given that, in 2015, nearly 21 million people relied on community water systems that violated health-based quality standards. In this paper, we evaluate spatial and temporal patterns in health-related violations of the Safe Drinking Water Act using a panel dataset of 17,900 community water systems over the period 1982-2015. We also identify vulnerability factors of communities and water systems through probit regression. Increasing time trends and violation hot spots are detected in several states, particularly in the Southwest region. Repeat violations are prevalent in locations of violation hot spots, indicating that water systems in these regions struggle with recurring issues. In terms of vulnerability factors, we find that violation incidence in rural areas is substantially higher than in urbanized areas. Meanwhile, private ownership and purchased water source are associated with compliance. These findings indicate the types of underperforming systems that might benefit from assistance in achieving consistent compliance. We discuss why certain violations might be clustered in some regions and strategies for improving national drinking water quality.

  5. Maui Citizen Science Coastal Water Quality Data (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A network of citizen science volunteers periodically monitors water quality at several beaches across the island of Maui in the State of Hawaii. This community-based...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Dec 31, 2013 ... The advantages of an index include its ability to represent measurements of a ... Fair. Water quality is usually protected but occasionally threatened or ... Electrical Conductivity (EC) value is an index to represent the total.

  7. Aggradation, Degradation, and Water Quality Conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    The purpose of this study is to compile a record of pertinent data and information relative to aggradation, degradation, and water quality within the system of six Missouri River mainstem reservoirs...

  8. Mobile Water Quality Information Tool, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Water quality remote sensing has grown to allow for operational monitoring of trophic status, assessment of cyanobacteria blooms, and historical and trend analysis...

  9. Carbonate chemistry, water quality, coral measurements (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Carbonate chemistry parameters (pH, total alkalinity, and pCO2), water quality parameters (Temperature, salinity, Ca, Mg, PO4, NH3 and NO3) as well as all coral...

  10. Effect of UV-C radiation and hot water on the calcium content and postharvest quality of apples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmaty, S.; Moallemi, N.; Naseri, L.


    To increase the storage shelf life of 'Red Delicious' and 'Golden Delicious' apples they were treated with UV-C irradiation at doses of 0, 5 and 15 min irradiation at 1.435 x 10{sup -4} W/square cm{sup -} and with hot water containing 4% CaCl{sub 2} at four levels (control, dipping at 25 deg C for 10 min, dipping at 38 deg C for 5 min and dipping in 54 deg C for 1 min) in a factorial design with 4 replicates. The results showed that UV-C irradiation and dipping of fruit in hot water increased the storage life and improved fruit quality factors in 'Red Delicious' and 'Golden Delicious' apples at the end of cold storage. Both UV-C and hot water treatments decreased pH and total soluble solids/titratable acids ratio and increased fruit titratable acids and firmness. UV-C and hot water treatment increased fruit Ca content during storage. The results showed that UV-C and hot water treatment can retard fruit ripening and maintain fruit quality in cold storage. These treatments can also increase Ca concentration of fruit flesh and thus increase the nutritional value of the apples. (author) [Spanish] Con el fin de prolongar el periodo de vida útil durante la conservación frigorífica de manzanas ‘Red Delicious’ y ‘Golden Delicious’, éstas se trataron con radiación UV-C en tres dosis (0, 5 y 15 min de irradiación a 1,435 × 10{sup -4} W cm{sup -2}) y agua caliente con CaCl{sub 2} al 4% en cuatro niveles (control 0, inmersión a 25°C 10 min, 38°C 5 min ó 54°C 1 min), en un diseño factorial con 4 repeticiones por tratamiento. La irradiación con UV-C y la inmersión de los frutos en agua caliente permitió alargar el periodo de conservación y mejoró la calidad de manzanas ‘Red Delicious’ y ‘Golden Delicious’ tras el almacenamiento en frío. Ambos tratamientos aumentaron la acidez titulable y la firmeza de los frutos, también disminuyeron el pH y la relación sólidos solubles/acidez. El tratamiento con UV-C y agua caliente incrementó el contenido


    The demand on freshwater to sustain the needs of the growing population is of worldwide concern. Often this water is used, treated, and released for reuse by other communities. The anthropogenic contaminants present in this water may include complex mixtures of pesticides, prescription and nonprescription drugs, personal care and common consumer products, industrial and domestic-use materials and degradation products of these compounds. Although, the fate of these pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in wastewater treatment facilities is largely unknown, the limited data that does exist suggests that many of these chemicals survive treatment and some others are returned to their biologically active form via deconjugation of metabolites.Traditional water sampling methods (i.e., grab or composite samples) often require the concentration of large amounts of water to detect trace levels of PPCPs. A passive sampler, the polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS), has been developed to integratively concentrate the trace levels of these chemicals, determine the time-weighted average water concentrations, and provide a method of estimating the potential exposure of aquatic organisms to these complex mixtures of waterborne contaminants. The POCIS (U.S. Patent number 6,478,961) consists of a hydrophilic microporous membrane, acting as a semipermeable barrier, enveloping various solid-phase sorbents that retain the sampled chemicals. Sampling rates f

  12. Shale Gas Development and Drinking Water Quality. (United States)

    Hill, Elaine; Ma, Lala


    The extent of environmental externalities associated with shale gas development (SGD) is important for welfare considerations and, to date, remains uncertain (Mason, Muehlenbachs, and Olmstead 2015; Hausman and Kellogg 2015). This paper takes a first step to address this gap in the literature. Our study examines whether shale gas development systematically impacts public drinking water quality in Pennsylvania, an area that has been an important part of the recent shale gas boom. We create a novel dataset from several unique sources of data that allows us to relate SGD to public drinking water quality through a gas well's proximity to community water system (CWS) groundwater source intake areas.1 We employ a difference-in-differences strategy that compares, for a given CWS, water quality after an increase in the number of drilled well pads to background levels of water quality in the geographic area as measured by the impact of more distant well pads. Our main estimate finds that drilling an additional well pad within 1 km of groundwater intake locations increases shale gas-related contaminants by 1.5–2.7 percent, on average. These results are striking considering that our data are based on water sampling measurements taken after municipal treatment, and suggest that the health impacts of SGD 1 A CWS is defined as the subset of public water systems that supplies water to the same population year-round. through water contamination remains an open question.

  13. The quality of drinking water in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kłos


    Full Text Available Introduction. An analysis of the drinking water quality and the degree of access to water supply and sewerage system in Poland was conducted. Materials and methods. Method of analysis of secondary statistical data was applied, mostly based on data available in the materials of the Central Statistical Office in Warsaw, the Waterworks Polish Chamber of Commerce in Bydgoszcz and the National Water Management in Warsaw. Result and discussion. 60 % of Poles do not trust to drink water without prior boiling. Water flowing from the taps, although widely available, is judged to be polluted, with too much fluorine or not having the appropriate consumer values (colour, smell and taste. The current water treatment systems can however improve them, although such a treatment, i.e. mainly through chlorination of water, deteriorates its quality in relation to pure natural water. The result is that fewer and fewer Poles drink water directly from the tap. They also less and less use tap water to cook food for which the bottled water is trusted more. Reason for that is that society does not trust the safety of the water supplied by the municipal water companies. The question thus is: Are they right? Tap water in Poland meets all standards since it is constantly monitored by the water companies and all relevant health services. Tap water supplied through the water supply system can be used without prior boiling. Studies have shown that only the operating parameters of water, suc h as taste, odour and hardness, are not satisfactory everywhere, different in each city, and sometimes in different districts of cities, often waking thoughts among users about its inappropriateness. The lowered water value can be easily improved at home through the use of filters. In conclusion, due to constant monitoring and investment in upgrading treatment processes, the quality of tap water has improved significantly in the last years. Conclusion. The results first allow assessing the

  14. Autonomous nutrient detection for water quality monitoring


    Maher, Damien; Cleary, John; Cogan, Deirdre; Diamond, Dermot


    The ever increasing demand for real time environmental monitoring is currently being driven by strong legislative and societal drivers. Low cost autonomous environmental monitoring systems are required to meet this demand as current monitoring solutions are insufficient. This poster presents an autonomous nutrient analyser platform for water quality monitoring. Results from a field trial of the nutrient analyser are reported along with current work to expand the range of water quality targ...

  15. Water quality in North American river systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, C.D.; Neitzel, D.A.


    This book is about water quality and other characteristics of selected ecosystems in North America. It is also about changes that have occurred in these ecosystems as a result of recent human activities-changes that result primarily from development and exploitation to sustain the needs of an ever-increasing population and the technical innovations that sustain it. Fish populations, hydrology, and water quality control efforts are discussed

  16. The effect of physical water quality and water level changes on the occurrence and density of Anopheles mosquito larvae around the shoreline of the Koka reservoir, central Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kibret


    Full Text Available Entomological studies to determine the effect of the physical characteristics of mosquito larval breeding water bodies and reservoir water level changes on the occurrence of Anopheles mosquito larvae were conducted in two villages at Koka reservoir in central Ethiopia between August and December 2007. Of the two study villages, Ejersa is located close to the reservoir, and Kuma is 5 km away from it. Data on the type, number and physical characteristics of Anopheles larval breeding habitat, species composition and densities of anopheles mosquitoes in and around the study villages were investigated and recorded. Meteorological and reservoir water level data were compared with availability of Anopheles larval breeding sites and densities. Entomological data, derived from weekly larval collections, showed that Anopheles pharoensis Theobald, Anopheles gambiae s.l. Giles, Anopheles coustani Laveran and Anopheles squamosus Theobald were breeding in the study area. The mean larval density of An. gambiae s.l. in this study was higher in slightly turbid and shallow aquatic habitat than in turbid and relatively deep aquatic habitat. The density of An. pharoensis in habitat with floating vegetation and with relatively shady conditions was significantly higher than that of less shaded aquatic habitat and greater emergent vegetation. There was also a positive correlation between the occurrence of Anopheles larvae with the water and daily minimum atmospheric temperature. Similarly at Ejersa, over the sampling period, there was a positive correlation between falling reservoir water levels and the number of positive breeding habitats. These results confirm that physical characteristics of the water bodies play an important role in the species composition, total Anopheles larval count, and the density of Anopheles mosquitoes. Suitable breeding habitat in the vicinity of the reservoir village was strongly associated with the reservoir. This is particularly

  17. Applications of continuous water quality monitoring techniques for more efficient water quality research and water resources management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozemeijer, J.C.; Velde, Y. van der; Broers, H.P.; Geer, F. van


    Understanding and taking account of dynamics in water quality is essential for adequate water quality policy and management. In conventional regional surface water and upper groundwater quality monitoring, measurement frequencies are too low to capture the short-term dynamic behavior of solute

  18. Liquid microjet - a new tool for environmental water quality monitoring?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holstein, W.; Buntine, M.


    Our ability to provide real-time, cost-effective and efficient technologies for water quality monitoring remains a critical global environmental research issue. Each year, ground and surface waterways around the world, the global marine environment and the especially-fragile interzonal estuarine ecosystems are being placed under severe stress due to ever-increasing levels of pollutants entering the earth's aquasphere. An almost revolutionary breakthrough in water quality monitoring would be achieved with the development of a real-time, broad-spectrum chemical analysis technology. In this article, a real-time mass spectrometric based water quality monitoring centre around in vacuo liquid microjet injection methodologies is presented

  19. Effect of synthetic and natural water-absorbing soil amendments on photosynthesis characteristics and tuber nutritional quality of potato in a semi-arid region. (United States)

    Xu, Shengtao; Zhang, Lei; McLaughlin, Neil B; Mi, Junzhen; Chen, Qin; Liu, Jinghui


    The effect of water-absorbing soil amendments on photosynthesis characteristics and tuber nutritional quality was investigated in a field experiment in a semi-arid region in northern China in 2010-2012. Treatments included two synthetic water-absorbing amendments, potassium polyacrylate (PAA) and polyacrylamide (PAM), and one natural amendment, humic acid (HA), both as single amendments and compound amendments (HA combined with PAA or PAM), and a no amendment control. Soil amendments had a highly significant effect (P ≤ 0.01) on photosynthesis characteristics, dry biomass, crop root/shoot (R/S) ratio and tuber nutritional quality. They improved both dry biomass above ground and dry biomass underground in the whole growing season by 4.6-31.2 and 1.1-83.1% respectively in all three years. Crop R/S ratio was reduced in the early growing season by 2.0-29.4% and increased in the later growing season by 2.3-32.6%. Soil amendments improved leaf soil plant analysis development value, net photosynthesis rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate by 1.4-17.0, 5.1-45.9, 2.4-90.6 and 2.0-22.6% respectively and reduced intercellular CO2 concentration by 2.1-19.5% in all three years. Amendment treatment with PAM + HA always had the greatest effect on photosynthesis characteristics and tuber nutritional quality among all amendment treatments and thus merits further research. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Water quality, hydrology, and simulated response to changes in phosphorus loading of Mercer Lake, Iron County, Wisconsin, with special emphasis on the effects of wastewater discharges (United States)

    Robertson, Dale M.; Garn, Herbert S.; Rose, William J.; Juckem, Paul F.; Reneau, Paul C.


    Mercer Lake is a relatively shallow drainage lake in north-central Wisconsin. The area near the lake has gone through many changes over the past century, including urbanization and industrial development. To try to improve the water quality of the lake, actions have been taken, such as removal of the lumber mill and diversion of all effluent from the sewage treatment plant away from the lake; however, it is uncertain how these actions have affected water quality. Mercer Lake area residents and authorities would like to continue to try to improve the water quality of the lake; however, they would like to place their efforts in the actions that will have the most beneficial effects. To provide a better understanding of the factors affecting the water quality of Mercer Lake, a detailed study of the lake and its watershed was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in collaboration with the Mercer Lake Association. The purposes of the study were to describe the water quality of the lake and the composition of its sediments; quantify the sources of water and phosphorus loading to the lake, including sources associated with wastewater discharges; and evaluate the effects of past and future changes in phosphorus inputs on the water quality of the lake using eutrophication models (models that simulate changes in phosphorus and algae concentrations and water clarity in the lake). Based on analyses of sediment cores and monitoring data collected from the lake, the water quality of Mercer Lake appears to have degraded as a result of the activities in its watershed over the past 100 years. The water quality appears to have improved, however, since a sewage treatment plant was constructed in 1965 and its effluent was routed away from the lake in 1995. Since 2000, when a more consistent monitoring program began, the water quality of the lake appears to have changed very little. During the two monitoring years (MY) 2008-09, the average summer near-surface concentration of total

  1. Vegetation and overburden cover on phosphogypsum: Effects on radon emission, runoff water quality, and plant uptake of fluoride and radium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, S.G. [Florida Institute of Phosphate Research, Bartow, FL (United States)


    Phosphogypsum is a byproduct of phosphate fertilizer production, and more than 700 million metric tons have accumulated on 2,500 ha in Florida. Field research was conducted to compare the benefits of capping phosphogypsum with overburden (up to 15 cm in depth) from mined sites versus treatment of the phosphogypsum with minimal amendments. After four growing seasons, vegetation cover was excellent (no bare ground) on plots amended with dolomitic limestone or capped with overburden. However, more species became established with an overburden cap. Fluoride uptake by bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) was high when grown directly on phosphogypsum (895 mg kg{sup -1} in leaf tissue) and was reduced slightly by a 15 cm overburden cap (670 mg kg{sup -1}). Unexpectedly, radium ({sup 226}Ra) uptake in bermudagrass grown directly on phosphogypsum (0.6 pCi g{sup -1}) was less than when grown on the overburden cap (1.8 pCi g{sup -1}). The presence of grass cut the radon ({sup 222}Rn) efflux from phosphogypsum in half (from 24 pCi m{sup -2} s{sup -1} to 11 pCi m{sup -2} s{sup -1}), while 15 cm of overburden, in addition to grass cover, halved it again (down to 5 pCi m{sup -2} s{sup -1}). Vegetation cover on phosphogypsum resulted in a 30-fold decrease in electrical conductivity and a 5-fold decrease in the fluoride concentration of surface runoff water. Runoff water quality from vegetated plots was equally good with or without a 15 cm overburden cap on top of the phosphogypsum.

  2. British Columbia water quality guidelines (criteria): 1998 edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagpal, N.K.; Pommen, L.W.; Swain, L.G.


    British Columbia has developed water quality guidelines in order that water quality data can be assessed and site-specific water quality objectives can be prepared. The guidelines provide benchmarks for the assessment of water quality and setting water quality objectives. Guidelines are provided to protect the following six major water uses: drinking water, aquatic life, wildlife, recreation/aesthetics, agriculture, and industrial. Water quality encompasses the physical, chemical and biological quality of the water, sediment and biota. Among other quality criteria the guide provides maximum approved concentrations for nitrogen, aluminum, copper, cyanide, lead, mercury, and molybdenum. 30 tabs.

  3. Water quality control program in experimental circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cegalla, Miriam A.


    The Water Quality Control Program of the Experimental Circuits visualizes studying the water chemistry of the cooling in the primary and secondary circuits, monitoring the corrosion of the systems and studying the mechanism of the corrosion products transport in the systems. (author)

  4. Industry disagrees with water quality recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begley, R.


    Industry groups are distancing themselves from recommendations on cleaning up the nation's waters issued by Water Quality 2000, a coalition of more than 80 organizations representing industry, environmental groups, government, academia, and professional and scientific societies. The report, open-quotes A National Water Agenda for the 21st Centuryclose quotes, is a result of work begun in 1989. It recommends an approach to water quality that emphasizes pollution prevention, increased individual and collective responsibility for protecting water resources, and reorienting water resource programs and institutions along natural, rather than political, watershed boundaries. It includes 85 specific recommendations, many of which are to be implemented locally. The Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC; Washington) open-quotes wholeheartedly endorses not only the specific solutions offered today but the process by which these proposals were reached,close quotes says Robert W. Adler, NRDC senior attorney and vice chairman of Water Quality 2000. John B. Coleman, corporate environmental affairs manager for Du Pont and a member of the groups's steering committee, says open-quotes Du Pont and the other industry members of Water Quality 2000 are committedclose quotes to working to make continuous improvements

  5. Water quality of the river Damanganga (Gujarat)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D.; Narvekar, P.V.; Sarma, R.V.; Desai, B.N.

    Water quality (pH, suspended solids, chlorides, DO, BOD, reactive and total phosphorus, nitrates and boron) of River Damanganga which receives 0.2 mld of industrial waste into its fresh water zone through Pimparia River and 3.7 mld in its tidal zone...

  6. Hydrology and heterogeneneous distribution of water quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out on the hydrology and heterogeneous distribution of water quality characteristics in the Lagoon of Porto-Novo between July 2014 and June 2015. The water body was stratified into 12 strata for sampling. Data and samples were collected based on season and stations. The results were analyzed in the ...

  7. Climate change and the EU Water Framework Directive: how to deal with indirect effects of changes in hydrology on water quality and ecology? (United States)

    Heerdt, G N J Ter; Schep, S A; Janse, J H; Ouboter, M


    In order to set ecological goals and determine measures for the European Water Framework Directive, the effects of climate change on lake ecosystems should be estimated. It is thought that the complexity of lake ecosystems makes this effect inherently unpredictable. However, models that deal with this complexity are available and well calibrated and tested. In this study we use the ecosystem model PCLake to demonstrate how climate change might affect the ecological status of a shallow peaty lake in 2050. With the model PCLake, combined with a long-term water and nutrient balance, it is possible to describe adequately the present status of the lake. Simulations of future scenarios with increasing precipitation, evaporation and temperature, showed that climate change will lead to higher nutrient loadings. At the same time, it will lead to lower critical loadings. Together this might cause the lake to shift easier from a clear water to a turbid state. The amount of algae, expressed as the concentration Chl-a, will increase, as a consequence turbidity will increase. The outcome of this study; increasing stability of the turbid state of the lake, and thus the need for more drastic measures, is consistent with some earlier studies.

  8. Long-term effects of surface coal mining on ground-water levels and quality in two small watersheds in eastern Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, W.L.; Jones, R.L.


    Two small eastern Ohio watersheds surface mined for coal and reclaimed were studied during 1986-89. Water level and water quality data were compared with data from investigations conducted during 1976-83 to determine long-term effects of surface mining on the hydrologic system. Before mining, the watersheds were characterized by flatlying sedimentary rocks above clay beds underlying two major coal seams. Two aquifers overlay each under clay. Surface mining removed the upper aquifer, stripped the coal seam, and replaced the spoil, creating a new aquifer with hydraulic and chemical characteristics different from those of the original upper aquifer. Water levels were measured continuously in one well in each aquifer and every 2 months in other wells. Water levels in upper aquifers reached hydraulic equilibrium from 2 to 5 years after mining and, in middle aquifers, water levels increased more than 5 ft during mining; equilibrium occurred almost immediately thereafter. Water samples were collected from three upper aquifer wells, one middle-aquifer well, a seep from the upper aquifer, and the stream in each watershed. Samples were collected in 1986, 1987, 1988, and 1989. In both watersheds, sulfate replaced bicarbonate as the dominant anion in the upper aquifer after mining. In general, significant increases in concentrations of dissolved constituents in groundwater resulted from surface mining. The continued decrease in pH indicates that groundwater had not reached complete geochemical equilibrium in either watershed more than 8 years after mining ended

  9. Effect of the quality of water used for dialysis on the efficacy of hemodialysis: A single-center experience from Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Akhmouch


    Full Text Available The quality of the water used for dialysis has been suggested as a factor causing inflammation in patients on hemodialysis (HD. We therefore conducted this study to identify the effect of quality of the water on nutritional state, inflammation and need for human recombinant erythropoietin (EPO in patients undergoing HD at Agadir, Morocco. This prospective study included patients on HD for at least one year. The water treatment was done according to the standard protocol, which was followed by additional enhancement of ultrafiltration using an additional polysulfone filter (diasafe, Fresenius, Bad Homburg, Germany before the dialyser. Water was monitored regularly during the study period to ensure acceptable levels of bacterial count as well as endotoxin levels. Various parameters including dry weight, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (PA before and after an HD session, need for human recombinant EPO, levels of hemoglobin (Hb, albumin, ferritin, C-reactive protein (CRP, and the dose of dialysis delivered (Kt/V were measured first at the beginning of the study and thereafter, in the third, sixth and 12 th months of the study. The study involved 47 patients, and after 12 months of the study, an improvement in median dry weight (1.2 kg, P = 0017 and a simultaneous median reduction of 20.7 IU/kg/week of EPO, with an in-crease of the median level of Hb, was noted. The results of our study suggest that by improving the biocompatibility of HD with the use of good quality water, patients acquire a better nutritional, inflammatory and hematologic status.

  10. Hydrology and water quality in two mountain basins of the northeastern US: Assessing baseline conditions and effects of ski area development (United States)

    Wemple, B.; Shanley, J.; Denner, J.; Ross, D.; Mills, K.


    Mountain regions throughout the world face intense development pressures associated with recreational and tourism uses. Despite these pressures, much of the research on bio-geophysical impacts of humans in mountain regions has focused on the effects of natural resource extraction. This paper describes findings from the first 3 years of a study examining high elevation watershed processes in a region undergoing alpine resort development. Our study is designed as a paired-watershed experiment. The Ranch Brook watershed (9.6 km2) is a relatively pristine, forested watershed and serves as the undeveloped 'control' basin. West Branch (11.7 km2) encompasses an existing alpine ski resort, with approximately 17% of the basin occupied by ski trails and impervious surfaces, and an additional 7% slated for clearing and development. Here, we report results for water years 2001-2003 of streamflow and water quality dynamics for these watersheds. Precipitation increases significantly with elevation in the watersheds, and winter precipitation represents 36-46% of annual precipitation. Artificial snowmaking from water within West Branch watershed currently augments annual precipitation by only 3-4%. Water yield in the developed basin exceeded that in the control by 18-36%. Suspended sediment yield was more than two and a half times greater and fluxes of all major solutes were higher in the developed basin. Our study is the first to document the effects of existing ski area development on hydrology and water quality in the northeastern US and will serve as an important baseline for evaluating the effects of planned resort expansion activities in this area.

  11. Mycoflora and Water Quality index Assessment of Water Sources in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    water sources (31.96 - 47.31) falls within the classification “Bad” despite the slight increase during the dry season. The quality of water in the study area is poor and portends health risk; ... tributary that originates from the New Calabar River.

  12. Simulation of the effects of Devils Lake outlet alternatives on future lake levels and water quality in the Sheyenne River and Red River of the North (United States)

    Vecchia, Aldo V.


    Since 1992, Devils Lake in northeastern North Dakota has risen nearly 30 feet, destroying hundreds of homes, inundating thousands of acres of productive farmland, and costing more than $1 billion for road raises, levee construction, and other flood mitigation measures. In 2011, the lake level is expected to rise at least another 2 feet above the historical record set in 2010 (1,452.0 feet above the National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929), cresting less than 4 feet from the lake's natural spill elevation to the Sheyenne River (1,458.0 feet). In an effort to slow the rising lake and reduce the chance of an uncontrolled spill, the State of North Dakota is considering options to expand a previously constructed outlet from the west end of Devils Lake or construct a second outlet from East Devils Lake. Future outlet discharges from Devils Lake, when combined with downstream receiving waters, need to be in compliance with applicable Clean Water Act requirements. This study was completed by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the North Dakota Department of Health Division of Water Quality, to evaluate the various outlet alternatives with respect to their effect on downstream water quality and their ability to control future lake levels.

  13. Determination of water quality index and portability of Iguedo stream ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of water quality index and portability of Iguedo stream in Edo ... has been found functional in assessing the water quality of this stream based on the ... Key words: Water quality index, physicochemical parameters, Iguedo Stream.

  14. Water quality management of aquifer recharge using advanced tools. (United States)

    Lazarova, Valentina; Emsellem, Yves; Paille, Julie; Glucina, Karl; Gislette, Philippe


    Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) with recycled water or other alternative resources is one of the most rapidly growing techniques that is viewed as a necessity in water-short areas. In order to better control health and environmental effects of MAR, this paper presents two case studies demonstrating how to improve water quality, enable reliable tracing of injected water and better control and manage MAR operation in the case of indirect and direct aquifer recharge. Two water quality management strategies are illustrated on two full-scale case studies, including the results of the combination of non conventional and advanced technologies for water quality improvement, comprehensive sampling and monitoring programs including emerging pollutants, tracer studies using boron isotopes and integrative aquifer 3D GIS hydraulic and hydrodispersive modelling.

  15. A GIS policy approach for assessing the effect of fertilizers on the quality of drinking and irrigation water and wellhead protection zones (Crete, Greece). (United States)

    Kourgialas, Nektarios N; Karatzas, George P; Koubouris, Georgios C


    Fertilizers have undoubtedly contributed to the significant increase in yields worldwide and therefore to the considerable improvement of quality of life of man and animals. Today, attention is focussed on the risks imposed by agricultural fertilizers. These effects include the dissolution and transport of excess quantities of fertilizer major- and trace-elements to the groundwater that deteriorate the quality of drinking and irrigation water. In this study, a map for the Fertilizer Water Pollution Index (FWPI) was generated for assessing the impact of agricultural fertilizers on drinking and irrigation water quality. The proposed methodology was applied to one of the most intensively cultivated with tree crops area in Crete (Greece) where potential pollutant loads are derived exclusively from agricultural activities and groundwater is the main water source. In this region of 215 km 2 , groundwater sampling data from 235 wells were collected over a 15-year time period and analyzed for the presence of anionic (ΝΟ -3 , PO -3 4 ) and cationic (K +1 , Fe +2 , Mn +2 , Zn +2 , Cu +2 , B +3 ) fertilizer trace elements. These chemicals are the components of the primary fertilizers used in local tree crop production. Eight factors/maps were considered in order to estimate the spatial distribution of groundwater contamination for each fertilizer element. The eight factors combined were used to generate the Fertilizer Water Pollution Index (FWPI) map indicating the areas with drinking/irrigation water pollution due to the high groundwater contamination caused by excessive fertilizer use. Moreover, by taking into consideration the groundwater flow direction and seepage velocity, the pathway through which groundwater supply become polluted can be predicted. The groundwater quality results show that a small part of the study area, about 8 km 2 (3.72%), is polluted or moderately polluted by the excessive use of fertilizers. Considering that in this area drinking water sources

  16. Water quality management for Lake Mariout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Donia


    Full Text Available A hydrodynamic and water quality model was used to study the current status of the Lake Mariout subject to the pollution loadings from the agricultural drains and the point sources discharging directly to the Lake. The basic water quality modelling component simulates the main water quality parameters including the oxygen compounds (BOD, COD, DO, nutrients compounds (NH4, TN, TP, and finally the temperature, salinity and inorganic matter. Many scenarios have been conducted to improve the circulation and the water quality in the lake and to assess the spreading and mixing of the discharge effluents and its impact on the water quality of the main basin. Several pilot interventions were applied through the model in the Lake Mariout together with the upgrades of the East and West Waste Water Treatment Plants in order to achieve at least 5% reduction in the pollution loads entering the Mediterranean Sea through Lake Mariout in order to improve the institutional mechanisms for sustainable coastal zone management in Alexandria in particular to reduce land-based pollution to the Mediterranean Sea.

  17. Socio-economic effect on socially-deprived communities of developing drinking water quality problems in arid and semi-arid area of central Rajasthan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Husain


    Full Text Available Rajasthan is well known for its Great Thar desert. Central Rajasthan has an arid to semi-arid environment. The area faces either scarcity of water or poor quality of drinking water. In some areas water is transported 2 km or more, which uses time, energy and money. Rich people have their own sources, which is restricted for use by others. Such conditions are affecting socially-deprived communities, both socially and economically. Groundwater is a major source of drinking water due to the unavailability of surface water. There is a lack of groundwater quality knowledge in the community and the data available is hard to understand by consumers. The CCME Water Quality Index is a tool to simplify the water quality report by rating the water on quality standards. It provides meaningful summaries of overall water quality and trends, which is accessible to non-technical lay people. In the present study the objective is to examine the groundwater quality of six districts (Ajmer, Bhilwara, Pali, Rajasamand, Nagaur and Jodhpur, centrally located in Rajasthan, with arid and semi-arid conditions. CCME WQI is also evaluated to produce quality data in a form to be understood by the community. A total of 4369 groundwater sources in 1680 villages from six districts (76 546 km2 were collected and examined. Results are outlined in the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS: 10500, 2012 and 2952 sources are unsafe for drinking. According to CCME WQI groundwater of 93 villages is poor, 343 villages are marginal, and 369 villages are fair in quality. Toxicological studies of unsafe drinking water and their remedial measures are also discussed. A tentative correlation between prevailing water-borne diseases and quality parameter has also been shown

  18. Water quality of Flag Boshielo Dam, Olifants River, South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increasing demands for water, discharge of effluents, and variable rainfall have a negative impact on water quality in the Olifants River. Crocodile and fish mortalities attributed to pansteatitis, in Loskop Dam and downstream in the Kruger National Park (KNP), have highlighted the serious effects these impacts are having on ...

  19. Investigating the effects of point source and nonpoint source pollution on the water quality of the East River (Dongjiang) in South China (United States)

    Wu, Yiping; Chen, Ji


    Understanding the physical processes of point source (PS) and nonpoint source (NPS) pollution is critical to evaluate river water quality and identify major pollutant sources in a watershed. In this study, we used the physically-based hydrological/water quality model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool, to investigate the influence of PS and NPS pollution on the water quality of the East River (Dongjiang in Chinese) in southern China. Our results indicate that NPS pollution was the dominant contribution (>94%) to nutrient loads except for mineral phosphorus (50%). A comprehensive Water Quality Index (WQI) computed using eight key water quality variables demonstrates that water quality is better upstream than downstream despite the higher level of ammonium nitrogen found in upstream waters. Also, the temporal (seasonal) and spatial distributions of nutrient loads clearly indicate the critical time period (from late dry season to early wet season) and pollution source areas within the basin (middle and downstream agricultural lands), which resource managers can use to accomplish substantial reduction of NPS pollutant loadings. Overall, this study helps our understanding of the relationship between human activities and pollutant loads and further contributes to decision support for local watershed managers to protect water quality in this region. In particular, the methods presented such as integrating WQI with watershed modeling and identifying the critical time period and pollutions source areas can be valuable for other researchers worldwide.

  20. Effect of single- and two-cycle high hydrostatic pressure treatments on water properties, physicochemical and microbial qualities of minimally processed squids (todarodes pacificus). (United States)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Jiao, Shunshan; Lian, Zixuan; Deng, Yun; Zhao, Yanyun


    This study investigated the effect of single- and two-cycle high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatments on water properties, physicochemical, and microbial qualities of squids (Todarodes pacificus) during 4 °C storage for up to 10 d. Single-cycle treatments were applied at 200, 400, or 600 MPa for 20 min (S-200, S-400, and S-600), and two-cycle treatments consisted of two 10 min cycles at 200, 400, or 600 MPa, respectively (T-200, T-400, and T-600). HHP-treated samples had higher (P pressure level caused no significant difference in water state of squids. The two-cycle HHP treatment was more effective in controlling total volatile basic nitrogen, pH, and total plate counts (TPC) of squids during storage, in which TPC of S-600 and T-600 was 2.9 and 1.8 log CFU/g at 10 d, respectively, compared with 7.5 log CFU/g in control. HHP treatments delayed browning discoloration of the squids during storage, and the higher pressure level and two-cycle HHP were more effective. Water properties highly corresponded with color and texture indices of squids. This study demonstrated that the two-cycle HHP treatment was more effective in controlling microbial growth and quality deterioration while having similar impact on the physicochemical and water properties of squids in comparison with the single-cycle treatment, thus more desirable for extending shelf-life of fresh squids. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Klang River water quality modelling using music (United States)

    Zahari, Nazirul Mubin; Zawawi, Mohd Hafiz; Muda, Zakaria Che; Sidek, Lariyah Mohd; Fauzi, Nurfazila Mohd; Othman, Mohd Edzham Fareez; Ahmad, Zulkepply


    Water is an essential resource that sustains life on earth; changes in the natural quality and distribution of water have ecological impacts that can sometimes be devastating. Recently, Malaysia is facing many environmental issues regarding water pollution. The main causes of river pollution are rapid urbanization, arising from the development of residential, commercial, industrial sites, infrastructural facilities and others. The purpose of the study was to predict the water quality of the Connaught Bridge Power Station (CBPS), Klang River. Besides that, affects to the low tide and high tide and. to forecast the pollutant concentrations of the Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Total Suspended Solid (TSS) for existing land use of the catchment area through water quality modeling (by using the MUSIC software). Besides that, to identifying an integrated urban stormwater treatment system (Best Management Practice or BMPs) to achieve optimal performance in improving the water quality of the catchment using the MUSIC software in catchment areas having tropical climates. Result from MUSIC Model such as BOD5 at station 1 can be reduce the concentration from Class IV to become Class III. Whereas, for TSS concentration from Class III to become Class II at the station 1. The model predicted a mean TSS reduction of 0.17%, TP reduction of 0.14%, TN reduction of 0.48% and BOD5 reduction of 0.31% for Station 1 Thus, from the result after purposed BMPs the water quality is safe to use because basically water quality monitoring is important due to threat such as activities are harmful to aquatic organisms and public health.

  2. 40 CFR 130.6 - Water quality management plans. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality management plans. 130.6... QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.6 Water quality management plans. (a) Water quality management (WQM... and certified and approved updates to those plans. Continuing water quality planning shall be based...

  3. Effects of streambank fencing of pasture land on benthic macroinvertebrates and the quality of surface water and shallow ground water in the Big Spring Run basin of Mill Creek watershed, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, 1993-2001 (United States)

    Galeone, Daniel G.; Brightbill, Robin A.; Low, Dennis J.; O'Brien, David L.


    Streambank fencing along stream channels in pastured areas and the exclusion of pasture animals from the channel are best-management practices designed to reduce nutrient and suspended-sediment yields from drainage basins. Establishment of vegetation in the fenced area helps to stabilize streambanks and provides better habitat for wildlife in and near the stream. This study documented the effectiveness of a 5- to 12-foot-wide buffer strip on the quality of surface water and near-stream ground water in a 1.42-mi2 treatment basin in Lancaster County, Pa. Two miles of stream were fenced in the basin in 1997 following a 3- to 4-year pre-treatment period of monitoring surface- and ground-water variables in the treatment and control basins. Changes in surface- and ground-water quality were monitored for about 4 years after fence installation. To alleviate problems in result interpretation associated with climatic and hydrologic variation over the study period, a nested experimental design including paired-basin and upstream/downstream components was used to study the effects of fencing on surface-water quality and benthic-macroinvertebrate communities. Five surface-water sites, one at the outlet of a 1.77-mi2 control basin (C-1), two sites in the treatment basin (T-3 and T-4) that were above any fence installation, and two sites (one at an upstream tributary site (T-2) and one at the outlet (T-1)) that were treated, were sampled intensively. Low-flow samples were collected at each site (approximately 25-30 per year at each site), and stormflow was sampled with automatic samplers at all sites except T-3. For each site where stormflow was sampled, from 35 to 60 percent of the storm events were sampled over the entire study period. Surface-water sites were sampled for analyses of nutrients, suspended sediment, and fecal streptococcus (only low-flow samples), with field parameters (only low-flow samples) measured during sample collection. Benthic-macroinvertebrate samples

  4. Multiple stressor effects on water quality in Poplar Bay, Lake of the Woods, Canada: a midge-based assessment of hypolimnetic oxygen conditions over the last two centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie C. Summers


    Full Text Available Chironomid and Chaoborus (midge remains preserved in a dated sediment core from Poplar Bay, Lake of the Woods (LOW, Ontario, Canada, were used to assess the effects of multiple stressors (e.g., recent warming and shoreline development on water quality over the past ~200 years. As monitoring data for LOW do not extend beyond recent decades, paleolimnological methods are used to reconstruct long-term limnological trends and to establish pre-disturbance conditions. The effects of recent warming and shoreline development on Poplar Bay water quality are examined using an index of hypolimnetic oxygen (O2 status based on the ratio of Chaoborus to chironomid remains (chaob:chir and a midge-inferred volume-we