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Sample records for water quality bottom

  1. Preliminary water quality assessment of Spunky Bottoms restored wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Guang; Eilts, Kristen; Kelley, Timothy R; Webb, James W

    2009-02-15

    The approximately 1200-acre "Spunky Bottoms" wetland in Southern Illinois has been undergoing restoration to conditions prior to levying of the Illinois River and draining of adjacent floodplain for intensive agriculture (circa 1900). As part of a long-term water quality impact assessment of this restoration project, baseline water quality monitoring was conducted soon after restoration began. During this baseline/preliminary assessment, water samples were taken every 2-4 weeks from 10 sampling wells and seven surface water sites throughout the wetlands area for a period of 18 months. Measured parameters include nutrients (nitrate (NO3-) and phosphate (PO4(3-)), cations and anions (SO4(2-), Cl-, Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+) commonly found in surface and well water, trace metals (Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Zn), total dissolved solids (TDS), pH, and trace organics (triazine herbicides and their metabolites). In general, highest concentrations of ions were found in the southwest and northeast perimeter of the wetland area for both surface and ground water samples. Primarily low concentrations of heavy metals and organic compounds were found throughout the wetland sampling area. Distribution of NO3--N suggests that this restored wetland, even at its infant age, may still contribute to biogeochemical (particularly N) element cycling. Continued monitoring and further research is necessary to determine long-term specific contribution of restored wetland to biogeochemical cycles.

  2. Chemical quality of water and bottom sediment, Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge, Lahontan Valley, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thodal, Carl E.

    2017-12-28

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service collected data on water and bottom-sediment chemistry to be used to evaluate a new water rights acquisition program designed to enhance wetland habitat in Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge and in Lahontan Valley, Churchill County, Nevada. The area supports habitat critical to the feeding and resting of migratory birds travelling the Pacific Flyway. Information about how water rights acquisitions may affect the quality of water delivered to the wetlands is needed by stakeholders and Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge managers in order to evaluate the effectiveness of this approach to wetlands management. A network of six sites on waterways that deliver the majority of water to Refuge wetlands was established to monitor the quality of streamflow and bottom sediment. Each site was visited every 4 to 6 weeks and selected water-quality field parameters were measured when flowing water was present. Water samples were collected at varying frequencies and analyzed for major ions, silica, and organic carbon, and for selected species of nitrogen and phosphorus, trace elements, pharmaceuticals, and other trace organic compounds. Bottom-sediment samples were collected for analysis of selected trace elements.Dissolved-solids concentrations exceeded the recommended criterion for protection of aquatic life (500 milligrams per liter) in 33 of 62 filtered water samples. The maximum arsenic criterion (340 micrograms per liter) was exceeded twice and the continuous criterion was exceeded seven times. Criteria protecting aquatic life from continuous exposure to aluminum, cadmium, lead, and mercury (87, 0.72, 2.5, and 0.77 micrograms per liter, respectively) were exceeded only once in filtered samples (27, 40, 32, and 36 samples, respectively). Mercury was the only trace element analyzed in bottom-sediment samples to exceed the published probable effect concentration (1,060 micrograms per kilogram).

  3. Ground-Water Flow, 2004-07, and Water Quality, 1992-2007, in McBaine Bottoms, Columbia, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brenda Joyce; Richards, Joseph M.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Columbia, Missouri, and the Missouri Department of Conservation, collected ground-water quality data, surface-water quality data, and water-level data in McBaine Bottoms, southwest of Columbia. McBaine Bottoms, adjacent to the Missouri River, is the location of the municipal-supply well field for the city of Columbia, the city of Columbia wastewater-treatment wetlands, and the Missouri Department of Conservation Eagle Bluffs Conservation Area. This report describes the ground-water flow and water quality of McBaine Bottoms and provides information to better understand the interaction between treated effluent from the wetlands used on the Eagle Bluffs Conservation Area and the water in the alluvial aquifer that is pumped from the city of Columbia municipal-supply well field. Changes in major chemical constituent concentrations have been detected at several sampling sites between pre- and post-effluent application data. Analysis of post-effluent data indicates substantial changes in calcium, potassium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate concentrations in ground water. These changes became apparent shortly after the beginning of the operation of the wastewater-treatment wetland in 1994 and the formation of the Eagle Bluffs Conservation Area, which uses the treated effluent as a water source for the management of migratory water fowl. The changes have continued throughout the 15 years of sample collection. The concentrations of these major chemical constituents are on the mixing continuum between pre-effluent ground water as one end member and the treated wastewater effluent as the other end member. For monitoring wells that had changes in major chemical constituent concentrations, the relative percentage of treated effluent in the ground water, assuming chloride is conservative, ranged from 6 to 88 percent. Twenty-two monitoring wells throughout McBaine Bottoms have been affected by effluent based on chloride

  4. Field screening of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Yuma Valley, Arizona, 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadayon, Saeid; King, K.A.; Andrews, Brenda; Roberts, William

    1997-01-01

    Because of concerns expressed by the U.S. Congress and the environmental community, the Department of the Interior began a program in late 1985 to identify the nature and extent of water-quality problems induced by irrigation that might exist in the western States. Surface water, bottom sediment, and biota were collected from March through September 1995 along the lower Colorado River and in agricultural drains at nine sites in the Yuma Valley, Arizona, and analyzed for selected inorganic and organic constituents. Analyses of water, bottom sediment, and biota were completed to determine if irrigation return flow has caused, or has the potential to cause, harmful effects on human health, fish, and wildlife in the study area. Concentrations of dissolved solids in surface-water samples collected in March generally did not vary substantially from surface-water samples collected in June. Concentrations of dissolved solids ranged from 712 to 3,000 milligrams per liter and exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary maximum contaminant level of 500 milligrams per liter for drinking water. Concentrations of chloride in 9 of 18 water samples and concentrations of sulfate in 16 of 18 water samples exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary maximum contaminant level of 250 milligrams per liter for drinking water. Calcium and sodium were the dominant cations, and chloride and sulfate were the dominant anions. The maximum selenium concentration of 8 micrograms per liter exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency aquatic-life chronic criterion of 5 micrograms per liter. Concentrations of lead in 7 of 18 water samples and concentrations of mercury in 4 of 18 water samples exceeded the aquatic-life cronic criteria of 3.2 and 0.012 micrograms per liter, respectively. Concentrations of antimony, beryllium, cadmium, and silver in the water samples were below analytical reporting limits. Arsenic was detected in 3 of 9 bottom-sediment samples

  5. Town Lake bottom sediments : a chronicle of water quality changes in Austin, Texas, 1960-98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Mahler, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    Town Lake, the last in the chain of Highland Lakes on the Colorado River, runs through the center of Austin, Texas. On any given day, grebes and coots dot the water, rowers skim alongside, and the sparkle of the sun on the water can be admired from the adjacent hike and bike path and from the windows of nearby office buildings. During the summer months, crowds gather along the shores of Town Lake to watch as many as 1 million Mexican Free-Tail bats emerge from under the Congress Avenue bridge. But below the lazily moving azure water lies a bed of sediment about 1 meter (m) thick?sediment that has been deposited gradually since the reservoir was formed in 1959 and that has been recording changes in water quality since that time. What can this sediment tell us about the history of water quality in the Colorado River? And what does it say about the effects of the rapid urbanization of Austin and the future health of our environment?

  6. Hydrogeology and chemical quality of water and bottom sediment at three stormwater detention ponds, Pinellas County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Mario; Hutchinson, C.B.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation of three detention ponds in Pinellas County, Florida indicated little potential for chemical contamination of surficial-aquifer ground water; however, concentrations of contami- nants in some sediments are sufficient to indicate possible hazardous levels of bioconcentration in benthic organisms. The general direction of ground- water movement at three pond sites indicates that the ponds are ground-water discharge points. Shallow ground water tends to move laterally toward these ponds, which have surface outflow, instead of from the ponds into the aquifer. Surface-water and pond-sediment samples from a 1-year-old pond were collected and analyzed for inorganic constituents and organic compounds. The concentrations were either near or below analytical detection limits. Surface-water and pond-sediment samples from the other two ponds, 20- and 30-years old, respectively, also were analyzed for inorganic constituents and organic compounds. The water quality of these older ponds was not significantly different from that of the 1-year-old pond. However, bottom sediments in the 20- and 30-year-old ponds contained 16 and 23 organic compounds, respectively. None of the organic compounds were in sufficient concentrations to cause concern about their chronic effects on aquatic life. Concentrations of dichlordiphenyl-trichlorethane, dieldrin, and heptachlor were above the hazardous level with respect to bioconcentration in the food chain.

  7. Pairing top-down and bottom-up approaches to analyze catchment scale management of water quality and quantity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovette, J. P.; Duncan, J. M.; Band, L. E.

    2016-12-01

    Watershed management requires information on the hydrologic impacts of local to regional land use, land cover and infrastructure conditions. Management of runoff volumes, storm flows, and water quality can benefit from large scale, "top-down" screening tools, using readily available information, as well as more detailed, "bottom-up" process-based models that explicitly track local runoff production and routing from sources to receiving water bodies. Regional scale data, available nationwide through the NHD+, and top-down models based on aggregated catchment information provide useful tools for estimating regional patterns of peak flows, volumes and nutrient loads at the catchment level. Management impacts can be estimated with these models, but have limited ability to resolve impacts beyond simple changes to land cover proportions. Alternatively, distributed process-based models provide more flexibility in modeling management impacts by resolving spatial patterns of nutrient source, runoff generation, and uptake. This bottom-up approach can incorporate explicit patterns of land cover, drainage connectivity, and vegetation extent, but are typically applied over smaller areas. Here, we first model peak flood flows and nitrogen loads across North Carolina's 70,000 NHD+ catchments using USGS regional streamflow regression equations and the SPARROW model. We also estimate management impact by altering aggregated sources in each of these models. To address the missing spatial implications of the top-down approach, we further explore the demand for riparian buffers as a management strategy, simulating the accumulation of nutrient sources along flow paths and the potential mitigation of these sources through forested buffers. We use the Regional Hydro-Ecological Simulation System (RHESSys) to model changes across several basins in North Carolina's Piedmont and Blue Ridge regions, ranging in size from 15 - 1,130 km2. The two approaches provide a complementary set of tools

  8. A bottom-up approach of stochastic demand allocation in water quality modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blokker, E.J.M.; Vreeburg, J.H.G.; Beverloo, H.; Klein Arfman, M.; Van Dijk, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    An “all pipes” hydraulic model of a drinking water distribution system was constructed with two types of demand allocations. One is constructed with the conventional top-down approach, i.e. a demand multiplier pattern from the booster station is allocated to all demand nodes with a correction factor

  9. A bottom-up approach of stochastic demand allocation in water quality modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blokker, E.J.M.; Vreeburg, J.H.G.; Beverloo, H.; Klein Arfman, M.; Van Dijk, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    An “all pipes” hydraulic model of a DMA-sized drinking water distribution system was onstructed with two types of demand allocations. One is constructed with the conventional op-down approach, i.e. a demand multiplier pattern from the booster station is llocated to all demand nodes with a correction

  10. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in and near Stillwater Wildlife Management Area, Churchill County, Nevada, 1986-87

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, R.J.; Hallock, R.J.; Rowe, T.G.; Lico, M.S.; Burge, H.L.; Thompson, S.P.

    1990-01-01

    A reconnaissance was initiated in 1986 to determine whether the quality of irrigation-drainage water in and near the Stillwater Wildlife Management Area, Nevada, has caused or has potential to cause harmful effects on human health, fish, wildlife, or other beneficial uses of water. Samples of surface and groundwater, bottom sediment, and biota were collected from sites upstream and downstream from the Fallon agricultural area in the Carson Desert, and analyzed for potentially toxic trace elements. Other analysis included radioactive substances, major dissolved constituents, and nutrients in water, and pesticide residues in bottom sediment and biota. In areas affected by irrigation drainage, the following constituents were found to commonly exceed baseline concentrations or recommended criteria for protection of aquatic life or propagation of wildlife: In water, arsenic, boron, dissolved solids, molybdenum, sodium, and un-ionized ammonia; in bottom sediments, arsenic, lithium, mercury, molybdenum, and selenium; and in biota, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, mercury, selenium, and zinc. In some wetlands, selenium and mercury appeared to be biomagnified, and arsenic bioaccumulated. Pesticides contamination in bottom sediments and biota was insignificant. Adverse biological effects observed during this reconnaissance included gradual vegetative changes and species loss, fish die-offs, waterfowl disease epidemics, and persistent and unexplained deaths of migratory birds. (USGS)

  11. Field screening of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in and near Walker River Indian Reservation, Nevada 1994-95

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thodal, Carl E.; Tuttle, Peter L.

    1996-01-01

    A study was begun in 1994 to determine whether the quality of irrigation drainage from the Walker River Indian Reservation, Nevada, has caused or has potential to cause harmful effects on human health or on fish and wildlife, or may adversely affect the suitability of the Walker River for other beneficial uses. Samples of water, bottom sediment, and biota were collected during June-August 1994 (during a drought year) from sites upstream from and on the Walker River Indian Reservation for analyses of trace elements. Other analyses included physical characteristics, major dissolved constituents, selected species of water-soluble nitrogen and phosphorus, and selected pesticides in bottom sediment. Water samples were collected again from four sites on the Reservation in August 1995 (during a wetterthan- average year) to provide data for comparing extreme climatic conditions. Water samples collected from the Walker River Indian Reservation in 1994 equaled or exceeded the Nevada water-quality standard or level of concern for at least one of the following: water temperature, pH, dissolved solids, unionized ammonia, phosphate, arsenic, boron, chromium, lead, and molybdenum; in 1995, only a single sample from one site exceeded a Nevada water-quality standard for molybdenum. Levels of concern for trace elements in bottom sediment collected in 1994 were equaled or exceeded for arsenic, iron, manganese, and zinc. Concentrations of organochiorine pesticide residues in bottom sediment were below analytical reporting limits. Levels of concern for trace-elements in samples of biota were equaled or exceeded for arsenic, boron, copper, and mercury. Results of toxicity testing indicate that only water samples from Walker Lake caused a toxic response in test bacteria. Arsenic and boron concentrations in water, bottom sediment, and biological tissue exceeded levels of concern throughout the Walker River Basin, but most commonly in the lower Walker River Basin. Mercury also was elevated

  12. Assessment of Near-Bottom Water Quality of Southwestern Coast of Sarawak, Borneo, Malaysia: A Multivariate Statistical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Lin Soo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study on Sarawak coastal water quality is scarce, not to mention the application of the multivariate statistical approach to investigate the spatial variation of water quality and to identify the pollution source in Sarawak coastal water. Hence, the present study aimed to evaluate the spatial variation of water quality along the coastline of the southwestern region of Sarawak using multivariate statistical techniques. Seventeen physicochemical parameters were measured at 11 stations along the coastline with approximately 225 km length. The coastal water quality showed spatial heterogeneity where the cluster analysis grouped the 11 stations into four different clusters. Deterioration in coastal water quality has been observed in different regions of Sarawak corresponding to land use patterns in the region. Nevertheless, nitrate-nitrogen exceeded the guideline value at all sampling stations along the coastline. The principal component analysis (PCA has determined a reduced number of five principal components that explained 89.0% of the data set variance. The first PC indicated that the nutrients were the dominant polluting factors, which is attributed to the domestic, agricultural, and aquaculture activities, followed by the suspended solids in the second PC which are related to the logging activities.

  13. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Dolores Project area, southwestern Colorado and southeastern Utah, 1990-91

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, D.L.; Krueger, R.P.; Osmundson, B.C.; Jensen, E.G.

    1995-01-01

    Water, bottom-sediment, and biota samples were collected in 1990-91 to identify water-quality problems associated with irrigation drainage in the Dolores Project area. Concentrations of cadmium, mercury, and selenium in some water samples exceeded aquatic-life criteria. Selenium was associated with irrigaton drainage from the Dolores Project, but other trace elements may be transported into the area in the irrigation water supply. Selenium concentrations exceeded the chronic aquatic-life criterion in water samples from lower McElmo Creek and Navajo Wash, which drain the Montezuma Valley, from newly irrigated areas, and from the Mancos River. The maximum selenium con- centration in water was 88 micrograms per liter from Navajo Wash. Concentrations of herbicides in water were less than concentrations harmful to aquatic life. Selenium concentrations in four bottom-sediment samples exceeded the baseline concentrations for soils in the Western United States. The largest selenium concentrations in biota were in samples from Navajo Wash, from newly irrigated areas north of the Montezuma Valley, and from the Mancos River basin. Selenium concentrations in aquatic-invertebrate samples from the newly irrigated areas exceeded a guideline for food items consumed by fish and wildlife. Selenium concen- trations in whole-body suckers were larger in the San Juan River downstream from the Dolores Project than upstream from the project at Four Corners. Selenium concentrations in fathead minnow samples from two sites were at adverse-effect levels. Mercury concentrations in warm-water game fish in reservoirs in the study area may be of concern to human health. Some concentrations of other trace elements exceeded background concentrations, but the concentrations were not toxicologically significant or the toxicologic significance is not known.

  14. BOTTOM DEPOSITS OF STRATIFIED, SEEPAGE, URBAN LAKE (ON EXAMPLE OF TYRSKO LAKE, POLAND AS A FACTOR POTENTIALLY SHAPING LAKE WATER QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Augustyniak

    2017-09-01

    The obtained results revealed, that bottom sediment of Tyrsko Lake can be classified as mixed, silica-organic type, with quite high content of iron (over 4% Fe in d.w.. The total phosphorus content was ca. 3.5 mg P g-1 d.w. on average. Phosphorus in bottom sediment was bound mainly with organic matter (NaOH-nrP fraction, which had over 50% share in TP. Easy mobile fractions (NH4-Cl-P and BD-P together included ca 5% to 7 % TP only. The obtained results show, that bottom sediment of Tyrsko Lake can bind phosphorus quite effectively. Calculated internal mineral phosphorus loading during summer stagnation period was 10.9 kg P and it was lower that the assessed annual external phosphorus load (22.6 kg P y-1. The assessed annual phosphorus loading from both sources still was lower than critical load according to Vollenweider criteria. But due to the fact that internal loading phenomenon is occurring in the lake it should be taken into consideration that the lake water quality can deteriorate gradually during the longer time perspective. These findings should be taken into consideration in the future if the potential protection and restoration procedures will be developed.

  15. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the American Falls Reservoir area, Idaho, 1988-89

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Walton H.; Mullins, William H.

    1990-01-01

    Increased concern about the quality of irrigation drainage and its potential effects on human health, fish, and wildlife prompted the Department of the Interior to begin a program during late 1985 to identify irrigation-induced water-quality problems that might exist in the Western States. During `988, the Task Group on Irrigation Drainage selected the American Falls Reservoir area, Idaho, for study to determine whether potentially toxic concentrations of trace elements or organochlorine compounds existed in water, bottom sediment, and biota. The 91-square mile American Falls Reservoir has a total capacity of 1.7 million acre-feet and is used primarily for irrigation-water supply and power generation. Irrigated land upstream from the reservoir totals about 550,000 acres. Total water inflow to the reservoir is about 5.8 million acre-feet per year, of which about 63 percent is from surface-water runoff, 33 percent is from ground-water discharge, and about 4 percent is from ungaged tributaries, canals, ditches, sloughs, and precipitation. Ground-water discharge to the reservoir originates, in part, from irrigation of land upstream from and adjacent to the reservoir. The 1988 water year was a drought year, and water discharge was about 34 percent less than during 1939-88. Water samples were collected during the post-irrigation (October 1987) and irrigation (July 1988) seasons and were analyzed for major ions and trace elements. Bottom-sediment samples were collected during the irrigation season and were analyzed for trace elements and organochlorine compounds. Biota samples were collected during May, June, July, and August 1988 and were analyzed for trace elements and organochlorine compounds. Dissolved-solids concentrations in water ranged from 216 to 561 milligrams per liter. The similarity of dissolved-solids concentrations between the irrigation and post-irrigation seasons can be attributed to the large volume of ground-water discharge in the study area. Most trace

  16. Assessing the quality of bottom water temperatures from the Finite-Volume Community Ocean Model (FVCOM) in the Northwest Atlantic Shelf region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bai; Tanaka, Kisei R.; Chen, Yong; Brady, Damian C.; Thomas, Andrew C.

    2017-09-01

    The Finite-Volume Community Ocean Model (FVCOM) is an advanced coastal circulation model widely utilized for its ability to simulate spatially and temporally evolving three-dimensional geophysical conditions of complex and dynamic coastal regions. While a body of literature evaluates model skill in surface fields, independent studies validating model skill in bottom fields over large spatial and temporal scales are scarce because these fields cannot be remotely sensed. In this study, an evaluation of FVCOM skill in modeling bottom water temperature was conducted by comparison to hourly in situ observed bottom temperatures recorded by the Environmental Monitors on Lobster Traps (eMOLT), a program that attached thermistors to commercial lobster traps from 2001 to 2013. Over 2 × 106 pairs of FVCOM-eMOLT records were evaluated by a series of statistical measures to quantify accuracy and precision of the modeled data across the Northwest Atlantic Shelf region. The overall comparison between modeled and observed data indicates reliable skill of FVCOM (r2 = 0.72; root mean squared error = 2.28 °C). Seasonally, the average absolute errors show higher model skill in spring, fall and winter than summer. We speculate that this is due to the increased difficulty of modeling high frequency variability in the exact position of the thermocline and frontal zones. The spatial patterns of the residuals suggest that there is improved similarity between modeled and observed data at higher latitudes. We speculate that this is due to increased tidal mixing at higher latitudes in our study area that reduces stratification in winter, allowing improved model accuracy. Modeled bottom water temperatures around Cape Cod, the continental shelf edges, and at one location at the entrance to Penobscot Bay were characterized by relatively high errors. Constraints for future uses of FVCOM bottom water temperature are provided based on the uncertainties in temporal-spatial patterns. This study is

  17. Water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquatic animals are healthiest and grow best when environmental conditions are within certain ranges that define, for a particular species, “good” water quality. From the outset, successful aquaculture requires a high-quality water supply. Water quality in aquaculture systems also deteriorates as an...

  18. Bottom Backscattering Strengths Measured in Shallow and Deep Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-18

    Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/7160--17-9701 Bottom Backscattering Strengths Measured in Shallow and Deep Water January...LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Bottom Backscattering Strengths Measured in Shallow and Deep Water Roger C. Gauss,1 Edward L. Kunz,1 Joseph M. Fialkowski...2 3 B2001 (SHALLOW WATER − NEW JERSEY SHELF) .............................. 4

  19. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Kendrick Reclamation Project Area, Wyoming, 1986-87

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, D.A.; Jones, W.E.; Morton, A.G.

    1988-01-01

    A reconnaissance investigation of the Kendrick Reclamation Project in central Wyoming was conducted during 1986-87 to determine if irrigation drainage has caused or has the potential to cause harmful effects on human health, fish, and wildlife, or other water uses. The investigation of the Kendrick Reclamation Project is one of nine similar investigations being conducted in the western conterminous United States as part of the Department of the Interior 's Irrigation Drainage Program. Samples of surface water were collected at 10 sites and ground water at 5 sites. Surface-water analyses included trace elements, radiochemicals, and pesticides. Concentrations in the water generally were less than national standards for public water supplies, with the exception of selenium. The median concentration of dissolved selenium was 7.5 microgm/L in 24 samples of surface and groundwater. Of the 11 samples that contained dissolved- selenium concentrations greater than the national standard for public water supplies of 10 microgm/L, 10 of the samples were collected at sites on streams that are not used for public water supplies; the eleventh sample was collected from a shallow well. Dissolved-selenium concentrations ranged from less than 1 to 300 microgm/L. Concentrations of dissolved selenium in the North Platte River, which supplies drinking water for several municipalities, ranged from less than 1 to 4 microgm/L. The dissolved-selenium concentration and selenium discharge in the North Platte River increased in the downstream direction. The four principal tributaries that receive drainage from the Kendrick Reclamation Project contributed substantially to the increase in selenium concentration and discharge in the North Platte River. Bottom-sediment samples from the North Platte River contained selenium contents of 1.2 microgm/g or less. (Author 's abstract)

  20. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the middle Green River basin, Utah, 1986-87

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, D.W.; Waddell, Bruce; Miller, J.B.

    1988-01-01

    Reconnaissance of wildlife areas in the middle Green River basin of Utah was conducted during 1986 and 1987 to determine whether irrigation drainage has caused, or has the potential to cause significant harmful effects on human health, fish, and wildlife, or may adversely affect the suitability of water for beneficial uses. Studies at Stewart Lake Waterfowl Management Area and Ouray National Wildlife Refuge indicated that concentrations of boron, selenium, and zinc in water, bottom sediment, and biological tissue were sufficiently large to be harmful to fish and wildlife, and to adversely affect beneficial uses of water. Selenium is the principal element of concern in both areas. Concentrations of dissolved selenium in irrigation drain water entering Stewart Lake Waterfowl Management Area ranged from 14-140 micrograms/L (ug/L) and consistently exceeded Utah standards for wildlife protection in water in two of the four drains. Concentrations of boron and zinc exceeded Utah standards only occasionally in the drain waters. Concentrations of total selenium in sediments collected where the drains discharge into the lake were 10-85 ug/gm. Liver tissue collected from American coots at Stewart Lake Waterfowl Management Area contained concentrations of selenium from 4.9-26 ug/gm (dry weight), and whole body samples of carp contained as much as 31 ug/gm (dry weight). Concentrations of selenium in Potamogeton and blue-green algae ranged from 2.1-27 ug/gm. Concentrations of boron, selenium, and zinc were also measured in water from Ouray National Wildlife Refuge. Liver tissue of American coots from the North Roadside Pond, which receives irrigation tailwater, contained a geometric-mean concentration of selenium of 32 ug/gm (dry weight). Five water-bird eggs collected from the North and South Roadside Ponds contained selenium concentrations of 63-120 ug/gm (dry weight). (Lantz-PTT)

  1. Chemicals of emerging concern in water and bottom sediment in the Great Lakes Basin, 2012: collection methods, analytical methods, quality assurance, and study data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kathy E.; Langer, Susan K.; Menheer, Michael A.; Hansen, Donald S.; Foreman, William T.; Furlong, Edward T.; Jorgenson, Zachary G.; Choy, Steven J.; Moore, Jeremy N.; Banda, JoAnn; Gefell, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    In synoptic surveys of surface-water quality across the United States, a large group of organic chemicals associated with agricultural, household, and industrial waste have been detected. These chemicals are referred to collectively as chemicals of emerging concern (CECs) and include prescription drugs and antibiotics, over-the-counter medications, reproductive hormones, personal-care products, detergent metabolites, and flame retardants.

  2. Detailed study of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Klamath Basin, California and Oregon, 1990-92

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dileanis, P.D.; Schwarzbach, S.E.; Bennett, Jewel

    1996-01-01

    The effect of irrigation drainage on the water quality and wildlife of the Klamath Basin in California and Oregon was evaluated during 1990-92 as part of the National Irrigation Water Quality Program of the U.S. Department of the Interior. The study focused on land serviced by the Bureau of Reclamation Klamath Project, which supplies irrigation water to agricultural land in the Klamath Basin and the Lost River Basin. The Tule Lake and Lower Klamath National Wildlife Refuges, managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, are in the study area. These refuges provide critical resting and breeding habitat for waterfowl on the Pacific flyway and are dependent on irrigation drainwater from upstream agriculture for most of their water supply. Water-quality characteristics throughout the study area were typical of highly eutrophic systems during the summer months of 1991 and 1992. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations and pH tended to fluctuate each day in response to diurnal patterns of photosynthesis, and frequently exceeded criteria for protection of aquatic organisms. Nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were generally at or above threshold levels characteristic of eutrophic lakes and streams. At most sites the bulk of dissolved nitrogen was organically bound. Elevated ammonia concentrations were common in the study area, especially down- stream of drain inputs. High pH of water increased the toxicity of ammonia, and concentrations exceeded criteria at sites upstream and downstream of irrigated land. Concentrations of ammonia in samples from small drains on the Tule Lake refuge leaseland were higher than those measured in the larger, integrating drains at primary monitoring sites. The mean ammonia concentration in leaseland drains [1.21 milligrams per liter (mg/L)] was significantly higher than the mean concentration in canals delivering water to the leaseland fields (0.065 mg/L) and higher than concentrations reported to be lethal to Daphnia magna (median lethal

  3. MODIS-derived spatiotemporal water clarity patterns in optically shallow FloridaKeys waters: A new approach to remove bottom contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retrievals of water quality parameters from satellite measurements over optically shallow waters have been problematic due to bottom contamination of the signals. As a result, large errors are associated with derived water column properties. These deficiencies greatly reduce the ...

  4. A Study on the Environmental Standard of Sediment on the Bottom of the Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Hee; Yoo, Hye Jin [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    Sediment on the bottom of the water has been considered one of the water pollutants in the environmental management of Korea so treated as a management on pollutants, as you can see the examples in the dragging operation in the polluted sea area. To healthily maintain and conserve the water ecosystem including bottom living things in the water, sediment on the bottom of the water should be recognized as the independent medium, which should maintain the certain quality like the water, the atmosphere, and soil, rather than the source of water pollution. Such recognition means that the management of sediment on the bottom of the water should change the fragmentary goal, centered the post management focusing on the water management, to the ecosystematic goal including the bottom living things. In a point of the view, this study has a great significance to suggest not only the final goal for the management of sediment on the bottom of the water but also the necessity of developing the environmental standard of the sediment on the bottom of the water, which is a standard of the management or judgment in the actual managing the sediment on the bottom of the water - an estimation on the pollution of sediment, a removal of the polluted sediment, a purification of sediment, and an abandonment of the dragged sediment -, and the development measures. Considering the situation that even the basic scheme related to the management of sediment is not prepared in the Government level, the concept of the environmental standard of sediment, the foreign example of the environmental standard of sediment, the current state of the domestic sediment pollution, and the development scheme of the environmental standard in this study must be the important foundation to establish the management system of sediment in the Government level. 121 refs., 10 figs., 45 tabs.

  5. Characterization of bottom-sediment, water, and elutriate chemistry at selected stations at Reelfoot Lake, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broshears, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    To better-understand and predict the potential effect of dredging on water quality at Reelfoot Lake, chemical analyses were conducted on samples of lake water, bottom sediment, and elutriate water. Chemical analyses were conducted on samples of lake water, bottom sediment, and elutriate water collected at five stations in the lake during November 1988. Lake water was of the calcium magnesium bicarbonate type with an average dissolved-solids concentration of 120 milligrams per liter. Trace constituents were present in bottom sediments at concentrations representative of their average relative abundance in the earth?s crust. Elutriate waters prepared by mixing bottom sediment and lake water had suspended-solids concentrations as high as 2,000 milligrams per liter which exerted significant oxygen demand Trace constituents in the unfiltered elutriate waters were elevated with respect to lake water; elevated concentrations were attributable to the increased suspended-solids concentrations. Concentrations of total-recoverable copper, lead., and zinc in many elutriate waters exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?s water-quality criteria for the protection of freshwater aquatic life. The toxicity of elutriate waters, as measured by a 48-hour bioassay with Ceriodaphnia dubia, was low.

  6. Water-Quality Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Water Quality? [1.7MB PDF] Past featured science... Water Quality Data Today's Water Conditions Get continuous real- ... list of USGS water-quality data resources . USGS Water Science Areas Water Resources Groundwater Surface Water Water ...

  7. Developing the new method measuring thickness and quality of bottom sediments in using ultrasonic wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Tomonari; Matsumoto, Yoshitaka; Hozumi, Naohiro

    2017-07-01

    Measuring the quality and thickness of bottom sediment that it causes some environmental problem, the shortage of water storage volume and anaerobic zone in the bottom of reservoirs, takes huge costs and long time. The purpose of our research is to develop a new method to measure the thickness and size characteristics of bottom sediment using ultrasonic waves that allow obtaining the quality of it indirectly. This new method applies the echo characteristic of bottom sediment in each particle size using the higher frequency than another method, which uses for measuring geological layer at seabed survey. In this research, we attempted to estimate the particle size of bottom sediment by ultrasonic waves irradiating from two different directions such as horizontal and vertical direction, and compare these experiments. We use sediment that we sampled from the lake bottom classified by particle size. At first, we acquired the results that show a relation between particle size and intensity; the obtained echo intensities, which were observed with oscilloscope, were changed depending on the particle sizes. In addition, peaks, which were obtained by power spectrum analysis, appeared on the same frequency band even though the different particle size. However the relation between the experiments of horizontal and vertical direction is not clear. This research indicated the possibility of estimating the characteristics of each particle size in bottom sediment by ultrasonic waves.

  8. Relaxing the formation of hypoxic bottom water with sediment microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touch, Narong; Hibino, Tadashi; Morimoto, Yuki; Kinjo, Nobutaka

    2017-12-01

    The method of improving bottom water environment using industrial wastes to suppress diffusion substances from bottom sediment has recently captured the attention of many researchers. In this study, wastewater discharge-derived sediment was used to examine an alternative approach involving the use of sediment microbial fuel cells (SMFCs) in relaxing the formation of hypoxic bottom water, and removing reduced substances from sediment. Concentrations of dissolved oxygen (DO) and other ions were measured in overlying water and sediment pore water with and without the application of SMFCs. The results suggest that SMFCs can markedly reduce hydrogen sulfide and manganese ion concentrations in overlying water, and decrease the depletions of redox potential and DO concentration. In addition, SMFCs can dissolve ferric compounds in the sediment and thereby release the ferric ion available to fix phosphate in the sediment. Our results indicate that SMFCs can be used as an alternative method to relax the formation of hypoxic bottom water and to remove reduced substances from the sediment, thus improving the quality of both water and sediment environments.

  9. Bottom Sediment Chemistry, Nutrient Balance, and Water Birds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water bird characteristics, nutrient loadings, and the levels of bottom sediment silicon oxide (SiO2), aluminium oxide (Al2O3), ferric oxide (Fe2O3), calcium oxide (CaO), copper (Cu), phosphorus (P) and organic carbon (C) was studied in eight high altitude (2040-2640m) small shallow (0.065-0.249 km2; 0.9-3.1 m) ...

  10. An Analysis Model for Water Cone Subsidence in Bottom Water Drive Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianjun; Xu, Hui; Wu, Shucheng; Yang, Chao; Kong, lingxiao; Zeng, Baoquan; Xu, Haixia; Qu, Tailai

    2017-12-01

    Water coning in bottom water drive reservoirs, which will result in earlier water breakthrough, rapid increase in water cut and low recovery level, has drawn tremendous attention in petroleum engineering field. As one simple and effective method to inhibit bottom water coning, shut-in coning control is usually preferred in oilfield to control the water cone and furthermore to enhance economic performance. However, most of the water coning researchers just have been done on investigation of the coning behavior as it grows up, the reported studies for water cone subsidence are very scarce. The goal of this work is to present an analytical model for water cone subsidence to analyze the subsidence of water cone when the well shut in. Based on Dupuit critical oil production rate formula, an analytical model is developed to estimate the initial water cone shape at the point of critical drawdown. Then, with the initial water cone shape equation, we propose an analysis model for water cone subsidence in bottom water reservoir reservoirs. Model analysis and several sensitivity studies are conducted. This work presents accurate and fast analytical model to perform the water cone subsidence in bottom water drive reservoirs. To consider the recent interests in development of bottom drive reservoirs, our approach provides a promising technique for better understanding the subsidence of water cone.

  11. Quality assurance of MSWI bottom ash. Environmental properties; Kvalitetssaekring av slaggrus. Miljoemaessiga egenskaper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flyhammar, Peter [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Engineering Geology

    2006-04-15

    In Sweden, several hundred tonnes of MSWI bottom ash are generated annually at 29 incineration plants for municipal solid waste. So far bottom ash has mainly been disposed in to landfills or used as cover material in landfills or in other construction works at landfills. A few applications of bottom ash in construction works outside landfills have been reported. A large problem for the market of bottom ash and other secondary materials outside Swedish waste treatment plants is the lack of roles and regulations for a non-polluting use. During 2002 Hartlen and Groenholm presented a proposal to a system to assure the quality of bottom ash after homogenization and stabilization. They notice that the leaching of salts and metals to ground water constitutes the largest risk for the environment during use of bottom ash. Therefore, a quality assurance of environmental properties should be based on leaching tests. The aim of this project was to study how the control of environmental properties of bottom ash (at first hand leaching properties) earlier described in e.g. a product information sheet should be worked out. The starting-point has been a control system for bottom ash developed by Sysav. Different leaching tests illustrate however different aspects of the environmental properties, e.g. short-term and long-term leaching. Limit and target values for different variables could affect both the possibilities to use bottom ash as well as the sampling from storage heaps. We have chosen to investigate pH, availability and leached amount and the connection between these variables. the possibilities to use pH or the availability to assess both short-term and longterm leaching properties. how the number of subsamples that should be collected from a storage heap is affected by different control variables and quality requirements. how bottom ash is stabilized by today's storage technology and how the technology could be improved. Our sample test of bottom ash from Swedish

  12. Water Quality Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Our water quality sampling program is to determine the quality of Moosehorn's lakes and a limited number of streams. Water quality is a measure of the body of water,...

  13. A comparative study of intensive Litopenaeus vannamei culture on four bottom substrates without water change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Hongwei; Zhang, Li; Gao, Lei; Su, Yuepeng; Bao, Weiyang; Ma, Shen

    2014-08-01

    The effect of four bottom substrates, oyster shell powder (OP), sugarcane bagasse (SB), a mixture of OP and SB (OS) and fresh soil (FS), on the water quality and bacterial and zooplankton density of intensive shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) culture tanks without water change and the growth performance of cultured shrimp were compared in this study. At the end of a 110 days culturing trial, the total ammonium-N (TAN) of the water on SB and the nitrite nitrogen (NO2-N) on OS was significantly lower than that on the other substrates ( Pvannamei without water change than OP and FS. To our knowledge, this study presents the first evidence regarding the effect of different bottom substrates on intensive shrimp culture.

  14. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Vermejo Project area and the Maxwell National Wildlife Refuge, Colfax County, northeastern New Mexico, 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolino, J.R.; Garrabrant, L.A.; Wilson, Mark; Lusk, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    Based on findings of limited studies during 1989-92, a reconnaissance investigation was conducted in 1993 to assess the effects of the Vermejo Irrigation Project on water quality in the area of the project, including the Maxwell National Wildlife Refuge. This project was part of a U.S. Department of the Interior National Irrigation Water-Quality Program to determine whether irrigation drainage has caused or has the potential to cause significant harmful effects on human health, fish, and wildlife and whether irrigation drainage may adversely affect the suitability of water for other beneficial uses. For this study, samples of water, sediment, and biota were collected from 16 sites in and around the Vermejo Irrigation Project prior to, during the latter part of, and after the 1993 irrigation season (April, August-September, and November, respectively). No inorganic constituents exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standards. The State of New Mexico standard of 750 micrograms per liter for boron in irrigation water was exceeded at three sites (five samples), though none exceeded the livestock water standard of 5,000 micrograms per liter. Selenium concentrations exceeded the State of New Mexico chronic standard of 2 micrograms per liter for wildlife and fisheries water in at least eight samples from five sites. Bottom-sediment samples were collected and analyzed for trace elements and compared to concentrations of trace elements in soils of the Western United States. Concentrations of three trace elements at eight sites exceeded the upper values of the expected 95-percent ranges for Western U.S. soils. These included molybdenum at one site, selenium at seven sites, and uranium at four sites. Cadmium and copper concentrations exceeded the National Contaminant Biomonitoring Program 85th percentile in fish from six sites. Average concentrations of selenium in adult brine flies (33.7 mg/g dry weight) were elevated above concentrations in other

  15. Sinking of less dense water in the bottom Ekman layer formed by a coastal downwelling current over a sloping bottom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkin, D. N.; Zatsepin, A. G.; Podymov, O. I.; Ostrovskii, A. G.

    2017-07-01

    Laboratory experiments on the dynamics of a downwelling coastal current over a sloping bottom were conducted in a tank on a rotating platform. The current was generated by a source of stable water flow of the same density (barotropic case) or of lesser density (baroclinic case) compared with the surrounding water in the tank. It was found that even in the case of the baroclinic current, a less dense water downflow in the bottom Ekman layer was formed under certain conditions. At some moment, this downflow undergoes convective instability. Taking into account the results of the experiment, the parameters of the bottom Ekman layer on the continental shelf/slope of the Black Sea were preliminarily estimated and the possible sinking depth of less dense water was calculated.

  16. Lime application methods, water and bottom soil acidity in fresh water fish ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Queiroz Julio Ferraz de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Although some methods for determining lime requirement of pond soils are available and commonly used, there is still no consensus on whether it is more effective to apply liming materials to the bottoms of empty ponds or to wait and apply them over the water surface after ponds are filled. There is also little information on how deep lime reacts in pond sediment over time, and whether the depth of reaction is different when liming materials are applied to the water or to the soil. Therefore, three techniques for treating fish ponds with agricultural limestone were evaluated in ponds with clayey soils at a commercial fish farm. Amounts of agricultural limestone equal to the lime requirement of bottom soils were applied to each of three ponds by: direct application over the pond water surface; spread uniformly over the bottom of the empty pond; spread uniformly over the bottom of the empty pond followed by tilling of the bottom. Effectiveness of agricultural limestone applications did not differ among treatment methods. Agricultural limestone also reacted quickly to increase total alkalinity and total hardness of pond water to acceptable concentrations within 2 weeks after application. The reaction of lime to increase soil pH was essentially complete after one to two months, and lime had no effect below a soil depth of 8 cm. Tilling of pond bottoms to incorporate liming materials is unnecessary, and tilling consumes time and is an expensive practice; filled ponds can be limed effectively.

  17. Water Breakthrough Shape Description of Horizontal Wells in Bottom-Water Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijun Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Horizontal wells have been applied in bottom-water reservoir since their advantages were found on distribution of linear dropdown near wellbore, higher critical production, and more OOIP (original oil in place controlled. In the paper, one 3D visible physical model of horizontal physical model is designed and built to simulate the water cresting process during the horizontal well producing and find water breakthrough point in homogenous and heterogeneous reservoir with bottom water. Water cresting shape and water cut of horizontal well in between homogenous and heterogeneous reservoir are compared on the base of experiment’s result. The water cresting pattern of horizontal well in homogeneous reservoir can be summarized as “central breakthrough, lateral expansion, thorough flooding, and then flank uplifting.” Furthermore, a simple analysis model of horizontal well in bottom water reservoir is established and water breakthrough point is analyzed. It can be drawn from the analysis result that whether or not to consider the top and bottom border, breakthrough would be located in the middle of horizontal segment with equal flow velocity distribution.

  18. Water Quality Analysis Simulation

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Water Quality analysis simulation Program, an enhancement of the original WASP. This model helps users interpret and predict water quality responses to natural...

  19. Water Quality Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA develops water quality criteria based on the latest scientific knowledge to protect human health and aquatic life. This information serves as guidance to states and tribes in adopting water quality standards.

  20. Water Quality Analysis Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Quality analysis simulation Program, an enhancement of the original WASP. This model helps users interpret and predict water quality responses to natural phenomena and man-made pollution for variious pollution management decisions.

  1. Water Quality Monitoring Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Water Quality Monitoring Site identifies locations across the state of Vermont where water quality data has been collected, including habitat, chemistry, fish and/or...

  2. Abundance of macrozoobenthos in relation to bottom soil textural types and water depth In aquaculture ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Nupur

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of bottom soil textural classes and different water depths on abundance of macrozoobenthos in aquaculture ponds. Three treatments, i.e., ponds bottom with sandy loam (T1, with loam (TS2 and with clay loam (T3 were considered in this experiment. Samples were collected from three different depths (60.96 cm, 106.68 cm and 152.40 cm with three replications. The ranges of water quality parameters were suitable for the growth of macrozoobenthos during the experimental period. Similarly, chemical properties of soil were also within suitable ranges and every parameter showed comparatively higher ranges in T2. Eight genera were recorded belonging to major groups of Chironomidae, Oligochaeta, Mollusca and Ceratoponogonidae. The highest population densities of Oligochaeta (1200±4.25 per m2, Chironomidae (1422±4.88 per m2, Ceratopogonidae (399±1.56 per m2 and Mollusca (977±2.24 per m2 were found in T2. The population densities of macrozoobenthos showed fortnightly variations in all the treatments. Among the three depths, significantly highest densities of macrozoobenthos were recorded in 106.68 cm in every treatment. The mean abundance of macrozoobenthos was significantly highest in T2. The present study indicates that loamy soil pond bottom along with water depth 106.68 cm is suitable for the growth and production of macrozoobenthos in aquaculture ponds.

  3. Modelling air―water flows in bottom outlets of dams

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ting

    2014-01-01

    If air is entrained in a bottom outlet of a dam in an uncontrolled way, the resulting air pockets may cause problems such as blowback, blowout and loss of discharge capacity. In order to provide guidance for bottom outlet design and operation, this study examines how governing parameters affect air entrainment, air-pocket transport and de-aeration and the surrounding flow structure in pipe flows. Both experimental and numerical approaches are used. Air can be entrained into the bottom outlet ...

  4. Tsunamis: Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Transmission in Pet Shelters Protect Your Pets Tsunamis: Water Quality Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... about testing should be directed to local authorities. Water for Drinking, Cooking, and Personal Hygiene Safe water ...

  5. Water Quality Protection Charges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — The Water Quality Protection Charge (WQPC) is a line item on your property tax bill. WQPC funds many of the County's clean water initiatives including: • Restoration...

  6. Biological Water Quality Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page contains links to Technical Documents pertaining to Biological Water Quality Criteria, including, technical assistance documents for states, tribes and territories, program overviews, and case studies.

  7. The occurrence of heavy metals and metal-resistant bacteria in water and bottom sediments of the Straszyn reservoir (Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulbat Eliza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the distribution of selected heavy metals and metal–resistant bacteria in water and bottom sediments of the surface drinking water reservoir for Gdańsk. The following sequence of metals in regard to metal concentration in sediments can be written down: Zn > Pb > Cu > Cd. The evaluation of metals accumulation was performed using the Müller index, to indicate the bottom sediment's contamination and geochemical classification of sediment quality according to Polish standards. The Müller geochemical index was changing in a wide range: < 1–4.1. Although the maximum value of Müller's geochemical index determined for copper indicates that the sediment is ‘strongly contaminated’, in general the analysed bottom sediments were classified as the I and II category according to Polish geochemical standards. From the microbiological side a significant part of heterotrophic bacteria isolated from the bottom sediment and surface water (raw and treated water showed a resistance to 0.2 mM and 2 mM concentrations of zinc, copper and lead. The highest percentages of metal–resistant bacteria were recorded in the sediments of the reservoir (60%–88%. The share of metal–resistant strains in the raw water was significantly lower (34%–61%. The results indicate also that water treatment processes may contribute to the selection of resistant strains.

  8. The occurrence of heavy metals and metal-resistant bacteria in water and bottom sediments of the Straszyn reservoir (Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulbat, Eliza; Sokołowska, Aleksandra

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the distribution of selected heavy metals and metal-resistant bacteria in water and bottom sediments of the surface drinking water reservoir for Gdańsk. The following sequence of metals in regard to metal concentration in sediments can be written down: Zn > Pb > Cu > Cd. The evaluation of metals accumulation was performed using the Müller index, to indicate the bottom sediment's contamination and geochemical classification of sediment quality according to Polish standards. The Müller geochemical index was changing in a wide range: sediment is `strongly contaminated', in general the analysed bottom sediments were classified as the I and II category according to Polish geochemical standards. From the microbiological side a significant part of heterotrophic bacteria isolated from the bottom sediment and surface water (raw and treated water) showed a resistance to 0.2 mM and 2 mM concentrations of zinc, copper and lead. The highest percentages of metal-resistant bacteria were recorded in the sediments of the reservoir (60%-88%). The share of metal-resistant strains in the raw water was significantly lower (34%-61%). The results indicate also that water treatment processes may contribute to the selection of resistant strains.

  9. Detailed study of irrigation drainage in and near wildlife management areas, west-central Nevada, 1987-90; Part C, Summary of irrigation-drainage effects on water quality, bottom sediment, and biota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Ray J.

    1993-01-01

    This report presents a summary of the detailed scientific study of Stillwater Wildlife Management Area and other nearby wetlands in west-central Nevada during 1987-90. The work was funded by the National Irrigation Water Quality Program of the U.S. Department of the Interior with the overall objectives of determining (1) the extent, magnitude, and effects of selected water-quality constituents associated with irrigation drainage on fish, wildlife, and human health, and (2) the sources and exposure pathways that cause contamination where adverse effects are documented. Much of the information in this report was summarized from two previously published interpretive reports that were completed to fulfill study objectives. Where applicable, data for the study area from other published sources also were utilized. The results of these studies indicate that the aquatic biota in natural wetlands of the Carson Desert are adversely affected by hydrological and geochemical sources and processes in the Newlands Irrigation Project area. Reactions between water and naturally occurring minerals in the shallow alluvial aquifer increase concentrations of potentially toxic constituents in ground water that eventually enters the wetlands. Once in the wetlands, these constituents are furhter concentrated by evaporation and transpiration. Water from some agricultural drains that enter Stillwater WMA was acutely toxic to aquatic organisms. The drains in the agricultural areas, which eventually discharge to the wetlands, were also implicated as sites of uptake of selenium and mercury by aquatic organisms.

  10. Water Quality Assessment and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overview of Clean Water Act (CWA) restoration framework including; water quality standards, monitoring/assessment, reporting water quality status, TMDL development, TMDL implementation (point & nonpoint source control)

  11. Irrigation water quality assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing demands on fresh water supplies by municipal and industrial users means decreased fresh water availability for irrigated agriculture in semi arid and arid regions. There is potential for agricultural use of treated wastewaters and low quality waters for irrigation but this will require co...

  12. Quality of Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    The quality of drinking water has been gaining a great deal of attention lately, especially as water delivery infrastructure continues to age. Particles of various metals such as lead and copper, and other substances like radon and arsenic could be entering drinking water supplies. Spilled-on-the-ground hydrocarbon-based substances are also…

  13. How quality affects the bottom line?: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Texeira-Quirós

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Improving quality is one of the tools that companies have to improve or maintain their market position. However, despite the large number of papers published, a clear conclusion of the impact of ISO9000 standards on business results has yet to be reached, given there are many conflicting opinions. Thus, the aim of this paper is to review the literature on some of the many published research papers, seeking some way to analyse the existing relationship between the implementation of systems of quality management, ISO9000 certification, quality costs, results, and their effect on company performance.

  14. BOEM Seismic Water Bottom Anomalies - Gulf of Mexico - Gulf of Mexico NAD27

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — Since 1998, geoscientists at the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) have identified and mapped over 31,000 water bottom (seafloor) acoustic amplitude anomalies...

  15. Bottom depth and type for shallow waters: Hyperspectral observations from a blimp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, ZhongPing; Carder, K.; Steward, R. [Univ. of South Florida, St. Petersburg, FL (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    In a study of a blimp transect over Tampa Bay (Florida), hyperspectral upwelling radiance over the sand and seagrass bottoms was measured. These measurements were converted to hyperspectral remote-sensing reflectances. Using a shallow-water remote-sensing-reflectance model, in-water optical properties, bottom depths and bottom albedos were derived analytically and simultaneously by an optimization procedure. In the process, curvatures of sand and seagrass albedos were used. Also used was a model of absorption spectrum of phytoplankton pigments. The derived bottom depths were compared with bathymetry charts and found to agree well. This study suggests that a low-flying blimp is a useful platform for the study and mapping of coastal water environments. The optical model as well as the data-reduction procedure used are practical for the retrieval of shallow water optical properties.

  16. Effect of anaerobic conditions in bottom waters on the occurrence of red tides at omura bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, K; Iizuka, S

    1975-01-01

    The field observation that the occurrence of red tides at Omura Bay may have a close connection with the development of anoxic conditions in bottom waters was tested by bioassays of seawater collected during summer 1971. The stimulating effect of anaerobically-decomposed products of bottom mud on the growth of Gymnodinium type-'65 was examined. The results suggest that the development of oxygen deficiency in the bottom waters of Omura Bay makes the environment favourable for the growth of red tide organisms, both by the supply of inorganic nutrients and of some unidentified stimulants.

  17. Water Quality Data (WQX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The STORET (short for STOrage and RETrieval) Data Warehouse is a repository for water quality, biological, and physical data and is used by state environmental agencies, EPA and other federal agencies, universities, private citizens, and many others.

  18. Purified water quality study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinka, H.; Jackowski, P.

    2000-04-03

    Argonne National Laboratory (HEP) is examining the use of purified water for the detection medium in cosmic ray sensors. These sensors are to be deployed in a remote location in Argentina. The purpose of this study is to provide information and preliminary analysis of available water treatment options and associated costs. This information, along with the technical requirements of the sensors, will allow the project team to determine the required water quality to meet the overall project goals.

  19. Drinking water quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, J; Gautam, B; Sapkota, N

    2012-09-01

    Drinking water quality is the great public health concern because it is a major risk factor for high incidence of diarrheal diseases in Nepal. In the recent years, the prevalence rate of diarrhoea has been found the highest in Myagdi district. This study was carried out to assess the quality of drinking water from different natural sources, reservoirs and collection taps at Arthunge VDC of Myagdi district. A cross-sectional study was carried out using random sampling method in Arthunge VDC of Myagdi district from January to June,2010. 84 water samples representing natural sources, reservoirs and collection taps from the study area were collected. The physico-chemical and microbiological analysis was performed following standards technique set by APHA 1998 and statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS 11.5. The result was also compared with national and WHO guidelines. Out of 84 water samples (from natural source, reservoirs and tap water) analyzed, drinking water quality parameters (except arsenic and total coliform) of all water samples was found to be within the WHO standards and national standards.15.48% of water samples showed pH (13) higher than the WHO permissible guideline values. Similarly, 85.71% of water samples showed higher Arsenic value (72) than WHO value. Further, the statistical analysis showed no significant difference (Pwater for collection taps water samples of winter (January, 2010) and summer (June, 2010). The microbiological examination of water samples revealed the presence of total coliform in 86.90% of water samples. The results obtained from physico-chemical analysis of water samples were within national standard and WHO standards except arsenic. The study also found the coliform contamination to be the key problem with drinking water.

  20. Submarine Slope Failure Primed and Triggered by Bottom Water Warming in Oceanic Hydrate-Bearing Deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Hyuk Kwon

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Many submarine slope failures in hydrate-bearing sedimentary deposits might be directly triggered, or at least primed, by gas hydrate dissociation. It has been reported that during the past 55 years (1955–2010 the 0–2000 m layer of oceans worldwide has been warmed by 0.09 °C because of global warming. This raises the following scientific concern: if warming of the bottom water of deep oceans continues, it would dissociate natural gas hydrates and could eventually trigger massive slope failures. The present study explored the submarine slope instability of oceanic gas hydrate-bearing deposits subjected to bottom water warming. One-dimensional coupled thermal-hydraulic-mechanical (T-H-M finite difference analyses were performed to capture the underlying physical processes initiated by bottom water warming, which includes thermal conduction through sediments, thermal dissociation of gas hydrates, excess pore pressure generation, pressure diffusion, and hydrate dissociation against depressurization. The temperature rise at the seafloor due to bottom water warming is found to create an excess pore pressure that is sufficiently large to reduce the stability of a slope in some cases. Parametric study results suggest that a slope becomes more susceptible to failure with increases in thermal diffusivity and hydrate saturation and decreases in pressure diffusivity, gas saturation, and water depth. Bottom water warming can be further explored to gain a better understanding of the past methane hydrate destabilization events on Earth, assuming that more reliable geological data is available.

  1. Range-Dependent Acoustic Propagation in Shallow Water with Elastic Bottom Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    water and sediments at the ocean bottom. The attenuation in near-bottom ocean sediments may be very high. It may be high enough that perturbation...for oceanic T-wave generation," Frank et al., has been published. This article documents the incorporation of seismic -like sources into the PE...contribution to this were supported by this grant. Finally the paper “Traveling wave modal attenuation and interaction with a transversely isotropic

  2. Balance-characteristic scheme as applied to the shallow water equations over a rough bottom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goloviznin, V. M.; Isakov, V. A.

    2017-07-01

    The CABARET scheme is used for the numerical solution of the one-dimensional shallow water equations over a rough bottom. The scheme involves conservative and flux variables, whose values at a new time level are calculated by applying the characteristic properties of the shallow water equations. The scheme is verified using a series of test and model problems.

  3. Benthic microbial production of oxygen supersaturates the bottom water of a stratified hypersaline lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, C M

    1995-03-01

    Lake Hayward is a hypersaline lake that stratifies seasonally and maintains oxygen supersaturation in its bottom water for about 6 months each year. This phenomenon was found to be the result of photosynthesis by the benthic microbial communities, composed primarily of the cyanobacteria Cyanothece spp., Spirulina sp., and Oscillatoria sp. When these communities were present and the lake was stratified, the bottom water was supersaturated with oxygen (up to 370%). During illumination, the benthic microbial communities rapidly developed very high concentrations (e.g., >500 μM) of oxygen, which then diffused into the overlying water. However, while the overlying water became supersaturated, the concentration in the water was lower than in the benthic microbial communities because (1) transport across the sediment-water interface was limited by diffusion, and (2) turbulence rapidly mixed the oxygen throughout the much larger volume of the bottom water (approximately 1.5 m deep). Thus, import of oxygen by the benthic microbial communities at night proceeded more slowly than daytime export, allowing supersaturation of the bottom water to develop.

  4. Quality assurance of MSWI bottom ash. Environmental properties; Kvalitetssaekring av slaggrus. Miljoemaessiga egenskaper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flyhammar, Peter [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Engineering Geology

    2006-04-15

    In Sweden several hundred tonnes of MSWI bottom ash are generated annually at 29 incineration plants for municipal solid waste. So far bottom ash has mainly been disposed in to landfills or used as cover material in landfills or in other construction works at landfills. A few applications of bottom ash in construction works outside landfills have been reported. A large problem for the market of bottom ash and other secondary materials outside Swedish waste treatment plants is the lack of roles and regulations for a non-polluting use. During 2002 Hartlen and Groenholm (HG) presented a proposal to a system to assure the quality of bottom ash after homogenization and stabilization. A quality assurance of environmental properties should be based on leaching tests. The aim of this project was to study how the control of environmental properties of bottom ash earlier described in e.g. a product information sheet should be worked out. The starting-point has been a control system for bottom ash developed by the Sysav company. Different leaching tests illustrate however different aspects of the environmental properties, e.g. short-term and long-term leaching. Limit and target values for different variables could affect both the possibilities to use bottom ash as well as the sampling from storage heaps. We have chosen to investigate: pH, availability and leached amount and the connection between these variables; the possibilities to use pH or the availability to assess both short-term and long term leaching properties; how the number of subsamples that should be collected from a storage heap is affected by different control variables and quality requirements; how bottom ash is stabilized by today's storage technology and how the technology could be improved. Our sample test of bottom ash from Swedish incineration plants indicates that the availability of elements such as Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn in bottom ash usually is below Sysav's target values. Extreme values

  5. Southern Ocean ventilation and bottom water formation driven by Weddell Sea polynyas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheinlaender, Jonathan; Nisancioglu, Kerim; Smedsrud, Lars Henrik

    2017-04-01

    A distinct feature of the last glacial period, are the abrupt temperature fluctuations in Greenland associated with Dansgaard-Oeschger events and a similar but opposite response in Antarctica. The prevailing hypothesis behind this inter-hemispheric coupling, points to changes in deep water formation as the main driver, thus highlighting the pivotal role of the high latitude oceans in global climate. Bottom water formation through open-ocean deep convection in an Antarctic polynya, a large open water area inside the winter sea ice cover, provide a potential mechanism to trigger such changes in ocean circulation. In this study, an ocean-sea ice only version of the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM) is explored and shows strong open-ocean deep convection associated with large polynyas in the Weddell Sea. This provides us with an opportunity to test (1) how internal ocean dynamics can trigger abrupt changes in sea-ice cover and (2) how these polynyas affect the overturning circulation through changes in bottom water formation. During the 1,000 year long free-running simulation two polynyas are observed. We show, that the polynya is caused by subsurface warming leading to a gradual weakening of the surface stratification which destabilizes the whole water column and eventually triggers deep convective overturning. This mixes up relatively warm deep water causing extensive melt of sea ice in the Weddell Sea, while cold and fresh surface water sinks to the bottom. Consequently, the polynya leads to extensive bottom water formation and increase in the northward flow of Antarctic Bottom Water, while the southward flow of North Atlantic Deep Water is reduced. Finally, our results suggest that a decrease in the temperature of warm deep water in the Weddell Sea leads to cessation of open-ocean deep convection. This raises the question if open-ocean deep convection associated with polynyas in the Southern Ocean could be a realistic feature in a cold, glacial climate.

  6. Stream Water Quality Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — QUAL2K (or Q2K) is a river and stream water quality model that is intended to represent a modernized version of the QUAL2E (or Q2E) model (Brown and Barnwell 1987).

  7. Quality matters for water scarcity

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, Michelle T. H.; Flörke, Martina; Wada, Yoshihide

    2017-11-01

    Quality requirements for water differ by intended use. Sustainable management of water resources for different uses will not only need to account for demand in water quantity, but also for water temperature and salinity, nutrient levels and other pollutants.

  8. Wave-induced bottom shear stress estimation in shallow water exemplified by using deep water wind statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dag Myrhaug

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides a simple and analytical method which can be used to give estimates of the wave-induced bottom shear stress for very rough beds and mud beds in shallow water based on wind statistics in deep water. This is exemplified by using long-term wind statistics from the northern North Sea, and by providing examples representing realistic field conditions. Based on, for example, global wind statistics, the present results can be used to make estimates of the bottom shear stress in shallow water.

  9. Shallow water bathymetry correction using sea bottom classification with multispectral satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazama, Yoriko; Yamamoto, Tomonori

    2017-10-01

    Bathymetry at shallow water especially shallower than 15m is an important area for environmental monitoring and national defense. Because the depth of shallow water is changeable by the sediment deposition and the ocean waves, the periodic monitoring at shoe area is needed. Utilization of satellite images are well matched for widely and repeatedly monitoring at sea area. Sea bottom terrain model using by remote sensing data have been developed and these methods based on the radiative transfer model of the sun irradiance which is affected by the atmosphere, water, and sea bottom. We adopted that general method of the sea depth extraction to the satellite imagery, WorldView-2; which has very fine spatial resolution (50cm/pix) and eight bands at visible to near-infrared wavelengths. From high-spatial resolution satellite images, there is possibility to know the coral reefs and the rock area's detail terrain model which offers important information for the amphibious landing. In addition, the WorldView-2 satellite sensor has the band at near the ultraviolet wavelength that is transmitted through the water. On the other hand, the previous study showed that the estimation error by the satellite imagery was related to the sea bottom materials such as sand, coral reef, sea alga, and rocks. Therefore, in this study, we focused on sea bottom materials, and tried to improve the depth estimation accuracy. First, we classified the sea bottom materials by the SVM method, which used the depth data acquired by multi-beam sonar as supervised data. Then correction values in the depth estimation equation were calculated applying the classification results. As a result, the classification accuracy of sea bottom materials was 93%, and the depth estimation error using the correction by the classification result was within 1.2m.

  10. Deep and bottom water characteristics in the Owen Fracture Zone, Western Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.; Kureishy, T.W.

    Hydro chemical studies at a station (10 degrees 34.l'N,56 degrees 31,7'E) in the Owen Fracture zone reveal an active movement of bottom water as approx 75 m thick, cold, low-salinity layer. Silicate profile exhibits a broad maximum coinciding with a...

  11. Transport of Antarctic bottom water through the Kane Gap, tropical NE Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morozov, E.G.; Tarakanov, R.Y.; van Haren, H.

    2013-01-01

    We study low-frequency properties of the Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) flow through the Kane Gap (9° N) in the Atlantic Ocean. The measurements in the Kane Gap include five visits with CTD (Conductivity-Temperature-Depth) sections in 2009–2012 and a year-long record of currents on a mooring using

  12. Microbial quality of bagged baby spinach and romaine lettuce: effects of top versus bottom sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kase, Julie A; Borenstein, Stacey; Blodgett, Robert J; Feng, Peter C H

    2012-01-01

    Contamination with Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella have called into question the safety and microbial quality of bagged ready-to-eat leafy greens. This study expands on previous findings that these goods have high total bacteria counts (TBC) and coliform counts, variation in counts among different lots, that Escherichia coli is present, and disparities in counts when bags are top or bottom sampled. Nearly 100 bags of baby spinach and hearts of romaine lettuce from a single brand were subjected to both top and bottom sampling. Product was blended, and a portion serially diluted and plated to obtain TBC. Total coliform and E. coli levels were estimated by the most-probable-number (MPN) technique with ColiComplete discs. Top-sampled TBC from bags of baby spinach (48 bags, 13 different lots) ranged from 3.9 to 8.1 log CFU/g and bottom-sampled TBC ranged from 4.0 to 8.2 log CFU/g, with 52% of the bags (or 39% of the lots) producing TBC higher in bottom samples. For hearts of romaine (47 bags from 19 different lots), top-sampled bags had TBC ranging from 2.4 to 7.0 log, and bottom-sampled bags had TBC from 3.3 to 7.3 log, with 64% of the bags (or 63% of the lots) showing higher TBC in bottom samples. However, we are unable to reject the hypothesis that the top and bottom samples from either commodity contain the same TBC (P ≥ 0.08). No E. coli was detected and total coliform bacteria counts were, with few exceptions, ≥210 MPN/g, irrespective of TBC. In general, lots with the most number of days before the printed "use-by" date had lower TBC. However, the R(2) values for either baby spinach (0.4085) or hearts of romaine (0.2946) suggest that age might not be a very good predictor of higher TBC. TBC varied widely between lots and even more so within same-lot samples, as indicated by the sum of squares results. This finding, along with higher TBC in bottom samples, suggests further consideration when a microbiological sampling scheme of bagged produce is

  13. Assessment of stream bottom sediment quality in the vicinity of the Caldas uranium mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Priscila E.S. de, E-mail: pge_13@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (ProAmb/UFOP), Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Ambiental; Filho, Carlos A.C.; Moreira, Rubens M.; Ramos, Maria E.A.F.; Dutra, Pedro H.; Ferreira, Vinicius V.M., E-mail: cacf@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Silva, Nivaldo C., E-mail: ncsilva@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN-MG), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas

    2015-07-01

    An evaluation of the quality of stream bottom sediments was performed in the surroundings of the Caldas Uranium Mining and Milling Facilities (UMMF), sited on Pocos de Caldas Plateau (southeastern Brazil), to verify whether the sediments in the water bodies downstream the plant, were impacted by effluents from a large waste rock pile, named Waste Rock Pile 4 (WRP4), and from the Tailings Dam (TD). In order to perform the research, twelve sampling stations were established in the watersheds around Caldas UMMF: the Soberbo creek, the Consulta brook, and the Taquari river. One of the stations was located inside the Bacia Nestor Figueiredo, a retention pond that receives effluents from WRP4, and another in a settling tank (D2) for radium, which receives the effluents from TD. A monitoring scheme has been developed, comprising four sampling campaigns in 2010 and 2011, and the samples were analyzed for selected metals-metalloids and radionuclides, using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES), Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) Spectroscopy and Gamma-ray Spectrometry. The results suggest that effluents discharged from retention ponds to watercourses, causing an increase in the concentration of As, B, Ba, Cr, Mo, Mn, Pb, Zn, {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb in sediments. Detailed investigation in sub-superficial layers is recommended at these locations to evaluate the need of implementing mitigation actions such as lining and constructing hydraulic barriers downstream the ponds. Actually, the UTM/Caldas operator is already implementing control measures. (author)

  14. Pumping bottom water to prevent Korean red tide damage caused by Cochlodinium polykrikoides Margalef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Eun Seob; Moon, Seong Yong; Shu, Young Sang; Hwang, Jae Dong; Youn, Seok Hyun

    2015-09-01

    Cochlodinium polykrikoides Margalef produces annual massive blooms in Korean coastal waters which cause great damage to aquaculture and fisheries. Although various methods have been developed to remove the red tide of C. polykrikoides, release of yellow loess has been regarded as the most desirable technique for mitigation for over 10 years. Each August, strong irradiation generates water column stratification separating warm surface from colder bottom waters. Water from a distance of 0 (St. 1), 5 (St. 2), 10 (St. 3), and 15 m (St. 4) was pumped by running a pump for 0, 10, 30 and 90 min and characterized water temperature, salinity collected, suspended solids, Chl-a, and phytoplankton including C. polykrikoides. After running for 30 min, was temperature and salinity in surface water was similar to those of bottom water, and water column stratification completely reversed after 90 min. Likewise, suspended solids, Chl-a, and total phytoplankton cell density decreased after 30 min, but C. polykrikoides did not show strong removal because of low cell density during sampling. However, the number of C. polykrikoides was significantly diluted (80%) after 90 min. These results suggested that pumping device was as an environmentally-friendly method convenient to be install in fish cages and effective to remove C. polykrikoides stratified water column conditions.

  15. Valorization of MSWI bottom ash for biogas desulfurization: Influence of biogas water content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontseré Obis, Marta; Germain, Patrick; Troesch, Olivier; Spillemaecker, Michel; Benbelkacem, Hassen

    2017-02-01

    In this study an alternative valorization of Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) Bottom Ash (BA) for H2S elimination from landfill biogas was evaluated. Emphasis was given to the influence of water content in biogas on H2S removal efficiency by BA. A small-scale pilot was developed and implemented in a landfill site located in France. A new biogas analyzer was used and allowed real-time continuous measurement of CH4, CO2, O2, H2S and H2O in raw and treated biogas. The H2S removal efficiency of bottom ash was evaluated for different inlet biogas humidities: from 4 to 24gwater/m3. The biogas water content was found to greatly affect bottom ash efficiency regarding H2S removal. With humid inlet biogas the H2S removal was almost 3 times higher than with a dry inlet biogas. Best removal capacity obtained was 56gH2S/kgdryBA. A humid inlet biogas allows to conserve the bottom ash moisture content for a maximum H2S retention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Topological helical edge states in water waves over a topographical bottom

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Shi qiao

    2017-11-27

    We present the discovery of topologically protected helical edge states in water wave systems, which are realized in water wave propagating over a topographical bottom whose height is modulated periodically in a two-dimensional triangular pattern. We develop an effective Hamiltonian to characterize the dispersion relation and use spin Chern numbers to classify the topology. Through full wave simulations we unambiguously demonstrate the robustness of the helical edge states which are immune to defects and disorders so that the backscattering loss is significantly reduced. A spin splitter is designed for water wave systems, where helical edge states with different spin orientations are spatially separated with each other, and potential applications are discussed.

  17. Impact of sea-ice formation on the properties of Antarctic bottom water

    OpenAIRE

    Goosse, H.; Campin, J. M.; T. Fichefet; Deleersnijder, E.

    1997-01-01

    It is generally accepted that fresh-water fluxes due to ice accretion or melting profoundly influence the formation of Antarctic bottom water (AABW). This is investigated by means of a global, three-dimensional ice-ocean model. Two model runs were conducted. At the high southern latitudes, the control experiment exhibits positive (i.e. towards the ocean) fresh-water fluxes over the deep ocean, and large negative fluxes over the Antarctic continental shelf, because of the intense ice-productio...

  18. Distribution of hydrocarbons in water and bottom sediments of the Northern and Middle Caspian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemirovskaya, I. A.; Lisitzin, A. P.; Ostrovskaya, E. V.

    2017-07-01

    A study of two classes of hydrocarbons (HCs)—aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic—in suspended matter of the surface waters and bottom sediments of the Northern and Middle Caspian Sea (R/V Nikifor Shurekov, October 2015) is described. It has been determined that oil pollution transported by river runoff and fluid streams flowing from sedimentary formations in the northeastern part are the main sources of hydrocarbons in the river-sea boundaries of the Volga, Terek, and Sulak rivers.

  19. Water Quality Assessment Tool 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Water Quality Assessment Tool project was developed to assess the potential for water-borne contaminants to adversely affect biota and habitats on Service lands.

  20. Microbiological quality of natural waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, J J; Figueras, M J

    1997-12-01

    Several aspects of the microbiological quality of natural waters, especially recreational waters, have been reviewed. The importance of the water as a vehicle and/or a reservoir of human pathogenic microorganisms is also discussed. In addition, the concepts, types and techniques of microbial indicator and index microorganisms are established. The most important differences between faecal streptococci and enterococci have been discussed, defining the concept and species included. In addition, we have revised the main alternative indicators used to measure the water quality.

  1. Valuing Water Quality As a Functionof Water Quality Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Egan, Kevin J.; Joseph A. Herriges; Catherine L. Kling; Downing, John A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper incorporates a rich set of physical water quality attributes, as well as site and household characteristics, into a model of recreational lake usage in Iowa. Our analysis shows individuals are responsive to physical water quality measures. Willingness-to-pay estimates are reported based on improvements in these measures.

  2. Effects of bottom water dissolved oxygen variability on copper and lead fractionation in the sediments across the oxygen minimum zone, western continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, P.; Chakraborty, S.; Jayachandran, S.; Madan, R.; Sarkar, Arindam; Linsy, P.; Nath, B.N.

    .e., stability increased) with the decreasing dissolved oxygen concentrations of the bottom water. Decreasing bottom-water oxygen concentration increased Cu association with sedimentary organic matter. However, Pb association with Fe/Mn-oxyhydroxide phases...

  3. Numerical analyses of soft bottom invertebrates to diagnose the pollution in tropical coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkantra, Sadanand N; Rodrigues, Nimi R

    2004-01-01

    Soft bottom benthic organisms especially polychaetes are known to adapt as r or k selected strategies to different gradients of pollution. This will result in changes of benthic community structure from that of normal structure. There are a number of techniques to assess the impact of pollution on benthic community structure. Hence, to test this hypotheses some of the univariate and multivariate techniques were applied to soft bottom macro-invertebrates data of coastal waters of Mangalore, central west coast of India, a hot-spot area. Univariate techniques such as Pearson Rosenberg Model (PRM), abundance biomass comparison curve (ABC), geometrical class distribution, dominance-diversity curve, benthic community structure indices and multivariate techniques such as cluster classification, multidimensional scaling (MDS) and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to discriminate and diagnose the disturbance among the sites. Effectiveness and applicability of some of the above techniques are highlighted and discussed with the present set of data for environmental impact assessment studies.

  4. A new mini box corer for sampling muddy bottoms in antarctic shallow waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alejandro Echeverría

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A new Mini Box Corer (MBC-GEAMB was developed for bottom sampling in Antarctic shallow waters down to 100 m depth from a small vessel. It consists of a detachable stainless steel box with a total sampling area of 0.0625 m², and a closing arm with a detachable blade without an external frame. MBC allowed stratified bottom sampling and good quality samples comparable to those obtained through diving. A comparison between the MBC-GEAMB and a 0.056 m²van Veen grab (VV was undertaken for the benthic macrofaunal composition in Admiralty Bay, King George Island (Antarctica. MBC and VV samples were taken from three depths (20, 30 and 60m in two sites. Total densities sampled with the MBC were up to 10 times higher than those obtained with van Veen grab. VV samples might lead to faunistic abundance underestimation compared to the MBC samples. Besides, MBC showed a higher performance on discriminating different sites as regards total macrofaunal density. It is suggested that MBC could be employed as an efficient remote sampling device for shallow-waters where direct sampling by SCUBA was not advisable.Um novo Mini Box Corer (MBC-GEAMB foi desenvolvido para amostragens de fundo em águas rasas antárticas até 100 metros de profundidade, a partir de embarcações pequenas. Consiste em uma caixa de aço inox destacável com uma área total de amostragem de 0,0625 m², e um braço de fechamento com uma lâmina destacável, sem um suporte externo. MBC permite a amostragem estratificada do sedimento de fundo com amostras de qualidade comparáveis àquelas obtidas através de mergulho autônomo. Uma comparação entre o MBC-GEAMB e um van Veen de área 0,056 m²(VV foi realizada utilizando a composição da macrofauna bentônica na Baía do Almirantado, (Ilha Rei George, Antarctica. Amostragens com MBC e VV foram realizadas em três profundidades (20, 30 e 60m em dois locais. As densidades totais obtidas com o MBC foram até 10 vezes maiores que as obtidas

  5. The nepheloid bottom layer and water masses at the shelf break of the western Ross Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capello, Marco; Budillon, Giorgio; Cutroneo, Laura; Tucci, Sergio

    2009-06-01

    In the austral summers of 2000/2001 and 2002/2003 the Italian CLIMA Project carried out two oceanographic cruises along the northwestern margin of the Ross Sea, where the Antarctic Bottom Water forms. Here there is an interaction between the water masses on the sea floor of the outer shelf and slope with a consequent evolution of benthic nepheloid layers and an increase in total particulate matter. We observed three different situations: (a) the presence of triads (bottom structures characterized by a concomitant jump in turbidity, temperature, and salinity data) and high re-suspension phenomena related to the presence of the Circumpolar Deep Water and its mixing with cold, salty shelf waters associated with gravity currents; (b) the absence of triads with high re-suspension, implying that when the gravity currents are no longer active the benthic nepheloid layer may persist until the suspended particles settle to the sea floor, suggesting that the turbidity data can be used to study recent gravity current events; and (c) the absence of turbidity and sediment re-suspension phenomena supports the theory that a steady situation had been re-established and the current interaction no longer occurred or had finished sometime before.

  6. Fertilizer Use and Water Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reneau, Fred; And Others

    This booklet presents informative materials on fertilizer use and water quality, specifically in regard to environmental pollution and protection in Illinois. The five chapters cover these topics: Fertilizer and Water Quality, Fertilizer Use, Fertilizers and the Environment, Safety Practices, and Fertilizer Management Practices. Key questions are…

  7. 5 Water Quality.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    the basins cause an acceleration of the. Water Quality Assessment of Densu, Birim and Ayensu. Rivers in the Okyeman Area. 1. 2. O. D. Ansa-Asare * and C. ... The aim of this paper is to develop an understanding of the spatial water quality throughout the basins and also identify the main sources of contaminants within the ...

  8. Space Station Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Charles E. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The manned Space Station will exist as an isolated system for periods of up to 90 days. During this period, safe drinking water and breathable air must be provided for an eight member crew. Because of the large mass involved, it is not practical to consider supplying the Space Station with water from Earth. Therefore, it is necessary to depend upon recycled water to meet both the human and nonhuman water needs on the station. Sources of water that will be recycled include hygiene water, urine, and cabin humidity condensate. A certain amount of fresh water can be produced by CO2 reduction process. Additional fresh water will be introduced into the total pool by way of food, because of the free water contained in food and the water liberated by metabolic oxidation of the food. A panel of scientists and engineers with extensive experience in the various aspects of wastewater reuse was assembled for a 2 day workshop at NASA-Johnson. The panel included individuals with expertise in toxicology, chemistry, microbiology, and sanitary engineering. A review of Space Station water reclamation systems was provided.

  9. What's in Your Water? An Educator's Guide to Water Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constabile, Kerry, Comp.; Craig, Heidi, Comp.; O'Laughlin, Laura, Comp.; Reiss, Anne Bei, Comp.; Spencer, Liz, Comp.

    This guide provides basic information on the Clean Water Act, watersheds, and testing for water quality, and presents four science lesson plans on water quality. Activities include: (1) "Introduction to Water Quality"; (2) "Chemical Water Quality Testing"; (3) "Biological Water Quality Testing"; and (4) "What Can We Do?" (YDS)

  10. Influence of Ross Sea Bottom Water changes on the warming and freshening of the Antarctic Bottom Water in the Australian-Antarctic Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Shimada

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Changes to the properties of Antarctic Bottom Water in the Australian-Antarctic Basin (AA-AABW between the 1990s and 2000s are documented using data from the WOCE Hydrographic Program (WHP and repeated hydrographic surveys. Strong cooling and freshening are observed on isopycnal layers denser than γn = 28.30 kg m−3. Changes in the average salinity and potential temperature below this isopycnal correspond to a basin-wide warming of 1300 ± 200 GW and freshening of 24 ± 3 Gt year−1. Recent changes to dense shelf water in the source regions in the Ross Sea and George V Land can explain the freshening of AA-AABW but not its extensive warming. An alternative mechanism for this warming is a decrease in the supply of AABW from the Ross Sea (RSBW. Hydrographic profiles between the western Ross Sea and George V Land (171–158° E were analyzed with a simple advective-diffusive model to assess the causes of the observed changes. The model suggests that the warming of RSBW observed between the 1970s and 2000s can be explained by a 21 ± 23% reduction in RSBW transport and the enhancement of the vertical diffusion of heat resulting from a 30 ± 7% weakening of the abyssal stratification. The documented freshening of Ross Sea dense shelf water leads to a reduction in both salinity and density stratification. Therefore the direct freshening of RSBW at its source also produces an indirect warming of the RSBW. A simple box model suggests that the changes in RSBW properties and volume transport (a decrease of 6.7% is assumed between the year 1995 and 2005 can explain 51 ± 6% of the warming and 84 ± 10% of the freshening observed in AA-AABW.

  11. Coral by-catch in shrimp bottom trawl surveys in West Greenland waters (2010 – 2012)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensbye, Helle; Arboe, Nanette Hammeken

    There have been zoological expeditions in Greenland waters since the 19th century documenting the sea life, including cold water corals. Coral trees (vernacular name for Paragorgia arborea) are mentioned as early as 1741 in the first natural history book about Greenland (Egede 1741). Due...... to the many expeditions and opportunistic collections by Greenlandic fisheries surveys, the species composition of West Greenlandic corals is fairly well known (Tendal and Heiner 2002), although observations of species new to Greenland are still being made (Jørgensen et al. 2013, Tendal et al. 2013......). The earlier collections of corals were not systematic and distribution patterns are poorly understood. Thus, more recently the Greenland Institute of Natural Resources started to collect cold water corals in a more systematic way to document the occurrence of corals in the bottom trawls made for the annual...

  12. Primer on Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as roots and leaves, and react with algae, bacteria, and other microscopic organisms. Water may also carry plant debris and sand, silt, ... in a few locations. Pathogens can enter our water from leaking septic tanks, wastewater-treatment discharge, and animal wastes. How can I find ...

  13. Ground Water Quality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water is the next to air as a major support substance to life. Water therefore is important in that it is essential .... potassium (K ), zinc (Zn ), cadmium (Cd ), lead. 2+. 2+. 2+. (Pb ), iron (Fe ) and manganese (Mn ) and .... used storage batteries dumped indiscriminately into the environment as observed in parts of the study area.

  14. Numerical Simulation Study on Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage Performance in a Heavy Oil Reservoir with a Bottom Water Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ni

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Pikes Peak oil field near Lloydminster, Canada, a significant amount of heavy oil reserves is located in reservoirs with a bottom water zone. The properties of the bottom water zone and the operation parameters significantly affect oil production performance via the steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD process. Thus, in order to develop this type of heavy oil resource, a full understanding of the effects of these properties is necessary. In this study, the numerical simulation approach was applied to study the effects of properties in the bottom water zone in the SAGD process, such as the initial gas oil ratio, the thickness of the reservoir, and oil saturation of the bottom water zone. In addition, some operation parameters were studied including the injection pressure, the SAGD well pair location, and five different well patterns: (1 two corner wells, (2 triple wells, (3 downhole water sink well, (4 vertical injectors with a horizontal producer, and (5 fishbone well. The numerical simulation results suggest that the properties of the bottom water zone affect production performance extremely. First, both positive and negative effects were observed when solution gas exists in the heavy oil. Second, a logarithmical relationship was investigated between the bottom water production ratio and the thickness of the bottom water zone. Third, a non-linear relation was obtained between the oil recovery factor and oil saturation in the bottom water zone, and a peak oil recovery was achieved at the oil saturation rate of 30% in the bottom water zone. Furthermore, the operation parameters affected the heavy oil production performance. Comparison of the well patterns showed that the two corner wells and the triple wells patterns obtained the highest oil recovery factors of 74.71% and 77.19%, respectively, which are almost twice the oil recovery factors gained in the conventional SAGD process (47.84%. This indicates that the optimized SAGD process

  15. [Drinking water quality and safety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Gutiérrez, Anna; Miralles, Maria Josepa; Corbella, Irene; García, Soledad; Navarro, Sonia; Llebaria, Xavier

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of drinking water legislation is to guarantee the quality and safety of water intended for human consumption. In the European Union, Directive 98/83/EC updated the essential and binding quality criteria and standards, incorporated into Spanish national legislation by Royal Decree 140/2003. This article reviews the main characteristics of the aforementioned drinking water legislation and its impact on the improvement of water quality against empirical data from Catalonia. Analytical data reported in the Spanish national information system (SINAC) indicate that water quality in Catalonia has improved in recent years (from 88% of analytical reports in 2004 finding drinking water to be suitable for human consumption, compared to 95% in 2014). The improvement is fundamentally attributed to parameters concerning the organoleptic characteristics of water and parameters related to the monitoring of the drinking water treatment process. Two management experiences concerning compliance with quality standards for trihalomethanes and lead in Barcelona's water supply are also discussed. Finally, this paper presents some challenges that, in the opinion of the authors, still need to be incorporated into drinking water legislation. It is necessary to update Annex I of Directive 98/83/EC to integrate current scientific knowledge, as well as to improve consumer access to water quality data. Furthermore, a need to define common criteria for some non-resolved topics, such as products and materials in contact with drinking water and domestic conditioning equipment, has also been identified. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. 43 CFR 414.5 - Water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water quality. 414.5 Section 414.5 Public... APPORTIONMENT IN THE LOWER DIVISION STATES Water Quality and Environmental Compliance § 414.5 Water quality. (a) Water Quality is not guaranteed. The Secretary does not warrant the quality of water released or...

  17. Recreational Water Quality Criteria Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    This set of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) provides an overview of NPDES permitting applicable to continuous dischargers (such as POTWs) based on water quality standards for pathogens and pathogen indicators associated with fecal contamination.

  18. Property changes of deep and bottom waters in the Western Tropical Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrford, Josefine; Brandt, Peter; Zenk, Walter

    2017-06-01

    The flow of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) and Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) contributes to the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Changes in the associated water mass formation might impact the deep ocean's capacity to take up anthropogenic CO2 while a warming of the deep ocean significantly contributes to global sea level rise. Here we compile historic and recent shipboard measurements of hydrography and velocity to provide a comprehensive view of water mass distribution, pathways, along-path transformation and long-term temperature changes of NADW and AABW in the western South and Equatorial Atlantic. We confirm previous results which show that the northwest corner of the Brazil Basin represents a splitting point for the southward/northward flow of NADW/AABW. The available measurements sample water mass transformation along the two major routes for deep and bottom waters in the tropical to South Atlantic - along the deep western boundary and eastward, parallel to the equator - as well as the hot-spots of extensive mixing. We find lower NADW and lighter AABW to form a highly interactive transition layer in the northern Brazil Basin. The AABW north of 5°S is relatively homogeneous with only lighter AABW being able to pass through the Equatorial Channel (EQCH) into the North Atlantic. Spanning a period of 26 years, our data also allow an estimation of long-term temperature trends in abyssal waters. We find a warming of 2.5±0.7•10-3 °C yr-1 of the waters in the northern Brazil Basin at temperatures colder than 0.6 °C throughout the period 1989-2014 and can relate this warming to a thinning of the dense AABW layer. Whereas isopycnal heave is the dominant effect which defines the vertical distribution of temperature trends on isobars, we also find temperature changes on isopycnals in the lower NADW and AABW layers. There temperatures on isopycnals exhibit decadal variations with warming in the 1990s and cooling in the 2000s - the contributions to the

  19. Preimpoundment Water Quality Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    Passiflora incarnara No Camin N,-tn P. lutea Crossvixe Anisosticus capreolata Climbing hydrangea Decumaria barbara PJapanese Honeysuckle Lonicera japonica...Impatiens, Balsam Impatiens balsandina Curly Dock Rumex Plantain Plantago virginica Water Hemlock Cicuta maculata Violet Viola floridana Ironweied Sida acuta

  20. Water Quality Control, Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington City Board of Education, NC.

    Activities which study how water is used, contaminated, and treated or purified are presented in this curriculum guide, culminating in the investigation of a local water quality problem. Designed as a 12 week mini-course for students in grades eight and nine, the guide first presents a review of the content, objectives, major concepts, and sources…

  1. Optical sensors for water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerin, Brian A.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.

    2014-01-01

    Shifts in land use, population, and climate have altered hydrologic systems in the United States in ways that affect water quality and ecosystem function. Water diversions, detention in reservoirs, increased channelization, and changes in rainfall and snowmelt are major causes, but there are also more subtle causes such as changes in soil temperature, atmospheric deposition, and shifting vegetation patterns. The effects on water quality are complex and interconnected, and occur at timeframes of minutes (e.g., flash floods) to decades (e.g., evolving management practices).

  2. Acoustic water bottom investigation with a remotely operated watercraft survey system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Shintaro; Tabusa, Tomonori; Iwasaki, Shunsuke; Hiramatsu, Masahiro

    2017-12-01

    This paper describes a remotely operated investigation system developed by combining a modern leisure-use fish finder and an unmanned watercraft to survey water bottom topography and other data related to bottom materials. Current leisure-use fish finders have strong depth sounding capabilities and can provide precise sonar images and bathymetric information. Because these sonar instruments are lightweight and small, they can be used on unmanned small watercraft. With the developed system, an operator can direct the heading of an unmanned watercraft and monitor a PC display showing real-time positioning information through the use of onboard equipment and long-distance communication devices. Here, we explain how the system was developed and demonstrate the use of the system in an area of submerged woods in a lake. The system is low cost, easy to use, and mobile. It should be useful in surveying areas that have heretofore been hard to investigate, including remote, small, and shallow lakes, for example, volcanic and glacial lakes.

  3. Triple bottom line assessment of raw water treatment: methodology and application to a case study in the municipality of Oppegård in south-eastern Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, G; Azrague, Kamal; Bell, Stig; Eikebrokk, Bjørnar

    2015-01-01

    There could be several options a water treatment plant (WTP) can select from, if an improvement in treated water quality (WQ) is desired. This paper outlines a methodology to test a variety of approaches to accomplish pre-set goals as regards WQ, while adopting a triple bottom line approach. This approach, in a nutshell, takes into consideration economic, environmental and social aspects in decision-making. The methodology has been applied to the Stangasen WTP in the town of Oppegård in south-eastern Norway. Among the seven alternative approaches compared were the use, as coagulant, of five different dosages of granulated aluminium sulphate, liquid aluminium sulphate (48%) and liquid ferric chloride (40%). Using the set of weighting factors obtained from experts, it was determined that increasing the dosage of granulated aluminium sulphate by 20% over the current one would be the most sustainable option from a triple bottom line point of view.

  4. Trends in summer bottom-water temperatures on the northern Gulf of Mexico continental shelf from 1985 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, R Eugene; Rabalais, Nancy N; Justić, Dubravko

    2017-01-01

    We quantified trends in the 1985 to 2015 summer bottom-water temperature on the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGOM) continental shelf for data collected at 88 stations with depths ranging from 3 to 63 m. The analysis was supplemented with monthly data collected from 1963 to 1965 in the same area. The seasonal summer peak in average bottom-water temperature varied concurrently with air temperature, but with a 2- to 5-month lag. The summer bottom-water temperature declined gradually with depth from 30 oC at stations closest to the shore, to 20 oC at the offshore edge of the study area, and increased an average 0.051 oC y-1 between1963 and 2015. The bottom-water warming in summer for all stations was 1.9 times faster compared to the rise in local summer air temperatures, and 6.4 times faster than the concurrent increase in annual global ocean sea surface temperatures. The annual rise in average summer bottom-water temperatures on the subtropical nGOM continental shelf is comparable to the few published temperature trend estimates from colder environments. These recent changes in the heat storage on the nGOM continental shelf will affect oxygen and carbon cycling, spatial distribution of fish and shrimp, and overall species diversity.

  5. Trends in summer bottom-water temperatures on the northern Gulf of Mexico continental shelf from 1985 to 2015.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Eugene Turner

    Full Text Available We quantified trends in the 1985 to 2015 summer bottom-water temperature on the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGOM continental shelf for data collected at 88 stations with depths ranging from 3 to 63 m. The analysis was supplemented with monthly data collected from 1963 to 1965 in the same area. The seasonal summer peak in average bottom-water temperature varied concurrently with air temperature, but with a 2- to 5-month lag. The summer bottom-water temperature declined gradually with depth from 30 oC at stations closest to the shore, to 20 oC at the offshore edge of the study area, and increased an average 0.051 oC y-1 between1963 and 2015. The bottom-water warming in summer for all stations was 1.9 times faster compared to the rise in local summer air temperatures, and 6.4 times faster than the concurrent increase in annual global ocean sea surface temperatures. The annual rise in average summer bottom-water temperatures on the subtropical nGOM continental shelf is comparable to the few published temperature trend estimates from colder environments. These recent changes in the heat storage on the nGOM continental shelf will affect oxygen and carbon cycling, spatial distribution of fish and shrimp, and overall species diversity.

  6. Importance of bottom-up approach in water management - sustainable development of catchment areas in Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavic, M.; Cosic-Flajsig, G.; Petricec, M.; Blazevic, Z.

    2012-04-01

    Association for preservation of Croatian waters and sea SLAP is a non-governmental organization (NGO) that gathers more than 150 scientist, hydrologist and civil engineers. SLAP has been established in 2006 and since then had organized many conferences and participated in projects dealing with water management. We have started our work developing plans to secure water supply to the 22 (21) villages in the rural parts of Dubrovnik (Pozega) area and trough the years we have accumulated knowledge and experience in dealing with stakeholders in hydrology and water management. Within this paper we will present importance of bottom-up approach to the stakeholders in water management in Croatia on two case studies: (1) Management of River Trebizat catchment area - irrigation of the Imotsko-Bekijsko rural parts; (2) Development of multipurpose water reservoirs at the River Orljava catchment area. Both projects were designed in the mid and late 1980's but due to the war were forgotten and on halt. River Trebizat meanders between Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina and acquires joint management by both countries. In 2010 and 2011 SLAP has organized conferences in both countries gathering all the relevant stakeholders from representatives of local and state governments, water management companies and development agencies to the scientist and interested NGO's. The conferences gave firm scientific background of the topic including presentation of all previous studies and measurements as well as model results but presented in manner appropriate to the stakeholders. The main result of the conference was contribution to the development of joint cross-border project sent to the EU Pre-Accession funds in December 2011 with the aim to strengthen capacities of both countries and prepare larger project dealing with management of the whole Trebizat catchment area to EU structural funds once Croatia enters EU in 2013. Similar approach was taken for the Orljava catchment in the northern

  7. ESTIMATION OF MODERN CONDITION OF POLLUTION DEGREE OF WATER AND BOTTOM SEDIMENT OF THE SOUTHERN PART OF THE AGRAKHAN BAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Gadzhiev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the data obtained in the course of field research in the southern part of theAgrakhan Bay. As a result of research, conducted full hydrochemical analysis of water samples taken at nine stations. An estimate is given of the degree of pollution of water and bottom sediments of the oil products , phenols and heavy metals.

  8. Chemical evidence of the changes of the Antarctic Bottom Water ventilation in the western Ross Sea between 1997 and 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivaro, Paola; Massolo, Serena; Bergamasco, Andrea; Castagno, Pasquale; Budillon, Giorgio

    2010-05-01

    Data from three Italian CLIMA project cruises between 1997 and 2003 were used to obtain sections of the hydrographic and chemical properties of the main water masses across the shelf break off Cape Adare (western Ross Sea, Antarctica). Dissolved oxygen, nitrate and phosphate data were combined on the basis of the Redfield ratio to obtain the quasi-conservative tracers NO (9[NO 3]+[O 2]), PO (135[PO 4]+[O 2]) and phosphate star PO4* ( PO4*=[PO 4]+[O 2]/175-1.95). In 1997 and 2003 the presence of the High Salinity Shelf Water at the bottom depth near the sill was traced by both physical and chemical measurements. In 2001 the Modified Shelf Water, characterized by warmer temperature and by a lower dissolved oxygen content than High Salinity Shelf Water, was observed at the shelf edge. The distribution of the chemical tracers together with the hydrographic observations showed recently formed Antarctic Bottom Water on the continental slope during all of the cruises. These observations were confirmed by the extended optimum multiparameter analysis. The calculated thickness of the new Antarctic Bottom Water, as well as the tracer content, were variable in time and in space. The estimated volume of the new Antarctic Bottom Water and the export of dissolved oxygen and nutrient associated with the overflowing water were different over the examined period. In particular, a lower (˜55%) export was evidenced in 2001 compared to 1997.

  9. Bottom water oxygenation changes in the northern Okinawa Trough since the last 88ka: Controlled by local hydrology and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jianjun; Shi, Xuefa; Zhu, Aimei; Bai, Yazhi; Selvaraj, Kandasamy

    2014-05-01

    Dissolved oxygen content in oceanic bottom water is closely related to the surface organic carbon export and subsurface water stratification, regulating the biogeochemical cycles of some key nutrients and trace elements in intermediate and deep water columns. Further, the rate of organic carbon flux to sediments and bottom water oxygen concentration together determine the intensity of reducing conditions in sediments. In this study, we obtain high-resolution geochemical elements (TOC, TN, TS, CaCO3, Cd, U, Mn and Mo) in a radiocarbon (14C) and δ18O dated, sediment core CSH1 collected from the northern Okinawa Trough to reconstruct the history of bottom water redox conditions over 88 ka. Our data revealed the presence of hypoxic bottom water in the northern Okinawa Trough during late MIS5a-early MIS4, Last Glacial Maximum, and the early Last Deglacial intervals. During the Holocene and the early MIS5a, the dissolved oxygen content in bottom water has increased with decreasing water stratification, which was probably caused by the increased upwelling from the bottom in tandem with the climbing of Kuroshio Current and subdued freshwater effect in the northern Okinawa Trough. The reasons that caused the change of dissolved oxygen content in bottom water in the northern Okinawa Trough varied during different periods. The main factors are related to sea level, strengths of East Asian monsoon and the Kuroshio Current, and the shift of Westerly Jet Axis. The semi-closed topography in the northern Okinawa Trough provides a space framework for the presence of anoxia, while the sea level together with the Kuroshio Current, the East Asian monsoon and the Westerly Jet Axis seems to affect the strength of water stratification and the nutrient supply; thereby, regulating the dissolved oxygen exchange between surface and bottom waters. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China(Grant No.:40906035,40710069004) and by basic scientific fund for

  10. BACTERIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF TAP WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Zamorska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The most sensitive method of detecting contamination in water supply networks is microbiological testing. Microbiological water safety is evaluated mainly based on the results of traditional tests that rely on bacteria culturing on the so called bacterial growth mediums. Flow cytometry is a modern technology that has been used in microbiology only recently. The diagnostic method based on flow cytometry is much faster and more versatile. Microbiological quality testing was conducted in rzeszowski district, in the area of water network supplied by surface waters, and in the area of water network supplied by underground waters. The scope of the analysis of the microbiological quality of tap water was based on the determination of selected indicators of the sanitary condition of water ie; the total number of psychrophilic and mesophilic bacteria on nutrient agar (reference called Agar A and additionally called agar supplemented with R, the number of coliforms and faecal streptococci. Determination of the total number of microorganisms by flow cytometry was performed using two dyes SYBR Green and iodide pyridine. Water from underground water intakes, not under the permanent control of microbial had worse microbiological parameters. Used new methods of microbiological assays showed greater amounts of microbiological contamination.

  11. Leadership for Quality University Teaching: How Bottom-Up Academic Insights Can Inform Top-Down Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Donald E.; Scott, Shelleyann

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the leadership implications from a study that explored how to increase the quality of teaching in a university thereby presenting data from the bottom up--the academic perspective--to inform leadership, policies, and academic development which generally flows from the top down. We report academics' perceptions of and…

  12. Concepts for a bottom-mounted buoyant, stab-in cold water pipe for the OTEC program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pompa, J.A.; Key, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    A conceptual design for a bottom-mounted, stab-in cold water pipe (CWP) for OTEC is presented. The design concepts used are based on experience gained in the design of marine risers for offshore petroleum production. After a detailed description of the system envisioned and the installation scenario, the status of the major components in the system is discussed relative to the present state of the art in the oil industry. From preliminary structural analyses and cost projections, a comparison is then drawn between the bottom-mounted pipe and free-hanging CWP designs. The comparison shows the bottom-mounted concept to be technically and economically sound, utilizing present oil industry design practices. Finally, recommendations are made for further work to integrate the bottom-mounted CWP concept into the OTEC program.

  13. Benthic foraminiferal assemblages and bottom water evolution off the Portuguese margin since the Middle Pleistocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qimei; Li, Baohua; Kim, Jin-Kyoung

    2017-03-01

    The upper 250 meter-long sediment core of Site U1391 (1085 m water depth) retrieved from the Portuguese margin in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean was adopted for the benthic foraminiferal analyses to disclose the variations in Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) intensity over the last 0.9 Ma. Benthic foraminifera are abundant at this site and mainly composed of the hyaline forms (80%, such as Cibicidoides/Cibicides spp., Globobulimina spp., Bulimina spp., Uvigerina spp., Melonis spp., Sphaeroidina bulloides, Hoeglundina elegans, Gyroidinoides spp., Lenticulina spp. and Planulina ariminensis), while the agglutinated and porcelaneous forms have only 5% and 14.1% on average, respectively. Down-core variations of the benthic foraminifera show glacial-interglacial contrasts, especially those of Lenticulina spp. and Planulina ariminensis, which is also supported by the benthic foraminiferal cluster analysis. During the interglacial periods, the fauna are dominated by Sphaeroidina bulloides, Lenticulina spp., Planulina ariminensis, Dentalina spp., Cibicidoides robertsonianus and the agglutinated forms, while by Cibicidoides pachyderma, Praeglobobulimina ovata, Praeglobobulimina pupoides, Bulimina mexicana, Uvigerina mediterranea, Bolivinita quadrilatera and mililoids during the glacial periods. Benthic foraminiferal faunal data at Site U1391 was detailed analyzed to disclose the bottom water property over the last 0.9 Ma. Variations of the character species or assemblages, such as Planulina ariminensis, and the ;elevated epibenthos; group suggest that the MOW intensity has typical glacial-interglacial cycles, strengthening during the interglacial periods and weakening during the glacial periods, and reaches its peak at MIS 11. The strongest MOW intensity during MIS 11 confirms the climatic influence of waving sea level on the MOW current by its + 20 m high-stand above the present sea level. The agglutinated benthic foraminifera have a significantly positive correlation with

  14. Benthic indicators to use in Ecological Quality classification of Mediterranean soft bottom marine ecosystems, including a new Biotic Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. SIMBOURA

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A general scheme for approaching the objective of Ecological Quality Status (EcoQ classification of zoobenthic marine ecosystems is presented. A system based on soft bottom benthic indicator species and related habitat types is suggested to be used for testing the typological definition of a given water body in the Mediterranean. Benthic indices including the Shannon-Wiener diversity index and the species richness are re-evaluated for use in classification. Ranges of values and of ecological quality categories are given for the diversity and species richness in different habitat types. A new biotic index (BENTIX is proposed based on the relative percentages of three ecological groups of species grouped according to their sensitivity or tolerance to disturbance factors and weighted proportionately to obtain a formula rendering a five step numerical scale of ecological quality classification. Its advantage against former biotic indices lies in the fact that it reduces the number of the ecological groups involved which makes it simpler and easier in its use. The Bentix index proposed is tested and validated with data from Greek and western Mediterranean ecosystems and examples are presented. Indicator species associated with specific habitat types and pollution indicator species, scored according to their degree of tolerance to pollution, are listed in a table. The Bentix index is compared and evaluated against the indices of diversity and species richness for use in classification. The advantages of the BENTIX index as a classification tool for ECoQ include independence from habitat type, sample size and taxonomic effort, high discriminative power and simplicity in its use which make it a robust, simple and effective tool for application in the Mediterranean Sea.

  15. Bottom-up and trait-mediated effects of resource quality on amphibian parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Jeffrey P; Altman, Karie A; Berven, Keith A; Tiegs, Scott D; Raffel, Thomas R

    2017-03-01

    Leaf litter subsidies are important resources for aquatic consumers like tadpoles and snails, causing bottom-up effects on wetland ecosystems. Recent studies have shown that variation in litter nutritional quality can be as important as litter quantity in driving these bottom-up effects. Resource subsidies likely also have indirect and trait-mediated effects on predation and parasitism, but these potential effects remain largely unexplored. We generated predictions for differential effects of litter nutrition and secondary polyphenolic compounds on tadpole (Lithobates sylvatica) exposure and susceptibility to Ribeiroia ondatrae, based on ecological stoichiometry and community-ecology theory. We predicted direct and indirect effects on key traits of the tadpole host (rates of growth, development and survival), the trematode parasite (production of the cercaria infective stages) and the parasite's snail intermediate host (growth and reproduction). To test these predictions, we conducted a large-scale mesocosm experiment using a natural gradient in the concentrations of nutrients (nitrogen) and toxic secondary compounds (polyphenolics) of nine leaf litter species. To differentiate between effects on exposure vs. susceptibility to infection, we included multiple infection experiments including one with constant per capita exposure. We found that increased litter nitrogen increased tadpole survival, and also increased cercaria production by the snail intermediate hosts, causing opposing effects on tadpole per capita exposure to trematode infection. Increased litter polyphenolics slowed tadpole development, leading to increased infection by increasing both their susceptibility to infection and the length of time they were exposed to parasites. Based on these results, recent shifts in forest composition towards more nitrogen-poor litter species should decrease trematode infection in tadpoles via density- and trait-mediated effects on the snail intermediate hosts. However

  16. A new method to assess long term small sea-bottom vertical displacement in shallow water from bottom pressure sensor: the case of Campi Flegrei, Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malservisi, R.; Chierici, F.; Iannaccone, G.; Guardato, S.; Pignagnoli, L.; Locritani, M.; Embriaco, D.; Donnarumma, G. P.; Rodgers, M.; Beranzoli, L.

    2016-12-01

    We present a new methodology aimed at assessing long term small vertical seafloor deformation in shallow water environments by using Bottom Pressure Recorder (BPR) measurements jointly with ancillary sea level, water column and barometric data. These measurements are presently acquired only in areas where the amount of vertical deformation is large and in deep water environment, where the noise induced by the sea state and other near surface disturbances is low. We applied the method to the data acquired in 2011 by a BPR deployed at about 96 m depth in the marine sector of the Campi Flegrei Caldera, during a quasi-symmetric seafloor uplift episode of a few centimeters amplitude. The method provides an estimation of the vertical uplift of the caldera of 2.5 +/- 1.3 cm achieving an unprecedented level of precision in the measurement of the seafloor vertical deformation in shallow water. We reached this result by taking into account the contribution of the BPR instrumental drift and the contribution of the sea water density variations, which can affect the measurement on the order of tens of centimeters. The estimation of the vertical deformation obtained in this way compares favorably with data acquired by a land based GPS station, which is located at the same distance from the area of maximum deformation as the BPR

  17. Features of distribution and quality of organic matter in the bottom sediments of the Great Peter Bay (Sea of Japan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesterova, Olga; Tregubova, Valentina; Semal, Victoria; Vasenev, Ivan

    2017-04-01

    The nature and distribution of organic carbon in marine waters depends on: 1) biological productivity and revenue of the autochthonous organic matter to the bottom; 2) sediment grain-size composition and conditions of dumping, which in turn depends of hydrothermic regime, topography, speed River mist and received major erosion products; 3) living conditions of the benthos (the quantity consumed of OM, gas regime of habitats, physiological capacity of heterotrophs). Autochthonous OM of phytoplankton plays a dominant role in the processes of formation of humus in aquatic conditions. Bottom sediments at different distance from the shoreline to depths from 0.5 up to 480 m of the Sea of Japan, which are formed in various conditions of facies, were selected as the objects of study. There is no clear relationships to the amount of organic matter in bottom sediments on the characteristics of the distribution and nature of living matter in the oceans and seas. This is because the process of sedimentation and fossilization of organic matter on the seabed and the ocean floor depends on many factors (currents, depth). Humus of studied bottom sediments in composition can be attributed mainly to the humic type. Nonhydrolyzing rest is 70-90%. This is characteristic of bottom sediments formed in facial types of small bays, internal coastal shelf bights and the underwater slope. At a fraction of the carbon of humic acids in organic matter, ranging from 4 to 80% of the amount of humic and fulvic acids. Fulvic acids content is much less. This is due to more favourable conservation situation of humic acids in precipitation with high content of organic matter, whereas fulvic acids in aquatic environments are more labile and almost not dumped. Despite the fact humic acids are not the most stable component (s), however, with increased content of humic acids, the mobility of organic matter and removing it from the bottom sediments are reduced. Internal shelf facies of the Great Peter Bay

  18. Fern spore longevity in saline water: can sea bottom sediments maintain a viable spore bank?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Arjen de Groot

    Full Text Available Freshwater and marine sediments often harbor reservoirs of plant diaspores, from which germination and establishment may occur whenever the sediment falls dry. Therewith, they form valuable records of historical inter- and intraspecific diversity, and are increasingly exploited to facilitate diversity establishment in new or restored nature areas. Yet, while ferns may constitute a considerable part of a vegetation's diversity and sediments are known to contain fern spores, little is known about their longevity, which may suffer from inundation and--in sea bottoms--salt stress. We tested the potential of ferns to establish from a sea or lake bottom, using experimental studies on spore survival and gametophyte formation, as well as a spore bank analysis on sediments from a former Dutch inland sea. Our experimental results revealed clear differences among species. For Asplenium scolopendrium and Gymnocarpium dryopteris, spore germination was not affected by inundated storage alone, but decreased with rising salt concentrations. In contrast, for Asplenium trichomanes subsp. quadrivalens germination decreased following inundation, but not in response to salt. Germination rates decreased with time of storage in saline water. Smaller and less viable gametophytes were produced when saline storage lasted for a year. Effects on germination and gametophyte development clearly differed among genotypes of A. scolopendrium. Spore bank analyses detected no viable spores in marine sediment layers. Only two very small gametophytes (identified as Thelypteris palustris via DNA barcoding emerged from freshwater sediments. Both died before maturation. We conclude that marine, and likely even freshwater sediments, will generally be of little value for long-term storage of fern diversity. The development of any fern vegetation on a former sea floor will depend heavily on the deposition of spores onto the drained land by natural or artificial means of dispersal.

  19. Fern spore longevity in saline water: can sea bottom sediments maintain a viable spore bank?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, G Arjen; During, Heinjo

    2013-01-01

    Freshwater and marine sediments often harbor reservoirs of plant diaspores, from which germination and establishment may occur whenever the sediment falls dry. Therewith, they form valuable records of historical inter- and intraspecific diversity, and are increasingly exploited to facilitate diversity establishment in new or restored nature areas. Yet, while ferns may constitute a considerable part of a vegetation's diversity and sediments are known to contain fern spores, little is known about their longevity, which may suffer from inundation and--in sea bottoms--salt stress. We tested the potential of ferns to establish from a sea or lake bottom, using experimental studies on spore survival and gametophyte formation, as well as a spore bank analysis on sediments from a former Dutch inland sea. Our experimental results revealed clear differences among species. For Asplenium scolopendrium and Gymnocarpium dryopteris, spore germination was not affected by inundated storage alone, but decreased with rising salt concentrations. In contrast, for Asplenium trichomanes subsp. quadrivalens germination decreased following inundation, but not in response to salt. Germination rates decreased with time of storage in saline water. Smaller and less viable gametophytes were produced when saline storage lasted for a year. Effects on germination and gametophyte development clearly differed among genotypes of A. scolopendrium. Spore bank analyses detected no viable spores in marine sediment layers. Only two very small gametophytes (identified as Thelypteris palustris via DNA barcoding) emerged from freshwater sediments. Both died before maturation. We conclude that marine, and likely even freshwater sediments, will generally be of little value for long-term storage of fern diversity. The development of any fern vegetation on a former sea floor will depend heavily on the deposition of spores onto the drained land by natural or artificial means of dispersal.

  20. Mixing monoclonal antibody formulations using bottom-mounted mixers: impact of mechanism and design on drug product quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gikanga, Benson; Chen, Yufei; Stauch, Oliver B; Maa, Yuh-Fun

    2015-01-01

    Using bottom-mounted mixers, particularly those that are magnetically driven, is becoming increasingly common during the mixing process in pharmaceutical and biotechnology manufacturing because of their associated low risk of contamination, ease of use, and ability to accommodate low minimum mixing volumes. Despite these benefits, the impact of bottom-mounted mixers on biologic drug product is not yet fully understood and is scarcely reported. This study evaluated four bottom-mounted mixers to assess their impact on monoclonal antibody formulations. Changes in product quality (size variants, particles, and turbidity) and impact on process performance (sterile filtration) were evaluated after mixing. The results suggested that mixers that are designed to function with no contact between the impeller and the drive unit are the most favorable and gentle to monoclonal antibody molecules. Designs with contact or a narrow clearance tended to shear and grind the protein and resulted in high particle count in the liquid, which would subsequently foul a filter membrane during sterile filtration using a 0.22 μm pore size filter. Despite particle formation, increases in turbidity of the protein solution and protein aggregation/fragmentation were not detected. Further particle analysis indicated particles in the range of 0.2-2 μm are responsible for filter fouling. A small-scale screening model was developed using two types of magnetic stir bars mimicking the presence or absence of contact between the impeller and drive unit in the bottom-mounted mixers. The model is capable of differentiating the sensitivity of monoclonal antibody formulations to bottom-mounted mixers with a small sample size. This study fills an important gap in understanding a critical bioprocess unit operation. Mixing is an important unit operation in drug product manufacturing for compounding (dilution, pooling, homogenization, etc.). The current trend in adopting disposable bottom-mounted mixers has

  1. Arsenic remediation of drinking water using iron-oxide coated coal bottom ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MATHIEU, JOHANNA L.; GADGIL, ASHOK J.; ADDY, SUSAN E.A.; KOWOLIK, KRISTIN

    2010-06-01

    We describe laboratory and field results of a novel arsenic removal adsorbent called 'Arsenic Removal Using Bottom Ash' (ARUBA). ARUBA is prepared by coating particles of coal bottom ash, a waste material from coal fired power plants, with iron (hydr)oxide. The coating process is simple and conducted at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. Material costs for ARUBA are estimated to be low (~;;$0.08 per kg) and arsenic remediation with ARUBA has the potential to be affordable to resource-constrained communities. ARUBA is used for removing arsenic via a dispersal-and-removal process, and we envision that ARUBA would be used in community-scale water treatment centers. We show that ARUBA is able to reduce arsenic concentrations in contaminated Bangladesh groundwater to below the Bangladesh standard of 50 ppb. Using the Langmuir isotherm (R2 = 0.77) ARUBA's adsorption capacity in treating real groundwater is 2.6x10-6 mol/g (0.20 mg/g). Time-to-90percent (defined as the time interval for ARUBA to remove 90percent of the total amount of arsenic that is removed at equilibrium) is less than one hour. Reaction rates (pseudo-second-order kinetic model, R2>_ 0.99) increase from 2.4x105 to 7.2x105 g mol-1 min-1 as the groundwater arsenic concentration decreases from 560 to 170 ppb. We show that ARUBA's arsenic adsorption density (AAD), defined as the milligrams of arsenic removed at equilibrium per gram of ARUBA added, is linearly dependent on the initial arsenic concentration of the groundwater sample, for initial arsenic concentrations of up to 1600 ppb and an ARUBA dose of 4.0 g/L. This makes it easy to determine the amount of ARUBA required to treat a groundwater source when its arsenic concentration is known and less than 1600 ppb. Storing contaminated groundwater for two to three days before treatment is seen to significantly increase ARUBA's AAD. ARUBA can be separated from treated water by coagulation and clarification, which is expected to

  2. Arsenic remediation of drinking water using iron-oxide coated coal bottom ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Johanna L; Gadgil, Ashok J; Addy, Susan E A; Kowolik, Kristin

    2010-09-01

    We describe laboratory and field results of a novel arsenic removal adsorbent called 'Arsenic Removal Using Bottom Ash' (ARUBA). ARUBA is prepared by coating particles of coal bottom ash, a waste material from coal fired power plants, with iron (hydr)oxide. The coating process is simple and conducted at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. Material costs for ARUBA are estimated to be low (approximately $0.08 per kg) and arsenic remediation with ARUBA has the potential to be affordable to resource-constrained communities. ARUBA is used for removing arsenic via a dispersal-and-removal process, and we envision that ARUBA would be used in community-scale water treatment centers. We show that ARUBA is able to reduce arsenic concentrations in contaminated Bangladesh groundwater to below the Bangladesh standard of 50 ppb. Using the Langmuir isotherm (R(2) = 0.77) ARUBA's adsorption capacity in treating real groundwater is 2.6 x 10(- 6)mol/g (0.20 mg/g). Time-to-90% (defined as the time interval for ARUBA to remove 90% of the total amount of arsenic that is removed at equilibrium) is less than 1 hour. Reaction rates (pseudo-second-order kinetic model, R(2) > or = 0.99) increase from 2.4 x 10(5) to 7.2 x 10(5) g mol(- 1)min(- 1) as the groundwater arsenic concentration decreases from 560 to 170 ppb. We show that ARUBA's arsenic adsorption density (AAD), defined as the milligrams of arsenic removed at equilibrium per gram of ARUBA added, is linearly dependent on the initial arsenic concentration of the groundwater sample, for initial arsenic concentrations of up to 1600 ppb and an ARUBA dose of 4.0 g/L. This makes it easy to determine the amount of ARUBA required to treat a groundwater source when its arsenic concentration is known and less than 1600 ppb. Storing contaminated groundwater for two to three days before treatment is seen to significantly increase ARUBA's AAD. ARUBA can be separated from treated water by coagulation and clarification, which is expected to

  3. 18 CFR 801.7 - Water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water quality. 801.7... POLICIES § 801.7 Water quality. (a) The signatory States have the primary responsibility in the basin for water quality management and control. However, protection of the water resources of the basin from...

  4. 5 Water Quality.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    degraded forested area from the developing world where agricultural-derived revenue ... The water quality assessment conducted in the Densu, Birim and Ayensu Basins of Ghana in the Okyeman area between August 2005 and June 2006 .... Akwadun (Bridge-down) and. Kukurantumi. • Birim River Stations: Bunso Cocoa.

  5. Portable water quality monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizar, N. B.; Ong, N. R.; Aziz, M. H. A.; Alcain, J. B.; Haimi, W. M. W. N.; Sauli, Z.

    2017-09-01

    Portable water quality monitoring system was a developed system that tested varied samples of water by using different sensors and provided the specific readings to the user via short message service (SMS) based on the conditions of the water itself. In this water quality monitoring system, the processing part was based on a microcontroller instead of Lead and Copper Rule (LCR) machines to receive the results. By using four main sensors, this system obtained the readings based on the detection of the sensors, respectively. Therefore, users can receive the readings through SMS because there was a connection between Arduino Uno and GSM Module. This system was designed to be portable so that it would be convenient for users to carry it anywhere and everywhere they wanted to since the processor used is smaller in size compared to the LCR machines. It was also developed to ease the user to monitor and control the water quality. However, the ranges of the sensors' detection still a limitation in this study.

  6. Coupling of North Pacific Productivity, Beringian Precipitation, and Antarctic Bottom Water Formation: an Atmospheric Link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caissie, B.; Wilkie, K. M. K.

    2016-12-01

    Changes in primary productivity in the North Pacific occur on a variety of timescales from seasonal to orbital. A prime indicator of this productivity is expressed as laminated intervals deposited simultaneously in intermediate-depth waters across the North Pacific and its marginal seas at Glacial Terminations. Debate continues regarding the mechanism that triggered this anoxia in the North Pacific. Some argue for a change in intermediate water ventilation, and others for simply an increase in primary productivity. While little evidence has been found for a change in ventilation of intermediate waters, primary productivity increased dramatically at Terminations. However, the cause of this primary productivity is currently unknown. Some have suggested increasing aeolian iron deposition, increasing nutrient input due to rising sea level, or changes in stratification. Here we show that although there is no change in intermediate water ventilation during laminated intervals, there is a significant change in the rate of Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) Formation. We use new diatom records from the Bering Sea and previously published sediment records from the South Pacific and Lake El'gygytgyn, Russia to show that AABW formation is coupled with primary productivity in the North Pacific and terrestrial precipitation in Beringia. During three interglacials (MIS 1, MIS 5, and MIS 11), primary productivity, driven by increased upwelling, is high when AABW formation is high. This increased upwelling in turn increases the open water area of the Bering Sea, pushes sea ice farther north and increases moisture supply to the Beringian continent. At peak interglacials, productivity in the North Pacific and Beringian temperatures decrease simultaneously with a decrease in AABW formation. We attribute these changes to large-scale atmospheric climate modes linking changes in the strength and position of the Aleutian Low to upwelling of nutrient-rich waters in the North Pacific and Bering

  7. Shallow Water Optical Water Quality Buoy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostater, Charles

    1998-01-01

    This NASA grant was funded as a result of an unsolicited proposal submission to Kennedy Space Center. The proposal proposed the development and testing of a shallow water optical water quality buoy. The buoy is meant to work in shallow aquatic systems (ponds, rivers, lagoons, and semi-enclosed water areas where strong wind wave action is not a major environmental During the project period of three years, a demonstration of the buoy was conducted. The last demonstration during the project period was held in November, 1996 when the buoy was demonstrated as being totally operational with no tethered communications line. During the last year of the project the buoy was made to be solar operated by large gel cell batteries. Fund limitations did not permit the batteries in metal enclosures as hoped for higher wind conditions, however the system used to date has worked continuously for in- situ operation of over 18 months continuous deployment. The system needs to have maintenance and somewhat continuous operational attention since various components have limited lifetime ages. For example, within the last six months the onboard computer has had to be repaired as it did approximately 6 months after deployment. The spectrograph had to be repaired and costs for repairs was covered by KB Science since no ftmds were available for this purpose after the grant expired. Most recently the computer web page server failed and it is currently being repaired by KB Science. In addition, the cell phone operation is currently being ftmded by Dr. Bostater in order to maintain the system's operation. The above points need to be made to allow NASA to understand that like any sophisticated measuring system in a lab or in the field, necessary funding and maintenance is needed to insure the system's operational state and to obtain quality factor. The proposal stated that the project was based upon the integration of a proprietary and confidential sensor and probe design that was developed by

  8. National Irrigation Water Quality Program data-synthesis data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Ralph L.; Skorupa, Joseph P.

    2001-01-01

    Under the National Irrigation Water Quality Program (NIWQP) of the U.S. Department of the Interior, researchers investigated contamination caused by irrigation drainage in 26 areas in the Western United States from 1986 to 1993. From 1992 to 1995, a comprehensive relational data base was built to organize data collected during the 26-area investigations. The data base provided the basis for analysis and synthesis of these data to identify common features of contaminated areas and hence dominant biologic, geologic, climatic, chemical, and physiographic factors that have resulted in contamination of water and biota in irrigated areas in the Western United States. Included in the data base are geologic, hydrologic, climatological, chemical, and cultural data that describe the 26 study areas in 14 Western States. The data base contains information on 1,264 sites from which water and bottom sediment were collected. It also contains chemical data from 6,903 analyses of surface water, 914 analyses of ground water, 707 analyses of inorganic constituents in bottom sediments, 223 analyses of organochlorine pesticides in bottom sediments, 8,217 analyses of inorganic constituents in biota, and 1,088 analyses for organic constituents in biota. The data base is available to the public and can be obtained at the NIWQP homepage http://www.usbr.gov/niwqp as dBase III tables for personal-computer systems or as American Standard Code for Information Exchange structured query language (SQL) command and data files for SQL data bases.

  9. Saline waters and soil quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Dazzi

    Full Text Available The processes of secondary salinization due to anthropic actions are considered one of the most important environmental emergencies owing to their level of dangerousness. The soils of the dry areas of the Mediterranean basin are particularly prone to these processes. In such environments, it is imperative to resort to irrigation that allow for the reduction of risks due to soil moisture deficit and for the stabilization of yields. Frequently, saline waters are used that cause a lowering of the soil quality. If on one hand the presence of salts can benefit the soils mainly improving soil structure, on the other high levels of salts produce negative effects on soils and crops.When sodium prevails problems of soil quality can rise such as structure degradation, low hydraulic conductivity, soil sealing. The processes of secondary soil salinization due to the use of saline waters for irrigation are particularly evident in our Country among others. In Italy, saline soils are mainly distributed in long strips of the coastal belt of the Tyrrhenian sea and Adriatic sea, in the coastal belt of Apulia, Basilicata and Sardinia and in wide areas of Sicily. It is not possible to suggest general actions to combat soil salinization because we must take into consideration that in the relationship soil-water two different quality concept interact: one linked to the soils, the other to the waters.

  10. Saline waters and soil quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Dazzi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The processes of secondary salinization due to anthropic actions are considered one of the most important environmental emergencies owing to their level of dangerousness. The soils of the dry areas of the Mediterranean basin are particularly prone to these processes. In such environments, it is imperative to resort to irrigation that allow for the reduction of risks due to soil moisture deficit and for the stabilization of yields. Frequently, saline waters are used that cause a lowering of the soil quality. If on one hand the presence of salts can benefit the soils mainly improving soil structure, on the other high levels of salts produce negative effects on soils and crops.When sodium prevails problems of soil quality can rise such as structure degradation, low hydraulic conductivity, soil sealing. The processes of secondary soil salinization due to the use of saline waters for irrigation are particularly evident in our Country among others. In Italy, saline soils are mainly distributed in long strips of the coastal belt of the Tyrrhenian sea and Adriatic sea, in the coastal belt of Apulia, Basilicata and Sardinia and in wide areas of Sicily. It is not possible to suggest general actions to combat soil salinization because we must take into consideration that in the relationship soil-water two different quality concept interact: one linked to the soils, the other to the waters.

  11. River water quality modelling: II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shanahan, P.; Henze, Mogens; Koncsos, L.

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. EPA QUAL2E model is currently the standard for river water quality modelling. While QUAL2E is adequate for the regulatory situation for which it was developed (the U.S. wasteload allocation process), there is a need for a more comprehensive framework for research and teaching. Moreover......, and to achieve robust model calibration. Mass balance problems arise from failure to account for mass in the sediment as well as in the water column and due to the fundamental imprecision of BOD as a state variable. (C) 1998 IAWQ Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  12. 9 CFR 3.106 - Water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water quality. 3.106 Section 3.106... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.106 Water quality. (a) General. The primary enclosure... additives (e.g. chlorine and copper) that are added to the water to maintain water quality standards...

  13. Integrated Urban Water Quality Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rauch, W.; Harremoës, Poul

    1995-01-01

    system provides useful information for water quality management. It is possible to identify the system parameters that contain engineering significance. Continuous simulation of the system performance indicates that the combined nitrogen loading is dominated by the wastewater treatment plant during dry......The basic features of integrated urban water quality management by means of deterministic modeling are outlined. Procedures for the assessment of the detrimental effects in the recipient are presented as well as the basic concepts of an integrated model. The analysis of a synthetic urban drainage...... weather, while the overflow from the combined sewer system plays a minor role. Oxygen depletion in urban rivers is caused by intermittent discharges from both sewer system and wastewater treatment plant. Neglecting one of them in the evaluation of the environmental impact gives a wrong impression of total...

  14. Mycoflora and Water Quality index Assessment of Water Sources in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mycoflora and Water quality index assessment studies of hand-dug wells and a river in Oproama Community, Niger Delta were studied. Water samples was taken from the ten sampling stations (7 wells and 3 river points) and water quality index using water quality index calculator given by National Sanitation Foundation ...

  15. BOTTOM SEDIMENTS IN DELTAIC SHALLOW-WATER AREAS – ARE THEY SOILS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna N. Tkachenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on long-term research of aquatic landscapes in the VolgaRiver delta which was held in 2010–2012 and included investigation and sampling of bottom sediments in deltaic lagoons, fresh-water bays, small channels, oxbow lakes, and part of the deltaic near-shore zone. Contrasting hydrological regime and suspended matter deposition together with huge amount of water plants in the river delta provide for the formation of different types of subaquatic soils. The purpose of this research is to reveal the properties of the subaquatic soils in the Volga River deltaic area and to propose pedogenetic approaches to the diagnostic of aquazems as soil types. It is suggested to name the horizons in aquazems in the same way as in terrestrial soils in the recent Russian soil classification system, and apply symbols starting with the combination of caps – AQ (for “aquatic”. The aquazems’ horizons are identified and their general properties are described. Most typical of aquazems is the aquagley (AQG horizon; it is dove grey, homogeneous in color and permeated by clay. The upper part is usually enriched in organic matter and may be qualified for aquahumus (AQA or  aquapeat (AQT horizons. In case of active hydrodynamic regime and/or strong mixing phenomena, the oxidized (AQOX or aqox horizon, or property could be formed. It is yellowish-grey, thin, and depleted of organic matter. The main types of aquzems specified by forming agents and combinations of horizons are described.

  16. CHEMICAL WATER QUALITY INDICATORS IN BASIN FOREST PARCZEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Grzywna

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the characteristics of the chemistry of surface and ground water in the bottom of the river valley reclaimed Ochoza. Drained grassland accounts for 20% of the total catchment area and are located on organic soils in the valley Tyśmienica classified to the Natura 2000 sites. Analysis of physico-chemical properties of water are to assess the effects of anthropogenic transformation and identify factors that influence water quality in the study area. Water samples were collected in the years 2011–2012 in several points. The walls were characterized by surface water stagnant in the trenches, in July, blueberry plantation. Characterized by the highest quality of surface water runoff river with the test object. Occurring here throughout the growing season water flow reed growing on the bed and temporary impoundment of water contribute to the self-cleaning effect of water. Conducted at different times of the growing season (winter, spring, summer, autumn of water chemistry analysis allows to assess the impact of vegetation on the process of self-purification of water. Based on the survey it was found that the river is reduced by 26% BOD 5, COD by 37%, 12% phosphate and potassium by 13%. Concurrently, an increase in the content of nitrogen compounds – ammonia at 27% and 15% nitrate. The increase in the content of nitrogen compounds is particularly evident in the bottom of the object, which is probably associated with the deep trench causing excessive drying of the soil. The highest values of pollutants were recorded mostly in the spring probably due to the outflow of water from the drans.

  17. Quality criteria for bottom ashes for civil construction. Part II Technical characteristics of bottom ashes; Kvalitetskriterier foer bottenaskor till vaegoch anlaeggningsbyggnad. Etapp II Bottenaskors tekniska egenskaper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahr, Bo von; Loorents, Karl-Johan; Ekvall, Annika; Arvidsson, Haakan [SP Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)

    2006-01-15

    This report is the presentation of the second of two stages. This stage deals mainly with the testing of three different types of ashes and the evaluation and suitability of the chosen test methods. The project only relates to the technical aspects of ashes. The report is written in such a way that both ash owners (e.g. Energy companies) and those who build roads and constructions will find it meaningful. All test methods that are used for traditional materials (gravel and crushed rock) is not fitting for ashes. New test methods for some properties that will be tested must therefore be presented, tested practically and evaluated. The project encompasses both road and construction building but has a focus on road construction since there the highest and comprising demands are defined. Three bottom ashes of different types have been studied regarding some tenfold mechanical/physical parameters, essential for the functionality of the ash as a construction material. An important conclusion is that ash is from a functionality and characterisation point of view, an undefined concept that encloses materials with widely different properties. Despite that only three ashes have been looked into the range of results are varying large for some properties. This is especially true for the loose bulk density, water absorption and grain size distribution. It is also clear that some of the standard test methods for aggregates need to be exchanged by other methods, which are more adapted to alternative materials. One such example is water absorption, a property that further influences frost resistance, frost heave and such. All the proposed test methods that been used in the project is considered fitting for its purpose. The test methods can be divided into two categories the ones that yield easy assessable results and those that yield results hard to appraise. To the first group belong grain size distribution, loose bulk density, thermal conductivity, permeability and frost heave

  18. Environmental complexity of a port: Evidence from circulation of the water masses, and composition and contamination of bottom sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutroneo, L; Carbone, C; Consani, S; Vagge, G; Canepa, G; Capello, M

    2017-06-15

    Ports are complex environments due to their complicated geometry (quays, channels, and piers), the presence of human activities (vessel traffic, shipyards, industries, and discharges), and natural factors (stream and torrent inputs, sea action, and currents). Taking these factors into consideration, we have examined the marine environment of a port from the point of view of the circulation of the water masses, hydrological characteristics, distribution of the sediment grain-size, mineralogical characteristics, and metal concentrations of the bottom sediments. Our results show that, in the case of the Port of Genoa (north-western Italy), the impact of human activities (such as a coal power-plant, oil depots, shipyards, dredging of the bottom sediments, etc.), natural processes (such as currents, fresh water and sediment inputs from the torrents), and the morphology of the basin, are important factors in the sediment, water, and metal distributions that have given rise to a complex environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Detection of reactive oxygen species supplied into the water bottom by atmospheric non-thermal plasma jet using iodine-starch reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Toshiyuki; Eto, Wataru; Hamada, Masaki; Wakabayashi, Yasutaka; Abe, Yasufumi; Kihara, Keisuke

    2015-08-01

    The supply of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to a target through liquid by plasma jet should be clarified. In this study, a non-thermal plasma jet was irradiated onto the water surface in atmospheric air, and the ROS reaching the water bottom were detected using a gel reagent with iodine-starch reactions. As a result, two-dimensional ROS distributions were visually obtained at the bottom, and the relative ROS concentration was obtained by absorbance measurement. Oxygen addition to helium led to a higher ROS supply into the bottom than helium plasma jet and ozone exposure. A doughnut-shaped ROS distribution was clearly observed at the bottom under certain conditions. The ROS concentration at the bottom significantly depended on irradiation distance and water layer thickness. It is observed from the results obtained using a liquid reagent that the plasma-jet-induced flow and the mixing effect play an important role in ROS supply into the bottom.

  20. Lexical Quality and Reading Skill: Bottom-Up and Top-Down Contributions to Sentence Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersch, Jolyn; Andrews, Sally

    2012-01-01

    This research investigated whether spelling ability, an index of precise lexical representations, predicts the balance between bottom-up and top-down processing in online sentence processing among skilled readers, over and above contributions of reading ability, vocabulary, and working memory. The results showed that the combination of superior…

  1. Numerical analyses of soft bottom macroinvertebrates to diagnose the pollution in tropical coastal waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Harkantra, S.N.; Rodrigues, N.R.

    NUMERICAL ANALYSESOF SOFT BOTTOM MACROINVERTEBRATESTO DIAGNOSE THE POLLUTIONIN TROPICAL COASTALWATERS SADANAND N. HARKANTRA ∗ and NIMI R. RODRIGUES Biological Oceanography Division, National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa, India ( ∗ author... wastes, numerical analyses, pollution 1. Introduction Soft bottom macro-invertebrates are widely used in monitoring the effects of mar- ine pollution, as they are mostly sessile, relatively larger in size, have a longer life span, and also due...

  2. Water Quality Modeling System for Coastal Archipelagos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomi, L.; Miettunen, E.; Lukkari, K.; Puttonen, I.; Ropponen, J.; Tikka, K.; Piiparinen, J.; Lignell, R.

    2016-02-01

    Coastal seas are encountering pressures from eutrophication, fishing, ship emissions and coastal construction. Sustainable development and use of these areas require science-based guidance with high quality data and efficient tools. Our study area, the Archipelago Sea, is located in the northern part of the semi-enclosed and brackish water Baltic Sea. It is a shallow, topographically heterogeneous and eutrophic sub-basin, covered with thousands of small islands and islets. The catchment area is 8950 km2and has ca. 500 000 inhabitants. We are developing a modeling system that can be used by local authorities and in ministry level decision making to evaluate the environmental impacts that may result from decisions and changes made both in the watershed and in the coastal areas. The modeling system consists of 3D hydrodynamic model COHERENS and water quality model FICOS, both applied to the area with high spatial resolution. Models use river discharge and nutrient loading data supplied by watershed model VEMALA and include loading from multiple point sources located in the Archipelago Sea. An easy-to-use interface made specifically to answer the end-user needs, includes possibility to modify the nutrient loadings and perform model simulations to selected areas and time periods. To ensure the quality and performance of the modeling system, comprehensive measurement dataset including hydrographic, nutrient, chlorophyll-a and bottom sediment data, was gathered based on monitoring and research campaigns previously carried out in the Archipelago Sea. Verification showed that hydrodynamic model was able to simulate surface temperature and salinity fields and their seasonal variation with good accuracy in this complex area. However, the dynamics of the deeper layers need to be improved, especially in areas that have sharp bathymetric gradients. The preliminary analysis of the water quality model results showed that the model was able to reproduce the basic characteristics of

  3. 78 FR 20252 - Water Quality Standards; Withdrawal of Certain Federal Water Quality Criteria Applicable to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 131 RIN 2040-AF33 Water Quality Standards; Withdrawal of Certain Federal Water Quality... certain human health and aquatic life water quality criteria applicable to waters of New Jersey, Puerto... establish numeric water quality criteria for 12 states and two Territories, including New Jersey, Puerto...

  4. R2 Water Quality Portal Monitoring Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Water Quality Data Portal (WQP) provides an easy way to access data stored in various large water quality databases. The WQP provides various input parameters on...

  5. HAWQS (Hydrologic and Water Quality System)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A water quantity and quality modeling system to evaluate the impacts of management alternatives, pollution control scenarios, and climate change scenarios on the quantity and quality of water at a national scale.

  6. Water Quality Trading Toolkit for Permit Writers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Quality Trading Toolkit for Permit Writers is EPA’s first “how-to” manual on designing and implementing water quality trading programs. It helps NPDES permitting authorities incorporate trading provisions into permits.

  7. National Water Quality Standards Database (NWQSD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Water Quality Standards Database (WQSDB) provides access to EPA and state water quality standards (WQS) information in text, tables, and maps. This data...

  8. Assessing water quality in Lake Naivasha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ndungu, J.N.

    2014-01-01

    Water quality in aquatic systems is important because it maintains the ecological processes that support biodiversity. However, declining water quality due to environmental perturbations threatens the stability of the biotic integrity and therefore hinders the ecosystem services and functions of

  9. Millennial-scale changes of surface and bottom water conditions in the northwestern Pacific during the last deglaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunghan; Khim, Boo-Keun; Ikehara, Ken; Itaki, Takuya; Shibahara, Akihiko; Yamamoto, Masanobu

    2017-07-01

    Changes in water column conditions in the northwestern Pacific during the last 23 ka were reconstructed using geochemical and isotope proxies and redox elemental compositions along with published data (alkenone sea surface temperature (SST) and benthic foraminiferal fauna) at core GH02-1030. Surface water primary productivity in terms of biogenic opal and TOC contents, which mainly represented export production of diatom, was closely related to alkenone (spring-summer) SST and the development of spring-summer mixed layer depth. The different variation patterns of nitrate and silicic acid utilization, estimated by bulk δ15N and δ30Sidiatom values, respectively, are most likely due to the water column denitrification influence on bulk δ15N. Dysoxic bottom water conditions occurred during the Bølling-Allerød (BA) and the Pre-Boreal (PB), which was evident by laminated sediments, abundant dysoxic benthic foraminifers, and increased redox elemental compositions. Although surface water productivity increased during the BA and PB, dysoxic bottom water conditions were caused by a combination of enhanced surface water productivity and reduced ventilation of North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW) in response to meltwater input from the high latitude areas. Based on records of core GH02-1030 and other cores in the northwestern Pacific, the Okhotsk Sea, and the Bering Sea, which are all proximal to the modern NPIW source region, dissolved oxygen concentrations of bottom water were more depleted during the BA than PB. Such difference was attributed to more sluggish NPIW ventilation due to more meltwater input during the BA than the PB. The opening or closure of the Bering Strait is critical to the direction of meltwater transport to the northwestern Pacific.

  10. R2 Water Quality Portal Monitoring Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Quality Data Portal (WQP) provides an easy way to access data stored in various large water quality databases. The WQP provides various input parameters on the form including location, site, sampling, and date parameters to filter and customize the returned results. The The Water Quality Portal (WQP) is a cooperative service sponsored by the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Water Quality Monitoring Council (NWQMC) that integrates publicly available water quality data from the USGS National Water Information System (NWIS) the EPA STOrage and RETrieval (STORET) Data Warehouse, and the USDA ARS Sustaining The Earth??s Watersheds - Agricultural Research Database System (STEWARDS).

  11. Water quality assessment of bioenergy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocio Diaz-Chavez; Goran Berndes; Dan Neary; Andre Elia Neto; Mamadou Fall

    2011-01-01

    Water quality is a measurement of the biological, chemical, and physical characteristics of water against certain standards set to ensure ecological and/or human health. Biomass production and conversion to fuels and electricity can impact water quality in lakes, rivers, and aquifers with consequences for aquatic ecosystem health and also human water uses. Depending on...

  12. Water quality (chapter 11). Book chapter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCutcheon, S.C.; Martin, J.L.; Barnwell, T.O.

    1993-01-01

    Water quality is important not only because of its linkage to the availability of water for various uses and its impact on public health, but also because water quality has an intrinsic value. The quality of life is often judged on the availability of pristine water. Contamination of water deprives present and future generations of a birthright. There is also the need to preserve the aquatic habitats of fish, birds, and mammals. To assist the practicing hydrologist in planning for and adapting to limitations on the use of water and to aid in the protection of valuable water resources, the chapter covers the basic concepts of water chemistry, the physical properties of water, and the constituents or impurities of water. To aid in the interpretation of measurements, water quality standards and criteria for various uses are presented.

  13. Phosphorus and Water Quality Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, H. K.

    2008-12-01

    Paradoxically, phosphorus (P) is one of the major nutrients for higher agricultural production, as well as it causes eutrophication/algal blooms in aquatic and semi-aquatic systems. Phosphorus loadings from agricultural/urban runoffs into lakes and rivers are becoming a global concern for the protection of water quality. Artificial wetlands are considered as a low cost alternative for treating wastewater including removal of P from sources such as agricultural and urban runoffs. However, the selection of the construction site may well determine the effectiveness of these wetlands. Studies show that P transformations in sediments/ soils are crucial for P sequestration in a wetland rather than the amounts of native P. Using 31Phosphorus Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (31P NMR), previously unreported an active organic P form, phosphoarginine, was identified, and the study indicates that abandonment of P impacted sites may not solve the P loading problem to the water bodies as the organic P compounds would not be as stable as they were thought, thus, can play a detrimental role in eutrophication of water bodies, after all.

  14. The footprint of bottom trawling in European waters: distribution, intensity, and seabed integrity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eigaard, Ole Ritzau; Bastardie, Francois; Hinzen, N.T.

    2017-01-01

    Mapping trawling pressure on the benthic habitats is needed as background to support an ecosystem approach to fisheries management. The extent and intensity of bottom trawling on the European continental shelf (0-1000 m) was analysed from logbook statistics and vessel monitoring system data for 2...

  15. Bottom-up control of water hyacinth weevil populations: Do the plants regulate the insects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    A key measure of dietary sufficiency relates to an insect’s reproductive ability so oögenesis, a nutrient-limited process, can be subject to bottom-up regulation. We hypothesized that aquatic nutrient flux seasonally affects ovarian development thereby controlling population growth of two specialis...

  16. A Determination of an Abrupt Motion of the Sea Bottom by Using Snapshot Data of Water Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Jang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an inverse problem and its solution procedure, which are aimed at identifying a sudden underwater movement of the sea bottom. The identification is mathematically shown to work with a known snapshot data of generated water wave configurations. It is also proved that the problem has a unique solution. However, the inverse problem is involved in an integral equation of the first kind, resulting in an ill-posed problem in the sense of stability. That is, the problem lacks solution stability properties. To overcome the difficulty of solution instability, in this paper, a stabilization technique, called regularization, is incorporated in the present solution procedure for the identification of the sea bottom movement. A numerical experiment is presented to demonstrate that the proposed (numerical solution procedure operates.

  17. Water Quality Index Assessment of Pogradec Water- Supply, in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    , P. Icka; , R. Damo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper is applied for the first time in Albania Water Quality Index (WQI) of the Canadian Council of Ministries of the Environment (CCME) for assessment of water quality of water supply network on Pogradec city. CCME WQI, a technique of rating water quality, is an effective tool to assess spatial and temporal changes on the quality of any water body. Calculations of the index are based on a combination of three factors: scope - the number of variables whose objectives are not met; freq...

  18. Hydrologic and Water Quality System (HAWQS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Hydrologic and Water Quality System (HAWQS) is a web-based interactive water quantity and quality modeling system that employs as its core modeling engine the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), an internationally-recognized public domain model. HAWQS provides users with i...

  19. Surface water quality assessment using factor analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-01-16

    Jan 16, 2006 ... surface water by rain and stormwater. On the other hand, run- off water increases pollutant concentrations, thereby decreases quality. To assess the water quality of the Buyuk Menderes. River under high-flow conditions, factor analysis was applied to data sets obtained from 21 monitoring stations between ...

  20. Water Quality Evaluation of Spring Waters in Nsukka, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water qualities of springs in their natural state are supposed to be clean and potable. Although, water quality is not a static condition it depends on the local geology and ecosystem, as well as human activities such as sewage dispersion, industrial pollution, use of water bodies as a heat sink, and overuse. The activities on ...

  1. Bottom head to shell junction assembly for a boiling water nuclear reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fife, Alex Blair; Ballas, Gary J.

    1998-01-01

    A bottom head to shell junction assembly which, in one embodiment, includes an annular forging having an integrally formed pump deck and shroud support is described. In the one embodiment, the annular forging also includes a top, cylindrical shaped end configured to be welded to one end of the pressure vessel cylindrical shell and a bottom, conical shaped end configured to be welded to the disk shaped bottom head. Reactor internal pump nozzles also are integrally formed in the annular forging. The nozzles do not include any internal or external projections. Stubs are formed in each nozzle opening to facilitate welding a pump housing to the forging. Also, an upper portion of each nozzle opening is configured to receive a portion of a diffuser coupled to a pump shaft which extends through the nozzle opening. Diffuser openings are formed in the integral pump deck to provide additional support for the pump impellers. The diffuser opening is sized so that a pump impeller can extend at least partially therethrough. The pump impeller is connected to the pump shaft which extends through the nozzle opening.

  2. Michigan lakes: An assessment of water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnerick, R.J.

    2004-01-01

    Michigan has more than 11,000 inland lakes, that provide countless recreational opportunities and are an important resource that makes tourism and recreation a $15-billion-dollar per-year industry in the State (Stynes, 2002). Knowledge of the water-quality characteristics of inland lakes is essential for the current and future management of these resources.Historically the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ) jointly have monitored water quality in Michigan's lakes and rivers. During the 1990's, however, funding for surface-water-quality monitoring was reduced greatly. In 1998, the citizens of Michigan passed the Clean Michigan Initiative to clean up, protect, and enhance Michigan's environmental infrastructure. Because of expanding water-quality-data needs, the MDEQ and the USGS jointly redesigned and implemented the Lake Water-Quality Assessment (LWQA) Monitoring Program (Michigan Department of Environmental Quality, 1997).

  3. Water quality index for assessment of water quality of river ravi at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... as a tool in comparing the water quality of different sources. It gives the public a general idea of the possible problems with water in a particular region. The indices are among the most effective ways to communicate the information on water quality trends to the public or to the policy makers and water quality management.

  4. Ground Water Quality of Selected Wells

    OpenAIRE

    Mosher R. Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    In order to characterize ground water quality in Zaweta district / Dohuk governorate, eight wells are selected to represent their water quality. Monthly samples are collected from the wells for the period from October 2005 to April 2006. The samples are tested for conductivity, total dissolved solids, pH, total hardness, chloride, alkalinity and nitrate according to the standard methods. The results of statistical analysis showed significant difference among the wells water quality in the mea...

  5. Policy Instruments for Water Quality Protection

    OpenAIRE

    James Shortle; Horan, Richard D.

    2013-01-01

    We examine policy instruments for ambient water quality protection. One objective is to illustrate the unique and complex informational challenges that must be addressed in constructing instruments that are effective and efficient for point and nonpoint sources. A second objective is to describe developments in real-world policies. Crucial to solving contemporary water quality challenges and improving the efficiency of water quality protection are reducing nonpoint pollution and efficiently i...

  6. Constructing Educational Quality in the Arab Region: A Bottom-Up Critique of Regional Educational Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Clara

    2017-01-01

    The article challenges the deficit view in which education in the Arab region is portrayed by examining the process of educational regionalisation. It takes as its case study the Arab Regional Agenda for Improving Educational Quality in order to explore the construction of an educational quality space that uses data as a governance model. Drawing…

  7. Distribution of shallow water soft and hard bottom seabeds in the Isla del Coco National Park, Pacific Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A. Sibaja-Cordero

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Geographic Information Systems (GIS applications used in marine habitats are powerful tools for management and monitoring of marine reserves and resources. Here, we present a series of maps of the soft and hard substrates in the shallow waters (>80 m depth of Parque Nacional Isla del Coco (PNIC= Isla del Coco National Park. We use bathymetry data and field data as input for a GIS, GAM, and kriging methods to generate a series of maps that describe the bottom characteristics. Eight types of bottom were found in the PNIC by composition and grain size. The shore of the island and islets consisted of rocky formations (mainly basalts, with coral reefs in the subtidal of some areas. Rhodolith beds had a dispersing distribution. The bottom on the southern and southwestern region is hard substrate, while sediments cover the northern and northeastern zones. Slightly gravelly sand dominated the bays, while gravelly sand (with more coarse grains was frequent offshore. The inner areas of Chatham and Wafer bays have mud and organic matter. The sediments in the area are mostly carbonates, except in Bahía Yglesias where clastic sediments (from the erosion of basalts are presented. The information generated in this study could be a valuable input for future monitoring in the PNIC.

  8. ORD Studies of Water Quality in Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presentation descibes results from two studies of water quality and pathogen occurrence in water and biofilm samples from two area hospitals. Includes data on the effectiveness of copper/silver ionization as a disinfectant.

  9. Polymer microcantilevers for water quality monitoring

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ojijo, Vincent O

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The microcantilever project aims to develop novel polymer based microcantilevers able to detect E.coli in water samples for use as a rapid diagnostic for on-site water quality monitoring....

  10. West Knox Pond water budget and water quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to analyze the water budget and water quality for West Knox Pond for the May through September period of 2002 and 2003. The...

  11. Water quality modelling of Jadro spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margeta, J; Fistanic, I

    2004-01-01

    Management of water quality in karst is a specific problem. Water generally moves very fast by infiltration processes but far more by concentrated flows through fissures and openings in karst. This enables the entire surface pollution to be transferred fast and without filtration into groundwater springs. A typical example is the Jadro spring. Changes in water quality at the spring are sudden, but short. Turbidity as a major water quality problem for the karst springs regularly exceeds allowable standards. Former practice in problem solving has been reduced to intensive water disinfection in periods of great turbidity without analyses of disinfection by-products risks for water users. The main prerequisite for water quality control and an optimization of water disinfection is the knowledge of raw water quality and nature of occurrence. The analysis of monitoring data and their functional relationship with hydrological parameters enables establishment of a stochastic model that will help obtain better information on turbidity in different periods of the year. Using the model a great number of average monthly and extreme daily values are generated. By statistical analyses of these data possibility of occurrence of high turbidity in certain months is obtained. This information can be used for designing expert system for water quality management of karst springs. Thus, the time series model becomes a valuable tool in management of drinking water quality of the Jadro spring.

  12. Numerical simulation of water quality in Yangtze Estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Li

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to monitor water quality in the Yangtze Estuary, water samples were collected and field observation of current and velocity stratification was carried out using a shipboard acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP. Results of two representative variables, the temporal and spatial variation of new point source sewage discharge as manifested by chemical oxygen demand (COD and the initial water quality distribution as manifested by dissolved oxygen (DO, were obtained by application of the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC with solutions for hydrodynamics during tides. The numerical results were compared with field data, and the field data provided verification of numerical application: this numerical model is an effective tool for water quality simulation. For point source discharge, COD concentration was simulated with an initial value in the river of zero. The simulated increments and distribution of COD in the water show acceptable agreement with field data. The concentration of DO is much higher in the North Branch than in the South Branch due to consumption of oxygen in the South Branch resulting from discharge of sewage from Shanghai. The DO concentration is greater in the surface layer than in the bottom layer. The DO concentration is low in areas with a depth of less than 20 m, and high in areas between the 20-m and 30-m isobaths. It is concluded that the numerical model is valuable in simulation of water quality in the case of specific point source pollutant discharge. The EFDC model is also of satisfactory accuracy in water quality simulation of the Yangtze Estuary.

  13. Infectious Disinfection: "Exploring Global Water Quality"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaya, Evans; Tippins, Deborah J.; Mueller, Michael P.; Thomson, Norman

    2009-01-01

    Learning about the water situation in other regions of the world and the devastating effects of floods on drinking water helps students study science while learning about global water quality. This article provides science activities focused on developing cultural awareness and understanding how local water resources are integrally linked to the…

  14. Water quality of the river Damanganga (Gujarat)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D.; Narvekar, P.V.; Sarma, R.V.; Desai, B.N.

    strong. Quality of water in the discharge zone deteriorated considerably after March (DO decreasing to about 1 mg/litre). High acid content of the effluent lowered pH of water. The discharge in the fresh water zone, presently did not affect the water...

  15. The role of Argopecten purpuratus shells structuring the soft bottom community in shallow waters of southern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomovasky, Betina J.; Gamero, Patricia A.; Romero, Leonardo; Firstater, Fausto N.; Gamarra Salazar, Alex; Hidalgo, Fernando; Tarazona, Juan; Iribarne, Oscar O.

    2015-12-01

    Accumulation of Argopecten purpuratus shells often occurs after El Niño events in shallow waters of Independencia Bay (14°17‧S-76°10‧W; Pisco, Peru). Here we experimentally investigate the effects of their shell accumulation on macrobenthos assemblages in soft bottom, shallow areas of the bay. A field experiment (from May 2006 to May 2007), including four treatments with different coverage levels of empty shells of A. purpuratus, were randomly arranged in: (1) areas devoid of shells ("Empty" treatment: experimental control), (2) 50% of the plot area covered with shells haphazardly distributed over the bottom ("medium" treatment), (3) 100% of the plot area covered with shells, forming a 10 cm valve layer ("full" treatment) and (4) "natural control". We found a total of 124 taxa throughout the experiment. Polychaetes, crustaceans and mollusks were the most abundant groups in "natural controls", dominated by the gastropod Nassarius gayi and the polychaetes Prionospio peruana, Platynereis bicanaliculata and Mediomastus branchiferus. The abundance of individuals (N) and the species richness (S) were higher in the "medium" treatment, but only in one month under positive sea bottom thermal anomalies. Similarity analysis (Bray-Curtis) showed that "natural control", "empty" and "full" treatments were more similar among them than the "medium" treatment. Multidimensional analysis showed no clear species association among treatments and a higher grouping among the samplings of Jun-06, Aug-06 and Nov-06. Our results also showed that the commercial crab Romaleon polyodon and the polyplacophora Tonicia elegans were positively affected by shell accumulations ("medium" treatment), while the limpet Fissurella crassa was negatively affected. Our study shows that directly by changing habitat structure or indirectly by changing sediment characteristics, the addition of scallop shells to the soft bottom can modify the macrobenthic assemblage; however, the seasonal oceanographic

  16. Mycoflora and Water Quality index Assessment of Water Sources in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    on this planet. We use water for various purposes and for each purpose we require water of appropriate quality. Consumption of water which has not met internationally acceptable standards could lead to an attack by water-borne such as cholera, typhoid fever and others (Udom et al., 2002). There is increasing awareness ...

  17. Hazardous water: an assessment of water quality and accessibility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Access to potable water supply remains a serious challenge to the local communities in the Likangala River catchment in southern Malawi. The quality of water resources is generally poor and the supply is inadequate. This paper discusses the results of laboratory analysis of water samples collected from selected water ...

  18. Reconciling Long-Term Trends in Air Quality with Bottom-up Emission Inventories for Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, B. C.; Kim, S. W.; Frost, G. J.; Harley, R.; Trainer, M.

    2014-12-01

    Significant long-term changes in air quality have been observed in the United States over several decades. However, reconciling ambient observations with bottom-up emission inventories has proved challenging. In this study, we perform WRF-Chem modeling in the Los Angeles basin for carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and ozone (O3) over a long time period (1987-2010). To improve reconciliation of emission inventories with atmospheric observations, we incorporate new high-resolution emissions maps of a major to dominant source of urban air pollution, motor vehicles. A fuel-based approach is used to estimate motor vehicle emissions utilizing annual fuel sales reports, traffic count data that capture spatial and temporal patterns of vehicle activity, and pollutant emission factors measured from roadway studies performed over the last twenty years. We also update emissions from stationary sources using Continuous Emissions Monitoring Systems (CEMS) data when available, and use emission inventories developed by the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) and California Air Resources Board (ARB) for other important emission source categories. WRF-Chem modeling is performed in three years where field-intensive measurements were made: 1987 (SCAQS: Southern California Air Quality Study), 2002 (ITCT: Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation Study), and 2010 (CALNEX). We assess the ability of the improved bottom-up emissions inventory to predict long-term changes in ambient levels of CO, NOx, and O3, which are known to have occurred over this time period. We also assess changing spatial and temporal patterns of primary (CO and NOx) and secondary (O3) pollutant concentrations across the Los Angeles basin, which has important implications on human health.

  19. The oxygen content of ocean bottom waters, the burial efficiency of organic carbon, and the regulation of atmospheric oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, J. N.; Holland, H. D.

    1991-01-01

    Data for the burial efficiency of organic carbon with marine sediments have been compiled for 69 locations. The burial efficiency as here defined is the ratio of the quantity of organic carbon which is ultimately buried to that which reaches the sediment-water interface. As noted previously, the sedimentation rate exerts a dominant influence on the burial efficiency. The logarithm of the burial efficiency is linearly related to the logarithm of the sedimentation rate at low sedimentation rates. At high sedimentation rates the burial efficiency can exceed 50% and becomes nearly independent of the sedimentation rate. The residual of the burial efficiency after the effect of the sedimentation rate has been subtracted is a weak function of the O2 concentration in bottom waters. The scatter is sufficiently large, so that the effect of the O2 concentration in bottom waters on the burial efficiency of organic matter could be either negligible or a minor but significant part of the mechanism that controls the level of O2 in the atmosphere.

  20. Assess water scarcity integrating water quantity and quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Zeng, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Water scarcity has become widespread all over the world. Current methods for water scarcity assessment are mainly based on water quantity and seldom consider water quality. Here, we develop an approach for assessing water scarcity considering both water quantity and quality. In this approach, a new water scarcity index is used to describe the severity of water scarcity in the form of a water scarcity meter, which may help to communicate water scarcity to a wider audience. To illustrate the approach, we analyzed the historical trend of water scarcity for Beijing city in China during 1995-2009, as well as the assessment for different river basins in China. The results show that Beijing made a huge progress in mitigating water scarcity, and that from 1999 to 2009 the blue and grey water scarcity index decreased by 59% and 62%, respectively. Despite this progress, we demonstrate that Beijing is still characterized by serious water scarcity due to both water quantity and quality. The water scarcity index remained at a high value of 3.5 with a blue and grey water scarcity index of 1.2 and 2.3 in 2009 (exceeding the thresholds of 0.4 and 1, respectively). As a result of unsustainable water use and pollution, groundwater levels continue to decline, and water quality shows a continuously deteriorating trend. To curb this trend, future water policies should further decrease water withdrawal from local sources (in particular groundwater) within Beijing, and should limit the grey water footprint below the total amount of water resources.

  1. Global view of sea-ice production in polynyas and its linkage to dense/bottom water formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohshima, Kay I.; Nihashi, Sohey; Iwamoto, Katsushi

    2016-12-01

    Global overturning circulation is driven by density differences. Saline water rejected during sea-ice formation in polynyas is the main source of dense water, and thus sea-ice production is a key factor in the overturning circulation. Due to difficulties associated with in situ observation, sea-ice production and its interannual variability have not been well understood until recently. Methods to estimate sea-ice production on large scales have been developed using heat flux calculations based on satellite microwave radiometer data. Using these methods, we present the mapping of sea-ice production with the same definition and scale globally, and review the polynya ice production and its relationship with dense/bottom water. The mapping demonstrates that ice production rate is high in Antarctic coastal polynyas, in contrast to Arctic coastal polynyas. This is consistent with the formation of Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW), the densest water mass which occupies the abyssal layer of the global ocean. The Ross Ice Shelf polynya has by far the highest ice production in the Southern Hemisphere. The Cape Darnley polynya (65°E-69°E) is found to be the second highest production area and recent observations revealed that this is the missing (fourth) source of AABW. In the region off the Mertz Glacier Tongue (MGT), the third source of AABW, sea-ice production decreased by as much as 40 %, due to the MGT calving in early 2010, resulting in a significant decrease in AABW production. The Okhotsk Northwestern polynya exhibits the highest ice production in the Northern Hemisphere, and the resultant dense water formation leads to overturning in the North Pacific, extending to the intermediate layer. Estimates of its ice production show a significant decrease over the past 30-50 years, likely causing the weakening of the North Pacific overturning. These regions demonstrate the strong linkage between variabilities of sea-ice production and bottom/intermediate water formation. The

  2. Parents' perceptions of water safety and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, Lori; Bicking, Cara; Sekhar, Deepa

    2012-02-01

    Every day parents make choices about the source of water their families consume. There are many contributing factors which could affect decisions about water consumption including taste, smell, color, safety, cost, and convenience. However, few studies have investigated what parents with young children think about water quality and safety in the US and how this affects the choices they are making. This study aimed to describe the perceptions of parents with regard to water quality and safety and to compare bottled water and tap water use, as well as to examine motivation for water choices. We conducted an online questionnaire to survey parents living in Pennsylvania about water quality and safety, and preference for bottled versus tap water. Parents were recruited through child care centers, and 143 surveys were returned. The survey results showed high overall scores for perception of tap water quality and safety, and a preference for tap water over bottled water. We found that parents were concerned for the environmental impact that buying bottled water may have but were also concerned about potential contamination of tap water by natural gas drilling processes and nuclear power plants. These findings regarding parental concerns are critical to inform pediatric health care providers, water sellers, and suppliers in order that they may provide parents with the necessary information to make educated choices for their families.

  3. Water quality assessment of Australian ports using water quality evaluation indices

    OpenAIRE

    Jahan, Sayka; Strezov, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Australian ports serve diverse and extensive activities, such as shipping, tourism and fisheries, which may all impact the quality of port water. In this work water quality monitoring at different ports using a range of water quality evaluation indices was applied to assess the port water quality. Seawater samples at 30 stations in the year 2016-2017 from six ports in NSW, Australia, namely Port Jackson, Botany, Kembla, Newcastle, Yamba and Eden, were investigated to determine the physicochem...

  4. Surface water quality assessment using factor analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-01-16

    Jan 16, 2006 ... In this study, the factor analysis technique is applied to surface water quality data sets obtained from the Buyuk Menderes. River Basin, Turkey, during two different hydrological periods. Results show that the indices which changed the quality of water in two seasons and locations differed. During low-flow ...

  5. Professional Development for Water Quality Control Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Clinton Lewis

    This study investigated the availability of professional development opportunities for water quality control personnel in the midwest. The major objective of the study was to establish a listing of educational opportunities for the professional development of water quality control personnel and to compare these with the opportunities technicians…

  6. Principles and Practices of Water Quality Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.L. Michael

    2001-01-01

    There are many activities in forest management that may affect water quality, i.e., timber harvestine, road building,mechanical and chemical site preparation, release operations, fuel reduction,wildlife opening maintenance, etc. How severely they affect water quality depends on how well the person in charge of the operation understands the activity itself, the...

  7. 40 CFR 240.204 - Water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality. 240.204 Section 240.204 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.204 Water quality. ...

  8. Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (GLWQA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement between the U.S. and Canada addresses critical environmental health issues in the Great Lakes region. It's a model of binational cooperation to protect water quality. It was first signed in 1972 and amended in 2012.

  9. Contrasting fates of organic matter in locations having different organic matter inputs and bottom water O2 concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai-Thi, Ngoc-Nu; St-Onge, Guillaume; Tremblay, Luc

    2017-11-01

    The goals of this work were to study sedimentary organic matter (OM) composition and transformation since the end of the last deglaciation and to evaluate the influence of contrasting depositional conditions on these parameters. One station was located in the Lower St. Lawrence Estuary (LSLE) where the current bottom waters are hypoxic and receive terrigenous and marine OM. The other station, located in the Gulf of St. Lawrence (GSL), has more oxygenated bottom waters and almost only marine OM inputs. Analyses included enantiomers of amino acids (L and D-AA) and muramic acid that provide different markers of OM alteration state and reactivity and of bacterial contribution to OM composition and diagenesis. The markers clearly indicated the increase in OM alteration state with depth in the sediments of the LSLE and the GSL. The steady decrease in AA yields with depth confirmed the preferential degradation of AA compared to the rest of the OM. The OM in the surface sediment of the LSLE was less altered than that of the GSL and was enriched in bacterial biomass as indicated by much higher muramic acid yields. Results indicated that an important degradation of particulate organic matter occurs in the water column in the GSL, while it takes place mostly in the sediments in the LSLE. The presence of heterogeneous OM and hypoxic conditions in the LSLE likely reduce OM degradation rate in its deep water layer. However, the zone near the water-sediment interface is responsible for large variations in AA composition at both locations. A relatively new redox index, based on AA composition, was tested and appeared robust. This study highlights the importance of ambient conditions in determining the fate of OM and in the biogeochemical cycles of vital elements.

  10. Water Quality Indicators Guide [and Teacher's Handbook]: Surface Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, Charles R.; Perfetti, Patricia Bytnar

    This guide aids in finding water quality solutions to problems from sediment, animal wastes, nutrients, pesticides, and salts. The guide allows users to learn the fundamental concepts of water quality assessment by extracting basic tenets from geology, hydrology, biology, ecology, and wastewater treatment. An introduction and eight chapters are…

  11. Bottom Line II Conference. Quality -- The Vital Link in Production and Readiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    think of sudh cmiplex articles as Uke a cathedral and frankly I don’t think the quality is all bad. We should stop flagellating ourselves so much on...in Lincolnton, N.C. Following graduation from high school, he attended Catawba College, Salisbury , N.C., for two years before entering the U.S

  12. FACTORS AFFECTING WATER QUALITY BEFORE TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Jachimowski

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The article assesses the impact of natural and anthropogenic factors on the quality of surface water grasped by Krakow's water treatment plants. We analyzed the indicators chosen in the physicochemical marked in the raw water in the years 2007–2014. The study shows that the water prior to treatment differed in the number and share of separate factors. These components, in turn, explained 63% to 71% of analyzed chemical composition of water.

  13. FACTORS AFFECTING WATER QUALITY BEFORE TREATMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Artur Jachimowski

    2017-01-01

    The article assesses the impact of natural and anthropogenic factors on the quality of surface water grasped by Krakow's water treatment plants. We analyzed the indicators chosen in the physicochemical marked in the raw water in the years 2007–2014. The study shows that the water prior to treatment differed in the number and share of separate factors. These components, in turn, explained 63% to 71% of analyzed chemical composition of water.

  14. SURFACE WATER QUALITY IN THE RIVER PRUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAELA DUMITRAN

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Water is an increasingly important and why it is important to surfacewater quality, which is given by the analysis of physical - chemical, biological andobserving the investigation of water, biota, environments investigation. Analysis ofthe Prut river in terms of biological and physical elements - chemical. Evaluationof ecological and chemical status of water was done according to order of approvalof the standard classification nr.161/2006 surface water to determine the ecologicalstatus of water bodies

  15. Water quality indexing for predicting variation of water quality over time

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PPoonoosamy

    evaluate the quality of a given water body in such a way that it is easily understood by managers. ... the problem of 'eclipsing' which arises during aggregation process. ... to improve the Water Quality index, mainly to stress on the importance of the ... Thus, since the water quality indexing method yields a single value, it is.

  16. A Synoptic View of the Ventilation and Circulation of Antarctic Bottom Water from Chlorofluorocarbons and Natural Tracers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purkey, Sarah G; Smethie, William M; Gebbie, Geoffrey; Gordon, Arnold L; Sonnerup, Rolf E; Warner, Mark J; Bullister, John L

    2017-09-06

    Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) is the coldest, densest, most prolific water mass in the global ocean. AABW forms at several distinct regions along the Antarctic coast and feeds into the bottom limb of the meridional overturning circulation, filling most of the global deep ocean. AABW has warmed, freshened, and declined in volume around the globe in recent decades, which has implications for the global heat and sea level rise budgets. Over the past three decades, the use of tracers, especially time-varying tracers such as chlorofluorocarbons, has been essential to our understanding of the formation, circulation, and variability of AABW. Here, we review three decades of temperature, salinity, and tracer data and analysis that have led to our current knowledge of AABW and how the southern component of deep-ocean ventilation is changing with time. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Marine Science Volume 10 is January 3, 2018. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  17. Development of a GPS buoy system for monitoring tsunami, sea waves, ocean bottom crustal deformation and atmospheric water vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Teruyuki; Terada, Yukihiro; Nagai, Toshihiko; Koshimura, Shun'ichi

    2010-05-01

    bottom positions with a few centimeters in accuracy. The system is now operational for more than ten sites along the Japanese coasts. Currently, however, the measurements are not continuous but have been done once to several times a year using a boat. If a GPS and acoustic system is placed on a buoy, ocean bottom position could be monitored in near real-time and continuous manner. This will allow us to monitor more detailed and short term crustal deformations at the sea bottom. Another application plan is for an atmospheric research. Previous researchers have shown that GPS is capable of measuring atmospheric water vapor through estimating tropospheric zenith delay measurements of GPS at the sea surface. Information of water vapor content and its temporal variation over sea surface will much contribute to weather forecast on land which has mostly been conducted only by land observations. Considering that the atmospheric mass moves from west to east in general in and around Japanese islands, information of water vapor together with other atmospheric data from an array of GPS buoy placed in the west of Japanese Islands, will much improve weather forecast. We try to examine if this is also feasible. As a conclusion of a series of GPS buoy experiments, we could assert that GPS buoy system will be a powerful tool to monitor ocean surface and much contribute to provide safe and secure life of people.

  18. Water quality indicators: bacteria, coliphages, enteric viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Johnson; Ganesh, Atheesha

    2013-12-01

    Water quality through the presence of pathogenic enteric microorganisms may affect human health. Coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli and coliphages are normally used as indicators of water quality. However, the presence of above-mentioned indicators do not always suggest the presence of human enteric viruses. It is important to study human enteric viruses in water. Human enteric viruses can tolerate fluctuating environmental conditions and survive in the environment for long periods of time becoming causal agents of diarrhoeal diseases. Therefore, the potential of human pathogenic viruses as significant indicators of water quality is emerging. Human Adenoviruses and other viruses have been proposed as suitable indices for the effective identification of such organisms of human origin contaminating water systems. This article reports on the recent developments in the management of water quality specifically focusing on human enteric viruses as indicators.

  19. Hydrodynamics and water quality models applied to Sepetiba Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Cynara de L. da N.; Rosman, Paulo C. C.; Ferreira, Aldo Pacheco; Carlos do Nascimento Monteiro, Teófilo

    2006-10-01

    A coupled hydrodynamic and water quality model is used to simulate the pollution in Sepetiba Bay due to sewage effluent. Sepetiba Bay has a complicated geometry and bottom topography, and is located on the Brazilian coast near Rio de Janeiro. In the simulation, the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) are used as indicators for the presence of organic matter in the body of water, and as parameters for evaluating the environmental pollution of the eastern part of Sepetiba Bay. Effluent sources in the model are taken from DO and BOD field measurements. The simulation results are consistent with field observations and demonstrate that the model has been correctly calibrated. The model is suitable for evaluating the environmental impact of sewage effluent on Sepetiba Bay from river inflows, assessing the feasibility of different treatment schemes, and developing specific monitoring activities. This approach has general applicability for environmental assessment of complicated coastal bays.

  20. Effects of transient bottom water currents and oxygen concentrations on benthic exchange rates as assessed by eddy correlation measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtappels, Moritz; Glud, Ronnie N.; Doris, Daphne

    2013-01-01

    Eddy correlation (EC) measurements in the benthic boundary layer (BBL) allow estimating benthic O2 uptake from a point distant to the sediment surface. This noninvasive approach has clear advantages as it does not disturb natural hydrodynamic conditions, integrates the flux over a large foot...... in the bottom water are in steady state, which is seldom the case in highly dynamic environments like coastal waters. Therefore, it is of great importance to estimate the error introduced by nonsteady state conditions. We investigated two cases of transient conditions. First, the case of transient O2...... concentrations was examined using the theory of shear flow dispersion. A theoretical relationship between the change of O2 concentrations and the induced vertical O2 flux is introduced and applied to field measurements showing that changes of 5–10 μM O2 h−1 result in transient EC-fluxes of 6–12 mmol O2 m−2 d−1...

  1. Bottom attenuation estimation using sound intensity fluctuations due to mode coupling by nonlinear internal waves in shallow water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorev, Valery A; Katsnelson, Boris G; Lynch, James F

    2016-11-01

    Analyses of fluctuations of low frequency signals (300 ± 30 Hz) propagating in shallow water in the presence of nonlinear internal waves (NIWs) in the Shallow Water 2006 experiment are carried out. Signals were received by a vertical line array at a distance of ∼20 km from the source. A NIW train was moving totally inside of the acoustic track, and the angle between the wave front of the NIW and the acoustic track in the horizontal plane was ∼10°. It is shown that the spectrum of the sound intensity fluctuations contains peaks corresponding to the coupling of pairs of propagating modes. Analysis of spectra at different hydrophone depths, and also summed over depth allows the authors to estimate attenuation in the bottom sediments.

  2. Pressure field induced in the water column by acoustic-gravity waves generated from sea bottom motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Tiago C. A.; Kadri, Usama

    2016-10-01

    An uplift of the ocean bottom caused by a submarine earthquake can trigger acoustic-gravity waves that travel at near the speed of sound in water and thus may act as early tsunami precursors. We study the spatiotemporal evolution of the pressure field induced by acoustic-gravity modes during submarine earthquakes, analytically. We show that these modes may all induce comparable temporal variations in pressure at different water depths in regions far from the epicenter, though the pressure field depends on the presence of a leading acoustic-gravity wave mode. Practically, this can assist in the implementation of an early tsunami detection system by identifying the pressure and frequency ranges of measurement equipment and appropriate installation locations.

  3. National Water Quality Laboratory, 1994 services catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timme, P.J.

    1994-01-01

    This Services Catalog contains information about field supplies and analytical services available from the National Water Quality Laboratory in Denver, Colo., and field supplies available from the Quality Water Service Unit in Ocala, Fla., to members of the U.S. Geological Survey's Water Resources Division. To assist personnel in the selection of analytical services, this catalog lists sample volume, applicable concentration range, detection level, precision of analysis, and preservation requirements for samples. (USGS)

  4. Bottom-Up Instructive Quality Control in the Biofabrication of Smart Protein Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, Fabián; Céspedes, María Virtudes; Conchillo-Solé, Oscar; Sánchez-Chardi, Alejandro; Seras-Franzoso, Joaquin; Cubarsi, Rafael; Gallardo, Alberto; Pesarrodona, Mireia; Ferrer-Miralles, Neus; Daura, Xavier; Vázquez, Esther; García-Fruitós, Elena; Mangues, Ramón; Unzueta, Ugutz; Villaverde, Antonio

    2015-12-16

    The impact of cell factory quality control on material properties is a neglected but critical issue in the fabrication of protein biomaterials, which are unique in merging structure and function. The molecular chaperoning of protein conformational status is revealed here as a potent molecular instructor of the macroscopic properties of self-assembling, cell-targeted protein nanoparticles, including biodistribution upon in vivo administration. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Summer Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sampling the coastal waters of the Gulf of Maine using the Northeast Fishery Science Center standardized bottom trawl has been problematic due to large areas of hard...

  6. Water quality impacts of forest fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecle Aregai; Daniel Neary

    2015-01-01

    Forest fires have been serious menace, many times resulting in tremendous economic, cultural and ecological damage to many parts of the United States. One particular area that has been significantly affected is the water quality of streams and lakes in the water thirsty southwestern United States. This is because the surface water coming off burned areas has resulted...

  7. Alternative technologies for water quality management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandla A. Tshabalala

    2002-01-01

    Cranberry growers are concerned about the quality of water discharged from cranberry bogs into receiving surface waters. These water discharges may contain traces of pesticides arising from herbicide, insecticide or fungicide applications. They may also contain excess phosphorus from fertilizer application. Some cranberry farms have holding ponds to reduce the amount...

  8. Evaluating benefits and costs of changes in water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessica Koteen; Susan J. Alexander; John B. Loomis

    2002-01-01

    Water quality affects a variety of uses, such as municipal water consumption and recreation. Changes in water quality can influence the benefits water users receive. The problem is how to define water quality for specific uses. It is not possible to come up with one formal definition of water quality that fits all water uses. There are many parameters that influence...

  9. Habitat quality, water quality and otter distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Mason

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In recent decades the otter (Lutra lutra has declined over much of Europe. Good habitat has been shown to be essential to otters. Specific elements of cover have been identified in some studies but the minimum cover requirements to support otter populations are not known. These are likely to vary in relation to other factors, such as disturbance. Habitat destruction has been severe in many areas of Europe. Water quantity is important to otters, especially where low flows destroy the food base, namely fish. However the minimum food requirements to support populations are not known. The main cause of the decline in otter populations is almost certainly bioaccumulating pollutants, especially PCBs. These are likely to be inhibiting recolonization in many areas. In Britain, catchment distribution of otters within regions is negatively correlated to mean PCB levels in otter spraints, and these are indicative of tissue levels. PCBs have been found in all samples studied. Current EC statutory monitoring is inadequate to protect otter populations from bioaccumulating contaminants. Standards are presented here for otter protection. More fundamental research is required to refine our understanding of the requirements of the otter. Riassunto Qualità ambientale, qualità dell'acqua e distribuzione della lontra - Negli ultimi decenni la lontra (Lutra lutra è diminuita su buona parte del suo areale europeo, dove particolarmente pesante è stata la distruzione di ambienti favorevoli. Habitat qualitativamente idonei sono essenziali per la sopravvivenza della specie. In alcuni studi, specifici parametri di copertura vegetale dei corpi idrici sono stati ritenuti importanti per la specie, ma quale sia il valore minimo di copertura riparia in grado di supportare una popolazione resta sconosciuto. I parametri di copertura variano probabilmente in relazione ad altri fattori, quali, ad

  10. Integrated Water Resources Management, institutions and livelihoods under stress: bottom-up perspectives from Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mabiza, C.C.

    2013-01-01

    The majority of people in Limpopo river basin depend on rainfed agriculture. Unfortunately the Limpopo is water scarce, and parts of the basin such as the Mzingwane catchment are under stress in terms of agro-ecological and socio-politico-economic conditions. Integrated Water Resources Management

  11. Integrated Water Resources Management, institutions and livelihoods under stress : Bottom-up perspectives from Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mabiza, C.C.

    2013-01-01

    The majority of people in Limpopo river basin depend on rainfed agriculture. Unfortunately the Limpopo is water scarce, and parts of the basin such as the Mzingwane catchment are under stress in terms of agro-ecological and socio-politico-economic conditions. Integrated Water Resources Management

  12. Principles of Water Quality Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebbutt, T. H. Y.

    This book is designed as a text for undergraduate civil engineering courses and as preliminary reading for postgraduate courses in public health engineering and water resources technology. It is also intended to be of value to workers already in the field and to students preparing for the examinations of the Institute of Water Pollution Control…

  13. Water Availability--The Connection Between Water Use and Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Robert M.; Hamilton, Pixie A.; Miller, Timothy L.; Myers, Donna N.

    2008-01-01

    Water availability has become a high priority in the United States, in large part because competition for water is becoming more intense across the Nation. Population growth in many areas competes with demands for water to support irrigation and power production. Cities, farms, and power plants compete for water needed by aquatic ecosystems to support their minimum flow requirements. At the same time, naturally occurring and human-related contaminants from chemical use, land use, and wastewater and industrial discharge are introduced into our waters and diminish its quality. The fact that degraded quality limits the availability and suitability of water for critical uses is a well-known reality in many communities. What may be less understood, but equally true, is that our everyday use of water can significantly affect water quality, and thus its availability. Landscape features (such as geology, soils, and vegetation) along with water-use practices (such as ground-water withdrawals and irrigation) govern water availability because, together, they affect the movement of chemical compounds over the land and in the subsurface. Understanding the interactions of human activities with natural sources and the landscape is critical to effectively managing water and sustaining water availability in the future.

  14. Bottom-up resource limitation: the ecosystem energy balance predicts the quality of nutrition in a herbivore prey population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez, Nestor; Garcia, Monica; Gil, Esperanza

    2014-01-01

    of the herbivore diet has been insufficiently tested. We hypothesized that in drylands, where water availability is a prime control of ecosystem functioning, remote sensing indicators of vegetation drought stress are critical to predict the nutritional quality of herbivore habitats. This hypothesis was analyzed...... to characterize the overall quality of each habitat and to relate it with rabbit abundance. Results have far-reaching implications for assessing habitat quality and the effects of functional ecosystem changes on a keystone prey herbivore and associated communities....

  15. Microelectrode array sensor for water quality monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobet, J; Rychen, Ph; Cardot, F; Santoli, E

    2003-01-01

    A versatile microelectrode array sensor for water quality monitoring has been developed. The array fabrication, based on batch microelectronic processes, results in a highly stable passivation of the silicon chip surface and provides the possibility to use a backside contact. Packaging was optimized for on-line water operation at high pressures. Examples of applications include chlorine monitoring in drinking water, ozone monitoring in deionized water, dissolved oxygen in activated sludge and preliminary measurements of trace arsenic.

  16. A bottom-landing water sampling system for the benthic boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bale, A. J.; Barrett, C. D.

    A novel water sampling device which enables vertical profiles of water samples to be obtained within the benthic boundary layer in shelf sea waters is described. A maximum of ten samples spread over 2 m immediately above the seabed can be obtained on each deployment. The design of the sample bottles minimizes disturbances to particle aggregates and positive displacement sampling ensures that the samples are representative of the environment. Suspended-solids profiles sampled in the benthic boundary layer over 15-hour period at a station in the English Channel are presented to demonstrate the utility of the system.

  17. GKI water quality studies. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, D L

    1980-01-01

    GKI water quality data collected in 1978 and early 1979 was evaluated with the objective of developing preliminary characterizations of native groundwater and retort water at Kamp Kerogen, Uintah County, Utah. Restrictive analytical definitions were developed to describe native groundwater and GKI retort water in an effort to eliminate from the sample population both groundwater samples affected by retorting and retort water samples diluted by groundwater. Native groundwater and retort water sample analyses were subjected to statistical manipulation and testing to summarize the data to determine the statistical validity of characterizations based on the data available, and to identify probable differences between groundwater and retort water based on available data. An evaluation of GKI water quality data related to developing characterizations of native groundwater and retort water at Kamp Kerogen was conducted. GKI retort water and the local native groundwater both appeared to be of very poor quality. Statistical testing indicated that the data available is generally insufficient for conclusive characterizations of native groundwater and retort water. Statistical testing indicated some probable significant differences between native groundwater and retort water that could be determined with available data. Certain parameters should be added to and others deleted from future laboratory analyses suites of water samples.

  18. Automatic non-destructive three-dimensional acoustic coring system for in situ detection of aquatic plant root under the water bottom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsunori Mizuno

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Digging is necessary to detect plant roots under the water bottom. However, such detection is affected by the transparency of water and the working skills of divers, usually requires considerable time for high-resolution sampling, and always damages the survey site. We developed a new automatic non-destructive acoustic measurement system that visualizes the space under the water bottom, and tested the system in the in situ detection of natural plant roots. The system mainly comprises a two-dimensional waterproof stage controlling unit and acoustic measurement unit. The stage unit was electrically controlled through a notebook personal computer, and the space under the water bottom was scanned in a two-dimensional plane with the stage unit moving in steps of 0.01 m (±0.0001 m. We confirmed a natural plant root with diameter of 0.025–0.030 m in the reconstructed three-dimensional acoustic image. The plant root was at a depth of about 0.54 m and the propagation speed of the wave between the bottom surface and plant root was estimated to be 1574 m/s. This measurement system for plant root detection will be useful for the non-destructive assessment of the status of the space under the water bottom.

  19. Surface Water Quality Monitoring Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The MN Department of Agriculture (MDA) is charged with periodically collecting and analyzing water samples from selected locations throughout the state to determine...

  20. Sedimentary phosphorus dynamics and the evolution of bottom-water hypoxia: A coupled benthic­pelagic model of a coastal system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reed, D.C.; Slomp, C.P.; Gustafsson, B.G.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examines oxygen and phosphorus dynamics at a seasonally hypoxic site in the Arkona basin of the Baltic Sea. A coupled benthic–pelagic reactive-transport model is used to describe the evolution of bottom-water solute concentrations, as well as pore-water and sediment profiles.

  1. 40 CFR 130.3 - Water quality standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality standards. 130.3 Section... QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.3 Water quality standards. A water quality standard (WQS) defines the water quality goals of a water body, or portion thereof, by designating the use or uses to be made...

  2. Ground Water Quality of Selected Wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosher R. Ahmed

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to characterize ground water quality in Zaweta district / Dohuk governorate, eight wells are selected to represent their water quality. Monthly samples are collected from the wells for the period from October 2005 to April 2006. The samples are tested for conductivity, total dissolved solids, pH, total hardness, chloride, alkalinity and nitrate according to the standard methods. The results of statistical analysis showed significant difference among the wells water quality in the measured parameters. Ground water quality of Zaweta district has high dissolved ions due to the nature of studied area rocks. Total dissolved solids of more than 1000 mg/l made the wells Gre-Qassroka, Kora and Swaratoka need to be treated to make taste palatable. Additionally high electrical conductivity and TDS made Zaweta ground water have a slight to moderate restriction to crop growth. The high alkalinity of Zaweta ground water indicated stabilized pH. The water quality of all the wells is found excessively hard. The nitrate concentration of Zaweta ground water ranged between 0.19-42.4 mg/l below the guidelines for WHO and the maximum nitrate concentration is recorded in Kora well .

  3. Collection of Condensate Water: Global Potential and Water Quality Impacts

    KAUST Repository

    Loveless, Kolin Joseph

    2012-12-28

    Water is a valuable resource throughout the world, especially in hot, dry climates and regions experiencing significant population growth. Supplies of fresh water are complicated by the economic and political conditions in many of these regions. Technologies that can supply fresh water at a reduced cost are therefore becoming increasingly important and the impact of such technologies can be substantial. This paper considers the collection of condensate water from large air conditioning units as a possible method to alleviate water scarcity issues. Using the results of a climate model that tested data collected from 2000 to 2010, we have identified areas in the world with the greatest collection potential. We gave special consideration to areas with known water scarcities, including the coastal regions of the Arabian Peninsula, Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. We found that the quality of the collected water is an important criterion in determining the potential uses for this water. Condensate water samples were collected from a few locations in Saudi Arabia and detailed characterizations were conducted to determine the quality of this water. We found that the quality of condensate water collected from various locations and types of air conditioners was very high with conductivities reaching as low as 18 μS/cm and turbidities of 0. 041 NTU. The quality of the collected condensate was close to that of distilled water and, with low-cost polishing treatments, such as ion exchange resins and electrochemical processes, the condensate quality could easily reach that of potable water. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  4. Microbial (Pathogen)/Recreational Water Quality Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Documents pertaining to Recreational Human Health Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Microbial Organisms (Pathogens). These documents include safe levels for cyanotoxins microcystin and cylindrospermopsin, and Coliphage to protect human health.

  5. Maui Citizen Science Coastal Water Quality Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A network of citizen science volunteers periodically monitors water quality at several beaches across the island of Maui in the State of Hawaii. This community-based...

  6. Mobile Water Quality Information Tool Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Water quality remote sensing has grown to allow for operational monitoring of trophic status, assessment of cyanobacteria blooms, and historical and trend analysis...

  7. STREAMFLOW AND WATER QUALITY REGRESSION MODELING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STREAMFLOW AND WATER QUALITY REGRESSION MODELING OF IMO RIVER SYSTEM: A CASE STUDY. ... Journal of Modeling, Design and Management of Engineering Systems ... Possible sources of contamination of Imo-river system within Nekede and Obigbo hydrological stations watershed were traced.

  8. National Water Quality Laboratory, 1995 services catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timme, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    This Services Catalog contains information about field supplies and analytical services available from the National Water Quality Laboratory in Denver, Colo., and field supplies available from the Quality Water Service Unit in Ocala, Fla., to members of the U.S. Geological Survey. To assist personnel in the selection of analytical services, this catalog lists sample volume, required containers, applicable concentration range, detection level, precision of analysis, and preservation requirements for samples.

  9. Water quality assessment of Kavvayi Lake of northern Kerala, India using CCME water quality index and biological water quality criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiji, M; Sabitha, A R; Prabhakar, Kavya; Harikumar, P S

    2016-11-01

    Assessment of water quality status of 7 sites of Kavvayi Wetland in northern Kerala (India) was carried out. The physico-chemical, bacteriological and biological parameters were monitored during pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) water quality index of the Kavvayi Lake samples ranged from 43.99-44.77; indicating that water quality was threatened or impaired. The poor water quality status might be due to dumping of wastes from municipal and domestic sources and agricultural runoff. Biological water quality criteria (BWQC) determined for wetland revealed that stations such as mixing point of Kariangode River into Kavvayi Lake and Kottikkadavu was moderately polluted in pre-monsoon and post- monsoon seasons. Mixing point of Nileswar River into Kavvayi Lake was moderately polluted in pre-monsoon season. Both calculated indices suggest that quality of lake was found to be influenced by anthropogenic activities such as unscientific tourism and infrastructure development, land encroachment, sand mining, pollution etc. The study was carried out as part of a programme, which aimed to conserve Kavvayi wetland because of its unique ecological and environmental characteristics.

  10. Coralville Reservoir Water Quality Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    calcium carbonate saturation and stability. Many limnological studies require water temperature as a function of depth to be reported. Discharges of...groundwater, which frequently come into contact with geological formations of limestone or dolomite leading to high concentrations of calcium and magnesium...Location Date Water Diss. pH Carbon Sky Previous Day Temp. Oxygen Dioxide Phenolth. Total Calcium Total Precipitation ○C mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L

  11. Development process for integrated water resources management plan under a bottom-up participation perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittiwet Kuntiyawichai

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the development process for the integrated water resources management and development plan of Maha Sarakham Province by considering the priority and urgency of water problem issues. Gathering feedback from stakeholders and prioritizing water management and development projects are also taken into consideration. In view of integrated plans, the project is classified into short-, medium- and long-term plans with the project duration of 2 years, 3 years and 5 years, respectively. In this case, the plans can be categorized into proposed provincial and local plans. Firstly, the comprehensive provincial plans can be divided into 2 groups, i.e. district plans with the total number of 532 plans, which comprise of 505 projects for coping with drought and 27 projects for flood mitigation, and provincial plans from 13 agencies with the amount of 513 projects, which include 396 projects and 117 projects for dealing with drought and flood, respectively. Secondly, there are 4,099 of local plans to be put in place, in which 3,973 projects and 126 projects are proposed to handle drought and flood problems, respectively. From the analysis, it is found that if all planned drought relief projects are implemented, the water demand for domestic and agricultural needs could be covered by 96% and 51%, respectively. In case of the entire proposed flood alleviation projects are executed, 29% of the total flood prone areas can be effectively protected.

  12. Hydrology and heterogeneneous distribution of water quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out on the hydrology and heterogeneous distribution of water quality characteristics in the Lagoon of Porto-Novo between July 2014 and June 2015. The water body was stratified into 12 strata for sampling. Data and samples were collected based on season and stations. The results were analyzed in the ...

  13. STREAMFLOW AND WATER QUALITY REGRESSION MODELING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The upper reaches of Imo-river system between Nekede and Obigbo hydrological stations (a stretch of 24km) have been studied for the purpose of water quality and streamflow modeling. Model's applications on water supply to Nekede and Obigbo communities were equally explored with the development of mass curves.

  14. Water quality in the Okavango Delta

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-03-12

    Mar 12, 2010 ... This review will discuss levels of water quality parameters, such as .... have a cascading negative impact on species at higher trophic levels, such as fish, ... into water through photosynthesis by plants and phytoplankton or via diffusion ...... Delta, Botswana, and its contribution to the structure and function.

  15. Drinking water quality monitoring using trend analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomperi, Jani; Juuso, Esko; Eteläniemi, Mira; Leiviskä, Kauko

    2014-06-01

    One of the common quality parameters for drinking water is residual aluminium. High doses of residual aluminium in drinking water or water used in the food industry have been proved to be at least a minor health risk or even to increase the risk of more serious health effects, and cause economic losses to the water treatment plant. In this study, the trend index is developed from scaled measurement data to detect a warning of changes in residual aluminium level in drinking water. The scaling is based on monotonously increasing, non-linear functions, which are generated with generalized norms and moments. Triangular episodes are classified with the trend index and its derivative. The severity of the situations is evaluated by deviation indices. The trend episodes and the deviation indices provide good tools for detecting changes in water quality and for process control.

  16. Presence of selected chemicals of emerging concern in water and bottom sediment from the St. Louis River, St. Louis Bay, and Superior Bay, Minnesota and Wisconsin, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Victoria G.; Lee, Kathy E.; Kieta, Kristen A.; Elliott, Sarah M.

    2012-01-01

    The St. Louis Bay of Lake Superior receives substantial urban runoff, wastewater treatment plant effluent, and industrial effluent. In 1987, the International Joint Commission designated the St. Louis Bay portion of the lower St. Louis River as one of the Great Lakes Areas of Concern. Concerns exist about the potential effects of chemicals of emerging concern on aquatic biota because many of these chemicals, including endocrine active chemicals, have been shown to affect the endocrine systems of fish. To determine the occurrence of chemicals of emerging concern in the St. Louis River, the St. Louis Bay, and Superior Bay, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency and the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources collected water and bottom-sediment samples from 40 sites from August through October 2010. The objectives of this study were to (1) identify the extent to which chemicals of emerging concern, including pharmaceuticals, hormones, and other organic chemicals, occur in the St. Louis River, St. Louis Bay, and Superior Bay, and (2) identify the extent to which the chemicals may have accumulated in bottom sediment of the study area. Samples were analyzed for selected wastewater indicators, hormones, sterols, bisphenol A, and human-health pharmaceuticals. During this study, 33 of 89 chemicals of emerging concern were detected among all water samples collected and 56 of 104 chemicals of emerging concern were detected in bottom-sediment samples. The chemical N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET) was the most commonly detected chemical in water samples and 2,6-dimethylnaphthalene was the most commonly detected chemical in bottom-sediment samples. In general, chemicals of emerging concern were detected at a higher frequency in bottom-sediment samples than in water samples. Estrone (a steroid hormone) and hexahydrohexamethyl cyclopentabensopyran (a synthetic fragrance) were the most commonly detected endocrine active chemicals in

  17. Assesment of the water quality and prevalence of water borne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-03

    Sep 3, 2008 ... 1Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Niger Delta University, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. 2Department of .... on water quality. Chemical intoxication in drinking water may either be acute or chronic in nature. The acute health effect may be in form of skin irritation, skin rash, nausea ...

  18. Bacteriological quality of water and water borne diseases in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Monthly water samples were assessed for bacteriological quality from main supply, household storage and morbidity reported houses. The difference in proportion of potable and non potable water at storage points was statistically significant. The overall incidence rate of target diseases was 3.58%,majority were diaarrhoel ...

  19. Tracking Bottom Waters in the Southern Adriatic Sea Applying Seismic Oceanography Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    profile so the weak thermohaline reflections can be visualized 3. The Adriatic context The general circulation of the Adriatic Sea is characterized by...Reflectivity Thermohaline structures Southern Adriatic Sea ABSTRACT We present the first results from the seismic oceanography (SO) cruise ADRIASE1SMIC...where we successfully imaged thermohaline fine structures in the shallow water environment (50-150 m) of the southern Adriatic Sea during March

  20. Impacts of Water Quality on Residential Water Heating Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2013-11-01

    Water heating is a ubiquitous energy use in all residential housing, accounting for 17.7% of residential energy use (EIA 2012). Today, there are many efficient water heating options available for every fuel type, from electric and gas to more unconventional fuel types like propane, solar, and fuel oil. Which water heating option is the best choice for a given household will depend on a number of factors, including average daily hot water use (total gallons per day), hot water draw patterns (close together or spread out), the hot water distribution system (compact or distributed), installation constraints (such as space, electrical service, or venting accommodations) and fuel-type availability and cost. While in general more efficient water heaters are more expensive than conventional water heating technologies, the savings in energy use and, thus, utility bills can recoup the additional upfront investment and make an efficient water heater a good investment over time in most situations, although the specific payback period for a given installation will vary widely. However, the expected lifetime of a water heater in a given installation can dramatically influence the cost effectiveness and savings potential of a water heater and should be considered, along with water use characteristics, fuel availability and cost, and specific home characteristics when selecting the optimum water heating equipment for a particular installation. This report provides recommendations for selecting and maintaining water heating equipment based on local water quality characteristics.

  1. Water Quality in Madura Strait, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Nugrahadi, M. Saleh; Yanagi, Tetsuo; 柳, 哲雄

    2003-01-01

    Observations on water quality based on physical、chemical and biological properties of sea surface water were conducted on 13-14 September 2000 and on 14-15 May 2001 in Madura Strait, Indonesia. Particular emphasis has been placed on Surabaya and Porong estuaries and its surrounding coastal water, where rivers carry contaminated load from land and debouch. The observation showed that Madura Strait received a lot of pollutant from the rivers.

  2. Remote sensing of water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovis, W. A.

    1978-01-01

    Remote sensing from aircraft has been used to determine water content in areas such as the New York Bight. Extension of the techniques developed to satellite sensing of the Chesapeake Bay will begin in 1978 with the launch of Nimbus-G. Remote sensing offers a number of interesting possibilities for investigating a reasonably large body of water, such as the Chesapeake Bay, coupled with some disadvantages. The chief advantage of remote sensing is that it offers the opportunity to cover large areas in relatively short periods of time. Low altitude satellites traveling at about 7 km/s can cover the Chesapeake Bay in about 1 minute so that the entire Bay can be studied under almost identical conditions of solar illumination.

  3. Water quality in rural Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, R; Faulkner, B; Veal, D; Cramer, G; Meiklejohn, M

    1998-04-01

    Grab samples of drinking water collected from reservoirs and from creeks flowing over pristine land, farmland or land having mixed use were analysed for their physicochemical and microbiological characteristics. A significant difference between sites for conductivity and sites for pH was noted using a two-way ANOVA. No significant interactions were detected between any of the other parameters: Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Escherichia coli, coliforms, plate count, turbidity or rainfall.

  4. Water quality management for Lake Mariout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Donia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A hydrodynamic and water quality model was used to study the current status of the Lake Mariout subject to the pollution loadings from the agricultural drains and the point sources discharging directly to the Lake. The basic water quality modelling component simulates the main water quality parameters including the oxygen compounds (BOD, COD, DO, nutrients compounds (NH4, TN, TP, and finally the temperature, salinity and inorganic matter. Many scenarios have been conducted to improve the circulation and the water quality in the lake and to assess the spreading and mixing of the discharge effluents and its impact on the water quality of the main basin. Several pilot interventions were applied through the model in the Lake Mariout together with the upgrades of the East and West Waste Water Treatment Plants in order to achieve at least 5% reduction in the pollution loads entering the Mediterranean Sea through Lake Mariout in order to improve the institutional mechanisms for sustainable coastal zone management in Alexandria in particular to reduce land-based pollution to the Mediterranean Sea.

  5. Forcing of a bottom-mounted circular cylinder by steep regular water waves at finite depth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Bo Terp; Bredmose, Henrik; Bingham, Harry B.

    2014-01-01

    with the experimental data was found. Time-domain computations of the normalized inline force history on the cylinder were analysed as a function of dimensionless wave height, water depth and wavelength. Here the dependence on depth was weak, while an increase in wavelength or wave height both lead to the formation......-harmonic force, a good agreement with the perturbation theories of Faltinsen, Newman & Vinje (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 289, 1995, pp. 179–198) and Malenica & Molin (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 302, 1995, pp. 203–229) was found. It was shown that the third-harmonic forces were estimated well by a Morison force formulation...

  6. Klang River water quality modelling using music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahari, Nazirul Mubin; Zawawi, Mohd Hafiz; Muda, Zakaria Che; Sidek, Lariyah Mohd; Fauzi, Nurfazila Mohd; Othman, Mohd Edzham Fareez; Ahmad, Zulkepply

    2017-09-01

    Water is an essential resource that sustains life on earth; changes in the natural quality and distribution of water have ecological impacts that can sometimes be devastating. Recently, Malaysia is facing many environmental issues regarding water pollution. The main causes of river pollution are rapid urbanization, arising from the development of residential, commercial, industrial sites, infrastructural facilities and others. The purpose of the study was to predict the water quality of the Connaught Bridge Power Station (CBPS), Klang River. Besides that, affects to the low tide and high tide and. to forecast the pollutant concentrations of the Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Total Suspended Solid (TSS) for existing land use of the catchment area through water quality modeling (by using the MUSIC software). Besides that, to identifying an integrated urban stormwater treatment system (Best Management Practice or BMPs) to achieve optimal performance in improving the water quality of the catchment using the MUSIC software in catchment areas having tropical climates. Result from MUSIC Model such as BOD5 at station 1 can be reduce the concentration from Class IV to become Class III. Whereas, for TSS concentration from Class III to become Class II at the station 1. The model predicted a mean TSS reduction of 0.17%, TP reduction of 0.14%, TN reduction of 0.48% and BOD5 reduction of 0.31% for Station 1 Thus, from the result after purposed BMPs the water quality is safe to use because basically water quality monitoring is important due to threat such as activities are harmful to aquatic organisms and public health.

  7. 40 CFR 130.6 - Water quality management plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality management plans. 130.6... QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.6 Water quality management plans. (a) Water quality management (WQM... and certified and approved updates to those plans. Continuing water quality planning shall be based...

  8. Ground-water, surface-water, and bottom-sediment contamination in the O-field area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, and the possible effects of selected remedial actions on ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Lorah, Michelle M.; Oliveros, James P.

    1995-01-01

    Disposal of munitions and chemical-warfare substances has introduced inorganic and organic contaminants to the ground water, surface water, and bottom sediment at O-Field, in the Edgewood area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Contaminants include chloride, arsenic, transition metals, chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic compounds, and organosulfur and organophosphorus compounds. The hydrologic effects of several remedial actions were estimated by use of a ground-water-flow model. The remedial actions examined were an impermeable covering, encapsulation, subsurface barriers, a ground-water drain, pumping of wells to manage water levels or to remove contaminated ground water for treatment, and no action.

  9. quality assessment of sachet and bottled water soldin gboko, benue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    microorganisms in food and other microbial environments. The need to define the quality of water has developed with the increasing demand for water which is suitable for specific uses and conforms to desired quality [2]. Although water quality and water quantity are inextricably linked, water quality deserves special.

  10. DRIVERS OF THE DYNAMICS OF DIAZOTROPHS AND DENITRIFIERS IN NORTH SEA BOTTOM WATERS AND SEDIMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas eStal

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The fixation of dinitrogen (N2 and denitrification are two opposite processes in the nitrogen cycle. The former transfers atmospheric dinitrogen gas into bound nitrogen in the biosphere, while the latter returns this bound nitrogen back to atmospheric dinitrogen. It is unclear whether or not these processes are intimately connected in any microbial ecosystem or that they are spatially and/or temporally separated. Here, we measured seafloor nitrogen fixation and denitrification as well as pelagic nitrogen fixation by using the stable isotope technique. Alongside, we measured the diversity, abundance, and activity of nitrogen-fixing and denitrifying microorganisms at three stations in the southern North Sea. Nitrogen fixation ranged from undetectable to 2.4 nmol N L-1 d-1 and from undetectable to 8.2 nmol N g-1 d-1 in the water column and seafloor, respectively. The highest rates were measured in August at Doggersbank, both for the water column and for the seafloor. Denitrification ranged from 1.7 to 208.8 µmol m-2 d-1 and the highest rates were measured in May at the Oyster Grounds. DNA sequence analysis showed sequences of nifH, a structural gene for nitrogenase, related to sequences from anaerobic sulfur/iron reducers and sulfate reducers. Sequences of the structural gene for nitrite reductase, nirS, were related to environmental clones from marine sediments. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR data revealed the highest abundance of nifH and nirS genes at the Oyster Grounds. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR data revealed the highest nifH expression at Doggersbank and the highest nirS expression at the Oyster Grounds. The distribution of the diazotrophic and denitrifying communities seems to be subject to different selecting factors, leading to spatial and temporal separation of nitrogen fixation and denitrification. These selecting factors include temperature, organic matter availability, and

  11. THE INFLUENCE OF GYPSUM TREATMENT ON PHOSPHORUS RETENTION IN BOTTOM SEDIMENTS AND ON THE WATER OF MAN-MADE LAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilianna Bartoszek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a research covering the stability of phosphorus retention in the bottom sediments, resulting from application of gypsum in anoxic conditions and in slightly acidic environment (pH~5 of solutions. The present work also contains an analysis of possible effects of gypsum application for water from the reservoir, on the basis of selected parameters of overlying water. Undisturbed deposit cores extracted from two research stations on the Solina Reservoir have been a subject to a 10-weeks long exposure in determinate conditions, after application of gypsum. The conducted research indicated that retention capacities of deposits, which become increased after the use of gypsum, will decrease over time (e.g. after winter period. Application of gypsum led to a quite significant increase in concentrations of calcium in solutions. Intense release of iron from the sediments into the solutions and decrease in SO42- content, during the said 10-week exposure in anoxic conditions, indicates the use of iron (III and sulphates as electron acceptors in process of oxidization of an organic substance.

  12. The Deposition and Accumulation of Microplastics in Marine Sediments and Bottom Water from the Irish Continental Shelf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jake; Lusher, Amy; Thompson, Richard C; Morley, Audrey

    2017-09-07

    Microplastics are widely dispersed throughout the marine environment. An understanding of the distribution and accumulation of this form of pollution is crucial for gauging environmental risk. Presented here is the first record of plastic contamination, in the 5 mm-250 μm size range, of Irish continental shelf sediments. Sixty-two microplastics were recovered from 10 of 11 stations using box cores. 97% of recovered microplastics were found to reside shallower than 2.5 cm sediment depth, with the area of highest microplastic concentration being the water-sediment interface and top 0.5 cm of sediments (66%). Microplastics were not found deeper than 3.5 ± 0.5 cm. These findings demonstrate that microplastic contamination is ubiquitous within superficial sediments and bottom water along the western Irish continental shelf. Results highlight that cores need to be at least 4-5 cm deep to quantify the standing stock of microplastics within marine sediments. All recovered microplastics were classified as secondary microplastics as they appear to be remnants of larger items; fibres being the principal form of microplastic pollution (85%), followed by broken fragments (15%). The range of polymer types, colours and physical forms recovered suggests a variety of sources. Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms influencing microplastic transport, deposition, resuspension and subsequent interactions with biota.

  13. A Bottom-up Vulnerability Analysis of Water Systems with Decentralized Decision Making and Demographic Shifts- the Case of Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachaut, T.; Yoon, J.; Klassert, C. J. A.; Talozi, S.; Mustafa, D.; Knox, S.; Selby, P. D.; Haddad, Y.; Gorelick, S.; Tilmant, A.

    2016-12-01

    Probabilistic approaches to uncertainty in water systems management can face challenges of several types: non stationary climate, sudden shocks such as conflict-driven migrations, or the internal complexity and dynamics of large systems. There has been a rising trend in the development of bottom-up methods that place focus on the decision side instead of probability distributions and climate scenarios. These approaches are based on defining acceptability thresholds for the decision makers and considering the entire range of possibilities over which such thresholds are crossed. We aim at improving the knowledge on the applicability and relevance of this approach by enlarging its scope beyond climate uncertainty and single decision makers; thus including demographic shifts, internal system dynamics, and multiple stakeholders at different scales. This vulnerability analysis is part of the Jordan Water Project and makes use of an ambitious multi-agent model developed by its teams with the extensive cooperation of the Ministry of Water and Irrigation of Jordan. The case of Jordan is a relevant example for migration spikes, rapid social changes, resource depletion and climate change impacts. The multi-agent modeling framework used provides a consistent structure to assess the vulnerability of complex water resources systems with distributed acceptability thresholds and stakeholder interaction. A proof of concept and preliminary results are presented for a non-probabilistic vulnerability analysis that involves different types of stakeholders, uncertainties other than climatic and the integration of threshold-based indicators. For each stakeholder (agent) a vulnerability matrix is constructed over a multi-dimensional domain, which includes various hydrologic and/or demographic variables.

  14. Dense water cascading, bottom currents and sediment wave formation at the exit of the Bari canyon (Southern Adriatic Sea, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langone, Leonardo; Miserocchi, Stefano; Boldrin, Alfredo; Turchetto, Margherita; Foglini, Federica; Trincardi, Fabio

    2010-05-01

    The dense water forming in the North Adriatic (NAdDW) spreading southward along the Italian continental shelf, sinks in the Southern Adriatic basin through particular cascading events. Such events are seasonal, occurring specially in April, with variable intensity. These phenomena control the water mass mixing, the deep ocean ventilation, the behaviour of deep ecosystems, the formation of complex erosive and depositional bedforms and the abyssal export and burial of nutrients and carbon. Because of the NadDW formation is linked to climate factors (frequency, duration and size of Bura winds), the temporal variations of the NadDW dispersion into the Southern Adriatic allow to make inferences of the impact of recent climate changes on the ecosystems of the deep Mediterranean Sea. Previous research projects (EuroStrataform, HERMES) acquired a large data set of bathymetric, side-scan sonar (TOBI) and Chirp sonar profiles, which were used to build detailed morpho-bathymetric maps of the Southern Adriatic margin. There, the seabed is extremely complex, characterized by a large variety of bedforms (sediment waves, erosive scours, longitudinal furrows and giant comet marks). A branch of the cascading NAdDW is confined and accelerated through the Bari canyon where it produces a strong current capable of reaching down-slope velocities greater than 60 cm s-1 near the bottom at ~600 m of water depth, eroding the canyon thalweg and entraining large amounts of fine-grained sediment. At the exit of the canyon, in water depth greater than 800 m, the current becomes less confined, spreads laterally and generates an 80-km2-wide field of mud waves; these bedforms migrate up current and show amplitudes up to 50 m and wavelengths of about 1 km. Cruise IMPACT-09 of RV Urania was carried out in the Southern Adriatic Sea from 17-30 March 2009 with main scope of studying the impact of NadDW cascading events on the deep ecosystems of the Southern Adriatic. Experiments planned in the cruise

  15. Water Quality and Sustainable Environmental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setegn, S. G.

    2014-12-01

    Lack of adequate safe water, the pollution of the aquatic environment and the mismanagement of resources are major causes of ill-health and mortality, particularly in the developing countries. In order to accommodate more growth, sustainable fresh water resource management will need to be included in future development plans. One of the major environmental issues of concern to policy-makers is the increased vulnerability of ground water quality. The main challenge for the sustainability of water resources is the control of water pollution. To understand the sustainability of the water resources, one needs to understand the impact of future land use and climate changes on the natural resources. Providing safe water and basic sanitation to meet the Millennium Development Goals will require substantial economic resources, sustainable technological solutions and courageous political will. A balanced approach to water resources exploitation for development, on the one hand, and controls for the protection of health, on the other, is required if the benefits of both are to be realized without avoidable detrimental effects manifesting themselves. Meeting the millennium development goals for water and sanitation in the next decade will require substantial economic resources, sustainable technological solutions and courageous political will. In addition to providing "improved" water and "basic" sanitation services, we must ensure that these services provide: safe drinking water, adequate quantities of water for health, hygiene, agriculture and development and sustainable sanitation approaches to protect health and the environment.

  16. Long Term Resource Monitoring Program Water Quality Component Review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Soballe, David M; Houser, Jeffrey N

    2006-01-01

    ...) adequacy and suitability of the water quality procedures manual, (4) adequacy and efficiency of procedures for quality assurance and quality control in data collection and laboratory analyses, (5...

  17. Risk-based water resources planning: Coupling water allocation and water quality management under extreme droughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi-Naeini, M.; Bussi, G.; Hall, J. W.; Whitehead, P. G.

    2016-12-01

    The main aim of water companies is to have a reliable and safe water supply system. To fulfil their duty the water companies have to consider both water quality and quantity issues and challenges. Climate change and population growth will have an impact on water resources both in terms of available water and river water quality. Traditionally, a distinct separation between water quality and abstraction has existed. However, water quality can be a bottleneck in a system since water treatment works can only treat water if it meets certain standards. For instance, high turbidity and large phytoplankton content can increase sharply the cost of treatment or even make river water unfit for human consumption purposes. It is vital for water companies to be able to characterise the quantity and quality of water under extreme weather events and to consider the occurrence of eventual periods when water abstraction has to cease due to water quality constraints. This will give them opportunity to decide on water resource planning and potential changes to reduce the system failure risk. We present a risk-based approach for incorporating extreme events, based on future climate change scenarios from a large ensemble of climate model realisations, into integrated water resources model through combined use of water allocation (WATHNET) and water quality (INCA) models. The annual frequency of imposed restrictions on demand is considered as measure of reliability. We tested our approach on Thames region, in the UK, with 100 extreme events. The results show increase in frequency of imposed restrictions when water quality constraints were considered. This indicates importance of considering water quality issues in drought management plans.

  18. Observations on a Montana water quality proposal.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.; Puder, M. G.

    2006-01-12

    In May 2005, a group of petitioners led by the Northern Plains Resource Council (NPRC) submitted a petition to revise water quality requirements to the Montana Board of Environmental Review (BER). Under Montana law, the BER had to consider the petition and either reject it or propose it as a new regulation. In September 2005, the BER announced proposed changes to the Montana water quality regulations. The proposal, which included almost the exact language found in the petition, was directed toward discharges of water from coal bed natural gas (CBNG) production. The key elements of the proposal included: (1) No discharges of CBNG water are allowed to Montana surface waters unless operators can demonstrate that injection to aquifers with the potential for later recovery of the water is not feasible. (2) When operators can demonstrate the injection is not feasible, the CBNG water to be discharged must meet very strict technology-based limits for multiple parameters. (3) The Montana water quality standards for the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and electrical conductivity (EC) would be evaluated using the 7Q10 flow (lowest 7-consecutive-day flow in a 10-year period) rather than a monthly flow that is currently used. (4) SAR and EC would be reclassified as ''harmful parameters'', thereby greatly restricting the ability for CBNG discharges to be allowed under Montana's nondegradation regulations. The proposed regulations, if adopted in their current form, are likely to substantially reduce the amount of CBNG production in Montana. The impact also extends to Wyoming CBNG production through much greater restrictions on water quality that must be met at the interstate border.

  19. The Bottom Boundary Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowbridge, John H; Lentz, Steven J

    2018-01-03

    The oceanic bottom boundary layer extracts energy and momentum from the overlying flow, mediates the fate of near-bottom substances, and generates bedforms that retard the flow and affect benthic processes. The bottom boundary layer is forced by winds, waves, tides, and buoyancy and is influenced by surface waves, internal waves, and stratification by heat, salt, and suspended sediments. This review focuses on the coastal ocean. The main points are that (a) classical turbulence concepts and modern turbulence parameterizations provide accurate representations of the structure and turbulent fluxes under conditions in which the underlying assumptions hold, (b) modern sensors and analyses enable high-quality direct or near-direct measurements of the turbulent fluxes and dissipation rates, and (c) the remaining challenges include the interaction of waves and currents with the erodible seabed, the impact of layer-scale two- and three-dimensional instabilities, and the role of the bottom boundary layer in shelf-slope exchange.

  20. Spatio-temporal evaluation of Yamchi Dam basin water quality using Canadian water quality index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzadkia, Mahdi; Djahed, Babak; Shahsavani, Esmaeel; Poureshg, Yousef

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, the growth of population and increase of the industries around the tributaries of Yamchi Dam basin have led to deterioration of dam water quality. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of the Yamchi Dam basin water, which is used for drinking and irrigation consumptions using Canadian Water Quality Index (CWQI) model, and to determine the main water pollution sources of this basin. Initially, nine sampling stations were selected in the sensitive locations of the mentioned basin's tributaries, and 12 physico-chemical parameters and 2 biological parameters were measured. The CWQI for drinking consumptions was under 40 at all the stations indicating a poor water quality for drinking consumptions. On the other hand, the CWQI was 62-100 for irrigation at different stations; thus, the water had an excellent to fair quality for irrigation consumptions. Almost in all the stations, the quality of irrigation and drinking water in cold season was better. Besides, for drinking use, total coliform and fecal coliform had the highest frequency of failure, and total coliform had the maximum deviation from the specified objective. For irrigation use, total suspended solids had the highest frequency of failure and deviation from the objective in most of the stations. The pisciculture center, aquaculture center, and the Nir City wastewater discharge were determined as the main pollution sources of the Yamchi Dam basin. Therefore, to improve the water quality in this important surface water resource, urban and industrial wastewater treatment prior to disposal and more stringent environmental legislations are recommended.

  1. Distribution of dissolved and labile particulate trace metals in the overlying bottom water in the Vistula River plume (southern Baltic Sea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sokolowski, A.; Wolowicz, M.; Hummel, H.

    2001-01-01

    Overlying bottom water samples were collected in the Vistula River plume, southern Baltic Sea, (Poland) and analysed for dissolved and labile particulate (1 M HCl extractable) Cu, Pb, Zn, Mn, Fe and Ni, hydrological parameters being measured simultaneously. Particulate organic matter (POM),

  2. Decline of deep and bottom water ventilation and slowing down of anthropogenic carbon storage in the Weddell Sea, 1984-2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huhn, Oliver; Rhein, Monika; Hoppema, Mario; van Heuven, Steven

    We use a 27 year long time series of repeated transient tracer observations to investigate the evolution of the ventilation time scales and the related content of anthropogenic carbon (C-ant) in deep and bottom water in the Weddell Sea. This time series consists of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)

  3. Phytoplankton reduction in near-bottom water caused by filter-feeding Nereis diversicolor - Implications for worm growth and population grazing impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Poul Scheel; Riisgård, H. U.; Poulsen, L.

    1996-01-01

    Studies of vertical profiles of phytoplankton in the field combined with laboratory experiments demonstrated that reduction in phytoplankton concentrations in the near-bottom water layer, 5 to 10 cm in thickness on calm days, may play a significant role for the filter-feeding polychaete Nereis...

  4. Seasonal variation of CaCO3 saturation state in bottom water of a biological hotspot in the Chukchi Sea, Arctic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yamamoto-Kawai

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Distribution of calcium carbonate saturation state (Ω was observed in the Chukchi Sea in autumn 2012 and early summer 2013. Ω in bottom water ranged from 0.3 to 2.0 for aragonite and from 0.5 to 3.2 for calcite in 2012. In 2013, Ω in bottom water was 1.1–2.8 for aragonite and 1.7–4.4 for calcite. Aragonite and calcite undersaturation was found in high productivity regions in autumn 2012 but not in early summer 2013. Comparison with other parameters has indicated that biological processes – respiration and photosynthesis – are major factors controlling the regional and temporal variability of Ω. From these ship-based observations, we have obtained empirical equations to reconstruct Ω from temperature, salinity and apparent oxygen utilization. Using 2-year-round mooring data and these equations, we have reconstructed seasonal variation of Ω in bottom water in Hope Valley, a biological hotspot in the southern Chukchi Sea. Estimated Ω was high in spring and early summer, decreased in later summer, and remained relatively low in winter. Calculations indicated a possibility that bottom water could have been undersaturated for aragonite on an intermittent basis even in the pre-industrial period, and that anthropogenic CO2 has extended the period of aragonite undersaturation to more than 2-fold longer by now.

  5. Better well control through safe drilling margin identification, influx analysis and direct bottom hole pressure control method for deep water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veeningen, Daan [National Oilwell Varco IntelliServ (NOV), Houston, TX (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Currently, well control events are almost exclusively detected by using surface measurements. Measuring a volume increase in the 'closed loop' mud circulation system; a standpipe pressure decrease; or changes in a variety of drilling parameters provide indicators of a kick. Especially in deep water, where the riser comprises a substantial section of the well bore, early kick detection is paramount for limiting the severity of a well bore influx and improve the ability to regain well control. While downhole data is presently available from downhole tools nearby the bit, available data rates are sparse as mud pulse telemetry bandwidth is limited and well bore measurements compete with transmission of other subsurface data. Further, data transfer is one-directional, latency is significant and conditions along the string are unknown. High-bandwidth downhole data transmission system, via a wired or networked drill string system, has the unique capability to acquire real-time pressure and temperature measurement at a number of locations along the drill string. This system provides high-resolution downhole data available at very high speed, eliminating latency and restrictions that typically limit the availability of downhole data. The paper describes well control opportunities for deep water operations through the use of downhole data independent from surface measurements. First, the networked drill string provides efficient ways to identify pore pressure, fracture gradient, and true mud weight that comprise the safe drilling margin. Second, the independent measurement capability provides early kick detection and improved ability to analyze an influx even with a heterogeneous mud column through distributed along-string annular pressure measurements. Third, a methodology is proposed for a direct measurement method using downhole real-time pressure for maintaining constant bottom hole pressure during well kills in deep water. (author)

  6. Urban Runoff and Water Quality Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Tae [Kyonggi University, Suwon (Korea)

    1998-12-31

    The characteristics of storm and water quality are investigated based on the measuring data of the test river, the Hongje. The water quality of the test river is generally good comparing to other urban rivers in Seoul, because of the interception of sewer flow. But this system makes the river dry up for 3-4 months in winter. On the other hand, in rainy period the storm from the combined sewer system causes rapid increasing pollutants loads. In order to simulate the urban storm and water quality of the test basin, the models such as SWMM, ILLUDAS, STORM, HEC-1 were applied and the results are compared in its applicability and accuracy aspects. All models discussed here have shown good results and it seems that SWMM is the most effective model in simulating both quantity and quality. Also, regression relations between the water quantity and quality were derived and their applicabilities were discussed. This regression model is a simple effective tool for estimating the pollutant loads in the rainy period, but if the amount of discharge is bigger than measuring range of raw data, the accuracy becomes poor. This model could be supplemented by expanding the range of collecting data and introducing the river characteristics. The HEC-1 would be another effective model to simulate storm runoff of a river basin including urban area. (author). 15 refs., 13 tabs., 13 figs.

  7. Monitoring water quality by remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A limited study was conducted to determine the applicability of remote sensing for evaluating water quality conditions in the San Francisco Bay and delta. Considerable supporting data were available for the study area from other than overflight sources, but short-term temporal and spatial variability precluded their use. The study results were not sufficient to shed much light on the subject, but it did appear that, with the present state of the art in image analysis and the large amount of ground truth needed, remote sensing has only limited application in monitoring water quality.

  8. Water Quality Management Survey Columbus AFB, Mississippi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-01

    existing outfall provides chlorine contact time, since the WTP does not have a chlorine contact tank. 2. The base anaerobic digestor is operated by... digestor may be sourin;. but the pH and solids may not indicate the impending upset. C. Surface Water 1. According to the State of Mississippi Water Quality...acids to alkalinity ratio should be added as a control indicator for the anaerobic digestor . Changes in the ratio can indicate hydraulic overload, organic

  9. Climate change influence on drinking water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Melinda Haydee; Ristoiu, Dumitru; Voica, Cezara; Moldovan, Zaharie

    2013-11-01

    Although it are quite well known the possible effects of climate changes on surface waters availability and their hydrological risks, their consequences on drinking water quality is not well defined yet. Disinfection agents (as Cl2, O3, etc.) or multiple combinations of them for water treatment and disinfection purposes are applied by water treatment plants at worldwide level. Unfortunately, besides the benefits of these processes were also highlighted some undesirable effects such as formation of several disinfection by-products (DBPs) after reaction of disinfection agent with natural organic matter (NOM) from water body. DBPs formation in drinking water, suspected to posses adverse health effects to humans are strongly regulated in our days. Thus, throughout this study kinetics experiments both the main physicochemical factors that influencing the quality of drinking waters were evaluated as well how they act through possible warming or the consequences of extreme events. Increasing water temperatures with 1 - 5 °C above its normal value has showed that NOMs are presented in higher amount which led to the need for greater amount of disinfectant agent (5 - 15 %). Increasing the amount of disinfecting agent resulted in the formation of DBPs in significantly higher concentrations (between 5 - 30 %).

  10. General survey and conclusions with regard to the connection of water quantity and water quality studies of surface waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijtema, P.E.

    1979-01-01

    Publikatie die bestaat uit twee delen: 1. General survey of the relation between water quantity and water quality; 2. Conclusions with regard to the connection of water quantity and water quality studies of surface waters

  11. 40 CFR 227.31 - Applicable marine water quality criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicable marine water quality... § 227.31 Applicable marine water quality criteria. Applicable marine water quality criteria means the criteria given for marine waters in the EPA publication “Quality Criteria for Water” as published in 1976...

  12. Water quality assessment using water quality index and geographical information system methods in the coastal waters of Andaman Sea, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Dilip Kumar; Devi, Marimuthu Prashanthi; Vidyalakshmi, Rajendran; Brindha, Balan; Vinithkumar, Nambali Valsalan; Kirubagaran, Ramalingam

    2015-11-15

    Seawater samples at 54 stations in the year 2011-2012 from Chidiyatappu, Port Blair, Rangat and Aerial Bays of Andaman Sea, have been investigated in the present study. Datasets obtained have been converted into simple maps using coastal water quality index (CWQI) and Geographical Information System (GIS) based overlay mapping technique to demarcate healthy and polluted areas. Analysis of multiple parameters revealed poor water quality in Port Blair and Rangat Bays. The anthropogenic activities may be the likely cause for poor water quality. Whereas, good water quality was witnessed at Chidiyatappu Bay. Higher CWQI scores were perceived in the open sea. However, less exploitation of coastal resources owing to minimal anthropogenic activity indicated good water quality index at Chidiyatappu Bay. This study is an attempt to integrate CWQI and GIS based mapping technique to derive a reliable, simple and useful output for water quality monitoring in coastal environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion: the potential impact on microphytoplankton of bottom water discharge at subsurface in the Caribbean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraud, Mélanie; Boye, Marie; Garçon, Véronique; L'Helguen, Stéphane; Donval, Anne; De la Broise, Denis

    2015-04-01

    Part of the solar energy can be harvested and used in different processes. Taking advantage of the natural temperature gradient between the surface and deep ocean, the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) process fulfills this goal. The IMPALA project (Impacts of artificial upwelling on microplankton) aims to study the potential environmental impacts of releasing, below the surface, deep seawater flowing out of a scheduled OTEC pilot plant offshore the Martinique Island in the Caribbean Sea. Biogeochemical processes involved in the artificial upwelling generated by the use of an Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) plant were studied in this poor nutrient environment. The biogeochemical and physical ecosystem structure and functioning on the OTEC site were described and deep seawater discharge using in situ microcosm experiments was carried out off Martinique. Surface seawater was collected in ultra-clean conditions at two depths (corresponding to the maximum of chlorophyll a concentration and bottom of nutricline) and mixed in different proportions with deep seawater (2% and 10%). Pigments determination, picophytoplankton abundance, macro-nutrients (silicates, nitrates, and phosphates), particular organic carbon and nitrogen concentrations and primary production were documented to assess the variability between the natural environment and within the microcosms. The latter were immersed for 6 days on a 250 meters mooring. Variations observed in microcosms experiments and in the surrounding waters were compared in order to evaluate the natural variability of the phytoplankton assemblage and the potential shifts induced by deep water supply. Results obtained during two fields campaigns conducted off Martinique at the onset of the dry (November-December 2013) and wet seasons (June 2014), respectively, will be presented and discussed. Incubating mixtures of subsurface and deep waters at two ratios and at two depths, allows evaluating the potential impact of a deep

  14. Investigating the Sources of Decadal-Scale Property Changes in Antarctic Bottom Water in the Southeast Indian Ocean (80-90°E)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschalk, K.; Macdonald, A. M.

    2016-12-01

    A recognizable warming and freshening of Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) throughout much of the Southern Ocean is one of the major findings of the international long-line hydrographic programs of 1990's and the 2000's. A recent GO-SHIP repeat of the I08S line in the southeast Indian Ocean in 2016 found continued, but weaker, AABW warming and significantly strong freshening in the Antarctic-Australian Basin (A-AB). It has been proposed that the 2010 B9b iceberg calving along the Adélie Land Coast may be linked to the sharp increase in A-AB AABW freshening. The present study seeks to affirm or challenge this hypothesis through a quantitative investigation into the origins of A-AB (i.e. I08S) bottom water. The investigation takes the form of an Extended Optimum MultiParameter mixing analysis (eOMP) to determine a) the contribution of individual formation regions to the bottom water seen at I08S, and b) how these contributions may have changed over the twenty years since the first occupation of the line. The initial investigation that used mean source water properties found Adélie Bottom Water (ADLBW) to be the dominant source of AABW in the A-AB. However, by calculating source water properties from times preceding the occupations of the I08S line (1994, 2007, 2016), it was determined that in both 1994 and 2007, Ross Sea Bottom Water (RSBW) was the dominant source of AABW (approx. 61 & 75 %, respectively) in the A-AB. This dominance shifted in 2016, to ADLBW composing approximately 44% of AABW. This result suggests that it is feasible that the B9b calving that impacted ADLBW in the formation region is, at least, partially responsible for the changes seen at I08S. Nevertheless, given that there are significant contributions from both RSBW and Weddell Sea Bottom Water, it seems unlikely that this single alteration of ADLBW is the sole driver of the observed freshening. Further investigation seeks to determine the sensitivity of the solution to particular source water

  15. Assessing river water quality using water quality index in Lake Taihu Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhaoshi; Wang, Xiaolong; Chen, Yuwei; Cai, Yongjiu; Deng, Jiancai

    2018-01-15

    Lake Taihu Basin, one of the most developed regions in China, has received considerable attention due to its severe pollution. Our study provides a clear understanding of the water quality in the rivers of Lake Taihu Basin based on basin-scale monitoring and a water quality index (WQI) method. From September 2014 to January 2016, four samplings across four seasons were conducted at 96 sites along main rivers. Fifteen parameters, including water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), conductivity, turbidity (tur), permanganate index (CODMn), total nitrogen, total phosphorus, ammonium (NH4-N), nitrite, nitrate (NO3-N), calcium, magnesium, chloride, and sulfate, were measured to calculate the WQI. The average WQI value during our study period was 59.33; consequently, the water quality was considered as generally "moderate". Significant differences in WQI values were detected among the 6 river systems, with better water quality in the Tiaoxi and Nanhe systems. The water quality presented distinct seasonal variation, with the highest WQI values in autumn, followed by spring and summer, and the lowest values in winter. The minimum WQI (WQImin), which was developed based on a stepwise linear regression analysis, consisted of five parameters: NH4-N, CODMn, NO3-N, DO, and tur. The model exhibited excellent performance in representing the water quality in Lake Taihu Basin, especially when weights were fully considered. Our results are beneficial for water quality management and could be used for rapid and low-cost water quality evaluation in Lake Taihu Basin. Additionally, we suggest that weights of environmental parameters should be fully considered in water quality assessments when using the WQImin method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Sustainable River Water Quality Management in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Al-Mamun

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Ecological status of Malaysia is not as bad as many other developing nations in the world. However, despite the enforcement of the Environmental Quality Act (EQA in 1974, the water quality of Malaysian inland water (especially rivers is following deteriorating trend. The rivers are mainly polluted due to the point and non-point pollution sources. Point sources are monitored and controlled by the Department of Environment (DOE, whereas a significant amount of pollutants is contributed by untreated sullage and storm runoff. Nevertheless, it is not too late to take some bold steps for the effective control of non-point source pollution and untreated sullage discharge, which play significant roles on the status of the rivers. This paper reviews the existing procedures and guidelines related to protection of the river water quality in Malaysia.  There is a good possibility that the sewage and effluent discharge limits in the Environmental Quality Act (EQA may pose hindrance against achieving good quality water in the rivers as required by the National Water Quality Standards (NWQS. For instance, Ammoniacal Nitrogen (NH3-N is identified as one of the main pollutants to render many of the rivers polluted but it was not considered in the EQA as a monitoring parameter until the new regulations published in 2009.  Surprisingly, the new regulation for sewage and industrial effluent limits set allowable NH3-N concentration quite high (5 mg/L, which may result in low Water Quality Index (WQI values for the river water. The water environment is a dynamic system. Periodical review of the monitoring requirements, detecting emerging pollutants in sewage, effluent and runoff, and proper revision of water quality standards are necessary for the management of sustainable water resources in the country. ABSTRAK: Satus ekologi Malaysia tidak seburuk kebanyakan negara membangun lain di dunia. Walaupun Akta Kualiti Alam Sekitar (EQA dikuatkuasakan pada tahun 1974

  17. Water Quality Considerations and Related Dishwashing Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Nina I.

    A number of the chemical and physical factors which cause dishwashing problems are presented in a series of charts. Water quality considerations are vital, but the importance of good housekeeping and proper operating practices cannot and must not be minimized. Topics discussed include--(1) dissolved minerals, (2) dissolved gases, (3) detergents,…

  18. Water Quality Response to Forest Biomass Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin Rau; Augustine Muwamba; Carl Trettin; Sudhanshu Panda; Devendra Amatya; Ernest Tollner

    2017-01-01

    Forested watersheds provide approximately 80% of freshwater drinking resources in the United States (Fox et al. 2007). The water originating from forested watersheds is typically of high quality when compared to agricul¬tural watersheds, and concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus are nine times higher, on average, in agricultur¬al watersheds when compared to...

  19. Water quality assessment and hydrochemical characteristics of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 123; Issue 1. Water quality assessment and hydrochemical characteristics of groundwater on the aspect of metals in an old town, Foshan, south China. Guanxing Huang Zongyu Chen Jichao Sun. Volume 123 Issue 1 February 2014 pp 91-100 ...

  20. surface water quality in addis ababa, ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT: The main threat to the surface water quality in Addis Ababa is environmental pollution derived from domestic and industrial activities. Due to the inadequacy of controlled waste management strategies and waste treatment plants, people are forced to discharge wastes both on open surface and within.

  1. Water quality issues and energy assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.J.; Chiu, S.

    1980-11-01

    This report identifies and evaluates the significant water quality issues related to regional and national energy development. In addition, it recommends improvements in the Office assessment capability. Handbook-style formating, which includes a system of cross-references and prioritization, is designed to help the reader use the material.

  2. Water quality of the Modder River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Koning

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal and spatial patterns in the Modder River system, the influence of Botshabelo's sewage outflow’ on the water quality of the river, as well as the presence of any toxic compounds were determined. The Modder and Klein Modder Rivers do not follow distinctive seasonal patterns in terms of chemical parameters.

  3. Robustness of river basin water quality models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Blois, Chris; Wind, H.G.; de Kok, Jean-Luc; Koppeschaar, K.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the concept of robustness is introduced and applied to a model for the analysis of the impacts of spatially distributed policy measures on the surface water quality on a river basin scale. In this model the influence of precipitation on emissions and resuspension of pollutants in the

  4. New challenges in integrated water quality modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rode, M.; Arhonditsis, G.; Balin, D.; Kebede, T.; Krysanova, V.; Griensven, A.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.

    2010-01-01

    There is an increasing pressure for development of integrated water quality models that effectively couple catchment and in-stream biogeochemical processes. This need stems from increasing legislative requirements and emerging demands related to contemporary climate and land use changes. Modelling

  5. Compost improves urban soil and water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Construction in urban zones compacts the soil, which hinders root growth and infiltration and may increase erosion, which may degrade water quality. The purpose of our study was to determine the whether planting prairie grasses and adding compost to urban soils can mitigate these concerns. We simula...

  6. Evaluating Water Quality in a Suburban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, S. M.; Garza, N.

    2008-12-01

    A water quality analysis and modeling study is currently being conducted on the Martinez Creek, a small catchment within Cibolo watershed, a sub-basin of the San Antonio River, Texas. Several other major creeks, such as Salatrillo, Escondido, and Woman Hollering merge with Martinez Creek. Land use and land cover analysis shows that the major portion of the watershed is dominated by residential development with average impervious cover percentage of approximately 40% along with a some of agricultural areas and brushlands. This catchment is characterized by the presence of three small wastewater treatment plants. Previous site visits and sampling of water quality indicate the presence of algae and fecal coliform bacteria at levels well above state standards at several locations in the catchment throughout the year. Due to the presence of livestock, residential development and wastewater treatment plants, a comprehensive understanding of water quality is important to evaluate the sources and find means to control pollution. As part of the study, a spatial and temporal water quality analyses of conventional parameters as well as emerging contaminants, such as veterinary pharmaceuticals and microbial pathogens is being conducted to identify critical locations and sources. Additionally, the Hydrologic Simulation Program FORTRAN (HSPF) will be used to identify best management practices that can be incorporated given the projected growth and development and feasibility.

  7. CORRELATION STUDY AMONG WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-09-01

    Sep 1, 2015 ... CORRELATION STUDY AMONG WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS OF. GROUNDWATER OF VALSAD DISTRICT OF SOUTH GUJARAT (INDIA). P. Shroff. 1. , R. T. Vashi. 1,*. , V. A. Champaneri. 2 and K. K. Patel. 1. 1Department of Chemistry, Navyug Science College, Surat-395009, (Gujarat), India. 2.

  8. TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL PHYSICOCHEMICAL WATER QUALITY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), suspended solids (SS), pH, oil and grease, and electroconductivity. (EC). The samples were collected in both dry and rainy seasons of 2006 and analysed using standard methods. Results showed that the impairment of water quality in a stream depended on the type of industry in its ...

  9. Water quality criteria for hexachloroethane: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, K.A.; Hovatter, P.S.; Ross, R.H.

    1988-03-01

    The available data regarding the environmental fate, aquatic toxicity, and mammalian toxicity of hexachloroethane, which is used in military screening smokes, were reviewed. The USEPA guidelines were used to generate water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life and its uses and of human health. 16 tabs.

  10. FISH PHYSIOLOGY, TOXICOLOGY, AND WATER QUALITY:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenty-one participants from Europe, North America and China convened in Chongqing, China, October 12-14, 2005, for the Eighth International Symposium in Fish Physiology, Toxicology and Water Quality. The subject of the meeting was "Hypoxia in vertebrates: Comparisons of terrestr...

  11. Impacts of water quality variation and rainfall runoff on Jinpen Reservoir, in Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi-zhen Zhou

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The seasonal variation characteristics of the water quality of the Jinpen Reservoir and the impacts of rainfall runoff on the reservoir were investigated. Water quality monitoring results indicated that, during the stable stratification period, the maximum concentrations of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, ammonia nitrogen, total organic carbon, iron ion, and manganese ion in the water at the reservoir bottom on September 6 reached 2.5 mg/L, 0.12 mg/L, 0.58 mg/L, 3.2 mg/L, 0.97 mg/L, and 0.32 mg/L, respectively. Only heavy storm runoff can affect the main reservoir and cause the water quality to seriously deteriorate. During heavy storms, the stratification of the reservoir was destroyed, and the reservoir water quality consequently deteriorated due to the high-turbidity particulate phosphorus and organic matter in runoff. The turbidity and concentrations of total phosphorus and total organic carbon in the main reservoir increased to 265 NTU, 0.224 mg/L, and 3.9 mg/L, respectively. Potential methods of dealing with the water problems in the Jinpen Reservoir are proposed. Both in stratification and in storm periods, the use of measures such as adjusting intake height, storing clean water, and releasing turbid flow can be helpful to safeguarding the quality of water supplied to the water treatment plants.

  12. Varying bottom water oxygenation during deposition of organic-rich, bioclastic carbonates on a southern Tethys ramp (lower-middle Eocene, Tunisia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez Berrocoso, A.; Bodin, S.; Wood, J.

    2012-04-01

    Redox-sensitive and sulphide-forming metals are variably enriched in the bioclastic carbonates of the lower-middle Eocene Bou Dabbous Formation (BDFm) of north-central Tunisia. The occurrence of trace metal enrichment in sediments that contain benthic fossils is a long standing sedimentary anomaly with respect to the level of bottom water oxygenation during deposition. In the BDFm, varying levels of oxygen depletion, suggested by varying trace metal enrichment, further compounds this question. An integrated sedimentological, paleontological and geochemical study of the BDFm is underway in order to address as to what controls the magnitude and physical extend of this oxygen depletion. Up to 4 lithofacies are distinguished in the seven sections studied. Common characteristics in all of them include alternating, massive limestones and marly limestones with abundant planktonic foraminifera and common to rare phosphatic grains and disseminated pyrite. The main difference among lithofacies is the amount of benthic fossils (e.g., echinoids, bivalves, foraminifera), being higher in lithofacies 1 and 2 and lower in lithofacies 3 and 4. Lithofacies 4 is characterised by laminated fabrics with mm-thick, phosphatic laminae alternating with thicker, black bands. All lithofacies were deposited in the distal part of a ramp, with the less bioclastic lithofacies 3 and 4 representing the most distal deposits. However, a fraction of the benthic bioclasts in all lithofacies represents in situ fossil remains. Coupled with the presence of in situ benthic fossils, clear enrichment of Cr, U and V in lithofacies 2, 3 and 4 of six sections studied indicate suboxic bottom waters during their deposition. Consistent with some dissolved oxygen in bottom waters allowing seafloor colonisation by benthic organisms, these lithofacies are only moderately enriched in Mo (up to 9 ppm) and suggests a steep redox boundary close below the sediment/water interface, where anoxia could have fully developed

  13. Drainage water management effects on tile discharge and water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen (N) fluxes from tile drained watersheds have been implicated in water quality studies of the Mississippi River Basin, but the contribution of tile drains to N export in headwater watersheds is not well understood. The objective of this study was to ascertain seasonal and annual contribution...

  14. SF Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund: Projects and Accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund (SFBWQIF) projects listed here are part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  15. Specific Water Quality Sites for Cache County, Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map shows specific water-quality items and hydrologic data site information which come from QWDATA (Water Quality) and GWSI (Ground Water Information System)....

  16. Specific Water Quality Sites for Summit County, Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map shows specific water-quality items and hydrologic data site information which come from QWDATA (Water Quality) and GWSI (Ground Water Information System)....

  17. Specific Water Quality Sites for Iron County, Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map shows specific water-quality items and hydrologic data site information which come from QWDATA (Water Quality) and GWSI (Ground Water Information System)....

  18. Specific Water Quality Sites for Tooele County, Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map shows specific water-quality items and hydrologic data site information which come from QWDATA (Water Quality) and GWSI (Ground Water Information System)....

  19. Monitoring and modeling of microbial and biological water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbial and biological water quality informs on the health of water systems and their suitability for uses in irrigation, recreation, aquaculture, and other activities. Indicators of microbial and biological water quality demonstrate high spatial and temporal variability. Therefore, monitoring str...

  20. Specific Water Quality Sites for Morgan County, Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map shows specific water-quality items and hydrologic data site information which come from QWDATA (Water Quality) and GWSI (Ground Water Information System)....

  1. Specific Water Quality Sites for Weber County, Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map shows specific water-quality items and hydrologic data site information which come from QWDATA (Water Quality) and GWSI (Ground Water Information System)....

  2. Specific Water Quality Sites for Uintah County, Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map shows specific water-quality items and hydrologic data site information which come from QWDATA (Water Quality) and GWSI (Ground Water Information System)....

  3. Specific Water Quality Sites for Sanpete County, Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map shows specific water-quality items and hydrologic data site information which come from QWDATA (Water Quality) and GWSI (Ground Water Information System)....

  4. Specific Water Quality Sites for Wasatch County, Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map shows specific water-quality items and hydrologic data site information which come from QWDATA (Water Quality) and GWSI (Ground Water Information System)....

  5. Specific Water Quality Sites for Carbon County, Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map shows specific water-quality items and hydrologic data site information which come from QWDATA (Water Quality) and GWSI (Ground Water Information System)....

  6. Effect of adhesive properties of buffy coat on the quality of blood components produced with Top & Top and Top & Bottom bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerelli, Eugenio; Nocera, Martina; Di Bartolomeo, Erminia; Panzani, Paola; Baricchi, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    The Transfusion Medicine Unit of Reggio Emilia currently collects whole blood using conventional quadruple Fresenius Top & Top bags. In this study, new Fresenius Top & Bottom bags were assessed and compared to the routine method with regards to product quality and operational requirements. Twenty-one whole blood units were collected with both the new and the traditional bags, and then separated. Quality control data were evaluated and compared in order to estimate yield and quality of final blood components obtained with the two systems. We collected other bags, not included in the ordinary quality control programme, for comparison of platelet concentrates produced by pools of buffy coat. Compared to the traditional system, the whole blood units processed with Top & Bottom bags yielded larger plasma volumes (+5.7%) and a similar amount of concentrated red blood cells, but with a much lower contamination of lymphocytes (-61.5%) and platelets (-86.6%). Consequently, the pooled platelets contained less plasma (-26.3%) and were significantly richer in platelets (+17.9%). This study investigated the effect of centrifugation on the adhesiveness of the buffy coat to the bag used for whole blood collection. We analysed the mechanism by which this undesirable phenomenon affects the quality of packed red blood cells in two types of bags. We also documented the incomparability of measurements on platelet concentrates performed with different principles of cell counting: this vexing problem has important implications for biomedical research and for the establishment of universal product standards. Our results support the conclusion that the Top & Bottom bags produce components of higher quality than our usual system, while having equal operational efficiency. Use of the new bags could result in an important quality improvement in blood components manufacturing.

  7. Distribution of shallow water soft and hard bottom seabeds in the Isla del Coco National Park, Pacific Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A. Sibaja-Cordero

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Geographic Information Systems (GIS applications used in marine habitats are powerful tools for management and monitoring of marine reserves and resources. Here, we present a series of maps of the soft and hard substrates in the shallow waters (>80 m depth of Parque Nacional Isla del Coco (PNIC= Isla del Coco National Park. We use bathymetry data and field data as input for a GIS, GAM, and kriging methods to generate a series of maps that describe the bottom characteristics. Eight types of bottom were found in the PNIC by composition and grain size. The shore of the island and islets consisted of rocky formations (mainly basalts, with coral reefs in the subtidal of some areas. Rhodolith beds had a dispersing distribution. The bottom on the southern and southwestern region is hard substrate, while sediments cover the northern and northeastern zones. Slightly gravelly sand dominated the bays, while gravelly sand (with more coarse grains was frequent offshore. The inner areas of Chatham and Wafer bays have mud and organic matter. The sediments in the area are mostly carbonates, except in Bahía Yglesias where clastic sediments (from the erosion of basalts are presented. The information generated in this study could be a valuable input for future monitoring in the PNIC.La aplicación de Sistemas de Información Geográfica (SIG, en los hábitats marinos es muy importante para la gestión y control de las reservas y recursos marinos. Aquí se presentan una serie de mapas de los sustratos sedimentarios y duros en las aguas poco profundas (> 80 m de profundidad del Parque Nacional Isla del Coco (PNIC. Utilizamos datos de batimetría y datos de campo como entrada para un SIG, GAM, y los métodos de “kriging” para generar una serie de mapas que describen las características del fondo. ocho tipos de fondo marino se encuentran en el PNIC. La orilla de la isla y los islotes consistía de formaciones rocosas (principalmente basaltos, con arrecifes de

  8. Identification of water quality degradation hotspots in developing countries by applying large scale water quality modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malsy, Marcus; Reder, Klara; Flörke, Martina

    2014-05-01

    Decreasing water quality is one of the main global issues which poses risks to food security, economy, and public health and is consequently crucial for ensuring environmental sustainability. During the last decades access to clean drinking water increased, but 2.5 billion people still do not have access to basic sanitation, especially in Africa and parts of Asia. In this context not only connection to sewage system is of high importance, but also treatment, as an increasing connection rate will lead to higher loadings and therefore higher pressure on water resources. Furthermore, poor people in developing countries use local surface waters for daily activities, e.g. bathing and washing. It is thus clear that water utilization and water sewerage are indispensable connected. In this study, large scale water quality modelling is used to point out hotspots of water pollution to get an insight on potential environmental impacts, in particular, in regions with a low observation density and data gaps in measured water quality parameters. We applied the global water quality model WorldQual to calculate biological oxygen demand (BOD) loadings from point and diffuse sources, as well as in-stream concentrations. Regional focus in this study is on developing countries i.e. Africa, Asia, and South America, as they are most affected by water pollution. Hereby, model runs were conducted for the year 2010 to draw a picture of recent status of surface waters quality and to figure out hotspots and main causes of pollution. First results show that hotspots mainly occur in highly agglomerated regions where population density is high. Large urban areas are initially loading hotspots and pollution prevention and control become increasingly important as point sources are subject to connection rates and treatment levels. Furthermore, river discharge plays a crucial role due to dilution potential, especially in terms of seasonal variability. Highly varying shares of BOD sources across

  9. General introduction for the “National field manual for the collection of water-quality data”

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2018-02-28

    BackgroundAs part of its mission, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collects data to assess the quality of our Nation’s water resources. A high degree of reliability and standardization of these data are paramount to fulfilling this mission. Documentation of nationally accepted methods used by USGS personnel serves to maintain consistency and technical quality in data-collection activities. “The National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data” (NFM) provides documented guidelines and protocols for USGS field personnel who collect water-quality data. The NFM provides detailed, comprehensive, and citable procedures for monitoring the quality of surface water and groundwater. Topics in the NFM include (1) methods and protocols for sampling water resources, (2) methods for processing samples for analysis of water quality, (3) methods for measuring field parameters, and (4) specialized procedures, such as sampling water for low levels of mercury and organic wastewater chemicals, measuring biological indicators, and sampling bottom sediment for chemistry. Personnel who collect water-quality data for national USGS programs and projects, including projects supported by USGS cooperative programs, are mandated to use protocols provided in the NFM per USGS Office of Water Quality Technical Memorandum 2002.13. Formal training, for example, as provided in the USGS class, “Field Water-Quality Methods for Groundwater and Surface Water,” and field apprenticeships supplement the guidance provided in the NFM and ensure that the data collected are high quality, accurate, and scientifically defensible.

  10. Seasonal, sub-seasonal and spatial fluctuations in oxygen-depleted bottom waters in an embayment of an eastern boundary upwelling system: St Helena Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitcher, G. C.; Probyn, T. A.

    2015-08-01

    The considerable impact of oxygen deficient waters on marine resources in St Helena Bay has generated interest in exploring the vulnerability of South Africa's largest and most productive bay to further deoxygenation in response to climate change. Seasonal, sub-seasonal and spatial fluctuations in bottom dissolved oxygen (DO) are examined in St Helena Bay to facilitate better interpretation of historical data. DO measurements in relation to physical, chemical and biological variables were made between November 2013 and November 2014. Alongshore bay characteristics were assessed through comparison of variables along the 50 m depth contour. A mean coefficient of variation of 0.35 provided a measure of the relative variability of near-bottom DO concentrations along this contour. Across-shelf transects captured the seasonal development of hypoxia in relation to the distribution of phytoplankton biomass. DO was lowest in autumn in the south of the bay prior to winter ventilation of the bottom waters. Exceptional dinoflagellate blooms forming extensive subsurface thin layers preceded the autumn DO minima. The development of hypoxia at inner and central stations prior to expansion beyond the boundaries of the bay provided evidence of local drawdown. Coincident with the seasonal decline of DO within the bay was an increase in macronutrient concentrations which tended to mirror DO concentrations. Indication of denitrification in the suboxic waters in the south of the bay was provided through evidence of a nitrate deficit in autumn supported by elevated nitrite concentrations. Superimposed on the seasonal decline of DO concentrations in the bottom waters were sub-seasonal events of hypoxia and anoxia linked to episodic deposition of organic matter as indicated by increases in bottom Chl a concentrations.

  11. THE WATER QUALITY FROM SAINT ANA LAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.VIGH

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Inside the Ciomad Massive appears a unique lake in Romania, with an exclusive precipitations alimentation regime. The lake’s origin and the morphometric elements, together with the touristic activity, determine the water’s quality and characteristics. Water status evaluation was realized using random samples taken between the years 2005 and 2010. Qualitative parameters indicate the existence of a clear water lake, belonging to ultra-oligotrophic faze. This is because the crater is covered with forest and the surface erosion is very poor. Also the aquatic vegetation is rare. From all analyzed indicators, only ammonium and total mineral nitrogen have higher values during last years. In the future, the lake needs a higher protection against water quality degradation.

  12. Quality-assurance plan for water-quality activities in the U.S. Geological Survey Washington Water Science Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Kathleen E.; Huffman, Raegan L.; Barton, Cynthia

    2017-05-08

    In accordance with guidelines set forth by the Office of Water Quality in the Water Mission Area of the U.S. Geological Survey, a quality-assurance plan has been created for use by the Washington Water Science Center (WAWSC) in conducting water-quality activities. This qualityassurance plan documents the standards, policies, and procedures used by the WAWSC for activities related to the collection, processing, storage, analysis, and publication of water-quality data. The policies and procedures documented in this quality-assurance plan for water-quality activities complement the quality-assurance plans for surface-water and groundwater activities at the WAWSC.

  13. Occurence of antibiotic compounds found in the water column and bottom sediments from a stream receiving two waste water treatment plant effluents in northern New Jersey, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibs, Jacob; Heckathorn, Heather A.; Meyer, Michael T.; Klapinski, Frank R.; Alebus, Marzooq; Lippincott, Robert

    2013-01-01

    An urban watershed in northern New Jersey was studied to determine the presence of four classes of antibiotic compounds (macrolides, fluoroquinolones, sulfonamides, and tetracyclines) and six degradates in the water column and bottom sediments upstream and downstream from the discharges of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and a drinking-water intake (DWI). Many antibiotic compounds in the four classes not removed by conventional WWTPs enter receiving waters and partition to stream sediments. Samples were collected at nine sampling locations on 2 days in September 2008. Two of the nine sampling locations were background sites upstream from two WWTP discharges on Hohokus Brook. Another background site was located upstream from a DWI on the Saddle River above the confluence with Hohokus Brook. Because there is a weir downstream of the confluence of Hohokus Brook and Saddle River, the DWI receives water from Hohokus Brook at low stream flows. Eight antibiotic compounds (azithromycin (maximum concentration 0.24 μg/L), ciprofloxacin (0.08 μg/L), enrofloxacin (0.015 μg/L), erythromycin (0.024 μg/L), ofloxacin (0.92 μg/L), sulfamethazine (0.018 μg/L), sulfamethoxazole (0.25 μg/L), and trimethoprim (0.14 μg/L)) and a degradate (erythromycin-H2O (0.84 μg/L)) were detected in the water samples from the sites downstream from the WWTP discharges. The concentrations of six of the eight detected compounds and the detected degradate compound decreased with increasing distance downstream from the WWTP discharges. Azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, and trimethoprim were detected in stream-bottom sediments. The concentrations of three of the four compounds detected in sediments were highest at a sampling site located downstream from the WWTP discharges. Trimethoprim was detected in the sediments from a background site. Pseudo-partition coefficients normalized for streambed sediment organic carbon concentration were calculated for azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, and

  14. Importance of demand modelling in network water quality models: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. van Dijk

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Today, there is a growing interest in network water quality modelling. The water quality issues of interest relate to both dissolved and particulate substances. For dissolved substances the main interest is in residual chlorine and (microbiological contaminant propagation; for particulate substances it is in sediment leading to discolouration. There is a strong influence of flows and velocities on transport, mixing, production and decay of these substances in the network. This imposes a different approach to demand modelling which is reviewed in this article.

    For the large diameter lines that comprise the transport portion of a typical municipal pipe system, a skeletonised network model with a top-down approach of demand pattern allocation, a hydraulic time step of 1 h, and a pure advection-reaction water quality model will usually suffice. For the smaller diameter lines that comprise the distribution portion of a municipal pipe system, an all-pipes network model with a bottom-up approach of demand pattern allocation, a hydraulic time step of 1 min or less, and a water quality model that considers dispersion and transients may be needed.

    Demand models that provide stochastic residential demands per individual home and on a one-second time scale are available. A stochastic demands based network water quality model needs to be developed and validated with field measurements. Such a model will be probabilistic in nature and will offer a new perspective for assessing water quality in the drinking water distribution system.

  15. Chapter 5: Surface water quality sampling in streams and canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface water sampling and water quality assessments have greatly evolved in the United States since the 1970s establishment of the Clean Water Act. Traditionally, water quality referred to only the chemical characteristics of the water and its toxicological properties related to drinking water or ...

  16. Cascading of high salinity bottom waters from the Arabian/Persian Gulf to the northern Arabian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Georgy; Wobus, Fred; Solovyev, Vladimir; Francis, Xavier; Hyder, Patrick; Chen, Feng; Asif, Muhammad

    2017-04-01

    Cascading (aka shelf convection) is a specific type of buoyancy driven current in which dense water is formed over the continental shelf and then descends down the slope to a greater depth. The cascades of dense water down continental slopes provide a mechanism for shelf-ocean exchange in many parts of the world's oceans (Shapiro et al, 2003). Dense water is formed on the shelf by a number of processes, with high evaporation, limited river discharge and low precipitation being the major processes in warm climates (Ivanov et al, 2004). The formation and outflow of high salinity waters in the near-bottom layer of the Arabian/Persian Gulf is an example of dense water cascading (Bower et al 2000). Despite of its importance for the self-cleaning and the state of the marine ecosystem in the Arabian/Persian Gulf, the properties of the outflow have so far mainly been analysed using climatologically averaged data or observations of a limited set of parameters (mainly temperature), see (Bower et al 2000). In this paper we study the dynamics of the flow using a comprehensive set of observational data (temperature, salinity velocity and turbidity profiles) obtained during the GRASP (Gulf Reconnaissance And Selective Profiling) observational campaign in the Gulf of Oman, which are complemented by the results of numerical modelling of the area using a number of 3D ocean models, and some ARGO T/S profiles. The GRASP measurements were carried out using an Aqualog climbing moored profiler, which was equipped with a Seabird CTD sensor, a Nortek Aquadopp current meter and a Seapoint turbidity meter. The Ocean circulation models used in the study include PGM4 and IND12 (UK Met Office); and AS20 and AG60 (University of Plymouth). All models are based on NEMO (Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean) codebase with a resolution from 9 km down to 1.8 km. The models were calibrated and validated against ARGO float profiles in the area. The study revealed the mesoscale and sub

  17. Chesapeake Bay Program Water Quality Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chesapeake Information Management System (CIMS), designed in 1996, is an integrated, accessible information management system for the Chesapeake Bay Region. CIMS is an organized, distributed library of information and software tools designed to increase basin-wide public access to Chesapeake Bay information. The information delivered by CIMS includes technical and public information, educational material, environmental indicators, policy documents, and scientific data. Through the use of relational databases, web-based programming, and web-based GIS a large number of Internet resources have been established. These resources include multiple distributed on-line databases, on-demand graphing and mapping of environmental data, and geographic searching tools for environmental information. Baseline monitoring data, summarized data and environmental indicators that document ecosystem status and trends, confirm linkages between water quality, habitat quality and abundance, and the distribution and integrity of biological populations are also available. One of the major features of the CIMS network is the Chesapeake Bay Program's Data Hub, providing users access to a suite of long- term water quality and living resources databases. Chesapeake Bay mainstem and tidal tributary water quality, benthic macroinvertebrates, toxics, plankton, and fluorescence data can be obtained for a network of over 800 monitoring stations.

  18. Increased water salinity applied to tomato plants accelerates the development of the leaf miner Tuta absoluta through bottom-up effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Peng; Wang, Zhi-jian; Lavoir, Anne-Violette; Michel, Thomas; Seassau, Aurélie; Zheng, Wen-yan; Niu, Chang-ying; Desneux, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Variation in resource inputs to plants may trigger bottom-up effects on herbivorous insects. We examined the effects of water input: optimal water vs. limited water; water salinity: with vs. without addition of 100 mM NaCl; and their interactions on tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum), and consequently, the bottom-up effects on the tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta (Meytick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Plant growth was significantly impeded by limited water input and NaCl addition. In terms of leaf chemical defense, the production of tomatidine significantly increased with limited water and NaCl addition, and a similar but non-significant trend was observed for the other glycoalkaloids. Tuta absoluta survival did not vary with the water and salinity treatments, but the treatment “optimal water-high salinity” increased the development rate without lowering pupal mass. Our results suggest that caution should be used in the IPM program against T. absoluta when irrigating tomato crops with saline water. PMID:27619473

  19. Water quality monitoring using remote sensing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adsavakulchai, Suwannee; Panichayapichet, Paweena

    2003-03-01

    There has been a rapid growth of shrimp farm around Kung Krabaen Bay in the past decade. This has caused enormous rise in generation of domestic and industrial wastes. Most of these wastes are disposed in the Kung Krabaen Bay. There is a serious need to retain this glory by better water quality management of this river. Conventional methods of monitoring of water quality have limitations in collecting information about water quality parameters for a large region in detailed manner due to high cost and time. Satellite based technologies have offered an alternate approach for many environmental monitoring needs. In this study, the high-resolution satellite data (LANDSAT TM) was utilized to develop mathematical models for monitoring of chlorophyll-a. Comparison between empirical relationship of spectral reflectance with chl-a and band ratio between the near infrared (NIR) and red was suggested to detect chlorophyll in water. This concept has been successfully employed for marine zones and big lakes but not for narrow rivers due to constraints of spatial resolution of satellite data. This information will be very useful in locating point and non-point sources of pollution and will help in designing and implementing controlling structures.

  20. Nitrogen and water inputs to tomato plant do not trigger bottom-up effects on a leafminer parasitoid through host and non-host exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yong-Cheng; Han, Peng; Niu, Chang-Ying; Zappalà, Lucia; Amiens-Desneux, Edwige; Bearez, Philippe; Lavoir, Anne-Violette; Biondi, Antonio; Desneux, Nicolas

    2017-10-02

    Bottom-up and top-down forces are major components of biological control against pests in an agro-ecosystem. Understanding the multi-trophic interactions between plants and secondary consumers would help optimize pest control strategies. We manipulated nitrogen and/or water inputs to tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) to test whether these manipulations could trigger bottom-up effects on the parasitoid Necremnus tutae via host (Tuta absoluta) and/or non-host (Bemisia tabaci) exposures, and compared the control efficacy of N. tutae on T. absoluta in the presence and absence of B. tabaci. The results showed no cascading effects of plant nitrogen and/or water inputs on N. tutae via either host or non-host exposure. The bottom-up force was mitigated by chewing or sap-feeding insect consumers at the second energy level. By contrast, the top-down force on T. absoluta from parasitoids was enhanced by an additionally provided non-host, which could produce alternative food sources extending N. tutae longevity and enhancing the fitness of its offspring. Our results provided evidence for the combination of bottom-up and top-down approaches in tomato integrated pest management programs. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Quality and Control of Water Vapor Winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.; Atkinson, Robert J.

    1996-01-01

    Water vapor imagery from the geostationary satellites such as GOES, Meteosat, and GMS provides synoptic views of dynamical events on a continual basis. Because the imagery represents a non-linear combination of mid- and upper-tropospheric thermodynamic parameters (three-dimensional variations in temperature and humidity), video loops of these image products provide enlightening views of regional flow fields, the movement of tropical and extratropical storm systems, the transfer of moisture between hemispheres and from the tropics to the mid- latitudes, and the dominance of high pressure systems over particular regions of the Earth. Despite the obvious larger scale features, the water vapor imagery contains significant image variability down to the single 8 km GOES pixel. These features can be quantitatively identified and tracked from one time to the next using various image processing techniques. Merrill et al. (1991), Hayden and Schmidt (1992), and Laurent (1993) have documented the operational procedures and capabilities of NOAA and ESOC to produce cloud and water vapor winds. These techniques employ standard correlation and template matching approaches to wind tracking and use qualitative and quantitative procedures to eliminate bad wind vectors from the wind data set. Techniques have also been developed to improve the quality of the operational winds though robust editing procedures (Hayden and Veldon 1991). These quality and control approaches have limitations, are often subjective, and constrain wind variability to be consistent with model derived wind fields. This paper describes research focused on the refinement of objective quality and control parameters for water vapor wind vector data sets. New quality and control measures are developed and employed to provide a more robust wind data set for climate analysis, data assimilation studies, as well as operational weather forecasting. The parameters are applicable to cloud-tracked winds as well with minor

  2. Quality of surface water in Missouri, water year 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Miya N.; Heimann, David C.

    2016-11-14

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, designed and operates a series of monitoring stations on streams and springs throughout Missouri known as the Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network. During water year 2015 (October 1, 2014, through September 30, 2015), data were collected at 74 stations—72 Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network stations and 2 U.S. Geological Survey National Stream Quality Assessment Network stations. Dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, water temperature, suspended solids, suspended sediment, Escherichia coli bacteria, fecal coliform bacteria, dissolved nitrate plus nitrite as nitrogen, total phosphorus, dissolved and total recoverable lead and zinc, and select pesticide compound summaries are presented for 71 of these stations. The stations primarily have been classified into groups corresponding to the physiography of the State, primary land use, or unique station types. In addition, a summary of hydrologic conditions in the State including peak streamflows, monthly mean streamflows, and 7-day low flows is presented.

  3. Water quality management in shrimp aquaculture ponds using remote water quality logging system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sreepada, R.A.; Kulkarni, S.; Suryavanshi, U.; Ingole, B.S.; Drensgstig, A.; Braaten, B.

    Currently an institutional co-operation project funded by NORAD is evaluating different environmental management strategies for sustainable aquaculture in India. A brief description of a remote water quality logging system installed in shrimp ponds...

  4. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - MO 2009 Stream Team Volunteer Water Quality Monitoring Sites (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — This data set shows the monitoring locations of trained Volunteer Water Quality Monitors. A monitoring site is considered to be a 300 foot section of stream channel....

  5. Quality control in public participation assessments of water quality: the OPAL Water Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, N L; Turner, S D; Goldsmith, B; Gosling, L; Davidson, T A

    2016-07-22

    Public participation in scientific data collection is a rapidly expanding field. In water quality surveys, the involvement of the public, usually as trained volunteers, generally includes the identification of aquatic invertebrates to a broad taxonomic level. However, quality assurance is often not addressed and remains a key concern for the acceptance of publicly-generated water quality data. The Open Air Laboratories (OPAL) Water Survey, launched in May 2010, aimed to encourage interest and participation in water science by developing a 'low-barrier-to-entry' water quality survey. During 2010, over 3000 participant-selected lakes and ponds were surveyed making this the largest public participation lake and pond survey undertaken to date in the UK. But the OPAL approach of using untrained volunteers and largely anonymous data submission exacerbates quality control concerns. A number of approaches were used in order to address data quality issues including: sensitivity analysis to determine differences due to operator, sampling effort and duration; direct comparisons of identification between participants and experienced scientists; the use of a self-assessment identification quiz; the use of multiple participant surveys to assess data variability at single sites over short periods of time; comparison of survey techniques with other measurement variables and with other metrics generally considered more accurate. These quality control approaches were then used to screen the OPAL Water Survey data to generate a more robust dataset. The OPAL Water Survey results provide a regional and national assessment of water quality as well as a first national picture of water clarity (as suspended solids concentrations). Less than 10 % of lakes and ponds surveyed were 'poor' quality while 26.8 % were in the highest water quality band. It is likely that there will always be a question mark over untrained volunteer generated data simply because quality assurance is uncertain

  6. Water Quality Vocabulary Development and Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, B. A.; Yu, J.; Cox, S. J.

    2013-12-01

    Semantic descriptions of observed properties and associated units of measure are fundamental to understanding of environmental observations, including groundwater, surface water and marine water quality. Semantic descriptions can be captured in machine-readable ontologies and vocabularies, thus providing support for the annotation of observation values from the disparate data sources with appropriate and accurate metadata, which is critical for achieving semantic interoperability. However, current stand-alone water quality vocabularies provide limited support for cross-system comparisons or data fusion. To enhance semantic interoperability, the alignment of water-quality properties with definitions of chemical entities and units of measure in existing widely-used vocabularies is required. Modern ontologies and vocabularies are expressed, organized and deployed using Semantic Web technologies. We developed an ontology for observed properties (i.e. a model for expressing appropriate controlled vocabularies) which extends the NASA/TopQuadrant QUDT ontology for Unit and QuantityKind with two additional classes and two properties (see accompanying paper by Cox, Simons and Yu). We use our ontology to populate the Water Quality vocabulary with a set of individuals of each of the four key classes (and their subclasses), and add appropriate relationships between these individuals. This ontology is aligned with other relevant stand-alone Water Quality vocabularies and domain ontologies. Developing the Water Quality vocabulary involved two main steps. First, the Water Quality vocabulary was populated with individuals of the ObservedProperty class, which was determined from a census of existing datasets and services. Each ObservedProperty individual relates to other individuals of Unit and QuantityKind (taken from QUDT where possible), and to IdentifiedObject individuals. As a large fraction of observed water quality data are classified by the chemical substance involved, the

  7. 76 FR 6727 - Proposed Amendments to the Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-08

    ... COMMISSION 18 CFR Part 410 Proposed Amendments to the Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive... and locations for public hearings on proposed amendments to its Water Quality Regulations, Water Code... amendments to the Commission's Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan relating to the...

  8. Microbial water quality of treated water and raw water sources in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbial water quality is an essential aspect in the provision of potable water for domestic use. The provision of adequate amounts of safe water for domestic purposes has become difficult for most municipalities mandated to do so in Zimbabwe. Morton-Jaffray Treatment Plant supplies potable water to Harare City and ...

  9. Ecosystem-specific water quality indices | Rangeti | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The water quality index (WQI) has emerged as a central tool for analysing and reporting quality trends since 1965. It provides a better overview of water quality variability in a catchment than conventional monitoring programmes that use individual variables. Since water quality is not static, due to point and non-point ...

  10. 40 CFR 130.8 - Water quality report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality report. 130.8 Section... QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.8 Water quality report. (a) Each State shall prepare and submit biennially to the Regional Administrator a water quality report in accordance with section 305(b) of the Act...

  11. 40 CFR 130.4 - Water quality monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality monitoring. 130.4... QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.4 Water quality monitoring. (a) In accordance with section 106(e)(1.../quality control guidance. (b) The State's water monitoring program shall include collection and analysis...

  12. Water Quality Protection from Nutrient Pollution: Case ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water bodies and coastal areas around the world are threatened by increases in upstream sediment and nutrient loads, which influence drinking water sources, aquatic species, and other ecologic functions and services of streams, lakes, and coastal water bodies. For example, increased nutrient fluxes from the Mississippi River Basin have been linked to increased occurrences of seasonal hypoxia in northern Gulf of Mexico. Lake Erie is another example where in the summer of 2014 nutrients, nutrients, particularly phosphorus, washed from fertilized farms, cattle feedlots, and leaky septic systems; caused a severe algae bloom, much of it poisonous; and resulted in the loss of drinking water for a half-million residents. Our current management strategies for point and non-point source nutrient loadings need to be improved to protect and meet the expected increased future demands of water for consumption, recreation, and ecological integrity. This presentation introduces management practices being implemented and their effectiveness in reducing nutrient loss from agricultural fields, a case analysis of nutrient pollution of the Grand Lake St. Marys and possible remedies, and ongoing work on watershed modeling to improve our understanding on nutrient loss and water quality. Presented at the 3rd International Conference on Water Resource and Environment.

  13. 9 CFR 108.11 - Water quality requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water quality requirements. 108.11... LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS § 108.11 Water quality requirements. A certification from the appropriate water pollution control agency, that the establishment is in compliance with applicable water quality control...

  14. 7 CFR 634.23 - Water quality plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water quality plan. 634.23 Section 634.23 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING RURAL CLEAN WATER PROGRAM Participant RCWP Contracts § 634.23 Water quality plan. (a) The participant's water quality plan, developed with technical assistance by the NRCS or its...

  15. Microbiological Quality of Drinking Water Sources in Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbiological Quality of Drinking Water Sources in Rural Communities of Dire Dawa Administrative Council. ... the membrane filtration method. Water analysis demonstrated that all water sources in the ... The majority of the drinking water sources is either of unacceptable quality or grossly polluted. Regular quality control ...

  16. A multivariate analysis of water quality in lake Naivasha, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ndungu, J.N.; Augustijn, Dionysius C.M.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; Fulanda, B.; Kitaka, N.; Mathooko, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Water quality information in aquatic ecosystems is crucial in setting up guidelines for resource management. This study explores the water quality status and pollution sources in Lake Naivasha, Kenya. Analysis of water quality parameters at seven sampling sites was carried out from water samples

  17. Water quality in New Zealand's planted forests: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenda R. Baillie; Daniel G. Neary

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviewed the key physical, chemical and biological water quality attributes of surface waters in New Zealand’s planted forests. The purpose was to: a) assess the changes in water quality throughout the planted forestry cycle from afforestation through to harvesting; b) compare water quality from planted forests with other land uses in New Zealand; and c)...

  18. Development of a water quality index based on a European ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... water supply rather than general supply, and has been developed by studying the supranational standard, i.e. the European Community Standard. Three classification schemes for water quality are proposed for surface water quality assessment. Water quality determinants of the new index are cadmium, cyanide, mercury, ...

  19. Pollution induced tidal variability in water quality of Mahim Estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D.; Sabnis, M.M.

    Variability of water quality due to release of wastewater in Mahim Estuary (Maharashtra, India) and associated nearshore waters is discussed. The mixing of low salinity contaminated estuary water with high salinity bay water was considerably...

  20. Internal waves and surf zone water quality at Huntington Beach, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, H.; Santoro, A.; Nidzieko, N. J.; Hench, J. L.; Boehm, A. B.

    2011-12-01

    This study characterized diurnal, semi-diurnal, and high-frequency internal wave field at Huntington Beach, California, USA and the connection between internal waves and surf zone water quality. An array of oceanographic moorings was deployed in the summer of 2005 and 2006 at 10-20 meter depths offshore of the beach to observe internal waves and cross-shore exchange. Concurrently, surf zone water quality was assessed twice daily at an adjacent station (Huntington State Beach) with measurements of phosphate, dissolved inorganic nitrogen, silicate, chlorophyll a, fecal indicator bacteria, and the human-specific fecal DNA marker in Bacteroidales. Spectral analysis of water temperature shows well-defined spectral peaks at diurnal and semi-diurnal frequencies. Complex Empirical Orthogonal Function analysis of observed currents reveals that the baroclinic component (summation of second to fifth principal components) accounted for 30% of the total variance in the currents in both years, indicating the importance of density-driven flow during the summer when the water column was stratified. The major axis of the first principal component was oriented alongshore, whereas that of the second and third principal components made an angle of 25 to 55 degree with the cross-shore direction. Arrival of cold subthermocline water in the very near shore (within 1 km of the surf zone) was characterized by strong onshore flow near the bottom of the water column. The near bottom, baroclinic, cross-shore current was significantly lag-correlated with the near bottom temperature data along a cross-shore transect towards shore, indicative of shoreward transport of cold subthermocline water. Wavelet analysis of temperature data showed that non-stationary temperature fluctuations were correlated with buoyancy frequency and the near bottom cross-shore baroclinic current. During periods of large temperature fluctuations, the majority of the variance was within the semi-diurnal band; however, the

  1. [Microbial indicators and fresh water quality assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briancesco, Rossella

    2005-01-01

    Traditionally, the microbiological quality of waters has been measured by the analysis of indicator microorganisms. The article reviews the sanitary significance of traditional indicators of faecal contamination (total coliforms, faecal coliforms and faecal streptococci) and points out their limits. For some characteristics Escherichia coli may be considered a more useful indicator then faecal coliforms and recently it has been included in all recent laws regarding fresh, marine and drinking water. A clearer taxonomic definition of faecal streptococci evidenced the difficulty into defining a specific standard methodology of enumeration and suggested the more suitable role of enterococci as indicator microorganisms. Several current laws require the detection of enterococci. The resistance of Clostridium perfringens spores may mean that they would serve as a useful indicator of the sanitary quality of sea sediments.

  2. Water quality objectives as a management tool for sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Everard, Mark

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the potential role that quality objectives, particularly when backed by statutory force, may play in the sustainable management of river water quality. Economic valuation techniques are discussed, as well as the theory of "critical natural capital". A brief history of water quality legislation includes the implementation of the National Water Council classification in 1979, and the statutory water quality objectives introduced under the Water Resources Act ...

  3. Water Quality Criteria for Disperse Red 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-01

    mixture were identified as azobenzene , azoxybenzene, aminobiphenyl, and phenyldiazo- benzene. The second fraction, 73.6 percent of the mixture...antagonistic effects; and genotoxicity, teratogenicity, and carcinogenicity. The data are derived primarily from animal studies, but clinical case histories ...on can be used for calculating a water quality criterion (using the uncertainty factor approach). Also the history of each TLV should be examined to

  4. Attenuation coefficients for water quality trading

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, AA; Chen, X.; Fox, J; Fulda, M; Dorsey, R.; Seapy, B; Glenday, J; E Bray

    2014-01-01

    Water quality trading has been proposed as a cost-effective approach for reducing nutrient loads through credit generation from agricultural or point source reductions sold to buyers facing costly options. We present a systematic approach to determine attenuation coefficients and their uncertainty. Using a process-based model, we determine attenuation with safety margins at many watersheds for total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) loads as they transport from point of load reduction t...

  5. Water Quality Index for measuring drinking water quality in rural Bangladesh: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, Tahera; Jhohura, Fatema Tuz; Akter, Fahmida; Chowdhury, Tridib Roy; Mistry, Sabuj Kanti; Dey, Digbijoy; Barua, Milan Kanti; Islam, Md Akramul; Rahman, Mahfuzar

    2016-02-09

    Public health is at risk due to chemical contaminants in drinking water which may have immediate health consequences. Drinking water sources are susceptible to pollutants depending on geological conditions and agricultural, industrial, and other man-made activities. Ensuring the safety of drinking water is, therefore, a growing problem. To assess drinking water quality, we measured multiple chemical parameters in drinking water samples from across Bangladesh with the aim of improving public health interventions. In this cross-sectional study conducted in 24 randomly selected upazilas, arsenic was measured in drinking water in the field using an arsenic testing kit and a sub-sample was validated in the laboratory. Water samples were collected to test water pH in the laboratory as well as a sub-sample of collected drinking water was tested for water pH using a portable pH meter. For laboratory testing of other chemical parameters, iron, manganese, and salinity, drinking water samples were collected from 12 out of 24 upazilas. Drinking water at sample sites was slightly alkaline (pH 7.4 ± 0.4) but within acceptable limits. Manganese concentrations varied from 0.1 to 5.5 mg/L with a median value of 0.2 mg/L. The median iron concentrations in water exceeded WHO standards (0.3 mg/L) at most of the sample sites and exceeded Bangladesh standards (1.0 mg/L) at a few sample sites. Salinity was relatively higher in coastal districts. After laboratory confirmation, arsenic concentrations were found higher in Shibchar (Madaripur) and Alfadanga (Faridpur) compared to other sample sites exceeding WHO standard (0.01 mg/L). Of the total sampling sites, 33 % had good-quality water for drinking based on the Water Quality Index (WQI). However, the majority of the households (67 %) used poor-quality drinking water. Higher values of iron, manganese, and arsenic reduced drinking water quality. Awareness raising on chemical contents in drinking water at household level is required to

  6. Water quality data for national-scale aquatic research: The Water Quality Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Emily K.; Carr, Lindsay; DeCicco, Laura; Dugan, Hilary; Hanson, Paul C.; Hart, Julia A.; Kreft, James; Read, Jordan S.; Winslow, Luke

    2017-01-01

    Aquatic systems are critical to food, security, and society. But, water data are collected by hundreds of research groups and organizations, many of which use nonstandard or inconsistent data descriptions and dissemination, and disparities across different types of water observation systems represent a major challenge for freshwater research. To address this issue, the Water Quality Portal (WQP) was developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Geological Survey, and the National Water Quality Monitoring Council to be a single point of access for water quality data dating back more than a century. The WQP is the largest standardized water quality data set available at the time of this writing, with more than 290 million records from more than 2.7 million sites in groundwater, inland, and coastal waters. The number of data contributors, data consumers, and third-party application developers making use of the WQP is growing rapidly. Here we introduce the WQP, including an overview of data, the standardized data model, and data access and services; and we describe challenges and opportunities associated with using WQP data. We also demonstrate through an example the value of the WQP data by characterizing seasonal variation in lake water clarity for regions of the continental U.S. The code used to access, download, analyze, and display these WQP data as shown in the figures is included as supporting information.

  7. Water quality data for national-scale aquatic research: The Water Quality Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Emily K.; Carr, Lindsay; De Cicco, Laura; Dugan, Hilary A.; Hanson, Paul C.; Hart, Julia A.; Kreft, James; Read, Jordan S.; Winslow, Luke A.

    2017-02-01

    xml:id="wrcr22485-sec-1001" numbered="no">Aquatic systems are critical to food, security, and society. But, water data are collected by hundreds of research groups and organizations, many of which use nonstandard or inconsistent data descriptions and dissemination, and disparities across different types of water observation systems represent a major challenge for freshwater research. To address this issue, the Water Quality Portal (WQP) was developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Geological Survey, and the National Water Quality Monitoring Council to be a single point of access for water quality data dating back more than a century. The WQP is the largest standardized water quality data set available at the time of this writing, with more than 290 million records from more than 2.7 million sites in groundwater, inland, and coastal waters. The number of data contributors, data consumers, and third-party application developers making use of the WQP is growing rapidly. Here we introduce the WQP, including an overview of data, the standardized data model, and data access and services; and we describe challenges and opportunities associated with using WQP data. We also demonstrate through an example the value of the WQP data by characterizing seasonal variation in lake water clarity for regions of the continental U.S. The code used to access, download, analyze, and display these WQP data as shown in the figures is included as supporting information.

  8. Variability in inorganic As, Sb and Tl species concentrations in waters and bottom sediments of the Kłodnica River (Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Rajmund; Szopa, Sebastian

    2017-08-24

    The study describes the application of new methodologies for the simultaneous determination of As(III)/As(V), Sb(III)/Sb(V) and Tl(I)/Tl(III) ions in waters and bottom sediments of the Kłodnica River (Poland) with the hyphenated technique of high-performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) . Time and spatial correlations were determined in the changes of total and speciation concentrations of the above-mentioned analytes in Kłodnica river in 2012. The developed methodologies demonstrate high selectivity and limits of quantification at the level of 0.009-0.120 µg/L. Their repeatability, precision and recovery are appropriate for trace analyses of environmental samples. Time and spatial correlations, and concentrations of inorganic As, Sb and Tl ions demonstrated high variability both in water and bottom sediments.

  9. Detailed study of selenium and selected constituents in water, bottom sediment, soil, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the San Juan River area, New Mexico, 1991-95

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Carole L.; Wilson, R.M.; Lusk, J.D.; Bristol, R.S.; Shineman, A.R.

    1998-01-01

    In response to increasing concern about the quality of irrigation drainage and its potential effects on fish, wildlife, and human health, the U.S. Department of the Interior began the National Irrigation Water Quality Program (NIWQP) to investigate these concerns at irrigation projects sponsored by the Department. The San Juan River in northwestern New Mexico was one of the areas designated for study. Study teams composed of scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the Bureau of Reclamation, and the Bureau of Indian Affairs collected water, bottom-sediment, soil, and biological samples at 61 sites in the San Juan River area during 1993-94. Supplemental data collection conducted during 1991-95 by the Bureau of Indian Affairs and its contractor extended the time period and sampling sites available for analysis. Analytical chemistry performed on samples indicated that most potentially toxic elements other than selenium generally were not high enough to be of concern to fish, wildlife, and human health. Element concentrations in some water, bottom-sediment, soil, and biological samples exceeded applicable standards and criteria suggested by researchers in current literature. Selenium concentrations in water samples from 28 sites in the study area exceeded the 2-microgram-per-liter wildlife-habitat standard. Vanadium concentrations in water exceeded the 100-microgram-per-liter standard for livestock-drinking water at one site. In biota, selenium and aluminum concentrations regularly equaled or exceeded avian dietary threshold concentrations. In bottom sediment and soil, element concentrations above the upper limit of the baseline range for western soils were: selenium, 24 exceedances; lead, 2 exceedances; molybdenum, 2 exceedances; strontium, 4 exceedances; and zinc, 4 exceedances. Concentrations of total selenium in bottom-sediment and soil samples were significantly greater for Cretaceous than for non-Cretaceous soil types in the

  10. Diurnal behavior of the carbon dioxide flux and change in the isotopic ratio δ13C in surface and near-bottom water in littoral of Lake Baikal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchenko, Mikhail V.; Domysheva, Valentina M.; Padalko, Natalia L.; Chernikov, Eugenii V.; Prazdnichnykh, Maxim I.; Tumakov, Alexander G.; Pestunov, Dmitrii A.

    2014-11-01

    Lake Baikal is one of the unique natural environments in Siberia which, to a large extent, affects the state of the nature in this region. The processes of gas exchange in the "water-atmosphere" system have been studied in Lake Baikal since 2002. The main purpose of the integrated investigations of exchange of carbon-containing gases in the water-atmosphere system in Lake Baikal is to study the contribution of physical, chemical, and biological components of the process and their interrelation with the intensity and rhythms of the fluxes. In 2013, the integrated measurements in the littoral area of Baikal were complemented with studies of the diurnal dynamics of isotopic ratio δ 13C in the surface and near-bottom water, which were not yet performed in Baikal before. In this work, we analyze first results of the joint analysis of RO2 fluxes in the "atmosphere - water surface" system and δ 13C, obtained in August 2013 in the littoral area of South Baikal. It is shown that d13C markedly increases in the surface waters at daylight time. In nighttime period, there takes place a reverse process, when δ 13C of the surface water approaches δ 13C, which is recorded for near-bottom water.

  11. 30 CFR 71.601 - Drinking water; quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 71.601 Section 71.601... Water § 71.601 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions of § 71.600 shall meet the applicable minimum health requirements for drinking water established by the...

  12. Microbial quality of drinking water from groundtanks and tankers at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Groundtank households had better quality drinking water than households using storage containers filled from communal tankers. Uncovered storage containers had the poorest microbial water quality among all storage containers. All stored water did not meet drinking water standards, although mains water did.

  13. Spatial assessment of water quality using chemometrics in the Pearl River Estuary, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meilin; Wang, Youshao; Dong, Junde; Sun, Fulin; Wang, Yutu; Hong, Yiguo

    2017-03-01

    A cruise was commissioned in the summer of 2009 to evaluate water quality in the Pearl River Estuary (PRE). Chemometrics such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Cluster analysis (CA) and Self-Organizing Map (SOM) were employed to identify anthropogenic and natural influences on estuary water quality. The scores of stations in the surface layer in the first principal component (PC1) were related to NH4-N, PO4-P, NO2-N, NO3-N, TP, and Chlorophyll a while salinity, turbidity, and SiO3-Si in the second principal component (PC2). Similarly, the scores of stations in the bottom layers in PC1 were related to PO4-P, NO2-N, NO3-N, and TP, while salinity, Chlorophyll a, NH4-N, and SiO3-Si in PC2. Results of the PCA identified the spatial distribution of the surface and bottom water quality, namely the Guangzhou urban reach, Middle reach, and Lower reach of the estuary. Both cluster analysis and PCA produced the similar results. Self-organizing map delineated the Guangzhou urban reach of the Pearl River that was mainly influenced by human activities. The middle and lower reaches of the PRE were mainly influenced by the waters in the South China Sea. The information extracted by PCA, CA, and SOM would be very useful to regional agencies in developing a strategy to carry out scientific plans for resource use based on marine system functions.

  14. Quality assessment of drinking water in Temeke District (part II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... parameters of drinking water samples from different drinking water sources. The drinking water sources examined included tap water, river water and well water (deep and shallow wells). Water quality studied includes pH, chloride, nitrate and total hardness levels. The concentrations of total hardness in mg CaCO3/L and ...

  15. Seasonal variations of ground water quality and its agglomerates by water quality index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Water is a unique natural resource among all sources available on earth. It plays an important role in economic development and the general well-being of the country. This study aimed at using the application of water quality index in evaluating the ground water quality innorth-east area of Jaipur in pre and post monsoon for public usage. Total eleven physico–chemical characteristics; total dissolved solids, total hardness,chloride, nitrate, electrical conductance, sodium, fluorideand potassium, pH, turbidity, temperature were analyzed and observed values were compared with standard values recommended by Indian standard and World Health Organization. Most of parameter show higher value than permissible limit in pre and post monsoon. Water quality index study showed that drinking water in Amer (221.58,277.70, Lalawas (362.74,396.67, Jaisinghpura area (286.00,273.78 were found to be highly contaminated due to high value of total dissolved solids, electrical conductance, total hardness, chloride, nitrate and sodium.Saipura (122.52, 131.00, Naila (120.25, 239.86, Galta (160.9, 204.1 were found to be moderately contaminated for both monsoons. People dependent on this water may prone to health hazard. Therefore some effective measures are urgently required to enhance the quality of water in these areas.

  16. Water-wave diffraction and radiation by multiple three-dimensional bodies over a mild-slope bottom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruiz, Pau Mercadé; Ferri, Francesco; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2017-01-01

    Highlights •A tool to model wave diffraction and radiation in mild-slope bottoms is proposed. •The tool combines a mild-slope equation model with diffraction transfer matrices. •The tool predictions are verified against analytical solutions for two test problems.......Highlights •A tool to model wave diffraction and radiation in mild-slope bottoms is proposed. •The tool combines a mild-slope equation model with diffraction transfer matrices. •The tool predictions are verified against analytical solutions for two test problems....

  17. Quality-assurance and data-management plan for water-quality activities in the Kansas Water Science Center, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Teresa J.; Bennett, Trudy J.; Foster, Guy M.; Graham, Jennifer L.; Putnam, James E.

    2014-01-01

    As the Nation’s largest water, earth, and biological science and civilian mapping information agency, the U.S. Geological Survey is relied on to collect high-quality data, and produce factual and impartial interpretive reports. This quality-assurance and data-management plan provides guidance for water-quality activities conducted by the Kansas Water Science Center. Policies and procedures are documented for activities related to planning, collecting, storing, documenting, tracking, verifying, approving, archiving, and disseminating water-quality data. The policies and procedures described in this plan complement quality-assurance plans for continuous water-quality monitoring, surface-water, and groundwater activities in Kansas.

  18. 1990 National Water Quality Laboratory Services Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritt, Jeffrey; Jones, Berwyn E.

    1989-01-01

    PREFACE This catalog provides information about analytical services available from the National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL) to support programs of the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey. To assist personnel in the selection of analytical services, the catalog lists cost, sample volume, applicable concentration range, detection level, precision of analysis, and preservation techniques for samples to be submitted for analysis. Prices for services reflect operationa1 costs, the complexity of each analytical procedure, and the costs to ensure analytical quality control. The catalog consists of five parts. Part 1 is a glossary of terminology; Part 2 lists the bottles, containers, solutions, and other materials that are available through the NWQL; Part 3 describes the field processing of samples to be submitted for analysis; Part 4 describes analytical services that are available; and Part 5 contains indices of analytical methodology and Chemical Abstract Services (CAS) numbers. Nomenclature used in the catalog is consistent with WATSTORE and STORET. The user is provided with laboratory codes and schedules that consist of groupings of parameters which are measured together in the NWQL. In cases where more than one analytical range is offered for a single element or compound, different laboratory codes are given. Book 5 of the series 'Techniques of Water Resources Investigations of the U.S. Geological Survey' should be consulted for more information about the analytical procedures included in the tabulations. This catalog supersedes U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 86-232 '1986-87-88 National Water Quality Laboratory Services Catalog', October 1985.

  19. Barriers to adopting satellite remote sensing for water quality management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satellite technology can provide a robust and synoptic approach for measuring water quality parameters. Water quality measures typically include chlorophyll-a, suspended material, light attenuation, and colored dissolved organic matter. The Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal ...

  20. Initial Survey Instructions for Spring Water Monitoring : Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Initial survey instructions for 1.04 spring water monitoring (quality) and 1.06 management unit water monitoring (quality) at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge....

  1. Marine water-quality management in South- Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Taljaard, Susan

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available development with potential influence on water quality. The management plan is divided into three logical components, i.e. site-specific statutory requirements and environmental objectives; system design with specific reference to influences on water quality...

  2. Water Quality Assessment and Total Maximum Daily Loads Information (ATTAINS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Water Quality Assessment TMDL Tracking And Implementation System (ATTAINS) stores and tracks state water quality assessment decisions, Total Maximum Daily Loads...

  3. A Global Observatory of Lake Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Andrew N.; Hunter, Peter D.; Spyrakos, Evangelos; Neil, Claire; Simis, Stephen; Groom, Steve; Merchant, Chris J.; Miller, Claire A.; O'Donnell, Ruth; Scott, E. Marian

    2017-04-01

    Our planet's surface waters are a fundamental resource encompassing a broad range of ecosystems that are core to global biogeochemical cycling, biodiversity and food and energy security. Despite this, these same waters are impacted by multiple natural and anthropogenic pressures and drivers of environmental change. The complex interaction between physical, chemical and biological processes in surface waters poses significant challenges for in situ monitoring and assessment and this often limits our ability to adequately capture the dynamics of aquatic systems and our understanding of their status, functioning and response to pressures. Recent developments in the availability of satellite platforms for Earth observation (including ESA's Copernicus Programme) offers an unprecedented opportunity to deliver measures of water quality at a global scale. The UK NERC-funded GloboLakes project is a five-year research programme investigating the state of lakes and their response to climatic and other environmental drivers of change through the realization of a near-real time satellite based observatory (Sentinel-3) and archive data processing (MERIS, SeaWiFS) to produce a 20-year time-series of observed ecological parameters and lake temperature for more than 1000 lakes globally. However, the diverse and complex optical properties of lakes mean that algorithm performance often varies markedly between different water types. The GloboLakes project is overcoming this challenge by developing a processing chain whereby algorithms are dynamically selected according to the optical properties of the lake under observation. The development and validation of the GloboLakes processing chain has been supported by access to extensive in situ data from more than thirty partners around the world that are now held in the LIMNADES community-owned data repository developed under the auspices of GloboLakes. This approach has resulted in a step-change in our ability to produce regional and

  4. Fuzzy Logic Water Quality Index and Importance of Water Quality Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman Bai. V

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of status of water quality of a river or any other water sources is highly indeterminate. It is necessary to have a competent model to predict the status of water quality and to advice for type of water treatment for meeting different demands. One such model (UNIQ2007 is developed as an application software in water quality engineering. The unit operates in a fuzzy logic mode including a fuzzification engine receiving a plurality of input variables on its input and being adapted to compute membership function parameters. A processor engine connected downstream of the fuzzification unit will produce fuzzy set, based on fuzzy variable viz. DO, BOD, COD, AN, SS and pH. It has a defuzzification unit operative to translate the inference results into a discrete crisp value of WQI. The UNIQ2007 contains a first memory device connected to the fuzzification unit and containing the set of membership functions, a secondary memory device connected to the defuzzification unit and containing the set of crisp value which appear in the THEN part of the fuzzy rules and an additional memory device connected to the defuzzification unit. More advantageously, UINQ2007 is constructed with control elements having dynamic fuzzy logic properties wherein target non-linearity can be input to result in a perfect evaluation of water quality. The development of the fuzzy model with one river system is explained in this paper. Further the model has been evaluated with the data from few rivers in Malaysia, India and Thailand. This water quality assessor probe can provide better quality index or identify the status of river with 90% perfection. Presently, WQI in most of the countries is referring to physic-chemical parameters only due to great efforts needed to quantify the biological parameters. This study ensures a better method to include pathogens into WQI due to superior capabilities of fuzzy logic in dealing with non-linear, complex and uncertain systems.

  5. The Nd isotopic composition of Adélie Coast Bottom Water - insights from GIPY6 cruise along 140°E

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Flierdt, T.; Lambelet, M.; Butler, E. C. V.; Bowie, A. R.; Rintoul, S. R.; Watson, R. J.; Remenyi, T.; Lannuzel, D.

    2014-12-01

    Cold and dense Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) is an important component of the global overturning circulation. The majority of AABW forms in three discrete locations around the Antarctic continent, the Weddell Sea (Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean), the Ross Sea (Pacific sector), and the Adélie Depression (~142-145°E, ~66-67°S; Indian sector). Adélie Land Bottom Water (ALBW) is formed as dense shelf waters beneath coastal polynyas, and periodically overspills and is exported to the abyssal ocean. Previous work suggested that this particular water mass not only carries characteristic hydrographic properties, but that it may also carry a distinct radiogenic isotope composition, which would allow tracing local bottom water formation back in time.We here present new results for the Nd isotope composition and concentration of seawater collected during the GIPY6 voyage from Tasmania (Australia) to the Adélie Depression (Antarctica) (SR3 CASO-GEOTRACES transect; March-April 2008). A total of four seawater profiles were sampled at four depths each across the Southern Ocean (48 to 65.5°S) along the 140°E meridian. Seawater was filtered and acidified aboard the Aurora Australis, and analysed back in the home laboratory using pre-concentration on C18 cartridges, 2 stage ion chromatography and NdO+ analysis by TIMS. Results confirm a rather homogenous isotopic composition of Circumpolar Deep Waters (eNd = -8.2 to -9.0), but a distinct isotopic fingerprint of ALBW (eNd = -9.3 to -10.5). ALBW contributes up to 2 Sverdrup of AABW annually, and cold temperatures and relatively high oxygen and CFC-rich contents of this water mass correlate with rather negative Nd isotopic compositions. Absolute values are more than two epsilon units lower than the ones observed in Ross Sea bottom water, supporting the idea that the proximity of the old Adélie craton facilitates the formation of a particularly unradiogenic variety of AABW.

  6. Improved electrical efficiency and bottom ash quality on waste combustion plants. Appendix A4 to A6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloeft, H.; Jensen, Peter A.; Nesterov, I.; Hyks, J.; Astrup, T. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Mogensen, Erhardt (Babcock and Wilcox Voelund A/S, Glostrup (Denmark))

    2010-07-01

    Investigations making it possible to evaluate and further develop concepts to improve electrical efficiency in a waste combustion plant were performed. Furthermore, one objective of the study was to investigate the possibilities of improving waste bottom ash leaching properties by use of a rotary kiln treatment. The project work included construction of a bench-scale rotary kiln, performing ash rotary kiln treatment experiments, conducting gas suction probe measurements on a waste incineration plant and making some concept evaluations. The influence of the rotary kiln thermal treatment on the leaching of Ca, Al, Si, Mg, Ba, Sr, Cl, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Mo, sulfate, DOC and carbonate was determined. As a result of these tests, the rotary kiln thermal treatment of bottom ashes can be recommended for reducing the leaching of Cu, Pb, Cl, Zn and DOC; however, an increased leaching of Cr and Mo should be expected. The combustion conditions above the grate of a waste incineration plant were investigated and the release and concentration of volatile ash species in the flue gas such as Cl, Na, K, Ca, Pb, Zn and S were measured. The conducted measurements show that flue gas from grate sections 3 and 4 can produce a sufficiently hot flue gas that contains only low concentrations of corrosive species, and therefore can be used to increase superheater temperatures. Implementation of the so-called flue gas split concept together with other steam circle modifications on a waste combustion plant, and using a reasonable increase in final steam temperature from 400 to 500 deg. C, have the potential to increase electrical efficiency from 24 to 30% (with respect to lower fuel heating value) in a waste combustion plant. The appendices deal with collection of slags for the rotary kiln experiments; overview of the thermal treatment experiments - phase 1; a journal paper with the title ''Quantification of leaching from waste incineration bottom ash treated in a rotary kiln

  7. Improved electrical efficiency and bottom ash quality on waste combustion plants. Appendix A1 to A3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesterov, I.; Jensen, Peter A.; Dam-Johansen, K.; Kloeft, H.; Boejer, M. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Mogensen, Erhardt (Babcock and Wilcox Voelund A/S, Esbjerg (Denmark))

    2010-07-01

    Investigations making it possible to evaluate and further develop concepts to improve electrical efficiency in a waste combustion plant were performed. Furthermore, one objective of the study was to investigate the possibilities of improving waste bottom ash leaching properties by use of a rotary kiln treatment. The project work included construction of a bench-scale rotary kiln, performing ash rotary kiln treatment experiments, conducting gas suction probe measurements on a waste incineration plant and making some concept evaluations. The influence of the rotary kiln thermal treatment on the leaching of Ca, Al, Si, Mg, Ba, Sr, Cl, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Mo, sulfate, DOC and carbonate was determined. As a result of these tests, the rotary kiln thermal treatment of bottom ashes can be recommended for reducing the leaching of Cu, Pb, Cl, Zn and DOC; however, an increased leaching of Cr and Mo should be expected. The combustion conditions above the grate of a waste incineration plant were investigated and the release and concentration of volatile ash species in the flue gas such as Cl, Na, K, Ca, Pb, Zn and S were measured. The conducted measurements show that flue gas from grate sections 3 and 4 can produce a sufficiently hot flue gas that contains only low concentrations of corrosive species, and therefore can be used to increase superheater temperatures. Implementation of the so-called flue gas split concept together with other steam circle modifications on a waste combustion plant, and using a reasonable increase in final steam temperature from 400 to 500 deg. C, have the potential to increase electrical efficiency from 24 to 30% (with respect to lower fuel heating value) in a waste combustion plant. The appendices deal with incineration bottom ash leaching properties; design and construction of rotary kiln facility; manual to rotary kiln experiments. (Author)

  8. Improved electrical efficiency and bottom ash quality on waste combustion plants. Appendix A7 to A10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyks, J.; Astrup, T.; Jensen, Peter A.; Nesterov, I.; Boejer, M.; Frandsen, F.; Dam-Johansen, K.; Hedegaard Madsen, O.; Lundtorp, K. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Mogensen, Erhardt (Babcock and Wilcox Voelund A/S, Glostrup (Denmark))

    2010-07-01

    Investigations making it possible to evaluate and further develop concepts to improve electrical efficiency in a waste combustion plant were performed. Furthermore, one objective of the study was to investigate the possibilities of improving waste bottom ash leaching properties by use of a rotary kiln treatment. The project work included construction of a bench-scale rotary kiln, performing ash rotary kiln treatment experiments, conducting gas suction probe measurements on a waste incineration plant and making some concept evaluations. The influence of the rotary kiln thermal treatment on the leaching of Ca, Al, Si, Mg, Ba, Sr, Cl, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Mo, sulfate, DOC and carbonate was determined. As a result of these tests, the rotary kiln thermal treatment of bottom ashes can be recommended for reducing the leaching of Cu, Pb, Cl, Zn and DOC; however, an increased leaching of Cr and Mo should be expected. The combustion conditions above the grate of a waste incineration plant were investigated and the release and concentration of volatile ash species in the flue gas such as Cl, Na, K, Ca, Pb, Zn and S were measured. The conducted measurements show that flue gas from grate sections 3 and 4 can produce a sufficiently hot flue gas that contains only low concentrations of corrosive species, and therefore can be used to increase superheater temperatures. Implementation of the so-called flue gas split concept together with other steam circle modifications on a waste combustion plant, and using a reasonable increase in final steam temperature from 400 to 500 deg. C, have the potential to increase electrical efficiency from 24 to 30% (with respect to lower fuel heating value) in a waste combustion plant. The appendices deal with the influence of kiln treatment on incineration bottom ash leaching; the influence of kiln treatment on corrosive species in deposits; operational strategy for rotary kiln; alkali/chloride release during refuse incineration on a grate. (Author)

  9. Assessment of Anthropogenic Activities on Water Quality of Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Water Quality Index (WQI) were used to establish relationship among water quality parameters and determine the water quality status. First six components of PCA accounted for 90.96% of observed variations and showed similarity between the sampling stations indicating different ...

  10. 78 FR 54517 - Water Quality Standards Regulatory Clarifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ... September 4, 2013 Part II Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR Part 131 Water Quality Standards Regulatory... Rules#0;#0; ] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 131 RIN 2040-AF 16 Water Quality Standards... Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is proposing changes to the federal water quality standards (WQS...

  11. 77 FR 71191 - 2012 Recreational Water Quality Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-29

    ... AGENCY 2012 Recreational Water Quality Criteria AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of availability of the 2012 Recreational Water Quality Criteria. SUMMARY: Pursuant to section 304... availability of the 2012 Recreational Water Quality Criteria (RWQC). The document contains the EPA's...

  12. Nationwide assessment of nonpoint source threats to water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas C. Brown; Pamela Froemke

    2012-01-01

    Water quality is a continuing national concern, in part because the containment of pollution from nonpoint (diffuse) sources remains a challenge. We examine the spatial distribution of nonpoint-source threats to water quality. On the basis of comprehensive data sets for a series of watershed stressors, the relative risk of water-quality impairment was estimated for the...

  13. 40 CFR 35.2111 - Revised water quality standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Revised water quality standards. 35... stream segments which have not, at least once since December 29, 1981, had their water quality standards...) The State has in good faith submitted such water quality standards and the Regional Administrator has...

  14. Water Quality Conditions at Tributary Projects in the Omaha District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    biodiversity . Managing sediment loading will typically enhance water quality and aquatic 6 habitat and prolong the recreational use of a reservoir...in reservoirs and can have a significant affect on water quality. DOC and POC are decomposed by microbial organisms. This decomposition exerts an... Water Quality Conditions at Tributary Projects in the Omaha District U.S. Army Corps of

  15. 40 CFR 35.2102 - Water quality management planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35... Administrator shall first determine that the project is: (a) Included in any water quality management plan being implemented for the area under section 208 of the Act or will be included in any water quality management plan...

  16. 40 CFR 35.2023 - Water quality management planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35... to the States to carry out water quality management planning including but not limited to: (1... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2023 Water quality...

  17. Water Quality of Emet Stream Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem TOKATLI

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Emet Stream Basin is one of Turkey's most important river systems and one of the two most important branches of Uluabat Lake (Ramsar Area. The system is under an intensive pressure of agricultural and industrial activities and domestic wastes. In this study, water samples were collected seasonally from eight stations (one of them is on the Kınık Stream, one of them is on the Dursunbey Stream and six of them on the Emet Stream on the Emet Stream Basin. Some lymnological parameters (nitrate nitrogen, nitrite nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen, sulfate, orthophosphate, and BOD5 were determined to evaluate the water quality. The data obtained were evaluated statistically and compared with the limit values reported by various national and international organizations. It was determined that, Emet Stream Basin is exposed to a significant organic pollution. 

  18. Living (Rose Bengal stained) benthic foraminiferal faunas along a strong bottom-water oxygen gradient on the Indian margin (Arabian Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulle, C.; Mojtahid, M.; Gooday, A. J.; Jorissen, F. J.; Kitazato, H.

    2015-02-01

    Rose Bengal stained foraminiferal assemblages were analysed along a five-station bathymetric transect across the core and the lower part of the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) on the Indian margin of the Arabian Sea. Sediment cores were collected using the manned submersible Shinkai 6500 during RV Yokosuka cruise YK08-11 in the post-monsoon season (October 2008) at water depths ranging from 535 to 2000 m, along a gradient from almost anoxic to well-oxygenated (0.3 to 108 μM) bottom waters. Stained foraminiferal densities were very high in the OMZ core (535 m) and decreased with depth. The faunas were dominated (40-80%) by non-calcareous taxa at all stations. These were mainly species of Reophax and Lagenammina but also included delicate monothalamous taxa (organic-walled "allogromiids", agglutinated saccamminids, psammosphaerids and tubular forms). These new data from the Indian margin are compared to previous studies from the Murray Ridge, the Pakistan margin and the Oman margin. The fact that similar species were found at sites with comparable bottom-water oxygen concentrations but with very different surface water productivity suggests that, within the strongly developed Arabian Sea OMZ, bottom-water oxygen concentration, and not the organic flux to the sea floor, is the main factor controlling the species composition of the foraminiferal communities. Several foraminiferal species (e.g. Praeglobobulimina sp. 1, Ammodiscus sp. 1, Bolivina aff. dilatata) were confined to the core of the OMZ and are presently known only from the Arabian Sea. Because of their association with extremely low-oxygen concentration, these species may prove to be good indicators of past OMZ variability in the Arabian Sea.

  19. Living (Rose-Bengal-stained) benthic foraminiferal faunas along a strong bottom-water oxygen gradient on the Indian margin (Arabian Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulle, C.; Mojtahid, M.; Gooday, A. J.; Jorissen, F. J.; Kitazato, H.

    2015-08-01

    Rose-Bengal-stained foraminiferal assemblages (> 150 μm) were analysed along a five-station bathymetric transect across the core and the lower part of the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) on the Indian margin of the Arabian Sea. Sediment cores were collected using the manned submersible Shinkai 6500 during the RV Yokosuka cruise YK08-11 in the post-monsoon season (October 2008) at water depths ranging from 535 to 2000 m, along a gradient from almost anoxic to well-oxygenated (0.3 to 108 μM) bottom waters. Stained benthic foraminifera were investigated from two different size fractions (150-300 μm and > 300 μm). Stained foraminiferal densities were very high in the core of the OMZ (at 535 and 649 m) and decreased at deeper sites. The faunas (> 150 μm) were dominated (40-80 %) by non-calcareous taxa at all stations. These were mainly species of Reophax and Lagenammina but also included delicate monothalamous taxa (organic-walled "allogromiids", agglutinated saccamminids, psammosphaerids and tubular forms). These new data from the Indian margin are compared to previous studies from the Murray Ridge, the Pakistan margin and the Oman margin. The fact that similar species were found at sites with comparable bottom-water oxygen concentrations but with very different surface water productivity suggests that, within the strongly developed Arabian Sea OMZ, bottom-water oxygen concentration, and not the organic flux to the sea floor, is the main factor controlling the species composition of the foraminiferal communities. Several foraminiferal species (e.g. Praeglobobulimina sp. 1, Ammodiscus sp. 1, Bolivina aff. dilatata) were confined to the core of the OMZ. These species are presently known only from the Arabian Sea. Because of their association with extremely low oxygen concentrations, these species may be good markers for very low oxygen concentrations, and could be used to reconstruct past OMZ variability in the Arabian Sea.

  20. 76 FR 16285 - Amendments to the Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan To Update Water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... COMMISSION 18 CFR Part 410 Amendments to the Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan To Update Water Quality Criteria for Toxic Pollutants in the Delaware Estuary and Extend These Criteria to... amendments to its Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan to update the Commission's...

  1. 75 FR 41106 - Amendments to the Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan to Update Water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ... COMMISSION 18 CFR Part 410 Amendments to the Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan to Update Water Quality Criteria for Toxic Pollutants in the Delaware Estuary and Extend These Criteria to... proposed amendments to the Commission's Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan to...

  2. Assessing the Bacteriological Quality of Drinking Water from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 90 water samples from different water sources (-protected and unprotected well; protected and unprotected spring; and tap water) and bacteriological water quality parameters were analyzed using the membrane filtration method. Water analysis demonstrated that all water sources in the study areas were ...

  3. The quality of water in small community supplies of Kingolwira ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water quality is an important aspect in human health, as the majority of infectious diseases that cause morbidity and mortality in population are water related. The present study was undertaken to assess the quality of water in Kingolwira, Morogoro Rural District, Tanzania. Water was collected from different sites in the village ...

  4. Effects of urbanization on water quality variables along urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focuses on water quality of permanent and temporary water bodies along the urban and suburban gradients of Chennai City, South India. Water samples were analyzed for their major elements and nutrients. The results indicated that the response of water quality variables was different when compared to urban ...

  5. Variability of Rain Water Quality due to Roof Characteristics | Utsev ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... varying effects on the characteristics of rainwater. From the experimental result, the roof drainage water quality in Gboko can be used as grey water for domestic purposes but requires treatment to be used as drinking water. KEYWORDS: Rainwater quality, Water availability, Rainwater harvesting, Variability, Roof drainage ...

  6. Microbial quality of drinking water from groundtanks and tankers at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-09-23

    Sep 23, 2013 ... Drinking water quality was investigated at source and corresponding point-of-use in 2 peri-urban areas receiving drink- ing water either by communal water tanker or by delivery directly from the distribution system to household-based groundtanks with taps. Water quality variables measured were ...

  7. Bacteriological quality of water samples in Osogbo Metropolis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bacteriological qualities of samples of some sachet water, tap water and well water were examined. Some physicochemical parameters (pH and suspended solids) indicative of water quality as well as the total bacterial and total coliform counts were examined. The pH of the samples range between 6.5 and 7.2.

  8. National Water-Quality Assessment Program: Island of Oahu, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Stephen S.

    1998-01-01

    During the past 25 years, our Nation has sought to improve its water quality; however, many water-quality issues remain unresolved. To address the need for consistent and scientifically sound information for managing the Nation's water resources, the U.S. Geological Survey began a full-scale National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program in 1991. This program is unique compared with other national water-quality assessment studies in that it integrates the monitoring of the quality of surface and ground waters with the study of aquatic ecosystems. The goals of the NAWQA Program are to (1) describe current water-quality conditions for a large part of the Nation's freshwater streams and aquifers, (2) describe how water quality is changing over time, and (3) improve our understanding of the primary natural and human factors affecting water quality. Assessing the quality of water in every location of the Nation would not be practical; therefore, NAWQA Program studies are conducted within a set of areas called study units. These study units represent the diverse geography, water resources, and land and water uses of the Nation. The island of Oahu, Hawaii, is one such study unit designed to supplement water-quality information collected in other study units across the Nation while addressing issues relevant to the island of Oahu.

  9. Literature relevant to remote sensing of water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, E. M.; Marcell, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    References relevant to remote sensing of water quality were compiled, organized, and cross-referenced. The following general categories were included: (1) optical properties and measurement of water characteristics; (2) interpretation of water characteristics by remote sensing, including color, transparency, suspended or dissolved inorganic matter, biological materials, and temperature; (3) application of remote sensing for water quality monitoring; (4) application of remote sensing according to water body type; and (5) manipulation, processing and interpretation of remote sensing digital water data.

  10. Effects of coal strip mining on stream water quality and biology, southwestern Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuste, L.A.; Meyer, D.F.

    1987-01-01

    Strip mining for coal in southwestern Washington may be affecting the water quality of streams. To investigate these possible effects, five streams were selected for study of water quality in each of the two coal bearing areas: the Centralia-Chehalis coal district, and Kelso-Castle Rock coal area. In the Centralia-Chehalis coal district, three of the streams have drainage basins in which mines are active. Water in streams that drain unmined basins is typical of western Washington streams and is characterized as a mixed water because calcium, magnesium, sodium, and bicarbonate ions predominate. A change in anionic composition from bicarbonate to sulfate in streams draining mined areas was not sufficient to change the general water composition and thus make the streams acidic. The largest downstream changes in water quality in both mined and unmined drainage basins were observed during summer low-flow conditions, when minimal dilution, increased water temperatures, and low dissolved oxygen concentrations occurred. High dissolved solids were found in the mined drainage basins during this period. High concentrations of iron, manganese, and zinc were present in the bottom sediments of the mined basins. Moderate concentrations of chromium, cobalt, copper, and zinc were also found in the bottom sediments of a few unmined basins. Streams with substrates of gravel-cobble or gravel-coarse sand had the most diverse benthic fauna and a higher number of ubiquitous taxa than streams with sand-silt substrates, which had the most dissimilar fauna. Mayflies, stoneflies, and caddisflies were rare at the site most affected by mining. The erosion potential of a basin appears to be related to the average basin slope and the amount of forested areas. Strip mining for coal in steep basins may lead to massive movements of unconsolidated spoils after vegetal cover is removed if the land disturbed is graded to pre-mining slopes. (Lantz-PTT)

  11. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials. Supplement V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Presented are abstracts and indexes to selected materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction. In addition, some materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation are included. Also included are procedures to illustrate how instructors and curriculum developers in the water quality…

  12. The impact of fish predation on shallow soft bottoms in brackish waters (SW Finland); an experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, J.; Bonsdorff, E.

    The impact of fish predation on shallow soft bottoms was studied by field and laboratory experiments. The field manipulations (caging experiments) were carried out in 2 shallow (1.5 m) bays in the northern Baltic Sea. An a priori hypothesis that fish do not structure macrozoobenthic communities in shallow soft-bottom areas was tested. Short-term aquarium experiments clearly showed that perch ( Perca fluviatilis L.), roach ( Rutilus rutilus L.) and ruffe ( Acerina cernua (L.)) are all effective predators on benthic macroinvertebrates ( Corophium volutator) Pallas and Nereis diversicolor O.F. Müller) under laboratory conditions. Thus fish can be considered a potential structuring force on benthic communities in shallow soft-bottom areas. Caging experiments of one to two month's duration (partial and total exclosure of fish and enclosure with perch) induced only minor changes in the benthic community. These results support the a priori hypothesis. One of our main conclusions is, however, that fish predation and other biotic interactions (competition, disturbance, etc.) together with abiotic factors play some role in the structuring processes. Multilevel testing is needed in studies on biotic interactions in the marine environment. Results from a specific environment should not automatically be applied to other kinds of habitats.

  13. Brine network structural metamorphosis and sea ice bottom layer permeability change induced by sea water penetration under a surface pressure field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudier, E. J.

    2013-12-01

    Sea ice presents two roughness scales: one in the millimetre range and the other up to several meters due to ridging. The larger roughness elements are the result of compression and sheer, causing ice blocks to pile up and down at the line of contact between converging ice floes. In terms of boundary limit dynamic, they create obstacles that induce, in their wake, a pressure gradient at the ice water interface. Sea ice is a porous medium and as such, is permeable when subject to pressure gradients. Models have shown that, at spring, when ice permeability increases, sea water can be forced through the ice water interface into the bottom ice layer while brine is pumped out of it under obstacle induced pressure gradients. These results suggest that ice ocean heat budgets have to include a porous flow component and its associated latent heat import/export caused by through volume melting/thawing inside the bottom ice layer subject to sea water infiltration. With the initiation of a melt/thaw dynamic within the porous bottom ice layer, the porous network restructures. Our research show an enlargement of the larger brine channels while smaller ones close due ice growth. Similarly, ice volume of smaller cross size tend to disappear while larger ones evolve slowly. As heat fluxes due to latent heat exchanges become several orders of magnitude larger than any other exterior forcing, such as radiation, heat budgets within ice individual volumes balance fluxes in and out caused by melting/thaw on channel walls. Our simulations were run from an early spring C shape temperature profile to an isothermal state showing that structural change becomes significant only after the temperature profile becomes positive upward.

  14. Seasonality of bottom water temperature in the northern North Sea reconstructed from the oxygen isotope composition of the bivalve Arctica islandica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofimova, Tamara; Andersson, Carin; Bonitz, Fabian

    2017-04-01

    The seasonality of temperature changes is an important characteristic of climate. However, observational data for the ocean are only available for the last 150 year from a limited number of locations. Prior to 18th century information is only available from proxy reconstructions. The vast majority of such reconstructions depend on land-based archives, primarily from dendrochronology. Established marine proxy records for the ocean, especially at high latitudes, are both sparsely distributed and poorly resolved in time. Therefore, the identification and development of proxies for studying key ocean processes at sub-annual resolution that can extend the marine instrumental record is a clear priority in marine climate science. In this study, we have developed a record of early Holocene seasonal variability of bottom water temperature from the Viking Bank in the northern most North Sea. This area is of a particular interest since the hydrography is controlled by the inflow of Atlantic water. The reconstruction is based on the oxygen isotope composition of the growth increments in two sub-fossil shells of Arctica islandica (Bivalvia), dated to 9600-9335 cal. yr BP. By combining radiocarbon dating and sclerochronological techniques a floating chronology spanning over 200 years was constructed. Using the chronology as an age model, oxygen isotope measurements from 2 shells were combined into a 22-years long record. The results from this oxygen isotope record are compared with stable oxygen isotope profiles from modern shells to estimate changes in the mean state and seasonality between present and early Holocene. Shell-derived oxygen isotope values together with ice-volume corrected oxygen isotope values for the seawater were used to calculate bottom-water temperatures on a sub-annual time-scale. Preliminary results of the reconstructed early Holocene bottom water temperature indicate higher seasonality and lower minimum temperature compared to the present.

  15. 75 FR 4173 - Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Lakes and Flowing Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... Protection Agency 40 CFR Part 131 Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Lakes and Flowing Waters...; ] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 131 RIN 2040-AF11 Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's...: The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is proposing numeric nutrient water quality criteria to...

  16. 75 FR 75761 - Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Lakes and Flowing Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-06

    ... Protection Agency 40 CFR Part 131 Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Lakes and Flowing Waters...#0;#0; ] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 131 RIN 2040-AF11 Water Quality Standards for... Regulatory Background C. Water Quality Criteria D. EPA Determination Regarding Florida and EPA's Rulemaking...

  17. Reduction of Waste Water in Erhai Lake Based on MIKE21 Hydrodynamic and Water Quality Model

    OpenAIRE

    Changjun Zhu; Qinag Liang; Feng Yan; Wenlong Hao

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the ecological water environment in Erhai Lake, different monitoring sections were set to research the change of hydrodynamics and water quality. According to the measured data, MIKE21 Ecolab, the water quality simulation software developed by DHI, is applied to simulate the water quality in Erhai Lake. The hydrodynamics model coupled with water quality is established by MIKE21FM software to simulate the current situation of Erhai Lake. Then through the comparison with the m...

  18. Improved electrical efficiency and bottom ash quality on waste combustion plants. Appendix A11 to A14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedegaard Madsen, O.; Boejer, M.; Jensen, Peter A.; Dam-Johansen, K.; Lundtorp, K. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Mogensen, Erhardt (Babcock and Wilcox Voelund A/S, Glostrup (Denmark))

    2010-07-01

    Investigations making it possible to evaluate and further develop concepts to improve electrical efficiency in a waste combustion plant were performed. Furthermore, one objective of the study was to investigate the possibilities of improving waste bottom ash leaching properties by use of a rotary kiln treatment. The project work included construction of a bench-scale rotary kiln, performing ash rotary kiln treatment experiments, conducting gas suction probe measurements on a waste incineration plant and making some concept evaluations. The influence of the rotary kiln thermal treatment on the leaching of Ca, Al, Si, Mg, Ba, Sr, Cl, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Mo, sulfate, DOC and carbonate was determined. As a result of these tests, the rotary kiln thermal treatment of bottom ashes can be recommended for reducing the leaching of Cu, Pb, Cl, Zn and DOC; however, an increased leaching of Cr and Mo should be expected. The combustion conditions above the grate of a waste incineration plant were investigated and the release and concentration of volatile ash species in the flue gas such as Cl, Na, K, Ca, Pb, Zn and S were measured. The conducted measurements show that flue gas from grate sections 3 and 4 can produce a sufficiently hot flue gas that contains only low concentrations of corrosive species, and therefore can be used to increase superheater temperatures. Implementation of the so-called flue gas split concept together with other steam circle modifications on a waste combustion plant, and using a reasonable increase in final steam temperature from 400 to 500 deg. C, have the potential to increase electrical efficiency from 24 to 30% (with respect to lower fuel heating value) in a waste combustion plant. The appendices deal with electrical efficiency by dividing the combustion products; release of potentially corrosive constituents from the grate; CFD modeling of grate with and without vertical divider. (Author)

  19. Assessment of water supply system and water quality of Lighvan village using water safety plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Pourakbar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Continuous expansion of potable water pollution sources is one of the main concerns of water suppliers, therefore measures such as water safety plan (WSP, have been taken into account to control these sources of pollution. The aim of this study was to identify probable risks and threatening hazards to drinking water quality in Lighvan village along with assessment of bank filtration of the village. Methods: In the present study all risks and probable hazards were identified and ranked. For each of these cases, practical suggestions for removing or controlling them were given. To assess potable water quality in Lighvan village, sampling was done from different parts of the village and physicochemical parameters were measured. To assess the efficiency of bank filtration system of the village, independent t test was used to compare average values of parameters in river and treated water. Results: One of the probable sources of pollution in this study was domestic wastewater which threatens water quality. The results of this study show that bank filtration efficiency in water supply of the village is acceptable. Conclusion: Although Bank filtration imposes fewer expenses on governments, it provides suitable water for drinking and other uses. However, it should be noted that application of these systems should be done after a thorough study of water pollution level, types of water pollutants, soil properties of the area, soil percolation and system distance from pollutant sources.

  20. Bottled Water: United States Consumers and Their Perceptions of Water Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Zhihua; Morton, Lois Wright; Mahler, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    Consumption of bottled water is increasing worldwide. Prior research shows many consumers believe bottled water is convenient and has better taste than tap water, despite reports of a number of water quality incidents with bottled water. The authors explore the demographic and social factors associated with bottled water users in the U.S. and the relationship between bottled water use and perceptions of the quality of local water supply. They find that U.S. consumers are more likely to report...

  1. Long Term Resource Monitoring Program Water Quality Component Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    Water Adequacy and Suitability of the Water Quality Laboratory. The panel also agreed that Quality Procedures Manual the potential for obtaining formal ... formally recognize the high level of work being performed 5 in LTRMP water quality and increase the national from the LTRMP field stations. However...transmission as the primary method for obtaining findings to external peer review is the final steptranmision s te prmar metod or otaiing in quality

  2. Hydroeconomic optimization of reservoir management under downstream water quality constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidsen, Claus; Liu, Suxia; Mo, Xingguo; Holm, Peter E.; Trapp, Stefan; Rosbjerg, Dan; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    2015-10-01

    A hydroeconomic optimization approach is used to guide water management in a Chinese river basin with the objectives of meeting water quantity and water quality constraints, in line with the China 2011 No. 1 Policy Document and 2015 Ten-point Water Plan. The proposed modeling framework couples water quantity and water quality management and minimizes the total costs over a planning period assuming stochastic future runoff. The outcome includes cost-optimal reservoir releases, groundwater pumping, water allocation, wastewater treatments and water curtailments. The optimization model uses a variant of stochastic dynamic programming known as the water value method. Nonlinearity arising from the water quality constraints is handled with an effective hybrid method combining genetic algorithms and linear programming. Untreated pollutant loads are represented by biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and the resulting minimum dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration is computed with the Streeter-Phelps equation and constrained to match Chinese water quality targets. The baseline water scarcity and operational costs are estimated to 15.6 billion CNY/year. Compliance to water quality grade III causes a relatively low increase to 16.4 billion CNY/year. Dilution plays an important role and increases the share of surface water allocations to users situated furthest downstream in the system. The modeling framework generates decision rules that result in the economically efficient strategy for complying with both water quantity and water quality constraints.

  3. The Maladies of Water and War: Addressing Poor Water Quality in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Water is essential in providing nutrients, but contaminated water contributes to poor population health. Water quality and availability can change in unstructured situations, such as war. To develop a practical strategy to address poor water quality resulting from intermittent wars in Iraq, I reviewed information from academic sources regarding waterborne diseases, conflict and war, water quality treatment, and malnutrition. The prevalence of disease was high in impoverished, malnourished populations exposed to contaminated water sources. The data aided in developing a strategy to improve water quality in Iraq, which encompasses remineralized water from desalination plants, health care reform, monitoring and evaluation systems, and educational public health interventions. PMID:23597360

  4. The maladies of water and war: addressing poor water quality in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolnikov, Tara Rava

    2013-06-01

    Water is essential in providing nutrients, but contaminated water contributes to poor population health. Water quality and availability can change in unstructured situations, such as war. To develop a practical strategy to address poor water quality resulting from intermittent wars in Iraq, I reviewed information from academic sources regarding waterborne diseases, conflict and war, water quality treatment, and malnutrition. The prevalence of disease was high in impoverished, malnourished populations exposed to contaminated water sources. The data aided in developing a strategy to improve water quality in Iraq, which encompasses remineralized water from desalination plants, health care reform, monitoring and evaluation systems, and educational public health interventions.

  5. Hydrologic and water quality modeling: spatial and temporal considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrologic and water quality models are used to help manage water resources by investigating the effects of climate, land use, land management, and water management on water resources. Each water-related issue is better investigated at a specific scale, which can vary spatially from point to watersh...

  6. Microbial quality of Jimma water supply Sofonias Kifle Tsegaye Gadisa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    Microbial Quality of Jimma Water Supply. Sofonias Kifle et. al 25 made. For treated water, sample was taken only once but, for untreated water, samples were taken twice according to the guidelines for unchlorinated water. Sample collection procedures. A. Collecting sample from pipe water and protected springs. 1. The out ...

  7. Environmental Quality Standards in the EC-Water Framework Directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jirka, Gerhard H.; Burrows, Richard; Larsen, Torben

    2004-01-01

    The "combined approach" in the new EC-Water Framework Directive(WFD) consisting of environmental quality standards in addition to emission limit values promises improvements in the quality characteristics of surface water. However, the specification of where in the water body the environmental...... waters, respectively. Furthermore, water authorities will have to make increased use of predictive modeling techniques for the implementation of the "combined appraoch"....

  8. EPA Office of Water (OW): Water Quality Assessment Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data layer mashup in a kmz format using Census data: U.S. States (Generalized) represents the 50 states and the District of Columbia of the United State. This polygonal data was enhanced with outline boundaries for the Virgin Islands, Northern Mariana Islands, and Guam from TIGER data: TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2008, nation, U.S., State and Equivalent (http://www.census.gov/geo/www/tiger). Attribute data from the Assessment Total Maximum Daily Load Tracking and Implementation System (ATTAINS) database was joined to this boundary layer to summarize the latest available data for each state. ATTAINS presents information about water quality assessments, impairments and restorative actions using Total Maximum Daily Loads.

  9. Water quality of the Lexington Reservoir, Santa Clara County, California, 1978-80

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwatsubo, R.T.; Sylvester, M.A.; Gloege, I.S.

    1988-01-01

    Analysis of water samples from Lexington Reservoir and Los Gatos Creek upstream from the reservoir from June 1978 through September 1980 showed that water generally met water-quality objectives identified by California Regional Water Quality Control Board, San Francisco Bay Region. Water-temperature profiles show that Lexington Reservoir is a warm monomictic lake. During summer, dissolved-oxygen concentrations generally were not reduced below 5.0 mg/L in the hyplimnion; only once during the study did bottom waters become anoxic. Water transparency decreased with depth. The euphotic zone ranged from 1.0 to 5.4 m, depending on suspended solids and algae, and was greater in summer than in spring. Calcium and bicarbonate were dominant ions at all stations except during spring, following the rainy season, when waters were a mixed cation bicarbonate type. Nitrogen concentrations were greater in samples from reservoir stations than in those from Los Gatos Creek, with most of the nitrogen in ammonia and organic forms. The amount of dissolved nitrate appeared to be related to phytoplankton abundance. Phosphorus and trace-element concentrations were low at all stations. Estimates of net primary productivity and Carlson 's trophic-state index, based on chlorophyll-a concentrations, indicated that reservoir classification ranges from oligotrophic to mesotrophic. Blue-green algae generally were predominant in reservoir samples. (USGS)

  10. Determination of water quality index and portability of Iguedo stream ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The parameters that most influenced the WQI as depicted by quality rating values include pH, Mn, Ni, Cd and Pb. Application of WQI in this study has been found functional in assessing the water quality of this stream based on the selected parameters. Key words: Water quality index, physicochemical parameters, Iguedo ...

  11. Improving Water Quality With Conservation Buffers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrance, R.; Dabney, S.; Schultz, R.

    2003-12-01

    Conservation buffer technologies are new approaches that need wider application. In-field buffer practices work best when used in combination with other buffer types and other conservation practices. Vegetative barriers may be used in combination with edge-of-field buffers to protect and improve their function and longevity by dispersing runoff and encouraging sediment deposition upslope of the buffer. It's important to understand how buffers can be managed to help reduce nutrient transport potential for high loading of nutrients from manure land application sites, A restored riparian wetland buffer retained or removed at least 59 percent of the nitrogen and 66 percent of the phosphorus that entered from an adjacent manure land application site. The Bear Creek National Restoration Demonstration Watershed project in Iowa has been the site of riparian forest buffers and filter strips creation; constructed wetlands to capture tile flow; stream-bank bioengineering; in-stream structures; and controlling livestock grazing. We need field studies that test various widths of buffers of different plant community compositions for their efficacy in trapping surface runoff, reducing nonpoint source pollutants in subsurface waters, and enhancing the aquatic ecosystem. Research is needed to evaluate the impact of different riparian grazing strategies on channel morphology, water quality, and the fate of livestock-associated pathogens and antibiotics. Integrating riparian buffers and other conservation buffers into these models is a key objective in future model development.

  12. Optimizing basin-scale coupled water quantity and water quality management with stochastic dynamic programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Claus; Liu, Suxia; Mo, Xingguo

    2015-01-01

    Few studies address water quality in hydro-economic models, which often focus primarily on optimal allocation of water quantities. Water quality and water quantity are closely coupled, and optimal management with focus solely on either quantity or quality may cause large costs in terms of the oth......-er component. In this study, we couple water quality and water quantity in a joint hydro-economic catchment-scale optimization problem. Stochastic dynamic programming (SDP) is used to minimize the basin-wide total costs arising from water allocation, water curtailment and water treatment. The simple water......-economic optimiza-tion model can be used to assess costs of meeting additional constraints such as minimum water qual-ity or to economically prioritize investments in waste water treatment facilities based on economic criteria....

  13. investigation of factors affecting drinking water quality from source

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    condition (6). The quality of protected water sources can be deteriorated due to poor site selection, in adequate protection and unhygienic management of facilities (7). The result of sanitary and quality monitoring in a pilot water surveillance study in Yogyarkarata, Jaua demonstrated that 65.0-85.0% of public water supplies;.

  14. The case for regime-based water quality standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.C. Poole; J.B. Dunham; D.M. Keenan; S.T. Sauter; D.A. McCullough; C. Mebane; J.C. Lockwood; D.A. Essig; M.P. Hicks; D.J. Sturdevant; E.J. Materna; S.A. Spalding; J. Risley; M. Deppman

    2004-01-01

    Conventional water quality standards have been successful in reducing the concentration of toxic substances in US waters. However, conventional standards are based on simple thresholds and are therefore poorly structured to address human-caused imbalances in dynamic, natural water quality parameters, such as nutrients, sediment, and temperature. A more applicable type...

  15. Assessment of changes in drinking water quality during distribution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality of drinking water at the point of delivery to the consumer is crucial in safeguarding people's health. This study assesses changes in drinking water quality during distribution at Area 25 Township in Lilongwe, Malawi. Water samples were collected from the exit point of the treatment plant, storage tank and taps at ...

  16. Assessment of the water quality parameters in relation to fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physicochemical indices of water body changed seasonally and this necessitated an investigation to assess the water quality parameters of Osinmo reservoir in relation to its fish species. The water quality parameters were measured using standard methods. Results obtained show that the reservoir is alkaline in nature with ...

  17. 30 CFR 75.1718-1 - Drinking water; quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 75.1718-1 Section 75... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1718-1 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions of § 75.1718 shall meet the...

  18. A drinking water quality framework for South Africa | Hodgson ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In recognition of the importance of safe drinking water to public health, DWAF initiated a project to draft a Drinking Water Quality Framework for South Africa to enable effective management of drinking water quality and the protection of public health. The Framework is based on a preventative risk management approach, ...

  19. Surface water quality assessment using factor analysis | Boyacioglu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the factor analysis technique is applied to surface water quality data sets obtained from the Buyuk Menderes River Basin, Turkey, during two different hydrological periods. Results show that the indices which changed the quality of water in two seasons and locations differed. During low-flow conditions, water ...

  20. Investigation of potential water quality and quantity impacts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A scoping level study was performed to consolidate the existing information on the geohydrology and pre-mining water quantity and quality of water resources associated with the Waterberg coal reserves. New data regarding water quality and acid-base potential for the different geological areas (through field investigations) ...

  1. Households willingness to pay for improved water quality and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This survey investigated the willingness to pay for an improved water quality and reliability in Chobe ward in Maun. On average, 54% of the households are willing to pay for improved water quality. It is therefore apparent that Chobe Ward, Maun residents in general regard water as an economic good as they are willing to ...

  2. Water Balance and Groundwater Quality of Koraro Area, Tigray ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focuses Koraro Tabia (or Station), one of the millennium villages where shortage and bad quality water is a challenge. Water balance and the hydro chemical characteristics of groundwater have been investigated in order to assess the water potential and quality in the area. Hydrometeorological information has ...

  3. THE WATER QUALITY DEGRADATION OF UPPER AWASH RIVER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2013-01-11

    Jan 11, 2013 ... faunal diversity was observed in Koka Bridge (7 families) indicating the effect of water quality class differences among the sampling sites. Key words: Macroinvertebrates, organic pollution, heavy metals, water quality, anthropogenic impact, upper Awash River. Introduction. Water is critical for sustainable ...

  4. Assessment of water quality of Obueyinomo River, Ovia North East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to assess the water quality of Obueyinomo River using water quality index. Ambient and water temperatures were determined in-situ while total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), total solids (TS), turbidity, pH, conductivity, hardness, alkalinity, dissolved Oxygen (DO), ...

  5. Analysis of Water Quality of the Commercial Borehols Along River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ArcGIS 9.3 was used to map, create database and analyze the laboratory results through the use of SQL queries. It was recommended that the government should provide portable water, establish water quality control board and make use of GIS techniques for creation of database and analysis of water quality for easy ...

  6. Assessment of Irrigation Water Quality and Suitability for Irrigation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A number of factors like geology, soil, effluents, sewage disposal and other environmental conditions in which the water stays or moves and interacts are among the factors that affect the quality of irrigation water. This study was conducted to determine the quality and suitability of different water sources for irrigation purpose ...

  7. EPA Office of Water (OW): STORET Water Quality Monitoring Stations Source Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Storage and Retrieval for Water Quality Data (STORET and the Water Quality Exchange, WQX) defines the methods and the data systems by which EPA compiles monitoring...

  8. EPA Office of Water (OW): STORET Water Quality Monitoring Stations NHDPlus Indexed Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Storage and Retrieval for Water Quality Data (STORET and the Water Quality Exchange, WQX) defines the methods and the data systems by which EPA compiles monitoring...

  9. THE INFLUENCE OF SEA-LEVEL CHANGES ON SEA-BOTTOM MORPHOLOGY OF SINGKAWANG WATERS WEST KALIMANTAN BASED ON ANALYSES OF BATHYMETRIC AND SEISMIC DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hananto Kurnio

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the history of Quaternary geology, global climate changes influenced worldwide sea-level variations. On this study, these phenomena are tried to be assessed through sea-bottom morphology changes using bathymetric and seismic strata box data obtained during field survey in Singkawang Waters, West Kalimantan. Sea-level changes in this area are referred to global variations that had been studied by many researchers. Maximal depth attained during bathymetry mapping was -52 meters which take place as a depression between Lemukutan and Penata Besar Islands. General depths are - 30 m; thus, morphology reconstruction was done for sea-level positions - 10 m, - 20 m, and - 30 m from mean sea level. At the study area, sea-level dropped more than -30 m was only occurred in sea bottom morphology of isolated depressions. These isolated depressions are assumed as paleo-lakes which occurred throughout Sunda Land by some authors. The study also shows that sea-level history in Singkawang’s area span from approximately 10,000 years ago or Holocene time to Recent. During low sea-levels, the sea-bottom morphology was characterized by more extension of Singkawang land, formations of narrow straits between islands and developments of paleo-lakes assumed as fresh water lakes in the past. These events, based on Voris’s Diagram, occurred about 10,200 up to 8,300 years ago. On the other hand, marine clays appeared on coastal area of Singkawang. These might be evidence of sea-level rise in this area. About + 5m sea-level rise flooded this area approximately 4,200 years ago. Influences of sea-level changes to subbottom geological conditions were also assessed. The assessment was carried out by analyzing shallow seismic reflection records by using strata box. The records demonstrated that subsurface geology were characterized by truncation reflector configurations interpreted as fluvial environments.

  10. A Structural Equation Modeling approach to water quality perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levêque, Jonas G; Burns, Robert C

    2017-07-15

    Researches on water quality perceptions have used various techniques and models to explain relationships between specific variables. Surprisingly, Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) has received little attention in water quality perceptions studies, and reporting has been inconsistent among existing studies. One objective of this article is to provide readers with a methodological example for conducting and reporting SEM. Another objective is to build a model that explains the different relationships among the diverse factors highlighted by previous studies on water quality perceptions. Our study focuses on the factors influencing people's perceptions of water quality in the Appalachian region. As such, researchers have conducted a survey in a mid-sized city in northcentral West Virginia to assess residents' perceptions of water quality for drinking and recreational purposes. Specifically, we aimed to understand the relationships between perceived water quality, health risk perceptions, organoleptic perceptions, environmental concern, area satisfaction and perceptions of surface water quality. Our model provided a good fit that explained about 50% of the variance in health risk perceptions and 43% of the variance in organoleptic perceptions. Environmental concern, area satisfaction and perceived surface water quality are important factors in explaining these variances. Perceived water quality was dismissed in our analysis due to multicollinearity. Our study demonstrates that risk communication needs to be better addressed by local decision-makers and water managers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ribeira do Iguape basin water quality assessment for drinking water supply; Avaliacao da qualidade da agua na bacia hidrografica do Ribeira de Iguape com vistas ao abastecimento publico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotrim, Marycel Elena Barboza

    2006-07-01

    Ribeira do Iguape Basin, located in the Southeast region of Sao Paulo state, is the largest remaining area of Mata Atlantica which biodiversity as rich as Amazon forest , where the readiness of water versus demand is extremely positive. With sparse population density and economy almost dependent on banana agriculture, the region is still well preserved. To water supply SABESP (Sao Paulo State Basic Sanitation Company). Ribeira do Iguape Businesses Unit - RR, uses different types of water supplies. In the present work, in order to ascertain water quality for human consumption, major and minor elements were evaluated in various types of water supply (surface and groundwater's as well as the drinking water supplied). Forty three producing systems were monitored: 18 points of surface waters and treated distributed water, 10 points of groundwater and 15 points of surface water in preserved areas, analyzing 30 elements. Bottom sediments (fraction < 63 {mu}m) were also evaluated. The sampling period covered dry and wet seasons from March 2002 to February 2003. The descriptive analysis showed that Al, Fe and Mn, exceeding CONAMA 357 quality guideline. A comparison of the elemental concentrations with the Brazilian Drinking Water Legislation (Portaria 518/04) showed that with the exception of some violations, the levels of all the elements investigated were below the Brazilian Legislation maximum allowed concentrations. This study examined the relationship between the type of water supply and the quality of water used, showed different characteristics on Ca, Fe, Mn concentration. In bottom sediments (fraction <63 {mu}m), Al, Fe and Mg largest concentrations were found. Pb and Zn presents concentrations up to 142,0 {mu}g.g{sup -1} and 172 {mu}g.g{sup -1}, respectively. Data revealed that trace elements concentration in the sediment were below PEL (Probable Effect Level - probable level of adverse effect to the biological community), exception for Pb in Sete Barras and

  12. Global modelling of river water quality under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, Michelle T. H.; Franssen, Wietse H. P.; Yearsley, John R.

    2017-04-01

    Climate change will pose challenges on the quality of freshwater resources for human use and ecosystems for instance by changing the dilution capacity and by affecting the rate of chemical processes in rivers. Here we assess the impacts of climate change and induced streamflow changes on a selection of water quality parameters for river basins globally. We used the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model and a newly developed global water quality module for salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand. The modelling framework was validated using observed records of streamflow, water temperature, chloride, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand for 1981-2010. VIC and the water quality module were then forced with an ensemble of bias-corrected General Circulation Model (GCM) output for the representative concentration pathways RCP2.6 and RCP8.5 to study water quality trends and identify critical regions (hotspots) of water quality deterioration for the 21st century.

  13. The Economic Value of Changes in Water Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anne Kejser

    Water quality is from both a European and Danish perspective challenged by private use of the resource. The public good characteristics of the resource require that regulation should internalize the non-market values of water quality, in order to reach an optimal level from a welfare economic...... perspective. Valuation using stated preference techniques to value changes in ecosystem services has been widely used to estimate values of water quality. However, heterogeneity in values exists across different groups in the population. The objective of this PhD-thesis is to explore two different kinds...... of preference heterogeneity, when valuing changes in water quality. The PhD thesis consists of four papers all related to heterogeneity in the public preferences for water quality improvements. Papers referred to as 1, 2 and 3 are based on a discrete choice experiment (DCE) on water quality improvements...

  14. Research NoteEffect of drought and fires on the quality of water in Lithuanian rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sakalauskiene

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In August and September 2002, concentrations of heavy metals (copper, lead, and zinc were 21-74% more than in previous years in Lithuanian rivers. Such a sudden increase in heavy metal pollution reduces the value of any water body for fishing or recreation and poses a potential risk to the environment and to human health. Droughts in the summer of 2002 led to forest and peat bog fires all over Lithuania and may have caused the increase in concentrations of heavy metals detected in Lithuanian rivers in August 2002. The fires could have changed the pH in the top layers of the soil, overcome geochemical barriers in the soil and enabled heavy metals to migrate from the soil to the groundwater and from river bottom sediments to the surface water. Keywords: heavy metals, river water quality, Lithuania

  15. Effects of three highway-runoff detention methods on water quality of the surficial aquifer system in central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, D.M.

    1989-01-01

    Water quality of the surficial aquifer system in central Florida was evaluated at one exfiltration pipe, two ponds (detention and retention), and two swales in central Florida, representing three runoff-detention methods, to detect any effect from infiltrating highway runoff. Concentrations of major ions, metals, and nutrients in groundwater and bottom sediments were measured from 1984 through 1986. At each study area, constituent concentrations in groundwater near the structure were compared to concentrations in groundwater from an upgradient control site. Groundwater quality data were also pooled by detention method and statistically compared to detect any significant differences between methods. Significantly greater mean phosphorus concentrations in groundwater near the exfiltration pipe than those in the control well was the only evidence of increasing constituent concentrations in groundwater near structures. The quality of water was more variable, and had greater constituent concentrations in the unsaturated zone than in the saturated zone near the exfiltration pipe. Values of water quality variables measured in groundwater at all study areas generally were within State drinking water standards. The main exception was dissolved iron, which commonly exceeded 300 micrograms/L at one swale and the detention pond. Results of the study indicate that natural processes occurring in soils attenuate inorganic constituent concentrations prior to reaching the receiving groundwater. However, organic compounds detected in bottom sediments at the retention pond indicate a potential problem that may eventually affect the quality of the receiving groundwater. (USGS)

  16. Refining models for quantifying the water quality benefits of improved animal management for use in water quality trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water quality trading (WQT) is a market-based approach that allows point sources of water pollution to meet their water quality obligations by purchasing credits from the reduced discharges from other point or nonpoint sources. Non-permitted animal operations and fields of permitted animal operatio...

  17. Real-time remote monitoring system for aquaculture water quality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Luo Hongpin; Li Guanglin; Peng Weifeng; Song Jie; Bai Qiuwei

    2015-01-01

      A multi-parameters monitoring system based on wireless network was set up to achieve remote real-time monitoring of aquaculture water quality, in order to improve the quality of aquaculture products...

  18. Bottom RedOx Model (BROM v.1.1): a coupled benthic-pelagic model for simulation of water and sediment biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakushev, Evgeniy V.; Protsenko, Elizaveta A.; Bruggeman, Jorn; Wallhead, Philip; Pakhomova, Svetlana V.; Yakubov, Shamil Kh.; Bellerby, Richard G. J.; Couture, Raoul-Marie

    2017-02-01

    Interactions between seawater and benthic systems play an important role in global biogeochemical cycling. Benthic fluxes of some chemical elements (e.g., C, N, P, O, Si, Fe, Mn, S) alter the redox state and marine carbonate system (i.e., pH and carbonate saturation state), which in turn modulate the functioning of benthic and pelagic ecosystems. The redox state of the near-bottom layer in many regions can change with time, responding to the supply of organic matter, physical regime, and coastal discharge. We developed a model (BROM) to represent key biogeochemical processes in the water and sediments and to simulate changes occurring in the bottom boundary layer. BROM consists of a transport module (BROM-transport) and several biogeochemical modules that are fully compatible with the Framework for the Aquatic Biogeochemical Models, allowing independent coupling to hydrophysical models in 1-D, 2-D, or 3-D. We demonstrate that BROM is capable of simulating the seasonality in production and mineralization of organic matter as well as the mixing that leads to variations in redox conditions. BROM can be used for analyzing and interpreting data on sediment-water exchange, and for simulating the consequences of forcings such as climate change, external nutrient loading, ocean acidification, carbon storage leakage, and point-source metal pollution.

  19. Hydroeconomic optimization of reservoir management under downstream water quality constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Claus; Liu, Suxia; Mo, Xingguo

    2015-01-01

    A hydroeconomic optimization approach is used to guide water management in a Chinese river basin with the objectives of meeting water quantity and water quality constraints, in line with the China 2011 No. 1 Policy Document and 2015 Ten-point Water Plan. The proposed modeling framework couples...... water quantity and water quality management and minimizes the total costs over a planning period assuming stochastic future runoff. The outcome includes cost-optimal reservoir releases, groundwater pumping, water allocation, wastewater treatments and water curtailments. The optimization model uses...... a variant of stochastic dynamic programming known as the water value method. Nonlinearity arising from the water quality constraints is handled with an effective hybrid method combining genetic algorithms and linear programming. Untreated pollutant loads are represented by biochemical oxygen demand (BOD...

  20. Water Quality Models with Different Functions of Exotech Radiometer Bands

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, K. R.; Krishnan, R.; Chakraborty, A. K.; Deekshatulu, B. L.

    1981-01-01

    Surveillance of water quality by remote sensing technique can be pursued with advantage. An attempt has been made in this paper to obtain regional models of water quality of inland tanks and lakes. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis between water quality parameters and several functions of Exotech radiometer band reflectance values, namely, bands alone, bands and their ratios, and, bands and their products are evaluated with respect to performance of the regression parameters. It is...

  1. Modular AUV System for Sea Water Quality Monitoring and Management

    OpenAIRE

    Eichhorn, Mike; Taubert, Ralf; Ament, Christoph; Jacobi, Marco; Pfuetzenreuter, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    The sustained and cost-effective monitoring of the water quality within European coastal areas is of growing importance in view of the upcoming European marine and maritime directives, i.e. the increased industrial use of the marine environment. Such monitoring needs mechanisms/systems to detect the water quality in a large sea area at different depths in real time. This paper presents a system for the automated detection and analysis of water quality parameters using an autonomous underwater...

  2. Water quality of fresh water bodies in the lower Volta Basin: A case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF.MIREKU

    water quality parameters, runoff water, fresh water bodies. Introduction. The desired ... in them being washed by runoff water, or leached into both surface and ground water,. 11 Bobobee, H. lectures in the ... irrigation of the fields was from Lake Nyafie, but though the released water goes back into the same lake, there was ...

  3. Water Quality: Water Education for Teachers. A 4-H School Enrichment Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, G. Morgan; Kling, Emily B.

    This looseleaf notebook is a teacher resource package that is designed for enrichment program use. It contains five units dealing with water quality: (1) The Water Cycle; (2) Our Water Supply; (3) Waste/Water Treatment; (4) Water Conservation; (5) Water Pollution. The units provide background information, experiments, stories, poems, plays, and…

  4. A Geographically Variable Water Quality Index Used in Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunnette, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the procedure developed in Oregon to formulate a valid water quality index which accounts for the specific conditions in the water body of interest. Parameters selected include oxygen depletion, BOD, eutrophication, dissolved substances, health hazards, and physical characteristics. (CS)

  5. Assessment of Water Quality Conditions: Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge, 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is an assessment of water quality data collected from source water, discharge and within Agassiz Pool. In the summer of 2012, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service...

  6. Chesapeake Bay Water Quality Monitoring Using Satellite Imagery Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Work done at Water Resources Center, University of Minnesota has demonstrated the feasibility of performing regional assessment of lake water quality using Landsat...

  7. Pollution characteristics and water quality in the Visakhapatnam harbour

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, V.V.; Raju, G.R.K.; Babu, T.B.

    The impact of organic pollution on the quality of waters in the Visakhapatnam harbour has been studied over a year at 8 stations. The enrichment of nutrients in these waters enhances the eutrophication. The construction of outer harbour retards...

  8. Study on water quality around mangrove ecosystem for coastal rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guntur, G.; Sambah, A. B.; Arisandi, D. M.; Jauhari, A.; Jaziri, A. A.

    2018-01-01

    Coastal ecosystems are vulnerable to environmental degradation including the declining water quality in the coastal environment due to the influence of human activities where the river becomes one of the input channels. Some areas in the coastal regions of East Java directly facing the Madura Strait indicate having experienced the environmental degradation, especially regarding the water quality. This research was conducted in the coastal area of Probolinggo Regency, East Java, aiming to analyze the water quality as the basis for coastal rehabilitation planning. This study was carried out using survey and observation methods. Water quality measurement results were analyzed conforming to predetermined quality standards. The coastal area rehabilitation planning as a means to restore the degraded water quality parameters is presumably implemented through mangrove planting. Thus, the mangrove mapping was also devised in this research. Based on 40 sampling points, the results illustrate that according to the quality standard, the water quality in the study area is likely to be deteriorated. On account of the mapping analysis of mangrove distribution in the study area, the rehabilitation of the coastal zone can be done through planning the mangrove forest plantation. The recommended coastal area maintenance is a periodic water quality observation planning in the river region which is divided into three zones to monitor the impact of fluctuating changes in land use or human activities on the coastal water quality.

  9. WAVECALC: an Excel-VBA spreadsheet to model the characteristics of fully developed waves and their influence on bottom sediments in different water depths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roux, Jacobus P.; Demirbilek, Zeki; Brodalka, Marysia; Flemming, Burghard W.

    2010-10-01

    The generation and growth of waves in deep water is controlled by winds blowing over the sea surface. In fully developed sea states, where winds and waves are in equilibrium, wave parameters may be calculated directly from the wind velocity. We provide an Excel spreadsheet to compute the wave period, length, height and celerity, as well as horizontal and vertical particle velocities for any water depth, bottom slope, and distance below the reference water level. The wave profile and propagation can also be visualized for any water depth, modeling the sea surface change from sinusoidal to trochoidal and finally cnoidal profiles into shallow water. Bedload entrainment is estimated under both the wave crest and the trough, using the horizontal water particle velocity at the top of the boundary layer. The calculations are programmed in an Excel file called WAVECALC, which is available online to authorized users. Although many of the recently published formulas are based on theoretical arguments, the values agree well with several existing theories and limited field and laboratory observations. WAVECALC is a user-friendly program intended for sedimentologists, coastal engineers and oceanographers, as well as marine ecologists and biologists. It provides a rapid means to calculate many wave characteristics required in coastal and shallow marine studies, and can also serve as an educational tool.

  10. Drinking water treatment plant costs and source water quality: An updated case study (2013-2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watershed protection can play an important role in producing safe drinking water. However, many municipalities and drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) lack the information on the potential benefits of watershed protection as an approach to improving source water quality. This...

  11. Final Scientific/Technical Report: Characterizing the Response of the Cascadia Margin Gas Hydrate Reservoir to Bottom Water Warming Along the Upper Continental Slope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, Evan A. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Johnson, H. Paul [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Salmi, Marie [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Whorley, Theresa [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2017-11-10

    The objective of this project is to understand the response of the WA margin gas hydrate system to contemporary warming of bottom water along the upper continental slope. Through pre-cruise analysis and modeling of archive and recent geophysical and oceanographic data, we (1) inventoried bottom simulating reflectors along the WA margin and defined the upper limit of gas hydrate stability, (2) refined margin-wide estimates of heat flow and geothermal gradients, (3) characterized decadal scale temporal variations of bottom water temperatures at the upper continental slope of the Washington margin, and (4) used numerical simulations to provide quantitative estimates of how the shallow boundary of methane hydrate stability responds to modern environmental change. These pre-cruise results provided the context for a systematic geophysical and geochemical survey of methane seepage along the upper continental slope from 48° to 46°N during a 10-day field program on the R/V Thompson from October 10-19, 2014. This systematic inventory of methane emissions along this climate-sensitive margin corridor and comprehensive sediment and water column sampling program provided data and samples for Phase 3 of this project that focused on determining fluid and methane sources (deep-source vs. shallow; microbial, thermogenic, gas hydrate dissociation) within the sediment, and how they relate to contemporary intermediate water warming. During the 2014 research expedition, we sampled nine seep sites between ~470 and 520 m water depth, within the zone of predicted methane hydrate retreat over the past 40 years. We imaged 22 bubble plumes with heights commonly rising to ~300 meters below sea level with one reaching near the sea surface. We collected 22 gravity cores and 20 CTD/hydrocasts from the 9 seeps and at background locations (no acoustic evidence of seepage) within the depth interval of predicted downslope retreat of the methane hydrate stability zone. Approximately 300 pore water

  12. Water quality problems associated with intermittent water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokajian, S; Hashwa, F

    2003-01-01

    A controlled study was conducted in Lebanon over a period of 12 months to determine bacterial regrowth in a small network supplying the Beirut suburb of Naccache that had a population of about 3,000. The residential area, which is fed by gravity, is supplied twice a week with chlorinated water from two artesian wells of a confined aquifer. A significant correlation was detected between the turbidity and the levels of heterotrophic plate count bacteria (HPC) in the samples from the distribution network as well as from the artesian wells. However, a negative significant correlation was found between the temperature and the HPC count in the samples collected from the source. A statistically significant increase in counts, possibly due to regrowth, was repeatedly established between two sampling points lying on a straight distribution line but 1 km apart. Faecal coliforms were detected in the source water but none in the network except during a pipe breakage incident with confirmed Escherichia coli reaching 40 CFU/100 mL. However, coliforms such as Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter agglomerans, E. cloacae and E. skazakii were repeatedly isolated from the network, mainly due to inadequate chlorination. A second controlled study was conducted to determine the effect of storage on the microbial quality of household storage tanks (500 L), which were of two main types - galvanized cast iron and black polyethylene. The mean bacterial count increased significantly after 7 d storage in both tank types. A significant difference was found in the mean HPC/mL between the winter and the summer. Highest counts were found April-June although the maximum temperature was reported later in the summer. A positive correlation was established between the HPC/mL and pH, temperature and storage time.

  13. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - Water Pollution Control Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Water Pollution Control Facility is a DEP primary facility type related to the Water Pollution Control Program. The sub-facility types related to Water Pollution...

  14. Drinking Water Quality Status and Contamination in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Daud, M. K.; Muhammad Nafees; Shafaqat Ali; Muhammad Rizwan; Raees Ahmad Bajwa; Muhammad Bilal Shakoor; Muhammad Umair Arshad; Shahzad Ali Shahid Chatha; Farah Deeba; Waheed Murad; Ijaz Malook; Shui Jin Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Due to alarming increase in population and rapid industrialization, drinking water quality is being deteriorated day by day in Pakistan. This review sums up the outcomes of various research studies conducted for drinking water quality status of different areas of Pakistan by taking into account the physicochemical properties of drinking water as well as the presence of various pathogenic microorganisms. About 20% of the whole population of Pakistan has access to safe drinking water. The remai...

  15. Microbiological quality of drinking water from dispensers in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasi Daniela; Amiranda Ciro; Arnese Antonio; Cavallotti Ivan; Liguori Giorgio; Angelillo Italo F

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Water coolers are popular in office buildings and commercial stores and the quality of this source of drinking water has the potential to cause waterborne outbreaks, especially in sensitive and immunocompromised subjects. The aim of this study was to determine the quality of water plumbed in coolers from commercial stores in comparison with tap water in Italy. Methods For each sample, microbial parameters and chemical indicators of contamination were evaluated and informat...

  16. The role of water in food quality decay

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Piazza

    2006-01-01

    The impact of water on food thermodynamics and physics, and therefore on its quality, is more important than any other food chemical component. When fundamentals of chemical kinetics apply, the rates of the reactions that are responsible of food quality decay can be described as a function of food composition and of other external elements interacting with foods. Among them, water activity and water content have been widely used to determine the role of water in the kinetic reactions of deter...

  17. Fitting probability distributions to component water quality data from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The treatment of water is carried out to make the available water meet the standards for its intended use. Such use may be for drinking and other household needs, industries,livestock rearing or fisheries etc. poor quality water is commonly treated to ensure potability. Potable water should be free from unpleasant tastes and ...

  18. The development of water quality methods within ecological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the South African National Water Act (NWA, No 36 of 1998), the ecological Reserve is defined as the quality and quantity of water required to ensure appropriate protection of water resources, so as to secure ecologically sustainable development and use. Aquatic ecosystems are recognised as the core location of water ...

  19. Water quantity and quality at the urban-rural interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; B. Graeme Lockaby

    2012-01-01

    Population growth and urban development dramatically alter natural watershed ecosystem structure and functions and stress water resources. We review studies on the impacts of urbanization on hydrologic and biogeochemical processes underlying stream water quantity and water quality issues, as well as water supply challenges in an urban environment. We conclude that...

  20. The microbial quality of drinking water in Manonyane community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... coli counts included non protection of water sources from livestock faeces, laundry practices, and water sources being down slope of pit latrines in some cases. Conclusions: These findings suggest source water protection and good hygiene practices can improve the quality of household drinking water where disinfection ...

  1. Assessment of Water Supply Quality in Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The patronage of water of questionable qualities in the study area due to the failure of the Anambra State Water Corporation to provide potable water supply in Awka and environs prompted this research work. Various water sources patronized in the study area were collected and subjected to physical, chemical and ...

  2. Surface water quality in Kenya's urban environment: Githurai Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In fact, 50% of all preventable illnesses in Kenya are related to water, sanitation and hygiene. This study was done to establish the level of indicator water quality parameters, and establish water borne disease prevalence in Githurai and adjacent communities. Water samples were collected from 6 points distributed uniformly ...

  3. Consumer's Perception of the Quality of Municipal Water Supplies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The major alternative sources of water were from boreholes, wells and groundwater. All respondents also agreed on some levels of contamination and pollution of these alternative sources of water. The respondents indicated that they have suffered one form of water-borne disease or another due to poor quality water ...

  4. Assessment of quality of drinking water in Amasaman, Accra (Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physico-chemical and microbial quality attributes of untreated water samples from hand dug wells and treated water delivered by tankers (mobile services) were assessed to determine the susceptibility of Amasaman community to water borne diseases. The physico-chemical parameters of all the water sources for ...

  5. 76 FR 38592 - Phosphorus Water Quality Standards for Florida Everglades

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... meet the requirements of the Clean Water Act under section 303(c)(4)(B) and the state fails to make the... are not applicable water quality standards for purposes of the Clean Water Act. EPA is proposing today... standards for purposes of the Clean Water Act. DATES: Comments must be received on or before August 1, 2011...

  6. Bacteriological quality of sachet water produced and sold in Teshie ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Access to good quality drinking water is a challenge in most towns and cities in Ghana and households have for years depended on other sources of water to supplement their activities. The introduction of sachet water to consumers was to provide safe, hygienic and affordable instant drinking water to the public. Although ...

  7. The assessment of khorramabad River water quality with National Sanitation Foundation Water Quality Index and Zoning by GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    abdolrahim Yusefzadeh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background : Rivers are a fraction of flowing waters in the worlds and one of the important sources of water for different consumptions such as agricultural, drinking and industrial uses. The aim of this study was to assess water quality of the Khorramrood River in Khorramabad by NSFWQI index. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, quality parameters needed for NASWQI index calculation such as BOD5, dissolved oxygen (DO, total nitrate, fecal coliform, pH, total phosphate, temperature, turbidity and total suspended solids content were measured for six months (from July to December 2012using standard methods at six selected stations. The river zoning conducted by GIS software. Results: According to the results obtained through this study, the highest and the lowest water quality value was observed in stations 1 and 6 with NSFWQI indexes 82 water with good quality, 42 water with bad quality, respectively. With moving toward last station (from 1 to 6 station water pollution increased. Conclusion: Results of the study indicated that water quality index NSFWQI is a good index to identify the effect of polluter sources on the river water. Based on the average of the index NSFWQI, water quality in station one was good, in the second, third and fourth stations were mediocre and the fifth and sixth stations had bad quality. These results allow to make decisions about monitoring and controlling water pollution sources, as well as provide different efficient uses of it by relevant authorities.

  8. Methods for computing water-quality loads at sites in the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Casey J.; Murphy, Jennifer C.; Crawford, Charles G.; Deacon, Jeffrey R.

    2017-10-24

    The U.S. Geological Survey publishes information on concentrations and loads of water-quality constituents at 111 sites across the United States as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Network (NWQN). This report details historical and updated methods for computing water-quality loads at NWQN sites. The primary updates to historical load estimation methods include (1) an adaptation to methods for computing loads to the Gulf of Mexico; (2) the inclusion of loads computed using the Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge, and Season (WRTDS) method; and (3) the inclusion of loads computed using continuous water-quality data. Loads computed using WRTDS and continuous water-quality data are provided along with those computed using historical methods. Various aspects of method updates are evaluated in this report to help users of water-quality loading data determine which estimation methods best suit their particular application.

  9. Run-up of long ocean waves in shallow water on the flat and non-reflecting bottom profiles taking into account wave breaking effects, hypothetical cases and the possible consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodin, Artem; Pelinovsky, Efim; Rodina, Natalia

    2017-04-01

    The analysis and comparison of the results of numerical experiments on the long waves run-up on a coast with a variety of bottom profiles in the framework of the nonlinear theory of shallow water have been performed in this work. Two types of one-dimensional problems are solved: in the first case the bottom profile is represented as a flat slope; in the second - the so-called non-reflecting profile. In both cases the run-up area in deep water is conjugated with a flat bottom, and on the beach - with a vertical wall. It is shown that for small amplitude waves the amplification of the incident wave's amplitude is higher on non-reflecting bottom profile, rather than on a flat bottom profile. With the increasing of the incident wave's amplitude, wave breaking near the coast occurs earlier on non-reflecting bottom profile, and therefore the amplitude decreases faster than on a plane beach. The behavior of breaking waves approaching and running-up the wall on non-reflecting and flat bottom profiles is demonstrated. The research was supported within the framework of the grant of the President of Russian Federation for state support of young Russian scientists (MK-1127.2017.5).

  10. Attenuation coefficients for water quality trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Arturo A; Chen, Xiaoli; Fox, Jessica; Fulda, Matt; Dorsey, Rebecca; Seapy, Briana; Glenday, Julia; Bray, Erin

    2014-06-17

    Water quality trading has been proposed as a cost-effective approach for reducing nutrient loads through credit generation from agricultural or point source reductions sold to buyers facing costly options. We present a systematic approach to determine attenuation coefficients and their uncertainty. Using a process-based model, we determine attenuation with safety margins at many watersheds for total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) loads as they transport from point of load reduction to the credit buyer. TN and TP in-stream attenuation generally increases with decreasing mean river flow; smaller rivers in the modeled region of the Ohio River Basin had TN attenuation factors per km, including safety margins, of 0.19-1.6%, medium rivers of 0.14-1.2%, large rivers of 0.13-1.1%, and very large rivers of 0.04-0.42%. Attenuation in ditches transporting nutrients from farms to receiving rivers is 0.4%/km for TN, while for TP attenuation in ditches can be up to 2%/km. A 95 percentile safety margin of 30-40% for TN and 6-10% for TP, applied to the attenuation per km factors, was determined from the in-stream sensitivity of load reductions to watershed model parameters. For perspective, over 50 km a 1% per km factor would result in 50% attenuation = 2:1 trading ratio.

  11. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS). A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials. Supplement XIII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  12. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials. Supplement XI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  13. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS). A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials. Supplement XVII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  14. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials. Supplement VIII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials; related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and…

  15. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials. Supplement XII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  16. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials, Supplement XVIII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  17. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials. Supplement IX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  18. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials. Supplement X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  19. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources, Supplement XIV (1983).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  20. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS). A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials. Supplement XVI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  1. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS). A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials. Supplement XV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  2. Statistical Framework for Recreational Water Quality Criteria and Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halekoh, Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    Administrators of recreational waters face the basic tasks of surveillance of water quality and decisions on beach closure in case of unacceptable quality. Monitoring and subsequent decisions are based on sampled water probes and fundamental questions are which type of data to extract from...... recreational governmental authorities controlling water quality. The book opens with a historical account of water quality criteria in the USA between 1922 and 2003. Five chapters are related to sampling strategies and decision rules. Chapter 2 discusses the dependence of decision-making rules on short...... as classical random sampling or compound sampling. Chapter 7 discusses the use of regression methods in an empirical study to identify important determinants of water quality variation. Even though improved molecular techniques narrow the time delay between data collection and analysis results, predictive...

  3. bacteriological quality of water samples in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The well water samples examined were found to fall short of the WHO recommendation for drinking water, while the tap water was adjudged fit for consumption. INTRODUCTION source by lining and covering, diversion of. Man's assessment of the value surface drainage, catchments protection to of water is very low until he ...

  4. water quality assessment of underground and surface water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Osondu

    temperature was expected to be lower compared to surface water without any geothermal energy in the area. The level of protection of the ground water sampling sites 5 and 6 was very minimal and methodological constraints of ground water sampling might have resulted in a slight increase of temperature in ground water ...

  5. New approach to 'top-and-bottom' whole blood separation using the multiunit TACSI WB system: quality of blood components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotens, A; Najdovski, T; Cellier, N; Ernotte, B; Lambermont, M; Rapaille, A

    2014-10-01

    TACSI whole blood system is designed to combine primary and secondary processing of six whole blood bags into plasma units, buffy coat and red blood cell concentrates. The aim of this study was to investigate the specifications and in vitro storage parameters of blood components compared with standard centrifugation and separation processing. Whole blood bags, collected in CRC kits, were treated on a TACSI whole blood system. They were compared with whole blood bags collected in Composelect kits. In addition to routine quality control analyses, conservation studies were performed on red blood cell concentrates for 42 days and on plasma for 6 months. Platelets pools with five buffy coats were also created, and cellular contamination was evaluated. Red blood cell concentrates produced from TACSI whole blood met European quality requirements. For white blood cell count, one individual result exceeded 1 × 10(6) cells/unit. All plasma units fell within specifications for residual cellular contamination and storage parameters. The performances of the TACSI whole blood system allow for the preparation of low volume buffy coats with a recovery of 90% of whole blood platelets. Haemoglobin losses in TACSI BC are smaller, but this did not result in higher haemoglobin content of red cells. These BC are suitable for the production of platelet concentrates. From these in vitro data, red blood cell concentrates produced using TACSI whole blood are suitable for clinical use with a quality at least equivalent to the control group. © 2014 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  6. Identification and assessment of potential water quality impact factors for drinking-water reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qing; Deng, Jinsong; Wang, Ke; Lin, Yi; Li, Jun; Gan, Muye; Ma, Ligang; Hong, Yang

    2014-06-10

    Various reservoirs have been serving as the most important drinking water sources in Zhejiang Province, China, due to the uneven distribution of precipitation and severe river pollution. Unfortunately, rapid urbanization and industrialization have been continuously challenging the water quality of the drinking-water reservoirs. The identification and assessment of potential impacts is indispensable in water resource management and protection. This study investigates the drinking water reservoirs in Zhejiang Province to better understand the potential impact on water quality. Altogether seventy-three typical drinking reservoirs in Zhejiang Province encompassing various water storage levels were selected and evaluated. Using fifty-two reservoirs as training samples, the classification and regression tree (CART) method and sixteen comprehensive variables, including six sub-sets (land use, population, socio-economy, geographical features, inherent characteristics, and climate), were adopted to establish a decision-making model for identifying and assessing their potential impacts on drinking-water quality. The water quality class of the remaining twenty-one reservoirs was then predicted and tested based on the decision-making model, resulting in a water quality class attribution accuracy of 81.0%. Based on the decision rules and quantitative importance of the independent variables, industrial emissions was identified as the most important factor influencing the water quality of reservoirs; land use and human habitation also had a substantial impact on water quality. The results of this study provide insights into the factors impacting the water quality of reservoirs as well as basic information for protecting reservoir water resources.

  7. Redox reactions and water quality in cultivated boreal acid sulphate soils in relation to water management

    OpenAIRE

    Virtanen, Seija

    2015-01-01

    Acid loading from cultivated acid sulphate soils (AS) deteriorates the quality of the recipient waters, especially on the coast of the Gulf of Bothnia. These fields reclaimed in the past without knowing their deleterious consequences still cause long-lasting hazards. The aim of this thesis was to explore redox processes in AS soils in relation to their water management aiming at mitigation the water quality. Redox processes and the quality of pore and discharge water were investigated fo...

  8. Urban Ethnohydrology: Cultural Knowledge of Water Quality and Water Management in a Desert City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith Gartin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Popular concern over water quality has important implications for public water management because it can both empower water utilities to improve service but also limit their ability to make changes. In the desert city of Phoenix, Arizona, obtaining sufficient high-quality water resources for a growing urban population poses a major challenge. Decision makers and urban hydrologists are aware of these challenges to water sustainability but the range of acceptable policy and management options available to them is constrained by public opinion. Therefore, this study examines cultural models of water quality and water management, termed ethnohydrology, among urban residents. The study yields three key findings. First, urban residents appear to have a shared model of ethnohydrology which holds that a there are significant water quality risks associated with low financial investments in city-wide water treatment and the desert location of Phoenix, and b government monitoring and management combined with household-level water treatment can yield water of an acceptable quality. Second, people with high incomes are more likely to engage in expensive water filtration activities and to agree with the cultural ethnohydrology model found. Third, people living in communities that are highly concerned about water quality are less likely to share high agreement around ethnohydrology. The results have implications for water policy making and planning, particularly in disadvantaged and vulnerable communities where water quality is perceived to be low.

  9. Overview of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, P.P.; Thompson, T.H.

    1994-01-01

    The Nation's water resources are the basis for life and our economic vitality. These resources support a complex web of human activities and fishery and wildlife needs that depend upon clean water. Demands for good-quality water for drinking, recreation, farming, and industry are rising, and as a result, the American public is concerned about the condition and sustainability of our water resources. The American public is asking: Is it safe to swim in and drink water from our rivers or lakes? Can we eat the fish that come from them? Is our ground water polluted? Is water quality degrading with time, and if so, why? Has all the money we've spent to clean up our waters, done any good? The U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program was designed to provide information that will help answer these questions. NAWQA is designed to assess historical, current, and future water-quality conditions in representative river basins and aquifers nationwide. One of the primary objectives of the program is to describe relations between natural factors, human activities, and water-quality conditions and to define those factors that most affect water quality in different parts of the Nation. The linkage of water quality to environmental processes is of fundamental importance to water-resource managers, planners, and policy makers. It provides a strong and unbiased basis for better decisionmaking by those responsible for making decisions that affect our water resources, including the United States Congress, Federal, State, and local agencies, environmental groups, and industry. Information from the NAWQA Program also will be useful for guiding research, monitoring, and regulatory activities in cost effective ways.

  10. Quality of Sachet Water Produced at Tarkwa, Ghana*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2015-06-01

    Jun 1, 2015 ... GWCL supplies. However, improper waste management practices may also affect the quality of water ... and towns in Ghana including Tarkwa, a mining municipality with a population of more than 80000. ...... Control, Mine Waste Characterization and Management,. Arsenic Sequestration, and Water Quality ...

  11. Assessment of Anthropogenic Activities on Water Quality of Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LENOVO

    Over the years, WQI has evolved as an efficient tool use in summarising water quality data into .... parameter. The ideal for pH is 7, ideal for dissolved oxygen is 14.6 mg/L and other parameters is equal to zero and ..... Dissolved oxygen is an important indicator of water quality, ecological status, productivity and health of a.

  12. Water quality assessments: A case study of plankton and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aspects of physico-chemical characteristics, plankton and macro invertebrates of Porto-Novo and Gulf of Guinea were studied in September 2012 with a view to determine the quality of water using plankton indices. Standard methods were used to determine the physico-chemical parameters. The mean water quality ...

  13. 77 FR 46298 - Phosphorus Water Quality Standards for Florida Everglades

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 131 RIN 2040-AF38 Phosphorus Water Quality Standards for Florida Everglades AGENCY... provisions of Florida's Water Quality Standards for Phosphorus in the Everglades Protection Area (Phosphorus Rule) and Florida's Amended Everglades Forever Act (EFA) that EPA has disapproved and that therefore...

  14. Hydrology and water quality characteristics of a stressed lotic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hydrology and water quality of Aiba stream were investigated from November 2012 to April 2013 on monthly basis. This was with a view to assessing the status of the stream sequel to its last study which indicated a poor physico-chemical water quality. Four sampling stations were established for the study along the ...

  15. Linkages between forest soils and water quality and quantity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel G. Neary; George G. Ice; C. Rhett Jackson

    2009-01-01

    The most sustainable and best quality fresh water sources in the world originate in forest ecosystems. The biological, chemical, and physical characteristics of forest soils are particularly well suited to delivering high quality water to streams, moderating stream hydrology, and providing diverse aquatic habitat. Forest soils feature litter layers and...

  16. Trophic state categorisation and assessment of water quality in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study we investigated the water quality, determined the trophic state and assessed the influence of lake zones on the physical-chemical parameters of the Manjirenji Dam, Zimbabwe. Furthermore, we tested the applicability of two customary temperate water quality indices, the Canadian Council of Ministers of the ...

  17. Establishment of water quality classification scheme: a case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The variables considered include water temperature, pH. Eh, DO, DO saturation, BOD5, COD, TSS, turbidity, NH4-N and electrical conductivity. Classification of water source is performed by reference to mathematically derived Quality index and Quality classification tables. The derivation and application of these models as ...

  18. Evaluation of the Water Quality of River Kaduna, Nigeria Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twelve (12) water quality parameters (turbidity, TDS, pH, Cl- , EC, DO, BOD5, COD, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, Fe and Mn) were analyzed in River Kaduna, Nigeria on a monthly basis for a period of one year in 15 sampling locations using standard methods. The data obtained were used to develop Water Quality Index ...

  19. Macroinvertebrates as bioindicators of water quality in the Mkondoa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The suitability of using macroinvertebrates as bioindicators of stream water quality was tested in the Mkondoa River in an agricultural area at Kilosa, using the rapid bioassessment protocol. The family biotic index (FBI) showed marked variation in water quality along the stream from values ranging from 4.1 to 5.0 in the ...

  20. Water quality modelling and optimisation of wastewater treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-10-04

    Oct 4, 2016 ... Using this model, it was demonstrated that water quality standards can be met at all monitoring points at a minimum cost by simultaneously optimising treatment levels at each treatment plant. Keywords: instream water quality, mixed integer optimisation, wastewater treatment levels, Streeter-Phelps.