WorldWideScience

Sample records for water quality assessment

  1. Drinking water quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, J; Gautam, B; Sapkota, N

    2012-09-01

    Drinking water quality is the great public health concern because it is a major risk factor for high incidence of diarrheal diseases in Nepal. In the recent years, the prevalence rate of diarrhoea has been found the highest in Myagdi district. This study was carried out to assess the quality of drinking water from different natural sources, reservoirs and collection taps at Arthunge VDC of Myagdi district. A cross-sectional study was carried out using random sampling method in Arthunge VDC of Myagdi district from January to June,2010. 84 water samples representing natural sources, reservoirs and collection taps from the study area were collected. The physico-chemical and microbiological analysis was performed following standards technique set by APHA 1998 and statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS 11.5. The result was also compared with national and WHO guidelines. Out of 84 water samples (from natural source, reservoirs and tap water) analyzed, drinking water quality parameters (except arsenic and total coliform) of all water samples was found to be within the WHO standards and national standards.15.48% of water samples showed pH (13) higher than the WHO permissible guideline values. Similarly, 85.71% of water samples showed higher Arsenic value (72) than WHO value. Further, the statistical analysis showed no significant difference (Pwater for collection taps water samples of winter (January, 2010) and summer (June, 2010). The microbiological examination of water samples revealed the presence of total coliform in 86.90% of water samples. The results obtained from physico-chemical analysis of water samples were within national standard and WHO standards except arsenic. The study also found the coliform contamination to be the key problem with drinking water.

  2. Irrigation water quality assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing demands on fresh water supplies by municipal and industrial users means decreased fresh water availability for irrigated agriculture in semi arid and arid regions. There is potential for agricultural use of treated wastewaters and low quality waters for irrigation but this will require co...

  3. Water Quality Assessment Tool 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Water Quality Assessment Tool project was developed to assess the potential for water-borne contaminants to adversely affect biota and habitats on Service lands.

  4. Michigan lakes: An assessment of water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnerick, R.J.

    2004-01-01

    Michigan has more than 11,000 inland lakes, that provide countless recreational opportunities and are an important resource that makes tourism and recreation a $15-billion-dollar per-year industry in the State (Stynes, 2002). Knowledge of the water-quality characteristics of inland lakes is essential for the current and future management of these resources.Historically the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ) jointly have monitored water quality in Michigan's lakes and rivers. During the 1990's, however, funding for surface-water-quality monitoring was reduced greatly. In 1998, the citizens of Michigan passed the Clean Michigan Initiative to clean up, protect, and enhance Michigan's environmental infrastructure. Because of expanding water-quality-data needs, the MDEQ and the USGS jointly redesigned and implemented the Lake Water-Quality Assessment (LWQA) Monitoring Program (Michigan Department of Environmental Quality, 1997).

  5. Assessment on reliability of water quality in water distribution systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍悦滨; 田海; 王龙岩

    2004-01-01

    Water leaving the treatment works is usually of a high quality but its properties change during the transportation stage. Increasing awareness of the quality of the service provided within the water industry today and assessing the reliability of the water quality in a distribution system has become a major significance for decision on system operation based on water quality in distribution networks. Using together a water age model, a chlorine decay model and a model of acceptable maximum water age can assess the reliability of the water quality in a distribution system. First, the nodal water age values in a certain complex distribution system can be calculated by the water age model. Then, the acceptable maximum water age value in the distribution system is obtained based on the chlorine decay model. The nodes at which the water age values are below the maximum value are regarded as reliable nodes. Finally, the reliability index on the percentile weighted by the nodal demands reflects the reliability of the water quality in the distribution system. The approach has been applied in a real water distribution network. The contour plot based on the water age values determines a surface of the reliability of the water quality. At any time, this surface is used to locate high water age but poor reliability areas, which identify parts of the network that may be of poor water quality. As a result, the contour water age provides a valuable aid for a straight insight into the water quality in the distribution system.

  6. Water Quality Assessment using Satellite Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Saad Ul

    2016-07-01

    The two main global issues related to water are its declining quality and quantity. Population growth, industrialization, increase in agriculture land and urbanization are the main causes upon which the inland water bodies are confronted with the increasing water demand. The quality of surface water has also been degraded in many countries over the past few decades due to the inputs of nutrients and sediments especially in the lakes and reservoirs. Since water is essential for not only meeting the human needs but also to maintain natural ecosystem health and integrity, there are efforts worldwide to assess and restore quality of surface waters. Remote sensing techniques provide a tool for continuous water quality information in order to identify and minimize sources of pollutants that are harmful for human and aquatic life. The proposed methodology is focused on assessing quality of water at selected lakes in Pakistan (Sindh); namely, HUBDAM, KEENJHAR LAKE, HALEEJI and HADEERO. These lakes are drinking water sources for several major cities of Pakistan including Karachi. Satellite imagery of Landsat 7 (ETM+) is used to identify the variation in water quality of these lakes in terms of their optical properties. All bands of Landsat 7 (ETM+) image are analyzed to select only those that may be correlated with some water quality parameters (e.g. suspended solids, chlorophyll a). The Optimum Index Factor (OIF) developed by Chavez et al. (1982) is used for selection of the optimum combination of bands. The OIF is calculated by dividing the sum of standard deviations of any three bands with the sum of their respective correlation coefficients (absolute values). It is assumed that the band with the higher standard deviation contains the higher amount of 'information' than other bands. Therefore, OIF values are ranked and three bands with the highest OIF are selected for the visual interpretation. A color composite image is created using these three bands. The water quality

  7. Surface water quality assessment by environmetric methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyacioglu, Hülya; Boyacioglu, Hayal

    2007-08-01

    This environmetric study deals with the interpretation of river water monitoring data from the basin of the Buyuk Menderes River and its tributaries in Turkey. Eleven variables were measured to estimate water quality at 17 sampling sites. Factor analysis was applied to explain the correlations between the observations in terms of underlying factors. Results revealed that, water quality was strongly affected from agricultural uses. Cluster analysis was used to classify stations with similar properties and results distinguished three groups of stations. Water quality at downstream of the river was quite different from the other part. It is recommended to involve the environmetric data treatment as a substantial procedure in assessment of water quality data.

  8. Assessing water quality in Lake Naivasha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ndungu, J.N.

    2014-01-01

    Water quality in aquatic systems is important because it maintains the ecological processes that support biodiversity. However, declining water quality due to environmental perturbations threatens the stability of the biotic integrity and therefore hinders the ecosystem services and functions of

  9. Water quality assessment of bioenergy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocio Diaz-Chavez; Goran Berndes; Dan Neary; Andre Elia Neto; Mamadou Fall

    2011-01-01

    Water quality is a measurement of the biological, chemical, and physical characteristics of water against certain standards set to ensure ecological and/or human health. Biomass production and conversion to fuels and electricity can impact water quality in lakes, rivers, and aquifers with consequences for aquatic ecosystem health and also human water uses. Depending on...

  10. Water Quality Assessment and Total Maximum Daily Loads Information (ATTAINS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Water Quality Assessment TMDL Tracking And Implementation System (ATTAINS) stores and tracks state water quality assessment decisions, Total Maximum Daily Loads...

  11. Water quality assessment using SVD-based principal component ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water quality assessment using SVD-based principal component analysis of hydrological data. ... value decomposition (SVD) of hydrological data was tested for water quality assessment. ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  12. National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — National scope of NAWQA water-quality sample- and laboratory-result data and other supporting information obtained from NWIS systems hosted by individual Water...

  13. Assessing water quality in Lake Naivasha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ndungu, Jane Njeri

    2014-01-01

    Water quality in aquatic systems is important because it maintains the ecological processes that support biodiversity. However, declining water quality due to environmental perturbations threatens the stability of the biotic integrity and therefore hinders the ecosystem services and functions of aqu

  14. ASSESSMENT OF WATER QUALITY INDEX FOR GROUNDWATER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-12-31

    Dec 31, 2013 ... measurement units in a single metric and its effectiveness as a communication tool. ... Fair. Water quality is usually protected but occasionally threatened or ... Electrical Conductivity (EC) value is an index to represent the total.

  15. Water Quality Assessment of River Areba, Niger Delta, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water Quality Assessment of River Areba, Niger Delta, Nigeria Using Physical ... phosphate (0.78mg/l) were above World Health Organization limits for drinking water. Seasonally, water temperatures, total dissolved solids, biological oxygen ...

  16. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - Lakes Assessments - Attaining

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This layer shows only attaining lakes of the Integrated List. The Lakes Integrated List represents lake assessments in an integrated format for the Clean Water Act...

  17. Assessment of Water Quality Conditions: Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge, 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is an assessment of water quality data collected from source water, discharge and within Agassiz Pool. In the summer of 2012, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service...

  18. Assessment of physicochemical quality of sachet water produced in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of physicochemical quality of sachet water produced in selected local ... Heavy metals tested (using AAS) include; Manganese (Mn), Arsenic (As), Zinc ... were within the permissible limits stipulated by the drinking water standards, ...

  19. Assessment of Water Supply Quality in Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of Water Supply Quality in Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria. ... collected and subjected to physical, chemical and microbial analysis to determine their ... that the surface and borehole/well Water sources are microbiologically polluted.

  20. assessment of water quality parameters of kpeshi lagoon of ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    ASSESSMENT OF WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS OF. KPESHI LAGOON OF GHANA ... Lagoons are shallow coastal bodies of water separated from the ocean by ... physico-chemical parameters. The main aim is .... factor in eutrophication.

  1. Assessment of water quality in distribution networks through the lens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of water quality in distribution networks through the lens of ... A previously modified CCME WQI (Islam et al., 2014) is adapted along with the weights to perform the assessment at the distribution network (DN). ... Article Metrics.

  2. Assessment of Drinking Water Quality from Bottled Water Coolers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Farhadkhani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Drinking water quality can be deteriorated by microbial and toxic chemicals during transport, storage and handling before using by the consumer. This study was conducted to evaluate the microbial and physicochemical quality of drinking water from bottled water coolers.A total of 64 water samples, over a 5-month period in 2012-2013, were collected from free standing bottled water coolers and water taps in Isfahan. Water samples were analyzed for heterotrophic plate count (HPC, temperature, pH, residual chlorine, turbidity, electrical conductivity (EC and total organic carbon (TOC. Identification of predominant bacteria was also performed by sequence analysis of 16S rDNA.The mean HPC of water coolers was determined at 38864 CFU/ml which exceeded the acceptable level for drinking water in 62% of analyzed samples. The HPC from the water coolers was also found to be significantly (P < 0.05 higher than that of the tap waters. The statistical analysis showed no significant difference between the values of pH, EC, turbidity and TOC in water coolers and tap waters. According to sequence analysis eleven species of bacteria were identified.A high HPC is indicative of microbial water quality deterioration in water coolers. The presence of some opportunistic pathogens in water coolers, furthermore, is a concern from a public health point of view. The results highlight the importance of a periodic disinfection procedure and monitoring system for water coolers in order to keep the level of microbial contamination under control.

  3. Coastal Water Quality Assessment by Self-Organizing Map

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIU Zhiguang; ZHANG Hongwei; ZHANG Ying

    2005-01-01

    A new approach to coastal water quality assessment was put forward through study on self-organizing map (SOM). Firstly, the water quality data of Bohai Bay from 1999 to 2002 were prepared. Then, a set of software for coastal water quality assessment was developed based on the batch version algorithm of SOM and SOM toolbox in MATLAB environment. Furthermore, the training results of SOM could be analyzed with single water quality indexes, the value of N: P( atomic ratio) and the eutrophication index E so that the data were clustered into five different pollution types using k-means clustering method. Finally, it was realized that the monitoring data serial trajectory could be tracked and the new data be classified and assessed automatically. Through application it is found that this study helps to analyze and assess the coastal water quality by several kinds of graphics, which offers an easy decision support for recognizing pollution status and taking corresponding measures.

  4. Water quality assessment in Qu River based on fuzzy water pollution index method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ranran; Zou, Zhihong; An, Yan

    2016-12-01

    A fuzzy improved water pollution index was proposed based on fuzzy inference system and water pollution index. This method can not only give a comprehensive water quality rank, but also describe the water quality situation with a quantitative value, which is convenient for the water quality comparison between the same ranks. This proposed method is used to assess water quality of Qu River in Sichuan, China. Data used in the assessment were collected from four monitoring stations from 2006 to 2010. The assessment results show that Qu River water quality presents a downward trend and the overall water quality in 2010 is the worst. The spatial variation indicates that water quality of Nanbashequ section is the pessimal. For the sake of comparison, fuzzy comprehensive evaluation and grey relational method were also employed to assess water quality of Qu River. The comparisons of these three approaches' assessment results show that the proposed method is reliable.

  5. The relevance of diatoms for water quality assessment in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relevance of diatoms for water quality assessment in South Africa: A ... Deliberate determination of responses to management strategies or impacts arising from a ... may be established to augment the current use of invertebrate indicators.

  6. National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Area-Characterization Toolbox

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is release 1.0 of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Area-Characterization Toolbox. These tools are designed to be accessed using ArcGIS Desktop...

  7. Water quality assessment of razorback sucker grow-out ponds

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Water quality parameters had never been assessed in these grow-out ponds. Historically growth, condition, and survival of razorback suckers have been variable...

  8. Groundwater quality data from the National Water-Quality Assessment Project, May 2012 through December 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Terri L.; DeSimone, Leslie A.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Lindsey, Bruce D.; Barlow, Jeannie R.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Musgrove, Marylynn; Kingsbury, James A.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2016-06-20

    Groundwater-quality data were collected from 748 wells as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Project of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Program from May 2012 through December 2013. The data were collected from four types of well networks: principal aquifer study networks, which assess the quality of groundwater used for public water supply; land-use study networks, which assess land-use effects on shallow groundwater quality; major aquifer study networks, which assess the quality of groundwater used for domestic supply; and enhanced trends networks, which evaluate the time scales during which groundwater quality changes. Groundwater samples were analyzed for a large number of water-quality indicators and constituents, including major ions, nutrients, trace elements, volatile organic compounds, pesticides, and radionuclides. These groundwater quality data are tabulated in this report. Quality-control samples also were collected; data from blank and replicate quality-control samples are included in this report.

  9. An assessment of drinking-water quality post-Haiyan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magtibay, Bonifacio; Anarna, Maria Sonabel; Fernando, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    Access to safe drinking-water is one of the most important public health concerns in an emergency setting. This descriptive study reports on an assessment of water quality in drinking-water supply systems in areas affected by Typhoon Haiyan immediately following and 10 months after the typhoon. Water quality testing and risk assessments of the drinking-water systems were conducted three weeks and 10 months post-Haiyan. Portable test kits were used to determine the presence of Escherichia coli and the level of residual chlorine in water samples. The level of risk was fed back to the water operators for their action. Of the 121 water samples collected three weeks post-Haiyan, 44% were contaminated, while 65% (244/373) of samples were found positive for E. coli 10 months post-Haiyan. For the three components of drinking-water systems - source, storage and distribution - the proportions of contaminated systems were 70%, 67% and 57%, respectively, 10 months after Haiyan. Vulnerability to faecal contamination was attributed to weak water safety programmes in the drinking-water supply systems. Poor water quality can be prevented or reduced by developing and implementing a water safety plan for the systems. This, in turn, will help prevent waterborne disease outbreaks caused by contaminated water post-disaster.

  10. STUDY OF POND WATER QUALITY BY THE ASSESSMENT OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS AND WATER QUALITY INDEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Jena

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Water quality index (WQI is a dimensionless number that combines multiple water quality factors into a single number by normalizing values to subjective rating curves. Conventionally it has been used for evaluating the quality of water for water resources suchas rivers, streams and lakes, etc. The present work is aimed at assessing the Water Quality Index (W.Q.I ofpond water and the impact of human activities on it. Physicochemical parameters were monitored for the calculation of W.Q.I for the rainy, winter and summer seasons. The parameters namely pH, Total hardness, TDS,Calcium, Chloride, Sulphate, Sodium, Potassium, EC and DO values were within the permissible limits on the other hand total alkalinities and magnesium values were exceeding the permissible limits as prescribed by IndianStandards. However, the W.Q.I values in the present investigation were reported to be 83.43, 76.598 and 91.52 for different season indicating that the pond water quality is very poor and not totally safe for human consumption.

  11. Water Quality Assessment of Ayeyarwady River in Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatoe Nwe Win, Thanda; Bogaard, Thom; van de Giesen, Nick

    2015-04-01

    Myanmar's socio-economic activities, urbanisation, industrial operations and agricultural production have increased rapidly in recent years. With the increase of socio-economic development and climate change impacts, there is an increasing threat on quantity and quality of water resources. In Myanmar, some of the drinking water coverage still comes from unimproved sources including rivers. The Ayeyarwady River is the main river in Myanmar draining most of the country's area. The use of chemical fertilizer in the agriculture, the mining activities in the catchment area, wastewater effluents from the industries and communities and other development activities generate pollutants of different nature. Therefore water quality monitoring is of utmost importance. In Myanmar, there are many government organizations linked to water quality management. Each water organization monitors water quality for their own purposes. The monitoring is haphazard, short term and based on individual interest and the available equipment. The monitoring is not properly coordinated and a quality assurance programme is not incorporated in most of the work. As a result, comprehensive data on the water quality of rivers in Myanmar is not available. To provide basic information, action is needed at all management levels. The need for comprehensive and accurate assessments of trends in water quality has been recognized. For such an assessment, reliable monitoring data are essential. The objective of our work is to set-up a multi-objective surface water quality monitoring programme. The need for a scientifically designed network to monitor the Ayeyarwady river water quality is obvious as only limited and scattered data on water quality is available. However, the set-up should also take into account the current socio-economic situation and should be flexible to adjust after first years of monitoring. Additionally, a state-of-the-art baseline river water quality sampling program is required which

  12. Water Quality Assessment in the Tsunami Areas of Banda Aceh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhendrayatna Suhendrayatna

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Water quality assessment in the tsunami-affected areas conducted in Meuraxa and Kutaradja sub-districts in the area of Banda Aceh City. Water samples were collected in October 2006 from dug wells of tsunami-affected areas. These were characterized for various physical and chemical parameters. Water quality in the selected areas has shown that the surface water was contaminated due to the tsunami. Total Dissolved Solid, Total Suspended Solid, Acidity, and salinity were high in the affected areas indicating saline water intrusion into surface water tables. Dug wells in the highly affected locations showed higher values of heavy metal ions like Mn, Pb, Cu, Fe, Zn, and Cu compared to the reference points. No ion Hg was found in all samples. Keywords: Banda Aceh, heavy metals, tsunami, water quality

  13. An assessment of groundwater quality using water quality index in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

    OpenAIRE

    I Nanda Balan; Shivakumar, M.; Madan Kumar, P. D.

    2012-01-01

    Context : Water, the elixir of life, is a prime natural resource. Due to rapid urbanization in India, the availability and quality of groundwater have been affected. According to the Central Groundwater Board, 80% of Chennai′s groundwater has been depleted and any further exploration could lead to salt water ingression. Hence, this study was done to assess the groundwater quality in Chennai city. Aim : To assess the groundwater quality using water quality index in Chennai city. Materials and ...

  14. Integrating Product Water Quality Effects In Holistic Assessments Of Water Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygaard, Martin

    2011-01-01

    economic assessment of water quality effects, production costs and environmental costs (water abstraction and CO2-emissions). Considered water quality issues include: health (dental caries, cardiovascular diseases, eczema), corrosion (lifetime of appliances, pipes), consumption of soap, and bottled water......While integrated assessments of sustainability of water systems are largely focused on quantity issues, chemical use, and energy consumption, effects of the supplied water quality are often overlooked. Drinking water quality affects corrosion rates, human health, applicability of water...... and aesthetics. Even small changes in the chemical composition of water may accumulate large impacts on city scale. Here, a method for integrated assessment of water quality is presented. Based on dose-response relationships a range of effects from different drinking water qualities is merged into a holistic...

  15. Quality assessment of Romanian bottled mineral water and tap water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M Carstea, Elfrida; Levei, Erika A; Hoaghia, Maria-Alexandra; Savastru, Roxana

    2016-09-01

    This study reports the evaluation of bottled mineral water characteristics using fluorescence spectroscopy (synchronous fluorescence scans and emission spectra) and physico-chemical analyses. Samples from 14 still mineral water brands were compared to 11 tap waters collected from two Romanian cities. Correlation and factor analyses were undertaken to understand the relationships between the individual components. The concentration of major and minor ions showed great variation between the bottled mineral water samples highlighting the diversity of the water intakes, while in the case of tap water the chemical composition was relatively similar for samples collected in the same city. Fluorescence data showed that the mineral water contained low quantities of organic matter. The humic fraction was dominant in all samples, while the microbial fraction was low in most samples. Synchronous fluorescence scans provided more information, regarding the composition of organic matter, compared to emission spectra. The study evidenced the correlation between fluorescence parameters and major elements and highlighted the potential of using fluorescence for qualitative evaluation of the bottled mineral water quality, as a screening method before undertaking complex analyses.

  16. Assessment of water supply system and water quality of Lighvan village using water safety plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Pourakbar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Continuous expansion of potable water pollution sources is one of the main concerns of water suppliers, therefore measures such as water safety plan (WSP, have been taken into account to control these sources of pollution. The aim of this study was to identify probable risks and threatening hazards to drinking water quality in Lighvan village along with assessment of bank filtration of the village. Methods: In the present study all risks and probable hazards were identified and ranked. For each of these cases, practical suggestions for removing or controlling them were given. To assess potable water quality in Lighvan village, sampling was done from different parts of the village and physicochemical parameters were measured. To assess the efficiency of bank filtration system of the village, independent t test was used to compare average values of parameters in river and treated water. Results: One of the probable sources of pollution in this study was domestic wastewater which threatens water quality. The results of this study show that bank filtration efficiency in water supply of the village is acceptable. Conclusion: Although Bank filtration imposes fewer expenses on governments, it provides suitable water for drinking and other uses. However, it should be noted that application of these systems should be done after a thorough study of water pollution level, types of water pollutants, soil properties of the area, soil percolation and system distance from pollutant sources.

  17. Water quality assessment in Kelantan delta using remote sensing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syahreza, S.; MatJafri, M. Z.; Lim, H. S.; Mustapha, M. R.

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents the utilities of remote sensing technique for water quality assessment in Kelantan Delta, Malaysia. Remote sensing is one of the effective methods for water quality monitoring through image analysis of study area. Spectral reflectance signatures of Kelantan Delta were measured from 20 stations using ASD Handheld spectroradiometer from regions with different turbidity level. Water samples collected from these stations were taken to the laboratory for measure turbidity in Nephelometric Turbidity Unit (NTU). The objective of this study is to examine the potential of ALOS on Japanese Earth Observing Satellite (JEOS) for assessing water quality in Kelantan Delta. There is a large correlation between NTU and the in-situ reflectance at 500 - 620 nm (maximum spectra band between 300 and 1100 nm) is shown by multiple linier regression model, resulting from increasing of turbidity levels, was developed and applied to ALOS band 2 and band 3 (0.42-069 nm). A simple atmospheric correction, based on darkest pixel technique was performed in this study. The ALOS data provides accurate estimates of the mean water quality (R2 = 0.95 and RMSE = 2.26 NTU). The result acquired is reliable to estimate of water quality values for the Kelantan Delta and its implication for future operation.

  18. Water quality assessment of solar-assisted adsorption desalination cycle

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Youngdeuk

    2014-07-01

    This study focuses on the water quality assessment (feed, product and brine) of the pilot adsorption desalination (AD) plant. Seawater from the Red Sea is used as feed to the AD plant. Water quality tests are evaluated by complying the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards with major primary and secondary inorganic drinking water pollutants and other commonly tested water quality parameters. Chemical testing of desalinated water at the post desalination stage confirms the high quality of produced fresh water. Test results have shown that the adsorption desalination process is very effective in eliminating all forms of salts, as evidenced by the significant reduction of the TDS levels from approximately 40,000. ppm in feed seawater to less than 10. ppm. Test results exhibit extremely low levels of parameters which are generally abundant in feed seawater. The compositions of seawater and process related parameters such as chloride, sodium, bromide, sulfate, calcium, magnesium, and silicate in desalinated water exhibit values of less than 0.1. ppm. Reported conductivity measurements of desalinated water are comparable to distilled water conductivity levels and ranged between 2 and 6. μS/cm while TOC and TIC levels are also extremely low and its value is less than 0.5. ppm. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  19. The assessment of drinking water quality using zero unitarization method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radzka Elżbieta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The work is an attempt to assess piped water quality in four counties located in east central Poland. Piped water was analysed for three successive years in each county. Water samples were tested for the following physical and chemical parameters: turbidity, colour, conductivity, taste, odour, pH, nitrates (III, nitrates (V, iron and manganese. They were compared with the current standard values. Preliminary data analysis included an analysis of maximum and minimum values of physical and chemical parameters, and it revealed that turbidity, colour, iron and manganese contents exceeded the permissible standards in all the counties. Percentages of parameters exceedances and mean values of the exceedances were used to rank the counties in terms of water quality. The ranking was obtained by means of multidimensional comparative analysis. It was demonstrated that best quality water was supplied by Węgrów County water supply system which was followed by Mińsk Mazowiecki County. The third rank was assigned to Łosice County and the poorest quality water was found to be supplied by Siedlce County water supply system.

  20. Assessing Raw and Treated Water Quality Using Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgeman, J.; Baker, A.

    2006-12-01

    To date, much fluorescence spectroscopy work has focused on the use of techniques to characterize pollution in river water and to fingerprint pollutants such as, inter alia, treated and raw sewage effluent. In the face of tightening water quality standards associated with disinfection byproducts, there exists the need for a surrogate THM parameter which can be measured accurately and quickly at the water treatment works and which will give a satisfactory indication of the THM concentration leaving the water treatment works. In addition, water treatment works and distribution system managers require tools which are simple and quick, yet robust, to monitor plant and unit process performance. We extend the use of fluorescence techniques from raw water quality monitoring to (1) the monitoring of water treatment works intakes and the assessment of water treatment works performance by (2) assessing the removal of dissolved organic matter (DOM) through the unit process stages of various water treatment works treating different raw waters and (3) examining the prevalence of microbiological activity found at service reservoirs in the downstream distribution system. 16 surface water treatment works were selected in the central region of the UK and samples taken at works' intakes, downstream of each unit process, and in the distribution systems. The intakes selected abstract water from a broad range of upland and lowland water sources with varying natural and anthropogenic pollutant inputs and significantly different flows. The treatment works selected offer a range of different, but relatively standard, unit processes. The results demonstrate that raw waters exhibit more fluorescence than (partially) treated waters. However, noticeable differences between each site are observed. Furthermore, differences in unit process performance between works are also identified and quantified. Across all sites, treatment with Granular Activated Carbon is found to yield a significant

  1. Assessing water quality trends in catchments with contrasting hydrological regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherriff, Sophie C.; Shore, Mairead; Mellander, Per-Erik

    2016-04-01

    Environmental resources are under increasing pressure to simultaneously achieve social, economic and ecological aims. Increasing demand for food production, for example, has expanded and intensified agricultural systems globally. In turn, greater risks of diffuse pollutant delivery (suspended sediment (SS) and Phosphorus (P)) from land to water due to higher stocking densities, fertilisation rates and soil erodibility has been attributed to deterioration of chemical and ecological quality of aquatic ecosystems. Development of sustainable and resilient management strategies for agro-ecosystems must detect and consider the impact of land use disturbance on water quality over time. However, assessment of multiple monitoring sites over a region is challenged by hydro-climatic fluctuations and the propagation of events through catchments with contrasting hydrological regimes. Simple water quality metrics, for example, flow-weighted pollutant exports have potential to normalise the impact of catchment hydrology and better identify water quality fluctuations due to land use and short-term climate fluctuations. This paper assesses the utility of flow-weighted water quality metrics to evaluate periods and causes of critical pollutant transfer. Sub-hourly water quality (SS and P) and discharge data were collected from hydrometric monitoring stations at the outlets of five small (~10 km2) agricultural catchments in Ireland. Catchments possess contrasting land uses (predominantly grassland or arable) and soil drainage (poorly, moderately or well drained) characteristics. Flow-weighted water quality metrics were calculated and evaluated according to fluctuations in source pressure and rainfall. Flow-weighted water quality metrics successfully identified fluctuations in pollutant export which could be attributed to land use changes through the agricultural calendar, i.e., groundcover fluctuations. In particular, catchments with predominantly poor or moderate soil drainage

  2. Drinking water quality assessment in Southern Sindh (Pakistan).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Mehrunisa; Soomro, Mohammed Saleh; Akhtar, Mohammad Saleem; Memon, Kazi Suleman

    2011-06-01

    The southern Sindh province of Pakistan adjoins the Arabian Sea coast where drinking water quality is deteriorating due to dumping of industrial and urban waste and use of agrochemicals and yet has limited fresh water resources. The study assessed the drinking water quality of canal, shallow pumps, dug wells, and water supply schemes from the administrative districts of Thatta, Badin, and Thar by measuring physical, chemical, and biological (total coliform) quality parameters. All four water bodies (dug wells, shallow pumps canal water, and water supply schemes) exceeded WHO MPL for turbidity (24%, 28%, 96%, 69%), coliform (96%, 77%, 92%, 81%), and electrical conductivity (100%, 99%, 44%, 63%), respectively. However, the turbidity was lower in underground water, i.e., 24% and 28% in dug wells and shallow pumps as compared to open water, i.e., 96% and 69% in canal and water supply schemes, respectively. In dug wells and shallow pumps, limits for TDS, alkalinity, hardness, and sodium exceeded, respectively, by 63% and 33%; 59% and 70%, 40% and 27%, and 78% and 26%. Sodium was major problem in dug wells and shallow pumps of district Thar and considerable percent in shallow pumps of Badin. Iron was major problem in all water bodies of district Badin ranging from 50% to 69% and to some extent in open waters of Thatta. Other parameters as pH, copper, manganese, zinc, and phosphorus were within standard permissible limits of World Health Organization. Some common diseases found in the study area were gastroenteritis, diarrhea and vomiting, kidney, and skin problems.

  3. Identification and assessment of potential water quality impact factors for drinking-water reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qing; Deng, Jinsong; Wang, Ke; Lin, Yi; Li, Jun; Gan, Muye; Ma, Ligang; Hong, Yang

    2014-06-10

    Various reservoirs have been serving as the most important drinking water sources in Zhejiang Province, China, due to the uneven distribution of precipitation and severe river pollution. Unfortunately, rapid urbanization and industrialization have been continuously challenging the water quality of the drinking-water reservoirs. The identification and assessment of potential impacts is indispensable in water resource management and protection. This study investigates the drinking water reservoirs in Zhejiang Province to better understand the potential impact on water quality. Altogether seventy-three typical drinking reservoirs in Zhejiang Province encompassing various water storage levels were selected and evaluated. Using fifty-two reservoirs as training samples, the classification and regression tree (CART) method and sixteen comprehensive variables, including six sub-sets (land use, population, socio-economy, geographical features, inherent characteristics, and climate), were adopted to establish a decision-making model for identifying and assessing their potential impacts on drinking-water quality. The water quality class of the remaining twenty-one reservoirs was then predicted and tested based on the decision-making model, resulting in a water quality class attribution accuracy of 81.0%. Based on the decision rules and quantitative importance of the independent variables, industrial emissions was identified as the most important factor influencing the water quality of reservoirs; land use and human habitation also had a substantial impact on water quality. The results of this study provide insights into the factors impacting the water quality of reservoirs as well as basic information for protecting reservoir water resources.

  4. An assessment of groundwater quality using water quality index in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nanda Balan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context : Water, the elixir of life, is a prime natural resource. Due to rapid urbanization in India, the availability and quality of groundwater have been affected. According to the Central Groundwater Board, 80% of Chennai′s groundwater has been depleted and any further exploration could lead to salt water ingression. Hence, this study was done to assess the groundwater quality in Chennai city. Aim : To assess the groundwater quality using water quality index in Chennai city. Materials and Methods: Chennai city was divided into three zones based on the legislative constituency and from these three zones three locations were randomly selected and nine groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for physiochemical properties. Results: With the exception of few parameters, most of the water quality assessment parameters showed parameters within the accepted standard values of Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS. Except for pH in a single location of zone 1, none of the parameters exceeded the permissible values for water quality assessment as prescribed by the BIS. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that in general the groundwater quality status of Chennai city ranged from excellent to good and the groundwater is fit for human consumption based on all the nine parameters of water quality index and fluoride content.

  5. Nationwide assessment of nonpoint source threats to water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas C. Brown; Pamela Froemke

    2012-01-01

    Water quality is a continuing national concern, in part because the containment of pollution from nonpoint (diffuse) sources remains a challenge. We examine the spatial distribution of nonpoint-source threats to water quality. On the basis of comprehensive data sets for a series of watershed stressors, the relative risk of water-quality impairment was estimated for the...

  6. Assessment of porous asphalt pavement performance: hydraulics and water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, J. F.; Ballestero, T. P.; Roseen, R. M.; Houle, J. J.

    2005-05-01

    The objective of this study is to focus on the water quality treatment and hydraulic performance of a porous asphalt pavement parking lot in Durham, New Hampshire. The site was constructed in October 2004 to assess the suitability of porous asphalt pavement for stormwater management in cold climates. The facility consists of a 4-inch asphalt open-graded friction course layer overlying a high porosity sand and gravel base. This base serves as a storage reservoir in-between storms that can slowly infiltrate groundwater. Details on the design, construction, and cost of the facility will be presented. The porous asphalt pavements is qualitatively monitored for signs of distress, especially those due to cold climate stresses like plowing, sanding, salting, and freeze-thaw cycles. Life cycle predictions are discussed. Surface infiltration rates are measured with a constant head device built specifically to test high infiltration capacity pavements. The test measures infiltration rates in a single 4-inch diameter column temporarily sealed to the pavement at its base. A surface inundation test, as described by Bean, is also conducted as a basis for comparison of results (Bean, 2004). These tests assess infiltration rates soon after installation, throughout the winter, during snowmelt, after a winter of salting, sanding, and plowing, and after vacuuming in the spring. Frost penetration into the subsurface reservoir is monitored with a frost gauge. Hydrologic effects of the system are evaluated. Water levels are monitored in the facility and in surrounding wells with continuously logging pressure transducers. The 6-inch underdrain pipe that conveys excess water in the subsurface reservoir to a riprap pad is also continuously monitored for flow. Since porous asphalt pavement systems infiltrate surface water into the subsurface, it is important to assess whether water quality treatment performance in the subsurface reservoir is adequate. The assumed influent water quality is

  7. Climate Change Impact Assessment for Sustainable Water Quality Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Pin Tung

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of sustainable water quality management is to keep total pollutant discharges from exceeding the assimilation capacity of a water body. Climate change may influence streamflows, and further alter assimilation capacity and degrade river sustainability. The purposes of this study are to evaluate the effect of climate change on sustainable water quality management and design an early warning indicator to issue warnings on river sustainability. A systematic assessment procedure is proposed here, including a weather generation model, the streamflow component of GWLF, QUAL2E, and an optimization model. The Touchen creek in Taiwan is selected as the study area. Future climate scenarios derived from projections of four global climate models (GCMs and two pollutant discharge scenarios, as usual and proportional to population, are considered in this study. The results indicate that streamflows may very likely increase in humid seasons and decrease in arid seasons, respectively. The reduction of streamflow in arid seasons may further degrade water quality and assimilation capacity. In order to provide warnings to trigger necessary adaptation strategies, an early warning indicator is designed and its 30-year moving average is calculated. Finally, environmental monitoring systems and methods to prioritize adaptation strategies are discussed for further studies in the future.

  8. Assessment of the Water Quality of Saba River, Osogbo, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwafisayo A. YUSUF

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The water quality and concentrations of selected heavy metals (cadmium, lead, and zinc in Saba River, Osogbo were assessed monthly over a period of six months with a view to providing information on the water quality of the potentially polluted urban river system. Three sampling sites were selected along the Saba River (the upper reach of the river (Station A, mid-point of the river (Station B and the lower reach of the river where it emptied into River Osun (Station C. The recorded ambient air and water temperature, pH, alkalinity conductivity, total hardness, BOD and COD, as well as the phosphate and nitrate levels of Saba River, were within the maximum allowable regulatory limits of WHO (2011. The dissolved oxygen level between March and April in all the sampling points were in the limit of putting aquatic life under stress (<5.0 mg/L. Also the alkalinity level in station B between February and June, and in Station C from February till May were however above the maximum allowable desirable range of EPA (2001 and WHO (2011. The concentration of zinc, which ranged from 717 to 1,000 µg/L, was the highest amongst the selected metals assayed in the water. However, the mean concentration of lead in the water samples collected from Stations B and C (26 µg/L and 24 µg/L, respectively was found to be above recommended regulatory acceptable limits of 20 µg/L of WHO (2011 and FEPA (2007. The study concluded that the physico-chemical indices of the water quality indicated that the river was mildly polluted.

  9. Ground-water quality assessment of the central Oklahoma aquifer, Oklahoma; analysis of available water-quality data through 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhurst, D.L.; Christenson, S.C.; Schlottmann, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    Beginning in 1986, the Congress annually has appropriated funds for the U.S. Geological Survey to test and refine concepts for a National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. The long-term goals of a full-scale program would be to: (1) Provide a nationally consistent description of current water-quality conditions for a large part of the Nation's surface- and ground-water resources; (2) Define long-term trends (or lack of trends) in water quality; and (3) Identify, describe, and explain, as possible, the major factors that affect the observed water-quality conditions and trends. The results of the NAWQA Program will be made available to water managers, policy makers, and the public, and will provide an improved scientific basis for evaluating the effectiveness of water-quality management programs. At present (1988), the assessment program is in a pilot phase in seven project areas throughout the country that represent diverse hydrologic environments and water-quality conditions. The Central Oklahoma aquifer project is one of three pilot ground-water projects. One of the initial activities performed by each pilot project was to compile, screen, and interpret the large amount of water-quality data available within each study area. The purpose of this report is to assess the water quality of the Central Oklahoma aquifer using the information available through 1987. The scope of the work includes compiling data from Federal, State, and local agencies; evaluating the suitability of the information for conducting a regional water-quality assessment; mapping regional variations in major-ion chemistry; calculating summary statistics of the available water-quality data; producing maps to show the location and number of samples that exceeded water-quality standards; and performing contingency-table analyses to determine the relation of geologic unit and depth to the occurrence of chemical constituents that exceed water-quality standards. This report provides an initial

  10. Assessment of Groundwater Quality of Ilorin Metropolis using Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akorede

    groundwater samples from Ilorin metropolis, Nigeria, using the water quality index ... index to represent gradation in water quality was first ... defined as a rating reflecting the composite influence of a ... the susceptibility of water resources to atmospheric pollutant .... are largely undifferentiated and cover about 50% of the.

  11. The assessment of khorramabad River water quality with National Sanitation Foundation Water Quality Index and Zoning by GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    abdolrahim Yusefzadeh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background : Rivers are a fraction of flowing waters in the worlds and one of the important sources of water for different consumptions such as agricultural, drinking and industrial uses. The aim of this study was to assess water quality of the Khorramrood River in Khorramabad by NSFWQI index. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, quality parameters needed for NASWQI index calculation such as BOD5, dissolved oxygen (DO, total nitrate, fecal coliform, pH, total phosphate, temperature, turbidity and total suspended solids content were measured for six months (from July to December 2012using standard methods at six selected stations. The river zoning conducted by GIS software. Results: According to the results obtained through this study, the highest and the lowest water quality value was observed in stations 1 and 6 with NSFWQI indexes 82 water with good quality, 42 water with bad quality, respectively. With moving toward last station (from 1 to 6 station water pollution increased. Conclusion: Results of the study indicated that water quality index NSFWQI is a good index to identify the effect of polluter sources on the river water. Based on the average of the index NSFWQI, water quality in station one was good, in the second, third and fourth stations were mediocre and the fifth and sixth stations had bad quality. These results allow to make decisions about monitoring and controlling water pollution sources, as well as provide different efficient uses of it by relevant authorities.

  12. Identification and Assessment of Potential Water Quality Impact Factors for Drinking-Water Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Gu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Various reservoirs have been serving as the most important drinking water sources in Zhejiang Province, China, due to the uneven distribution of precipitation and severe river pollution. Unfortunately, rapid urbanization and industrialization have been continuously challenging the water quality of the drinking-water reservoirs. The identification and assessment of potential impacts is indispensable in water resource management and protection. This study investigates the drinking water reservoirs in Zhejiang Province to better understand the potential impact on water quality. Altogether seventy-three typical drinking reservoirs in Zhejiang Province encompassing various water storage levels were selected and evaluated. Using fifty-two reservoirs as training samples, the classification and regression tree (CART method and sixteen comprehensive variables, including six sub-sets (land use, population, socio-economy, geographical features, inherent characteristics, and climate, were adopted to establish a decision-making model for identifying and assessing their potential impacts on drinking-water quality. The water quality class of the remaining twenty-one reservoirs was then predicted and tested based on the decision-making model, resulting in a water quality class attribution accuracy of 81.0%. Based on the decision rules and quantitative importance of the independent variables, industrial emissions was identified as the most important factor influencing the water quality of reservoirs; land use and human habitation also had a substantial impact on water quality. The results of this study provide insights into the factors impacting the water quality of reservoirs as well as basic information for protecting reservoir water resources.

  13. Can water quality of tubewells be assessed without chemical testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Mohammad A.; Butler, Adrian P.

    2016-04-01

    Arsenic is one of the major pollutants found in aquifers on a global scale. The screening of tubewells for arsenic has helped many people to avoid drinking from highly polluted wells in the Bengal Delta (West Bengal and Bangladesh). However, there are still many millions of tubewells in Bangladesh yet to be tested, and a substantial proportion of these are likely to contain excessive arsenic. Due to the level of poverty and lack of infrastructure, it is unlikely that the rest of the tubewells will be tested quickly. However, water quality assessment without needing a chemical testing may be helpful in this case. Studies have found that qualitative factors, such as staining in the tubewell basement and/or on utensils, can indicate subsurface geology and water quality. The science behind this staining is well established, red staining is associated with iron reduction leading to release of arsenic whilst black staining is associated with manganese reduction (any release of arsenic due to manganese reduction is sorbed back on the, yet to be reduced, iron), whereas mixed staining may indicate overlapping manganese and iron reduction at the tubewell screen. Reduction is not uniform everywhere and hence chemical water quality including dissolved arsenic varies from place to place. This is why coupling existing tubewell arsenic information with user derived staining data could be useful in predicting the arsenic status at a particular site. Using well location, depth, along with colour of staining, an assessment of both good (nutrients) and bad (toxins and pathogens) substances in the tubewell could be provided. Social-network technology, combined with increasing use of smartphones, provides a powerful opportunity for both sharing and providing feedback to the user. Here we outline how a simple digital application can couple the reception both qualitative and quantitative tubewell data into a centralised interactive database and provide manipulated feedback to an

  14. Water Quality Index for Assessment of Rudrasagar Lake Ecosystem, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyanta pal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Water quality of lakes, rivers and reservoirs in developing countries like India is being degraded because of the contaminated inflows and surrounding influence. There is a serious need for appropriate water quality monitoring for future planning and management of Lake and other type of water resources. Quality of water in Rudrasagar Lake, Tripura, India has been investigated in this paper. Water Quality Index (WQI was applied in Rudrasagar Lake India using water quality parameters like pH, Turbidity, Conductivity, Hardness, Alkalinity, Dissolved Oxygen, Biochemical Oxygen Demand and Nitrate. Based on the importance of the parameter for aquatic life the relative weight is assigned to each water quality parameter ranged from 1 to 4. Tests were performed on site using electronic measuring device as well as on Laboratory with samples of water collected from different locations of Rudrasagar Lake. It shows that water quality of Rudrasagar Lake falls within the ‗good water‘ category but marginally. Continuous monitoring of Rudrasagar lake is suggested for proper management.

  15. Assessment of microbial quality of reclaimed water, roof-harvest water, and creek water for irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The availability of water for crop irrigation is decreasing due to droughts, population growth, and pollution. The Food Safety and Modernization Act (FSMA) standards for irrigation water may also discourage growers to use poor microbial quality water for produce crop irrigation. Reclaimed water use ...

  16. Trophic state categorisation and assessment of water quality in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-04-02

    Apr 2, 2017 ... water uses, often leading to water quality deterioration, and loss of biological integrity and ... with a 5 L Ruttner-type water sampler (2.0 dm3 capacity), from ... Morphometry of the Manjirenji Dam source (ZINWA, 2014). Name.

  17. Assessment of water quality in distribution networks through the lens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-04-02

    Apr 2, 2016 ... method, which identifies the regions with relatively poor water quality and highlights the potential locations for ... intelligent decision-making based on the results and the imple- mentation of ... A water supply system where water is treated ...... Authors thankfully acknowledge the financial support of.

  18. Assessment of domestic water quality: case study, Beirut, Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korfali, Samira Ibrahim; Jurdi, Mey

    2007-12-01

    In urban cities, the environmental services are the responsibility of the public sector, where piped water supply is the norm for urban household. Likewise, in Beirut City (capital of Lebanon) official water authorities are the main supplier of domestic water through a network of piping system that leaks in many areas. Beirut City and its suburbs are overpopulated since it is the residence of 1/3 of the Lebanese citizens. Thus, Beirut suffers deficiency in meeting its water demand. Water rationing, as a remedial action, is firmly established since four decades by the Lebanese Water Authorities. Consumers resorted then to private wells to supplement their domestic water needs. Consequently, household water quality is influenced by external factors relating to well water characteristics and internal factors depending on the types of the pipes of the distribution network and cross connections to sewer pipes. These factors could result in chemical and microbial contamination of drinking water. The objective of this study is to investigate domestic water quality variation in Beirut City emerging form the aforementioned factors. The presented work encircles a typical case study of Beirut City (Ras Beirut). Results showed deterioration pattern in domestic water quality. The predicted metal species and scales within the water pipes of distribution network depended on water pH, hardness, sulfate, chloride, and iron. The corrosion of iron pipes mainly depended on Mg hardness.

  19. Water quality assessment with hierarchical cluster analysis based on Mahalanobis distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiangjun; Shao, Fengjing; Wu, Shunyao; Zhang, Hanlin; Xu, Si

    2017-07-01

    Water quality assessment is crucial for assessment of marine eutrophication, prediction of harmful algal blooms, and environment protection. Previous studies have developed many numeric modeling methods and data driven approaches for water quality assessment. The cluster analysis, an approach widely used for grouping data, has also been employed. However, there are complex correlations between water quality variables, which play important roles in water quality assessment but have always been overlooked. In this paper, we analyze correlations between water quality variables and propose an alternative method for water quality assessment with hierarchical cluster analysis based on Mahalanobis distance. Further, we cluster water quality data collected form coastal water of Bohai Sea and North Yellow Sea of China, and apply clustering results to evaluate its water quality. To evaluate the validity, we also cluster the water quality data with cluster analysis based on Euclidean distance, which are widely adopted by previous studies. The results show that our method is more suitable for water quality assessment with many correlated water quality variables. To our knowledge, it is the first attempt to apply Mahalanobis distance for coastal water quality assessment.

  20. Water-quality assessment of the American River, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulters, M.V.

    1982-01-01

    Based on an analysis of water-quality data from more than 168 sites, the American River was found to be of overall good quality and suitable for all beneficial uses specified by the State of California, even though its natural condition has been altered by man 's activities in the basin. Time trend analyses indicate an increase in specific conductance (dissolved solids), hardness, and alkalinity over the past 20 years in the lower American River near Sacramento downstream from treated effluent and urban runoff sources. Most violations of specific water quality objectives for the basin have occurred in this segment. Water-quality conditions in the segment are expected to improve in 1982 when sewage treatment facility discharges will be discontinued. Potential water-quality problems in the upper American River basin could result from recreational overuse, improper land-use or poorly managed mining operations. Recreational overuse and increased urban runoff are the principal threats to water quality in the lower American River. Proposed monitoring activities include low-flow investigations on the lower American to measure diurnal variations in water-quality characteristics and studies in the uppper basin to determine the impact of increasing recreation and development as well as the effects of mine discharge. (USGS)

  1. Equivalence versus classical statistical tests in water quality assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngatia, Murage; Gonzalez, David; San Julian, Steve; Conner, Arin

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate whether two unattended field organic carbon instruments could provide data comparable to laboratory-generated data, we needed a practical assessment. Null hypothesis statistical testing (NHST) is commonly utilized for such evaluations in environmental assessments, but researchers in other disciplines have identified weaknesses that may limit NHST's usefulness. For example, in NHST, large sample sizes change p-values and a statistically significant result can be obtained by merely increasing the sample size. In addition, p-values can indicate that observed results are statistically significantly different, but in reality the differences could be trivial in magnitude. Equivalence tests, on the other hand, allow the investigator to incorporate decision criteria that have practical relevance to the study. In this paper, we demonstrate the potential use of equivalence tests as an alternative to NHST. We first compare data between the two field instruments, and then compare the field instruments' data to laboratory-generated data using both NHST and equivalence tests. NHST indicated that the data between the two field instruments and the data between the field instruments and the laboratory were significantly different. Equivalence tests showed that the data were equivalent because they fell within a pre-determined equivalence interval based on our knowledge of laboratory precision. We conclude that equivalence tests provide more useful comparisons and interpretation of water quality data than NHST and should be more widely used in similar environmental assessments.

  2. Water quality assessment using water quality index and geographical information system methods in the coastal waters of Andaman Sea, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Dilip Kumar; Devi, Marimuthu Prashanthi; Vidyalakshmi, Rajendran; Brindha, Balan; Vinithkumar, Nambali Valsalan; Kirubagaran, Ramalingam

    2015-11-15

    Seawater samples at 54 stations in the year 2011-2012 from Chidiyatappu, Port Blair, Rangat and Aerial Bays of Andaman Sea, have been investigated in the present study. Datasets obtained have been converted into simple maps using coastal water quality index (CWQI) and Geographical Information System (GIS) based overlay mapping technique to demarcate healthy and polluted areas. Analysis of multiple parameters revealed poor water quality in Port Blair and Rangat Bays. The anthropogenic activities may be the likely cause for poor water quality. Whereas, good water quality was witnessed at Chidiyatappu Bay. Higher CWQI scores were perceived in the open sea. However, less exploitation of coastal resources owing to minimal anthropogenic activity indicated good water quality index at Chidiyatappu Bay. This study is an attempt to integrate CWQI and GIS based mapping technique to derive a reliable, simple and useful output for water quality monitoring in coastal environment.

  3. Groundwater Quality Assessment Based on Improved Water Quality Index in Pengyang County, Ningxia, Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Pei-Yue

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to assess the groundwater quality in Pengyang County based on an improved water quality index. An information entropy method was introduced to assign weight to each parameter. For calculating WQI and assess the groundwater quality, total 74 groundwater samples were collected and all these samples subjected to comprehensive physicochemical analysis. Each of the groundwater samples was analyzed for 26 parameters and for computing WQI 14 parameters were chosen including chloride, sulphate, pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD, total dissolved solid (TDS, total hardness (TH, nitrate, ammonia nitrogen, fluoride, total iron (Tfe, arsenic, iodine, aluminum, nitrite, metasilicic acid and free carbon dioxide. At last a zoning map of different water quality was drawn. Information entropy weight makes WQI perfect and makes the assessment results more reasonable. The WQI for 74 samples ranges from 12.40 to 205.24 and over 90% of the samples are below 100. The excellent quality water area covers nearly 90% of the whole region. The high value of WQI has been found to be closely related with the high values of TDS, fluoride, sulphate, nitrite and TH. In the medium quality water area and poor quality water area, groundwater needs some degree of pretreated before consumption. From the groundwater conservation view of point, the groundwater still need protection and long term monitoring in case of future rapid industrial development. At the same time, preventive actions on the agricultural non point pollution sources in the plain area are also need to be in consideration.

  4. Using Insects as Bio-Indicators to Assess Water Quality of Albanian Rivers

    OpenAIRE

    , Anila Paparisto; , Elton Halimi; , Erjola Keçi; , Etleva Hamzaraj; , Odeta Laknori

    2016-01-01

    The communities of aquatic insects are affected by several factors related to water quality, stream morphology, food availability and quality. Among aquatic insects, Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera CEPT) are very important in assessing water quality. As well as chemical indicators, bio-indicators are used in to deŞne the water quality. EPT (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera) richness biotic index and TV are used to classify the water quality level of three Albanian rivers (V...

  5. THE ASSESSMENT OF AIR AND WATER QUALITY OF SHARRA LANDFILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bani

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The waste disposal site of Sharra represents the first landfill for the management of solid wastes in Albania designed in accordance to the European Union standards for the management and administration of solid wastes. The objective of this study was to realize a general assessment of the environmental state in the areas nearby Sharra, after the implementation of the landfill as a remediation method. Water and air samples have been periodically collected and analyzed before and after the remediation of the waste disposal site of Sharra, respectively on the years 2008 and 2009. Results show that the measured indicators used to assess the quality of air such as; solid particles, PM10, NO2, H2S, CH4 reach the respective average values of 372 μg m-3, 216 μg m-3, 97 μg m-3, 0.8 μg m-3, 350 μg m-3 in 2008 and 72 μg m-3, 30 μg m-3, 29 μg m-3, 0.22 μg m-3, 41 μg m-3, in the year 2009. Before the remediation, except H2S the concentrations of all the other components in air exceed the Albanian and European Union limits whereas in 2009 these values have dropped under the mentioned limits. The concentration of heavy metals (mg L-1 in the surface waters exceeds the allowed limits for Ni (0.002-0.08, Mn (0.6, Cr (0.19-0.33 and Fe (0.2-3.5. As regards to the quality of surface water; some of the indicators such as EC, Cl-, NO2- resulted to surpass the above mentioned limits even after the implementation of the landfill. Based on the obtained results, further actions should be considered to be carried out in order to assure the collection and remediation of the landfill leaching prior they join the Erzeni River.

  6. Assessment of Ground Water Quality by Using Water Quality Index Method of Berhampur Town in Odisha, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ejaz Ahmed

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Berhampur, the silk city of Odisha (India is under the process of rapid urbanization with human population exceeding more than four lacks. Such growth in population of Berhampur Municipal Corporation has increased the requirement of water for human activities. Due to this reason the huge amount of waste water is generated which is discharged to the Bay of Bengal through small sewage system. The present study is carried out the impact of ground water quality status of Berhampur town. The water samples collected from ten different locations have been chosen separately across Berhampur Municipal Corporation depending on pollution load and water logging. The samples were collected in three different seasons i.e monsoon (MN, June-September, post monsoon (PM, November-January and pre monsoon (PRM, March-May and to determine the physical, chemical and biological parameters. The WQI reflects a composite influence of contributing factors on the quality of water for any type of water system. So WQI is an important parameter for assessment and management of ground water. Now a day’s water quality of different water system has been communicated on the basis of calculated WQI. The presents study revels that water quality index is 1 to 10 sampling station (S-1, S-2, S-4, S-5, S-6, S-7, S-8 come under good water quality and station (S-3, S-9, S-10 belongs to poor water. This may be due the sewage water logging in those study area which will definitely put serious impact up on socio-economic development of the people in this area in future.

  7. Assessment of Groundwater Quality of Ilorin Metropolis using Water Quality Index Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Olatunji

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater as a source of potable water is becoming more important in Nigeria. Therefore, the need to ascertain the continuing potability of the sources cannot be over emphasised. This study is aimed at assessing the quality of selected groundwater samples from Ilorin metropolis, Nigeria, using the water quality index (WQI method. Twenty two water samples were collected, 10 samples from boreholes and 12 samples from hand dug wells. All these were analysed for their physico – chemical properties. The parameters used for calculating the water quality index include the following: pH, total hardness, total dissolved solid, calcium, fluoride, iron, potassium, sulphate, nitrate and carbonate. The water quality index for the twenty two samples ranged from 0.66 to 756.02 with an average of 80.77. Two of the samples exceeded 100, which is the upper limit for safe drinking water. The high values of WQI from the sampling locations are observed to be due to higher values of iron and fluoride. This study reveals that the investigated groundwaters are mostly potable and can be consumed without treatment. Nonetheless, the sources identified to be unsafe should be treated before consumption.

  8. Assessment of Ground Water Quality in Rajajinagar of Bangalore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alimuddin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Water borne diseases continue to be a dominant cause of water borne morbidities and mortality all over the world. Hence, drinking water needs to be protected from pollution and biological contamination. Ground water samples were collected from ten different sampling point in Rajajinagar area of Bangalore and analysed for water quality parameters viz. pH , total alkalinity, chloride, total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, dissolved oxygen, BOD, COD and total hardness. The pH value of the study area ranges between 7.3 to 8.4 indicating that ground water is slightly alkaline. The total alkalinity are varied in the range from 122 to 282 mg/l which is well within the limit prescribed by BIS. The TDS value found from 397 to 546 mg/l. The values of hardness of water ranges from 125 to 267 mg/l which is within the prescribed limit as per BIS.

  9. Water Quality Assessment of the Semenyih River, Selangor, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawaz Al-Badaii

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the Semenyih River water quality based on the physicochemical and biological parameters. The sampling was conducted in dry and rainy seasons during 2012. Water samples were collected from 8 stations along the river and analyzed using standard methods. The results showed that temperature, pH, conductivity, TDS, SO4, and TH were classified as class I, while DO, turbidity, and BOD were categorized under class II, and NH3-N, TSS, COD, and OG were categorized as class III based on NWQS, Malaysia. Moreover, NO3 was classified under class IV, while PO4 and FC were categorized as class V and exceeded the allowable threshold levels. Therefore, the river was slightly polluted with NH3-N, TSS, COD, and NO3, whereas it is extremely contaminated with PO4 and FC. Furthermore, cluster analysis classified 8 sampling stations into three clusters based on similarities of water quality features. Furthermore, factor analysis of the water quality datasets generated three factors with total variance of 94.05% and pointed out that water quality deterioration in the river was associated with industrial and agricultural activities, livestock farming, and erosion. Therefore, the river water can be used for irrigation with precaution but extensive treatment needed before using for domestic purposes.

  10. Fraser River watershed, Colorado : assessment of available water-quantity and water-quality data through water year 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apodaca, Lori Estelle; Bails, Jeffrey B.

    1999-01-01

    The water-quantity and water-quality data for the Fraser River watershed through water year 1997 were compiled for ground-water and surface-water sites. In order to assess the water-quality data, the data were related to land use/land cover in the watershed. Data from 81 water-quantity and water-quality sites, which consisted of 9 ground-water sites and 72 surface-water sites, were available for analysis. However, the data were limited and frequently contained only one or two water-quality analyses per site.The Fraser River flows about 28 miles from its headwaters at the Continental Divide to the confluence with the Colorado River. Ground-water resources in the watershed are used for residential and municipal drinking-water supplies. Surface water is available for use, but water diversions in the upper parts of the watershed reduce the flow in the river. Land use/land cover in the watershed is predominantly forested land, but increasing urban development has the potential to affect the quantity and quality of the water resources.Analysis of the limited ground-water data in the watershed indicates that changes in the land use/land cover affect the shallow ground-water quality. Water-quality data from eight shallow monitoring wells in the alluvial aquifer show that iron and manganese concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary maximum contaminant level. Radon concentrations from these monitoring wells exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency proposed maximum contaminant level. The proposed radon contaminant level is currently being revised. The presence of volatile organic compounds at two monitoring wells in the watershed indicates that land use affects the shallow ground water. In addition, bacteria detected in three samples are at concentrations that would be a concern for public health if the water was to be used as a drinking supply. Methylene blue active substances were detected in the ground water at some sites and are a

  11. Needs Assessment for the Use of NASA Remote Sensing Data for Regulatory Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiering, Bruce; Underwood, Lauren

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the assessment of the needs that NASA can use for the remote sensing of water quality. The goal of this project is to provide information for decision-making activities (water quality standards) using remotely sensed/satellite based water quality data from MODIS and Landsat data.

  12. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - Lakes Assessments - Non Attaining

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This layer shows only non attaining lakes of the Integrated List. The Lakes Integrated List represents lake assessments in an integrated format for the Clean Water...

  13. ASSESSMENT OF SURFACE WATER QUALITY IN AN ARSENIC CONTAMINATED VILLAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumud C. Saikia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic contamination of ground water has occurred in various parts of the world, becoming a menace in the Ganga-Meghna-Brahmaputra basin (West Bengal and Assam in India and Bangladesh. Recently arsenic has been detected in Cachar and Karimganj districts of barak valley, Assam, bordering Bangladesh. In this area coli form contamination comprises the major constraint towards utilization of its otherwise ample surface water resources. The local water management exploited ground water sources using a centralized piped water delivery scheme without taking into account the geologically arsenic-prone nature of the sediments and aquifers in this area. Thus surface water was the suggestive alternative for drinking water in this area. The present study investigated surface water quality and availability in a village of Karimganj district, Assam, India contaminated with arsenic for identifying the potential problems of surface water quality maintenance so that with effective management safe drinking water could be provided. The study revealed that the area was rich in freshwater ecosystems which had all physico-chemical variables such as water temperature, pH, DO, total alkalinity, free CO2, heavy metals like lead, chromium and cadmium within WHO standards. In contrast, coli form bacteria count was found far beyond permissible limit in all the sources. Around 60% people of the village preferred ground water for drinking and only 6% were aware of arsenic related problems. The problem of bacterial contamination could be controlled by implementing some ameliorative measures so that people can safely use surface water. Inhabitants of the two districts should be given proper education regarding arsenic contamination and associated health risk. Effluents should be treated to acceptable levels and standards before discharging them into natural streams.

  14. Biological methods used to assess surface water quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szczerbiñska Natalia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with the guidelines of the Water Framework Directive 2000/60 (WFD, both ecological and chemical statuses determine the assessment of surface waters. The profile of ecological status is based on the analysis of various biological components, and physicochemical and hydromorphological indicators complement this assessment. The aim of this article is to present the biological methods used in the assessment of water status with a special focus on bioassay, as well as to provide a review of methods of monitoring water status. Biological test methods include both biomonitoring and bioanalytics. Water biomonitoring is used to assess and forecast the status of water. These studies aim to collect data on water pollution and forecast its impact. Biomonitoring uses organisms which are characterized by particular vulnerability to contaminants. Bioindicator organisms are algae, fungi, bacteria, larval invertebrates, cyanobacteria, macroinvertebrates, and fish. Bioanalytics is based on the receptors of contaminants that can be biologically active substances. In bioanalytics, biosensors such as viruses, bacteria, antibodies, enzymes, and biotests are used to assess degrees of pollution.

  15. Water quality assessment of the Sinos River – RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Steffens

    Full Text Available Worldwide environmental pollution is increasing at the same rate as social and economic development. This growth, however, is disorganized and leads to increased degradation of water resources. Water, which was once considered inexhaustible, has become the focus of environmental concerns because it is essential for life and for many production processes. This article describes monitoring of the water quality at three points along the Sinos River (RS, Brazil, one in each of the upper, middle and lower stretches. The points were sampled in 2013 and again in 2014. The water samples were analyzed to determine the following physical and chemical parameters plus genotoxicity to fish: metals (Cr, Fe, Al, chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand, chlorides, conductivity, total suspended solids, total phosphorous, total and fecal coliforms, pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, total Kjeldahl nitrogen nitrate and ammoniacal nitrogen. Genotoxicity was tested by exposing individuals of the species Astyanax jacuhiensis to water samples and then comparing them with a control group exposed to water from the public water supply. The results confirmed the presence of substances with genotoxic potential at the sample points located in the middle and lower stretches of the river. The results for samples from the upper stretch, at P1, did not exhibit differences in relation to the control group. The physical and chemical analyses did not detect reductions in water quality in the lower stretch, as had been expected in view of the large volumes of domestic and industrial effluents discharged into this part of the river.

  16. Water quality assessment of the Sinos River, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KK. Blume

    Full Text Available The Sinos River basin is located Northeast of the state of Rio Grande do Sul (29º 20' to 30º 10' S and 50º 15' to 51º20'W, Southern Brazil, covering two geomorphologic provinces: the Southern plateau and central depression. It is part of the Guaíba basin and has an area of approximately 800 km², encompassing 32 municipalities. The objective of this study was to monitor water quality in the Sinos River, the largest river in this basin. Water samples were collected at four selected sites in the Sinos River, and the following parameters were analysed: pH, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5, turbidity, fecal coliforms, total dissolved solids, temperature, nitrate, nitrite, phosphorous, chromium, lead, aluminum, zinc, iron, and copper. The results were analysed based on Resolution No. 357/2005 of the Brazilian National Environmental Council (CONAMA regarding regulatory limits for residues in water. A second analysis was performed based on a water quality index (WQI used by the Sinos River Basin Management Committee (COMITESINOS. Poor water quality in the Sinos River presents a worrying scenario for the region, since this river is the main source of water supply for the urban core. Health conditions found in the Sinos River, mainly in its lower reaches, are worrying and a strong indicator of human activities on the basin.

  17. Hydrogeochemistry and Water Quality Index in the Assessment of Groundwater Quality for Drinking Uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batabyal, Asit Kumar; Chakraborty, Surajit

    2015-07-01

    The present investigation is aimed at understanding the hydrogeochemical parameters and development of a water quality index (WQI) to assess groundwater quality of a rural tract in the northwest of Bardhaman district of West Bengal, India. Groundwater occurs at shallow depths with the maximum flow moving southeast during pre-monsoon season and south in post-monsoon period. The physicochemical analysis of groundwater samples shows the major ions in the order of HCO3>Ca>Na>Mg>Cl>SO4 and HCO3>Ca>Mg>Na>Cl>SO4 in pre- and post-monsoon periods, respectively. The groundwater quality is safe for drinking, barring the elevated iron content in certain areas. Based on WQI values, groundwater falls into one of three categories: excellent water, good water, and poor water. The high value of WQI is because of elevated concentration of iron and chloride. The majority of the area is occupied by good water in pre-monsoon and poor water in post-monsoon period.

  18. Comparative assessment of water quality parameters of mariculture for fish production in Hong Kong Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, H M; Leung, S K S; Au, C K; Cheung, K C; Wong, Y K; Leung, A O W; Yung, K K L

    2015-05-15

    The objective of the study is to evaluate the effect of fish cultivation on water quality in fish culture zone (FCZ) and analysed by Principle Component Analysis (PCA). 120 surface water samples were collected from Hong Kong Waters (60 samples in Victoria Harbour and another 60 in Ma Wan FCZ). Significant difference was found in dissolved oxygen (MW: 59.6%; VH: 81.3%), and Escherichia coli (MW: 465 CFU/100 ml; VH: 162.5 CFU/100 ml). Three principle components are responsible for water quality variations in the studying sites. The first component included E. coli (0.625) and dissolved oxygen (0.701). The second included E. coli (0.387) and ammonical-nitrogen (0.571). The third included E. coli (0.194) and ammonical-nitrogen (0.287). This framework provides information to assess the relative contribution of eco-aquaculture to nutrient loads and the subsequent risk of eutrophication. To conclude, a rigorous monitoring of water quality is necessary to assess point and nonpoint source pollution. Besides, appropriate remediation techniques should be used to combat water pollution and achieve sustainability.

  19. Drinking water quality assessment of rain water harvested in ferrocement tanks in Alappuzha District, Kerala (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Jainy; Jaya, D S

    2008-04-01

    The study was conducted to assess the physico-chemical and bacteriological quality of stored rain water in the ferrocement tanks of Alappuzha District, Kerala (India). Representative water samples were collected on random basis from ten stations (S1 to S10) with rain water harvesting facility during the periods January 2006 and April 2006. The present study revealed that the physico-chemical characteristics of stored rain water analysed during the winter and summer seasons were within the permissible drinking water standard limits prescribed by W.H.O. Microbiological analysis showed that most of the stored rainwater samples had microbial contamination in both winter and summer seasons and the bacterial count was above the permissible standards for drinking water. Faecal coliforms were also detected in the stored rain water samples collected from eight stations during the summer season. The present study revealed that the quality of stored rain water is suitable for drinking purpose in terms of physical and chemical characteristics. However, disinfection is necessary to make the water microbially safe for drinking purposes.

  20. Water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquatic animals are healthiest and grow best when environmental conditions are within certain ranges that define, for a particular species, “good” water quality. From the outset, successful aquaculture requires a high-quality water supply. Water quality in aquaculture systems also deteriorates as an...

  1. Accounting for potassium and magnesium in irrigation water quality assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D. Oster

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation with treated wastewater is expected to increase significantly in California during the coming decade as a way to reduce the impact of drought and mitigate water transfer issues. To ensure that such wastewater reuse does not result in unacceptable impacts on soil permeability, water quality guidelines must effectively address sodicity hazard. However, current guidelines are based on the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR and thus assume that potassium (K and magnesium (Mg, which often are at elevated concentrations in recycled wastewaters, pose no hazard, despite many past studies to the contrary. Recent research has established that the negative effects of high K and Mg concentrations on soil permeability are substantial and that they can be accounted for by a new irrigation water quality parameter, the cation ratio of structural stability (CROSS, a generalization of SAR. We show that CROSS, when suitably optimized, correlates strongly with a standard measure of soil permeability reduction for an agricultural soil leached with winery wastewater, and that it can be incorporated directly into existing irrigation water quality guidelines by replacing SAR.

  2. Evaluation of intra-annual variation in U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Assessment ground water quality data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Michael R; Voss, Frank D; Arufe, Jorge A

    2008-01-01

    Assessment of ground-water quality trends under the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) included the analysis of samples collected on a quarterly basis for 1 yr between 2001 and 2005. The purpose of this quarterly sampling was to test the hypothesis that variations in the concentration of water-quality parameters of selected individual wells could demonstrate that the intra-annual variation was greater or less than the decadal changes observed for a trend network. Evaluation of more than 100 wells over this period indicates that 1 yr of quarterly sampling is not adequate to address the issue of intra-annual variation because variations seem to be random and highly variable between different wells in the same networks and among networks located in different geographical areas of the USA. In addition, the data from only 1 yr makes it impossible to assess whether variations are due to univariate changes caused by land use changes, hydrologic variations due to variable recharge, or variations caused by ground-water pumping. These data indicate that funds allocated to this activity can be directed to the collection of more effective trend data, including age dating of all wells in the NAWQA network using multiple techniques. Continued evaluation of data and updating of monitoring plans of the NAWQA program is important for maintaining relevance to national goals and scientific objectives.

  3. Assessment of Ganga river ecosystem at Haridwar, Uttarakhand, India with reference to water quality indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutiani, R.; Khanna, D. R.; Kulkarni, Dipali Bhaskar; Ruhela, Mukesh

    2016-06-01

    The river Ganges is regarded as one of the most holy and sacred rivers of the world from time immemorial. The evaluation of river water quality is a critical element in the assessment of water resources. The quality/potability of water that is consumed defines the base line of protection against many diseases and infections. The present study aimed to calculate Water Quality Index (WQI) by the analysis of sixteen physico-chemical parameters on the basis of River Ganga index of Ved Prakash, weighted arithmetic index and WQI by National sanitation foundation (NSF) to assess the suitability of water for drinking, irrigation purposes and other human uses. These three water quality indices have been used to assess variation in the quality of the River Ganga at monitored locations over an 11-year period. Application of three different indexes to assess the water quality over a period of 11 years shows minor variations in water quality. Index values as per River Ganga Index by Ved Prakash et al. from 2000 to 2010 ranged between medium to good, Index values as per NSF Index for years 2000-2010 indicate good water quality, while Index values as per the weighted arithmetic index method for the study period indicate poor water quality.

  4. Assessing temporal representativeness of water quality monitoring data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anttila, Saku; Ketola, Mirva; Vakkilainen, Kirsi; Kairesalo, Timo

    2012-02-01

    The effectiveness of different monitoring methods in detecting temporal changes in water quality depends on the achievable sampling intervals, and how these relate to the extent of temporal variation. However, water quality sampling frequencies are rarely adjusted to the actual variation of the monitoring area. Manual sampling, for example, is often limited by the level of funding and not by the optimal timing to take samples. Restrictions in monitoring methods therefore often determine their ability to estimate the true mean and variance values for a certain time period or season. Consequently, we estimated how different sampling intervals determine the mean and standard deviation in a specific monitoring area by using high frequency data from in situ automated monitoring stations. Raw fluorescence measurements of chlorophyll a for three automated monitoring stations were calibrated by using phycocyanin fluorescence measurements and chlorophyll a analyzed from manual water samples in a laboratory. A moving block bootstrap simulation was then used to estimate the standard errors of the mean and standard deviations for different sample sizes. Our results showed that in a temperate, meso-eutrophic lake, relatively high errors in seasonal statistics can be expected from monthly sampling. Moreover, weekly sampling yielded relatively small accuracy benefits compared to a fortnightly sampling. The presented method for temporal representation analysis can be used as a tool in sampling design by adjusting the sampling interval to suit the actual temporal variation in the monitoring area, in addition to being used for estimating the usefulness of previously collected data.

  5. Assessment of human impact on water quality along Manyame River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirivashe P. Masere

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Human activities such as urbanization, agriculture, sewage treatment and industrialization are affecting water resources both quantitatively and qualitatively. The impact of these activities were studied by measuring and determining the concentration and values of eight selected water quality parameters namely nitrates, phosphates, copper, iron, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, dissolved oxygen (DO, pH and turbidity along Manyame River, in the Manyame Catchment. Thirty five sites were sampled from the source of the river which is at Seke Dam, along Manyame River and on the tributaries (Ruwa, Nyatsime, Mukuvisi and Marimba just before they join the river. The 35 sites were categorized into 5 groups (A, B, C, D and E with group A and E being the upstream and downstream of Manyame. The analysis of results was undertaken using a simple one-way ANOVA with group as the only source of variation. Turbidity values, nitrate and phosphate concentrations were found to be higher than the Zimbabwe National Water Authority (ZINWA maximum permissible standards for surface waters. DO saturation in the downstream groups was less than 75% (ZINWA standard. Agricultural and urban runoff and sewage effluent were responsible of the high nutrient levels and turbidity, which in turn, reduced the dissolved oxygen (DO.

  6. Water Quality Assessment of Various Sources in Rural Areas in the Lowveld Region of Swaziland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amos Olutola Fadiran

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses water quality levels of sources used by rural communities in the lowveld region of Swaziland. The water quality assessments are based on household perceptions about water quality and laboratory water quality analyses which were carried out on selected water quality parameters. A total of 180 household heads were interviewed and in addition water samples from 13 locations were analysed. The parameters considered were physical factors including pH, colour, taste and odour. Results of pH tests indicated that 23.1% of the water sources were acidic, 7.7% were neutral and 69.2% were alkaline. Water collected from the unprotected wells tested acidic, had a pH of 5.96, implying that it is corrosive and might present health risks to humans and livestock. Sources with highly alkaline water were the borehole, spring, hot spring standpipes, and rivers. Survey findings show that colour, taste, smell and turbidity are the quality parameters mostly used by rural households to determine water suitability for domestic use. Most ground water sources were found to have saline water due to low ground water recharge in the area. Water quality remains a sustainable development challenge in the rural areas of Swaziland.

  7. Water-quality assessment of the Smith River drainage basin, California and Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwatsubo, Rick T.; Washabaugh, Donna S.

    1982-01-01

    A water-quality assessment of the Smith River drainage basin was made to provide a summary of the water-quality conditions including known or potential water-quality problems. Results of the study showed that the water quality of the Smith River is excellent and generally meets the water-quality objectives for the beneficial uses identified by the California Regional Water Quality Control Board, North Coast Region. Known and potential problems related to water quality include: Sedimentation resulting from both natural erosional processes and land-use activities such as timber harvest, road construction, and mining that accelerate the erosional processes; bacterial contamination of surface and ground waters from inundated septic tanks and drainfields, and grazing activities; industrial spills which have resulted in fish kills and oil residues; high concetrations of iron in ground water; log and debris jams creating fish migration barriers; and pesticide and trace-element contamination from timber-harvest and mining activities, respectively. Future studies are needed to establish: (1) a sustained long-term monitoring program to provide a broad coverage of water-quality conditions in order to define long-term water-quality trends; and (2) interpretive studies to determine the source of known and potential water-quality problems. (USGS)

  8. Water-quality assessment of the Sacramento River basin, California : water quality of fixed sites, 1996-1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domagalski, Joseph L.; Dileanis, Peter D.

    2000-01-01

    Water-quality samples were collected from 12 sites in the Sacramento River Basin, Cali-fornia, from February 1996 through April 1998. Field measurements (dissolved oxygen, pH, specific conductance, alkalinity, and water tem-perature) were completed on all samples, and laboratory analyses were done for suspended sediments, nutrients, dissolved and particulate organic carbon, major ions, trace elements, and mercury species. Samples were collected at four types of locations on the Sacramento River?large tributaries to the Sacramento River, agricul-tural drainage canals, an urban stream, and a flood control channel. The samples were collected across a range of flow conditions representative of those sites during the timeframe of the study. The water samples from the Sacramento River indi-cate that specific conductance increases slightly downstream but that the water quality is indicative of dilute water. Water temperature of the Sacramento River increases below Shasta Lake during the spring and summer irrigation season owing to diversion of water out of the river and subsequent lower flow. All 12 sites had generally low concentrations of nutrients, but chlorophyll concentrations were not measured; therefore, the actual consequences of nutrient loading could not be adequately assessed. Concentrations of dis-solved organic carbon in samples from the Sacramento River and the major tributaries were generally low; the formation of trihalomethanes probably does not currently pose a problem when water from the Sacramento River and its major tributaries is chlorinated for drinking-water purposes. However, dissolved organic carbon concentrations were higher in the urban stream and in agricultural drainage canals, but were diluted upon mixing with the Sacramento River. The only trace element that currently poses a water-quality problem in the Sacramento River is mercury. A federal criterion for the protection of aquatic life was exceeded during this study, and floodwater

  9. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as an integrated toxicological tool to assess water quality and pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavijo, Araceli; Kronberg, María Florencia; Rossen, Ariana; Moya, Aldana; Calvo, Daniel; Salatino, Santa Esmeralda; Pagano, Eduardo Antonio; Morábito, José Antonio; Munarriz, Eliana Rosa

    2016-11-01

    Determination of water quality status in rivers is critical to establish a sustainable water management policy. For this reason, over the last decades it has been recommended to perform integrated water assessments that include water quantities and physicochemical, ecological and toxicological tests. However, sometimes resources are limited and it is not possible to perform large-scale chemical determinations of pollutants or conduct numerous ecotoxicological tests. To overcome this problem we use and measure the growth, as a response parameter, of the soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to assess water quality in rivers. The C. elegans is a ubiquitous organism that has emerged as an important model organism in aquatic and soil toxicology research. The Tunuyán River Basin (Province of Mendoza, Argentina) has been selected as a representative traditional water monitoring system to test the applicability of the C. elegans toxicological bioassay to generate an integrated water quality evaluation. Jointly with the C. elegans toxic assays, physicochemical and bacteriological parameters were determined for each monitoring site. C. elegans bioassays help to identify different water qualities in the river basin. Multivariate statistical analysis (PCA and linear regression models) has allowed us to confirm that traditional water quality studies do not predict potential toxic effects on living organisms. On the contrary, physicochemical and bacteriological analyzes explain water quality threats. Our results confirm that the C. elegans bioassay is a sensible and suitable tool to assess toxicity and should be implemented in routine water quality monitoring.

  10. Integrating water quality modeling with ecological risk assessment for nonpoint source pollution control: A conceptual framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y.D.; McCutcheon, S.C.; Rasmussen, T.C.; Nutter, W.L.; Carsel, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    The historical development of water quality protection goals and strategies in the United States is reviewed. The review leads to the identification and discussion of three components (i.e., management mechanism, environmental investigation approaches, and environmental assessment and criteria) for establishing a management framework for nonpoint source pollution control. Water quality modeling and ecological risk assessment are the two most important and promising approaches to the operation of the proposed management framework. A conceptual framework that shows the general integrative relationships between water quality modeling and ecological risk assessment is presented. (Copyright (c) 1993 IAWQ.)

  11. Water-quality assessment of part of the Upper Mississippi River Basin, Minnesota and Wisconsin - Ground-water quality in an agricultural area of Sherburne County, Minnesota, 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhl, James F.; Fong, Alison L.; Hanson, Paul E.; Andrews, William J.

    2000-01-01

    The quality of shallow ground water in a 75-mi2 agricultural area of the Anoka Sand Plain aquifer in central Minnesota is described as part of the National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program - a national-scale assessment of the quality of water resources within large study units in various hydrologic settings. Data were collected during 1998 from 29 wells completed in the aquifer, which predominantly consists of surficial glacial sand and gravel sediments.

  12. Remotely Sensed Optical Water Quality for Water Quality Assessment and Seagrass Protection in Florida's Big Bend Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, P. R.; Hu, C.; Cannizarro, J.; Yarbro, L. A.; English, D. C.; Magley, W.; Charbonneau, M.; Barnes, B.

    2012-12-01

    Florida's Big Bend coastal region contains the second largest contiguous seagrass bed in the continental US. Approximately 250,000 ha of seagrass have been mapped in the region, but the total area of offshore seagrass beds might be several times greater. The Suwannee River drains a largely agricultural watershed (26,000 km2) in Georgia and Florida, and its discharge (x= 280 m3/s) affects water clarity over most of the Big Bend seagrass beds. Seagrass density, species composition and areal extent were severely affected by discharge associated with tropical cyclones in 2004 and 2005, focusing attention on this important resource and the near- and far-field impacts of the Suwannee River discharge. The Lower Suwannee River also has been identified by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection as an impaired water body due to high nitrogen and algal biomass. This project attempts to improve water quality and to protect Big Bend seagrasses by making remotely sensed optical water quality data more accessible to managers and stakeholders involved in the process of regulating nutrient loads in the Suwannee River and to provide data to assess effectiveness of management actions. To accomplish these goals, we have developed and tested new algorithms for retrieval of Kd, chlorophyll, and CDOM from Modis imagery, created a time series of optical water quality (OWQ) for the Suwannee River Estuary (SRE), and related seagrass gains and losses to annual variations in optical water quality. During two years of bimonthly ground-truth cruises, chlorophyll concentrations, Aph, Ad, and Acdom in the SRE were 0.3-38.3 mgm-3, 0.013-1.056, 0.013-0.735, and 0.042-7.24, respectively. For most locations and most cruises, CDOM was the dominant determinant of Kd. In the Modis time series, Kd488 estimates (calculated using the Quasi-Analytic Algorithm of Lee et al. 2006) covaried with Suwannee River discharge between 2002 and 2011 with an overall r2 value of 0.64. This relationship is

  13. Water quality assessment of the Shatt al-Arab River, Southern Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Salim Moyel; Najah Aboud Hussain

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess suitability of the water quality of Shatt al-Arab River for protection of aquatic life, potable water supply and irrigation uses. Methods: The Shatt al-Arab River was monitored on a monthly basis from July 2009 to June 2010. A water quality index (WQI) was calculated to assess the suitability of water for protection of aquatic life, potable water supply and irrigation uses during the dry season from July to December 2009 and the wet season from January unti...

  14. Soil quality assessment of urban green space under long-term reclaimed water irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Sidan; Chen, Weiping

    2016-03-01

    Reclaimed water is widely used for landscape irrigation with the benefits of saving fresh water and ameliorating soil quality. Field samples were collected from seven parks in Beijing irrigated reclaimed water with different irrigation history in 2011 and 2014 to evaluate the long-term impacts of reclaimed water irrigation on soil quality. Soil quality index method was used to assess the comprehensive effects of reclaimed water irrigation on soil. Results showed that the effects of reclaimed water irrigation on the soil nutrient conditions were limited. Compared with tap water irrigation, soil salinity was significantly higher in 2011, while the difference was insignificant in 2014; soil heavy metals were slightly higher by 0.5-10.6 % in 2011 and 2014, while the differences were insignificant. Under reclaimed water irrigation, soil biological activities were significantly improved in both years. Total nitrogen in reclaimed water had a largest effect on soil quality irrigated reclaimed water. Soil quality irrigated with reclaimed water increased by 2.6 and 6.8 % respectively in 2011 and 2014, while the increases were insignificant. Soil quality of almost half samples was more than or closed to soil quality of natural forest in Beijing. Soil quality was ameliorated at some extent with long-term reclaimed water irrigation.

  15. Water-quality assessment of the Central Arizona Basins, Arizona and northern Mexico; environmental setting and overview of water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordy, Gail E.; Rees, Julie A.; Edmonds, Robert J.; Gebler, Joseph B.; Wirt, Laurie; Gellenbeck, Dorinda J.; Anning, David W.

    1998-01-01

    The Central Arizona Basins study area in central and southern Arizona and northern Mexico is one of 60 study units that are part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment program. The purpose of this report is to describe the physical, chemical, and environmental characteristics that may affect water quality in the Central Arizona Basins study area and present an overview of water quality. Covering 34,700 square miles, the study area is characterized by generally north to northwestward-trending mountain ranges separated by broad, gently sloping alluvial valleys. Most of the perennial rivers and streams are in the northern part of the study area. Rivers and streams in the south are predominantly intermittent or ephemeral and flow in response to precipitation such as summer thunderstorms. Effluent-dependent streams do provide perennial flow in some reaches. The major aquifers in the study area are in the basin-fill deposits that may be as much as 12,000 feet thick. The 1990 population in the study area was about 3.45 million, and about 61 percent of the total was in Maricopa County (Phoenix and surrounding cities). Extensive population growth over the past decade has resulted in a twofold increase in urban land areas and increased municipal water use; however, agriculture remains the major water use. Seventy-three percent of all water with drawn in the study area during 1990 was used for agricultural purposes. The largest rivers in the study area-the Gila, Salt, and Verde-are perennial near their headwaters but become intermittent downstream because of impoundments and artificial diversions. As a result, the Central Arizona Basins study area is unique compared to less arid basins because the mean surface-water outflow is only 528 cubic feet per second from a total drainage area of 49,650 square miles. Peak flows in the northern part of the study area are the result of snowmelt runoff; whereas, summer thunderstorms account for the peak flows in

  16. Using high frequency water quality data to assess sampling strategies for the EU Water Framework Directive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeffington, R. A.; Halliday, S. J.; Wade, A. J.; Bowes, M. J.; Loewenthal, M.

    2015-01-01

    The EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires that the ecological and chemical status of water bodies in Europe should be assessed, and action taken where possible to ensure that at least "good" quality is attained in each case by 2015. This paper is concerned with the accuracy and precision with which chemical status in rivers can be measured given certain sampling strategies, and how this can be improved. High frequency (hourly) chemical data from four rivers in southern England were subsampled to simulate different sampling strategies for four parameters used for WFD classification: dissolved phosphorus, dissolved oxygen, pH and water temperature. These data sub-sets were then used to calculate the WFD classification for each site. Monthly sampling was less precise than weekly sampling, but the effect on WFD classification depended on the closeness of the range of concentrations to the class boundaries. In some cases, monthly sampling for a year could result in the same water body being assigned to one of 3 or 4 WFD classes with 95% confidence, whereas with weekly sampling this was 1 or 2 classes for the same cases. In the most extreme case, random sampling effects could result in the same water body being assigned to any of the 5 WFD quality classes. The width of the weekly sampled confidence intervals was about 33% that of the monthly for P species and pH, about 50% for dissolved oxygen, and about 67% for water temperature. For water temperature, which is assessed as the 98th percentile in the UK, monthly sampling biases the mean downwards by about 1 °C compared to the true value, due to problems of assessing high percentiles with limited data. Confining sampling to the working week compared to all seven days made little difference, but a modest improvement in precision could be obtained by sampling at the same time of day within a 3 h time window, and this is recommended. For parameters with a strong diel variation, such as dissolved oxygen, the value

  17. 1997-1998 lake water quality assessment for Upper Des Lacs Lake, North Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary of the data collected on Upper Des Lacs Lake as part of the State's Lake Water Quality Assessment Project. The Project is designed to characterize...

  18. A screening model for assessing water quality in small, dynamic estuaries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Taljaard, Susan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available , a design science approach is adopted to develop a screening (box) model for the water quality assessment of South African estuaries. The key design principles are first distilled from literature on the nutrient dynamics and hydro...

  19. Assessing BMP effectiveness: multiprocedure analysis of observed water quality data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuppad, Pushpa; Santhi, Chinnasamy; Srinivasan, Raghavan

    2010-11-01

    Observed water quality data obtained from eight stream monitoring locations within Richland-Chambers Watershed in north central Texas were analyzed for trends using box-and-whisker plots, exceedance probability plots, and linear and Mann-Kendall statistical methods. Total suspended solids decreased at seven out of eight stations, and at two of these stations, the decrease was significant. Mixed results were obtained for nitrogen across the stations. A nonsignificant and significant increase in nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen (nitrite+nitrate N) was noticed in two stations each, whereas at the other four stations showed nonsignificant decrease. The results of organic nitrogen (Org N) was similar to nitrite+nitrate N except that the two stations that showed significant increase in nitrite+nitrate N showed nonsignificant decrease in Org N. Mixed results were also noticed for orthophosphorus (Ortho P) including nonsignificant decrease at two stations, significant decrease and increase at one station each, and nonsignificant increase in four stations. In general, total phosphorus (TP) decreased at all stations, significantly at some, except one station where it increased significantly. Decreasing trends in sediment, Org N, Ortho P, and TP were likely related to implementation of best management practices (BMPs). Increasing trends in dissolved constituents including Ortho P and nitrite+nitrate N were likely due to increased surface residue as a result of some BMPs such as conservation tillage.

  20. Water quality assessment in a shallow lake used for tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dembowska Ewa A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The routine evaluation of water quality is limited to lakes with the largest area. In Poland, only lakes with an area exceeding 50 hectares are monitored by the State Environmental Monitoring System. For many local communities, however, small lakes are more important. This applies mainly to areas with a small number of lakes, where even the smallest lakes are used for various purposes. This paper presents the results of phytoplankton analysis in a small and shallow lake used for recreation. The study was conducted at three sites located in different parts of the lake. A total of 122 algae taxa were identified in the phytoplankton, mainly diatoms and green algae. The most constant taxa in the lake were: Stephanodiscus hantzschii, Desmodesmus communis, Pediastrum tetras and Crucigenia tetrapedia. The average phytoplankton biomass was 37 mg l−1. The maximum biomass, almost 140 mg dm−3, was recorded in late July at the site located near the beach. At that time, there was a massive cyanobacterial bloom composed of Microcystis wesenbergii and Aphanizomenon issatschenkoi. Based on these studies, the lake should be classified as hypertrophic with bad ecological status. This lake should not be used for recreational purposes in the current state.

  1. Water quality assessment of the Shatt al-Arab River, Southern Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Salim Moyel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess suitability of the water quality of Shatt al-Arab River for protection of aquatic life, potable water supply and irrigation uses. Methods: The Shatt al-Arab River was monitored on a monthly basis from July 2009 to June 2010. A water quality index (WQI was calculated to assess the suitability of water for protection of aquatic life, potable water supply and irrigation uses during the dry season from July to December 2009 and the wet season from January until June 2010. Results: The results of the WQI showed that the lowest water quality values were scored during the dry season for all three uses of the river. Marginal water quality values were recorded for protection of aquatic life and fair (upstream to poor (downstream water quality values were recorded for irrigation uses. Moreover, the river water was not suitable for potable water supply without elaborate treatment. Conclusions: Deterioration of the Shatt al-Arab water quality has been attributed to reduced freshwater discharges from Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, low annual precipitations and an advancing salt wedge from the Arabian Gulf. However, a combination of those factors such as low riverine discharge and advancing salt wedge with a continuous discharge of agriculture, oil industry and urban point effluent has polluted the waters and fostered the decline of the Shatt al-Arab River water quality during the study period. The study indicated that application of WQIs was a useful tool to monitor and assess the overall water quality of the Shatt al-Arab River.

  2. Water quality assessment of the Shatt al-Arab River, Southern Iraq

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Salim Moyel; Najah Aboud Hussain

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To assess suitability of the water quality of Shatt al-Arab River for protection of aquatic life, potable water supply and irrigation uses. Methods:The Shatt al-Arab River was monitored on a monthly basis from July 2009 to June 2010. A water quality index (WQI) was calculated to assess the suitability of water for protection of aquatic life, potable water supply and irrigation uses during the dry season from July to December 2009 and the wet season from January until June 2010. Results:The results of the WQI showed that the lowest water quality values were scored during the dry season for all three uses of the river. Marginal water quality values were recorded for protection of aquatic life and fair (upstream) to poor (downstream) water quality values were recorded for irrigation uses. Moreover, the river water was not suitable for potable water supply without elaborate treatment. Conclusions:Deterioration of the Shatt al-Arab water quality has been attributed to reduced freshwater discharges from Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, low annual precipitations and an advancing salt wedge from the Arabian Gulf. However, a combination of those factors such as low riverine discharge and advancing salt wedge with a continuous discharge of agriculture, oil industry and urban point effluent has polluted the waters and fostered the decline of the Shatt al-Arab River water quality during the study period. The study indicated that application of WQIs was a useful tool to monitor and assess the overall water quality of the Shatt al-Arab River.

  3. Biological Assessment of Water Quality in the National Park of Prespa Lake Using Macroinvertebrates as Bioindicators

    OpenAIRE

    , E. Keçi; , A. Paparisto; , E. Hamzaraj; , O. Laknori; , B. Pepa; , A. Fjerza

    2016-01-01

    Macroinvertebrates were examined for use as potential biodiversity indicators in continental aquatic ecosystems in a semiarid Mediterranean region, the Prespa Lake basin. Biological assessment is one of the monitoring methods, which gives data related with the water quality. This assessment effectively describes water quality physical and anthropogenic impact (R. W. Plotnikoff, 1994). In our study are used the main groups of invertebrates which are phylum Arthropoda, phylum Annelidae, phylum ...

  4. The Assessment of the Quality of Water Offered to Animals in Rural Households and Farms

    OpenAIRE

    Silvana Popescu; Cristina Borda; Razvan Stefan; Cristina Iuliana Hegedus; Eva Andrea Lazar

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to assess the quality of water consumed by animals in rural households and farms. The water quality was determined based on indicator parameters (pH, ammonia, sulphates, iron, chlorides, organic substances, overall hardness, total number of germs, number of Coliform bacteria) and chemical parameters (nitrites, nitrates), by collecting and analyzing 40 water samples (from 20 households and 20 farms). The results were compared to the provisions of the Laws 458/2002 and...

  5. 78 FR 63972 - Notice of Proposed Methodology for the 2014 Delaware River and Bay Water Quality Assessment Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Proposed Methodology for the 2014 Delaware River and Bay Water Quality Assessment Report... methodology proposed to be used in the 2014 Delaware River and Bay Water Quality Assessment Report is...: Comments will be accepted via email to john.yagecic@drbc.state.nj.us , with ``Water Quality Assessment 2014...

  6. Surface-water sampling stations, National Water-Quality Assessment, Yellowstone River Basin, Montana, North Dakota, and Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program, an investigation of the Yellowstone River Basin study unit is being conducted to...

  7. Water quality assessment for Ulansuhai Lake using fuzzy clustering and pattern recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Water quality assessment of lakes is important to determine functional zones of water use. Considering the fuzziness during the partitioning process for lake water quality in an arid area, a multiplex model of fuzzy clustering with pattern recognition was developed by integrating transitive closure method, ISODATA algorithm in fuzzy clustering and fuzzy pattern recognition. The model was applied to partition the Ulansuhai Lake, a typical shallow lake in arid climate zone in the west part of Inner Mongolia, China and grade the condition of water quality divisions. The results showed that the partition well matched the real conditions of the lake, and the method has been proved accurate in the application.

  8. Groundwater Quality Assessment Using Averaged Water Quality Index: A Case Study of Lahore City, Punjab, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umair Shahid, Syed; Iqbal, Javed

    2016-10-01

    Water quality is considered as a major issue in mega cities of developing countries. The city of Lahore has over 10 million populations with the highest population density in the Punjab Province, Pakistan. Groundwater is the main source of drinking water in Lahore. The groundwater quality should be regularly monitored to cope up with drinking water quality issues. The water quality index (WQI), previously used in many studies was usually based on one-year data to analyze the water quality situation of the study area. However, the results obtained from the data, based on single observation from different points may have distortion. This might have occurred due to the inclusion of multiple types of errors induced in the data as a result of improper sampling design, lack of expertise in terms of both sampling method and sample testing, instrumental and human errors, etc. Therefore, the study evaluated the groundwater physicochemical parameters (turbidity, pH, total dissolved solids, hardness, chlorides, alkalinity and calcium) for three years. The averaged water quality index (AWQI) was computed using ArcGIS 10.3 model builder. The AWQI map indicated that the water quality in the study area was generally good except in few places like Anarkali, Baghbanpura, Allama Iqbal Town, Mughalpura and Mozang due to relatively higher turbidity levels. The results of this study can be used for decision making regarding provision of clean drinking water to the city of Lahore. Moreover, the methodology adopted in this study can be implemented in other mega cities as well to monitor groundwater quality.

  9. Assessment of changes in drinking water quality during distribution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... turbidity, feacal coliforms, manganese, lead, zinc and residual chlorine. ... Tap water at Area 25 Township is generally safe for human consumption. Key words: Drinking water, distribution system, biochemical parameters, human health.

  10. Ground-water-quality assessment of the Delmarva Peninsula, Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia; project description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, L.J.; Shedlock, R.J.; Phillips, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    In April 1986, the U.S. Geological Survey began a pilot program to assess the quality of the Nation 's surface water and groundwater resources. This National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program is designed to acquire and interpret information about a wide range of water quality issues. Three groundwater pilot projects have been started, including the project on the Delmarva Peninsula, which covers eastern Maryland and Virginia and most of Delaware. The objectives of the Delmarva project are to: (1) investigate regional groundwater quality on the Delmarva Peninsula, emphasizing a description of the occurrence of trace elements and manmade organic compounds; (2) relate groundwater quality to land use and geohydrologic conditions; and (3) provide a general description of the location, nature, and possible causes of selected water quality problems prevalent in the study area. The shallow aquifer system and the deeper aquifers used for public water supply will be addressed. The shallow aquifer system in the Delmarva Peninsula consists of permeable unconsolidated sand and gravel. Flow systems are localized and small-scale. Farming is common on the peninsula, and the migration of agricultural chemicals to the groundwater system is a local water quality concern. To assess the water quality of the groundwater resources, a regional survey for a wide range of constituents will be conducted in all of the pilot projects to provide a representative sample of groundwater analyses for a national assessment of groundwater quality. Results of this survey may be used as a baseline to monitor future water quality trends. (Lantz-PTT)

  11. A microbiological assessment of the surface water quality in the Bodva river drainage area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenka Maťašová

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the surface water quality assessment in the partial drainage area of the Bodva river and its tributaries. The water quality in the sampled areas ranged between polluted and strongly polluted. The main cause of the pollution is the increased abundance of coliform and thermo-tolerant coliform bacteria, and fecal streptococci. The reason the increase in their abundance is the dumping of the household waste water containing excrements and animal remains, and the unsatisfactorily treated water from the water treatment stations.

  12. Surface-water-quality assessment of the Yakima River basin, Washington; project description

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, S.W.; Rinella, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    In April 1986, the U.S. Geological Survey began the National Water Quality Assessment program to: (1) provide a nationally consistent description of the current status of water quality, (2) define water quality trends that have occurred over recent decades, and (3) relate past and present water quality conditions to relevant natural features, the history of land and water use, and land management and waste management practices. At present (1987), The National Water Quality Assessment program is in a pilot studies phase, in which assessment concepts and approaches are being tested and modified to prepare for possible full implementation of the program. Seven pilot projects (four surface water projects and three groundwater projects) have been started. The Yakima River basin in Washington is one of the pilot surface water project areas. The Yakima River basin drains in area of 6,155 sq mi and contains about 1,900 river mi of perennial streams. Major land use activities include growing and harvesting timber, dryland pasture grazing, intense farming and irrigated agriculture, and urbanization. Water quality issues that result from these land uses include potentially large concentrations of suspended sediment, bacteria, nutrients, pesticides, and trace elements that may affect water used for human consumption, fish propagation and passage, contact recreation, livestock watering, and irrigation. Data will be collected in a nine year cycle. The first three years of the cycle will be a period of concentrated data acquisition and interpretation. For the next six years, sample collection will be done at a much lower level of intensity to document the occurrence of any gross changes in water quality. This nine year cycle would then be repeated. Three types of sampling activities will be used for data acquisition: fixed location station sampling, synoptic sampling, and intensive reach studies. (Lantz-PTT)

  13. Assessment of temporal variations of water quality in inland water bodies using atmospheric corrected satellite remotely sensed image data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G; Clayton, Chris

    2009-12-01

    Although there have been many studies conducted on the use of satellite remote sensing for water quality monitoring and assessment in inland water bodies, relatively few studies have considered the problem of atmospheric intervention of the satellite signal. The problem is especially significant when using time series multi-spectral satellite data to monitor water quality surveillance in inland waters such as reservoirs, lakes, and dams because atmospheric effects constitute the majority of the at-satellite reflectance over water. For the assessment of temporal variations of water quality, the use of multi-date satellite images is required so atmospheric corrected image data must be determined. The aim of this study is to provide a simple way of monitoring and assessing temporal variations of water quality in a set of inland water bodies using an earth observation- based approach. The proposed methodology is based on the development of an image-based algorithm which consists of a selection of sampling area on the image (outlet), application of masking and convolution image processing filter, and application of the darkest pixel atmospheric correction. The proposed method has been applied in two different geographical areas, in UK and Cyprus. Mainly, the method has been applied to a series of eight archived Landsat-5 TM images acquired from March 1985 up to November 1985 of the Lower Thames Valley area in the West London (UK) consisting of large water treatment reservoirs. Finally, the method is further tested to the Kourris Dam in Cyprus. It has been found that atmospheric correction is essential in water quality assessment studies using satellite remotely sensed imagery since it improves significantly the water reflectance enabling effective water quality assessment to be made.

  14. assessment of physicochemical quality of sachet water produced in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    three brands (23)(46%)) were observed to be above the recommended NIS limit of 0.3mg/l. It can ... sachet water samples were within the permissible limits stipulated by the drinking water .... samples in this study are considered soft and fit for.

  15. Analysis of Best Management Practices Implementation on Water Quality Using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Motsinger

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The formation of hypoxic zone in the Gulf of Mexico can be traced to agricultural watersheds in the Midwestern United States that are artificially drained in order to make the land suitable for agriculture. A number of best management practices (BMPs have been introduced to improve the water quality in the region but their relative effectivenss of these BMPs in reducing nutrient load has not been properly quantified. In order to determine the BMPs useful for reducing nutrient discharge from a tile drained watershed, a Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model was calibrated and validated for water flow and nitrate load using experimental data from the Little Vermillion River (LVR watershed in east-central Illinois. Then, the performance of four common BMPs (reduced tillage, cover crop, filter strip and wetlands were evaluated. For BMPs, the usage of rye as cover crop performed the best in reducing nitrate discharge from the watershed as a single BMP, with an average annual nitrate load reduction of 54.5%. Combining no tillage and rye cover crops had varying results over the period simulated, but the average nitrate reduction was better than using rye cover crops with conventional tillage, with the average annual nitrate discharge decreased by 60.5% (an improvement of 13% over rye only.

  16. Assessment of potable water quality including organic, inorganic, and trace metal concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Mst Shamsun; Zhang, Jing

    2012-02-01

    The quality of drinking water (tap, ground, and spring) in Toyama Prefecture, Japan was assessed by studying quality indicators including major ions, total carbon, and trace metal levels. The physicochemical properties of the water tested were different depending on the water source. Major ion concentrations (Ca(2+), K(+), Si(4+), Mg(2+), Na(+), SO(4)(2-), HCO(3)(-), NO(3)(-), and Cl(-)) were determined by ion chromatography, and the results were used to generate Stiff diagrams in order to visually identify different water masses. Major ion concentrations were higher in ground water than in spring and tap water. The relationship between alkaline metals (Na(+) and K(+)), alkaline-earth metals (Ca(2+) and Mg(2+)), and HCO(3)(-) showed little difference between deep and shallow ground water. Toyama ground, spring, and tap water were all the same type of water mass, called Ca-HCO(3). The calculated total dissolved solid values were below 300 mg/L for all water sources and met World Health Organization (WHO) water quality guidelines. Trace levels of As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Mo, Ni, V, Zn, Sr, and Hg were detected in ground, spring, and tap water sources using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, and their levels were below WHO and Japanese water quality standard limits. Volatile organic carbon compounds were quantified by headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the measured concentrations met WHO and Japanese water quality guidelines. Total trihalomethanes (THMs) were the major contaminant detected in all natural drinking water sources, but the concentration was highest in tap water (37.27 ± 0.05 μg/L). Notably, THMs concentrations reached up to 1.1 ± 0.05 μg/L in deep ground water. The proposed model gives an accurate description of the organic, inorganic, and trace heavy metal indicators studied here and may be used in natural clean water quality management.

  17. Lake Whitney Comprehensive Water Quality Assessment, Phase 1B- Physical and Biological Assessment (USDOE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, Robert D; Byars, Bruce W

    2009-11-24

    assessment of knowledge of watershed and water quality related issues by local residents and stakeholders of Lake Whitney and design an intervention educational program to address any deficiencies discovered. Phase IA was funded primarily from EPA Cooperative Agreement X7-9769 8901-0. Phase IC (USEPA, QAPP Study Element 5) of this research focused on the ambient toxicity of the reservoir with respect to periodic blooms of golden algae. Phase IC was funded primarily from Cooperative Agreement EM-96638001. Phase 1B (USDOE, Study Elements 6-11) complemented work being done via EPA funding on study elements 1-5 and added five new study elements: 6) Salinity Transport in the Brazos Watershed to Lake Whitney; 7) Bacterial Assessment; 8) Organic Contaminant Analysis on Lake Whitney; 9) Plankton Photosynthesis; 10) Lake Whitney Resident Knowledge Assessment; and 11) Engineering Scoping Perspective: Recommendations for Use.

  18. Methods for collecting benthic invertebrate samples as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuffney, Thomas F.; Gurtz, Martin E.; Meador, Michael R.

    1993-01-01

    Benthic invertebrate communities are evaluated as part of the ecological survey component of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. These biological data are collected along with physical and chemical data to assess water-quality conditions and to develop an understanding of the factors that affect water-quality conditions locally, regionally, and nationally. The objectives of benthic invertebrate community characterizations are to (1) develop for each site a list of tax a within the associated stream reach and (2) determine the structure of benthic invertebrate communities within selected habitats of that reach. A nationally consistent approach is used to achieve these objectives. This approach provides guidance on site, reach, and habitat selection and methods and equipment for qualitative multihabitat sampling and semi-quantitative single habitat sampling. Appropriate quality-assurance and quality-control guidelines are used to maximize the ability to analyze data within and among study units.

  19. St. Louis River water quality assessment 2012, 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — St. Louis River Area of Concern surface water nutrient (TP, TN, NOx-N, NH4-N), dissolved oxygen, and particulate (TSS, chlorophyll a) concentration data from 2012...

  20. Use of the landfill water pollution index (LWPI) for groundwater quality assessment near the landfill sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talalaj, Izabela A; Biedka, Pawel

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of the paper is to assess the groundwater quality near the landfill sites using landfill water pollution index (LWPI). In order to investigate the scale of groundwater contamination, three landfills (E, H and S) in different stages of their operation were taken into analysis. Samples of groundwater in the vicinity of studied landfills were collected four times each year in the period from 2004 to 2014. A total of over 300 groundwater samples were analysed for pH, EC, PAH, TOC, Cr, Hg, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, as required by the UE legal acts for landfill monitoring system. The calculated values of the LWPI allowed the quantification of the overall water quality near the landfill sites. The obtained results indicated that the most negative impact on groundwater quality is observed near the old Landfill H. Improper location of piezometer at the Landfill S favoured infiltration of run-off from road pavement into the soil-water environment. Deep deposition of the groundwater level at Landfill S area reduced the landfill impact on the water quality. Conducted analyses revealed that the LWPI can be used for evaluation of water pollution near a landfill, for assessment of the variability of water pollution with time and for comparison of water quality from different piezometers, landfills or time periods. The applied WQI (Water Quality Index) can also be an important information tool for landfill policy makers and the public about the groundwater pollution threat from landfill.

  1. Microbiological monitoring for the US Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francy, Donna S.; Myers, Donna N.; Helsel, Dennis R.

    2000-01-01

    Data to characterize the microbiological quality of the Nation?s fresh, marine, and estuarine waters are usually collected for local purposes, most often to judge compliance with standards for protection of public health in swimmable or drinkable waters. Methods and procedures vary with the objectives and practices of the parties collecting data and are continuously being developed or modified. Therefore, it is difficult to provide a nationally consistent picture of the microbial quality of the Nation?s waters. Study objectives and guidelines for a national microbiological monitoring program are outlined in this report, using the framework of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. A national program is designed to provide long-term data on the presence of microbiological pathogens and indicators in ground water and surface water to support effective water policy and management. Three major groups of waterborne pathogens affect the public health acceptability of waters in the United States?bacteria, protozoa, and viruses. Microbiological monitoring in NAWQA would be designed to assess the occurrence, distribution, and trends of pathogenic organisms and indicators in surface waters and ground waters; relate the patterns discerned to factors that help explain them; and improve our understanding of the processes that control microbiological water quality.

  2. A Model for Water Quality Assessment Based on the Information Entropy and Its Application in the Case of Huiji River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BingdongZhao; QingliangZhao; JianhuaMa; HuaGuan

    2004-01-01

    Based on the information entropy, a model for water quality assessment is Using this model, the paper gives a case study on the water quality assessment River. The space-time variation law of the water quality is analyzed also in this result indicates that the model possesses some clear mathematic and physical and it is simple, practical and accurate.

  3. Ecological quality assessment of Dutch surface waters using a new bioassay with the cladoceran Chydorus sphaericus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, B.J.; Bosman-Meijerman, D.; Steenbergen, E.; van den Brandhof, E.J.; van Beelen, P.; van der Grinten, E.; Verweij, W.; Kraak, M.H.S.

    2008-01-01

    Routine chemical monitoring gives insight in the presence of contaminants in surface waters, but not in their joint ecological effects. Therefore ecological water quality is assessed with bioassays. Recently, a new bioassay using the chydorid Chydorus sphaericus has been developed. Working with smal

  4. Drinking water quality assessment and corrosion mitigation in the hospital water supply system of Chacas Village (Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Bigoni

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rural hospitals in developing countries often lack appropriate water treatments to assure their water needs. In these facilities, due to water different uses and its use with medical equipment, water quality problems can cause very hazardous situations. In particular, corrosion of water distribution systems is a common issue that can cause unwanted changes in water quality and failures of the distribution system’s pipes. These considerations suggest that a complete monitoring program and water treatments to control and guarantee the water quality would be required in each health-care facility. This study assessed the quality of the water at the rural hospital of Chacas (Peru as measured via specific physical-chemical and microbiological parameters. The results show that the chemical and microbiological qualities of the water generally worsen from catchment to the hospital’s taps. Moreover, this work investigated the effects of a dolomite limestone filter installed to adjust the quality of the water distributed at the hospital and thereby mitigate the water’s corrosiveness. Corrosion indices were calculated to provide useful information on the water’s corrosiveness and positive results were obtained in reducing corrosiveness after the installation of the dolomite filter.

  5. Analytic Assessment of Microbial Water Quality in Public Swimming Pools of Tehran in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Beiki

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Swimming is one of the most popular sport fields and entertainments that has considerable benefits for human health, but on the other hand microbial water contamination in swimming pools through transmission and spread of infectious diseases is a significant threat against public health. In this study, microbial water quality of all public swimming pools in Tehran were assessed and effective factors on microbial water quality were analyzed. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study with the analytical approach was performed in 2013. The whole public swimming pools in Tehran were inspected and water samples were taken for measurement of microbial indicators including thermotolerant coliforms, heterotrophic plate count (HPC, and physicochemical parameters affecting the microbial water quality including turbidity, free residual chlorine and pH and an integrated swimming pool microbial water quality index were used to describe the overall situation. Operational parameters with probable effects on microbial water quality were checked through inspection using a checklist. Results: The assessment of the swimming pool microbial water quality indicated that the compliance rates of thermotolerant coliforms and HPC were 91.4 and 84.5%, respectively. Compliance rates of free residual chlorine, turbidity, Ph, and temperature were also obtained to be 82.7, 45.5, 85.6, and 65.4% respectively. Based on the integrated swimming pool microbial water quality index, the proportions of swimming pools with excellent and good microbial water quality were 39.6 and 50.4% respectively and the others had not proper microbial water quality. The parameters of water free residual chlorine and turbidity, swimmer density, water recirculation period, dilution amount, cleaning, usage rates of shower and disinfection basin and operation of water treatment systems had significant effects on the microbial indicators (P<0.05. Conclusion: The study

  6. Assessment of the Physicochemical Quality of Drinking Water Resources in the Central Part of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikaeen, Mahnaz; Shahryari, Ali; Hajiannejad, Mehdi; Saffari, Hossein; Kachuei, Zahra Moosavian; Hassanzadeh, Akbar

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study described in this article was to assess the physicochemical quality of water resources in Isfahan province, located in the central part of Iran, from June to November 2012. Comparison of the results with the acceptable limits recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for drinking water showed that nitrate, chloride, iron, and fluoride concentrations exceeded the maximum acceptable level in 12.3%, 9.2%, 6.8%, and 1.5% of samples, respectively. Total dissolved solids (TDS) and turbidity values also exceeded the maximum acceptable level in 9.2% and 3.1% of samples, respectively. In general, the quality of drinking water resources in the central part of Iran at present is mostly acceptable and satisfactory. It may be deteriorated in the future, however, because water quantity and quality in arid and semiarid areas are highly variable over time. Therefore, continued monitoring of the water resources quality is extremely important to environmental safety.

  7. Ground-water quality assessment of the central Oklahoma Aquifer, Oklahoma; project description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, S.C.; Parkhurst, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    In April 1986, the U.S. Geological Survey began a pilot program to assess the quality of the Nation's surface-water and ground-water resources. The program, known as the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program, is designed to acquire and interpret information about a variety of water-quality issues. The Central Oklahoma aquifer project is one of three ground-water pilot projects that have been started. The NAWQA program also incudes four surface-water pilot projects. The Central Oklahoma aquifer project, as part of the pilot NAWQA program, will develop and test methods for performing assessments of ground-water quality. The objectives of the Central Oklahoma aquifer assessment are: (1) To investigate regional ground-water quality throughout the aquifer in the manner consistent with the other pilot ground-water projects, emphasizing the occurrence and distribution of potentially toxic substances in ground water, including trace elements, organic compounds, and radioactive constituents; (2) to describe relations between ground-water quality, land use, hydrogeology, and other pertinent factors; and (3) to provide a general description of the location, nature, and possible causes of selected prevalent water-quality problems within the study unit; and (4) to describe the potential for water-quality degradation of ground-water zones within the study unit. The Central Oklahoma aquifer, which includes in descending order the Garber Sandstone and Wellington Formation, the Chase Group, the Council Grove Group, the Admire Group, and overlying alluvium and terrace deposits, underlies about 3,000 square miles of central Oklahoma and is used extensively for municipal, industrial, commercial, and domestic water supplies. The aquifer was selected for study by the NAWQA program because it is a major source for water supplies in central Oklahoma and because it has several known or suspected water-quality problems. Known problems include concentrations of arsenic, chromium

  8. Water quality assessment by pollution-index method in the coastal waters of Hebei Province in western Bohai Sea, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuguang; Lou, Sha; Kuang, Cuiping; Huang, Wenrui; Chen, Wujun; Zhang, Jianle; Zhong, Guihui

    2011-10-01

    Sources of pollution discharges and water quality samples at 27 stations in 2006 in the coastal waters of Hebei Province, western Bohai Sea, have been analyzed in this study. Pollutant loads from industrial sewages have shown stronger impact on the water environment than those from the general sewages. Analysis indicates that pollution of COD is mainly resulted from land-based point pollutant sources. For phosphate concentration, non-point source pollution from coastal ocean (fishing and harbor areas) plays an important role. To assess the water quality conditions, Organic Pollution Index and Eutrophication Index have been used to quantify the level of water pollution and eutrophication conditions. Results show that pollution was much heavier in the dry season than flood season in 2006. Based on COD and phosphate concentrations, results show that waters near Shahe River, Douhe River, Yanghe River, and Luanhe River were heavily polluted. Water quality in the Qinhuangdao area was better than those in the Tangshan and Cangzhou areas.

  9. Integrated assessment of river health based on water quality, aquatic life and physical habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Wei; Zhang, Nan; Zhang, Yuan; Zheng, Binghui

    2009-01-01

    The health conditions of Liao River were assessed using 25 sampling sites in April 2005, with water quality index, biotic index and physical habitat quality index. Based on the method of cluster analysis (CA) for water quality indices, it revealed that heavily polluted sites of Liao River are located at estuary and mainstream. The aquatic species surveyed were attached algae and benthic invertebrates. The result showed that the diversity and biomass of attached algae and benthic index of biotic integrity (B-IBI) were degrading as the chemical and physical quality of water bodies deteriorating. Physiochemical parameters, BOD5, COD(Cr), TN, TP, NH3-N, DO, petroleum hydrocarbon and conductivity, were statistically analyzed with principal component analysis and correlation analysis. The statistical results were incorporated into the integrated assessing water quality index, combining fecal coliform count, attached algae diversity, B-IBI and physical habitat quality score. A comprehensive integrated assessing system of river ecological health was established. Based on the systimetic assessment, the assessed sites are categorized into 9 "healthy" and "sub-healthy" sites and 8 "sub-sick" and "sick" sites.

  10. Projection pursuit cluster model and its application in water quality assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shun-jiu; YANG Zhi-feng; DING Jing

    2004-01-01

    One of the difficulties frequently encountered in water quality assessment is that there are many factors and they cannot be assessed according to one factor, all the effect factors associated with water quality must be used. In order to overcome this issues the projection pursuit principle is introduced into water quality assessment, and projection pursuit cluster(PPC) model is developed in this study. The PPC model makes the transition from high dimension to one-dimension. In other words, based on the PPC model, multifactor problem can be converted to one factor problem. The application of PPC model can be divided into four parts: (1) to estimate projection index function ; (2) to find the right projection direction; (3) to calculate projection characteristic value of the sample , and (4) to draw comprehensive analysis on the basis of . On the other hand, the empirical formula of cutoff radius is developed, which is benefit for the model to be used in practice. Finally, a case study of water quality assessment is proposed in this paper. The results showed that the PPC model is reasonable, and it is more objective and less subjective in water quality assessment. It is a new method for multivariate problem comprehensive analysis.

  11. Dynamic Assessment of Water Quality Based on a Variable Fuzzy Pattern Recognition Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiguo Xu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Water quality assessment is an important foundation of water resource protection and is affected by many indicators. The dynamic and fuzzy changes of water quality lead to problems for proper assessment. This paper explores a method which is in accordance with the water quality changes. The proposed method is based on the variable fuzzy pattern recognition (VFPR model and combines the analytic hierarchy process (AHP model with the entropy weight (EW method. The proposed method was applied to dynamically assess the water quality of Biliuhe Reservoir (Dailan, China. The results show that the water quality level is between levels 2 and 3 and worse in August or September, caused by the increasing water temperature and rainfall. Weights and methods are compared and random errors of the values of indicators are analyzed. It is concluded that the proposed method has advantages of dynamism, fuzzification and stability by considering the interval influence of multiple indicators and using the average level characteristic values of four models as results.

  12. Inland Water Quality Assessment--A Joint European Masters Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waara, K. -O.; Petersen, A.; Lanaras, T.; Paulauskas, V.; Kleiven, S.; Crosa, G.; Penttinen, O. -P.; Quesada, A.; Kovats, N.; Galinou-Mitsoudi, S.; Lapinska, M.; Newton, A.; Balode, M.; Hindak, F.; Marsalek, B.

    2006-01-01

    At present, there is a European shortage of personnel qualified to adequately address the comprehensive scientific and regulatory requirements of the Water Framework Directive (WFD). The joint Masters programme described in this paper will provide students with the requisite expert knowledge and skills to progress the implementation of the WFD.…

  13. Assessment of drinking water quality and rural household water treatment in Balaka District, Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkwate, Raphael C.; Chidya, Russel C. G.; Wanda, Elijah M. M.

    2017-08-01

    Access to drinking water from unsafe sources is widespread amongst communities in rural areas such as Balaka District in Malawi. This situation puts many individuals and communities at risk of waterborne diseases despite some households adopting household water treatment to improve the quality of the water. However, there still remains data gaps regarding the quality of drinking water from such sources and the household water treatment methods used to improve public health. This study was, therefore, conducted to help bridge the knowledge gap by evaluating drinking water quality and adoption rate of household water treatment and storage (HWTS) practices in Nkaya, Balaka District. Water samples were collected from eleven systematically selected sites and analyzed for physico-chemical and microbiological parameters: pH, TDS, electrical conductivity (EC), turbidity, F-, Cl-, NO3-, Na, K, Fe, Faecal Coliform (FC) and Faecal Streptococcus (FS) bacteria using standard methods. The mean results were compared to the World Health Organization (WHO) and Malawi Bureau of Standards (MBS) (MS 733:2005) to ascertain the water quality for drinking purposes. A total of 204 randomly selected households were interviewed to determine their access to drinking water, water quality perception and HWTS among others. The majority of households (72%, n = 83) in Njerenje accessed water from shallow wells and rivers whilst in Phimbi boreholes were commonly used. Several households (>95%, n = 204) were observed to be practicing HWST techniques by boiling or chlorination and water storage in closed containers. The levels of pH (7.10-7.64), F- (0.89-1.46 mg/L), Cl- (5.45-89.84 mg/L), NO3- (0-0.16 mg/L), Na (20-490 mg/L), K (2.40-14 mg/L) and Fe (0.10-0.40 mg/L) for most sites were within the standard limits. The EC (358-2220 μS/cm), turbidity (0.54-14.60 NTU), FC (0-56 cfu/100 mL) and FS (0-120 cfu/100 mL) - mainly in shallow wells, were found to be above the WHO and MBS water quality

  14. Use of online water quality monitoring for assessing the effects of WWTP overflows in rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boënne, Wesley; Desmet, Nele; Van Looy, Stijn; Seuntjens, Piet

    2014-05-01

    The effects on river water quality of sewer overflows are not well known. Since the duration of the overflow is in the order of magnitude of minutes to hours, continuous measurements of water quality are needed and traditional grab sampling is unable to quantify the pollution loads. The objective of this paper was to demonstrate the applicability of high frequency measurements for assessing the impacts of waste water treatment plants on the water quality of the receiving surface water. In our in situ water quality monitoring setup, two types of multiparameter sensors mounted on a floating fixed platform were used to determine the dynamics of dissolved oxygen, specific conductivity, ammonium-N, nitrate-N and dissolved organic carbon downstream of a waste water treatment plant (WWTP), in combination with data on rainfall, river discharge and WWTP overflow discharge. The monitoring data for water quantity and water quality were used to estimate the pollution load from waste water overflow events and to assess the impact of waste water overflows on the river water quality. The effect of sewer overflow on a small river in terms of N load was shown to be significant. The WWTP overflow events accounted for about 1/3 of the river discharge. The NH4-N loads during overflow events contributed 29% and 21% to the August 2010 and June 2011 load, respectively, in only 8% and 3% of the monthly time span. The results indicate that continuous monitoring is needed to accurately represent the effects of sewer overflows in river systems.

  15. Linking water quality and well-being for improved assessment and valuation of ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeler, Bonnie L; Polasky, Stephen; Brauman, Kate A; Johnson, Kris A; Finlay, Jacques C; O'Neill, Ann; Kovacs, Kent; Dalzell, Brent

    2012-11-06

    Despite broad recognition of the value of the goods and services provided by nature, existing tools for assessing and valuing ecosystem services often fall short of the needs and expectations of decision makers. Here we address one of the most important missing components in the current ecosystem services toolbox: a comprehensive and generalizable framework for describing and valuing water quality-related services. Water quality is often misrepresented as a final ecosystem service. We argue that it is actually an important contributor to many different services, from recreation to human health. We present a valuation approach for water quality-related services that is sensitive to different actions that affect water quality, identifies aquatic endpoints where the consequences of changing water quality on human well-being are realized, and recognizes the unique groups of beneficiaries affected by those changes. We describe the multiple biophysical and economic pathways that link actions to changes in water quality-related ecosystem goods and services and provide guidance to researchers interested in valuing these changes. Finally, we present a valuation template that integrates biophysical and economic models, links actions to changes in service provision and value estimates, and considers multiple sources of water quality-related ecosystem service values without double counting.

  16. Statistical assessment of seafront and beach water quality of Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijay, Ritesh; Kamble, Swapnil R; Dhage, S S; Sohony, R A; Wate, S R

    2011-01-01

    The water quality of seafronts and beaches of Mumbai is under pressure and deteriorating due to discharge of partially treated sewage and wastewater through point and nonpoint sources. The objective of the study was to assess the water quality and to correlate physico-chemical and bacteriological parameters for establishing relationship, association and dependence on each other. The water quality parameters were selected as per SW II standards specified by Central Pollution Control Board, India and nutrient parameters as strong indicators of sewage pollution. Box and whisker plots were generated for evaluating spatio temporal variation of water quality which suggest influence of organic pollution mostly at Mahim and Dadar in the form of outliers and extremes. Pearson's correlations were estimated between parameters and found significant correlation with each other indicating influence of sewage on water quality. The water quality of beaches and seafronts were found unsafe for recreational purposes. The study suggested that designated water quality can be achieved by restricting nonpoint source through improvement in wastewater collection systems, appropriate level of treatment and proper disposal.

  17. WATER QUALITY INDEX FOR ASSESSMENT OF DRINKING WATER SOURCES FROM MEDIAŞ TOWN, SIBIU COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROŞU CRISTINA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the drinking water sources quality from Mediaş Town, Sibiu County. In November 2013, 6 water samples were taken from different drinking water sources and each water sample was analysed to determinate physico-chemical parameters (using a portable multiparameter WTW 320i major ions (using DIONEX ICS1500 ion chromatograph and heavy metals (using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer model ZENIT 700 Analytik Jena. The investigated physico-chemical parameters were: temperature, salinity, electrical conductivity (EC, pH, total dissolved solids (TDS and redox potential (ORP. The analysed major ions were: lithium (Li+, sodium (Na+, potassium (K+, magnesium (Mg2+, calcium (Ca2+, fluoride( F-, chloride (Cl-, bromide (Br-, nitrite (NO2-, nitrate (NO3-, phosphate (PO43- and sulphate (SO42-. The investigated heavy metals were: lead (Pb, zinc (Zn, cooper (Cu, iron (Fe, cadmium (Cd, nickel (Ni, chromium (Cr and arsenic (As. The Water Quality Index (WQI was calculated using the analysed water quality parameters and it ranged from 76 (very poor water quality to 375 (unsuitable for drinking.

  18. Assessment of water quality in the South Indian River Water Control District, Palm Beach County, Florida, 1989-94

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lietz, A.C.

    1996-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess ground-water and surface-water quality in the South Indian River Water Control District in northern Palm Beach County from 1989 to 1994. Contamination of the surficial aquifer system and availability of a potable water supply have become of increasing concern. The study consisted of sampling 11 ground-water wells and 14 surface- water sites for determination of major inorganic constituents and physical characteristics, trace metals, nitrogen and phosphorus species, and synthetic organic compounds. Sodium and chloride concentrations exceeded Florida drinking-water standards in ground water at two wells, dissolved- solids concentrations at five ground-water wells and one surface-water site, and color values at all 11 ground-water wells and all 14 surface-water sites. Other constituents also exhibited concentrations that exceeded drinking-water standards. Cadmium and zinc concentrations exceeded the standards in ground water at one well, and lead concentrations exceeded the standard in ground water at five wells. Nitrogen and phosphorus specie concentrations did not exceed respective drinking-water standards in any ground-water or surface-water samples. Several synthetic organic compounds were detected at or above 50 micrograms per liter in water samples collected from six ground-water wells and three surface-water sites.

  19. Monitoring, assessment and modelling using water quality data in the Saale River Basin, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongartz, Klaus; Steele, Timothy D; Baborowski, Martina; Lindenschmidt, Karl-Erich

    2007-12-01

    The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) is the overall driver for this environmental study and currently requires the identification of patterns and sources of pollution (monitoring) to support objective ecological sound decision making and specific measures to enhance river water quality (modelling). The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate in a case study the interrelationship between (1) hydrologic and water quality monitoring data for river basin characterization and (2) modelling applications to assess resources management alternatives. The study deals with monitoring assessment and modelling of river water quality data of the main stem Saale River and its principal tributaries. For a period of 6 years the data, which was sampled by Environmental Agencies of the German states of Thuringia, Saxony and Saxony-Anhalt, was investigated to assess sources and indicators of pollution. In addition to the assessment a modelling exercise of the routing of different pollutants was carried out in the lower part of the test basin. The modelling is a tool to facilitate the evaluation of alternative measures to reduce contaminant loadings and improve ecological status of a water body as required by WFD. The transport of suspended solids, salts and heavy metals was modelled along a selected Saale reach under strong anthropogenic influence in terms of contaminants and river morphology between the city of Halle and the confluence with the Elbe River. The simulations were carried out with the model WASP5 which is a dynamic flood-routing and water quality model package developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency.

  20. An integrated approach to aquatic health assessment: water quality index and multibiomarker response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedeno-Diaz, J. E.; Lopez-Lopez, E.; Jimenez-Trujillo, P.; Tejeda-Vera, R.; Espainal Carrion, T.

    2009-07-01

    The pollution of water bodies reduces their quality and is stressful to their biota. In a river, water usually is of the high-est quality in its headwaters reaches, becoming dirtier along its length as it passes through different land uses. Therefore, the aquatic environment should be assessed using physicochemical and biological features in order to provide a full spectrum of aquatic ecosystem health. Water Quality Indexes can be used to aggregate data on water quality parameters and to translate this information into a single value. The use of bio markers as indicators of toxicity delineates the effects of xenobiotics before the appearance of diseases in aquatic organism. The use of a battery bio markers may be useful to evaluate the various response to mixtures of pollutants. (Author)

  1. Assessment of nutritional quality of water hyacinth leaf protein concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyeyemi Adeyemi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was embarked upon to convert water hyacinth, an environmental nuisance, to a natural resource for economic development. Water hyacinth leaf protein concentrate (WHLPC was extracted in edible form and determination of its physicochemical characteristics, total alkaloids and phenolic compounds was done. Analysis of proximate composition and amino acid profile of the WHLPC was also done. The level of heavy metals (mg/kg in WHLPC was found to be Cd (0.02 ± 0.001, Cr (0.13 ± 0.001, Pd (0.003 ± 0.001 and Hg (0.02 ± 0.001 while concentrations of Pb, Pt, Sn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ni and Co were found to be 0.001 ± 0.00. Level of all heavy metals was found to be within safe limit. Proximate analysis revealed that protein in WHLPC accounted for 50% of its nutrients, carbohydrate accounted for 33% of its nutrients while fat, ash and fibre made up the remaining nutrients. Amino acid analysis showed that WHLPC contained 17 out of 20 common amino acids, particularly, Phe (3.67%, Leu (5.01%. Level of total alkaloids and phenolic compounds was 16.6 mg/kg and 6.0 mg/kg respectively. Evidence from this study suggests that WHLPC is a good source of leaf protein concentrate (LPC; it is nutritious and acutely non toxic.

  2. Quality-control results for ground-water and surface-water data, Sacramento River Basin, California, National Water-Quality Assessment, 1996-1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, Cathy; Domagalski, Joseph L.

    2003-01-01

    Evaluating the extent that bias and variability affect the interpretation of ground- and surface-water data is necessary to meet the objectives of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Quality-control samples used to evaluate the bias and variability include annual equipment blanks, field blanks, field matrix spikes, surrogates, and replicates. This report contains quality-control results for the constituents critical to the ground- and surface-water components of the Sacramento River Basin study unit of the NAWQA Program. A critical constituent is one that was detected frequently (more than 50 percent of the time in blank samples), was detected at amounts exceeding water-quality standards or goals, or was important for the interpretation of water-quality data. Quality-control samples were collected along with ground- and surface-water samples during the high intensity phase (cycle 1) of the Sacramento River Basin NAWQA beginning early in 1996 and ending in 1998. Ground-water field blanks indicated contamination of varying levels of significance when compared with concentrations detected in environmental ground-water samples for ammonia, dissolved organic carbon, aluminum, and copper. Concentrations of aluminum in surface-water field blanks were significant when compared with environmental samples. Field blank samples collected for pesticide and volatile organic compound analyses revealed no contamination in either ground- or surface-water samples that would effect the interpretation of environmental data, with the possible exception of the volatile organic compound trichloromethane (chloroform) in ground water. Replicate samples for ground water and surface water indicate that variability resulting from sample collection, processing, and analysis was generally low. Some of the larger maximum relative percentage differences calculated for replicate samples occurred between samples having lowest absolute concentration differences and(or) values near

  3. Water-Quality Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Water Quality? [1.7MB PDF] Past featured science... Water Quality Data Today's Water Conditions Get continuous real- ... list of USGS water-quality data resources . USGS Water Science Areas Water Resources Groundwater Surface Water Water ...

  4. Groundwater-quality data from the National Water-Quality Assessment Project, January through December 2014 and select quality-control data from May 2012 through December 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Terri L.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Musgrove, MaryLynn; Lindsey, Bruce D.; Stackelberg, Paul E.; Barlow, Jeannie R.; DeSimone, Leslie A.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Kingsbury, James A.; Ayotte, Joseph D.; Fleming, Brandon J.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2017-10-05

    Groundwater-quality data were collected from 559 wells as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Project of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Program from January through December 2014. The data were collected from four types of well networks: principal aquifer study networks, which are used to assess the quality of groundwater used for public water supply; land-use study networks, which are used to assess land-use effects on shallow groundwater quality; major aquifer study networks, which are used to assess the quality of groundwater used for domestic supply; and enhanced trends networks, which are used to evaluate the time scales during which groundwater quality changes. Groundwater samples were analyzed for a large number of water-quality indicators and constituents, including major ions, nutrients, trace elements, volatile organic compounds, pesticides, radionuclides, and some constituents of special interest (arsenic speciation, chromium [VI] and perchlorate). These groundwater-quality data, along with data from quality-control samples, are tabulated in this report and in an associated data release.

  5. In-pipe water quality monitoring in water supply systems under steady and unsteady state flow conditions: a quantitative assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisopou, Angeliki; Stoianov, Ivan; Graham, Nigel J D

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring the quality of drinking water from the treatment plant to the consumers tap is critical to ensure compliance with national standards and/or WHO guideline levels. There are a number of processes and factors affecting the water quality during transmission and distribution which are little understood. A significant obstacle for gaining a detailed knowledge of various physical and chemical processes and the effect of the hydraulic conditions on the water quality deterioration within water supply systems is the lack of reliable and low-cost (both capital and O & M) water quality sensors for continuous monitoring. This paper has two objectives. The first one is to present a detailed evaluation of the performance of a novel in-pipe multi-parameter sensor probe for reagent- and membrane-free continuous water quality monitoring in water supply systems. The second objective is to describe the results from experimental research which was conducted to acquire continuous water quality and high-frequency hydraulic data for the quantitative assessment of the water quality changes occurring under steady and unsteady-state flow conditions. The laboratory and field evaluation of the multi-parameter sensor probe showed that the sensors have a rapid dynamic response, average repeatability and unreliable accuracy. The uncertainties in the sensor data present significant challenges for the analysis and interpretation of the acquired data and their use for water quality modelling, decision support and control in operational systems. Notwithstanding these uncertainties, the unique data sets acquired from transmission and distribution systems demonstrated the deleterious effect of unsteady state flow conditions on various water quality parameters. These studies demonstrate: (i) the significant impact of the unsteady-state hydraulic conditions on the disinfectant residual, turbidity and colour caused by the re-suspension of sediments, scouring of biofilms and tubercles from the

  6. Data Delivery and Mapping Over the Web: National Water-Quality Assessment Data Warehouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Richard W.; Williamson, Alex K.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey began its National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program in 1991, systematically collecting chemical, biological, and physical water-quality data from study units (basins) across the Nation. In 1999, the NAWQA Program developed a data warehouse to better facilitate national and regional analysis of data from 36 study units started in 1991 and 1994. Data from 15 study units started in 1997 were added to the warehouse in 2001. The warehouse currently contains and links the following data: -- Chemical concentrations in water, sediment, and aquatic-organism tissues and related quality-control data from the USGS National Water Information System (NWIS), -- Biological data for stream-habitat and ecological-community data on fish, algae, and benthic invertebrates, -- Site, well, and basin information associated with thousands of descriptive variables derived from spatial analysis, like land use, soil, and population density, and -- Daily streamflow and temperature information from NWIS for selected sampling sites.

  7. Assessing low quality water use policy framework: Case study from Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amponsah, Owusu; Vigre, Håkan; Wilde Schou, Torben

    2015-01-01

    We bought to understand the factors that have undermined the effective implementation of the low quality water reuse provision in Ghana's Irrigation Policy. Two Strategic Environmental Assessment tools (i.e. compatibility matrix and sustainability test) were used for the policy analyses......, which have been identified as key stakeholders for the policy implementation, not only lack the commitment to implement the policy but also perceive low quality water reuse as a practice that can endanger public health. We conclude that effective implementation of the low quality water reuse policy...... requires an integration of the policy into the broader water resources management context supported with legislation and regulations which spell out clearly institutional responsibilities, and rewards and punishments for compliance or otherwise. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  8. Assessment of water quality of a river-dominated estuary with hydrochemical parameters: A statistical approach.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Padma, P.; Sheela, V.S.; Suryakumari, S.; Jayalakshmy, K.V.; Nair, S.M.; Kumar, N.C.

    stream_size 64084 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Water_Qual_Expos_Health_5_197.pdf.txt stream_source_info Water_Qual_Expos_Health_5_197.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8... Water Qual Expo Health DOI 10.1007/s12403-014-0115-9 ORIGINAL PAPER Assessment of Water Quality of a River-Dominated Estuary with Hydrochemical Parameters: A Statistical Approach P. Padma · V. S. Sheela · S. Suryakumari · K. V. Jayalakshmy · S. M. Nair...

  9. Targeted Water Quality Assessment in Small Reservoirs in Brazil, Zimbabwe, Morocco and Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boelee, Eline; Rodrigues, Lineu; Senzanje, Aidan; Laamrani, Hammou; Cecchi, Philippe

    2010-05-01

    Background Physical and chemical parameters of water in reservoirs can be affected by natural and manmade pollutants, causing damage to the aquatic life and water quality. However, the exact water quality considerations depend on what the water will be used for. Brick making, livestock watering, fisheries, irrigation and domestic uses all have their own specific water quality requirements. In turn, these uses impact on water quality. Methodology Water quality was assessed with a variety of methods in small multipurpose reservoirs in the São Francisco Basin in Brazil, Limpopo in Zimbabwe, Souss Massa in Morocco and Nakambé in Burkina Faso. In each case the first step was to select the reservoirs for which the water quality was to be monitored, then identify the main water uses, followed by a determination of key relevant water quality parameters. In addition, a survey was done in some cases to identify quality perceptions of the users. Samples were taken from the reservoir itself and related water bodies such as canals and wells where relevant. Results Accordingly in the four basins different methods gave different locally relevant results. In the Preto River in the Sao Francisco in Brazil small reservoirs are mainly used for irrigated agriculture. Chemical analysis of various small reservoirs showed that water quality was mainly influenced by geological origins. In addition there was nutrient inflow from surrounding areas of intensive agriculture with high fertilizer use. In the Limpopo basin in Zimbabwe small reservoirs are used for almost all community water needs. Plankton was selected as indicator and sampling was carried out in reservoirs in communal areas and in a national park. Park reservoirs were significantly more diversified in phytoplankton taxa compared to those in the communal lands, but not for zooplankton, though communal lands had the highest zooplankton abundance. In Souss Massa in Morocco a combination of perceptions and scientific water

  10. Water quality modelling for ephemeral rivers: Model development and parameter assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannina, Giorgio; Viviani, Gaspare

    2010-11-01

    SummaryRiver water quality models can be valuable tools for the assessment and management of receiving water body quality. However, such water quality models require accurate model calibration in order to specify model parameters. Reliable model calibration requires an extensive array of water quality data that are generally rare and resource-intensive, both economically and in terms of human resources, to collect. In the case of small rivers, such data are scarce due to the fact that these rivers are generally considered too insignificant, from a practical and economic viewpoint, to justify the investment of such considerable time and resources. As a consequence, the literature contains very few studies on the water quality modelling for small rivers, and such studies as have been published are fairly limited in scope. In this paper, a simplified river water quality model is presented. The model is an extension of the Streeter-Phelps model and takes into account the physico-chemical and biological processes most relevant to modelling the quality of receiving water bodies (i.e., degradation of dissolved carbonaceous substances, ammonium oxidation, algal uptake and denitrification, dissolved oxygen balance, including depletion by degradation processes and supply by physical reaeration and photosynthetic production). The model has been applied to an Italian case study, the Oreto river (IT), which has been the object of an Italian research project aimed at assessing the river's water quality. For this reason, several monitoring campaigns have been previously carried out in order to collect water quantity and quality data on this river system. In particular, twelve river cross sections were monitored, and both flow and water quality data were collected for each cross section. The results of the calibrated model show satisfactory agreement with the measured data and results reveal important differences between the parameters used to model small rivers as compared to

  11. Assessment of the Water Quality from the Sitnica River as a Result of Urban Discharges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALBONA SHALA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available According to the Ministry of Environment and Spatial Planning, Kosovo is facing problems related not only to the limited amount of water, but also when it comes to its quality, as a result of discharge of contaminated wastewater into the surface and groundwater, without any prior treatment. The longest river (90km and at the same time the most polluted river in Kosovo is the Sitnica River. All the wastewater from the towns and villages washed by this river during its entire watercourse from its source until its mouth into the Ibar River is discharged into this river. In order to have a more accurate overview of the impact of urban discharge into the quality of the Sitnica River water and to assess the impact of the pollutants discharged into this river, we conducted a research at five monitoring stations: the first station representing a reference station not being subjected (untouched to anthropogenic pollution pressure while the other four represent monitoring stations situated at water area affected by this discharge of urban wastewater. The purpose of this study is to assess the quality of the Sitnica River water and to analyze the pollution scale level throughout its course caused by urban discharge. Some of the parameters of the water qualityanalyzed are: temperature, turbidity, electrical conductivity, pH, DO, COD, BOD, P total, nitrates, detergents and ammonium ions.Analysis of the physical – chemical parameters of the water quality was conducted at the laboratory of the Hydro-meteorological Institute of Kosovo. Based on experimental results, various readings of the majority of the studied parameters were obtained at different stations with a tendency of deteriorated quality of water with the growing distance from the source of the Sitnica River, as a result of continuous impact of pollution. From our findings we can conclude that continuous discharge of urban wastewater has a considerable impact on the quality of the Sitnica River

  12. Assessing the Long-Term Impacts of Water Quality Outreach and Education Efforts on Agricultural Landowners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson-Smith, Douglas B.; McEvoy, Jamie P.

    2011-01-01

    We assess the long-term effectiveness of outreach and education efforts associated with a water quality improvement project in a watershed located in northern Utah, USA. Conducted 15 years after the original project began, our research examines the lasting impacts of different extension activities on landowners' motivations to participate and…

  13. The dynamics of dissolved oxygen concentration for water quality monitoring and assessment in polder ditches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeningen, R.

    1983-01-01

    This study deals with the use of the dynamics of dissolved oxygen concentration for water quality assessment in polder ditches. The dynamics of the dissolved oxygen concentration, i.e. the temporal and spatial variations in a few polder ditches under a range of natural, pollution and management

  14. Assessing the Impact of Active Land Management in Mitigating Wildfire Threat to Source Water Supply Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bladon, K. D.; Silins, U.; Emelko, M. B.; Flannigan, M.; Dupont, D.; Robinne, F.; Wang, X.; Parisien, M. A.; Stone, M.; Thompson, D. K.; Tymstra, C.; Schroeder, D.; Kienzle, S. W.; Anderson, A.

    2014-12-01

    The vast majority of surface water supplies in Alberta originates in forested regions of the province, and supports approximately 94 municipal utilities, 208 communities, and 67% of the provincial population. These surface water supplies are highly vulnerable to contamination inputs and changing water conditions associated with wildfires. A provincial scale risk analysis framework is being used to investigate the magnitude and likelihood of wildfire occurrence in source water regions to evaluate the potential for altered water quality and quantity. The initial analysis identified which forested regions and which municipal drinking water treatment facilities are most at risk from wildfire. The efficacy of several current and potential landscape treatments to mitigate wildfire threats, along with the likely outcome of these treatments on mitigation of potential impacts of wildfire to drinking water treatment, are being modeled. A Monte Carlo modeling approach incorporating wildfire regime characteristics is used to simulate the ignition and growth of wildfires and generate outcome distributions for the different mitigation strategies. Cumulative changes in water quality at large river basin scales are being modeled and linked to water treatment impacts with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). A critical foundation of this approach is the close interaction of a large, trans-disciplinary team of researchers capable of integrating highly diverse issues of landscape wildfire dynamics, cross-scale water supply issues, and their linkage to downstream risks to drinking water treatment engineering.

  15. Design of Cycle 3 of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program, 2013-2022: Part 1: Framework of Water-Quality Issues and Potential Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Gary L.; Belitz, Kenneth; Essaid, Hedeff I.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Hamilton, Pixie A.; Hoos, Anne B.; Lynch, Dennis D.; Munn, Mark D.; Wolock, David W.

    2010-01-01

    In 1991, the U.S. Congress established the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program to develop long-term, nationally consistent information on the quality of the Nation's streams and groundwater. Congress recognized the critical need for this information to support scientifically sound management, regulatory, and policy decisions concerning the increasingly stressed water resources of the Nation. The long-term goals of NAWQA are to: (1) assess the status of water-quality conditions in the United States, (2) evaluate long-term trends in water-quality conditions, and (3) link status and trends with an understanding of the natural and human factors that affect water quality. These goals are national in scale, include both surface water and groundwater, and include consideration of water quality in relation to both human uses and aquatic ecosystems. Since 1991, NAWQA assessments and findings have fostered and supported major improvements in the availability and use of unbiased scientific information for decisionmaking, resource management, and planning at all levels of government. These improvements have enabled agencies and stakeholders to cost-effectively address a wide range of water-quality issues related to natural and human influences on the quality of water and potential effects on aquatic ecosystems and human health (http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa/xrel.pdf). NAWQA, like all USGS programs, provides policy relevant information that serves as a scientific basis for decisionmaking related to resource management, protection, and restoration. The information is freely available to all levels of government, nongovernmental organizations, industry, academia, and the public, and is readily accessible on the NAWQA Web site and other diverse formats to serve the needs of the water-resource community at different technical levels. Water-quality conditions in streams and groundwater are described in more than 1,700 publications (available

  16. A statistical assessment of the impact of land uses on surface water quality indexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeboonruang, Uma

    2012-06-30

    The release of wastewater from various land uses is threatening the quality of surface water. Different land uses pose varying degrees of danger to water resources. The hazardous extent of each activity depends on the amount and characteristics of the wastewater. The concept of the contamination potential index (CPI) of an activity is introduced and applied here. The index depends on the quantity of wastewater from a single source and on various chemicals in the waste whose concentrations are above allowable standards. The CPI concept and the land use impact assessment are applied to the surface water conditions in Nakhon Nayok Province in the central region of Thailand. The land uses considered in this study are residential area, industrial zone, in-season and off-season rice farming, and swine and poultry livestock. Multiple linear regression analysis determines the impact of the CPIs of these land uses on certain water quality characteristics, i.e., total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, phosphate, and chloride concentrations, using CPIs and previous water quality measurements. The models are further verified according to the current CPIs and measured concentrations. The results of the backward and forward modeling show that the land uses that affect water quality are off-season rice farming, raising poultry, and residential activity. They demonstrate that total dissolved solids and conductivity are reasonable parameters to apply in the land use assessment.

  17. Assessing Drinking Water Quality and Water Safety Management in Sub-Saharan Africa Using Regulated Monitoring Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpel, Emily; Peletz, Rachel; Bonham, Mateyo; Khush, Ranjiv

    2016-10-18

    Universal access to safe drinking water is prioritized in the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals. Collecting reliable and actionable water quality information in low-resource settings, however, is challenging, and little is known about the correspondence between water quality data collected by local monitoring agencies and global frameworks for water safety. Using 42 926 microbial water quality test results from 32 surveillance agencies and water suppliers in seven sub-Saharan African countries, we determined the degree to which water sources were monitored, how water quality varied by source type, and institutional responses to results. Sixty-four percent of the water samples were collected from piped supplies, although the majority of Africans rely on nonpiped sources. Piped supplies had the lowest levels of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) compared to any other source type: only 4% of samples of water piped to plots and 2% of samples from water piped to public taps/standpipes were positive for FIB (n = 14 948 and n = 12 278, respectively). Among other types of improved sources, samples from harvested rainwater and boreholes were less often positive for FIB (22%, n = 167 and 31%, n = 3329, respectively) than protected springs or protected dug wells (39%, n = 472 and 65%, n = 505). When data from different settings were aggregated, the FIB levels in different source types broadly reflected the source-type water safety framework used by the Joint Monitoring Programme. However, the insufficient testing of nonpiped sources relative to their use indicates important gaps in current assessments. Our results emphasize the importance of local data collection for water safety management and measurement of progress toward universal safe drinking water access.

  18. Drinking Water Quality Assessment Studies for an Urbanized Part of the Nagpur District, Central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varade, Abhay M; Yenkie, Rajshree; Shende, Rahul; Kodate, Jaya

    2014-01-01

    The water quality of Hingna area of Nagpur district, Central India was assessed for its suitability as drinking water. 22 water samples, representing both the surface and groundwater sources, were collected and analysed for different inorganic constituents by using the standard procedures. The result depicted abundance of major ions; Ca2+ > Mg2+ > Na+ > K+ = HCO3- > Cl- > SO4(2-) > NO3-. The concentrations of different elements in water were compared with the drinking water standards defined by World Health Organization (WHO). The hydro-chemical results reveal that most of the samples were within the desirable limits of the drinking water quality. However, few samples of the area, showed higher values of total dissolved solids (TDS), total hardness (TH), and magnesium (Mg) indicating their 'hard water type' nature and found to be unfit for the drinking purpose. Such poor water quality of these samples is found due to the combined effect of urbanization and industrial activities. The potential health risks associated with various water parameters have also been documented in this paper.

  19. Hydrochemical assessment of water quality for irrigation: a case study of the Medjerda River in Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etteieb, Selma; Cherif, Semia; Tarhouni, Jamila

    2017-03-01

    In order to characterize, classify and evaluate the suitability of Medjerda River water for irrigation, a hydrochemical assessment was conducted. It accounts for 80 % of the total Tunisian surface water. In this paper, hydrographical methods and PHREEQC geochemical program were used to characterize water quality of Medjerda River, whereas its suitability for irrigation was determined in accordance with its electrical conductivity (EC), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and sodium concentrations. It was established that the water samples were undersaturated with calcite, dolomite, aragonite, anhydrite, gypsum and halite except in one water sample which is supersaturated with carbonate minerals. The quality assessment of Medjerda River for irrigation purposes showed that some points belonged to the excellent-to-good and good-to-permissible irrigation water categories, while the remaining ones were classified as doubtful to unsuitable for irrigation making the river water use limited to plants with high salt tolerance. Moreover, based on FAO guidelines, almost all water samples may cause immediate salinity to gradual increasing problem but no soil infiltration problems except for two sampling points. However, immediate development or possible increasing of severe toxicity problems may be caused by the continuous use of this water for irrigation due to troublesome concentrations of chloride and sodium.

  20. Assessment of water quality: a case study of the Seybouse River (North East of Algeria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guettaf, M.; Maoui, A.; Ihdene, Z.

    2014-11-01

    The assessment of water quality has been carried out to determine the concentrations of different ions present in the surface waters. The Seybouse River constitutes a dump of industrial and domestic rejections which contribute to the degradation of water quality. A total of 48 surface water samples were collected from different stations. The first objective of this study is the use of water quality index (WQI) to evaluate the state of the water in this river. The second aim is to calculate the parameters of the quality of water destined for irrigation such as sodium adsorption ratio , sodium percentage, and residual sodium carbonate. A high mineralization and high concentration of major chemical elements and nutrients indicate inevitably a high value of WQI index. The mean value of electrical conductivity is about 945.25 µs/cm in the station 2 (Bouhamdane) and exceeds 1,400 µs/cm in station 12 of Nador. The concentration of sulfates is above 250 mg/l in the stations 8 (Zimba) and 11 (Helia). A concentration of orthophosphate over 2 mg/l was observed in the station 11. The comparison of the obtained and the WHO standards indicates a before using it use in agricultural purposes.

  1. Assessment of water quality: a case study of the Seybouse River (North East of Algeria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guettaf, M.; Maoui, A.; Ihdene, Z.

    2017-03-01

    The assessment of water quality has been carried out to determine the concentrations of different ions present in the surface waters. The Seybouse River constitutes a dump of industrial and domestic rejections which contribute to the degradation of water quality. A total of 48 surface water samples were collected from different stations. The first objective of this study is the use of water quality index (WQI) to evaluate the state of the water in this river. The second aim is to calculate the parameters of the quality of water destined for irrigation such as sodium adsorption ratio , sodium percentage, and residual sodium carbonate. A high mineralization and high concentration of major chemical elements and nutrients indicate inevitably a high value of WQI index. The mean value of electrical conductivity is about 945.25 µs/cm in the station 2 (Bouhamdane) and exceeds 1,400 µs/cm in station 12 of Nador. The concentration of sulfates is above 250 mg/l in the stations 8 (Zimba) and 11 (Helia). A concentration of orthophosphate over 2 mg/l was observed in the station 11. The comparison of the obtained and the WHO standards indicates a before using it use in agricultural purposes.

  2. Improving water quality assessments through a hierarchical Bayesian analysis of variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronewold, Andrew D; Borsuk, Mark E

    2010-10-15

    Water quality measurement error and variability, while well-documented in laboratory-scale studies, is rarely acknowledged or explicitly resolved in most model-based water body assessments, including those conducted in compliance with the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) program. Consequently, proposed pollutant loading reductions in TMDLs and similar water quality management programs may be biased, resulting in either slower-than-expected rates of water quality restoration and designated use reinstatement or, in some cases, overly conservative management decisions. To address this problem, we present a hierarchical Bayesian approach for relating actual in situ or model-predicted pollutant concentrations to multiple sampling and analysis procedures, each with distinct sources of variability. We apply this method to recently approved TMDLs to investigate whether appropriate accounting for measurement error and variability will lead to different management decisions. We find that required pollutant loading reductions may in fact vary depending not only on how measurement variability is addressed but also on which water quality analysis procedure is used to assess standard compliance. As a general strategy, our Bayesian approach to quantifying variability may represent an alternative to the common practice of addressing all forms of uncertainty through an arbitrary margin of safety (MOS).

  3. Role of water quality assessments in hospital infection control: Experience from a new oncology center in eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramkrishna Bhalchandra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Water quality assessment and timely intervention are essential for health. Microbiology, total dissolved solids (TDS and free residual chlorine were measured for water quality maintenance in an oncology center in India. Impact of these interventions over a period of 22 months has been demonstrated with four cardinal events. Pseudomonas in hospital water was controlled by adequate chlorination, whereas high TDS in the central sterile supply department water was corrected by the installation of electro-deionization plant. Contaminated bottled water was replaced using quality controlled hospital supply. Timely detection and correction of water-related issues, including reverse osmosis plant was possible through multi-faceted approach to water quality.

  4. Assessment of water quality and suitability analysis of River Ganga in Rishikesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haritash, A. K.; Gaur, Shalini; Garg, Sakshi

    2016-11-01

    The water samples were collected from River Ganga in Rishikesh during December 2008 to assess its suitability for drinking, irrigation, and industrial usages using various indices. Based on the values obtained and suggested designated best use, water in upper segment can be used for drinking but after disinfection (Class A); organized outdoor bathing in middle segment (Class B); and can be used as drinking water source (Class C) in lower segment in Rishikesh. All the parameters were within the specified limits for drinking water quality except E. coli. The indices of suitability for irrigation and industrial application were also evaluated. The irrigation quality ranged from good to excellent at almost all places with the exception of percent sodium. The abundance of major ions followed K+> Ca2+> Cl- > HCO3 - > Na+> Mg2+> CO3 2- trend. The major cations suggested that the water is alkaline (Na + K) than alkaline earth (Ca + Mg) type. The heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni) were found either absent or within the limits specified. There was no specific industrial input of pollutants. Industrial applications of the river water should be limited since the water was found to be aggressive, based on Langelier saturation index (0.3) and Ryznar stability index (8.8), with the problem of heavy to intolerable corrosion. Water quality of Ganga in Rishikesh was good with exception of most probable number (MPN) which needs regular monitoring and measures to control.

  5. Water quality assessment in terms of water quality index (WQI): case study of the Kolong River, Assam, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Minakshi; Goswami, Dulal C.

    2016-07-01

    The Kolong River of Nagaon district, Assam has been facing serious degradation leading to its current moribund condition due to a drastic human intervention in the form of an embankment put across it near its take-off point from the Brahmaputra River in the year 1964. The blockage of the river flow was adopted as a flood control measure to protect its riparian areas, especially the Nagaon town, from flood hazard. The river, once a blooming distributary of the mighty Brahmaputra, had high navigability and rich riparian biodiversity with a well established agriculturally productive watershed. However, the present status of Kolong River is highly wretched as a consequence of the post-dam effects thus leaving it as stagnant pools of polluted water with negligible socio-economic and ecological value. The Central Pollution Control Board, in one of its report has placed the Kolong River among 275 most polluted rivers of India. Thus, this study is conducted to analyze the seasonal water quality status of the Kolong River in terms of water quality index (WQI). The WQI scores shows very poor to unsuitable quality of water samples in almost all the seven sampling sites along the Kolong River. The water quality is found to be most deteriorated during monsoon season with an average WQI value of 122.47 as compared to pre-monsoon and post-monsoon season having average WQI value of 85.73 and 80.75, respectively. Out of the seven sampling sites, Hatimura site (S1) and Nagaon Town site (S4) are observed to be the most polluted sites.

  6. Assessment of Water-Quality Monitoring and a Proposed Water-Quality Monitoring Network for the Mosquito Lagoon Basin, East-Central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroening, Sharon E.

    2008-01-01

    Surface- and ground-water quality data from the Mosquito Lagoon Basin were compiled and analyzed to: (1) describe historical and current monitoring in the basin, (2) summarize surface- and ground-water quality conditions with an emphasis on identifying areas that require additional monitoring, and (3) develop a water-quality monitoring network to meet the goals of Canaveral National Seashore (a National Park) and to fill gaps in current monitoring. Water-quality data were compiled from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's STORET system, the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water Information System, or from the agency which collected the data. Most water-quality monitoring focused on assessing conditions in Mosquito Lagoon. Significant spatial and/or seasonal variations in water-quality constituents in the lagoon were quantified for pH values, fecal coliform bacteria counts, and concentrations of dissolved oxygen, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, chlorophyll-a, and total suspended solids. Trace element, pesticide, and ground-water-quality data were more limited. Organochlorine insecticides were the major class of pesticides analyzed. A surface- and ground-water-quality monitoring network was designed for the Mosquito Lagoon Basin which emphasizes: (1) analysis of compounds indicative of human activities, including pesticides and other trace organic compounds present in domestic and industrial waste; (2) greater data collection in the southern part of Mosquito Lagoon where spatial variations in water-quality constituents were quantified; and (3) additional ground-water-quality data collection in the surficial aquifer system and Upper Floridan aquifer. Surface-water-quality data collected as part of this network would include a fixed-station monitoring network of eight sites in the southern part of the basin, including a canal draining Oak Hill. Ground-water quality monitoring should be done routinely at about 20 wells in the surficial aquifer system and Upper

  7. Assessment for water quality by artificial neural network in Daya Bay, South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mei-Lin; Wang, You-Shao; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2015-10-01

    In this study, artificial neural network such as a self-organizing map (SOM) was used to assess for the effects caused by climate change and human activities on the water quality in Daya Bay, South China Sea. SOM has identified the anthropogenic effects and seasonal characters of water quality. SOM grouped the four seasons as four groups (winter, spring, summer and autumn). The Southeast Asian monsoons, northeasterly from October to the next April and southwesterly from May to September have also an important influence on the water quality in Daya Bay. Spatial pattern is mainly related to anthropogenic activities and hydrodynamics conditions. In spatial characteristics, the water quality in Daya Bay was divided into two groups by chemometrics. The monitoring stations (S3, S8, S10 and S11) were in these area (Dapeng Ao, Aotou Harbor) and northeast parts of Daya Bay, which are areas of human activity. The thermal pollution has been observed near water body in Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant (S5). The rest of the monitoring sites were in the south, central and eastern parts of Daya Bay, which are areas that experience water exchanges from South China Sea. The results of this study may provide information on the spatial and temporal patterns in Daya Bay. Further research will be carry out more research concerning functional changes in the bay ecology with respect to changes in climatic factor, human activities and bay morphology in Daya Bay.

  8. Assessment of the Water Quality of Hussain Sagar, Fox Sagar and Kattamysamma Lakes of Hyderabad, Telangana State, India: Using Water Quality Index (WQI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manchala Lingaswamy

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to assess the water quality of three lakes of Hyderabad, Telangana State, India viz., Hussain Sagar, Fox Sagar and Kattamysamma Lake by using water quality index (WQI. For this study systematic sampling has been carried out by collecting sixteen samples from each lake. The collected samples were analyzed for physico-chemical parameters like pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS, Total Hardness (TH, Total Alkalinity (TA, Sodium (Na+, Potassium (K+, Calcium (Ca2+, Magnesium (Mg2+, Nitrates (NO32-, Sulphates (SO42-, Fluoride (F- and Chloride (Cl- according to Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (APHA 2005 and Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB guide manual: Water and Waste water analysis. The results were compared with water quality guidelines for drinking purpose (BIS 2012. The mean values of most water quality parameters were significantly higher than the accept limits in all three lakes. Ten important water variables were chosen to calculate Water Quality Index (WQI. All the three lakes fall under unsuitable for drinking purpose (>100 according to WQI scale.

  9. Assessment of Physical-Chemical Drinking Water Quality in the Logone Valley (Chad-Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin B. Ngassoum

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Unsafe drinking water is one of the main concerns in developing countries. In order to deal with this problem, a cooperation project was set up by the ACRA Foundation in the Logone valley (Chad-Cameroon. Water supplies were sampled throughout the villages of this area mostly from boreholes, open wells, rivers and lakes as well as some piped waters. The samples were analysed for their physical-chemical and microbiological quality in order to identify the contamination problems and suggest appropriate solutions. Results of the assessment confirmed that in the studied area there are several parameters of health and aesthetic concern. Elevated lead levels were detected both in aquifers and in surface waters, confirming that further investigations of the occurrence of lead contamination in the Logone valley are warranted. In addition, many groundwater sources are negatively impacted by parameters of aesthetic concern, such as turbidity, iron and manganese. Even though they do not affect human health, elevated levels of these parameters cause consumers to abandon improved water supplies, often in favour of surface water sources that are microbiologically contaminated. The use of alternative sources, improvement of water supply structures and water treatment are possible solutions to improve the quality of drinking water in the Logone valley.

  10. The Assessment of the Quality of Water Offered to Animals in Rural Households and Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Popescu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to assess the quality of water consumed by animals in rural households and farms. The water quality was determined based on indicator parameters (pH, ammonia, sulphates, iron, chlorides, organic substances, overall hardness, total number of germs, number of Coliform bacteria and chemical parameters (nitrites, nitrates, by collecting and analyzing 40 water samples (from 20 households and 20 farms. The results were compared to the provisions of the Laws 458/2002 and 311/2004. Three water samples (15% from rural households had nitrates exceeding the threshold levels. Within the indicator parameters, the following ones showed alterations: ammonia (20% from samples, sulphates (40% from samples, chlorides (35% from samples, overall hardness (60% from samples, organic substances (20% from samples, total number of germs (all of the samples and the number of Coliform bacteria (90% from samples, respectively. The water used in farms had no alterations of the chemical parameters. Within the indicator parameters, the following showed divergences from the legal provisions: overall hardness (85%, the total number of germs (50% from samples and the number of Coliform bacteria (35% from samples. The obtained results indicate a better quality of water consumed by animals in farms in comparison with water consumed by them in rural households.

  11. Monitoring and assessment of water health quality in the Tajan River, Iran using physicochemical, fish and macroinvertebrates indices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aazami, J.; Kosten, S.; Abdoli, A.; Sohrabi, H.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background - Nowadays, aquatic organisms are used as bio-indicators to assess ecological water quality in western regions, but have hardly been used in an Iranian context. We, therefore, evaluated the suitability of several indices to assess the water quality for an Iranian case study. Methods - Mea

  12. Monitoring and assessment of water health quality in the Tajan River, Iran using physicochemical, fish and macroinvertebrates indices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aazami, J.; Kosten, S.; Abdoli, A.; Sohrabi, H.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background - Nowadays, aquatic organisms are used as bio-indicators to assess ecological water quality in western regions, but have hardly been used in an Iranian context. We, therefore, evaluated the suitability of several indices to assess the water quality for an Iranian case study. Methods - Mea

  13. Using diatom indices for water quality assessment in a subtropical river, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiang; Sheldon, Fran; Bunn, Stuart E; Zhang, Quanfa

    2013-06-01

    Diatoms have been regularly used as bioindicators to assess water quality of surface waters. However, diatom-based indices developed for a specific geographic region may not be appropriate elsewhere. We sampled benthic diatom assemblages in the upper Han River, a subtropical river in China, to evaluate applicability of 14 diatom-based indices used worldwide for water quality assessment. A total of 194 taxa from 31 genera were identified in the dry season and 139 taxa from 23 genera in the wet season. During the dry season, significant relationships were found for all but one of the diatom-based indices (Index Diatom Artois-Picardie) with one or more physical and chemical variables including nutrients and ion concentrations in river waters. The Biological Diatom Index (IBD) and diatom-based eutrophication/pollution index (EPI-D) were strongly related to trophic status and ionic content, while Watanabe's Index was related to organic pollution and conductivity. Yet, the diatom indices showed weak relationships with physical and chemical variables during the wet season. It suggests that diatom-based indices developed in Europe can be applied with confidence as bioindicators of water quality in subtropical rivers of China, at least during base-flow conditions.

  14. An approach for assessment of water quality using semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) and bioindicator tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, J.D.; Jones, S.B.; Huckins, J.N.; Cranor, W.L.; Parris, J.T.; McTague, T.B.; Boyle, T.P.

    2000-01-01

    As an integral part of our continued development of water quality assessment approaches, we combined integrative sampling, instrumental analysis of widely occurring anthropogenic contaminants, and the application of a suite of bioindicator tests as a specific part of a broader survey of ecological conditions, species diversity, and habitat quality in the Santa Cruz River in Arizona, USA. Lipid-containing semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were employed to sequester waterborne hydrophobic chemicals. Instrumental analysis and a suite of bioindicator tests were used to determine the presence and potential toxicological relevance of mixtures of bioavailable chemicals in two major water sources of the Santa Cruz River. The SPMDs were deployed at two sites; the effluent weir of the International Wastewater Treatment Plant (IWWTP) and the Nogales Wash. Both of these systems empty into the Santa Cruz River and the IWWTP effluent is a potential source of water for a constructed wetland complex. Analysis of the SPMD sample extracts revealed the presence of organochlorine pesticides (OCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The bioindicator tests demonstrated increased liver enzyme activity, perturbation of neurotransmitter systems and potential endocrine disrupting effects (vitellogenin induction) in fish exposed to the extracts. With increasing global demands on limited water resources, the approach described herein provides an assessment paradigm applicable to determining the quality of water in a broad range of aquatic systems.

  15. Water-quality assessment of the upper Snake River basin, Idaho and western Wyoming; environmental setting, 1980-92

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupin, Molly A.

    1995-01-01

    The 35,800-square-mile upper Snake River Basin is one of 20 areas studied as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. Objectives of NAWQA are to study ground- and surface-water quality, biology, and their relations to land-use activities. Major land and water uses that affect water quality in the basin are irrigated agriculture, grazing, aquaculture, food processing, and wastewater treatment. Data summarized in this report are used in companion reports to help define the relations among land use, water use, water quality, and biological conditions.

  16. Water quality assessment of the Sinchun stream based on epilithic diatom communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yeon Jeong; Choi, Jae Sin; Kim, Han Soon

    2014-11-01

    Water quality was assessed 11 sites on the Sinchun Stream, in the region of Daegu City (South Korea), from May 2007 to March 2008 using Diatom Assemblage Index to Organic Water Pollution (DAIpo) and Trophic Diatom Index (TDI). The reference sites were unaffected by effluent from a closed mine or treated sewage and had, epilithic diatom communities that were dominated by saproxenous taxa such as Achnanthes convergens and Cocconeisplacentula var. lineata. The water quality of these sites had DAIpo values ranging between 77.5-93.8 and TDI values between 51.3-67.6, indicating β-oligosaprobic and mesotrophic environments, respectively. Study sites affected by effluent from the closed mine had epilithic diatom communities that were dominated by acidobiontic diatoms, such as Eunotia exigua and Achnanthidium minutissimum. The water quality of these sites had DAlpo values of 45.9-70.8, indicating β-mesosaprobic to α-oligosaprobic environments, whereas TDI ranged between 1.7-66.9, indicating an oligotrophic to mesotrophic environment. Downstream sites affected by the influx of mine effluent and treated sewage had many species and a high percentage of saprophilous taxa, including Fragilaria construens var. venter and Nitzschia amphibia. The water quality of these regions had DAIpo values ranging between 21.8-33.1 and TDI values between 67.5-76.7, indicating α-mesosaprobic and eutrophic environments, respectively.

  17. IWQ index: a GIS-integrated technique to assess irrigation water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Celalettin; Gunduz, Orhan

    2007-05-01

    The irrigation water quality and the associated hazards to soil characteristics and crop yield is often a complex phenomenon that involves the combined effect of many parameters. From a management point of view, it is sometimes necessary to analyze all related parameters as a combination rather than focusing on a single isolated parameter. With this objective in mind, a new GIS-integrated tool is proposed in this study to evaluate the quality of irrigation waters with regards to potential soil and crop problems. The proposed procedure is mainly an index method that utilizes five hazard groups: (a) salinity hazard, (b) infiltration and permeability hazard, (c) specific ion toxicity, (d) trace element toxicity; and, (e) miscellaneous impacts on sensitive crops. A linear combination of these groups is formulated to form the so-called IWQ index, which is a technique that could be used to classify irrigation waters with respect to three suitability classes. The proposed technique is applied to assess the irrigation water quality of the Simav Plain located in western Anatolia, Turkey. The Simav application is implemented by using a GIS database developed for the plain. Based on the results of this application, the general groundwater quality in the surfacial aquifer is found to be fairly good and the aquifer waters are mostly suitable for irrigation purposes.

  18. An assessment of quality of water from boreholes in Bindura District, Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoko, Zvikomborero

    This study assessed the water quality of 144 boreholes in Bindura District in Mashonaland Province of Zimbabwe as part of a borehole rehabilitation project implemented by a local NGO. In previous studies it has been observed that some boreholes are not used for domestic purposes because of consumer perceived poor water quality. Consequently, communities have resorted to unsafe alternative water sources thus creating health risks. The study was carried out in June 2005. The objectives of the study were to assess the levels of parameters associated with the aesthetics of the water and to compare them with guideline values for drinking water. The study also investigated the relationship between some of the measured water quality and the consumer perceived water quality. Measured water quality parameters included pH, temperature, electrical conductivity (EC), turbidity, calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and iron (Fe). All parameters were measured in the field except Ca, Mg and Fe, which were measured in a laboratory using a spectrophotometer. Consumer perceptions on water quality were investigated through interviews with the consumer community. Turbidity was found to be 0.75-428(20.8 ± 59.2; n = 144) NTU, pH 5.7-9.3 (6.88 ± 0.46; n = 144), temperature 18-26.8 (22.6 ± 2.1; n = 144) °C. EC 26-546 (199 ± 116; n = 144) μS/cm, Ca 6-71.6 (26.9 ± 14.1; n = 81) mg/l, Mg 1.2-49.6 (12.3 ± 10.0; n = 81) mg/l and Fe 0.08-9.60 (0.56 ± 1.15; n = 81) mg/l. Some 23% of the samples had pH outside the recommended range of 6.5-8.5, whilst 59% of the samples had turbidity values exceeding the 5NTU WHO limit. For EC, all samples had values less than the WHO derived limit of 1380 μS/cm. All Ca and magnesium values were within the common and recommended levels of 100 mg/l and 70 mg/l respectively. Iron had values greater than the WHO and SAZ limit of 0.3 mg/l in 36% of the samples. Water quality was deemed satisfactory for taste and soap consumption by 95% and 72% of the respondents

  19. Prediction of ground water quality index to assess suitability for drinking purposes using fuzzy rule-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorai, A. K.; Hasni, S. A.; Iqbal, Jawed

    2016-11-01

    Groundwater is the most important natural resource for drinking water to many people around the world, especially in rural areas where the supply of treated water is not available. Drinking water resources cannot be optimally used and sustained unless the quality of water is properly assessed. To this end, an attempt has been made to develop a suitable methodology for the assessment of drinking water quality on the basis of 11 physico-chemical parameters. The present study aims to select the fuzzy aggregation approach for estimation of the water quality index of a sample to check the suitability for drinking purposes. Based on expert's opinion and author's judgement, 11 water quality (pollutant) variables (Alkalinity, Dissolved Solids (DS), Hardness, pH, Ca, Mg, Fe, Fluoride, As, Sulphate, Nitrates) are selected for the quality assessment. The output results of proposed methodology are compared with the output obtained from widely used deterministic method (weighted arithmetic mean aggregation) for the suitability of the developed methodology.

  20. ASSESSMENT OF OIL PALM PLANTATION AND TROPICAL PEAT SWAMP FOREST WATER QUALITY BY MULTIVARIATE STATISTICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seca Gandaseca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the spatio-temporal changes in river and canal water quality of peat swamp forest and oil palm plantation sites of Sarawak, Malaysia. To investigate temporal changes, 192 water samples were collected at four stations of BatangIgan, an oil palm plantation site of Sarawak, during July-November in 2009 and April-July in 2010. Nine water quality parameters including Electrical Conductivity (EC, pH, Turbidity (TER, Dissolved Oxygen (DO, Temperature (TEMP, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, five-day Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5, ammonia-Nitrogen (NH3-N, Total Suspended Solids (TSS were analysed. To investigate spatial changes, 432water samples were collected from six different sites including BatangIgan during June-August 2010. Six water quality parameters including pH, DO, COD, BOD5, NH3-N and TSS were analysed to see the spatial variations. Most significant parameters which contributed in spatio-temporal variations were assessed by statistical techniques such as Hierarchical Agglomerative Cluster Analysis (HACA, Factor Analysis/Principal Components Analysis (FA/PCA and Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA. HACA identified three different classes of sites: Relatively Unimpaired, Impaired and Less Impaired Regions on the basis of similarity among different physicochemical characteristics and pollutant level between the sampling sites. DFA produced the best results for identification of main variables for temporal analysis and separated parameters (EC, TER, COD and identified three parameters for spatial analysis (pH, NH3-N and BOD5. The results signify that parameters identified by statistical analyses were responsible for water quality change and suggest the possibility the agricultural and oil palm plantation activities as a source of pollutants. The results suggest dire need for proper watershed management measures to restore the water quality of this tributary for a

  1. Water Quality Assessment of Streams and Wetlands in a Fast Growing East African City

    OpenAIRE

    Niels De Troyer; Seid Tiku Mereta; Peter L. M. Goethals; Pieter Boets

    2016-01-01

    The combination of rapid urbanization, industrialization, population growth, and low environmental awareness poses a major threat to worldwide valuable freshwater resources, which provide important ecosystem services to humans. There is an urgent need to monitor and assess these resources, as this information is indispensable for sustainable decision -making and management. In this context, we analyzed the chemical and ecological water quality of the riverine environment of a fast growing cit...

  2. Water Quality Assessment of Gufu River in Three Gorges Reservoir (China Using Multivariable Statistical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiwen Ge

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available To provide the reasonable basis for scientific management of water resources and certain directive significance for sustaining health of Gufu River and even maintaining the stability of water ecosystem of the Three-Gorge Reservoir of Yangtze River, central China, multiple statistical methods including Cluster Analysis (CA, Discriminant Analysis (DA and Principal Component Analysis (PCA were performed to assess the spatial-temporal variations and interpret water quality data. The data were obtained during one year (2010~2011 of monitoring of 13 parameters at 21 different sites (3003 observations, Hierarchical CA classified 11 months into 2 periods (the first and second periods and 21 sampling sites into 2 clusters, namely, respectively upper reaches with little anthropogenic interference (UR and lower reaches running through the farming areas and towns that are subjected to some human interference (LR of the sites, based on similarities in the water quality characteristics. Eight significant parameters (total phosphorus, total nitrogen, temperature, nitrate nitrogen, total organic carbon, total hardness, total alkalinity and silicon dioxide were identified by DA, affording 100% correct assignations for temporal variation analysis, and five significant parameters (total phosphorus, total nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, electrical conductivity and total organic carbon were confirmed with 88% correct assignations for spatial variation analysis. PCA (varimax functionality was applied to identify potential pollution sources based on the two clustered regions. Four Principal Components (PCs with 91.19 and 80.57% total variances were obtained for the Upper Reaches (UR and Lower Reaches (LR regions, respectively. For the UR region, the rainfall runoff, soil erosion, scouring weathering of crustal materials and forest areas are the main sources of pollution. The pollution sources for the LR region are anthropogenic sources (domestic and agricultural runoff

  3. Real-time assessments of water quality: expanding nowcasting throughout the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    Nowcasts are systems that inform the public of current bacterial water-quality conditions at beaches on the basis of predictive models. During 2010–12, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) worked with 23 local and State agencies to improve existing operational beach nowcast systems at 4 beaches and expand the use of predictive models in nowcasts at an additional 45 beaches throughout the Great Lakes. The predictive models were specific to each beach, and the best model for each beach was based on a unique combination of environmental and water-quality explanatory variables. The variables used most often in models to predict Escherichia coli (E. coli) concentrations or the probability of exceeding a State recreational water-quality standard included turbidity, day of the year, wave height, wind direction and speed, antecedent rainfall for various time periods, and change in lake level over 24 hours. During validation of 42 beach models during 2012, the models performed better than the current method to assess recreational water quality (previous day's E. coli concentration). The USGS will continue to work with local agencies to improve nowcast predictions, enable technology transfer of predictive model development procedures, and implement more operational systems during 2013 and beyond.

  4. Assessment of microbiological quality of drinking water from household tanks in Bermuda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévesque, B; Pereg, D; Watkinson, E; Maguire, J S; Bissonnette, L; Gingras, S; Rouja, P; Bergeron, M G; Dewailly, E

    2008-06-01

    Bermuda residents collect rainwater from rooftops to fulfil their freshwater needs. The objective of this study was to assess the microbiological quality of drinking water in household tanks throughout Bermuda. The tanks surveyed were selected randomly from the electoral register. Governmental officers visited the selected household (n = 102) to collect water samples and administer a short questionnaire about the tank characteristics, the residents' habits in terms of water use, and general information on the water collecting system and its maintenance. At the same time, water samples were collected for analysis and total coliforms and Escherichia coli were determined by 2 methods (membrane filtration and culture on chromogenic media, Colilert kit). Results from the 2 methods were highly correlated and showed that approximately 90% of the samples analysed were contaminated with total coliforms in concentrations exceeding 10 CFU/100 mL, and approximately 66% of samples showed contamination with E. coli. Tank cleaning in the year prior to sampling seems to protect against water contamination. If rainwater collection from roofs is the most efficient mean for providing freshwater to Bermudians, it must not be considered a source of high quality drinking water because of the high levels of microbial contamination.

  5. Assessing clarity of message communication for mandated USEPA drinking water quality reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phetxumphou, Katherine; Roy, Siddhartha; Davy, Brenda M; Estabrooks, Paul A; You, Wen; Dietrich, Andrea M

    2016-04-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency mandates that community water systems (CWSs), or drinking water utilities, provide annual consumer confidence reports (CCRs) reporting on water quality, compliance with regulations, source water, and consumer education. While certain report formats are prescribed, there are no criteria ensuring that consumers understand messages in these reports. To assess clarity of message, trained raters evaluated a national sample of 30 CCRs using the Centers for Disease Control Clear Communication Index (Index) indices: (1) Main Message/Call to Action; (2) Language; (3) Information Design; (4) State of the Science; (5) Behavioral Recommendations; (6) Numbers; and (7) Risk. Communication materials are considered qualifying if they achieve a 90% Index score. Overall mean score across CCRs was 50 ± 14% and none scored 90% or higher. CCRs did not differ significantly by water system size. State of the Science (3 ± 15%) and Behavioral Recommendations (77 ± 36%) indices were the lowest and highest, respectively. Only 63% of CCRs explicitly stated if the water was safe to drink according to federal and state standards and regulations. None of the CCRs had passing Index scores, signaling that CWSs are not effectively communicating with their consumers; thus, the Index can serve as an evaluation tool for CCR effectiveness and a guide to improve water quality communications.

  6. Assessment of surface water quality of inland valleys for cropping in SW Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboyeji, O. S.; Ogunkoya, O. O.

    2017-05-01

    Inland valley agro-ecosystems which are a category of wetlands have potential for sustainable crop production relative to uplands. A major challenge to their utilisation in the study area is their heterogeneity in hydrology, morphology, soil types and agro-economy. The study assessed the surface water quality of three typologies of the agro-ecosystems—amphitheatre-like valley-heads (Am), valley-side (VS), and low depression (LD)—for cropping. Surface water of six sites were sampled during the wet and dry seasons. The physicochemical properties and metal concentrations of the samples were analysed. Descriptive statistics and water quality indices were used to assess the suitability of the waters of the agro-ecosystems for cropping. Results showed that the valleys have neutral to slightly alkaline waters. Values of physicochemical parameters are generally within the acceptable range for cropping. The concentration of major cations varied across the inland valley types, but exhibited similar characteristics within each valley. The dominance of the major cations is in the order of Na > Ca > K > Mg. ANOVA results indicated that there is no significant difference in the concentration of heavy metals across the valleys ( F = 2.044, p = 0.138, α = 0.05). Generally, most of the physicochemical parameters and trace metals have low concentrations and are non-toxic to plants. Values of water quality indices (sodium adsorption ratio, soluble sodium percentage, total dissolved solids and permeability index) indicated that the concentrations of minerals in waters across the valley typologies are generally within permissible limits for cropping.

  7. Preliminary water-quality assessment of the upper White River near Indianapolis, Marion County, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangsness, David J.; Eikenberry, S.E.; Wilber, W.G.; Crawford, Charles G.

    1981-01-01

    The White River Park Commission is planning the development of park facilities along the White River through Indianapolis, Ind. A key element in the planning is the determination of whether water quality of the river is suitable for recreation. A preliminary water-quality assessment conducted August 4-5, 1980, indicated that, during low-flow steady-state conditions, the river is suitable for partial body contact recreation (any contact with water up to, but not including complete submergence). Dissolved-oxygen concentrations varied but were higher than the Indiana water-quality standards established to ensure conditions for the maintenance of a well-balanced, warm-water fish community. High fecal-coliform densities that have been observed in the White River during high streamflow are probably caused by stormwater runoff carried by combined storm and sanitary sewers. However, during the low-flow, steady-state conditions on August 4-5, 1980, fecal-coliform densities were within the Indiana standards for partial body contact recreation. Quantities of organic matter and concentrations of nutrients and heavy metals in the White River were generally within the limits recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and were generally similar to values for other Indiana rivers. Chromium, copper, lead, zinc, and mercury are accumulating in bottom materials downstream from 30th Street. The phytoplankton concentrations in the White River were high. The dominant phytoplankton species were indicative of rivers moderately affected by organic wastes. (USGS)

  8. Initial Characterization and Water Quality Assessment of Stream Landscapes in Northern Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Hofmann

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive monitoring project (2006–2013 provided data on hydrology, hydromorphology, climatology, water physico-chemistry, sedimentology, macroinvertebrate community and fish diversity in the Kharaa River basin in northern Mongolia, thus enabling, for the first time, a detailed characterization of the stream landscapes. Surface waters were categorized into separate “water bodies” according to their identifiable abiotic and biocoenotic features, subsequently creating the smallest management sub-units within the river basin. Following the approach of the European Water Framework Directive (EC-WFD, in order to obtain a good ecological status (GES, four clearly identifiable water bodies in the Kharaa River main channel and seven water bodies consisting of the basin’s tributaries were delineated. The type-specific undisturbed reference state of various aquatic ecosystems was identified in the assessment and used to set standards for restoration goals. With regards to water quality and quantity, the upper reaches of the Kharaa River basin in the Khentii Mountains were classified as having a “good” ecological and chemical status. Compared with these natural reference conditions in the upper reaches, the initial risk assessment identified several “hot spot” regions with impacted water bodies in the middle and lower basin. Subsequently, the affected water bodies are at risk of not obtaining a level of good ecological and/or chemical status for surface waters. Finally, a matrix of cause-response relationships and stressor complexes has been developed and is presented here. The applicability of management approaches is discussed to better foster the development of a sustainable river basin management plan. The application of natural references states offers a sound scientific base to assess the impact of anthropogenic activities across the Kharaa River basin.

  9. Assessment of water quality index of bore well water samples from some selected locations of South Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, S; Patel, H M; Srivastava, P K; Bafna, A M

    2013-10-01

    The present study calculates the water quality index (WQI) of some selected sites from South Gujarat (India) and assesses the impact of industries, agriculture and human activities. Chemical parameters were monitored for the calculation of WQI of some selected bore well samples. The results revealed that the WQI of the some bore well samples exceeded acceptable levels due to the dumping of wastes from municipal, industrial and domestic sources and agricultural runoff as well. Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) was implemented for interpolation of each water quality parameter (pH, EC, alkalinity, total hardness, chloride, nitrate and sulphate) for the entire sampled area. The bore water is unsuitable for drinking and if the present state of affairs continues for long, it may soon become an ecologically dead bore.

  10. [HYGIENIC JUSTIFICATION OF OPTIMIZATION OF THE INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT OF DRINKING WATER ACCORDING TO THE WATER QUALITY INDEX].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasovskiy, G N; Rakhmanin, Yu; Egorova, N

    2015-01-01

    The present study is devoted to theoretical questions of optimization of integrated assessment of the composition and properties of drinking water with the use of the Water Quality Index (WQI) and considering in it all 4 criteria for its hygienic quality-sanitary-toxicological, microbiological, radiation and organoleptic. There is presented a sequence of the analysis of benchmark data of the laboratory study of drinking water, including the selection of priority indices, their distribution into 4 groups according to hygienic criteria, calculations the ratios of real values (C) of indices to their hygiene MPC and the final calculation of the WQI. There is emphasized the importance of classes of hazard of substances, and the need for the special attention to the substances-carcinogens in the integrated assessment of water quality. To overcome the non-equivalence of contributions to the assessment of water quality factors, measured in different units, often disparated in their effect on human health, there are used the principles of combined action at levels below the MCL:C/MPC indices of performance of the unidirectional action are summed (e.g. carcinogenic substances), from indices of the independent action there are selected the most significant ones with the highest values of C/MPC, besides that there are also used counterbalancing factors K determined accordingly to Delphi method, with a maximum values of 5 for carcinogens and the minimum value of 1 for the substances affecting the organoleptic properties ofwater. There is presented the scheme of the final calculation of the value of WQI.

  11. Applicability of ambient toxicity testing to national or regional water-quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, John F.

    1990-01-01

    Comprehensive assessment of the quality of natural waters requires a multifaceted approach. Descriptions of existing conditions may be achieved by various kinds of chemical and hydrologic analyses, whereas information about the effects of such conditions on living organisms depends on biological monitoring. Toxicity testing is one type of biological monitoring that can be used to identify possible effects of toxic contaminants. Based on experimentation designed to monitor responses of organisms to environmental stresses, toxicity testing may have diverse purposes in water-quality assessments. These purposes may include identification of areas that warrant further study because of poor water quality or unusual ecological features, verification of other types of monitoring, or assessment of contaminant effects on aquatic communities. Toxicity-test results are most effective when used as a complement to chemical analyses, hydrologic measurements, and other biological monitoring. However, all toxicity-testing procedures have certain limitations that must be considered in developing the methodology and applications of toxicity testing in any large-scale water-quality-assessment program. A wide variety of toxicity-test methods have been developed to fulfill the needs of diverse applications. The methods differ primarily in the selections made relative to four characteristics: (1) test species, (2) endpoint (acute or chronic), (3) test-enclosure type, and (4) test substance (toxicant) that functions as the environmental stress. Toxicity-test approaches vary in their capacity to meet the needs of large-scale assessments of existing water quality. Ambient testing, whereby the test organism is exposed to naturally occurring substances that contain toxicant mixtures in an organic or inorganic matrix, is more likely to meet these needs than are procedures that call for exposure of the test organisms to known concentrations of a single toxicant. However, meaningful

  12. Ecological relevance of current water quality assessment unit designations in impaired rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layhee, Megan J.; Sepulveda, Adam; Ray, Andrew; Mladenka, Greg; Van Every, Lynn

    2016-01-01

    Managers often nest sections of water bodies together into assessment units (AUs) to monitor and assess water quality criteria. Ideally, AUs represent an extent of waters with similar ecological, watershed, habitat and land-use conditions and no overlapping characteristics with other waters. In the United States, AUs are typically based on political or hydrologic boundaries rather than on ecologically relevant features, so it can be difficult to detect changes in impairment status. Our goals were to evaluate if current AU designation criteria of an impaired water body in southeastern Idaho, USA that, like many U.S. waters, has three-quarters of its mainstem length divided into two AUs. We focused our evaluation in southeastern Idaho's Portneuf River, an impaired river and three-quarters of the river is divided into two AUs. We described biological and environmental conditions at multiple reaches within each AU. We used these data to (1) test if variability at the reach-scale is greater within or among AUs and, (2) to evaluate alternate AU boundaries based on multivariate analyses of reach-scale data. We found that some biological conditions had greater variability within an AU than between AUs. Multivariate analyses identified alternative, 2- and 3-group, AUs that reduced this variability. Our results suggest that the current AU designations in the mainstem Portneuf River contain ecologically distinct sections of river and that the existing AU boundaries should be reconsidered in light of the ecological conditions measured at the reach scale. Variation in biological integrity within designated AUs may complicate water quality and biological assessments, influence management decisions or affect where monitoring or mitigation resources are directed.

  13. Major Surface-Water Sampling Sites in the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program: 1991 and 1994 Study-Unit Starts - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set shows the 1991 and 1994 National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) study units' major surface-water sampling sites. These sites are in NAWQA's fixed...

  14. Application of biomonitoring and support vector machine in water quality assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue LIAO; Jian-yu XU; Zhu-wei WANG

    2012-01-01

    The behavior of schools of zebraflsh (Danio rerio) was studied in acute toxicity environments.Behavioral features were extracted and a method for water quality assessment using support vector machine (SVM) was developed.The behavioral parameters of fish were recorded and analyzed during one hour in an environment of a 24-h half-lethal concentration (LC50) of a pollutant.The data were used to develop a method to evaluate water quality,so as to give an early indication of toxicity.Four kinds of metal ions (Cu2+,Hg2+,Cr6+,and Cd2+) were used for toxicity testing.To enhance the efficiency and accuracy of assessment,a method combining SVM and a genetic algorithm (GA) was used.The results showed that the average prediction accuracy of the method was over 80% and the time cost was acceptable.The method gave satisfactory results for a variety of metal pollutants,demonstrating that this is an effective approach to the classification of water quality.

  15. Bacteriological Assessment of Water Quality of Public Swimming Pools in the Accra Metropolis, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George A. Pesewu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Water is essential for life and in most parts of the world including Ghana it is used for various activities such as drinking, bathing and recreational purposes. The objective of this study was to assess the bacteriological quality of swimming pools’ water in the Accra Metropolis. Five swimming pools were selected randomly and a research team visited the pools to collect water samples and at the same time administer short questionnaires about the characteristics of the pools. The average number of swimmers, swimming bathing loads, average age group of pool users, methods of disinfection, type of chlorine used, recycling, and treatment of the water before and after use were investigated. During the visit, water samples were collected for total coliform, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus counts using the Membrane Filtration (MF method and cultured on chromogenic media. Most (60% of the selected swimming pools had a bathing load≤20 per day. The operators of the pools disinfect their pools’ water with chorine but majority (60% of the pool operators chlorinated their pools manually with powdered chlorine. The 20 water samples investigated show that 48% of swimming pools water was contaminated with S. aureus, 30.4% with Ps. aeruginosa , 20.9% with total coli form and 0.7% with E. coli. The E. coli count found in this study was very low indicating that the selected swimming pools were not feacally polluted at the time of sampling. It is recommended that future studies should use large sample sizes.

  16. An Evaluation of Two Hydrograph Separation Methods of Potential Use in Regional Water Quality Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huff, D.D.

    1999-01-01

    Streamflow data are more useful for evaluating hydrologic model results and studying water quality once baseflow and storm runoff have been separated. However, it is important to select an appropriate hydrograph separation method. They examined tow methods and evaluated their conceptual basis, ease of application, cost of data processing, and acceptability of results. they chose the quick flow hydrograph separation method, which is in use at the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory, because it gives acceptable results and is easy and inexpensive to use. For regional assessment, they anticipate that the Coweeta program will be useful as an aid in developing general quantitative relationships between changes in land use and the associated changes in surface runoff yield and water quality degradation.

  17. Spatial and temporal assessment of surface water quality in the Arka River, Akkar, Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daou, Claude; Nabbout, Rony; Kassouf, Amine

    2016-12-01

    Surface water quality monitoring constitutes a crucial and important step in any water quality management system. Twenty-three physicochemical and microbiological parameters were assessed in surface water samples collected from the Arka River located in the Akkar District, north of Lebanon. Eight sampling locations were considered along the river and seven sampling campaigns were performed in order to evaluate spatial and temporal influences. The extraction of relevant information from this relatively large data set was done using principal component analysis (PCA), being a very well established chemometric tool in this field. In a first step, extracted PCA loadings revealed the implication of several physicochemical parameters in the discriminations and trends highlighted by PCA scores, mainly due to soil leaching and seawater intrusion. However, further investigations showed the implication of organic and bacterial parameters in the discrimination of stations in the Akkar flatland. These discriminations probably refer to anthropogenic pollution coming from the agricultural area and the surrounding villages. Specific ultraviolet absorption (SUVA) indices confirmed these findings since values decreased for samples collected across the villages and the flatland, indicating an increase in anthropogenic dissolved organic matter. This study will hopefully help the national and local authorities to ameliorate the surface water quality management, enabling its proper use for irrigation purposes.

  18. [Health Risk Assessment of Drinking Water Quality in Tianjin Based on GIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Gang; Zeng, Qiang; Zhao, Liang; Zhang, Yue; Feng, Bao-jia; Wang, Rui; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Yang; Hou, Chang-chun

    2015-12-01

    This study intends to assess the potential health hazards of drinking water quality and explore the application of geographic information system( GIS) in drinking water safety in Tianjin. Eight hundred and fifty water samples from 401 sampling points in Tianjin were measured according to the national drinking water standards. The risk assessment was conducted using the environmental health risk assessment model recommended by US EAP, and GIS was combined to explore the information visualization and risk factors simultaneously. The results showed that the health risks of carcinogens, non-carcinogens were 3.83 x 10⁻⁵, 5.62 x 10⁻⁹ and 3.83 x 10⁻⁵ for total health risk respectively. The rank of health risk was carcinogen > non-carcinogen. The rank of carcinogens health risk was urban > new area > rural area, chromium (VI) > cadmium > arsenic > trichlormethane > carbon tetrachloride. The rank of non-carcinogens health risk was rural area > new area > urban, fluoride > cyanide > lead > nitrate. The total health risk level of drinking water in Tianjin was lower than that of ICRP recommended level (5.0 x 10⁻⁵), while was between US EPA recommended level (1.0 x 10⁻⁴-1.0 x 10⁻⁶). It was at an acceptable level and would not cause obvious health hazards. The main health risks of drinking water came from carcinogens. More attentions should be paid to chromium (VI) for carcinogens and fluoride for non-carcinogens. GIS can accomplish information visualization of drinking water risk assessment and further explore of risk factors.

  19. Assessment of ground water quality for drinking purpose, District Nainital, Uttarakhand, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, C K; Bandyopadhyay, A; Bhadra, A

    2010-07-01

    The ground water quality of District Nainital (Uttarakhand, India) has been assessed to see the suitability of ground water for drinking and irrigation applications. This is a two-part series paper and this paper examines the suitability of ground water including spring water for drinking purposes. Forty ground water samples (including 28 spring samples) were collected during pre- and post-monsoon seasons and analyzed for various water quality constituents. The hydrochemical and bacteriological data was analyzed with reference to BIS and WHO standards and their hydrochemical facies were determined. The concentration of total dissolved solids exceeds the desirable limit of 500 mg/L in about 10% of the samples, alkalinity values exceed the desirable limit of 200 mg/L in about 30% of the samples, and total hardness values exceed the desirable limit of 300 mg/L in 15% of the samples. However, no sample crosses the maximum permissible limit for TDS, alkalinity, hardness, calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulfate, nitrate, and fluoride. The concentration of chloride, sulfate, nitrate, and fluoride are well within the desirable limit at all the locations. The bacteriological analysis of the samples does not show any sign of bacterial contamination in hand pump and tube-well water samples. However, in the case of spring water samples, six samples exceed the permissible limit of ten coliforms per 100 ml of sample. It is recommended that water drawn from such sources should be properly disinfected before being used for drinking and other domestic applications. Among the metal ions, the concentration of iron and lead exceeds the permissible limit at one location whereas the concentration of nickel exceeds the permissible limit in 60 and 32.5% of the samples during pre- and post-monsoon seasons, respectively. The grouping of samples according to their hydrochemical facies indicates that majority of the samples fall in Ca-Mg-HCO(3) hydrochemical facies.

  20. Water quality assessment and analysis for rehabilitate and management of wetlands: a case study in Nanhai wetland of Baotou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Jing tian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wetland plays an irreplaceable role in many aspects and waters are important part of wetland, the water quality can easily reflect the situation of Wetland. In this study, water quality was assessed on the basis of 5 parameters (DO, NH4+-N, TN, TP and CODcr that were monitored monthly at 5 sites (N1,N2,N3,N4 and N5from April, 2014 to March, 2015 of the Nanhai Lake in Baotou, China by water pollution index method and comprehensive water quality identification index method. The twelve monitoring months were divided into wet season (Mar., Aug. and Sep., normal season (Jan., Feb., Apr., Nov. and Dec. and dry season (May., Jun. and Jul.. The assessment results determined using the water pollution index method showed that the water quality of all the five monitoring sites were inferior Ⅴ, the main contamination was COD. The comprehensive water quality identification index showed that the water quality of the Nanhai Lake were classesⅤ, except for the N2 in wet season and dry season, the N1 in dry season and the N5 in normal season, which were classes inferiorⅤ. All the five monitoring sites don’t achieving the desired water quality standard. According to the analysis, domestic discharge, industrial activities and developed recreation were major threats to water quality of Nanhai Lake.

  1. Water Quality Assessment of Groundwater Resources in Nagpur Region (India Based on WQI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Rajankar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Water quality index (WQI has been calculated for different groundwater sources i.e. dug wells, bore wells and tube wells at Khaperkheda region, Maharashtra (India. Twenty two different sites were selected in post monsoon, winter and summer season. And water quality index was calculated using water quality index calculator given by National Sanitation Foundation (NSF information system. The calculated WQI showed fair water quality rating in post monsoon season which then changed to medium in summer and winter seasons for dug wells, but the bore wells and hand pumps showed medium water quality rating in all seasons where the quality was slightly differs in summer and winter season than post monsoon season, so the reasons to import water quality change and measures to be taken up in terms of groundwater quality management are required.

  2. Innovative assessment tools to improve water quality and watershed management in farming areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merot, Philippe; Aurousseau, Pierre; Gascuel-Odoux, Chantal; Durand, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    A lot of initiatives for improving water quality have been developed over the last 15 y in Brittany in response to degradation induced by intensive farming and under the pressure of European policy and environmental organizations. This has involved the partnerships of farmer organizations, organizations in charge of rural affairs, research and formation institutes, and environmental nongovernmental organizations. In this paper, we present 2 complementary aspects of an original, and possibly efficient, water policy within the framework of water management in a medium-sized watershed, including 1) development of new methods of diagnostic and decision support based on participative approaches and 2) development of new methods to assess the current status and effect of alternative scenarios, taking into account the complexity of a system with strong agricultural and hydrological variability and a relatively long response time. The 1st series of methods, which deals with the buffering capacity of landscape structures, is close to a social learning approach; the 2nd illustrates the importance, for policy makers, of a precisely defined protocol for data monitoring and analysis and of the use of spatially distributed and dynamic models when water policy is based on an obligation of results. In spite of the coexistence of all the necessary constituents of a coherent policy, it seems difficult to build. The state of current water quality illustrates the importance and limitations of incentive policy.

  3. Can we properly assess water quality status in streams with low-frequency data?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaudo, Camille; Moatar, Florentina; Abbott, Benjamin W.; Meybeck, Michel; Carré, Catherine; Lestel, Laurence

    2017-04-01

    The European Water Framework Directive uses the 90th percentile of concentration (C90) as a key metric to assess the water quality status in streams. The fact that most pollutant concentrations vary widely with changes in discharge on seasonal and event-scales throws doubt on the reliability of C90 estimates derived from low-frequency monitoring. To address this problem, we tested the effect of sampling frequency on C90 with a multi-decadal daily water quality dataset from 11 tributaries of Lake Erie in the United States. The dataset included common water-quality parameters including suspended solids, total and reactive phosphorus, inorganic nitrogen, silica, chloride, sulfate, and conductivity. We estimated C90 with subsets of these daily time series resampled at various frequencies from 1 sample every two days to a monthly sampling. Additionally, we generated a semi-synthetic time series based on concentration-discharge (C-Q) relationships and various statistical descriptors. These simulated time series allowed us to investigate the theoretical link between the C-Q slope and the error in C90 estimations for different sampling frequencies. The largest errors in estimating C90 were in highly chemodynamic parameters such as suspended solids and phosphorus. For these parameters, even relatively high-frequency sampling (i.e. 1 sample every 2 days) substantially underestimated C90 by 20 to 40%. Surprisingly and for all parameters, errors in C90 estimates did not increase as sampling frequency decreased. However, the variability in C90 estimates increased with steeper C-Q slopes and lower sampling frequencies. This type of sensitivity analysis could be used to calculate confidence intervals for C90 estimates and readjust water quality standards accordingly.

  4. Sustainable management of harbours : a numerical approach for the assessment of waters quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonamano, Simone; Madonia, Alice; Piazzolla, Daniele; Paladini de Mendoza, Francesco; Piermattei, Viviana; Scanu, Sergio; Melchiorri, Cristiano; Marcelli, Marco

    2017-04-01

    Within the Water Framework Directive (WFD), harbours must reach or maintain the good ecological potential, being classified as heavily modified water bodies. To fulfill this task and to comply the Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) principles, port managers have to monitor the water quality that can be compromised by the numerous activities including the realization of new infrastructures. The port of Civitavecchia, located on the central west coast of Italy, is undergoing to major structural changes to become one of the first ports of the Mediterranean in terms of passenger traffic and goods, thus requiring the development of management tools for the predictive assessment of harbour water quality. This study focused on the evaluation of water degradation within Civitavecchia port trough the calculation of Flushing time (FT) and the development of the new Flushing Efficiency Index (FEI). FT was calculated through the use of a numerical model under different scenarios selected combining different weather conditions with the new port configurations. FT values was then used to estimate the FEI for the evaluation of the improvement (positive values) or the deterioration (negative values) of water quality in the different zones of the port. The increase in the harbour basin size due to the embankment extension results in high values of FT, particularly in the inner part of the port, in accordance with the highest values of the Enrichment Factor (EF) of the trace metals found in the sediment. The correlation between FT and EF confirms that renewal time can be used as a proxy to evaluate the water quality conditions in the harbour basin, as also stated by the WFD guidelines. Also the results of FEI calculation indicate the potential occurrence of water degradation due to the embankment extension. Otherwise, the realization of a second entrance in the southern part of Civitavecchia port produces FEI positive values, highlighting a drastic improvement in harbour water renewal

  5. Assessment of climate change impacts on hydrology and water quality with a watershed modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuzhou; Ficklin, Darren L; Liu, Xiaomang; Zhang, Minghua

    2013-04-15

    The assessment of hydrologic responses to climate change is required in watershed management and planning to protect water resources and environmental quality. This study is designed to evaluate and enhance watershed modeling approach in characterizing climate change impacts on water supply and ecosystem stressors. Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was selected as a base model, and improved for the CO2 dependence of potential evapotranspiration and stream temperature prediction. The updated model was applied to quantify the impacts of projected 21st century climate change in the northern Coastal Ranges and western Sierra Nevada, which are important water source areas and aquatic habitats of California. Evapotranspiration response to CO2 concentration varied with vegetation type. For the forest-dominated watersheds in this study, only moderate (1-3%) reductions on evapotranspiration were predicted by solely elevating CO2 concentration under emission scenarios A2 and B1. Modeling results suggested increases in annual average stream temperature proportional to the projected increases in air temperature. Although no temporal trend was confirmed for annual precipitation in California, increases of precipitation and streamflow during winter months and decreases in summers were predicted. Decreased streamflow during summertime, together with the higher projected air temperature in summer than in winter, would increase stream temperature during those months and result in unfavorable conditions for cold-water species. Compared to the present-day conditions, 30-60 more days per year were predicted with average stream temperature >20°C during 2090s. Overall, the hydrologic cycle and water quality of headwater drainage basins of California, especially their seasonality, are very sensitive to projected climate change. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Monitoring water quality in Toronto's urban stormwater ponds: Assessing participation rates and data quality of water sampling by citizen scientists in the FreshWater Watch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Andrew B; Frost, Paul C

    2017-08-15

    From 2013 to 2015, citizen scientist volunteers in Toronto, Canada were trained to collect and analyze water quality in urban stormwater ponds. This volunteer sampling was part of the research program, FreshWater Watch (FWW), which aimed to standardize urban water sampling efforts from around the globe. We held training sessions for new volunteers twice yearly and trained a total of 111 volunteers. Over the course of project, ~30% of volunteers participated by collecting water quality data after the training session with 124 individual sampling events at 29 unique locations in Toronto, Canada. A few highly engaged volunteers were most active, with 50% of the samples collected by 5% of trainees. Stormwater ponds generally have poor water quality demonstrated by elevated phosphate concentrations (~30μg/L), nitrate (~427μg/L), and turbidity relative to Canadian water quality standards. Compared to other urban waterbodies in the global program, nutrient concentrations in Toronto's urban stormwater ponds were lower, while turbidity was not markedly different. Toronto FWW (FWW-TO) data was comparable to that measured by standard lab analyses and matched results from previous studies of stormwater ponds in Toronto. Combining observational and chemical data acquired by citizen scientists, macrophyte dominated ponds had lower phosphate concentrations while phytoplankton dominated ponds had lower nitrate concentrations, which indicates a potentially important and unstudied role of internal biogeochemical processes on pond nutrient dynamics. This experience in the FWW demonstrates the capabilities and constraints of citizen science when applied to water quality sampling. While analytical limits on in-field analyses produce higher uncertainty in water quality measurements of individual sites, rapid data collection is possible but depends on the motivation and engagement of the group of volunteers. Ongoing efforts in citizen science will thus need to address sampling effort

  7. The National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program planned monitoring and modeling activities for Texas, 2013–23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ging, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program was established by Congress in 1992 to answer the following question: What is the status of the Nation’s water quality and is it getting better or worse? Since 1992, NAWQA has been a primary source of nationally consistent data and information on the quality of the Nation’s streams and groundwater. Data and information obtained from objective and nationally consistent water-quality monitoring and modeling activities provide answers to where, when, and why the Nation’s water quality is degraded and what can be done to improve and protect it for human and ecosystem needs. For NAWQA’s third decade (2013–23), a new strategic Science Plan has been developed that describes a strategy for building upon and enhancing the USGS’s ongoing assessment of the Nation’s freshwater quality and aquatic ecosystems.

  8. Assessment of groundwater utilization for irrigating park trees under the spatiotemporal uncertainty condition of water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Cheng-Shin; Kuo, Yi-Ming

    2013-04-01

    Parks have a variety of functions for residents and are important for urban landscape planning. The healthy growth of urban park trees requires regular irrigation. To reduce the pressure of high groundwater levels and to avoid wasting groundwater resources, proper groundwater extraction for irrigating park trees in the Taipei Basin is regarded as a reciprocal solution of sustainable groundwater management and preserving excellent urban landscapes. Therefore, this study determines pristine groundwater use for irrigating park trees in the metropolitan Taipei Basin under the spatiotemporal uncertainty condition of water quality. First, six hydrochemical parameters in groundwater associated with an irrigation water quality standard were collected from a 12-year survey. Upper, median and lower quartiles of the six hydrochemical parameters were obtained to establish three thresholds. According to the irrigation water quality standard, multivariate indicator kriging (MVIK) was adopted to probabilistically evaluate the integration of the six hydrochemical parameters. Entropy was then applied to quantify the spatiotemporal uncertainty of the hydrochemical parameters. Finally, locations, which have high estimated probabilities for the median-quartile threshold and low local uncertainty, are suitable for pumping groundwater for irrigating park trees. The study results demonstrate that MVIK and entropy are capable of characterizing the spatiotemporal uncertainty of groundwater quality parameters and determining suitable parks of groundwater utilization for irrigation. Moreover, the upper, median and lower quartiles of hydrochemical parameters are served as three estimated thresholds in MVIK, which is robust to assessment predictions. Therefore, this study significantly improves the methodological application and limitation of MVIK for spatiotemporally analyzing environmental quality compared with the previous related works. Furthermore, the analyzed results indicate that 64

  9. Accounting for metal bioavailability in assessing water quality: A step change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrington, Graham; Peters, Adam; Schlekat, Christian E

    2016-02-01

    Bioavailability of metals to aquatic organisms can be considered to be a combination of the physicochemical factors governing metal behavior and the specific pathophysiological characteristics of the organism's biological receptor. Effectively this means that a measure of bioavailability will reflect the exposures that organisms in the water column actually "experience". This is important because it has long been established that measures of total metal in waters have limited relevance to potential environmental risk. The concept of accounting for bioavailability in regard to deriving and implementing environmental water quality standards is not new, but the regulatory reality has lagged behind the development of scientific evidence supporting the concept. Practical and technical reasons help to explain this situation. For example, concerns remain from regulators and the regulated that the efforts required to change existing systems of metal environmental protection that have been in place for over 35 yr are so great as not to be commensurate with likely benefits. However, more regulatory jurisdictions are now considering accounting for metal bioavailability in assessments of water quality as a means to support evidence-based decision-making. In the past decade, both the US Environmental Protection Agency and the European Commission have established bioavailability-based standards for metals, including Cu and Ni. These actions have shifted the debate toward identifying harmonized approaches for determining when knowledge is adequate to establish bioavailability-based approaches and how to implement them.

  10. Assessment of Reservoir Water Quality Using Multivariate Statistical Techniques: A Case Study of Qiandao Lake, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Gu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Qiandao Lake (Xin’an Jiang reservoir plays a significant role in drinking water supply for eastern China, and it is an attractive tourist destination. Three multivariate statistical methods were comprehensively applied to assess the spatial and temporal variations in water quality as well as potential pollution sources in Qiandao Lake. Data sets of nine parameters from 12 monitoring sites during 2010–2013 were obtained for analysis. Cluster analysis (CA was applied to classify the 12 sampling sites into three groups (Groups A, B and C and the 12 monitoring months into two clusters (April-July, and the remaining months. Discriminant analysis (DA identified Secchi disc depth, dissolved oxygen, permanganate index and total phosphorus as the significant variables for distinguishing variations of different years, with 79.9% correct assignments. Dissolved oxygen, pH and chlorophyll-a were determined to discriminate between the two sampling periods classified by CA, with 87.8% correct assignments. For spatial variation, DA identified Secchi disc depth and ammonia nitrogen as the significant discriminating parameters, with 81.6% correct assignments. Principal component analysis (PCA identified organic pollution, nutrient pollution, domestic sewage, and agricultural and surface runoff as the primary pollution sources, explaining 84.58%, 81.61% and 78.68% of the total variance in Groups A, B and C, respectively. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of integrated use of CA, DA and PCA for reservoir water quality evaluation and could assist managers in improving water resources management.

  11. National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Study-Unit Investigations in the conterminous United States 2001-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a coverage of the boundaries and codes used for the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program Study-Unit investigations in...

  12. National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Study-Unit Investigations in the conterminous United States 1991-2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a coverage of the boundaries and codes used for the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program Study-Unit investigations in...

  13. Water Quality Assessment of Streams and Wetlands in a Fast Growing East African City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels De Troyer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The combination of rapid urbanization, industrialization, population growth, and low environmental awareness poses a major threat to worldwide valuable freshwater resources, which provide important ecosystem services to humans. There is an urgent need to monitor and assess these resources, as this information is indispensable for sustainable decision-making and management. In this context, we analyzed the chemical and ecological water quality of the riverine environment of a fast growing city in Southwest Ethiopia for which we proposed possible remediation options that were evaluated with an empirical model. The chemical and ecological water quality was assessed at 53 sampling locations using the oxygen Prati index and the ETHbios, which is a biotic index based on macroinvertebrates. In addition, a microbiological analysis was performed to estimate the degree of fecal contamination. Finally, we analyzed the relationship between the oxygen content and the organic pollution to simulate the effect of organics removal from waste streams on the chemical water quality. Our results showed that the average values for dissolved oxygen (4.2 mg DO·L−1 and nutrients (0.9 mg oPO43−·L−1 and 12.8 mg TAN·L−1 exceeded international standards. Moreover, high turbidity levels revealed that land erosion is a severe problem in the region. Along the rivers, a significant increase in oxygen consumption and in nutrient concentrations was observed, indicating organic pollution originating from different diffuse and point sources of pollution. The lack of proper sanitation also led to exceedingly high abundances of fecal coliforms in the surface water (>320 MPN·mL−1. However, fecal contamination was strongly reduced (>92% after the polluted river water passed Boye wetland, indicating the purification potential of natural wetlands and the importance of conserving and protecting those ecosystems. The simulation results of the model showed that water quality

  14. Effects of atmospheric deposition of energy-related pollutants on water quality: a review and assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.J.

    1981-05-01

    The effects on surface-water quality of atmospheric pollutants that are generated during energy production are reviewed and evaluated. Atmospheric inputs from such sources to the aquatic environment may include trace elements, organic compounds, radionuclides, and acids. Combustion is the largest energy-related source of trace-element emissions to the atmosphere. This report reviews the nature of these emissions from coal-fired power plants and discusses their terrestrial and aquatic effects following deposition. Several simple models for lakes and streams are developed and are applied to assess the potential for adverse effects on surface-water quality of trace-element emissions from coal combustion. The probability of acute impacts on the aquatic environment appears to be low; however, more subtle, chronic effects are possible. The character of acid precipitation is reviewed, with emphasis on aquatic effects, and the nature of existing or potential effects on water quality, aquatic biota, and water supply is considered. The response of the aquatic environment to acid precipitation depends on the type of soils and bedrock in a watershed and the chemical characteristics of the water bodies in question. Methods for identifying regions sensitive to acid inputs are reviewed. The observed impact of acid precipitation ranges from no effects to elimination of fish populations. Coal-fired power plants and various stages of the nuclear fuel cycle release radionuclides to the atmosphere. Radioactive releases to the atmosphere from these sources and the possible aquatic effects of such releases are examined. For the nuclear fuel cycle, the major releases are from reactors and reprocessing. Although aquatic effects of atmospheric releases have not been fully quantified, there seems little reason for concern for man or aquatic biota.

  15. Water Quality Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Our water quality sampling program is to determine the quality of Moosehorn's lakes and a limited number of streams. Water quality is a measure of the body of water,...

  16. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) for assessment of microbial water quality: current progress, challenges, and future opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, BoonFei; Ng, Charmaine; Nshimyimana, Jean Pierre; Loh, Lay Leng; Gin, Karina Y-H; Thompson, Janelle R

    2015-01-01

    Water quality is an emergent property of a complex system comprised of interacting microbial populations and introduced microbial and chemical contaminants. Studies leveraging next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies are providing new insights into the ecology of microbially mediated processes that influence fresh water quality such as algal blooms, contaminant biodegradation, and pathogen dissemination. In addition, sequencing methods targeting small subunit (SSU) rRNA hypervariable regions have allowed identification of signature microbial species that serve as bioindicators for sewage contamination in these environments. Beyond amplicon sequencing, metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses of microbial communities in fresh water environments reveal the genetic capabilities and interplay of waterborne microorganisms, shedding light on the mechanisms for production and biodegradation of toxins and other contaminants. This review discusses the challenges and benefits of applying NGS-based methods to water quality research and assessment. We will consider the suitability and biases inherent in the application of NGS as a screening tool for assessment of biological risks and discuss the potential and limitations for direct quantitative interpretation of NGS data. Secondly, we will examine case studies from recent literature where NGS based methods have been applied to topics in water quality assessment, including development of bioindicators for sewage pollution and microbial source tracking, characterizing the distribution of toxin and antibiotic resistance genes in water samples, and investigating mechanisms of biodegradation of harmful pollutants that threaten water quality. Finally, we provide a short review of emerging NGS platforms and their potential applications to the next generation of water quality assessment tools.

  17. Design of Cycle 3 of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program, 2013-23: Part 2: Science plan for improved water-quality information and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Gary L.; Belitz, Kenneth; Demas, Charlie R.; Essaid, Hedeff I.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Hamilton, Pixie A.; Hoos, Anne B.; Lee, Casey J.; Munn, Mark D.; Wolock, David W.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents a science strategy for the third decade of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program, which since 1991, has been responsible for providing nationally consistent information on the quality of the Nation's streams and groundwater; how water quality is changing over time; and the major natural and human factors that affect current water quality conditions and trends. The strategy is based on an extensive evaluation of the accomplishments of NAWQA over its first two decades, the current status of water-quality monitoring activities by USGS and its partners, and an updated analysis of stakeholder priorities. The plan is designed to address priority issues and national needs identified by NAWQA stakeholders and the National Research Council (2012) irrespective of budget constraints. This plan describes four major goals for the third decade (Cycle 3), the approaches for monitoring, modeling, and scientific studies, key partnerships required to achieve these goals, and products and outcomes that will result from planned assessment activities. The science plan for 2013–2023 is a comprehensive approach to meet stakeholder priorities for: (1) rebuilding NAWQA monitoring networks for streams, rivers, and groundwater, and (2) upgrading models used to extrapolate and forecast changes in water-quality and stream ecosystem condition in response to changing climate and land use. The Cycle 3 plan continues approaches that have been central to the Program’s long-term success, but adjusts monitoring intensities and study designs to address critical information needs and identified data gaps. Restoration of diminished monitoring networks and new directions in modeling and interpretative studies address growing and evolving public and stakeholder needs for water-quality information and improved management, particularly in the face of increasing challenges related to population growth, increasing demands for water, and changing land use and climate

  18. ASSESSMENT OF WATER QUALITY INDEX FOR GROUNDWATER OF VALSAD DISTRICT OF SOUTH GUJARAT (INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Shroff

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims the assessment of the water quality index (WQI for the groundwater of Valsad district of South Gujarat. Total fifteen sampling stations from five talukas of Valsad district were selected and groundwater samples were collected for two years (from August 2007 to July 2009. In this present study, WQI created by Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME was used. For calculating the WQI, groundwater samples were analyzed for seventeen physico-chemical parameters like pH, Colour, Electrical Conductivity (EC, Total Hardness (TH, Calcium (Ca, Magnesium (Mg, Total Alkalinity (TA, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS, Silica, Chloride, Sulphate, Fluoride, Sodium, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD and metals like Copper (Cu, Lead (Pb and Manganese (Mn.  The WQI for Valsad district suggests that the groundwater quality is marginal.  

  19. ASSESSMENT OF WATER QUALITY INDEX FOR GROUNDWATER OF VALSAD DISTRICT OF SOUTH GUJARAT (INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Shroff

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims the assessment of the water quality index (WQI for the groundwater of Valsad district of South Gujarat. Total fifteen sampling stations from five talukas of Valsad district were selected and groundwater samples were collected for two years (from August 2007 to July 2009. In this present study, WQI created by Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME was used. For calculating the WQI, groundwater samples were analyzed for seventeen physico-chemical parameters like pH, Colour, Electrical Conductivity (EC, Total Hardness (TH, Calcium (Ca, Magnesium (Mg, Total Alkalinity (TA, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS, Silica, Chloride, Sulphate, Fluoride, Sodium, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD and metals like Copper (Cu, Lead (Pb and Manganese (Mn. The WQI for Valsad district suggests that the groundwater quality is marginal.

  20. A water-quality assessment of the Feather Creek watershed, Vermillion County, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikenberry, Stephen E.

    1977-01-01

    Chemical quality of surface water within the Feather Creek watershed is generally good. However, fecal bacteria concentrations are high enough to represent a potential problem, especially because of the high water-contact recreation proposed for the future reservoir.

  1. Hygienic assessment of drinking water quality and risks to public health in Krasnoyarsk region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Goryaev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the hygienic assessment of water quality in water sources of the Krasnoyarsk region used for centralized drinking water supply. It is shown that the exceeding of hygienic standards was registered at such indicators as iron (iron content is noted at the level to 1.8 mg/dm 3 or 6 MPC; fluorine (up to 6 MPC; ammonia and ammonium nitrogen (up to 2 MPC, nitrates (up to 5 MPC, organochlorine compounds (chloroform, carbon tetrachloride up to 5 MPC, manganese (up to 5.5 MPC, aluminium (up to 2 MPC. In water carcinogenic contaminants are recorded in significant concentrations: benzo(apyrene, cadmium, arsenic, nickel, lead. It is determined that the total lifetime carcinogenic risk to public health in the cities and districts of the Krasnoyarsk region due to oral intake from drinking water of chemicals of carcinogenic nature is negligible in 22 areas, and requires no additional measures to reduce. 23 territories of the region have carcinogenic risk ranged 1.0E-6 to 1.0E-5, which meets the criteria of acceptable risk. 9 territories (the town of Borodino, Lesosibirsk, Yeniseisk, Kazachinskiy, Partizansky, Pirovskiy, Rybinskiy, Sayanskiy, Uyarskiy areas show the level of lifetime individual cancer risk from 1.0E-5 to 2.0E-4, which is unacceptable for the population in general. The main contribution to the risk level (80.8–98.4 % makes the contents of arsenic in the drinking water. There is an increased risk of district (NI=1.2 and NI=1.17, respectively; bone and teeth from residents of the Sukhobuzimsky district (NI=1.04. High hazard indexes due to the nitrate and fluoride. Providing the population of urban districts and municipal districts of the Krasnoyarsk region with safe drinking water requires a set of various measures with the development and implementation of programs on improvement of water supply of populated areas

  2. Integrating bioassessment and ecological risk assessment: an approach to developing numerical water-quality criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ryan S; Richardson, Curtis J

    2003-06-01

    Ioassessment is used worldwide to monitor aquatic health but is infrequently used with risk-assessment objectives, such as supporting the development of defensible, numerical water-quality criteria. To this end, we present a generalized approach for detecting potential ecological thresholds using assemblage-level attributes and a multimetric index (Index of Biological Integrity-IBI) as endpoints in response to numerical changes in water quality. To illustrate the approach, we used existing macroinvertebrate and surface-water total phosphorus (TP) datasets from an observed P gradient and a P-dosing experiment in wetlands of the south Florida coastal plain nutrient ecoregion. Ten assemblage attributes were identified as potential metrics using the observational data, and five were validated in the experiment. These five core metrics were subjected individually and as an aggregated Nutrient-IBI to nonparametric changepoint analysis (nCPA) to estimate cumulative probabilities of a threshold response to TP. Threshold responses were evident for all metrics and the IBI, and were repeatable through time. Results from the observed gradient indicated that a threshold was > or = 50% probable between 12.6 and 19.4 microg/L TP for individual metrics and 14.8 microg/L TP for the IBI. Results from the P-dosing experiment revealed > or = 50% probability of a response between 11.2 and 13.0 microg/L TP for the metrics and 12.3 microg/L TP for the IBI. Uncertainty analysis indicated a low (typically > or = 5%) probability that an IBI threshold occurred at or = 95% certainty that the threshold was 12-15 microg/L is likely to cause degradation of macroinvertebrate assemblage structure and function, a reflection of biological integrity, in the study area. This finding may assist in the development of a numerical water-quality criterion for TP in this ecoregion, and illustrates the utility of bioassessment to environmental decision-making.

  3. A watershed scale assessment of the impacts of suburban turf management on runoff water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, M.; Inamdar, S. P.; Barton, S.; Duke, J.; Tallamy, D.; Bruck, J.

    2014-12-01

    Steadily increasing rates of urbanization have raised concerns about the negative impacts of urban runoff on receiving surface water quality. These concerns have been further amplified by landscaping paradigms that encourage high-input, intensively-managed and mono-culture turf and lawn landscapes. We conducted a watershed-scale assessment of turf management practices on water quality vis-à-vis less-intensive management practices that preserve and enhance more diverse and native vegetation. The study treatments with existing/established vegetation and landscaping practices included turf, urban, forest, meadow, and a mixed site with a professional golf course. Stream water sampling was performed during baseflow and storm events. Highest nutrient (nitrate and total nitrogen) concentrations in runoff were observed for the mixed watershed draining the golf course. In contrast, nutrient concentrations in baseflow from the turf watershed were lower than expected and were comparable to those measured in the surrounding meadow and forest sites. Runoff losses from the turf site may have been minimal due to the optimal quality of management implemented. Total nitrogen concentrations from the turf site increased sharply during the first storms following fertilization, suggesting that despite optimal management there exists a risk for nutrient runoff following fertilization. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations from the turf site were elevated and aromatic in content while the mixed watershed site yielded more labile DOM. Overall, this study suggests that turf lawns, when managed properly, pose minimal environmental risk to surrounding surface waters. Based on the results of this study, providing homeowners with increased information regarding best management practices for lawn maintenance may serve as a cost-efficient method for reducing suburban runoff pollution.

  4. Water supply, demand, and quality indicators for assessing the spatial distribution of water resource vulnerability in the Columbia River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Heejun; Jung, Il-Won; Strecker, Angela; Wise, Daniel; Lafrenz, Martin; Shandas, Vivek; ,; Yeakley, Alan; Pan, Yangdong; Johnson, Gunnar; Psaris, Mike

    2013-01-01

    We investigated water resource vulnerability in the US portion of the Columbia River basin (CRB) using multiple indicators representing water supply, water demand, and water quality. Based on the US county scale, spatial analysis was conducted using various biophysical and socio-economic indicators that control water vulnerability. Water supply vulnerability and water demand vulnerability exhibited a similar spatial clustering of hotspots in areas where agricultural lands and variability of precipitation were high but dam storage capacity was low. The hotspots of water quality vulnerability were clustered around the main stem of the Columbia River where major population and agricultural centres are located. This multiple equal weight indicator approach confirmed that different drivers were associated with different vulnerability maps in the sub-basins of the CRB. Water quality variables are more important than water supply and water demand variables in the Willamette River basin, whereas water supply and demand variables are more important than water quality variables in the Upper Snake and Upper Columbia River basins. This result suggests that current water resources management and practices drive much of the vulnerability within the study area. The analysis suggests the need for increased coordination of water management across multiple levels of water governance to reduce water resource vulnerability in the CRB and a potentially different weighting scheme that explicitly takes into account the input of various water stakeholders.

  5. Multivariate statistical techniques for the assessment of seasonal variations in surface water quality of pasture ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajorlo, Majid; Abdullah, Ramdzani B; Yusoff, Mohd Kamil; Halim, Ridzwan Abd; Hanif, Ahmad Husni Mohd; Willms, Walter D; Ebrahimian, Mahboubeh

    2013-10-01

    This study investigates the applicability of multivariate statistical techniques including cluster analysis (CA), discriminant analysis (DA), and factor analysis (FA) for the assessment of seasonal variations in the surface water quality of tropical pastures. The study was carried out in the TPU catchment, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The dataset consisted of 1-year monitoring of 14 parameters at six sampling sites. The CA yielded two groups of similarity between the sampling sites, i.e., less polluted (LP) and moderately polluted (MP) at temporal scale. Fecal coliform (FC), NO3, DO, and pH were significantly related to the stream grouping in the dry season, whereas NH3, BOD, Escherichia coli, and FC were significantly related to the stream grouping in the rainy season. The best predictors for distinguishing clusters in temporal scale were FC, NH3, and E. coli, respectively. FC, E. coli, and BOD with strong positive loadings were introduced as the first varifactors in the dry season which indicates the biological source of variability. EC with a strong positive loading and DO with a strong negative loading were introduced as the first varifactors in the rainy season, which represents the physiochemical source of variability. Multivariate statistical techniques were effective analytical techniques for classification and processing of large datasets of water quality and the identification of major sources of water pollution in tropical pastures.

  6. Quality Assessment of Various Bottled-Water Andtap-Water in Kirkuk - Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EmanHussein

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to demonstrate the suitability of bottled water used in Kirkuk city - Iraq and Tap water processed by the Directorate of Kirkuk’s water for human consumption, collected 20 type of bottled water ( local made and imported and nine Tap waters sample from different city regions , samples analysis both chemical& physical properties included (PH,Turbidity, E.C., T.D.S, T. Hardness, Alkalinity, T.S.S with measuring elements (Ca+ , Mg+ , Cl- , So4= , Na+&K+ , all data compared with ( IBWA, 2008 & ( IS 470 /2001, bottled water results compare with brand labels . Results showed the existence of discrepancies between the data obtained in vitro with what is listed on brands label , note that many of thebrands did not coverall properties should be known by the consumer for the purpose of safety of use, also the results showed that three regions in Kirkuk city and processed its water by the Water Directorate of Kirkuk is not suitable to drink.

  7. Surface-water, water-quality, and ground-water assessment of the Municipio of Carolina, Puerto Rico, 1997-99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Jesús; Gómez-Gómez, Fernando; Santiago-Rivera, Luis; Oliveras-Feliciano, M. L.

    2001-01-01

    To meet the increasing need for a safe and adequate supply of water in the municipio of Carolina, an integrated surface-water, water-quality, and ground-water assessment of the area was conducted. The major results of this study and other important hydrologic and water-quality features were compiled in a Geographic Information System and are presented in two 1:30,000-scale map plates to facilitate interpretation and use of the diverse water-resources data. Because the supply of safe drinking water was a critical issue during recent dry periods, the surface-water assessment portion of this study focused on analysis of low-flow characteristics in local streams and rivers. Low-flow characteristics were evaluated for one continuous-record gaging station, based on graphical curve-fitting techniques and log-Pearson Type III frequency analysis. Estimates of low-flow characteristics for seven partial-record stations were generated using graphical-correlation techniques. Flow-duration characteristics were computed for the one continuous-record gaging station and were estimated for the partial-record stations using the relation curves developed from the low-flow study. Stream low-flow statistics document the general hydrology under current land and water use. Low-flow statistics may substantially change as a result of streamflow diversions for public supply, and an increase in ground-water development, waste-water discharges, and flood-control measures; the current analysis provides baseline information to evaluate these impacts and develop water budgets. A sanitary quality survey of streams utilized 29 sampling stations to evaluate the sanitary quality of about 87 miles of stream channels. River and stream samples were collected on two occasions during base-flow conditions and were analyzed for fecal coliform and fecal streptococcus. Bacteriological analyses indicate that a significant portion of the stream reaches within the municipio of Carolina may have fecal coliform

  8. An Assessment of Factors Having Impact on Water Quality in Water Supply Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auksė Amosenkienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Water samples were collected from Vilnius drinking water distribution system fed by treated and different groundwater. Parameters related to bacterial growth have been measured considering these samples: temperature, concentration of free residual chlorine, ammonium, nitrates and nitrites. Results showed that treated groundwater was less susceptible to favour bacterial growth in the pipelines. The obtained results also showed that the potential growth induced by the distribution of treated water could be reduced if: ammonium levels were below 0.5 mg/l at the outlet of the water treatment plant; biological ammonium removal treatment implementation should reduce the levels of the nitrates and nitrites of the treated supplied water. Article in Lithuanian

  9. Surface water quality assessment by the use of combination of multivariate statistical classification and expert information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiszewski, M; Tsakovski, S; Simeonov, V; Namieśnik, J

    2010-08-01

    The present study deals with the assessment of surface water quality from an industrial-urban region located in northern Poland near to the city of Gdansk. Concentrations of thirteen chemicals including total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), halogenated volatile organic compounds (HVOCs) and major ions in the samples collected at five sampling points during six campaigns were used as variables throughout the study. The originality in the monitoring data treatment and interpretation was the combination of a traditional classification approach (self-organizing maps of Kohonen) with PAH diagnostic ratios expertise to achieve a reliable pollution source identification. Thus, sampling points affected by pollution from traffic (petroleum combustion products), from crude oil processing (petroleum release related compounds), and from phosphogypsum disposal site were properly discriminated. Additionally, it is shown that this original assessment approach can be useful in finding specific pollution source tracers.

  10. Introduction to the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) of ground-water quality trends and comparison to other national programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Michael R.; Lapham, W.W.

    2008-01-01

    Assessment of temporal trends in national ground-water quality networks are rarely published in scientific journals. This is partly due to the fact that long-term data from these types of networks are uncommon and because many national monitoring networks are not driven by hypotheses that can be easily incorporated into scientific research. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) since 1991 has to date (2006) concentrated on occurrence of contaminants because sufficient data for trend analysis is only just becoming available. This paper introduces the first set of trend assessments from NAWQA and provides an assessment of the success of the program. On a national scale, nitrate concentrations in ground water have generally increased from 1988 to 2004, but trends in pesticide concentrations are less apparent. Regionally, the studies showed high nitrate concentrations and frequent pesticide detections are linked to agricultural use of fertilizers and pesticides. Most of these areas showed increases in nitrate concentration within the last decade, and these increases are associated with oxic-geochemical conditions and well-drained soils. The current NAWQA plan for collecting data to define trends needs to be constantly reevaluated to determine if the approach fulfills the expected outcome. To assist this evaluation, a comparison of NAWQA to other national ground-water quality programs was undertaken. The design and spatial extent of each national program depend on many factors, including current and long-term budgets, purpose of the program, size of the country, and diversity of aquifer types. Comparison of NAWQA to nine other national programs shows a great diversity in program designs, but indicates that different approaches can achieve similar and equally important goals. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessment of the quality of water from hand-dug wells in ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkansah, Marian Asantewah; Boadi, Nathaniel Owusu; Badu, Mercy

    2010-04-26

    This study focused upon the determination of physicochemical and microbial properties, including metals, selected anions and coliform bacteria in drinking water samples from hand-dug wells in the Kumasi metropolis of the Republic of Ghana. The purpose was to assess the quality of water from these sources. Ten different water samples were taken from different parts of Kumasi, the capital of the Ashanti region of Ghana and analyzed for physicochemical parameters including pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, alkalinity total hardness and coliform bacteria. Metals and anions analyzed were Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, NO(3) (-), NO(2) (-), SO(4) (2-), PO(4) (2-), F(-) and Cl(-). Bacteria analysed were total coliform and Escherichia coli.THE DATA SHOWED VARIATION OF THE INVESTIGATED PARAMETERS IN SAMPLES AS FOLLOWS: pH, 6.30-0.70; conductivity (EC), 46-682 muS/cm; PO(4) (3-), 0.67-76.00 mg/L; F(-), 0.20-0.80 mg/L; NO(3) (-), 0-0.968 mg/L; NO(2) (-), 0-0.063 mg/L; SO(4) (2-), 3.0-07.0 mg/L; Fe, 0-1.2 mg/L; Mn, 0-0.018 mg/L. Total coliform and Escherichia coli were below the minimum detection limit (MDL) of 20 MPN per 100 ml in all the samples. The concentrations of most of the investigated parameters in the drinking water samples from Ashanti region were within the permissible limits of the World Health Organization drinking water quality guidelines.

  12. Assessment of the Quality of Water from Hand-Dug Wells in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Asantewah Nkansah

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study focused upon the determination of physicochemical and microbial properties, including metals, selected anions and coliform bacteria in drinking water samples from hand-dug wells in the Kumasi metropolis of the Republic of Ghana. The purpose was to assess the quality of water from these sources. Ten different water samples were taken from different parts of Kumasi, the capital of the Ashanti region of Ghana and analyzed for physicochemical parameters including pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, alkalinity total hardness and coliform bacteria. Metals and anions analyzed were Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, NO3−, NO2−, SO4 2-, PO4 2−, F− and Cl−. Bacteria analysed were total coliform and Escherichia coli. The data showed variation of the investigated parameters in samples as follows: pH, 6.30–0.70; conductivity (EC, 46–682 µS/cm; PO43-, 0.67–76.00 mg/L; F−, 0.20–0.80 mg/L; NO3−, 0–0.968 mg/L; NO2−, 0–0.063 mg/L; SO4−2, 3.0–07.0 mg/L; Fe, 0–1.2 mg/L; Mn, 0–0.018 mg/L. Total coliform and Escherichia coli were below the minimum detection limit (MDL of 20 MPN per 100 ml in all the samples. The concentrations of most of the investigated parameters in the drinking water samples from Ashanti region were within the permissible limits of the World Health Organization drinking water quality guidelines.

  13. Lake Diefenbaker: Water Quality Assessment and Modeling for Management under Environmental Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sereda, J.; Wheater, H. S.; Hudson, J.; Doig, L.; Liber, K.; Jones, P.; Giesy, J.; Bharadwaj, L.

    2011-12-01

    Preliminary results are presented for a comprehensive inter-disciplinary study on Lake Diefenbaker initiated by the Global Institute for Water Security to understand the physical and biogeochemical processes affecting water quality under climate change and their policy implications. Lake Diefenbaker is a large reservoir (surface area ~500km2 and Zmean ~33m) located in Southern Saskatchewan, Canada and is a critically-important water resource for Saskatchewan. It receives nearly all of its flow from the South Saskatchewan River, which flows through some of the most urbanized and intense agricultural lands of southern Alberta. As a result these waters contain high levels of nutrients [nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P)] along with a variety of chemical contaminants characteristic of anthropogenic activity. In addition, riparian and in-lake activities provide local sources of nutrients, from domestic sewage, agriculture and fish farming. The South Saskatchewan River has been identified by the World Wildlife Fund (2009) as Canada's most threatened river in terms of environmental flow. Lake Diefenbaker has numerous large deep embayments (depth >20m) and an annual water level fluctuation of ~6m. A deep thermocline (~25m) forms infrequently. Stratification does not occur throughout the lake. Anecdotal information suggests that the frequency and severity of algal blooms are increasing; although blooms have been sporadic and localized. This localized eutrophication may be related to local stratification patterns, point source nutrient loading, and/or internal lake processes (i.e., internal nutrient loading). A paleolimnological reconstruction has begun to assess historical nutrient and contaminant loading to Lake Diefenbaker and hence the trajectory of water quality in the lake. Major point sources and diffuse sources of N and P are also under investigation. In addition, the type (N versus P) and degree of nutrient limitation of bacteria and algae are being assessed (spatially

  14. Assessment of surface-water quantity and quality, Eagle River watershed, Colorado, 1947-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Cory A.; Moore, Jennifer L.; Richards, Rodney J.

    2011-01-01

    From the early mining days to the current tourism-based economy, the Eagle River watershed (ERW) in central Colorado has undergone a sequence of land-use changes that has affected the hydrology, habitat, and water quality of the area. In 2000, the USGS, in cooperation with the Colorado River Water Conservation District, Eagle County, Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority, Colorado Department of Transportation, City of Aurora, Town of Eagle, Town of Gypsum, Town of Minturn, Town of Vail, Vail Resorts, City of Colorado Springs, Colorado Springs Utilities, and Denver Water, initiated a retrospective analysis of surface-water quantity and quality in the ERW.

  15. Assessing winter cover crop nutrient uptake efficiency using a water quality simulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, I.-Y.; Lee, S.; Sadeghi, A. M.; Beeson, P. C.; Hively, W. D.; McCarty, G. W.; Lang, M. W.

    2014-12-01

    Winter cover crops are an effective conservation management practice with potential to improve water quality. Throughout the Chesapeake Bay watershed (CBW), which is located in the mid-Atlantic US, winter cover crop use has been emphasized, and federal and state cost-share programs are available to farmers to subsidize the cost of cover crop establishment. The objective of this study was to assess the long-term effect of planting winter cover crops to improve water quality at the watershed scale (~ 50 km2) and to identify critical source areas of high nitrate export. A physically based watershed simulation model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), was calibrated and validated using water quality monitoring data to simulate hydrological processes and agricultural nutrient cycling over the period of 1990-2000. To accurately simulate winter cover crop biomass in relation to growing conditions, a new approach was developed to further calibrate plant growth parameters that control the leaf area development curve using multitemporal satellite-based measurements of species-specific winter cover crop performance. Multiple SWAT scenarios were developed to obtain baseline information on nitrate loading without winter cover crops and to investigate how nitrate loading could change under different winter cover crop planting scenarios, including different species, planting dates, and implementation areas. The simulation results indicate that winter cover crops have a negligible impact on the water budget but significantly reduce nitrate leaching to groundwater and delivery to the waterways. Without winter cover crops, annual nitrate loading from agricultural lands was approximately 14 kg ha-1, but decreased to 4.6-10.1 kg ha-1 with cover crops resulting in a reduction rate of 27-67% at the watershed scale. Rye was the most effective species, with a potential to reduce nitrate leaching by up to 93% with early planting at the field scale. Early planting of cover crops (~ 30

  16. Design and implementation of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program: a United States example: understanding the limitations of using compliance-monitoring data to assess the water quality of a large river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangsness, David J.

    1997-01-01

    In the 1980s it was determined that existing ambient and compliance-monitoring data could not satisfactorily evaluate the results of hundreds of billions of dollars spent for water-pollution abatement in the United States. At the request of the US Congress, a new programme, the National Water-Quality Assessment, was designed and implemented by government agency, the US Geological Survey (USGS). The Assessment has reported status and trends in surface- and ground-water quality at national, regional, and local scales since 1991. The legislative basis for US monitoring and data-sharing policies are identified as well as the successive phases of the design and implementation of the USGS Assessment. Application to the Danube Basin is suggested. Much of the water-quality monitoring conducted in the United States is designed to comply with Federal and State laws mandated primarily by the Clean Water Act of 1987 and the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1986. Monitoring programs generally focus on rivers upstream and downstream of point-source discharges and at water-supply intakes. Few data are available for aquifer systems, and chemical analyses are often limited to those constituents required by law. In most cases, the majority of the available chemical and streamflow data have provided the information necessary to meet the objectives of the compliance-monitoring programs, but do not necessarily provide the information requires for basin-wide assessments of the water quality at the local, regional, or national scale.

  17. Horns Rev offshore wind power farm. Environmental impact assessment on water quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Per

    2000-05-15

    As part of an overall Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) undertaken in connection with a planned 150 MW offshore wind farm at Horns Rev, an assessment was made of the effects the wind farm would have on the water quality in the area. This EIA study was drawn up in accordance with the guidelines laid down by the Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy in the publication 'Guidelines for the preparation of EIA studies for offshore wind farms'. Horns Rev is situated off Blaevands Huk, which is Denmark's most westerly point. It is a shallow reef with water depths between 2 and 9 metres and is primarily composed of sand, gravel and pebbles. Only local and minor changes are anticipated in connection with the currents, sediments and wave conditions during the production phase. These will occur in the immediate vicinity of the individual foundations. For these reasons, no changes are expected in the water quality. This also includes also the pelagic primary production and the occurrence of plankton in the area. Increased local copper contamination of phytoplankton and zooplankton may be expected during the production phase, as a result of the total annual discharge of 206 kg copper from the slip-rings in the wind turbines. The contamination will potentially result in a local reduction of the pelagic primary production and changes in the species composition of the plankton. The wind turbines will be sandblasted and painted once during their lifetime, as part of the routine maintenance. The sandblasting and painting will lead to a temporary spill of paint, paint waste and sand. The impacts on water quality and plankton production are unknown. It is recommended that factors such as the toxicity of the paint be investigated, and that spills and the impact of waste be reduced as much as possible. The water quality and the plankton in the wind farm area and along the cable line's passage to shore through the international protected area, will only be

  18. Assessing microbiological water quality in drinking water distribution systems with disinfectant residual using flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Simon; Lipphaus, Patrick; Green, James; Parsons, Simon; Weir, Paul; Juskowiak, Kes; Jefferson, Bruce; Jarvis, Peter; Nocker, Andreas

    2014-11-15

    Flow cytometry (FCM) as a diagnostic tool for enumeration and characterization of microorganisms is rapidly gaining popularity and is increasingly applied in the water industry. In this study we applied the method to obtain a better understanding of total and intact cell concentrations in three different drinking water distribution systems (one using chlorine and two using chloramines as secondary disinfectants). Chloramine tended to result in lower proportions of intact cells than chlorine over a wider residual range, in agreement with existing knowledge that chloramine suppresses regrowth more efficiently. For chlorinated systems, free chlorine concentrations above 0.5 mg L(-1) were found to be associated with relatively low proportions of intact cells, whereas lower disinfectant levels could result in substantially higher percentages of intact cells. The threshold for chlorinated systems is in good agreement with guidelines from the World Health Organization. The fact that the vast majority of samples failing the regulatory coliform standard also showed elevated proportions of intact cells suggests that this parameter might be useful for evaluating risk of failure. Another interesting parameter for judging the microbiological status of water, the biological regrowth potential, greatly varied among different finished waters providing potential help for investment decisions. For its measurement, a simple method was introduced that can easily be performed by water utilities with FCM capability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Flow Cytometry Total Cell Counts: A Field Study Assessing Microbiological Water Quality and Growth in Unchlorinated Drinking Water Distribution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, G.; Van der Mark, E. J.; Verberk, J. Q. J. C.; Van Dijk, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the application of flow cytometry total cell counts (TCCs) as a parameter to assess microbial growth in drinking water distribution systems and to determine the relationships between different parameters describing the biostability of treated water. A one-year sampling program was carried out in two distribution systems in The Netherlands. Results demonstrated that, in both systems, the biomass differences measured by ATP were not significant. TCC differences were also not significant in treatment plant 1, but decreased slightly in treatment plant 2. TCC values were found to be higher at temperatures above 15°C than at temperatures below 15°C. The correlation study of parameters describing biostability found no relationship among TCC, heterotrophic plate counts, and Aeromonas. Also no relationship was found between TCC and ATP. Some correlation was found between the subgroup of high nucleic acid content bacteria and ATP (R 2 = 0.63). Overall, the results demonstrated that TCC is a valuable parameter to assess the drinking water biological quality and regrowth; it can directly and sensitively quantify biomass, detect small changes, and can be used to determine the subgroup of active HNA bacteria that are related to ATP. PMID:23819117

  20. Flow cytometry total cell counts: a field study assessing microbiological water quality and growth in unchlorinated drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, G; Van der Mark, E J; Verberk, J Q J C; Van Dijk, J C

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the application of flow cytometry total cell counts (TCCs) as a parameter to assess microbial growth in drinking water distribution systems and to determine the relationships between different parameters describing the biostability of treated water. A one-year sampling program was carried out in two distribution systems in The Netherlands. Results demonstrated that, in both systems, the biomass differences measured by ATP were not significant. TCC differences were also not significant in treatment plant 1, but decreased slightly in treatment plant 2. TCC values were found to be higher at temperatures above 15°C than at temperatures below 15°C. The correlation study of parameters describing biostability found no relationship among TCC, heterotrophic plate counts, and Aeromonas. Also no relationship was found between TCC and ATP. Some correlation was found between the subgroup of high nucleic acid content bacteria and ATP (R (2) = 0.63). Overall, the results demonstrated that TCC is a valuable parameter to assess the drinking water biological quality and regrowth; it can directly and sensitively quantify biomass, detect small changes, and can be used to determine the subgroup of active HNA bacteria that are related to ATP.

  1. Using electronic conductivity and hardness data for rapid assessment of stream water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Michael Y; Brandes, David; Kney, Arthur D

    2012-08-15

    A graphical screening method was previously developed by Kney and Brandes (2007) for assessing stream water quality data using electronic conductivity (EC) and alkalinity data. The method was aimed at providing citizen scientists involved in stream monitoring programs with a relatively simple way to interpret EC data. The method utilizes a plot of EC against concurrent alkalinity data, and is used to distinguish EC values for impacted or degraded streams from those that can be considered background values in a particular geologic setting. The method performs well in areas underlain by carbonate bedrock, as streams in those areas characteristically have EC values that are strongly correlated with alkalinity. However, in areas of low stream alkalinity (less than approximately 50 mg/L as CaCO(3)), the Kney and Brandes (2007) method was found to be much less effective in identifying impacted streams. This paper extends the graphical screening approach to streams with low alkalinity, specifically regions underlain by clastic sedimentary or crystalline bedrock, by using the strong correlation between EC and total hardness (TH). A baseline relationship of EC vs. TH is developed using surface water chemistry data from Hydrologic Benchmark Network streams (deemed as having minimal anthropogenic impacts) and regional groundwater quality data. The usefulness of the method is demonstrated by application to publicly available stream chemistry data and to field data collected from streams of eastern Pennsylvania under baseflow conditions. Results demonstrate that for streams with alkalinity alkalinity-based method of Kney and Brandes (2007).

  2. Surface-water, water-quality, and ground-water assessment of the Municipio of Comerio, Puerto Rico, 1997-99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Jesús; Gómez-Gómez, Fernando; Santiago-Rivera, Luis; Oliveras-Feliciano, M. L.

    2001-01-01

    To meet the increasing need for a safe and adequate supply of water in the municipio of Comerio, an integrated surface-water, water-quality, and ground-water assessment of the area was conducted. The major results of this study and other important hydrologic and water-quality features were compiled in a Geographic Information System, and are presented in two 1:30,000-scale map plates to facilitate interpretation and use of the diverse water-resource data. Because the supply of safe drinking water was a critical issue during recent dry periods, the surface-water assessment portion of this study focused on analysis of low-flow characteristics in local streams and rivers. Low-flow characteristics were evaluated at one continuous-record gaging station based on graphical curve-fitting techniques and log-Pearson Type III frequency curves. Estimates of low-flow characteristics for 13 partial-record stations were generated using graphical-correlation techniques. Flow-duration characteristics for the continuous- and partial-record stations were estimated using the relation curves developed for the low-flow study. Stream low-flow statistics document the general hydrology under current land- and water-use conditions. A sanitary quality survey of streams utilized 24 sampling stations to evaluate about 84 miles of stream channels with drainage to or within the municipio of Comerio. River and stream samples for fecal coliform and fecal streptococcus analyses were collected on two occasions at base-flow conditions to evaluate the sanitary quality of streams. Bacteriological analyses indicate that about 27 miles of stream reaches within the municipio of Comerio may have fecal coliform bacteria concentrations above the water-quality goal established by the Puerto Rico Environmental Quality Board (Junta de Calidad Ambiental de Puerto Rico) for inland surface waters. Sources of fecal contamination may include illegal discharge of sewage to storm-water drains, malfunction of sanitary

  3. Lake Surface Water Temperature of European Lakes retrieved from AVHRR Data - Time Series and Quality Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunderle, S.; Lieberherr, G.; Riffler, M.

    2016-12-01

    Data analysis of the recent years showed an increase of lake surface water temperature for many lakes around the world. But due to sparse in-situ measurements, which are often not well documented, only satellite data can provide the needed information of the last decades. The importance of lakes for climate research was also highlighted by the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) defining lakes as Essential Climate Variables (ECVs). Within the frame of a research project funded by the Swiss National Science Foundation a procedure was developed to retrieve lake surface water temperature with high accuracy based on our archived AVHRR data at the University of Bern, Switzerland. The data archive starts in 1985 and is continuously filled with NOAA-/MetOp-AVHRR data received by our antenna resulting in a time series of more than 30 years (WMO definition of a climate period). The data set covering Europe is also used by other teams for climate related studies resulting in improved pre-processing to guarantee precise calibration and geocoding. The first part of our presentation will be dedicated to the quality of the LSWT retrieval comparing various in-situ measurements from lakes in Switzerland with varying sizes (150km2 - 9km2). The quality of the used split-window approach is sensitive to the derived split-window coefficients. The influence of water vapor, view angle, temporal and spatial validity and day vs. night data will be shown. In addition, some information will be presented about the influence of topography and climatic regions (e.g. Scandinavia vs. Greece) on the quality of the LSWT product. Based on these findings compiling time series for different lakes in Europe will be the focus of the second part of our presentation with details of the applied quality assessment to avoid erroneous signals. Hence, some information is given about hierarchical quality checks which are needed to guarantee a dataset without artefacts. Finally, some results of time series

  4. Crowdsourcing Water Quality Data

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2016-01-01

    Using mobile phone technologies coupled with water quality testing, there is great opportunity to increase the awareness of water quality throughout rural and urban communities in developing countries. Whether the focus is on empowering citizens with information about the quality of water they use in daily life or providing scientific data to water managers to help them deliver safe water to the ...

  5. Assessment of water quality of Sembilang River receiving effluent from controlled municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill in Selangor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengku Ibrahim, T. N. B.; Othman, F.; Mahmood, N. Z.

    2017-06-01

    Most of the landfills in Malaysia are situated near to the main river basin that supplies almost 90% of water requirement. This includes landfills in Selangor where a total of 20 landfill sites are situated in 5 main river basins and the highest number of operating landfills (three) are at the Selangor River Basin (Jeram, Bukit Tagar and Kuang Inert landfills). This situation has caused wide concern over the water safety, even the leachate has been treated. The leachate itself still contains contaminants that are difficult to treat. The main objective of this study is to investigate the effect on water quality of Sembilang River that receives effluent from the nearby landfill. In this study, we analyzed samples of water from ten sampling stations starting from the upstream to downstream of Sembilang River. The water quality was evaluated by the Water Quality Index (WQI) depending on in-situ and laboratory analysis. 11 water quality variables are selected for the quality assessment; temperature, pH, turbidity, salinity, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total suspended solid, ammoniacal nitrogen, phosphate and nitrate. The result indicated that, when the effluent mixed with the river water, the water quality decreased gradually and was found to be lower at a few stations. The water quality of Sembilang River falls under Class III of Water Quality Index with ranges between 68.03 to 43.46 mg/L. It is revealed that the present scenario of water quality of Sembilang River is due to the effect of effluent from the landfill.

  6. Water-quality models to assess algal community dynamics, water quality, and fish habitat suitability for two agricultural land-use dominated lakes in Minnesota, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Erik A.; Kiesling, Richard L.; Ziegeweid, Jeffrey R.

    2017-07-20

    Fish habitat can degrade in many lakes due to summer blue-green algal blooms. Predictive models are needed to better manage and mitigate loss of fish habitat due to these changes. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, developed predictive water-quality models for two agricultural land-use dominated lakes in Minnesota—Madison Lake and Pearl Lake, which are part of Minnesota’s sentinel lakes monitoring program—to assess algal community dynamics, water quality, and fish habitat suitability of these two lakes under recent (2014) meteorological conditions. The interaction of basin processes to these two lakes, through the delivery of nutrient loads, were simulated using CE-QUAL-W2, a carbon-based, laterally averaged, two-dimensional water-quality model that predicts distribution of temperature and oxygen from interactions between nutrient cycling, primary production, and trophic dynamics.The CE-QUAL-W2 models successfully predicted water temperature and dissolved oxygen on the basis of the two metrics of mean absolute error and root mean square error. For Madison Lake, the mean absolute error and root mean square error were 0.53 and 0.68 degree Celsius, respectively, for the vertical temperature profile comparisons; for Pearl Lake, the mean absolute error and root mean square error were 0.71 and 0.95 degree Celsius, respectively, for the vertical temperature profile comparisons. Temperature and dissolved oxygen were key metrics for calibration targets. These calibrated lake models also simulated algal community dynamics and water quality. The model simulations presented potential explanations for persistently large total phosphorus concentrations in Madison Lake, key differences in nutrient concentrations between these lakes, and summer blue-green algal bloom persistence.Fish habitat suitability simulations for cool-water and warm-water fish indicated that, in general, both lakes contained a large

  7. Assessing local water quality in Saudi Arabia and its impact on food safety

    KAUST Repository

    Alsalah, Dhafer

    2014-12-01

    Saudi Arabia produces a majority of its fruits and vegetables locally in small-scale production farms. These farms utilize groundwater as the main source of irrigation water. The water-regulating authorities in Saudi Arabia rely on traditional culturing methods to monitor coliforms as indicators of microbial contamination. These methods are time-consuming, do not address the sources of contamination, and do not permit assessment on the associated health risk. To address these knowledge gaps, the study investigates the sources of contamination in eight wells northeast of Mecca, Saudi Arabia. The study focuses on the potential impact on groundwater quality due to a nearby chicken farm and urban runoffs from human residential areas. Besides performing conventional methods to determine nutrient content and to enumerate coliforms, quantitative PCR using four host-associated primer sets were used to distinguish microbial contamination from humans and livestock. High-throughput sequencing was also performed to determine the relative abundance of several genera associated with opportunistic pathogens. Bacterial isolates were cultivated from the vegetable samples harvested from these farms, and were characterized for their phylogenetic identities. Lastly, the study collates the information to perform quantitative microbial risk assessment due to ingesting antibiotic-resistant Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis in these vegetable samples.

  8. Surface-water quality assessment of the Clover Creek basin, Pierce County, Washington, 1991-1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, K.A.

    1996-01-01

    Increasing urbanization in the 67-square-mile Clover Creek Basin has generated interest in the effects of land-use changes on local water quality. To investigate these effects, water-quality and streamflow data were collected from 19 surface-water sites in the basin over a 16-month period from January 1991 through April 1992. These data were used to understand the effects of surficial geology, land-use practices, and wastewater disposal practices on surface-water quality within the basin. The basin was divided into four drainage subbasins with dissimilar hydrogeologic, land-use, and water-quality characteristics. In the Upper Clover Creek subbasin, the high permeability of surficial geologic materials promotes infiltration of precipitation to ground water and thus attenuates the response of streams to rainfall. Significant interaction occurs between surface and ground water in this subbasin, and nitrate concentrations and specific conductance values, similar to those found historically in local ground water, indicate that sources such as subsurface waste-disposal systems and fertilizers are affecting surface- water quality in this area. In the Spanaway subbasin, the presence of Spanaway and Tule Lakes affects water quality, primarily because of the reduced velocity and long residence time of water in the lakes. Reduced water velocity and long residence times (1) cause settling of suspended materials, thereby reducing concentrations of suspended sediment and constituents that are bound to the sediment; (2) promote biological activity, which tends to trap nutrients in the lakes; and (3) allow dispersion to attenuate peaks in discharge and water-quality constituent concentrations. In the North Fork subbasin, the low permeability of surficial geologic materials and areas of intensive land development inhibit infiltration of precipitation and thus promote surface runoff to streams. Surface pathways provide little attenuation of storm runoff and result in rapid increases

  9. Water Quality Assessment Using Benthic Macroinvertebrates in Saigon River and Its Tributaries, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duc Pham Anh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study to enhance the discussion about the usefulness of benthic macroinvertebrates for water quality assessment in Saigon River and its tributaries. Data from 16 sites were used as a representative example for Saigon River and its tributaries in the area of basin over 4,500 km2, the length through provinces of Tay Ninh, Binh Phuoc, Binh Duong, and Ho Chi Minh City of about 280 km. The data covered the period of dry and rainy seasons in 2015, the survey sampled 16 sites (32 events of the Saigon River and its tributaries selected. To implement this evaluation, the analyses were based on MRC methods and classifications these improved by the scientific group.

  10. ASSESSMENT OF GROUND WATER QUALITY IN MUKKAM, CHEPALAKANCHERU AND DALLIPETA: COASTAL VILLAGES OF VIZIANAGARAM DISTRICT OF ANDHRA PRADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ram Reddy

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present work was under taken to analyze the various water quality parameters, viz. pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, total alkalinity, total hardness, chloride, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium and to assess the water quality in bore well and well water samples of three coastal villages Mukkam, Chepalakancheru and Dallipeta of Vizianagaram district of Andhra Pradesh. From each of the village, different sampling stations were identified and by composite sampling methods water samples were collected and analyzed for the various parameters. The results were compared with the values stipulated by World Health Organization (WHO, and ARE: 10500 for drinking water quality. In the present investigation the authors found that the overall quality of the three villages is poor and not recommended as potable.

  11. Water Quality Index Assessment ofGroundwater in Todaraisingh Tehsil of Rajasthan State, India-A Greener Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Yadav

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the statistical analysis and study of water quality index to assess hardness of groundwater in Todaraisingh tehsil of Tonk district of Rajasthan state. The study has been carried out to examine its suitability for drinking, irrigation and industrial purpose. The presence of problematic salts contains in groundwater due to local pollutants and affected the groundwater quality adversely. The estimated values were compared with drinking water quality standards prescribed by B.I.S. It was found that drinking water is severely polluted with hardness causing salts. This study reveals that people dependent on water sources of the study area are prone to health hazards of contaminated water and quality managements to hardness urgently needed.

  12. Hydrogeochemical characteristics and assessment of water quality in the Al-Saad Lake, Abha Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Javed

    2017-03-01

    Hydrogeochemical characteristics and assessment of water quality investigations have been carried out at Abha, located in Saudi Arabia, where Al-Saad Lake represents a rare example of natural endorheic lake. The ecosystem within and around the Al-Saad Lake including catchment area is of great social, cultural, aesthetic, environmental and economic values to Abha. Sampling and experiments of lake water has been carried out with the aim of characterizing the main physico-chemical parameters, such as DO, EC, TDS, Mg2+, Ca2+, Na+, K+, SO4 2-, Cl-, HCO3, NO3 - and F- concentration. The ordinary kriging (OK) method was used to produce the spatial patterns of water quality. The Result of DO (mean 5.38 mg/L) trend in Al-Saad Lake is not very encouraging as majority of the lake area is under DO stress or marginally above it. So, proper management strategies are needed to be formulated to protect flora and fauna of the lake. Furthermore, the chemical analysis results show the abundance of the major cations in the order Mg2+ > Ca2+ > Na+ > K+ whereas the abundance of anions are in the order SO4 2- > Cl- > HCO3 > NO3 - > F-. The result obtained in this investigation inferred that the cations in water i.e. sodium and iron are within the permissible limits but magnesium and potassium have exceeded the permissible limit. Whereas anions such as nitrate and fluoride are within the permissible range but chloride and sulphate have exceeded the permissible limits. The concentration of cation, magnesium (Mg) and potassium (K) in the lake water has exceeded the desirable range (30, 10 mg/L, respectively). This may be due to weathering and transported from rocks and particularly from sulphate deposits such as gypsum and anhydride and subsequently ends up in water. The concentration of anion, Sulphate (SO4) and chloride are above the desirable limit. The major source of bicarbonate are the carbonate rocks containing calcite (CaCO3) and dolomite (CaMg (CO3)2), Calcium (Ca) and Magnesium

  13. Assessing heat fluxes and water quality trends in subalpine lakes from EO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzaniga, Ilaria; Giardino, Claudia; Bresciani, Mariano; Elli, Chiara; Valerio, Giulia; Pilotti, Marco

    2017-04-01

    Lakes play a fundamental role in providing ecosystem services such as water supplying, hydrological regulation, climate change mitigation, touristic recreation (Schallenberg et al., 2013). Preserving and improving of quality of lakes waters, which is a function of either both natural and human influences, is therefore an important action to be considered. Remote Sensing techniques are spreading as useful instrument for lakes, by integrating classical in situ limnological measurements to frequent and synoptic monitoring capabilities. Within this study, Earth Observation data are exploited for understanding the temporal changes of water quality parameters over a decade, as well as for measuring the surface energy fluxes in recent years in deep clear lakes in the European subalpine ecoregion. According to Pareth et al. (2016), subalpine lakes are showing a clear response to climate change with an increase of 0.017 °C /year of lake surface temperature, whilst the human activities contribute to produce a large impact (agriculture, recreation, industry, fishing and drinking) on these lakes. The investigation is focused on Lake Iseo, which has shown a significant deterioration of water quality conditions since the seventies, and on Lake Garda, the largest Italian lake where EO data have been widely used for many purposes and applications (Giardino et al., 2014). Available ENVISAT-MERIS (2002-2012) and Landsat-8-OLI (2013-on going) imagery has been exploited to produce chlorophyll-a (chl-a) concentration maps, while Landsat-8-TIRS imagery has been used for estimating lake surface temperatures. MERIS images were processed through a neural network (namely the C2R processor, Doerffer et al., 2007), to correct the atmospheric effects and to retrieve water constituents concentration in optically complex deep waters. With regard to L8's images, some atmospheric correctors (e.g. ACOLITE and 6SV) were tested and validated to indentify, for each of the two lakes, the more accurate

  14. Assessing winter cover crop nutrient uptake efficiency using a water quality simulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, In-Young; Lee, Sangchui; Sadeghi, Ali M.; Beeson, Peter C.; Hively, W. Dean; McCarty, Greg W.; Lang, Megan W.

    2013-01-01

    Winter cover crops are an effective conservation management practice with potential to improve water quality. Throughout the Chesapeake Bay Watershed (CBW), which is located in the Mid-Atlantic US, winter cover crop use has been emphasized and federal and state cost-share programs are available to farmers to subsidize the cost of winter cover crop establishment. The objective of this study was to assess the long-term effect of planting winter cover crops at the watershed scale and to identify critical source areas of high nitrate export. A physically-based watershed simulation model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), was calibrated and validated using water quality monitoring data and satellite-based estimates of winter cover crop species performance to simulate hydrological processes and nutrient cycling over the period of 1991–2000. Multiple scenarios were developed to obtain baseline information on nitrate loading without winter cover crops planted and to investigate how nitrate loading could change with different winter cover crop planting scenarios, including different species, planting times, and implementation areas. The results indicate that winter cover crops had a negligible impact on water budget, but significantly reduced nitrate leaching to groundwater and delivery to the waterways. Without winter cover crops, annual nitrate loading was approximately 14 kg ha−1, but it decreased to 4.6–10.1 kg ha−1 with winter cover crops resulting in a reduction rate of 27–67% at the watershed scale. Rye was most effective, with a potential to reduce nitrate leaching by up to 93% with early planting at the field scale. Early planting of winter cover crops (~30 days of additional growing days) was crucial, as it lowered nitrate export by an additional ~2 kg ha−1 when compared to late planting scenarios. The effectiveness of cover cropping increased with increasing extent of winter cover crop implementation. Agricultural fields with well-drained soils

  15. Using high-frequency water quality data to assess sampling strategies for the EU Water Framework Directive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeffington, R. A.; Halliday, S. J.; Wade, A. J.; Bowes, M. J.; Loewenthal, M.

    2015-05-01

    The EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires that the ecological and chemical status of water bodies in Europe should be assessed, and action taken where possible to ensure that at least "good" quality is attained in each case by 2015. This paper is concerned with the accuracy and precision with which chemical status in rivers can be measured given certain sampling strategies, and how this can be improved. High-frequency (hourly) chemical data from four rivers in southern England were subsampled to simulate different sampling strategies for four parameters used for WFD classification: dissolved phosphorus, dissolved oxygen, pH and water temperature. These data sub-sets were then used to calculate the WFD classification for each site. Monthly sampling was less precise than weekly sampling, but the effect on WFD classification depended on the closeness of the range of concentrations to the class boundaries. In some cases, monthly sampling for a year could result in the same water body being assigned to three or four of the WFD classes with 95% confidence, due to random sampling effects, whereas with weekly sampling this was one or two classes for the same cases. In the most extreme case, the same water body could have been assigned to any of the five WFD quality classes. Weekly sampling considerably reduces the uncertainties compared to monthly sampling. The width of the weekly sampled confidence intervals was about 33% that of the monthly for P species and pH, about 50% for dissolved oxygen, and about 67% for water temperature. For water temperature, which is assessed as the 98th percentile in the UK, monthly sampling biases the mean downwards by about 1 °C compared to the true value, due to problems of assessing high percentiles with limited data. Low-frequency measurements will generally be unsuitable for assessing standards expressed as high percentiles. Confining sampling to the working week compared to all 7 days made little difference, but a modest

  16. Seasonal Variations and Assessment of Water Quality of Nagchoon Pond of Khandwa District (M. P. India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saroj Mahajan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available “ SAVE WATER , SAVE LIFE.” Water is basic unit of life for all living organisms at this planet. Water is essential for drinking, domestic, irrigation and industries purposes. The Khandwa District is including in hot climatic region suffering from water crises whole year especially in summer season. The sources of potable water are limited in comparison to population of Khandwa. The important source of potable water is Nagchoon pond. In recent time a steady deterioration in the quality of fresh water resources is following the wake up of population explosion, consequent urbanization and rapid industrial development, cultural exploitation. Physico-chemical parameters have been studied from July 2008 to june 2010.the results showed that the chloride, nitrate, phosphate exceeding permissible limit so water body inclined towards eutrophication. Therefore, the Conservation and management of this water body is very much required.

  17. Biotic, water-quality, and hydrologic metrics calculated for the analysis of temporal trends in National Water Quality Assessment Program Data in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiele, Stephen M.; Brasher, Anne M.D.; Miller, Matthew P.; May, Jason T.; Carpenter, Kurt D.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program was established by Congress in 1991 to collect long-term, nationally consistent information on the quality of the Nation's streams and groundwater. The NAWQA Program utilizes interdisciplinary and dynamic studies that link the chemical and physical conditions of streams (such as flow and habitat) with ecosystem health and the biologic condition of algae, aquatic invertebrates, and fish communities. This report presents metrics derived from NAWQA data and the U.S. Geological Survey streamgaging network for sampling sites in the Western United States, as well as associated chemical, habitat, and streamflow properties. The metrics characterize the conditions of algae, aquatic invertebrates, and fish. In addition, we have compiled climate records and basin characteristics related to the NAWQA sampling sites. The calculated metrics and compiled data can be used to analyze ecohydrologic trends over time.

  18. Integrated assessment of river health based on the conditions of water quality,aquatic life and physical habitat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Wei; ZHANG Nan; ZHANG Yuan; ZHENG Binghui

    2009-01-01

    The health conditions of Liao River were assessed using 25 sampling sites in April 2005, with water quality index, biotic index and physical habitat quality index.Based on the method of cluster analysis (CA) for water quality indices, it reveals that heavily polluted sites of Liao River are located at estuary and mainstream.The aquatic species surveyed were attached algae and benthic invertebrates.The result shows that the diversity and biomass of attached algae and benthic index of biotic integrity (B-IBI) are degrading as the chemical and physical quality of water bodies deteriorating.Physiochemical parameters, BOD5, CODCr, TN, TP, NH3-N, DO, petroleum hydrocarbon and conductivity, were statistically analyzed with principal component analysis and correlation analysis.The statistical results were incorporated into the integrated assessing water quality index, combining fecal coliform count, attached algae diversity, B-IBI and physical habitat quality score, a comprehensive integrated assessing system of river ecological health was established.Based on the systimetic assesment, the assessed sites are categorized into 9 "healthy" and "sub-healthy" sites and 8 "sub-sick" and "sick" sites.

  19. PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS AND CLUSTER ANALYSIS IN MULTIVARIATE ASSESSMENT OF WATER QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzbieta Radzka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the use of multivariate methods in drinking water analysis. During a five-year project, from 2008 to 2012, selected chemical parameters in 11 water supply networks of the Siedlce County were studied. Throughout that period drinking water was of satisfactory quality, with only iron and manganese ions exceeding the limits (21 times and 12 times, respectively. In accordance with the results of cluster analysis, all water networks were put into three groups of different water quality. A high concentration of chlorides, sulphates, and manganese and a low concentration of copper and sodium was found in the water of Group 1 supply networks. The water in Group 2 had a high concentration of copper and sodium, and a low concentration of iron and sulphates. The water from Group 3 had a low concentration of chlorides and manganese, but a high concentration of fluorides. Using principal component analysis and cluster analysis, multivariate correlation between the studied parameters was determined, helping to put water supply networks into groups according to similar water quality.

  20. Ground-water-quality assessment of the Central Oklahoma Aquifer, Oklahoma; geochemical and geohydrologic investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhurst, D.L.; Christenson, S.C.; Breit, G.N.

    1993-01-01

    The National Water-Quality Assessment pilot project for the Central Oklahoma aquifer examined the chemical and isotopic composition of ground water, the abundances and textures of minerals in core samples, and water levels and hydraulic properties in the flow system to identify geochemical reactions occurring in the aquifer and rates and directions of ground-water flow. The aquifer underlies 3,000\\x11square miles of central Oklahoma and consists of Permian red beds, including parts of the Permian Garber Sandstone, Wellington Formation, and Chase, Council Grove, and Admire Groups, and Quaternary alluvium and terrace deposits. In the part of the Garber Sandstone and Wellington Formation that is not confined by the Permian Hennessey Group, calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate are the dominant ions in ground water; in the confined part of the Garber Sandstone and Wellington Formation and in the Chase, Council Grove, and Admire Groups, sodium and bicarbonate are the dominant ions in ground water. Nearly all of the Central Oklahoma aquifer has an oxic or post-oxic environment as indicated by the large dissolved concentrations of oxygen, nitrate, arsenic (V), chromium (VI), selenium (VI), vanadium, and uranium. Sulfidic and methanic environments are virtually absent. Petrographic textures indicate dolomite, calcite, sodic plagioclase, potassium feldspars, chlorite, rock fragments, and micas are dissolving, and iron oxides, manganese oxides, kaolinite, and quartz are precipitating. Variations in the quantity of exchangeable sodium in clays indicate that cation exchange is occurring within the aquifer. Gypsum may dissolve locally within the aquifer, as indicated by ground water with large concentrations of sulfate, but gypsum was not observed in core samples. Rainwater is not a major source for most elements in ground water, but evapotranspiration could cause rainwater to be a significant source of potassium, sulfate, phosphate and nitrogen species. Brines derived from

  1. Water quality assessment of a highly polluted Mediterranean River - Oued Fez (Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, J.-L.; Bellarbi, M.; Raïs, N.; Chahinian, N.; Moulin, P.; Ijjaali, M.

    2012-04-01

    In the South of the Mediterranean basin, many rivers are characterized by an alternation of very long dry periods only cut by short flood events. Currently, the socio-economical development of these zones is limited by water scarcity and poor quality of the water resources. Indeed human activities, generally concentrated in overpopulated cities, generate large quantity of domestic and industrial effluents which are directly rejected in the environment without any treatment. In Morocco, the well known city of Fez illustrates perfectly this situation, observed in most developing countries. The oued Fez receives continuously the non-treated domestic and industrial effluents (90.000 m3/day) of the city and pollutes all the downstream water bodies. Indeed, it is a tributary of the Sebou River, a major body of great economical importance used for irrigation and freshwater supply. This study aims at characterising and quantifying the pollutant concentrations and fluxes in various points of oued Fez's hydrological network and assessing its impact on the Sebou River; this river's preservation being considered a national priority in Morocco. A coupled water quality-water quantity monitoring scheme has been implemented on oued Fez since 2008. In addition to basic hydrological data, water quality samples are collected at regular intervals at 8 locations where discharge is simultaneously measured using an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP). Water samples are analysed for different forms of nitrogen (nitrates, nitrites, ammonium and total nitrogen), phosphorus (soluble reactive phosphorus and total phosphorus) but also total chromium which is used in the leather tanning processes, one of the most important industrial production of the city of Fez, using a photospectrometer (Hach Lange DR 2800 VIS-photometer (Germany). The results of 17 sampling campaigns, carried out over 3 hydrological years, indicate that the rural areas contribute mostly to baseflow during the wet

  2. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) for assessment of microbial water quality: current progress, challenges, and future opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, BoonFei; Ng, Charmaine; Nshimyimana, Jean Pierre; Loh, Lay Leng; Gin, Karina Y.-H.; Thompson, Janelle R.

    2015-01-01

    Water quality is an emergent property of a complex system comprised of interacting microbial populations and introduced microbial and chemical contaminants. Studies leveraging next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies are providing new insights into the ecology of microbially mediated processes that influence fresh water quality such as algal blooms, contaminant biodegradation, and pathogen dissemination. In addition, sequencing methods targeting small subunit (SSU) rRNA hypervariable regions have allowed identification of signature microbial species that serve as bioindicators for sewage contamination in these environments. Beyond amplicon sequencing, metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses of microbial communities in fresh water environments reveal the genetic capabilities and interplay of waterborne microorganisms, shedding light on the mechanisms for production and biodegradation of toxins and other contaminants. This review discusses the challenges and benefits of applying NGS-based methods to water quality research and assessment. We will consider the suitability and biases inherent in the application of NGS as a screening tool for assessment of biological risks and discuss the potential and limitations for direct quantitative interpretation of NGS data. Secondly, we will examine case studies from recent literature where NGS based methods have been applied to topics in water quality assessment, including development of bioindicators for sewage pollution and microbial source tracking, characterizing the distribution of toxin and antibiotic resistance genes in water samples, and investigating mechanisms of biodegradation of harmful pollutants that threaten water quality. Finally, we provide a short review of emerging NGS platforms and their potential applications to the next generation of water quality assessment tools. PMID:26441948

  3. Next-generation sequencing (NGS for assessment of microbial water quality: current progress, challenges, and future opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BoonFei eTan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Water quality is an emergent property of a complex system comprised of interacting microbial populations and introduced microbial and chemical contaminants. Studies leveraging next-generation sequencing (NGS technologies are providing new insights into the ecology of microbially mediated processes that influence fresh water quality such as algal blooms, contaminant biodegradation, and pathogen dissemination. In addition, sequencing methods targeting small subunit (SSU rRNA hypervariable regions have allowed identification of signature microbial species that serve as bioindicators for sewage contamination in these environments. Beyond amplicon sequencing, metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses of microbial communities in fresh water environments reveal the genetic capabilities and interplay of waterborne microorganisms, shedding light on the mechanisms for production and biodegradation of toxins and other contaminants. This review discusses the challenges and benefits of applying NGS-based methods to water quality research and assessment. We will consider the suitability and biases inherent in the application of NGS as a screening tool for assessment of biological risks and discuss the potential and limitations for direct quantitative interpretation of NGS data. Secondly, we will examine case studies from recent literature where NGS based methods have been applied to topics in water quality assessment, including development of bioindicators for sewage pollution and microbial source tracking, characterizing the distribution of toxin and antibiotic resistance genes in water samples, and investigating mechanisms of biodegradation of harmful pollutants that threaten water quality. Finally, we provide a short review of emerging NGS platforms and their potential applications to the next generation of water quality assessment tools.

  4. Multi-dimensional water quality assessment of an urban drinking water source elucidated by high resolution underwater towed vehicle mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Alan; Spiers, Graeme; Hostetler, Blair; Ray, James; Wallschläger, Dirk

    2016-04-15

    Spatial surveys of Ramsey Lake, Sudbury, Ontario water quality were conducted using an innovative underwater towed vehicle (UTV) equipped with a multi-parameter probe providing real-time water quality data. The UTV revealed underwater vent sites through high resolution monitoring of different spatial chemical characteristics using common sensors (turbidity, chloride, dissolved oxygen, and oxidation/reduction sensors) that would not be feasible with traditional water sampling methods. Multi-parameter probe vent site identification is supported by elevated alkalinity and silica concentrations at these sites. The identified groundwater vent sites appear to be controlled by bedrock fractures that transport water from different sources with different contaminants of concern. Elevated contaminants, such as, arsenic and nickel and/or nutrient concentrations are evident at the vent sites, illustrating the potential of these sources to degrade water quality.

  5. Assessment of water quality and toxicity of polluted Rivers Fez and Sebou in the region of Fez (Morocco).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukal, B; Dominik, J; Vignati, D; Arpagaus, P; Santiago, S; Ouddane, B; Benaabidate, L

    2004-09-01

    Water quality assessment in the region of Fez based on the physicochemical and ecotoxicological investigations is presented. The results indicate that sites located close to the most urbanized and industrialized areas are severely impaired. The major water quality problems are: low dissolved oxygen (DO), high turbidity, organic matter and ammonia contents, severe chromium and copper pollution and high acute and chronic toxicity. This results in the loss of the aquatic life which is still flourishing in the Fez River upstream from the Fez Medina. Remote sites downstream show signs of physicochemical recovery. However, even there, bioassays showed significant acute and chronic toxicity. Well water in the region of Fez has moderately poor water quality with nitrate and metal enrichments. Use of water for drinking or for agriculture from the rivers or from some wells without treatment may expose the population to health risk.

  6. Potable water quality monitoring of primary schools in Magura district, Bangladesh: children's health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Aminur; Hashem, Abul; Nur-A-Tomal, Shahruk

    2016-12-01

    Safe potable water is essential for good health. Worldwide, school-aged children especially in the developing countries are suffering from various water-borne diseases. In the study, drinking water supplies for primary school children were monitored at Magura district, Bangladesh, to ensure safe potable water. APHA standard analytical methods were applied for determining the physicochemical parameters of the water samples. For determination of the essential physicochemical parameters, the samples were collected from 20 randomly selected tube wells of primary schools at Magura. The metal contents, especially arsenic (As), iron (Fe), and manganese (Mn), in the water samples were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The range of physicochemical parameters found in water samples were as follows: pH 7.05-9.03, electrical conductivity 400-2340 μS/cm, chloride 10-640 mg/L, hardness 200-535 mg/L as CaCO3, and total dissolved solids 208-1216 mg/L. The level of metals in the tube well water samples were as follows: As 1 to 55 μg/L, Fe 40 to 9890 μg/L, and Mn 10 to 370 μg/L. Drinking water parameters of Magura district did not meet the requirement of the World Health Organization drinking water quality guideline, or the Drinking Water Quality Standards of Bangladesh.

  7. Assessment of tap water quality and corrosion scales from the selected distribution systems in northern Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Shams Ali; Lou, Zimo; Baig, Muzaffar Ali; Qasim, Muhammad; Shams, Dilawar Farhan; Mahmood, Qaisar; Xu, Xinhua

    2017-04-01

    Corrosion deposits formed within drinking water distribution systems deteriorate drinking water quality and resultantly cause public health consequences. In the present study, an attempt was made to investigate the concurrent conditions of corrosion scales and the drinking water quality in selected water supply schemes (WSS) in districts Chitral, Peshawar, and Abbottabad, northern Pakistan. Characterization analyses of the corrosion by-products revealed the presence of α-FeOOH, γ-FeOOH, Fe3O4, and SiO2 as major constituents with different proportions. The constituents of all the representative XRD peaks of Peshawar WSS were found insignificant as compared to other WSS, and the reason could be the variation of source water quality. Well-crystallized particles in SEM images indicated the formation of dense oxide layer on corrosion by-products. A wider asymmetric vibration peak of SiO2 appeared only in Chitral and Abbottabad WSS, which demonstrated higher siltation in the water source. One-way ANOVA analysis showed significant variations in pH, turbidity, TDS, K, Mg, PO4, Cl, and SO4 values, which revealed that these parameters differently contributed to the source water quality. Findings from this study suggested the implementation of proper corrosion prevention measures and the establishment of international collaboration for best corrosion practices, expertise, and developing standards.

  8. Algal Attributes: An Autecological Classification of Algal Taxa Collected by the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Stephen D.

    2008-01-01

    Algae are excellent indicators of water-quality conditions, notably nutrient and organic enrichment, and also are indicators of major ion, dissolved oxygen, and pH concentrations and stream microhabitat conditions. The autecology, or physiological optima and tolerance, of algal species for various water-quality contaminants and conditions is relatively well understood for certain groups of freshwater algae, notably diatoms. However, applications of autecological information for water-quality assessments have been limited because of challenges associated with compiling autecological literature from disparate sources, tracking name changes for a large number of algal species, and creating an autecological data base from which algal-indicator metrics can be calculated. A comprehensive summary of algal autecological attributes for North American streams and rivers does not exist. This report describes a large, digital data file containing 28,182 records for 5,939 algal taxa, generally species or variety, collected by the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. The data file includes 37 algal attributes classified by over 100 algal-indicator codes or metrics that can be calculated easily with readily available software. Algal attributes include qualitative classifications based on European and North American autecological literature, and semi-quantitative, weighted-average regression approaches for estimating optima using regional and national NAWQA data. Applications of algal metrics in water-quality assessments are discussed and national quartile distributions of metric scores are shown for selected indicator metrics.

  9. Water Quality Standards Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Quality Standards Handbook is a compilation of the EPA's water quality standards (WQS) program guidance including recommendations for states, authorized tribes, and territories in reviewing, revising, and implementing WQS.

  10. Water Quality Monitoring Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Water Quality Monitoring Site identifies locations across the state of Vermont where water quality data has been collected, including habitat, chemistry, fish and/or...

  11. Water Quality Analysis Simulation

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Water Quality analysis simulation Program, an enhancement of the original WASP. This model helps users interpret and predict water quality responses to natural...

  12. Water Quality Analysis Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Quality analysis simulation Program, an enhancement of the original WASP. This model helps users interpret and predict water quality responses to natural phenomena and man-made pollution for variious pollution management decisions.

  13. Water quality index development for groundwater quality assessment of Greater Noida sub-basin, Uttar Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajal Singh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The water quality index (WQI is an important parameter for determining the drinking water quality for the end users. The study for the same has been carried on the groundwater by collecting 47 groundwater samples from 25 blocks of Greater Noida city, India. In order to develop WQI the samples were subjected to a comprehensive physicochemical and biological analysis of 11 parameters such as pH, calcium, magnesium, chloride, nitrate, sulphate, total dissolved solids, fluorides, bicarbonate, sodium and potassium. Geographical information system has been used to map the sampling area. The coordinates in terms of latitude and longitude of the sampling locations were recorded with the help of global positioning system. Piper plots and cation–anion correlation matrix were plotted from the values obtained by the analysis of various parameters. The WQI index for the same has been calculated and the values ranged from 53.69 to 267.85. The WQI values from present study indicate the very poor quality water in the area dominated by industrial and construction activities. Poor water quality has been observed in commercial zone of the study area. The analysis reveals the fact that the ground water of the Greater Noida needs a degree of treatment before consumption and needs to be protected from further contamination.

  14. Assessment of dry season surface, ground, and treated water quality in the Cape Coast municipality of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quagraine, E K; Adokoh, C K

    2010-01-01

    This aim of this monitoring was to assess water quality in a dry season for the Cape Coast municipality in Ghana, which has been experiencing chronic water shortages. Fifteen different sampling stations--four surface, five ground, and six tap water samples--were analyzed for physicochemical and microbiological parameters during January to April 2005. Levels or trends in water quality that may be deleterious to sensitive water uses, including drinking, irrigation, and livestock watering have been noted with reference to well-established guidelines. Exceedances to some health-based drinking water guidelines included positive coliform for various water samples; pH for all groundwater samples (pH 5.9+/-0.3); conductivity for 50% groundwater; color for about a third of groundwater and tap water; Mn for 44% tap water, 67% groundwater, and 50% surface water samples. The World Health Organization laundry staining Fe guideline of 0.3 mg/l was exceeded by 75% of surface water, 44% tap water, and 53% groundwater samples. The corresponding Mn guideline of 0.1 mg/l was exceeded by all the water samples. Respectively, all surface water samples and also 75% of the surface water exceeded some known Cu and Zn guideline for the protection of aquatic life. Compared to some historic data for Fosu Lagoon, the current study shows a lowering of approximately 1 pH unit, increase of approximately 65% NH3, one to two orders of magnitude increase in PO4(3-), and more than two orders of magnitude increase in NO3-. In several instances, tap water samples collected at the consumers' end of the distribution system did not reflect on the true quality of the treated water. Mn, SO4(2-), PO4(3-), Cu, and Zn were among the chemical contaminations observed to occur in the distribution system.

  15. Morphology, geology and water quality assessment of former tin mining catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel; Maah, Mohd Jamil; Yusoff, Ismail

    2012-01-01

    Bestari Jaya, former tin mining catchment covers an area of 2656.31 hectares comprised of four hundred and forty-two different-size lakes and ponds. The present study area comprise of 92 hectares of the catchment that include four large size lakes. Arc GIS version 9.2 used to develop bathymetric map, Global Positioning System (GPS) for hydrographical survey and flow meter was utilized for water discharge analysis (flow routing) of the catchment. The water quality parameters (pH, temperature, electric conductivity, dissolved oxygen DO, total dissolved solids TDS, chlorides, ammonium, nitrates) were analyzed by using Hydrolab. Quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) procedures were strictly followed throughout the field work and data analysis. Different procedures were employed to evaluate the analytical data and to check for possible transcription or dilution errors, changes during analysis, or unusual or unlikely values. The results obtained are compared with interim national water quality standards for Malaysia indicates that water quality of area is highly degraded. It is concluded that Bestri Jaya ex-mining catchment has a high pollution potential due to mining activities and River Ayer Hitam, recipient of catchment water, is a highly polluted river.

  16. Morphology, Geology and Water Quality Assessment of Former Tin Mining Catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel; Maah, Mohd. Jamil; Yusoff, Ismail

    2012-01-01

    Bestari Jaya, former tin mining catchment covers an area of 2656.31 hectares comprised of four hundred and forty-two different-size lakes and ponds. The present study area comprise of 92 hectares of the catchment that include four large size lakes. Arc GIS version 9.2 used to develop bathymetric map, Global Positioning System (GPS) for hydrographical survey and flow meter was utilized for water discharge analysis (flow routing) of the catchment. The water quality parameters (pH, temperature, electric conductivity, dissolved oxygen DO, total dissolved solids TDS, chlorides, ammonium, nitrates) were analyzed by using Hydrolab. Quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) procedures were strictly followed throughout the field work and data analysis. Different procedures were employed to evaluate the analytical data and to check for possible transcription or dilution errors, changes during analysis, or unusual or unlikely values. The results obtained are compared with interim national water quality standards for Malaysia indicates that water quality of area is highly degraded. It is concluded that Bestri Jaya ex-mining catchment has a high pollution potential due to mining activities and River Ayer Hitam, recipient of catchment water, is a highly polluted river. PMID:22761549

  17. Integrationof Remote Sensing and Geographic information system in Ground Water Quality Assessment and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakak, N.

    2015-04-01

    Spatial variations in ground water quality in the Khartoum state, Sudan, have been studied using geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing technique. Gegraphical informtion system a tool which is used for storing, analyzing and displaying spatial data is also used for investigating ground water quality information. Khartoum landsat mosac image aquired in 2013was used, Arc/Gis software applied to extract the boundary of the study area, the image was classified to create land use/land cover map. The land use map,geological and soil map are used for correlation between land use , geological formations, and soil types to understand the source of natural pollution that can lower the ground water quality. For this study, the global positioning system (GPS), used in the field to identify the borehole location in a three dimentional coordinate (Latitude, longitude, and altitude), water samples were collected from 156 borehole wells, and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters like electrical conductivity, Total dissolved solid,Chloride, Nitrate, Sodium, Magnisium, Calcium,and Flouride, using standard techniques in the laboratory and compared with the standards.The ground water quality maps of the entire study area have been prepared using spatial interpolation technique for all the above parameters.then the created maps used to visualize, analyze, and understand the relationship among the measured points. Mapping was coded for potable zones, non-potable zones in the study area, in terms of water quality sutability for drinking water and sutability for irrigation. In general satellite remote sensing in conjunction with geographical information system (GIS) offers great potential for water resource development and management.

  18. Water quality assessment of carbonate aquifers in southern Latium region, Central Italy: a case study for irrigation and drinking purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sappa, Giuseppe; Ergul, Sibel; Ferranti, Flavia

    2014-06-01

    In southern Latium region, Central Italy, groundwater and spring water resources in the carbonate aquifers are the major contributors of drinking and irrigation water supply. The aim of this study was to review hydrochemical processes that control the groundwater chemistry and to determine the suitability of springs and groundwater for irrigation and drinking purposes on the basis of the water quality indices. Physical (pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids) and hydrochemical characteristics (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, HCO3 -, Cl-, and SO4 -) of springs and groundwater were determined. To assess the water quality, chemical parameters like sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), total hardness, Mg-hazard (MH), sodium percentage (Na %), salinity hazard, permeability index, and Kelly's ratio were calculated based on the analytical results. A Durov diagram plot revealed that the groundwater has been evolved from Ca to HCO3 recharge water, followed by mixing and reverse ion exchange processes, due to the respective dominance of Na-Cl and Ca-Cl water types. According to Gibbs's diagram plots, chemical weathering of rock forming minerals is the major driving force controlling water chemistry in this area. Groundwater and spring samples were grouped into six categories according to irrigation water quality assessment diagram of US Salinity Laboratory classification and most of the water samples distributed in category C2-S1 and C3-S1 highlighting medium to high salinity hazard and low sodium content class. The results of hydrochemical analyses and the calculated water quality parameters suggest that most of the water samples are suitable for irrigation and drinking purposes, except for the samples influenced by seawater and enhanced water-rock interaction. High values of salinity, Na %, SAR, and MH at certain sites, restrict the suitability for agricultural uses.

  19. Water Quality Monitoring and Assessment in Northern New Jersey Watershed, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, H.; Mirrer, L. K.; Pelak, N. F.; Wu, M. S.

    2012-12-01

    Over a century of rapid urbanization and industrialization in New Jersey brought visible ever-increasing stress on the resource and environmental capacities of the watershed. Environmental quality is a major concern in this region with the urbanization and economic development. As a 8-week long National Science Foundation (NSF)-supported Research Experience for Undergraduate Students (REU) program, this study compares the stream water quality in four Northern New Jersey watersheds with different land use types (i.e., urban, agricultural, and forested). A total of eight sites were chosen for this study with two sites for each watershed to investigate if the land use type has an effect on the water quality, and if so, what that effect is. Physical and chemical parameters, such as temperature, pH, conductivity, solids content, nitrate, and phosphate, were measured during this study as indicators of the water quality. A number of correlations between these parameters were found during the data analysis. Our preliminary results indicate that the land use change has a significant impact on the water quality, causing impaired rivers, streams, lakes and reservoirs in New Jersey watershed. The results from this study are important and useful for developing future environmental management strategies for environmental restoration and urban coastal development. Acknowledgement: The research was supported in part by the US National Science Foundation (Award EAR-1004829).

  20. Tsunamis: Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes Wildfires Winter Weather Tsunamis: Water Quality Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... about testing should be directed to local authorities. Water for Drinking, Cooking, and Personal Hygiene Safe water ...

  1. Water quality assessment of the Asata River catchment area in Enugu Metropolis, Southeast Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osinowo, Olawale Olakunle

    2016-09-01

    Hydrogeochemical mapping of the Asata River Catchment area in the Enugu metropolis, southeast Nigeria was carried out in order to assess the quality of the surface and groundwater and based on the analyses of the hydrogeochemical data, establish the level of chemical contaminations which inhibit the availability of potable water in the area. Forty (40) water samples comprising five (5) springs, nineteen (19) surface (streams/rivers) and sixteen (16) groundwater (well/borehole) samples were collected and analysed for the presence and degree of contamination of nine (9) major chemical contaminants. Hydrochemical analyses indicate that Electrical Conductivity (EC) which has a linear relationship with Total Dissolved Solid (TDS) ranges between 015 and 887 μS/cm, pH between 4.4 and 8.3, nitrate (NO3-) ranges between 40 and 130 mg/l and chloride (Cl-) between 7 and 130 mg/l. The concentrations of the dissolved chemical constituents defined the pollution trend and the rate of dispersion of contaminants. The degree of contaminants followed a simple trend, where the level of contamination of the dissolved chemical constituents is least in sampled spring water, with measured chemical constituents of EC, pH, NO3- and Cl- range from 15 to 354 μS/cm; 6.4-6.5; 4.0-70 mg/l and 8-36 mg/l, respectively. However, the value of the measured chemical constituent of EC, pH, NO3- and Cl- gradually increases down the stream in both the surface (63-354 μS/cm; 4.5-7.7; 7.1-110 mg/l; 8-41 mg/l) and groundwater (56-531 μS/cm; 4.5-7.5; 40-130 mg/l; 7-130 mg/l), respectively. Noticeable peaks in contamination levels characterised sections of the study area where human population or their activities is highest. The result of the hydrogeochemical mapping indicate that Enugu coal mine operation, the industrial activities, fertilizer applied to plants cultivated on river banks and domestic human wastes which are indiscriminately dumped along river channels are the major sources of chemical

  2. An assessment of travel time for spills management - using HEC-RAS water quality analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Disley, Tom; Gharabaghi, Bahram; Perdikaris, John [University of Guelph, Guelph, (Canada); Singh, Amanjot; Dougherty, Jennifer [Credit Valley Conservation Authority, Mississauga, (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    In order to mitigate the detrimental effects that contaminants such as petrochemical and chemical spills may have on the environment it is critical to understand their transport. This paper presented an assessment of travel time for spills management using HEC-RAS water quality analysis on the Credit River Watershed. It is a 1000 km2 area of urban and rural landscapes drained by 90 km of the main Credit River. The study focused on the mixing characteristics of 5 stream reaches in the Credit River watershed. Dye tracing was done under three different flow conditions to obtain a longitudinal dispersion coefficient, which is a necessary parameter for predicting and modelling time concentration curves downstream of a spill. The longitudinal dispersion coefficient was input into the US Army Corp of Engineers, Hydrologic Engineering Centers River Analysis System (HEC RAS) to predict time concentration curves. The HEC RAS model produced average travel time close to those measured in the field after final calibration was completed.

  3. Rotifer community structure and assessment of water quality in Yangcheng Lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Lijing; LIU Qiao; PENG Ziran; HU Zhongjun; XUE Junzeng; WANG Wu

    2012-01-01

    Rotifer community structure was investigated in Yangcheng Lake in 2008.Dominant species and species diversity indices were determined and QB/T was used to assess water quality.The annual average density and biomass of the rotifers in Yangcheng Lake was 2 894± 1 006 ind./L and 12.47± 10.28 mg/L,respectively.The highest densities were observed in the western portion of the lake in March,but the highest biomass occurred in inflowing creeks in September.Within a year of monitoring in Yangcheng Lake,93 species were identified and the dominant species were found to be Polyarthra trigla,Brachionus angularis,Keratella cochlearis,Keratella valga,Brachionus calyciflorus,and Filinia major.Of the species recorded,75 were pollution indicator species.Density and biomass exhibited significant positive correlations with water temperature (R=0.209,P=0.003; R=0.446,P=0.000),but the peak density showed two lags in response to chl a.According to the Jaccard similarity index (SJ),the greatest similarity among dominant species occurred between creeks and the eastern part of the lake.The annual average Shannon-Wiener diversity index H',Margalef richness index D and Pielou evenness index J were 1.96±0.34,1.61 ±0.50and 0.77±0.10,respectively.In all four areas of Yangcheng Lake,β- mesosaprobic species comprised the largest share of pollution indicator species.These data suggest that Yangcheng Lake is mesosaprobic.

  4. Assessing the Total Economic Value of Improving Water Quality to Inform Water Resources Management: Evidence and Challenges from Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilov, S.; Fukushi, K.

    2016-12-01

    Population growth, high rates of economic development and rapid urbanization in the developing countries of Southeast Asia (SEA) have resulted in degradation and depletion of natural resources, including water resources and related ecosystem services. Many urban rivers in the region are highly polluted with domestic, industrial and agricultural wastes. Policymakers are often aware of the direct value of water resources for domestic and industrial consumption, but they often underestimate the indirect value of these functions, since they are not exchanged in the market and do not appear in national income accounts. Underestimation of pollution and over-exploitation of water resources result in a loss of these benefits and have adverse impacts on nearby residents, threatening the long-term sustainable development of natural resources in the region. Behind these constraints lies a lack of knowledge (ignorance) from governments that a clean water environment could bring significant economic benefits. This study has been initiated to tackle this issue and to foster a more rational approach for sustainable urban development in Metro Manila in the Philippines. We applied a Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) based on Computer-Assisted Personal Interviewing (CAPI) technique. Results show that users are willing to pay up to PHP 102.42 (2.18) monthly to improve quality of urban waterbodies whereas nonusers are willing to pay up to PHP 366.53 (7.80) as one-time payment towards water quality improvement. The estimated monetary value of water quality improvements would be a useful variable in cost-benefit analyses of various water quality-related policies, in both public and private sectors in Metro Manila. This survey design could serve as a useful template for similar water quality studies in other SEA countries.

  5. Water-quality assessment of the Trinity River basin, Texas : ground-water quality of the Trinity, Carrizo-Wilcox, and Gulf Coast aquifers, February-August 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reutter, David C.; Dunn, David D.

    2000-01-01

    Ground-water samples were collected from wells in the outcrops of the Trinity, Carrizo-Wilcox, and Gulf Coast aquifers during February-August 1994 to determine the quality of ground water in the three major aquifers in the Trinity River Basin study unit, Texas. These samples were collected and analyzed for selected properties, nutrients, major inorganic constituents, trace elements, pesticides, dissolved organic carbon, total phenols, methylene blue active substances, and volatile organic compounds as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Quality-control practices included the collection and analysis of blank, duplicate, and spiked samples. Samples were collected from 12 shallow wells (150 feet or less) and from 12 deep wells (greater than 150 feet) in the Trinity aquifer, 11 shallow wells and 12 deep wells in the Carrizo-Wilcox aquifer, and 14 shallow wells and 10 deep wells in the Gulf Coast aquifer. The three aquifers had similar water chemistries-calcium was the dominant cation and bicarbonate the dominant anion. Statistical tests relating well depths to concentrations of nutrients and major inorganic constituents indicated correlations between well depth and concentrations of ammonia nitrogen, nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen, bicarbonate, sodium, and dissolved solids in the Carrizo-Wilcox aquifer and between well depth and concentrations of sulfate in the Gulf Coast aquifer. The tests indicated no significant correlations for the Trinity aquifer. Concentrations of dissolved solids were larger than the secondary maximum contaminant level of 500 milligrams per liter established for drinking water by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 12 wells in the Trinity aquifer, 4 wells in the Carrizo-Wilcox aquifer, and 6 wells in the Gulf Coast aquifer. Iron concentrations were larger than the secondary maximum contaminant level of 300 micrograms per liter in at least 3 samples from each aquifer, and manganese concentrations

  6. Water quality assessment in piracicamirim creek upstream and downstream a sugar and ethanol industry through toxicity tests with cladocerans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Grossi Botelho

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available An environmental impact study was conducted to determine the Piracicamirim's creek water quality in order to assess the influence of effluents from a sugar industry in this water body. For this, toxicity tests were performed with a water sample upstream and downstream the industry using the microcrustaceans Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia and Ceriodaphnia silvestrii as test organisms, as well as physical and chemical analysis of water. Results showed that physical and chemical parameters did not change during the sampling period, except for the dissolved oxygen. No toxicity was observed for D. magna and reproduction of C. dubia and C. silvestrii in both sampling points. Thus, the industry was not negatively impacting the quality of this water body.

  7. Promoting household water treatment through women's self help groups in Rural India: assessing impact on drinking water quality and equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Matthew C; Trinies, Victoria; Boisson, Sophie; Mak, Gregory; Clasen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Household water treatment, including boiling, chlorination and filtration, has been shown effective in improving drinking water quality and preventing diarrheal disease among vulnerable populations. We used a case-control study design to evaluate the extent to which the commercial promotion of household water filters through microfinance institutions to women's self-help group (SHG) members improved access to safe drinking water. This pilot program achieved a 9.8% adoption rate among women targeted for adoption. Data from surveys and assays of fecal contamination (thermotolerant coliforms, TTC) of drinking water samples (source and household) were analyzed from 281 filter adopters and 247 non-adopters exposed to the program; 251 non-SHG members were also surveyed. While adopters were more likely than non-adopters to have children under 5 years, they were also more educated, less poor, more likely to have access to improved water supplies, and more likely to have previously used a water filter. Adopters had lower levels of fecal contamination of household drinking water than non-adopters, even among those non-adopters who treated their water by boiling or using traditional ceramic filters. Nevertheless, one-third of water samples from adopter households exceeded 100 TTC/100ml (high risk), and more than a quarter of the filters had no stored treated water available when visited by an investigator, raising concerns about correct, consistent use. In addition, the poorest adopters were less likely to see improvements in their water quality. Comparisons of SHG and non-SHG members suggest similar demographic characteristics, indicating SHG members are an appropriate target group for this promotion campaign. However, in order to increase the potential for health gains, future programs will need to increase uptake, particularly among the poorest households who are most susceptible to disease morbidity and mortality, and focus on strategies to improve the correct, consistent

  8. Promoting household water treatment through women's self help groups in Rural India: assessing impact on drinking water quality and equity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C Freeman

    Full Text Available Household water treatment, including boiling, chlorination and filtration, has been shown effective in improving drinking water quality and preventing diarrheal disease among vulnerable populations. We used a case-control study design to evaluate the extent to which the commercial promotion of household water filters through microfinance institutions to women's self-help group (SHG members improved access to safe drinking water. This pilot program achieved a 9.8% adoption rate among women targeted for adoption. Data from surveys and assays of fecal contamination (thermotolerant coliforms, TTC of drinking water samples (source and household were analyzed from 281 filter adopters and 247 non-adopters exposed to the program; 251 non-SHG members were also surveyed. While adopters were more likely than non-adopters to have children under 5 years, they were also more educated, less poor, more likely to have access to improved water supplies, and more likely to have previously used a water filter. Adopters had lower levels of fecal contamination of household drinking water than non-adopters, even among those non-adopters who treated their water by boiling or using traditional ceramic filters. Nevertheless, one-third of water samples from adopter households exceeded 100 TTC/100ml (high risk, and more than a quarter of the filters had no stored treated water available when visited by an investigator, raising concerns about correct, consistent use. In addition, the poorest adopters were less likely to see improvements in their water quality. Comparisons of SHG and non-SHG members suggest similar demographic characteristics, indicating SHG members are an appropriate target group for this promotion campaign. However, in order to increase the potential for health gains, future programs will need to increase uptake, particularly among the poorest households who are most susceptible to disease morbidity and mortality, and focus on strategies to improve the

  9. Promoting Household Water Treatment through Women's Self Help Groups in Rural India: Assessing Impact on Drinking Water Quality and Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Matthew C.; Trinies, Victoria; Boisson, Sophie; Mak, Gregory; Clasen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Household water treatment, including boiling, chlorination and filtration, has been shown effective in improving drinking water quality and preventing diarrheal disease among vulnerable populations. We used a case-control study design to evaluate the extent to which the commercial promotion of household water filters through microfinance institutions to women's self-help group (SHG) members improved access to safe drinking water. This pilot program achieved a 9.8% adoption rate among women targeted for adoption. Data from surveys and assays of fecal contamination (thermotolerant coliforms, TTC) of drinking water samples (source and household) were analyzed from 281 filter adopters and 247 non-adopters exposed to the program; 251 non-SHG members were also surveyed. While adopters were more likely than non-adopters to have children under 5 years, they were also more educated, less poor, more likely to have access to improved water supplies, and more likely to have previously used a water filter. Adopters had lower levels of fecal contamination of household drinking water than non-adopters, even among those non-adopters who treated their water by boiling or using traditional ceramic filters. Nevertheless, one-third of water samples from adopter households exceeded 100 TTC/100ml (high risk), and more than a quarter of the filters had no stored treated water available when visited by an investigator, raising concerns about correct, consistent use. In addition, the poorest adopters were less likely to see improvements in their water quality. Comparisons of SHG and non-SHG members suggest similar demographic characteristics, indicating SHG members are an appropriate target group for this promotion campaign. However, in order to increase the potential for health gains, future programs will need to increase uptake, particularly among the poorest households who are most susceptible to disease morbidity and mortality, and focus on strategies to improve the correct, consistent

  10. Risk assessment of aquifer storage transfer and recovery with urban stormwater for producing water of a potable quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Declan; Dillon, Peter; Vanderzalm, Joanne; Toze, Simon; Sidhu, Jatinder; Barry, Karen; Levett, Kerry; Kremer, Sarah; Regel, Rudi

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the Parafield Aquifer Storage Transfer and Recovery research project in South Australia is to determine whether stormwater from an urban catchment that is treated in a constructed wetland and stored in an initially brackish aquifer before recovery can meet potable water standards. The water produced by the stormwater harvesting system, which included a constructed wetland, was found to be near potable quality. Parameters exceeding the drinking water guidelines before recharge included small numbers of fecal indicator bacteria and elevated iron concentrations and associated color. This is the first reported study of a managed aquifer recharge (MAR) scheme to be assessed following the Australian guidelines for MAR. A comprehensive staged approach to assess the risks to human health and the environment of this project has been undertaken, with 12 hazards being assessed. A quantitative microbial risk assessment undertaken on the water recovered from the aquifer indicated that the residual risks posed by the pathogenic hazards were acceptable if further supplementary treatment was included. Residual risks from organic chemicals were also assessed to be low based on an intensive monitoring program. Elevated iron concentrations in the recovered water exceeded the potable water guidelines. Iron concentrations increased after underground storage but would be acceptable after postrecovery aeration treatment. Arsenic concentrations in the recovered water continuously met the guideline concentrations acceptable for potable water supplies. However, the elevated concentration of arsenic in native groundwater and its presence in aquifer minerals suggest that the continuing acceptable residual risk from arsenic requires further evaluation.

  11. Application of multivariate statistical techniques in assessment of surface water quality in Second Songhua River basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑力燕; 于宏兵; 王启山

    2016-01-01

    Multivariate statistical techniques, such as cluster analysis (CA), discriminant analysis (DA), principal component analysis (PCA) and factor analysis (FA), were applied to evaluate and interpret the surface water quality data sets of the Second Songhua River (SSHR) basin in China, obtained during two years (2012−2013) of monitoring of 10 physicochemical parameters at 15 different sites. The results showed that most of physicochemical parameters varied significantly among the sampling sites. Three significant groups, highly polluted (HP), moderately polluted (MP) and less polluted (LP), of sampling sites were obtained through Hierarchical agglomerative CA on the basis of similarity of water quality characteristics. DA identified pH, F, DO, NH3-N, COD and VPhs were the most important parameters contributing to spatial variations of surface water quality. However, DA did not give a considerable data reduction (40%reduction). PCA/FA resulted in three, three and four latent factors explaining 70%, 62%and 71%of the total variance in water quality data sets of HP, MP and LP regions, respectively. FA revealed that the SSHR water chemistry was strongly affected by anthropogenic activities (point sources: industrial effluents and wastewater treatment plants; non-point sources:domestic sewage, livestock operations and agricultural activities) and natural processes (seasonal effect, and natural inputs). PCA/FA in the whole basin showed the best results for data reduction because it used only two parameters (about 80%reduction) as the most important parameters to explain 72%of the data variation. Thus, this work illustrated the utility of multivariate statistical techniques for analysis and interpretation of datasets and, in water quality assessment, identification of pollution sources/factors and understanding spatial variations in water quality for effective stream water quality management.

  12. Assessment of water quality based on diatom indices in a small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-04-02

    Apr 2, 2016 ... for water quality changes over short time scales. Diatoms have .... A CyberScan Series 600 portable ... estuary section of the river were sampled from Sites E1 to E3 ..... the indices were developed or were planktonic forms (e.g..

  13. A baseline water quality assessment of the coastal reefs of Bonaire, Southern Caribbean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slijkerman, D.M.E.; León, de R.; Vries, de P.

    2014-01-01

    Bonaire is considered to harbor some of the best remaining coral reefs of the Caribbean, but faces multiple pressures including eutrophication. We measured multiple water quality indicators twice annually, from November 2011 to May 2013, at 11 locations at the west coast of Bonaire. This study resul

  14. Flow cytometry total cell counts: a field study assessing microbiological water quality and growth in unchlorinated drinking water distribution systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, G.; Van der Mark, E.J.; Verberk, J.Q.; Van Dijk, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    e objective of this study was to evaluate the application of flow cytometry total cell counts (TCCs) as a parameter to assess microbial growth in drinking water distribution systems and to determine the relationships between different parameters describing the biostability of treated water. A one-ye

  15. Flow cytometry total cell counts: a field study assessing microbiological water quality and growth in unchlorinated drinking water distribution systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, G.; Van der Mark, E.J.; Verberk, J.Q.; Van Dijk, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    e objective of this study was to evaluate the application of flow cytometry total cell counts (TCCs) as a parameter to assess microbial growth in drinking water distribution systems and to determine the relationships between different parameters describing the biostability of treated water. A

  16. Application of Aquatic Insects (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera And Trichoptera) In Water Quality Assessment of Malaysian Headwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ab Hamid, Suhaila; Md Rawi, Che Salmah

    2017-07-01

    The Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera (EPT) community structure and the specific sensitivity of certain EPT genera were found to be influenced by water parameters in the rivers of Gunung Jerai Forest Reserve (GJFR) in the north of peninsular Malaysia. The scores of EPT taxa richness of >10 in all rivers indicated all rivers' habitats were non-impacted, having good water quality coinciding with Class I and Class II of Malaysian water quality index (WQI) classification of potable water. The abundance of EPT was very high in Teroi River (9,661 individuals) but diversity was lower (22 genera) than Tupah River which was highly diverse (28 genera) but lower in abundance (4,263 individuals). The lowest abundance and moderate diversity was recorded from Batu Hampar River (25 genera). Baetis spp. and Thalerosphyrus spp., Neoperla spp. and Cheumatopsyche spp. were the most common genera found. Classification for all rivers using EPT taxa Richness Index and WQI gave different category of water quality, respectively. The WQI classified Tupah and Batu Hampar rivers into Class II and Teroi River (Class I) was two classes above the classification of the EPT taxa Richness Index.

  17. River health assessment using macroinvertebrates and water quality parameters: A case of the Orange River in Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munyika, Shishani; Kongo, Victor; Kimwaga, Richard

    Land use activities that have an effect on water quality and river health are believed to have increased along the Orange River in Namibia. These are mainly agricultural activities, notably irrigation, with more than 2000 ha currently under irrigation and approximately 2000 ha planned for future expansion. Other anthropogenic activities include urban development and weir construction along the Orange River. Population increase along the river has resulted in proliferation of unplanned settlements with no proper sanitation facilities. This study was aimed at assessing the current water quality and overall health status of the Orange River in Namibia. The South African Scoring System 5(SASS5) was applied in eight sites where samples for macroinvertebrates, physical and chemical water quality parameters such as nutrients in the water, pH, turbidity and presence of bacteria were obtained. Satellite images i.e. Landsat images were also used to assess the land-uses over time in the study area with the view of linking such changes to variance in water quality over time. The SASS5 results indicated a fair water quality and river health condition in category C, indicating that the river is moderately modified. Water quality parameters at all sites varied moderately and were within acceptable limits, except for turbidity and chlorophyll a. There was a significant difference in the mean concentrations of nine water quality parameters among sampling periods, whereby F-value > F-critical at α = 0.05 among sites, F-value < F-critical at α = 0.05, except for turbidity and chlorophyll a. The Landsat images also showed minimal changes in land-use activities between 2002 and 2012, with a net increase of 38 ha in irrigated area. According to National Water Policy White Paper of Namibia of 2000, it was found that policies and legislation address water resources management from a broader spectrum and not specific to river health. Thus, it was concluded that the river health of Orange

  18. [Quality assessment of the public water supply in Nova Iguaçu, Rio de Janeiro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Aguila, P S; Roque, O C; Miranda, C A; Ferreira, A P

    2000-01-01

    This study proposes to develop methodologies for public water supply quality control by implementing evaluation and control mechanisms and enhancing environmental health surveillance decision-making. These objectives were based on data for waterborne diseases recorded at the Rio de Janeiro State Health Department. We selected the following neighborhoods: Posse (1st Township) and Caioaba (5th Township), with dissimilar situations, allowing us to produce a model of water supply coverage in the Municipality of Nova Iguaçu, Rio de Janeiro State. The study underscored the poor quality of the water supply in the two townships, since 61% of the samples were positive on bacteriological examination, showing the undesirable effects of differential sanitation, especially in developing countries.

  19. Surface-Water, Water-Quality, and Ground-Water Assessment of the Municipio of Mayaguez, Puerto Rico, 1999-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Jesús; Santiago-Rivera, Luis; Guzman-Rios, Senen; Gómez-Gómez, Fernando; Oliveras-Feliciano, Mario L.

    2004-01-01

    The surface-water assessment portion of this study focused on analysis of low-flow characteristics in local streams and rivers, because the supply of safe drinking water was a critical issue during recent dry periods. Low-flow characteristics were evaluated at one continuous-record gaging station based on graphical curve-fitting techniques and log-Pearson Type III frequency curves. Estimates of low-flow characteristics for 20 partial-record stations were generated using graphical-correlation techniques. Flow-duration characteristics for the continuous- and partial-record stations were estimated using the relation curves developed for the low-flow study. Stream low-flow statistics document the general hydrology under current land use, water-use, and climatic conditions. A survey of streams and rivers utilized 37 sampling stations to evaluate the sanitary quality of about 165 miles of stream channels. River and stream samples for fecal coliform and fecal streptococcus analyses were collected on two occasions at base-flow conditions. Bacteriological analyses indicate that a significant portion of the stream reaches within the municipio of Mayaguez may have fecal coliform bacteria concentrations above the water-quality goal (standard) established by the Puerto Rico Environmental Quality Board (Junta de Calidad Ambiental de Puerto Rico) for inland surface waters. Sources of fecal contamination may include: illegal discharge of sewage to storm-water drains, malfunctioning sanitary sewer ejectors, clogged and leaking sewage pipes, septic tank leakage, unfenced livestock, and runoff from livestock pens. Long-term fecal coliform data from five sampling stations located within or in the vicinity of the municipio of Mayaguez have been in compliance with the water-quality goal for fecal coliform concentration established in July 1990. Geologic, topographic, soil, hydrogeologic, and streamflow data were compiled into a database and used to divide the municipio of Mayaguez into

  20. Surface-water-quality assessment of the upper Illinois River basin in Illinois, Indiana, and Wisconsin; project description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mades, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    In 1986, the U.S. Geological Survey began a National Water-Quality Assessment program to (1) provide nationally consistent descriptions of the current status of water quality for a large, diverse, and geographically distributed part of the Nation's surface- and ground-water resources; (2) define, where possible, trends in water quality; and (3) identify and describe the relations of both status and trends in water quality to natural factors and the history of land use and land- and waste-management activities. The program is presently in a pilot phase that will test and modify, as necessary, concepts and approaches in preparation for possible full implementation of the program in the future. The upper Illinois River basin is one of four basins selected to test the concepts and approaches of the surface-water-quality element of the national program. The basin drains 10,949 square miles of Illinois, Indiana, and Wisconsin. Three principal tributaries are the Kankakee and Des Plaines Rivers that join to form the Illinois River and the Fox River. Land use is predominantly agricultural; about 75 percent of the basin is cultivated primarily for production of corn and soybeans. About 13 percent of the basin is urban area, most of which is located in the Chicago metropolitan area. The population of the basin is about 7 million. About 6 million people live in the Des Plaines River basin. Many water-quality issues in the upper Illinois River basin are related to sediment, nutrients, potentially toxic inorganic and organic constituents, and to water-management practices. Occurrence of sediment and the chemical constituents in the rivers and lakes within the basin has the potential to adversely affect the water's suitability for aquatic life, recreation, or, through the consumption of fish, human health. The upper Illinois River basin project consists of five major activities. The first activity--analysis of existing information and preparation of a report that describes

  1. Application of Multivariate Statistical Techniques to Assess Seasonal Variation in Water Quality Parameters in Gorganrood Watershed, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Pasandidehfard

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nonpoint source (NPS pollution is a major surface water contaminant commonly caused by agricultural runoff. The purpose of this study was to assess seasonal variation in water quality parameters in Gorganrood watershed (Golestan Province, Iran. It also tried to clarify the effects of agricultural practices and NPS pollution on them. Water quality parameters including potassium, sodium, pH, water flow rate, total dissolved solids (TDS, electrical conductivity (EC, hardness, sulfate, bicarbonate, chlorine, magnesium, and calcium ions during 1966-2010 were evaluated using multivariate statistical techniques. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA was implemented to determine the significance of differences between mean seasonal values. Discriminant analysis (DA was also carried out to identify correlations between seasons and the water quality parameters. Parameters of water quality index were measured through principal component analysis (PCA and factor analysis (FA. Based on the results of statistical tests, climate (freezing, weathering and rainfall and human activities such as agriculture had crucial effects on water quality. The most important parameters in differentiation between seasons in descending order were potassium, pH, carbonic acid, calcium, and magnesium. According to load factor analysis, chlorine, calcium, and potassium were the most important parameters in spring and summer, indicating the application of fertilizers (especially potassium chloride fertilizer and existence of NPS pollution during these seasons. In the next stage, the months during which crops had excessive water requirements were detected using CROPWAT software. Almost all water requirements of the area’s major crops, i.e. cotton, rice, soya, wheat, and oat, happen in the late spring until mid/late summer. According to our findings, agricultural practices had a great impact on water pollution. Results of analysis with CROPWAT software also confirmed this

  2. Assessment of groundwater quality and health risk in drinking water basin using GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şener, Şehnaz; Şener, Erhan; Davraz, Ayşen

    2017-02-01

    Eğirdir Lake basin was selected as the study area because the lake is the second largest freshwater lake in Turkey and groundwater in the basin is used as drinking water. In the present study, 29 groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters to determine the hydrochemical characteristics, groundwater quality, and human health risk in the study area. The dominant ions are Ca(2+), Mg(2+), HCO3(2-), and SO4(2). According to Gibbs plot, the predominant samples fall in the rock-water interaction field. A groundwater quality index (WQI) reveals that the majority of the samples falls under good to excellent category of water, suggesting that the groundwater is suitable for drinking and other domestic uses. The Ca-Mg-HCO3, Ca-HCO3, Ca-SO4-HCO3, and Ca-Mg-HCO3-SO4 water types are the dominant water types depending on the water-rock interaction in the investigation area. Risk of metals to human health was then evaluated using hazard quotients (HQ) by ingestion and dermal pathways for adults and children. It was indicated that As with HQ ingestion >1 was the most important pollutant leading to non-carcinogenic concerns. It can be concluded that the highest contributors to chronic risks were As and Cr for both adults and children.

  3. Application of chemometric methods for assessment and modelling of microbiological quality data concerning coastal bathing water in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agelos Papaioannou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Worldwide, the aim of managing water is to safeguard human health whilst maintaining sustainable aquatic and associated terrestrial, ecosystems. Because human enteric viruses are the most likely pathogens responsible for waterborne diseases from recreational water use, but detection methods are complex and costly for routine monitoring, it is of great interest to determine the quality of coastal bathing water with a minimum cost and maximum safety. Design and methods. This study handles the assessment and modelling of the microbiological quality data of 2149 seawater bathing areas in Greece over 10-year period (1997-2006 by chemometric methods. Results. Cluster analysis results indicated that the studied bathing beaches are classified in accordance with the seasonality in three groups. Factor analysis was applied to investigate possible determining factors in the groups resulted from the cluster analysis, and also two new parameters were created in each group; VF1 includes E. coli, faecal coliforms and total coliforms and VF2 includes faecal streptococci/enterococci. By applying the cluster analysis in each seasonal group, three new groups of coasts were generated, group A (ultraclean, group B (clean and group C (contaminated. Conclusions. The above analysis is confirmed by the application of discriminant analysis, and proves that chemometric methods are useful tools for assessment and modeling microbiological quality data of coastal bathing water on a large scale, and thus could attribute to effective and economical monitoring of the quality of coastal bathing water in a country with a big number of bathing coasts, like Greece.

  4. Gore Creek watershed, Colorado : assessment of historical and current water quantity, water quality, and aquatic ecology, 1968-98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Kirby H.; Bauch, Nancy J.; Driver, Nancy E.

    2001-01-01

    The historical and current (1998) water-quantity, water-quality, and aquatic-ecology conditions in the Gore Creek watershed are described as part of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, done in cooperation with the Town of Vail, the Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, and the Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority. Interpretation of the available water-quantity, water-quality, and aquatic-ecology data collected by various agencies since 1968 showed that background geology and land use in the watershed influence the water quality and stream biota. Surface-water nutrient concentrations generally increased as water moved downstream through the Town of Vail, but concentrations at the mouth of Gore Creek were typical when compared with national data for urban/undeveloped sites. Nitrate concentrations in Gore Creek were highest just downstream from a wastewater-treatment plant discharge, but concentrations decreased at sites farther downstream because of dilution and nitrogen uptake by algae. Recent total phosphorus concentrations were somewhat elevated when compared to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recommended level of 0.10 milligram per liter for control of eutrophication in flowing water. However, total phosphorus concentrations at the mouth of Gore Creek were relatively low when compared to a national study of phosphorus in urban land-use areas. Historically, suspended sediment associated with construction of Interstate 70 in the early 1970's has been of primary concern; however, recent data indicate that streambed aggradation of sediment originating from Interstate 70 traction sanding currently is a greater concern. About 4,000 tons of coarse sand and fine gravel is washed into Black Gore Creek each year following application of traction materials to Interstate 70 during adverse winter driving conditions. Suspended-sediment concentrations were low in Black Gore Creek; however, bedload-transport rates of as much as 4 tons per day have been measured

  5. Water-quality assessment of the lower Illinois River Basin; environmental setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Kelly L.

    1998-01-01

    The lower Illinois River Basin (LIRB) encompasses 18,000 square miles of central and western Illinois. Historical and recent information from Federal, State, and local agencies describing the physiography, population, land use, soils, climate, geology, streamflow, habitat, ground water, water use, and aquatic biology is summarized to describe the environmental setting of the LIRB. The LIRB is in the Till Plains Section of the Central Lowland physiographic province. The basin is characterized by flat topography, which is dissected by the Illinois River. The drainage pattern of the LIRB has been shaped by many bedrock and glacial geologic processes. Erosion prior to and during Pleistocene time created wide and deep bedrock valleys. The thickest deposits and most major aquifers are in buried bedrock valleys. The Wisconsinan glaciation, which bisects the northern half of the LIRB, affects the distribution and characteristics of glacial deposits in the basin. Agriculture is the largest land use and forested land is the second largest land use in the LIRB. The major urban areas are near Peoria, Springfield, Decatur, and Bloomington-Normal. Soil type and distribution affect the amount of soil erosion, which results in sedimentation of lakes and reservoirs in the basin. Rates of soil erosion of up to 2 percent per year of farmland soil have been measured. Many of the 300 reservoirs, lakes, and wetlands are disappearing because of sedimentation resulting from agriculture activities, levee building, and urbanization. Sedimentation and the destruction of habitat appreciably affect the ecosystem. The Illinois River is a large river-floodplain ecosystem where biological productivity is enhanced by annual flood pulses that advance and retreat over the flood plain and temporarily expand backwater and flood-plain lakes. Ground-water discharge to streams affects the flow and water quality of the streams. The water budget of several subbasins show variability in ground-water

  6. Integrated Environmental Quality Assessments of Surface Water around Obajana Cement Production Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.G. Ameh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to industrialization, there is enormous amount of heavy metals been released from anthropogenic sources into the environment. Heavy metals are considered as one of the main sources of environmental pollution since they have significant effect on the ecological quality and water in particular. These pollutants are hazardous to consumers of water that have significant quantity of these heavy metals. The population most exposed to cement polluted water includes workers in cement factories, families of workers living in Staff houses of factories like in Obajana and other neighborhood habitations. The Obajana cement factory consists of cement kilns/coolers with clinkers. The kilns are equipped with pre-heaters and Electro-Static Precipitators (ESP. The facility has raw mills, crushing operations, cement mills that are potential source of pollutants into the water bodies. Storage silos, conveyors, vehicular travel, and other unquantified fugitive source of water contamination exist in the factory. Monitoring the contamination of water with respect to heavy metals is of interest due to their influence on humans, animals and to some extent plants. A good approach to estimate how much of the water is impacted is by using the heavy metal pollution index and metal index for metal concentrations above the control points in water bodies around Obajana cement.

  7. Assessment of historical surface-water quality data in southwestern Colorado, 1990-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lisa D.; Schaffrath, Keelin R.; Linard, Joshua I.

    2013-01-01

    The spatial and temporal distribution of selected physical and chemical surface-water-quality characteristics were analyzed at stream sites throughout the Dolores and San Juan River Basins in southwestern Colorado using historical data collected from 1990 through 2005 by various local, State, Tribal, and Federal agencies. Overall, streams throughout the study area were well oxygenated. Values of pH generally were near neutral to slightly alkaline throughout most of the study area with the exception of the upper Animas River Basin near Silverton where acidic conditions existed at some sites because of hydrothermal alteration and(or) historical mining. The highest concentrations of dissolved aluminum, total recoverable iron, dissolved lead, and dissolved zinc were measured at sites located in the upper Animas River Basin. Thirty-two sites throughout the study area had at least one measured concentration of total mercury that exceeded the State chronic aquatic-life criterion of 0.01 μg/L. Concentrations of dissolved selenium at some sites exceeded the State chronic water-quality standard of 4.6 μg/L. Total ammonia, nitrate, nitrite, and total phosphorus concentrations generally were low throughout the study area. Overall, results from the trend analyses indicated improvement in water-quality conditions as a result of operation of the Paradox Valley Unit in the Dolores River Basin and irrigation and water-delivery system improvements made in the McElmo Creek Basin (Lower San Juan River Basin) and Mancos River Valley (Upper San Juan River Basin).

  8. Assessment of water quality and genotoxic impact by toxic metals in Geophagus brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Cássio Resende; Carvalho, Stephan Malfitano; Araujo, Galber Rodrigues; Souto, Henrique Nazareth; Bonetti, Ana Maria; Morelli, Sandra; Campos Júnior, Edimar Olegário

    2016-06-01

    This study used the pearl cichlid Geophagus brasiliensis as a bioindicator to survey the health of the aquatic environment on four sites (P1, P2, P3 and P4) of the Mumbuca stream located at Monte Carmelo/MG, Brazil. The selection of different sites was made with reference to the gradient of urban activity and via physicochemical and biological evaluation of water quality and genotoxicity. The water quality index was classified as 'good' for P1 and P4, regular in P2 and 'poor' for P3. The micronuclei (MN) frequency obtained from blood analysis was in agreement with the water quality, such that the higher values of MN were detected in sites evaluated as poor. Water degradation conditions worsen according to the flow of the stream over the sites P1, P2 and P3, but for site P4, located after the Monte Carmelo Sewage Treatment Plant, improvements in the micronuclei frequency are detected. Our results showed high levels of potentially toxic metals (chromium, lead, aluminum and nickel) in specific stream sites (P2 and P3). We suggest that the micronuclei induction in G. brasiliensis could be due to the presence of these compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Spatial assessment of water quality using chemometrics in the Pearl River Estuary, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meilin; Wang, Youshao; Dong, Junde; Sun, Fulin; Wang, Yutu; Hong, Yiguo

    2017-03-01

    A cruise was commissioned in the summer of 2009 to evaluate water quality in the Pearl River Estuary (PRE). Chemometrics such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Cluster analysis (CA) and Self-Organizing Map (SOM) were employed to identify anthropogenic and natural influences on estuary water quality. The scores of stations in the surface layer in the first principal component (PC1) were related to NH4-N, PO4-P, NO2-N, NO3-N, TP, and Chlorophyll a while salinity, turbidity, and SiO3-Si in the second principal component (PC2). Similarly, the scores of stations in the bottom layers in PC1 were related to PO4-P, NO2-N, NO3-N, and TP, while salinity, Chlorophyll a, NH4-N, and SiO3-Si in PC2. Results of the PCA identified the spatial distribution of the surface and bottom water quality, namely the Guangzhou urban reach, Middle reach, and Lower reach of the estuary. Both cluster analysis and PCA produced the similar results. Self-organizing map delineated the Guangzhou urban reach of the Pearl River that was mainly influenced by human activities. The middle and lower reaches of the PRE were mainly influenced by the waters in the South China Sea. The information extracted by PCA, CA, and SOM would be very useful to regional agencies in developing a strategy to carry out scientific plans for resource use based on marine system functions.

  10. Spatial assessment of water quality using chemometrics in the Pearl River Estuary, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meilin; Wang, Youshao; Dong, Junde; Sun, Fulin; Wang, Yutu; Hong, Yiguo

    2016-09-01

    A cruise was commissioned in the summer of 2009 to evaluate water quality in the Pearl River Estuary (PRE). Chemometrics such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Cluster analysis (CA) and Self-Organizing Map (SOM) were employed to identify anthropogenic and natural influences on estuary water quality. The scores of stations in the surface layer in the first principal component (PC1) were related to NH4-N, PO4-P, NO2-N, NO3-N, TP, and Chlorophyll a while salinity, turbidity, and SiO3-Si in the second principal component (PC2). Similarly, the scores of stations in the bottom layers in PC1 were related to PO4-P, NO2-N, NO3-N, and TP, while salinity, Chlorophyll a, NH4-N, and SiO3-Si in PC2. Results of the PCA identified the spatial distribution of the surface and bottom water quality, namely the Guangzhou urban reach, Middle reach, and Lower reach of the estuary. Both cluster analysis and PCA produced the similar results. Self-organizing map delineated the Guangzhou urban reach of the Pearl River that was mainly influenced by human activities. The middle and lower reaches of the PRE were mainly influenced by the waters in the South China Sea. The information extracted by PCA, CA, and SOM would be very useful to regional agencies in developing a strategy to carry out scientific plans for resource use based on marine system functions.

  11. Groundwater Quality Assessment in Jakarta Capital Region for the Safe Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadly, M.; Prayogi, T. E.; Mohamad, F.; Zulfaris, D. Y.; Memed, M. W.; Daryanto, A.; Abdillah, F.; Nasution, E. M.; Sudianto, J. R.; Giarto, B.; Maliki, F.

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to determine the quality of Jakarta Capital Region’s groundwater and its recommendation based on the standards set by the Indonesian government especially The Health Minister Decree No. 907 / Menkes / SK / VII / 2002 about The Drinking Water Monitoring. The study activity uses the data that carried out by Geological Agency, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Indonesia from March to April 2015. The methods used in this study are direct observation and hydrogeological measurement to measure physics and chemistry parameters. The results show that most places in the study area have the low quality of groundwater which is below the drinking water quality standards according to the government. However, at the unconfined aquifer (depth of 0-40 meters), the certain areas such as in the Kramat Jati, Halim Perdana Kusuma, Tongkol-Pademangan, and Duren sawit are still relatively safe for consumption as drinking water. In addition, the confined aquifer (depth> 40 meters) such as in the area of Cibubur, Pasar Rebo, and Jagakarsa are considered safe for consumption as drinking water. This study is expected to be used as a benchmark for researchers, especially academics in the region in order to maintain the sustainable groundwater resources in the area.

  12. Reconnaissance Assessment of the Potential for Roadside Dry Wells to Affect Water Quality on the Island of Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izuka, Scot K.; Senter, Craig A.; Johnson, Adam G.

    2009-01-01

    The County of Hawai'i Department of Public Works (DPW) uses dry wells to dispose of stormwater runoff from roads. Recently, concern has been raised that water entering the dry wells may transport contaminants to groundwater and affect the quality of receiving waters. The DPW operates 2,052 dry wells. Compiling an inventory of these dry wells and sorting it on the basis of presence or absence of urbanization in the drainage area, distance between the bottom of the dry well and the water table, and proximity to receiving waters helps identify the dry wells having greatest potential to affect the quality of receiving waters so that future studies or mitigation efforts can focus on a smaller number of dry wells. The drainage areas of some DPW dry wells encompass urbanized areas, which could be a source of contaminants. Some dry wells penetrate close to or through the water table, eliminating or substantially reducing opportunities for contaminant attenuation between the ground surface and water table. Dry wells that have drainage areas that encompass urbanization, penetrate to near the water table, and are near the coast have the highest potential to affect the quality of coastal waters (this study did not consider specific sections of coastline that may be of greater concern than others). Some DPW dry wells, including a few that have drainage areas that encompass urbanization, lie within the areas contributing recharge (ACR) to drinking-water wells. Numerical groundwater modeling studies by previous investigators indicate that water infiltrating those dry wells could eventually be pumped at drinking-water wells. Dry wells that have a high potential for affecting coastal receiving waters or drinking-water wells can be the focus of studies to further understand the effect of the dry wells on the quality of receiving waters. Possible study approaches include sampling for contaminants at the dry well and receiving water, injecting and monitoring the movement of tracers

  13. Assessment of Water Quality of Subarnarekha River in Balasore Region, Odisha, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A Karim

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to determine the water quality status of Subarnarekha River at Balasore region during pre-project period as Kirtania Port is proposed in this area. River water samples were analysed for physico-chemical parameters by following standard methods (APHA 1985 and the results showed their variations as follows: pH 7.3-7.8,Temperature 26.7-28.20C, Electrical Conductivity 392-514 µ mho ,Total suspended solids 118-148 mg/l, Total dissolved solids 241-285 mg/l, Alkalinity 27.3-42 mg/l, Total Hardness 64.63-114.06 mg/l, Calcium 24.6-32 mg/l, Magnesium 9.72-13.8 mg/l, Dissolved Oxygen 4.6-5.3 mg/l, Biochemical oxygen demand 1.1-3.39 mg/l, Chemical oxygen demand 53-147 mg/l, Nitrates 0.4-1.06 mg/l, Phosphates 0.86-2.4 mg/l, Sulphates 113-143 mg/l, Chlorides 26.32-36.63 mg/l, Iron 0.224-0.464 mg/l, Chromium 0.008-0.016 mg/l. The analysed physico-chemical parameters were almost not exceeded the maximum permissible limit of Indian standards (IS: 10500. After physico-chemical analysis, water quality index (WQI was established from twelve important various physiochemical parameters by following weighted arithmetic index method. The calculated water quality index indicates that the quality of water was good and hence fit for use.

  14. A comparative analysis of current microbial water quality risk assessment and management practices in British Columbia and Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Gemma; Harris, Leila; Cook, Christina; Prystajecky, Natalie

    2014-01-15

    Bacteria, protozoa and viruses are ubiquitous in aquatic environments and may pose threats to water quality for both human and ecosystem health. Microbial risk assessment and management in the water sector is a focus of governmental regulation and scientific inquiry; however, stark gaps remain in their application and interpretation. This paper evaluates how water managers practice microbial risk assessment and management in two Canadian provinces (BC and Ontario). We assess three types of entities engaged in water management along the source-to-tap spectrum (watershed agencies, water utilities, and public health authorities). We analyze and compare the approaches used by these agencies to assess and manage microbial risk (including scope, frequency, and tools). We evaluate key similarities and differences, and situate them with respect to international best practices derived from literatures related to microbial risk assessment and management. We find considerable variability in microbial risk assessment frameworks and management tools in that approaches 1) vary between provinces; 2) vary within provinces and between similar types of agencies; 3) have limited focus on microbial risk assessment for ecosystem health and 4) diverge considerably from the literature on best practices. We find that risk assessments that are formalized, routine and applied system-wide (i.e. from source-to-tap) are limited. We identify key limitations of current testing methodologies and looking forward consider the outcomes of this research within the context of new developments in microbial water quality monitoring such as tests derived from genomics and metagenomics based research. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessing the extent of altruism in the valuation of community drinking water quality improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Adamowicz, Wiktor; Dupont, Diane P.; Krupnick, Alan

    2013-10-01

    Improvements in publically provided goods and services, like community drinking water treatment, have values to people arising from their self-interest, but may as well have value from their altruistic concerns. The extent to which the value is altruistic versus self-interested is an important empirical issue for policy analysis because the benefits to improving drinking water quality may be larger than previously thought. We conducted an internet survey across Canada to identify both self-interested willingness-to-pay and altruistic willingness-to-pay obtained through hypothetical responses to a series of stated choice tasks and actual self-protection data against health risks from tap water. We use the information on self-protection to identify altruistic WTP. We find significant differences between self-interested and altruistic WTP: the latter can be three times greater than the former. Whether benefits of water protection are actually larger, however, depends on whether the altruism is paternalistic or nonpaternalistic.

  16. Fabrication of a Miniature Multi-Parameter Sensor Chip for Water Quality Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Water contamination is a main inducement of human diseases. It is an important step to monitor the water quality in the water distribution system. Due to the features of large size, high cost, and complicated structure of traditional water determination sensors and devices, it is difficult to realize real-time water monitoring on a large scale. In this paper, we present a multi-parameter sensor chip, which is miniature, low-cost, and robust, to detect the pH, conductivity, and temperature of water simultaneously. The sensor chip was fabricated using micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS techniques. Iridium oxide film was electrodeposited as the pH-sensing material. The atomic ratio of Ir(III to Ir(IV is about 1.38 according to the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS analysis. The pH sensing electrode showed super-Nernstian response (−67.60 mV/pH and good linearity (R2 = 0.9997, in the range of pH 2.22 to pH 11.81. KCl-agar and epoxy were used as the electrolyte layer and liquid junction for the solid-state reference electrode, respectively, and its potential stability in deionized water was 56 h. The conductivity cell exhibited a linear determination range from 21.43 μ S / cm to 1.99 mS / cm , and the electrode constant was 1.566 cm−1. Sensitivity of the temperature sensor was 5.46 Ω / ° C . The results indicate that the developed sensor chip has potential application in water quality measurements.

  17. Multiple biomarkers responses in Prochilodus lineatus allowed assessing changes in the water quality of Salado River basin (Santa Fe, Argentina)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazenave, Jimena, E-mail: jcazenave@inali.unl.edu.a [Laboratorio de Ictiologia, Instituto Nacional de Limnologia (INALI-CONICET-UNL), Paraje El Pozo, Ciudad Universitaria UNL, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina); Bacchetta, Carla; Parma, Maria J.; Scarabotti, Pablo A. [Laboratorio de Ictiologia, Instituto Nacional de Limnologia (INALI-CONICET-UNL), Paraje El Pozo, Ciudad Universitaria UNL, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina); Wunderlin, Daniel A. [Dto. Bioquimica Clinica-CIBICI-CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Haya de la Torre esq Medina Allende, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina)

    2009-11-15

    This field study assessed water quality of Salado River basin by using a set of biomarkers in the fish Prochilodus lineatus. Multiple biomarkers were measured, including morphological indexes (condition factor, liver somatic index), hematological (red and white blood cells) and biochemical (glucose, total protein and cholinesterase activity) parameters. Besides, detoxication and oxidative stress markers (antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation) were measured in liver, gills and kidney. Despite water quality assessment did not show marked differences among sites, biomarkers responses indicate that fish are living under stressful environmental conditions. According to multivariate analysis glucose, glutathione S-transferase activity, lipid peroxidation levels and the count of white blood cells are key biomarkers to contribute to discrimination of sites. So, we suggest use those biomarkers in future monitoring of freshwater aquatic systems. - A battery of biomarkers was successfully applied to assess the health of the fish Prochilodus lineatus from Salado River basin.

  18. High resolution stream water quality assessment in the Vancouver, British Columbia region: a citizen science study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shupe, Scott M

    2017-12-15

    Changing land cover and climate regimes modify water quantity and quality in natural stream systems. In regions undergoing rapid change, it is difficult to effectively monitor and quantify these impacts at local to regional scales. In Vancouver, British Columbia, one of the most rapidly urbanizing areas in Canada, 750 measurements were taken from a total of 81 unique sampling sites representing 49 streams located in urban, forest, and agricultural-dominant watersheds at a frequency of up to 12 times per year between 2013 and 2016. Dissolved nitrate (NO3-N) and phosphate (PO4-P) concentrations, turbidity, water temperature, pH and conductivity were measured by citizen scientists in addition to observations of hydrology, vegetation, land use, and visible stream impacts. Land cover was mapped at a 15-m resolution using Landsat 8 OLI imagery and used to determine dominant land cover for each watershed in which a sample was recorded. Regional, seasonal, and catchment-type trends in measurements were determined using statistical analyses. The relationships of nutrients to land cover varied seasonally and on a catchment-type basis. Nitrate showed seasonal highs in winter and lows in summer, though phosphate had less seasonal variation. Overall, nitrate concentrations were positively associated to agriculture and deciduous forest and negatively associated with coniferous forest. In contrast, phosphate concentrations were positively associated with agricultural, deciduous forest, and disturbed land cover and negatively associated with urban land cover. Both urban and agricultural land cover were significantly associated with an increase in water conductivity. Increased forest land cover was associated with better water quality, including lower turbidity, conductivity, and water temperature. This study showed the importance of high resolution sampling in understanding seasonal and spatial dynamics of stream water quality, made possible with the large number of measurements

  19. Surface-water-quality assessment of the Yakima River Basin in Washington: Overview of major findings, 1987-91

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morace, Jennifer L.; Fuhrer, Gregory J.; Rinella, Joseph F.; McKenzie, Stuart W.; Gannett, Marshall W.; Bramblett, Karen L.; Pogue, Ted R.; Skach, Kenneth A.; Embrey, Sandra S.; Cuffney, Thomas F.; Meador, Michael R.; Porter, Stephen D.; Gurtz, Martin E.

    1999-01-01

    Surface-water-quality conditions were assessed in the Yakima River Basin, which drains 6,155 square miles of mostly forested, range, and agricultural land in Washington. The Yakima River Basin is one of the most intensively farmed and irrigated areas in the United States, and is often referred to as the “Nation’s Fruitbowl.” Natural and anthropogenic sources of contaminants and flow regulation control water-quality conditions throughout the basin. This report summarizes the spatial and temporal distribution, sources, and implications of the dissolved oxygen, water temperature, pH, suspended sediment, nutrient, organic compound (pesticide), trace element, fecal indicator bacteria, radionuclide, and aquatic ecology data collected during the 1987–91 water years.

  20. Assessment of soil and ground water quality in Rewa district of Vindhyan Plateau (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, A P; Tripathi, I P; Kumar, M Suresh

    2013-01-01

    A systematic seasonal study has been carried out to assess the physico-chemical characteristics of ground water and soils in Rewa district of India. The drinking water in the study area is supplied mainly through Public Health Engineering (PHE) department from river (Bichhia, Bihar) and ground water. Water and soil samples were collected from different locations in the Rewa district, i.e. 10 hand pumps and 10 bore wells around all over the district. Regular monitoring was carried out during summer, rainy and winter seasons, to study the seasonal variation in physico-chemical parameters and metals concentration. The parameters like pH, turbidity, dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrate, nitrite, chloride, sulphate, phosphate and heavy metals were estimated for water and soil samples collected from the Rewa district. The results obtained are discussed, correlated with probable sources of contamination and suggested the measures to minimize the pollution.

  1. Assessment of the microbial quality of water offered to captive psittacine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Erika E; Netiffee-Osborne, Julie; Webb, Donna; Jay, Paula; Flammer, Keven

    2009-03-01

    To investigate potential water-source microbes, 44 samples of water offered to individually caged psittacine birds were aseptically collected from 14 bird-owning households and evaluated for the presence of coliforms, Escherichia coli, heterotrophic bacteria, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. No samples were positive for E. coli; however, 21 of 25 water samples (84%) from open containers and 7 of 19 samples (37%) from bottles exceeded US Environmental Protection Agency standards for coliforms. Fourteen of 24 open containers (58%) and 7 of 19 bottles (37%) grew heterotrophic bacteria that exceeded 500 colonies/ml. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from water samples from 1 open container and 1 bottle. These results suggest that potentially pathogenic bacteria can be found in water offered to companion psittacine birds. Additional studies are needed to assess whether these bacteria are clinically important causes of disease and to develop husbandry methods that will reduce contamination.

  2. Assessment of water quality in Asa River (Nigeria) and its indigenous Clarias gariepinus fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolawole, Olatunji M; Ajayi, Kolawole T; Olayemi, Albert B; Okoh, Anthony I

    2011-11-01

    Water is a valued natural resource for the existence of all living organisms. Management of the quality of this precious resource is, therefore, of special importance. In this study river water samples were collected and analysed for physicochemical and bacteriological evaluation of pollution in the Unity Road stream segment of Asa River in Ilorin, Nigeria. Juvenile samples of Clarias gariepinus fish were also collected from the experimental Asa River and from the control Asa Dam water and were analysed for comparative histological investigations and bacterial density in the liver and intestine in order to evaluate the impact of pollution on the aquatic biota. The water pH was found to range from 6.32 to 6.43 with a mean temperature range of 24.3 to 25.8 °C. Other physicochemical parameters monitored including total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand values exceeded the recommended level for surface water quality. Results of bacteriological analyses including total heterotrophic count, total coliform and thermotolerant coliform counts revealed a high level of faecal pollution of the river. Histological investigations revealed no significant alterations in tissue structure, but a notable comparative distinction of higher bacterial density in the intestine and liver tissues of Clarias gariepinus from Asa River than in those collected from the control. It was inferred that the downstream Asa River is polluted and its aquatic biota is bacteriologically contaminated and unsafe for human and animal consumption.

  3. The Southeast Stream Quality Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Journey, Celeste

    2014-01-01

    In 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) is assessing stream quality across the Piedmont and southern Appalachian Mountains in the southeastern United States. The goal of the Southeast Stream Quality Assessment (SESQA) is to characterize multiple water-quality factors that are stressors to aquatic life—contaminants, nutrients, sediment, and streamflow alteration—and the relation of these stressors to ecological conditions in streams throughout the region. Findings will provide communities and policymakers with information on which human and environmental factors are the most critical in controlling stream quality and, thus, provide insights about possible approaches to protect or improve stream quality. The SESQA study will be the second regional study by the NAWQA program, and it will be of similar design and scope as the Midwest Stream Quality Assessment conducted in 2013 (Van Metre and others, 2012).

  4. Assessment of shallow ground-water quality in recently urbanized areas of Sacramento, California, 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jennifer L.

    2005-01-01

    Evidence for anthropogenic impact on shallow ground-water quality beneath recently developed urban areas of Sacramento, California, has been observed in the sampling results from 19 monitoring wells in 1998. Eight volatile organic compounds (VOCs), four pesticides, and one pesticide transformation product were detected in low concentrations, and nitrate, as nitrogen, was detected in elevated concentrations; all of these concentrations were below National and State primary and secondary maximum contaminant levels. VOC results from this study are more consistent with the results from urban areas nationwide than from agricultural areas in the Central Valley, indicating that shallow ground-water quality has been impacted by urbanization. VOCs detected may be attributed to either the chlorination of drinking water, such as trichloromethane (chloroform) detected in 16 samples, or to the use of gasoline additives, such as methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), detected in 2 samples. Pesticides detected may be attributed to use on household lawns and gardens and rights-of-way, such as atrazine detected in three samples, or to past agricultural practices, and potentially to ground-water/surface-water interactions, such as bentazon detected in one sample from a well adjacent to the Sacramento River and downstream from where bentazon historically was used on rice. Concentrations of nitrate may be attributed to natural sources, animal waste, old septic tanks, and fertilizers used on lawns and gardens or previously used on agricultural crops. Seven sample concentrations of nitrate, as nitrogen, exceeded 3.0 milligrams per liter, a level that may indicate impact from human activities. Ground-water recharge from rainfall or surface-water runoff also may contribute to the concentrations of VOCs and pesticides observed in ground water. Most VOCs and pesticides detected in ground-water samples also were detected in air and surface-water samples collected at sites within or adjacent to the

  5. Major ion chemistry of the Son River, India: Weathering processes, dissolved fluxes and water quality assessment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chinmaya Maharana; Sandeep Kumar Gautam; Abhay Kumar Singh; Jayanth K Tripathi

    2015-08-01

    River Son, draining diverse lithologies in the subtropical climate of the peninsular sub-basin of the Ganga basin, is one of the major tributaries of the Ganga River. The chemistry of major ions in the surface water of the Son River was studied in detail to determine various source(s) and processes controlling its water chemistry, seasonal and spatial variations in water chemistry, dissolved fluxes and chemical denudation rate (CDR). The study shows that Ca2+, Mg2+ and HCO$^{-}_{3}$ are major ionic species in the river water. Most of the measured parameters exhibit a relatively lower concentration in the post-monsoon as compared to pre-monsoon season. The water chemistry highlights the influence of continental weathering aided by secondary contributions from ground water, saline/alkaline soils and anthropogenic activities in the catchment. Results also reflect the dominance of carbonate weathering over silicate weathering in controlling water composition. The Son River delivers about 4.2 million tons of dissolved loads annually to the Ganga River, which accounts for ∼6% of the total annual load carried by the Ganga River to the Bay of Bengal. The average CDR of the Son River is 59.5 tons km−2 yr−1, which is less than the reported 72 tons km−2 yr−1 of the Ganga River and higher than the global average of 36 tons km−2 yr−1. The water chemistry for the pre-monsoon and post-monsoon periods shows a strong seasonal control on solute flux and CDR values. The water chemistry indicates that the Son River water is good to excellent in quality for irrigation and also suitable for drinking purposes.

  6. Assessing the Impact of Maneuver Training on NPS Pollution and Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    and Development Program (SERDP). The publication of this report does not indicate endorsement by the Department of Defense, nor should the contents...NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...Pollution and Water Quality DACA 72-03-C-0014 SI-1339Steichen, James, M. Hutchinson, Stacy, L. Zhang, Naiqian. Hutchinson, J, M, Shawn. Oviatt, Charles

  7. Water quality assessment of river Beas, India, using multivariate and remote sensing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinod; Sharma, Anket; Chawla, Amit; Bhardwaj, Renu; Thukral, Ashwani Kumar

    2016-03-01

    River Beas originates in the Himalayas and merges into river Sutlej at Harike, a Ramsar wetland. This river is a habitat of the endangered freshwater dolphin, Platanista gangetica minor R. Twenty-five water quality parameters, including eight heavy metals, were studied at four sampling sites over a stretch of 63 km between Beas and Harike towns for pre-monsoon, post-monsoon and winter seasons. Principal component analysis of the data proved to be an effective tool for data reduction as the first three principal components of all the water quality parameters explained 100% variance. Factor analysis delineated three factors underlying the water quality. Factor 1 comprised pollution-related parameters like BOD, COD, DO, PO4(-3) and hardness. Factor 2 was a natural water quality determinant and explained maximum variance in turbidity, alkalinity and TDS. Factor 3 comprised NO3(-1), a fertilizer-related parameter. Reflectance values from bands 2 (green), 3 (red) and 4 (near infra-red) of Landsat (TM) digital data were regressed on PO4(-3), turbidity and TDS using multiple linear regression analysis. PO4(-3) contributed positively to the spectral radiance, whereas TDS contributed negatively. Beta regression analysis revealed that PO4(-3) had a positive relation with BOD, whereas turbidity and TDS were negatively regressed with BOD. Artificial neural network models were fitted to the data. Correlations between the target values from ANN for turbidity, BOD and bands 2 (green), 3 (red) and 4 (near infra-red) were highly significant.

  8. QMRAcatch: Microbial Quality Simulation of Water Resources including Infection Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schijven, Jack; Derx, Julia; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria; Blaschke, Alfred Paul; Farnleitner, Andreas H

    2015-09-01

    Given the complex hydrologic dynamics of water catchments and conflicts between nature protection and public water supply, models may help to understand catchment dynamics and evaluate contamination scenarios and may support best environmental practices and water safety management. A catchment model can be an educative tool for investigating water quality and for communication between parties with different interests in the catchment. This article introduces an interactive computational tool, QMRAcatch, that was developed to simulate concentrations in water resources of , a human-associated microbial source tracking (MST) marker, enterovirus, norovirus, , and as target microorganisms and viruses (TMVs). The model domain encompasses a main river with wastewater discharges and a floodplain with a floodplain river. Diffuse agricultural sources of TMVs that discharge into the main river are not included in this stage of development. The floodplain river is fed by the main river and may flood the plain. Discharged TMVs in the river are subject to dilution and temperature-dependent degradation. River travel times are calculated using the Manning-Gauckler-Strickler formula. Fecal deposits from wildlife, birds, and visitors in the floodplain are resuspended in flood water, runoff to the floodplain river, or infiltrate groundwater. Fecal indicator and MST marker data facilitate calibration. Infection risks from exposure to the pathogenic TMVs by swimming or drinking water consumption are calculated, and the required pathogen removal by treatment to meet a health-based quality target can be determined. Applicability of QMRAcatch is demonstrated by calibrating the tool for a study site at the River Danube near Vienna, Austria, using field TMV data, including a sensitivity analysis and evaluation of the model outcomes. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  9. QMRAcatch: Microbial Quality Simulation of Water Resources including Infection Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schijven, Jack; Derx, Julia; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria; Blaschke, Alfred Paul; Farnleitner, Andreas H.

    2016-01-01

    Given the complex hydrologic dynamics of water catchments and conflicts between nature protection and public water supply, models may help to understand catchment dynamics and evaluate contamination scenarios and may support best environmental practices and water safety management. A catchment model can be an educative tool for investigating water quality and for communication between parties with different interests in the catchment. This article introduces an interactive computational tool, QMRAcatch, that was developed to simulate concentrations in water resources of Escherichia coli, a human-associated Bacteroidetes microbial source tracking (MST) marker, enterovirus, norovirus, Campylobacter, and Cryptosporidium as target microorganisms and viruses (TMVs). The model domain encompasses a main river with wastewater discharges and a floodplain with a floodplain river. Diffuse agricultural sources of TMVs that discharge into the main river are not included in this stage of development. The floodplain river is fed by the main river and may flood the plain. Discharged TMVs in the river are subject to dilution and temperature-dependent degradation. River travel times are calculated using the Manning–Gauckler–Strickler formula. Fecal deposits from wildlife, birds, and visitors in the floodplain are resuspended in flood water, runoff to the floodplain river, or infiltrate groundwater. Fecal indicator and MST marker data facilitate calibration. Infection risks from exposure to the pathogenic TMVs by swimming or drinking water consumption are calculated, and the required pathogen removal by treatment to meet a health-based quality target can be determined. Applicability of QMRAcatch is demonstrated by calibrating the tool for a study site at the River Danube near Vienna, Austria, using field TMV data, including a sensitivity analysis and evaluation of the model outcomes. PMID:26436266

  10. Development and assessment of an integrated ecological modelling framework to assess the effect of investments in wastewater treatment on water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holguin-Gonzalez, Javier E; Boets, Pieter; Everaert, Gert; Pauwels, Ine S; Lock, Koen; Gobeyn, Sacha; Benedetti, Lorenzo; Amerlinck, Youri; Nopens, Ingmar; Goethals, Peter L M

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, large investments in wastewater treatment are made to improve water quality. However, the impacts of these investments on river water quality are often not quantified. To assess water quality, the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires an integrated approach. The aim of this study was to develop an integrated ecological modelling framework for the River Drava (Croatia) that includes physical-chemical and hydromorphological characteristics as well as the ecological river water quality status. The developed submodels and the integrated model showed accurate predictions when comparing the modelled results to the observations. Dissolved oxygen and nitrogen concentrations (ammonium and organic nitrogen) were the most important variables in determining the ecological water quality (EWQ). The result of three potential investment scenarios of the wastewater treatment infrastructure in the city of Varaždin on the EWQ of the River Drava was assessed. From this scenario-based analysis, it was concluded that upgrading the existing wastewater treatment plant with nitrogen and phosphorus removal will be insufficient to reach a good EWQ. Therefore, other point and diffuse pollution sources in the area should also be monitored and remediated to meet the European WFD standards.

  11. GIS-based models for water quantity and quality assessment in the Júcar River Basin, Spain, including climate change effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Javier; Pérez-Martín, Miguel A; Jiménez, Sara; Estrela, Teodoro; Andreu, Joaquín

    2012-12-01

    This paper describes two different GIS models - one stationary (GeoImpress) and the other non-stationary (Patrical) - that assess water quantity and quality in the Júcar River Basin District, a large river basin district (43,000km(2)) located in Spain. It aims to analyze the status of surface water (SW) and groundwater (GW) bodies in relation to the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) and to support measures to achieve the WFD objectives. The non-stationary model is used for quantitative analysis of water resources, including long-term water resource assessment; estimation of available GW resources; and evaluation of climate change impact on water resources. The main results obtained are the following: recent water resources have been reduced by approximately 18% compared to the reference period 1961-1990; the GW environmental volume required to accomplish the WFD objectives is approximately 30% of the GW annual resources; and the climate change impact on water resources for the short-term (2010-2040), based on a dynamic downscaling A1B scenario, implies a reduction in water resources by approximately 19% compared to 1990-2000 and a reduction of approximately 40-50% for the long-term (2070-2100), based on dynamic downscaling A2 and B2 scenarios. The model also assesses the impact of various fertilizer application scenarios on the status of future GW quality (nitrate) and if these future statuses will meet the WFD requirements. The stationary model generates data on the actual and future chemical status of SW bodies in the river basin according to the modeled scenarios and reflects the implementation of different types of measures to accomplish the Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive and the WFD. Finally, the selection and prioritization of additional measures to accomplish the WFD are based on cost-effectiveness analysis.

  12. Methods to characterize environmental settings of stream and groundwater sampling sites for National Water-Quality Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagaki, Naomi; Hitt, Kerie J.; Price, Curtis V.; Falcone, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Characterization of natural and anthropogenic features that define the environmental settings of sampling sites for streams and groundwater, including drainage basins and groundwater study areas, is an essential component of water-quality and ecological investigations being conducted as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment program. Quantitative characterization of environmental settings, combined with physical, chemical, and biological data collected at sampling sites, contributes to understanding the status of, and influences on, water-quality and ecological conditions. To support studies for the National Water-Quality Assessment program, a geographic information system (GIS) was used to develop a standard set of methods to consistently characterize the sites, drainage basins, and groundwater study areas across the nation. This report describes three methods used for characterization-simple overlay, area-weighted areal interpolation, and land-cover-weighted areal interpolation-and their appropriate applications to geographic analyses that have different objectives and data constraints. In addition, this document records the GIS thematic datasets that are used for the Program's national design and data analyses.

  13. Assessing mariculture water quality with the structural and functional characteristics of a ciliate community

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jiqiu; XU Henglong; LIN Xiaofeng; AL-RASHEID Khaled A.S.

    2011-01-01

    Ciliated protozoa play important roles in micro-ecosystems, especially in marine biotopes. However, few studies have been carried out on the periphytic, or aufwuch, forms in mariculture waters so far. In this study, we sampled periphytic ciliate communities in two closed mariculture ponds (ponds CP1 and CP2) and a natural seawater reservoir (pond RP) using a glass slide method to evaluate their colonizing processes and general ecological features, as well as their application as water quality indicators. We analyzed species compositions, structural parameters (species number, richness, diversity, evenness, abundance and dBP) and functional parameters (G, Seq, and T90%). Pond RP was characterized by higher levels of structural parameters (except for abundance and dBp) and more equal proportion of the major taxonomic groups. The values of 5eq were significantly higher in pond RP and similar in both pond CP1 and CP2. It was also demonstrated that environmental factors, including NO2-H, NO3-H, NH3-H, soluble reactive phosphate, temperature and pH, were the first principal factors affecting the communities. Among them, temperature and chemical factors were all significantly and negatively correlated with species number (P<0.01), richness (P<0.01), diversity (P<0.01), and positive correlated with abundance (P<0.01). Opposite correlations between pH and structural parameters were observed. This study showed that there were significant differences in species composition, structural parameters and functional parameters of the periphytic ciliate communities among the ponds, which were in agreement with the water quality. Results of this study confirmed the periphytic ciliate communities to be useful bioindicators of water quality in intensive mariculture waters.

  14. Water Quality Protection Charges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — The Water Quality Protection Charge (WQPC) is a line item on your property tax bill. WQPC funds many of the County's clean water initiatives including: • Restoration...

  15. Assessment of the effect of water quality on copper toxicity in Hyalella azteca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, L. [Univ. of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario (Canada); Walsh, S.; Shultz, C.; Stuart, M. [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-06-15

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that when standard artificial media 5-salt culture water (SAM-5S) is used to test sediment toxicity of much lower ionic-strength aquatic ecosystems, the resulting toxicity estimates are lower than if the tests had been conducted in water of comparable ionic strength. Results showed that this concern was unfounded for testing of copper toxicity to Hyalella azteca (H. azteca) in Ottawa River water. Sediment testing is often conducted using a standard water that is prepared in the laboratory. However, this water may have an ionic strength that is different than local water bodies. It follows that laboratory results using the standard water may be unrepresentative. A study was undertaken to assess the copper tolerance of 2 strains of H. azteca in SAM-5S, diluted SAM-5S (similar in electrical conductivity to Ottawa River water), and Ottawa River water. Acute (96 h) copper toxicity tests were conducted with 9-16 day-old H. azteca. For a given water type, the 2 strains of H. azteca yielded comparable responses to copper. The highest copper tolerance was found in Ottawa River water (closely followed by SAM-5S), whereas the lowest copper tolerance was found in diluted SAM-5S. Our results suggest that sediment toxicity is not lowered by the higher ionic strength of SAM-5S and that sediment toxicity tests of Ottawa River sediments, conducted with SAM-5S, can be used to estimate the in situ toxicity of the sediments. (author)

  16. Does the bathing water classification depend on sampling strategy? A bootstrap approach for bathing water quality assessment, according to Directive 2006/7/EC requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Iago; Alvarez, César; Gil, José L; Revilla, José A

    2012-11-30

    Data on the 95th and 90th percentiles of bacteriological quality indicators are used to classify bathing waters in Europe, according to the requirements of Directive 2006/7/EC. However, percentile values and consequently, classification of bathing waters depend both on sampling effort and sample-size, which may undermine an appropriate assessment of bathing water classification. To analyse the influence of sampling effort and sample size on water classification, a bootstrap approach was applied to 55 bacteriological quality datasets of several beaches in the Balearic Islands (Spain). Our results show that the probability of failing the regulatory standards of the Directive is high when sample size is low, due to a higher variability in percentile values. In this way, 49% of the bathing waters reaching an "Excellent" classification (95th percentile of Escherichia coli under 250 cfu/100 ml) can fail the "Excellent" regulatory standard due to sampling strategy, when 23 samples per season are considered. This percentage increases to 81% when 4 samples per season are considered. "Good" regulatory standards can also be failed in bathing waters with an "Excellent" classification as a result of these sampling strategies. The variability in percentile values may affect bathing water classification and is critical for the appropriate design and implementation of bathing water Quality Monitoring and Assessment Programs. Hence, variability of percentile values should be taken into account by authorities if an adequate management of these areas is to be achieved. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessing mariculture water quality with the structural and functional characteristics of a ciliate community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiqiu; Xu, Henglong; Lin, Xiaofeng; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A. S.

    2011-01-01

    Ciliated protozoa play important roles in micro-ecosystems, especially in marine biotopes. However, few studies have been carried out on the periphytic, or aufwuch, forms in mariculture waters so far. In this study, we sampled periphytic ciliate communities in two closed mariculture ponds (ponds CP1 and CP2) and a natural seawater reservoir (pond RP) using a glass slide method to evaluate their colonizing processes and general ecological features, as well as their application as water quality indicators. We analyzed species compositions, structural parameters (species number, richness, diversity, evenness, abundance and d BP) and functional parameters ( G, S eq and T 90%). Pond RP was characterized by higher levels of structural parameters (except for abundance and d BP) and more equal proportion of the major taxonomic groups. The values of S eq were significantly higher in pond RP and similar in both pond CP1 and CP2. It was also demonstrated that environmental factors, including NO2-H, NO3-H, NH3-H, soluble reactive phosphate, temperature and pH, were the first principal factors affecting the communities. Among them, temperature and chemical factors were all significantly and negatively correlated with species number ( Pquality. Results of this study confirmed the periphytic ciliate communities to be useful bioindicators of water quality in intensive mariculture waters.

  18. Integrated impact assessment of climate change, land use, and adaptation policies on water quality in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautvetter, Helen; Schoenhart, Martin; Parajaka, Juraj; Schmid, Erwin; Zessner, Matthias

    2017-04-01

    Climate change is one of the major challenges of our time and adds considerable stress to the human society and environment. A change in climate will not only shift general weather patterns, but might also increase the recurrence of extreme weather events such as drought and heavy rainfall. These changes in climatic conditions will affect the quality and quantity of water resources both directly as well as indirectly through autonomous adaptation by farmers (e.g. cultivar choices, fertilization intensity or soil management). This will influence the compliance with the good ecological and chemical status according to the EU Water Framework Directive. We present results from an integrated impact modelling framework (IIMF) to tackle those direct and indirect impacts and analyze policy options for planned adaptation in agricultural land use and sustainable management of land and water resources until 2040. The IIMF is the result of an interdisciplinary collaboration among economists, agronomists, and hydrologists. It consists of the bio-physical process model EPIC, the regional land use optimization model PASMA[grid], the quantitative precipitation/runoff TUWmodel and the surface water emission model MONERIS. Scenarios have been developed and parameterized in collaboration with stakeholders in order to facilitate multi-actor knowledge transfer. The set of climate change scenarios until 2040 includes three scenarios with equal temperature changes but varying precipitation patterns. They are combined with potential socio-economic and policy development. The latter include water protection measures on fertilization management, soil management, or crop rotation choices. We will presented the development of interfaces among the research, the definition of scenarios and major scenario results for Austria. We will focus on nutrient emissions to surface waters, which are the major link between the different models. The results, available at watershed level indicate the

  19. Using integrated multivariate statistics to assess the hydrochemistry of surface water quality, Lake Taihu basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyu Mu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Natural factors and anthropogenic activities both contribute dissolved chemical loads to  lakes and streams.  Mineral solubility,  geomorphology of the drainage basin, source strengths and climate all contribute to concentrations and their variability. Urbanization and agriculture waste-water particularly lead to aquatic environmental degradation. Major contaminant sources and controls on water quality can be asssessed by analyzing the variability in proportions of major and minor solutes in water coupled to mutivariate statistical methods.   The demand for freshwater needed for increasing crop production puulation and industrialization occurs almost everywhere in in China and these conflicting needs have led to widespread water contamination. Because of heavy nutrient loadings from all of these sources, Lake Taihu (eastern China notably suffers periodic hyper-eutrophication and drinking water deterioration, which has led to shortages of freshwater for the City of Wuxi and other nearby cities. This lake, the third largest freshwater body in China, has historically beeen considered a cultural treasure of China, and has supported long-term fisheries. The is increasing pressure to remediate the present contamination which compromises both aquiculture and the prior economic base centered on tourism.  However, remediation cannot be effectively done without first characterizing the broad nature of the non-point source pollution. To this end, we investigated the hydrochemical setting of Lake Taihu to determine how different land use types influence the variability of surface water chemistry in different water sources to the lake. We found that waters broadly show wide variability ranging from  calcium-magnesium-bicarbonate hydrochemical facies type to mixed sodium-sulfate-chloride type. Principal components analysis produced three principal components that explained 78% of the variance in the water quality and reflect three major types of water

  20. Integrated hydrochemical method of water quality assessment for irrigation in arid areas: application to the Jilh aquifer, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bassam, Abdulaziz M.; Al-Rumikhani, Yousef A.

    2003-05-01

    Water samples from 72 wells tapping the Jilh aquifer were collected and analyzed for 10 different water quality parameters. Using these data, a regional irrigation water quality was assessed using three techniques: (i) United States Department of Agriculture method (USDA), (ii) Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) guidelines for water quality assessment, and (iii) Water-Types approach. The USDA method revealed that the aquifer water salinity, as represented by electrical conductivity, ECw, ranges from high salinity (C3: ECw > 0.75-2.25 dS/m) to a very high salinity (C4: ECw > 2.25 dS/m). The sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) varied from low (S1) to very high (S4) sodicity. Therefore, the water of the Jilh aquifer is dominantly of the C4-S2 class representing 56% of the total wells followed by C4-S1, C4-S3, C3-S1 and C4-S4 classes at 19%, 14%, 8%, and 3% of the wells respectively. The FAO system indicated moderate to severe restriction on the use for irrigation and slight to moderate ion toxicities for Na+, Cl-, B+, NO3- and HCO3-. It is clear that, both USDA and FAO systems condemn the Jilh groundwater as hazardous for irrigation due to its high salt content, unless certain measures for salinity control are undertaken. The dominant salt constituents in the water are Mg-Cl2, Na-Cl and Ca-Cl2 as per the Water-Types method. However, due to the complexity in classifying the aquifer groundwater for irrigation, a simplified approach acknowledging three class groups (I-suitable water, II-conditionally suitable water and III-unsuitable water) adopted from the three methods, is suggested in this paper. The simplified approach combines C-S classes of the USDA method among these three groups according to the lowest ratings. The salinity of the FAO method has been split arbitrarily into slight and moderate subclasses with values of 0.7-2.25 and >2.25 dS/m, respectively; to match with the C3-class of the USDA system. The Water-Types were classified assuming that Ca-Cl2 is the

  1. Assessing the Effects of Corn-Based Ethanol Production on Stream Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, R. B.; Smith, R. A.; Schwarz, G. E.

    2007-12-01

    Corn grain-based ethanol production nearly doubled over the past five years in response to energy security concerns and the use of ethanol as a gasoline additive. Corn prices show similar increases with much of the rise occurring in more recent years. Farmers responded by planting 93 million acres of corn in 2007, a 19 percent increase over 2006, with most of the new acreage converted from lands in soybeans and cotton. The projected doubling of corn-based ethanol production by 2016 is expected to exert a continued demand for increased corn acreage and production. Both the recent and projected increases in corn production have raised concerns about the degradation of stream water quality; these include the water-quality effects of possible conversions of Conservation Reserve Program lands of which 16 million enrolled acres are slated to expire in 2007. However, no studies of the potential water-quality impacts have been conducted to date. Corn-based agriculture is currently recognized as a major source of nitrogen to Midwestern streams and the northern Gulf of Mexico where increased nitrogen has contributed to coastal eutrophication over the last several decades. Phosphorus from agricultural sources, including corn-based crops, is also known to impair the quality of inland streams and rivers. We use the spatially explicit water-quality model SPARROW (Spatially Referenced Regression on Watershed Attributes) to simulate the potential effects of recent and projected ethanol-related corn production on stream nutrient loads and coastal nutrient delivery. We simulate mean-annual total nitrogen and phosphorus loads in major streams of the conterminous United States, based on the use of a previously estimated national model. The model accounts for major sources and inputs of nutrients to watersheds (e.g., agricultural, atmospheric deposition, human wastes); these are mediated in the model by the effects of climate, topography, soils, and aquatic attenuation processes on

  2. Using the soil and water assessment tool to estimate achievable water quality targets through implementation of beneficial management practices in an agricultural watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qi; Benoy, Glenn A; Chow, Thien Lien; Daigle, Jean-Louis; Bourque, Charles P-A; Meng, Fan-Rui

    2012-01-01

    Runoff from crop production in agricultural watersheds can cause widespread soil loss and degradation of surface water quality. Beneficial management practices (BMPs) for soil conservation are often implemented as remedial measures because BMPs can reduce soil erosion and improve water quality. However, the efficacy of BMPs may be unknown because it can be affected by many factors, such as farming practices, land-use, soil type, topography, and climatic conditions. As such, it is difficult to estimate the impacts of BMPs on water quality through field experiments alone. In this research, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool was used to estimate achievable performance targets of water quality indicators (sediment and soluble P loadings) after implementation of combinations of selected BMPs in the Black Brook Watershed in northwestern New Brunswick, Canada. Four commonly used BMPs (flow diversion terraces [FDTs], fertilizer reductions, tillage methods, and crop rotations), were considered individually and in different combinations. At the watershed level, the best achievable sediment loading was 1.9 t ha(-1) yr(-1) (89% reduction compared with default scenario), with a BMP combination of crop rotation, FDT, and no-till. The best achievable soluble P loading was 0.5 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) (62% reduction), with a BMP combination of crop rotation and FDT and fertilizer reduction. Targets estimated through nonpoint source water quality modeling can be used to evaluate BMP implementation initiatives and provide milestones for the rehabilitation of streams and rivers in agricultural regions.

  3. Multiple biomarkers responses in Prochilodus lineatus allowed assessing changes in the water quality of Salado River basin (Santa Fe, Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazenave, Jimena; Bacchetta, Carla; Parma, María J; Scarabotti, Pablo A; Wunderlin, Daniel A

    2009-11-01

    This field study assessed water quality of Salado River basin by using a set of biomarkers in the fish Prochilodus lineatus. Multiple biomarkers were measured, including morphological indexes (condition factor, liver somatic index), hematological (red and white blood cells) and biochemical (glucose, total protein and cholinesterase activity) parameters. Besides, detoxication and oxidative stress markers (antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation) were measured in liver, gills and kidney. Despite water quality assessment did not show marked differences among sites, biomarkers responses indicate that fish are living under stressful environmental conditions. According to multivariate analysis glucose, glutathione S-transferase activity, lipid peroxidation levels and the count of white blood cells are key biomarkers to contribute to discrimination of sites. So, we suggest use those biomarkers in future monitoring of freshwater aquatic systems.

  4. Assessment of pond water quality of Thakurgaon sadar upazila for fish production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Islam

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available During dry season, physico-chemical properties of waters from 30 ponds of Thakugaon Sadar Upazila, Thakurgaon, Bangladesh were analyzed for its quality and suitability for aquaculture. The variation in the physico-chemical parameters of the aquaculture ponds above or below standard values has potential effects on the health and productivity of aquaculture. Overall, we found that the pond water were acidic to neutral in nature (pH varied from 6.0 to 7.2 and could be suitable for aquaculture. The dissolved oxygen (DO concentration was suitable for fish production but more DO level should be present for all aquatic life especially for fish production. Chemical oxygen demands (COD of all pond waters were within the permissible limits for fish production. The temperature values were remained within the standard values in all the aquaculture ponds. Pond water samples contained Ca2+, Mg2+ and Na+ as the dominant cations and HCO3- and Cl- were the dominant anions. All samples were within ‘soft’ class regarding hardness. Based on Zn2+, Mn2+, Fe3+, SO42-, NO3- and Cl- all pond water samples were within the ‘safe’ limit for fish production during dry period.

  5. Assessment of impacts of agricultural and climate change scenarios on watershed water quantity and quality, and crop production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshager, Awoke D.; Gassman, Philip W.; Schoof, Justin T.; Secchi, Silvia

    2016-08-01

    Modeling impacts of agricultural scenarios and climate change on surface water quantity and quality provides useful information for planning effective water, environmental and land use policies. Despite the significant impacts of agriculture on water quantity and quality, limited literature exists that describes the combined impacts of agricultural land use change and climate change on future bioenergy crop yields and watershed hydrology. In this study, the soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) eco-hydrological model was used to model the combined impacts of five agricultural land use change scenarios and three downscaled climate pathways (representative concentration pathways, RCPs) that were created from an ensemble of eight atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs). These scenarios were implemented in a well-calibrated SWAT model for the intensively farmed and tiled Raccoon River watershed (RRW) located in western Iowa. The scenarios were executed for the historical baseline, early century, mid-century and late century periods. The results indicate that historical and more corn intensive agricultural scenarios with higher CO2 emissions consistently result in more water in the streams and greater water quality problems, especially late in the 21st century. Planting more switchgrass, on the other hand, results in less water in the streams and water quality improvements relative to the baseline. For all given agricultural landscapes simulated, all flow, sediment and nutrient outputs increase from early-to-late century periods for the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 climate scenarios. We also find that corn and switchgrass yields are negatively impacted under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios in the mid- and late 21st century.

  6. Quality of volatile organic compound data from groundwater and surface water for the National Water-Quality Assessment Program, October 1996–December 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, David A.; Zogorski, John S.; Mueller, David K.; Rose, Donna L.; Martin, Jeffrey D.; Brenner, Cassandra K.

    2011-01-01

    This report describes the quality of volatile organic compound (VOC) data collected from October 1996 to December 2008 from groundwater and surface-water sites for the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. The VOC data described were collected for three NAWQA site types: (1) domestic and public-supply wells, (2) monitoring wells, and (3) surface-water sites. Contamination bias, based on the 90-percent upper confidence limit (UCL) for the 90th percentile of concentrations in field blanks, was determined for VOC samples from the three site types. A way to express this bias is that there is 90-percent confidence that this amount of contamination would be exceeded in no more than 10 percent of all samples (including environmental samples) that were collected, processed, shipped, and analyzed in the same manner as the blank samples. This report also describes how important native water rinsing may be in decreasing carryover contamination, which could be affecting field blanks. The VOCs can be classified into four contamination categories on the basis of the 90-percent upper confidence limit (90-percent UCL) concentration distribution in field blanks. Contamination category 1 includes compounds that were not detected in any field blanks. Contamination category 2 includes VOCs that have a 90-percent UCL concentration distribution in field blanks that is about an order of magnitude lower than the concentration distribution of the environmental samples. Contamination category 3 includes VOCs that have a 90-percent UCL concentration distribution in field blanks that is within an order of magnitude of the distribution in environmental samples. Contamination category 4 includes VOCs that have a 90-percent UCL concentration distribution in field blanks that is at least an order of magnitude larger than the concentration distribution of the environmental samples. Fifty-four of the 87 VOCs analyzed in samples from domestic and public

  7. Assessment of Water Quality of Lakes for Drinking and Irrigation Purposes in Raipur City, Chhattisgarh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumant Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Lake water is an important source for drinking, domestic and irrigation purposes in rural and urban India. The present study aims at evaluating the water quality of various lakes in Raipur city, Chhatisgarh. There existed 154 lakes in the city but it shrinked to 85 in number due to encroachment or drying up of lakes. Twenty seven prominent lakes are selected to study and evaluate the water quality for drinking and irrigation purposes. The water samples were collected and analysed for pH, Turbidity, Electrical Conductivity (EC, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS, Alkalinity, Hardness, Sodium(Na+ , Potassium(K+ , Calcium(Ca2+ , Magnesium(Mg2+ , Bicarbonate(HCO3- , Sulphate (SO4 2- , Nitrate (NO3 − ,Phosphate(PO4 3- Fluoride(F- , Chloride (Cl− , Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD, Dissolved Oxygen (DO, Total Coliform (TC and Fecal Coliform (FC. There are variations for pH (6.59-8.29, EC (382-2330μS/cm, Turbidity (1-232 NTU, TDS (244-1491 mg/L, Alkalinity (120-600 mg/L, Hardness (66-330mg/L, Na+ (37-430 mg/L, K+ (8- 253 mg/L, Ca2+ (9-90 mg/L, Mg2+ (3-26 mg/L, SO4 2- (5-200 mg/L, NO3 - (0-19 mg/L, PO4 3- (0.19-5.3 mg/L, F -( 0.18-1.41 mg/L and Cl- (46-388 mg/L, DO(1-8.6 mg/L, BOD (0.1-11.3 mg/L, COD (8-118 mg/L, Total Coliform( 15-3600 MPN/100ml and Fecal Coliform (4-240 MPN/100 ml. The results have been compared with the drinking water standard prescribed by Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS. All the physiochemical parameters are within the prescribed limit except turbidity, fecal & total coliform. The Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR and salinity hazards are studied to classify the water for irrigation uses. It is found that lake water is suitable for irrigation purposes.

  8. Quality Assessment of Waste Waters Generated by some Important Hospitals from Cluj County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ocsana Ileana Opriş

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hospitals produce large quantities of waste water that may contain various potentially hazardous materials. Moreover, these effluents usually do not undergo any specific treatment before being discharged into the urban sewage networks. As a consequence, a proper management of hospital effluents is vital. In the present study, the quality of the effluents generated by 11 important hospitals in Cluj County was investigated. The analysed parameters were: pH, chemical and biochemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids, residual free chlorine, and detergents. For all the effluents, the biochemical oxygen demand and the detergents content were within the permissible limits for waste water discharged in the urban sewerage system, while the other parameters exceeded the permissible limits.

  9. Assessing Ecological Impacts of Shrimp and Sewage Effluent: Biological Indicators with Standard Water Quality Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. B.; O'Donohue, M. J.; Udy, J.; Dennison, W. C.

    2001-01-01

    Despite evidence linking shrimp farming to several cases of environmental degradation, there remains a lack of ecologically meaningful information about the impacts of effluent on receiving waters. The aim of this study was to determine the biological impact of shrimp farm effluent, and to compare and distinguish its impacts from treated sewage effluent. Analyses included standard water quality/sediment parameters, as well as biological indicators including tissue nitrogen (N) content, stable isotope ratio of nitrogen (δ 15N), and amino acid composition of inhabitant seagrasses, mangroves and macroalgae. The study area consisted of two tidal creeks, one receiving effluent from a sewage treatment plant and the other from an intensive shrimp farm. The creeks discharged into the western side of Moreton Bay, a sub-tropical coastal embayment on the east coast of Australia. Characterization of water quality revealed significant differences between the creeks, and with unimpacted eastern Moreton Bay. The sewage creek had higher concentrations of dissolved nutrients (predominantly NO-3/NO-2 and PO3-4, compared to NH+4 in the shrimp creek). In contrast, the shrimp creek was more turbid and had higher phytoplankton productivity. Beyond 750 m from the creek mouths, water quality parameters were indistinguishable from eastern Moreton Bay values. Biological indicators detected significant impacts up to 4 km beyond the creek mouths (reference site). Elevated plant δ 15N values ranged from 10·4-19·6‰ at the site of sewage discharge to 2·9-4·5‰ at the reference site. The free amino acid concentration and composition of seagrass and macroalgae was used to distinguish between the uptake of sewage and shrimp derived N. Proline (seagrass) and serine (macroalgae) were high in sewage impacted plants and glutamine (seagrass) and alanine (macroalgae) were high in plants impacted by shrimp effluent. The δ 15N isotopic signatures and free amino acid composition of inhabitant

  10. Evaluation and assessment of water quality in Likangala River and its catchment area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidya, R. C. G.; Sajidu, S. M. I.; Mwatseteza, J. F.; Masamba, W. R. L.

    Likangala is one of the perennial rivers in Malawi that flow into a closed Lake Chilwa, a designated wetland ratified by Ramsar Convention in 1997. Earlier work conducted on this river revealed considerable social-economic activities at riverbanks resulting in indiscriminate disposal of wastes. This study intended to evaluate water quality in Likangala River and its catchment area. Water samples were collected thrice (dry, early rainy and mid rainy seasons) and tested for major physico-chemical and microbiological parameters. The EC, pH, and selected ions ( NO3-, PO43-, Na +, K +, Mg 2+, and Ca 2+) were analysed in soil samples obtained in crop fields along the river banks. Elevated EC levels (>1035.00 μS/cm) were measured during mid rainy season at site S15 (Zomba Sewage Works), near and in the lake. Most of the water samples (86%, n = 28) registered phosphate levels above 1.50 mg/L during mid rainy season with a maximum value (10.70 ± 0.01 mg/L) at site S15. Lower amounts (control of water, land use and waste management in order to prevent escalation of the effects.

  11. Linking water quality and quantity in environmental flow assessment in deteriorated ecosystems: a food web view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, He; Ma, Lekuan; Guo, Wei; Yang, Ying; Guo, Tong; Feng, Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Most rivers worldwide are highly regulated by anthropogenic activities through flow regulation and water pollution. Environmental flow regulation is used to reduce the effects of anthropogenic activities on aquatic ecosystems. Formulating flow alteration-ecological response relationships is a key factor in environmental flow assessment. Traditional environmental flow models are characterized by natural relationships between flow regimes and ecosystem factors. However, food webs are often altered from natural states, which disturb environmental flow assessment in such ecosystems. In ecosystems deteriorated by heavy anthropogenic activities, the effects of environmental flow regulation on species are difficult to assess with current modeling approaches. Environmental flow management compels the development of tools that link flow regimes and food webs in an ecosystem. Food web approaches are more suitable for the task because they are more adaptive for disordered multiple species in a food web deteriorated by anthropogenic activities. This paper presents a global method of environmental flow assessment in deteriorated aquatic ecosystems. Linkages between flow regimes and food web dynamics are modeled by incorporating multiple species into an ecosystem to explore ecosystem-based environmental flow management. The approach allows scientists and water resources managers to analyze environmental flows in deteriorated ecosystems in an ecosystem-based way.

  12. Quality of Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    The quality of drinking water has been gaining a great deal of attention lately, especially as water delivery infrastructure continues to age. Particles of various metals such as lead and copper, and other substances like radon and arsenic could be entering drinking water supplies. Spilled-on-the-ground hydrocarbon-based substances are also…

  13. Quality of Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    The quality of drinking water has been gaining a great deal of attention lately, especially as water delivery infrastructure continues to age. Particles of various metals such as lead and copper, and other substances like radon and arsenic could be entering drinking water supplies. Spilled-on-the-ground hydrocarbon-based substances are also…

  14. Water quality and quantity assessment of pervious pavements performance in experimental car park areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sañudo-Fontaneda, Luis A; Charlesworth, Susanne M; Castro-Fresno, Daniel; Andres-Valeri, Valerio C A; Rodriguez-Hernandez, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Pervious pavements have become one of the most used sustainable urban drainage system (SUDS) techniques in car parks. This research paper presents the results of monitoring water quality from several experimental car park areas designed and constructed in Spain with bays made of interlocking concrete block pavement, porous asphalt, polymer-modified porous concrete and reinforced grass with plastic and concrete cells. Moreover, two different sub-base materials were used (limestone aggregates and basic oxygen furnace slag). This study therefore encompasses the majority of the materials used as permeable surfaces and sub-base layers all over the world. Effluent from the test bays was monitored for dissolved oxygen, pH, electric conductivity, total suspended solids, turbidity and total petroleum hydrocarbons in order to analyze the behaviour shown by each combination of surface and sub-base materials. In addition, permeability tests were undertaken in all car parks using the 'Laboratorio Caminos Santander' permeameter and the Cantabrian Portable Infiltrometer. All results are presented together with the influence of surface and sub-base materials on water quality indicators using bivariate correlation statistical analysis at a confidence level of 95%. The polymer-modified porous concrete surface course in combination with limestone aggregate sub-base presented the best performance.

  15. Assessing the value of information for water quality management in the North Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouma, J A; van der Woerd, H J; Kuik, O J

    2009-02-01

    Global Earth Observation (GEO) is one of the most important sources of information for environmental resource management and disaster prevention. With budgets for GEO increasingly under pressure, it is becoming important to be able to quantify the returns to informational investments. For this, a clear analytical framework is lacking. By combining Bayesian decision theory with an empirical, stakeholder-oriented approach, this paper attempts to develop such a framework. The analysis focuses on the use of satellite observations for Dutch water quality management in the North Sea. Dutch water quality management currently relies on information from 'in situ' measurements but is considering extending and deepening its information base with satellite observations. To estimate returns to additional investments in satellite observation, we analyze the added value of an extended monitoring system for the management of eutrophication, potentially harmful algal blooms and suspended sediment and turbidity in the North Sea. First, we develop a model to make the potential contribution of information to welfare explicit. Second, we use this model to develop a questionnaire and interpret the results. The results indicate that the expected welfare impact of investing in satellite observation is positive, but that outcomes strongly depend on the accuracy of the information system and the range of informational benefits perceived.

  16. Assessing variability of water quality in a groundwater-fed perennial lake of Kashmir Himalayas using linear geostatistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah, S.; Jeelani, Gh.; Ahmed, Shakeel

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents a study on Manasbal lake, which is one of the high altitude lakes in the Kashmir Valley, India. Eighteen water samples were analysed for major ions and trace elements to assess the variability of water quality of the lake for various purposes. Geostatistics, the theory of regionalized variables, was then used to enhance the dataset and estimate some missing spatial values. Results indicated that the concentration of major ions in the water samples in winter was higher than in summer. The scatter diagrams suggested the dominance of alkaline earths over the alkali elements. Three types of water were identified in the lake that are referred to as Ca-HCO3, Mg-HCO3 and hybrid types. The lake water was found to be controlled by rock-water interaction with carbonate lithology as a dominant source of the solutes. The major (Ca2 + , Mg2 + , Na + , K + , NO3 and {{HCO}}3-, CO3 and Cl) and trace elements of the lake water were within the World Health Organization standards, therefore the lake water was considered chemically safe for drinking purposes. Although NO3 concentration (ranging from 1.72 to 2 mg/L), is within the permissible limit and not very alarming, the gradually increasing trend is not acceptable. It is however, important to guard its spatio-temporal variability as the water is used for domestic as well as agricultural purposes. This study is significant as hydrogeological information on such high altitude lakes in India is scanty.

  17. Water Quality Assessment of the River Nile System:An Overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RIFAAT A. WAHAAB; MOHAMED I. BADAWY

    2004-01-01

    Objectives The main objective of the present article is to assess and evaluate the characteristics of the Nile water system, and identify the major sources of pollution and its environmental and health consequences. The article is also aimed to highlight the importance of water management via re-use and recycle of treated effluents for industrial purpose and for cultivation of desert land. Method An intensive effort was made by the authors to collect, assess and compile the available data about the River Nile. Physico-chemical analyses were conducted to check the validity of the collected data. For the determination of micro-pollutants, Gas Chromatography (GC) and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) were used. Heavy metals were also determined to investigate the level of industrial pollution in the river system. Results The available data revealed that the river receives a large quantity of industrial, agriculture and domestic wastewater. It is worth mentioning that the river is still able to recover in virtually all the locations, with very little exception. This is due to the high dilution ratio. The collected data confirmed the presence of high concentrations of chromium and manganese in all sediment samples. The residues of organo-chlorine insecticides were detected in virtually all locations. However, the levels of such residues are usually below the limit set by the WHO for use as drinking water. The most polluted lakes are Lake Maryut and Lake Manzala.Groundwater pollution is closely related to adjacent (polluted) surface waters. High concentrations of nutrients, E. coli, sulfur, heavy metals, etc. have been observed in the shallow groundwater, largely surpassing WHO standards for drinking water use. Conclusion A regular and continuous monitoring scheme shall be developed for the River Nile system. The environmental law shall be enforced to prohibit the discharge of wastewater (agricultural, domestic or industrial) to River Nile system.

  18. Role of mafic and ultramafic rocks in drinking water quality and its potential health risk assessment, Northern Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Shaheen; Shah, Mohammad Tahir; Muhammad, Said; Khan, Sardar

    2015-12-01

    This study investigates the drinking water (groundwater and surface water) quality and potential risk assessment along mafic and ultramafic rocks in the Swat district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Provence, Pakistan. For this purpose, 82 groundwater and 33 surface water samples were collected and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters. Results showed that the majority of the physico-chemical parameters were found to be within the drinking water guidelines set by the World Health Organization. However, major cationic metals such as magnesium (Mg), and trace metals (TM) including iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr) and cobalt (Co) showed exceeded concentrations in 13%, 4%, 2%, 20%, 20% and 55% of water samples, respectively. Health risk assessment revealed that the non-carcinogenic effects or hazard quotient values through the oral ingestion pathway of water consumption for the TM (viz., Fe, Cr and Mn) were found to be greater than 1, could result in chronic risk to the exposed population. Results of statistical analyses revealed that mafic and ultramafic rocks are the main sources of metal contamination in drinking water, especially Ni and Cr. Both Ni and Cr have toxic health effects and therefore this study suggests that contaminated sites should be avoided or treated for drinking and domestic purposes.

  19. A review of strategies to monitor water and sediment quality for a sustainability assessment of marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoly Sany, Seyedeh Belin; Hashim, Rosli; Rezayi, Majid; Salleh, Aishah; Safari, Omid

    2014-01-01

    The basic aim of this work is (1) to review and present practically operational requirements for a sustainability assessment of marine environment, such as describing the monitoring process, research approaches, objectives, guidelines, and indicators and (2) to illustrate how physico-chemical and biological indicators can be practically applied, to assess water and sediment quality in marine and coastal environment. These indicators should meet defined criteria for practical usefulness, e.g. they should be simple to understand and apply to managers and scientists with different educational backgrounds. This review aimed to encapsulate that variability, recognizing that meaningful guidance should be flexible enough to accommodate the widely differing characteristics of marine ecosystems.

  20. Water quality assessment of an unusual ritual well in Bangladesh and impact of mass bathing on this quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabed, H; Suely, A; Faruq, G; Sahu, J N

    2014-02-15

    A sacred ritual well with continuously discharging of methane gas through its water body was studied for physicochemical and microbiological quality in three seasons and during ritual mass bathing. Most of the physicochemical parameters showed significant seasonal variations (P<0.05) and a sharp fluctuation during mass bathing. Dissolved oxygen (DO) was found negatively correlated with temperature (r=-0.384, P<0.05), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) (r=-0.58, P<0.001) and ammonia (r=-0.738, P<0.001), while BOD showed positive correlation with chemical oxygen demand (COD) (r=0.762, P<0.001) and ammonia (r=0.83, P<0.001). Simple regression analysis also yielded significant linear relationship in DO vs. temperature (r(2)=0.147, P<0.05), DO vs. ammonia (r(2)=0.544, P<0.001) and BOD vs. DO (r(2)=0.336, P<0.001). A total of eight microbial indicators were studied and found that all of them increased unusually during mass bathing comparing with their respective seasonal values. Total coliforms (TC) were found positively correlated with fecal coliforms (FC) (r=0.971), FC with Escherichia coli (EC) (r=0.952), EC with intestinal enterococci (IE) (r=0.921), fecal streptococci (FS) with IE (r=0.953) and Staphylococcus aureus (SA) with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) (r=0.946), which were significant at P<0.001. Some regression models showed significant linear relationship at P<0.001 with r(2) value of 0.943 for FC vs. TC, 0.907 for EC vs. FC, 0.869 for FS vs. FC, 0.848 for IE vs. EC and 0.909 for IE vs. FS. The overall results found in this study revealed that well water is suitable for bathing purpose but the religious activity considerably worsen its quality.

  1. Water quality assessment in the Bétaré-Oya gold mining area (East-Cameroon): Multivariate Statistical Analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakotondrabe, Felaniaina; Ndam Ngoupayou, Jules Remy; Mfonka, Zakari; Rasolomanana, Eddy Harilala; Nyangono Abolo, Alexis Jacob; Ako Ako, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    The influence of gold mining activities on the water quality in the Mari catchment in Bétaré-Oya (East Cameroon) was assessed in this study. Sampling was performed within the period of one hydrological year (2015 to 2016), with 22 sampling sites consisting of groundwater (06) and surface water (16). In addition to measuring the physicochemical parameters, such as pH, electrical conductivity, alkalinity, turbidity, suspended solids and CN(-), eleven major elements (Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), NH4(+), Cl(-), NO3(-), HCO3(-), SO4(2-), PO4(3-) and F(-)) and eight heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cd, Fe, Cu, As, Mn and Cr) were also analyzed using conventional hydrochemical methods, Multivariate Statistical Analysis and the Heavy metal Pollution Index (HPI). The results showed that the water from Mari catchment and Lom River was acidic to basic (5.40water quality, except for nitrates in some wells, which was found at a concentration >50mg NO3(-)/L. This water was found as two main types: calcium magnesium bicarbonate (CaMg-HCO3), which was the most represented, and sodium bicarbonate potassium (NaK-HCO3). As for trace elements in surface water, the contents of Pb, Cd, Mn, Cr and Fe were higher than recommended by the WHO guidelines, and therefore, the surface water was unsuitable for human consumption. Three phenomena were responsible for controlling the quality of the water in the study area: hydrolysis of silicate minerals of plutono-metamorphic rocks, which constitute the geological basement of this area; vegetation and soil leaching; and mining activities. The high concentrations of TSS and trace elements found in this basin were mainly due to gold mining activities (exploration and exploitation) as well as digging of rivers beds, excavation and gold amalgamation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessing land-use effects on water quality, in-stream habitat, riparian ecosystems and biodiversity in Patagonian northwest streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miserendino, María Laura; Casaux, Ricardo; Archangelsky, Miguel; Di Prinzio, Cecilia Yanina; Brand, Cecilia; Kutschker, Adriana Mabel

    2011-01-01

    Changes in land-use practices have affected the integrity and quality of water resources worldwide. In Patagonia there is a strong concern about the ecological status of surface waters because these changes are rapidly occurring in the region. To test the hypothesis that greater intensity of land-use will have negative effects on water quality, stream habitat and biodiversity we assessed benthic macroinvertebrates, riparian/littoral invertebrates, fish and birds from the riparian corridor and environmental variables of 15 rivers (Patagonia) subjected to a gradient of land-use practices (non-managed native forest, managed native forest, pine plantations, pasture, urbanization). A total of 158 macroinvertebrate taxa, 105 riparian/littoral invertebrate taxa, 5 fish species, 34 bird species, and 15 aquatic plant species, were recorded considering all sites. Urban land-use produced the most significant changes in streams including physical features, conductivity, nutrients, habitat condition, riparian quality and invertebrate metrics. Pasture and managed native forest sites appeared in an intermediate situation. The highest values of fish and bird abundance and diversity were observed at disturbed sites; this might be explained by the opportunistic behavior displayed by these communities which let them take advantage of increased trophic resources in these environments. As expected, non-managed native forest sites showed the highest integrity of ecological conditions and also great biodiversity of benthic communities. Macroinvertebrate metrics that reflected good water quality were positively related to forest land cover and negatively related to urban and pasture land cover. However, by offering stream edge areas, pasture sites still supported rich communities of riparian/littoral invertebrates, increasing overall biodiversity. Macroinvertebrates were good indicators of land-use impact and water quality conditions and resulted useful tools to early alert of

  3. Assessing Landscape Connectivity and River Water Quality Changes Using an 8-Day, 30-Meter Land Cover Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarinas, I.; Julian, J.; Owsley, B.; de Beurs, K.; Hughes, A.

    2014-12-01

    Water quality is dictated by interactions among geomorphic processes, vegetation characteristics, weather patterns, and anthropogenic land uses over multiple spatio-temporal scales. In order to understand how changes in climate and land use impact river water quality, a suite of data with high temporal resolution over a long period is needed. Further, all of this data must be analyzed with respect to connectivity to the river, thus requiring high spatial resolution data. Here, we present how changes in climate and land use over the past 25 years have affected water quality in the 268 sq. km Hoteo River catchment in New Zealand. Hydro-climatic data included daily solar radiation, temperature, soil moisture, rainfall, drought indices, and runoff at 5-km resolution. Land cover changes were measured every 8 days at 30-m resolution by fusing Landsat and MODIS satellite imagery. Water quality was assessed using 15-min turbidity (2011-2014) and monthly data for a suite of variables (1990-2014). Watershed connectivity was modeled using a corrected 15-m DEM and a high-resolution drainage network. Our analyses revealed that this catchment experiences cyclical droughts which, when combined with intense land uses such as livestock grazing and plantation forest harvesting, leaves many areas in the catchment disturbed (i.e. exposed soil) that are connected to the river through surface runoff. As a result, flow-normalized turbidity was elevated during droughts and remained relatively low during wet periods. For example, disturbed land area decreased from 9% to 4% over 2009-2013, which was a relatively wet period. During the extreme drought of 2013, disturbed area increased to 6% in less than a year due mainly to slow pasture recovery after heavy stocking rates. The relationships found in this study demonstrate that high spatiotemporal resolution land cover datasets are very important to understanding the interactions between landscape and climate, and how these interactions

  4. Geochemistry of dissolved trace elements and heavy metals in the Dan River Drainage (China): distribution, sources, and water quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qingpeng; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Zhaoyu; Wu, Tairan

    2016-04-01

    Dissolved trace elements and heavy metals in the Dan River drainage basin, which is the drinking water source area of South-to-North Water Transfer Project (China), affect large numbers of people and should therefore be carefully monitored. To investigate the distribution, sources, and quality of river water, this study integrating catchment geology and multivariate statistical techniques was carried out in the Dan River drainage from 99 river water samples collected in 2013. The distribution of trace metal concentrations in the Dan River drainage was similar to that in the Danjiangkou Reservoir, indicating that the reservoir was significantly affected by the Dan River drainage. Moreover, our results suggested that As, Sb, Cd, Mn, and Ni were the major pollutants. We revealed extremely high concentrations of As and Sb in the Laoguan River, Cd in the Qingyou River, Mn, Ni, and Cd in the Yinhua River, As and Sb in the Laojun River, and Sb in the Dan River. According to the water quality index, water in the Dan River drainage was suitable for drinking; however, an exposure risk assessment model suggests that As and Sb in the Laojun and Laoguan rivers could pose a high risk to humans in terms of adverse health and potential non-carcinogenic effects.

  5. Surface Water Quality Assessment of the Jirania Brick Cluster – A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarendra Jamatia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Along with the infrastructural development works, the demand for construction materials is increasing rapidly, which in turns lead to the rapid growth of brick manufacturing industries. Large demand of bricks in development and construction sectors has resulted in mushrooming of brick industries clusters at the outskirt of Agartala City. Jirania brick industries cluster is one of largest cluster of the Tripura State (India. Approximately 45% of total bricks of the State are being produced from the Jirania brick industries clusters. The use of conventional technology for brick making has resulted significant contribution of pollution load to the environment. The main components of environment which are being affected by the brick industries include but not limited to air, water, soil etc. The present study is carried out to identify the potential contribution of pollution load on surface water sources of the region from the mentioned brick industries. The surface water samples collected from nine sampling station located at different places in the area are analyzed and the experimental results of various quality parameters are presented in the paper. Such a study will help to estimate the total pollution load of the brick industry in the mentioned area.

  6. Water Quality Assessment of River Beas During Winter Season in Himachal Pradesh, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Sharma

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Present investigation was carried out in 256 km stretch of river Beas in Himachal Pradesh for analysis of important physical, chemical and biological water quality parameters during winter season. Parameters such as temperature, pH, conductivity, turbidity, alkalinity, total dissolved solids (TDS, total hardness, calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, cadmium, copper, iron, lead, chloride, fluoride, nitrate, biological oxygen demand (BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD, Colliform and Escherichia coli were analyzed from six sampling stations i.e. Beaskund , Shamshi, Pandohdam, Dharampur, Nadaun and Pongdam in the study area. The analysis of data reveals that turbidity, cadmium and lead, were found to be higher than the acceptable limit prescribed by Bureau of Indian standards (BIS, 2012 for drinking water in India. Colliform and E.coli were present in all the sampling stations of river Beas except at SS-1 and SS-2. All the other physicochemical parameters excepting pH at SS-5 (8.98±0.057 were within the limit prescribed by World Health Organization (WHO, 2011 and BIS, 2012 for drinking water in India.

  7. Surface-water-quality assessment of the Yakima River basin in Washington: major-and minor-element data for sediment, water, and aquatic biota, 1987-91

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrer, Gregory J.; Fluter, Shelley L.; McKenzie, Stuart W.; Rinella, Joseph F.; Crawford, J. Kent; Cain, Daniel J.; Hornberger, Michelle I.; Bridges, Jennifer L.; Skach, Kenneth A.

    1994-01-01

    Major- and minor-element concentrations are presented for streambed and suspended sediment, filtered- and unfiltered-water, and aquatic-biota samples collected during 1987-91 from the Yakima River Basin in south-central Washington. The samples were collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-quality Assessment (NAWQA) program which is designed to provide results that are useful in understanding and managing the Nation's water resources. This report includes the sampling approach, field collection and processing techniques, and methods of chemical analysis, as well as a compilation of chemical data, statistical summaries, and quality- control data. These data may be used by scientists and resource managers to describe (1) spatial distribution of selected major and minor elements in sediment, water, and aquatic biota of the Yakima River Basin; (2) temporal variation for element concentrations in filtered water and in suspended sediment at selected sites; (3) suita- bility of surface water for preservation of aquatic life and protection of human health; and (4) major natural and anthropogenic sources of major and minor elements in the Yakima River Basin that affect observed water-quality conditions.

  8. Water quality impact assessment of agricultural Beneficial Management Practices (BMPs) simulated for a regional catchment in Quebec, Eastern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Alain N.; Hallema, Dennis W.; Gumiere, Silvio J.; Savary, Stéphane; Hould Gosselin, Gabriel

    2014-05-01

    Water quality has become a matter of increasing concern over the past four decades as a result of the intensification of agriculture, and more particularly so in Canada where agriculture has evolved into the largest non-point source of surface water pollution. The Canadian WEBs project (Watershed Evaluation of Beneficial Management Practices, BMPs) was initiated in order to determine the efficiency of BMPs in improving the surface water quality of rural catchments, and the economic aspects related to their implementation on the same scale. In this contribution we use the integrated watershed modelling platform GIBSI (Gestion Intégrée des Bassins versants à l'aide d'un Système Informatisé) to evaluate the effects of various BMPs on sediment and nutrient yields and, in close relation to this, the surface water quality for the Beaurivage River catchment (718 km2) in Quebec, eastern Canada. A base scenario of the catchment is developed by calibrating the different models of the GIBSI platform, namely HYDROTEL for hydrology, the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) for soil erosion, the Erosion-Productivity Impact Calculator (EPIC) of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) for contaminant transport and fate, and QUAL2E for stream water quality. Four BMPs were analysed: (1) vegetated riparian buffer strips, (2) precision slurry application, (3) transition of all cereal and corn fields to grassland (grassland conversion), and (4) no-tillage on corn fields. Simulations suggest that riparian buffer strips and grassland conversion are more effective in terms of phosphorus, nitrogen and sediment load reduction than precision slurry application and no-tillage on corn fields. The results furthermore indicate the need for a more profound understanding of sediment dynamics in streams and on riparian buffer strips.

  9. Assessment of Dissolved Oxygen Mitigation at Hydropower Dams Using an Integrated Hydrodynamic/Water Quality/Fish Growth Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL; Coutant, Charles C [ORNL

    2006-07-01

    Dissolved oxygen (DO) in rivers is a common environmental problem associated with hydropower projects. Approximately 40% of all FERC-licensed projects have requirements to monitor and/or mitigate downstream DO conditions. Most forms of mitigation for increasing DO in dam tailwaters are fairly expensive. One area of research of the Department of Energy's Hydropower Program is the development of advanced turbines that improve downstream water quality and have other environmental benefits. There is great interest in being able to predict the benefits of these modifications prior to committing to the cost of new equipment. In the case of turbine replacement or modification, there is a need for methods that allow us to accurately extrapolate the benefits derived from one or two turbines with better design to the replacement or modification of all turbines at a site. The main objective of our study was to demonstrate a modeling approach that integrates the effects of flow and water quality dynamics with fish bioenergetics to predict DO mitigation effectiveness over long river segments downstream of hydropower dams. We were particularly interested in demonstrating the incremental value of including a fish growth model as a measure of biological response. The models applied are a suite of tools (RMS4 modeling system) originally developed by the Tennessee Valley Authority for simulating hydrodynamics (ADYN model), water quality (RQUAL model), and fish growth (FISH model) as influenced by DO, temperature, and available food base. We parameterized a model for a 26-mile reach of the Caney Fork River (Tennessee) below Center Hill Dam to assess how improvements in DO at the dam discharge would affect water quality and fish growth throughout the river. We simulated different types of mitigation (i.e., at the turbine and in the reservoir forebay) and different levels of improvement. The model application successfully demonstrates how a modeling approach like this one can be

  10. Bioassay battery interlaboratory investigation of emerging contaminants in spiked water extracts - Towards the implementation of bioanalytical monitoring tools in water quality assessment and monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Paolo, Carolina; Ottermanns, Richard; Keiter, Steffen; Ait-Aissa, Selim; Bluhm, Kerstin; Brack, Werner; Breitholtz, Magnus; Buchinger, Sebastian; Carere, Mario; Chalon, Carole; Cousin, Xavier; Dulio, Valeria; Escher, Beate I; Hamers, Timo; Hilscherová, Klára; Jarque, Sergio; Jonas, Adam; Maillot-Marechal, Emmanuelle; Marneffe, Yves; Nguyen, Mai Thao; Pandard, Pascal; Schifferli, Andrea; Schulze, Tobias; Seidensticker, Sven; Seiler, Thomas-Benjamin; Tang, Janet; van der Oost, Ron; Vermeirssen, Etienne; Zounková, Radka; Zwart, Nick; Hollert, Henner

    2016-11-01

    Bioassays are particularly useful tools to link the chemical and ecological assessments in water quality monitoring. Different methods cover a broad range of toxicity mechanisms in diverse organisms, and account for risks posed by non-target compounds and mixtures. Many tests are already applied in chemical and waste assessments, and stakeholders from the science-police interface have recommended their integration in regulatory water quality monitoring. Still, there is a need to address bioassay suitability to evaluate water samples containing emerging pollutants, which are a current priority in water quality monitoring. The presented interlaboratory study (ILS) verified whether a battery of miniaturized bioassays, conducted in 11 different laboratories following their own protocols, would produce comparable results when applied to evaluate blinded samples consisting of a pristine water extract spiked with four emerging pollutants as single chemicals or mixtures, i.e. triclosan, acridine, 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) and 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA). Assays evaluated effects on aquatic organisms from three different trophic levels (algae, daphnids, zebrafish embryos) and mechanism-specific effects using in vitro estrogenicity (ER-Luc, YES) and mutagenicity (Ames fluctuation) assays. The test battery presented complementary sensitivity and specificity to evaluate the different blinded water extract spikes. Aquatic organisms differed in terms of sensitivity to triclosan (algae > daphnids > fish) and acridine (fish > daphnids > algae) spikes, confirming the complementary role of the three taxa for water quality assessment. Estrogenicity and mutagenicity assays identified with high precision the respective mechanism-specific effects of spikes even when non-specific toxicity occurred in mixture. For estrogenicity, although differences were observed between assays and models, EE2 spike relative induction EC50 values were comparable to the literature, and E2/EE2

  11. Using probability-based spatial estimation of the river pollution index to assess urban water recreational quality in the Tamsui River watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Cheng-Shin

    2016-01-01

    The Tamsui River watershed situated in Northern Taiwan provides a variety of water recreational opportunities such as riverbank park activities, fishing, cruising, rowing, sailing, and swimming. However, river water quality strongly affects water recreational quality. Moreover, the health of recreationists who are partially or fully exposed to polluted river water may be jeopardized. A river pollution index (RPI) composed of dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, suspended solids, and ammonia nitrogen is typically used to gauge the river water quality and regulate the water body use in Taiwan. The purpose of this study was to probabilistically determine the RPI categories in the Tamsui River watershed and to assess the urban water recreational quality on the basis of the estimated RPI categories. First, according to various RPI categories, one-dimensional indicator kriging (IK) was adopted to estimate the occurrence probabilities of the RPI categories. The maximum occurrence probability among the categories was then employed to determine the most suitable RPI category. Finally, the most serious categories and seasonal variations of RPI were adopted to evaluate the quality of current water recreational opportunities in the Tamsui River watershed. The results revealed that the midstream and downstream sections of the Tamsui River and its tributaries with poor river water quality afford low water recreational quality, and water recreationists should avoid full or limited exposure to these bodies of water. However, the upstream sections of the Tamsui River watershed with high river water quality are suitable for all water recreational activities.

  12. Assessment of typical natural processes and human activities' impact on the quality of drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurilić, Sanja Mrazovac; Ulniković, Vladanka Presburger; Marić, Nenad; Vasiljević, Milenko

    2015-11-01

    This paper provides insight into the quality of groundwater used for public water supply on the territory of Temerin municipality (Vojvodina, Serbia). The following parameters were measured: color, turbidity, pH, KMnO4 consumption, total dissolved solids (TDS), EC, NH4+, Cl-, NO2-, NO3-, Fe, Mn, As, Ca2+, Mg2+, SO4(2-), HCO3-, K+, and Na+. The correlations and ratios among parameters that define the chemical composition were determined aiming to identify main processes that control the formation of the chemical composition of the analyzed waters. Groundwater from three analyzed sources is Na-HCO3 type. Elevated organic matter content, ammonium ion content, and arsene content are characteristic for these waters. The importance of organic matter decay is assumed by positive correlation between organic matter content and TDS, and HCO3- content. There is no evidence that groundwater chemistry is determined by the depth of captured aquifer interval. The main natural processes that control the chemistry of all analyzed water are cation exchange and feldspar weathering. The dominant cause of As concentration in groundwater is the use of mineral fertilizers and of KMnO4 in urban area. The concentration of As and KMnO4 in the observed sources is inversely proportional to the distance from agricultural land and urban area. 2D model of distribution of As and KMnO4 is done, and it is applicable in detecting sources of pollution. By using this model, we can quantify the impact of certain pollutants on unfavorable content of some parameters in groundwater.

  13. Assessing the spatial pattern of a river water quality in southern Brazil by multivariate analysis of biological and chemical indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassanego, M B B; Droste, A

    2017-03-01

    This study assessed the genotoxicity and chemical quality of the Rio dos Sinos, southern Brazil. During two years, bimonthly, cuttings of Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea with flower buds were exposed to river water samples from Caraá, Santo Antônio da Patrulha, Taquara and Campo Bom, which are municipalities located in the upper, middle and lower stretches of the Rio dos Sinos basin. Simultaneously, chemical parameters were analyzed, rainfall data were surveyed and negative (distilled water) and positive (0.1% formaldehyde) controls were made. Micronuclei (MCN) frequencies were determined in tetrads of pollen grain mother cells. From the upper stretch toward the lower, there was an increase in the frequency of MCN and in concentrations of chemical parameters. Cadmium, lead, copper, total chromium and zinc were present at the four sites and a concentration gradient was not demonstrated along the river. The multivariate analysis revealed that two principal components exist, which accounted for 62.3% of the observed variances. Although genotoxicity was observed in Santo Antônio da Patrulha, the water presented higher mean values for most of the assessed parameters, in the lower stretch, where urbanization and industrialization are greater. The spatial and temporal pattern of water quality observed reinforces the importance of considering the environmental factors and their effects on organisms in an integrated way in watercourse monitoring programs.

  14. Water Quality Assessment in the Vouga Catchment (Portugal) through the Integration of Hydrologic Modeling, Economic Valuation, and Optimization Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawtree, Daniel; Julich, Stefan; Rocha, João; Roebeling, Peter; Feger, Karl-Heinz

    2016-04-01

    Hydrologic model assessments of the impacts of land-cover / use change (LCLUC) are fundamental for the development of catchment management plans, which are increasingly needed for meeting water quality standards (i.e. Water Framework Directive). These assessments can be difficult to conduct at the spatial scale required for such plans, due to data limitations and the challenge of up-scaling from field / small scale studies to larger regions. Furthermore, such hydrologic assessments are of limited practical use if the financial impacts of any potential land-cover / management changes on local stakeholders are adequately quantified and taken into planning consideration. To address these challenges, this study presents an approach that integrates hydrologic modeling, economic valuation, and landscape optimization methods. This approach is applied to the Vouga catchment, a large (2,298 km^2) mixed land-use catchment in north-central Portugal. The Vouga has high nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) impacts in a number of reaches, which have negative impacts on downstream wetlands and groundwater supplies. To examine potential improvements to water quality, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was calibrated over a five period (2002 - 2007) to establish the baseline hydrologic and nutrient fluxes. This calibration relies upon the up-scaling of findings from previous field studies (on vegetation and soils), hydrologic assessments, and modeling studies. The agricultural income for local stakeholders was estimated from existing land-cover and management approaches is made, to establish the baseline financial conditions. An optimization algorithm is then applied to the baseline scenario using both the biophysical and financial information, which seeks to determine various (most) optimal states. The preliminary results from this work are presented, and the advantages and challenges of using such an approach for scenario analysis for catchment management are discussed

  15. Assessment of the Quality of Bottled/Sachet Water in the Tarkwa-Nsuaem Municipality (TM of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Nana Asamoah and R. Amorin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at assessing the quality of water from bottled/sachet water in the Tarkwa-Nsuaem Municipality. Tarkwa is an ancient mining town sited in an Equatorial climate in Ghana and experiences high population growth rate as a result of mining activities. Due to this, water resources are under pressure as Ghana Water Company Ltd., (GWCL produces only 55% of the Municipality’s water requirements. The population is skeptical of using other sources of water for domestic purposes because of mining activities. Therefore, majority of the people in the Municipality depend on bottled/sachet water for drinking. This study presents and discusses the results of physicochemical and microbial analyses of six bottled/sachet water samples. The water source of these water producing companies is groundwater. Two sets of samples were collected from each company during the rainy season and the dry season to account for seasonal variations. A representative sample for each company was analyzed by the Chemistry/Bacteria Division of the GWCL, Takoradi for physicochemical parameters including pH, temperature, taste, electrical conductivity, true colour, turbidity total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, total alkalinity, total hardness and coliform bacteria. Metals and anions analysed were Ca, Mn, K, Na, Cr, Cd, Sb, Ba. BO3-, total Fe, Pb, Zn, As, NO3-, NO2- SO4-2, PO4-3, (NH3-N, F-, Cl-, CN-, carbonate hardness and bicarbonate hardness. Bacteria analysed were total Coliforms, Escherichia coli and total Heterotrophic bacteria. The concentrations of most of the investigated parameters in the drinking water samples from Tarkwa Nsuaem Municipality were within the permissible limits of the World Health Organization (WHO/Ghana Standard Board (GSB drinking water quality guidelines except pH, Ba and Cl- contents. The pH of SKFDW and DLFWD were respectively 5.5 and 6.31; acidic and lower than the recommended WHO/GSB guideline of 6.5-8.5. The Ba contents in the

  16. Assessment of water quality trends in the Minnesota River using non-parametric and parametric methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, H.O.; Gupta, S.C.; Vecchia, A.V.; Zvomuya, F.

    2009-01-01

    Excessive loading of sediment and nutrients to rivers is a major problem in many parts of the United States. In this study, we tested the non-parametric Seasonal Kendall (SEAKEN) trend model and the parametric USGS Quality of Water trend program (QWTREND) to quantify trends in water quality of the Minnesota River at Fort Snelling from 1976 to 2003. Both methods indicated decreasing trends in flow-adjusted concentrations of total suspended solids (TSS), total phosphorus (TP), and orthophosphorus (OP) and a generally increasing trend in flow-adjusted nitrate plus nitrite-nitrogen (NO3-N) concentration. The SEAKEN results were strongly influenced by the length of the record as well as extreme years (dry or wet) earlier in the record. The QWTREND results, though influenced somewhat by the same factors, were more stable. The magnitudes of trends between the two methods were somewhat different and appeared to be associated with conceptual differences between the flow-adjustment processes used and with data processing methods. The decreasing trends in TSS, TP, and OP concentrations are likely related to conservation measures implemented in the basin. However, dilution effects from wet climate or additional tile drainage cannot be ruled out. The increasing trend in NO3-N concentrations was likely due to increased drainage in the basin. Since the Minnesota River is the main source of sediments to the Mississippi River, this study also addressed the rapid filling of Lake Pepin on the Mississippi River and found the likely cause to be increased flow due to recent wet climate in the region. Copyright ?? 2009 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  17. Water Quality Data (WQX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The STORET (short for STOrage and RETrieval) Data Warehouse is a repository for water quality, biological, and physical data and is used by state environmental agencies, EPA and other federal agencies, universities, private citizens, and many others.

  18. Assessment of the water chemical quality improvement based on human health risk indexes: Application to a drinking water treatment plant incorporating membrane technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Roldán, Ramón; Rubalcaba, Alicia; Martin-Alonso, Jordi; González, Susana; Martí, Vicenç; Cortina, Jose Luis

    2016-01-01

    A methodology has been developed in order to evaluate the potential risk of drinking water for the health of the consumers. The methodology used for the assessment considered systemic and carcinogenic effects caused by oral ingestion of water based on the reference data developed by the World Health Organisation (WHO) and the Risk Assessment Information System (RAIS) for chemical contaminants. The exposure includes a hypothetical dose received by drinking this water according to the analysed contaminants. An assessment of the chemical quality improvement of produced water in the Drinking Water Treatment Plant (DWTP) after integration of membrane technologies was performed. Series of concentration values covering up to 261 chemical parameters over 5 years (2008-2012) of raw and treated water in the Sant Joan Despí DWTP, at the lower part of the Llobregat River basin (NE Spain), were used. After the application of the methodology, the resulting global indexes were located below the thresholds except for carcinogenic risk in the output of DWTP, where the index was slightly above the threshold during 2008 and 2009 before the upgrade of the treatment works including membrane technologies was executed. The annual evolution of global indexes showed a reduction in the global values for all situations: HQ systemic index based on RAIS dropped from 0.64 to 0.42 for surface water and from 0.61 to 0.31 for drinking water; the R carcinogenic index based on RAIS was negligible for input water and varied between 4.2×10(-05) and 7.4×10(-06) for drinking water; the W systemic index based on the WHO data varied between 0.41 and 0.16 for surface water and between 0.61 and 0.31 for drinking water. A specific analysis for the indexes associated with trihalomethanes (THMs) showed the same pattern.

  19. Water quality assessment of aquatic ecosystems using ecological criteria - case study in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damyanova, Sonya; Ivanova, Iliana; Ignatova, Nadka

    2014-11-02

    Four aquatic ecosystems (two rivers and two dams) situated in the western part of Bulgaria were investigated over a three years' period. The River Egulya and Petrohan dam are situated in mountainous regions at about 1000 m altitude, and are not influenced by any anthropogenic sources. Petrohan dam is a site for long-term ecosystem research as a part of Bulgarian long-term ecological research network. The other two systems belong to populated industrial areas. The River Martinovska flows through a region with former long-term mining activity, while Ogosta dam is near a battery production factory. Both the geochemical and geographical ecosystems' conditions are different, and their social usage as well. Ogosta dam water is used for irrigation and Petrohan dam for electric supply. The ecosystem sensitivity to heavy metals was evaluated by a critical load approach. Two criteria were used for risk assessment: critical load exceedance and microbial toxicity test. All studied ecosystems were more sensitive to cadmium than to lead deposition. The potential risk of Cd damage is higher for Petrohan dam and the River Egulya, where critical load exceedance was calculated for two years. Pseudomonas putida growth inhibition test detected a lack of toxicity for all studied ecosystems at the time of investigation with the exception of the low water September sample of the River Martinovska. The fast bacterial test is very suitable for a regular measurement of water toxicity because of its simplicity, lack of sophisticated equipment and clear results.

  20. Water quality assessment of aquatic ecosystems using ecological criteria – case study in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damyanova, Sonya; Ivanova, Iliana; Ignatova, Nadka

    2014-01-01

    Four aquatic ecosystems (two rivers and two dams) situated in the western part of Bulgaria were investigated over a three years’ period. The River Egulya and Petrohan dam are situated in mountainous regions at about 1000 m altitude, and are not influenced by any anthropogenic sources. Petrohan dam is a site for long-term ecosystem research as a part of Bulgarian long-term ecological research network. The other two systems belong to populated industrial areas. The River Martinovska flows through a region with former long-term mining activity, while Ogosta dam is near a battery production factory. Both the geochemical and geographical ecosystems’ conditions are different, and their social usage as well. Ogosta dam water is used for irrigation and Petrohan dam for electric supply. The ecosystem sensitivity to heavy metals was evaluated by a critical load approach. Two criteria were used for risk assessment: critical load exceedance and microbial toxicity test. All studied ecosystems were more sensitive to cadmium than to lead deposition. The potential risk of Cd damage is higher for Petrohan dam and the River Egulya, where critical load exceedance was calculated for two years. Pseudomonas putida growth inhibition test detected a lack of toxicity for all studied ecosystems at the time of investigation with the exception of the low water September sample of the River Martinovska. The fast bacterial test is very suitable for a regular measurement of water toxicity because of its simplicity, lack of sophisticated equipment and clear results. PMID:26019591

  1. A Community Multi-Omics Approach towards the Assessment of Surface Water Quality in an Urban River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beale, David J.; Karpe, Avinash V.; Ahmed, Warish; Cook, Stephen; Morrison, Paul D.; Staley, Christopher; Sadowsky, Michael J.; Palombo, Enzo A.

    2017-01-01

    A multi-omics approach was applied to an urban river system (the Brisbane River (BR), Queensland, Australia) in order to investigate surface water quality and characterize the bacterial population with respect to water contaminants. To do this, bacterial metagenomic amplicon-sequencing using Illumina next-generation sequencing (NGS) of the V5–V6 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene and untargeted community metabolomics using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were utilized. The multi-omics data, in combination with fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) counts, trace metal concentrations (by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)) and in-situ water quality measurements collected from various locations along the BR were then used to assess the health of the river ecosystem. Sites sampled represented the transition from less affected (upstream) to polluted (downstream) environments along the BR. Chemometric analysis of the combined datasets indicated a clear separation between the sampled environments. Burkholderiales and Cyanobacteria were common key factors for differentiation of pristine waters. Increased sugar alcohol and short-chain fatty acid production was observed by Actinomycetales and Rhodospirillaceae that are known to form biofilms in urban polluted and brackish waters. Results from this study indicate that a multi-omics approach enables a deep understanding of the health of an aquatic ecosystem, providing insight into the bacterial diversity present and the metabolic output of the population when exposed to environmental contaminants. PMID:28335448

  2. A Community Multi-Omics Approach towards the Assessment of Surface Water Quality in an Urban River System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Beale

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A multi-omics approach was applied to an urban river system (the Brisbane River (BR, Queensland, Australia in order to investigate surface water quality and characterize the bacterial population with respect to water contaminants. To do this, bacterial metagenomic amplicon-sequencing using Illumina next-generation sequencing (NGS of the V5–V6 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene and untargeted community metabolomics using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS were utilized. The multi-omics data, in combination with fecal indicator bacteria (FIB counts, trace metal concentrations (by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS and in-situ water quality measurements collected from various locations along the BR were then used to assess the health of the river ecosystem. Sites sampled represented the transition from less affected (upstream to polluted (downstream environments along the BR. Chemometric analysis of the combined datasets indicated a clear separation between the sampled environments. Burkholderiales and Cyanobacteria were common key factors for differentiation of pristine waters. Increased sugar alcohol and short-chain fatty acid production was observed by Actinomycetales and Rhodospirillaceae that are known to form biofilms in urban polluted and brackish waters. Results from this study indicate that a multi-omics approach enables a deep understanding of the health of an aquatic ecosystem, providing insight into the bacterial diversity present and the metabolic output of the population when exposed to environmental contaminants.

  3. Prominence of seasonal water quality assessment in a tropical river using multivariate analysis: Kerala, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Prince; Joseph, Sabu; Chidambaram, S.

    2017-07-01

    An account of seasonal water quality variability has been taken as a proxy for the changes of environmental setting occurring in the catchment areas and helps to illustrate the ecological system processes associated with it. The present study in Meenachil River (L = 78 km, A = 1272 km2) comprising of stations from upstream to downstream for pre monsoon (PRM), monsoon (MON) and post monsoon (POM). Ca2+ and SO4 2- show an erratic trend while extreme deviations were observed at S6 and S7 stations. Na+, K+, Cl-, DIC and DOC showed a similar trend in most stations, i.e. (PRM > POM > MON). Significant rise of DIC and DOC at S7 during POM and PRM could explicate changes ensued in adjacent Vembanad lake system. Strong correlations of DIC and DOC for Na+, K+ and Cl- ions were noted in the study. HCA dendrogram reveals that ion chemistry in S6 and S7 was strictly controlled by neighbouring lake water dynamics. The results demonstrate high F1 variance of 73, 68 and 72% followed by F2 comprising of 17, 19 and 21% for PRM, MON and POM, respectively. General understanding into the autochthonous process associated within the river lake interface region was evident from the nutrient variability scenario.

  4. A saprobic index for biological assessment of river water quality in Brazil (Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro states).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, Marilia Vilela; Friedrich, Günther; Pereira de Araujo, Paulo Roberto

    2010-04-01

    Based upon several years of experience in investigations with macrozoobenthos in rivers in the states of Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro, a biological assessment system has been developed to indicate pollution levels caused by easily degradable organic substances from sewers. The biotic index presented here is aimed at determining water's saprobic levels and was, therefore, named the "Saprobic Index for Brazilian Rivers in Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro states" (ISMR). For this purpose, saprobic valences and weights have been established for 122 taxa of tropical macrozoobenthos. Investigations were carried out in little, medium sized and big rivers in mountains and plains. Through ISMR, a classification of water quality and the respective cartographic representation can be obtained. Data collection and treatment methods, as well as the limitations of the biotic index, are thoroughly described. ISMR can also be used as an element to establish complex multimetric indexes intended for an ecological integrity assessment, where it is essential to indicate organic pollution.

  5. Assessment of ground water quality in a fractured aquifer under continue wastewater injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrieri, C.; Masciopinto, C. [National Research Center, Water Research Institute, Bari (Italy)

    2000-12-01

    Experimental studies have been carried out in a fractured coastal aquifer of the Salento Region (Nardo' (Le) Italy), subject since 1991 to injection of 12000 m{sup 3}/d of treated municipal wastewater in a natural sink. The analytical parameters of ground water sampled in monitoring wells, have been compared before and after the injection started. The mound of water table (1.5 m), the reduction of seawater extent of 2 km and the spreading of pollutants injected were evaluated by means of mathematical model results. After ten years operation, the volume of the available resource for agricultural and drinking use has been increased, without notable decrease of the pre existent ground water quality. Moreover for preserving such resource from pollution, the mathematical model allowed the standards of wastewater quality for recharge to be identified. Around the sink, a restricted area was also defined with prohibition of withdrawals, to avoid infection and other risks on human health. [Italian] E' stato condotto uno studio sperimentale in una falda fratturata costiera del Salento (Puglia), interessata da fenomeni di intrusione marina, per valutare gli effetti di un'immissione prolungata di circa 12000 m{sup 3}/d provenienti da impianti di trattamento di scarichi urbani. I valori dei parametri analitici rilevati nei pozzi interessati, in periodi anche precedenti l'avvio dell'immissione (1991), sono stati confrontati con le concentrazioni calcolate con un modello matematico per sistemi fratturati. Dopo circa 10 anni d'immissione, l'acqua sotterranea e' risultata, rispetto a quella preesistente, sicuramente piu' utilizzabile per scopi irrigui e, mediamente, d'uguali potenzialita' per scopi potabili. Il calcolo ha evidenziato un innalzamento medio del livello piezometrico di 1.5 m e un arretramento dell'intrusione marina di circa 2 km. Esso ha, inoltre, permesso di individuare la zona di vietato emungimento nell

  6. Water Quality Assessment of Groundwater Resources in Qaleeh Shahin Plain Based on Cd and HEI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yari A.R.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims: The chemical elements in water resources, especially groundwater, can affect the water consumption purposes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the status of the overall pollution level of ground water of Qaleeh Shahin plain with respect to heavy metals by Cd and HEI methods. Instrument & Methods: This cross-sectional semi-experimental study was conducted in Sarpol-e Zahab township in Kermanshah Province, west of Iran. For this purpose, 20 groundwater wells were chosen randomly. The samples were filtered (0.45μm, stored in polyethylene bottles and were acidified at a pH lower than 2 by adding concentrated HNO3 in order to avoid metal adsorption onto the inner bottle walls. Element concentrations were determined using ICP-OES. The correlation between the metals in the different seasons, between the indices values and concentration of metals and between different indices values was assessed by Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Findings: There were no significant correlations between the concentrations of the elements in 2 seasons except between As and Cd in winter (r=0.544; p<0.05. Only the concentration of Pb had significant correlations with Cd (r=0.937; p=0.0001 and HEI (r=0.997; p=0.0001 values in winter and with Cd (r=0.997; p=0.0001 and HEI (r=0.810; p=0.0001 values in summer, which indicated Pb as the main contributory pollutant. The correlation between Cd and HEI was significant in winter (r=0.943; p=0.0001 and was significant in summer (r=0.818; p=0.0001. Conclusion: The water resources of Qaleeh Shahin plain, Kermanshah Province, Iran, are not polluted by heavy metals and are suitable for drinking.

  7. Assessment of Bekok River Water Quality Status and Its Suitability for Supporting the Different Uses: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Mao Rui

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The river's water flow from the upstream area that is represent by the Bekok dam. The water flows into the sea through the Sungai Simpang Kanan and Sungai Batu Pahat. Bekok' river flows through various types of land use including agricultural with oil palm estate and rubber estate. From the review visit carried out on the river pollution found there from the sources such as fertilizer into the ground and dumped it into the Bekok' river, waste water draining from users around the city Yong Peng waste flowing into Bekok' rivers. the existence of livestock chicken, cattle and goats in commercial, waste disposal centred in Yong Peng area (500 meters from the Bekok' river and factory built near the Bekok' river. The impact of this situation is affecting the human's health. The aggravated problems of water quality in Bekok' river has inspired this research to determine the safe level pollution of heavy metals. The formulation of the water quality standards are commonly considered either the water utilization purposes or the water quality degradation. The water quality evaluation system (WQES is used to evaluate the available water condition that distinguishes into two categories i.e., the water quality index (WQI and water quality aptitude (WQA. This analysis is provides for the local authorities in managing the river water quality and to warm water users that the water pollution will influence human's drinking water and it will involved younger generation.

  8. Application of Landsat 8 imagery to regional-scale assessment of lake water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrzej Urbanski, Jacek; Wochna, Agnieszka; Bubak, Iwona; Grzybowski, Waldemar; Lukawska-Matuszewska, Katarzyna; Łącka, Magda; Śliwińska, Sylwia; Wojtasiewicz, Bożena; Zajączkowski, Marek

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the project was to create a tool with which to support regional lake quality assessment using Landsat 8 imagery data. The model of assigning the ecological status was implemented in GIS for the northern part of Poland and classifies lake quality for several classes according to classification of WFD using two basic assumptions. The first is that there exists a combination of OLI bands (OLI2/OLI4 was used) which correlates well with the trophic state of the lakes; the second assumption is that the reference trophic state depends on the mean depth of the lake. The model uses a lake geodatabase which contains lakes outlines, raster masks of lakes and attribute information about their mean depth. There is no need to provide any field data when using this tool, as calibration of the model is done using subsets of lakes which were classified using legally defined methods. The tool allows fast classification of 2800 lakes from the area of interest. The results show good agreement between satellite and expert based methods.

  9. Guidelines for the processing and quality assurance of benthic invertebrate samples collected as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuffney, T.F.; Gurtz, M.E.; Meador, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    Benthic invertebrate samples are collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. This is a perennial, multidisciplinary program that integrates biological, physical, and chemical indicators of water quality to evaluate status and trends and to develop an understanding of the factors controlling observed water quality. The Program examines water quality in 60 study units (coupled ground- and surface-water systems) that encompass most of the conterminous United States and parts of Alaska and Hawaii. Study-unit teams collect and process qualitative and semi-quantitative invertebrate samples according to standardized procedures. These samples are processed (elutriated and subsampled) in the field to produce as many as four sample components: large-rare, main-body, elutriate, and split. Each sample component is preserved in 10-percent formalin, and two components, large-rare and main-body, are sent to contract laboratories for further processing. The large-rare component is composed of large invertebrates that are removed from the sample matrix during field processing and placed in one or more containers. The main-body sample component consists of the remaining sample materials (sediment, detritus, and invertebrates) and is subsampled in the field to achieve a volume of 750 milliliters or less. The remaining two sample components, elutriate and split, are used for quality-assurance and quality-control purposes. Contract laboratories are used to identify and quantify invertebrates from the large-rare and main-body sample components according to the procedures and guidelines specified within this document. These guidelines allow the use of subsampling techniques to reduce the volume of sample material processed and to facilitate identifications. These processing procedures and techniques may be modified if the modifications provide equal or greater levels of accuracy and precision. The intent of sample processing is to

  10. EPANET water quality model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossman, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    EPANET represents a third generation of water quality modeling software developed by the U.S. EPA's Drinking Water Research Division, offering significant advances in the state of the art for network water quality analysis. EPANET performs extended period simulation of hydraulic and water quality behavior within water distribution systems. In addition to substance concentration, water age and source tracing can also be simulated. EPANET includes a full featured hydraulic simulation model that can handle various types of pumps, valves, and their control rules. The water quality module is equipped to handle constituent reactions within the bulk pipe flow and at the pipe wall. It also features an efficient computational scheme that automatically determines optimal time steps and pipe segmentation for accurate tracking of material transport over time. EPANET is currently being used in the US to study such issues as loss of chlorine residual, source blending and trihalomethane (THM) formation, how altered tank operation affects water age, and total dissolved solids (TDS) control for an irrigation network.

  11. Assessing impact of climate and land use change on water quality in two contrasting meso-scale catchments in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinkowski, Pawel; Kardel, Ignacy; Ksiezniak, Marta; Berezowski, Tomasz; Okruszko, Tomasz; Mezghani, Abdelkader; Dobler, Andreas; Piniewski, Mikolaj

    2016-04-01

    The Upper Narew (4280 km2) and the Barycz (5520 km2) are two Polish, meso-scale, lowland catchments, contrasting in terms of land use, water management and water quality. Semi-distributed process-based SWAT model was applied in both catchments for assessment of climate change impact on selected water quality parameters. The model setup was developed based on high-resolution inputs, e.g. 5 km gridded precipitation and temperature dataset and 30 m Landsat8-based land cover map. Multi-site calibration and validation against observed discharge, sediment loads and nutrients loads (nitrogen and phosphorus compounds) gave predominantly satisfactory goodness-of-fit measures which enabled further model use for scenario analysis. Impact of land use on water quality can be assessed by comparing nutrients loads and concentrations simulated for the current conditions between two contrasting catchments. Both specific loads and concentrations of major nitrogen and phosphorous forms were on average 80-100% higher in the Barycz than in the Upper Narew catchment. This is a result of more intensive agricultural practices taking place in the Barycz, unlike the Upper Narew where agriculture is mostly extensive. Large parts of the Barycz catchment have been designed as the Nitrates Vulnerable Zones and since 2007 there are legal restrictions concerning agricultural practices in these areas. Nine GCM-RCM runs projected to the year 2100 for RCP 4.5 and 8.5 provided within the EURO-CORDEX experiment were first bias-corrected using quantile mapping method and then used as an ensemble of climate change scenarios in SWAT. Precipitation projections were largely consistent in showing an increasing precipitation trend, present particularly in winter and spring, in both catchments. This clearly affected the hydrological and biogeochemical cycle and resulted in higher projected water yield, increased erosion, and elevated nitrogen and phosphorus emission to water bodies. The rate of change caused

  12. Purified water quality study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinka, H.; Jackowski, P.

    2000-04-03

    Argonne National Laboratory (HEP) is examining the use of purified water for the detection medium in cosmic ray sensors. These sensors are to be deployed in a remote location in Argentina. The purpose of this study is to provide information and preliminary analysis of available water treatment options and associated costs. This information, along with the technical requirements of the sensors, will allow the project team to determine the required water quality to meet the overall project goals.

  13. Feasibility of the hydrogen sulfide test for the assessment of drinking water quality in post-earthquake Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weppelmann, Thomas A; Alam, Meer T; Widmer, Jocelyn; Morrissey, David; Rashid, Mohammed H; De Rochars, Valery M Beau; Morris, J Glenn; Ali, Afsar; Johnson, Judith A

    2014-12-01

    In 2010, a magnitude 7.0 earthquake struck Haiti, severely damaging the drinking and wastewater infrastructure and leaving millions homeless. Compounding this problem, the introduction of Vibrio cholerae resulted in a massive cholera outbreak that infected over 700,000 people and threatened the safety of Haiti's drinking water. To mitigate this public health crisis, non-government organizations installed thousands of wells to provide communities with safe drinking water. However, despite increased access, Haiti currently lacks the monitoring capacity to assure the microbial safety of any of its water resources. For these reasons, this study was designed to assess the feasibility of using a simple, low-cost method to detect indicators of fecal contamination of drinking water that could be implemented at the community level. Water samples from 358 sources of drinking water in the Léogâne flood basin were screened with a commercially available hydrogen sulfide test and a standard membrane method for the enumeration of thermotolerant coliforms. When compared with the gold standard method, the hydrogen sulfide test had a sensitivity of 65 % and a specificity of 93 %. While the sensitivity of the assay increased at higher fecal coliform concentrations, it never exceeded 88 %, even with fecal coliform concentrations greater than 100 colony-forming units per 100 ml. While its simplicity makes the hydrogen sulfide test attractive for assessing water quality in low-resource settings, the low sensitivity raises concerns about its use as the sole indicator of the presence or absence of fecal coliforms in individual or community water sources.

  14. Water quality monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conio, O. [Azienda Mediterranea Gas e Acqua spa, Genua (Italy)

    1998-12-31

    By involving institutions and rules, and technology as well, water resources management presents remarkable complexity. In institutions such a complexity is due to division of competence into monitoring activities, quality control, water utility supply and water treatment. As far as technology goes, complexity results from a wide range of physical, chemical and biological requisites, which define water quality according to specific water uses (for populations, farms, factories). Thus it`s necessary to have reliable and in-time environmental data, so to fulfil two complementary functions: 1) the control of any state of emergency, such as floods and accidental pollution, in order to take immediate measures by means of timely available information; 2) the mid- and long-term planning of water resources, so to achieve their reclamation, conservation and exploitation. An efficient and reliable way to attain these goals is to develop integrated continuous monitoring systems, which allow to control the quality of surface and underground water, the flow of bodies of water and those weather conditions that directly affect it. Such systems compose an environmental information network, which enables to collect and process data relative to the state of the body of water, its aquifer, and the weather conditions.

  15. A model for assessing water quality risk in catchments prone to wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhans, Christoph; Smith, Hugh; Chong, Derek; Nyman, Petter; Lane, Patrick; Sheridan, Gary

    2017-04-01

    Post-fire debris flows can have erosion rates up to three orders of magnitude higher than background rates. They are major sources of fine suspended sediment, which is critical to the safety of water supply from forested catchments. Fire can cover parts or all of these large catchments and burn severity is often heterogeneous. The probability of spatial and temporal overlap of fire disturbance and rainfall events, and the susceptibility of hillslopes to severe erosion determine the risk to water quality. Here we present a model to calculate recurrence intervals of high magnitude sediment delivery from runoff-generated debris flows to a reservoir in a large catchment (>100 km2) accounting for heterogeneous burn conditions. Debris flow initiation was modelled with indicators of surface runoff and soil surface erodibility. Debris flow volume was calculated with an empirical model, and fine sediment delivery was calculated using simple, expert-based assumptions. In a Monte-Carlo simulation, wildfire was modelled with a fire spread model using historic data on weather and ignition probabilities for a forested catchment in central Victoria, Australia. Multiple high intensity storms covering the study catchment were simulated using Intensity-Frequency-Duration relationships, and the runoff indicator calculated with a runoff model for hillslopes. A sensitivity analysis showed that fine sediment is most sensitive to variables related to the texture of the source material, debris flow volume estimation, and the proportion of fine sediment transported to the reservoir. As a measure of indirect validation, denudation rates of 4.6 - 28.5 mm ka-1 were estimated and compared well to other studies in the region. From the results it was extrapolated that in the absence of fire management intervention the critical sediment concentrations in the studied reservoir could be exceeded in intervals of 18 - 124 years.

  16. A model for assessing water quality risk in catchments prone to wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhans, Christoph; Smith, Hugh G.; Chong, Derek M. O.; Nyman, Petter; Lane, Patrick N. J.; Sheridan, Gary J.

    2016-03-01

    Post-fire debris flows can have erosion rates up to three orders of magnitude higher than background rates. They are major sources of fine suspended sediment, which is critical to the safety of water supply from forested catchments. Fire can cover parts or all of these large catchments and burn severity is often heterogeneous. The probability of spatial and temporal overlap of fire disturbance and rainfall events, and the susceptibility of hillslopes to severe erosion determine the risk to water quality. Here we present a model to calculate recurrence intervals of high magnitude sediment delivery from runoff-generated debris flows to a reservoir in a large catchment (>100 km2) accounting for heterogeneous burn conditions. Debris flow initiation was modelled with indicators of surface runoff and soil surface erodibility. Debris flow volume was calculated with an empirical model, and fine sediment delivery was calculated using simple, expert-based assumptions. In a Monte-Carlo simulation, wildfire was modelled with a fire spread model using historic data on weather and ignition probabilities for a forested catchment in central Victoria, Australia. Multiple high intensity storms covering the study catchment were simulated using Intensity-Frequency-Duration relationships, and the runoff indicator calculated with a runoff model for hillslopes. A sensitivity analysis showed that fine sediment is most sensitive to variables related to the texture of the source material, debris flow volume estimation, and the proportion of fine sediment transported to the reservoir. As a measure of indirect validation, denudation rates of 4.6-28.5 mm ka-1 were estimated and compared well to other studies in the region. From the results it was extrapolated that in the absence of fire management intervention the critical sediment concentrations in the studied reservoir could be exceeded in intervals of 18-124 years.

  17. Water Quality Assessment in the Harbin Reach of the Songhuajiang River (China Based on a Fuzzy Rough Set and an Attribute Recognition Theoretical Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan An

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A large number of parameters are acquired during practical water quality monitoring. If all the parameters are used in water quality assessment, the computational complexity will definitely increase. In order to reduce the input space dimensions, a fuzzy rough set was introduced to perform attribute reduction. Then, an attribute recognition theoretical model and entropy method were combined to assess water quality in the Harbin reach of the Songhuajiang River in China. A dataset consisting of ten parameters was collected from January to October in 2012. Fuzzy rough set was applied to reduce the ten parameters to four parameters: BOD5, NH3-N, TP, and F. coli (Reduct A. Considering that DO is a usual parameter in water quality assessment, another reduct, including DO, BOD5, NH3-N, TP, TN, F, and F. coli (Reduct B, was obtained. The assessment results of Reduct B show a good consistency with those of Reduct A, and this means that DO is not always necessary to assess water quality. The results with attribute reduction are not exactly the same as those without attribute reduction, which can be attributed to the α value decided by subjective experience. The assessment results gained by the fuzzy rough set obviously reduce computational complexity, and are acceptable and reliable. The model proposed in this paper enhances the water quality assessment system.

  18. Water quality assessment in the Harbin reach of the Songhuajiang River (China) based on a fuzzy rough set and an attribute recognition theoretical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Yan; Zou, Zhihong; Li, Ranran

    2014-03-26

    A large number of parameters are acquired during practical water quality monitoring. If all the parameters are used in water quality assessment, the computational complexity will definitely increase. In order to reduce the input space dimensions, a fuzzy rough set was introduced to perform attribute reduction. Then, an attribute recognition theoretical model and entropy method were combined to assess water quality in the Harbin reach of the Songhuajiang River in China. A dataset consisting of ten parameters was collected from January to October in 2012. Fuzzy rough set was applied to reduce the ten parameters to four parameters: BOD5, NH3-N, TP, and F. coli (Reduct A). Considering that DO is a usual parameter in water quality assessment, another reduct, including DO, BOD5, NH3-N, TP, TN, F, and F. coli (Reduct B), was obtained. The assessment results of Reduct B show a good consistency with those of Reduct A, and this means that DO is not always necessary to assess water quality. The results with attribute reduction are not exactly the same as those without attribute reduction, which can be attributed to the α value decided by subjective experience. The assessment results gained by the fuzzy rough set obviously reduce computational complexity, and are acceptable and reliable. The model proposed in this paper enhances the water quality assessment system.

  19. Entropy method for determination of weight of evaluating indicators in fuzzy synthetic evaluation for water quality assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Zhi-hong; YUN Yi; SUN Jing-nan

    2006-01-01

    Considering the difficulty of fuzzy synthetic evaluation method in calculation of the multiple factors and ignorance of the relationship among evaluating objects, a new weight evaluation process using entropy method was introduced. This improved method for determination of weight of the evaluating indicators was applied in water quality assessment of the Three Gorges reservoir area.The results showed that this method was favorable for fuzzy synthetic evaluation when there were more than one evaluating objects.One calculation was enough for calculating every monitoring point. Compared with the original evaluation method, the method predigested the fuzzy synthetic evaluation process greatly and the evaluation results are more reasonable.

  20. Generalized boundaries of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Study-Unit Investigations in the conterminous United States 2001-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a GENERALIZED version of the boundaries and codes used for the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program Study-Unit...

  1. Generalized boundaries of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Study-Unit Investigations in the conterminous United States 1991-2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a GENERALIZED version of the boundaries and codes used for the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program Study-Unit...

  2. Yellowstone River Basin study unit boundary, National Water-Quality Assessment Program, scale 1:100,000, Montana, North Dakota, and Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program, an investigation of the Yellowstone River Basin study unit is being conducted to...

  3. Development of a regional bio-optical model for water quality assessment in the US Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerrigan, Kristi Lisa

    Previous research in the US Virgin Islands (USVI) has demonstrated that land-based sources of pollution associated with watershed development and climate change are local and global factors causing coral reef degradation. A good indicator that can be used to assess stress on these environments is the water quality. Conventional assessment methods based on in situ measurements are timely and costly. Satellite remote sensing techniques offer better spatial coverage and temporal resolution to accurately characterize the dynamic nature of water quality parameters by applying bio-optical models. Chlorophyll-a, suspended sediments (TSM), and colored-dissolved organic matter are color-producing agents (CPAs) that define the water quality and can be measured remotely. However, the interference of multiple optically active constituents that characterize the water column as well as reflectance from the bottom poses a challenge in shallow coastal environments in USVI. In this study, field and laboratory based data were collected from sites on St. Thomas and St. John to characterize the CPAs and bottom reflectance of substrates. Results indicate that the optical properties of these waters are a function of multiple CPAs with chlorophyll-a values ranging from 0.10 to 2.35 microg/L and TSM values from 8.97 to 15.7 mg/L. These data were combined with in situ hyperspectral radiometric and Landsat OLI satellite data to develop a regionally tiered model that can predict CPA concentrations using traditional band ratio and multivariate approaches. Band ratio models for the hyperspectral dataset (R2 = 0.35; RMSE = 0.10 microg/L) and Landsat OLI dataset (R2 = 0.35; RMSE = 0.12 microg/L) indicated promising accuracy. However, a stronger model was developed using a multivariate, partial least squares regression to identify wavelengths that are more sensitive to chlorophyll-a (R2 = 0.62, RMSE = 0.08 microg/L) and TSM (R2 = 0.55). This approach takes advantage of the full spectrum of

  4. Assessment of Wetland Water Quality and Avian Diversity of a Human-Modified Floodplain Wetland on River Yamuna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upma MANRAL

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Okhla Bird Sanctuary (OBS is an Important Bird Area, which comes under the protected area network of Uttar Pradesh with one-third area lying in the state of Delhi (India. OBS has widest flood plains along the Delhi stretch of river Yamuna and is important in conserving the ecological wealth of floodplains of the river. Rapid urbanization and industrialization and discharge of untreated wastewater into the river have resulted in deteriorated water quality. The present study focused on assessment of water quality, aquatic flora and avifaunal diversity in the OBS. Water quality was analyzed following methods of APHA. For vegetation analysis, sub-merged and free-floating plants were scooped up from five randomly selected sites. Total bird counts were conducted for water birds and species richness, evenness and Shannon-Weaver species diversity indices were calculated. Results indicate that the organic load is very high in the wetland as evident from low levels of dissolved oxygen (2.26 ± 1.62 mg/l and high Biological and Chemical Oxygen Demands (15.20 ± 3.75 mg/l, 44.60 ± 12.07 mg/l. Nine species of free-floating and submerged plants were recorded; Hydrilla verticillata, Vallisneria spiralis, Azolla pinnata and Ceratophyllum demersum dominated both deep and shallow water areas. 52 species of waterbirds including four near-threatened species viz., Anhinga melanogaster, Mycteria leucocephala, Threskiornis melanocephalus and Aythya nyroca were recorded. OBS provides opportunities for conservation in a metropolitan area, thus, appropriate measures should be taken to maintain its ecological integrity.

  5. Integrated biomarker response index using a Neotropical fish to assess the water quality in agricultural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Delfino Vieira

    Full Text Available Aquatic ecosystems in areas with intense agricultural activity are subject to pesticide contamination, which may compromise the health of the fish. In order to verify the quality of the water and the possible effects of pesticides on fish, a method that combines different biomarker responses into an index named "integrated biomarker response" (IBR was applied using the biological alterations in the Neotropical fish Astyanax altiparanae. Fish were maintained in situ at five sites along a stream that runs in an agricultural area and in a stream within a forest fragment, considered a reference site. After seven days of exposure the following alterations were observed in fish confined at experimental sites: increased activity of glutathione-S-transferase (GST and catalase (CAT and increase in the content of reduced glutathione (GSH in liver and gills, reduction of acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity in the brain and muscle, increase in the occurrence of DNA strand breaks and in the frequency of micronuclei (MN and nuclear abnormalities (ENA in erythrocytes. The IBR highlighted three sites as the most affected, as the animals confined at these sites showed greater variations in biological responses. The biomarkers most important for the IBR results were GST, AChE, DNA breaks and ENA.

  6. Assessing variability of water quality in a groundwater-fed perennial lake of Kashmir Himalayas using linear geostatics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Sarah; Gh Jeelani; Shakeel Ahmed

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents a study on Manasbal lake, which is one of the high altitude lakes in the KashmirValley, India. Eighteen water samples were analysed for major ions and trace elements to assess the variability of water quality of the lake for various purposes. Geostatistics, the theory of regionalized variables, was then used to enhance the dataset and estimate some missing spatial values. Resultsindicated that the concentration of major ions in the water samples in winter was higher than in summer. The scatter diagrams suggested the dominance of alkaline earths over the alkali elements. Three types of water were identified in the lake that are referred to as Ca–HCO3, Mg–HCO3 and hybrid types. The lake water was found to be controlled by rock–water interaction with carbonate lithology as a dominant source of the solutes. The major (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, NO3 and HCO$^{−}_{3}$, CO3 and Cl) and trace elements of the lake water were within the World Health Organization standards, therefore the lake water was considered chemically safe for drinking purposes. Although NO3 concentration (ranging from 1.72 to 2 mg/L), is within the permissible limit and not very alarming, the gradually increasing trend is not acceptable. It is however, important to guard its spatio-temporal variability as the water is used for domestic as well as agricultural purposes. This study is significant as hydrogeological information on such high altitude lakes in India is scanty.

  7. Assessment of water-quality data from Long Lake National Wildlife Refuge, North Dakota--2008 through 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangen, Brian A.; Finocchiaro, Raymond G.; Gleason, Robert A.; Rabenberg, Michael J.; Dahl, Charles F.; Ell, Mike J.

    2013-01-01

    ong Lake National Wildlife Refuge, located in south-central North Dakota, is an important habitat for numerous migratory birds and waterfowl, including several threatened or endangered species. The refuge is distinguished by Long Lake, which is approximately 65 square kilometers and consists of four primary water management units. Water levels in the Long Lake units are maintained by low-level dikes and water-control structures, which after construction during the 1930s increased the water-storage capacity of Long Lake and reduced the frequency and volume of flushing flows downstream. The altered water regime, along with the negative precipitation:evaporation ratio of the region, may be contributing to the accumulation of water-borne chemical constituents such as salts, trace metals, and other constituents, which at certain threshold concentrations may impair aquatic plant, invertebrate, and bird communities of the refuge. The refuge’s comprehensive conservation planning process identified the need for water-quality monitoring to assess current (2013) conditions, establish comparative baselines, evaluate changes over time (trends), and support adaptive management of the wetland units. In 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and North Dakota Department of Health began a water-quality monitoring program at Long Lake National Wildlife Refuge to address these needs. Biweekly water-quality samples were collected for ions, trace metals, and nutrients; and in situ sensors and data loggers were installed for the continuous measurement of specific conductance and water depth. Long Lake was characterized primarily by sodium, bicarbonate, and sulfate ions. Overall results for total alkalinity and hardness were 580 and 329 milligrams per liter, respectively; thus, Long Lake is considered alkaline and classified as very hard. The mean pH and sodium adsorption ratio for Long Lake were 8.8 and 10, respectively. Total dissolved solids concentrations

  8. Water-quality assessment of the Trinity River Basin, Texas - Analysis of available information on nutrients and suspended sediment, 1974-91

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Reutter, David C.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting an assessment of water quality in the Trinity River Basin as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. During the planning phase of this study, existing information on nutrients and suspended sediment was compiled and analyzed. A total of about 5,700 water-quality samples were analyzed from local, State, and Federal agencies. Of these, about 4,200 were from streams and about 1,500 were from wells. Additionally, atmospheric deposition data for two locations were obtained and analyzed.

  9. Assessment of yeast as a dietary additive on haematology and water quality of common carp in a recirculating aquaculture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goran, Siraj Muhammed Abdulla; Omar, Samad Sofy; Anwer, Ayub Youns

    2017-09-01

    Feeding experiment was accomplished at the Aquaculture unit (Close system), Grdarasha station, Agriculture College, University of Salahaddin, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, to investigate different levels of Aquagrow E (AGEY) brewer's yeast cell Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the haematological and water quality of common carp fingerlings Cyprinus carpio. The basal diet was formulated to contain 34% protein and 10% lipid and the dietary treatments were supplemented with 0.5%, 1% and 1.5% of AGEY diet. A total of 180 Common carp (10.30 ± 0.27 g) fed on experimental diets for 10 weeks. Water quality assessment for well water and pond water for rearing Cyprinus carpio in cage system conducted weekly, while some parameters including pH, EC, water temperature and DO were monitored daily during the entire periods of study. Values of total hardness, alkalinity, ammonia and nitrate for studied water samples were within normal ranges for rearing Cyprinus carpio. Mean concentration of GPT, GOT and Glucose were 104 to 170 U/L, 1371 to 3308 U/L and 34 to 63mg/dl respectively, moreover, highest levels were observed in treatments with higher concentrations of yeast in its food except for blood sugar. Slight variation in lipase enzyme were found between control and treatment groups, while levels of amylase enzyme were increased toward cages with higher levels of yeast until T1 and then decreased toward T3. Total protein levels were increased to toward higher levels of yeast in food of Cyprinus carpio fish. Haematological results showed highest levels of WBC and platelets in treatments cages than control group. Levels of RBCs and hemoglobin were highest in treatment group 1 with 0.5%of yeast than treatments higher yeast concentrations. Significant correlation was found in haematological parameters between control and treatments.

  10. Assessment of Climate Change Impacts on Water Quality in a Tidal Estuarine System Using a Three-Dimensional Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Cheng Liu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is one of the key factors affecting the future quality and quantity of water in rivers and tidal estuaries. A coupled three-dimensional hydrodynamic and water quality model has been developed and applied to the Danshuei River estuarine system in northern Taiwan to predict the influences of climate change on water quality. The water quality model considers state variables including nitrogen, phosphorus, organic carbon, and phytoplankton as well as dissolved oxygen, and is driven by a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model. The hydrodynamic water quality model was validated with observational salinity distribution and water quality state variables. According to the analyses of statistical error, predictions of salinity, dissolved oxygen, and nutrients from the model simulation quantitatively agreed with the observed data. The validated model was then applied to predict water quality conditions as a result of projected climate change effects. The simulated results indicated that the dissolved oxygen concentration was projected to significantly decrease whereas nutrients will increase because of climate change. Moreover, the dissolved oxygen concentration was lower than 2 mg/L in the main stream of the Danshuei River estuary and failed to meet the water quality standard. An appropriate strategy for effective water quality management for tidal estuaries is needed given the projected persistent climate trends.

  11. Assessment of groundwater quality at a MSW landfill site using standard and AHP based water quality index: a case study from Ranchi, Jharkhand, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Shubhrasekhar; Kumar, R Naresh

    2016-06-01

    Landfill leachate generated from open MSW dumpsite can cause groundwater contamination. The impact of open dumping of MSW on the groundwater of adjacent area was studied. To assess the spatial and temporal variations in groundwater quality, samples were collected around an open MSW dumping site in Ranchi city, Jharkhand, India. Groundwater samples were analysed for various physicochemical and bacteriological parameters for 1 year. Results indicated that the groundwater is getting contaminated due to vertical and horizontal migration of landfill leachate. Extent of contamination was higher in areas closer to the landfill as indicated by high alkalinity, total dissolved solids and ammonia concentration. Metals such as lead, iron, and manganese were present at concentrations of 0.097, 0.97 and 0.36 mg/L, respectively exceeding the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) 10,500 for drinking water. Enterobacteriaceae were also detected in several groundwater samples and highest coliform count of 2.1×10(4) CFU/mL was recorded from a dug well. In order to determine the overall groundwater quality, water quality index (WQI) was calculated using weighted arithmetic index method and this index was further modified by coupling with the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) to get specific information. WQI values indicated that the overall groundwater quality of the region came under "poor" category while zone wise classification indicated the extent of impact of landfill leachate on groundwater.

  12. Integrated Urban Water Quality Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rauch, W.; Harremoës, Poul

    1995-01-01

    The basic features of integrated urban water quality management by means of deterministic modeling are outlined. Procedures for the assessment of the detrimental effects in the recipient are presented as well as the basic concepts of an integrated model. The analysis of a synthetic urban drainage...... system provides useful information for water quality management. It is possible to identify the system parameters that contain engineering significance. Continuous simulation of the system performance indicates that the combined nitrogen loading is dominated by the wastewater treatment plant during dry...

  13. Assessment of the mining practices effects on the water quality in the Ibar river within the Leposavić municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milentijević Gordana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Exploitation, development and primary extraction of the minerals result in release of the harmful substances, e.g. heavy metals, toxic gases, dirt, etc, that are often uncontrolled deposit in the environment. Those deposited and overlooked substances remain as a heritage and challenge for the coming generations that would involve abundant human, technical and financial resources for the environmental reclamation. The mining activities of the Trepča - RIF Kopaonik has both positive and negative influences within the Leposavić municipality, i.e., industrial development and environmental degradation. As a result of the mining activities the air, land and water resources both surface and underground are severely polluted. The main objective of this paper is to present adverse effects of the mineral resources (lead and zinc exploitation and primary extraction on the Ibar River water quality degradation mainly by heavy metals. Since the heavy metals are frequently ingested by the people through the food chain and given the high toxicity of them they are crucial parameters for the water quality monitoring practices that should be carefully assessed and controlled. Thus this paper includes comprehensive analyses of the heavy metals concentration (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd and Fe in the Ibar River within the Leposavić municipality.

  14. Assessment of the Water Quality of the Oti River in Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sam Eshun

    Composite water samples drawn from some sections of the Oti river were analysed in the ... Latitudinally, it extends from about 10o 50' N to around 7o 30' N. It ..... Water Criteria and Guidelines for domestic water use and the 1995 World Health ...

  15. Assessment of water quality, road runoff, and bulk atmospheric deposition, Guanella Pass area, Clear Creek and Park Counties, Colorado, water years 1995-97

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Michael R.

    2001-01-01

    The Guanella Pass road, located about 40 miles west of Denver, Colorado, between the towns of Georgetown and Grant, has been designated a scenic byway and is being considered for reconstruction. The purpose of this report is to present an assessment of hydrologic and water-quality conditions in the Guanella Pass area and provide baseline data for evaluation of the effects of the proposed road reconstruction. The data were collected during water years 1995-97 (October 1, 1995, to September 30, 1997).Based on Colorado water-quality standards, current surface-water quality near Guanella Pass road was generally acceptable for specified use classifications of recreation, water supply, agriculture, and aquatic life. Streams had small concentrations of dissolved solids, nutrients, trace elements, and suspended sediment. An exception was upper Geneva Creek, which was acidic and had relatively large concentrations of iron, zinc, and other trace elements related to acid-sulfate weathering. Concentrations of many water-quality constituents, especially particle-related phases and suspended sediment, increased during peak snowmelt and rainstorm events and decreased to prerunoff concentrations at the end of runoff periods. Some dissolved (filtered) trace-element loads in Geneva Creek decreased during rainstorms when total recoverable loads remained generally static or increased, indicating a phase change that might be explained by adsorption of trace elements to suspended sediment during storm runoff.Total recoverable iron and dissolved zinc exceeded Colorado stream-water-quality standards most frequently. Exceedances for iron generally occurred during periods of high suspended-sediment transport in several streams. Zinc standards were exceeded in about one-half the samples collected in Geneva Creek 1.5 miles upstream from Grant.Lake-water quality was generally similar to that of area streams. Nitrogen and phosphorus ratios calculated for Clear and Duck Lakes indicated that

  16. Assessment of the water quality monitoring network of the Piabanha River experimental watersheds in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, using autoassociative neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villas-Boas, Mariana D; Olivera, Francisco; de Azevedo, Jose Paulo S

    2017-09-01

    Water quality monitoring is a complex issue that requires support tools in order to provide information for water resource management. Budget constraints as well as an inadequate water quality network design call for the development of evaluation tools to provide efficient water quality monitoring. For this purpose, a nonlinear principal component analysis (NLPCA) based on an autoassociative neural network was performed to assess the redundancy of the parameters and monitoring locations of the water quality network in the Piabanha River watershed. Oftentimes, a small number of variables contain the most relevant information, while the others add little or no interpretation to the variability of water quality. Principal component analysis (PCA) is widely used for this purpose. However, conventional PCA is not able to capture the nonlinearities of water quality data, while neural networks can represent those nonlinear relationships. The results presented in this work demonstrate that NLPCA performs better than PCA in the reconstruction of the water quality data of Piabanha watershed, explaining most of data variance. From the results of NLPCA, the most relevant water quality parameter is fecal coliforms (FCs) and the least relevant is chemical oxygen demand (COD). Regarding the monitoring locations, the most relevant is Poço Tarzan (PT) and the least is Parque Petrópolis (PP).

  17. Stream Water Quality Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — QUAL2K (or Q2K) is a river and stream water quality model that is intended to represent a modernized version of the QUAL2E (or Q2E) model (Brown and Barnwell 1987).

  18. Hydrologic and Water Quality System (HAWQS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Hydrologic and Water Quality System (HAWQS) is a web-based interactive water quantity and quality modeling system that employs as its core modeling engine the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), an internationally-recognized public domain model. HAWQS provides users with i...

  19. The Northeast Stream Quality Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Riva-Murray, Karen; Coles, James F.

    2016-04-22

    In 2016, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) is assessing stream quality in the northeastern United States. The goal of the Northeast Stream Quality Assessment (NESQA) is to assess the quality of streams in the region by characterizing multiple water-quality factors that are stressors to aquatic life and evaluating the relation between these stressors and biological communities. The focus of NESQA in 2016 will be on the effects of urbanization and agriculture on stream quality in all or parts of eight states: Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont.Findings will provide the public and policymakers with information about the most critical factors affecting stream quality, thus providing insights about possible approaches to protect the health of streams in the region. The NESQA study will be the fourth regional study conducted as part of NAWQA and will be of similar design and scope to the first three, in the Midwest in 2013, the Southeast in 2014, and the Pacific Northwest in 2015 (http://txpub.usgs.gov/RSQA/).

  20. Water-quality assessment of part of the Upper Mississippi River Basin, Minnesota and Wisconsin - Ground-water quality in three different land-use areas, 1996-98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Alison L.

    2000-01-01

    The surficial sand and gravel aquifer is susceptible to effects from land-use in the Upper Mississippi River Basin study unit of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. The purpose of this report is to describe the ground-water quality and the assessment of how different land-uses affect the shallow ground-water quality in the surficial sand and gravel aquifer. Ground-water quality was compared in three different land-use areas; an urban residential/commercial area on the edge of the Anoka Sand Plain in a portion of the Twin Cities metropolitan area (urban study), an intensive agricultural area in the Anoka Sand Plain (agricultural study), and a forested area in the Bemidji-Bagley Sand Plain (forested study). Ground water was sampled and analyzed for about 200 constituents, including physical parameters, major ions, selected trace elements, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, selected pesticides, selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and tritium. The urban study wells were sampled during June and July 1996. The agricultural study wells were sampled during May and September 1998. The forested study wells were sampled during June 1998.

  1. [Assessment of the quality of drinking water in the industrial city and risk for public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konshina, L G; Lezhnin, V L

    2014-01-01

    Karabash city sprang up around the copper plant that uses local copper ore, which was composed of zinc, sulfur, barium, beryllium, arsenic, manganese, lead, antimony, chromium, cadmium, gallium, indium, scandium, thallium, germanium, osmium, and others. Centralized water supply for the city is organized from the lake Serebry and the flowage on the river B. Kialim. Part of the population uses water wells, voids and springs. In Serebry Lake and drinking groundwater there were found significant concentrations of nitrates, manganese, arsenic, cadmium, iron, lead barium, nickel, mercury and zinc. There are most exposed to toxic hazards from drinking water persons using water from Serebry aqueduct (hazard index for--children/ adults 2.75/1.1, respectively) and decentralized water supply sources (hazard index for children/adults--2.35/1.0). Maximal hazard coefficients were calculated for nitrates, arsenic and antimony. Among the systems mostly exposed to toxic effects are digestive, cardiovascular endocrine, nervous system and skin. Carcinogenic risk is caused by arsenic compounds, hexavalent chromium, and dichloroethane. Carcinogenic risk from water sources of decentralized water supply is 9,6 E-05, for water from Kialim reservoir--7,3 E-05. Maximum carcinogenic risk is associated with the water from the Serebry aqueduct, the risk reaches 2,17 E-04 and is characterized as unacceptable.

  2. WATER QUALITY INDEX AS AN TOOL FOR RIVER ASSESSMENT IN AGRICULTURAL AREAS IN THE PAMPEAN PLAINS OF ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Moscuzza

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The contributions of nutrients and xenobiotics by anthropogenic activities developed in riverside deteriorate water quality. In this context, the impact of different agroindustry effluents on the water quality of Salado River in Buenos Aires Province (Argentina was analyzed applying water quality indexes (WQI. Water quality index is an efficient a simple monitoring tool to instrument corrective and remediation policies. Winter and summer samplings were performed. A minimal water quality index (WQImin was calculated using only two parameters which can be easy determined in situ. The use of WQImin may be a useful methodology for river management. Meat industry appears as the most pollutant source. Since it is considered as point pollution source, effluents should be treated previous to its disposal with the available technologies.

  3. Water quality assessment using the AREc32 reporter gene assay indicative of the oxidative stress response pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escher, Beate I; Dutt, Mriga; Maylin, Erin; Tang, Janet Y M; Toze, Simon; Wolf, C Roland; Lang, Matti

    2012-11-01

    The reporter gene assay AREc32 is based on the induction of the Nrf2 mediated oxidative stress response pathway in the human breast cancer cell line MCF7, where eight copies of the antioxidant response element (ARE) are linked to a reporter gene encoding for luciferase. The Nrf2-ARE pathway is responsive to many chemicals that cause oxidative stress, among them a large number of pesticides and skin irritants. We adopted and validated the AREc32 bioassay for water quality testing. tert-Butylhydroquinone served as the positive control, phenol as the negative control and other reactive chemicals were assessed for their specificity. An environmentally relevant reference chemical, benzo(a)pyrene was the most potent inducer of all tested chemicals. The concentration causing an induction ratio (IR) of 1.5 (EC(IR1.5)) was chosen as the effect benchmark value. The assay was applied to 21 water samples ranging from sewage to drinking water, including secondary treatment and various tertiary treatment options (ozonation, biologically activated carbon filtration, membrane filtration, reverse osmosis, advanced oxidation, chlorination, chloramination). The samples were enriched by solid phase extraction. In most samples the oxidative stress response was far more sensitive than cytotoxicity. The primary and secondary treated effluent exceeded the effect threshold IR 1.5 at a relative enrichment factor (REF) of 1, i.e., the native samples were active. All tertiary treated samples were less potent and their EC(IR1.5) lay between REF 1 and 10. The Nrf2 pathway was induced at a REF of approximately 10 for surface waters and drinking water, and above this enrichment cytotoxicity took over in most samples and quenched the induction. The blank (ultrapure water run through the sample enrichment process) was cytotoxic at an REF of 100, which is the limit of concentrations range that can be evaluated. Treatment typically decreased both the cytotoxicity and oxidative stress response apart

  4. Assessment of the water stress effects on peach fruit quality and size using a fruit tree model, QualiTree

    OpenAIRE

    Alcobendas, Rosalía; Alarcón, Juan José; VALSESIA, Pierre; Génard, Michel; Nicolás, Emilio

    2013-01-01

    Low water availability has increased the use of regulated deficit irrigation strategies in fruit orchards.However, these water restrictions may have implications on fruit growth and quality. The current paperassesses the suitability of an existing fruit tree model (QualiTree) for describing the effects of water stresson peach fruit growth and quality. The model was parameterised and calibrated for a mid-late maturingpeach cultivar (‘Catherine’). Mean and variability over time of fruit and veg...

  5. Droplet digital PCR for simultaneous quantification of general and human-associated fecal indicators for water quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yiping; Raith, Meredith R; Griffith, John F

    2015-03-01

    Despite wide application to beach water monitoring and microbial source identification, results produced by quantitative PCR (qPCR) methods are subject to bias introduced by reliance on quantitative standards. Digital PCR technology provides direct, standards-free quantification and may potentially alleviate or greatly reduce other qPCR limitations such as difficulty in multiplexing and susceptibility to PCR inhibition. This study examined the efficacy of employing a duplex droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) assay that simultaneously quantifies Enterococcus spp. and the human fecal-associated HF183 marker for water quality assessment. Duplex ddPCR performance was evaluated side-by-side with qPCR and simplex ddPCR using reference material and 131 fecal and water samples. Results for fecal and water samples were highly correlated between ddPCR and simplex qPCR (coefficients > 0.93, p competition and resulted in non-detection or underestimation of the target with low concentration relative to the other, while results produced by simplex and duplex ddPCR were consistent and often indistinguishable from one another. ddPCR showed greater tolerance for inhibition, with no discernable effect on quantification at inhibitor concentrations one to two orders of magnitude higher than that tolerated by qPCR. Overall, ddPCR also exhibited improved precision, higher run-to-run repeatability, similar diagnostic sensitivity and specificity on the HF183 marker, but a lower upper limit of quantification than qPCR. Digital PCR has the potential to become a reliable and economical alternative to qPCR for recreational water monitoring and fecal source identification. Findings from this study may also be of interest to other aspects of water research such as detection of pathogens and antibiotic resistance genes.

  6. Assessment of drinking water quality at the tap using fluorescence spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heibati, Masoumeh; Stedmon, Colin A; Stenroth, Karolina

    2017-01-01

    Treated drinking water may become contaminated while travelling in the distribution system on the way to consumers. Elevated dissolved organic matter (DOM) at the tap relative to the water leaving the treatment plant is a potential indicator of contamination, and can be measured sensitively......, relationships between DOM optical properties, microbial indicator organisms and trace elements were investigated for households connected to a biologically-stable drinking water distribution system. Across the network, humic-like fluorescence intensities showed limited variation (RSD = 3.5-4.4%), with half...

  7. Application of comprehensive water quality identification index method to water quality assessment of park lakes%综合水质标识指数法在公园湖泊水质评价中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张欢; 纪桂霞

    2012-01-01

    The thirteen lake water bodies in twelve parks in Shanghai were investigated in Aug. 2011. The weights of the single water quality factor in the comprehensive water quality index have been improved and selected. The comprehensive water quality identification index method was used to evaluate the water quality nutrition status of the investigated water-bodies. The rationality of the comprehensive water quality identification index method applied to the lake eutrophication assessment was verified by scoring method and comprehensive nutrition state index method. The conclusion showed that only 15.4 % of the comprehensive water quality of the park lakes met the requirements of water environment function, the lakes bing in eutrophication status accounted for 53. 8%. The most serious pollutants were total nitrogen and chemical oxygen demand. The comprehensive water quality identification index method was simply used and can fully reflected the status of the water quality, the evaluation results were scientific and reasonable, it is appropriate for application to the eutrophication evaluation in park lakes.%2011年8月对上海市12个公园中的13个湖泊水体进行了调查.对综合水质指数中各单因子水质标识指数的权重进行了改进与选择,根据调查资料,采用综合水质标识指数法对被调查水体的水质状况及营养状态进行了评价,用评分法和综合营养状态指数法验证了综合水质标识指数法应用于湖泊富营养化评价中的合理性.结果表明:所调查的湖泊中,仅有15.4%的公园湖泊综合水质达到水环境功能区要求,处于富营养化状态的公园湖泊占53.8%,湖泊中TN和CODCr污染最严重,综合水质标识指数法简便易用,能全面反映水质状况,评价结果科学合理,适合在公园湖泊富营养化评价中推广使用.

  8. Biological water-quality assessment of selected streams in the Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District Planning Area of Wisconsin, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudder Eikenberry, Barbara C.; Bell, Amanda H.; Sullivan, Daniel J.; Lutz, Michelle A.; Alvarez, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Changes in the water quality of stream ecosystems in an urban area may manifest in conspicuous ways, such as in murky or smelly streamwater, or in less conspicuous ways, such as fewer native or pollution-sensitive organisms. In 2004, and again in 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey sampled stream organisms—algae, invertebrates, and fish—in 14 Milwaukee area streams to assess water quality as part of the ongoing Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District (MMSD) Corridor Study. In addition, passive-sampling devices (SPMDs, “semipermeable membrane devices”) were deployed at a subset of sites in order to evaluate the potential exposure of stream organisms to certain toxic chemicals. Results of the 2007 sampling effort are the focus of this report. Results of sampling from 2007 are compared with results from 2004. The water quality of sampled streams was assessed by evaluating biological-assemblage data, metrics computed from assemblage data, and an aggregate bioassessment ranking method that combined data for algae, invertebrates, and fish. These data contain information about the abundance (number) of different species in each group of stream organisms and the balance between species that can or cannot tolerate polluted or disturbed conditions. In 2007, the highest numbers of algal, invertebrate, and fish species were found at the Milwaukee River at Milwaukee, the largest sampled site. Algal results indicated water quality concerns at 10 of the 14 sampled sites due to the occurrence of nuisance algae or low percentages of pollution-sensitive algae. When compared to 2004, total algal biovolume was higher in 2007 at 12 of 14 sites, due mostly to more nuisance green algae from unknown causes. Results of several metrics, including the Hilsenhoff Biotic Index (HBI-10), suggest that invertebrate assemblages in the Little Menomonee River, Underwood Creek, and Honey Creek were poorer quality in 2007 compared to 2004. Six sites received “very poor” quality ratings for

  9. The California stream quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Egler, Amanda L.; May, Jason T.

    2017-03-06

    In 2017, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) project is assessing stream quality in coastal California, United States. The USGS California Stream Quality Assessment (CSQA) will sample streams over most of the Central California Foothills and Coastal Mountains ecoregion (modified from Griffith and others, 2016), where rapid urban growth and intensive agriculture in the larger river valleys are raising concerns that stream health is being degraded. Findings will provide the public and policy-makers with information regarding which human and natural factors are the most critical in affecting stream quality and, thus, provide insights about possible approaches to protect the health of streams in the region.

  10. Reconnaissance-Level Assessment of Water Quality Near Flandreau, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Organic wastewater compounds analyzed for in water samples [SED, suspected endocrine disruptor; CAS, Chemical Abstract Service Registry Number; MRL...wastewater compounds analyzed for in water samples—Continued [SED, suspected endocrine disruptor; CAS, Chemical Abstract Service Registry Number; MRL, method... Chemical Abstract Service Registry Number; MRL, method reporting limit; µg/L, micrograms per liter. Compound uses accessible on the World Wide Web at URL

  11. Drinking water quality in Nepal's Kathmandu Valley: a survey and assessment of selected controlling site characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Nathaniel R.; Levy, Jonathan; Harpp, Karen; Farruggia, Frank

    2008-03-01

    Water was sampled from over 100 sources in Nepal’s Kathmandu Valley, including municipal taps, dug wells, shallow-aquifer tube wells, deep-aquifer tube wells, and dhunge dharas (or stone spouts, public water sources that capture groundwater or surface water). Information was gathered on user preference and site and well characteristics, and water was examined for indicators of contamination from sewage, agriculture, or industry. Most problematic were total coliform and Escherichia coli bacteria, which were present in 94 and 72% of all the water samples, respectively. Contamination by nitrate, ammonia and heavy metals was more limited; nitrate and ammonia exceeded Nepali guidelines in 11 and 45% of the samples, respectively. Arsenic and mercury exceeded WHO guidelines in 7 and 10% of the samples, respectively, but arsenic never exceeded the less strict Nepali guideline. Significant differences existed in contamination levels between types of sources; dug wells and dhunge dharas, being the shallowest, were the most contaminated by bacteria and nitrate; deep-aquifer tube wells were the most contaminated by arsenic. Whereas E. coli concentrations decreased with depth, iron and ammonia concentrations increased with depth. These relationships account for people choosing to drink water with higher levels of bacterial contamination based on its superior (non-metallic) taste and appearance.

  12. Assessment of urbanization/impervious effects on water quality in the urban river Annaba (Eastern Algeria) using physicochemical parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafsi, R; Ouerdachi, L; Kriker, A E O; Boutaghane, H

    2016-11-01

    Surface water quality is deteriorating due to the increase of urbanization which increases the load of stormwater and wastewater discharged into rivers. To evaluate the quality of an urban river (Annaba, northeastern Algeria), multivariate statistical analyses were applied to the physicochemical measures of 38 parameters. The application of principal component analysis and factor analysis pointed out 19 dominant components, explaining 83.40% of the variance. Reducing the amount of data will allow a reduction in the number of parameters that need to be analysed to have sufficient information on the water quality. An analysis of the statistical tools' results and effective impervious area leads to an estimation of the urbanization threshold level at which the impact on water quality occurs. Estimating the threshold of impervious areas to abide will ensure urban development while protecting the quality of water and environmental health.

  13. Risk Assessment of New Chemical Substances. Applicability of EXAMS II as an advanced Water Quality Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Nijs ACM; Burns LA

    1990-01-01

    In the cluster project "Risk Assessment of New Chemical Substances methods are developed to systematically predict and assess the hazards for man and environment. After the basic screening of a substance has been carried out, a more extensive study can be performed using models adhered to the

  14. Risk Assessment of New Chemical Substances. Applicability of EXAMS II as an advanced Water Quality Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Nijs ACM; Burns LA

    1990-01-01

    In the cluster project "Risk Assessment of New Chemical Substances methods are developed to systematically predict and assess the hazards for man and environment. After the basic screening of a substance has been carried out, a more extensive study can be performed using models adhered to the

  15. Comparative analysis of regional water quality in Canada using the Water Quality Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rosemond, Simone; Duro, Dennis C; Dubé, Monique

    2009-09-01

    The Canadian Council of Ministers for the Environment (CCME) has developed a Water Quality Index (WQI) to simplify the reporting of complex water quality data. This science-based communication tool tests multi-variable water data against numeric water quality guidelines and/or objectives to produce a single unit-less number that represents overall water quality. The CCME WQI has been used to rate overall water quality in spatial and temporal comparisons of site(s). However, it has not been used in a comparative-analysis of exposure sites to reference sites downstream of point source discharges. This study evaluated the ability of the CCME WQI to differentiate water quality from metal mines across Canada at exposure sites from reference sites using two different types of numeric water quality objectives: (1) the water quality guidelines (WQG) for the protection of freshwater aquatic life and (2) water quality objectives determined using regional reference data termed Region-Specific Objectives (RSO). The application of WQG to the CCME WQI was found to be a good tool to assess absolute water quality as it relates to national water quality guidelines for the protection of aquatic life, but had more limited use when evaluating spatial changes in water quality downstream of point source discharges. The application of the RSO to the CCME WQI resulted in assessment of spatial changes in water quality downstream of point source discharges relative to upstream reference conditions.

  16. Environmental water quality assessment in Guaratuba bay, state of Paraná, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byanka Damian Mizerkowski

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An environmental assessment of the estuarine waters of Guaratuba bay, Paraná State, Brazil, is provided through the analysis of physical-chemical, biological and hydrographic dynamics. Twelve stations with a bi-monthly frequency (from October/2002 until August/2003 were sampled during spring and neap tides for the determination of pH, Secchi depth, CO2 saturation, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll, suspended particulate matter and dissolved inorganic nutrients (nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, phosphate and silicate. Based on the evaluation of six parameters (chlorophyll, Secchi depth, CO2 saturation, dissolved inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus and dissolved oxygen, Guaratuba Bay shows a low to medium trophic status, i.e. from meso- to oligotrophic, and a predominant heterotrophic metabolism, meaning that respiration overcomes primary production. Horizontal stratification was observed during the rainy season, while during the dry season the system showed more homogeneous conditions. Inorganic and/or organic matter in Guaratuba Bay seem to be controlled mainly by the seasonality of precipitation and/ also by ebb and flood tidal phase variations.A dinâmica das variáveis físico-químicas, biológicas e hidrográficas, em escalas temporal e espacial, sua variabilidade e tendências, permite avaliar a qualidade ambiental de estuários. Esse trabalho descreve as flutuações da qualidade de água da Baía de Guaratuba, sul do Estado do Paraná. Foram amostrados doze pontos em campanhas bimensais (outubro/2002 a agosto/2003, em situação de sizígia e de quadratura, para a análise das variáveis pH, transparência, saturação de CO2, oxigênio dissolvido, clorofila-a, material particulado em suspensão e nutrientes inorgânicos dissolvidos (nitrato, nitrito, amônio, fosfato e silicato. Considerando as seis variáveis descritoras da qualidade de água (clorofila-a, profundidade de Secchi, saturação de CO2, fósforo e nitrogênio inorg

  17. Water-quality assessment of the eastern Iowa basins- nitrogen, phosphorus, suspended sediment, and organic carbon in surface water, 1996-98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becher, Kent D.; Kalkhoff, Stephen J.; Schnoebelen, Douglas J.; Barnes, Kimberlee K.; Miller, Von E.

    2001-01-01

    Twelve sites on streams and rivers in the Eastern Iowa Basins study unit were sampled monthly and during selected storm events from March 1996 through September 1998 to assess the occurrence, distribution, and transport of nitrogen, phosphorus, suspended sediment, and organic carbon as part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water-Quality Assessment Program. One site was dropped from monthly sampling after 1996. Dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus were detected in every water sample collected. Nitrate accounted for 92 percent of the total dissolved nitrogen. About 22 percent of the samples had nitrate concentrations that exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s maximum contaminant level of 10 milligrams per liter as nitrogen for drinking-water regulations. The median concentration of total dissolved nitrogen for surface water in the study unit was 7.2 milligrams per liter. The median total phosphorus concentration for the study unit was 0.22 milligram per liter. About 75 percent of the total phosphorus concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recommended total phosphorus concentration of 0.10 milligram per liter or less to minimize algal growth. Median suspended sediment and dissolved organic-carbon concentrations for the study unit were 82 and 3.5 milligrams per liter, respectively.

  18. Application of nitrate and water isotopes to assessment of groundwater quality beneath dairy farms in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, M. B.; Harter, T.; Kendall, C.; Silva, S. R.

    2009-12-01

    In California’s Central Valley, nitrate contamination of drinking water wells is a significant concern, and there are multiple potential sources of nitrate in this area including septic discharge, synthetic and manure fertilizers, and concentrated animal feeding operations. Dairies represent the majority of animal feeding operations in California, and have been shown to be potential sources of nitrate, salinity, dissolved organic carbon, and pathogens to groundwater. Within individual dairies, different land use areas including barns and freestalls, corrals, liquid waste lagoons, and fields for forage crops (often fertilized with animal waste, synthetic fertilizer, or both), each of which may have different impacts on the groundwater. In this study, groundwater samples were collected from two dairies in the San Joaquin Valley, where the water table is fairly shallow, and from five dairies in the Tulare Lake Basin, where the water table is much deeper. In each dairy, nitrate isotopes, water isotopes, nutrient concentrations, and other chemical and physical parameters were measured in monitoring wells located within different land use areas of the dairies. Across all sampled dairy wells, δ15N-NO3 ranged from +3.2 to +49.4‰, and δ18O-NO3 ranged from -3.1 to +19.2‰. Mean nitrate concentrations, δ15N-NO3, and δ18O-NO3 were significantly higher in the northern (San Joaquin Valley) dairy wells in comparison to the southern (Tulare Lake Basin) dairy wells. No consistent differences in nitrate isotopic compositions were found between the different land use areas, and large spatial variability in both nitrate concentrations and nitrate isotopic composition was observed within most of the individual dairies. These results emphasize the challenges associated with monitoring groundwater beneath dairies due to high spatial heterogeneity in the aquifer and groundwater constituents. At four of the seven dairies, δ18O and δ2H of the ground water in wells located

  19. Assessment of water quality in areas of ecological economic zoning of the Guapiaçu-Macacu basin, RJ, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcilio Fernandes Baptista

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic ecosystems have often been significantly altered by multiple impacts. The Guapiaçu-Macacu Hydrographic Complex is an important basin in Rio de Janeiro characterized by distinct ecological zones that make up an Ecological Economic Zoning. This research evaluated ecological upright in segments of this Complex located in Wildlife Conservation Zone (WCZ and the Agricultural Use Zone (AUZ using the Protocol Visual Assessment (PVA and physical, chemicals and microbiology methods. The results showed a significant difference between the points of lowest contamination degree in WCZ and stretches with a greater impact degree in AUZ. The PVA was more sensible than the conventional parameters in the resolution between segments impacted environmentally and impacted middle located in AUZ. This type of evaluation proved to be more effective in environmental monitoring the water quality for watersheds that have their Ecological Economic Zoning Plan. Therefore, the use of physical, chemical and microbiological methods must be complemented by the PVA.

  20. Water Quality Assessment Using Physico-Chemical Parameters and Heavy Metals of Gobind Sagar Lake, Himachal Pradesh (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana Sharma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Today the environment has become harmful for the health of living organisms due to excessive pollution and contamination of natural resources. The present investigation has been carried out with the objective to assess the water quality of the Gobind Sagar Lake, Bilaspur, Himachal Pradesh (India using physico-chemical parameters with heavy metals of the lake. For this study, three sampling sites were identified and samples from different sites were collected in summer season and important parameters [Water Temperature , pH, Total Hardness, Dissolved Carbon Dioxide (CO2, Dissolved Oxygen (DO, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD, Chloride, Total Alkalinity, Total Dissolved Solid (TDS] with heavy metals [ Lead (P, Copper (Co, Iron (Fe, Cadmium (Cd, Nickel (Ni and Manganese (Mn, Chromium (Cr were analyzed. The results revealed that the different conditions of Gobind Sagar Lake in different sampling stations showed fluctuations in some physico-chemical parameters and also in heavy metals. These result depicted that water of lake was polluted in the form of nutrient enrichment which is due to agricultural activities and its runoff in and around catchment area of the lake. There are other many ways that things can end up in the lake as the free style way of disposal of industrial and domestic effluents etc. Results of studies on heavy metals in pollution are well documented revealing the toxic effects of these metals on aquatic organisms.

  1. Needs Assessment for the Use of NASA Remote Sensing Data in the Development and Implementation of Estuarine and Coastal Water Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiering, Bruce; Underwood, Lauren; Ellis, Chris; Lehrter, John; Hagy, Jim; Schaeffer, Blake

    2010-01-01

    The goals of the project are to provide information from satellite remote sensing to support numeric nutrient criteria development and to determine data processing methods and data quality requirements to support nutrient criteria development and implementation. The approach is to identify water quality indicators that are used by decision makers to assess water quality and that are related to optical properties of the water; to develop remotely sensed data products based on algorithms relating remote sensing imagery to field-based observations of indicator values; to develop methods to assess estuarine water quality, including trends, spatial and temporal variability, and seasonality; and to develop tools to assist in the development and implementation of estuarine and coastal nutrient criteria. Additional slides present process, criteria development, typical data sources and analyses for criteria process, the power of remote sensing data for the process, examples from Pensacola Bay, spatial and temporal variability, pixel matchups, remote sensing validation, remote sensing in coastal waters, requirements for remotely sensed data products, and needs assessment. An additional presentation examines group engagement and information collection. Topics include needs assessment purpose and objectives, understanding water quality decision making, determining information requirements, and next steps.